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Sample records for east china sea

  1. Swells of the East China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Aifeng; Yan, Jin; Pei, Ye; Zheng, Jinhai; Mori, Nobuhito

    2017-08-01

    Over the past few decades, an increasing number of marine activities have been conducted in the East China Sea, including the construction of various marine structures and the passage of large ships. Marine safety issues are paramount and are becoming more important with respect to the likely increase in size of ocean waves in relation to global climate change and associated typhoons. In addition, swells also can be very dangerous because they induce the resonance of floating structures, including ships. This study focuses on an investigation of swells in the East China Sea and uses hindcast data for waves over the past 5 years in a numerical model, WAVEWATCH III (WW3), together with historical climate data. The numerical calculation domain covers the entire North West Pacific. Next, swells are separated and analyzed using simulated wave fields, and both the characteristics and generation mechanisms of swells are investigated.

  2. Kuroshio Variability on the Shelf of the East China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-07

    Kuroshio Variability on the Shelf of the East China Sea Mark Wimbush & D. Randolph Watts Graduate School of Oceanography University of Rhode...and transport of the Kuroshio in the East China Sea (ECS) in conjunction with the ONR-supported project, “Variability of the Kuroshio in the East... China Sea, and its Relationship to the Ryukyu Current.” OBJECTIVES Through the aforementioned ONR-supported project, an array of eleven IESs

  3. Maritime Territorial Disputes in East Asia: A Comparative Analysis of the South China Sea and the East China Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andy Yee

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This article systematically compares maritime territorial disputes in the East and South China Seas. It draws on the bargaining model of war and hegemonic stability theory to track the record of conflicts and shifts in the relative power balances of the claimants, leading to the conclusion that certainty and stability have improved in the South China Sea, with the converse happening in the East China Sea. To enrich the models, this article also considers social factors (constructivism and arrives at the same conclusion. This calls for a differentiated methodological approach if we are to devise strategies to mediate and resolve these disputes.

  4. Investigation on Swells of the East China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Aifeng; Wu, Chao

    2017-04-01

    In the recent decades, more and more human activities, including different kinds of marine structures and large ships, have been present in the East China Sea. It is necessary to fasten our attentions on the marine safety issues, particularly on the extreme waves. Because it has been known that the density of extreme waves may increase with Typhoon in the future with the global climate changing. The extreme waves can be induced not only by Typhoon in summer, but also by East Asian cold waves in winter for this special sea area. And the swells also can be very dangerous because the swells may result in the resonance with floating structures, including the ships. Focusing on the investigation of swells in the East China Sea, the hindcast for waves in the past ten years will be performed by the numerical model Wave Watch III based on the historical climate data. The numerical calculation domain covers the whole North West Pacific. Then the swells will be separated and analyzed from the simulated wave fields. Both the characteristics and the generation mechanisms of the swells will be investigated. Particularly, the swells, which propagating across the Ryukyu chain from east to west, will be analyzed in details. We used the CCMP & Myers wind data to run the WW3 model and reproduced the global wave fields in 2010-2014. After separating swell and wind sea from mixed waves, we studied the spatial and temporal distribution of swell in East China Sea and the formation mechanism of swell in East China Sea.The significant wave heights of swells in the East China Sea are mainly distributed in the 0.1-2.5m, the interval with the highest frequency of occurrence is 0.1-0.5m, and the proportion is about 50%. The spectrum peak periods of swells are mainly distributed in the 4-15s, the interval with the highest frequency of occurrence is 9-15s., and the proportion is about 25%. In terms of spatial distribution swells increase gradually from the offshore to deep sea, and also

  5. Wind energy input in coastal seas east of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZANG Nan; WU Dexing

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the wind energy input,an important source of mechanical energy,in the coastal seas east of China.Using the wind field from the high-resolution sea surface meteorology dataset in the Bohai Sea,Yellow Sea,and East China Sea,we studied the wind energy input through surface ageostrophic currents and surface waves.Using a simple analytical formula for the Ekman Spiral with timedependent wind,the wind energy input through ageostrophic currents was estimated at ~22 GW averaged from 1960 to 2007,and through use of an empirical formula,the wind energy input through surface waves was estimated at ~169 GW.We also examined the seasonal variation and long-term tendency of mechanical energy from wind stress,and found that the wind energy input to the East China Sea decreased before the 1980s,and then subsequently increased,which is contrary to what has been found for the Bohai Sea and Yellow Sea.More complicated physical processes and varying diffusivity need to be taken into account in future studies.

  6. Japan's Energy Policy on China:In the Perspective of Oil Dispute in East China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ Over recent years, the oil dispute in the East China Sea has become a new contradictory focus in Sino-Japanese relations after the issues of the Yasukuni Shrine and history text book. This article tries to take the oil dispute in the East China Sea as a penetrating point to analyze the basic line of thinking in Japan's China energy policy adjustment so as to better recognize the current situation and future of Sino-Japanese energy relations.

  7. Mass-balance ecosystem model of the East China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiahua Cheng; William W.L. Cheung; Tony J. Pitcher

    2009-01-01

    Using the Ecopath mass-balance trophodynamic model, this paper analyzed the trophic levels, flows, food web structure and ecosys-tem maturity of the East China Sea, and identified ecologically important functional groups in the ecosystem. The model is based on fishery resource surveys of the East China Sea in 2000, studies on diet composition and global databases such as FishBase and the Sea Around Us Project Database. The results showed that trophic levels of the functional groups are between 2.86 and 4.37, with an average of 3.32. Anchocy (Engraulis japonicus), small fishes and benthic crustaceans such as shrimps and crabs are important groups in terms of the trophic structure and flow dynamics in the East China Sea. Energy flows of most groups are between specific trophic levels, except file fish (Thamnaconus spp.), pomfret (Pampus spp.) and cephalopods. Trophic transfer efficiency of levels Ⅱ,Ⅲ,Ⅳ and more than Ⅴ are 11.8%, 21.1%, 17.4% and 22.1-22.5%, respectively. Effects of fishery-the largest 'consumer' of the ecosystem -are much stronger than those exerted by biological groups in the system. The model suggests that the current fishery can further reduce the complexity of the ecosystem. Evaluations of the system indices suggest that maturity of the ecosystem is low. The conclusion of this model indicates that it was the overfishing that caused the ecosystem of the East China Sea declined, which should be taken into account as a critical reference for fisheries management in the future.

  8. [Nutrient distributions and their limitation on phytoplankton in the Yellow Sea and the East China Sea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Baodong

    2003-07-01

    Based on field observations during 1997 to 1999, the distributions of micronutrients and their limitation on the growth of phytoplankton in the Yellow Sea and the East China Sea were discussed in this paper. The results showed that there were abundant nutrients in the area of the east and northern-east of the Changjiang River estuary, and the nutrients came from the extension of the Changjiang River diluted water and the transportation of the Subei Coastal water. Besides, the maximum extension range of the nutrients in the Changjiang River diluted water was observed during the catastrophic flooding period of the Changjiang River in the summer of 1998. Based on the Redfield ratio (Si:N:P = 16:16:1) in which, three essential nutrients were utilized by marine phytoplankton, the Si/N/P ratios were calculated and studied for the upper water of the Yellow Sea and the East China Sea. The results indicated that Si/N ratios were very high, which suggested that silicate was not the limiting factor for the growth of phytoplankton in the Yellow Sea and the East China Sea. However, under the influence of terrestrial runoff, especially the Changjiang River runoff which was rich in combined nitrogen and had very high N/P ratios, high N/P ratios occurred in the Changjiang River estuary and its adjacent areas such as the south and southwest of the Yellow Sea, the inshore area of the East China Sea and the area east of the Changjiang River estuary in spring and summer. As a result, in contrast to general open marine systems, the systems in these areas resembled estuarine ones rather than typical marine ones. The primary production in a considerable portion of the Yellow Sea and the East China Sea might be limited by phosphate rather than nitrogen.

  9. Zooplankton community structure in the Yellow Sea and East China Sea in autumn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongju Chen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Study on zooplankton spatial distribution is essential for understanding food web dynamics in marine ecosystems and fishery management. Here we elucidated the composition and distribution of large mesozooplankton on the continental shelf of the Yellow Sea and East China Sea, and explored the zooplankton community structure in these water masses. Sixty vertical hauls (bottom or 200 m in deep water to surface using a ring net (diameter 0.8 m, 505-μm mesh were exploited in November 2007. The biogeographic patterns of zooplankton communities were investigated using multivariate analysis methods; copepod biodiversity was analyzed using univariate indices. Copepods and protozoans were dominate in the communities. Based on the species composition, we divided the study areas into six station groups. Significant differences in zooplankton assemblages were detected between the Yellow Sea and East China Sea. Species richness was higher in East China Sea groups than those in Yellow Sea, whereas taxonomic distinctness was higher in Yellow Sea than in East China Sea. There was a clear relationship between the species composition and water mass group.

  10. The Kuroshio exchange with the South and East China Seas

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    T. Matsuno

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The Kuroshio flows along the edges of the marginal East Asian seas such as the South China Sea (SCS and East China Sea (ECS. Exchanges of materials and energy between the Kuroshio and the marginal seas partly control the environments of the marginal seas. In particular, saline water from the Kuroshio maintains certain salinity in the shelf water in the ECS. Nutrients from the subsurface of the Kuroshio may influence primary production on the shelf. We summarize how the Kuroshio comes into contact with the shelf water or marginal seas, describing phenomena related to the exchange between the Kuroshio and the ECS along with the SCS, using reports in the literature along with original data. The Kuroshio tends to intrude into the SCS through the Luzon Strait in various manners such as direct intrusion, associated with eddies and as a loop current. The Kuroshio intrusion into the shelf region of the ECS has distinct seasonal variation and the Taiwan Warm Current plays a significant role in the determination of water properties in the outer shelf associated with the Kuroshio intrusion. We then examine physical processes related to the interaction between the Kuroshio and shelf water. Interaction between the Kuroshio and the bottom topography is an important process in the control of the exchange around the shelf break. Vertical mixing and frontal eddies are also important factors that control the water exchange and formation of water masses in the outer shelf. Wind stress plays a significant role in the exchange with a rather event-like manner. To determine the source of the water masses, chemical tracers could be powerful tools and it is suggested that a significant part of the shelf water consists of Kuroshio intermediate water.

  11. Distribution characteristics of zooplankton biomass in the East China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Zhaoli; CHAO Min; CHEN Yaqu

    2004-01-01

    On the basis of the data of oceanographic survey in the East China Sea in four seasons during 1997~2000 (23°30′~33°00′N,118°30′~ 128°E), the variation of total biomass and diet biomass of zooplankton and their spatial-temporal distribution and relationship with the fishing ground of Engraulisjaponicus are approached and analyzed. The results show that the average biomass is 65.32 mg/m3 in four seasons, autumn (86.18 mg/m3) being greater than summer (69.18 mg/m3) greater than s pring ( 55.67 mg/m3) greater than winter (50.33 mg/m3). The average value of diet zooplankton biomass is 40.9 mg/m3.The trends of horizontal distribution both in the total biomass and the diet biomass of zooplankton are similar. The high biomass region (250~500 mg/m3) is very limited, only accounting for 1% of the investigation area. Seasonal variation of the biomass is very remarkable in the west and north parts of East China Sea coastal waters ( 29°30′N, 125°E). The horizontal distribution of diet zooplankton depends on the abundance distribution of crustacean. The distribution of diet zooplankton is related to the fishing ground of Engraulis japonicus and the high-density area of young fish and larval. In spring, the central fishing ground of Engraulis japonicus (>100 kg/h) and the high-density area of young fish and larval (>100 individuals per net) are located at the same place of high-density (100~250 mg/m3)area of diet zooplankton in the middle-southern part of East China Sea or the edge of its waters.

  12. Distribution characteristics of zooplankton biomass in the East China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Zhaoli; CHAO Min; CHEN Yaqu

    2004-01-01

    On the basis of the data of oceanographic survey in the East China Sea in four seasons during 1997~2000 (23°30′~33°00′N,118°30′~ 128°E), the variation of total biomass and diet biomass of zooplankton and their spatial-temporal distribution and relationship with the fishing ground of Engraulis japonicus are approached and analyzed. The results show that the average biomass is 65.32 mg/m3 in four seasons, autumn (86.18 mg/m3) being greater than summer (69.18 mg/m3) greater than spring (55.67 mg/m3) greater than winter (50.33 mg/m3). The average value of diet zooplankton hiomass is 40.9 mg/m3.The trends of horizontal distribution both in the total biomass and the diet biomass of zooplankton are similar. The high biomass region (250~500 mg/m3) is very limited, only accounting for 1% of the investigation area. Seasonal variation of the biomass is very remarkable in the west and north parts of East China Sea coastal waters (29°30'N,125°E). The horizontal distribution of diet zooplankton depends on the abundance distribution of crustacean. The distribution of diet zooplankton is related to the fishing ground of Engraulis japonicus and the high-density area of young fish and larval. In spring, the central fishing ground of Engraulis japonicus (>100 kg/h) and the high-density area of young fish and larval (>100 individuals per net) are located at the same place of high-density (100~250 mg/m3)area of diet zooplankton in the middle-southern part of East China Sea or the edge of its waters.

  13. Two new species of Ophidiasterid sea-stars from the vicinity of Diaoyudao, East China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Yulin

    1985-06-01

    Two new species of the asteroid family Ophidiasteridae are described from two specimens collected by commercial fishery vessels of Qingdao from the vicinity of Diaoyudao (25°45'N, 123°15'E), East China Sea. Hacelia tuberculata sp. nov. shows affinities with H. tyloplax (H. L. Clark, 1914) and Linckia gracilis sp. nov. is related to L. laevigata (Linnaeus).

  14. Pyrite Genesis During Early Diagenesis in Yellow Sea and East China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段伟民; 陈丽蓉

    1994-01-01

    The content and isotopic compositions of different sulphur species in pore-water and solid phases have been examined on five sediment cores taken from muddy sediment region in the Yellow Sea and the East China Sea. Relationships among these data have been investigated with the combination of morphology of mineral pyrite and organic matter so as to role out the diagenetic behaviour of sulphur species at the early stage of diagenesis in modern marine sediment and the origin of pyrite formation.

  15. Internal solitary waves in the East China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xiaofeng; ZHAO Zhongxiang; HAN Zhen; XU Liuxiong

    2008-01-01

    A European Space Agency's ENVISAT advanced synthetic aperture radar (ASAR) image covering Zhejiang coastal water in the East China Sea (ECS) was acquired on 1 August 2007. This image shows that there are about 20 coherent internal solitary wave (ISW) packets propagating southwestward toward Zhejiang coast. These ISW packets are separated by about 10 kin, suggesting that these ISWs are tide-generated waves. Each ISW packet contains 5--15 wave crests. The wavelengths of the wave crests with-in the ISW packets are about 300 m. The lengths of the leading wave crests are about 50 km. The ISW amplitude is estimated from solving KdV equation in an ideal two-layer ocean model. It is found that the ISW amplitudes is about 8 m. Further analysis of the ASAR image and ocean stratification profiles show that the observed ISWs are depression waves. Analyzing the tidal current finds that these waves are locally generated. The wavelength and amplitude of the ECS ISW are much smaller than their counter-parts in the South China Sea (SCS). The propagation speed of the ECS ISW is also an order of magnitude smaller than that of the SCS ISW. The observed ISWs in the ECS happened during a spring tide period.

  16. Spatial distributions of floating seaweeds in the East China Sea from late winter to early spring

    OpenAIRE

    Mizuno, S.; Ajisaka, T.; Lahbib, S.; Kokubu, Y.; Alabsi, M. N.; Komatsu, T

    2013-01-01

    Floating seaweeds play an important role as a habitat for many animals accompanying or attaching to them in offshore waters. It was in 2000 that the first report described abundant distributions of floating seaweeds in offshore waters in the East China Sea in spring. Young individuals of the yellowtail Seriola quinqueradiata are captured for aquaculture purposes from floating seaweeds in the East China Sea. Therefore, a sound understanding of the distributions of floating seaweeds in the East...

  17. [Distribution and air-sea fluxes of methane in the Yellow Sea and the East China Sea in the spring].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Xing-Peng; Zhang, Gui-Ling; Ma, Xiao; Zhang, Guo-Ling; Liu, Su-Mei

    2013-07-01

    A survey was carried out in the Yellow Sea and the East China Sea from March 17 to April 06 of 2011. Dissolved CH4 in various depths were measured and sea-to-air fluxes were estimated. Methane concentrations in surface and bottom waters ranged between 2.39-29.67 nmol x L(-1) and 2.63-30.63 nmol x L(-1), respectively. Methane concentrations in bottom waters were slightly higher than those in surface waters, suggesting the existence of methane source in bottom waters or sediments. The horizontal distribution of dissolved CH4 showed a decrease from the river mouth to the open sea, and was influenced by the freshwater discharge and the Kuroshio intrusion. Surface methane saturations ranged from 93%-1 038%. Sea to air CH4 fluxes were (2.85 +/- 5.11) micromol x (m2 x d)(-1) (5.18 +/- 9.99) micromol x (m2 x d)(-1) respectively, calculated using the Liss and Merlivat (LM86), the Wanninkhof (W92) relationships and in situ wind speeds, and estimated emission rates of methane from the East China Sea and the Yellow Sea range from 7.05 x 10(-2) - 12.0 x 10(-2) Tg x a(-1) and 1.17 x 10(-2) - 2.20 x 10(-2) Tg x a(-1), respectively. The Yellow Sea and East China Sea are the net sources of atmospheric methane in the spring.

  18. The Suspended Sediment Concentration Distribution in the Bohai Sea, Yellow Sea and East China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BIAN Changwei; JIANG Wensheng; Richard J.Greatbatch; DING Hui

    2013-01-01

    The distribution of the suspended sediment eoncentration (SSC) in the Bohai Sea,Yellow Sea and East China Sea (BYECS) is studied based on the observed turbidity data and model simulation results.The observed turbidity results show that (i)the highest SSC is found in the coastal areas while in the outer shelf sea areas turbid water is much more difficult to observe,(ii) the surface layer SSC is much lower than the bottom layer SSC and (iii) the winter SSC is higher than the summer SSC.The Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS) is used to simulate the SSC distribution in the BYECS.A comparison between the modeled SSC and the observed SSC in the BYECS shows that the modeled SSC can reproduce the principal features of the SSC distribution in the BYECS.The dynamic mechanisms of the sediment erosion and transport processes are studied based on the modeled results.The horizontal distribution of the SSC in the BYECS is mainly determined by the current-wave induced bottom stress and the fine-grain sediment distribution.The current-induced bottom stress is much higher than the wave-induced bottom stress,which means the tidal currents play a more significant role in the sediment resuspension than the wind waves.The vertical mixing strength is studied based on the mixed layer depth and the turbulent kinetic energy distribution in the BYECS.The strong winter time vertical mixing,which is mainly caused by the strong wind stress and surface cooling,leads to high surface layer SSC in winter.High surface layer SSC in summer is restricted in the coastal areas.

  19. Mitochondrial DNA variation in the East China Sea and Yellow Sea populations of swimming crab Ovalipes punctatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Wei; Han, Zhiqiang; Chen, Guobao; Yu, Cungen; Gao, Tianxiang

    2015-08-01

    Swimming crab Ovalipes punctatus is a commercially important species in the East China Sea and Yellow Sea, but there is limited knowledge of its genetic population structure. The population genetic structure of O. punctatus in East China Sea and Yellow Sea was examined with a 658-bp segment of the mtDNA COI gene. A total of 60 individuals were collected from five locations and 48 haplotypes were obtained. Mean haplotype diversity and nucleotide diversity for the five populations were 0.9876 ± 0.0068 and 0.0074 ± 0.0041, respectively. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) detected no significant differences at all hierarchical levels, and all FST values were non-significant, indicating that no significant population genetic structure exists in the East China Sea and Yellow Sea. These results supported the null hypothesis that O. punctatus within the East China Sea and Yellow Sea constitutes a panmictic mtDNA gene pool. Neutrality tests and mismatch distribution supported population expansion in this species, indicating that climate change could play an important role in affecting the demographic history of marine species. Strong dispersal capacity of larvae and adults, and ocean currents in the studied area could be the reasons for genetic homogeneity in this species in the East China Sea and Yellow Sea. Another explanation for the lack of phylogeographic structure in O. punctatus might reflect a recent range expansion after the last glacial maximum and insufficient time to attain migration-drift equilibrium.

  20. Mesh size selectivity of the gillnet in East China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, L. Z.; Tang, J. H.; Xiong, Y.; Huang, H. L.; Wu, L.; Shi, J. J.; Gao, Y. S.; Wu, F. Q.

    2017-07-01

    A production test using several gillnets with various mesh sizes was carried out to discover the selectivity of gillnets in the East China Sea. The result showed that the composition of the catch species was synthetically affected by panel height and mesh size. The bycatch species of the 10-m nets were more than those of the 6-m nets. For target species, the effect of panel height on juvenile fish was ambiguous, but the number of juvenile fish declined quickly with the increase in mesh size. According to model deviance (D) and Akaike’s information criterion, the bi-normal model provided the best fit for small yellow croaker (Larimichthy polyactis), and the relative retention was 0.2 and 1, respectively. For Chelidonichthys spinosus, the log-normal was the best model; the right tilt of the selectivity curve was obvious and well coincided with the original data. The contact population of small yellow croaker showed a bi-normal distribution, and body lengths ranged from 95 to 215 mm. The contact population of C. spinosus showed a normal distribution, and the body lengths ranged from 95 to 205 mm. These results can provide references for coastal fishery management.

  1. Long-term Variability of Sea Surface Temperature in the East China Sea: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae Hak Lee

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The long-term variability of sea surface temperature in the East China Sea was reviewed based mainly on published literatures. Though the quantitative results are not the same, it is generally shown that sea surface temperature is increasing especially in recent years with the rate of increase about 0.03oC/year. Other meaningful results presented in the literatures is that the difference of water properties between layers upper and lower than the thermocline in summer shows an increasing trend both in temperature and salinity, suggesting that the stratification has been intensified. As a mechanism by which to evaluate the wintertime warming trend in the region, the weakening of wind strength, which is related to the variation of sea level pressure and atmospheric circulation in the western North Pacific and northern Asian continent, is suggested in the most of related studies.

  2. Distribution of Bottom Trawling Effort in the Yellow Sea and East China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shengmao; Jin, Shaofei; Zhang, Heng; Fan, Wei; Tang, Fenghua; Yang, Shenglong

    2016-01-01

    Bottom trawling is one of the most efficient fishing activities, but serious and persistent ecological issues have been observed by fishers, scientists and fishery managers. Although China has applied the Beidou fishing vessel position monitoring system (VMS) to manage trawlers since 2006, little is known regarding the impacts of trawling on the sea bottom environments. In this study, continuous VMS data of the 1403 single-rig otter trawlers registered in the Xiangshan Port, 3.9% of the total trawlers in China, were used to map the trawling effort in 2013. We used the accumulated distance (AD), accumulated power distance (APD), and trawling intensity as indexes to express the trawling efforts in the Yellow Sea (YS) and East China Sea (ECS). Our results show that all three indexes had similar patterns in the YS and ECS, and indicated a higher fishing effort of fishing grounds that were near the port. On average, the seabed was trawled 0.73 times in 2013 over the entire fishing region, and 51.38% of the total fishing grounds were with no fishing activities. Because of VMS data from only a small proportion of Chinese trawlers was calculated fishing intensity, more VMS data is required to illustrate the overall trawling effort in China seas. Our results enable fishery managers to identify the distribution of bottom trawling activities in the YS and ECS, and hence to make effective fishery policy. PMID:27855215

  3. A study of long-term sea level variability in the East China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Ying; LIN Mingsen; ZHENG Quanan; YE Xiaomin; LI Junyi; ZHU Benlu

    2015-01-01

    From the analyses of the satellite altimeter Maps of Sea Level Anomaly (MSLA) data, tidal gauge sea level data and historical sea level data, this paper investigates the long-term sea level variability in the East China Sea (ECS). Based on the correlation analysis, we calculate the correlation coefficient between tidal gauge and the closest MSLA grid point, then generate the map of correlation coefficient of the entire ECS. The results show that the satellite altimeter MSLA data is effective to observe coastal sea level variability. An important finding is that from map of correlation coefficient we can identify the Kuroshio. The existence of Kuroshio decreases the correlation between coastal and the Pacific sea level. Kurishio likes a barrier or a wall, which blocks the effect of the Pacific and the global change. Moreover, coastal sea level in the ECS is mainly associated with local systems rather than global change. In order to calculate the long-term sea level variability trend, the empirical mode decomposition (EMD) method is applied to derive the trend on each MSLA grid point in the entire ECS. According to the 2-D distribution of the trend and rising rate, the sea level on the right side of the axis of Kuroshio rise faster than in its left side. This result supports the barrier effect of Kuroshio in the ECS. For the entire ECS, the average sea level rose 45.0 mm between 1993 and 2010, with a rising rate of (2.5±0.4) mm/a which is slower than global average. The relatively slower sea level rising rate further proves that sea level rise in the ECS has less response to global change due to its own local system effect.

  4. Carbon budget in East China Sea in spring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng Tsunghung; Wanninkhof, R. [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Miami, FL (United States). Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Labs.; Hung, Jiajang [NSYSU, Kaohsiung (Taiwan, Province of China); Millero, F.J. [Miami Univ., FL (United States). Dept. of Marine and Atmospheric Chemistry]|[Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Sciences

    1999-04-01

    Results of total dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and total alkalinity (TA) measurements made in the East China Sea (ECS) during a geochemical expedition of KEEP (Kuroshio Edge Exchange Processes) program in May of 1996 show that ECS is a CO{sub 2} sink during the spring season. The mean difference of fCO{sub 2} (fugacity of CO{sub 2}) between the atmosphere and surface water is calculated to be 28 {mu}atm, and the resulting net CO{sub 2} invasion flux is 2.1 mol m{sup -2} yr{sup -1}, which gives about 0.03 GtC/yr of CO{sub 2} uptake in this continental shelf in spring. This study supports the notion that the shelf regions can be a significant CO{sub 2} sink. The riverine alkalinity, which discharges into ECS, is estimated to be 1,743 {mu}mol kg{sup -1} on the basis of a linear relationship between TA and salinity. The observed salinity-normalized alkalinity in ECS is higher than that in the open sea, and this excess alkalinity is estimated to be 42 {mu}mol kg{sup -1}. With the known rate of the Changjiang discharge, this excess TA gives a mean residence time of 1.2 years for the continental shelf water in the ECS. The DIC in the ECS is also found to be higher than that in the open sea. This excess DIC is estimated to be about 76 {+-} 70 {mu}mol kg{sup -1}, which is equal to a net carbon input to ECS of 3.9 {+-} 3.6 mol m{sup -2} yr{sup -1}. Based on the riverine alkalinity input, the equivalent riverine carbon flux from Changjiang discharge is estimated to be about 1.8 mol m{sup -2} yr{sup -1}. With net CO{sub 2} invasion flux of 2.1 {+-} 2.8 mol m{sup -2} yr{sup -1}, the remaining 0 {+-} 4.6 mol m{sup -2} yr{sup -1} could come from remineralization of organic matter derived from biological pump in the shelf or terrestrial sources. Although this preliminary carbon budget implies that gas exchange and riverine input are the main sources of excess carbon in ECS, the contribution of biological carbon flux can not be ruled out because of the large uncertainty

  5. Effect of Sea Level Variation on Tidal Characteristic Values for the East China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于宜法; 俞聿修; 左军成; 万振文; 陈宗镛

    2003-01-01

    Tidal waves in the East China Sea are simulated numerically with POM(Princeton Ocean Model) model for normal mean sea level, 30 cm higher, 60 cm higher, and 100 cm higher, respectively, and the simulated result is compared with the harmonic analysis result of hourly sea level data from 19 tide gauges for more than 19 years. It is indicated that the long-term mean sea level variation affects notably tidal waves in this region. Generally, the tidal amplitude increases when the mean sea level rises, but this relationship may be inverse for some sea areas. The maximal variation of tidal amplitude takes place in the zones near the Fujian coast and the Zhejiang coast, rather than the shallowest Bohai Sea. The maximum increase of M2 amplitude can exceed about 15 cm corresponding to the 60 cm rise of the mean sea level along the Fujian coast. The other regions with large variations of tidal amplitude are those along the Jiangsu coast, the south-east coast of Shandong, and the south-east coast of Dalian. The propagation of tidal waves is also related to mean sea level variation, and the tidal phase-lag decreases generally when the mean sea level rises. Almost all the regions where the tidal phase-lag increases with rising mean sea level are close to amphidromic points, meanwhile the spatial area of such regions is very small. Because the influence of mean sea level variation upon tidal waves is spatially marked, such spatial effect should be considered in calculation of the tidal characteristic value and engineering water level. In the region where the amplitudes of the major tidal constituents increase, the probable maximum high water level becomes higher, the probable maximum low water level becomes lower, and both design water level andcheck water level increase obviously. For example, the design water level at Xiamen increases by 13.5 cm due to the variation of tidal waves when the mean sea level rises 60 cm, the total increase of design water level being 73.5 cm.

  6. From Source to Sink of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Sediments in the East China Seas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Z.; Lin, T.; Hu, L.

    2014-12-01

    The East China Seas (ECSs), including Bohai Sea (77,000 km2), Yellow Sea (400,000 km2) and East China Sea (770,000 km2) have experienced a great variety of demographic and economic conditions which have a profound influence on the source composition of land-based polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the sediments since ECSs's coasts support about 420 million peoples, provide more than half of the national GDP in China in 2007, and are major emission regions of PAHs in China. Furthermore, the ECSs are downwind of the Asian continental outflow in spring and winter driven by the East Asian monsoon. The sources of 16 USEPA priority PAHs in strategically selected surface sediment samples from the ECSs were apportioned using positive matrix factorization model, and the input pathways of PAHs were also revealed in the regions. Four sources were identified: petroleum residue, vehicular emissions, coal combustion and biomass burning. Petroleum residue was the dominant contributor of PAHs in the coast of the Bohai Bay probably due to Haihe River runoff, oil leakage from ships and offshore oil fields. The PAHs in sediments of the coastal East China Sea were mainly sourced from the Yangtze River discharge into the sea. The combined results of PMF, PCA and composition of PAHs suggest that the atmospheric deposition is the dominate input of PAHs for the open seas of Bohai Sea, East China Sea and Yellow Sea; while river input is the major pathway of PAHs in the estuarine and neighborhood coastal areas. The demographic and economic conditions around the ECSs have profound influence on the origins of the land-based PAHs in the sediments of the open seas.

  7. Dynamic simulations of the late MIS 3 transgressions in the East China Sea and southern Yellow Sea, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YE Liangtao; YU Ge; LIAO Mengna; LI Yongfei

    2016-01-01

    Abundant evidences of higher sea levels from Jiangsu and Fujian coasts have proved a marine transgression event during 30–40 ka BP, suggesting that there was a stage with high sea level and a warm climate when ice sheets shrank in the Northern Hemisphere. The duration of 30–40 ka BP spanned a period in the late Marine Isotope Stage 3 (MIS 3) and was in nature an interstadial epoch during the Last Glacial period of the Quaternary. Different from the glacial period with a cold climate, this marine transgression considered as a penultimate higher sea level during the Quaternary remains a puzzle that why the evidence is contrary to the Quaternary glacial theory. It is important to understand sea level rise for these areas sensitively responding to the global changes in the future. To recognize the key issues on sea level changes, the eustatic sea level (HS) was defined as the glaciation-climate-forced sea levels, and the relative sea level change (HR) was defined as that a sea level record was preserved in sediment that experienced multiple secondary actions of land and sea effects. On the basis as defined above, we constructed multi-level models of climate-driven glacio-eustatic changes and land-sea systems. By integrating data sets from eight borehole cores and prescribing the boundary conditions, we simulated the changes of HS and HR in the East China Sea and southern Yellow Sea areas in the late MIS 3. The marine transgression strata from the borehole core data was identified at ca. 30 m below present sea level as a result of the collective influence of ice melting water, neotectonic subsidence, sediment compaction and terrestrial sediment filling since ca. 35 ka ago, whereas the simulated relative sea-levels turned out to be –26.3––29.9 m a.s.l. The small error involved in the simulation results of ±(2.5–4.5) m demonstrated the credibility of the results. Our results indicated that sea level change in the late MIS 3 was dominated by glacial effects

  8. An oil slick spectral experiment of nearshore sea water in the East China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Difeng; PAN Delu; GONG Fang; WANG Tianyu; ZHAN Yuanzeng

    2013-01-01

    Along with the rapid advance in global industrialization, oil spill events caused by offshore operations, trans-portation and accidents are increasing. Compared with ship surveys, monitoring oil spills through remote sensing has real-time, comprehensive, low-cost advantages, which can effectively guide cleaning and evalu-ation, and reduce the marine ecological destruction resulting from oil spills. Therefore, studying the remote sensing mechanism used to monitor marine oil spills is of great significance for ecological environmen-tal protection. This paper describes an experiment and corresponding analysis based on the above-water method, using the East China Sea coastal turbid water. The analysis shows that“upward short-wave”in ultraviolet and blue-purple bands and its displacement, along with the changing thickness, are important characteristics for distinguishing between the oil slick and the sea water, and also to differentiate oil slicks of different thicknesses. From blue to near-infrared bands, the spectrum of lube oil is flatter than that of diesel, and the diesel spectrum rises faster than the lube spectrum on the right side of the trough at 400 nm. These two features form an important basis for differentiating diesel from lube oil. These analyses will further the development of oil spill remote sensing in the East China Sea.

  9. Numerical Study of Water and Suspended Matter Exchange Between the Yellow Sea and the East China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庞重光; 白学志; 胡敦欣

    2003-01-01

    POM was used to study the monthly mean circulation in the Yellow Sea and East China Sea. The calculated results showed almost all major characteristics of the circulation system. The calculated circulation system and observational data were used to determine the sediment concentration, volume transport, heat flux and suspended matter flux between the Yellow Sea and the East China Sea. The conclusions obtained were that the volume and heat are transported northward through the 32°N section during each season; that in winter and autumn, total suspended matter is transported southward, and is larger in winter than in autumn. The reason is that the Yellow Sea Coastal Current is strong and always contains more suspend matter in winter and autumn. The seasonal suspended matter exchange between the Yellow Sea and the East China Sea are 0.58 x 107 tons in spring, 2.81 x 107 tons in summer, - 2.60 x 107 tons in autumn and - 3.40 x 107 tons in winter. Net flux of suspended matter from the Yellow Sea to the East China Sea is 2.61 x 107 tons every year.

  10. The Delimitation of East China Sea Continental Shelf:Sino-Japanese Disputes from the Perspective of International Law

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The East China Sea which covers a total area of 750,000 square kilometers is a semi-closed sea lying between the eastern coast of China’s mainland and the Pacific Ocean, bounded on the west by China, on the east by the Kyushu and the Ryukyu Islands of Japan, and on the north by Jichu Island of the Republic of Korea (ROK) and the Yellow Sea, and connected with the South China Sea by the Taiwan Strait on

  11. Potential impacts of Three Gorges Dam in China on the ecosystem of East China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Baodong; BROCKMANN Uwe

    2008-01-01

    The Changjiang River in China was dammed in 2003.The possible changes in matters fluxes from the river downstream after the completion of Three Gorges Dam and their potential impacts on the ecosystem of the East China Sea are discussed.The estuarine and coastal waters in the East China Sea were heavily fertilized by the inflow of nutrient-rich freshwater from the Changjiang River, which has led to severe eutrophication and frequent harmful algal blooms,thus worsening the ecosystem health in this area.Analy- sis showed that the nutrient loadings are very likely to be reduced in the lower Changjiang River due to the construction of Three Gorges Dam.Especially for the total phosphorus,the discharges to the East China Sea will be reduced by one-third,which would relieve the severe eutrophication in this area.However,the expected decrease in the riverine silicate discharge would lead the ra- tio of silicon to nitrogen to be much less than 1 in the estuarine and coastal waters and thus may cause an elevation of flagellate growth.The changes in the annual water discharges and their seasonal distributions below the dam will be minor.Reduction of suspended particulate matter loading,due to the sedimentation behind the dam,will reduce the nutrient loadings of the particulate form especially for phosphorus,and decrease the turbidity of estuarine and coastal waters.On the other hand,this may enhance the erosion of the delta and the coasts as well as modifythe benthic ecosystem.

  12. Seasonal Variability of the Yellow Sea/East China Sea Surface Fluxes and Thermohaline Structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peter CHU; CHEN Yuchun; Akira KUNINAKA

    2005-01-01

    We use the U.S. Navy's Master Oceanographic Observation Data Set (MOODS) for the Yellow Sea/East China Sea (YES) to investigate the climatological water mass features and the seasonal and non-seasonal variabilities of the thermohaline structure, and use the Comprehensive Ocean-Atmosphere Data Set (COADS) from 1945 to 1989 to investigate the linkage between the fluxes (momentum, heat, and moisture) across the air-ocean interface and the formation of the water mass features. After examining the major current systems and considering the local bathymetry and water mass properties, we divide YES into five regions: East China Sea (ECS) shelf, Yellow Sea (YS) Basin, Cheju bifurcation (CB) zone, Taiwan Warm Current (TWC) region, Kuroshio Current (KG) region. The long term mean surface heat balance corresponds to a heat loss of 30 W m-2 in the ESC and CB regions, a heat loss of 65 W m-2 in the KG and TWC regions, and a heat gain of 15 W m-2 in the YS region. The surface freshwater balance is defined by precipitation minus evaporation. The annual water loss from the surface for the five subareas ranges from 1.8 to 4 cm month-1. The fresh water loss from the surface should be compensated for from the river run-off. The entire water column of the shelf region (ECS, YS, and CB) undergoes an evident seasonal thermal cycle with maximum values of temperature during summer and maximum mixed layer depths during winter. However, only the surface waters of the TWC and KG regions exhibit a seasonal thermal cycle.We also found two different relations between surface salinity and the Yangtze River run-off, namely, out-of-phase in the East China Sea shelf and in-phase in the Yellow Sea. This may confirm an earlier study that the summer fresh water discharge from the Yangtze River forms a relatively shallow, low salinity plume-like structure extending offshore on average towards the northeast.

  13. A Preliminary Study of the Microbial Resources and Their Biological Activities of the East China Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoling Lu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available East China Sea is one of the four sea areas in China, which possesses peculiar ecological environment and many kinds of living creatures, especially the microorganisms. We established the East China Sea microorganism library (during 2006–2010 for the first time, which stored about 30000 strains that covered most kinds of the species. In this paper, 395 pure strains of East China Sea microorganism library which belong to 33 different genera were mainly introduced. Sulfitobacter, Halomonas, Bacillus, Pseudoalteromonas, and Idiomarina were the most dominant species. On the large-scale biological activity screening of the 395 strains, 100 strains possess different biological activities based on different screening models, of which 11.4% strains have antibacterial activities, 15.9% have cytotoxicity activities, and 6.1% have antioxidation activities. Besides, the secondary metabolites of 6 strains with strong biological activities were studied systematically; diketopiperazines and macrocyclic lactones are the active secondary metabolites. The species and the biological activity of microorganisms diversity, the abundant structure type of the secondary metabolites, and their bioactivities all indicate that East China Sea is a potent marine microorganisms-derived developing resource for drug discovery.

  14. Implementation and application of a nested numerical storm surge forecast model in the East China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于福江; 张占海

    2002-01-01

    A nested numerical storm surge forecast model for the East China Sea is developed. A one-way relaxing nest method is used to exchange the information between coarse grid and fine grid. In the inner boundary of the fine grid model a transition area is set up to relax the forecast variables. This ensures that the forecast variables of the coarse model may transit to those of fine grid gradually, which enhances the model stability. By using this model, a number of hindcasts and forecast are performed for six severe storm surges caused by tropical cyclones in the East China Sea. The results show good agreement with the observations.

  15. Tectonics and Petroleum Potential of the East China Sea Shelf Rift Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    There are two Cenozoic sedimentary basins in the East China Sea. They are the East China Sea shelf basin and the Okinawa Trough basin. The former can be divided into a western and an eastern rift region. The development of the shelf basin underwent continental-margin fault depression, post-rift and then tectonic inversion stages. Available exploration results show that the distribution of source rocks is controlled by the basin architecture and its tectonic evolution. In the Xihu depression, mudstones and coals are the main source rocks. The eastern rift region has good geological conditions for the formation of large oil and gas fields.

  16. Sea level change under IPCC-A2 scenario in Bohai, Yellow, and East China Seas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chang-lin CHEN; Jun-cheng ZUO; Mei-xiang CHEN; Zhi-gang GAO; C-K SHUM

    2014-01-01

    Because of the environmental and socioeconomic impacts of anthropogenic sea level rise (SLR), it is very important to understand the processes leading to past and present SLRs towards more reliable future SLR projections. A regional ocean general circulation model (ROGCM), with a grid refinement in the Bohai, Yellow, and East China Seas (BYECSs), was set up to project SLR induced by the ocean dynamic change in the 21st century. The model does not consider the contributions from ice sheets and glacier melting. Data of all forcing terms required in the model came from the simulation of the Community Climate System Model version 3.0 (CCSM3) under the International Panel on Climate Change (IPCC)-A2 scenario. Simulation results show that at the end of the 21st century, the sea level in the BYECSs will rise about 0.12 to 0.20 m. The SLR in the BYECSs during the 21st century is mainly caused by the ocean mass redistribution due to the ocean dynamic change of the Pacific Ocean, which means that water in the Pacific Ocean tends to move to the continental shelves of the BYECSs, although the local steric sea level change is another factor.

  17. Sea level change under IPCC-A2 scenario in Bohai, Yellow, and East China Seas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-lin CHEN

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Because of the environmental and socioeconomic impacts of anthropogenic sea level rise (SLR, it is very important to understand the processes leading to past and present SLRs towards more reliable future SLR projections. A regional ocean general circulation model (ROGCM, with a grid refinement in the Bohai, Yellow, and East China Seas (BYECSs, was set up to project SLR induced by the ocean dynamic change in the 21st century. The model does not consider the contributions from ice sheets and glacier melting. Data of all forcing terms required in the model came from the simulation of the Community Climate System Model version 3.0 (CCSM3 under the International Panel on Climate Change (IPCC-A2 scenario. Simulation results show that at the end of the 21st century, the sea level in the BYECSs will rise about 0.12 to 0.20 m. The SLR in the BYECSs during the 21st century is mainly caused by the ocean mass redistribution due to the ocean dynamic change of the Pacific Ocean, which means that water in the Pacific Ocean tends to move to the continental shelves of the BYECSs, although the local steric sea level change is another factor.

  18. Historical records of eutrophication in Changjiang (Yangtze River estuary and its adjacent East China Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Cheng

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Two sediment cores from the Changjiang (Yangtze River estuary and its adjacent East China Sea were collected and studied for eutrophication history using paleoecological records of environmental changes over the last century. A multiproxy approach by using biological and geochemical analyses revealed changes in diatom assemblages, total organic carbon (TOC, total nitrogen (TN and biogenic silica (BSi and give an indication of nutrient in status and trends in Changjiang River estuary and its adjacent East China Sea. The diatom assemblages in the two cores generally increased gradually from the 1970s, and accelerated from the 1990s until now, reflecting the increased eutrophication and causing large algae blooms/red tides. The TOC, TN and BSi showing the similar trends, supported the interpretation of the eutrophication process indicated by diatom analyses. The two cores were located in different sea areas of the East China Sea, and we discuss their relative changes based on their environment characteristics. We also discuss the potential effect of anthropogenic influences and ongoing projects on eutrophication in the Changjiang River and its adjacent East China Sea.

  19. ESTIMATION OF SOUNDING ABILITY OF A BRILLOUIN LIDAR IN THE EAST CHINA SEA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Vertical profiles of sound speed in the sea can be measured by using laser excited Brillouin scattering. In this paper the dependence of the accuracy of sound speed measurement on the accuracy of the Brillouin shift measurement is analyzed. We calculated the maximum detecting depths of sound speed to an accuracy of 1 m/s by lidar with different laser pulse energy, platform altitude, telescope aperture and lidar effective attenuation coefficient. The estimation of sounding ability in the East China Sea is made in some stations. These data can be used in the design of Brillouin Lidar for the China Sea.

  20. Geopolitical Implications of the Sino-Japanese East China Sea Dispute for the U.S.

    OpenAIRE

    Chapman, Bert

    2016-01-01

    Much analysis on Asian strategic challenges facing the U.S. has justifiably emphasized the South China Sea (SCS). This has also been reflected in 2016 presidential campaign debate on the SCS as an emerging area of U.S. foreign and national security policy concern. The East China Sea (ECS) is at least as important for the strategic interests of the U.S. and its allies given the tension between China and Japan over the Senkaku/Diaoyu islands, potential energy resources in this body of water, in...

  1. Spatial distributions of floating seaweeds in the East China Sea from late winter to early spring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuno, S; Ajisaka, T; Lahbib, S; Kokubu, Y; Alabsi, M N; Komatsu, T

    2014-01-01

    Floating seaweeds play an important role as a habitat for many animals accompanying or attaching to them in offshore waters. It was in 2000 that the first report described abundant distributions of floating seaweeds in offshore waters in the East China Sea in spring. Young individuals of the yellowtail Seriola quinqueradiata are captured for aquaculture purposes from floating seaweeds in the East China Sea. Therefore, a sound understanding of the distributions of floating seaweeds in the East China Sea is needed. Detailed information is especially important during the late winter to early spring, which corresponds to the juvenile period of the yellowtail. Thus, field surveys using R/V Tansei-Maru were conducted in the Japanese Exclusive Economic Zone in the East China Sea from late winter to early spring in 2010 and 2011. We obtained positions of the vessel by GPS and transversal distances from the vessel to a raft by visual observation. Distance sampling method (Thomas et al. 2010) was applied to estimation of floating seaweed densities (rafts km(-2)). Seaweed rafts were also randomly sampled using nets during the research cruises. In the East China Sea, seaweed rafts were distributed mainly on the continental shelf west of the Kuroshio, especially in waters between 26° N and 30° N. Collected rafts consisted of only one species, Sargassum horneri (Turner) C. Agardh. Taking into account surface currents and geographical distribution of S. horneri, it is estimated that these floating seaweeds originated from natural beds along the coast between mid and south China. Considering the approximate travel times, it is suggested that floating patches are colonized by yellowtails early on during their trips, i.e., close to the Chinese coast.

  2. Distribution of nanoflagellates in five water masses of the East China Sea in autumn and winter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shiquan; Huang, Lingfeng; Zhu, Zhisheng; Xiong, Yuan; Lu, Jiachang

    2016-02-01

    The variations of abundance, biomass and trophic structure of nanoflagellates (NF) among five typical water masses in the East China Sea were investigated in autumn (November 19-December 23, 2006) and winter (February 22-March 11, 2007). It was found that water mass had a significant impact on the distribution of NF. Either in autumn or in winter, the highest abundance and biomass of NF were recorded in the East China Sea Shelf Mixing Water (ECSSMW), and the lowest in the Kuroshio Subsurface Water (KSSW). While in the East China Sea Coastal Water (ECSCW), the abundance and biomass of both heterotrophic nanoflagellates (HNF) and pigmented phototrophic nanoflagellates (PNF) were only slightly higher than that in Taiwan Strait Water (TSW) and Kuroshio Surface Water (KSW). In respect to the seasonal variation, the abundance and biomass of NF in TSW declined in winter, while in other 4 water masses, they showed an increasing trend from autumn to winter, mainly due to the decrease (in TSW) or increase (in ECSCW, ECSSMW, KSW and KSSW) of HNF. The distribution pattern of abundance- or biomass-based PNF/HNF ratio was found to be correlated to the nutrient level of the water mass. Results of Pearson correlation analysis and principle component analysis indicated that PNF was mainly constrained by nutrient supply, and HNF was controlled by food availability in the East China Sea.

  3. Distribution and chemical speciation of dissolved inorganic arsenic in the Yellow Sea and East China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Bin; SONG Jinming; LI Xuegang

    2015-01-01

    Distribution and chemical speciation of dissolved inorganic arsenic were examined in Yellow Sea and East China Sea. Results demonstrated that: (1) both As(III) and As(V) were detected, with As(V) dominated at 40% stations of surface water and 51% stations of bottom water; (2) influenced by the exchange of fresh and sea water, the type of surface sediment and the transport of various water masses, large values in surface water were observed along the coastal region and in the same latitude of Changjiang River Estuary and Hangzhou Bay, and in bottom water found in the southern area where the Taiwan Warm Current and Kuroshio Current influenced; (3) As(III) behaved non-conservatively in Changjiang River Estuary. Man-derived inputs cause substantial positive deviation from the theoretical dilution. The negative correlation of As(V) to salinity in surface water suggested that it behaved conservatively during the transportation along Changjiang River Estuary. While, the occurrence of As(V) up to the linear fit in bottom water indicated the eventual transfer from dissolved phase to particulate phase, which was impossible to be determined without the knowledge of arsenic level and speciation in suspended particulate matter. Further study is needed on the arsenic source/sink relationships based on the distribution profiles.

  4. Four new recorded species of marine nanoplanktonic diatoms found in the East China Sea and Huanghai Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Li; Yahui Gao

    2003-01-01

    In a study of species composition of marine nanoplanktonic diatoms (< 20 μm) in watersamples from the East China Sea and Huanghai Sea (Yellow Sea), four diatom species were identifiedby TEM as new records for China. They were Thalassiosira oceanica Hasle, Navicula britannicaHustedt et Aleem, Nitzschia leehyi Fryxell and Synedra indica Taylor. Detailed description of the taxo-nomic characteristics with TEM photographs of the four species and their ecological behavior and distri-bution is given in this paper.

  5. The circulation in the southern Huanghai Sea and northern East China Sea in June 1999

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yaochu Yuan; Yonggang Liu; Mingyu Zhou; Arata Kaneko; Zhou Yuan; Noriaki Gohda

    2003-01-01

    On the basis of hydrographic data and current measurement (the mooring system, vessel-mounted ADCP and toward ADCP) data obtained in June 1999, the circulations in the southern Huang-hai Sea (HS) and northern East China Sea (ECS) are computed by using the modified inverse method.The Kuroshio flows northeastward through eastern part of the investigated region and has the main coreat Section PN, a northward flow at the easternmost part of Section PN, a weaker anti-cyclonic eddy be-tween these two northward flows, and a weak cyclonic eddy at the western part of Section PN. Theabove current structure is one type of the current structures at Section PN in ECS. The net northwardvolume transport (VT) of the Kuroshio and the offshore branch of Taiwan Warm Current (TWCOB)through Section PN is about 26.2× 106 m3/s in June 1999. The VT of the inshore branch of TaiwanWarm CArrent (TWCIB) through the investigated region is about 0.4 × 106 m3/s. The Taiwan WarmCurrent (TWC) has much effect on the currents over the continental shelf. The Huanghai Sea CoastalCurrent (HSCC) flows southeastward and enters into the northwestern part of investigated region, andflows to turn cyclonically, and then it flows northeastward, due to the influences of the Taiwan WarmCurrent and topography. There is a cyclonic eddy south of Cheju Island where the Huanghai Sea CoastalCurrent flows to turn cyclonically. It has the feature of high dense and cold water. The uniform and coldwater is occurred in the layer from about 30 m level to the bottom between Stations C306 and C311 atthe northernmost Section C3. It is a southern part of the Huanghai Sea Cold Water Mass (HSCWM).

  6. Chemical and temperature profile data from CTD casts in the East China Sea, Sea of Japan, and North Pacific Ocean (NODC Accession 9700022)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical and temperature profile data were collected from CTD casts in the East China Sea, Sea of Japan, and North Pacific Ocean. Data were submitted by the Japan...

  7. Reanalysis of the Atmospheric Flux of Nutrient Elements to the Southern Yellow Sea and the East China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wan Xiaofang; Wu Zengmao; Chang Zhiqing

    2003-01-01

    Based on the recent research results on dry and wet deposition of nutrient elements and sulphate, we estimate the atmospheric flux of nutrient elements and sulphate to the southern Yellow Sea and the East China Sea in each season. The results suggest that the concentrations of nutrient elements and sulphate in aerosol and precipitation show an apparent seasonal cycle with the maximum values in winter and the minimum values in summer. Depositions of nitrate and sulphate are dominated by wet deposition, while the deposition for phosphate is mainly dry deposition. Moreover, compared with the riverine inputs, the atmospheric deposition may be the main source of dissolved inorganic nutrients in the southern Yellow Sea and the East China Sea.

  8. An Objective Analysis Method for Surface Residual Current Field in the East China Seas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Qiang; WANG Cizhen

    2003-01-01

    Since the volume transport across the pycnocline is much smaller than that in the mixed layer, the current in the mixed layer can be regarded as non-divergent. An objective analysis method is deduced based on this hypothesis. The linear combination method is used to solve the non-divergent component of the current field of an ocean basin containing islands,which is equivalent to a mathematical problem of solving a Poisson equation in a multi-connected domain. The method is applied to the Bohai Sea, the Yellow Sea and the East China Sea (ECS). The modeled result is consistent with the current maps constructed by other oceanographers.

  9. Surface diurnal warming in the East China Sea derived from satellite remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Dan; Duan, Zhigang; Zhai, Fangguo; He, Qiqi

    2017-09-01

    Process of sea surface diurnal warming has drawn a lot of attention in recent years, but that occurs in shelf seas was rarely addressed. In the present work, surface diurnal warming strength in the East China Sea was calculated by the sea surface temperature (SST) data derived from the MODIS sensors carried by the satellites Aqua and Terra. Due to transit time difference, both the number of valid data and the surface diurnal warming strength computed by the MODIS-Aqua data are relatively larger than Terra. Therefore, the 10-year MODIS-Aqua data from 2005 to 2014 were used to analyze the monthly variability of the surface diurnal warming. Generally, the surface diurnal warming in the East China sea is stronger in summer and autumn but weaker in winter and spring, while it shows different peaks in different regions. Large events with ΔT≥5 K have also been discussed. They were found mainly in coastal area, especially near the Changjiang (Yangtze) River estuary. And there exists a high-incidence period from April to July. Furthermore, the relationship between surface diurnal warming and wind speed was discussed. Larger diurnal warming mainly lies in areas with low wind speed. And its possibility decreases with the increase of wind speed. Events with ΔT≥2.5 K rarely occur when wind speed is over 12 m/s. Study on surface diurnal warming in the East China Sea may help to understand the daily scale air-sea interaction in the shelf seas. A potential application might be in the marine weather forecasts by numerical models. Its impact on the coastal eco-system and the activities of marine organisms can also be pursued.

  10. GRAIN SIZE DISTRIBUTION OF SEDIMENT IN THE NORTHERN EAST CHINA SEA AND THE RELATIONSHIP WITH THE SEA CURRENTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LEI Kun; YANG Zuosheng; GUO Zhigang

    2002-01-01

    This paper discusses the relationship between the grain size distribution of sediment and currents in the northern East China Sea on the basis of the grain size analysis. The results show that grain size distribution of suspended sediment is controlled by the currents. Suspended sediment in the littoral water is finer than those in the open sea currents. Grain size distribution of surface sediment is affected by the sea currents to some extent. And the grain size of suspended sediment and surface sediment do not agree with each other in positions.

  11. In situ study on photosynthetic characteristics of phytoplankton in the Yellow Sea and East China Sea in summer 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Junlei; Sun, Xiaoxia; Zheng, Shan

    2016-08-01

    In situ studies on photosynthetic characteristics of phytoplankton were important for the analysis of changes in community structure and for the prediction and control of algal blooms, but such studies of phytoplankton in offshore China were few. In this study, the detailed distribution of photosynthetic characteristics of phytoplankton in the summer of 2013 in the Yellow Sea and East China Sea was measured using Phyto-PAM (Pulse Amplitude Modulation). The phytoplankton community structure and the environmental parameters were also investigated to estimate the relationship between the distribution of the photochemical competence of phytoplankton and ecological factors. The total average Fv/Fm (the potential maximum quantum yield) value of phytoplankton in the Yellow Sea and East China Sea in summer 2013 was less than 0.5, reflecting that the photosynthetic activity of phytoplankton was relatively low. Fv/Fm of phytoplankton in summer was significantly positively associated with nitrate content (NO2-), which reflects relationship between metabolism and photosynthesis of phytoplankton: accompanied by NO2- metabolism, photosynthesis and photosynthetic capacity may be enhanced simultaneously, so the Fv/Fm value would increase with the NO2- released by phytoplankton. Through the in situ study on photosynthetic characteristics of phytoplankton in the Yellow Sea and East China Sea, we come to the conclusion that photosynthetic characteristics and activity of phytoplankton are influenced by its biological characteristics and surrounding ecological factors, such as irradiance, nutrients and phytoplankton community. Meanwhile, the thermally stratified structure and the movement of water masses, such as the Yangtze River diluted water, the Yellow Sea cold water mass and other different water system, also have an important impact on phytoplankton photosynthetic activity and characteristics. Greater understanding of the detailed photosynthetic characteristics of phytoplankton

  12. The first isolation of a cyanophage-Synechococcus system from the East China Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Xu, Min; Zhao, Yijun; Cheng, Kai

    2013-10-01

    A cyanophage strain and its host Synechococcus were isolated from the East China Sea. The host Synechococcus sp. SJ01 was characterized by its 16S rRNA, ITS, and psbA gene sequences as well as by its morphological appearance and pigmentation. The cyanophage, strain S-SJ2, was able to cause a lytic infection of the coastal Synechococcus. TEM of negative-stained specimens showed that the phage isolate has an isometric head with a diameter of 68 nm and a long tail with a length of 280 nm. The cyanophage-Synechococcus system from the East China Sea shares many properties with other marine cyanophage-Synechococcus systems worldwide.

  13. Two new species of Glyphocrangon (Decapoda: Caridea: Glyphocrangonidae) from the East China Sea and the Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Qingxi; Li, Xinzheng

    2014-08-18

    The present paper reports two new species of Glyphocrangon (Crustacea, Caridea, Glyphocrangonidae) collected respectively from the East China Sea and the Philippines. G. singularis sp. nov., from the East China Sea, is similar to G. fimbriata Komai & Takeuchi, 1994 with the presence of fringe of setae on dactyl of the third to fifth pereopods, but differs from G. fimbriata by the rostrum shape and the armature on the carapace; G. denticulata sp. nov., from the Philippines, is similar to G. pugnax De Man, 1918 with the entire anterior third carina, but differs from G. pugnax by armatures of the antennal scaphocerite and carapace, the lengths of rostrum and the spines of fifth abdominal somite, and the colouration of carapace. 

  14. Hydrodynamic condition and suspended sediment diffusion in the Yellow Sea and East China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guangxue; Qiao, Lulu; Dong, Ping; Ma, Yanyan; Xu, Jishang; Liu, Shidong; Liu, Yong; Li, Jianchao; Li, Pin; Ding, Dong; Wang, Nan; Olusegun A, Dada; Liu, Ling

    2016-08-01

    Based on monthly averaged current, temperature, and salinity, we analyzed the changes of suspended sediment concentration (SSC) and the relationship with the warm current, coastal current, and cold water mass (CWM) in the East China Seas (ECSs). The result shows that the coastal current and surface diluted water are the route for transporting suspended sediment. The Kuroshio and its derived warm current branches play the important role of the continental shelf circulation system and control the diffusion of suspended sediment. High SSC has been mainly concentrated in coastal current and CWM. Two sedimentary dynamic patterns have been identified. The winter-half-year pattern lasts almost 7 months. The coastal currents off the Shandong Peninsula, northern Jiangsu, Zhejiang-Fujian coast are the main routes for diffusion and deposition of the suspended sediment from the Yellow River and Changjiang River. The summer-half-year pattern is characterized by the well-developed CWM. All CWMs have a unique function to trap suspended sediment under the thermocline due to weakening tidal current and residual current there. These CWMs in the Yellow Sea (YS) and north ECS are connected together. The layer above the thermocline is characterized by diluted water with low salinity, high temperature. Suspended sediment can be transported into the Okinawa Trough and the South Korea coast during this period. A strong eddy always occur nearby the Kuroshio bend at northeast Taiwan, which has promoted the exchange between the ECS shelf and Okinawa Trough, and the development of the shelf edge current and Taiwan warm current (TWC).

  15. On the recurrent Ulva prolifera blooms in the Yellow Sea and East China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Chuanmin; Li, Daqiu; Chen, Changsheng; Ge, Jianzhong; Muller-Karger, Frank E.; Liu, Junpeng; Yu, Feng; He, Ming-Xia

    2010-05-01

    A massive bloom of the green macroalgae Ulva prolifera (previously known as Enteromorpha prolifera) occurred in June 2008 in the Yellow Sea (YS), resulting in perhaps the largest "green tide" event in history. Using a novel index (Floating Algae Index) and multiresolution remote sensing data from MODIS and Landsat, we show that U. prolifera patches appeared nearly every year between April and July 2000-2009 in the YS and/or East China Sea (ECS), which all originated from the nearshore Subei Bank. A finite volume numerical circulation model, driven by realistic forcing and boundary conditions, confirmed this finding. Analysis of meteorological/environmental data and information related to local aquaculture activities strongly supports the hypothesis that the recurrent U. prolifera in the YS and ECS resulted from aquaculture of the seaweed Porphyra yezoensis (or nori) conducted along the 200 km shoreline of the Subei Bank north of the Changjiang (Yangtze) River mouth. Given the continuous growth in aquaculture efforts in the region, similar macroalgae bloom events, such as the summer 2008 event, are likely to occur in the future, particularly between May and July. This was confirmed by the 2009 bloom event in the same regions and the same period. The profit of the local P. yezoensis aquaculture industry (˜16,000 Ha in 2007) is estimated as U.S. 53 million, yet the cost to manage the impact of the summer 2008 U. prolifera bloom exceeded U.S. 100 million. Therefore, better strategies are required to balance the economic benefit of seaweed aquaculture and the costs of environmental impacts.

  16. Shrimps and lobsters from the continental slope of the East China Sea

    OpenAIRE

    山本, 圭介; 長澤, 和也

    2011-01-01

    The specimens of shrimps and lobsters collected from the continental slope of the East China Sea using a bottom trawl net in September 1993 contained 32 species in 11 families (Solenoceridae-2; Aristeidae-5; Penaeidae-2; Oplophoridae-3; Nematocarcinidae-1; Pasiphaeidae-2; Psalidopodidae-1; Pandalidae-7; Glyphocrangonidae-2; Polychelidae-3; Nephropidae-4). The pandarids were the most specious. Haliporoides sibogae was most abundantly collected, followed by Aristeus virilis and Glyphocrangon pe...

  17. Preservation of black carbon in the shelf sediments of the East China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Concentrations and carbon isotopic (14C, 13C) compositions of black carbon (BC) were measured for three sediment cores collected from the Changjiang River estuary and the shelf of the East China Sea. BC concentrations ranged from 0.02 to 0.14 mg/g (dry weight), and accounted for 5% to 26% of the sedimentary total organic carbon (TOC) pool. Among the three sediment cores collected at each site, sediment from the Changjiang River estuary had relatively high BC contents compared with the sediments from the East China Sea shelf, suggesting that the Changjiang River discharge played an important role in the delivery of BC to the coastal region. Radiocarbon measurements indicate that the ages of BC are in the range of 6910 to 12250 years old B.P. (before present), that is in general, 3700 to 9000 years older than the 14C ages of TOC in the sediments. These variable radiocarbon ages suggest that the BC preserved in the sediments was derived from the products of both biomass fire and fossil fuel combustion, as well as from ancient rock weathering. Based on an isotopic mass balance model, we calculated that fossil fuel combustion contributed most (60%―80%) of the BC preserved in these sediments and varied with depth and locations. The deposition and burial of this "slow-cycling" BC in the sediments of the East China Sea shelf represent a significant pool of carbon sink and could greatly in-fluence carbon cycling in the region.

  18. Temperature profile and water depth data collected from USS COCHRANE using BT and XBT casts in the East China sea and other seas from 07 March 1987 to 19 March 1987 (NODC Accession 8700263)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile and water depth data were collected using BT and XBT casts from the USS COCHRANE in the South China sea, East China Sea, and Philippine Sea. Data...

  19. Air-sea exchange of gaseous mercury in the East China Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chunjie; Ci, Zhijia; Wang, Zhangwei; Zhang, Xiaoshan

    2016-05-01

    Two oceanographic cruises were carried out in the East China Sea (ECS) during the summer and fall of 2013. The main objectives of this study are to identify the spatial-temporal distributions of gaseous elemental mercury (GEM) in air and dissolved gaseous mercury (DGM) in surface seawater, and then to estimate the Hg(0) flux. The GEM concentration was lower in summer (1.61 ± 0.32 ng m(-3)) than in fall (2.20 ± 0.58 ng m(-3)). The back-trajectory analysis revealed that the air masses with high GEM levels during fall largely originated from the land, while the air masses with low GEM levels during summer primarily originated from ocean. The spatial distribution patterns of total Hg (THg), fluorescence, and turbidity were consistent with the pattern of DGM with high levels in the nearshore area and low levels in the open sea. Additionally, the levels of percentage of DGM to THg (%DGM) were higher in the open sea than in the nearshore area, which was consistent with the previous studies. The THg concentration in fall was higher (1.47 ± 0.51 ng l(-1)) than those of other open oceans. The DGM concentration (60.1 ± 17.6 pg l(-1)) and Hg(0) flux (4.6 ± 3.6 ng m(-2) h(-1)) in summer were higher than those in fall (DGM: 49.6 ± 12.5 pg l(-1) and Hg(0) flux: 3.6 ± 2.8 ng m(-2) h(-1)). The emission flux of Hg(0) from the ECS was estimated to be 27.6 tons yr(-1), accounting for ∼0.98% of the global Hg oceanic evasion though the ECS only accounts for ∼0.21% of global ocean area, indicating that the ECS plays an important role in the oceanic Hg cycle.

  20. SEASONAL VARIATIONS OF CIRCULATION AND SUSPENDED MATTER TRANSPORT IN THE YELLOW AND EAST CHINA SEAS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The Princeton Ocean Model (POM) was modified and applied to study the monthly mean circulation in the Yellow Sea and the East China Sea. The calculated results showed almost all major characteristics of the circulation systems and their seasonal evolutions. Offshore branch and inshore branch of the Taiwan Warm Current derived from the two sides of the Taiwan Island vary significantly in different seasons. The Tsushima Warm Current is a multi-source current, and especially in winter, mid-shelf water is its main source. The Yellow Sea Warm Current (YSWC) is the strongest in winter, and a part of the YSWC water always adds into the Tsushima Warm Current through the north and south sides of the Cheju Island. The calculated thermal structures showed distinct path of the YSWC in winter and the position and scope of the Yellow Sea Cold Water Mass in summer.   Based on the circulation simulation, suspended matter transport was modeled numerically by adding its governing equation into the POM. Simulated results on the temporal and spatial distribution of total suspended matter concentration revealed and further proved that seasonal characteristics of suspended matter transport are: storage in summer and autumn, transport in winter and spring in the Yellow and East China Seas. Shelf circulation plays a crucial role in long-term suspended matter transport.

  1. Analysis on the indicator species and ecological groups of pelagic ostracods in the East China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Zhaoli

    2008-01-01

    Ecological adaptation and ecological groups of pelagic ostraceds were examined in the East China Sea (23°30' ~ 33°00'N,118°30'~ 128°00'E),in relation to temperature and salinity.The data were collected in four surveys conducted from 1997 to 2000.The density,yield density,or negative exponent models were used to determine the optimal temperature and salinity of wa-ter for the thriving growth of pelagic ostracods.Thereafter,ecological groups and potential distribution patterns of pelagic ostracods were determined based on the predicted parameters such as optimal temperature and salinity,consulting the geographic distribu-tion.The analytical results indicate that,among the numerical dominant pelagic ostraceds in the East China Sea (ECS),Eucon-choecia aculeata,E.elongata,E.chierchiae,E.maimai,and Cypridina dentata,etc.are offshore subtropical water species.These species are widely distributed in the area,and they can be brought by the warm current to north offshore during spring and winter.The predicated optimal temperature (OT) and optimal salinity (OS) for Paraconchoecia decipiens,P.echinata,P.spini-fera,P.oblonga,Conchoecia magna and Porroecia porrecta are all greater than 25℃ and 34 separately.These species are mainly distributed in the waters of the Kuroshio,the Taiwan Warm Current,and the Taiwan Strait,and therefore are designated as ocean-ic tropical water species.On the other hand,Pseudoconchoecia concentrica is considered as offshore subtropical water species based on its geographical distribution although its OT is 19~C.The other species,though their OSs are approximately 34 and with OTs ranging from 20° to 25℃,are considered as offshore subtropical water species because they were found to be widely distribu-ted from the South China Sea to the East China Sea.

  2. Ancient Changjiang channel system in the East China Sea continental shelf during the last glaciation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Guangxue; LIU Yong; YANG Zigeng; YUE Shuhong; YANG Wenda; HAN Xibin

    2005-01-01

    Based on the data of high-resolution seismic profiles, an ancient river channel system of the last glaciation occurred along the Zhedong and Xihu depression in the southeast of Hupijiao rise. The distribution of the channel fill system shows that the ancient Changjiang River went through the Changjiang depression into the low land plain of the outside continental shelf during the low sea level cycle of the last glaciation. The big channel fill into Okinawa Trough is not found due to the depletion of the river kinetic energy in the low land plain. The river discharge dispersal was of an important role to the dilution of the northern Okinawa Trough sea at that time. Six ancient river channel systems (A―F), which are main distributaries of ancient Changjiang in the East China Sea continental shelf during the last glaciation, may be buried off the modern Changjiang estuary. The distribution of these channels coincides with the zonal elevations in the sea floor.

  3. Four newly recorded free-living marine nematodes (Comesomatidae) from the East China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Er; Zhang, Zhinan

    2007-01-01

    Three species in genus Sabatieria and one in genus Cervonema from the East China Sea were recorded. S. breviseta is characterized by uniformly punctuated coarse dots, large amphids of 5.5 turns (♂) and prominent gubernaculum median piece. The characters of S. breviseta agree quite well with the European original descriptions and only differ in the male amphid turns (5.5 vs. 4.0 turns) and unmodified preanal supplements (5-7 vs. 6). S. pulchra can be recognized by amphid 2.75 turns, irregularly arranged lateral dots, and the first three supplements anterior to the anus, which are more widely spaced than the following ones. The excretory system of S. breviseta and S. pulchra shows sexual dimorphism. S. celtica is defined by amphids 2.00-2.25 turns, weakly developed pharyngeal bulb, curved apophyses and 12-13 conspicuous supplements. C. deltensis is characterized by amphids 4.75 turns, ovate pharyngeal posterior bulb, sperm dimorphism, 7 thin preanal supplements, and long tail cylindrical portion (50%-53% of tail length). All the three Sabatieria species are for the first time recorded in Chinese waters. C. deltensis was originally isolated from the Bohai Sea and Yellow Sea and newly recorded in the East China Sea.

