Full Text Available Japanese Encephalitis (JE, a vector-borne zoonotic viral disease, is mostly prevalent in Asian countries. The objective of this study was to investigate the occurence of JE virus (JEV among pigs in East Sumba, Indonesia. Blood samples (n=52 were randomly collected from 52 apparantly healthy pigs where pig population was high in East Sumba. The samples were subjected for seroprevalence study for the presence of antibodies against JEV using competitive enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (C-ELISA. Results showed that 53% (n=28/52 blood samples from the pigs contained antibodies against JEV. This finding is suggestive that the JEV is circulating among pig population in East Sumba, Indonesia. The data may help in designing control strategies of the JEV in the East Sumba, Indonesia.
Chao, Roger Y., Jr.
The Author argues that historical regional developments in Europe and East Asia greatly influence the formation of an East Asian Higher Education Area. As such, this article compares European and East Asian regionalization and higher education regionalization processes to show this path dependency in East Asian regionalization of higher education…
Wang, Qiuyan; Wang, Zhili; Zhang, Hua
The impact of the total effects due to anthropogenic aerosols from global, East Asian, and non-East Asian sources on East Asian summer monsoon (EASM) system is studied using an aerosol-climate online model BCC_AGCM2.0.1_CUACE/Aero. The results show that the summer mean net all-sky shortwave fluxes averaged over East Asian monsoon region (EAMR) at the top of the atmosphere (TOA) and surface reduce by 4.8 and 5.0 W m- 2, respectively, due to the increases of global aerosol emissions in 2000 relative to 1850. Changes in radiations and their resulting changes in heat and water transport and cloud fraction contribute together to the surface cooling over EAMR in summer. The increases in global anthropogenic aerosols lead to a decrease of 2.1 K in summer mean surface temperature and an increase of 0.4 hPa in summer mean surface pressure averaged over EAMR, respectively. It is shown that the changes in surface temperature and pressure are significantly larger over land than ocean, thus decreasing the contrast of land-sea surface temperature and pressure. This results in the marked anomalies of north and northeast winds over eastern and southern China and the surrounding oceans in summer, thereby weakening the EASM. The summer mean precipitation averaged over the EAMR reduces by 12%. The changes in non-East Asian aerosol emissions play a more important role in inducing the changes of local temperature and pressure, and thus significantly exacerbate the weakness of the EASM circulation due to local aerosol changes. The weakening of circulation due to both is comparable, and even the effect of non-local aerosols is larger in individual regions. The changes of local and non-local aerosols contribute comparably to the reductions in precipitation over oceans, whereas cause opposite changes over eastern China. Our results highlight the importance of aerosol changes outside East Asia in the impact of the changes of anthropogenic aerosols on EASM.
This paper focuses on the prospects for sustained development in the four East Asian economies most adversely affected by the crises of 1997/98. These include all three second-tier South-East Asian newly industrializing countries (NICs) – Indonesia, Malaysia and Thailand – as well as the Republic of Korea, the most adversely affected of the first-generation newly industrialized economies (NIEs). The first section critically examines the East Asian model presented by the World Bank’s “East Asi...
Kim, Jae-Weon; Mahner, Sven; Wu, Ling-Ying; Shoji, Tadahiro; Kim, Byoung-Gie; Zhu, Jian-Qing; Takano, Tadao; Park, Sang-Yoon; Kong, Bei-Hua; Wu, Qiang; Wang, Kung-Liahng; Ngan, Hextan Ys; Liu, Ji-Hong; Wei, Li-Hui; Mitrica, Ionel; Zhang, Pingkuan; Crescenzo, Rocco; Wang, Qiong; Cox, Charles J; Harter, Philipp; du Bois, Andreas
The recent phase 3 trial AGO-OVAR16 demonstrated that pazopanib maintenance improved median progression-free survival in patients with ovarian cancer whose disease did not progress during first-line treatment. However, this improvement was not seen in the subset of East Asian patients. The current analysis evaluated the efficacy and safety of pazopanib maintenance in East Asian patients from AGO-OVAR16 and a separate East Asian study. East Asian patients from AGO-OVAR16 (n = 209) and the East Asian study (N = 145) were randomized 1:1 to receive pazopanib 800 mg/d or placebo for up to 24 months. The primary end point for each study was progression-free survival by RECIST (Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors) based on investigator assessment. Clinical and genetics data were analyzed separately by study or pooled according to separate predetermined statistical plans. Pazopanib maintenance had a detrimental effect on median progression-free survival versus placebo in East Asian patients from the combined studies (n = 354; 17.9 vs 21.5 months; hazard ratio, 1.114; 95% confidence interval, 0.818-1.518; P = 0.4928). Pazopanib maintenance showed a disadvantage in overall survival in East Asian patients from AGO-OVAR16 versus placebo (hazard ratio, 1.706; 95% confidence interval, 1.010-2.883; P = 0.0465); overall survival analysis was not performed in the East Asian study because of insufficient event numbers. Pazopanib-treated patients had a significantly higher incidence of grade 3 or higher hypertension (27%) and neutropenia (13%) versus placebo. The treatment effect of maintenance pazopanib in East Asian patients seemed to differ from that in non-Asian patients. In study-specific and pooled analyses, none of the potential factors analyzed could satisfactorily explain the different efficacy results of pazopanib in East Asian patients.