  4. Four Newly Recorded Free-living Marine Nematodes(Comesomatidae) from the East China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUA Er; ZHANG Zhinan

    2007-01-01

    Three species in genus Sabatieria and one in genus Cervonema from the East China Sea were recorded. S. breviseta is characterized by uniformly punctuated coarse dots, large amphids of 5.5 turns (♂) and prominent gubemaculum median piece. The characters of S. breviseta agree quite well with the European original descriptions and only differ in the male amphid tums (5.5 vs.4.0 tums) and unmodified preanal supplements (5-7 vs. 6). S. pulchra can be recognized by amphid 2.75 turns, irregularly arranged lateral dots, and the first three supplements anterior to the anus, which are more widely spaced than the following ones. The excretory system of S. breviseta and S. pulchra shows sexual dimorphism. S. celtica is defined by amphids 2.00-2.25 turns, weakly developed pharyngeal bulb, curved apophyses and 12-13 conspicuous supplements. C. deltensis is characterized by amphids 4.75 tums, ovate pharyngeal posterior bulb, sperm dimorphism, 7 thin preanal supplements, and long tail cylindrical portion (50%-53% of tail length).All the three Sabatieria species are for the first time recorded in Chinese waters. C. deltensis was originally isolated from the Bohai Sea and Yellow Sea and newly recorded in the East China Sea.

  5. Impact of Sea Surface Temperature Front on Stratus-Sea Fog over the Yellow and East China Seas-A Case Study with Implications for Climatology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Man; ZHANG Suping

    2013-01-01

    A stratus-sea fog event that occurred over the Yellow and East China Seas on 3 June 2011 is investigated using observations and a numerical model,with a focus on the effects of background circulation and Sea Surface Temperature Front (SSTF) on the transition of stratus into sea fog.Southerly winds of a synoptic high-pressure circulation transport water vapor to the Yellow Sea,creating conditions favorable for sea fog/stratus formation.The subsidence from the high-pressure contributes to the temperature inversion at the top of the stratus.The SSTF forces a secondary circulation within the ABL (Atmospheric Boundary Layer),the sinking branch of which on the cold flank of SSTF helps lower the stratus layer further to reach the sea surface.The cooling effect over the cold sea surface counteracts the adiabatic warming induced by subsidence.The secondary circulation becomes weak and the fog patches are shrunk heavily with the smoothed SSTF.A conceptual model is proposed for the transition of stratus into sea fog over the Yellow and East China Seas.Finally,the analyses suggest that sea fog frequency will probably decrease due to the weakened SSTF and the reduced subsidence of secondary circulation under global warming.

  6. Comparison of TOPEX/POSEIDON altimeter derived wave period with ocean buoy data in the East China Sea and South China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Altimeter wave period data obtained from continental shelf seas are analyzed in this paper.Empirical models are introduced for zero up-crossing and peak wave period calculation with TOPEX/POSEIDON data. Their performances are assessed using independent validation dataset in four sites in the open ocean of China. To provide more accurate wave period estimation, new coefficients are applied to reliable in situ data. Comparison of our estimated the wave periods with new linear calibrations based on independent data of Seapac 2100 deployed in the East China Sea and South China Sea showed that the accuracy was improved over estimates determined from earlier empirical models. Regional analysis indicated that the wave period model works better under wind sea condition.

  7. Ocean pollution from land-based sources: East China Sea, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Daoji; Daler, Dag

    2004-02-01

    The environment of East China Sea (ECS) has been faced by huge stresses from anthropogenic activities and population growth in the Yangtze River drainage basin and the areas along the coasts. Improper use of natural resources and short-term economic objectives have resulted in severe environmental degradation in a fairly short time frame and the degradation has now reached a level where the health and well being of the coastal populations are threatened. The main pollutants are inorganic nitrogen, phosphate, oil hydrocarbons, organic matters and heavy metals. Nutrients cause eutrophication of the coastal waters and the estuarine area and very often stimulate the occurrence of red tides. The environmental pollution of Yangtze River basin directly impact on the state of the marine environment in the ECS. The ecosystem stability is maintained by a steady water discharge from the river, that mixes with the marine salty water in the estuary, and the sediment loads from the river that balance ocean erosion in the delta and its adjacent coastal area. The large-scale water transfer and dam constructions in the Yangtze River basin will change this basis. For the ECS the challenge is to reverse the negative processes taking place and to restore ecosystem balance. The main challenge is to integrate socioeconomic and environmental decision making in order to promote sustainable development. A better understanding of the driving forces in society that cause these environmental pressures is required in order to overcome these obstacles. International cooperation may be an important contributor to the progress and in particular provide access to financial, technological, scientific and human resource assistance.

  8. A New model to forecast fishing ground ofScomber japonicus in the Yellow Sea and East China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Feng; CHEN Xinjun; GUAN Wenjiang; LI Gang

    2016-01-01

    The pelagic species is closely related to the marine environmental factors, and establishment of forecasting model of fishing ground with high accuracy is an important content for pelagic fishery. The chub mackerel (Scomber japonicus) in the Yellow Sea and East China Sea is an important fishing target for Chinese lighting purse seine fishery. Based on the fishery data from China’s mainland large-type lighting purse seine fishery for chub mackerel during the period of 2003 to 2010 and the environmental data including sea surface temperature (SST), gradient of the sea surface temperature (GSST), sea surface height (SSH) and geostrophic velocity (GV), we attempt to establish one new forecasting model of fishing ground based on boosted regression trees. In this study, the fishing areas with fishing effort is considered as one fishing ground, and the areas with no fishing ground are randomly selected from a background field, in which the fishing areas have no records in the logbooks. The performance of the forecasting model of fishing ground is evaluated with the testing data from the actual fishing data in 2011. The results show that the forecasting model of fishing ground has a high prediction performance, and the area under receiver operating curve (AUC) attains 0.897. The predicted fishing grounds are coincided with the actual fishing locations in 2011, and the movement route is also the same as the shift of fishing vessels, which indicates that this forecasting model based on the boosted regression trees can be used to effectively forecast the fishing ground of chub mackerel in the Yellow Sea and East China Sea.

  9. The Distribution of Dissolved Aluminum in the Yellow and East China Seas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Water samples containing dissolved aluminum were collected from the Yellow and East China Seas in October-November 2000. The average concentrations of dissolved Al in the Yellow Sea (YS) and East China Sea (ECS) were 0.042 and 0.056 μ molL-1, respectively. The concentration of dissolved aluminum decreased gradually across the continental shelf. The lower concentrations appeared in the YS cold water center and in the bottom layer at the shelf edge of the ECS, where they were 0.016 and 0.011 μmolL-1, respectively. The distribution of dissolved A1 was controlled by physical mixing processes rather than biological uptake processes. The impact of different water masses along the PN transect was calculated based on the mass balance model. The results show that the impact of the Changjiang River was mainly concentrated on the coastal area and the top thermocline water on the ECS shelf, where the impact percentage decreased from 12.6% to 1.1% in the surface water, while the contribution of the Kuroshio water was dominant on the ECS shelf in this survey, increasing from 77.6% to 97.8% along the PN transect from the Changjiang River Estuary to the Ryukyu Islands. It is concluded that aluminum can serve as a proper tracer for studying the impact of Changjiang terrestrial matter on the ECS shelf water.

  10. Anaerobic ammonium oxidation, denitrification and dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium in the East China Sea sediment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. D. Song

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Benthic nitrogen transformation pathways were investigated in the sediment of the East China Sea in June of 2010 using the 15N isotope pairing technique. Slurry incubations indicated that denitrification, anammox and dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium (DNRA as well as nitrate release by nitrate storing organisms occurred in the East China Sea sediments. These four processes did not exist independently, the nitrate release therefore diluted the 15N labeling fraction of NO3−, a part of the 15NH4+ derived from DNRA also formed 30N2 via anammox. Therefore current methods of rate calculations led to over and underestimations of anammox and denitrification respectively. Following the procedure outlined in Thampdrup and Dalsgaard (2002, denitrification rates were slightly underestimated by on average 6% without regard to the effect of nitrate release, while this underestimation could be counteracted by the presence of DNRA. On the contrary, anammox rates calculated from 15NO3− experiment were significantly overestimated by 42% without considering nitrate release. In our study this overestimation could only be compensated 14% by taking DNRA into consideration. In a parallel experiment amended with 15NH4+ + 14NO3−, anammox rates were not significantly influenced by DNRA due to the high background of 15NH4+ addition. Excluding measurements in which bioirrigation was present, integrated denitrification rates decreased from 10 to 4 mmol N m−2 d−1 with water depth, while integrated anammox rates increased from 1.5 to 4.0 mmol N m−2 d−1. Consequently, the relative contribution of anammox to the total N-loss increased from 13% at the shallowest site near the Changjiang estuary to 50% at the deepest site on the outer shelf. This study represents the first time in which anammox has been demonstrated to play a significant role in benthic nitrogen cycling in the East China Sea sediment, especially on the outer shelf. N

  11. Estimation of ocean primary productivity and its spatio-temporal variation mechanism for East China Sea based on VGPM model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIGuosheng; GAOPing; WANGFang; LIANGQiang

    2004-01-01

    According to calculation results of ocean chlorophyll concentration based on SeaWiFS data by SeaBAM model and synchronous ship-measured data, this research set up an improved model for Case I and Case Ⅱ water bodies respectively. The monthly chlorophyll distribution in the East China Sea in 1998 was obtained from this improved model on calculation results of SeaBAM. The euphotic depth distribution in 1998 in the East China Sea is calculated by using remote sensing data of K490 from SeaWiFS according to the relation between the euphotic depth and the oceanic diffuse attenuation coefficient. With data of ocean chlorophyll concentration, euphotic depth, ocean surface photosynthetic available radiation (PAR), daily photoperiod and optimal rate of daily carbon fixation within a water column, the monthly and annual primary productivity spatio-temporal distributions in the East China Sea in 1998 were obtained based on VGPM model. Based on analysis of those distributions, the conclusion can be drawn that there is a clear bimodality character of primary productivity in the monthly distribution in the East China Sea. In detail, the monthly distribution of primary productivity stays the lowest level in winter and rises rapidly to the peak in spring. It gets down a little in summer, and gets up a little in autumn. The daily average of primary productivity in the whole East China Sea is 560.03 mg/m2/d, which is far higher than the average of subtropical ocean areas. The annual average of primary productivity is 236.95 g/m2/a. The research on the seasonal variety mechanism of primary productivity shows that several factors that affect the spatio-temporal distribution may include the chlorophyll concentration distribution, temperature condition, the Yangtze River diluted water variety, the euphotic depth, ocean current variety, etc. But the main influencing factors may be different in each local sea area.

  12. Quaternary transgressive and regressive depositional sequences in the East China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Based on the interpretation more than 4000 km sparker single channel seismic profiles and the comparison with Borehole DZQ4 on the outer shelf of the East China Sea (ECS), the seismic sequences, sedimentary facies and paleo-sedimentary environment are studied to establish the chronology framework and discuss the Quaternary transgressive and regressive sequences of the ECS shelf as well as their response to glacio-eustatic sea-level changes. The sea level of the ECS fluctuated with global climate changes in the Quaternary. During the sea level rise, the Pacific tidal wave impacted actively on the ECS continental shelf and the reciprocating tidal currents in NW-SE direction formed tidal sand ridges, which represent large transgressive deposits visible on the seismic profiles. In response to sea level fall, the Yangtze River deltas prograded seaward and built massive subaqueous deltas to form regressive sequences on the seismic profiles. Alternative transgression and regression sequences were vertically distributed on the ECS shelf with the frequent eustacy in the Quaternary. The gentle slope of the ECS shelf makes it possible for the coastline to migrate hundreds of kilometers forth and back on the shelf because of tens of meters sea level changes, in the meanwhile, the Yangtze River discharged large amounts of sediments into the ECS resulting in large-scale subaqueous deltas and tidal sand ridges. There have developed 3 stages of tidal sand ridges and 4 stages of deltas on the ECS shelf since oxygen isotope stage 8.

  13. Distributions and sea-to-air fluxes of volatile halocarbons in the southern Yellow Sea and the East China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Guipeng; LI Li; LU Xiaolan; ZHANG Liang

    2015-01-01

    Distributions and sea-to-air fluxes of five kinds of volatile halocarbons (VHCs) were studied in the southern Yellow Sea (SYS) and the East China Sea (ECS) in November 2007. The results showed that the concentrations of 1,1,1- trichloroethane (C2H3Cl3), 1,1-dichloroethene (C2H2Cl2), 1,1,2-trichloroethene (C2HCl3), trichloromethane (CHCl3) and tetrachloromethane (CCl4) in the surface water were 0.31–4.81, 2.75–21.3, 1.21–17.1, 5.02–233 and 0.045–4.47 pmol/L, respectively, with the average values of 1.89, 12.20, 6.93, 60.90 and 0.33 pmol/L. On the whole, the horizontal distributions of C2H3Cl3, C2H2Cl2 and CCl4 were affected mainly by anthropogenic activities, while C2HCl3 and CHCl3 were influenced by biological factors as well as anthropogenic activities. In the study area, the concentrations of VHCs (except C2HCl3) exhibited a decreasing trend from inshore to offshore sites, with the higher values occurring in the coastal waters. The sea-to-air fluxes of C2H3Cl3, C2HCl3, CHCl3 and CCl4 were calculated to be -56.00–(-5.68),-7.31–123.42, 148.00–1 309.31 and -83.32–(-1.53) nmol/(m2·d), respectively, with the average values of -6.77, 17.14, 183.38 and -21.27 nmol/(m2·d). Our data showed that the SYS and ECS in autumn was a sink for C2H3Cl3 and CCl4, while it was a source for C2HCl3 and CHCl3 in the atmosphere.

  14. East China Sea δ18O Record Detects Millennial-Scale Changes in the East Asian Summer Monsoon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleeman, E.; Clemens, S. C.; Lawman, A. E.; Kubota, Y.; Holbourn, A. E.; Martin, A.

    2015-12-01

    The East Asian Summer Monsoon (EASM) brings heavy summer rainfall to some of Asia's most densely-populated areas, impacting agricultural production and water resources. Sediment cores were recovered from International Ocean Drilling Program Site U1429 in the East China Sea (31° 37.04' N, 128° 59.50' E, 732 mbsl). This location receives runoff from the Yangtze River, which serves as a major drainage system for monsoon-induced precipitation. Hence, the δ18O record of planktonic foraminifera at Site U1429 reflects changes in regional, monsoon-driven salinity. The top 100 meters of core at Site U1429 were sampled at a preliminary resolution of 15 cm and processed to isolate the planktonic foraminifer Globigerinoides ruber for δ18O mass spectrometry analyses. Abrupt, millennial-scale regional climate variability in the EASM and its linkage to orbital forcings have been reconstructed using stratigraphic analysis of δ18O. The sub-orbital scale structure of the δ18O record over the past 400 kyr matches the structures of both the composite speleothem δ18O from eastern China (Sanbao and Hulu caves) and the planktonic δ18O record from northern South China Sea Site 1146. The similarities between these δ18O records indicate a strong regional response to monsoon forcing. Removal of the temperature component of the δ18O signal by using Mg/Ca (G. ruber) paleothermometry will provide a record of changes in the δ18O composition of seawater in response to Yangtze River runoff.

  15. Contrasting behavior of tungsten and molybdenum in the Okinawa Trough, the East China Sea and the Yellow Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sohrin, Yoshiki; Matsui, Masakazu; Nakayama, Eiichiro

    1999-10-01

    By using catalytic current polarography and high-resolution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, W and Mo in seawater were determined in the Okinawa Trough, a backarc rift, and in the East China Sea and the Yellow Sea. Mo was distributed conservatively throughout the study area, and its salinity-normalized concentration was 104 {+-} 6 nM (n = 105). W was also uniformly distributed south of the Kuroshio Current (56 {+-} 7 pM, n = 51). Anomalous high concentrations of W (maximum 254 pM) were found in the Iheya Graben in the middle Okinawa Trough ({gt}1,000 m depth), which were probably supplied by hydrothermal activity. The concentrations of Mo and W in the East China Sea and the Yellow Sea showed linear correlation with salinity (26 {lt} S {lt} 35). The Mo data can be explained by mixing of seawater and river water of the Changjiang (Mo = 10 nM; Qu et al., 1993). However, the values of W extrapolated to S = 0 were largely different between two cruises (1,200 pM in May-June 1987 and 540 pM in June 1994) and much higher than the reported concentrations of 160 pM for world rivers by Turekian (1969) and 30 pM for unpolluted Japanese rivers by Sohrin et al. (1989). Moreover, significantly high W was observed in the bottom water at stations near the Changjiang River estuary and the western Yellow Sea. While these data may suggest that W is released from the anoxic sediments of the continental shelf, more data are needed to elucidate the mechanism controlling the distribution of W.

  16. Nitrogen deposition fuels harmful algal blooms in the East China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackey, K. R.; Kavanaugh, M.; Chien, C. T.; Chen, Y.; Glover, D. M.; Paytan, A.

    2015-12-01

    Chinese marginal seas support vast fisheries and vital economies, but their productivity is threatened by eutrophication and increasing harmful algal blooms (HABs). Here we provide direct experimental evidence that aerosol enrichment shifts seawater chemistry by increasing the ratio of N to phosphorus (N:P) and supports the growth of bloom-forming phytoplankton in the East China Sea. We use a combination of field-based aerosol addition incubation experiments, along with ocean color data on blooms dominated by different taxa to show that HAB forming dinoflagellates are particularly responsive to aerosol inputs. Moreover, we show that the effect of N deposition is strongest in offshore waters further from the Yangtze River outflow, consistent with the large anthropogenic flux of N from this source. This study shows the potential for aerosols to control N:P ratios in offshore waters and to shape the phytoplankton community, contributing to the success of bloom-forming organisms.

  17. Nitrogen mineralization and immobilization in sediments of the East China Sea: Spatiotemporal variations and environmental implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xianbiao; Hou, Lijun; Liu, Min; Li, Xiaofei; Zheng, Yanling; Yin, Guoyu; Gao, Juan; Jiang, Xiaofen

    2016-11-01

    Nitrogen (N) mineralization and immobilization are important processes of N biogeochemical cycle in marine sediments. This study investigated gross N mineralization (GNM) and NH4+ immobilization (GAI) in the sediments from the East China Sea (ESC), using 15N stable isotope dilution technique. Results show that measured rates of GNM and GAI ranged from 0.04 to 6.1 µg N g-1 d-1 and from undetectable to 9.82 µg N g-1 d-1, respectively. In general, both GNM and GAI rates were significantly greater in summer as compared to winter, and the high rates occurred mainly in the muddy area and increased gradually from the Yangtze Estuary to Zhe-Min Coastal muddy areas. The GNM and GAI processes were related closely to sediment temperature, pH, ammonium (NH4+), nitrate (NO3-), total organic carbon (TOC), and total nitrogen (TN) contents in the muddy area, while they were associated tightly with sediment temperature, pH, NH4+, TOC, TN, sulfide, and Fe(III) concentrations in the sandy area. In addition, the total mineralized and immobilized N in the East China Sea (ECS) were estimated to be approximately 2.1 × 106 t N yr-1 and 2.7 × 106 t N yr-1, respectively. Overall, these results highlight the importance of N mineralization and immobilization in controlling the N budget in the ECS and improve the understanding of both processes and associated controlling mechanisms in the coastal marine ecosystem.

  18. Newly recorded Karlodinium veneficum dinoflagellate blooms in stratified water of the East China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Xinfeng; Lu, Douding; Guan, Weibing; Wang, Hongxia; He, Piaoxia; Xia, Ping; Yang, Huajie

    2014-03-01

    Karlodinium veneficum is a cosmopolitan species, but has been poorly recorded in the East China Sea (ECS) due to its small size and difficulty in identification. The bloom dynamics of this species is not well understood globally. In this study, we examined its morphological characteristics that suggest the K. veneficum is the co-occurring bloom causative species of large scale Prorocentrum donghaiense blooms in spring 2011. The epicone of K. veneficum recorded in the investigated area is conical or rounded, and the hypocone is hemispherically rounded. The ventral pore is located at the left side of the apical groove. Nucleus is positioned centrally within the hypocone. Four large irregular chloroplasts are equally distributed in the epicone and hypocone. The mean length of cultured cells was 13.6±1.2 μm (range 11.0-15.8 μm) and the mean width was 10.0±1.1 μm (range 8.0-12 μm) (n=50). Cell abundance of K. veneficum population was low, in the region 1000-1600 cells L-1, along a transect in the East China Sea on April 19, 2011, when the water column was not distinctly stratified. Cell densities reached 3×107 cells L-1 along the same transect on May 13 2011 when the bloom occurred in the 10 m layer surface and the water column was distinctly stratified. Cell abundances therefore appear closely related to water column stratification.

  19. Tidal changes in the Yellow/East China Sea caused by the rapid sea-level rise during the Holocene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KatsutoUehara

    2001-01-01

    Two-dimensional numerical simulations of M2 and K1 tides were performed in order to assess the effect of the rapid sea level change occurring during the last 20000 years in the Yellow/East China Sea (YECS). Results were interpreted by utilizing the difference of the dynamical nature inherited in diurnal and semi-diurnal tides. M2 tides at the coastal region south of Korea exceeded 2 m in amplitude when the sea-level was low, and decreased as the water depth become larger. In the Yellow Sea, on the other hand, tidal amplitudes were small at the low sea-level stages and increased along with the sea-level rise. The way of the increase was not monotonic but with fluctuations, which was due to the movement of the standing wave nodes. An additional experiment with closing the Taiwan Strait revealed that changing the sill depth of the strait not only affects the M2 tides around the southeastern Chinese coast, but also modifies the tides around the southwestern coast of Korea. This result recall us the significa

  20. Remote sensing model and dynamic mechanism for seasonal changes of the euphotic depth in the East China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Guosheng; YANG Shilin; LIANG Qiang

    2003-01-01

    Based on remote sensing data and models, spatial distribution of the monthly euphotic depth in the East China Sea in 1998 has been obtained. The character of the seasonal changes of the euphotic depth is summarized, and the dynamic mechanism of the key influencing factors is analyzed. The results indicate that the controlling factors of the seasonal changes of euphotic depth in the East China Sea are the seasonal changes of temperature, diluted water from the Yangtze River, the ocean currents and the front process of different water masses.

  1. Clay minerals and geochemistry of the bottom sediments in the northwestern East China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Clay minerals of 34 sediments collected from the northwestern continental shelf of the East China Sea have been determined by X-ray diffraction analysis. The clay mineral distribution is mainly controlled by the sediment source and the dominant circulation pattern. The predominant clay mineral in our study area is illite comprising more than 67% of the whole clay fraction. The highest concentration of illite (>68%) is found in the southeastern offshore parts beyond the reach of terrigenous input from the Jeju Island. It means that these illites are largely transported by the Kuroshio Current from the South China Sea (SCS). Smectite is highly concentrated in the northwest middle part and in the outer-shelf mud patch. It seems to be due to the high supply of smectite transported from China where fine-grained sediments are discharged from modern and ancient Huanghe (Yellow) River. The relatively high abundant kaolinite is likely derived from the Changjiang (Yangtze) River via the Taiwan Warm Current. In contrast,large amounts of chlorite and high chlorite/kaolinite ratios occur in the northwestern area, reflecting the transportation by the Yellow Sea Coastal Current from the southern Yellow Sea. The discrimination diagrams clearly show that the sediments in the northwestern East China Sea are ultimately sourced from Chinese rivers, especially from the Huanghe River, whereas the sediment in the northeast part might come from the Jeju Island. The muddy sediments of the Changjiang River's submerged delta have much lower 87Sr/86Sr ratios (0.7162-0.7180) than those of the Shandong Peninsular mud wedge (0.7216-0.7249),which are supposed to be originated from the Huanghe River, suggesting the distribution pattern of 87Sr/86Sr ratios as a new tracer to discriminate the provenance of shelf sediments in the study area. The 87Sr/86Sr ratios of the outer-shelf muddy sediments ranged from 0.7169 to 0.7216 in a wide range and was between those of the Huanghe River and Changjiang

  2. Three-dimensional calculations of the currents in the Huanghai Sea and East China Sea during June of 1999

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huiqun Wang; Yaochu Yuan; Yonggang Liu; Mingyu Zhou

    2003-01-01

    Based on the wind and hydrographic data obtained by R/V Xiangyanghong 14 duringJune of 1999, the currents in the Huanghai Sea and East China Sea are computed by the three dimen-sional non-linear diagnostic, semidiagnostic models and prognostic in the σ coordinate. The computed re-sults show that the density and velocity fields and so on have been adjusted when time is about 3 days,namely the solution of semidiagnostic calculation is obtained. In the northwest part of the computed re-gion, the Huanghai coastal current flows southeastward, and then it flows out the computed region southof Cheju Island. In the west side of the southern part of the computed region, there is other current,which is mainly inshore branch of Taiwan Warm Current, and it flows cyclonically and turns to thenortheast. In the region north of the above two currents, there is a cyclonic eddy southwest of Cheju Is-land, and it has characteristics of high density and low temperature. There is an offshore branch of Tai-wan Warm Current in the west side of the Kuroshio, and it makes a cyclonic meander, then flows north-eastward. The Kuroshio in the East China Sea is stronger, and flows northeastward. Its maximum hori-zontal velocity is 108.5 cm/s at the sea surface, which is located at the northern boundary, and it is106.1 cm/s at 30 m level, 102.2 cm/s at 75 m level and 85.1 cm/s at 200 m level, respectively, whichare all located at the southern boundary. Comparing the results of diagnostic calculation with those ofsemidiagnostic and prognostic calculations indicates that the horizontal velocity field agrees qualitatively,and there is a little difference between them in quantity. The comparison between the computed veloci-ties and the obeered velocities at the mooring station show that they agree each other.

  3. Phosphorus speciation and distribution in surface sediments of the Yellow Sea and East China Sea and potential impacts on ecosystem

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Guodong; LIU Sumei

    2015-01-01

    For better understanding the phosphorus (P) cycle and its impacts on one of the most important fishing grounds and pressures on the marine ecosystem in the Yellow Sea (YS) and East China Sea (ECS), it is essential to distinguish the contents of different P speciation in sediments and have the knowledge of its distribution and bioavailability. In this study, the modified SEDEX procedure was employed to quantify the different forms of P in sediments. The contents of phosphorus fractions in surface sediments were 0.20–0.89μmol/g for exchangeable-P (Exch-P), 0.37–2.86μmol/g for Fe-bound P (Fe-P), 0.61–3.07μmol/g for authigenic Ca-P (ACa-P), 6.39–13.73μmol/g for detrital-P (DAP) and 0.54–10.06μmol/g for organic P (OP). The distribution of Exch-P, Fe-P and OP seemed to be similar. The concentrations of Exch-P, Fe-P and OP were slightly higher in the Yellow Sea than that in the East China Sea, and low concentrations could be observed in the middle part of the ECS and southwest off Cheju Island. The distribution of ACa-P was different from those of Exch-P, Fe-P and OP. DAP was the major fraction of sedimentary P in the research region. The sum of Exch-P, Fe-P and OP may be thought to be potentially bioavailable P in the research region. The percentage of bioavailable P in TP ranged from 13%to 61%. Bioavailable P burial flux that appeared regional differences was affected by sedimentation rates, porosity and bioavailable P content, and the distribution of bioavailable P burial flux were almost the same as that of TP burial flux.

  4. Spatial variations in the Kuroshio nutrient transport from the East China Sea to south of Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Y. Guo

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Based on absolute geostrophic velocity calculated from repeated hydrographic data of 39 cruises from 2000 to 2009 and nitrate concentrations measured at the same sections from 1964 to 2011, we obtained temporally averaged nitrate flux (the product of velocity and nitrate concentration and nitrate transport (integration of flux over a section through 4 sections along the Kuroshio path from the East China Sea (sections PN and TK to south of Japan (sections ASUKA and 137E. In addition, we examined section OK east of the Ryukyu Islands in order to understand the contribution of Ryukyu Current to the Kuroshio nutrient transport south of Japan. The mean nitrate flux shows a subsurface maximum core with a value of 10, 10, 11, 11, and 6 mol m–2 s–1 at sections PN, TK, ASUKA, 137E, and OK, respectively. The depth of subsurface maximum core changes among five sections and is approximately 400, 500, 500, 400, and 800 m at sections PN, TK, ASUKA, 137E, and OK respectively. The mean downstream nitrate transport is 199.3, 176.3, 909.2, 1385.5, and 341.2 kmol m–1 at sections PN, TK, ASUKA, 137E, and OK respectively. The nutrient transports at these sections suggest the presence of Kuroshio nutrient stream from its upstream region to downstream. The deep current structure of Ryukyu Current (section OK makes it contribute more nitrate transport than the Kuroshio in the East China Sea (section TK to the Kuroshio south of Japan. In addition, the positive difference between the downstream nitrate transport through section ASUKA and the sum of nitrate transports through sections TK and OK, as well as the positive difference of downstream nitrate transport between sections 137E and ASUKA, suggest that the Kuroshio recirculation significantly intensifies the downstream (eastward nitrate transport by the Kuroshio.

  5. BEHAVIOR OF THE CHANGJIANG DILUTED WATER IN THE EAST CHINA SEA OBSERVED WITH SATELLITE TRACKING DRIFTER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syful Anas

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The Changjiang River is the largest river in China with an average discharge of 9x1011 m3 /year . The Changjiang river supplies about 80% of total discharge of fresh water from rivers around the Yellow Sea, East China Sea and Bohai Sea. Its monthly mean transport has a large seasonal variation from 103 m3s-1 in January to 4.8x 104 m3s-1 in July around an annual mean of 3 x104 m3s-1 , and large inter annual variation in the annual mean from 2,2x 103 to 3,5 x 103 m3s-1 during the 19-year period from 1970 to 1988 (Yanagi, 1994 . The East China Sea Current, associated with the Changjiang discharge, flows southward along the Fujian and the Zhejiang Coast of China in winter and Northeastward to the Cheju island in summer, which forms thin low salinity plume called Changjiang Diluted Water (CDW in summer (Breadsley. et al , 1983, 1985; Hu, 1994, Guan ,1994.CDW moves differently in season. It moves southward in winter and eastward in summer according to its salinity distribution. The relation between wind and movement of the low salinity water also has been suggested in many ways.Generally all of drifter moved northeastward at first, then after 10 days each drifter moved to different sites. Each drifter moving though velocities is about 0.1 m/s and 0.2 m/s. Most of drifters were generally moving to northeastward to the right of the wind direction at these events. It indicates that the sudden changes of drifters trajectory are caused by abrupt changes of winds.Temporal variation in salinity gradually increase during the drifters were in the moved eastward . The salinity rapidly increase during the typhoon passage. Before and after the salinity rapidly increase during typhoon passage, it was mostly constant or very gentle.The vertical velocity generated by wind just after deployment drifters for ten days in drifter deployment in 2007 was about 10-5 – 10-6 ms-1. The vertical velocity during typhoon passage on August 2007 was larger than on passed the

  6. First record of Thalassiosira curviseriata Takano (Bacillariophyta) and its bloom in the East China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Wenling; LI Yang; GAO Yahui

    2008-01-01

    A bloom caused by a diatom,Thalassiosira curviseriata Takano (Bacillariophyta),is recorded in the East China Sea for the first time in China during a red tide investigation cruise (MC2005 - 2) from 27 March to 12 April 2005.This bloom was developed with the competition of Chaetoceros debilis and Skeletonema spp.The highest cell density of T.curviseriata,which has reached 1.27 × 106 cells/dm3,was found in the surface and middle water layers of Stss ZD,ZB in the East China Sea (27.22°~29.48°N,121.53°~ 122.98°E)in early spring in 2005.During the blooming period of T.curviseriata,the population with high cell density was found in the water area with temperature of 10 ~ 15 ℃ and salinity of 29.0 ~ 33.5.The percentage of the predominant spe-cies,T.curviseriata,has reached 95.8% of total diatom cells at one time in the middle water layer.The morphological character-istics of T.curviseriata,were observed with light microscope (LM) and transmission electronic microscope (TEM).The cells are 5.0 ~ 12.6 μm in diameter,connecting each other by mucilaginous thread to form spiral and curved chains.Description and LM and TEM images of T.curviseriata are presented.T.curviseriata is ecologically characterized by eurythermy and euryhalinity,and its population variation is affected mainly by silicate,the ratios of phosphorus to silicon and nitrogen to sihcon.

  7. THE INTRUSION AND INFLUENCES OF INTRASEASONAL LONG ROSSBY WAVES IN THE EAST CHINA SEA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Xiao-pei; WU De-xing; LAN Jian

    2004-01-01

    The analysis of sea level data from tide stations and ocean general circulation model(OGCM)shows that the intraseasonal long Rossby wave results in the intraseasonal variations of Kuroshio axis and transport in the upper reaches of the Kuroshio in the East China Sea(ECS).Due to the transport modulation induced by Ryukyu Islands,the intraseasonal variation is very weak in the lower reaches of the Kuroshio in the ECS.A two-layer model reveals the relation among Kuroshio frontal unstable wave with topography,transport and the axis position of the Kuroshio,from which we can infer that the intrusion of intraseasonal long Rossby wave may stimulate the Kuroshio frontal unstable wave in the upper reaches of the Kuroshio in the ECS.The altimeter data also shows that the sea level anomaly resulting from intraseasonal long Rossby wave could pass the channel between Taiwan and Ryukyu Islands and propagate northeastward in accord with the Kuroshio frontal unstable wave.However,the sea level anomalies passing through the gaps of Ryukyu Islands are relative weak and have negligible effects on the Kuroshio variation.

  8. Analysis of seasonal variation of water masses in East China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Jifeng; Yin, Baoshu; Zhang, Qilong; Yang, Dezhou; Xu, Zhenhua

    2014-07-01

    Seasonal variations of water masses in the East China Sea (ECS) and adjacent areas are investigated, based on historical data of temperature and salinity ( T-S). Dynamic and thermodynamic mechanisms that affect seasonal variations of some dominant water masses are discussed, with reference to meteorological data. In the ECS above depth 600 m, there are eight water masses in summer but only five in winter. Among these, Kuroshio Surface Water (KSW), Kuroshio Intermediate Water (KIW), ECS Surface Water (ECSSW), Continental Coastal Water (CCW), and Yellow Sea Surface Water (YSSW) exist throughout the year. Kuroshio Subsurface Water (KSSW), ECS Deep Water (ECSDW), and Yellow Sea Bottom Water (YSBW) are all seasonal water masses, occurring from May through October. The CCW, ECSSW and KSW all have significant seasonal variations, both in their horizontal and vertical extents and their T-S properties. Wind stress, the Kuroshio and its branch currents, and coastal currents are dynamic factors for seasonal variation in spatial extent of the CCW, KSW, and ECSSW, whereas sea surface heat and freshwater fluxes are thermodynamic factors for seasonal variations of T-S properties and thickness of these water masses. In addition, the CCW is affected by river runoff and ECSSW by the CCW and KSW.

  9. Numerical Simulation of Wintertime Mesoscale Eddies in the East China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈敏; 侯一筠; 方国洪

    2003-01-01

    A POM based three-dimension baroclinic prognostic model in σ-coordinate was established to simulate the eddies in the East China Seas wintertime circulation, considering the topography, inflow and outflow on the open boundary, Changjiang runoff, heat, flux, and wind stress on the sea surface. The model results showed that three branches separate from the Kuroshio flow toward the interior of the Yellow Sea, and form three eddies respectively. The middle eddy is centered at 124°37′E,37°00′N,the southern eddy is centered at 124°00′E,35°30′N. The large cyclonic eddy centered at 125°06′E,30°30′N and located southwest of Cheju Island is a closed structure formed by the northeastward flowing Taiwan Warm Current, northwestward flowing Yellow Sea Warm Current and southward flowing coastal current. The Kuroshio intrusion engenders an eddy west of Kyushu Island of Japan. The branching of the Kuroshio is the direct dynamic cause of the formation of this large eddy. Moreover, both the topographic influence and the northward wind prevailing in winter affect the eddy's formation obviously.

  10. How economic, strategic, and domestic factors shape patterns of conflict and cooperation in the East China Sea dispute

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Shea, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Despite frequent talk of conflict and even war, economic and strategic factors suggest that the Sino-Japanese dispute over the East China Sea will not erupt into hot conflict, at least for the time being. However, for domestic reasons overt cooperation remains a distant prospect....

  11. Quaternary transgressive and regressive depositional sequences in the East China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIUZhenxia; YINPing; XIONGYingqian; S.Beme; A.Trentesaux; LIChaoxin

    2003-01-01

    Based on the interpretation more than 4000 km sparker single channel seismic profiles and the comparison with Borehole DZQ4 on the outer shelf of the East China Sea (ECS),the seismic sequences,sedimentary facies and paleo-sedimentary environment are studied to establish the chronology framework and discuss the Quaternary transgressive and regressive sequences of the ECS shelf as well as their response to glacio-eustatic sea-level changes.The sea level of the ECS fluctuated with global climate changes in the Quaternary.During the sea level rise,the pacific tidal wave impacted actively on the ECS continental shelf and the reciprocating tidal currents in NW-SE direction formed tidal sand ridges,which represent large transgressive deposits visible on the seismic profiles.In response to sea level fall,the Yangtze River deltas prograded seaward and built massive subaqueous deltas to form regressive sequences on the seismic profiles.Alternative transgression and regression sequences were vertically distributed on the ECS shelf with the frequent eustacy in the Quaternary.The gentle slope of the ECS shelf makes it possible for the coastline to migrate hundreds of kilometers forth and back on the shelf because of tens of meters sea level changes,in the meanwhile,the Yangtze River discharged large amounts of sediments into the ECS resulting in large-scale subaqueous deltas and tidal sand ridges.There have developed 3 stages of tidal sand ridges and 4 stages of deltas on the ECS shelf since oxygen isotope stage 8.

  12. The Possible Physical Barrier and Coastal Dispersal Strategy for Japanese Grenadier Anchovy, Coilia nasus in the East China Sea and Yellow Sea: Evidence from AFLP Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Qiang Han

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In order to ascertain the taxonomic status of the Ariake Sea population of Japanese grenadier anchovy, Coilia nasus, and assess the contemporary possible genetic barrier between the west and east coastal waters of the East China Sea, we used amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP markers to detect the genetic structure of C. nasus, in the East China Sea and Yellow Sea. Eighty-one individuals of C. nasus were collected from five locations and 12 individuals of Coilia mystus were sampled from the Yangtze River Estuary. A total of 371 loci were detected by five primer combinations, 310 of which were polymorphic (83.56%. Analysis of molecular variation (AMOVA and pairwise fixation index (FST revealed significant genetic differentiation among five samples, indicating limited gene flow among populations. The dendrogram for populations by neighbor-joining (NJ cluster analysis provided evidence of a clear relationship between genetic and geographic patterns, supporting significant genetic differentiation between China coastal populations and Ariake Sea populations. Compared to the genetic divergence between C. nasus and C. mystus, the level of genetic differentiation between China and the Ariake Sea populations of C. nasus is obvious below the species level, indicating isolated populations of C. nasus in the Ariake Sea. Isolation by distance analysis revealed that direct ocean distance with deep-water at the continental slope and high salinity between west and east coastal waters of the East China Sea served as major physical barrier to C. nasus, supporting the coastal dispersal pattern in this estuarine species, and rejecting offshore dispersal strategy.

  13. The possible physical barrier and coastal dispersal strategy for Japanese grenadier anchovy, Coilia nasus in the East China Sea and Yellow Sea: evidence from AFLP markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Zhi-Qiang; Han, Gang; Wang, Zhi-Yong; Gao, Tian-Xiang

    2015-02-03

    In order to ascertain the taxonomic status of the Ariake Sea population of Japanese grenadier anchovy, Coilia nasus, and assess the contemporary possible genetic barrier between the west and east coastal waters of the East China Sea, we used amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers to detect the genetic structure of C. nasus, in the East China Sea and Yellow Sea. Eighty-one individuals of C. nasus were collected from five locations and 12 individuals of Coilia mystus were sampled from the Yangtze River Estuary. A total of 371 loci were detected by five primer combinations, 310 of which were polymorphic (83.56%). Analysis of molecular variation (AMOVA) and pairwise fixation index (FST) revealed significant genetic differentiation among five samples, indicating limited gene flow among populations. The dendrogram for populations by neighbor-joining (NJ) cluster analysis provided evidence of a clear relationship between genetic and geographic patterns, supporting significant genetic differentiation between China coastal populations and Ariake Sea populations. Compared to the genetic divergence between C. nasus and C. mystus, the level of genetic differentiation between China and the Ariake Sea populations of C. nasus is obvious below the species level, indicating isolated populations of C. nasus in the Ariake Sea. Isolation by distance analysis revealed that direct ocean distance with deep-water at the continental slope and high salinity between west and east coastal waters of the East China Sea served as major physical barrier to C. nasus, supporting the coastal dispersal pattern in this estuarine species, and rejecting offshore dispersal strategy.

  14. Effect of oceanic current on typhoon-wave modeling in the East China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cui Hong; He Hai-Lun; Liu Xiao-Hui; Li Yi

    2012-01-01

    We use the WAVEWATCH-Ⅲ model to quantify the effect of oceanic current on typhoon-wave modeling in the East-China-Sea (ECS).Typhoons Jelawat and Saomai in the autumn of 2000 are hindcasted.The oceanic currents in the ECS are mainly constituted of Kuroshio and typhoon-generated currents.The results show distinguishable differences in wave height and wave period under the typhoon conditions.The oceanic current causes the maximum differences,of up to a 0.5 m significant wave height and a 1 s mean wave period.Comparisons between typhoons Jelawat and Saomai show the dependence of the current effect on the typhoon characteristics.

  15. Evaluation of Petroleum System in Xihu Depression, East China Sea Shelf Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    According to the theory of petroleum system and the characteristics of petroleum geology, the Xihu depression in the East China Sea shelf basin is divided into four petroleum systems: the Pinghu Formation as source rock and the Huagang Formation as reservoir rock, the Huagang Formation as source rock and reservoir rock, the Paleocene as source rock and the burial-hill as reservoir rock, and the Miocene as source rock and reservoir rock. The system with the Pinghu Formation as source rock and the Huagang Formation as reservoir rock is the most important one in the depression, which has high hydrocarbon generation and accumulation efficiency and is the most important object to hydrocarbon exploration at present.

  16. Free polyamine content during algal bloom succession in the East China Sea in spring 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yan; Zhao, Weihong; Li, Caiyan; Miao, Hui

    2017-01-01

    We measured the concentrations and distribution of major polyamines (spermine, putrescine and spermidine) in seawater during successive spring algal blooms in an area of frequent harmful blooms in the East China Sea. Spermine, putrescine, and spermidine concentrations were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography and ranged from 1-64, 7-81, and 0-19 nmol/L. Spermine was present at the highest concentrations, followed by putrescine and spermidine. In late April, when a diatom bloom dominated by Skeletonema costatum dispersed, polyamine concentrations increased, presumably as a result of diatom decomposition. In early May, when a dinoflagellate bloom dominated by Prorocentrum donghaiense occurred, the polyamine concentration decreased from the level seen in late April. The abundant polyamines that decomposed and were released during the diatom bloom in late April may have promoted the growth of P. donghaiense, resulting in its dominance.

  17. Responses of phytoplankton community to the input of different aerosols in the East China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, X.; Chen, Y.; Wang, B.; Ma, Q. W.; Wang, F. J.

    2016-07-01

    Atmospheric deposition can affect marine phytoplankton by supplying macronutrients and trace elements. We conducted mesocosm experiments by adding aerosols with different composition (dominated by mineral dust, biomass burning and high Cu, and secondary aerosol, respectively) to the surface seawater of the East China Sea. Chlorophyll a concentrations were found to be the highest and lowest after adding aerosols containing the highest Fe and dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN), respectively. The relative abundance of Haptophyceae increased significantly after adding mineral dust, whereas diatom, Dinophyceae and Cryptophyceae reached the maximum accompanied with the highest DIN. Our results suggest that Fe may be more important than DIN in promoting primary productivity in the sampled seawater. The input of mineral dust and anthropogenic aerosols may result in distinct changes of phytoplankton community structure.

  18. A Study on Bottom Friction Coefficient in the Bohai, Yellow, and East China Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daosheng Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The adjoint tidal model based on the theory of inverse problem has been applied to investigate the effect of bottom friction coefficient (BFC on the tidal simulation. Using different schemes of BFC containing the constant, different constant in different subdomain, depth-dependent form, and spatial distribution obtained from data assimilation, the M2 constituent in the Bohai, Yellow, and East China Sea (BYECS is simulated by assimilating TOPEX/Poseidon altimeter data, respectively. The simulated result with spatially varying BFC obtained from data assimilation is better than others. Results and analysis of BFC in BYECS indicate that spatially varying BFC obtained from data assimilation is the best fitted one; meanwhile it could improve the accuracy in the simulation of M2 constituent. Through the analysis of the best fitted one, new empirical formulas of BFC in BYECS are developed with which the commendable simulated results of M2 constituent in BYECS are obtained.

  19. Evolution of nonlinear internal waves in the East and South China Seas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Antony K.; Chang, Y. Steve; Hsu, Ming-K.; Liang, Nai K.

    1998-04-01

    Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) images from ERS-I have been used to study the characteristics of internal waves northeast and south of Taiwan in the East China Sea, and east of Hainan Island in the South China Sea. Rank-ordered packets of internal solitons propagating shoreward from the edge of the continental shelf were observed in the SAR images. On the basis of the assumption of a semidiurnal tidal origin, the wave speed can be estimated and is consistent with the internal wave theory. By using the SAR images and hydrographic data, internal waves of elevation have been identified in shallow water by a thicker mixed layer as compared with the bottom layer on the continental shelf. The generation mechanism includes the influences of the tide and the Kuroshio intrusion across the continental shelf for the formations of elevation internal waves. The effects of water depth on the evolution of solitons and wave packets are modeled by the nonlinear Kortweg-deVries (KdV) type equation and linked to satellite image observations. The numerical calculations of internal wave evolution on the continental shelf have been performed and compared with the SAR observations. For a case of depression waves in deep water, the solitons first disintegrate into dispersive wave trains and then evolve to a packet of elevation waves in the shallow water area after they pass through a "turning point" of approximately equal layer depths that has been observed in the SAR image and simulated by the numerical model. The importance of the dissipation effect in the coastal area is also discussed and demonstrated.

  20. Study on the storm surges induced by cold waves in the Northern East China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Dongxue; Hou, Yijun; Li, Jian; Liu, Yahao

    2016-08-01

    Cold wave, a kind of severe weather system, can bring strong wind and induce significant sea level rise to the Northern East China Sea. Based on CFSR data, the study shows the monthly distributions of invaded days and the spatiotemporal distributions of cold-wave wind direction and wind speed. A three-dimensional numerical model (ROMS) was developed to study storm surges induced by cold waves. The role of wind direction, wind speed, wind duration, extratropical cyclone and tide-surge interaction is investigated by conducting different sensitivity experiments. The results indicate that storm surges mainly happen at the coasts perpendicular to the wind directions. Surge range and time lag are related to the geometry of the basin and the continental shelf. The response of the sea-level fluctuations to cold wave indicates that there is a positive correlation between crests and wind speed, a negative correlation between troughs and wind speed, but no obvious correlations to wind duration. Coupled weather cold waves, which yield a larger range and a multi-peak structure of surges, can be classified according to cold wave tracks and extratropical cyclones. The tide-surge interaction has an obvious and different effect on the magnitudes and phases of storm surges for different tidal stages.

  1. Establishment of trophic continuum in the food web of the Yellow Sea and East China Sea ecosystem: Insight from carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAI Deling; LI Hongyan; TANG Qisheng; SUN Yao

    2005-01-01

    Stable carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios (δ13C and δ15N) are used to study the trophic structure of food web in the Yellow Sea and East China Sea ecosystem. The trophic continuum of pelagic food web from phytoplankton to top preyer was elementarily established, and a trophic structure diagram in the Yellow Sea and East China Sea was outlined in combination with carbon isotopic data of benthic organisms, which is basically consistent with and makes some improvements on the simplified Yellow Sea food web and the trophic structure diagram drawn based on the biomass of main resource population during 1985―1986. This result indicates that the stable isotope method is a potential useful means for further studying the complete marine food web trophic continuum from viruses to top predators and food web stability.

  2. Particulate nitrogen and phosphorus in the East China Sea and its adjacent Kuroshio waters and evaluation of budgets for the East China Sea Shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Jiulong; Song, Jinming; Yuan, Huamao; Li, Xuegang; Li, Ning; Duan, Liqin

    2016-12-01

    Nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) in suspended particles are important to the cycles of N and P in marine ecosystem. Suspended particles were collected from the East China Sea (ECS) and its adjacent Kuroshio waters to investigate the composing and distribution characteristics of particulate inorganic and organic nitrogen and phosphorus (PIN, PIP, PON and POP, respectively). The particulate N and P concentrations were fairly low in the Kuroshio water but much higher in the ECS water, especially in nearshore waters. PON and PIP were the dominant forms of particulate N and P, with an exception that POP was the major form of particulate P in the Kuroshio upper water. The regime of particulate N and P in the ECS was strongly influenced by riverine input, oceanic input, ocean current and photosynthesis. Among them, PON and POP were mainly from biogenic source, while PIN and PIP were originated from biogenic and external sources. And sedimentation, remineralization and resuspension were important influencing factors for the vertical distributions of particulate N and P. The budgets of particulate N and P for the ECS Shelf during rainy season (May-October) were also evaluated. The total particulate N and P (TPN and TPP) fluxes from oceanic input are respectively 10.99 and 2.49 times of those from riverine input. And oceanic input contains more POP, which is liable to be decomposed into phosphate, than riverine input. Furthermore, particulate nutrients fluxes from photosynthesis are the overriding source of total influxes for the ECS Shelf, accounting for 90.93% of TPN and 89.37% of TPP influxes. As for the photosynthetic fixed N and P, only 6.17% and 7.60% of them can reach the seafloor, while up to 87.73% and 60.06% of them are likely to be remineralized. The POP-rich oceanic input and the intensive photosynthesis and remineralization processes play important roles in the biogeochemical cycles of N and P in the ECS.

  3. Impacts of South East Biomass Burning on local air quality in South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wai-man Yeung, Irene; Fat Lam, Yun; Eniolu Morakinyo, Tobi

    2016-04-01

    Biomass burning is a significant source of carbon monoxide and particulate matter, which is not only contribute to the local air pollution, but also regional air pollution. This study investigated the impacts of biomass burning emissions from Southeast Asia (SEA) as well as its contribution to the local air pollution in East and South China Sea, including Hong Kong and Taiwan. Three years (2012 - 2014) of the Hybrid Single Particle Lagrangian-Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT) with particles dispersion analyses using NCEP (Final) Operational Global Analysis data (FNL) data (2012 - 2014) were analyzed to track down all possible long-range transport from SEA with a sinking motion that worsened the surface air quality (tropospheric downwash from the free troposphere). The major sources of SEA biomass burning emissions were first identified using high fire emissions from the Global Fire Emission Database (GFED), followed by the HYSPLIT backward trajectory dispersion modeling analysis. The analyses were compared with the local observation data from Tai Mo Shan (1,000 msl) and Tap Mun (60 msl) in Hong Kong, as well as the data from Lulin mountain (2,600 msl) in Taiwan, to assess the possible impacts of SEA biomass burning on local air quality. The correlation between long-range transport events from the particles dispersion results and locally observed air quality data indicated that the background concentrations of ozone, PM2.5 and PM10 at the surface stations were enhanced by 12 μg/m3, 4 μg/m3 and 7 μg/m3, respectively, while the long-range transport contributed to enhancements of 4 μg/m3, 4 μg/m3 and 8 μg/m3 for O3, PM2.5 and PM10, respectively at the lower free atmosphere.

  4. Exploitable wave energy assessment based on ERA-Interim reanalysis data-A case study in the East China Sea and the South China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WAN Yong; ZHANG Jie; MENG Junmin; WANG Jing

    2015-01-01

    Wave energy resources assessment is a very important process before the exploitation and utilization of the wave energy. At present, the existing wave energy assessment is focused on theoretical wave energy conditions for interesting areas. While the evaluation for exploitable wave energy conditions is scarcely ever performed. Generally speaking, the wave energy are non-exploitable under a high sea state and a lower sea state which must be ignored when assessing wave energy. Aiming at this situation, a case study of the East China Sea and the South China Sea is performed. First, a division basis between the theoretical wave energy and the exploitable wave energy is studied. Next, based on recent 20 a ERA-Interim wave field data, some indexes including the spatial and temporal distribution of wave power density, a wave energy exploitable ratio, a wave energy level, a wave energy stability, a total wave energy density, the seasonal variation of the total wave energy and a high sea condition frequency are calculated. And then the theoretical wave energy and the exploitable wave energy are compared each other;the distributions of the exploitable wave energy are assessed and a regional division for exploitable wave energy resources is carried out;the influence of the high sea state is evaluated. The results show that considering collapsing force of the high sea state and the utilization efficiency for wave energy, it is determined that the energy by wave with a significant wave height being not less 1 m or not greater than 4 m is the exploitable wave energy. Compared with the theoretical wave energy, the average wave power density, energy level, total wave energy density and total wave energy of the exploitable wave energy decrease obviously and the stability enhances somewhat. Pronounced differences between the theoretical wave energy and the exploitable wave energy are present. In the East China Sea and the South China Sea, the areas of an abundant and stable

  5. Simulation of the extreme waves generated by typhoon Bolaven (1215) in the East China Sea and Yellow Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JUN Ki Cheon; JEONG Weon Mu; CHOI Jin Yong; PARK Kwang Soon; JUNG Kyung Tae; KIM Mee Kyung; CHAE Jang Won; QIAO Fangli

    2015-01-01

    Record-breaking high waves occurred during the passage of the typhoon Bolaven (1215) (TYB) in the East China Sea (ECS) and Yellow Sea (YS) although its intensity did not reach the level of a super typhoon. Winds and directional wave measurements were made using a range of in-situ instruments mounted on an ocean tower and buoys. In order to understand how such high waves with long duration occurred, analyses have been made through measurement and numerical simulations. TYB winds were generated using the TC96 typhoon wind model with the best track data calibrated with the measurements. And then the wind fields were blended with the reanalyzed synoptic-scale wind fields for a wave model. Wave fields were simulated using WAM4.5 with adjustment ofCd for gust of winds and bottom friction for the study area. Thus the accuracy of simulations is considerably enhanced, and the computed results are also in better agreement with measured data than before. It is found that the extremely high waves evolved as a result of the superposition of distant large swells and high wind seas generated by strong winds from the front/right quadrant of the typhoon track. As the typhoon moved at a speed a little slower than the dominant wave group velocity in a consistent direction for two days, the wave growth was significantly enhanced by strong wind input in an extended fetch and non-linear interaction.

  6. Current status of small yellow croaker resources in the southern Yellow Sea and the East China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Longshan; LIU Zunlei; JIANG Yazhou; HUANG Wei; GAO Tianxiang

    2011-01-01

    We used data from bottom trawl surveys to study the factors influencing the abundance of small yellow croaker, Larimichthys polyactis, in the southern Yellow Sea (SYS) and the East China Sea (ECS). The resource density index (RDI) was generally higher in summer and autumn than in spring and winter. RDIs were also significantly greater in the SYS than in the ECS in summer and autumn. The bottom water salinity and depth of spatial distribution of small yellow croaker was similar between the two areas in summer, but different in other seasons. Regression analysis suggested that environmental factors such as bottom water temperature, salinity, and depth influenced the RDIs in summer in these areas.Growth condition factor (GCF) in the two areas varied monthly and the croaker in the SYS grew more slowly than those in the ECS. This was likely due to the low bottom temperature of the Yellow Sea Cold Water Mass in summer and autumn or to higher human fishing pressure in the ECS. To ensure sustainable utilization of the croaker stocks in these regions, we recommend reducing the fishing intensity, increasing the cod-end mesh size, and improving the protection of juveniles.

  7. Optimum selection on bridge erection with floating crane in East China Sea Bridge and Hangzhou Bay Bridge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shunquan Qin; Pu Zhou; Youheng Hua

    2004-01-01

    @@ Introduction With the rapid development of China′s economy, many bridges will be built over the Chinese coastal waters of Pacific Ocean. Among them, construction of East China Sea Bridge has been commenced in June 2001, and will be completed at the end of 2005, Hangzhou Bay Bridge was also started to construct in June 2003(Fig. 1). These two ultralong bridges are designed as twin expressway bridges standing side by side each carries a 3-lane one-way carriageway. The total width is 31.5m and 33.0m respectively. East China Sea Bridge starts from Nanhui District, Shanghai and extends to the Yangshan Deep Water Port Area, which is located at one of the Qiqu Islands. The total length of the bridge is about 31.0 km, in which 25 km are on the sea, and 22 km is in the unnavigable region. Hangzhou Bay Bridge across the mouth of Qiantang River.

  8. 宽鳃鮟鱇属一新种%A NEW SPECIES OF THE GENUS SLADENIA (PISCES, LOPHIIDAE) FROM THE EAST CHINA SEA AND THE SOUTH CHINA SEA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    倪勇; 伍汉霖; 李生

    2012-01-01

    A new lophiid anglerfish of the deep water genus Sladenia is described based on four specimens collected from the East China Sea and the South China Sea during the period from 1980 to 1982.Sladenia Regan ( 1908 ) is a genus of lophiid anglerfish with rounded rather than depressed head, and compressed rather than depressed tail; nasal sacs not constricted at the base; very long pseudobranchia; humeral, subopercular, quadrate, parietal and articular spines absent; epiotic and interopercular spines low and rounded; vomerine teeth larger than palatine teeth; illicial bone and second dorsal spine inserting very close together on illicial pterygiophore; third or third and fourth dorsal spines invisible, hiding under the skin of post-cephalic portion; and smooth ridge on frontal bones anterior to eyes and lateral to illicial pterygiophore.There were only four specimens, identified as 3 species, I. E., S. Gardineri Regan, 1908, S. Remiger Smith et Radcliffe, 1912 and S. Shaefersi Caruso et Bullis 1976, belonging to the genus Sladenia in the world before 1976. During the period from 1980 to 1982, the RV "Dongfang" and the RV "Nanfeng" of the East China Sea Fisheries Institute and the South China Sea Fisheries Research Institute respectively, completed a survey of the deep water fish fauna of the East and South China Seas. Four separate Chinese specimens of the rare lophiid anglerfish genus Sladenia were collected. With detailed analysis of the four rare specimens, it was recognized that they should belong to the same species, and also a new species named as Sladenia zhui.%20世纪70年代以前,全世界已知宽鳃鮟鱇属Sladenia Regan( 1908)鱼类仅有3种.1980~1982年期间,东海水产研究所“东方”号和南海水产研究所“南锋”号调查船分别在东海和南海的大陆架渔场调查时,共采集到4尾珍稀的深海鮟鱇鱼类.经研究,认为这4尾标本是1新种,定名为朱氏宽鳃鮟鱇Sladenia zhui sp.nov..

  9. Monthly sea surface temperature records reconstructed by δ18O of reef-building coral in the east of Hainan Island,South China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE; Xuexian(何学贤); LIU; Dunyi(刘敦一); PENG; Zicheng(彭子成); LIU; Weiguo(刘卫国)

    2002-01-01

    Stable oxygen isotopic compositions of a coral colony of Porites lutea obtained on a core allowed the reconstruction of a 56-a (1943-1998) proxy record of the sea surface temperatures. This coral δ18O data are from the east of Hainan Island water (22°20′N, 110°39′E), South China Sea. The relationship between δ18O in the skeletal aragonite carbonate and the sea surface temperature (SST) is SST = -5.36 δ18OPDB-3.51 (r = 0.73, n = 470), dδ18O/d(SST) = -0.187‰/ ℃; and the thermometer was set at monthly resolution. The 56-a (1943-1998) proxy record of the sea surface temperatures reflected the same change trend in the northern part of South China Sea as the air temperature change trend in China.

  10. HELIUM, PARTICULATE ORGANIC CARBON and other data from HEIYO, KAIYO and other platforms in the NW Pacific, Philippine Sea and East China Sea from 1939-08-17 to 1988-09-27 (NCEI Accession 9000197)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A tape containing part of the annual exchange of chemical data from the Japan Oceanographic Data Center collected from East China Sea (Tung Hai), Philippine Sea, NW...

  11. Fish community diversity in the middle continental shelf of the East China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHAN Xiujuan; JIN Xianshi; ZHOU Zhipeng; DAI Fangqun

    2011-01-01

    The status of fishery stocks in the coastal waters of China is far from ideal,mainly due to climate change and the impacts of human activities (e.g.,pollution and overfishing).Thus,the restoration and protection of fishery resources have become critical and complex.The stability and balanced structure of the fish community is a basic foundation for the protection of fishery resources.Based on data collected from bottom trawls by the R/V Beidou in continental shelf of the East China Sea in November 2006 and February 2007,changes in the composition and diversity of fish species and functional groups were analyzed.The research area was divided into offshore waters and inshore waters by the two-way indicator species analysis (TWIA).The results showed that the dominant species were different between offshore waters and inshore waters and also varied with the survey time.The most abundant family was Sciaenidae and Teraponidae in November 2006,Sciaenidae,Engraulidae and Triglidae were most abundant in February 2007.The species belonged mainly to mobile piscivores (G6),benthivores/piscivores (G4),benthivores (G3) and planktivores (G1),and the dominant species in November 2006 were commercial species (e.g.Larimichthys polyactis and Trichiurus japonicus),but small-sized species were dominant in February 2007 (e.g.,Harpadon nehereus,Benthosema pterotum,Champsodon capensis,and Acropoma japonicum).The species diversity showed a similar trend as the functional group diversity.Stations with higher diversity were mainly distributed in inshore waters in February 2007,whereas higher diversity was found in offshore waters in November 2006.The highest biomass and species number were found in G6 group,followed by the G4,G5 and G1 groups.The distribution of the number of individuals of each functional group showed the opposite trend as that of the biomass distribution.In addition,the size spectra were mainly concentrated around 3-29 cm,and the individual number of fish species gradually

  12. Atmospheric front over the East China Sea studied by multisensor satellite and in situ data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, Andrei Y.; Alpers, Werner; Litovchenko, Konstantin T.; He, Ming-Xia; Feng, Qian; Fang, Mingqiang; Yan, Xiao-Hai

    2004-12-01

    A frontal feature visible on a synthetic aperture radar (SAR) image acquired by the Radarsat satellite over the East China Sea on 19 November 2000 is analyzed in conjunction with data acquired by Quikscat, TOPEX/Poseidon, Tropical Rain Measurement Mission (TRMM), Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP), and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) satellites, and with data obtained from ship measurements. Although this frontal feature is located close to the Kuroshio front, it is demonstrated that it is not a sea surface manifestation of an oceanic front, but rather of an atmospheric front extending over 800 km from an area of the Pacific Ocean northeast of Taiwan to the southern coast of Korea. It is a cold front moving in the southeast direction with a speed of approximately 45-50 km/hour and associated with a 40-km-wide rainband trailing the front. The Radarsat image, which has a resolution of 50 m, reveals fine-scale structures of the atmospheric front, in particular small-scale convective rain cells embedded in the front. Conclusion is drawn that accurate interpretation of frontal features in SAR images requires use of additional meteorological and remote sensing data and information.

  13. East China Sea Storm Surge Modeling and Visualization System: The Typhoon Soulik Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zengan Deng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available East China Sea (ECS Storm Surge Modeling System (ESSMS is developed based on Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS. Case simulation is performed on the Typhoon Soulik, which landed on the coastal region of Fujian Province, China, at 6 pm of July 13, 2013. Modeling results show that the maximum tide level happened at 6 pm, which was also the landing time of Soulik. This accordance may lead to significant storm surge and water level rise in the coastal region. The water level variation induced by high winds of Soulik ranges from −0.1 to 0.15 m. Water level generally increases near the landing place, in particular on the left hand side of the typhoon track. It is calculated that 0.15 m water level rise in this region can cause a submerge increase of ~0.2 km2, which could be catastrophic to the coastal environment and the living. Additionally, a Globe Visualization System (GVS is realized on the basis of World Wind to better provide users with the typhoon/storm surge information. The main functions of GVS include data indexing, browsing, analyzing, and visualization. GVS is capable of facilitating the precaution and mitigation of typhoon/storm surge in ESC in combination with ESSMS.

  14. Simulation of Suspended Sediment in the Yellow and East China Seas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHOI Byung-Ho; MUN Jong-Yoon; KO Jin-Seok; YUK Jin-Hee

    2005-01-01

    Described is an initial attempt to simulate the suspended sediment dynamics relating to tidal and wave forcing during summertime in June 1980 and August 1981 for the Yellow and East China Seas continental shelf. The cohesive/non-cohesive sediment resuspension and movement generated by the interaction between current and wave are modeled by use of ECOMSED and WAM Cycle 4. Model results are compared with observations in US-China Marine Sedimentation Dynamics Program performed for 1980-81 at off the Changjiang estuary. The main features of simulations show that suspended sediment concentrations during the summer decreased markedly offshore as observed during the simulation periods. As for some discrepancies for the mouth of the estuary with high river discharges, i.e., the Changjiang River, the model did not properly reproduce the over-mixing situation in the summer; thus distinct vertical concentration variation in this local region is not agreeable with observation. However, general dispersal patterns of suspended sediment movement seem to be agreeably reproduced for the nearshore shallow region. Some of the procedures of simulation and results are presented and discussed.

  15. Application of adjoint assimilation technique in simulating tides and tidal currents of the Bohai Sea, the Yellow Sea and the East China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cheng Yongcun; Lu Xianqing; Liu Yuguang; Xu Qing

    2007-01-01

    Considering the interaction of different tidal waves, an adjoint numerical model is developed to simulate M2, S2, K1 and O1 tidal waves in the Bohai Sea, the Yellow Sea and the East China Sea(B-Y-E) simultaneously. Compared with previous researches, by using the adjoint assimilation technique to inverse open boundary conditions and bottom friction coefficients based on altimetric data from TOPEX/Poseidon (T/P)and tidal gauges data, the precision of the numerical simulation is significantly improved. Selecting 14 days of simulated results after t11e initial warming run to conduct harmonic analysis, the results can show the characteristics of M2, S2, K1 and O1 tidal wave systems perfectly in B-Y-E. Compared with 9 current stations, the calculated harmonic constants of tidal currents for M2 and K1 are in good agreement With the observed ones.

  16. Dramatic declines in Euphausia pacifica abundance in the East China Sea: response to recent regional climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhao-Li; Zhang, Dong

    2014-03-01

    As with other marine ecosystems around the world, water temperature has been anomalously warm in recent years in the East China Sea. We analyzed historical data to explore the effects of climatic change on the abundance and distribution variation of Euphausia pacifica in the East China Sea (the Changjiang River estuary and adjacent areas). In 1959, the highest abundance occurred in the spring and autumn, and this krill species was still abundant in May 1974; however, its abundance was significantly reduced in 2002, markedly in spring. Euphausia pacifica was the numerically dominant euphausiid in the East China Sea in 1959. Its mean abundance was up to 1.91 ind m(-3) and 1.64 ind/m(3) in 1959 and 1974, respectively; however, this figure decreased to 0.36 ind m(-3) in 2002. Since 2003, the abundances have been near zero in the most years. Both inter-annual (between November 1959 and 2002) and inter-monthly (between May and June 1959) comparisons suggest that E. pacifica has had a temperature-driven northward movement in response to rising sea surface temperature, especially the positive anomalies since 1997. However, E. pacifica did not come back to the previous habitat when temperature became relative cold. Hence additional factors affecting the E. pacifica distribution and abundance need to be investigated in the future study.

  17. Inter-shelf nutrient transport from the East China Sea as a major nutrient source supporting winter primary production on the northeast South China Sea shelf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Han

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The East China Sea (ECS and the South China Sea (SCS are two major marginal seas of the north Pacific with distinct seasonal primary productivity. Based upon field observation in December 2008–January 2009 covering both the ECS and the northern SCS (NSCS in wintertime, we examined southward long-range nutrient-transport from the ECS to the northeast SCS (NESCS carried by the China Coastal Current (CCC driven by the northeast prevailing monsoon. These nutrients escaped from the cold ECS shelf to refuel the primary production on the NESCS shelf where river-sourced nutrients were limited yet water temperature remained favorable. By coupling the field observation of nitrate + nitrite (DIN with the volume transport of the CCC, we derived a first order estimate of DIN flux of ~ 1430 ± 260 mol s−1. This DIN flux was ~ 7 times the wintertime DIN input from the Pearl River, a primary riverine nutrient source to the NSCS. By assuming DIN was the limiting nutrient, such southward DIN transport would have stimulated ~ 8.8 ± 1.6 × 1011 gC of new production (NP, accounting for ~ > 58 ± 10% of the total NP or ~ 38 ± 7–24 ± 4% of primary production on the NESCS shelf shallower than 100 m.

  18. Macrobenthic community structure and species composition in the Yellow Sea and East China Sea in jellyfish bloom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Songyao; Li, Xinzheng; Wang, Hongfa; Zhang, Baolin

    2014-05-01

    To understand the characteristics of macrobenthic structures and the relationship between environment and benthic assemblages in jellyfish bloom, we studied the macrobenthos and related environmental factors in the coastal waters of the Yellow Sea and East China Sea. Data were collected during two seasonal cruises in April and August of 2011, and analyzed with multivariate statistical methods. Up to 306 macrobenthic species were registered from the research areas, including 115 species of Polychaeta, 78 of Crustacea, 61 of Mollusca, 30 of Echinodermata, and 22 of other groups. Nine polychaete species occurred at frequencies higher than 25% from the sampling stations: Lumbrineris longifolia, Notomastus latericeus, Ninöe palmata, Ophelina acuminata, Nephtys oligobranchia, Onuphis geophiliformis, Glycera chirori, Terebellides stroemii, and Aricidea fragilis. Both the average biomass and abundance of macrobenthos are higher in August (23.8 g/m2 and 237.7 ind./m2) than those in April (11.3 g/m2 and 128 ind./m2); the dissimilarity of macrobenthic structures among stations is as high as 70%. In terms of the dissimilarity values, we divided the stations into four clusters in spring and eight in summer. The ABC curve shows that the macrofauna communities in high jellyfish abundance were not changed. Canonical correspondence analysis showed that depth, temperature, median grain size, total organic carbon of sediment and total nitrogen in sediment were important factors affecting the macrozoobenthic community in the study area.

  19. Clay mineralogical and geochemical proxies of the East Asian summer monsoon evolution in the South China Sea during Late Quaternary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Quan; Liu, Zhifei; Kissel, Catherine

    2017-01-01

    The East Asian summer monsoon controls the climatic regime of an extended region through temperature and precipitation changes. As the East Asian summer monsoon is primarily driven by the northern hemisphere summer insolation, such meteorological variables are expected to significantly change on the orbital timescale, influencing the composition of terrestrial sediments in terms of both mineralogy and geochemistry. Here we present clay mineralogy and major element composition of Core MD12-3432 retrieved from the northern South China Sea, and we investigate their relationship with the East Asian summer monsoon evolution over the last 400 ka. The variability of smectite/(illite + chlorite) ratio presents a predominant precession periodicity, synchronous with the northern hemisphere summer insolation changes and therefore with that of the East Asian summer monsoon. Variations in K2O/Al2O3 are characterized by eccentricity cycles, increasing during interglacials when the East Asian summer monsoon is enhanced. Based on the knowledge of sediment provenances, we suggest that these two proxies in the South China Sea are linked to the East Asian summer monsoon evolution with different mechanisms, which are (1) contemporaneous chemical weathering intensity in Luzon for smectite/(illite + chlorite) ratio and (2) river denudation intensity for K2O/Al2O3 ratio of bulk sediment. PMID:28176842

  20. Clay mineralogical and geochemical proxies of the East Asian summer monsoon evolution in the South China Sea during Late Quaternary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Quan; Liu, Zhifei; Kissel, Catherine

    2017-02-08

    The East Asian summer monsoon controls the climatic regime of an extended region through temperature and precipitation changes. As the East Asian summer monsoon is primarily driven by the northern hemisphere summer insolation, such meteorological variables are expected to significantly change on the orbital timescale, influencing the composition of terrestrial sediments in terms of both mineralogy and geochemistry. Here we present clay mineralogy and major element composition of Core MD12-3432 retrieved from the northern South China Sea, and we investigate their relationship with the East Asian summer monsoon evolution over the last 400 ka. The variability of smectite/(illite + chlorite) ratio presents a predominant precession periodicity, synchronous with the northern hemisphere summer insolation changes and therefore with that of the East Asian summer monsoon. Variations in K2O/Al2O3 are characterized by eccentricity cycles, increasing during interglacials when the East Asian summer monsoon is enhanced. Based on the knowledge of sediment provenances, we suggest that these two proxies in the South China Sea are linked to the East Asian summer monsoon evolution with different mechanisms, which are (1) contemporaneous chemical weathering intensity in Luzon for smectite/(illite + chlorite) ratio and (2) river denudation intensity for K2O/Al2O3 ratio of bulk sediment.

  1. Distribution,formation and evolution of sand ridges on the East China Sea shelf

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Based on the integrated results of multiple data types including MBES (Multi-Beam Echo Sounding) and historical topography maps,the LSR (Linear Sand Ridges) on the ECS (East China Sea) shelf are identified,divided into subareas,and classified.The distribution of sand ridge crests is also established.The strikes of the LSR on the ECS shelf fall in a normal distribution with the center point being 155° azimuth with additional peak points at 125°,130°,140°,and 180° azimuth.The distribution of the ECS shelf sand ridges is congested in the central area,sparse in the south and north ends,divergent and bifurcated in the eastern area,and densely convergent in the western area.The LSR are divided into seven subzones according to the strikes and distribution of the sand ridges;estuary mouth ridges and open shelf sand ridges are identified and marked out.The high amplitude change of sea level resulting from the glacial-interglacial cycle is the main cause of the vast development of sand ridges on the ECS shelf.Abundant sediments on the shelf carried by the PYR (Paleo-Yangtze River) are the material source for the LSR formation,and the negative seafloor topography influences the strikes of LSR.Based on the effects of LSR distribution,change of sea level,and the simulation of ancient tidal currents,the evolution of the LSR on the ECS shelf is divided into four main stages:Stage Ⅰ before 14.5 ka BP,Stage Ⅱ between 12 and 14 ka BP,Stage Ⅲ from 1.5 to 9.5 ka BP,and Stage Ⅳ after 9 ka BP.

  2. Fluxes of particulate organic carbon in the East China Sea in summer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.-C. Hung

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available To understand carbon cycling in marginal seas better, particulate organic carbon (POC concentrations, POC fluxes and primary production (PP were measured in the East China Sea (ECS in summer 2007. Higher concentrations of POC were observed in the inner shelf, and lower POC values were found in the outer shelf. Similar to POC concentrations, elevated uncorrected POC fluxes (720–7300 mg C m−2 d−1 were found in the inner shelf, and lower POC fluxes (80–150 mg C m−2 d−1 were in the outer shelf, respectively. PP values (~ 340–3380 mg C m−2 d−1 had analogous distribution patterns to POC fluxes, while some of PP values were significantly lower than POC fluxes, suggesting that contributions of resuspended particles to POC fluxes need to be appropriately corrected. A vertical mixing model was used to correct effects of bottom sediment resuspension, and the lowest and highest corrected POC fluxes were in the outer shelf (58 ± 33 mg C m−2 d−1 and the inner shelf (785 ± 438 mg C m−2 d−1, respectively. The corrected POC fluxes (486 to 785 mg C m−2 d−1 in the inner shelf could be the minimum value because we could not exactly distinguish the effect of POC flux from Changjiang influence with turbid waters. The results suggest that 27–93% of the POC flux in the ECS might be from the contribution of resuspension of bottom sediments rather than from the actual biogenic carbon sinking flux. While the vertical mixing model is not a perfect model to solve sediment resuspension because it ignores biological degradation of sinking particles, Changjiang plume (or terrestrial inputs and lateral transport, it makes significant progress in both correcting the resuspension problem and in assessing a reasonable quantitative estimate of POC flux in a marginal sea.

  3. The Legal Basis of the People’s Republic of China’s East China Sea Air Defense Identification Zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching Chang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available As the People’s Republic of China defined its East China Sea Air Defense Identification Zone (ADIZ on November 23, 2013, there were three legal decrees, the Law of the People’s Republic of China on National Defense established on March 14, 1997, the Law of the People’s Republic of China on Civil Aviation established on October 30, 1995, and the Basic Rules on Flight of the People’s Republic of China established on July 27, 2001, which have been quoted as the legal basis to define the airspace within the area enclosed by China’s outer limit of the territorial sea and another six geographical points specified by the statement as the PRC East China Sea ADIZ. Following the government statement, another announcement of the aircraft identification rules for the East China Sea Air Defense Identification Zone of the People’s Republic of China was immediately issued by the PRC Ministry of National Defense. The purpose of this paper is to explore various key legal issues to ascertain the legal basis of this East China Sea ADIZ. Besides, the paper will further compare the air defense identification zone with airspaces such as aerodrome flight airspace, airway, air route, prohibited area, restricted area and danger area as well as air corridor, fuel dumping area and temporary flight airspace defined by the previously mentioned PRC legal decrees in order to identify their differences and similarities. It may also be assessed by the factual consequences after establishing the air defense identification zone to decide whether treating the measures of defining air defense identification as the attempt of claiming sovereignty, expanding sovereign territory or sphere of influence, enlarging air defense region, increasing the coverage of air military activities or even using it to present national strength and establishing pride or to test the responses of other states around the disputed territories is eventually reasonable judgments or overstated

  4. Current meter and other data from FIXED PLATFORMS from East China Sea (Tung Hai) from 02 June 1980 to 18 November 1981 (NODC Accession 8700250)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current meter data were collected from FIXED PLATFORMS in the East China Sea (Tung Hai) from 02 June 1980 to 18 November 1981. Data were collected by the Pacific...

  5. Temperature profile and wave data from CTD casts in the East/South China Sea from 10 January 1977 to 12 December 1986 (NODC Accession 9400045)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile and wave data were collected using CTD casts and other instruments in the East / South China Sea. Data were collected from 10 January 1977 to 12...

  6. Contribution of water soluble organic nitrogen to total nitrogen in marine aerosols over the East China Sea and western North Pacific

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nakamura, T.; Ogawa, H.; DileepKumar, M.; Uematsu, M.

    This paper presents information on concentrations, size distributions, geographical distributions and sources of water-soluble organic nitrogen (ONws) in aerosols over the East China Sea and western North Pacific to understand its impact...

  7. Earthquake-related soft-sediment deformation structures in Palaeogene on the continental shelf of the East China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Earthquake,as disastrous events in geological history,can be recorded as soft-sediment deformation.In the Palaeogene of the East China Sea shelf,the soft-sediment deformation related to earthquake event is recognized as seismic micro-fractures,micro-corrugated laminations,liquefied veins,'vibrated liquefied layers',deformed cross laminations and convolute laminations,load structures,flame structures,brecciation,slump structures and seismodisconformity.There exists a lateral continuum,the wide spatial distribution and the local vertical continuous sequences of seismites including slump,liquefaction and brecciation.In the Palaeogene of East China Sea shelf,where typical soft-sediment deformation structures were developed,clastic deposits of tidal-flat,delta and river facies are the main background deposits of Middle-Upper Eocene Pinghu Formation and Oligocene Huagang Formation.This succession also records diagnostic marks of event deposits and basinal tectonic activities in the form of seismites.

  8. Thermal fronts and cross-frontal heat flux in the southern Huanghai Sea and the East China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PARK Sunghyea; CHU Peter C

    2008-01-01

    Synoptic features in/around thermal fronts and cross-frontal heat fluxes in the southern Huanghai/Yellow Sea and East China Sea(HES) were examined using the data collected from four airborne expendable bathythermograph surveys with horizontal approxmately 35 km and vertical 1 m( from the surface to 400 m deep) spacings. Since the fronts are strongly affected by HES current system, the synoptic thermal features in/around them represent the interaction of currents with surrounding water masses. These features can not be obtained from climatological data. The identified thermal features are listed as follows: (1) multiple boundaries of cold water, asymmetric thermochne intrusion, locally-split front by homogeneous water of approxmately 18 ℃, and mergence of the front by the Taiwan Warm Current in/around summertime southern Cheju-Changjiang/Yangtze front and Tsushima front; (2) springtime frontal eddy-like feature around Tsnshima front; (3) year-round cyclonic meandering and summertime temperature-inversion at the bottom of the surface mixed layer in Cheju-Tsushima front; and (4) multistructure of Kuroshio front. In the Kureshio front the mean variance of vertical temperature gradient is an order of degree smaller than that in other HES fronts.The southern Cheju-Changjiang front and Cheju-Tsushima front are connected with each other in the summer with comparable cross-frontal temperature gradient. However, cross-frontal heat flux and lateral eddy diffusivity are stronger in the southern Cheju-Changjiang front. The cross-frontal heat exchange is the largest in the mixing zone between the modified Huanghai Sea bottom cold water and the Tsushima Warm Current, which is attributable to enhanced thermocline intrusions.

  9. DEPSCoR FY 99: Use of Stochastic Modeling of Stratigraphic Relationships in High Resolution Seismic Reflection Data for Prediction of the Distribution of Acoustic and Geotechnical Property Variability in Near Surface Sediments on the East China Sea Continental Margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-13

    Distribution of Acoustic and Geotechnical Property Variability in Near Surface Sediments on the East China Sea Continental Margin Louis R. Bartek Department of...East China Sea Continental Margin 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER...collecting data. During survey 221099 in the East China Sea (ECS) and the Yellow Sea (YS) we collected 191 km of 210 cubic inch Generator Injector Air

  10. Analogue modelling and mechanism of tectonic inversion of the Xihu Sag, East China Sea Shelf Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qian; Li, Sanzhong; Guo, Lingli; Suo, Yanhui; Dai, Liming

    2017-05-01

    The East China Sea Shelf Basin lies between the Pacific Subduction and Indian-Eurasian Collision tectonic domains and records Cenozoic tectonic inversion, especially in the Xihu Sag. To improve the understanding of the evolution and mechanism of tectonic inversion, this paper employs analogue modelling to reproduce the evolutionary process. Combined with the structural analysis of seismic profile, this paper determines the pattern of basement-involved faults. Simulation results show that under the transtension, two subsidence centers developed and a number of normal faults assembled in two flower structures. When the stress field turned into transpression, the geometry and deformation of inversion basin inherited the previous transtensional basin and pre-existing faults, respectively. The geometry and fault patterns in models are well consistent with those observed in the Xihu Sag, which indicates the plausibility of similar deformation controls. The formation of the tectonic inversion is related to the variation in stress field caused by the changes in the rates and directions of the subduction of the Pacific Plate and the collision of the Indian Plate with Eurasian Plate.

  11. On the Wind Energy Resource and Its Trend in the East China Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adekunle Ayodotun Osinowo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study utilizes a 30-year (1980–2009 10 m wind field dataset obtained from the European Center for Medium Range Weather Forecast to investigate the wind energy potential in the East China Sea (ECS by using Weibull shape and scale parameters. The region generally showed good wind characteristics. The calculated annual mean of the wind power resource revealed the potential of the region for large-scale grid-connected wind turbine applications. Furthermore, the spatiotemporal variations showed strong trends in wind power in regions surrounding Taiwan Island. These regions were evaluated with high wind potential and were rated as excellent locations for installation of large wind turbines for electrical energy generation. Nonsignificant and negative trends dominated the ECS and the rest of the regions; therefore, these locations were found to be suitable for small wind applications. The wind power density exhibited an insignificant trend in the ECS throughout the study period. The trend was strongest during spring and weakest during autumn.

  12. Dinophysis caudata generated lipophilic shellfish toxins in bivalves from the Nanji Islands, East China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Tao; Xu, Yixiao; Li, Yang; Qi, Yuzao; Jiang, Tianjiu; Wu, Feng; Zhang, Fan

    2014-01-01

    A 12-month program of monitoring potentially toxic microalgae (that produce lipophilic shellfish toxins; LSTs) and their toxins in bivalves was conducted from April 2006 to March 2007 in the Nanji Islands, East China Sea. Two Dinophysis species, D. caudata and D. acuminata, were identified, and D. caudata was found to be the dominant species. D. caudata was detected in water samples between April and June 2006, and between February and March 2007. It reached its highest abundances in May, with a mean abundance of 1.38×102 cells/L in surface water and 1.25×102 cells/L in bottom water (cultured bivalves sampled between April and June were contaminated with LSTs, with an average toxicity of 85 μg okadaic acid (OA) eq./100 g meat, which was four times higher than the Chinese regulatory limit (20 μg OA eq./100 g meat). Ten out of fifteen wild samples (66.7%) collected during the same period were positive for LSTs, and contained an average LST toxicity of 45 μg OA eq./100 g meat (more than twice the regulatory value). Cultured Patinopecten yessoensis collected on 15 May 2006 had the highest toxicity, 320 μg OA eq./100 g meat, and relatively high toxicities (80 to 160 μg OA eq./100 g meat) were found in bivalves until the end of July.

  13. A new species of Parodontophora (Nematoda: Axonolaimidae) from the intertidal zone of the East China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haixia; Huang, Yong

    2016-02-01

    This study described a new species of free-living nematode discovered in the intertidal mudflat of Ximen Island, East China Sea. The new species, designated Parodontophora longiamphidata sp. nov., was characterized by a cylindrical body with tapering extremeties; cuticle smooth without somatic setae; four short cephalic setae; cylindrical buccal cavity with six clawlike teeth at the top of stoma; pharynx cylindrical with widened base; amphidial fovea crook-shaped with elongated scalariform branch extending past level of base of pharynx and ventral gland; ventral gland cell long-oval shaped located posterior to pharyngo-intestinal junction; excretory pore at level of middle of buccal cavity; tail conico-cylindrical with enlarged tip; three caudal gland cells, male spicules arched with cephalic proximal end and tapered distal end; gubernaculum with dorso-caudal apophysis; female with two opposed outstretched ovaries; and vulva at slightly post-midpoint of body length. This new species was close to P. wuleidaowanensis Zhang, 2005 and P. polita Gerlach, 1955 in terms of long amphidial fovea branch. The newly found species was easily distinguishable from the two documented; its amphidial fovea branch (255-290 µm versus 72-106 and 125-150 µm) was obviously longer. Key to the Parodontophora species with a longer amphidial fovea branch was given.

  14. Simultaneous retrieval of aerosol optical thickness and chlorophyll concentration from multiwavelength measurement over East China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Chong; Nakajima, Teruyuki; Hashimoto, Makiko

    2016-12-01

    A flexible inversion algorithm is proposed for simultaneously retrieving aerosol optical thickness (AOT) and surface chlorophyll a (Chl) concentration from multiwavelength observation over the ocean. In this algorithm, forward radiation calculation is performed by an accurate coupled atmosphere-ocean model with a comprehensive bio-optical ocean module. Then, a full-physical nonlinear optimization approximation approach is used to retrieve AOT and Chl. For AOT retrieval, a global three-dimensional spectral radiation-transport aerosol model is used as the a priori constraint to increase the retrieval accuracy of aerosol. To investigate the algorithm's availability, the retrieval experiment is conducted using simulated radiance data to demonstrate that the relative errors in simultaneously determining AOT and Chl can be mostly controlled to within 10% using multiwavelength and angle covering in and out of sunglint. Furthermore, the inversion results are assessed using the actual satellite observation data obtained from Cloud and Aerosol Imager (CAI)/Greenhouse gas Observation SATellite GOSAT and MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS)/Aqua instruments through comparison to Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) aerosol and ocean color (OC) products over East China Sea. Both the retrieved AOT and Chl compare favorably to the reported AERONET values, particularly when using the CASE 2 ocean module in turbid water, even when the retrieval is performed in the presence of high aerosol loading and sunglint. Finally, the CAI and MODIS images are used to jointly retrieve the spatial distribution of AOT and Chl in comparison to the MODIS AOT and OC products.

  15. Optimal salinity for dominant copepods in the East China Sea, determined using a yield density model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Zhaoli; GAO Qian

    2011-01-01

    From 1997 to 2000, four field surveys were conducted in the East China Sea (ECS)(23°30′ 33°00′N, 118°30′-128°00′E). A field data yield density model was used to determine the optimal salinities for 19 dominant copepod species to establish the relationship between surface salinities and abundance of those species. In addition, ecological groups of the copepods were classified based on optimal salinity and geographical distribution. The results indicate that the yield density model is suitable for determining the relationship between salinity and abundance. Cosmocalanus darwini, Euchaeta rimana,Pleuromamma gracilis, Rhincalanus cornutus, Scolecithrix danae and Pareucalanus attenuatus were determined as oceanic species, with optimal salinities of >34.0. They were stenohaline and mainly distributed in waters influenced by the Kuroshio or Taiwan warm current. Temoa discaudata, T. stylifera and Canthocalanus pauper were nearshore species with optimal salinities of <33.0 and most abundant in coastal waters. The remaining 10 species, including Undinula vulgaris and Subeucalanus subcrassus, were offshore species, with optimal salinity ranging from 33.0-34.0. They were widely distributed in nearshore,offshore and oceanic waters but mainly in the mixed water of the ECS.

  16. Spatial pattern of spring phytoplankton community in the coastal waters of northern Zhejiang, East China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Ran; Cai, Yanhong; Wei, Yongjie; Li, Xiaoming

    2017-04-01

    The spatial pattern of phytoplankton community can indicate potential environmental variation in different water bodies. In this context, spatial pattern of phytoplankton community and its response to environmental and spatial factors were studied in the coastal waters of northern Zhejiang, East China Sea using multivariate statistical techniques. Results showed that 94 species belonging to 40 genera, 5 phyla were recorded (the remaining 9 were identified to genus level) with diatoms being the most dominant followed by dinoflagellates. Hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA), nonmetric multidimentional scaling (NMDS), and analysis of similarity (ANOSIM) all demomstrated that the whole study area could be divided into 3 subareas with significant differences. Indicator species analysis (ISA) further confirmed that the indicator species of each subarea correlated significantly with specific environmental factors. Distance-based linear model (Distlm) and Mantel test revealed that silicate (SiO32-), phosphate (PO43-), pH, and dissolved oxygen (DO) were the most important environmental factors influencing phytoplankton community. Variation portioning (VP) finally concluded that the shared fractions of environmental and spatial factors were higher than either the pure environmental effects or the pure spatial effects, suggesting phytoplankton biogeography were mainly affected by both the environmental variability and dispersal limitation. Additionally, other factors (eg., trace metals, biological grazing, climate change, and time-scale variation) may also be the sources of the unexplained variation which need further study.

  17. Study on the dominant species of Pteropoda in East China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Based on the data of four seasonal marine surveys in the East China Sea (23°30'-33°N,118°30'-128°E )during 1997-2000, the author studied the ecological characters of dominant Pteropoda species in the area. Results showed that there were five dominant Pteropoda species, more in summer, less in autumn and even in other seasons. These species, though belonging warm water species, can be categorized into two different groups in habitability. The first group was adapted in summer and autumn, including Creseis acicula, Desmopteruspapilio and Creseis virgule, while the second group in winter and spring, represented by Limacina trochiformis and Agadina syimpsoni. The first group was more abundant than the second one.Besides, the first group contributed more to the Pteropoda abundance having higher occurrence frequency and aggregation intensity than the second. In horizontal distribution, the first group species reside in nearshore, and they could migrate to shallow place near estuary and aggregated in high density, while the second one was different: lower abundance, less occurred and aggregated because they were halophilic warm water species, and they were usually abundant in offshore area.

  18. Particulate carbohydrates and uronic acids in the northern East China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Chin-Chang; Gong, Gwo-Ching; Chiang, Kuo-Ping; Chen, Hung-Yu; Yeager, Kevin M.

    2009-10-01

    Carbohydrate species, such as uronic acids, play an important role in oceanic carbon cycling, coagulation and adsorption processes. Concentrations of particulate carbohydrates (PCHO) and uronic acids (PURA) were measured in the northern East China Sea (ECS) during June and November, 2006. In June, maximum concentrations of PCHO and PURA were observed in the surface layer of coastal waters. Their concentrations rapidly decreased with depth, suggesting that they are both bio-reactive. Moreover, phytoplankton abundance and bacterial biomass seem to be associated with observed PCHO and PURA concentrations in the ECS during June, suggesting that production of carbohydrate species in the ECS is regulated by phytoplankton assemblages, bacterial assimilation or degradation. In November, however, PCHO and PURA concentrations were homogenous within the water column due to strong vertical mixing. No strong correlations were observed between carbohydrate species (PCHO and PURA) and phytoplankton or bacterial biomass, suggesting that production of these compounds in November might be caused by the physiological difference between nutrient limited and non-nutrient limited phytoplankton. Furthermore, strong negative correlations between nutrients and PCHO species suggest that nutrient levels may be one of the driving forces behind the production of these compounds in the ECS.

  19. 1Phosphorus forms and distribution in Zhejiang coastal sediment in the East China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Min CONG; Tao JIANG; Yu-zao QI; Hong-po DONG; De-qiang TENG; Song-hui LU

    2014-01-01

    Surface and core sediment samples were collected from Zhejiang coastal waters of the East China Sea to study phosphorus (P) forms and understand the potential release of P as well as adsorption. The sediments were extracted sequentially to determine four phosphorus fractions, and non-sequentially for total phosphorus (TP). The total concentration of phosphorus in the surface sediments ranged from 527.2 to 680.5 mg kg-1. Inorganic P was the major form and accounted for 84-94%of TP. Among the four forms, P-Detrital was dominant (58.6-73.2%), followed by P-CDB (10.5-20.9%), P-Organic (6.1-15.9%), and P-CFA (5.9-16.3%). The distribution pattern of TP in the surface sediments was similar to that of P-Detrital and P-Organic, but different from P-CDB and P-CFA. A relatively high level of phosphorus was observed in estuarine sediments, reflecting the influence from terrestrial input. Phosphorus in all forms in core sediments at each station decreased with depth. In addition, potentially bio-available phosphorus accounted for 20-34%of TP.

  20. Optimal salinity for dominant copepods in the East China Sea, determined using a yield density model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhaoli; Gao, Qian

    2011-05-01

    From 1997 to 2000, four field surveys were conducted in the East China Sea (ECS) (23°30'-33°00'N, 118°30'-128°00'E). A field data yield density model was used to determine the optimal salinities for 19 dominant copepod species to establish the relationship between surface salinities and abundance of those species. In addition, ecological groups of the copepods were classified based on optimal salinity and geographical distribution. The results indicate that the yield density model is suitable for determining the relationship between salinity and abundance. Cosmocalanus darwini, Euchaeta rimana, Pleuromamma gracilis, Rhincalanus cornutus, Scolecithrix danae and Pareucalanus attenuatus were determined as oceanic species, with optimal salinities of >34.0. They were stenohaline and mainly distributed in waters influenced by the Kuroshio or Taiwan warm current. Temora discaudata, T. stylifera and Canthocalanus pauper were nearshore species with optimal salinities of <33.0 and most abundant in coastal waters. The remaining 10 species, including Undinula vulgaris and Subeucalanus subcrassus, were offshore species, with optimal salinity ranging from 33.0-34.0. They were widely distributed in nearshore, offshore and oceanic waters but mainly in the mixed water of the ECS.

  1. Hydrocarbons in surface sediments from the Changjiang (Yangtze River) estuary, East China Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouloubassi, Ioanna; Fillaux, Joelle; Saliot, Alain [Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, Lab. de Biogeochimie et Chimie Marines, Paris, 75 (France)

    2001-07-01

    Sedimentary aliphatic (AH) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were studied in the Changjiang Estuary and the adjacent East China Sea. Total AH ranged from 2.20 to 11.82 {mu}g g {sup -1} and consisted of n-alkanes and a dominant petroleum-related unresolved complex mixture (UCM). Within the n-alkanes, terrestrial plant wax compounds prevailed at nearly all stations. Of the PAHs, biogenic perylene dominated at stations receiving riverine inputs. Anthropogenic PAHs originating from combustion/pyrolysis processes varied from 17 to 157 ng g {sup -1}, while fossil PAH concentrations ranged from 42 to 187 ng g {sup -1}. Both biogenic and anthropogenic hydrocarbons are primarily derived from riverine discharges and accumulate at shallow-water stations. Distinct phase associations lead, nevertheless, to different sedimentation patterns. Fossil PAHs are enhanced at offshore stations where they are introduced directly by shipping activities. Biomarker fingerprints ascribe their source to Chinese crude oils. The overall levels of anthropogenic hydrocarbons are low compared to relevant areas worldwide and reveal a low/moderate level of hydrocarbon pollution. (Author)

  2. Oceanic response to Typhoon Nari (2007) in the East China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Kyung-Hee; Lee, Seok; Kang, Sok-Kuh; Song, Kyu-Min

    2017-02-01

    The oceanic response to a typhoon in the East China Sea (ECS) was examined using thermal and current structures obtained from ocean surface drifters and a bottom-moored current profiler installed on the right side of the typhoon's track. Typhoon Nari (2007) had strong winds as it passed the central region of the ECS. The thermal structure in the ECS responded to Typhoon Nari (2007) very quickly: the seasonal thermocline abruptly collapsed and the sea surface temperature dropped immediately by about 4°C after the typhoon passed. The strong vertical mixing and surface cooling caused by the typhoon resulted in a change in the thermal structure. Strong near-inertial oscillation occurred immediately after the typhoon passed and lasted for at least 4-5 days, during which a strong vertical current existed in the lower layer. Characteristics of the near-inertial internal oscillation were observed in the middle layer. The clockwise component of the inertial frequency was enhanced in the surface layer and at 63 m depth after the typhoon passed, with these layers almost perfectly out of phase. The vertical shear current was intensified by the interaction of the wind-driven current in the upper layer and the background semi-diurnal tidal current during the arrival of the typhoon, and also by the near-inertial internal oscillation after the typhoon passage. The strong near-inertial internal oscillation persisted without significant interfacial structure after the mixing of the thermocline, which could enhance the vertical mixing over several days.

  3. The effect of typhoon on particulate organic carbon flux in the southern East China Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.-C. Hung

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Severe tropical storms play an important role in triggering phytoplankton blooms, but the extent to which such storms influence carbon flux from the euphotic zone is unclear. In 2008, typhoon Fengwong provided a unique opportunity to study the in situ biological responses including phytoplankton blooms and particulate organic carbon fluxes associated with a severe storm in the southern East China Sea (SECS. After passage of the typhoon, the sea surface temperature (SST in the SECS was markedly cooler (~25 to 26 °C than before typhoon passage (~28 to 29 °C. The POC flux 5 days after passage of the typhoon was 265 ± 14 mg-C m−2 d−1, which was ~1.7-fold that (140–180 mg-C m−2 d−1 recorded during a period (June–August, 2007 when no typhoons occurred. A somewhat smaller but nevertheless significant increase in POC flux (224–265 mg-C m−2 d−1 was detected following typhoon Sinlaku which occurred approximately 1 month after typhoon Fengwong, indicating that typhoon events can increase biogenic carbon flux efficiency in the SECS. Remarkably, phytoplankton uptake accounted for only about 5% of the nitrate injected into the euphotic zone by typhoon Fengwong and it is likely that phytoplankton population growth was presumably constrained by a combination of light limitation and grazing pressure. Modeled estimates of new/export production were remarkably consistent with the average of new and export production following typhoon Fengwong. The same model suggested that during non-typhoon conditions approximately half of the export of organic carbon occurs via convective mixing of dissolved organic carbon, a conclusion consistent with earlier work at comparable latitudes in the open ocean.

  4. Performance evaluation of operational atmospheric correction algorithms over the East China Seas

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Shuangyan; He, Mingxia; Fischer, Jürgen

    2017-01-01

    To acquire high-quality operational data products for Chinese in-orbit and scheduled ocean color sensors, the performances of two operational atmospheric correction (AC) algorithms (ESA MEGS 7.4.1 and NASA SeaDAS 6.1) were evaluated over the East China Seas (ECS) using MERIS data. The spectral remote sensing reflectance R rs(λ), aerosol optical thickness (AOT), and Ångström exponent (α) retrieved using the two algorithms were validated using in situ measurements obtained between May 2002 and October 2009. Match-ups of R rs, AOT, and α between the in situ and MERIS data were obtained through strict exclusion criteria. Statistical analysis of R rs(λ) showed a mean percentage difference (MPD) of 9%-13% in the 490-560 nm spectral range, and significant overestimation was observed at 413 nm (MPD>72%). The AOTs were overestimated (MPD>32%), and although the ESA algorithm outperformed the NASA algorithm in the blue-green bands, the situation was reversed in the red-near-infrared bands. The value of α was obviously underestimated by the ESA algorithm (MPD=41%) but not by the NASA algorithm (MPD=35%). To clarify why the NASA algorithm performed better in the retrieval of α, scatter plots of the α single scattering albedo (SSA) density were prepared. These α-SSA density scatter plots showed that the applicability of the aerosol models used by the NASA algorithm over the ECS is better than that used by the ESA algorithm, although neither aerosol model is suitable for the ECS region. The results of this study provide a reference to both data users and data agencies regarding the use of operational data products and the investigation into the improvement of current AC schemes over the ECS.

  5. Species composition,diversity and density of plagic Ostracoda in the East China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    On the basis of seasonal investigations at 23°30′~33°00′N, 118°30′~128°00′E of the East China Sea during 1997~2000, dynamics on the density and diversity of Ostracoda was discussed. Results showed that totally 26 species were identified. The Ostracoda diversity was opposite to the change of its density in most seasons which reflected an uneven assignment of Ostracoda density among its different species. The Ostracoda density was 0.70 ind./m3 in spring, 1.72 ind./m3 in summer, 2.57 ind./m3 in autumn and 0.90 ind./m3 in winter. Euconchoecia chierchiae in spring and winter, Euconchoecia maimai in summer and Cypridina dentata in autumn were main dominant species in each season. The Ostracoda density did not show an obvious linear relationship with the hydrologic factors in summer and autumn, but was related to the surface salinity in spring and the surface temperature in winter. Its high density areas mainly distributed in the north offshore in all the seasons while in the south offshore in winter and in spring, and the south nearshore in summer and autumn, implied the zooplankton was a typical warm water animal, whose high density distribution in autumn were located in a similar position to Todarodes pacificus, Navodon Septentrionalis, Scomber japonicus and other fishes in the sea, so as to be an important indicator for fishing ground. The main species dominating in Ostracoda now are different from the species twenty years ago probably attributes to global warming.

  6. Linear sand ridges on the outer shelf of the East China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Ziyin; JIN Xianglong; LI Jiabiao; ZHENG Yulong; WANG Xiaobo

    2005-01-01

    Based on the latest full-coverage high-resolu- tion multi-beam sounding data, the distribution of the linear sand ridges on the outer shelf of the East China Sea (ECS) is studied with quantitative statistical analysis. The study area can be divided into the northeastern part and the southwestern part. Sand ridges in the northeastern area, trending 116°N, show obvious linear character and shrink to the inner shelf. Sand ridges in the southwestern area, trending 120°N-146°N, tend to have net form. Sand ridges gradually become sand sheets in the center part of study area. Sand ridges are distributed landward to the isobath of 60m, distributed seaward to the water depth of 120 m in the northeast and 150 m in the southwest. Immature sand ridges are observed at water depth of 130-180 m in the southwestern depressions. The acoustic reflection properties of the internal high-angle inclined beddings of the sand ridges are analyzed based on the typical seismic profiles close to the research area. Lithological analysis and dating of 4 boreholes and 12 cores indicate that the widely distributed transgressive sand layer with high content of shell debris which was formed in the early-middle Holocene is the main composition of the linear sand ridges on the outer shelf of the ECS. The dominating factor in formation, developing and burying of the sand ridges is the variation of water depth caused by sea- level change and the rate of sediment supply. In 12400 aBP the cotidal lines of the M2 tidal component were closely perpendicular to the strike-directions of the sand ridges in the study area, and the tidal wave system during 12000-8000 aBP might play a key role in the formation of the linear sand ridges which are widely distributed on the outer shelf of the ECS.

  7. Variation of Bacteria Biomass and its Possible Controlling Factors in the East China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIA Wenjuan; WANG Jiangtao; TAN Liju; WANG Qiulu

    2011-01-01

    Two surveys were performed for determining bacteria biomass (BB), temperature, salinity, chlorophyll a (ch1-a) and nutrient concentrations at 11 stations with three sampling depths in the high-incidence regions of red tide in the East China Sea (ECS) in the spring of 2006. Temperature and salinity increased from nearshore to offshore region and from high latitude to low latitude in the two cruises of 2006. BB were between 0.3-5.2 mgC m-3 (about 2.1 mgC m-3 on average) and 0.2-6.0 mgC m-3 (about 2.7 mgC m-3 on average) respectively in the two cruises. BB in the surface layer decreased from the Changjiang River estuary to high sea and from low latitude to high latitude. The results showed that bacterial growth was regulated by temperature, primary production and inorganic nutrient concentrations depending on different hydrographic conditions. In the surface and middle layers where the primary production can supply enough organic substrate, temperature was the main factor to control bacteria biomass. BB showed a good correlation between the surface and middle layers in both cruises. The distribution of nutrients during both cruises showed a similar decreasing trend from nearshore region and high latitude to offshore region and low latitude. High BB values were mainly recorded from samples in the middle layer where chl-a concentrations were also high, indicating primary production being strongly correlated with temperature over the ECS shelf. In the offshore area, phosphate and silicate became limiting factors for phytoplankton growth with indirect influence on BB. Bacteria played an important role in nitrogen regeneration process turning organic nitrogen to inorganic forms such as NH4+. The increasing ratio of NH-+/DIN could be a proof of that.

  8. The effect of typhoon on particulate organic carbon flux in the southern East China Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.-C. Hung

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Severe tropical storms play an important role in triggering phytoplankton blooms, but the extent to which such storms influence biogenic carbon flux from the euphotic zone is unclear. In 2008, typhoon Fengwong provided a unique opportunity to study the in situ biological responses including phytoplankton blooms and particulate organic carbon fluxes associated with a severe storm in the southern East China Sea (SECS. After passage of the typhoon, the sea surface temperature (SST in the SECS was markedly cooler (∼25 to 26 °C than before typhoon passage (∼28 to 29 °C. The POC flux 5 days after passage of the typhoon was 265 ± 14 mg C m−2 d−1, which was ∼1.7-fold that (140–180 mg C m−2 d−1 recorded during a period (June–August, 2007 when no typhoons occurred. A somewhat smaller but nevertheless significant increase in POC flux (224–225 mg C m−2 d−1 was detected following typhoon Sinlaku which occurred approximately 1 month after typhoon Fengwong, indicating that typhoon events can increase biogenic carbon flux efficiency in the SECS. Remarkably, phytoplankton uptake accounted for only about 5% of the nitrate injected into the euphotic zone by typhoon Fengwong. It is likely that phytoplankton population growth was constrained by a combination of light limitation and grazing pressure. Modeled estimates of new/export production were remarkably consistent with the average of new and export production following typhoon Fengwong. The same model suggested that during non-typhoon conditions approximately half of the export of organic carbon occurs via convective mixing of dissolved organic carbon, a conclusion consistent with earlier work at comparable latitudes in the open ocean.

  9. Study on the linear sand ridges on shelf of the East China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    WU, Z.; Jin, X.; Li, M.; Shang, J.; Li, S.

    2013-12-01

    The linear sand ridges (LSR) revealed by newest multi-beam echo soundings bathymetric data (MBES) are distributed extensively on shelf of the East China Sea (ECS). It is not only a kind of ubiquitous geological phenomenon on tide-dominated shelf but also a key step in paleo-environment evolvement history of the ECS. Based on the MBES, high-resolution single-channel seismic profiles, analyzed results of boreholes and numerical simulation of paleo-tidal current fields, the distribution, 3D fine structures , space-time spreading regulars and developing tendencies of the LSR on ECS shelf were studied by quantitative synthetic statistical analysis method. The relationship between LSR and paleo-tidal current field, sea-level curve and the evolution stages of LSR such as formation, growth and buried stages were discussed. The strikes of LSR on ECS shelf emerge at a normal distribution. The azimuth of N155°E is the central point and the azimuth of N125°E,N130°E,N140°E and N180°E are convergent points respectively for the normal distribution. The LSR are aggregating in the centre part of ECS shelf, rarefying at the north and south part, dispersing and bifurcating to the east, aggregating and converging to the west. The LSR on ECS shelf are distributed landward to the isobath of 60m, and seaward to the water depth of 120m at northeast and 150m at southwest. Immature LSR are firstly observed at water depth of 130-180m in the southwestern depressions. Lithology analysis and dating of 4 boreholes and 12 cores have indicated that the widely distributed transgressive sand layers with high content of shell debris which formed in the early to middle Holocene are the main compositions of the LSR on the ECS shelf. The top boundaries of buried LSR in unit 14 are distinguished, and a 3D map of these buried LSR in local area is reconstructed. The features such as length, width, height and strikes of these buried LSR are analyzed quantitatively and compared with those of LSR in unit

  10. Physical and underway data collected aboard the ROGER REVELLE during cruise RR1103 in the East China Sea (Tung Hai), Philippine Sea and South China Sea (Nan Hai) from 2011-02-26 to 2011-02-28 (NCEI Accession 0132119)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0132119 includes physical and underway data collected aboard the ROGER REVELLE during cruise RR1103 in the East China Sea (Tung Hai), Philippine Sea...

  11. Influence of the modified global ocean tide model with local tides of East and South China Seas on load gravity in China and its neighbor area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Jiang-cun; SUN He-ping

    2005-01-01

    By using 11 global ocean tide models and tidal gauge data obtained in the East China Sea and South China Sea, the influence of the ocean loading on gravity field in China and its neighbor area is calculated in this paper. Furthermore, the differences between the results from original global models and modified models with local tides are discussed based on above calculation. The comparison shows that the differences at the position near the sea are so large that the local tides must be taken into account in the calculation. When the global ocean tide models of CSR4.0, FES02, GOT00, NAO99 and ORI96 are chosen, the local effect for M2 is less than 0.10×10-8 m·s-2 over the area far away from sea. And the local effect for O1 is less than 0.05 ×10-8 m·s-2 over that area when choosing AG95 or CSR3.0 models. This numerical result demonstrates that the choice of model is a complex problem because of the inconsistent accuracy of the models over the areas of East and South China Seas.

  12. Molecular biomarker record of paleooceanographic envi-ronment in the East China Sea during the last 35000 years

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MENG; Xianwei

    2002-01-01

    [1]Wang Pinxian, Response of western Pacific marginal seas to glacial cycles: Paleooceanographic and sedimentological features, Marine Geology, 1999, 156: 5-39.[2]Cang Shuxi, Yan Jun, Paleooceanography of Restricted Sea Area, Western Pacific Ocean (in Chinese), Qingdao: Ocean University Press, 1992, 11-32.[3]Xu Xuedong, Motoyosh, O., surface-water evolution of the eastern East China Sea during the last 36000 years, Marine Geology, 1999, 156: 285-304.[4]Yan Jun, Cang Shuxi, Evolution of the paleo-Kuroshio system and its relation to climate change since the last interglacial, Marine Geology & Quaternary Geology (in Chinese), 1995, 15: 26-40.[5]Li Peiying, Wang Yongji, Liu Zhenxia et al., Chronostratigraphy and deposition rates in the Okinawa Trough region, Science in China, Ser. D, 1999, 42(4): 408-413.[6]Liu Zhenxia, Li Tiegang, Li Peiying et al., The Paleoclimatic events and cause in the Okinawa Trough during 50ka BP, Chinese Science Bulletin, 2001, 46(2): 153-157.[7]Tang Yunqian, Zhen Shilong, Liu Kewen, Biomarker distribution in sedimentary core, South China Sea, in Sedimentation Process and Geochemical Study (in Chinese), Beijing: Ocean Press, 1993, 135-141.[8]Dong Guangrong, Wang Guiyong, Li Xiaoze et al., Paleo-monsoon evolution of sandy region in the eastern China during last interglacial, Science in China (in Chinese), Ser. D, 1996, 26(5): 437-444.[9]Pelejero, C., Grimalt, J. O., Sarnthein, M. et al., Molecular biomarker record of sea surface temperature and climatic change in the South China Sea during the last 140000 years, Marine Geology, 1999, 156: 109-121.[10]Prahl, F. G., Pinto, L. A., A geochemical study of long-chain n-alkenones in Washington coastal sediments, Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 1987, 51: 1573-1582.[11]Prahl, F. G., Wakeham, S. G., Calibration of unsaturation patterns in long-chain ketone compositions for palaeo-temperature assessment, Nature, 1987, 300: 367-369.[12]Prahl, F. G., Muelhausen, L

  13. Air–sea CO2 fluxes in the East China Sea based on multiple-year underway observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X.-H. Guo

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This study reports thus far a most comprehensive dataset of surface seawater pCO2 (partial pressure of CO2 and the associated air–sea CO2 fluxes in a major ocean margin, the East China Sea (ECS based on 24 surveys conducted in 2006 to 2011. We showed highly dynamic spatial variability of sea surface pCO2 in the ECS except in winter when it ranged in a narrow band of 330 to 360 μatm. In this context, we categorized the ECS into five different domains featured with different physics and biogeochemistry to better characterize the seasonality of the pCO2 dynamics and to better constrain the CO2 flux. The five domains are (I the outer Changjiang estuary and Changjiang plume, (II the Zhejiang–Fujian coast, (III the northern ECS shelf, (IV the middle ECS shelf, and (V the southern ECS shelf. In spring and summer, pCO2 off the Changjiang estuary was as low as 400 μatm in fall. pCO2 along the Zhejiang–Fujian coast was low in spring, summer and winter (300 to 350 μatm but was relatively high in fall (> 350 μatm. In the northern ECS shelf, pCO2 in summer and fall was > 340 μatm in most areas, higher than in winter and spring. In the middle and southern ECS shelf, pCO2 in summer ranged from 380 to 400 μatm, which was higher than in other seasons (2 flux in the entire ECS shelf was −10.0 ± 2.0 mmol m−2 d−1 in winter, −11.7 ± 3.6 mmol m−2 d−1 in spring, −3.5 ± 4.6 mmol m−2 d−1 in summer and −2.3 ± 3.1 mmol m−2 d−1 in fall. It is important to note that the standard deviations in these flux ranges mostly reflect the spatial variation of pCO2, which differ from the spatial variance nor the bulk uncertainty. Nevertheless, on an annual basis, the average CO2 influx into the entire ECS shelf was −6.9 ± 4.0 mmol m−2 d−1, about twice the global average in ocean margins.

  14. Dynamics of autotrophic marine planktonic thaumarchaeota in the East China Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Anyi; Yang, Zao; Yu, Chang-Ping; Jiao, Nianzhi

    2013-01-01

    The ubiquitous and abundant distribution of ammonia-oxidizing Thaumarchaeota in marine environments is now well documented, and their crucial role in the global nitrogen cycle has been highlighted. However, the potential contribution of Thaumarchaeota in the carbon cycle remains poorly understood. Here we present for the first time a seasonal investigation on the shelf region (bathymetry≤200 m) of the East China Sea (ECS) involving analysis of both thaumarchaeal 16S rRNA and autotrophy-related genes (acetyl-CoA carboxylase gene, accA). Quantitative PCR results clearly showed a higher abundance of thaumarchaeal 16S and accA genes in late-autumn (November) than summer (August), whereas the diversity and community structure of autotrophic Thaumarchaeota showed no statistically significant difference between different seasons as revealed by thaumarchaeal accA gene clone libraries. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that shallow ecotypes dominated the autotrophic Thaumarchaeota in the ECS shelf (86.3% of total sequences), while a novel non-marine thaumarchaeal accA lineage was identified in the Changjiang estuary in summer (when freshwater plumes become larger) but not in autumn, implying that Changjiang freshwater discharge played a certain role in transporting terrestrial microorganisms to the ECS. Multivariate statistical analysis indicated that the biogeography of the autotrophic Thaumarchaeota in the shelf water of the ECS was influenced by complex hydrographic conditions. However, an in silico comparative analysis suggested that the diversity and abundance of the autotrophic Thaumarchaeota might be biased by the 'universal' thaumarchaeal accA gene primers Cren529F/Cren981R since this primer set is likely to miss some members within particular phylogenetic groups. Collectively, this study improved our understanding of the biogeographic patterns of the autotrophic Thaumarchaeota in temperate coastal waters, and suggested that new accA primers with improved coverage

  15. Origins of terrestrial organic matter in surface sediments of the East China Sea shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hailong; Xing, Lei; Zhao, Meixun

    2017-10-01

    Terrestrial organic matter (TOM) is an important component of marine sedimentary OM, and revealing the origins and transport mechanisms of TOM to the East China Sea (ECS) is important for understanding regional carbon cycle. A novel approach combining molecular proxies and compound-specific carbon isotopes is used to quantitatively constrain the origins and transport mechanisms of TOM in surface sediments from the ECS shelf. The content of terrestrial biomarkers of (C27+C29+C31) n-alkanes (52 to 580 ng g-1) revealed a seaward decreasing trend, the δ13CTOC values (-20.6‰ to -22.7‰) were more negative near the coast, and the TMBR (terrestrial and marine biomarker ratio) values (0.06 to 0.40) also revealed a seaward decreasing trend. These proxies all indicated more TOM (up to 48%) deposition in the coastal areas. The Alkane Index, the ratio of C29/(C29+C31) n-alkanes indicated a higher proportion of grass vegetation in the coastal area; While the δ13C values of C29 n-alkane (-29.3‰ to -33.8‰) indicated that terrestrial plant in the sediments of the ECS shelf were mainly derived from C3 plants. Cluster analysis afforded detailed estimates of different-sourced TOM contributions and transport mechanisms. TOM in the Zhejiang-Fujian coastal area was mostly delivered by the Changjiang River, and characterized by higher %TOM (up to 48%), higher %C3 plant OM (68%-85%) and higher grass plant OM (56%-61%); TOM in the mid-shelf area was mostly transported by aerosols, and characterized by low %TOM (less than 17%), slightly lower C3 plant OM (56%-72%) and lower grass plant OM (49%-55%).

  16. Sources, behaviors and degradation of dissolved organic matter in the East China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yan; Yang, Gui-Peng; Liu, Li; Zhang, Peng-Yan; Leng, Wei-Song

    2016-03-01

    Concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN), dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) and its major compound classes-total hydrolysable amino acids (THAA) were measured at 4 cross-shelf transects of the East China Sea in July 2011. Surface concentrations of DOC, DIN, DON and THAA at the nearshore stations were mostly in excess of those found at the offshore sites, indicating either substantial autochthonous production or allochthonous inputs from the Changjiang River. The vertical distributions of DOC, DON and THAA showed similar trends with higher values in the surface layer, whereas the elevated concentrations of DIN were observed in the bottom layer. Major constituents of THAA presented in the study area were glycine, serine, alanine, glutamic acid, aspartic acid and valine. The mole percentages of neutral amino acids increased from surface water to bottom water, whereas acidic and hydroxy amino acids decreased with the water depth. Concentrations of DOC and THAA were negatively correlated to the ΔDIN values (the difference between the real concentration and theoretical concentration), respectively, indicating the coupling relation between dissolved organic matter (DOM) remineralization and nutrient regeneration in the water column. The C/N ratios in the water column exhibited different characteristics with elevated values appearing in the surface and bottom layers. Box and whisker plots showed that both degradation index (DI) values and THAA yields displayed a decreasing trend from the surface layer to the bottom layer, implying increasing degradation with the water depth. Our data revealed that glycine and alanine increased in relative abundance with decreasing DI, while tyrosine, valine, phenylalanine and isoleucine increased with increasing DI.

  17. Vertical distribution of pigmented and non-pigmented nanoflagellates in the East China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Sheng-Fang; Lin, Fan-Wei; Chan, Ya-Fan; Chiang, Kuo-Ping

    2016-08-01

    Nanoflagellates can be separated into two groups according to their trophic mode, i.e. pigmented nanoflagellates (PNF) and heterotrophic nanoflagellates (HNF). However, a newly identified group, mixotrophic nanoflagellates (MNF), are pigmented and show the ability of prey on bacteria. To examine the vertical variations in PNF and HNF abundances, as well as their relationships and the nutritional strategies that they might use, two summer cruises were undertaken in the East China Sea in July 2011 (OR1 966) and July 2012 (OR1 1004). The results show that both HNF and PNF abundances decline with increasing water depth. Vertical variations of abundances are believed to be influenced by prey and light, for HNF and PNF respectively. Over a large part of the sampling area, the ratio of PNF to HNF abundances is about 1:1 in the disphotic and euphotic zones, but exceeds 1.5 in the nutrient-depleted environment along the margin of the continental shelf. The correlation between PNF abundance and bacteria/Synechococcus abundance is positive where PNF/HNF >1.5. However, there is no significant correlation between PNF/HNF abundance when PNF/HNF >1.5 and light/nutrients, indicating that vertical distributions are influenced mainly by prey (bacteria and Synechococcus) in the nutrient-depleted environment. This study assumes that PNF consists mostly of MNF. In the euphotic zone they receive energy from photosynthesis, which is stimulated by the available nutrients from grazing. Their abundance is thus higher than that of HNF. However, in the disphotic zone, both PNF and HNF satisfy their nutrient demands by grazing, and PNF/HNF is close to 1. In other words, mixotrophy might be the main trophic mode for PNF in the nutrient-depleted, oligotrophic environment. Meanwhile, in deeper water (300 m), the much lower prey density means that MNF cannot satisfy the basic energy demands of metabolism and photosynthesis, and thus HNF abundance exceeds that of PNF.

  18. Causal analysis of the diversity of medusae in East China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhaoli XU; Mao LIN; Qian GAO

    2008-01-01

    Based on the maritime data collected from 23°30'-33°00' N and 118°30'-128°00' E of the East China Sea (ECS) in four seasons during 1997-2000,the dynamics of medusae diversity and their causes were ana-lyzed.A total of 103 medusae species were identified,and these species mainly distributed in the southern and north-ern offshore areas of the ECS.Species diversity index (H') of medusae was higher in the south than those in the north,higher in summer and winter than in spring and autumn,and higher in offshore than in the nearshore areas.The species number was closely correlated with H' value,whereas the abundance of species had no significant rela-tionship with the diversity index.The lower H' value of the nearshore in spring and autumn resulted from the aggrega-tion of Muggiaea atlantica in the south nearshore and Diphyes chamissonis in the north nearshore.In addition,water temperature,followed by salinity,is the main envir-onmental factor influencing the distribution of species diversity.The H' value was related to the water temperature at the 10 m layer in winter and spring,and it was associated with the surface water temperature in summer and with the 10 m-salinity-layer in autumn.In spring and summer,the isoline distribution of H' value reflected the direction of the Taiwan Warm Current and the variation of the water masses in the ECS.In winter,the isoline of the H' value indicated the incursion of Kuroshio current.In conclusion,the H' isoline is an good indicator for water masses in ECS.

  19. Planting Flags on the Tide: Sovereignty, Containment, and Conflict Resolution in the East and South China Seas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James DeShaw Rae

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The rise of China’s economic and military power is transforming global politics while U.S. strategic interests are re-balancing toward Asia. Meanwhile, tensions over maritime boundaries and island claims within the region are punctuated by police and military stand-offs in the East and South China Seas. This paper considers the discourse surrounding the dispute over sovereignty in the South China Sea. It also examines the roles international law, multilateralism, and traditional diplomacy play in the conflict, and how it serves as a test case for China’s future diplomacy and traditional norms of non-interference and a peaceful rise. Finally, the paper suggests pathways toward conflict resolution of the immediate disputes, including de-territorialized and de-nationalized ideas of possession when it applies to contested yet uninhabited maritime frontiers.

  20. Study on the Seasonal Variation of the Suspended Sediment Distribution and Transportation in the East China Seas Based on SeaWiFS Data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Wenjuan; JIANG Wensheng

    2008-01-01

    The monthly mean suspended sediment concentration in the upper layer of the East China Seas was derived from theretrieval of the monthly binned SeaWiFS Level 3 data during 1998 to 2006.The seasonal variation and spatial distribution of thesuspended sediment concentration in the study area were investigated.It was found that the suspended sediment distribution presentsapparent spatial characteristics and seasonal variations,which are mainly affected by the resuspension and transportation of the sus-pended sediment in the study area.The concentration of suspended sediment is high inshore and low offshore,and river mouths aregenerally high concentration areas.The suspended sediment covers a much wider area in winter than in summer,and for the samesite the concentration is generally higher in winter.In the Yellow and East China Seas the suspended sediment spreads farther to theopen sea in winter than in summer,and May and October are the transitional periods of the extension.Winds,waves,currents,ther-mocline,halocline,pycnocline as well as bottom sediment feature and distribution in the study area are important influencing factorsfor the distribution pattern.If the 10mg L-1 contour line is taken as an indicator,it appears that the transportation of suspended sedi-ment can hardly reach 124°00'E in summer or 126°00'E in winter,which is due to the obstruction of the Taiwan Warm Current andthe Kuroshio Current in the southern Yellow Sea and the East China Sea.

  1. Sediment-Mass Accumulation Rate and Variability in the East China Sea Detected by GRACE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya-Chi Liu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The East China Sea (ECS is a region with shallow continental shelves and a mixed oceanic circulation system allowing sediments to deposit on its inner shelf, particularly near the estuary of the Yangtze River. The seasonal northward-flowing Taiwan Warm Current and southward-flowing China Coastal Current trap sediments from the Yangtze River, which are accumulated over time at rates of up to a few mm/year in equivalent water height. Here, we use the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE gravity products from three data centres to determine sediment mass accumulation rates (MARs and variability on the ECS inner shelf. We restore the atmospheric and oceanic effects to avoid model contaminations on gravity signals associated with sediment masses. We apply destriping and spatial filters to improve the gravity signals from GRACE and use the Global Land Data Assimilation System to reduce land leakage. The GRACE-derived MARs over April 2002–March 2015 on the ECS inner shelf are about 6 mm/year and have magnitudes and spatial patterns consistent with those from sediment-core measurements. The GRACE-derived monthly sediment depositions show variations at time scales ranging from six months to more than two years. Typically, a positive mass balance of sediment deposition occurs in late fall to early winter when the southward coastal currents prevail. A negative mass balance happens in summer when the coastal currents are northward. We identify quasi-biennial sediment variations, which are likely to be caused by quasi-biennial variations in rain and erosion in the Yangtze River basin. We briefly explain the mechanisms of such frequency-dependent variations in the GRACE-derived ECS sediment deposition. There is no clear perturbation on sediment deposition over the ECS inner shelf induced by the Three Gorges Dam. The limitations of GRACE in resolving sediment deposition are its low spatial resolution (about 250 km and possible contaminations by

  2. AIR PRESSURE and Other Data from FIXED PLATFORMS From East China Sea (Tung Hai) and Others from 19750101 to 19841231 (NODC Accession 8900274)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set consists of Tide observations from Qinhuangdao, Yent'Ai, and Moup'Ing in the Yellow Sea, and Xiamen in the East China Sea for the years 1975 to 1984....

  3. Physical and underway data collected aboard the ROGER REVELLE during cruise RR1014 in the East China Sea (Tung Hai) and Philippine Sea from 2010-10-12 to 2010-10-23 (NODC Accession 0089642)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC accession 0089642 includes physical and underway data collected aboard the ROGER REVELLE during cruise RR1014 in the East China Sea (Tung Hai) and Philippine...

  4. Physical, profile and underway data collected aboard the ROGER REVELLE during cruise RR1601 in the East China Sea (Tung Hai) and Philippine Sea from 2016-01-14 to 2016-01-19 (NCEI Accession 0155988)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0155988 includes physical, profile and underway data collected aboard the ROGER REVELLE during cruise RR1601 in the East China Sea (Tung Hai) and...

  5. Effects of the internal waves on the time correlation of the acoustic fields in the East China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Xiaodi; LI Zhenglin; ZHANG Renhe

    2004-01-01

    Internal waves are one of the primary causes of sea water mass variations in shallow water. The time stability of an acoustic channel may be degraded by the activities of internal waves. Based on the oceanographic data of Asian Seas International Acoustics Experiment (ASIAEX), the characteristics of the internal waves in the East China Sea (ECS) are analyzed and the effects of linear and solitary internal waves on broadband acoustic field correlation are numerically investigated. The numerical results of the length of the correlation time affected by the internal waves are compared with the experimental data. It was found that the existence of both linear internal waves and soliton packets may be one of the explanations of the experimental correlation drop.

  6. Distributions and sea-to-air fluxes of chloroform, trichloroethylene, tetrachloroethylene, chlorodibromomethane and bromoform in the Yellow Sea and the East China Sea during spring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Zhen; Yang, Gui-Peng; Lu, Xiao-Lan; Zhang, Hong-Hai

    2013-06-01

    Halocarbons including chloroform (CHCl3), trichloroethylene (C2HCl3), tetrachloroethylene (C2Cl4), chlorodibromomethane (CHBr2Cl) and bromoform (CHBr3) were measured in the Yellow Sea (YS) and the East China Sea (ECS) during spring 2011. The influences of chlorophyll a, salinity and nutrients on the distributions of these gases were examined. Elevated levels of these gases in the coastal waters were attributed to anthropogenic inputs and biological release by phytoplankton. The vertical distributions of these gases in the water column were controlled by different source strengths and water masses. Using atmospheric concentrations measured in spring 2012 and seawater concentrations obtained from this study, the sea-to-air fluxes of these gases were estimated. Our results showed that the emissions of C2HCl3, C2Cl4, CHBr2Cl, and CHBr3 from the study area could account for 16.5%, 10.5%, 14.6%, and 3.5% of global oceanic emissions, respectively, indicating that the coastal shelf may contribute significantly to the global oceanic emissions of these gases.

  7. Pore-water distribution and quantification of diffusive benthic fluxes of nutrients in the Huanghai and East China Seas sediments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The distribution of nitrate, nitrite, ammonia, phosphate and silicate in pore-water and their exchange between sediments and overlying waters (benthic flux) were determined at nine locations on the shelve of Huanghai and East China Seas. On the basis of the redox potential of sediments and nutrients distributions in the pore-waters, it is found that the benthic sediments are being in a suboxic to anoxic environment in the Huanghai and East China Seas. The nutrients distribution in the pore-waters is mainly controlled by the sediment environment, and ammonia is the major inorganic nitrogen in the pore-waters. On the basis of benthic fluxes of untrients calculated using Fick's first law, there is remarkable efflux of ammonia, dissolved inorganic nitrogen(DIN), phosphate and silicate from the sediments to the overlying waters in the study area, and their benthic fluxes are 299.3~2 214.8, 404.4~2 159.5 , 5.5~18.8 and cate for the overlying water. At most stations, the nitrate flux was from the overlying waters to the sediments, which suggests that suboxic organic matter decomposition via denitrification is dominated in the most area of Huanghai and East China Seas. High benthic fluxes appearing in the coastal area and relatively low benthic fluxes occurring in the shelf area are found and are consistent with primary productivity zoning in the study area. On the other hand, the ammonia flux displays an exponential decrease with water depth increase and an exponential increase with the bottom water temperature. However, others do not display this trend.

  8. Current meter components and other data from fixed platforms from the East China Sea (Tung Hai) as part of the United States/Peoples Republic of China Cooperative Study from 03 June 1980 to 04 August 1981 (NODC Accession 8700311)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current meter components data were collected from fixed platforms from the East China Sea (Tung Hai) from 03 June 1980 to 04 August 1981. Data were collected by the...

  9. The large variation in organic carbon consumption in spring in the East China Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.-C. Chen

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available A tremendous amount of organic carbon respired by planktonic communities has been found in summer in the East China Sea (ECS, and this rate has been significantly correlated with fluvial discharge from the Changjiang River. However, data related to this issue in other seasons have rarely been collected. To evaluate and reveal the potential controlling mechanism of organic carbon consumption in spring in the ECS, research using stations covering almost the entire ECS shelf was conducted in the spring of 2009 and 2010. During both periods, the fluvial discharges were similar, and these rates were comparable to high riverine flow in summer. Interestingly, planktonic community respiration (CR varied widely in both springs; in 2009, the level of CR was double that of 2010, with mean (± SD values of 111.7 (± 76.3 and 50.7 (± 62.9 mg C m−3 d−1, respectively. The CR was positively linearly regressed with concentrations of particulate organic carbon and/or chlorophyll a (Chl a in 2009 (all p< 0.01. These results suggest that the rate was dependent on planktonic activities, especially that of phytoplankton, in 2009. During this period, phytoplankton growth flourished due to allochthonous nutrients discharged from the Changjiang River. Furthermore, higher phytoplankton growth leaded to the absorption of an enormous amount of fugacity of CO2 (fCO2 in the surface waters, even with a significant amount of inorganic carbon regenerated via CR. In 2010, there were even more riverine runoff nutrients into the ECS than in 2009. Surprisingly, the growth of phytoplankton in 2010 was not stimulated by enriched nutrients, and its growth was likely limited by low water temperature and/or low light intensity. Low temperature might also suppress planktonic metabolism, and this could explain why the CR was lower in 2010. During this period, lower surface water fCO2 might have

  10. The large variation in organic carbon consumption in spring in the East China Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.-C. Chen

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available A tremendous amount of organic carbon respired by plankton communities has been found in summer in the East China Sea (ECS, and this rate has been significantly correlated with fluvial discharge from the Changjiang River. However, respiration data has rarely been collected in other seasons. To evaluate and reveal the potential controlling mechanism of organic carbon consumption in spring in the ECS, two cruises covering almost the entire ECS shelf were conducted in the spring of 2009 and 2010. These results showed that although the fluvial discharge rates were comparable to the high riverine flow in summer, the plankton community respiration (CR varied widely between the two springs. In 2009, the level of CR was double that of 2010, with mean (± SD values of 111.7 (±76.3 and 50.7 (±62.9 mg C m−3 d−1, respectively. The CR was positively correlated with concentrations of particulate organic carbon and/or chlorophyll a (Chl a in 2009 (all p 2 (fCO2 in the surface waters, even with a significant amount of inorganic carbon regenerated via CR. In 2010, even more riverine runoff nutrients were measured in the ECS than in 2009. Surprisingly, the growth of phytoplankton in 2010 was not stimulated by enriched nutrients, and its growth was likely limited by low water temperature and/or low light intensity. Low temperature might also suppress planktonic metabolism, which could explain why the CR was lower in 2010. During this period, lower surface water fCO2 may have been driven mainly by physical process(es. To conclude, these results indicate that high organic carbon consumption (i.e. CR in the spring of 2009 could be attributed to high planktonic biomasses, and the lower CR rate during the cold spring of 2010 might be likely limited by low temperature in the ECS. This further suggests that the high inter-annual variability of organic carbon consumption needs to be kept in mind when budgeting the annual carbon balance.

  11. Dynamics of autotrophic marine planktonic thaumarchaeota in the East China Sea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anyi Hu

    Full Text Available The ubiquitous and abundant distribution of ammonia-oxidizing Thaumarchaeota in marine environments is now well documented, and their crucial role in the global nitrogen cycle has been highlighted. However, the potential contribution of Thaumarchaeota in the carbon cycle remains poorly understood. Here we present for the first time a seasonal investigation on the shelf region (bathymetry≤200 m of the East China Sea (ECS involving analysis of both thaumarchaeal 16S rRNA and autotrophy-related genes (acetyl-CoA carboxylase gene, accA. Quantitative PCR results clearly showed a higher abundance of thaumarchaeal 16S and accA genes in late-autumn (November than summer (August, whereas the diversity and community structure of autotrophic Thaumarchaeota showed no statistically significant difference between different seasons as revealed by thaumarchaeal accA gene clone libraries. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that shallow ecotypes dominated the autotrophic Thaumarchaeota in the ECS shelf (86.3% of total sequences, while a novel non-marine thaumarchaeal accA lineage was identified in the Changjiang estuary in summer (when freshwater plumes become larger but not in autumn, implying that Changjiang freshwater discharge played a certain role in transporting terrestrial microorganisms to the ECS. Multivariate statistical analysis indicated that the biogeography of the autotrophic Thaumarchaeota in the shelf water of the ECS was influenced by complex hydrographic conditions. However, an in silico comparative analysis suggested that the diversity and abundance of the autotrophic Thaumarchaeota might be biased by the 'universal' thaumarchaeal accA gene primers Cren529F/Cren981R since this primer set is likely to miss some members within particular phylogenetic groups. Collectively, this study improved our understanding of the biogeographic patterns of the autotrophic Thaumarchaeota in temperate coastal waters, and suggested that new accA primers with

  12. Quantifying coastal connectivity of coral spawn and larvae around Ryukyu Islands in the East China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odani, S.; Uchiyama, Y.; Kashima, M.; Kamidaira, Y.; Mitarai, S.

    2016-12-01

    Ryukyu Islands in the East China Sea are in a subtropical climate, hosting desirable environment for abundant coral ecosystem. Okinawa Main Island is the most densely populated island among them with tremendous tourist attractions including enchanting coral reefs and beaches. Kamidaira et al. (2016) suggested that the Kuroshio warm water maintains warmer water temperature favorable to corals around the island due mainly to intermittent eddy heat transport. It is presumed that the Kuroshio and associated eddy mixing also promote the transport and dispersal of coral spawn and larvae across the islands, whereas the area has suffered from coral breeching in the recent decades. Therefore, for optimal preservation and protection of the coral habitats around Ryukyu Island, we conduct a double nested high-resolution synoptic ocean modeling using ROMS with grid spacing down to 1 km coupled with an offline Lagrangian particle tracking model to investigate dispersal of coral spawn and larvae released from about 20 major islands and lagoons. Based on the model outcome, we quantify connectivity using Lagrangian probability density functions (PDFs) of the Lagrangian particles (e.g., Mitarai et al., 2009) among Ryukyu Islands. We then focus on the larval dispersal released from Sekisei Lagoon in Yaeyama Islands close to Taiwan, where we have carried out a series of in-situ surface drifter measurement. To compare the observation with the model, 160 source and sink patches with a diameter of 3 km are defined around Sekisei Lagoon and Okinawa Main Island for quantification of the detailed connectivity between them. The advection time is assumed for no more than 3 weeks to represent the lifespan of coral spawn and larvae. A PDF analysis suggests that the particles mostly remain near the released areas with predominant clockwise circulation around the lagoon, while approximately less than 5 % of particles are trapped and transported northeastward in long distance by the Kuroshio. The

  13. Classification and origin of natural gases from Lishui Sag,the East China Sea Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Natural gases discovered up to now in Lishui Sag,the East China Sea Basin,differ greatly in gaseous compositions,of which hydrocarbon gases amount to 2%―94%while non-hydrocarbon gases are dominated by CO2.Their hydrocarbon gases,without exception,contain less than 90%of methane and over 10%of C2 + heavier hydrocarbons,indicating a wet gas.Carbon isotopic analyses on these hydrocarbon gases showed thatδ13C 1 ,δ13C 2 andδ13C 3 are basically lighter than-44‰,-29‰and-26‰, respectively.The difference in carbon isotopic values between methane and ethane is great,suggesting a biogenic oil-type gas produced by the mixed organic matter at peak generation.δ13C CO2 values of nonhydrocarbon gases are all heavier than-10‰,indicating a typical abiogenic gas.The simulation experiment on hydrocarbon generation of organic matter in a closed gold-tube system showed that the proportion of methane in natural gases produced by terrigenous organic matter in the Lingfeng Formation marine deposit is obviously higher than that in natural gases derived from the aquatic and terrigenous mixed organic matter in the Yueguifeng Formation lacustrine deposit,consequently the proportion of heavier hydrocarbons of the former is remarkably lower than that of the latter.Moreover, δ13C 1 values of natural gases produced by terrigenous organic matter in the Lingfeng Formation marine deposit are about 5‰heavier than those of natural gases derived from the aquatic and terrigenous mixed organic matter in the Yueguifeng Formation lacustrine deposit whileδ13C 2 andδ13C 3 values of the former are over 9‰heavier than those of the latter.Currently the LS36-1 oil-gas pool is the only commercial oil-gas reservoir in Lishui Sag,where carbon isotopic compositions of various hydrocarbon components differ greatly from those of natural gases produced by the Lingfeng Formation organic matter but are very similar to those of natural gases derived from the Yueguifeng Formation organic matter

  14. Carbonate mineral saturation states in the East China Sea: present conditions and future scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.-C. Chou

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available To assess the impact of rising atmospheric CO2 and eutrophication on the carbonate chemistry of the East China Sea shelf waters, saturation states (Ω for two important biologically relevant carbonate minerals – calcite (Ωc and aragonite (Ωa – were calculated throughout the water column from dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC and total alkalinity (TA data collected in spring and summer of 2009. Results show that the highest Ωc (∼9.0 and Ωa (∼5.8 values were found in surface water of the Changjiang plume area in summer, whereas the lowest values (Ωc = ∼2.7 and Ωa = ∼1.7 were concurrently observed in the bottom water of the same area. This divergent behavior of saturation states in surface and bottom waters was driven by intensive biological production and strong stratification of the water column. The high rate of phytoplankton production, stimulated by the enormous nutrient discharge from the Changjiang, acts to decrease the ratio of DIC to TA, and thereby increases Ω values. In contrast, remineralization of organic matter in the bottom water acts to increase the DIC to TA ratio, and thus decreases Ω values. The projected result shows that continued increases of atmospheric CO2 under the IS92a emission scenario will decrease Ω values by 40–50% by the end of this century, but both the surface and bottom waters will remain supersaturated with respect to calcite and aragonite. Nevertheless, superimposed on such Ω decrease is the increasing eutrophication, which would mitigate or enhance the Ω decline caused by anthropogenic CO2 uptake in surface and bottom waters, respectively. Our simulation reveals that, under the combined impact of eutrophication and augmentation of atmospheric CO2, the bottom water of the Changjiang plume area will become undersaturated with respect to aragonite (Ωa = ∼0.8 by the end of this century, which would threaten the health of the benthic ecosystem.