This paper aims to contribute to social scientific work towards enhancing the cultural fit of comparative values surveys projects on a conceptual level both for Western and East Asian survey research communities and their publics. It starts with noting that, after a long period in which Western values were regarded superior ('orientalism'), in recent decades certain East Asian and specifically Confucian values are much celebrated ('reversed orientalism'). Yet, most contemporary cross-cultural...
Heine, Steven J; Hamamura, Takeshi
A meta-analysis of published cross-cultural studies of self-enhancement reveals pervasive and pronounced differences between East Asians and Westerners. Across 91 comparisons, the average cross-cultural effect was d = .84. The effect emerged in all 30 methods, except for comparisons of implicit self-esteem. Within cultures, Westerners showed a clear self-serving bias (d = .87), whereas East Asians did not (d = -.01), with Asian Americans falling in between (d = .52). East Asians did self-enhance in the methods that involved comparing themselves to average but were self-critical in other methods. It was hypothesized that this inconsistency could be explained in that these methods are compromised by the "everyone is better than their group's average effect" (EBTA). Supporting this rationale, studies that were implicated by the EBTA reported significantly larger self-enhancement effect for all cultures compared to other studies. Overall, the evidence converges to show that East Asians do not self-enhance.
Bosse, Mirte; Lopes, Marcos S; Madsen, Ole; Megens, Hendrik-Jan; Crooijmans, Richard P M A; Frantz, Laurent A F; Harlizius, Barbara; Bastiaansen, John W M; Groenen, Martien A M
Early pig farmers in Europe imported Asian pigs to cross with their local breeds in order to improve traits of commercial interest. Current genomics techniques enabled genome-wide identification of these Asian introgressed haplotypes in modern European pig breeds. We propose that the Asian variants are still present because they affect phenotypes that were important for ancient traditional, as well as recent, commercial pig breeding. Genome-wide introgression levels were only weakly correlated with gene content and recombination frequency. However, regions with an excess or absence of Asian haplotypes (AS) contained genes that were previously identified as phenotypically important such as FASN, ME1, and KIT. Therefore, the Asian alleles are thought to have an effect on phenotypes that were historically under selection. We aimed to estimate the effect of AS in introgressed regions in Large White pigs on the traits of backfat (BF) and litter size. The majority of regions we tested that retained Asian deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) showed significantly increased BF from the Asian alleles. Our results suggest that the introgression in Large White pigs has been strongly determined by the selective pressure acting upon the introgressed AS. We therefore conclude that human-driven hybridization and selection contributed to the genomic architecture of these commercial pigs. © 2015 The Author(s).
Dmitriy Aleksandrovich Izotov
Full Text Available Based on the international statistics data the author estimates effects of trade liberalization between Russia and East Asian countries. The prospective niche markets in mutual trade and the impact of trade liberalization on the national economies were identified. Using a partial equilibrium model the author indicates the following positive trade effects for Russia and East Asia: trade creation effect prevails over trade diversion effect; general welfare and mutual trade of the countries tend to increase. The Russian economy has positive trade effects with all the East Asian countries, with the highest scale in the case of Sino-Russian trade. At the same time trade liberalization has following some costs for the Russian economy: a the growing role of imports, mostly from China, compared to Russian exports; b reduction of tariff revenues, which are four times higher for Russia, compared to East Asian countries; c continued negative trade balance with the East Asian countries. The evaluation shows that the increase of Russian exports to East Asian countries is feasible only for certain commodity groups which determine marketable niches of specific East Asian countries; at the same time, Russia can import from East Asia a huge range of commodity groups. The study reveals that reduction in tariff measures and non- tariff restrictions will not lead to a massive increase in Russian exports and changing in its trade and geographical structure. On the basis of prolongation of short-term trends the author identifies long-term challenges and opportunities for the Russian economy from trade liberalization with East Asian countries. According to the estimation results, the author suggests that in the current environment of global trade liberalization the tariff measures become less significant as a tool for redistribution of commodity flows
A small group of high-performing East Asian economies dominate the top of the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) rankings. This has caught the attention of Western policymakers, who want to know why East Asian children obtain such high PISA scores, and what can be done to replicate their success. In this paper I investigate…
The paper asks if East Asian welfare regimes are still productivist and Confucian? And, have they developed public care policies? The literature is split on the first question but (mostly) confirmative on the second. Care has to a large, but insufficient extent, been rolled out in the region...