  15. Evaluation and fusion of SST data from MTSAT and TMI in East China Sea, Yellow Sea and Bohai Sea in 2008

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Yumei; SHEN Hui; CUI Xuesen; YANG Shenglong; FAN Wei

    2012-01-01

    Two typical satellite sea surface temperature (SST) datasets,from the Multi-functional Transport Satellite (MTSAT) and Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission Microwave Imager (TMI),were evaluated for the East China Sea,Yellow Sea,and Bohai Sea throughout 2008.Most monthly-mean availabilities of MTSAT are higher than those of TMI,whereas the seasonal variation of the latter is less than that of the former.The analysis on the one-year data shows that the annual mean availability of MTSAT (61%) is greater than that of TMI (56%).This is mainly because MTSAT is a geostationary satellite,which achieves longer observation than the sun-synchronous TMI.The daily availability of TMI (28%-75%) is more constant than that of MTSAT (9%-93%).The signal of infrared sensors on MTSAT is easily disturbed on cloudy days.In contrast,the TMI microwave sensor can obtain information through clouds.Based on in-situ SSTs,the SST accuracy of TMI is superior to that of MTSAT.In 2008,the root mean square (RMS)error of TMI and MTSAT were 0.77 K and 0.84 K,respectively.The annual mean biases were 0.14 K (TMI) and -0.31 K (MTSAT).To attain a high availability of SSTs,we propose a fusion method to merge both SSTs.The annual mean availability of fusion SSTs increases 17% compared to MTSAT.In addition,the availabilities of the fusion SSTs become more constant.The annual mean RMS and bias of fusion SSTs (0.78 K and -0.06 K,respectively) are better than those of MTSAT (0.84 K and -0.31 K).

  16. Detection and temporal variation of (60)Co in the digestive glands of the common octopus, Octopus vulgaris, in the East China Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morita, Takami; Otosaka, Shigeyoshi; Fujimoto, Ken; Nishiuchi, Kou; Kimoto, Katsunori; Yamada, Haruya; Kasai, Hiromi; Minakawa, Masayuki; Yoshida, Katsuhiko

    2010-08-01

    (60)Co were detected in common octopus specimens collected in the East China Sea in 1996-2005. The source of (60)Co has remained unclear yet. Stable isotope analyses showed that there was no difference in stable Co concentrations between octopus samples with (60)Co and without (60)Co. This result showed that the stable Co in the digestive gland of octopus potentially did not include a trace amount of (60)Co and the source of (60)Co existed independently. Furthermore, investigations of octopus in other area and other species indicated that the origin of the source of (60)Co occurred locally in the restricted area in the East China Sea and not in the coastal area of Japan. Concentrations of (60)Co have annually decreased with shorter half-life than the physical half-life. This decrease tendency suggests that the sources of (60)Co were identical and were temporary dumped into the East China Sea as a solid waste.

  17. Bottom-up and top-down controls on picoplankton in the East China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, C.; Liu, H.; Zheng, L.; Song, S.; Chen, B.; Huang, B.

    2013-05-01

    Dynamics of picoplankton population distribution in the East China Sea (ECS), a marginal sea in the western North Pacific Ocean, were studied during two "CHOICE-C" cruises in August 2009 (summer) and January 2010 (winter). Dilution experiments were conducted during the two cruises to investigate the growth and grazing among picophytoplantkon populations. Picoplankton accounted for an average of ~29% (2% to 88%) of community carbon biomass in the ECS on average, with lower percentages in plume region than in shelf and kuroshio regions. Averaged growth rates (μ) for Prochlorococcus (Pro), Synechococcus (Syn) and picoeukaryotes (peuk) were 0.36, 0.89, 0.90 d-1, respectively, in summer, and 0.46, 0.58, 0.56 d-1, respectively, in winter. Seawater salinity and nutrient availability exerted significant controls on picoplankton growth rate. Averaged grazing mortality (m) were 0.46, 0.63, 0.68 d-1 in summer, and 0.22, 0.32, 0.22 d-1 in winter for Pro, Syn and peuk respectively. The three populations demonstrated very different distribution patterns regionally and seasonally affected by both bottom-up and top-down controls. In summer, Pro, Syn and peuk were dominant in Kuroshio, transitional and plume regions respectively. Protist grazing consumed 84%, 78%, 73% and 45%, 47%, 57% of production for Pro, Syn and peuk in summer and winter respectively, suggesting more significant top-down controls in summer. In winter, all three populations tended to distribute in offshore regions, although the area of coverage was different (peuk > Syn > Pro). Bottom-up factors can explain as much as 91.5%, 82% and 81.2% of Pro, Syn and peuk abundance variance in winter, while only 59.1% and 43.7% for Pro and peuk in summer. Regionally, Yangtze River discharge plays a significant role in affecting the intensity of top-down control, indicated by significant and negative association between salinity and grazing mortality of all three populations and higher grazing mortality to growth rate ratio

  18. Bottom-up and top-down controls on picoplankton in the East China Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Guo

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Dynamics of picoplankton population distribution in the East China Sea (ECS, a marginal sea in the western North Pacific Ocean, were studied during two "CHOICE-C" cruises in August 2009 (summer and January 2010 (winter. Dilution experiments were conducted during the two cruises to investigate the growth and grazing among picophytoplantkon populations. Picoplankton accounted for an average of ~29% (2% to 88% of community carbon biomass in the ECS on average, with lower percentages in plume region than in shelf and kuroshio regions. Averaged growth rates (μ for Prochlorococcus (Pro, Synechococcus (Syn and picoeukaryotes (peuk were 0.36, 0.89, 0.90 d−1, respectively, in summer, and 0.46, 0.58, 0.56 d−1, respectively, in winter. Seawater salinity and nutrient availability exerted significant controls on picoplankton growth rate. Averaged grazing mortality (m were 0.46, 0.63, 0.68 d−1 in summer, and 0.22, 0.32, 0.22 d−1 in winter for Pro, Syn and peuk respectively. The three populations demonstrated very different distribution patterns regionally and seasonally affected by both bottom-up and top-down controls. In summer, Pro, Syn and peuk were dominant in Kuroshio, transitional and plume regions respectively. Protist grazing consumed 84%, 78%, 73% and 45%, 47%, 57% of production for Pro, Syn and peuk in summer and winter respectively, suggesting more significant top-down controls in summer. In winter, all three populations tended to distribute in offshore regions, although the area of coverage was different (peuk > Syn > Pro. Bottom-up factors can explain as much as 91.5%, 82% and 81.2% of Pro, Syn and peuk abundance variance in winter, while only 59.1% and 43.7% for Pro and peuk in summer. Regionally, Yangtze River discharge plays a significant role in affecting the intensity of top-down control, indicated by significant and negative association between salinity and grazing mortality of all three populations and higher grazing mortality to

  19. WAVE CURRENT FORCES ON THE PILE GROUP OF BASE FOUNDATION FOR THE EAST SEA BRIDGE, CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    On the basis of the two structures of the bridge foundation designed for the East Sea Bridge, the wave current forces on four types of oblique piles, the pile group and the single piles at different positions in the pile group considering the effect of the super structures were experimentally investigated. The relationship between the wave current forces and the associated wave parameters, and the comparison of the wave current forces on the pile groups and the single piles were systematically analyzed. The group effectiveness and the reduction coefficient for the wave current forces on the group were examined for engineering design.

  20. Molecular identification of Anisakis and Hysterothylacium larvae in marine fishes from the East China Sea and the Pacific coast of central Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Qingming; Fan, Lanfen; Zhang, Junhe; Akao, Nobuaki; Dong, Kewei; Lou, Di; Ding, Jianzu; Tong, Qunbo; Zheng, Bin; Chen, Rui; Ohta, Nobuo; Lu, Shaohong

    2015-04-16

    Anisakiasis is a human disease caused by the accidental ingestion of larvae belonging to the family Anisakidae. Three fish species, the small yellow croaker Pseudosciaena polyactis, the mackerel Pneumatophorus japonicus and the hairtail Trichiurus haumela are important source for food products in the East China Sea. The prevalence and the identification of Anisakidae larvae in these fishes will benefit the prevention and control of anisakiasis. In this study, fish samples were obtained from fish markers in the East China Sea and the Pacific coast of central Japan during April 2011 and July 2013. For species identification, the PCR-based restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis of the entire ITS region (ITS1, 5.8 S and ITS2) of nuclear ribosomal DNA (rDNA) was performed. In total, 2004 larvae were collected from 80 hairtail fish, 20 small yellow croaker, and 27 mackerel from the East China Sea and the Pacific coast of central Japan. High prevalence of Anisakidae larvae infection (116/122, 95.1%) was detected in the East China Sea. Seven species were identified belonging to the genera Anisakis (Nematoda: Anisakidae) and Hysterothylacium (Nematoda: Anisakidae). Anisakis pegreffii was the predominant species accounting for 84.8% of all larvae examined in East China Sea, while all Anisakidae larvae isolated from Japan were identified as Anisakis simplex sensu stricto (s.s.). In the East China Sea, A. simplex s.s. and Anisakis typica were 0.6% (4/619) and 1.5% (9/619) of the identified nematodes, respectively. Interestingly, one larva was identified as a recombinant genotype of A. simplex s.s. and A. pegreffii. In addition, four species of the genus Hysterothylacium, namely, Hysterothylacium amoyense (31/619, 5.0%), Hysterothylacium aduncum (10/619, 1.6%), Hysterothylacium fabri (21/619, 3.4%) and Hysterothylacium spp. (18/619, 2.9%) were also identified in the present study. This is a comprehensive epidemiological dataset for the family Anisakidae in

  1. Seasonal circulation patterns of the Yellow and East China Seas derived from satellite-tracked drifter trajectories and hydrographic observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lie, Heung-Jae; Cho, Cheol-Ho

    2016-08-01

    We investigated seasonal circulation patterns of the Yellow and East China Seas (YECS), by reviewing previous works on the circulation and its dominant currents, and taking into account newly-compiled trajectories of satellite-tracked drifters collected between the 1980s and 2000s. The circulation patterns suggested before the 1990s can be categorized into two groups, depending on the identified origin of the Tsushima Warm Current in the Korea-Tsushima Straits: (i) branching from the Kuroshio southwest of Kyushu, or (ii) northeastward continuation of the Taiwan Strait throughflow. The branching of the Kuroshio southwest of Kyushu and northeast of Taiwan was clearly evidenced by current measurements and concurrent hydrographic surveys. However, there is still no clear evidence for the northeastward pathway of Taiwan Strait throughflow across the mid-shelf area of the East China Sea. Target-oriented surveys in the 1990s and 2000s employing advanced instruments, such as drifter tracking and acoustic Doppler current profiler measurements, now provide decisive proof of the clockwise rounding of the Cheju Warm Current around Jeju-do throughout the year, of the northeastward extension of Changjiang discharge in summer, and of the presence of the Yellow Sea Warm Current only in winter. Thus, both coastal currents in shallow water and secondary branch currents of the Kuroshio (such as the Yellow Sea Warm Current) are found to significantly change from winter to summer. To better present the basic pattern of YECS circulation and its seasonality, we have constructed seasonal circulations patterns, based on review results, on the newly-compiled drifter trajectories, and on hydrographic observations. Further investigations should be carried out in future, with support of comprehensive current measurements on shelf areas and through elaborate numerical modeling.

  2. [Effect of stock abundance and environmental factors on the recruitment success of small yellow croaker in the East China Sea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zun-lei; Yuan, Xing-wei; Yang, Lin-lin; Yan, Li-ping; Zhang, Hui; Cheng, Jia-hua

    2015-02-01

    Multiple hypotheses are available to explain recruitment rate. Model selection methods can be used to identify the best model that supports a particular hypothesis. However, using a single model for estimating recruitment success is often inadequate for overexploited population because of high model uncertainty. In this study, stock-recruitment data of small yellow croaker in the East China Sea collected from fishery dependent and independent surveys between 1992 and 2012 were used to examine density-dependent effects on recruitment success. Model selection methods based on frequentist (AIC, maximum adjusted R2 and P-values) and Bayesian (Bayesian model averaging, BMA) methods were applied to identify the relationship between recruitment and environment conditions. Interannual variability of the East China Sea environment was indicated by sea surface temperature ( SST) , meridional wind stress (MWS), zonal wind stress (ZWS), sea surface pressure (SPP) and runoff of Changjiang River ( RCR). Mean absolute error, mean squared predictive error and continuous ranked probability score were calculated to evaluate the predictive performance of recruitment success. The results showed that models structures were not consistent based on three kinds of model selection methods, predictive variables of models were spawning abundance and MWS by AIC, spawning abundance by P-values, spawning abundance, MWS and RCR by maximum adjusted R2. The recruitment success decreased linearly with stock abundance (P runoff of Changjiang River showed a marginally negative effect (P = 0.07). Based on mean absolute error and continuous ranked probability score, predictive error associated with models obtained from BMA was the smallest amongst different approaches, while that from models selected based on the P-value of the independent variables was the highest. However, mean squared predictive error from models selected based on the maximum adjusted R2 was highest. We found that BMA method could

  3. Possible Impacts of Barents Sea Ice on the Eurasian Atmospheric Circulation and the Rainfall of East China in the Beginning of Summer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王嘉; 郭裕福

    2004-01-01

    Possible influences of the Barents Sea ice anomalies on the Eurasian atmospheric circulation and the East China precipitation distribution in the late spring and early summer (May-June) are investigated by analyzing the observational data and the output of an atmospheric general circulation model (AGCM).The study indicates that the sea ice condition of the Barents Sea from May to July may be interrelated with the atmospheric circulation of June. When there is more than average sea ice in the Barents Sea, the local geopotential height of the 500-hPa level will decrease, and the same height in the Lake Baikal and Okhotsk regions will increase and decrease respectively to form a wave-chain structure over North Eurasia.This kind of anomalous height pattern is beneficial to more precipitation in the south part of East China and less in the north.

  4. Microphysical Characteristics of Sea Fog over the East Coast of Leizhou Peninsula, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Lijuan; NIU Shengjie; ZHANG Yu; XU Feng

    2013-01-01

    Microphysical properties of sea fog and correlations of these properties were analyzed based on the measurements from a comprehensive field campaign carried out from 15 March to 18 April 2010 on Donghai Island (21°35″N,110°32′5″E) in Zhanjiang,Guangdong Province,China.There were four types of circulation pattern in favor of sea fog events in this area identified,and the synoptic weather pattern was found to influence the microphysical properties of the sea fogs.Those influenced by a warm sector in front of a cold front or the anterior part of low pressure were found to usually have a much longer duration,lower visibility,greater liquid water content,and bigger fog droplet sizes.A fog droplet number concentration of N> 1 cm-3 and liquid water content of L≥0.001 g m-3 can be used to define sea fogs in this area.The type of fog droplet size distribution of the sea fog events was mostly monotonically-decreasing,with the spectrum width always being >20 μ.m.The significant temporal variation of N was due in large part to the number concentration variation of fog droplets with radius <3 μm.A strong collection process appeared when droplet spectrum width was >10 μm,which subsequently led to the sudden increase of droplet spectrum width.The dominant physical process during the sea fog events was activation with subsequent condensational growth or reversible evaporation processes,but turbulent mixing also played an important role.The collection process occurred,but was not vital.

  5. India and the South China Sea Dispute

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ma Jiali

    2012-01-01

    South China Sea is a sea area of great significance. It lies between the Pacific and Indian Oceans, a crucial waterway bridging East Asia, Southeast Asia and South Asia. In general, South China Sea is a rich deposit of oil and fishing resources, a transportation hub of strategic importance, and an important buffer zone to safeguard China's maritime rights and interests.

  6. On the Holocene sea-level highstand along the Yangtze Delta and Ningshao Plain, East China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Cheng; ZHENG Chaogui; MA Chunmei; YANG Xiaoxuan; GAO Xizhen; WANG Haiming; SHAO Jiuhua

    2003-01-01

    The temporal-spatial distribution of Neolithic sites shows a long period of absence of human settlements during the early Holocene on the Yangtze Delta, and the area has not been colonized until 7000 aBP, corresponding to the onset of the Majiabang culture. Besides the regions east to the sandbar of Maqiao Site in Shanghai, foraminifera are not found in Neolithic cultural layers since 7000 aBP, indicating a widespread transgression between 10000 and 7000 aBP. Evidence of radiocarbon-dated cultural relics, foraminifera and pollen records from the Hemudu Site suggests that the Hemudu culture emerged and developed during the mid-Holocene Climatic Optimum. Therefore, the hypothesis of a mid-Holocene sea-level highstand along the Yangtze Delta and Ningshao Plain from 7000 to 5000 aBP is an open debate. New evidence from archaeological excavations and bio-stratigraphy suggests that, prior to 7000 aBP, a high sea level occurred along the Ningshao Plain. Subsequently, the sea level was lowered between 7000 and 5000 aBP, and the area suffered from frequent floods from 5000 to 3900 aBP.

  7. Formation of post-spreading volcanic ridges in the East sub-basin of the South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, E.; Zhao, M.; Sibuet, J. C.; Tan, P.; Wang, J.; Qiu, X.

    2016-12-01

    In the South China Sea (SCS), the post-spreading magmatism ( 3-13 Ma) largely masks the initial seafloor spreading fabric. The resulting post-spreading seamounts are more numerous in the northern part than in the southern part of the East sub-basin. In the eastern part of the East sub-basin, the post-spreading volcanic ridge (PSVR) is approximately N055° oriented and follows the extinct spreading ridge (ESR). In the western part of the East sub-basin, the PSVR, called the Zhenbei-Huangyan seamounts chain, is E-W oriented and hides the ESR (Sibuet et al., 2016). We conducted a seismic refraction survey covering both the Zhenbei-Huangyan seamount chain and the location of the adjacent ESR. Three E-W oriented profiles and one N-S oriented profile are parallel and perpendicular to the Zhenbei-Huangyan seamounts chain, respectively. Our research is focused on the understanding of the relationship between the crustal thicknesses and crustal seismic velocities. The detailed velocity structure shows that the Zhenbei-Huangyan seamount chain was emplaced through a typical oceanic crust. Crustal thicknesses and seismic velocities suggest an asymmetric generation of seamounts in the East sub-basin, where active upwelling mantle (Holbrook et al., 2001) or buoyancy-driven decompression melting happened (Castillo et al., 2010). The Zhenbei and Huangyan seamounts were probably formed 3-5 Ma and 7-9 Ma, after seafloor spreading cessation; their thickened lower crusts were probably due to magmatic intrusions associated with a high-velocity layer (7.4-7.6 km/s),and their large thickness of upper crust were mainly due to volcanic extrusions. These two seamounts presents a different structural orientation and their crustal thicknesses are different, suggesting an independent origin for their magmatic feeding. This research was granted by the Natural Science Foundation of China (91428204, 91028002, 41176053).

  8. REEXAMINATION OF THE ROLE OF VERTICAL CIRCULATION IN SEDIMENTATION IN THE YELLOW AND EAST CHINA SEAS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Based on figures available, role of upwelling in some fine sediment patches on China Sea shelves is examined from the viewpoints of physical process and biological process, respectively. It is further vertified with more data wherever upwelling exists on continental shelf mud must occur-coincidence of upwelling areas with mud patches. Marine rain is named for physical process and marine snow is used as usual. It is pointed out that marine rain and marine snow are usually coexistent and interact each other. It is concluded that the mud patch southeast of Cheju Is. is formed by marine rain rather than marine snow since terrigenous elements are high and biogenic elements are not and that judging from sediment trap data the mud in the Okinawa Trough is accumulated by horizontal transport via wind-driven transverse circulation from inner shelf in winter and by vertical flux through biological activities (marine snow) and aeolian deposit in spring.   A number of controversies on fine sediment issues on China Sea shelves need to be further deliberated. Interaction between marine rain and snow also needs to be experimentally and theoretically studied.

  9. Crust and upper mantle structure in east China and sea areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Eastern China and vicinal sea areas (98°~150°E, 5°~50°N) are located in the junction zone of Eurasian and Pacific plates, and it is also profoundly influenced by the collision between Indian and Eurasian plates. We utilized surface wave data recorded by 35 digital seismic stations in the area, extracted dispersion curves of fundamental-mode Rayleigh waves along 1 252 paths by means of time-frequency analysis based on multiple-filter and other tech-niques. The study area was divided into a grid of 1°′1°, group velocity distributions of fundamental Rayleigh waves between 10~158 s were determined by Occam¢s inversion. These velocity distributions roughly depict the lateral variations of shear wave velocities in different depth ranges. With the determined pure path dispersions we further inverted for the S wave velocity structures along two profiles from eastern Tibet to Pacific Ocean and from South China Sea to Mongolia. It is found that the lateral heterogeneity is obvious down to 400 km depth, and the velocity structures are correlated with tectonic units in the study area.

  10. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from RYOFU MARU in the Bismarck Sea, East China Sea and others from 1989-11-17 to 1995-03-07 (NODC Accession 0116982)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0116982 includes Surface underway data collected from RYOFU MARU in the Bismarck Sea, East China Sea (Tung Hai), North Pacific Ocean, Philippine Sea,...

  11. Impact of the exceptionally high flood from the Changjiang River on the aquatic chemical distributions on the Huanghai Sea and East China Sea shelves in the summer of 1998

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Baodong; WANG Xiulin

    2006-01-01

    On the basis of the field observation in the Huanghai Sea and East China Sea in the summer of 1998, a rare event of exceptionally high discharge from the Changjiang River was described and how this high discharge altered water masses as well as chemical distributions on the shelves of the Huanghai Sea and East China Sea. The maximal extending ranges of the Changjiang diluted water and the nutrients in the freshwater from the Changjiang River were recorded for the first time. It was also found that there was a closed area with high oxygen and pH values in the offshore area of the southern Huanghai Sea and the northern East China Sea, indicating that the extensive spreading of nutrients due to the high discharge led to photosynthesis of phytoplankton mostly taking place in the offshore area far from the river mouth. The presence of "excess nitrogen" in almost all the northern East China Sea and the south of the Huanghai Sea suggests that these areas are potentially phosphorus-limited rather than nitrogen-limited, manifesting more like an estuarine ecosystem rather than a common marine ecosystem.

  12. Characteristics of elemental and Pb isotopic compositions in aerosols (PM10-2.5) at the Ieodo Ocean Research Station in the East China Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sanghee; Han, Changhee; Shin, Daechol; Hur, Soon Do; Jun, Seong Joon; Kim, Young-Taeg; Byun, Do-Seong; Hong, Sungmin

    2017-08-08

    A total of 82 aerosol samples (PM10-2.5) were collected from June 18, 2015 to October 1, 2016 at the remote sea site, the Ieodo Ocean Research Station (IORS), in the East China Sea. Samples were analyzed for 10 elements (Al, Fe, Cu, Zn, As, Mo, Cd, Sb, Tl, and Pb) as well as Pb isotopic composition to characterize temporal variations in elemental concentration levels, and to identify the potential source regions of atmospheric pollutants transported over the remote East China Sea. The results showed that the annual average element concentrations were lowest compared to those at different sites in East Asia, suggesting a very clean background area of IORS, with values ranging from 114 ng m(-3) for Al to 0.045 ng m(-3) for Tl. Concentrations averaged seasonally for all the elements revealed the highest levels occurring between winter and spring, and the lowest levels in summer. High enrichment factors (EF) of more than 100 for trace elements suggest that these elements originated mostly from anthropogenic sources. Coupling the Pb isotopic composition with a back trajectory analysis identified the potential source regions for each sample. Our approach identified China as a dominant contributor affecting atmospheric composition changes at IORS, the remote area of the East China Sea. As the largest anthropogenic emission source in East Asia, China contributed to almost 100% of the elemental concentration levels in winter and spring, ∼53% in summer and ∼63% in autumn. Because IORS's ambient air is sensitive to even slight changes in pollutant loading due to the significantly low pollution levels, long-term monitoring of air quality at IORS will provide invaluable information on the progress and efforts of atmospheric pollution management linked to emission controls in East Asian countries, especially China. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Geochemical and isotopic characteristics of volcanic rocks from the northern East China Sea shelf margin and the Okinawa Trough

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZENG Zhigang; YU Shaoxiong; WANG Xiaoyuan; FU Yongtao; YIN Xuebo; ZHANG Guoliang; WANG Xiaomei; CHEN Shuai

    2010-01-01

    Volcanic rocks both from the northern East China Sea (NECS) shelf margin and the northern Okinawa Trough are subalkaline less aluminous,and lower in High Field Strength Elements (HFSE).These rocks are higher in Large Ion Lithophile Elements (LILE),thorium and uranium contents,positive lead anomalies,negative Nb-Ta anomalies,and enrichment in Light Rare Earth Elements (LREE).Basalts from the NECS shelf margin are akin to Indian Ocean Mid-Ocean Ridge Basalt (MORB),and rhyolites from the northern Okinawa Trough have the highest 207Pb/204Pb and 208Pb/204Pb ratios.The NECS shelf margin basalts have lower 87Sr/86Sr ratios,εNd and σ18O than the northern Okinawa Trough silicic rocks.According to 40K-40Ar isotopic ages of basalts from the NECS shelf margin,rifting of the Okinawa Trough may have been active since at least 3.65-3.86 Ma.The origin of the NECS shelf margin basalt can be explained by the interaction of melt derived from Indian Ocean MORB-like mantle with enriched subcontinental lithosphere.The basalts from both sides of the Okinawa Trough may have a similar origin during the initial rifting of the Okinawa Trough,and the formation of basaltic magmas closely relates to the thinning of continental crust.The source of the formation of the northern Okinawa Trough silicic rocks was different from that of the middle Okinawa Trough,which could have been generated by the interaction of basaltic melt with an enriched crustal component.From the Ryukyu island arc to East China,the Cenozoic basalts have apparently increasing trends of MgO contents and ratios of LREE to Heavy Rare Earth Elements (HREE),suggesting that the trace element variabilities of basalts may have been influenced by the subduction of the Philippine Sea plate,and that the effects of subduction of the Philippine Sea plate on the chemical composition of basaltic melts have had a decreasing effect from the Ryukyu island arc to East China.

  14. Clay mineral records of East Asian monsoon evolution during late Quaternary in the southern South China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Zhifei; C. Colin; A. Trentesaux; D. Blamart

    2005-01-01

    High-resolution clay mineral records combined with oxygen isotopic stratigraphy over the past 190 ka during late Quaternary from core MD01-2393 off the Mekong River in the southern South China Sea are reported to reconstruct a history of East Asian monsoon evolution.The dominating clay mineral components indicate a strong glacial-interglacial cyclicity, with high glacial illite, chlorite, and kaolinite contents and high interglacial smectites content. The provenance analysis indicates the direct input of clay minerals via the Mekong River drainage basin.Illite and chlorite derived mainly from the upper reach of the Mekong River, where physical erosion of meta-sedimentary rocks is dominant. Kaolinite derived mainly from active erosion of inhered clays from reworked sediments in the middle reaches. Smectites originated mainly through bisiallitic soils in the middle to lower reaches of the Mekong River. The smectites/(illite+chlorite)and smectites/kaolinite ratios are determined as mineralogical indicators of East Asian monsoon variations. Relatively high ratios occur during interglacials and indicate strengthened summer-monsoon rainfall and weakened winter-monsoon winds; relatively lower ratios happened in glacials, indicating intensified winter monsoon and weakened summer monsoon. The evolution of the summer and winter monsoons provides an almost linear response to the summer insolation of the Northern Hemisphere, implying an astronomical forcing of the East Asian monsoon evolution.

  15. Study on interaction between the coastal water,shelf water and Kuroshio water in the Huanghai Sea and East China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Binghuo Guo; Xiaomin Hu; Xuejun Xiong; Renfeng Ge

    2003-01-01

    The main processes of interaction between the coastal water, shelf water and Kuroshiowater in the Huanghai Sea (HS) and East China Sea (ECS) are analyzed based on the observation andstudy results in recent years. These processes include the intrusion of the Kuroshio water into the shelfarea of the ECS, the entrainment of the shelf water into the Kuroshio, the seasonal process in the south-em shelf area of the ECS controlled alternatively by the Taiwan Strait water and the Kuroshio water in-truding into the shelf area, the interaction between the Kuroshio branch water, shelf mixed water andmodified coastal water in the northeastern ECS, the water-exchange between the HS and ECS and thespread of the Changjiang diluted water.

  16. Synthesis of observed air–sea CO2 exchange fluxes in the river-dominated East China Sea and improved estimates of annual and seasonal net mean fluxes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.-M. Tseng

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Limited observations exist for reliable assessment of annual CO2 uptake that takes into consideration the strong seasonal variation in the river-dominated East China Sea (ECS. Here we explore seasonally representative CO2 uptakes by the whole East China Sea derived from observations over a 14 yr period. We firstly identified the biological sequestration of CO2 taking place in the highly productive, nutrient-enriched Changjiang river plume, dictated by the Changjiang river discharge in warm seasons. We have therefore established an empirical algorithm as a function of sea surface temperature (SST and Changjiang river discharge (CRD for predicting sea surface pCO2. Synthesis based on both observation and model show that the annually averaged CO2 uptake from atmosphere during 1998–2011 was constrained to about 1.9 mol C m–2 yr–1. This assessment of annual CO2 uptake is more reliable and representative, compared to previous estimates, in terms of temporal and spatial coverage. Additionally, the CO2 time-series, exhibiting distinct seasonal pattern, gives mean fluxes of −3.0, −1.0, −0.9 and −2.5 mol C m–2 yr–1 in spring, summer, fall and winter, respectively, and also reveals apparent inter-annual variations. The flux seasonality shows a strong sink in spring and a weak source in late summer-early fall. The weak sink status during warm periods in summer-fall is fairly sensitive to changes of pCO2 and may easily shift from a sink to a source altered by environmental changes under climate change and anthropogenic forcing.

  17. A new algorithm based on the background field for red tide monitoring in the East China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Xiaohui; PAN Delu; MAO Zhihua; TAO Bangyi

    2014-01-01

    Remote sensing has been proven to be an effective means of monitoring red tides. The spectral information is an important basis for establishing a model to monitor red tides. The spectral curves of red tide events are analyzed and compared with multiyear monthly averaged spectral curves based on MODIS data from July 2002 to June 2012, as well as spectral differences at the same location during red tide presence and ab-sence. A red tide monitoring algorithm is developed based on the background field to extract the red tide information of the East China Sea (ECS). With the application of the algorithm in the ECS, the results reveal that the developed model can effectively determine the location of red tides, with good correspondence to the results from an official bulletin. This demonstrates that the algorithm can effectively extract the red tide information.

  18. Indicators and impact analysis of sediment from the Changjiang Estuary and East China Sea to the Hangzhou Bay

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Hong; FAN Wei; YUN Caixing

    2004-01-01

    Based on the historical evolution of the Hangzhou Bay, by making use of the conclusions made by the previous research workers and the integration of concrete data, five distinct impact indicators of the sediment from the Changjiang Estuary and the East China Sea to the Hangzhou Bay are summarized. Numerical calculation and analysis indicate that the scouring and deposition of seabed in the Hangzhou Bay are subject to the direct impact of the evolution of the Changjiang Estuary, and the growth and decline and the direction of the sandy bar at Nanhuizui give traces to the sediment transport between the Changjiang Estuary and the Hangzhou Bay. The transport of sediment from the Changjiang Estuary to the Hangzhou Bay occurs mainly in winter and spring seasons and the increase of the Changjiang River runoff and the decrease of sediment charge have caused scouring in the northern coast of the Hangzhou Bay and the seabed erosion along the frontal margin of the Changjiang River Delta.

  19. Biogeography of the sediment bacterial community responds to a nitrogen pollution gradient in the East China Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Jinbo; Ye, Xiansen; Wang, Kai; Chen, Heping; Hu, Changju; Zhu, Jianlin; Zhang, Demin

    2014-03-01

    Patterns of microbial distribution represent the integrated effects of historical and biological processes and are thus a central issue in ecology. However, there is still active debate on whether dispersal limitation contributes to microbial diversification in strongly connected systems. In this study, sediment samples were collected along a transect representing a variety of seawater pollution levels in the East China Sea. We investigated whether changes in sediment bacterial community structures would indicate the effects of the pollution gradient and of dispersal limitation. Our results showed consistent shifts in bacterial communities in response to pollution. More geographically distant sites had more dissimilar communities (r = -0.886, P pollution gradient. This study provides direct evidence that dispersal limitation exists in a strongly connected marine sediment ecosystem and that candidate indicator taxa can be applied to evaluate coastal pollution levels.

  20. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in surface sediments of the East China Sea and their relationship with carbonaceous materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Chin-Chang; Gong, Gwo-Ching; Ko, Fung-Chi; Lee, Hung-Jen; Chen, Hung-Yu; Wu, Jian-Ming; Hsu, Min-Lan; Peng, Sen-Chueh; Nan, Fan-Hua; Santschi, Peter H

    2011-01-01

    This study measured concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in surface sediments in the East China Sea (ECS) to investigate possible sources and fate of PAHs. Total concentration of PAHs in the sediments of the ECS ranged from 22 to 244 ng g(-1), with the highest levels in the coastal area and outer shelf. The observed PAH results showed elevated levels in both inner and outer shelf areas, a finding that is different from predictions by an ocean circulation model, suggesting that terrestrial sources are important for PAH contaminations in the ECS, while sediment resuspension, tidal changes and lateral transport may be important in affecting the distribution of PAHs in the outer shelf. The distribution of PAHs in the surface sediments of the ECS is similar to the distribution of carbonaceous materials (e.g., particulate organic carbon and black carbon), suggesting that carbonaceous materials may strongly affect the distribution of PAHs.

  1. Future projection of East China Sea temperature by dynamic downscaling of the IPCC_AR4 CCSM3 model result

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Xiaolin; WANGF Fan; TANG Xiaohui

    2012-01-01

    Future temperature distributions of the marginal Chinese seas are studied by dynamic downscaling of global CCSM3 IPCC_AR4 scenario runs.Different forcing fields from 2080-2099 Special Report on Emissions Scenarios(SRES)B1,A1,and A2 to 1980-1999 20C3M are averaged and superimposed on CORE2 and SODA2.2.4 data to force high-resolution regional future simulations using the Regional Ocean Modeling System(ROMS).Volume transport increments in downscaling simulation support the CCSM3result that with a weakening subtropical gyre circulation,the Kuroshio Current in the East China Sea(ECS)is possibly strengthened under the global wanning scheme.This mostly relates to local wind change,whereby the summer monsoon is strengthened and winter monsoon weakened.Future temperature fluxes and their seasonal variations are larger than in the CCSM3 result.Downscaling 100 years' temperature increments are comparable to the CCSM3,with a minimum in B1 scenario of 1.2-2.0℃ and a maximum in A2 scenario of 2.5-4.5℃.More detailed temperature distributions are shown in the downscaling simulation.Larger increments are in the Bohai Sea and middle Yellow Sea,and smaller increments near the southeast coast of China,west coast of Korea,and southern ECS.There is a reduction of advective heat north of Taiwan Island and west of Tsushima in summer,and along the southern part of the Yellow Sea warm current in winter.There is enhancement of advective heat in the northern Yellow Sea in winter,related to the delicate temperature increment distribution.At 50 meter depth,the Yellow Sea cold water mass is destroyed.Our simulations suggest that in the formation season of the cold water mass,regional temperature is higher in the future and the water remains at the bottom until next summer.In summer,the mixed layer is deeper,making it much easier for the strengthened surface heat flux to penetrate to the bottom of this water.

  2. The status of coastal oceanography in heavily impacted Yellow and East China Sea: Past trends, progress, and possible futures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao Hua; Cho, Yang-Ki; Guo, Xinyu; Wu, Chau-Ron; Zhou, Junliang

    2015-09-01

    Coastal environments are a key location for transport, commercial, residential and defence infrastructure, and have provided conditions suitable for economic growth. They also fulfil important cultural, recreational and aesthetic needs; have intrinsic ecosystem service values; and provide essential biogeochemical functions such as primary productivity, nutrient cycling and water filtration. The rapid expansion in economic development and anticipated growth of the population in the coastal zones along the Yellow and East China Sea basin has placed this region under intense multiple stresses. Here we aim to: 1) synthesize the new knowledge/science in coastal oceanography since 2010 within the context of the scientific literature published in English; 2) report on a citation analysis that assesses whether new research topics have emerged and integrated over time, indicate the location of modelling and field-based studies; and 3) suggest where the new research should develop for heavily impacted estuaries and coastal seas of East Asia. The conclusions of the synthesis include: 1) China has emerged as a dominant force in the region in producing scientific literature in coastal oceanography, although the area of publications has shifted from its traditional fields such as physical oceanography; 2) there has been an increasing number of publications with cross-disciplinary themes between physical oceanography and other fields of the biological, chemical, and geological disciplines, but vigorous and systematic funding mechanisms are still lacking to ensure the viability of large scale multi-disciplinary teams and projects in order to support trans-disciplinary research and newly emerging fields; 3) coastal oceanography is responding to new challenges, with many papers studying the impacts of human activities on marine environment and ecology, but so far very few studying management and conservation strategies or offering policy solutions.

  3. Paleo-fluvial sedimentation on the outer shelf of the East China Sea during the last glacial maximum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Zhongbo; YANG Shouye; ZHANG Zhixun; LAN Xianhong; GU Zhaofeng; ZHANG Xunhua

    2013-01-01

    Evidence from lithology,foraminiferal assemblages,and high-resolution X-ray fluorescence scanning data of core SFK-1 indicates tidally influenced paleo-fluvial sedimentation during the last glacial maximum (LGM) on the outer shelf of the East China Sea.The paleo-fluvial deposits consist of river channel facies and estuarine incised-valley-filling facies.Different reflections on the seismic profile across core SFK-1 suggest that the river channels shifted and overlapped.River channel deposition formed early in the LGM when sea level fell and the estuary extended to the outer shelf.Channel sediments are yellowish-brown in color and rich in foraminifera and shell fragments owing to the strong tidal influence.Following the LGM,the paleo-river mouth retreated and regressive deposition of estuarine and incised-valley-filling facies with an erosion base occurred.The river channel facies and estuarine incised-valley-filling facies have clearly different sedimentary characteristics and provenances.The depositional environment of the paleo-river system on the wide shelf was reconstructed from the foraminiferal assemblages,CaCO3 content and Ca/Ti ratio.The main results of this study provide further substantial constraints on the recognition of late Quaternary stratigraphy and land-sea interactions on the ECS shelf.

  4. 129I and its species in the East China Sea: level, distribution, sources and tracing water masses exchange and movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dan; Hou, Xiaolin; Du, Jinzhou; Zhang, Luyuan; Zhou, Weijian

    2016-11-01

    Anthropogenic 129I as a long-lived radioisotope of iodine has been considered as an ideal oceanographic tracer due to its high residence time and conservative property in the ocean. Surface water samples collected from the East China Sea (ECS) in August 2013 were analyzed for 129I, 127I and their inorganic chemical species in the first time. The measured 129I/127I ratio is 1-3 orders of magnitude higher than the pre-nuclear level, indicating its dominantly anthropogenic sources. Relatively high 129I levels were observed in the Yangtze River and its estuary, as well as in the southern Yellow Sea, and 129I level in seawater declines towards the ECS shelf. In the open sea, 129I and 127I in surface water exists mainly as iodate, while in Yangtze River estuary and some locations, iodide is dominated. The results indicate that the Fukushima nuclear accident has no detectable effects in the ECS until August 2013. The obtained results are used for investigation of interaction of various water masses and water circulation in the ECS, as well as the marine environment in this region. Meanwhile this work provides essential data for evaluation of the possible influence of the increasing NPPs along the coast of the ECS in the future.

  5. The effect of Kuroshio Current on nitrate dynamics in the southern East China Sea revealed by nitrate isotopic composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wentao; Yu, Zhiming; Song, Xiuxian; Wu, Zaixing; Yuan, Yongquan; Zhou, Peng; Cao, Xihua

    2016-09-01

    In spring 2014 (May-June), in the southern East China Sea (ECS) and east of Taiwan, nutrient and isotope samples were collected and analyzed. Also, dissolved oxygen (DO), chlorophyll-a, and physical parameters were determined. The Kuroshio subsurface water intruded into the ECS and separated into two branches on the continental shelf: the nearshore Kuroshio branch current (NKBC) and the offshore Kuroshio branch current (OKBC). Nitrate concentration in the Kuroshio subsurface water slightly decreased east of Taiwan by assimilation and was supplied by upwelling currents northeast of Taiwan. The variations of DO, nitrate, and nitrogen isotopes in the bottom water showed that continuous nitrification occurred in the NKBC after intrusion into the ECS. This process might contribute to the hypoxia zone near the coast of Zhejiang Province, China. Our results also indicated that internal nitrogen cycles appeared in NKBC since the isotope fractionation ratio of oxygen and nitrogen (18ɛ:15ɛ) in NO3- was 1.40. The NO3- flux and budget were calculated in the NKBC via numerical simulations. It demonstrated that at least ˜0.52 kmol NO3-·s-1 was produced by nitrification from DH9 to DH5 transect, and ˜0.11 kmol NO3-·s-1 was consumed in the DH4 transect. Moreover, according to the Rayleigh model, primary production in most of southern ECS was supported by the intrusion of the Kuroshio subsurface water, causing 5‰ isotope fractionation. In some of nearshore stations which located in the northern investigated area, the assimilated nitrate was contributed from both the NKBC and coastal currents originated from the Changjiang diluted water.

  6. Modern muddy deposit along the Zhejiang coast in the East China Sea: Response to large-scale human projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Gang; Liu, Jian; Liu, Shengfa; Wang, Zhongbo; Hu, Gang; Kong, Xianghuai

    2016-11-01

    Grain size and clay minerals in the surface sediment off Zhejiang Province, China, of the East China Sea were analyzed to study changes in grain size, muddy deposit boundary, and major riverine and other derived matters transport paths in the Zhejiang coastal muddy deposit since the impoundment of the Three Gorges Dam and after other large-scale human projects. The results show that the sediment types are mainly silt and mud in the muddy deposit, divided based on the 10% isoline of the sand-sized component. The sources of sediment in the muddy deposit are mainly the Yangtze River and simultaneously supplies from the Qiantang Jiang, Ou Jiang, relict fine-grain matter, and hydrolyzed volcanic rocks around the Zhoushan Islands. The transport and dispersal of sediments in the study area are largely controlled by the Zhejiang-Fujian coastal current and the Taiwan Warm Current and appear seasonally. The contributions from the Ou Jiang, relict matter, local hydrolyzed matter, and the Qiantang Jiang are enlarged owing to the decline of Yangtze suspended matter and the constructions of major human projects in the Hangzhou Bay, respectively. In addition, the sediment grain size exhibits a fining trend because of the influence of the Three Gorges Dam. The boundary of the muddy deposit is relatively stable after the Three Gorges Dam impoundment north of the city of Zhoushan. In contrast, south of the city of Zhoushan the boundary of the muddy deposit lies toward the east because the sediment supply from the relict fine-grained matters resuspended by the Taiwan Warm Current east of the study area. The changes in the grain size and contributions from smaller rivers and other derived matter as well as the boundary of the muddy deposit there will probably become more pronounced in the future.

  7. Molecular biomarker record of paleooceanographic envi-ronment in the East China Sea during the last 35000 years

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟宪伟; 杜德文; 刘炎光; 刘振夏

    2002-01-01

    By reference of the d 18O and d 13C isotopic compositions of G.. sacculifer and accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS)14C dates, the, and Pr/Pn in core DGKS9603 have been used to characterize the changes of paleooceanographic environment occurring in the East China Sea (ECS) during the last 35000 years. The stratigraphic records of these proxies have shown that during the last 35 ka the Okinawa Trough has gone through 7 stronger cold-climate events (C1-C7) and 9 terrigenous matter-decreasing events (e1-e9), of which, the C1 corresponds to the cold episode occurring in the middle late Holocene, C2-C4 and C7 correspond to the H1-H4 events, respectively. e1 and e3-e8 correspond to the decrease of sea surface temperature (SST), respectively. The terrigenous inputs increased when Heinrich events occurred. Climate colding resulted in the decrease of terrigenous matter transported by rivers, and the increase of that transported by winter monsoon. Heinrich events are closely related to East Asia monsoon. During the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM, 15.5-25.8 Cal ka BP), reduction environment fluctuated strongly, bringing forth three stronger reduction events (R1-R3) and one weaker reduction event (O), of which, R1-R3 correspond to the decrease of SST and increase of terrigenous nutrient and O corresponds to the decrease of terrigenous nutrient. The fluctuation of reduction condition must be related to the change of sea surface productivity.

  8. Three Gorges Dam controls sediment coarsening of the mud patch on the inner East China Sea shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Anyang; Chu, Zhongxin; Li, Yingkun

    2016-06-01

    The well-known Three Gorges Dam (TGD) within the Yangtze catchment launched its operation in 2003. The effect of the TGD operation on the sediment size on the East China Sea shelf is rarely known. High resolution (0.5 cm sampling) grain size analysis and 137Cs and 210Pb dating of the DH8-1 core were conducted with core collected from the distal part of a main sink for the modern Yangtze sediment entering the sea, the Min-Zhe Coastal Mud Deposits (MZCMD) on the inner East China Sea shelf. The 137Cs dating results show that the core DH8-1 formed during 1946-2012 with a mean deposition rate of 0.65 cm yr-1, indicating that the 0.5 cm sampling for grain size analysis in this local area could reflect environmental changes generally on a one-year time scale. The mean grain size of DH8-1 core sediment that deposited after 2003 is significantly larger than that deposited during 1988-2002. After ruling out other possible factors, we infer that the sediment coarsening of DH8-1 core after 2003 is attributed to the TGD operation which causes the erosion of the Yangtze subaqueous delta. Specifically, the TGD operation significantly intensifies the declining trend of the Yangtze sediment loads to the sea despite no decreased water discharge, which results in extensive erosion of the Yangtze subaqueous delta. The relatively coarse sediment of the subaqueous delta is eroded and resuspended by ocean dynamics and then transported by coastal current, finally depositing on the MZCMD area. In addition, the general sediment fining of core DH8-1 that deposited during 1988-2002, comparing with 1946-1987, is mainly caused by dam construction and soil and water conservation within the Yangtze catchment. Our findings are helpful for better understanding the effects of such a huge dam as the TGD on a sediment sink like the MZCMD of such a large river as the Yangtze River.

  9. Comparison of buried sand ridges and regressive sand ridges on the outer shelf of the East China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ziyin; Jin, Xianglong; Zhou, Jieqiong; Zhao, Dineng; Shang, Jihong; Li, Shoujun; Cao, Zhenyi; Liang, Yuyang

    2016-07-01

    Based on multi-beam echo soundings and high-resolution single-channel seismic profiles, linear sand ridges in U14 and U2 on the East China Sea (ECS) shelf are identified and compared in detail. Linear sand ridges in U14 are buried sand ridges, which are 90 m below the seafloor. It is presumed that these buried sand ridges belong to the transgressive systems tract (TST) formed 320-200 ka ago and that their top interface is the maximal flooding surface (MFS). Linear sand ridges in U2 are regressive sand ridges. It is presumed that these buried sand ridges belong to the TST of the last glacial maximum (LGM) and that their top interface is the MFS of the LGM. Four sub-stage sand ridges of U2 are discerned from the high-resolution single-channel seismic profile and four strikes of regressive sand ridges are distinguished from the submarine topographic map based on the multi-beam echo soundings. These multi-stage and multi-strike linear sand ridges are the response of, and evidence for, the evolution of submarine topography with respect to sea-level fluctuations since the LGM. Although the difference in the age of formation between U14 and U2 is 200 ka and their sequences are 90 m apart, the general strikes of the sand ridges are similar. This indicates that the basic configuration of tidal waves on the ECS shelf has been stable for the last 200 ka. A basic evolutionary model of the strata of the ECS shelf is proposed, in which sea-level change is the controlling factor. During the sea-level change of about 100 ka, five to six strata are developed and the sand ridges develop in the TST. A similar story of the evolution of paleo-topography on the ECS shelf has been repeated during the last 300 ka.

  10. Comparison of buried sand ridges and regressive sand ridges on the outer shelf of the East China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ziyin; Jin, Xianglong; Zhou, Jieqiong; Zhao, Dineng; Shang, Jihong; Li, Shoujun; Cao, Zhenyi; Liang, Yuyang

    2017-06-01

    Based on multi-beam echo soundings and high-resolution single-channel seismic profiles, linear sand ridges in U14 and U2 on the East China Sea (ECS) shelf are identified and compared in detail. Linear sand ridges in U14 are buried sand ridges, which are 90 m below the seafloor. It is presumed that these buried sand ridges belong to the transgressive systems tract (TST) formed 320-200 ka ago and that their top interface is the maximal flooding surface (MFS). Linear sand ridges in U2 are regressive sand ridges. It is presumed that these buried sand ridges belong to the TST of the last glacial maximum (LGM) and that their top interface is the MFS of the LGM. Four sub-stage sand ridges of U2 are discerned from the high-resolution single-channel seismic profile and four strikes of regressive sand ridges are distinguished from the submarine topographic map based on the multi-beam echo soundings. These multi-stage and multi-strike linear sand ridges are the response of, and evidence for, the evolution of submarine topography with respect to sea-level fluctuations since the LGM. Although the difference in the age of formation between U14 and U2 is 200 ka and their sequences are 90 m apart, the general strikes of the sand ridges are similar. This indicates that the basic configuration of tidal waves on the ECS shelf has been stable for the last 200 ka. A basic evolutionary model of the strata of the ECS shelf is proposed, in which sea-level change is the controlling factor. During the sea-level change of about 100 ka, five to six strata are developed and the sand ridges develop in the TST. A similar story of the evolution of paleo-topography on the ECS shelf has been repeated during the last 300 ka.

  11. Preliminary study on isostatic anomaly and recent tectonic stress field--Taking East China Sea and its eastern marginal seas as an example

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张赤军; 方剑; 马宗晋

    2003-01-01

    On the basis of the reality of recent tectonic movement and discarding such a viewpoint that the isostatic adjustment only results from excessive or insufficient compensation, we have discussed the tectonic stress causing inequality and regarded the isostatic anomaly as a load on the earth(s interior, thus the earth(s inner stress can be calculated. The research results show that in the East China Sea and its eastern marginal seas the change of the vertical stress derived from the isostatic gravity anomaly is more marked than that of the horizontal stress. Along the Ryukyu trench there is an enhancement of vertical stress by 5 MPa, which evidently reflects the effect of plate subduction. On contrary, along the island arc to the northwest of the trench the vertical stress weakens by about 5 MPa. The horizontal stresses in eastern and western parts are obviously different, the east westward stress on the oceanic crust (x is negative (while the pressure is positive) but on the continental crust is positive. These facts indicate the effect of compression between plates.

  12. Distribution and preservation of black carbon in the East China Sea sediments: Perspectives on carbon cycling at continental margins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Liang; Zhang, Jing; Wu, Ying; Wang, Jinlong

    2016-02-01

    We determined the concentrations and radiocarbon (14C) compositions of black carbon (BC) in the sediments of the East China Sea (ECS). The BC concentrations, which were in the range of 0.30-1.52 mg/g, accounted for 12-65% of the total organic carbon (TOC). The distribution of BC in ECS sediments was controlled by factors such as grain size, distance from the coast, and deposition rate. Radiocarbon measurements of BC yielded ages of 6350-10,440 years before present (BP), suggesting that the percentage of BC derived from biomass combustion was in the range of 29-48%. The BC burial flux in sediments of the ECS was estimated to be ∼1.39×106 t/yr, which was similar to burial fluxes reported for shelf sediments in other areas. However, the magnitude of the total BC sink was far greater than that of any other shelf regions studied to date, indicating the global importance of BC accumulation in the ECS, and the magnitude of BC input from large rivers (e.g., the Changjiang). The riverine delivery of BC to the ECS (73%) was far greater than that of atmospheric flux (27%). Further study of the BC cycle and the interactions of BC with other organic compounds in marginal seas was required to better understand the role of BC in the global carbon cycle.

  13. Three dimensional diagnostic, semidiagnostic and prognostic calculations of current in the East China Sea in April of 1994

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Three dimensional diagnostic, semidiagnostic and prognostic models in the a-coordinate are used to compute the current in the Fast China Sea with wind and hydrographic data obtained from the investigation of ocean fluxes in the East China Sea during the cruise of April 1994. The computed results show that: the density and velocity fields and so on have been adjusted when time t≈ 23 d,i. e., the solution of semidiagnostic calculation has been obtained. The quasi-steady state solution also has been reached after about 60 d. Comparing the results of diagnostic calculation with those of semidiagnostic and prognostic calculations, it is found that they agree qualitatively For example, they all show that: (1) The Kuroshio flows along the shelf break of 200~ 1 000m isobaths; (2) In the southeastern part of the computational region there is a stronger counter-current with an anticyclonic eddy; (3) The volume transport through Section lPN is about 30 × 106m3/s and so on. However there are some quantitative differences between them. For example, (1) For the semidiagnostic results the Kuroshio current is stronger and clearer than that for diagnostic results and the Kuroshio width is more narrow than that for diagnostic results. This shows that the semidiagnostic calculation can better reflect the topography effect; (2) In most computed region the vertical component of velocity intensifies for semidiagnostic result, especially on the shelf break. Comparing the results of semidiagnostic calculation with those of prognostic calculation, they agree qualitatively, and also agree quantitatively in the middle of computed region.

  14. Horizontal distribution of Changjiang Diluted Water in summer inferred from total suspended sediment in the Yellow Sea and East China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LEE Dong-Kyu; KWON Jae-Il; SON SeungHyun

    2015-01-01

    During the summer in the Yellow Sea and East China Sea, the resuspension of the bottom sediment is obstructed by strong stratification and, as a result, the concentration of total suspended sediment (TSS) can be used as an excellent tracer for Changjiang Diluted Water (CDW). To analyze the spatial and temporal variations of the CDW distribution, the monthly mean TSS from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) ocean color data are constructed and are converted to salinity using the relationship between salinity observed from AQUARIUS and TSS. The process produces the detailed horizontal distribution of salinity with very high resolution (1 km). From monthly mean salinity map from 2002 to 2012 in July and August, the expansion patterns of CDW are analyzed. The southerly wind in July and southeasterly wind in August transport the CDW eastward and northeastward, respectively. It is found that the yearly variation of the expansion of CDW toward the southern sea area of Korea is mostly due to the variation of southerly wind and the fluctuations of fresh water discharge into the Changjiang estuary show relatively little impact on the eastward extend of CDW. When 11-year mean (from 2002 to 2012) salinity map in August is compared with World Ocean Atlas 2013, it is revealed that wind in August strengthened six times from 1994 and it causes the expansion of CDW extended 150 km further eastward.

  15. Phytoplankton diversity in the East China Sea and Yellow Sea measured by PCR-DGGE and its relationships with environmental factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jing; Yu, Zhigang; Gao, Yahui; Zhou, Qianqian; Zhen, Yu; Chen, Hongtao; Zhao, Liyuan; Yao, Qingzhen; Mi, Tiezhu

    2010-03-01

    Relationships between phytoplankton community composition and environmental variables in the East China Sea (ECS) and Yellow Sea (YS) were investigated using geochemical and molecular microbiology methods. The diversity of phytoplankton was characterized using cultivation-independent PCR-based denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). Groups resulting from unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic averages clustering of the DGGE profiles showed good consistency with the eco-environmental characteristics of the sea area they belonged to. Additionally, the clustering results based on DGGE fingerprinting and those based on morphological compositions were practically identical. The relationship of phytoplankton diversity to environmental factors was statistically analyzed. Temperature, dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN), and silicate-Si were found significantly related to the phytoplankton community composition. Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) was performed to reveal the relationship between community composition and these three environmental factors. Generally, values of the ECS are clearly separated from those of the YS in the CCA biplot, due to mainly the effect of temperature and DIN.

  16. Acidifying intermediate water accelerates the acidification of seawater on shelves: An example of the East China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lui, Hon-Kit; Chen, Chen-Tung Arthur; Lee, Jay; Wang, Shu-Lun; Gong, Gwo-Ching; Bai, Yan; He, Xianqiang

    2015-12-01

    This study is the first to present observed acidification rates at the shelf break of the East China Sea (ECS) and in the Okinawa Trough between 1982 and 2007. The use of apparent oxygen utilization (AOU) data to quantify the change in pH due to physical changes and changes in biological activities is demonstrated. The results thus obtained reveal that the drop in pH of the Kuroshio Intermediate Water (KIW) in the ECS is a result of not only the intrusion of atmospheric CO2, but also an increase in AOU concentration. The acidification rates caused by the increasing AOU concentration could contribute up to -0.00086±0.00017 pH unit yr-1 at 900 m in the Okinawa Trough and -0.00082±0.00057 pH unit yr-1 on the shelf break of the ECS. These values are equivalent to 54% and 51%, respectively, of the acidification rate of -0.0016 pH unit yr-1 based on an assumption of the air-sea CO2 equilibrium. When the effects of changing AOU and θ are eliminated, the acidification rate in the basin of the ECS captures the rate of change that is caused by an increase in anthropogenic CO2 concentration. In contrast, when the effects of changing AOU and θ are eliminated, the acidification rate at the shelf break is 69% higher than the rate based on an assumption of the air-sea CO2 equilibrium. Since the seawater on the shelf contains a higher proportion of the South China Sea (SCS) seawater and coastal water than does that in the Okinawa Trough, the result herein may imply that the SCS seawater, coastal water, or a combination of them suffered a higher acidification rate during the studied period. This study, to the best of the authors' knowledge, is the first to demonstrate that changing the carbonate chemistry of both incoming offshore intermediate seawater and coastal water results in the acidification of seawater on a continental shelf. The results herein reveal a situation in which the acidification of coastal seawater may be faster than expected when the reduction of pH of the

  17. Fine processing and analysis of seabed topographic features in the outer shelf of the north of the East China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Q.; Zhou, X.; Ding, J.; Chen, Y.

    2015-12-01

    On the outer shelf of the north of the East China Sea, seabed ridges and troughs are widely distributed consecutively. The seabed bedforms are in the area where Yellow Sea Trough extends to the Okinawa Trough and lies in the entrance channel of Yellow Sea Warm Current (YSWC), one branch of the Kuroshio Current. The fine post-processing and characteristic analysis for seabed bedforms data will contribute to an overall understanding of seabed topographic features and distribution of the ridges and troughs. Based on the high-precision multi-beam echo sounder (MBES) data, we create a high-precision seabed Digital Terrain Model (DTM) and sonar mosaic images to generate high-resolution 3D seabed maps, as well as seabed slope, aspect maps and other special terrain profiles. From those maps, we can measure height, width, length, direction and other characteristic parameters of the seabed Rippled Scour Depressions (RSDs) and sand ridges. We find a deep seabed gully with the water depth of 153.2 m in the northeast corner of the study area. The relative height difference is up to 32 m indicates strong erosion with dramatic changes in seabed topography. There are also more than 10 large-scale straight RSDs and sand ridges, all NW-SE direction, in length from a few kilometers to 40 km. The general height difference is about 5 m and the maximum height difference can reach up to 10 m. In the study area we find out a great quantity of seabed sand ridges and erode RSDs, which form ridges-troughs and erosion-deposition special seabed topographic features.

  18. Spatial distribution and reconstruction potential of Japanese anchovy (Engraulis japonicus) based on scale deposition records in recent anaerobic sediment of the Yellow Sea and East China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Jiansheng; SUN Yao; JIA Haibo; YANG Qian; TANG Qisheng

    2014-01-01

    Many studies have revealed that anchovy has exhibited large variability in population size on decadal tim-escales. However, such works concerning anchovy population are mainly based on short historical catch records. In order to understand the causes of variability in fish stocks (natural and/or anthropogenic) and calibrate the error between catches and standing stocks, it is essential to develop long-term time series of fish stocks from the time when human impacts are minimal or negligible. Well preserved fish scales from sediment record are regarded as useful indicators revealing the history of fish population dynamics over the last centuries. Anchovy scales was first analyzed over the Yellow Sea and East China Sea and the largest abundance was found in the central South Yellow Sea where is regarded as the largest overwintering ground for Japanese anchovy (Engraulis japonicas). Thus in the central South Yellow Sea, two cores covering the last 150 years were collected for estimating fish scale flux. The scale deposition rate (SDR) records show that the decadal scale SDRs were obviously coherent between cores with independent chronologies. Thecalibration of downcore SDRs to the standing stocks of anchovy further validated that SDR is a reliable proxy to recon-struct the long-term anchovy population dynamic in the central South Yellow Sea where anoxic conditions prevail in the sediment. When assembled with other productivity proxies, it would be expected that SDR could be associated with changes in oceanic productivity and may make a contribution to determine the forcing factors and elucidate the mechanism of the process in future.

  19. Physical and underway data collected aboard the ROGER REVELLE during cruise RR0908 in the East China Sea (Tung Hai) from 2009-08-13 to 2009-08-20 (NODC Accession 0089627)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC accession 0089627 includes physical and underway data collected aboard the ROGER REVELLE during cruise RR0908 in the East China Sea (Tung Hai) from 2009-08-13...

  20. Biochemical, chemical, physical, and other data collected from the OSYOTR using bottle casts in the East China Sea and Indian Ocean from 11 November 1984 to 04 September 1985 (NODC Accession 0000239)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Biochemistry, physical, chemical, and other data were collected using bottle casts in the East China Sea and Indian Ocean from the OSYOTR from November 11, 1984 to...

  1. Dissolved inorganic carbon, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from the KAIYO-MARU in the East China Sea (Tung Hai) and Philippine Sea from 1996-06-20 to 1996-07-15 (NODC Accession 0115023)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0115023 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from KAIYO-MARU in the East China Sea (Tung Hai) and Philippine Sea...

  2. South China Sea Challenge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    China's attempts to solve disputes with ASEAN over the South China Sea help regional peace China's marine economy and security are currently faced with new challenges, requiring careful handling, especially in disputes with ASEAN countries and in promoting common development of the South China Sea. The outcome of how this is dealt with could undoubtedly pave the way for solutions to other oceanic disputes. The South China Sea is located south of

  3. Quaternary biogenic opal records in the South China Sea: Linkages to East Asian monsoon, global ice volume and orbital forcing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG RuJian; JIAN ZhiMin; XIAO WenShen; TIAN Jun; LI JianRu; CHEN RongHua; ZHENG YuLong; CHEN JianFang

    2007-01-01

    Particulate fluxes investigated in the central South China Sea (SCS) during 1993-1996 indicate that opal flux can be used to show primary productivity change, which provides a foundation for tracing the evolutionary relationship between the surface productivity and East Asian monsoon in the SCS during the late Quaternary glacial and interglacial periods. Based on the studies of opal % and their mass accumulation rates (MAR) at the six sites recovered from the SCS during the "Resolution" ODP Leg 184 and "Sonne" 95 cruise of the Sino-Germany cooperation, opal % and their MARs increased evidently in the northern sites since 470-900 ka, and they enhanced and reduced, respectively, during the glacial and interglacial periods. Whereas they increased obviously in the southern sites since 420-450 ka,and they augmented and declined, respectively, during the interglacial and glacial periods. The variability in opal % and their MARs in the late Quaternary glacial cyclicity indicate the "seesaw" pattern of surface productivity in the SCS. The winter monsoon intensified during the glacial periods, surface productivity increased and decreased, respectively, in the northern and southern SCS. The summer monsoon strengthened during the interglacial periods, surface productivity increased and decreased,respectively, in the southern and northern SCS. The cross spectral analyses between the opal % in the northern and southern SCS during the Quaternary and global ice volume (δ18O) and orbital forcing (ETP) indicate that the East Asian winter and summer monsoons could be ascribed to the different drive mechanisms. On the orbital time scale, the global ice volume change could be a dominant factor for the winter monsoon intension and temporal variations. As compared with the winter monsoon, the correlative summer solar radiation with the obliquity and precession in the Northern Hemisphere could be a mostly controlling factor for the summer monsoon intension and temporal variations.

  4. Quaternary biogenic opal records in the South China Sea: Linkages to East Asian monsoon, global ice volume and orbital forcing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Particulate fluxes investigated in the central South China Sea (SCS) during 1993―1996 indicate that opal flux can be used to show primary productivity change, which provides a foundation for tracing the evolutionary relationship between the surface productivity and East Asian monsoon in the SCS during the late Quaternary glacial and interglacial periods. Based on the studies of opal % and their mass accumulation rates (MAR) at the six sites recovered from the SCS during the “Resolution” ODP Leg 184 and “Sonne” 95 cruise of the Sino-Germany cooperation, opal % and their MARs increased evidently in the northern sites since 470―900 ka, and they enhanced and reduced, respectively, during the glacial and interglacial periods. Whereas they increased obviously in the southern sites since 420―450 ka, and they augmented and declined, respectively, during the interglacial and glacial periods. The vari- ability in opal % and their MARs in the late Quaternary glacial cyclicity indicate the “seesaw” pattern of surface productivity in the SCS. The winter monsoon intensified during the glacial periods, surface productivity increased and decreased, respectively, in the northern and southern SCS. The summer monsoon strengthened during the interglacial periods, surface productivity increased and decreased, respectively, in the southern and northern SCS. The cross spectral analyses between the opal % in the northern and southern SCS during the Quaternary and global ice volume (δ 18O) and orbital forcing (ETP) indicate that the East Asian winter and summer monsoons could be ascribed to the different drive mechanisms. On the orbital time scale, the global ice volume change could be a dominant factor for the winter monsoon intension and temporal variations. As compared with the winter monsoon, the correlative summer solar radiation with the obliquity and precession in the Northern Hemisphere could be a mostly controlling factor for the summer monsoon intension and

  5. Phylogenetic diversity of actinobacteria associated with soft coral Alcyonium gracllimum and stony coral Tubastraea coccinea in the East China Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shan; Sun, Wei; Tang, Cen; Jin, Liling; Zhang, Fengli; Li, Zhiyong

    2013-07-01

    Actinobacteria are widely distributed in the marine environment. To date, few studies have been performed to explore the coral-associated Actinobacteria, and little is known about the diversity of coral-associated Actinobacteria. In this study, the actinobacterial diversity associated with one soft coral Alcyonium gracllimum and one stony coral Tubastraea coccinea collected from the East China Sea was investigated using both culture-independent and culture-dependent approaches. A total of 19 actinobacterial genera were detected in these two corals, among which nine genera (Corynebacterium, Dietzia, Gordonia, Kocuria, Microbacterium, Micrococcus, Mycobacterium, Streptomyces, and Candidatus Microthrix) were common, three genera (Cellulomonas, Dermatophilus, and Janibacter) were unique to the soft coral, and seven genera (Brevibacterium, Dermacoccus, Leucobacter, Micromonospora, Nocardioides, Rhodococcus, and Serinicoccus) were unique to the stony coral. This finding suggested that highly diverse Actinobacteria were associated with different types of corals. In particular, five actinobacterial genera (Cellulomonas, Dermacoccus, Gordonia, Serinicoccus, and Candidatus Microthrix) were recovered from corals for the first time, extending the known diversity of coral-associated Actinobacteria. This study shows that soft and stony corals host diverse Actinobacteria and can serve as a new source of marine actinomycetes.

  6. Seasonal and spatial variations of macro- and megabenthic community characteristics in two sections of the East China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yong; Li, Xinzheng; Ma, Lin; Dong, Dong; Kou, Qi; Sui, Jixing; Gan, Zhibin; Wang, Hongfa

    2016-10-01

    In spring and summer 2011, the macro- and megabenthic fauna in two sections of the East China Sea were investigated using an Agassiz net trawl to detect the seasonal and spatial variations of benthic community characteristics and the relation to environmental variables. The total number of species increased slightly from spring (131 species) to summer (133) whereas the percentage of Mollusca decreased significantly. The index of relative importance (IRI) indicated that the top five important species changed completely from spring to summer. Species number, abundance and biomass in summer were significantly higher than in spring, but no significant difference was observed among areas (coastal, transitional and oceanic areas, divided basically from inshore to offshore). Species richness (d), diversity (H') and evenness (J') showed no significant seasonal or spatial variations. Cluster analysis and nMDS ordination identified three benthic communities from inshore to offshore, corresponding to the three areas. Analysis of Similarity (ANOSIM) indicated the overall significant difference in community structure between seasons and among areas. K-dominance curves revealed the high intrinsic diversity in the offshore area. Canonical correspondence analysis showed that the coastal community was positively correlated to total nitrogen and total organic carbon in spring, but negatively in summer; oceanic community was positively correlated to total nitrogen and total organic carbon in both seasons. Species such as Coelorhynchus multispinulosus, Neobythites sivicola, Lepidotrigla alata, Solenocera melantho, Parapenaeus fissuroides, Oratosquilla gonypetes and Spiropagurus spiriger occurred exclusively in the offshore oceanic area and their presence may reflect the influence of the offshore Kuroshio Current.

  7. Age and growth of chub mackerel ( Xcomber japonicus) in the East China and Yellow Seas using sectioned otolith samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Gang; Chen, Xinjun; Feng, Bo

    2008-11-01

    Although chub mackerel ( Scomber japonicus) is a primary pelagic fish species, we have only limited knowledge on its key life history processes. The present work studied the age and growth of chub mackerel in the East China and Yellow Seas. Age was determined by interpreting and counting growth rings on the sagitta otoliths of 252 adult fish caught by the Chinese commercial purse seine fleet during the period from November 2006 to January 2007 and 150 juveniles from bottom trawl surveys on the spawning ground in May 2006. The difference between the assumed birth date of 1st April and date of capture was used to adjust the age determined from counting the number of complete translucent rings. The parameters of three commonly used growth models, the von Bertalanffy, Logistic and Gompertz models, were estimated using the maximum likelihood method. Based on the Akaike Information Criterion ( AIC), the von Bertalanffy growth model was found to be the most appropriate model. The size-at-age and size-at-maturity values were also found to decrease greatly compared with the results achieved in the 1950s, which was caused by heavy exploitation over the last few decades.

  8. Compound-specific isotopes of fatty acids as indicators of trophic interactions in the East China Sea ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ying; Wang, Na; Zhang, Jing; Wan, Ruijing; Dai, Fangqun; Jin, Xianshi

    2016-09-01

    The composition and compound-specific isotopes of fatty acids were studied within food webs in the East China Sea. Lipid-normalized stable carbon isotopes of total organic carbon had a good correlation with trophic level. Variations in fatty acid compositions among diff erent species were observed but were unclear. Diff erent dietary structures could be traced from molecular isotopes of selected fatty acids in the Shiba shrimp ( Matapenaeus joyneri), the coastal mud shrimp ( Solenocera crassicornis) and the northern Maoxia shrimp ( Acetes chinensis). Both M. joyneri and S. crassicornis are mainly benthos feeders, while A. chinensis is a pelagic species, although they have a similar fatty acid composition. There was a good correlation for isotopes of arachidonic acid (C20:4n6; ARA) and docosahexaenoic acid (C22:6n3; DHA) among pelagic species from higher trophic levels. The isotopic compositions of DHA in benthic species were more negative than those of pelagic species at the same trophic level. The fact that the diet of benthic species contains more degraded items, the carbon isotopes of which are derived from a large biochemical fraction, may be the reason for this variation. A comparative study of benthic and pelagic species demonstrated the diff erent carbon sources in potential food items and the presence of a more complex system at the water-sediment interface.

  9. Linkages between the biomass of Scomber japonicus and net primary production in the southern East China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUAN Wenjiang; CHEN Xinjun; GAO Feng; LI Gang

    2014-01-01

    Fish biomass is a critical component of fishery stock assessment and management and it is often estimated from ocean primary production (OPP). However, the relationship between the biomass of a fish stock and OPP is always complicated due to a variety of trophic controls in the ecosystem. In this paper, we examine the quantitative relationship between the biomass of chub mackerel (Scomber japonicus) and net prima-ry production (NPP) in the southern East China Sea (SECS), using catch and effort data from the Chinese mainland large light-purse seine fishery logbook and NPP derived from remote sensing. We further discuss the mechanisms of trophic control in regulating this relationship. The results show a significant non-linear relationship exists between standardized CPUE (Catch-Per-Unit-Effort) and NPP (P<0.05). This relationship can be described by a convex parabolic curve, where the biomass of chub mackerel increases with NPP to a maximum and then decreases when the NPP exceeds this point. The results imply that the ecosystem in the SECS is subject to complex trophic controls. We speculate that the change in abundance of key species at intermediate trophic levels and/or interspecific competition might contribute to this complex relationship.

  10. Age and Growth of Chub Mackerel (Scomber japonicus) in the East China and Yellow Seas Using Sectioned Otolith Samples

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Gang; CHEN Xinjun; FENG Bo

    2008-01-01

    Although chub mackerel (Scomberjaponicus) is a primary pelagic fish species,we have only limited knowledge on itskey life history processes.The present work studied the age and growth of chub mackerel in the East China and Yellow Seas.Agewas determined by interpreting and counting growth rings on the sagitta otoliths of 252 adult fish caught by the Chinese commercialpurse seine fleet during the period from November 2006 to January 2007 and 150 juveniles from bottom trawl surveys on the spawn-ing ground in May 2006.The difference between the assumed birth date of 1 st April and date of capture was used to adjust the agedetermined from counting the number of complete translucent rings.The parameters of three commonly used growth models,the vonBertalanffy,Logistic and Gompertz models,were estimated using the maximum likelihood method.Based on the Akaike InformationCriterion (AIC),the von Bertalanffy growth model was found to be the most appropriate model.The size-at-age and size-at-maturityvalues were also found to decrease greatly compared with the results achieved in the 1950s,which was caused by heavy exploitationover the last few decades.

  11. Characterization of Fe-S Minerals influenced by buried ancient woods in the intertidal zone,East China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUAN LinXi; SUN LiGuang; FORTIN Danielle; WANG YuHong; WU ZiJun; YIN XueBin

    2009-01-01

    An ancient wood layer dated at about 5600 cal. a BP by AMS14C dating was discovered in the intertidal zone, East China Sea. Samples affected by ancient woods, including fresh coast bedrock, weathering bedrock, seepage water from coast, seepage water from ancient wood layer, intertidal seawater, fresh water, beach mud, ancient wood barks and ancient peat, were collected for geochemical analysis. The beach mud and the bacteriogenic iron oxides (BIOS) in coastal seepage water were analyzed by min-eralogical and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM)-selected area electron dif-fraction (SAED) analysis. Inorganic sulfur compositions and δ34S of the ancient peat and the beach mud were determined. The results showed that Fe, Mn, S (SO42-) were enriched in the intertidal area at different levels, very likely caused by fermentation of ancient woods. The presence of abundant iron-oxidizing bacteria (FeOB) and sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) in this intertidal zone was confirmed by HRTEM-SAED observation, and these bacteria were involved in Fe-S cycle to induce extracellular biomineralization. The negative δ34Sv-CDT (-2.9%.) likely indicated the biogenic origin of iron-sulfide minerals in the beach mud at high sulfate reduction rate (SRR). These findings are helpful for under-standing the biogeochemical Fe-S cycle and biomineralization process at high organic matter deposition rate and high SRR in the intertidal zone, estuary, or near shoreline.

  12. Communities of sediment ammonia-oxidizing bacteria along a coastal pollution gradient in the East China Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Manhua; Xiong, Jinbo; Wang, Kai; Ye, Xiansen; Ye, Ran; Wang, Qiong; Hu, Changju; Zhang, Demin

    2014-09-15

    Anthropogenic nitrogen (N) discharges has caused eutrophication in coastal zones. Ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) convert ammonia to nitrite and play important roles in N transformation. Here, we used pyrosequencing based on the amoA gene to investigate the response of the sediment AOB community to an N pollution gradient in the East China Sea. The results showed that AOB assemblages were primarily affiliated with Nitrosospira-like lineages, and only 0.4% of those belonged to Nitrosomonas-like lineage. The Nitrosospira-like lineage was separated into four clusters that were most similar to the sediment AOB communities detected in adjacent marine regions. Additionally, one clade was out grouped from the AOB lineages, which shared the high similarities with pmoA gene. The AOB community structures substantially changed along the pollution gradient, which were primarily shaped by NH4(+)-N, NO3(-)-N, SO4(2)(-)-S, TP and Eh. These results demonstrated that coastal pollution could dramatically influence AOB communities, which, in turn, may change ecosystem function.

  13. Laboratory Simulation on Phosphorus Releasing near the Water/Sediment Interface in the East China Sea off the Changjiang Estuary

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑丽波; 周怀阳; 叶瑛

    2004-01-01

    Surface sediment samples taken from the East China Sea off the Changjiang estuary are used as raw materials for phosphorus releasing experiment. It is found that after being thoroughly mixed with seawater for about 10 minutes, phosphorus released from the sediments reaches its maximum value. Adsorption kinetics can be fitted with both Elovich equation and two-constant rate equation. The releasing amount is closely related to the composition of the sediments. Phosphorus release from silty and muddy sediment is higher than from that dominated by sandy composition. For the desorption reaction, iron-phosphorus (Fe-P) is the most active one, with a releasing ratio higher than other phosphorus forms,followed by absorbed-phosphorus (Ad-P) and organic bound phosphorus (OP). All of them can be referred to as bio-available phosphorus. The results demonstrate that phosphorus in sediments can be released into seawater under suitable hydrodynamic conditions, and have a great impact on the nutrition state and primary productivity of marine biosphere.

  14. Effects of typhoon events on chlorophyll and carbon fixation in different regions of the East China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dongxing; He, Lei; Liu, Fenfen; Yin, Kedong

    2017-07-01

    Typhoons play an important role in the regulation of phytoplankton biomass and carbon fixation in the ocean. Data from the moderate-resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) on 35 typhoon events during 2002-2011 are analyzed to examine the effects of typhoon events on variations in sea surface temperature (SST), chlorophyll-a (Chl-a), and depth-integrated primary productivity (IPP) in the East China Sea (ECS). For all 35 typhoon cases, the average SST drops by 0.1 °C in the typhoon influenced regions, and the maximal decrease is 2.2 °C. During the same period, average Chl-a increases by 0.1 mg m-3, with the maximal increase reaching up to 1 mg m-3, and average IPP increases by 32.9 mg C m-2·d-1, with the largest increase being 221 mg C m-2·d-1. The IPP are significantly correlated with SST and Chl-a data, and the correlations become stronger after typhoon passage. On average, nearly one-third of the ECS is affected by typhoons during the 10 year period, and the resident time of the typhoons in the area reach to 38.2 h. Effects of the typhoon events on SST, Chl-a, and IPP manifest differently in the three key sea areas, namely, the coastal water (depths 200 m) regions in the ECS. Specifically, stronger responses are observed in shallow water than in deeper depths. The comparisons between the pre- and post-typhoon periods show that IPP in the post-typhoon period increases by 19.7% and 12.2% in the coastal and continental shelf regions, respectively, but it decreases by 9.4% in the open sea region. Overall, our results reveal that there is a close coupling between Chl-a, SST, and IPP in shallow areas and that typhoon events can have strong effects on carbon fixation in coastal regions.

  15. Multiple Suppression and Imaging of Marine Seismic Data from The Shallow Water Area in Southern East China Sea Shelf Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, J.; Luan, X.; Yang, C.

    2015-12-01

    Neither surface-related multiple elimination(SRME) nor predictive de-convolution method is effective to suppress the multiple of marine seismic data from the shallow water area. The former method needs the accurate reflection of seafloor, which is mixed with the direct wave in the near offset range. The other one could probably lose the primary wave when applied to the shallow water seismic data. We introduced the new method: deterministic water-layer de-multiple method (DWD) which is capable for the poor extrapolate result of near-offset traces. Firstly, the data shifts as downward continuation in tau-p domain with a water-layer period and the multiple model will be obtained. Then, the original seismic subtracts adaptively with the multiple model. Finally, we would get the de-multiple data after inverse tau-p transform. Marine seismic real data is from southern part of East China Sea Shelf Basin. This area has become the potential target for marine hydrocarbon exploration, it is located in the junction of the Eurasian plate pacific plate and Indian plate. Because the average water depth is less than 100 meters, seismic data contains abundant of multiple, especially the surface-related multiple. As a result it is difficult to distinguish the strata structure clearly. We used DWD approach to remove the water-layer multiple, cut off the seafloor reflection events and then suppressed the residual surface-related multiple by the traditional SRME. At last , the radon transform was applied to eliminate the multiple with long period . With these steps, we suppressed the multiple of marine seismic data from this area effectively. After multiple is removed , we acquired more accurate velocity to build the velocity model of migration. With the pre-stack migration technique, reflections from each geological period are shown clearly in the seismic section. This work was supported by the National Science Foundation of China(grant no. 41476053).

  16. Development of a Plug-and-Play Monitoring System for Cabled Observatories in the East China Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Yu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Seafloor observatories enable long term, continuous and multidisciplinary observations, promising major breakthroughs in marine environment research. The effort to remotely control in situ multidisciplinary equipment performing individual and cooperative tasks is both a challenge and a guarantee for the stable operations of functional observatories. With China starting to establish ocean observatory sensor networks, in this study we describe a monitoring system for cabled observatories in the East China Sea (ESOMS that enables this effort in a plug and play way. An information oriented monitoring architecture for ESOMS was first introduced, derived from a layered control model for ocean observatory sensor network. The architecture contained three components and enabled bidirectional information flow of observation data and commands, based on which architecture components were designed to enable plug-and-play control within related model layers. A control method enabled by general junction box (GJB and ocean sensor markup language (OSML was thus proposed as the plug-and-play solution for implementing ESOMS. The GJB-OSML enabled control method (GOE Control Method mainly actualized two processes, one of which was that the in situ GJB interfaced and represented every attached sensor as a Sensing Endpoint in the cabled observatory network. The other process was that the remote ESOMS utilized the same IP/Port related information modeled by OSML to create/operate a Function Node acted as agent of the in situ sensor. A case study for using ESOMS in the Xiaoqushan Seafloor Observatory was finally presented to prove its performance and applicability. Given this successful engineering trial, the ESOMS design and implementation could be applicable and beneficial for similar efforts in future construction of seafloor observatory network both at home and abroad.

  17. Timing of the Yangtze initiation draining the Tibetan Plateau throughout to the East China Sea:oa review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Daidu FAN; Congxian LI

    2008-01-01

    The question of the Yangtze's origins has been extensively researched by geologists and geomorphologists for more than a century,and a widely-acceptedanswer is still pending.Evidence of river piracy,diversion and incision in the upper river segment from Shigu town in Yunnan Province to Yichang City has been used to reconstruct the history of the Yangtze drainage system,and constrain the timing of the upper Yangtze diversion from south flowing to east,debouching into the East China Sea.There is much diversity in fluvial deposits and landforms even over small spatio-temporal scales in tectonic highly active regions.They are also liable to latter reworking by external forces,making their paleo-geographical interpretation a more complex and controversial matter.Based on evidence from fluvial strata and landforms,various hypotheses have been proposed with considerable discrepancies for the timing of the Jinsha River diversion from the south flowing into the east,and the timing of the upper Yangtze channeling through the Three Gorges area.The Yangtze Was controversially assumed to be:(1) a very old river in existence since the Cretaceous and earlier,(2)a very young river that came into being only during the past several hundred thousand years,or(3)any age in between these two extremes.Techniques in microprobe dating of single crystalline grains have greatly improved,and they have been widelyand successfully used in provenance studies,drainage evolution reconstruction,and tectonic history restoration through dating detrital zircon/monazite grains from the onshore/offshore deposits.The timing of the Yangtze formation was estimated at ca.2.58 Ma based on analyses of time-series variation of EMP(electron microprobe)monazite ages in the late Cenozoic strata of the Yangtze delta.By revisiting fluvial deposits and landforms in the upper Yangtze drainage basin,some references also state the initiation time of the Yangtze at between the late Pliocene and early Pleistocene

  18. The Geopolitical Environment of Greater Neighborhood of the East China Sea%东海问题的周边地缘环境解析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭飞; 韩增林

    2014-01-01

    This article based on the East China Sea issue geopolitical environment fundamentals; source and original were made as the starting point. Divided the East China Sea neighborhood geopolitical environment into three kinds of geo-spatial structure, geopolitical body (East Sea), the main association (domain dispute countries), and inter-regional body association (outside interference country), which used the thinking of subject and association. There were four analysis conclusions of the East China Sea neighborhood geopolitical environment in the complex international linkages system. (1) From the view of main geopolitical point, the East China Sea have a very important geo-strategic, political and economic significance for China and Japan. East China Sea issue contains not only maritime demarcation issues, but also includes the sovereignty of the Diaoyu Islands issue, and related interests involved more countries and regions, geopolitical environment is very complex; (2) from the view of main association, the East China Sea issue is not just the dispute between China and Japan, also involves many countries, groups and organizational structure, etc.; the East China Sea dispute between China and Japan undergone several "cold" and "warm" period of wandering, but didn’t have substantive progress; (3) From the main inter-regional association, the United States is a major interference in the East China Sea issue. In order to achieve Asia Strategy, U.S. made its influence in the world firmly embedded in the geopolitical environment in the East China Sea, which is a serious threat to the maintenance of China's sovereignty, territorial integrity and maritime rights and interests.%文章以东海问题的地“源”、地“原”为切入点,基于东海问题的地缘环境基础要素,从“地”-主体、“缘”-关联、“地缘”-主体关联的思维角度将东海周边的地缘环境结构划分为地缘主体(东海)、主体关联(域内争端国

  19. Mixing, Internal Waves and Mesoscale Dynamics in the East China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-09-30

    Journal of Marine Systems . I. Lozovatsky presented the results at the 39th International Liege Colloquium, “Ocean Turbulence, Re-revisited” in May...2007b. Liu, Z., H. Wei, I.D. Lozovatsky, and H.J.S. Fernando, Late summer stratification and turbulence in the Yellow Sea., Journal of Marine Systems , 2007

  20. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from Ryofu Maru in the East China Sea, North Pacific Ocean and others from 2000-01-22 to 2009-07-06 (NODC Accession 0116980)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0116980 includes Surface underway data collected from Ryofu Maru in the East China Sea (Tung Hai), North Pacific Ocean, Philippine Sea, Sea of Japan...

  1. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from Ryofu Maru in the East China Sea, North Pacific Ocean and others from 1995-07-16 to 1999-11-05 (NODC Accession 0116981)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0116981 includes Surface underway data collected from Ryofu Maru in the East China Sea (Tung Hai), North Pacific Ocean, Philippine Sea, Sea of Japan...

  2. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from KEIFU MARU in the East China Sea, North Pacific Ocean and others from 2001-01-20 to 2012-06-12 (NODC Accession 0116978)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0116978 includes Surface underway data collected from KEIFU MARU in the East China Sea (Tung Hai), North Pacific Ocean, Philippine Sea, Sea of Japan...

  3. Heavy metal enrichments in the Changjiang (Yangtze River) catchment and on the inner shelf of the East China Sea over the last 150 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yanwei; Yang, Shouye

    2016-02-01

    Compositions of heavy metals including Cu, Zn, Cr and Pb in three sediment cores recovered from the lower basin of the Changjiang (Yangtze River) and the inner shelf mud of the East China Sea were analyzed by traditional X-ray florescence (XRF) and XRF Core Scanner. This study aims to investigate the accumulation of heavy metals in the fluvial sediments and to decipher the influence of anthropogenic activities within the large catchment over the last 150 years. The data suggest that the heavy metals, especially Pb and Zn, show obvious enrichments in concentrations since 1950s, and the small and consistent variations of heavy metal concentrations before 1950s can represent geochemical background values. After removing the grain size effect on elemental concentrations, we infer that the sources of heavy metals predominantly come from natural weathering detritus, while human contamination has increased over the last half century. The calculations of both enrichment factor and geoaccumulation index, however, indicate that the pollution of these heavy metals in the fluvial and shelf environments is not significant. The rapid increase in human activities and fast socioeconomic development in the Changjiang catchment and East China over the last five decades accounts for the enrichments of heavy metals in the river and marine sediments. The inner shelf of the East China Sea, as the major sink of the Changjiang-derived fine sediments, provides a high-resolution sediment archive for tracing the anthropogenic impacts on the catchment.

  4. Using International Law to Defuse Current Controversies in the South and East China Seas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-01

    rights and the general rights of the international community to use the seas as media for commerce and other peaceful purposes  A recognition...that an inhabited island that otherwise meets the tests in Article 121 of the LOS Convention of being able to support “human habitation ” or...like straits) to enact unilateral claims in order to protect their marine resources and their coastal populations. Malaysia in particular has had to

  5. Formation and evolution of the modem warm current system in the East China Sea and the Yellow Sea since the last deglaciation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Tiegang; NAN Qingyun; JIANG Bo; SUN Rongtao; ZHANG Deyu; LI Qing

    2009-01-01

    To reconstruct the formation and evolution process of the warm current system within the East China Sea (ECS) and the Yellow Sea (YS) since the last deglaciation, the paleoceangraphic records in core DGKS9603, core CSH1 and core YSDPI02, which were retrieved from the mainstream of the Kuroshio Current (KC), the edge of the modem Tsushima Warm Current (TWC) and muddy region under cold waters accreted with the Yellow Sea Warm Current (YSWC) respectively, were synthetically analyzed. The results indicate that the formation and evolution of the modem warm current system in the ECS and the YS has been accompanied by the development of the KC and impulse rising of the sea level since the last deglaciation. The influence of the KC on the Okinawa Trough had enhanced since 16 cal kyr BE and synchronously the modem TWC began to develop with the rising of sea level and finally formed at about 8.5 cal kyr BP. The KC had experienced two weakening process during the Heinrich event 1 and the Younger Drays event from 16 to 8.5 cal kyr BP. The period of 7-6 cal kyr BP was the strongest stage of the KC and the TWC since the last deglaciation. The YSWC has appeared at about 6.4 cal kyr BP. Thus,the warm current system of the ECS and the YS has ultimately formed. The weakness of the KC,indicated by the occurrence of Pulleniatina minimum event (PME) during the period from 5.3 to 2.8 cal kyr BE caused the main stream of the TWC to shift eastward to the Pacific Ocean around about 3 cal kyr BP. The process resulted in the intruding of continent shelf cold water mass with rich nutrients. Synchronously, the strength of the YSWC was relatively weak and the related cold water body was active at the early-mid stage of its appearance against the PME background, which resulted in the quick formation of muddy deposit system in the southeastern YS. The strength of the warm current system in the ECS and the YS has enhanced evidently, and approached to the modern condition gradually since 3 cal kyr

  6. Niche partitioning of marine group I Crenarchaeota in the euphotic and upper mesopelagic zones of the East China Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Anyi; Jiao, Nianzhi; Zhang, Rui; Yang, Zao

    2011-11-01

    Marine group I Crenarchaeota (MGI) represents a ubiquitous and numerically predominant microbial population in marine environments. An understanding of the spatial dynamics of MGI and its controlling mechanisms is essential for an understanding of the role of MGI in energy and element cycling in the ocean. In the present study, we investigated the diversity and abundance of MGI in the East China Sea (ECS) by analysis of crenarchaeal 16S rRNA gene, the ammonia monooxygenase gene amoA, and the biotin carboxylase gene accA. Quantitative PCR analyses revealed that these genes were higher in abundance in the mesopelagic than in the euphotic zone. In addition, the crenarchaeal amoA gene was positively correlated with the copy number of the MGI 16S rRNA gene, suggesting that most of the MGI in the ECS are nitrifiers. Furthermore, the ratios of crenarchaeal accA to amoA or to MGI 16S rRNA genes increased from the euphotic to the mesopelagic zone, suggesting that the role of MGI in carbon cycling may change from the epipelagic to the mesopelagic zones. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoretic profiling of the 16S rRNA genes revealed depth partitioning in MGI community structures. Clone libraries of the crenarchaeal amoA and accA genes showed both "shallow" and "deep" groups, and their relative abundances varied in the water column. Ecotype simulation analysis revealed that MGI in the upper ocean could diverge into special ecotypes associated with depth to adapt to the light gradient across the water column. Overall, our results showed niche partitioning of the MGI population and suggested a shift in their ecological functions between the euphotic and mesopelagic zones of the ECS.

  7. Influence of river discharge on phytoplankton absorption properties: a case study in the East China Sea and Tsushima Strait

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Wang

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the influence of fresh water on phytoplankton absorption properties, the phytoplankton absorption coefficient and pigments identified by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC were measured at the surface and subsurface chlorophyll a maximum (SCM in the East China Sea (ECS, which is highly influenced by river discharge from the Changjiang during summer. For comparison, data were also collected in the Tsushima Strait (TS at the surface and SCM. The majority of ECS surface samples taken from the low-salinity Changjiang diluted water (CDW, and even most of SCM samples taken from waters beneath the CDW, displayed significant freshwater influences. The specific absorption coefficient normalized by total chlorophyll a concentration (Tchl a, a*ph(λ, of these samples was substantially higher than values derived from global regressions between a*ph(λ and the Tchl a. Using the pigment data derived from HPLC, the increase of a*ph(λ was found to be mainly caused by the phytoplankton size structure, which indicated that both surface and SCM samples in the ECS still incorporated considerable portions of picophytoplankton (cyanobacteria, even though the Tchl a was high. When water from the surface and the SCM were merged, variations in the phytoplankton size-fractions and a*ph(λ vs. Tchl a that were consistent with values for the global ocean were found in the TS but not in the ECS. Data for the ECS indicated that there was no correlation between Tchl a and the size-fraction or total pigment absorption. As a consequence, a*ph(λ was poorly correlated with Tchl a and displayed large variability within a small Tchl a range. These findings suggest the need for care when considering the changing patterns of size-fractions vs. Tchl a and the relationship between a*ph(λ and Tchl ain coastal regions that are significantly influenced by fresh water.

  8. Tidal analysis in the venturi-shaped area between Zhenhai and Shenjiamen in the East China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lü, Huaqing; Hu, Jianjiong

    2009-02-01

    In order to better understand the general tidal features in the venturi-shaped area between Zhenhai and Shenjiamen in the northern coastal region of Zhejiang Province in the East China Sea, the tidal data were obtained from both the three permanent tide stations of Zhenhai, Dinghai and Shenjiamen, and four temporary tide stations of Mamu, Chuanshan, Guoju and Liuheng, along with the current speed being observed at Luotou Waterway. Results from harmonic analysis show that: (1) The area was dominated by shallow water tides with irregular semi-diurnal features, and the smallest tidal range occurred in the area near a crossing line between Zhenhai and Dinghai stations, indicating that a tidal node existed in the southern Hangzhou Bay; (2) Formulae, H_{S_2 } /H_{M_2 } > 0.4 and g_{M_2 } - (g_{K_1 } + g_{O_1 } ) =270° (where H and g are harmonic constants), could be used as judging criteria for high and low tidal level diurnal inequalities; (3) The duration difference between ebb and flood tides could be roughly assessed by the ratio of H_{M_4 } vs. H_{M_2 } ; and the larger the ratio is, the bigger the duration difference is. At the same time, the duration period could be assessed by 2g_{M_2 } - g_{M_4 } , the epoch difference between M 2 and M 4 tidal constituents. If 2g_{M_2 } - g_{M_4 } venturi-shaped area. Along the both sides of the area, the highest tidal level and tidal range became higher and larger, while the lowest tidal level became lower with the increase of the distance from the narrow throat area. This is somehow different from the theory that the tidal level increases gradually when it moves towards the top narrow area of a V-shaped bay or estuary.

  9. Reductive reactivity of iron(III oxides in the east china sea sediments: characterization by selective extraction and kinetic dissolution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang-Jin Chen

    Full Text Available Reactive Fe(III oxides in gravity-core sediments collected from the East China Sea inner shelf were quantified by using three selective extractions (acidic hydroxylamine, acidic oxalate, bicarbonate-citrate buffered sodium dithionite. Also the reactivity of Fe(III oxides in the sediments was characterized by kinetic dissolution using ascorbic acid as reductant at pH 3.0 and 7.5 in combination with the reactive continuum model. Three parameters derived from the kinetic method: m 0 (theoretical initial amount of ascorbate-reducible Fe(III oxides, k' (rate constant and γ (heterogeneity of reactivity, enable a quantitative characterization of Fe(III oxide reactivity in a standardized way. Amorphous Fe(III oxides quantified by acidic hydroxylamine extraction were quickly consumed in the uppermost layer during early diagenesis but were not depleted over the upper 100 cm depth. The total amounts of amorphous and poorly crystalline Fe(III oxides are highly available for efficient buffering of dissolved sulfide. As indicated by the m 0, k' and γ, the surface sediments always have the maximum content, reactivity and heterogeneity of reactive Fe(III oxides, while the three parameters simultaneously downcore decrease, much more quickly in the upper layer than at depth. Albeit being within a small range (within one order of magnitude of the initial rates among sediments at different depths, incongruent dissolution could result in huge discrepancies of the later dissolution rates due to differentiating heterogeneity, which cannot be revealed by selective extraction. A strong linear correlation of the m 0 at pH 3.0 with the dithionite-extractable Fe(III suggests that the m 0 may represent Fe(III oxide assemblages spanning amorphous and crystalline Fe(III oxides. Maximum microbially available Fe(III predicted by the m 0 at pH 7.5 may include both amorphous and a fraction of other less reactive Fe(III phases.

  10. Simultaneous retrieval of aerosol optical thickness and chlorophyll concentration from multi-wavelength measurement over East China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, C.; Nakajima, T.; Hashimoto, M.

    2016-12-01

    A flexible inversion algorithm is proposed for simultaneously retrieving aerosol optical thickness (AOT) and surface chlorophyll a (Chl) concentration from multi-wavelength observation over the ocean. In this algorithm, forward radiation calculation is performed by an accurate coupled atmosphere-ocean model with a sophisticated bio-optical ocean module, which is different from those in the classic ocean color algorithms that decouple the atmosphere and ocean systems using atmospheric correction procedures. Then, a full-physical nonlinear optimization approximation approach is used to retrieve AOT and Chl. For AOT retrieval, a global three-dimensional spectral radiation-transport aerosol model is used as the priori constraint to increase the retrieval accuracy of aerosol. To investigate the algorithm's availability, the retrieval experiment is conducted using simulated radiance data to demonstrate that the relative errors in simultaneously determining AOT and Chl can be mostly controlled to within 10% using multi-wavelength and angle coving in and out of sunglint. Furthermore, the inversion results are assessed using the actual satellite observation data obtained from Greenhouse gas Observation SATellite (GOSAT) and MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS)/Aqua instruments through comparison to Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) aerosol and ocean color (OC) products over East China Sea. Both the retrieved AOT and Chl compare favorably to the reported AERONET values, particularly when using the CASE 2 ocean module in turbid water, even when the retrieval is performed in the presence of high aerosol loading and sun glint. Finally, the MODIS images are used to jointly retrieve the spatial distribution of AOT and Chl in comparison to the MODIS AOT and OC products.

  11. Influence of the Changjiang River flood on Synechococcus ecology in the surface waters of the East China Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Chih-Ching; Huang, Chin-Yi; Gong, Gwo-Ching; Lin, Yun-Chi

    2014-02-01

    Synechococcus spp. have been suggested as the primary component of picophytoplankton in the East China Sea (ECS). However, the influences of sudden environmental changes on Synechococcus assemblage composition have not yet been investigated. In the summer of 2010, a disastrous flood occurred in the Changjiang River basin. To improve our understanding of how this flood affected the Synechococcus ecology on the ECS surface, their assemblages and distributions have been described using two-laser flow cytometry and phylogenetic analysis of the phycocyanin operon. During the nonflooding summer of 2009, phycoerythrin-rich (PE-rich) Synechococcus thrived near the outer boundary of the Changjiang River diluted water (CDW) coverage, while phycocyanin-rich (PC-rich) Synechococcus predominated inside the turbid CDW with a transparency of flooding expanded the CDW coverage area to over half of the ECS. PE-rich cells showed a homogeneous distribution and a decline in abundance, while the spatial pattern of the PC-rich Synechococcus resembled the pattern from 2009. Based on the phycocyanin operon phylogeny, the Synechococcus in the ECS were categorized into five groups, ECS-1 to ECS-4 and ECS-PE, comprising a total of 19 operational taxonomic units. In the summer of 2009, ECS-2 dominated in the coast, and the ECS-3 and ECS-PE clades prevailed in the offshore waters. However, during the summer of 2010, ECS-4 and ECS-PE became the dominant strains. The injection of abundant anthropogenic pollutants and the enhancement of transparency within the CDW expansion area appear to be the factors needed to transiently alter the ecology of Synechococcus after flooding.

  12. A semianalytical MERIS green-red band algorithm for identifying phytoplankton bloom types in the East China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Bangyi; Mao, Zhihua; Lei, Hui; Pan, Delu; Bai, Yan; Zhu, Qiankun; Zhang, Zhenglong

    2017-03-01

    A new bio-optical algorithm based on the green and red bands of the Medium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MERIS) is developed to differentiate the harmful algal blooms of Prorocentrum donghaiense Lu (P. donghaiense) from diatom blooms in the East China Sea (ECS). Specifically, a novel green-red index (GRI), actually an indicator for a(510) of bloom waters, is retrieved from a semianalytical bio-optical model based on the green and red bands of phytoplankton-absorption and backscattering spectra. In addition, a MERIS-based diatom index (DIMERIS) is derived by adjusting a Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) diatom index algorithm to the MERIS bands. Finally, bloom types are effectively differentiated in the feature spaces of the green-red index and DIMERIS. Compared with three previous MERIS-based quasi-analytical algorithm (QAA) algorithms and three existing classification methods, the proposed GRI and classification method have the best discrimination performance when using the MERIS data. Further validations of the algorithm by using several MERIS image series and near-concurrent in situ observations indicate that our algorithm yields the best classification accuracy and thus can be used to reliably detect and classify P. donghaiense and diatom blooms in the ECS. This is the first time that the MERIS data have been used to identify bloom types in the ECS. Our algorithm can also be used for the successor of the MERIS, the Ocean and Land Color Instrument, which will aid the long-term observation of species succession in the ECS.

  13. The East China Sea maritime and territorial dispute: a stand-off that suits everybody?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Shea, Paul

    2016-01-01

    the Chinese Communist Party's nationalist credentials and thus its legitimacy. The Abe Shinzō administration in Tokyo can use the dispute as an example of the “China Threat”, justifying the need for Japan to continue its “normalizing” path. Finally, although the USA portrays itself as a stabilizing force......, extending the US–Japan Security Treaty to include the islands while seeking simultaneously to temper Japan's behaviour, the dispute also provides part of the rationale for the controversial US Marine bases in Okinawa and indeed for the US–Japan alliance itself. These gains make resolution unlikely, but do...

  14. Temporal and spatial distributions of dominant shrimp stocks and their relationship with the hydrological environment in the East China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    To provide a scientific and technological base for fishery administration, holding a moratorium on fishing, and combating habitat degradation, a shrimp stock survey was carried out in May,August, and November 1998 and in February 1999. The study was conducted in the area between 26°00′N and 33°00′ N and to the west of 127°00′ E in the East China Sea using a multi-sac trawl-net, with 115 stations being sampled. Up to 2001, we had found 121 species, which belong to 63 genera under 22 families, and 41 species are of high economic value and in great abundance. Nine shrimp species were of great economic importance, whose stock accounted for 76.8% of the demersal total. They were Parapenaeus fissuroides, Metapenaeopsis philippi, Palaemon gravieri, Metapenaeopsis barbata,Solenocera koelbeli, Solenocera crassicornis, Trachypenaeus curvirostris, Solenocera melantho and Parapenaeopsis hardwickii (listed in stock order). The nine species belong to the eurythermal and eurysaline community and high thermal and high saline community, had different migration patterns and stocks, and their distribution patterns could be generally classified into three types: (1) dominating in the north or the south; (2) dominating to the north of and in the coast to the south of 30°00′ N; and (3)dominating to the east of 60 m isobath, which were related to six water masses in the ECS near two lines,i.e., the 60 m isobath and 30°00′N latitudinal lines. Densely habited shrimps were found in all four seasons due to temperature and salinity frontiers and upwelling. The general stock density index was relatively higher in spring, summer, and autumn, when it surpassed 10 kg/h, while in winter, it was only 6.8 kg/h which might be caused by overfishing. According to the spawning areas of the nine species and their distribution patterns, to attain sustainable development of the shrimp fishery in the ECS, it is imperative to protect fishing areas and to hold a moratorium on catching to the

  15. Effects of water temperature inversion layer on underwater sound propagation in the East China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seong Hyeon; Kim, Byoung-Nam; Kim, Eung; Choi, Bok Kyoung; Kim, Dong Sun

    2017-07-01

    In this study, we investigated the effect of a water temperature inversion layer on the propagation of acoustic waves in the western coastal sea of Jeju Island in April 2015. When the acoustic source and receiver are simultaneously located within the water temperature inversion layer depth, the long-range propagation of acoustic waves is confirmed by numerical modeling. This is caused by the duct effect due to the water temperature inversion phenomenon. For the experimental area without the water temperature inversion layer, when the acoustic source and receiver are simultaneously located below thermocline depth, the long-range propagation of acoustic waves is also confirmed. This is generally caused by the seasonal water temperature profile.

  16. A research on statistical retrieval algorithms and spectral characteristics of the total absorption coefficients in the Yellow Sea and the East China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xiaomei; TANG Junwu; SONG Qingjun; Ding Jing; MA Chaofei

    2006-01-01

    This paper suggests a group of statistical algorithms for calculating the total absorption coefficients based on in situ data of apparent optical property and inherent optical property collected with strict quality assurance according to NASA ocean bio-optic protocols in the Yellow Sea and the East China Sea in spring 2003. The band-ratios of Rrs412/Rrs555, Rrs490/Rrs555 are used in the algorithms to derive the total absorption coefficients (at) at 412, 440, 488, 510, 532 and 555nm bands, respectively. The average relative errors between inversed and measured values are less than 25.8%, with the correlative coefficients (R2) being 0.75-0.85. Error sensitivity analysis shows that the maximum retrieval error is less than 24.0% at (5% error in Rrs's. So the statistical algorithms of this paper are practicable. In this paper, the relations between the total absorption coefficients at 412, 488, 510, 532, 555 nm and that of 440nm are also studied. The results show that the relations between the total absorption coefficients of 400-600 nm and that of 440 nm are correlated well and all of their correlative coefficients R2 are greater than 0.99. Furthermore, a regression analysis is also done for the slope of the linear relations and wavelengths, and the R2 is also 0.99. Thus it is possible to retrieve other bands' total absorption coefficients with only one band absorption value, which significantly reduce the number of unknown parameters in studying other ocean color related problems.

  17. Palaeoenvironmental changes from pollen record in deep sea core PC-1 from northern Okinawa Trough, East China Sea during the past 24 ka

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU HongYan; CHANG FengMing; LUO YunLi; SUN XiangJun

    2009-01-01

    A pollen record of core PC-1 from the northern Okinawa Trough, East China Sea (ECS), provides in-formation on vegetation and climate changes since 24 cal. kaBP. A total of 103 samples were palyno-logically analyzed at 8 cm intervals with a time resolution of 230 a. Four pollen zones are recognized: zone I (812-715 cm, 24.2-21.1 cal. kaBP), zone II (715-451 cm, 21.1 -15.2 cal. kaBP), zone Ⅲ (451 -251 cm, 15.2-10.8 cal. kaBP), zone Ⅳ (251-0 cm, 10.8-0.3 cal. kaBP), corresponding to Late MIS 3, Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), deglaciation and Holocene, respectively. The LGM is characterized by the dominance of herbs, mainly Artemisia, and high pollen influx, implying an open vegetation on the ex-posed continental shelf and e cool and dry climate. The deglaciation is a climate warming stage with Pinus percentage increased and Artemisia percentage decreased and a rapid sea-level rise. The Holo-cene is characterized by predominance of tree pollen with rapid increase in Castanea-Castanopsis in-dicating the development of mixed evergreen and deciduous broad-leaved forest and a warm, humid climate. Low pollen influx during the Holocene probably implies submergence of the continental shelf and retreat of the pollen source area. The vegetation indicated by pollen assemblage found in this up-per zone is consistent with the present vegetation found in Kyushu, Japan. Originating from the humid mountain area of North Luzon of the Philippines, Tasmania and New Zealand, Phyllocladus with spo-radic occurrence throughout PC-1 core probably suggests the influence of Palaeo-Kuroshio Current or intense summer monsoon. The observed changes in Pinus and Herbs percentage indicate fluctuations of the sea level, and high Pinus percentage corresponds to high sea level. Spectrum analysis of the pollen percentage record reveals many millennial-scale periodicities, such as periodicities of 6.8, 3.8, 2.2, 1.6 ka.

  18. The Cenzonic tail derived structures of transtensional faults in Bohai Sea, East China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guangzeng; Wu, Zhiping

    2017-04-01

    Two pre-exsiting giant strike-slip fault zones, Tanlu Fault Zone and Zhangpeng Fault Zone, comprise a conjugate strike-slip fualt system in Bohai Sea. They reactivated and developped into many branches under the extensional and shear stresses indued by the combined action of plate collision and deep mantle upwelling in Cenzonic. In response to the stress concentration at the tails of those branches, various kinds of tail derived structures develop. To systematically describe and distinguish above tail derived structures, we reviewed numerous high-resolution seismic sections and plandimetric maps of Bohai Sea, such as deteiled fault system diagroms, coherence slices and 3D visualization structural diagrams, and distinguished three types of tail derived structures at the tails of the transtensional branches of Tanlu Fault Zone and Zhangpeng Fault Zone, based on their geometric characteristics, namely, extensional horsetail/imbricate fan, wedge-shaped tail, and mixed tail of extensional horsetail fan and wedge-shaped tail (the tail derived structures develops in stepovers of transtensioanl branches are not discussed in this paper). Extensional horsetail fan mainly develops at fault tails with releasing single bend and the horsetail splay faults are T faults (about 45° to main strike-slip fault), while the wedge-shaped tail mainly develops at fault tails unfavorable for strike slip, they could be straight or with gentle restaining single bend and the derived faults are mainly antithetic faults (R' shears, normally above 70° to main strike-slip fault). If the fault tail developing a wedge-shaped tail has a small releasing single bend at its tip, a extensional horsetail fan would occur at the tip of the wedge-shaped tail, viz., mixed tail derived structure. All above tail derived faults show normal throws in profile and develop in extensional quadrant of the hanging wall of those branches. And with the shear of above main strike-slip faults, the angles bewteen the main

  19. An East Asian land-sea atmospheric heat source difference index and its relation to general circulation and summer rainfall over China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Using a monthly precipitation dataset of 160 stations over China and a daily and monthly National Centers for Environmental Prediction/National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCEP/NCAR) reanalysis dataset from 1961 to 2006, we here define an East Asian land-sea atmospheric heat source difference index ILSQD and investigate its relationship to summer rainfall in China and East Asian general circulation. The results show that ILSQD more closely reflects the anomalous variations in summer monsoon phenomena; in the high-index (HI) cases, the strong low-level southerlies over East China and the strong high-level westerlies over middle latitudes indicate an active summer monsoon, and vice versa in the low-index (LI) cases. This index also reflects summer rainfall anomalies over East China; in the HI (LI) cases rainfall increases (decreases) over North China and at the same time decreases (increases) over the mid-lower Yangtze River valley and the southern Yangtze River. Hence, ILSQD can be utilized as a summer monsoon index. There is also remarkable correlation between ILSQD in March and the following summer rainfall over the mid-lower Yangtze River valley. Finally, the Community Atmospheric Model Version 3.1 (CAM3.1) of NCAR is used to run numerical experiments, which verify that the anomalous summer precipitation in simulations is similar to that of diagnosis analysis based on the anomalous summer atmospheric heating forcing. Similarly, the atmospheric heating rate in March can force summer rainfall anomalies in the simulations just as observed in the data.

  20. 东海初级生产力遥感反演及其时空演化机制%Estimation of ocean primary productivity and its spatio-temporal variation mechanism for East China Sea based on VGPM model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李国胜; 高平; 王芳

    2004-01-01

    According to calculation results of ocean chlorophyll concentration based on SeaWiFS data by SeaBAM model and synchronous ship-measured data, this research set up an improved model for Case Ⅰ and Case Ⅱ water bodies respectively. The monthly chlorophyll distribution in the East China Sea in 1998 was obtained kom this improved model on calculation results of SeaBAM. The euphotic depth distribution in 1998 in the East China Sea is calculated by using remote sensing data of K490 from SeaWiFS according to the relation between the euphotic depth and the oceanic diffuse attenuation coefficient. With data of ocean chlorophyll concentration, euphotic depth, ocean surface photosynthetic available radiation (PAR), daily photoperiod and optimal rate of daily carbon fixation within a water column, the monthly and annual primary productivity spatio-temporal distributions in the East China Sea in 1998 were obtained based on VGPM model. Based on analysis of those distributions, the conclusion can be drawn that there is a clear bimodality character of primary productivity in the monthly distribution in the East China Sea. In detail, the monthly distribution of primary productivity stays the lowest level in winter and rises rapidly to the peak in spring. It gets down a little in summer, and gets up a little in autumn. The daily average of primary productivity in the whole East China Sea is 560.03 mg/m2/d, which is far higher than the average of subtropical ocean areas. The annual average of primary productivity is 236.95 g/m2/a. The research on the seasonal variety mechanism of primary productivity shows that several factors that affect the spatio-temporal distribution may include the chlorophyll concentration distribution, temperature condition, the Yangtze River diluted water variety, the euphotic depth, ocean current variety, etc. But the main influencing factors may be different in each local sea area.

  1. Satellite remote sensing prediction of Japanese pilchard fishing ground in the Huanghai Sea and the East China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨纪明; 顾传宬; 李丽云; 李军; 高崇义; 李文泽

    1995-01-01

    The thermophily, fishing season and central fishing ground of Japanese pilchard (Sardinops melanosticta) were studied by using satellite remote sensing (SRS) and other methods in Haizhou Bay and Tsushima waters during 1986 -1990. A rapid prediction method of fishing ground is presented. Moreover. the results indicated that the thermophilic values of the fish stock are 11 - 20℃ and both fishing grounds are in increasing temperature process from the beginning to the end of the fishing period. The Japanese pilchards gather vigorously at the sea surface temperature of 15-17℃. The water temperature is a key factor affecting the fishing season and the catch of the fishing ground. The increasing temperature process restricts the fishing season development and central fishing ground formation. The accuracy of 15 predictions made in the Haizhou Bay fishing ground is up to 91.3%, and 37 predictions made in the Tsushima fishing ground shorten the fish detection time by 13.4% - 22% on the average.

  2. Tidal analysis in the venturi-shaped area between Zhenhai and Shenjiamen in the East China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    L(U) Huaqing; HU Jianjiong

    2009-01-01

    In order to better understand the general tidal features in the venturi-shaped area between Zhenhai and Shenjiamen in the northern coastal region of Zhejiang Province in the East China Sea, the tidal data were obtained from both the three permanent tide stations of Zhenhai, Dinghai and Shenjiamen, and four temporary tide stations of Mamu, Chuanshan, Guoju and Liuheng, along with the current speed being observed at Luotou Waterway. Results from harmonic analysis show that: (1) The area was dominated by shallow water tides with irregular semi-diurnal features, and the smallest tidal range occurred in the area near a crossing line between Zhenhai and Dinghai stations, indicating that a tidal node existed in the southern Hangzhou Bay; (2) Formulae, HS2/HM2 >0.4 and gM2-(gK1+gO1)=270° (where H and g are harmonic constants), could be used as judging criteria for high and low tidal level diurnal inequalities; (3) The duration difference between ebb and flood tides could be roughly assessed by the ratio of HM4 vs. HM2; and the larger the ratio is, the bigger the duration difference is. At the same time, the duration period could be assessed by 2gM2-gM4, the epoch difference between M2 and M4 tidal constituents. If 2gM2-gM4 <180°, then the ebb duration is longer than the flood duration; if 180°< 2gM2-gM4 <360°, the result is reversed; (4) Taking Dinghai station as a center point, the highest tidal levels and the average high tidal levels, as well as the average tidal ranges at all stations became higher and larger both southeastwards and northwestwards, while the lowest tidal levels and the average low tidal levels appeared to be lower both southeastwards and northwestwards; and (5) The tidal patterns were not all in line with the tidal current patterns. As a conclusion, the smallest tidal range occurred in the narrow part of the venturi-shaped area. Along the both sides of the area, the highest tidal level and tidal range became higher and larger, while the lowest

  3. Influence of cross-shelf water transport on nutrients and phytoplankton in the East China Sea: a model study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Zhao

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A three dimensional coupled biophysical model was used to examine the supply of oceanic nutrients to the shelf of the East China Sea (ECS and its role in primary production over the shelf. The model consisted of two parts: the hydrodynamic module was based on a nested model with a horizontal resolution of 1/18 degree, whereas the biological module was a lower trophic level ecosystem model including two types of phytoplankton, three elements of nutrients, and biogenic organic material. The model results suggested that seasonal variations occurred in the distribution of nutrients and chlorophyll a over the shelf of the ECS. After comparison with available observed nutrients and chlorophyll a data, the model results were used to calculate volume and nutrients fluxes across the shelf break. The annual mean total fluxes were 1.53 Sv for volume, 9.4 kmol s−1 for DIN, 0.7 kmol s−1 for DIP, and 18.2 kmol s−1 for silicate. Two areas, northeast of Taiwan and southwest of Kyushu, were found to be major source regions of oceanic nutrients to the shelf. Although the onshore fluxes of nutrients and volume both had apparent seasonal variations, the seasonal variation of the onshore nutrient flux did not exactly follow that of the onshore volume flux. Additional calculations in which the concentration of nutrients in Kuroshio water was artificially increased suggested that the oceanic nutrients were distributed in the bottom layer from the shelf break to the region offshore of the Changjiang estuary from spring to summer and appeared in the surface layer from autumn to winter. The calculations also implied that the supply of oceanic nutrients to the shelf can change the consumption of pre-existing nutrients from rivers. The response of primary production over the shelf to the oceanic nutrients was confirmed not only in the surface layer (mainly at the outer shelf and shelf break in winter and in the region

  4. Influence of cross-shelf water transport on nutrients and phytoplankton in the East China Sea: a model study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Zhao

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available A three dimensional coupled biophysical model was used to examine the supply of oceanic nutrients to the shelf of the East China Sea (ECS and its role in primary production over the shelf. The model consisted of two modules: the hydrodynamic module was based on a nested model with a horizontal resolution of 1/18 degree, whereas the biological module was a low trophic level ecosystem model including two types of phytoplankton, three elements of nutrients, and biogenic organic material. Model results suggested that seasonal variation in chlorophyll-a had a strong regional dependence over the shelf of the ECS. The area with high chlorophyll-a appears firstly at the outer shelf in winter, and gradually migrates toward the inner shelf (offshore region of Changjiang estuary from spring to summer. Vertically, chlorophyll-a was generally homogenous from the coastal zone to the inner shelf. In the middle and outer shelves, high chlorophyll-a appeared in the surface in spring but moved to the subsurface from summer to early autumn. The annual averaged onshore flux across the shelf break was estimated to be 1.53 Sv for volume, 9.4 kmol s−1 for DIN, 0.7 kmol s−1 for DIP, and 18.2 kmol s−1 for silicate, which are supplied mainly from the northeast of Taiwan and southwest of Kyushu. From calculations that artificially increased the concentration of nutrients in the Kuroshio water, the additional oceanic nutrients were distributed in the bottom layer from the shelf break to the region offshore of Changjiang estuary from spring to summer, and appeared in the surface layer from autumn to winter. The contribution of oceanic nutrients to primary production over the shelf was found not only in the surface layer (mainly at the outer shelf and shelf break in winter and in the region offshore of Changjiang estuary in summer but also in the subsurface layer over the shelf from spring to autumn.

  5. Dissolved inorganic carbon, pH, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from the RYOFU MARU in the East China Sea (Tung Hai), North Pacific Ocean and Philippine Sea from 1997-06-23 to 1997-07-22 (NODC Accession 0115597)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0115597 includes biological, chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from RYOFU MARU in the East China Sea (Tung Hai), North...

  6. Dissolved inorganic carbon, pH, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, Coulometer for DIC measurement and other instruments from the Ryofu Maru II in the East China Sea (Tung Hai), North Pacific Ocean and Philippine Sea from 2004-10-21 to 2004-11-09 (NODC Accession 0112286)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0112286 includes biological, chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from Ryofu Maru II in the East China Sea (Tung Hai), North...

  7. Decline in suspended sediment concentration delivered by the Changjiang (Yangtze) River into the East China Sea between 1956 and 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Zhijun; Fagherazzi, Sergio; Mei, Xuefei; Gao, Jinjuan

    2016-09-01

    The temporal evolution of suspended sediment concentration (SSC) in a river debouching into the ocean provides vital insights into erosion processes in the watershed and dictates the evolution of the inner continental shelf. While the delivery of sediment from rivers to the ocean has received special attention in the recent past, few studies focused on the variability and dynamics of river SSC, especially in the Changjiang (Yangtze) river, China, the longest river in Asia. Here, variations in SSC delivered by the Changjiang River to the East China Sea and possible causes of its variability were detected based on a long-term time series of daily SSC and monthly water discharge measured at the Datong gauging station. The SSC data are further compared to a hydrological analysis of yearly precipitation covering the entire catchment. The results indicate the presence of a decline in SSC in the period 1956-2013, which can be divided into three phases: (i) high SSC (0.69 kg/m3) in the wet season and low SSC (0.2 kg/m3) in the dry season from 1956 to 1970; (ii) relative high SSC (0.58 kg/m3) in the wet season and low SSC (0.15 kg/m3) in the dry season from 1971 to 2002; and (iii) low SSC (0.19 kg/m3) in the wet season and very low SSC (0.09 kg/m3) in the dry season after 2002. These three periods have a mean yearly SSC values of 0.62, 0.42, and 0.18 kg/m3, respectively. Compared with 1956-1970, the slope of the rating curve between SSC and water discharge decreased, respectively, by 2% and 30% during the period 1971-2002 and 2002-2013. Soil erosion, dam construction, and banks reinforcement along the Changjiang River are the main causes of SSC variations. Fluctuations in water discharge are also controlling the SSC long-term variations. Specifically, from 1956 to 1970, the effect of soil erosion overrules that of dam impoundment, which is likely responsible for the high SSC; during the period 1970-2002, the influence of dam impoundment increases while that of soil erosion

  8. Analysis of Cu, Co, V and Zn in coastal waters of the East China Sea by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Rujun; Ning, Yutong; Zhang, Aibin; Li, Yan; Su, Han

    2016-10-01

    In this study, a simple method for the simultaneous determination of trace metals (Cu, V, Co, Zn) in coastal seawater using the Mg(OH)2 coprecipitation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was developed. This multi-element method enables the simultaneous extraction of four metals, particularly Co and V. The recoveries of Cu, Co, V and Zn after Mg(OH)2 coprecipitation were 73%, 96%, 94% and 92%, which means that our procedure was well-suited to the determination of these four trace metals. The detection limits were 3.81, 0.18, 6.09 and 1.91 nmol L-1, respectively. Then, applying this method to the simultaneous determination of these four metals in coastal water samples from the East China Sea revealed that the concentrations of Cu, Zn, Co and V were higher in bottom waters compared to water at other depths, and higher concentrations were generally observed at the Yangtze River estuary. Additionally, example vertical profiles of dissolved trace metal concentrations for the East China Sea in spring and autumn are compared. These findings indicate that Zn had the greatest seasonal variation followed by Cu, V and Co. For Zn and Co, the concentrations were higher during spring than during autumn. For Cu and V, the seasonal variation in the concentrations was opposite.

  9. FIVE RED TIDE SPECIES IN GENUS PROROCENTRUM INCLUDING THE DESCRIPTION OF PROROCENTRUM DONGHAIENSE LU SP. NOV. FROM THE EAST CHINA SEA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆斗定; JeanetteGoebel

    2001-01-01

    A new planktonic dinoflagellate, Prorocentrum donghaiense I_a sp. nov., is described in the present paper. The water sample was collected from the Changjiang Estuary, the East China Sea. The species identification is based on shape, size, surface micro-morphology, ornamentation of thecal plates and the architecture of the pel'iflagellar area and the intercalary bands as seen by fight and scanning electron microscope. Prorocentrum donghaiense Lu sp. nov. is compared with other prorocentrum species with respect to morphological characteristics and bloom behavior. It is not known whether Prorocentrum donghaiense Lu sp. nov produces phycotoxins like some other Prorocentrum species. Four other red tide species in the family Prorocentraceae (Dinophyceae), namely P. balticum, P. minimum, P.micans, P. triestinum, were examined and identified by light and scanning electron microscope. They have been recorded as bloom-forming species. Some aggregates of Prorocentrum are observed at the end of blooms. An event of strong discoloration caused by P. donghaiense could be detected by satellite sensor in the East China Sea in the late spring, of 1995.

  10. FIVE RED TIDE SPECIES IN GENUS PROROCENTRUM INCLUDING THE DESCRIPTION OF PROROCENTRUM DONGHAIENSE LU SP. NOV. FROM THE EAST CHINA SEA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A new planktonic dinoflagellate, Prorocentrum donghaiense Lu sp. nov., is described in the present paper. The water sample was collected from the Changjiang Estuary, the East China Sea. The species identification is based on shape, size, surface micro-morphology, ornamentation of thecal plates and the architecture of the periflagellar area and the intercalary bands as seen by light and scanning electron microscope. Prorocentrum donghaiense Lu sp. nov. is compared with other prorocentrum species with respect to morphological characteristics and bloom behavior. It is not known whether Prorocentrum donghaiense Lu sp. nov produces phycotoxins like some other Prorocentrum species. Four other red tide species in the family Prorocentraceae (Dinophyceae), namely P. balticum, P. minimum, P.micans, P. triestinum, were examined and identified by light and scanning electron microscope. They have been recorded as bloom-forming species. Some aggregates of Prorocentrum are observed at the end of blooms. An event of strong discoloration caused by P. donghaiense could be detected by satellite sensor in the East China Sea in the late spring of 1995.

  11. Multi-core structure of the main part of the Kuroshio at G-PN section in the East China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Sectional velocity distribution of the East China Sea Kuroshio is one of the basic points in the study of the Kuroshio. Hydrographic temperature and salinity data at G-PN section in the East China Sea from June 1955 to November 2001 are collected and properly processed to calculate the geostrophic current using dynamic height method at the transect of the Kuroshio. After analysis of calculation results, the basic current structure of the Kuroshio in its main part is examined together with scalar estimate and characters of multi- core structure, and spacial-temporal variations of current cores' position. Main result shows that (1) single-core structure, double-core structure and multi-core structure are basic forms in axial part of the Kuroshio; (2) abvious temporal variations exist in current structure of the Kuroshio; (3) the current of structure of the Kuroshio has distinctly seasonal association. The number of current cores is on the high side of core numbers in average and multi-core stucture appears in fall mostly.

  12. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from Ryofu Maru in the East China Sea, North Pacific Ocean and others from 2010-04-15 to 2013-09-13 (NODC Accession 0117056)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0117056 includes Surface underway data collected from Ryofu Maru in the East China Sea (Tung Hai), North Pacific Ocean, Philippine Sea and South...

  13. Temporal Variations of the Spring Persistent Rains and South China Sea Sub-high and Their Correlations to the Circulation and Precipitation of the East Asian Summer Monsoon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WAN Rijin; WANG Tongmei; WU Guoxiong

    2008-01-01

    National Meteorological Information Center (NMIC) rainfall data and NCEP/NCAR dally circulation reanalysis data are employed to establish the onset-pentad time index of the spring persistent rains (SPR) and the decay-pentad time index of the South China Sea (SCS) sub-high. These indexes are used to study the relationship between the factors in SPR period and their relations to the circulation and precipitation of the East Asian summer monsoon (EASM). Results show that, the summer rainfall over southeastern China decreases when SPR onset is late. For then EASM strengthens and the cyclonic circulation around the Tibetan Plateau (TP) strengthens, which makes abnormal anti-cyclonic circulation (cyclonic convergent circulation weakens) appear over southeastern China. When the decay of SCS sub-high delays, abnormal flood prevails over the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River (MLYR) and to the south. That is mainly caused by EASM weakening while SCS sub-high strengthening, then the abnormal southwesterly over South China and the abnormal northerlies of anti-cyclonic circulation around the TP converge over the Yangtze Valley. The two indexes have high correlations with multivariate ENSO index (MEI) in March, indicating that the climate abnormity in East Asia is rclated to global climate abnormity tightly. The two time indexes are independent of each other, which is favorable for the prediction of the anomalies of the circulation and precipitation of EASM. From this point of view, we must take the global climate background into account when we analyze and predict the East Asian summer circulation and precipitation.

  14. Spatial and Seasonal Dynamics of Ship Emissions over the Yangtze River Delta and East China Sea and Their Potential Environmental Influence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Qianzhu; Zhang, Yan; Ma, Weichun; Ma, Huixin; Feng, Junlan; Yu, Qi; Yang, Xin; Ng, Simon K W; Fu, Qingyan; Chen, Limin

    2016-02-02

    The Yangtze River Delta (YRD) port cluster is one of five major port clusters in China and is home to Shanghai port, the largest port worldwide. In this study, an automatic identification system-based model was built to estimate the ship exhaust emissions in the YRD and the East China Sea within 400 km of the coastline. In 2010, the total emissions of SO2, NOX, and PM2.5 were 3.8 × 10(5) tonnes/yr, 7.1 × 10(5) tonnes/yr, and 5.1 × 10(4) tonnes/yr, respectively. More than 60% and 85% of the ship emissions occurred within 100 km and 200 km of the coastline, respectively. Ship emissions also showed distinct seasonal variability. The emission of SO2 and NOX by ships in hot spots, such as ports and vessel traffic hubs was much higher than that on land, with maximum SO2 and NOX intensities from ships that were 36 times and 17 times greater, respectively, than the maximal land-based emissions. The potential impact of ship emissions at six hot spots on the surrounding atmospheric environment was estimated with the HYSPLIT model. Our study demonstrated that ship emissions have an important impact on both the entire YRD region and on greater East China.

  15. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from underway - surface observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from the Ryofu Maru II in the Bismarck Sea, East China Sea (Tung Hai) and others from 1989-11-17 to 2011-03-14 (NODC Accession 0081046)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0081046 includes chemical, meteorological, physical and underway - surface data collected from Ryofu Maru II in the Bismarck Sea, East China Sea (Tung...

  16. Hydrographic Response of the East China Sea to the Sea Level Changes Lead by the Glacial/ Interglacial Climatic Cycle Inferred from Radiolarian Data (IODP Exp. 346 Site U1429)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuzaki, K. M. R.; Itaki, T.

    2016-12-01

    The East China Sea (ECS) is a marginal sea. In this area warm water of the Kuroshio Current (KC) and discharges of fresh water from the Yangtze River during summer influence the regional hydrography under the control of the East Asian Monsoon. Most parts of this sea lies above a continental shelf. Indeed, 70 % of this sea has a water column shallower than 200 m. Since the end of the Mid Pleistocene Transition spanning from 1200 to 800 kyr, Earth's climate is characterized by 100 kyr interglacial/glacial climatic cycles. To these cycles are associated high amplitude changes in the world wide sea level caused by the increases/decreases in the volume of the polar ice sheets located in both hemispheres. At its maximum a Δ sea level exceeding 100 m is recognized during the glacial Marine Isotopic Stage (MIS) 2. In this context, because 70% of the ECS show a water depth shallower than 200 m, in this study we are interested in monitoring the response of the ECS hydrography to these high amplitude sea level changes. In summer-autumn 2013, the IODP Expedition 346 could retrieve sediments cores in the northern East China Sea from Site U1428 and U1429. Based on the shipboard preliminary results, these sites likely cover the past 400 kyr continuously. The shipboard preliminarily data also reported that siliceous microfossils such as radiolarians were abundant and well preserved in sediment cores collected from these sites. Radiolarian are widely distributed in the world ocean and they are famous for living from shallow to deep water masses. Therefore, their uses enable to monitor paleoecological changes in the shallow to the deep water layers. In this study based on radiolarian species, which ecology are well-known, we discuss changes in the ECS hydrography throughout the past 400 kyr. We have analyzed changes in radiolarian assemblages over 110 samples collected from Site U1429. As a preliminary result, we identified that during the MIS 2, 6 and 10 because of a globally low

  17. Hydrographic condition and variability in the Yellow Sea and East China Sea during winter%冬季黄、东海水文状况及其变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    This paper deals with the hydrographic condition and variability in the Yellow Sea and East China Seas during winter. It is based on data obtained from the joint Chinese(Norwegian surveys during the period 1984 to 1995. The results indicated that:(1) From November to March, the water temperature there was decreasing, the Yellow Sea Cold Water, the Yellow Sea Warm Current and Yellow Sea Coastal Current mainly dominated the survey areas;(2) The vertical distribution of hydrographic factors varied through the winter. From November to March the thickness of upper homogeneous layer became thicker and the thermocline, halocline and Yellow Sea Cold Water less pronounced, in January-March, these features disappeared and the hydrographic conditions were almost homogenous through the whole water column from surface to bottom;(3) The Yellow Sea Cold Water-mass and Yellow Sea Warm Current showed strong clear inter-annual variation. The temperature and salinity of Yellow Sea Cold Water were more stable. However, its relative volume in the stronger year(November, 1986) was 4.44 times that in the weaker year(Novemner, 1985). The Yellow Sea Warm Current's speed in the stronger year(January, 1986) was 1.21 times that in the weaker year(January, 1992);(4) Anchovy was mainly distributed in the warm or cold water tongue areas formed by Yellow Sea Warm Current or Yellow Sea Coastal Current with temperature of 11-13℃.The thermocline had apparent effects on their vertical migration and they tended to stay above it most of the day.

  18. Dependence of aerosol scattering coefficients on relative humidity observed at two coastal sites on the East China Sea: Comparison to remote observations and influence of chemical composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanaya, Y.; Taketani, F.; Irie, H.; Komazaki, Y.; Takashima, H.; Xiaole, P.; Takami, A.; Wang, Z.

    2011-12-01

    We employed an integrating nephelometer equipped with a humidifier (where the relative humidity (RH) was scanned between 40 and 90%) to measure the aerosol scattering coefficients and their dependence on RH at Fukue Island (32.75N, 128.68E), west of Japan, in May 2009 and at Rudong, Jiangsu, China (32.26N, 121.37E) in May/June 2010, aiming at better characterization of optical properties of the regional-scale aerosol pollution over East Asia. The two coastal sites are located east and west of the East China Sea and are separated by about 700 km. The observed scattering coefficients are normalized by the concurrently measured PM2.5 mass concentrations and thereby behaviors of the mass scattering coefficients are discussed. At Fukue, the mass scattering coefficients under the ambient RH conditions were >1.5 times higher than those observed under the dry condition (RH = 40%), suggesting that the RH effect was crucial in determining optical properties under ambient conditions. The coefficients under the ambient RH conditions, rather than the dry values, agreed better with the extinction coefficients determined by MAX-DOAS (Multi-Axis Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy) technique based on remote measurements of O4 optical depths. The single-scattering albedo (SSA), estimated in combination to the absorption coefficients determined by a MAAP (Multi-Angle Absorption Photometer) instrument, had similar average values (~0.95) at the two sites. The SSA values at the two sites were commonly lowered (to below 0.90) when the air traveled from the North China Plain region. At Fukue, the RH dependence was found to be weakened when the organics/sulfate ratio increased (as observed by an Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectrometer), while such influence of chemical composition was less clear at Rudong, possibly masked by large temporal variations in the particle size distributions.

  19. South China Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, B; Blackmore, G

    2001-12-01

    The South China Sea is poorly understood in terms of its marine biota, ecology and the human impacts upon it. What is known is most often contained in reports and workshop and conference documents that are not available to the wider scientific community. The South China Sea has an area of some 3.3 million km2 and depths range from the shallowest coastal fringe to 5377 m in the Manila Trench. It is also studded with numerous islets, atolls and reefs many of which are just awash at low tide. It is largely confined within the Tropic of Cancer and, therefore, experiences a monsoonal climate being influenced by the Southwest Monsoon in summer and the Northeast Monsoon in winter. The South China Sea is a marginal sea and, therefore, largely surrounded by land. Countries that have a major influence on and claims to the sea include China, Malaysia, the Philippines and Vietnam, although Thailand, Indonesia and Taiwan have some too. The coastal fringes of the South China Sea are home to about 270 million people that have had some of the fastest developing and most vibrant economies on the globe. Consequently, anthropogenic impacts, such as over-exploitation of resources and pollution, are anticipated to be huge although, in reality, relatively little is known about them. The Indo-West Pacific biogeographic province, at the centre of which the South China Sea lies, is probably the world's most diverse shallow-water marine area. Of three major nearshore habitat types, i.e., coral reefs, mangroves and seagrasses, 45 mangrove species out of a global total of 51, most of the currently recognised 70 coral genera and 20 of 50 known seagrass species have been recorded from the South China Sea. The island groups of the South China Sea are all disputed and sovereignty is claimed over them by a number of countries. Conflicts have in recent decades arisen over them because of perceived national rights. It is perhaps because of this that so little research has been undertaken on the

  20. South China Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morton, Brian [Hong Kong Univ., Swire Inst. of Marine Science, Hong Kong (China); Hong Kong Univ., Dept. of Ecology and Biodiversity, Hong Kong (China); Blackmore, Graham [Hong Kong Univ. of Science and Technology, Dept. of Biology, Hong Kong (China)

    2001-07-01

    The South China Sea is poorly understood in terms of its marine biota, ecology and the human impacts upon it. What is known is most often contained in reports and workshops and conference documents that are not available to the wider scientific community. The South China Sea has an area of some 3.3 million km{sup 2} and depths range from the shallowest coastal fringe to 5377m in the Manila Trench. It is also studded with numerous islets, atolls and reefs many of which are just awash at low tide. It is largely confined within the Tropic of Cancer and, therefore, experiences a monsoonal climate being influenced by the Southwest Monsoon in summer and the Northeast Monsoon in winter. The South China Sea is a marginal sea and, therefore, largely surrounded by land. Countries that have a major influence on and claims to the sea include China, Malaysia, the Philippines and Vietnam, although Thailand, Indonesia and Taiwan have some too. The coastal fringes of the South China Sea are home to about 270 million people that have had some of the fastest developing and most vibrant economics on the globe. Consequently, anthropogenic impacts, such as over-exploitation of resources and pollution, are anticipated to be huge although, in reality, relatively little is known about them. The Indo-West Pacific biogeographic province, at the centre of which the South China Sea lies, is probably the world's most diverse shallow-water marine area. Of three major nearshore habitat types, i.e., coral reefs, mangroves and seagrasses, 45 mangrove species out of a global total of 51, most of the currently recognised 70 coral genera and 20 of 50 known seagrass species have been recorded from the South China Sea. The island groups of the South China Sea are all disputed and sovereignty is claimed over them by a number of countries. Conflicts have in recent decades arisen over them because of perceived national rights. It is perhaps because of this that so little research has been undertaken

  1. South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Brian; Blackmore, Graham

    2001-01-01

    The South China Sea is poorly understood in terms of its marine biota, ecology and the human impacts upon it. What is known is most often contained in reports and workshop and conference documents that are not available to the wider scientific community. The South China Sea has an area of some 3.3 million km2 and depths range from the shallowest coastal fringe to 5377 m in the Manila Trench. It is also studded with numerous islets, atolls and reefs many of which are just awash at low tide. It is largely confined within the Tropic of Cancer and, therefore, experiences a monsoonal climate being influenced by the Southwest Monsoon in summer and the Northeast Monsoon in winter. The South China Sea is a marginal sea and, therefore, largely surrounded by land. Countries that have a major influence on and claims to the sea include China, Malaysia, the Philippines and Vietnam, although Thailand, Indonesia and Taiwan have some too. The coastal fringes of the South China Sea are home to about 270 million people that have had some of the fastest developing and most vibrant economies on the globe. Consequently, anthropogenic impacts, such as over-exploitation of resources and pollution, are anticipated to be huge although, in reality, relatively little is known about them. The Indo-West Pacific biogeographic province, at the centre of which the South China Sea lies, is probably the world's most diverse shallow-water marine area. Of the three major nearshore habitat types, i.e., coral reefs, mangroves and seagrasses, 45 mangrove species out of a global of 51, most of the currently recognised 70 coral genera and 20 of 50 known seagrass species have been recorded from the South China Sea. The island groups of the South China Sea are all disputed and sovereignty is claimed over them by a number of countries. Conflicts have in recent decades arisen over them because of perceived national rights. It is perhaps because of this that so little research has been undertaken on the South

  2. Numerical tsunami simulations in the western Pacific Ocean and East China Sea from hypothetical M 9 earthquakes along the Nankai trough

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, Tomoya; Satake, Kenji; Furumura, Takashi

    2017-04-01

    We carried out tsunami numerical simulations in the western Pacific Ocean and East China Sea in order to examine the behavior of massive tsunami outside Japan from the hypothetical M 9 tsunami source models along the Nankai Trough proposed by the Cabinet Office of Japanese government (2012). The distribution of MTHs (maximum tsunami heights for 24 h after the earthquakes) on the east coast of China, the east coast of the Philippine Islands, and north coast of the New Guinea Island show peaks with approximately 1.0-1.7 m,4.0-7.0 m,4.0-5.0 m, respectively. They are significantly higher than that from the 1707 Ho'ei earthquake (M 8.7), the largest earthquake along the Nankai trough in recent Japanese history. Moreover, the MTH distributions vary with the location of the huge slip(s) in the tsunami source models although the three coasts are far from the Nankai trough. Huge slip(s) in the Nankai segment mainly contributes to the MTHs, while huge slip(s) or splay faulting in the Tokai segment hardly affects the MTHs. The tsunami source model was developed for responding to the unexpected occurrence of the 2011 Tohoku Earthquake, with 11 models along the Nanakai trough, and simulated MTHs along the Pacific coasts of the western Japan from these models exceed 10 m, with a maximum height of 34.4 m. Tsunami propagation was computed by the finite-difference method of the non-liner long-wave equations with the Corioli's force and bottom friction (Satake, 1995) in the area of 115-155 ° E and 8° S-40° N. Because water depth of the East China Sea is shallower than 200 m, the tsunami propagation is likely to be affected by the ocean bottom fiction. The 30 arc-seconds gridded bathymetry data provided by the General Bathymetric Chart of the Oceans (GEBCO-2014) are used. For long propagation of tsunami we simulated tsunamis for 24 hours after the earthquakes. This study was supported by the"New disaster mitigation research project on Mega thrust earthquakes around Nankai

  3. Historical evolution of hypoxia in the East China Sea off the Changjiang (Yangtze River) estuary for the last ~13,000 years: Evidence from the benthic foraminiferal community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Feifei; Liu, Jian; Qiu, Jiandong; Wang, Hong

    2014-11-01

    The records of benthic foraminifera and lithology of a 35.60-m-long core in the East China Sea off the Changjiang (Yangtze River) estuary were used to decipher the paleoenvironmental changes over the last 13,000 years. The result suggests three stages of environmental evolution: a littoral environment dominated by tide influence in the period of Younger Dryas (YD) (about 13,000-11,500 cal yr BP), a nearshore to shallow-sea environment in the early-mid Holocene (11,500-4600 cal yr BP), and a shallow-sea environment with significant hypoxia since the last 4600 years. The alternation of the low-oxygen foraminiferal assemblages (LOFA) and oxic foraminiferal assemblages (OFA) suggests a weakening hypoxia condition during 4600-2000 cal yr BP, which may be linked to factors such as the weakening of Taiwan Warm Current (TWC), a stronger East Asian Summer Monsoon (EASM), a moderate water depth with stable sea-level and sufficient supply of terrigenous organic materials. Together with the above mentioned factors, human activities might explain the low-oxygen conditions over the past 400 years. However, the hypoxic process was discontinued during the period of 0.6-0.4 cal ka BP, possibly due to the cold climate during Little Ice Age (LIA), which weakened EASM and reduced Total Solar Irradiance (TSI). This study confirms that the species of Epistominella naraensis, Bolivina spp., Bulimina marginata and Ammonia convexidorsa could be used as indicators for hypoxia while the Quinqueloculina spp. as a sensitive indicator of bottom oxygen levels at the core site.

  4. Future vegetation patterns and primary production in the coastal wetlands of East China under sea level rise, sediment reduction, and saltwater intrusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Zhen-Ming; Cao, Hao-Bin; Cui, Li-Fang; Zhao, Bin; Zhang, Li-Quan

    2015-10-01

    To explore the effects of sea level rise (SLR), sediment reduction (SR), and saltwater intrusion (SWI) on the vegetation patterns and primary production of one exotic (Spartina alterniflora) and two native dominant (Scirpus mariqueter and Phragmites australis) species in the coastal wetlands of East China, range expansion monitoring and stress experiments were conducted, followed by model prediction. After a rapid invasion period, the expansion rate of S. alterniflora slowed down due to the decreasing availability of suitable habitat under prolonged inundation. SLR was shown to decrease the colonization of S. alterniflora and the native P. australis up to 2100. In contrast, the native S. mariqueter that has a high tolerance of inundation increased in area following SLR, due to a reduction in competition from S. alterniflora in low-lying habitats and even recolonized areas previously invaded by the exotic species. The combination of SLR and SR resulted in further degradation of S. alterniflora and P. australis, while the area of S. mariqueter was not reduced significantly. The decrease in the area of vegetation would reduce the gross primary production under SLR and SR. SWI exacerbates the impacts, especially for P. australis, because S. alterniflora and S. mariqueter have a higher tolerance of salinity. Thus, the coastal vegetation pattern was predicted to be modified due to species-specific adaption to changed geophysical features. This study indicated that the native species better adapted to prolonged inundation and increased salinity might once again become key contributors to primary production on the muddy coasts of East China.

  5. Characteristics and source appointment of atmospheric particulate mercury over East China Sea: Implication on the deposition of atmospheric particulate mercury in marine environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Lian; Cheng, Na; Xiu, Guangli; Wang, Fujiang; Chen, Ying

    2017-02-12

    Total Suspended Particulate (TSP) samples were collected at Huaniao Island in northern East China Sea (ECS) from March 2012 to January 2013. Chemical analysis were conducted to measure the concentration of total particulate mercury (TPM) and speciated particulate mercury including HCl-soluble particulate mercury (HPM), elemental particulate mercury (EPM) and residual particulate mercury (RPM). The bromine (Br) and iodine (I) on particles were also detected. The mean concentration of TPM during the study period was 0.23 ± 0.15 ng m(-3), while the obviously seasonal variation was found that the concentrations of TPM in spring, summer, fall and winter were 0.34 ± 0.20 ng m(-3), 0.15 ± 0.03 ng m(-3), 0.15 ± 0.05 ng m(-3) and 0.27 ± 0.26 ng m(-3), respectively. The statistically strong correlation of bromine and iodine to HPM was only found in spring with r = 0.81 and 0.77 (p < 0.01), respectively. While the strongest correlations between EPM and bromine and iodine were found in winter with r = 0.92 (Br) and 0.96 (I) (p < 0.01), respectively. The clustered 72-h backward trajectories of different seasons and the whole sampling period were categorized into 4 groups. In spring, the clusters passed a long distance across the East China Sea and brought about low concentration of mercury due to the deposition of mercury over the sea. The cluster of air mass across the sea had low concentration of HPM in winter, which suggested that the oxidation of mercury in winter might be related to other oxidants. During the whole sampling period, the air mass from the north of China contributed to the higher concentration of TPM in Huaniao Island.

  6. Quaternary clay mineralogy in the northern South China Sea (ODP Site 1146)--Implications for oceanic current transport and East Asian monsoon evolution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Zhifei(刘志飞); Alain Trentesaux; Steven C. Clemens; WANG Pinxian(汪品先)

    2003-01-01

    Measurement of clay mineralogy at ODP Site 1146 in the northern South China Sea (SCS) indicates that illite, chlorite, and kaolinite contents increased during glacials and smectite content increased during interglacials. The smectite/(illite+chlorite) ratio and the smectite abundance were determined as mineralogical indicators for the East Asian monsoon evolution. At a 10 ka timescale, prevailing southeasterly surface oceanic currents during interglacials transported more smectite from the south and east areas to the north, showing a strengthened summer monsoon circulation, whereas dominated counter-clockwise surface currents during glacials carried more illite and chlorite from Taiwan as well as from the Yangtze River via the Luzon Strait to the northern SCS, indicating a strongly intensified winter monsoon. Based on a 100 ka timescale, a linear correlation between the smectite/(illite+chlorite) ratio and the sedimentation rate reflects that the winter monsoon has prevailed in the northern SCS in the intervals 2000-1200 ka and 400-0 ka and the summer monsoon did the same in the interval 1200-400 ka. The evolution of the summer monsoon provides an almost linear response to the summer insolation of Northern Hemisphere, implying an astronomical forcing of the East Asian monsoon evolution.

  7. Source apportionment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in surface sediment of mud areas in the East China Sea using diagnostic ratios and factor analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Wei; Li, Xian Guo; Li, Sheng Yong; Ma, Yan Yan; Zhang, Da Hai

    2013-05-15

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and aliphatic hydrocarbons (AHs) have been quantified for surface sediments collected from the East China Sea (ECS). Our results showed that relatively high levels of PAHs and AHs occurred in both the inner and outer mud areas, while their concentrations at the control site were much lower. AHs for all samples were dominated by the unresolved complex mixture (UCM). Results from diagnostic ratios revealed that sedimentary PAHs were mainly originated from mixed combustion residues of biomass, coal, and petroleum. Combustion residues of petroleum and oil were responsible for the presence of high AHs concentrations. We also conducted factor analysis (FA) to further characterize the PAH and AH sources. Four factors were identified based on the loading of components and attributed to coal and wood combustion (Factor 1), traffic-related sources (Factor 2), petrogenic source (Factor 3) and natural gas combustion (Factor 4).

  8. Late Quaternary clay minerals off Middle Vietnam in the western South China Sea: Implications for source analysis and East Asian monsoon evolution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    High-resolution clay mineral records combined with oxygen isotopic stratigraphy over the past 450 ka during late Quaternary from Core MD05-2901 off Middle Vietnam in the western South China Sea are reported to reconstruct a history of East Asian monsoon evolution.Variations in Illite,chlorite,and kaolinite contents indicate a strong glacial-interglacial cyclicity,while changes in smectite content present a higher frequency cyclicity.The provenance analysis indicates a mixture of individual clay minerals from various sources surrounding the South China Sea.Smectite derived mainly from the Sunda shelf and its major source area of the Indonesian islands.Illite and chlorite originated mainly from the Mekong and Red rivers.Kaolinite was provided mainly by the Pearl River.Spectral analysis of the kaolinite/(illite+chlorite) ratio displays a strong eccentricity period of 100 ka,implying the ice sheet-forced winter monsoon evolution; whereas higher frequency changes in the smectite content show an ice sheet-forced obliquity period of 41 ka,and precession periods of 23 and 19 ka and a semi-precession period of 13 ka as well,implying the tropical-forced summer monsoon evolution.The winter monsoon evolution is generally in coherence with the glacial-interglacial cyclicity,with intensified winter monsoon winds during glacials and weakened winter monsoon winds during interglacials; whereas the summer monsoon evolution provides an almost linear response to the summer insolation of low latitude in the Northern Hemisphere,with strengthened summer monsoon during higher insolation and weakened summer monsoon during lower insolation.The result suggests that the high-latitude ice sheet and low-latitude tropical factor could drive the late Quaternary evolution of East Asian winter and summer monsoons,respectively,implying their diplex and self-contained forcing mechanism.

  9. Late Quaternary evolution of the East Asian summer monsoon: Clay and magnetic mineralogical records retrieved from the northern South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Q.; Liu, Z.; Kissel, C.

    2016-12-01

    East Asian monsoon is a major component of global monsoon system. Acting as the largest marginal sea in the western Pacific, the South China Sea is a natural laboratory recording East Asian monsoon evolution. In order to reconstruct the late Quaternary evolution of the monsoon, we analyzed in details the 50.8-m-long Core MD12-3432 retrieved from the northern South China Sea at 2125 m water depth. Carbonate and magnetic stratigraphy indicates that Core MD12-3432 covers the last 400 ka. Clay mineralogical analysis was performed every 10 cm using XRD method. Bulk magnetic properties (susceptibility, NRM, ARM, and IRM) were measured on u-channel samples with a resolution of 2 cm. Cumulative log Gaussian decomposition analysis was performed on 33 high resolution IRM acquisition curves to evaluate the contribution of coercivity components. Three-axis thermal demagnetization was conducted on 14 samples to identify the nature of magnetic minerals. Clay mineral assemblage of Core MD12-3432 is dominated by smectite (23-59%) and illite (22-43%), with minor chlorite (13-27%) and kaolinite (4-13%). Because smectite is formed by rapid chemical weathering of volcanic rocks in Luzon, while illite and chlorite are primary minerals formed by physical erosion, smectite/(illite+chlorite) ratio constitutes a proxy of chemical weathering intensity. Magnetic fraction of Core MD12-3432 is composed by minerals with different coercivities, the relative proportion of which varies along the core. The high coercivity is carried by hematite and the low coercivity fraction is mainly composed by magnetite with some iron-sulphides. Luzon is the most efficient source of magnetite because of the rapid eluviation and weathering of volcanic rocks, while the Pearl River basin is the only source that produces hematite mainly through physical degradation of bedrocks. Thus, the bulk coercivity as indicated by S-ratio can serve as a proxy of chemical weathering. Both indicators, smectite

  10. Influence of sea surface temperature changes on Sdomber japonidas habitat in the Yellow Sea and East China Sea%海表水温变动对东、黄海鲐鱼栖息地分布的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏杭; 陈新军; 汪金涛

    2015-01-01

    海表水温(SST)通常是表征鱼类栖息地分布的主要指标。本文根据1999—2007年我国大型灯光围网的鲐鱼生产统计数据,结合海洋遥感获得的 SST,分析了渔汛期间鲐鱼栖息地的适宜 SST 范围,探讨了 SST 变动情况下鲐鱼栖息地的变化趋势。研究结果表明,东、黄海鲐鱼7—12月的适宜SST 范围为15~30℃。根据政府气候变化专门委员会(IPCC)第四份评估报告,本文拟定4种 SST 上升的情况,即(1)每月平均 SST+0.5℃;(2)每月平均 SST+1℃;(3)每月平均 SST+2℃;(4)每月平均SST+4℃。结果显示,东、黄海鲐鱼的潜在栖息有明显向北移动的趋势,并且栖息地面积逐渐减小。研究认为,全球气候变化引起的 SST 上升,可能会对近海鲐鱼栖息地造成严重的影响。%Sea surface temperature (SST)is an important indicator representing fish habitat.According to Scomber japonicus fishery-dependent data of large lighting-purse seine,combining with SST by remote sensing,the suitable range of SST of Scomber japonicas during the fishing seasons are analyzed and the changing tendency of the Scom-ber japonicas habitat caused by variation of water temperature are also discussed.The results proved that suitable range of SST of Scomber japonicas in the East China Sea and Yellow Sea is 15-30℃.This study based on global climate simulations under several emission scenarios (A1FI,A1B,A1T,A2,B1,and B2)from the AR4 of the IPCC to examine the impact on potential habitats of Scomber japonicas for the next 100 years.So we simulate four kinds of water temperatures rise by gradient :(1)monthly average SST increase of 0.5℃;(2)monthly average SST in-crease of 1℃;(3)monthly average SST increase of 2℃;(4)monthly average SST increase of 4℃.The results in-dicated that the habitat of Scomber japonicas had a obvious northwards shifting tendency,and the area of habitat would decreased

  11. Effects of the East Asian Summer Monsoon on Tropical Cyclone Genesis over the South China Sea on an Interdecadal Time Scale

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xin; ZHOU Wen; LI Chongyin; WANG Dongxiao

    2012-01-01

    Tropical cyclone (TC) genesis over the South China Sea (SCS) during 1965-2004 was analyzed.The locations of TC genesis display evident seasonal changes,with the mean position of formation situated north of 15°N in summer (June-July-August) and south of 15°N in autumn (September-October November).The TC genesis in summer underwent dramatic interdecadal variations,with more and less TC frequency during 1965-1974/1995-2004 and 1979-1993,respectively.In contrast,a significant interannual variation of TC genesis with a period of ~4 years was observed in autumn.This study investigated the relationship of SCS TC genesis to the East Asian jet stream (EAJS) and the western North Pacific subtropical high (WNPSH) on an interdecadal time scale.Analysis and comparison of the impacts of the EAJS and the WNPSH on vertical wind shear changes indicate that changes in the WNPSH and EAJS intensity rather than EAJS meridional location are responsible for changes in TC genesis on an interdecadal time scale.Corresponding to a weaker EAJS,anomalous Rossby wave energy at upper levels displays equatorward propagation at midlatitudes and poleward propagation in the subtropics.This induces anomalous convergence and divergence of wave activity fluxes in East Asia around 30°N and the SCS,respectively.The anomalous divergence of wave activity fluxes reduces easterlies at upper levels over the SCS,which is favorable to TC genesis.

  12. A Review of Comminution Age Method and Its Potential Application in the East China Sea to Constrain the Time Scale of Sediment Source-to-Sink Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Chao; YANG Shouye; LIAN Ergang; BI Lei; ZHANG Zhaofeng

    2015-01-01

    The East China Sea (ECS) is a river-dominated epicontinental sea, linking the Asian continent to the northwestern Pa-cific via the large rivers originating from Tibetan Plateau. The relevant huge influx of riverine detritus has developed unique sedi-mentary systems in the ECS during the Quaternary, offering ideal terrestrial archives for reconstructing Quaternary paleoenviron-mental changes and studying land-sea interactions. Overall, two characteristic river systems dominate the sedimentary systems and sediment source to sink transport patterns in the ECS, represented by the Changjiang (Yangtze River) and Huanghe (Yellow River) for the large river system and Taiwan rivers for the small river system. Given this, the sediments derived from both river systems bear distinct features in terms of parent rock lithology, provenance weathering and sediment transport. Previous studies mostly focus on either the 'source' discrimination or the 'sink' records of the sedimentary system in the ECS, while the source to sink process linking the land and sea, in particular its time scale, has been poorly understood. Here we introduce a newly-developed dating technique, the 'comminution age' method, which offers a quantitative constraint on the time scale of sediment transfer from its ultimate source to the final depositional sink. This novel method is of great significance for improving our understanding on the earth surface processes including tectonic-climate driven weathering, and sediment recycling in relation to landscape evolution and marine environmental changes. The application of comminution age method in the ECS will provide important constraints on sediment source-to-sink process and more evidences for the construction of late Quaternary paleoenvironmental changes under these unique sedimentary systems.

  13. The bacterial abundance and production in the East China Sea:seasonal variations and relationships with the phytoplankton biomass and production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Bingzhang; HUANG Bangqin; XIE Yuyuan; GUO Cui; SONG Shuqun; LI Hongbo; LIU Hongbin

    2014-01-01

    The East China Sea is a productive marginal sea with a wide continental shelf and plays an important role in absorbing atmospheric carbon dioxide and transferring terrigenous organic matter to the open ocean. To investigate the roles of heterotrophic bacteria in the biogeochemical dynamics in the East China Sea, bacterial biomasses (BB) and productions (BP) were measured in four cruises. The spatial distributions of the BB and the BP were highly season-dependent. Affected by the Changjiang River discharge, the BB and the BP were high in shelf waters (bottom depth not deeper than 50 m) and generally decreased offshore in August 2009. In December 2009 to January 2010, and November to December 2010, the BB and the BP were high in waters with medium bottom depth. The onshore-offshore decreasing trends of the BB and the BP also existed in May-June 2011, when the BB was significantly higher than in other cruises in shelf break waters (bottom depth deeper than 50 m but not deeper than 200 m). The results of generalized additive models (GAM) suggest that the BB increased with the temperature at a range of 8-20°C, increased with the chlorophyll concentration at a range of 0.02-3.00 mg/m3 and then declining, and decreased with the salinity from 28 to 35. The relationship between the temperature and the log-transformed bacterial specific growth rate (SGR) was linear. The estimated temperature coefficient (Q10) of the SGR was similar with that of the phytoplankton growth. The SGR also increased with the chlorophyll concentration. The ratio of the bacterial to phytoplankton production ranged from less than 0.01 to 0.40, being significantly higher in November-December 2010 than in May-June 2011. Calculated from the bacterial production and growth efficiency, the bacterial respiration consumed, on average, 59%, 72%and 23%of the primary production in August 2009, November-December 2010, and May-June 2011, respectively.

  14. Late winter larval fish assemblage in the southern East China Sea, with emphasis on spatial relations between mesopelagic and commercial pelagic fish larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sassa, Chiyuki; Konishi, Yoshinobu

    2015-10-01

    We examined larval fish assemblages in the southern East China Sea during late winter where large spawning grounds of several commercial pelagic fishes are formed. Our samples include a total of 187 species or taxa of larval fish belonging to 118 genera, 96 families, and 18 orders. Mesopelagic fish larvae, mainly Stomiiformes, Aulopiformes, and Myctophiformes, accounted for 66.5% of the total catch, while commercial species such as Trachurus japonicus, Scomber spp., and Trichiurus japonicus for 16.6%. Based on the species composition, three assemblages were recognized: Kuroshio (KUR), Shelf-Break (BRE), and Shelf (SHE) assemblages. KUR assemblage was mainly characterized by various mesopelagic fishes such as Sigmops gracilis, Diaphus spp., and Myctophum asperum, BRE assemblage by both commercial pelagic and mesopelagic species, SHE assemblage by demersal species such as Lepidotrigla spp. and Gobiidae spp. Both abundance and diversity were highest in KUR assemblage, although food availability for the larvae would be poorest. The combination of variables of sea surface temperature-chlorophyll a concentrations best explained the larval distribution. Except for Benthosema pterotum, the center of distribution of mesopelagic fish larvae was clearly separated from that of the commercial species by the Kuroshio front. However, a northward intrusion of the Kuroshio transported mesopelagic fish larvae onto the shelf, forming the BRE assemblage. Competition for prey between mesopelagic and commercial pelagic fish larvae would potentially occur if the intrusion is strong.

  15. Phylogenetic diversity of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase large subunit genes of bacterioplankton in the East China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZENG Yonghui; JIAO Nianzhi; CAI Haiyuan; CHEN Xihan; WEI Chaoling

    2004-01-01

    Phylogenetic diversity of Form I and Form Ⅱ ribulose-1, 5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RubisCO) large subunit (rbcL) genes in the inshore and offshore areas of the East China Sea were investigated. Two new primer sets were designed for amplifying partial sequences of rbcL genes from Proteobacteria. Four rbcL gene clone libraries were constructed by amplification and cloning of approximately 640~800 bp sequences of bacterioplankton populations.The method of screening library by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) was introduced. The results show that the diversity of Form I is higher in offshore waters with higher salinity and lower productivity, while that of Form Ⅱ is higher at the inshore station where salinity is lower and productivity is higher. Several clusters of sequences obtained are deeply rooted and show low similarity (60%~78%) to the known rbcL in existing databases.The degree of diversity of rbcL genes is directly related to environmental variables, including temperature, salinity,pH, dissolved oxygen, etc. These results indicate that rbcL gene can be used as an effective indicator for genetic diversity and population variability of bacterioplankton with the ability of carbon dioxide fixation in the sea.

  16. Distribution and mass inventory of mercury in sediment from the Yangtze River estuarine-inner shelf of the East China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wenchuan; Hu, Limin; Lin, Tian; Li, Yuanyuan; Guo, Zhigang

    2017-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) was measured in 70 sediment samples from the Yangtze River estuarine-inner shelf of the East China Sea (ECS) to evaluate its occurrence, distribution, and deposition flux. Its concentrations were 10-92 ng/g with a mean of 46±17 ng/g. A decrease of Hg concentration with increasing distance offshore suggested a dominance of riverine input. The high levels of Hg observed at the southern inner shelf were partly due to the sorption affinity of fine-grained sediments. Hg concentration was significantly correlated with total organic carbon content and sediment grain size, implying that the nature of sedimentary organic matter and hydrodynamic forces could influence the Hg occurrence. A moderate correlation between Hg with high-molecular-weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the YRE suggested that they shared a similar input pathway. The total deposition flux of Hg was estimated to be 52 t/y with a deposition rate of 6-120 ng/cm2 y, which indicated that the estuarine-inner shelf of the ECS was a major sink of Hg in the margins off China, and this area could play a significant role in the Hg biogeochemical cycle on a global scale.

  17. Effects of tides on the cross-isobath movement of the low-salinity plume in the western Yellow and East China Seas in winter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bin; Hirose, Naoki; Yuan, Dongliang; Moon, Jae-Hong; Pan, Xishan

    2017-07-01

    Offshore extension of the fresh Subei coast water is identified in winter based on in site salinity observation data in this and previous studies. A high-resolution regional ocean circulation model is used to investigate the cross-isobath movement of low salinity-water over the Yellow and East China Seas, and it has reproduced the salinity distribution observed in the winter of 2014-2015 successfully. The model suggests that the low-salinity water is basically degenerated back to the eastern coast of China in winter because of strong northeasterly wind. However, a part of the low-salinity water extends offshore in the southeast direction across the 20-50 m isobaths over the Yangtze Bank, which cannot be explained by either the northerly winter monsoon or the Changjiang discharge. Numerical experiments suggest that the cross-isobath transport of the soluble substances is highly attributed to the tidal residual current, flowing southeastward across 20-50 m isobaths over the whole Yangtze Bank. The results of controlled experiments also indicate that the bottom shear of the tidal current, rather than the tidal mixing, plays a significant role in the cross-isobath current during winter.

  18. Millennial-Scale Planktic Foraminifer Faunal Variability in the East China Sea during the Past 40000 Years (IMAGES MD012404 from the Okinawa Trough

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan-Pin Chang

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available High resolution planktic foraminifer fauna assemblage data are used to reconstruct the millennial-scale sea surface temperature (SST variability of the past 40000 years at an IMAGES core site (MD012404 in the Okinawa Trough in the East China Sea (ECS. The fauna assemblages in core MD012404 are dominated by five species - Globigerinoides ruber, Globigerina bulloides, Neogloboquadrina dutertrei, Pulleniatina obliquiloculata, and Globigerinita glutinata, which account for > 70% in relative abundance. Our Q-mode factor analysis decomposed the fauna abundance data into three factors, which indicate cold water mass, warm water mass, and possibly coastal water flow with low salinity in the ECS. The MD012404 fauna data show abrupt changes at ~16 kya, suggesting a return to a warmer climate or warm water intrusion of the Kuroshio into the Okinawa Trough since the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM. SST estimates based on the fauna assemblages of planktic foraminifers indicate a LGM cooling of 1 - 2°C. Amaximum cooling by 3 - 4°C is observed in episodic, millennial-scale events in the glacial stages of the record. The SST record displays variability that closely tracks the structure of oxygen isotopes of stalagmites from Hulu Cave and ice cores from GISP 2 Dansgaard/Oeschger cycles and Heinrich events. Low salinity in the ECS is inferred based on MD012404 fauna SST and planktic foraminifer oxygen isotope records for the cold millennial-scale intervals, pointing to the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ and/or East Asian monsoon as important factors driving SST and salinity in the subtropical western Pacific, both on orbital and suborbital time scales.

  19. Field Observations of Changes in SST, Chlorophyll and POC Flux in the Southern East China Sea Before and After the Passage of Typhoon Jangmi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yung-Yen Shih

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Severe tropical storms play an important role in triggering phytoplankton blooms, yet direct field observation of evidence of the effects of a typhoon is very rare. Sea surface temperature (SST, nitrate concentration, chlorophyll a (chl a concentration, and particulate organic carbon (POC flux were measured before and shortly after Typhoon Jangmi which affected the southern East China Sea (SECS on September 28 ~ 29, 2008. In situ SST (27.5 ~ 28.0°C on September 19 ~ 21, decreased to ~24.0°C (October 3 ~ 6 in the SECS 4 ~ 7 days after the passage of Typhoon Jangmi. In situ nitrate and chl a concentrations 7-days (on October 6 after the passage of Jangmi were 1.9 μM and 1.61 mg m-3, respectively, much higher than those (nitrate: 0.3 μM and chl a: 0.73 mg m-3 concentrations before the typhoon (September 21. The enhanced chl a concentration is thus caused by a nutrient supply via vertical mixing or upwelling in the euphotic zone. The POC flux 7-days after Jangmi¡¦s passage was 552 ± 28 mg-C m-2 d-1, a ~2.5-fold increases before the typhoon (224 ± 33 mg-C m-2 d-1, on September 21. Our results suggest that typhoons indeed can stimulate efficient POC export out of the euphotic zone, while it is still poorly understood with regard to the total effects of a typhoon on nutrient dynamics and detailed carbon sequestration due to sampling difficulty. Therefore, successional sea-going observations ought to be conducted in the affected area after the passage of typhoons.

  20. NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF SUMMER CIRCULATION IN THE EAST CHINA SEA AND ITS APPLICATION IN ESTIMATING THE SOURCES OF RED TIDES IN THE YANGTZE RIVER ESTUARY AND ADJACENT SEA AREAS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Xiu-hua; ZHU Liang-sheng; ZHANG Hong-sheng

    2007-01-01

    Based on the COHERENS (a Coupled Hydrodynamical Ecological model for Regional Shelf seas), a three-dimensional baroclinic model for the summer of East China Sea (ECS) was established with the sigma-coordinate in the vertical direction and spherical coordinate in the horizontal direction. The circulation patterns of the Kuroshio Current, the Taiwan Warm Current (TWC), the Tsushima Current and the Yangtze Diluted Water (YDW) were successfully simulated with this model. The calculated results are fairly consistent with previous observations and studies. Based on this baroclinic current field, the Lagranian particles tracking was simulated to estimate the possible origins of the red tides frequently occurring in the Yangtze River estuary and its adjacent sea areas. If there are "seeds" (cysts) of the red tide algae at the seabed of the Taiwan Strait, the offshore of Fujian and Zhejiang Provinces and the northeast Taiwan Island, those are extremely possible sources of the red tides in the Yangtze River estuary and its adjacent sea areas. Field data are needed to confirm it. Numerical simulation to estimate the source of the red tides is a new application of the Lagrangian transport in the marine ecology.

  1. Over 100-year sedimentary record of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and organochlorine compounds (OCs) in the continental shelf of the East China Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Yizhi; Wang, Xinhong; Wu, Yuling; Li, Yongyu; Ya, Miaolei

    2016-12-01

    Historical records of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were analyzed in two dated sediment cores (DH05 and DH11) collected from the continental shelf of the East China Sea (ECS) to investigate the influence of anthropogenic activities on marine sediment over the past century. The concentrations and fluxes of 15 PAHs were in the range of 28.6-96.5 ng g(-1) and 7.6-35.2 ng cm(-2) yr(-1) in DH05 (1920s-2009), 18.8-76.4 ng g(-1) and 13.9-30.9 ng cm(-2) yr(-1) in DH11 (1860s-2009). The sedimentary records of PAHs in the two cores generally reflected the economic development and energy consumption change in China. Identification of sources suggested that PAHs in ECS were predominantly from petrogenic origin and various combustion sources. A change of source from low- and moderate-temperature combustion to high-temperature combustion process was observed. Although a production ban of technical HCH and DDT was imposed in China in 1983, their sedimentary fluxes display increasing trends or strong rebounds from 1980s to 1990s as recorded in the core profiles. High proportions of DDD + DDE and γ-HCH suggested those OCPs mainly derived from early residuals. Temporal trends of PCBs presented relative high levels from 1970s to 1980s and high proportions of PCB congeners with 3-6 chlorines atoms indicated industrial sources.

  2. Dissolved inorganic carbon, pH, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using Alkalinity titrator, CTD and other instruments from the MIRAI in the East China Sea (Tung Hai), North Pacific Ocean and others from 2005-10-31 to 2006-01-30 (NODC Accession 0109919)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0109919 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from MIRAI in the East China Sea (Tung Hai), North Pacific Ocean,...

  3. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from underway - surface observations using Barometric pressure sensor, Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from the KEIFU MARU in the East China Sea (Tung Hai), North Pacific Ocean and others from 2001-01-20 to 2011-03-22 (NODC Accession 0081044)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0081044 includes chemical, meteorological, physical and underway - surface data collected from KEIFU MARU in the East China Sea (Tung Hai), North...

  4. Dissolved inorganic carbon, pH, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using Alkalinity titrator, CTD and other instruments from the OCEAN RESEARCHER I in the East China Sea (Tung Hai) from 2008-01-02 to 2008-01-09 (NODC Accession 0109902)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0109902 includes biological, chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from OCEAN RESEARCHER I in the East China Sea (Tung Hai)...

  5. Characteristics of Clay Minerals in the Northern South China Sea and Its Implications for Evolution of East Asian Monsoon since Miocene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wan Shiming; Li Anchun; Xu Kehui; Yin Xueming

    2008-01-01

    Clay mineral assemblages, crystallinity, chemistry, and micromorphology of clay particles in sediments from ODP Site 1146 in the northern South China Sea (SCS) were analyzed, and used to trace sediment sources and obtain proxy records of the past changes in the East Asian monsoon climate since the Miocene, based on a multi-approach, including X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy combined with energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (SEM-EDS). Clay minerals consist mainly of illite and smectite, with associated chlorite and kaolinite. The illite at ODP Site 1146 has very well-to-well crystallinity, and smectite has moderate-to-poor crystallinity. In SEM the smectite particles at ODP Site 1146 often appear cauliflower-like, a typical micromorphology of volcanic smecites. The smectite at ODP Site 1146 is relatively rich in Si element, but poor in Fe, very similar to the smectite from the West Philippine Sea. In contrast, the chemical composition of illite at ODP Site 1146 has no obvious differences from those of the Loess plateau, Yellow River, Yangtze River, and Pearl River. A further study on sediment source indicates that smectite originates mainly from Luzon, kaolinite from the Pearl River, and illite and chlorite from the Pearl River, Taiwan and/or the Yangtze River. The clay mineral assemblages at ODP Site 1146 were not only controlled by continental eathering regimes surrounding the SCS, but also by the changing strength of the transport processes. The ratios of (illite+chlorite)/smectite at ODP Site 1146 were adopted as proxies for the East Asian monsoon evolution. Relatively higher ratios reflect strongly intensified winter monsoon relative to summer monsoon, in contrast, lower ratios indicate a strengthened summer monsoon relative to winter monsoon. The consistent variation of this clay proxy from those of Loess plateau, eolian deposition in the North Pacific, planktonic, benthic foraminifera, and black carbon in the SCS since 20 Ma shows

  6. 东海大型底栖生物次级生产力研究%SECONDARY PRODUCTION OF MACROBENTHOS FROM THE EAST CHINA SEA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李新正; 王金宝; 王洪法; 张宝琳

    2005-01-01

    Based on the data obtained from 23 stations in autumn of 2000 and spring of 2001, we calculated the secondary production of macrobenthos from the East China Sea with Brey's (1990) empirical formula. The results showed that the mean abundance in autumn (2000) was 87 ind. m-2, lower than that in spring (2001), 138 ind. m-2; the mean biomass in AFDW in autumn was 1.40 g m-2, higher than that (1.25 g m-2) in spring; the mean annual secondary production in the study area was 1.62 g (AFDW) m2 a-1, much lower than those in the Bohai Bay and the south Yellow Sea. The production of macrobenthos should be affected by water temperature and water depth. The average annual macrobenthic P/B ratio was 1.41 a-1, higher than those in the Bohai Bay and the south Yellow Sea, showing that the species of small body size and high renewal occupied a greater proportion in macrobenthos in the East China Sea than those in the Bohai Bay and the south Yellow Sea. P/B ratio increased exponentially with water temperature. Fig 2, Tab 2, Ref 28%根据2000年秋季和2001年春季在东海23个大面站进行的大型底栖生物定量采集样品资料,利用Brey's (1990)的经验公式对调查海区进行了大型底栖生物栖息密度、生物量、次级生产力和P/B值的研究计算.结果表明,该海域大型底栖生物平均栖息密度在秋季为87 m-2, 远低于春季的138 m-2, 而平均生物量以去灰干重计,秋季为1.40 g m-2, 高于春季的1.25 g m-2;年平均次级生产力以去灰干重计,为1.62 g m-2 a-1,远低于渤海和南黄海.研究表明,大型底栖生物生物量和次级生产力受水温和水深的影响.平均P/B 值在研究海域为1.41 a-1,高于渤海和黄海,表明在东海大型底栖生物中个体小而代谢快、生活史短的种在大型底栖生物中占的比重要大于渤海和南黄海,P/B值随水温升高而升高. 图2 表2 参28

  7. Ecological studies on Prochlorococcus in China seas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Prochlorococcus, a tiny oxygenic photosynthetic picoplankton with unique pigment composition, has been found to be ubiquitous and abundant in the world oceans, and has been recognized to be closely related to living resources and environmental issues. It has attracted the interest of marine biologists since its discovery, and field data on it over global oceans have accumulated rapidly in the past 10 years. In China, we have studied Prochlorococcus for 8 years, achieving a basic ecological understanding. The presence of Prochlorococcus in China seas, marginal seas of the west Pacific, was confirmed, and its distribution patterns were also brought to light. Prochlorococcus is very abundant in the South China Sea and the offshore regions of the East China Sea. It is seasonally present in the southeast part of the Yellow Sea and absent in the Bohai Sea. Temporal and spatial variations of the abundance of Prochlorococcus and their affecting factors, physiological and ecological characteristics of Prochlorococcus and their relationships to the other groups of picoplankton, and the importance of Prochlorococcus in total biomass and possible roles in living resources and environmental problems are discussed. In the future, isolation of different Prochlorococcus strains from the China seas and their physiological characteristics, genetic diversity, phylogenies and gene exploiture, etc. are important issues to be addressed.

  8. A South China Sea Adiz-Vietnams Next Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    Approach,” in East China Sea Tensions: Perspectives and Implications, ed. Richard Pearson (Washington, DC: Maureen and Mike Mansfield Foundation, 2014...diplomatic failure into its policy calculus when party-to-party talks fail. As for Taiwan’s muted response, it parallels Vietnam’s political...Approach.” In East China Sea Tensions: Perspectives and Implications, edited by Richard Pearson , 51–58. Washington, DC: Maureen and Mike Mansfield

  9. 3D seismic structure of the Zhenbei-Huangyan seamount chain in the East sub-basin of the South China Sea and its mechanism of formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, M.; Wang, J.; Qiu, X.; Sibuet, J. C.; He, E.; Zhang, J.

    2015-12-01

    The post-spreading volcanic ridge (PSVR) is oriented approximately E-W in its western part called the Zhenbei-Huangyan seamount chain. Where is the extinct spreading ridge (ESR) of the East Sub-basin located? beneath the PSVR (Li et al., 2014)? Or intersecting with the PSVR by N055° orientation (Sibuet et al., submitted)? A three-dimensional Ocean Bottom Seismometer (OBS) survey covered both the central extinct spreading ridge and the Zhenbei-Huangyan seamount chain, the IODP Site U1431 (Li et al., 2014) being located just north of the chain. The results of this experiment will provide the essential information to understand the emplacement of the PSVR within the previously formed oceanic crust. The comprehensive seismic record sections of 39 OBSs are of high quality and show clear and reliable P-wave seismic phases, such as Pg, Pn and PmP. These seismic arrivals provide strong constrains for modeling the detailed three-dimensional velocity structure. We will show that the crust is oceanic on each side of the Zhenbei-Huangyan seamount chain, where is the location of the ESR and what is the genetic relationship between the magma chambers and the overlying Zhenbei-Huangyan seamount chain. We suggest that the large thickness of the upper crust is possibly due to volcanic extrusions and the thickened lower crust to magmatic underplating. Combining previous geochemical study of PSVR outcropping samples, the formation mechanism of the seamount chain might be explained by a buoyancy decompression melting mechanism (Castillo et al., 2010). This research was granted by the Natural Science Foundation of China (91028002, 91428204, 41176053). ReferencesSibuet J.-C., Yeh Y.-C. and Lee C.-S., 2015 submitted. Geodynamics of the South China Sea: A review with emphasis on solved and unsolved questions. Tectonophysics. Li, C. F., et al. 2014. Ages and magnetic structures of the South China Sea constrained by deep tow magnetic surveys and IODP Expedition 349. Geochemistry

  10. 泰州学派杰出平民弟子、东海贤人韩贞%Taizhou School Distinguished Civilian disciples, the East China Sea sage Hanzhen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张树俊

    2012-01-01

    韩贞是泰州学派最杰出的平民弟子的代表,初学于朱恕,后从学于东台安丰王艮仲子王襞。完成两年学业后,回到老家兴化。他不断修炼自己,力求成贤成圣。他始终保持平民本质,虽至穷而不改其乐。韩贞天性孝友,遵守孝道和礼节。他为人仗义。克己待人。中年以后,韩贞一直从事乡村教育,在化育纯朴、善良、憨厚的民风,改造一方风气方面发挥了极其重要的作用。同时。他以助人为乐,为乡亲做了大量的善事,被世人尊为“东海贤人”。%Han Zhen is the most distinguished civilians Taizhou school representative disciple, novice to Zhu Shu, and from the Adventist school in the East sub-Chung Wang Feng Wang Gen fold. Completed two years of their studies and return home Xinghua. He continued his practice, and strive to Yin sanctification. He always maintained civilian nature, although not to the poor to change their music. Han Zhen nature Takatomo, filial piety, and etiquette is compliance. He was generous attempts, self- denial Bong people. Middle age, Han Zhen has been engaged in rural education, in the genesis of simple, good, honest folk, transforming the party atmosphere played an extremely important role. Meanwhile, his helpfulness, as folks have done a lot of good things, and is revered as the world, "the East China Sea sage."

  11. An estimation of nutrient fluxes to the East China Sea continental shelf from the Taiwan Strait and Kuroshio subsurface waters in summer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Hongmei; SHI Xiaoyong; WANG Hao; HAN Xiurong

    2014-01-01

    According to historical mean ocean current data through the field observations of the Taiwan Ocean Re-search Institute during 1991-2005 and survey data of nutrients on the continental shelf of the East China Sea (ECS) in the summer of 2006, nutrient fluxes from the Taiwan Strait and Kuroshio subsurface waters are estimated using a grid interpolation method, which both are the sources of the Taiwan Warm Current. The nutrient fluxes of the two water masses are also compared. The results show that phosphate (PO4-P), silicate (SiO3-Si) and nitrate (NO3-N) fluxes to the ECS continental shelf from the Kuroshio upwelling water are slightly higher than those from the Taiwan Strait water in the summer of 2006. In contrast, owing to its lower velocity, the nutrient flux density (i.e., nutrient fluxes divided by the area of the specific section) of the Ku-roshio subsurface water is lower than that of the Taiwan Strait water. In addition, the Taiwan Warm Current deep water, which is mainly constituted by the Kuroshio subsurface water, might directly reach the areas of high-frequency harmful alga blooms in the ECS.

  12. Responses of lower trophic-level organisms to typhoon passage on the outer shelf of the East China Sea: an incubation experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Yasuki

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Typhoons can induce vertical mixing, upwelling, or both in the water column due to strong wind stress. These events can induce phytoplankton blooms in the oligotrophic ocean after typhoon passage. However, little is known about the responses of lower trophic-level organisms or changes in the community structure following the passage of typhoons, particularly in offshore regions. Therefore, we evaluated community succession on the outer shelf of the East China Sea through on-deck bottle incubation experiments simulating hydrographic conditions after the passage of a typhoon. Under all of the experimental conditions we tested, chlorophyll a concentrations increased more than 9-fold within 6 days, and these algal cells were mainly composed of large diatoms (>10 μm. Ciliates also increased along with the diatom bloom. These results suggest that increases in diatom and ciliate populations may enhance biogenic carbon export in the water column. Typhoons can affect not only phytoplankton productivity, but also the composition of lower trophic-level organisms and biogeochemical processes in oligotrophic offshore regions.

  13. A role of vertical mixing on nutrient supply into the subsurface chlorophyll maximum in the shelf region of the East China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Keunjong; Matsuno, Takeshi; Endoh, Takahiro; Ishizaka, Joji; Zhu, Yuanli; Takeda, Shigenobu; Sukigara, Chiho

    2017-07-01

    In summer, Changjiang Diluted Water (CDW) expands over the shelf region of the northern East China Sea. Dilution of the low salinity water could be caused by vertical mixing through the halocline. Vertical mixing through the pycnocline can transport not only saline water, but also high nutrient water from deeper layers to the surface euphotic zone. It is therefore very important to quantitatively evaluate the vertical mixing to understand the process of primary production in the CDW region. We conducted extensive measurements in the region during the period 2009-2011. Detailed investigations of the relative relationship between the subsurface chlorophyll maximum (SCM) and the nitracline suggested that there were two patterns relating to the N/P ratio. Comparing the depths of the nitracline and SCM, it was found that the SCM was usually located from 20 to 40 m and just above the nitracline, where the N/P ratio within the nitracline was below 15, whereas it was located from 10 to 30 m and within the nitracline, where the N/P ratio was above 20. The large value of the N/P ratio in the latter case suggests the influence of CDW. Turbulence measurements showed that the vertical flux of nutrients with vertical mixing was large (small) where the N/P ratio was small (large). A comparison with a time series of primary production revealed a consistency with the pattern of snapshot measurements, suggesting that the nutrient supply from the lower layer contributes considerably to the maintenance of SCM.

  14. Seasonal variation of speed and width from kinematic parameters of mode-1 nonlinear internal waves in the northeastern East China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Chomgun; Nam, SungHyun; Song, Heechun

    2016-08-01

    To better understand the statistical and theoretical characteristics of nonlinear internal waves (NLIWs) in the broad continental shelf of the northeastern East China Sea (ECS), historical hydrographic data collected over 50 years between 1962 and 2011 are analyzed to calculate monthly climatology. Based on KdV and extended KdV models under the two-layer approximation (i.e., mode-1 NLIWs), the monthly climatology for propagating speed and characteristic width is constructed, ranging from 0.8 to 1.2 m s-1 and from O(102) to O(103) m, respectively. The result is consistent with a few previous in situ observations in the region. When NLIWs originating in the southeastern slope area approach the shallower regime (northwestward propagation), they propagate more slowly with neither break nor extinction, but with a shorter width, since both the Iribarren and Ostrovsky numbers are small (Ir ≪ 0.45 and Os ≪ 1, respectively). Limitations of the two-layered KdV-type models are discussed (e.g., an importance of mode-2 waves) in the context of occasional extension of the low-salinity Changjiang Discharged Water onto the area, which implies distinct effects on the kinematic parameters of NLIWs in the ECS.

  15. The correlation between Prorocentrum donghaiense blooms and the Taiwan warm current in the East China Sea - evidence for the "Pelagic Seed Bank" hypothesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinfeng Dai

    Full Text Available During the last two decades, large-scale high biomass algal blooms of the dinoflagellate Prorocentrum donghaiense Lu have occurred frequently in the East China Sea (ECS. The role of increasing nutrient concentrations in driving those blooms is well-established, but the source population that initiates them is poorly understood. We hypothesized that the front of Taiwan Warm Current (TWC may serve as a 'seed bank' that initiates P. donghaiense blooms in the ECS, as the physiochemical conditions in the TWC are suitable for the growth of P. donghaiense. In order to test this hypothesis, two surveys at different spatio-temporal scales were conducted in 2010 and 2011. We found a strong correlation in space and time between the abundance of P. donghaiense and the TWC. The spatial extent of the P. donghaiense bloom coincided with the TWC front in both 2010 and 2011. During the early development of the blooms, P. donghaiense concentration was highest at the TWC front, and then the bloom mass shifted inshore over the course of our 2011 survey. The TWC also moved inshore, albeit after the appearance of P. donghaiense. Overall, these results support our hypothesis that P. donghaiense blooms develop from the population at the TWC front in the ECS, suggesting the role of the ocean current front as a seed bank to dinoflagellate blooms.

  16. Geochemical background and ecological risk of heavy metals in surface sediments from the west Zhoushan Fishing Ground of East China Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Gang; Liu, Jian; Pei, Shaofeng; Hu, Gang; Kong, Xianghuai

    2015-12-01

    Surface sediment grain size as well as the spatial distribution, pollution status, and source identification of heavy metals in the west Zhoushan Fishing Ground (ZFG) of the East China Sea were analyzed to study the geochemical background concentrations of heavy metals and to assess their potential ecological risk. Our results show that surface sediments in the eastern part of study area were mainly composed of sand-sized components. Spatial distributions of heavy metals were mainly controlled by grain size and terrigenous materials, and their concentrations in the coarsest grain sediments formed primarily during the Holocene transgressive period could represent the element background values of our study area. Contamination factor suggests that there was no pollution of Pb, Zn, and Cr generally in our study area and slight pollution of Cu, Cd, and As (especially Cu) at some stations. In addition, ecological harm coefficient indicates that the ecological risk of each heavy metal, except for Cd, at two stations was low as well. These results are consistent with the pollution load index and ecological risk index, which suggest both the overall level of pollution and the overall ecological risk of six studied metals in sediment were relatively low in our study area. Enrichment factor indicates that the heavy metals came mostly from the natural source. Summarily, the quality level of sediment in our study area was relatively good, and heavy metals in sediments could not exert threat to aquatic lives in the ZFG until now.

  17. Expression profile of immune-associated genes in the kidney of cultured large yellow croaker Larimichthys crocea in the East China Sea area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Shujiang; Zhao, Qian; Chen, Yinghua; Lv, Baoqiang; Wu, Xiongfei; Liu, Huihui; Zhu, Aiyi; Wu, Changwen

    2016-08-01

    To explore the effect of environment conditions on immune activity of fish, eight immune-associated genes responsible for innate immunity were selected from the GenBank, i.e. Pgrn-a, Ifit2, P-hepcidin, Lect2, β2m, Irf1, Il25 and Hsp96, and the mRNA expressions of them in the kidney of cultured large yellow croaker Larimichthys crocea in different sea areas in the East China Sea were examined with qPCR techniques. In the contrasts of immune-associated gene expression between areas and populations, significant differences were found, expression levels of these immune-associated genes were lower in the clear water area than in the poor water quantity area, and lower in May than in October. MY was more sensitive to environmental factors than DQ, which was coincident with the water quality in the culturing areas. Differential analyses of the expression levels of these immune-associated genes showed that significant up-regulation could be triggered by poor environmental factors. The expression patterns indicated that the expression levels of these genes were sensitive to ecological changes, thereby the immune-associated genes, especially Pgrn-a, Ifit2, β2m, Il25 and Hsp96, might serve as immediate and sensitive indicators of population immunologic vigor and ecosystem health. But the expression of immunity-associated genes at the level of gene transcription is highly influenced by multiple factors, and the exact causes or influencing factors of the up-regulation or down-regulation of these genes still need further thorough investigation.

  18. Dynamic control on 8rain-size distribution of terri-genous sediments in the western South China Sea:Implication for East Asian monsoon evolution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN GuoCheng; ZHENG HongBo; LI JianRu; XIE Xin; MEI Xi

    2008-01-01

    High-resolution oxygen isotope stratigraphy of Core MD05-2901, which is located off eastern Vietnam in the western South China Sea (SCS), was established and indicated that the core spans a time period of the past 450 ka. Based on the bulk density, fractional porosity and lithogenic content of the sedi-ments, terrigenous mass accumulation rate (TMAR) was obtained, which is 4.9-6.0 g cm-2 ka-1 on average during interglacial stages, higher than that during glacial stages, i.e. 1.9-5.0 g cm-2 ka-1, which is different from northern and southern SCS which show higher TMAR in glacial stages. By principle component analysis of grain size distribution of all the samples, two main control factors (F1 and F2) were obtained, which are responsible for about 80% variance of granularity. The contents of grain size population 1.26-2.66 μm% and 10.8-14.3 μm% which are sensible to F1 show high-frequency fluctuation, and correlate well with the summer insolation at 15° N. They exhibit a dis-tinct cyclicity with frequencies near 23 ka and 13 ka, in contrast to a strong frequency peak near 100 ka obtained in proxies 4.24-7.42 μm% and 30.1-43.7 μm% controlled mainly by F2. The sedimentary character of this part of the SCS was controlled by variations of input flux from two main source areas, namely the southwest and north SCS, which were transported by different circulations of surface cur-rent forced by East Asian summer monsoon and winter monsoon respectively. We believe that the East Asian summer monsoon has fluctuated with high frequency and been forced by changes in solar in-solation in low latitude associated with precession and half precession, while ice-volume forcing is probably a primary factor in determining the strength and timing of the East Asian winter monsoon but with less important insolation forcing.

  19. 中国东部海域风能资源分析%Wind energy resource analysis of East China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张华; 张学礼

    2013-01-01

    海上风能是海洋能利用的一个新方向,逐渐成为风力发电开发利用的新领域。利用CCMP海面10m高度风场资料,计算了近11年中国东部海域和南海近海区域的平均风速、风功率密度等风能资源特征量,以期为大规模海上风能资源普查和规划提供科学依据。分析显示,近岸水深50m范围内,福建沿海和台湾海峡拥有最丰富的风能资源,其次为江苏近海;风能资源受季节性影响较大,秋冬季节风能资源比春夏季节要丰富;东部海域大部分为风能富集区域,近海风能可开发区域较大,风能资源较好。%Offshore wind energy is a new direction in ocean energy utilization and has gradually become a new field in international wind power industry. Using the CCMP wind data, it is calculated that the aver-age wind speed and wind power density in East and South China Sea in recent 11 years,to provide scien-tific basis for the planning of large-scale offshore wind energy resources survey. The results show that (a) there are the most abundant wind energy resources in the offshore range with water depth within 50m and the coastal areas of Fujian and the Taiwan Strait, followed by the Jiangsu offshore;(b) Wind energy re-sources are influenced by seasonal, in autumn and winter are richer than in spring and summer;and (c) Eastern China Sea is mostly wind enrichment area and has good wind resources for development.

  20. 冬季黄东海颗粒有机碳的时空分布特征%Spatial and temporal distribution of particulate organic carbon in the Yellow Sea and the East China Sea in winter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程君; 张传松; 王海荣; 吴家林; 丁雁雁; 石晓勇

    2012-01-01

    Based on the data from the cruises that were carried out in the Yellow Sea and East China Sea from Jan to Feb,2007,the spatial and temporal distributions of particulate organic carbon (POC) were analyzed. The results showed that the concentration of POC in the Yellow Sea and the East China Sea ranged from 2.49 μg/L to 1 658. 96 μg/L in spring and the average content was 125.88 μg/L. In vertical orientation with the increase of water depth,POC concentration reduced gradually except the bottom layer. In horizontal distribution, higher POC content appeared in the western coastal zones and decreased toward the far eastern shore. The highest concentration of POC appeared in the coastal waters of Zhejiang Province. Especially the POC in the southern coastal zones of Zhoushan islands both in surface layer and bottom layer were of high content,which was mainly affected by the joint effect of terrestrial inputs and re-suspension of sediments. Under the influence of tides and biological activity, the diurnal change of POC in the middle of the East China Sea was higher at afternoon,dusk and the early morning than other time. However,in the southwest zones POC showed the full-cycle variation excluding the bottom layer.%根据2007年1~2月对黄东海大面调查的资料,分析研究了黄东海颗粒有碳(POC)的时空分布特征.结果表明,冬季黄东海POC的浓度范围是2.49~1 658.96 μg/L,平均浓度为125.88μg/L.在垂直方向上,POC由上而下随着水深的增加浓度逐渐降低,到底层后浓度又升高.在平面分布上,POC整体上现西部近岸浓度较高、东部离岸浓度较低的特点;POC的高值区集中在浙江近岸海区,特别是浙江舟山群岛南部近海,POC度非常高,这是受陆源输入和沉积物再悬浮的共同作用.在周日变化上,受潮汐作用和海区生物活动的影响,东海陆架部海域除底层以外,其它各层POC在午后、傍晚、凌晨出现浓度的高峰值,而西南海域,除了底层

  1. Deep-sea pollen research in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Xiangjun; LUO Yunli; CHEN Huaicheng

    2003-01-01

    This paper briefly presents the progress of deep-sea pollen research in China since the beginning ofninetieths of the last Century. All the deep-sea pollen contri-butions mainly come from the South China Sea (SCS) andthe East China Sea (ECS). The German-Chinese joint cruise(Sonne 95) and ODP 184 cruise initiated by Chinese scientistsin the SCS provided excellent material for the deep-sea pol-len research. So far a number of pollen results of 20-30 kaand million years from the SCS have been published. A couple of deep-sea pollen records from Okinawa Through of the ECS also came out. The high resolution pollen records obtained from the continuous deposits with high sedimentation rates and reliable age control of the deep-sea sediments provided a high time resolution history (hundred to millennial scales) of vegetation, environment and monsoon evolution of the pollen source areas (southern China and Japan). Spectral analysis of deep-sea pollen records from the SCS discovered orbital (100, 41, 23, 10 ka) and suborbital cyclicities (Heinrich and Dansgaard/Oscheger-O/D events) in the vege-tation changes. Moreover, cross spectral analysis showed that the trend of vegetation changes in northern SCS was regulated mainly by changes of the ice volume in the Northern Hemisphere. The pollen record of the last 20 ka from the Okinawa Through of the ECS indicates that the marine environmental change lagged that on the terrestrail by about 1000 year. The asynchronous environmental changes between land and sea were probably caused by the time difference in thermohaline circulation. This study underscored the role of the deep-sea plant fossils as a bridge across the land and sea.

  2. Post-bomb coral Δ14C record from Iki Island, Japan: possible evidence of oceanographic conditions on the northern East China Sea shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsuguchi, Takehiro; Hirota, Masashi; Group, Paleo Labo AMS Dating; Yamazaki, Atsuko; Watanabe, Tsuyoshi; Yamano, Hiroya

    2016-10-01

    In this study, a sea-surface water Δ14C record of AD 1966-2000 (i.e., after the atmospheric nuclear-bomb testing period of the mid-1950s to early 1960s) was reconstructed from a coral sample collected from Iki Island, western Japan. The island is located in the Tsushima Strait where the Tsushima Current flows from the East China Sea (ECS) continental shelf into the Sea of Japan, indicating a strong influence of the ECS shelf water on the island. It is widely accepted that the Tsushima Current originates in the area between the ECS shelf break and the Nansei Islands further offshore as a branch of the Kuroshio Current, although another possible origin is the Taiwan-Tsushima Current System. The Δ14C record from Iki Island shows the following evidence of a response to the atmospheric nuclear testing: (1) an increase from ~55‰ in 1966 to ~133‰ in 1970, (2) a plateau ranging between ~123 and ~142‰ during the 1970s to the late 1980s, and (3) a gradual decrease from ~115‰ in 1990 to ~83‰ in 2000. Comparison of this record with coral Δ14C records from the Nansei Islands (Okinawa Island, Ishigaki Island and Kikai Island), located ~160-280 km off the ECS shelf break and little influenced by the shelf water, suggests that the surface-water Δ14C around Iki Island was ~30-45‰ lower than that of the Nansei Islands from the mid-1960s to late 1970s, and that the Δ14C difference between Iki Island and the Nansei Islands decreased from the end of the 1970s to ~0-15‰ in the mid-1980s to 2000. The lower Δ14C around Iki Island can be explained as follows: (1) in contrast to the Nansei Islands area, the ECS shelf area is a vertically mixed, highly concentrated carbon reservoir significantly connected to subsurface and deeper waters outside the shelf area, strongly suggesting that the surface-water Δ14C of the shelf area (perhaps excepting very shallow innermost shelf areas) was significantly less sensitive to the atmospheric nuclear-bomb 14C spike than that of the

  3. Two new records of Pyramidellidae (Gastropoda, Heterobranchia) from China seas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Zhiyun; ZHANG Suping

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports two species of the family Pyramidellidae (Gastropoda,Heterobranchia),Otopleura nitida (A.Adams,1854) and Rugadentia manzakiana (Yokoyama,1922).The former was from the South China Sea and the latter was from the Yellow Sea and East China Sea.The study was based on the collections deposited in the Marine Biological Museum,Chinese Academy of Sciences.This is for the first time that these species have been recorded in China seas.In the current contribution,we describe and illustrate these two species,and compare them with similar species.

  4. Microscale characterization and trace element distribution in bacteriogenic ferromanganese coatings on sand grains from an intertidal zone of the East China Sea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linxi Yuan

    Full Text Available An ancient wood layer dated at about 5600 yr BP by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS 14C was discovered in an intertidal zone of the East China Sea. Extensive and horizontally stratified sediments with black color on the top and yellowish-red at the bottom, and some nodule-cemented concretions with brown surface and black inclusions occurred in this intertidal zone. Microscale analysis methods were employed to study the microscale characterization and trace element distribution in the stratified sediments and concretions. Light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM and backscattered electron imaging (BSE revealed the presence of different coatings on the sand grains. The main mineral compositions of the coatings were ferrihydrite and goethite in the yellowish-red parts, and birnessite in the black parts using X-ray powder diffraction (XRD. SEM observations showed that bacteriogenic products and bacterial remnants extensively occurred in the coatings, indicating that bacteria likely played an important role in the formation of ferromanganese coatings. Post-Archean Australian Shale (PAAS-normalized middle rare earth element (MREE enrichment patterns of the coatings indicated that they were caused by two sub-sequential processes: (1 preferentially release of Fe-Mn from the beach rocks by fermentation of ancient woods and colloidal flocculation in the mixing water zone and (2 preferential adsorption of MREE by Fe-Mn oxyhydroxides from the seawater. The chemical results indicated that the coatings were enriched with Sc, V, Cr, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ba, especially with respect to Co, Ni. The findings of the present study provide an insight in the microscale features of ferromanganese coatings and the Fe-Mn biogeochemical cycling during the degradation of buried organic matter in intertidal zones or shallow coasts.

  5. Numerical prediction on the scour burial of cylinder object freely resting on the sandy seabed in the East China Sea using the DRAMBUIE model1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chong-guang PANG; Li-qian LIU; Kun LI

    2014-01-01

    After experiencing 8-day combined tidal current, circulation and wave actions, scour depth surrounding cylinder object freely resting on sandy seabed in the East China Sea (ECS) in January is numerically predicted using the DRAMBUIE model designed for scour burial, which has been widely used and verified by in-situ experiments. During the period of numerical integration, the value of time t is generally variable at every time step via the special time-stepped approach developed by this paper to eliminate the time error. The tidal current velocity, wave orbital velocity and the depth-averaged circulation in the ECS have been obtained by numerical simulations with Estuarine Coastal and Ocean Model (ECOM), Simulating Waves Nearshore (SWAN) model and Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS) model respectively. The control experiment and several idealized test cases on influential factors in scour depth reveal that the dominant hydrodynamic factor is tidal current in the ECS under normal weather conditions, and the impacts of shelf circulation and wave motion on local scour almost can be ignored with an exception of the Kuroshio area where the high-speed mainstream of Kuroshio flows. It is also indicated that in sandy sediments, the distribution of scour depth nearly follows the pattern of tidal currents, while the secondary influencing factor on scour depth appears to be grain size of sandy sediment in the ECS. Numerical tests on sediment grain size further testify that much finer sand is more easily scoured, and an increasing trend for scour depth with reduction of grain size is displayed due to imposed resistance of larger sized particles. Three aspects explored by this paper, including the empirical equations in the Defense Research Agency Mine Burial Environment (DRAMBUIE) model, the accuracy of inputs and infill process can severely affect the prediction of scour depth surrounding cylinder objects freely resting on sandy seabed in the ECS.

  6. Sulfur and iron diagenesis in temperate unsteady sediments of the East China Sea inner shelf and a comparison with tropical mobile mud belts (MMBs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Mao-Xu; Chen, Ke-Ke; Yang, Gui-Peng; Fan, De-Jiang; Li, Tie

    2016-11-01

    Redox cycling of iron (Fe) and sulfur (S) exerts profound influences on fates of numerous elements in coastal marine sediments. In this study, S and Fe cycling and its geochemical expressions in the East China Sea (ECS) inner shelf, a representative of temperate mobile mud belts (MMBs), were characterized and compared with tropical counterparts (the Amazon shelf and the Gulf of Papua). Fe and S speciation consistently points to the dominance of authigenic nonsulfidized Fe(II) phases (i.e., poorly crystalline clays (PCCs) and carbonates) and the prevalence of Fe redox cycling in the suboxic or weakly sulfidic regimes of the ECS-MMBs. High contents of authigenic magnetite may be a common diagenetic expression in all MMBs. Compared to the tropical MMBs, three main differences of diagenetic expressions in the ECS-MMBs are (i) light 34Spyrite in the ECS-MMB versus characteristically heavy 34Spyrite in the Amazon shelf MMBs; (ii) lower total reactive Fe (FeTR), total diagenetic Fe(II), and ratio of FeTR to total Fe in the ECS-MMBs; and (iii) Fe(II) carbonates and PCCs are equally important sinks for nonsulfidized Fe(II) in the ECS-MMBs, whereas PCCs are the predominant sink in the tropical counterparts. These differences are ascribable to factors including low degradability of organic matter, small diffusion scales, less intense chemical weathering in the drainage basin, and/or weaker reverse weathering in the ECS-MMBs. Despite the differences above, Fe and S diagenetic expressions that characterize the prevalence of Fe redox cycling in the unsteady suboxic regimes are shared by the ECS-MMBs and tropical MMBs.

  7. 近海北上热带气旋特征%Characteristics of the northward tropical cyclones over the East China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱业; 陆建新; 卢美

    2012-01-01

    通过研究分析1949-2011年在125°E以西近海北上,到达35°N以北登陆的热带气旋特征,总结出该类型热带气旋全部生成于125°-150°E,10°-29°N之间;出现此类型热带气旋时一般处于拉尼娜年,西太平洋副高强度较弱,副高西伸脊点偏东,副高脊线位置偏北;该类型热带气旋移动到125°E附近时,西风槽位置一般维持在110°-115°E,槽底位于25°-35°N等特征.%This paper summarize the main features of the tropical cyclones (TCs) which move northward over the East China Sea since 1949. These kinds of TCs are chosen according to two criteria: (1) moving northward along the offshore region to the west of 120°E; (2) reaching at the north of 35°N before landfall. All the TCs form over the region of 125°-150°E and 10°-29°N. The TCs usually occur in the La Nina years while the Westerly Pacific Subtropical High (WPSH) is weak, the westerly extension of the subtropical high ridge point is eastward and subtropical high ridge line is northward. When these TCs move to near 125°E, the westerly trough usually maintains around 110°-115 °E, with the trough bottom locating around 25°-35°N.

  8. Simulating the responses of a low-trophic ecosystem in the East China Sea to decadal changes in nutrient load from the Changjiang (Yangtze) River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yucheng; Guo, Xinyu; Zhao, Liang

    2017-04-01

    Using a three-dimensional coupled biophysical model, we simulated the responses of a low-trophic ecosystem in the East China Sea (ECS) to long-term changes in nutrient load from the Changjiang (Yangtze) River over the period of 1960-2005. Two major factors affected changes in nutrient load: changes in river discharge and the concentration of nutrients in the river water. Increasing or decreasing Changjiang discharge induced different responses in the concentrations of nutrients, phytoplankton, and detritus in the ECS. Changes in dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN), silicate (SIL), phytoplankton, and detritus could be identified over a large area of the ECS shelf, but changes in dissolved inorganic phosphate (DIP) were limited to a small area close to the river mouth. The high DIN:DIP and SIL:DIP ratios in the river water were likely associated with the different responses in DIN, DIP, and SIL. As DIP is a candidate limiting nutrient, perturbations in DIP resulting from changes in the Changjiang discharge are quickly consumed through primary production. It is interesting that an increase in the Changjiang discharge did not always lead to an increase in phytoplankton levels in the ECS. Phytoplankton decreases could be found in some areas close to the river mouth. A likely cause of the reduction in phytoplankton was a change in the hydrodynamic field associated with the river plume, although the present model is not suitable for examining the possibility in detail. Increases in DIN and DIP concentrations in the river water primarily led to increases in DIN, DIP, phytoplankton, and detritus levels in the ECS, whereas decreases in the SIL concentration in river water led to lower SIL concentrations in the ECS, indicating that SIL is not a limiting nutrient for photosynthesis, based on our model results from 1960 to 2005. In both of the above-mentioned cases, the sediment accumulation rate of detritus exhibited a large spatial variation near the river mouth, suggesting

  9. Comparison of carbon chemistry data in the East China Sea between the 1990s and 2000s: implications for the impact of eutrophication from the Changjiang River (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, W.; Gong, G.; Tseng, C.; Hung, C.

    2010-12-01

    The nutrient loads exported from the Changjiang River into the East China Sea (ECS) has increased over 10-fold since the 1960s because of anthropogenic disturbance such as intensive use of chemical fertilizers and the discharge of industrial and municipal waste waters. Elevated nutrient discharge causes eutrophication of the coastal waters, and stimulates harmful algal blooms and hypoxia events, both of which have been observed with increased frequently on the inner shelf off Changjiang River. To the best of our knowledge, there is, however, no study to date addressing the potential impacts of this eutrophication on carbonate chemistry in the ECS. In this study, we investigated the spatial distributions of dissolved inorganic carbon, pH, total alkalinity, and pCO2 in the entire ECS shelf in winter 2008, and compared the present results with previously published datasets. Results showed that pCO2 was negatively correlated with temperature for surface waters lower than 20oC in 2008, in contrast to the positive correlation found in the 1990s. Moreover, the wintertime ΔpCO2 in the inner shelf near the Changjiang River estuary has appreciably decreased since the early 1990s, suggesting a decline of CO2 sequestration capacity in this region. These changes can be explained by the seasonal overturn of enhanced summer accumulation of respired CO2 in bottom waters between the 1990s and the 2000s, which may be associated with the increased eutrophication/hypoxia in the inner shelf near the Changjiang River estuary over recent decades. Considering the high intra-seasonal and inter-annual variations in the ECS, more long-term studies are, therefore, certainly needed to unveil the fundamental relationship between the changes in the CO2 sequestration capacity and the increased eutrophication/hypoxia in the ECS.

  10. Tidal and low-frequency currents along the CK Line (31 deg 45 min N) over the East China Sea shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikawa, Yutaka; Matsuno, Takeshi; Wagawa, Taku; Hasegawa, Toru; Nishiuchi, Kou; Okamura, Kazumaro; Yoshimura, Hiroshi; Morii, Yasuhiro

    2012-12-01

    The bottom-mounted and ship-mounted ADCP velocities were analyzed to quantify tidal and low-frequency currents between 124.0 deg E and 128.5 deg E over the CK line (31 deg 45 min N) in the East China Sea shelf. The bottom-mounted ADCP, deployed in summer and autumn at station 1 (127 deg 25 min E) or station 2 (125 deg 30 min E), reveals relatively large (≃0.2ms-1) mean currents to the north or northwest at station 1 and a small (≤0.03ms-1) eastward current at station 2, as well as large tidal currents whose major axis amplitude amounts to 0.25ms-1 at station 1 and 0.5ms-1 at station 2. The bottom-mounted ADCP velocities were used to correct the tidal harmonic coefficients of the NAO.99Jb model under the assumption of uniform correction coefficients. The corrected coefficients were then used to remove the tidal currents in the ship-mounted ADCP velocity obtained over the whole CK-line. The detided ship-mounted ADCP velocities, which agree well with the bottom-mounted ADCP velocities at stations 1 and 2, show a more detailed spatial structure of the low-frequency current and its seasonal variations. The overall structure is characterized by a large northward/northwestward current in the eastern part and a small eastward current in the western part. The northward/northwestward current is largest (0.24ms-1) and most baroclinic in summer, while it becomes weakest (0.11ms-1) and most barotropic in winter. The zonal position of the boundary between the northward/northwestward current and the eastward current changes seasonally.

  11. Remote sensing observations and numerical studies of a super typhoon-induced suspended sediment concentration variation in the East China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yangdong; Li, Xiaofeng

    2016-08-01

    By integrating remote sensing observations and a numerical modeling technique, we studied the influences of super Typhoon Saomai on the suspended sediment concentration (SSC) in the Yangtze River estuary and its adjacent coastal areas in the East China Sea. First, three consecutive Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) images acquired during the post-typhoon stage were used to estimate the SSC. Then, we implemented a hydrodynamic model, including a sediment transport module, based on Delft3D to simulate the sediment erosion, re-suspension, transport and deposition processes in the study area during the passage of Typhoon Saomai. The model-simulated water level was validated against the in situ station data to show the feasibility of the model. The simulated SSC results agree reasonably well with the satellite observations. Time series of the simulation results showed that the model revealed the whole SSC variations during this extreme weather event and made up for the scarcity of in-situ and satellite observations. SSC significantly increased during the passage of the typhoon and decreased gradually during the post-typhoon stage. Modeled results also reveal that the spring-neap tidal effect significantly controlled the distribution and variation of SSC in the shallower coastal water (<20-30 m in depth) and the typhoon-induced re-suspension is evident in most of the study area, especially in the coastal waters near the Yangtze River estuary and Hangzhou Bay during the passage of the typhoon. Finally, based on the simulation results, we discuss the dynamic mechanisms including turbulent energy, bed shear stress and vertical mixing that caused the SSC variation.

  12. [Effect of climate change on the fisheries conununity pattern in the overwintering ground of open waters of northern East China Sea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zun-lei; Yuan, Xing-wei; Yang, Lin-lin; Yan, Li-ping; Tian, Yong-jun; Chen, Jia-hua

    2015-03-01

    Data sets of 26 fisheries target species from the fishery-depen-dent and fishery-independent surveys in the overwintering ground of open waters of northern East China Sea (OW-NECS), combined sea surface temperature (SST), were used to examine the links between diversity index, pattern of common variability and climate changes based on the principal component analysis (PCA) and generalized additive model (GAM). The results showed that the shift from a cold regime to a warm regime was detected in SST during the 1970s-2011 with step changes around 1982/ 1983. SST increased during the cold regime and the warm regime before 1998 (warming trend period, 1972-1998), and decreased during the warm regime after 1998 (cooling trend period, 1999-2011). Shannon diversity index was largely dependent on the filefish, which contributed up to 50% of the total production as a single species, with low diversity in the waters of the OW-NECS, during the late 1980s and early 1990s. Excluding the filefish, the diversity index linearly increased and decreased during 1972-1998 and 1999-2011, respectively. The variation pattern generally corresponds with the trend in water temperature, strongly suggesting the effect of the SST on the diversity. The first two components (PC1 and PC2) of PCA for target species, which accounted for 32.43% of the total variance, showed evident decadal variation patterns with a step change during 1992-1999 and inter-annual variability with short-period fluctuation, respectively. It seems that PC1 was associated with large scale climatic change, while PC2 was related to inter-annual oceanographic variability such as ENSO events. Linear fitting results showed winEOF1 had significant effect on PC1, and GAM analysis for PC1 showed that winter EOF1 (winEOF1) and summer EOF2 (sumEOF2) can explain 88.9% of the total variance. Nonlinear effect was also found between PC2 and win EOF1, indicating that the fish community structure, which had predominantly decadal

  13. Evolution of submesoscale coastal frontal waves in the East China Sea based on geostationary ocean color imager observational data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Wenbin; Huang, Daji

    2016-09-01

    Oceanic frontal waves are frequently observed, but their life cycles are poorly understood because of the lack of time series data. In this study, the data of geostationary ocean color imager was used to explore the complete evolutionary process of submesoscale frontal waves off the southeast coast of China. Their evolution was analyzed in terms of both wave outline and ridge lines. The process lasted approximately 10 days as the waves propagated southward along the isobaths, accompanied by tidal oscillations. The life cycle comprised three stages: development, maturation, and decay. Scale estimation suggested that the onset of this process is caused by the collective effect of forced motion and unforced instability which is triggered by the passage of a tropical storm. The observed life cycle of frontal waves will provide an empirical basis for future theoretical investigations.

  14. Morphological and toxicity characteristics of Pseudo-nitzschia pungens strain PP0201-01 isolated from the East China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    The morphology and toxicity of Pseudo-nitzschia strain PP0201-01, isolated near the estuary of Changjiang (Yangtze) River in Year 2002 and tentatively identified as Pseudo-nitzschia pungens, were studied.The strain was identified morphologically as P. pungens using scanning electronic microscope (SEM). The analytical results of LC-PDA (liquid chromatography with photodiode array detector), LC-MS (liquid chromatography with mass detector), and the toxicity data from mouse bioassay, showed that no domoic acid was produced by the strain. However, the mechanism of domoic acid production by Pseudo-nitzschia species is complicated.More works are needed to assess the toxic species and to evaluate the potential risk of amnesic shellfish poisoning (ASP) in China.

  15. 对黄、东海水母暴发机理的新认知%NEW PERCEPTION OF JELLYFISH BLOOM IN THE EAST CHINA SEA AND YELLOW SEA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙松

    2012-01-01

    The results of the experiments in laboratory and cruises in the Chinese coastal waters and continental shelf area showed that the jellyfish bloom occurred in the East China Sea and Yellow Sea was caused by bottom sea water tem- perature turbulence and the rich food supply. The hypothesis is that the jellyfish usually live on the sea bottom as the form of polyps as benthos, when the environment temperature under the turbulent condition, it will trigger the polyps asexual reproduction to the strobilation, producing ephyra. This process is the way for jellyfish to escape from the crisis environ- ment, wander in the sea water to settle in the new environment and find new opportunities for live by coincidence. The key factors for the jellyfish bloom are temperature stimulation and food supply. Climate change and eutrophication are the main causes of the jellyfish bloom in the Chinese coastal waters.%基于大量实验结果和大规模海上考察和综合分析,从基础生物学和生态学的角度,对中国近海水母暴发的机理提出一种新的理论模式:水母生活史中的大部分时间以水螅体的形式生活在海底;水母种群的暴发是水螅体对环境变异的一种应激反应,是为了逃避动荡环境、扩大分布范围、寻求新的生存空间,为种群繁衍需求更多的机会的一种生存策略。导致水母种群暴发的关键过程是海洋底层温度的变动和饵料数量的变化,全球气候变化和富营养化是中国近海水母暴发的最重要诱发因素。水母暴发是全球变化下海洋生态系统演变的一种综合体现。

  16. Observations of the temporal variability in aerosol properties and their relationships to meteorology in the summer monsoonal South China Sea/East Sea: the role of monsoonal flows, the Madden–Julian Oscillation, tropical cyclones, squall lines and cold pools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. S. Reid

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In a joint NRL/Manila Observatory mission, as part of the 7 SouthEast Asian Studies program (7SEAS, a two-week, late September~2011 research cruise in the northern Palawan Archipelago was undertaken to observe the nature of southwest monsoonal aerosol particles in the South China Sea/East Sea (SCS/ES and Sulu Sea region. Previous analyses suggested this region as a~receptor for biomass burning from Borneo and Sumatra for boundary layer air entering the monsoonal trough. Anthropogenic pollution and biofuel emissions are also ubiquitous, as is heavy shipping traffic. Here, we provide an overview of the regional environment during the cruise, a time series of key aerosol and meteorological parameters, and their interrelationships. Overall, this cruise provides a~narrative of the processes that control regional aerosol loadings and their possible feedbacks with clouds and precipitation. While 2011 was a moderate El Nino/Southern Oscillation (ENSO La Nina year, higher burning activity and lower precipitation was more typical of neutral conditions. The large-scale aerosol environment was modulated by the Madden–Julian Oscillation (MJO and its associated tropical cyclone (TC activity in a manner consistent with the conceptual analysis performed by Reid et al. (2012. Advancement of the MJO from phase 3 to 6 with accompanying cyclogenesis during the cruise period strengthened flow patterns in the SCS/ES that modulated aerosol lifecycle. TC inflow arms of significant convection sometimes span from Sumatra to Luzon, resulting in very low particle concentrations (minimum condensation nuclei CN −3, non-sea salt PM2.5=1μg m−3. However, elevated carbon monoxide levels were occasionally observed suggesting passage of polluted air masses whose aerosol particles had been rained out. Conversely, two drier periods occurred with higher aerosol particle concentrations originating from Borneo and Southern Sumatra (CN > 3000 cm−3 and non-sea salt PM2.510–25

  17. Morphological variation of Pampus argenteus among five samples near the coastal area of the Bohai Sea, Huanghai Sea and East China Sea%渤海、黄海及东海近海五个银鲳地理群体的形态变异

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵峰; 庄平; 章龙珍; 施兆鸿

    2011-01-01

    针对银鲳(Pampus argenteus)资源衰减、种群结构不清等问题,采集了渤海、黄海和东海近海5个地理群体224个样本,借助多变量形态度量学方法对地理群体间的形态变异进行了研究,旨在为银鲳种群结构研究提供基础资料.研究结果显示,通过聚类分析发现银鲳5个地理群体可以分为4组,江苏连云港群体与河北黄骅群体和浙江舟山群体欧氏距离较小,表明其亲缘关系较近;江苏连云港群体而与福建霞浦群体欧氏距离最大,其亲缘关系较远.利用判别分析和典型变量分析均可以将5个地理群体予以区分,表明银鲳地理群体间形态上存在着一定的差异,但并非某个部位发生变异.地理群体间的栖息环境和生活史差异可能是导致形态变异的主要原因.根据聚类分析、判别分析和典型变量分析综合比较,推测渤海、黄海和东海区银鲳群体可能存在着3个形态差异种群,即黄渤海种群、东海北部种群和东海南部种群.%Silver pomfret (Pampus argenteus) is one of the most commercially important marine fish species in China, and its resource has declined sharply in recent years. So far, the population diversity research is rare, and the stock structure of silver pomfret is not clear which are very crucial for rational conservation and exploitation of this important species. So, five geographic samples, totally 224 individuals,were collected near coastal areas of the Bohai Sea, Huanghai Sea and East China Sea. The morphological variation among five samples was studied by using the method of multivariate morphometics. The result of cluster analysis showed that five samples were divided into 4 groups. The normalized Euclidean distance between Lianyungang (LYG) and Zhoushan (ZS) and Huanghua (HH) samples was shorter than others,which indicates that these three samples have close relationship. However, the normalized Euclidean distance between Xiapu (XP) and Lianyungang

  18. Mesozooplankton size structure in response to environmental conditions in the East China Sea: How much does size spectra theory fit empirical data of a dynamic coastal area?

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Comas, Carmen; Chang, Chun-Yi; Ye, Lin; Sastri, Akash R.; Lee, Yu-Ching; Gong, Gwo-Ching; Hsieh, Chih-hao

    2014-02-01

    A fundamental ecological trait of marine organisms is body size. Various theoretical models have used the size distribution of plankton communities to explain their trophic structure and functioning. Recent studies indicate that changes associated with global warming, eutrophication, and fisheries might have dramatically shifted the size structure of marine organisms and thus changed ecosystem functioning. Accordingly, size structure has been suggested as a useful indicator for monitoring ecosystem status. Here, we used three size metrics to represent mesozooplankton size structure: the slope of normalized biomass spectra (NB-SS), NB-SS linear fit, and size diversity. We analyzed the relationship between zooplankton size structure and environmental conditions in the very dynamic East China Sea (ECS). We tested four hypotheses predicted by theoretical studies: (1) a coastal-offshore gradient for NB-SS, (2) a negative relationship between temperature and NB-SS steepness, (3) a positive relationship between trophic status (i.e., chlorophyll a and inorganic-nutrient concentrations as a proxy) and NB-SS steepness, and (4) a positive relationship between oligotrophy and NB-SS linearity. Hypotheses 1-3 did not stand up to our analyses of the empirical data, while hypothesis 4 was supported. In the ECS, we found no clear spatial gradient for each of the three size metrics, where (i) size diversity was not correlated to temperature and significantly decreased with chl a and phosphate concentrations, (ii) the NB-SS slope showed no relationship with the environment, and (iii) NB-SS linearity tended to be higher in more oligotrophic offshore waters. Trophic status exerted a stronger effect than temperature on size distribution, but its effect was opposite to model prediction. Our results suggest that population dynamics (i.e., pulses of reproduction due to increased food availability) override metabolic scaling effects on mesozooplankton NB-SS at the mesoscale. In addition

  19. Structure, distribution, and evolution history of the Early Holocene erosional mud ridge system on the inner East China Sea shelf near the Yangtze River estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Zhibing; Liu, Baohua; Zhao, Yuexia; Li, Xishuang; Dada, Olusegun A.; Jiang, Li; Si, Shaokun

    2017-04-01

    Utilizing the collected high-resolution seismic dataset and accompanying borehole and bathymetric data, we systematically evaluated the morphology, architecture, sedimentology, and evolution of erosional mud ridges within the inner East China Sea (ECS) shelf. We identified 20 mud ridges, i.e., seismic reflection profile crossings of exposed or buried mud ridges, which are 3.0-30.1 km in width and 2.5-17.3 m in height. The mud ridges are composed predominantly of gray clayey silt, and on seismic profiles contain parallel to subparallel reflectors. They formed around 10-12 ka BP within an estuarine environment. Scouring features of some mud ridges on the eastern part of the study area can be recognized. Consideration of the relative positions of mud ridges, together with the topographical features, enables us to map four linear mud ridges (LMRs). The SE-NW oriented LMRs are > 50 km in length, 3.0-9.5 km in width and running parallel to each other. They also display asymmetric shapes, with steeper slopes to the SW. The eastern segments of some LMRs are exposed on the present seafloor whereas other segments are mainly overlain by the mid- and late Holocene strata. Since the LMRs share similarities with the modern tidal sand ridges in shape and orientation, we hypothesize that they are formed under a uniform tidal current. Seismic data highlight that the internal reflectors of sand ridges consist of dipping clinoforms and are significantly different from LMRs, a feature which is largely due to the difference in grain-size composition of sediments between the inner and mid-outer ECS shelf. The mid- to outer ECS shelf is capped by coarser-grained sediments (i.e., medium to fine-grained), which were reworked and deposited at locations near the erosional areas under a polycyclic tidal current, thus forming multiphase sand ridges. However, fine-grained sediments (i.e., silty clay and clayey silt) overlain on the inner ECS shelf with light mass were carried far away from the

  20. Crustal structure across the post-spreading magmatic ridge of the East Sub-basin in the South China Sea: Tectonic significance

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Enyuan; Zhao, Minghui; Qiu, Xuelin; Sibuet, Jean-Claude; Wang, Jian; Zhang, Jiazheng

    2016-05-01

    The 140-km wide last phase of opening of the South China Sea (SCS) corresponds to a N145° direction of spreading with rift features identified on swath bathymetric data trending N055° (Sibuet et al., 2016). These N055° seafloor spreading features of the East Sub-basin are cut across by a post-spreading volcanic ridge oriented approximately E-W in its western part (Zhenbei-Huangyan seamounts chain). The knowledge of the deep crustal structure beneath this volcanic ridge is essential to elucidate not only the formation and tectonic evolution of the SCS, but also the mechanism of emplacement of the post-spreading magmatism. We use air-gun shots recorded by ocean bottom seismometers to image the deep crustal structure along the N-S oriented G8G0 seismic profile, which is perpendicular to the Zhenbei-Huangyan seamounts chain but located in between the Zhenbei and Huangyan seamounts, where topographic changes are minimum. The velocity structure presents obvious lateral variations. The crust north and south of the Zhenbei-Huangyan seamounts chain is ca. 4-6 km in thickness and velocities are largely comparable with those of normal oceanic crust of Atlantic type. To the south, the Jixiang seamount with a 7.2-km thick crust, seems to be a tiny post-spreading volcanic seamount intruded along the former extinct spreading ridge axis. In the central part, a 1.5-km thick low velocity zone (3.3-3.7 km/s) in the uppermost crust is explained by the presence of extrusive rocks intercalated with thin sedimentary layers as those drilled at IODP Site U1431. Both the Jixiang seamount and the Zhenbei-Huangyan seamounts chain started to form by the intrusion of decompressive melt resulting from the N-S post-spreading phase of extension and intruded through the already formed oceanic crust. The Jixiang seamount probably formed before the emplacement of the E-W post-spreading seamounts chain.

  1. Observations of the temporal variability in aerosol properties and their relationships to meteorology in the summer monsoonal South China Sea/East Sea: the role of monsoonal flows, the Madden-Julian Oscillation, tropical cyclones, squall lines and cold pools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, J. S.; Lagrosas, N. D.; Jonsson, H. H.; Reid, E. A.; Sessions, W. R.; Simpas, J. B.; Uy, S. N.; Boyd, T. J.; Atwood, S. A.; Blake, D. R.; Campbell, J. R.; Cliff, S. S.; Holben, B. N.; Holz, R. E.; Hyer, E. J.; Lynch, P.; Meinardi, S.; Posselt, D. J.; Richardson, K. A.; Salinas, S. V.; Smirnov, A.; Wang, Q.; Yu, L. E.; Zhang, J.

    2014-08-01

    In a joint NRL/Manila Observatory mission, as part of the 7 SouthEast Asian Studies program (7SEAS), a two-week, late September~2011 research cruise in the northern Palawan Archipelago was undertaken to observe the nature of southwest monsoonal aerosol particles in the South China Sea/East Sea (SCS/ES) and Sulu Sea region. Previous analyses suggested this region as a~receptor for biomass burning from Borneo and Sumatra for boundary layer air entering the monsoonal trough. Anthropogenic pollution and biofuel emissions are also ubiquitous, as is heavy shipping traffic. Here, we provide an overview of the regional environment during the cruise, a time series of key aerosol and meteorological parameters, and their interrelationships. Overall, this cruise provides a~narrative of the processes that control regional aerosol loadings and their possible feedbacks with clouds and precipitation. While 2011 was a moderate El Nino/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) La Nina year, higher burning activity and lower precipitation was more typical of neutral conditions. The large-scale aerosol environment was modulated by the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) and its associated tropical cyclone (TC) activity in a manner consistent with the conceptual analysis performed by Reid et al. (2012). Advancement of the MJO from phase 3 to 6 with accompanying cyclogenesis during the cruise period strengthened flow patterns in the SCS/ES that modulated aerosol lifecycle. TC inflow arms of significant convection sometimes span from Sumatra to Luzon, resulting in very low particle concentrations (minimum condensation nuclei CN elevated carbon monoxide levels were occasionally observed suggesting passage of polluted air masses whose aerosol particles had been rained out. Conversely, two drier periods occurred with higher aerosol particle concentrations originating from Borneo and Southern Sumatra (CN > 3000 cm-3 and non-sea salt PM2.510-25 μg m-3). These cases corresponded with two different mechanisms

  2. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from the KEIFU MARU in the East China Sea (Tung Hai), North Pacific Ocean and others from 2012-10-24 to 2013-08-27 (NODC Accession 0116977)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0116977 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from KEIFU MARU in the East China Sea (Tung Hai), North...

  3. Inland sea as a unit for environmental history: East Asian inland seas from prehistory to future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindstrom, Kati; Uchiyama, Junzo

    2012-04-01

    The boundaries of landscape policies often coincide with political or economic boundaries, thus creating a situation where a unit of landscape protection or management reflects more its present political status than its historico-geographical situation, its historical function and formation. At the same time, it is evident that no unit can exist independently of the context that has given birth to it and that environmental protection in isolated units cannot be very effective. The present paper will discuss inland sea as a landscape unit from prehistory to modern days and its implications for future landscape planning, using EastAsian inland sea (Japan Sea and East China Sea) rim as an example. Historically an area of active communication, EastAsian inland sea rim has become a politically very sharply divided area. The authors will bring examples to demonstrate how cultural communication on the inland sea level has influenced the formation of several landscape features that are now targets for local or national landscape protection programs, and how a unified view could benefit the future of landscape policies in the whole region.

  4. Mercury Export from Mainland China to Adjacent Seas and Its Influence on the Marine Mercury Balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Maodian; Chen, Long; Wang, Xuejun; Zhang, Wei; Tong, Yindong; Ou, Langbo; Xie, Han; Shen, Huizhong; Ye, Xuejie; Deng, Chunyan; Wang, Huanhuan

    2016-06-21

    Exports from mainland China are a significant source of mercury (Hg) in the adjacent seas (Bohai Sea, Yellow Sea, East China Sea, and South China Sea) near China. A total of 240 ± 23 Mg was contributed in 2012 (30% from natural sources and 70% from anthropogenic sources), including Hg from rivers, industrial wastewater, domestic sewage, groundwater, nonpoint sources, and coastal erosion. Among the various sources, the Hg from rivers amounts to 160 ± 21 Mg and plays a dominant role. The Hg that is exported from mainland China increased from 1984 to 2013; the contributions from rivers, industrial wastewater, domestic sewage and groundwater increased, and the contributions from nonpoint sources and coastal erosion remained stable. A box model is constructed to simulate the mass balance of Hg in these seas and quantify the sources, sinks and Hg biogeochemical cycle in the seas. In total, 160 Mg of Hg was transported to the Pacific Ocean and other oceans from these seas through oceanic currents in 2012, which could have negative impacts on the marine ecosystem. A prediction of the changes in Hg exportation through 2030 shows that the impacts of terrestrial export might worsen without effective pollution reduction measures and that the Hg load in these seas will increase, especially in the seawater of the Bohai Sea, Yellow Sea, and East China Sea and in the sea margin sediments of the Bohai Sea and East China Sea.

  5. Interannual variations of surface winds over China marginal seas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Che; YAN Xiaomei

    2012-01-01

    In a study of surface monsoon winds over the China marginal seas,Sun et al.(2012) use singular value decomposition method to identify regional dominant modes and analyze their interdecadal variability.This paper continues to evaluate the interannual variability of each dominant mode and its relation to various atmospheric,oceanic and land factors.The findings include:1) The intensity of the winter monsoon over the East China Sea is highly correlated with the Siberian High intensity and anti-correlated with the latitudinal position of the Aleutian Low as well as the rainfall in eastem China,Korean Peninsula and Japan; 2) The western Pacific subtropical high is significantly correlated with the summer monsoon intensity over the East China Sea and anti-correlated with the summer monsoon over the South China Sea; 3) The winter monsoon in a broad zonal belt through the Luzon Strait is dominated by the ENSO signal,strengthening in the La Ni(n)a phase and weakening in the El Ni(n)o phase.This inverse relation exhibits interdecadal shift with a period of weak correlation in the 1980s; 4) Analysis of tidal records validates the interdecadal weakening of the East Asian summer monsoon and reveals an atmospheric bridge that conveys the ENSO signal into the South China Sea via the winter monsoon.

  6. Sources, solubility, and acid processing of aerosol iron and phosphorous over the South China Sea: East Asian dust and pollution outflows vs. Southeast Asian biomass burning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, S.-C.; Gong, G.-C.; Shiah, F.-K.; Hung, C.-C.; Kao, S.-J.; Zhang, R.; Chen, W.-N.; Chen, C.-C.; Chou, C. C.-K.; Lin, Y.-C.; Lin, F.-J.; Lin, S.-H.

    2014-08-01

    Iron and phosphorous are essential to marine microorganisms in vast regions in oceans worldwide. Atmospheric inputs are important allochthonous sources of Fe and P. The variability in airborne Fe deposition is hypothesized to serve an important function in previous glacial-interglacial cycles, contributing to the variability in atmospheric CO2 and ultimately the climate. Understanding the mechanisms underlying the mobilization of airborne Fe and P from insoluble to soluble forms is critical to evaluate the biogeochemical effects of these elements. In this study, we present a robust power-law correlation between fractional Fe solubility and non-sea-salt-sulfate / Total-Fe (nss-sulfate / FeT) molar ratio independent of distinct sources of airborne Fe of natural and/or anthropogenic origins over the South China Sea. This area receives Asian dust and pollution outflows and Southeast Asian biomass burning. This correlation is also valid for nitrate and total acids, demonstrating the significance of acid processing in enhancing Fe mobilization. Such correlations are also found for P, yet source dependent. These relationships serve as straightforward parameters that can be directly incorporated into available atmosphere-ocean coupling models that facilitate the assessment of Fe and P fertilization effects. Although biomass burning activity may supply Fe to the bioavailable Fe pool, pyrogenic soils are possibly the main contributors, not the burned plants. This finding warrants a multidisciplinary investigation that integrates atmospheric observations with the resulting biogeochemistry in the South China Sea, which is influenced by atmospheric forcings and nutrient dynamics with monsoons.

  7. 东海盆地形成的区域地质背景与构造演化特征%Regional Background and Tectonic Evolution of East China Sea Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵志刚; 王鹏; 祁鹏; 郭瑞

    2016-01-01

    东海盆地处于西太平洋俯冲带前缘,是发育在华南克拉通基底之上的,以晚白垩世-新生代沉积为主的新生代盆地。东海盆地性质是在活动大陆边缘减薄陆壳之上的,由于洋-陆俯冲消减所引起的张裂、拉伸作用而形成的弧后裂谷型盆地,是西太平洋众多“沟-弧-盆”体系的一部分。东海盆地陆架外缘隆起控制着东海盆地的演化过程,该地质单元形成于晚白垩世,是陆缘隆起和增生楔的复合体,中新世后由于菲律宾海板块的活动而解体为现今的钓鱼岛隆褶带和琉球隆起。结合对陆架外缘隆起的研究后认为,东海盆地晚白垩世以来的演化历程具有3大构造阶段,即:第一阶段,古新世-中始新世西部坳陷形成发展期;第二阶段,中始新世-渐新世东部坳陷形成发展期,其中,中晚始新世太平洋板块的转向是东、西部坳陷构造迁移的分界点;第三阶段,中新世-全新世,东海盆地进入到菲律宾板块影响时期,原先的构造格局开始分解。%The East China Sea Basin that located in the front of the west Pacific subduction zone,is formed upon the Huanan Craton basement.The main sediment filling are from Late Cretaceous to Cenozoic.The East China Sea Basin developed on the thinned continental margin crust,is a back-arc rift basin caused by rifting and stretching that induced by ocean subduction, which is the part of the “trench-arc-basin”system in the west Pacific.The tectonic evolution was controlled by the uplift in the outer continental shelf that formed in the Late Cretaceous.The uplift is the complex of the continental margin uplift and accre-tionary wedge that disintegrated into Diaoyu Island fold belt and Ryukyu uplift after Miocene.Considering the study of the out-er continental shelf uplift,tectonic evolution history of the East China Sea basin after Late Cretaceous can be divided into three stages

  8. Sources, solubility, and acid processing of aerosol iron and phosphorous over the South China Sea: East Asian dust and pollution outflows vs. Southeast Asian biomass burning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.-C. Hsu

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Iron and phosphorous are essential to marine microorganisms in vast regions in oceans worldwide. Atmospheric inputs are important allochthonous sources of Fe and P. The variability in airborne Fe deposition is hypothesized to serve an important function in previous glacial–interglacial cycles, contributing to the variability in atmospheric CO2 and ultimately the climate. Understanding the mechanisms underlying the mobilization of airborne Fe and P from insoluble to soluble forms is critical to evaluate the biogeochemical effects of these elements. In this study, we present a robust power-law correlation between fractional Fe solubility and non-sea-salt-sulfate / Total-Fe (nss-sulfate / FeT molar ratio independent of distinct sources of airborne Fe of natural and/or anthropogenic origins over the South China Sea. This area receives Asian dust and pollution outflows and Southeast Asian biomass burning. This correlation is also valid for nitrate and total acids, demonstrating the significance of acid processing in enhancing Fe mobilization. Such correlations are also found for P, yet source dependent. These relationships serve as straightforward parameters that can be directly incorporated into available atmosphere–ocean coupling models that facilitate the assessment of Fe and P fertilization effects. Although biomass burning activity may supply Fe to the bioavailable Fe pool, pyrogenic soils are possibly the main contributors, not the burned plants. This finding warrants a multidisciplinary investigation that integrates atmospheric observations with the resulting biogeochemistry in the South China Sea, which is influenced by atmospheric forcings and nutrient dynamics with monsoons.

  9. Decadal modulation of East China winter precipitation by ENSO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jia; Wang, Hui; Lu, Er; Kumar, Arun

    2016-11-01

    The decadal modulation of East China winter precipitation by the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is examined using both observational data and coupled global climate model simulations. The co-variability between 68-year (1948-2015) observed East China precipitation and tropical Pacific sea surface temperature (SST) is quantified by the singular value decomposition (SVD) method. The first SVD mode relates Southeast China winter pluvial (drought) to the tropical Pacific El Niño (La Niña) SST. A comparison between two 480-year model simulations with and without ENSO suggests that ENSO can modulate both the intensity and frequency of East China winter precipitation. In the presence of ENSO, maximum precipitation anomalies over Southeast China can be increased by 50% and largely on the interannual timescale (3-6 years). It is also demonstrated that there is an asymmetry in the precipitation and circulation responses to warm and cold phases of ENSO. The responses are sensitive to the intensity of SST anomalies during El Niño, but less sensitive to SSTs during La Niña. This sensitivity, together with the decadal variations of ENSO, helps understand the observed decadal changes in the strength of the association between wintertime tropical Pacific SST and East China precipitation. The association is relatively weak during 1948-1977 when La Niña occurred more frequently, but strong during 1978-1999 when El Niño occurred more frequently. In the last 16 years (2000-2015) the association is weakest, likely due to the weakened variability of tropical Pacific SST since 2000.

  10. STUDY ON RIVER-SEA INTERACTION AND FORMATION OF PALEO-YANGTZE GRAND DELTA SYSTEM IN THE AREA OF SOUTH YELLOW SEA AND EAST CHINA SEA%河海交互作用与黄东海域古扬子大三角洲体系研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王颖; 邹欣庆; 殷勇; 张永战; 刘绍文

    2012-01-01

    海疆权益维护提供重要的科学依据.%China seas are characterized by river-sea interaction and accumulative continental shelf. With the association of arc islands,there is a set of marginal seas developed along China coastal areas. To carry huge amount of sediments, five of seven large rivers origin from Qinghai-Tibet Plateau ultimately flow into China seas. With sufficient sediments supply,a wide accumulative continental shelf was formed during Cenozoic era. This paper studies geomorphologic formation of the continental shelf in South Yellow Sea and East China Sea, where sediment discharge from the Yellow River and the Changjiang River are the major sources in contributing terrigenous deposits. According to the researches conducted in the last 3 decades,it is eventually realized that,there is a grand delta system distributed in the South Yellow Sea and East China Sea. The base of the system was an original delta, located between 34°30'N to 26°N from north to south,and eastward boundaried as -100~-150m water depth,with the Changjiang River mouth and Hangzhou Estuary as it's centre, forward to sea as a 230° arc shaped delta deposited on the sea bottom. The base delta was formed during Mid-Late Pleistocene when ancient Changjiang River started to run into the Yellow Sea and the East China Sea. This bottom delta was originating from the huge river sediments, discharged from ancient Changjiang and Yellow River, and being reshaped by waves and tidal currents. Upon the huge bottom delta, there are four delta unions superimposed on the top,and developed in different geological time: Paleo Changjiang-Yellow River delta and radiative sand ridge field of Late Pleistocene, Holocene-Modern Changjiang River delta and abandoned Yellow River delta of historical time. The Paleo-Yangtze Grand Delta System geographically covers most areas of East China Sea and South Yellow Sea, which forms continental sedimentary geomorphology. A multidimensional survey to this region is

  11. The effect of the causative algae of large-scale HAB in the East China Sea on egg hatching of Argopecten irradians, and population growth of Brachionus plicatilis and Moina mongolica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Taoying; YAN Tian; WANG Liping; ZHANG Bin; ZHOU Mingjiang

    2007-01-01

    The impacts of Prorocentrum donghaiense Lu and Alexandrium catenella Balech, causative species of the large-scale HAB in the East China Sea, were studied under laboratory conditions. According to bloom densities, the effects of monoculture and mixture of the two species were examined on the egg-hatching success of Argopecten irradians Lamarck, and the population growth of Brachionus plicatilis Müller and Moina mongolica Daday. The results showed that monoculture of A. catenella had a significant inhibition on the egg hatching success of A. irradians, and the population growth of B. plicatilis and M. mongolica. The median effective densities (EDs0) inhibiting the egg hatching success of A. irradians for 24 h and the population growth of B. plicatilis and M.mongolica for 96 h were 800, 630, and 2 400 cells/cm3, respectively. Monoculture of P. donghaiense has no such inhibitory effect on the egg hatching success of A. irradians; P. donghaiense at lower suitable densities could sustain the population growth of B. plicatilis ( 1 × 104 ~ 3 × 104 cells/cm3 ) and M. mongolica (2 × 104 ~ 5 × 104 cells/cm3 ); P. donghaiense at higher densities had significantly adverse effect on the population growth of B. plicatilis (4 × 104 ~ 10 × 104 cells/cm3 ) and M. mongolica ( 10 ×104 cells/cm3). When the two algae were mixed according to bloom densities, P. donghaiense at suitable densities to some extent could decrease the toxicity of A. catenella to B. plicatilis and M. mongolica. The results indicated that the large-scale HAB in the East China Sea could have adverse effect on zooplankton, and might further influence the marine ecosystem, especially when there was also Alexandrium bloom.

  12. 东黄海大黄鱼洄游路线的研究%Analysis of migratory route of Larimichthys crocea in the East China Sea and Yellow Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐兆礼; 陈佳杰

    2011-01-01

    依据我国10多个主要渔业公司1971-1982年共12年的大黄鱼捕捞统计资料,从产量分布、鱼群移动等方面,研究了东黄海大黄鱼的洄游路线.结果显示,东黄海大黄鱼只有一个种群,两处越冬场.其中,外海越冬场主要位于30°00′N~32°00′N,124°00′E~126°00′E水域,近海越冬场位于浙江中南部和福建北部禁渔线外侧.每年3-4月,外海越冬场鱼群向西进入舟山渔场和长江口渔场;5月,这部分鱼群部分向西北进入吕泗渔场沿海产卵,另一部分向西进入舟山群岛沿海的岱衢洋、大衢洋、黄泽洋和大目洋等水域产卵;到了6月,在长江口和吕泗渔场近海形成索饵群体;6-8月,索饵群体北上黄海南部近海索饵;9月,索饵群体前锋到达34°00′N禁渔线外侧;10月以后,随着冷空气南下,索饵场的大黄鱼向南做越冬洄游,并且在10月回到长江口.从这里,一部分群体游向外海越冬场,一部分群体继续南下回到东海中南部近海的越冬场.浙江中南部和福建北部禁渔线外侧近海越冬的大黄鱼群体,在春季产卵洄游中,部分北上在舟山渔场与外海来的鱼群汇合,进一步游向吕泗渔场和舟山群岛沿海产卵,部分就近游向沿岸的猫头洋、洞头洋、乐清湾、官井洋和东引岛等水域产卵,产卵后的群体在产卵场附近索饵,冬季回到就近的越冬场.%Migratory route of the greater yellow croaker, Larimichthys crocea, in the the East China Sea (ECS)and the Yellow Sea(ESYSP) was re-analyzed with fishing data collected during 1971 -1982. Only one population, the ECS-ESYSP population was determined in the sampling areas. Two wintering grounds of the population were located, the offshore wintering ground lies in the waters of 30°00' -32°00'N, 124°00' -126°00'E, and the nearshore wintering ground lies near the outside of the forbidden fishing zone line in the mid-southern ECS. The offshore group began spawning

  13. Seas of trouble: enduring territorial conflicts in East and Southeast Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Heiduk, Felix; Michael, Paul

    2015-01-01

    In the last five years, tensions have increased between China and a number of neighboring states over territorial disputes in the East and South China Sea. In some cases, there have even been threats of armed conflicts. China’s increasingly aggressive behavior has stoked fears that long-simmering conflicts could escalate. This dismal picture began to brighten considerably, however, in the last half of 2014. In November, in the run-up to several important international summit meetings in the r...

  14. Spatial-temporal analysis of sea level changes in China seas and neighboring oceans by merged altimeter data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yao; Zhou, Bin; Yu, Zhifeng; Lei, Hui; Sun, Jiamin; Zhu, Xingrui; Liu, Congjin

    2017-01-01

    The knowledge of sea level changes is critical important for social, economic and scientific development in coastal areas. Satellite altimeter makes it possible to observe long term and large scale dynamic changes in the ocean, contiguous shelf seas and coastal zone. In this paper, 1993-2015 altimeter data of Topex/Poseidon and its follow-on missions is used to get a time serious of continuous and homogeneous sea level anomaly gridding product. The sea level rising rate is 0.39 cm/yr in China Seas and the neighboring oceans, 0.37 cm/yr in the Bo and Yellow Sea, 0.29 cm/yr in the East China Sea and 0.40 cm/yr in the South China Sea. The mean sea level and its rising rate are spatial-temporal non-homogeneous. The mean sea level shows opposite characteristics in coastal seas versus open oceans. The Bo and Yellow Sea has the most significant seasonal variability. The results are consistent with in situ data observation by the Nation Ocean Agency of China. The coefficient of variability model is introduced to describe the spatial-temporal variability. Results show that the variability in coastal seas is stronger than that in open oceans, especially the seas off the entrance area of the river, indicating that the validation of altimeter data is less reasonable in these seas.

  15. Mitigating the Security Risks in the South China Sea Island Disputes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-13

    South China Sea. The Association of Southeast Nations ( ASEAN ) is disunited and has been largely ineffective in moving the dispute forward. However... ASEAN ). While it has declared an Air Defense Identification Zone in the East China Sea, China has publicly 5 dismissed any rumors that it would do...with ASEAN . Thus, China’s use ambiguity to avoid conflict with ASEAN , maintain the status quo and delay the settlement of the dispute. Strategy of

  16. Study on numerical simulation and dynamic mechanism of winter- time circulation in the eastern China seas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN Dong; HOU Yijun; WEI Zexun; LIU Xingquan; ZHAO Xixi

    2004-01-01

    An MOM2 based 3-dimentional prognostic baroclinic Z-ordinate model was established to study the circulation in eastern China seas, considering the topography, inflow and outflow on the open boundary, wind stress, temperature and salinity exchange on the sea surface. The results were consistent with observation and showed that the Kuroshio intrudes in large scale into the East China Sea continental shelf East China, during which its water is exchanged ceaselessly with outer sea water along Ryukyu Island. The Tsushima Warm Current is derived from several sources, a branch of the Kuroshio, part of the Taiwan Warm Current, and Yellow Sea mixed water coming from the west of Cheju Island. The water from the west of Cheju Island contributes approximately 13% of the Isushima Warm Current total transport through the Korea Strait. The circulation in the Bohai Sea and Yellow Sea is basically cyclonic circulation, and is comprised of coastal currents and the Yellow Sea Warm Current. Besides simulation of the real circulation, numerical experiments were conducted to study the dynamic mechanism. The numerical experiments indicated that wind directly drives the East China Sea and Yellow Sea Coastal Currents, and strengthens the Korea Coastal Current and Yellow Sea Warm Current. In the no wind case, the kinetic energy of the coastal current area and main YSWC area is only 1% of that of the wind case. Numerical experiments also showed that the Tsushima Warm Current is of great importance to the formation of the Korea Coastal Current and Yellow Sea Warm Current.

  17. Distributions of Different Submarine Canyons on the East China Sea Slope and Their Tectonic Response%东海陆坡不同类型海底峡谷的分布构造响应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵月霞; 刘保华; 李西双; 刘晨光; 裴彦良; 吴金龙; 郑彦鹏

    2009-01-01

    利用1997-2001年在东海海域获得的多波束全覆盖测深数据和收集的部分高分辨率单道地震剖面,对东海陆坡海底峡谷的地形要素,如长度、弯曲度、平均坡度、剖面特征、头部和末端的水深等进行了详细的分析和统计.根据平面形态将海底峡谷划分为3种类型:直线型、蛇曲型和树枝型.海底峡谷主要分布于中段和南段的东海陆坡之上,平面形态特征总体上自北向南趋于复杂(直线型→蛇曲型→树枝型),规模逐渐增大,不同平面类型代表了峡谷不同的演化阶段.峡谷的分布格局和变化趋势主要受控于冲绳海槽扩张背景下的构造活动.%Topographical features such as the length, the bending level, the mean slope, the profile character and the water depth at the head and the tail of the submarine canyons on the East China Sea Slope were studied based on the multibeam bathymetric data acquired in the East China Sea from 1997 to 2001 and the collection of single-channel seismic profiles with high resolution. In morphology, three types of submarine canyons were recognized, which are linear, meandering and dendritic. They are mainly distributed on the middle and the southern segments of the slope. Their morphology tends generally to become complicated (linear→rneadering→dendritic) and their scale increases graduallyfrom north to south. Different types of canyons represent different evolutionary stages. The distribution pattern and the changing tendency of the canyons are mainly controlled by the tectonic activities related to the spreading of the Okinawa Trough.

  18. The lowering of sea surface temperature in the east central Arabian sea associated with a cyclone

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Murty, V.S.N.; Rao, D.P.; Sastry, J.S.

    An analysis of thermal Structure in the East Central Arabian Sea associated with a moderate cyclone is presented. The heat storage and the heat budget components have been computed. Under the influence of the cyclone the Sea Surface Temperature (SST...

  19. 东海和黄海南部细条天竺鲷的摄食习性%Feeding habits of Apogon lineatus in the East China Sea and southern Yellow Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金海卫; 薛利建; 朱增军; 潘国良

    2012-01-01

    Based on the fishing samples from 4 cruise survey data of the East China Sea and southern Yellow Sea from May 2008 to Feb. 2009, the diet composition, feeding intensity, diversity index and trophic level of Apogon lineatus were investigated by stomach content analysis. The results showed that the important food species of A. lineatus were Euphausia pacifica and Leptochela gracilis, whose index of relative importance ( % IRI) was 46. 08 and 37.46, quality percentage was 17. 90% and 21.98% and individual percentage was 27.80% and 12.80% , respectively. Euphausiacea, Decapod, Amphipoda, Pisces and Mysidacea were the most important prey groups. There were highly significant differences (P <0. 01 ) for individual percentage and % IRI of prey groups in different seasons and body classes, and the diet composition and dominant species replacement was very obvious. The total empty stomach rate of A. lineatus was 14. 01% , and the stomach fullness index was 76. 69‰ and the mean was 11. 26‰. Significant seasonal differences ( P < 0.01 ) were observed in the stomach fullness index, but not in the body class. The diversity index (H') of diet and evenness value (J') of diet took on the increase trend from spring to winter. The H' was the highest in the body length group of 41 -50 mm, then decreased gradually. The J' presented decrease trend with the body growth at first, then stayed steady when the body length reached 61-70 mm. The trophic level of A. lineatus was 3.39, which was 3. 31, 3. 59, 3. 39 and 3. 33 in four seasons of one year, respectively. It can be concluded that A. lineatus belonged to low-grade carnivorous animals, feeding on zooplankton as main food and part of swimming animals. As for the feeding selectivity, the major food dominance of A. lineatus was concentrated. The feeding habit variation of A. lineatus was closely related with its body length and season change.%利用2008年5月至2009年2月在东海和黄海南部4个航次大面调查

  20. East Asian Monsoon and EL NIÑO-SOUTHERN Oscillation Activities Since the Mid-Holocene Evidences from Massive Corals in the the Central Vietnamese Coast, Western South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, A. D.; Zhao, J.; Feng, Y.; Yu, K.; Gasparon, M.; U-Series Dating Technique Team

    2011-12-01

    The climate of the Vietnamese coast, western South China Sea (SCS), is driven by the annually reversing East Asian Monsoon (EAM) system which is also related to the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) through teleconnection. Our understanding of EAM activity and its connection with global climate is not fully established. In this study high resolution Sr/Ca and δ18O records derived from four fossil Porites sp. corals with U-series ages ranging from ~7000 to 1800 years (yrs) were used to characterise the EAM-ENSO activities since the mid-Holocene. The results show that both the summer and winter monsoons were stronger than present ~ 7000 yrs ago, as evidenced by the higher-than-present amplitudes of annual cycles in SST (9.1 °C) and seawater δ18O (1.4%). The strengthened summer monsoon is considered to result from higher Northern Hemispheric insolation during the mid-Holocene, while the enhanced winter monsoon could be attributed to a reduction/shutdown of North Atlantic Meridional Overturning (NAMOC), leading to a prevailing "cold tongue" off the Vietnamese coast, and an amplified east-west SST gradient in the northern SCS. The EAM was weakened ca. 4200 yrs ago, as reflected by the lower amplitude of SST (4.3 °C) and seawater δ18O (0.57%) annual cycles. The downturn of the EAM is correlated in timing with the cold phase or the Bond event of the high-latitude climate, the Neolithic cultural collapse in China, and the strengthened ENSO in the Pacific. After this downturn, the EAM was slightly strengthened ~3600 and 1800 yrs ago as shown by larger amplitudes of SST (~ 5 °C) and seawater δ18O (1.0-1.2%) annual cycles. The enhanced EAM at these times are out of phase with the high-latitude climate, but are consistent with evidence from historical documents in Vietnam and China. The waxing/waning of the EAM appear to match with the waning/waxing of the ENSO intensity throughout the records since the mid-Holocene. The changes in EAM activity were accompanied by

  1. MESOZOIC TECTONIC EVOLUTION AND PROTOTYPE BASIN CHARACTERS IN THE SOUTHERN EAST CHINA SEA SHELF BASIN%东海陆架盆地南部中生代构造演化与原型盆地性质

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨长清; 杨传胜; 李刚; 廖晶; 龚建明

    2012-01-01

    东海陆架盆地南部夹持于欧亚板块、太平洋板块与印度板块之间,是发育在前中生代基础之上的中、新生代叠合盆地.其构造演化爱古太平洋板块俯冲及特提斯一喜马拉雅构造域的联合影响,经历了印支末期基隆运动、燕山期渔山和雁荡运动的叠加改造.结合浙闽隆起带中生代火成岩事件、盆地构造变形、沉积学的一些证据,通过海陆对比研究,认为东海陆架盆地南部早—中三叠世可能为面向古太平洋的被动大陆边缘盆地;晚三叠世—侏罗纪古太平洋板块已对中国大陆有较强的俯冲作用,东海陆架盆地及南部原型盆地为活动大陆边缘弧前盆地;白垩纪受控于滨海断裂表现为活动大陆边缘走滑拉分盆地;古新世—始新世火山岛弧向东移动,东海陆架变为弧后裂谷盆地.%The Southern East China Sea Shelf Basin is a Mesozoic-Cenozoic superimposed basin developed on the pre-Mesozoic basement at the junction of the Eurasian, Pacific and Indian plates. It has experienced the superimposed deformations of the Jilong, Yushan and Yandang movements and the tectonic evolution is obviously influenced by both the subduction of the Paleo-Pacific plate and the Thethys-Himalayas Tectonic Domain. Studies of Mesozoic igneous events, basin tectonic deformation, sedimentology and comparative study between land and sea have been carried out in this region. Results suggest that the Southern East China Sea Shelf Basin might be a passive continental margin basin facing the Paleo-Pacific in Early-Middle Triassic: a fore-arc basin along the active ocean margin while the Paleo-Pacific Plate intensely subducted under the East Asia continent in Late-Triassic and Jurassic: a strike-slip pull apart basin controlled by the offshore Fault in the Cretaceous and a backarc rift basin in Palaeocene-Eocene when volcanic arc migrated eastwards.

  2. South China Sea: Controversies And Solutions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Disputes have recently broken out between China and some Southeast Asian countries and the United States in the South China Sea. The Beijing-based Economic Information Daily spoke to Liu Nanlai, a research fellow at the Institute of International Law under the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, on the origin of the South China Sea issue and China’s position on it. Excerpts follow:

  3. Status of marine biodiversity of the China seas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, J Y

    2013-01-01

    China's seas cover nearly 5 million square kilometers extending from the tropical to the temperate climate zones and bordering on 32,000 km of coastline, including islands. Comprehensive systematic study of the marine biodiversity within this region began in the early 1950s with the establishment of the Qingdao Marine Biological Laboratory of the Chinese Academy of Sciences. Since that time scientists have carried out intensive multidisciplinary research on marine life in the China seas and have recorded 22,629 species belonging to 46 phyla. The marine flora and fauna of the China seas are characterized by high biodiversity, including tropical and subtropical elements of the Indo-West Pacific warm-water fauna in the South and East China seas, and temperate elements of North Pacific temperate fauna mainly in the Yellow Sea. The southern South China Sea fauna is characterized by typical tropical elements paralleled with the Philippine-New Guinea-Indonesia Coral triangle typical tropical faunal center. This paper summarizes advances in studies of marine biodiversity in China's seas and discusses current research mainly on characteristics and changes in marine biodiversity, including the monitoring, assessment, and conservation of endangered species and particularly the strengthening of effective management. Studies of (1) a tidal flat in a semi-enclosed embayment, (2) the impact of global climate change on a cold-water ecosystem, (3) coral reefs of Hainan Island and Xisha-Nansha atolls, (4) mangrove forests of the South China Sea, (5) a threatened seagrass field, and (6) an example of stock enhancement practices of the Chinese shrimp fishery are briefly introduced. Besides the overexploitation of living resources (more than 12.4 million tons yielded in 2007), the major threat to the biodiversity of the China seas is environmental deterioration (pollution, coastal construction), particularly in the brackish waters of estuarine environments, which are characterized by

  4. Status of marine biodiversity of the China seas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Y Liu

    Full Text Available China's seas cover nearly 5 million square kilometers extending from the tropical to the temperate climate zones and bordering on 32,000 km of coastline, including islands. Comprehensive systematic study of the marine biodiversity within this region began in the early 1950s with the establishment of the Qingdao Marine Biological Laboratory of the Chinese Academy of Sciences. Since that time scientists have carried out intensive multidisciplinary research on marine life in the China seas and have recorded 22,629 species belonging to 46 phyla. The marine flora and fauna of the China seas are characterized by high biodiversity, including tropical and subtropical elements of the Indo-West Pacific warm-water fauna in the South and East China seas, and temperate elements of North Pacific temperate fauna mainly in the Yellow Sea. The southern South China Sea fauna is characterized by typical tropical elements paralleled with the Philippine-New Guinea-Indonesia Coral triangle typical tropical faunal center. This paper summarizes advances in studies of marine biodiversity in China's seas and discusses current research mainly on characteristics and changes in marine biodiversity, including the monitoring, assessment, and conservation of endangered species and particularly the strengthening of effective management. Studies of (1 a tidal flat in a semi-enclosed embayment, (2 the impact of global climate change on a cold-water ecosystem, (3 coral reefs of Hainan Island and Xisha-Nansha atolls, (4 mangrove forests of the South China Sea, (5 a threatened seagrass field, and (6 an example of stock enhancement practices of the Chinese shrimp fishery are briefly introduced. Besides the overexploitation of living resources (more than 12.4 million tons yielded in 2007, the major threat to the biodiversity of the China seas is environmental deterioration (pollution, coastal construction, particularly in the brackish waters of estuarine environments, which are

  5. The South China Sea Deep: Introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Pinxian; Li, Qianyu; Dai, Minhan

    2015-12-01

    The South China Sea (SCS) has increasingly become a global focus in ocean research and hydrocarbon explorations. Over the last two decades, at least 17 international cruises including two ODP/IODP expeditions were conducted in the SCS, and more than 2000 exploratory wells were drilled (Wang et al., 2014a). While its sedimentary basins on the continental shelf and slope are explored for offshore resources, the deep basin below 3500 m in depth that overlies the basaltic oceanic crust preserves the key to understanding their formation and development. In order to better understand the life history and functional system of the marginal sea, a major research program "Deep Sea Processes and Evolution of the South China Sea", or "The South China Sea Deep" for short, was launched in January 2011 by the National Natural Science Foundation (NSFC) of China. This venture represents the first ever large-scale basic-research program in ocean science in the country (Wang, 2012).

  6. 东海内陆架表层沉积物中黑碳的分布及来源%Distribution and Source of Black Carbon in the Surface Sediments of the Inner Continental Shelf of the East China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄亮; 张国森; 吴莹; 张经

    2012-01-01

    This paper studied the contents of black carbon(BC) in the surface sediments of the inner continental shelf of the East China Sea,focusing on the distribution,influence factors and source of BC in different areas.In addition,the BC contents were compared with those in suspended particulate matter(SPM) derived from Xuliujing in the Yangtze River estuary.The results showed that the average BC content in SPM of Xuliujing was 1.68±0.51 mg/g,and the content in the dry season was higher than that in the flood season,which is related with seasonal change of combustion.The distribution of BC in the surface sediments of the inner continental shelf of the East China Sea was characterized by regional difference.The BC contents in nearshore varied over a narrow range and were negatively related with size,and lower than those in SPM of Xuliujing,which showed that BC came from river input and was dominated by soot in this area,and partial small-sized BC was not completely deposited.The BC contents in the east of 123°E were extensively high and positively correlated with size,indicating that BC was dominated by graphitic black carbon.Moreover,the BC/TOC values range from 0.11 to 0.55 in the sediments,so we should not ignore the difference in distribution and species from one area to another,when investigating the carbon cycle in this area.%对东海内陆架表层沉积物中黑碳含量进行了分析,探讨了黑碳在东海内陆架不同区域的分布特征、影响因素及来源,并与长江口徐六径悬浮颗粒物中的黑碳进行了对比。结果显示,长江口徐六径悬浮颗粒物中黑碳的含量平均为1.68±0.51mg/g,且枯季浓度要高于洪季,这反映了燃烧活动的季节变化。黑碳在东海内陆架表层沉积物的分布具有明显的区域特征,近岸区域沉积物中的黑碳含量接近,且与粒径成负相关,并低于徐六径悬浮颗粒物中黑碳的含量,说明来自长江输入的黑碳主要以烟炱为主,并且

  7. 基于光谱差异的东海赤潮提取算法%A new algorithm of red tide monitoring based on the spectral differences in the East China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐晓晖; 毛志华; 陶邦一

    2013-01-01

    Red tide is one of the most serious marine hazards.It not only destroys marine fishery production,deteriorates the marine environment,affects coastal tourist industry,but also causes human health problems.The East China Sea is the region of the "high incidence" of the red tide disaster in China:both in the frequency and the area are significantly higher than others.Remote sensing technology has been proved to be one of the most effective means of red tide monitoring.From the spectral curves,we can see that the spectral of the red tide water and non-red tide water has significant difference:there are two peaks and two valleys in red tide water,while there are no these two peaks and two valleys in non-red tide water.Based on the spectral differences,a new algorithm was developed with conditions of Rrs 555/Rrs 488> 1.5,and Rrs 678— Rrs 667 >0 to extract the red tide information.The algorithm can determine effectively the locations from satellite data of red tide,and it is good corresponding to the results in the official bulletin.Therefore,this algorithm is suitable to monitor the red tide from satellite data in the East China Sea.%赤潮是最严重的海洋灾害之一,它不仅破坏海洋渔业生产、恶化海洋环境、影响滨海旅游业,而且还会影响人类健康.东海是我国赤潮灾害的“高发区”,赤潮发生次数和面积均明显高于其它海区.遥感是赤潮监测的最有效的手段之一,从光谱曲线可以看出,赤潮水体和非赤潮水体光谱曲线有明显的区别,前者呈现出2个吸收峰和2个反射峰,而后者不具备该特征.基于光谱差异,本文提出了1种新的赤潮提取算法:Rrs555/Rrs488>1.5且Rrs678—Rrs667>0.该算法能有效地确定卫星数据中赤潮的位置,与公报的赤潮位置吻合得较好.因此,该算法适用于卫星数据的东海赤潮信息提取.

  8. 东海防空识别区的国际法分析及海峡两岸合作%The International Law Status of East China Sea Air Defense Identification Zone and the Cross-Strait Cooperation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴燕妮

    2014-01-01

    On November 23, 2013, the Chinese government officially declared the establishment of the East China Sea Air Defense Identification Zone (ADIZ), and issued a corresponding recognition rules. From the perspective of international law, ADIZ was proposed at first to maintain the national security of the coastal states, however, norms of international law in this area is still lacking. Presently the ADIZ was accepted by more and more countries, but since the general practice was formed over time, ADIZ then was basically a forming international custom without any legal binding force. Therefore, for China, it is a huge challenge to participate in the internation-al rule-making process, and then based on the grasp of the rules, implement and maintain the national interests of our country. In this regard, the establishment of East China Sea ADIZ is just a start. We must formulate the rules in domestic law, and focus on cooperation and communication across the Straits to establish a long-term mechanism on both sides. Then the ADIZ can serve our national security and people’s well-being better.%2013年11月23日,我国政府正式宣告设立东海“防空识别区”,并颁布了相应的识别规则。从国际法的角度看,“防空识别区”的提出,最早是源于国内法上维护沿海国防安全的需要。历经半个多世纪的实践发展,该领域仍然缺乏可遵循的国际法规范。目前,接受这一规则的国家逐渐增多,但由于国际通例的形成仍需要相当长的时间,“防空识别区”制度本质上仍是一种正在形成之中的国际习惯。对中国来说,如何从国际规则的参与者转变为规则的制定者,进而通过对规则的把握,实现和维护我国国家利益是我们所面临的严峻挑战。“防空识别区”的设立只是一个开始,我们应当从国内法上对“防空识别区”进行严格规范,并重视与海峡对岸的合作与沟通,建立“防空识

  9. 129I and its species in the East China Sea: level, distribution, sources and tracing water masses exchange and movement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Dan; Hou, Xiaolin; Du, Jinzhou;

    2016-01-01

    , and 129I level in seawater declines towards the ECS shelf. In the open sea, 129I and 127I in surface water exists mainly as iodate, while in Yangtze River estuary and some locations, iodide is dominated. The results indicate that the Fukushima nuclear accident has no detectable effects in the ECS until...... and their inorganic chemical species in the first time. The measured 129I/127I ratio is 1–3 orders of magnitude higher than the pre-nuclear level, indicating its dominantly anthropogenic sources. Relatively high 129I levels were observed in the Yangtze River and its estuary, as well as in the southern Yellow Sea...

  10. The high education of optical engineering in East China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xu; Liu, Xiangdong; Wang, Xiaoping; Bai, Jian; Liu, Yuling

    2014-07-01

    The history and the development of the high education in the field of optical engineering in the area of East China will be presented in the paper. The overall situation of research and human resource training in optics and photonics will also be reviewed, it shows that China needs lots of talents and experts in this field to support the world optical industry in East China.

  11. Sensitivity of summer precipitation to tropical sea surface temperatures over East Asia in the GRIMs GMP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Eun-Chul; Yeh, Sang-Wook; Hong, Song-You; Wu, Renguang

    2013-05-01

    In this study, uncoupled atmospheric general circulation model experiments are conducted to examine the sensitivity of tropical Ocean basins from the Indian Ocean to the tropical Pacific Ocean on the summer precipitation variability over East Asia. It is remarkable that the Indian Ocean basin sea surface temperature (SST) and the tropical Pacific basin SST act on summer precipitation variability over Northeast Asia and southern China quite differently. That is, SST warming in the Indian Ocean largely contributes to the increase in the amount of summer precipitation over East Asia, which is in contrast to the warming of the western tropical Pacific Ocean. Our further analysis indicates that an altered large-scale atmospheric circulation over the western tropical Pacific contributes to contrasting atmospheric motion over East Asia due to the tropics-East Asia teleconnections, which results in changes in the amount of summer precipitation due to the warming of the Indian and western tropical Pacific Oceans.

  12. Changes of textural properties of Scomberomorus niphonius muscle from East China sea under different frozen storage conditions%不同贮藏条件下东海马鲛鱼鱼肉质构变化研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈涛; 陆云飞; 叶晓峰; 张宾

    2012-01-01

    The TVBN and textural properties of mackerel fish (Scomberomorus niphonius) from East China sea were studied in order to determine the quality and freshness changes during different temperature storage. The results indicated that the TVBN values of fish muscle increased continuously with the storage time prolonged, which reached the limitation standard for 5 ~ group at the 5th day and for 0 C group at the 7th day, respectively. With respect to the changes in texture variables (hardness, springiness, cohesiveness, and chewiness), the samples showed a reduction trend in the values ofall variables. The variation trend of TPA values for the -55 % and -20 ~ storage samples were slightly smooth and steady changes, and the fresh-keeping effect of -55 % storage condition was better than the -20 % storage condition.%以鲜活马鲛鱼为研究对象,在鱼体TVBN含量变化基础上,应用质构仪质地多面分析(TPA)试验法,采集不同贮藏温度下样品的质构特性。结果表明:马鲛鱼TVBN含量在贮藏期间不断升高,5℃和0℃贮藏组分别贮藏5d和7d后,肌肉TVBN含量超过国家标准限量;马鲛鱼各质构参数(硬度、弹性、黏聚性及咀嚼度)随贮藏时间延长总体呈下降趋势;-55℃和-20℃冻藏样品质构特性变化相对缓慢,且-55℃保鲜效果优于-20℃贮藏。

  13. Changes of Textural Properties of Pneumatophorus japonicus Muscle from East China Sea under Different Frozen Storage Conditions%不同贮藏条件下东海鲐鱼鱼肉质构变化研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许婷婷; 丁静萍; 林甘露; 张宾

    2012-01-01

    以鲜活鲐鱼为研究对象,在鱼体TVBN含量变化基础上,应用质构仪质地多面分析(TPA)试验法,采集不同贮藏温度下样品的质构特性。结果表明:鲐鱼TVBN值在贮藏期间不断升高,5℃和0℃贮藏组分别贮藏5 d和7 d后,肌肉TVBN含量超过国家标准限量(30 mg/100g);鲐鱼各质构参数(硬度、弹性、粘聚性及咀嚼度)随贮藏时间延长总体呈下降趋势;-55℃和-20℃冻藏样品质构特性变化相对缓慢,且-55℃保鲜效果优于-20℃贮藏。%The TVBN and textural properties of mackerel fish(Pneumatophorus japonicus) from East China Sea were studied in order to determine the quality and freshness changes during different temperature storage.The results indicated that the TVBN values of fish muscle increased continuously with the storage time prolonged,which reached the limitation standard(30 mg/100g) for 5 ℃ group at the 5th day and for 0 ℃ group at the 7th day respectively.With respect to the changes in texture variables(hardness,springiness,cohesiveness,and chewiness),the samples showed a reduction trend in the values of all variables.The variation trend of TPA values for the-55 ℃ and-20 ℃storage samples were slightly smooth and steady changes,and the fresh-keeping effect of-55 ℃ storage condition was better than the-20 ℃ storage condition.

  14. 渤黄东海底摩擦系数数值研究%Numerical Study on the Bottom Friction Coefficient of the Bohai, Yellow and East China Seas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张继才; 祝建国; 吕咸青

    2006-01-01

    使用伴随同化方法探讨了四种底摩擦系数处理方法并模拟了渤黄东海的M2分潮.理想实验表明:伴随同化方法有很强的反演底摩擦系数的能力;为了得到较好的反演结果,反演策略必须与给定的分布一致;如果给定分布很复杂,则需要复杂的反演策略.实际实验表明,底摩擦效应与地形密切相关,而海洋地形十分复杂,故需要较多的独立的底摩擦系数才能得到较好的模拟结果.本文的第四种方法将每一点均作为独立的底摩擦系数,在实验中获得了成功,验证了这种方法的合理性和有效性.%Based on the simulation of the M2 tide in the Bohai, Yellow and East China Seas, numerical experiments are made to study 4 strategies on the bottom friction coefficient (BFC) in a numerical adjoint model. In order to make a better simulation, the strategy must be consistent with the given BFC distribution. The real bottom friction decided by ocean topography is very complicated and an independent BFC is required. The fourth method which takes the BFC in each grid point as an independent BFC simulates practical experiments best and demonstrates the reasonability and efficiency of this method.

  15. New production in the South China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAI; Pinghe

    2002-01-01

    estuary, Acta Oceanologica Sinica (in Chinese), 1993, 15(4): 50-55.[12]Okubo, T., Furuyama, K., Sakanoue, M., Distribution of 228Ra in surface sea water of the east Indian Ocean, Geochimica Journal, 1979, 13: 201-206.[13]Moore, W. S., Oceanic concentrations of 228Ra, Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 1969, 17: 437-446.[14]Sakanoue, M., Okubo, T., Furuyama, K., 228Ra in sea water, in Isotope Marine Chemistry (eds. Goldberg, E. D., Horibe, Y., Saruhashi, K.), Tokyo: Uchida Rokakuho Publishing Co. Ltd, 1980.[15]Dunne, J. P., Murray, J. M., Rodier, M. et al., Export flux in the western and central equatorial Pacific: Zonal and temporal variability, Deep-Sea ResearchⅠ, 2000, 47: 901-936.[16]Diego-McGlone, M. L. S., Jacinto, G. S., Dupra, V. C. et al., A comparison of nutrient characteristic and primary produc-tivity in the Sulu Sea and South China Sea, Acta Oceanographica Taiwanica, 1999, 37(3): 219-229.[17]Emerson, S., Quay, P., Karl, D. et al., Experimental determination of organic carbon flux from open-ocean waters, Nature, 1997, 389: 951-954.

  16. China Greatly Benefits from the West-East Gas Pipeline

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ Statistics of the relevant department of China show that the West-East Gas Pipeline has boosted the rate of natural gas in China's primary energy mix from 2.2% to 3%, thus improving the safety of China's energy supply.

  17. Estimating peak response frequencies in a tidal band in the seas adjacent to China with a numerical model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CUI Xinmei; FANG Guohong; TENG Fei; WU Di

    2015-01-01

    A numerical method is designed to examine the response properties of real sea areas to open ocean forcing. The application of this method to modeling the China's adjacent seas shows that the Bohai Sea has a highest peak response frequency (PRF) of 1.52 d−1; the northern Yellow Sea has a PRF of 1.69 d−1; the Gyeonggi Bay has a high amplitude gain plateau in the frequency band roughly from 1.7 to 2.7 d−1; the Yellow Sea (includ-ing the Gyeonggi Bay), the East China Sea shelf and the Taiwan Strait have a common high amplitude gain band with frequencies around 1.76 to 1.78 d−1 and are shown to be a system that responds to the open ocean forcing in favor of amplifying the waves with frequencies in this band; the Beibu Gulf, the Gulf of Thailand and the South China Sea deep basin have PRFs of 0.91, 1.01 and 0.98 d−1 respectively. In addition, the East China Sea has a Poincare mode PRF of 3.91 d−1. The PRFs of the Bohai Sea, the northern Yellow Sea, the Bei-bu Gulf and the South China Sea can be explained by a classical quarter (half for the Bohai Sea) wavelength resonance theory. The results show that further investigations are needed for the response dynamics of the Yellow Sea-East China Sea-Taiwan Strait system, the East China Sea Poincare mode, the Taiwan Strait, and the Gulf of Thailand.

  18. The complexity of South China Sea kinematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibuet, Jean-Claude; Gao, Jinyao; Zhao, Minghui; Wu, Jonny; Ding, Weiwei; Yeh, Yi-Ching; Lee, Chao-Shing

    2016-04-01

    Magnetic modeling shows that the age of the youngest South China Sea (SCS) oceanic crust is controversial (e.g. 15.5 Ma, Briais et al., JGR 1993 and 20.5 Ma, Barckhausen et al., MPG 2014). Close to the rift axis of the East sub-basin, Ar-Ar age dating of oceanic crustal rocks collected during IODP Leg 349 gives ages of 15 and 15.2 +/- 0.2 Ma (Koppers, Fall AGU meeting, 2014), which seems to favor the 15.5 Ma age given by Briais et al. modeling. However, basaltic samples might belong to a sill and not to the typical oceanic crust. As post-spreading magmatic activity (~8-13 Ma) largely masks the spreading fabric, in particular near the previously identified E-W portion of the extinct ridge axis of the East sub-basin, the published locations of the axial magnetic anomaly and spreading rates are incorrect. The compilation of available swath bathymetric data shows that if post-spreading volcanics hide the seafloor spreading magnetic fabric mostly along and near the extinct spreading axis, the whole SCS is globally characterized by rift directions following three directions: N055°in the youngest portion of the SCS, N065° and N085° in the oldest portions of the SCS (Sibuet et al., Tectonophysics 2016) suggesting the extinct ridge axis is N055° trending instead of E-W. We present an updated version of the whole SCS structural sketch based on previously published swath bathymetric trends and new detailed magnetic lineations trends compiled from an extremely dense set of magnetic data. The new structural sketch shows: - The distribution of conjugate kinematic domains, - The early opening of the NW and East sub-basins, before a jump of the rift axis, - A second ridge jump in the East basin, - The different expressions of the post-spreading magmatism in the East and SW sub-basins. In the East sub-basin, crustal magmatic intrusions led to the formation of extrusive basalts associated with the presence of numerous volcanoes (Wang et al., Geological Journal 2016). In the SW

  19. Navigation Issues in the South China Sea

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    The South China Sea is one of the most important sea lanes with numerous competing sovereignty disputes. The freedom of navigation in this region is critical to all major trading States in the world. After an introduction to the navigational regimes of UNCLOS, this article describes the whole navigation situation in this region, by separately introducing the navigation issues in the territorial sea, straits, archipelagic waters and the Spratly area. Meanwhile, since the legal status of the ma...

  20. SMOS Sea Surface Salinity Validation in the South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Yongzheng; Li, Xiaoming; Dong, Qing

    2013-01-01

    In November 2009, the European Space Agency (ESA) launched the first soil moisture and ocean salinity (SMOS) satellite, which represented the first use of spaceborne remote sensing tools to probe global sea surface salinity (SSS). The SMOS satellite carries a microwave imaging radiometer with aperture synthesis (MIRAS) for detection in the microwave L-band as the only payload. The MIRAS instrument is expected to provide a global SSS distribution with a spatial resolution of approximately 100 km and an accuracy of 0.1-0.2 practical salinity units (psu). The South China Sea is semi-enclosed, and the sea conditions are relatively complex. The suitability of ESA SMOS salinity products for the South China Sea has not been validated. Therefore, using SSS data measured during an expedition in the South China Sea, which was sponsored by China Natural Science Foundation and conducted in the fall of 2011, this paper validated the SSS products released by ESA, which were retrieved using three sea surface roughness models. To analyze the effect of the spatial resolution on the weekly average SMOS SSS distribution, the weekly average salinity data were averaged to reduce the spatial resolution to 0.25 ° x 0.25°. These average data were then compared to the measured data, followed by an analysis of the error variation. In addition, the effects of the orbital track (ascending or descending) on the SSS retrieval were analyzed.

  1. The records of terrestrial and marine biomarkers in South China Sea EXP349 Sites U1432C and U1433A, B: Implications for East Asian monsoon variability and paleoceanographic variations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    hyun, Sangmin; kim, Songyi

    2016-04-01

    Marine and terrestrial biomarkers, alkenones and n-alkanes compound, were investigated in sediment taken from the South China Sea (SCS) IODP Sites Exp. U1432C, U1433A and U1433B to evaluate Asian monsoon variability and paleoceanographic variations. Alkenone-based sea surface temperature (SSTalk) from the northern Site (U1432C) ranges from approximately 18.2oC to 28.3oC with an average of 24.4oC (n=65). Estimated SSTalk were slightly higher in the southern Site U1433A than at U1432C. SSTalk in Site U1433A ranges from 24.3oC to 27.4oC with an average 26.1oC (n=32), showing as much as 1.7oC higher SSTs than at U1432C. High concentrations of n-alkanes (nC21-35) are present throughout the Site SC1432C with strong fluctuations in the upper part (average = 496ug/g, n=140). The much higher records at U1433A and U1433B show long-range variations, but the concentration of n-alkanes remains constant below 244mbsf in Site 1433B (less than 200ug/g), suggesting an important change occurred at this horizon, dividing two different environmental domains. These differences in SSTalk and n-alkane concentration between two Sites might not only link with latitudinal location but also the influx of terrestrial biomarker due to the Asian monsoon variability and local oceanographic variations since the last approximately 1.5 Ma. Several indices of Average Chain Length (ACL) and Carbon Preferences Index (ICP) showed large shifts and fluctuations in both Sites. In particular, one of the paleo-plant proxy, Paq, also shows time-dependent large fluctuations in both Sites suggesting long time-scale variations in the flux of terrestrial organic compound as well as paleoclimatic changes in the East Asian area.

  2. East Sea Spatial and Temporal Variability of Thermohaline Structure and Circulation Identified From Observational (T, S) Profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    economic activity on the ES. The East Korea Warm Current and North Korean Cold Current meet around 40°N (see Figure 3), generating a sub-polar front which...oceanographic researches individually due to cultural and language differences. Even the cooperation between the countries is remarkably improved...Current (TWC) and Liman Cold Current (LCC). The TWC flows from the East China Sea through the Korea Strait between the Korean peninsula and Kyushu

  3. The Act East Policy and the Strategic Change of India’s Role on the South China Sea Issue%“东向行动政策”与南海问题中印度角色的战略导向性转变

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    葛红亮

    2015-01-01

    “东向行动政策”彰显了莫迪政府对印度在马六甲海峡以东地区政策的重新规划,是印度寻求适应亚太地区与全球形势和遵循其国内发展与对外政策逻辑的结果。“东向行动政策”固然是在多种主客观因素的推动下出台,但根本上则是印度期望以更快的步伐实现其地区经济、政治与战略目标的政策工具。“东向行动政策”由“东向政策”强化而来,但其地缘政治内涵并未改变,南海依旧是印度实施该政策的首要地区。鉴于南海在该政策实施过程中的重要地缘战略、地缘经济与海上安全价值,印度未来势必进一步强化其在南海事务中的战略导向性角色,在经济、政治与战略层面表于言、施于行。%s:The Act East Policy , which is the result of India ’s adjustment to the new Asia-Pacific and glob-al situation and the logic of its domestic development and foreign policy , indicates that the Modi government ’s new plan for India ’s role to the east of the Malacca Strait .Although it was introduced under the pressure of a series of subjective and objective factors , it is essentially a policy tool to achieve India ’s economic , political and strategic objectives at a faster pace .The Act East Policy is the reinforcement of the Look East Policy.However, India’s polic stays the same in geopolitical content , and the South China Sea remains the priority of the Act East Policy as before .Due to the important geostrategic , geoeconomic , and maritime security values of the South China Sea , India would further strengthen its strategic orientation on the South China Sea issue in the future .Thus, India will substantiate its role in the South China Sea with economic , political and strategic statements and measures .

  4. Rise of China Offers Many Opportunities for East Asian Countries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

      As the sixth largest economic country and the third largest trading country in the world, China's rapid development inevitably influences all aspects of the world economy. Since the East Asian countries are adjacent to China, they are also affected by the transition and global change brought by the rise of China. In East Asia,both new industrialized countries and some of ASEAN countries have been seeking export-oriented industrialization earlier than China. Recently China has been catching up with these countries at a surprisingly rapid speed. Similar to the mode of Japanese economic development in the 1980s, China has been regarded as another important motive force for promoting economic transition in East Asia following Japan.……

  5. Rise of China Offers Many Opportunities for East Asian Countries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ As the sixth largest economic country and the third largest trading country in the world, China's rapid development inevitably influences all aspects of the world economy. Since the East Asian countries are adjacent to China, they are also affected by the transition and global change brought by the rise of China. In East Asia,both new industrialized countries and some of ASEAN countries have been seeking export-oriented industrialization earlier than China. Recently China has been catching up with these countries at a surprisingly rapid speed. Similar to the mode of Japanese economic development in the 1980s, China has been regarded as another important motive force for promoting economic transition in East Asia following Japan.

  6. Philippine Sea and East Asian plate tectonics since 52 Ma constrained by new subducted slab reconstruction methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jonny; Suppe, John; Lu, Renqi; Kanda, Ravi

    2016-06-01

    We reconstructed Philippine Sea and East Asian plate tectonics since 52 Ma from 28 slabs mapped in 3-D from global tomography, with a subducted area of ~25% of present-day global oceanic lithosphere. Slab constraints include subducted parts of existing Pacific, Indian, and Philippine Sea oceans, plus wholly subducted proto-South China Sea and newly discovered "East Asian Sea." Mapped slabs were unfolded and restored to the Earth surface using three methodologies and input to globally consistent plate reconstructions. Important constraints include the following: (1) the Ryukyu slab is ~1000 km N-S, too short to account for ~20° Philippine Sea northward motion from paleolatitudes; (2) the Marianas-Pacific subduction zone was at its present location (±200 km) since 48 ± 10 Ma based on a >1000 km deep slab wall; (3) the 8000 × 2500 km East Asian Sea existed between the Pacific and Indian Oceans at 52 Ma based on lower mantle flat slabs; (4) the Caroline back-arc basin moved with the Pacific, based on the overlapping, coeval Caroline hot spot track. These new constraints allow two classes of Philippine Sea plate models, which we compared to paleomagnetic and geologic data. Our preferred model involves Philippine Sea nucleation above the Manus plume (0°/150°E) near the Pacific-East Asian Sea plate boundary. Large Philippine Sea westward motion and post-40 Ma maximum 80° clockwise rotation accompanied late Eocene-Oligocene collision with the Caroline/Pacific plate. The Philippine Sea moved northward post-25 Ma over the northern East Asian Sea, forming a northern Philippine Sea arc that collided with the SW Japan-Ryukyu margin in the Miocene (~20-14 Ma).

  7. New evidence for Kuroshio inflow and deepwater circulation in the Okinawa Trough, East China Sea: Sedimentary mercury variations over the last 20 kyr

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Dhongil; Kim, Jihun; Xu, Zhaokai; Jeong, Kapsik; Jung, Hoisoo

    2017-06-01

    The evolution of the Kuroshio Current (KC) in the Okinawa Trough (OT) has long been of paleoceanographic interest and has been the focus of many investigations because of its large impacts on both the ocean environment and the climate in East Asia. Here we present a new high-resolution mercury (Hg) record from the OT sediments that provides robust evidence for the glacial-interglacial variabilities of KC inflow. The Hg levels are anomalously high in the Holocene deposits, which feature a large and abrupt Hg increase at 9.6 ka and a significant drop at 4.5-3.2 ka. Our observations show that most Hg was derived from seafloor hydrothermal plumes via active lateral transportation. Thus, the generally high Hg levels since 9.6 ka are associated with enhanced basin-wide deepwater circulation triggered by the KC inflow. This driving mechanism for the deposition and widespread of Hg is also evidenced by an abrupt drop in Hg levels during the late Holocene neoglacial cold period ( 5-3 ka) when the KC inflow was temporarily interrupted and deepwater circulation was consequently weak or even absent in the OT. The changes in sedimentary Hg appear to be synchronous with those in other geochemical proxies that suggest that bottom water conditions switched from anoxic to oxic due to increased upwelling from the bottom in tandem with the strengthening KC and reduced freshwater effect since 9.6 ka. This study shows that the hydrothermal Hg is a sensitive and independent tool for the reconstruction of paleodynamics of KC in the OT.

  8. Geodynamics of the South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibuet, Jean-Claude; Yeh, Yi-Ching; Lee, Chao-Shing

    2016-12-01

    The beginning of seafloor spreading in the South China Sea (SCS) is now established from IODP drilling Leg 349 at 33 Ma. Chron 12 (32 Ma) is the oldest chron identified in the SCS. The nature of the crust of the northeastern part of the SCS located north of chron C12, where chrons 15 to 17 were previously identified, is not oceanic but thinned continental crust intruded by volcanic elongated features emplaced 17-22 Ma ago. Based on magnetic anomaly identifications, the end of the SCS spreading could be either 15.5, 20.5 Ma (Briais et al., 1993; Barckhausen et al., 2014) or something else. However, as post-spreading magmatic activity ( 13-3.5 Ma) largely masks the spreading fabric in particular near the axis of the east sub-basin, published locations of the axial magnetic anomaly (extinct spreading axis) and spreading rates are not reliable. A contoured map of the extremely dense set of magnetic data shows that a few magnetic lineations belonging to the magnetic seafloor spreading fabric are still preserved and parallel to the N055° bathymetric seafloor spreading trends identified on swath-bathymetric maps in the central part of the SCS, suggesting that the extinct ridge axis is N055° trending with potential N145° transform faults. Based on published swath-bathymetric data, oceanic domains with different seafloor spreading lineaments have been delimited (N055°, N075° and N085°) and provide important constraints used to propose a kinematic sketch of the SCS opening. As a consequence, the Zhongnan faults zone, located between the east and southeast sub-basins, acted as a major fracture zone system during the SCS opening, with horizontal offsets varying from 50 km to 140 km. The flow-line pattern defined from the seafloor spreading lineaments and the few identified FZs have been used to highlight conjugate segments of continental margins. During the first phases of opening of the SCS, from the fit of continents to chron C10 (30 Ma), the N175° extension observed

  9. Study on Otolith Morphology of Harpodon nehereus in the East China Sea%东海龙头鱼矢耳石形态特征研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜肖; 韩志强; 徐衡; 郑伟; 王凤丽; 胡成业; 李良; 水柏年

    2014-01-01

    以2011年9-11月和2012年3-5月在舟山渔场捕获的496尾龙头鱼为样本,采用主成分分析、回归分析等方法对龙头鱼矢耳石形态特征进行了研究。结果显示,龙头鱼矢耳石呈不规则卵圆形,其基叶较长,翼叶不发达;后端具波纹状叶形晶状突,无后基叶和侧基叶。龙头鱼矢耳石形态指标AD(L)、CE(H)、OA(L1)、OD(L3)、AH(b1)、BG(b2)、AB(c1)和AG(c2)可代表龙头鱼矢耳石主要形态特征。8个指标均与体长及纯重呈显著正相关,其中L与体长及纯重相关性最强。龙头鱼矢耳石各指标值对长轴长的比值与其体长均不存在显著相关性,其耳石形态在生长过程中较为稳定。%Based on 496 specimens of Harpodon nehereus collected from Zhoushan Fishery in China in September to November, 2011 and March to May, 2012, morphological characters of the right otoliths were measured and analyzed by principal component analysis, regression analysis, etc. The results showed that the otoliths were irregular oval; the rostrum of otoliths was long and the anti-rostrum was underdeveloped; the end of otoliths had ripple leafed aragonite crystal without postrostrum and pararostrum. The morphological parame-ters (L, H, L1, L3, b2, c1, c2) could represent the most of H. nehereus′ otolith morphology. They and body length (or net weight) were positive correlation and the correlation of L and body length (or net weight) were the most strong. The ratios of the otolith parameters to the long axial length were no obviously correlate with body length. Otolith morphology of H. nehereus was stable during growth and development.

  10. East China Market in Dire Need of Three Major Breakthroughs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Xuehao

    2008-01-01

    @@ Since started as a pilot project of regional power marketin June, 2003, East China power market has been actively ndsteadily progressing, and has promulgated in succession amarket establishing program, market operating rules andspecifications for the functions of technical support systems.The technical support systems have been built up by stagesincluding the master station system in East China region andcompleting systems in provinces and cities. Also, monthlymarket simulation, integrated simulation and one-day-aheaddispatching test have been implemented successfully.

  11. Correlation of climatic events between East Asia and Norwegian Sea during last deglaciation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周卫建; 安芷生; S.C.Porter; D.Donahue; A.J.T.Jull

    1997-01-01

    Using a high resolution 14C chronology, Sl C values and organic carbon content, from loess/paleosol and peat profiles in China, we can demonstrate century scale warm-cold East Asian monsoon paleoclimatic fluctuation events and significant precipitation variability within the last deglaciation. The major climatic events recognized are the Boiling (1 300-12 500 a B. P.), Older Dryas (12 500-11 750 a B. P. ), Allerod (11 750-11 200 a B. P.) and Younger Dryas (11 200-10 000 a B.P. ). The stratigraphic structure of the last deglaciation sediments is characterized by frequent changes in sedimentation phases reflecting climatic instability. These high frequency, rapid climatic events can correlate with fluctuations recorded by sea surface temperatures in the Norwegian Sea. This indicates a pale-oclimate teleconnection between polar, high latitude areas and East Asian monsoon areas through westerlies and the related atmospheric pressure system.

  12. The Role of Soft Power in China’s Security Strategy: Case Studies on the South China Sea and Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-09

    initiatives also serve to limit the influence of actors like the US and Japan by reducing their role in the regional security architecture . From an...such as the US, the UK, Germany, France, and Japan currently enjoy a commanding lead over China in soft power terms.2 Consequently, intellectuals...with Japan in the East China Sea (ECS) , territorial disputes along the border with India, the remilitarization of Japan , and instability on the Korean

  13. A Survey of Coral Reefs in South China Sea Completed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ An investigation of coral reefs in South China Sea has recently completed by CAS scientists at South China Sea Institute of Oceanography (SCSIO) in Guangzhou. The compilation and analysis of the obtained data is now under way.

  14. Advances in Sea Area Management Research Based on "3S" Technologies(RS, GIS and GPS)-Taking the Management of the East China Sea as Example%基于3S技术的海域管理研究进展--以东海海域管理为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付弘涛

    2015-01-01

    Based on the East China Sea Management, this paper introduces the development and application of 3S Technologies (GPS, RS and GIS) in China’s Sea Area Management in detail. The speciifc methods are as follows: by using examples it is argued how Geographic Information System (CIS) technique is used to survey the present conditions about sea reclamation in the islands and coastal zone, detect dynamic changes of uninhabited island, monitor the pollution of sea area, and protect ecological environment;Remote Sensing (RS) technique in marine disaster prediction and warning, marine ifshery resources management; as well as Global Positioning System(GPS) technique in accurate positioning on the sea, Ground Control Point(GCP) surveying, and the underwater topography survey. At the same time, it discusses some problems and dififculties that we face in the research work; and provides an outlook of the future of sea area management research based on "3S" technologies.%针对目前东海地区在海域管理方面的发展现状,文章详细介绍了3S(GPS、RS和GIS)技术在我国海域管理领域的发展及应用。运用举例论证法详述了GIS技术在海岛及海岸带围填海现状调查、无居民海岛的动态变化检测、海域污染监测和生态保护方面的应用,R S技术在海洋灾害预警预报、海洋渔业资源管理方面的应用,以及GPS技术在海上准确定位、GCP测量、水下地形测量方面的应用。同时,提出了研究中存在的问题和难点,并对基于3S技术的海域管理研究的趋势和方向进行了展望。

  15. Deglacial sea level history of the East Siberian Sea and Chukchi Sea margins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronin, Thomas M.; O'Regan, Matt; Pearce, Christof; Gemery, Laura; Toomey, Michael; Semiletov, Igor; Jakobsson, Martin

    2017-09-01

    Deglacial (12.8-10.7 ka) sea level history on the East Siberian continental shelf and upper continental slope was reconstructed using new geophysical records and sediment cores taken during Leg 2 of the 2014 SWERUS-C3 expedition. The focus of this study is two cores from Herald Canyon, piston core SWERUS-L2-4-PC1 (4-PC1) and multicore SWERUS-L2-4-MC1 (4-MC1), and a gravity core from an East Siberian Sea transect, SWERUS-L2-20-GC1 (20-GC1). Cores 4-PC1 and 20-GC were taken at 120 and 115 m of modern water depth, respectively, only a few meters above the global last glacial maximum (LGM; ˜ 24 kiloannum or ka) minimum sea level of ˜ 125-130 meters below sea level (m b.s.l.). Using calibrated radiocarbon ages mainly on molluscs for chronology and the ecology of benthic foraminifera and ostracode species to estimate paleodepths, the data reveal a dominance of river-proximal species during the early part of the Younger Dryas event (YD, Greenland Stadial GS-1) followed by a rise in river-intermediate species in the late Younger Dryas or the early Holocene (Preboreal) period. A rapid relative sea level rise beginning at roughly 11.4 to 10.8 ka ( ˜ 400 cm of core depth) is indicated by a sharp faunal change and unconformity or condensed zone of sedimentation. Regional sea level at this time was about 108 m b.s.l. at the 4-PC1 site and 102 m b.s.l. at 20-GC1. Regional sea level near the end of the YD was up to 42-47 m lower than predicted by geophysical models corrected for glacio-isostatic adjustment. This discrepancy could be explained by delayed isostatic adjustment caused by a greater volume and/or geographical extent of glacial-age land ice and/or ice shelves in the western Arctic Ocean and adjacent Siberian land areas.

  16. 应用贝叶斯状态空间建模对东海带鱼的资源评估%Using Bayesian state-space modelling to assess Trichiurus japonicus stock in the East China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张魁; 陈作志

    2015-01-01

    Hairtail (Trichiurus japonicus) is one of the most economically important fish species in the East China Sea and supports one of the most valuable fisheries in China. From 1990 to 2012, the total catch for this fishery ranged from 0.39 to 0.91 million tons. However, most studies on this fishery concentrated on feeding habit, varia-tions of catches, trophic composition, and the stock-recruitment relationship. For management, yield per recruit and surplus production models were applied to analyze the data of this fishery and provide a rough MSY estimate of approximately 7.5×105 tons. Until now, reports on the use of stock assessment models for this fishery are lim-ited, and no uncertainty assessment has been undertaken. Therefore, Bayesian state-space modelling was applied to the catch and catch per unit effort(CPUE) data for this fishery. A state-space model describes the dynamics of two related processes: the observation process, which is a function of the unobserved state process, and the state process, which describes the unobserved population dynamics in terms of biomass or abundance. In the present study, the Pella–Tomlinson surplus production model was used for the state process. We used Bayesian inference because it can take into account more uncertainties that are linked to parameters. In this study, four models were constructed based on Markov Chain Monte Carlo simulation with a mix of information and non-information priors. Marginal posterior distributions of model parameters, biological reference points (BRPs), and unobserved vari-ables were based on 250000 iterations after discarding the first 50000 burn-in iterations to ensure no persistent initial pathologic behavior. Results showed that the best-fit of the four models was model 1, with lognormal priors for the intrinsic rate of increase r and carrying capacity K based on deviance information criterion. Gelman &Rubin’s method was applied for convergence diagnostics, and WINBUGS software computed

  17. PRELIMINARY STUDY OF RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN INTERANNUAL VARIATIONS OF SST IN SOUTH CHINA SEA AND TROPICAL INDIAN OCEAN AND SOUTH CHINA SEA MONSOON OUTBREAK

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Conclusions are divided regarding the role of the variations of thermodynamics in the monsoon activity for the South China Sea region. In this study, primary eigenvectors are studied for the SSTA from East Asia to the tropical eastern Indian Ocean in May. The results show that temperature anomalies that center on Sumatra are closely related with the outbreak of the South China Sea monsoon. When the SST is warmer (cooler) than average year, it is likely that the monsoon set in late (early). It may be caused by the changes in meridional difference in thermodynamics between the Indochina Peninsula and its southern tropical oceans. Studying the temporal and spatial evolution of primary eigenvector distribution of the SSTA in the South China Sea-tropical eastern Indian Ocean from winter to summer, we find that the temperature anomalies that center around Sumatra in late spring and early summer can be traced back to the variations of the SST fields in the South China Sea in the preceding winter. Being well associated with the outbreak of the South China Sea monsoon, the latter is a significant index for it. The work helps understanding the atmospheric and oceanic background against which the South China Sea monsoon breaks out and behaves.

  18. Free polyamines during algae bloom succession in the East China Sea in spring 2011%2011年春季东海赤潮演替过程中海水中的游离态多胺

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘艳; 赵卫红; 苗辉

    2015-01-01

    The predominant polyamines (spermine, putrescine and spermidine) of seawater in the area of frequent red-tide occurrence of the East China Sea in spring 2011 were measured by HPLC. The results showed that putrescine, spermidine and spermine in the survey area ranged between 0~48, 3~11 and 2~17nmol/L respectively. The average concentration of putrescine was the highest, followed by spermidine and spermine. During diatom bloom that dominated bySkeletonema costatum and dinoflagellate bloom that dominated byProrocentrum donghaiense occurring, polyamine concentration was relatively higher in area where algae bloom broke out. Polyamine concentration varied with process of algae bloom outbreak, and showed correlation withDOC, POC, DON and C/N.%利用高效液相色谱法测定了2011年东海赤潮演替过程中海水中的主要的游离态多胺腐胺、亚精胺和精胺的浓度。调查海区腐胺、亚精胺和精胺的浓度范围分别为0~48nmol/L,3~11nmol/L 和2~17nmol/L,其中腐胺的平均浓度最高,亚精胺次之,精胺的浓度最低。从平面分布看,在4月份以中肋骨条藻为主的硅藻赤潮爆发期,和5月份以东海原甲藻为主的甲藻赤潮爆发期,赤潮爆发的区域多胺浓度相对较高;各个断面的多胺浓度随着赤潮爆发的过程发生变化,并且与 DOC、POC、DON 以及 C/N 等呈较明显的相关性。

  19. 东海区资源保护型人工鱼礁生态效果评价体系的初步研究%The ecological effect evaluation system of protective artificial reef in East China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹增强; 章守宇

    2012-01-01

    科学评价鱼礁生态效果对后续鱼礁建设具有重要现实意义.从鱼礁生态效果产生原理出发,以鱼礁的自然特征、流场效应、水质与底质、饵料生物、鱼类与大型无脊椎动物5方面作为评价准则,建立了2个评价层次共29个评价指标的指标体系.在查阅文献和分析调查资料基础上,确定了定量评价指标的模糊隶属函数和定性指标的评判依据以作为评价指标的评价标准.运用三标度层次分析法确定了评价指标的权重.对2个代表性资源保护型鱼礁的生态效果进行了评价.评价结果与实际调查情况基本吻合.评价方法可以作为有关鱼礁生态效果评价的依据.%An artificial reef is one or more objects of natural or human origin deployed purposefully on the seafloor to influence physical, biological or socioeconomic processes related to living marine resources. It is especially important for future construction of artificial reefs to make reasonable evaluation on the ecological effect of artificial reefs. Embarked from generating mechanism of the ecological effect, based on the 5 evaluation rules; flow effect, the characteristics of reef, water and sediment quality, feeding organisms, and fish and macro-invertebrates, the evaluation indicator system ( including 29 indicators in 2 levels) was established. On the basis of the references and the investigated data, the fuzzy membership function of the quantitative indicators and the evaluating rules of the qualitative indicators were established as evaluationcriteria. The weight of the evaluating indicators were determined by 3-bid analytic hierarchy process. The paper appraised the ecological effect of 2 representative reefs in East China Sea by the established evaluation system. The results indicated that the evaluation method proposed in this study was basically in good agreement with the social investigation of these artificial reefs, which would be applied to evaluate

  20. 东海区带鱼和小黄鱼渔业生物学的研究%The fishery biology of Trichiurus japonicus and Larimichthys polyactis in the East China Sea region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林龙山; 程家骅; 李惠玉

    2008-01-01

    Based on the data obtained from the fishery resource monitoring investigation in the East China Sea during the past years, the population structure, fish biological parameters, feeding and reproduction of Trichiurus japonicus and Larimichthys polyactis were analyzed. The results showed that miniaturization and prematurity were quite obvious, and biological parameters changed greatly in these two species. Asymptotic length L∞ became smaller with the lapse of time; however, growth parameters K, total mortality coefficient Z and fishing mortality coefficient F became gradually larger. In addition, there were some great changes in food habit and reproduction, cannibalism was strong in Trichiurus japonicus, while fishes are the main food of Larimichthys polyactis. The maturation was advanced, and the average absolute reproduction of Trichiurus japonicus and Larimichthys polyactis improved. All these changes were resulted by the effect of the catches and their adaptation to the nature.%本研究以东海区历年渔业资源监测调查数据为依据,对带鱼和小黄鱼的群体结构、生物学参数、摄食习性和繁殖习性等渔业生物学动态进行了分析.结果表明,目前东海区带鱼和小黄鱼种群的个体小型化现象相当突出,渐近长度L∞随着时间的推移呈现下降趋势,而生长参数K以及总死亡系数Z和捕捞死亡系数F却呈现逐渐增大趋势.摄食习性和繁殖习性亦发生了较大的变化,带鱼表现出极强的自食性,小黄鱼主要摄食种类与过去大不相同;性成熟提前,同年龄、同一体长组的带鱼和小黄鱼个体平均绝对繁殖力提高.产生这些变化的最主要原因是捕捞的影响和鱼类自身适应自然的结果.

  1. Recent changes in the summer precipitation pattern in East China and the background circulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Yali; Wang, Huijun [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nansen-Zhu International Research Centre, Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Beijing (China); Chinese Academy of Sciences, Climate Change Research Center, Beijing (China); Zhou, Wen [City University of Hong Kong, School of Energy and Environment, Hong Kong (China); Ma, Jiehua [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nansen-Zhu International Research Centre, Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Beijing (China); Graduate School of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China)

    2011-04-15

    This study documents the decadal changes of the summer precipitation in East China, with increased rainfall in the Huang-Huai River region (HR) and decreased in the Yangtze River region (YR) during 2000-2008 in comparison to 1979-1999. The main features of the atmospheric circulation related to the increased precipitation in the HR are the strengthened ascending motion and slightly increased air humidity, which is partly due to the weakened moisture transport out of the HR to the western tropical Pacific (associated with the weakened westerly over East Asia and the warming center over the Lake Baikal). The rainfall decrease in the YR is related to the weakened ascending motion and reduced water vapor content, which is mainly related to the weakened southwesterly moisture flux into the YR (associated with the eastward recession of the Western Pacific Subtropical High). The global sea surface temperature (SST) also shows significant changes during 2000-2008 relative to 1979-1999. The shift of the Pacific decadal oscillation (PDO) to a negative phase probably induces the warming over the Lake Baikal and the weakened westerly jet through the air-sea interaction in the Pacific, and thus changes the summer precipitation pattern in East China. Numerical experiments using an atmospheric general circulation model, with prescribed all-Pacific SST anomalies of 2000-2008 relative to 1979-1999, also lend support to the PDO's contribution to the warming over the Lake Baikal and the weakened westerlies over East China. (orig.)

  2. PROSPECTS OF TRANSPORT INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT BETWEEN THE MIDDLE EAST COUNTRIES AND CHINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ms. Zanna V. Petrunina

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Policy management of modern China aims to achieve a high level of welfare state. One of the important components that contributes to the achievement of this goal is the expansion of China's cooperation with the Middle East countries in all fields. At present, China is interested in obtaining energy from the Middle East oil fields. Of great importance is the transport infrastructure expansion between the regions. Construction and operation of oil pipelines, gas pipelines and land transport routes will reduce the risks of transporting raw materials and other goods from one region to another. The paper discusses the features of the development of rail and sea links as part of the strategy of «economic belt of the Silk Road» and «Marine Silk Road of XXI century».

  3. Distribution of Foam Layer Thickness and Brightness Temperature Correction in the Bohai Sea,Yellow Sea and East China Sea%渤、黄、东海泡沫厚度的分布及对亮温的修正

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石永芳; 赵红; 杨永增

    2016-01-01

    Based on bubble dynamics model and breaking wave model,foam layer thickness in the Bohai Sea,the Yellow Sea and the East China Sea in 2003 is calculated with MASNUM wave model.Multilayer microwave emissivity theory and bubble dynamics model are employed to calculate the emissivity of the foam layer and its correction to the observed brightness temperature.Results indicate that the distribution and size of the foam layer thickness vary with seasons,which is not only related to wind speed but also closely associated with wave state.The emissivity of the foam layer increases with foam layer thickness, and can be treated as a blackbody with emissivity of 1 when foam layer thickness is greater than a thresh-old.Since the wind data used are monthly mean,which some extreme events are smoothed out,the maxi-mum wind speed is only about 8 m/s in January and July in 2003.Nevertheless,the foam layer still con-tribute to the observed bright temperature with a maximum of about 1.2%.The future work will further focus on the effect of foam layer on the brightness temperature in extreme events whose wind speed and wave height are much higher.%基于泡沫动力模型和破碎波模型,利用 MASNUM 海浪模式计算得到2003年渤、黄、东海的泡沫厚度,利用多层微波辐射理论及泡沫模型得到海表泡沫层的发射率及泡沫层对观测亮温的修正率。分析结果显示,泡沫层厚度在不同季节的分布特征及大小各不同,不仅与风速有关,而且与波面状态也密切相关;泡沫层的海表发射率随泡沫厚度的增大而增大,当超过某一阈值,海表泡沫层近似黑体,发射率为1。由于月平均风速及波高忽略了某些极值事件,2003-01和2003-07的月平均风速最大值仅在8 m/s 左右,但是海表泡沫层对亮温仍存在一定的贡献,修正率最大值约为1.2%,未来工作会进一步关注风速和波高较大的极值事件中泡沫层对观测亮温的影响。

  4. Space-time contrast of two stages sand ridges on the East China Sea shelf%东海陆架两期沙脊的时空对比

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴自银; 金翔龙; 曹振轶; 李家彪; 郑玉龙; 尚继宏

    2009-01-01

    On the basis of the high-resolution single-channel sparker seismic profiles and MBES (multi-beam echo sounding), the LSRs (linear sand ridges) on Stratum U_2 and Stratum U_(14) on the ECS (East China Sea) shelf are identified and contrasted each other, their form ages are different, more than 200 ka. The sand ridges on Stratum U_(14) which is bellow seafloor 90 m are buried sand ridges, and belong to TST (transgressive systems tract) of 320~200 ka BP,and the upper bounding surfaces of the sand ridge units are therefore considered as the MFS (maximum flooding surface) of this transgressive. The sand ridges on Stratum U_2 are recessive sand ridges, which have belonged to the TST since the LGM (last glacial maximum),and their upper bounding surfaces are the MFS of the LGM. Although the form ages of two sand ridge units are different, more than 200 ka, and their stratigraphy positions are different, more than 90 m, the general strikes of sand ridges are similar. It is suggested that the palaeo-tidal components of the ECS have been steady since 200 ka. Four substages sand ridges are identified from the stratigraphy of Stratum U_2, and four trends of sand ridges are distinguished from the topographic map of the MBES too. These multistages and multitrend sand ridges are the evidences that the evolution of submarine topography of the ECS has met the response of sea-level stepped changes since the LGM.%基于高分辨率的单道地震和多波束测深数据,识别并对比了东海陆架中部同一海区相距20余万年的层U_(14)和层U_2两期沙脊群,其中层U_(14)期沙脊属于埋藏沙脊,位于东海海底以下90 m深处,推测属于距今320~200 ka的海侵体系域(TST),沙脊顶界面是该期海侵的最大洪泛面(MFS);层U_2期沙脊位于东海陆架,属于衰退沙脊,系末次盛冰期(LGM)以来的TST,顶界面是LGM以来的MFS.尽管两期沙脊形成年代相距20余万年,地层层位相距近90 m,但是沙脊群

  5. Water Class Extraction of the East China Sea Using MODIS Data Based on Spectral Characteristics%基于光谱特征的MODIS影像东海水体类别信息提取

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    申力; 许惠平; 吴萍

    2011-01-01

    In recent years the marme environment in the East China Sea (ECS) tends to become deteriorated because of frequent algal blooms. In order to detect the microscopic distribution of ocean waters based on the classification extraction,efforts are firstly made in this paper to analyze the spectrums of each water class, and then two bands-ratio classification algorithms based on spectral characteristics are developed. After the optimization of the threshold values,distribution and variation characteristics of suspended sediment water, eutrophication water, algae bloom water, boundary water of algae bloom, and open ocean water are obtained from the MODIS L1 data respectively on Jun 11th , 2004 and Oct 2nd , 2007 when algal blooms broke out. Besides,Chlorophyll a (Chl-a) and Sea Surface Temperature (SST) derived from the same original data are analyzed as ancillaryinformation. This result not only can identify the distribution of different waters but also reveal the changing pattem of water factors from the coastline to the open ocean,providing the baseline for future discussion of the marine environment in ECS.%近年来东海海洋环境由于赤潮频发日趋恶化,为了进行基于水体类别信息提取的水体宏观分异规律探究,本文在对不同水体光谱曲线分析的基础上,提出了两种基于光谱特征波段运算的MODIS影像水体类别提取模型,通过优化并确定各类水体阈值,最终得到了2004年6月11日和2007年10月2日东海赤潮期悬浮泥沙水体、富营养化水体、赤潮水体、赤潮边界水体和远洋洁净水体五大类的分布和变化特征,并分别对两个时期的影像进行了叶绿素a(Chl-a)和海表温度(SST)反演辅助分析,研究结果不仅能从宏观上有效识别悬浮泥沙和赤潮等水体的分布范围,同时也能反映出不同水体因子从海岸带向远洋深海的变化规律,为海洋环境进一步探讨提供了研究基础.

  6. Distribution and air-sea exchange of current-use pesticides (CUPs) from East Asia to the high Arctic Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Guangcai; Xie, Zhiyong; Cai, Minghong; Möller, Axel; Sturm, Renate; Tang, Jianhui; Zhang, Gan; He, Jianfeng; Ebinghaus, Ralf

    2012-01-03

    Surface seawater and marine boundary layer air samples were collected on the ice-breaker R/V Xuelong (Snow Dragon) from the East China Sea to the high Arctic (33.23-84.5° N) in July to September 2010 and have been analyzed for six current-use pesticides (CUPs): trifluralin, endosulfan, chlorothalonil, chlorpyrifos, dacthal, and dicofol. In all oceanic air samples, the six CUPs were detected, showing highest level (>100 pg/m(3)) in the Sea of Japan. Gaseous CUPs basically decreased from East Asia (between 36.6 and 45.1° N) toward Bering and Chukchi Seas. The dissolved CUPs in ocean water ranged widely from air. Trifluralin in seawater was relatively high in the Sea of Japan (35.2° N) and evenly distributed between 36.9 and 72.5° N, but it remained below the detection limit at the highest northern latitudes in Chukchi Sea. In contrast with other CUPs, concentrations of chlorothalonil and dacthal were more abundant in Chukchi Sea and in East Asia. The air-sea gas exchange of CUPs was generally dominated by net deposition. Latitudinal trends of fugacity ratios of α-endosulfan, chlorothalonil, and dacthal showed stronger deposition of these compounds in East Asia than in Chukchi Sea, while trifluralin showed stronger deposition in Chukchi Sea (-455 ± 245 pg/m(2)/day) than in the North Pacific (-241 ± 158 pg/m(2)/day). Air-sea gas exchange of chlorpyrifos varied from net volatilizaiton in East Asia (<40° N) to equilibrium or net deposition in the North Pacific and the Arctic.

  7. 东海沉积物中多溴联苯醚的分布特征研究%The distribution of polybrominated piphenyl rther in the sediment of East China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周鹏; 林匡飞; 于慧娟; 赵建华; 蔡友琼; 刘莉莉

    2016-01-01

    In this study, 28surface sediment and 7core sediment samples were collected from the East China Sea (ECS) to determine the distribution properties of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). The concentrations of total PBDEs (excepted BDE-209) in surface sediment samples were in the range of 0.20~2.09ng/g dw. Among the detected congeners, BDE-209 was the predominant congener with the corresponding concentration ranging from 0.57~2.87ng/g dw (57.9%~76.7% of total PBDEs), followed by BDE-99 and BDE-47. Moreover, the concentrations of PBDEs decreased with the increase of distance between sampling sites and coastline and increased from the north to south. The distribution trends of PBDEs in core sediment samples from the ECS matched well with the application history and status of PBDEs products in China. The ratios of total organic carbon (TOC) in the surface and core sediment samples were ranged from 0.54%~0.88% and 0.62%~0.88% respectively. And the correlations between TOC and PBDEs in both surface (R2=0.723, P< 0.01) and core (R2=0.595,P<0.01) sediment samples indicated that TOC might be one of the impact factors for the characteristics of PBDEs distribution in sediment.%采集分析了中国东海28个表层沉积物和7个柱状沉积物.结果表明,东海表层沉积物中除 BDE-209外∑PBDEs 的浓度范围为0.20~2.09ng/g dw,BDE-209的浓度范围为0.57~2.87ng/g dw,在总PBDEs中所占浓度百分比为57.9%~76.7%;接下来分别是BDE-99和BDE-47,所占比例分别为11.7%~21.5%和7.1%~17.4%.表层沉积物中PBDEs分布呈现出(离海岸线)由近及远浓度越来越低的趋势,由北到南浓度上升的趋势.东海柱状沉积物中PBDEs浓度随着深度加深呈现出先上升后下降的趋势,很好的反映出了PBDEs在中国大陆的使用历史和现状.表层沉积物 TOC 含量在0.54%~0.88%之间,柱状沉积物 TOC 的含量在0.62%~0.88%之间,而且不管是表层沉积物(R2=0.723,P<0.01)还是柱状沉积物(R2=0.595,P<0.01),PBDEs

  8. Evolution of Nonlinear Internal Waves in China Seas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Antony K.; Hsu, Ming-K.; Liang, Nai K.

    1997-01-01

    Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) images from ERS-I have been used to study the characteristics of internal waves of Taiwan in the East China Sea, and east of Hainan Island in the South China Sea. Rank-ordered packets of internal solitons propagating shoreward from the edge of the continental shelf were observed in the SAR images. Based on the assumption of a semidiurnal tidal origin, the wave speed can be estimated and is consistent with the internal wave theory. By using the SAR images and hydrographic data, internal waves of elevation have been identified in shallow water due to a thicker mixed layer as compared with the bottom layer on the continental shelf. The generation mechanism includes the influences of the tide and the Kuroshio intrusion across the continental shelf for the formations of elevation internal waves. The effects of water depth on the evolution of solitons and wave packets are modeled by nonlinear Kortweg-deVries (KdV) type equation and linked to satellite image observations. The numerical calculations of internal wave evolution on the continental shelf have been performed and compared with the SAR observations. For a case of depression waves in deep water, the solitons first disintegrate into dispersive wave trains and then evolve to a packet of elevation waves in the shallow water area after they pass through a turning point of approximately equal layer depths has been observed in the SAR image and simulated by numerical model.

  9. Sea surface temperatures and salinities from platforms in the Barents Sea, Sea of Japan, North Atlantic Ocean, Philippine Sea, Red Sea, and the South China Sea (Nan Hai) from 1896-1950 (NODC Accession 0000506)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Surface temperatures and salinities were collected in the Barents Sea, Sea of Japan, North Atlantic Ocean, Philippine Sea, Red Sea, and South China Sea (Nan Hai)...

  10. Biogeochemical properties of sinking particles in the southwestern part of the East Sea (Japan Sea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Minkyoung; Hwang, Jeomshik; Rho, TaeKeun; Lee, Tongsup; Kang, Dong-Jin; Chang, Kyung-Il; Noh, Suyun; Joo, HuiTae; Kwak, Jung Hyun; Kang, Chang-Keun; Kim, Kyung-Ryul

    2017-03-01

    This study investigates the biological pump system in the East Sea (Japan Sea) by conducting an analysis of the total particle flux, biogenic material composition, and carbon isotope ratios of sinking particles. The samples were collected for one year starting from March 2011 using time-series sediment traps deployed at depths of 1040 m and 2280 m on bottom-tethered mooring at Station EC1 (37.33°N, 131.45°E; 2300 m water depth) in the Ulleung Basin (UB), southwestern part of the East Sea. The temporal variation in the particulate organic carbon (POC) flux at 1000 m shows a good relationship with the primary production in the corresponding surface water. The ratio of POC flux at 1000 m to satellite-based primary production in the corresponding region in the UB was 3%, which is comparable to the values of 2 to 5% estimated from previous studies of other part of the East Sea. The lithogenic material accounted for > 17% of the sinking particles at 1000 m and for a larger fraction of 40 to 60% at 2280 m. The radiocarbon contents of the sinking POC at both trap depths imply the additional supply of aged POC, with a much greater contribution at 2280 m. Overall, the particle flux in the deep interior of the East Sea appears to be controlled by the supply of complex sources, including aeolian input, the lateral supply of resuspended sediments, and biological production in the surface water.

  11. Eddy- and wind-sustained moderate primary productivity in the temperate East Sea (Sea of Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.-H. Hong

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available As part of the Dokdo East Sea Time Series Studies (DETS in the East/Japan Sea, a DETS buoy system was moored on the 130 m deep continental shelf off the Dok Islets in the central part of the East Sea. Chlorophyll a concentrations in the surface water observed by the DETS buoy system exhibited low-frequency bimodal variations in the annual chlorophyll a concentration due to a spring phytoplankton bloom and a smaller fall bloom. In addition, between late spring and early fall when the water column is stratified, frequent low-concentration maxima occurred, which appear to have been triggered by the injection of nutrient-rich subsurface water to the sunlit surface water. The primary productivity in the nutrient-depleted surface ocean was found to be enhanced by subsurface water upwelling where the wind and water move in the same direction as the mesoscale eddy. New observations in the East/Japan Sea based on time-series measurements of chlorophyll a, wind, and other oceanographic variables at fixed sites in the center of the sea and using satellite measurements reveal that the vertical movement of water caused by wind-eddy interactions depends on the relative angle between the wind and the water current. The wind-eddy interaction appears to contribute to the unusually high primary productivity in the region where it was often sustained by the long-lived warm and cold eddies.

  12. Atmospheric Sulfur Deposition on Farmland in East China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Ti-Jian; YANG Hao-Ming; GAO Li-Jie; ZHANG Yan; HU Zheng-Yi; XU Cheng-Kai

    2005-01-01

    Atmospheric sulfur deposition onto typical farmland in East China was investigated using both field measurements and numerical modeling. The field measurements were conducted at the Experiment Station of Red Soil Ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 10 km from Yingtan, Jiangxi Province, East China, between November 1998 and October 1999, and at the Changshu Ecological Experiment Station, Chinese Academy of Sciences, in a rapidly developing region of Jiangsu Province, East China, between April 2001 and March 2002. The regional acid deposition model system (RegADMS), in which the dry deposition velocities of SO2 and sulfate aerosols (SO42-) were estimated using a big-leaf resistance analogy model, was applied to simulate air sulfur deposition over East China and sulfur deposition onto lands of different use types in East China. The wet scavenging coefficients were parameterized in terms of precipitation rate, and the effect of sub-grid processes due to inhomogeneous land use on dry deposition velocity was also included. Results of the field measurements showed that over 83% of the total sulfur deposition at the Yingtan site was dry deposition, while at the Changshu site42% was dry deposition. The total sulfur deposition was much larger at the Yingtan site than at the Changshu site, which suggested contrasting air pollution and meteorological situations. The modeling results revealed that the total annual sulfur deposition over East China was 1.88 Mt, of which 72.8% was deposited onto farmland, and dry deposition accounted for 43% of the total sulfur deposited. The modeling results were generally in agreement with those from the observations.Overall, this study suggested that atmospheric sulfur deposition played an important role in the soil sulfur balance, which could have a significant effect on agricultural ecosystems in the study region.

  13. Dynamics of the water circulations in the southern South China Sea and its seasonal transports

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daryabor, Farshid; Ooi, See Hai Ooi; Samah, Azizan Abu

    2016-01-01

    A three-dimensional Regional Ocean Modeling System is used to study the seasonal water circulations and transports of the Southern South China Sea. The simulated seasonal water circulations and estimated transports show consistency with observations, e.g., satellite altimeter data set and re......-analysis data of the Simple Ocean Data Assimilation. It is found that the seasonal water circulations are mainly driven by the monsoonal wind stress and influenced by the water outflow/inflow and associated currents of the entire South China Sea. The intrusion of the strong current along the East Coast...... circulations. Analysis of climatological data from a high resolution Regional Ocean Modeling System reveals that the complex bathymetry is important not only for water exchange through the Southern South China Sea but also in regulating various transports across the main passages in the Southern South China...

  14. Observations of the temporal variability in aerosol properties and their relationships to meteorology in the summer monsoonal South China Sea/East Sea: the scale-dependent role of monsoonal flows, the Madden-Julian Oscillation, tropical cyclones, squall lines and cold pools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, J. S.; Lagrosas, N. D.; Jonsson, H. H.; Reid, E. A.; Sessions, W. R.; Simpas, J. B.; Uy, S. N.; Boyd, T. J.; Atwood, S. A.; Blake, D. R.; Campbell, J. R.; Cliff, S. S.; Holben, B. N.; Holz, R. E.; Hyer, E. J.; Lynch, P.; Meinardi, S.; Posselt, D. J.; Richardson, K. A.; Salinas, S. V.; Smirnov, A.; Wang, Q.; Yu, L.; Zhang, J.

    2015-02-01

    In a joint NRL/Manila Observatory mission, as part of the Seven SouthEast Asian Studies program (7-SEAS), a 2-week, late September 2011 research cruise in the northern Palawan archipelago was undertaken to observe the nature of southwest monsoonal aerosol particles in the South China Sea/East Sea (SCS/ES) and Sulu Sea region. Previous analyses suggested this region as a receptor for biomass burning from Borneo and Sumatra for boundary layer air entering the monsoonal trough. Anthropogenic pollution and biofuel emissions are also ubiquitous, as is heavy shipping traffic. Here, we provide an overview of the regional environment during the cruise, a time series of key aerosol and meteorological parameters, and their interrelationships. Overall, this cruise provides a narrative of the processes that control regional aerosol loadings and their possible feedbacks with clouds and precipitation. While 2011 was a moderate El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) La Niña year, higher burning activity and lower precipitation was more typical of neutral conditions. The large-scale aerosol environment was modulated by the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) and its associated tropical cyclone (TC) activity in a manner consistent with the conceptual analysis performed by Reid et al. (2012). Advancement of the MJO from phase 3 to 6 with accompanying cyclogenesis during the cruise period strengthened flow patterns in the SCS/ES that modulated aerosol life cycle. TC inflow arms of significant convection sometimes span from Sumatra to Luzon, resulting in very low particle concentrations (minimum condensation nuclei CN elevated carbon monoxide levels were occasionally observed suggesting passage of polluted air masses whose aerosol particles had been rained out. Conversely, two drier periods occurred with higher aerosol particle concentrations originating from Borneo and Southern Sumatra (CN > 3000 cm-3 and non-sea-salt PM2.5 10-25 μg m-3). These cases corresponded with two different

  15. Classification methods of different remote sense in the East China Sea during an algal bloom%赤潮期东海水体不同遥感分类算法应用分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    申力; 许惠平; 吴萍

    2012-01-01

    This paper focused on extracting water classification of the Yangtze River Estuary and the adjacent East China Sea during an algal bloom using three remote sensing approaches. Firstly,both Supervised Maximum likelihood and Unsupervised ISODATA methods were applied into the classification extraction. Then, based on the spectral characteristics of different waters a new method named Band-ratio Threshold Method consisting of Model 1 and Model 2 was developed, Cl= Lrs (645 ) /Lrs (469) and C2 = Lre (555) /Lrs ( 469). The results derived from three methods showed the spatial distribution of waters in our study area from the coastal area to open ocean. They were the suspended sediment water,eutrophication water,and algal bloom water,boundary water of algal bloom and open ocean water. The maximum likelihood supervised method was more specific to classes of comparatively homogenous pixel values such as suspended sediment water and eutrophication water,while ISODATA unsupervised method could serve as a reference proof due to its severe misjudgments. Compared with the aforementioned two methods,the method put forward in this paper had a higher accuracy. The results of Model 1 was superior in identifying suspended sediment water with an overall accuracy of 91.34% and the Kappa coefficient of 0.88; Model 2 could better detect the spatial range of the algal bloom water with an overall accuracy of 94.14% and Kappa coefficient of 0.92.%对赤潮期长江口及邻近东海海域水体进行了三种不同遥感分类方法的水体类别提取.首先进行了最大似然监督法和ISODATA非监督法两种代表性的水体遥感分类,之后提出了两种基于水体光谱曲线特征的波段比值阈值分割模型,即C1=Lrs(645)/Lrs(469)和C2= Lrs(555)/Lrs(469).对比发现,三种方法分类结果均揭示出了长江口及邻近东海海域近岸到远洋的水体空间变化规律,依次为悬浮泥沙水体、富营养化水体、赤潮水体、赤潮边界水

  16. Holocene coastal sea surface temperature changes in the northern South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, K.; Kong, D.; Wei, G.; Liu, Z.

    2016-12-01

    Holocene sea surface temperature (SST) changes in the northern South China Sea (SCS) coastal region are affected by complex factors. Previous studies have identified a long-term cooling trend, attributed to coastal mixing and intensified East Asian Winter Monsoon (EAWM), yet spatial patterns of coastal cooling along the southern China are still not well established. Here we reconstructed a Holocene Sea Surface Temperature (SST) record, derived from long-chain alkenone unsaturation index - UK'37, in the northern SCS. Our result reveals that a gentle cooling trend dominates the mid-late Holocene. The gradual warming trend occurring during the early Holocene might have resulted from the rising sea level or the rebound of "8.2 ka cold event". Besides, the C37-content also shows an extremely-low level before 8 ka. Later, both alkenone-derived SST and C37-content reach their highest levels during approximately 7-4.5 ka, corresponding to the Holocene Climate Optimum (HCO). Consistent with previous studies, the long-term cooling trend identified in coastal regions, but not offshore ones, presumably indicates intensified EAWM toward present. Further, during the late Holocene, coastal SST changes in the northern SCS show heterogeneous responses to global climatic conditions. In the Mirs Bay, SST was warmer during the Little Ice Age (LIA) than the Medieval Warm Period (WMP) and the current warm period, interpreted as reflecting intensified coastal mixing, due to strengthened East Asian Summer Monsoon (EASM) during warmer periods. However, SST records at other coastal sites, as well as offshore regions, show fluctuations consistent with global/northern hemisphere temperature changes, suggesting that these regions are less influenced by the EASM-induced coastal mixing, probably with the aid of Pearl River freshwater input.

  17. Influence of the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation on the Winter Climate of East China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO), the multidecadal variation of North Atlantic sea surface temperature (SST), exhibits an oscillation with a period of 65-80 years and an amplitude of 0.4°C. Observational composite analyses reveal that the warm phase AMO is linked to warmer winters in East China, with enhanced precipitation in the north of this region and reduced precipitation in the south, on multidecaclal time scales. The pattern is reversed during the cold phase AMO. Whether the AMO acts as a forcing of the multidecadal winter climate of East China is explored by investigating the atmospheric response to warm AMO SST anomalies in a large ensemble of atmospheric general circulation model (AGCM) experiments.The results from three AGCMs are consistent and suggest that the AMO warmth favors warmer winters in East China. This influence is realized through inducing negative surface air pressure anomalies in the hemispheric-wide domain extending from the midlatitude North Atlantic to midlatitude Eurasia. These negative surface anomalies favor the weakening of the Mongolian Cold High, and thus induce a weaker East Asian Winter Monsoon.

  18. Sinopec to Construct New Refinery in East China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    @@ China Petrochemical Corp (Sinopec), Asia's largest refiner, is beckoning Saudi Arabian Oil Company, or Saudi Aramco, to take a stake in its proposed US$13 billion refinery in Qingdao, East China's Shandong Province, in an attempt to bring in crude imports from Saudi Arabia to feed the refinery. A feasibility study on the refinery has been submitted for approval to the State Development and Reform Commission.

  19. Sea-level trend in the South China Sea observed from 20 years of along-track satellite altimetric data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheng, Yongcun; Xu, Qing; Andersen, Ole Baltazar

    2014-01-01

    The sea-level trend in the South China Sea (SCS) is investigated based on 20 years of along-track data from TOPEX and Jason-1/2 satellite altimetry. The average sea-level rise over all the regions in the study area is observed to have a rate of 5.1 ± 0.8 mm year-1 for the period from 1993 to 2012....... The steric sea level contributes 45% to the observed sea-level trend. These results are consistent with previous studies. In addition, the results demonstrate that the maximum sea-level rise rate of 8.4 mm year-1 is occurring off the east coast of Vietnam and eastern part of SCS. During 2010-2011, the La...... Niña event was highly correlated with the dramatic sea-level rise in the SCS; La Niña events were also associated with the maximum rate of sea rise off the east coast of Vietnam, which occurred during 1993 and 2012. We also evaluated the trends in the geophysical (e.g. dynamical atmospheric correction...

  20. Significant anaerobic production of fluorescent dissolved organic matter in the deep East Sea (Sea of Japan)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jeonghyun; Kim, Guebuem

    2016-07-01

    The distribution of fluorescent dissolved organic matter (FDOM) in the East Sea (Sea of Japan) was examined by excitation-emission matrix spectroscopy with parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC). Humic-like FDOM (FDOMH) increased with depth and was significantly correlated with Apparent Oxygen Utilization (AOU), indicating that FDOMH in the deep water is mainly produced by oxidation of organic matter. In addition, a surprisingly large excess of FDOMH relative to that expected from the observed AOU was found from 1000 m to the bottom (up to 3500 m). Based on the high-resolution geographical distribution and characteristics of FDOM in the East Sea, we conclude that this excess likely originates from anaerobic FDOMH production in subsurface bottom sediments. This FDOMH flux accounts for 8-15% of the total FDOM production in the water column. Our results suggest that anaerobic activities in subsurface sediments are an important hidden source of FDOM in the ocean.

  1. PROGRESS IN THE JELLYFISH BLOOM RESEARCH IN THE YELLOW SEA AND EAST CHINA SEA%黄、东海水母暴发机理及其生态环境效应研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙松; 于志刚; 李超伦; 黄邦钦; 庄志猛; 魏皓; 孙晓霞

    2012-01-01

    在全球变化和人类活动影响下海洋生态系统的结构与功能发生了很大的变化,海洋赤潮、绿潮、白潮(水母暴发)等生态灾害在多重压力下不断出现。对于以水母为代表的胶质类生物的数量增多,国际上有很多的解释和争论:水母的暴发是一种趋势性的还是周期性的现象,关键问题是对导致水母暴发原因的认识。针对这些问题,国家重点基础研究发展计划项目“中国近海水母暴发的关键过程、机理及生态环境效应”开展了综合性的研究,对前期的研究进展和结果进行系统整理发表在本专辑中,涉及水母生活史策略、环境因子对水母不同生活史阶段的生长和发育的影响、水母的暴发对环境的影响、以及对中国近海水母暴发的新认知等。%Under the pressure of global changes and human activities, the structure and function of marine ecosystem changed significantly. The ecological disasters including red tide, green tide and white tide (jellyfish blooms) occurred frequently. As representatives of the gelatinous plankton, the increasing of jellyfish abundance caused much controversy and interpretation internationally: the outbreak of jellyfish is a trend or a cyclical phenomenon. The key question is the understanding of the cause of jellyfish bloom. To solve these problems, a comprehensive investigation was carried out on the basis of Major State Basic Research Development Program entitled "Key processes, mechanism and ecological conse- quences of jellyfish bloom in China coastal waters". The research progress of the project will be published in this special issue. This progress is related to the jellyfish life history strategies, the impact of environmental factors on the growth and development of the different life history stages of jellyfish, the impact of jellyfish bloom on environment, as well as the new perception on the mechanism of jellyfish bloom in

  2. TAIWAN, The Treasure of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ The island of Taiwan lies some 120 kilometers off the southeastern coast of mainland China, across the Taiwan Strait, and has an area of 35,801 km2(13,822.8 sq mi). The East China Sea lies to the north, the Philippine Sea to the east, the Luzon Strait directly to the south and the South China Sea to the southwest.

  3. The Interannual and Decadal Variability of the Sea Level in the Japan/East Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Tianshun; LIU Yuguang; ZONG Haibo; RONG Zengrui

    2009-01-01

    Sea level observed by altimeter during the 1993-2007 period and the thermosteric sea level from 1945 through 2005 obtained by using the global ocean temperature data sets recently published are used to investigate the interannual and decadal variability of the sea level in the Japan/East Sea (JES) and its response to El Nino and Southern Oscillation (ENSO). Both the interannual variations of the sea level observed by altimeter and those of the thermosteric sea level obtained from reanalyzed data in the JES are closely related to ENSO. As a result, one important consequence is that the sea level trends are mainly caused by the thermal expansion in the JES. An 'enigma' is revealed that the correlation between the thermosteric sea level and ENSO during the PDO (Pacific Deeadal Oscillation) warm phase (post mid-1970s) is inconsistent with that during the cold phase (pre mid-1970s) in the JES. The thermosteric sea level trends and the Southern Oscillation Index (SOI) suggest a strong negative correlation during the period 1977 1998, whereas there appears a relatively weak positive correlation during the period 1945-1976 in the JES. Based on the SODA (Simple Oceanographic Data Assimilation) datasets, possible mechanisms of the interannual and deeadai variability of the sea level in the JES are discussed. Comprehensive analysis reveals that the negative anomalies of SOl correspond to the positive anomalies of the southeast wind stress, the net advective heat flux and the sea level in the JES during the PDO warm phase. During the PDO cold phase, the negative anomalies of SOl correspond to the positive anomalies of the southwest wind stress, the negative anomalies of the net advective heat flux and the sea level in the JES.

  4. A Note on the South China Sea Shallow Interocean Circulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    The existing estimates of the volume transport from the Pacific Ocean to the South China Sea are summarized, showing an annual mean westward transport, with the Taiwan Strait outflow subtracted, of 3.5±2.0 Sv (1 Sv=106 m3 s-1). Results of a global ocean circulation model show an annual mean transport of 3.9 Sv from the Pacific to the Indian Ocean through the South China Sea. The boreal winter transport is larger and exhibits a South China Sea branch of the Pacific-to-Indian Ocean throughflow, which originates from the western Philippine Sea toward the Indonesian Seas through the South China Sea, as well as through the Karimata and Mindoro Straits. The southwestward current near the continental slope of the northern South China Sea is shown to be a combination of this branch and the interior circulation gyre.This winter branch can be confirmed by trajectories of satellite-tracked drifters, which clearly show a flow from the Luz6n Strait to the Karimata Strait in winter. In summer, the flow in the Karimata Strait is reversed. Numerical model results indicate that the Pacific water can enter the South China Sea and exit toward the Sulu Sea, but no observational evidence is available. The roles of the throughflow branch in the circulation, water properties and air-sea exchange of the South China Sea, and in enhancing and regulating the volume transport and reducing the heat transport of the Indonesian Throughflow, are discussed.

  5. Scour Prevention of East China Sea Oil & Gas Export Pipeline on The Base of Bionic Scour-Prevention Technique%基于仿生技术防治平湖油气田外输海底管线冲刷的探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁富浩; 张印桐; 庄亚锋; 苗春生

    2011-01-01

    以曾两次因冲刷悬空而发生事故的平湖油气田岱山近岸段KP2.6为例,通过比较挖沟、传统抛石、砂袋支撑、水泥压块以及仿生草技术等悬空处理与冲刷控制措施,提出了“砂袋悬空回填与仿生草永久性冲刷防治”方案,系统地探讨将仿生草技术用于东海海底管线的防护,对东海乃至全国海底管线悬空处理与冲刷防治都有借鉴价值.%Taking the KP2. 6 near Dai-shan shore approach of Ping-hu Oil and Gas field as an example, which damaged twice by the scour, comparing with the trenching, traditional stone dumping, sand bags support and concrete mattresses, and bionic scour- prevention technique, sand bags support for free-span back fill and frond mats are recommended for permanent scour prevention, and this is the first time to systemicly discuss the bionic scour- prevention technique for the subsea pipelines in the east china sea, so there will be important applied value and practical significance for scour protection and free-spans rectification of subsea pipeline in the east china sea.

  6. A historical perspective of the extremely hot 2013 summer in East-central China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qi; Fu, Congbin; Mao, Huiting

    2016-04-01

    An extreme hot summer occurred over East-central China in 2013. Its duration of continuous, highest temperature anomalies was the longest on record for the time period of 1948-2013. Several modeling studies have attempted to identify the causes and did not obtain conclusive findings, in large part due to their limited scopes of the problem. Here, we conducted a multi-scale and multi-factor analysis of this extreme event using observational data of 600 monitoring stations over China and global reanalysis data for the period of 1981-2013. Our results suggested that the number of heatwave days (NHD) (defined as a day with daily maximum temperature ≥ 35°C) over East-central China experienced an increasing trend of 3.44 days per decade since 1981 and reached the record maximum (34.1 days) in 2013, with significant inter-annual variability superimposed on the trend. It should be noted that this increasing trend in NHD was consistent with that of the intensity of the Western Pacific Subtropical High (WPSH) linked to global warming as suggested in the literature. There were also strong correlations between NHD over East-central China, WPSH, and global mean temperature (GT) on interannual scales. The extremely hot 2013 summer could not be explained by global warming and associated enhanced WPSH alone as GT and WPSH intensity were not record high in that summer. Further analysis suggested that large scale air-sea interaction over the Pacific region could have played a critical role. Specifically, enhanced convection over the Philippine Sea and along Indonesian islands in summer 2013 appeared to be strongest for the study period. This convection could cause a strong local feedback among precipitation, cloud cover, and net radiation, which could further weaken upper- and lower-level circulation via the tropical-extratropical teleconnection and Rossby wave propagation. This feedback was likely the direct cause of the extremely hot 2013 summer.

  7. Dynamics of the Water Circulations in the Southern South China Sea and Its Seasonal Transports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ooi, See Hai; Samah, Azizan Abu; Akbari, Abolghasem

    2016-01-01

    A three-dimensional Regional Ocean Modeling System is used to study the seasonal water circulations and transports of the Southern South China Sea. The simulated seasonal water circulations and estimated transports show consistency with observations, e.g., satellite altimeter data set and re-analysis data of the Simple Ocean Data Assimilation. It is found that the seasonal water circulations are mainly driven by the monsoonal wind stress and influenced by the water outflow/inflow and associated currents of the entire South China Sea. The intrusion of the strong current along the East Coast of Peninsular Malaysia and the eddies at different depths in all seasons are due to the conservation of the potential vorticity as the depth increases. Results show that the water circulation patterns in the northern part of the East Coast of Peninsular Malaysia are generally dominated by the geostrophic currents while those in the southern areas are due solely to the wind stress because of negligible Coriolis force there. This study clearly shows that individual surface freshwater flux (evaporation minus precipitation) controls the sea salinity balance in the Southern South China Sea thermohaline circulations. Analysis of climatological data from a high resolution Regional Ocean Modeling System reveals that the complex bathymetry is important not only for water exchange through the Southern South China Sea but also in regulating various transports across the main passages in the Southern South China Sea, namely the Sunda Shelf and the Strait of Malacca. Apart from the above, in comparision with the dynamics of the Sunda Shelf, the Strait of Malacca reflects an equally significant role in the annual transports into the Andaman Sea. PMID:27410682

  8. Dynamics of the Water Circulations in the Southern South China Sea and Its Seasonal Transports.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farshid Daryabor

    Full Text Available A three-dimensional Regional Ocean Modeling System is used to study the seasonal water circulations and transports of the Southern South China Sea. The simulated seasonal water circulations and estimated transports show consistency with observations, e.g., satellite altimeter data set and re-analysis data of the Simple Ocean Data Assimilation. It is found that the seasonal water circulations are mainly driven by the monsoonal wind stress and influenced by the water outflow/inflow and associated currents of the entire South China Sea. The intrusion of the strong current along the East Coast of Peninsular Malaysia and the eddies at different depths in all seasons are due to the conservation of the potential vorticity as the depth increases. Results show that the water circulation patterns in the northern part of the East Coast of Peninsular Malaysia are generally dominated by the geostrophic currents while those in the southern areas are due solely to the wind stress because of negligible Coriolis force there. This study clearly shows that individual surface freshwater flux (evaporation minus precipitation controls the sea salinity balance in the Southern South China Sea thermohaline circulations. Analysis of climatological data from a high resolution Regional Ocean Modeling System reveals that the complex bathymetry is important not only for water exchange through the Southern South China Sea but also in regulating various transports across the main passages in the Southern South China Sea, namely the Sunda Shelf and the Strait of Malacca. Apart from the above, in comparision with the dynamics of the Sunda Shelf, the Strait of Malacca reflects an equally significant role in the annual transports into the Andaman Sea.

  9. INFLUENCE OF EARLY DIAGENESIS ON MAGNETIC PROPERTIES OF INNER SHELF DEPOSITS OF THE EAST CHINA SEA%东海内陆架沉积物磁性特征对早期成岩作用的响应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡忠行; 张卫国; 董辰寅; 刘莹; 陈静; 俞立中

    2012-01-01

    以东海内陆架泥质区F17柱样为对象,在放射性同位素测年、磁性测量、地球化学和粒度分析的基础上,探讨了早期成岩作用对陆架沉积物磁性特征的影响.结果表明,F17柱样磁性特征存在显著的垂向变化,表现为随深度的增加,沉积物磁性减弱、磁性颗粒变粗和不完整反铁磁性矿物比例上升.粒度以及Al,Ti,Fe,Mn的含量,有机碳和总硫的分析表明,沉积物物源相对均一,粒度虽然存在垂向变化,但不是磁性特征垂向变化的主要原因,早期成岩作用是导致上述磁性特征垂向变化的主要因素.早期成岩过程中,亚铁磁性矿物含量随深度下降的现象与其他地区报道的结果类似,但磁性矿物类型和颗粒大小随深度变化的模式,不同地区存在一定差异.基于磁性矿物对早期成岩过程的敏感性,磁性测量方法对认识铁在陆架沉积物中的迁移和转化具有积极作用.%This paper discusses the influence of early diagenesis on magnetic properties of sediments from inner shelf of the East China Sea, using combined granulometric, magnetic and geochemical analyses. Sediment core F17 (26°40'N ,120°30'E) ,271cm in length,was collected from a water depth of 41.4m using a gravity core sampler. The sediment core displays a yellowish brown color in the top 40cm layer, which gradually changes into grey color with depth. The sediments are dominated by clay silts. The core was sectioned at 1cm intervals, dried at low temperature of 40℃. Except an aliquot for particle size analysis, the remaining parts were ground with mortar and pestle before magnetic and geochemical analyses. The sediment samples were analyzed for 210Pb and 137Cs activities using HPGe γ spectrometer( GWL-120210S) for establishing core chronology. Sedimentation rate for the top 50cm layer is averaged at 0. 49cm/a,which is in accordance with reported sedimentation rates in the study area. Assuming such a sedimentation rate for

  10. Stock assessment of small yellow croaker in the East China Sea based on multi-source data%基于多源数据的东海小黄鱼资源评估与管理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘尊雷; 严利平; 袁兴伟; 杨林林; 刘勇; 黎雨轩; 李圣法; 程家骅; 吴颖

    2013-01-01

    overfished stocks. The proposed control rule consists of relative biomass and relative fishing mortality rate in a deterministic environment and conservative harvest in a fluctuating environment. The results of the Fox model explained 68%of the variance observed for the stock abundance, while the logistic model explained 57%. The parameter estimates were different and the Fox model predicted a much larger decrease in population abundance at the MSY, intrinsic growth rates(r), and initial exploited levels. We compared the fishing mortality/current stock biomass from 1998 to 2006 with the fishing- and stock-related reference points, respec-tively. The results in a determined environment revealed that small yellow croaker stock in the East China Sea was overfished in most years, while the population was not always overfished during the entire period, although its biomass has been decreasing since 1999. However, both the Fox and logistic surplus production models indicate that the small yellow croaker fishery has been consistently over harvested in the fluctuating environment. Har-vesting at a conservative level with either the Fox or logistic model could increase small yellow croaker abun-dance substantially with little decrease in harvest. At a conservative harvest level, there is a 24.7% increase in biomass with a 6.1% decrease in yield with the logistic model and a 44.5% increase in biomass with a 9.4% de-crease in yield with the Fox model. The MSY assessment results from the Fox surplus production model was more conservative than that of logistic model, which is concordant with precautionary fisheries management strategies.

  11. Airborne geoid mapping of land and sea areas of East Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamil, H.; Kadir, M.; Forsberg, R.; Olesen, A.; Isa, M. N.; Rasidi, S.; Mohamed, A.; Chihat, Z.; Nielsen, E.; Majid, F.; Talib, K.; Aman, S.

    2017-02-01

    This paper describes the development of a new geoid-based vertical datum from airborne gravity data, by the Department of Survey and Mapping Malaysia, on land and in the South China Sea out of the coast of East Malaysia region, covering an area of about 610,000 square kilometres. More than 107,000 km flight line of airborne gravity data over land and marine areas of East Malaysia has been combined to provide a seamless land-to-sea gravity field coverage; with an estimated accuracy of better than 2.0 mGal. The iMAR-IMU processed gravity anomaly data has been used during a 2014-2016 airborne survey to extend a composite gravity solution across a number of minor gaps on selected lines, using a draping technique. The geoid computations were all done with the GRAVSOFT suite of programs from DTU-Space. EGM2008 augmented with GOCE spherical harmonic model has been used to spherical harmonic degree N = 720. The gravimetric geoid first was tied at one tide-gauge (in Kota Kinabalu, KK2019) to produce a fitted geoid, my_geoid2017_fit_kk. The fitted geoid was offset from the gravimetric geoid by +0.852 m, based on the comparison at the tide-gauge benchmark KK2019. Consequently, orthometric height at the six other tide gauge stations was computed from HGPS Lev = hGPS - Nmy_geoid2017_.t_kk. Comparison of the conventional (HLev) and GPS-levelling heights (HGPS Lev) at the six tide gauge locations indicate RMS height difference of 2.6 cm. The final gravimetric geoidwas fitted to the seven tide gauge stations and is known as my_geoid2017_fit_east. The accuracy of the gravimetric geoid is estimated to be better than 5 cm across most of East Malaysia land and marine areas

  12. Toxic Algae and Early Warning Management in Yellow Sea and Bohai Sea of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Song; Lun; Song; Guangjun; Song; Yonggang; Xu; Xiaohong

    2014-01-01

    The research status of toxic algae in Yellow Sea and Bohai Sea are reviewed from the aspects of toxicity characteristics,toxic mechanism and early warning management,and the existing toxic algae and their toxicity in Yellow Sea and Bohai Sea are analyzed in the paper. The early warning level of toxic algae in Yellow Sea and Bohai Sea of China is put forward,and the research direction of shellfish poisoning in future is summarized.

  13. Open Ocean Internal Waves, South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    These open ocean internal waves were seen in the south China Sea (19.5N, 114.5E). These sets of internal waves most likely coincide with tidal periods about 12 hours apart. The wave length (distance from crest to crest) varies between 1.5 and 5.0 miles and the crest lengths stretch across and beyond this photo for over 75 miles. At lower right, the surface waves are moving at a 30% angle to the internal waves, with parallel low level clouds.

  14. Dynamics of the Water Circulations in the Southern South China Sea and Its Seasonal Transports

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daryabor, Farshid

    2016-01-01

    of Peninsular Malaysia and the eddies at different depths in all seasons are due to the conservation of the potential vorticity as the depth increases. Results show that the water circulation patterns in the northern part of the East Coast of Peninsular Malaysia are generally dominated by the geostrophic......A three-dimensional Regional Ocean Modeling System is used to study the seasonal water circulations and transports of the Southern South China Sea. The simulated seasonal water circulations and estimated transports show consistency with observations, e.g., satellite altimeter data set and re......-analysis data of the Simple Ocean Data Assimilation. It is found that the seasonal water circulations are mainly driven by the monsoonal wind stress and influenced by the water outflow/inflow and associated currents of the entire South China Sea. The intrusion of the str