... and the United States, in the recent and rapid economic growth and integration in East Asia. ... "dragons" of East Asia have emerged among the world's leading economic powers. ... Asian outlook: New growth dependent on new productivity.
Tracy C. Barrett
Full Text Available Colonialism and indigenous responses to its varied forms dominate modern Asian historiography and imbue the history of the region with rich and multifaceted connections to world history. As a result, the histories of East and Southeast Asian nation-states since 1500 cannot be viewed outside of the context of global affairs. Imagining Asian peoples and cultures during this time is problematic for students, who typically approach colonialism from a western perspective. This presentation explores various means of incorporating into the classroom pedagogical materials and diverse media sources that facilitate a more grounded examination of East and Southeast Asian colonies, peoples, and nation-states.It pays special attention to teaching colonialism, anti-colonialism, nationalism, and transnationalism from the perspective of Southeast Asia’s indigenous peoples.
Dhillon, Jasmin; Horch, Jenny D; Hodgins, David C
Cultural influences on problem gambling stigma were examined using a between subject vignette study design. Students of East Asian (n = 64) and Caucasian (n = 50) ancestry recruited from a Canadian University rated a vignette describing either an East Asian problem gambler or a Caucasian problem gambler on a measure of attitudinal social distance. In accordance with the hypothesis, a factorial ANOVA revealed that East Asian Canadians stigmatize problem gambling more than Caucasian Canadians. Moreover, East Asian participants stigmatized the East Asian individual described in the vignette more than they did the Caucasian individual. Individuals with gambling problems were generally not perceived as being dangerous. However, participants who perceived problem gambling as a dangerous condition wanted more social distance than those who did not perceive individuals with a gambling problem as dangerous.
Full Text Available A key feature of networked games in East Asia is the relationship between the adaptation of regional Asian aesthetic and narrative forms in game content, and the parallel growth in more regionally-focused marketing and distribution initiatives. This essay offers a contextual analysis of intra-Asian games networks, with reference to the production, marketing and circulation of Asian MMORPGs. My discussion locates these networks as part of broader discourses on regionalism, East Asian cultural production and Asian modernity. At the same time, I consider how these networks highlight structural asymmetry and uneven power relations within the region; and I examine the emergent use of gamer-workers known as Chinese farmers in the digital game-items trade.
Brotto, Lori A; Woo, Jane S T; Gorzalka, Boris B
Differences in sexual desire between individuals of East Asian and European descent are well-documented, with East Asian individuals reporting lower sexual desire. The mechanisms that underlie this disparity have received little empirical attention. Recent research has found that sex guilt, "a generalized expectancy for self-mediated punishment for violating or for anticipating violating standards of proper sexual conduct" (Mosher & Cross, 1971 , p. 27), mediates the relationship between culture and sexual desire in East Asian and Euro-Canadian women. The goal of this study was to explore this role of sex guilt in men. Male Euro-Canadian (n = 38) and East Asian (n = 45) university students completed online questionnaires. The East Asian men reported significantly lower sexual desire and significantly higher sex guilt. Sex guilt was a significant mediator of the relationship between ethnicity and sexual desire, as well as a significant mediator between mainstream acculturation and sexual desire. Among the East Asian men, mainstream acculturation was significantly and negatively correlated with sex guilt such that increasing mainstream acculturation was associated with less sex guilt. The diagnostic and clinical implications of the findings are discussed.
Kang, Shugang; Wang, Xulong; Roberts, Helen M.; Duller, Geoff A. T.; Cheng, Peng; Lu, Yanchou; An, Zhisheng
Changes in East Asian summer and winter monsoon intensity have played a pivotal role in the prosperity and decline of society in the past, and will be important for future climate scenarios. However, the phasing of changes in the intensity of East Asian summer and winter monsoons on millennial and centennial timescales during the Holocene is unclear, limiting our ability to understand the factors driving past and future changes in the monsoon system. Here, we present a high resolution (up to multidecadal) loess record for the last 3.3 ka from the southern Chinese Loess Plateau that clearly demonstrates the relationship between changes in the intensity of the East Asian summer and winter monsoons, particularly at multicentennial scales. At multimillennial scales, the East Asian summer monsoon shows a steady weakening, while the East Asian winter monsoon intensifies continuously. At multicentennial scales, a prominent ∼700-800 yr cycle in the East Asian summer and winter monsoon intensity is observed, and here too the two monsoons are anti-phase. We conclude that multimillennial changes are driven by Northern Hemisphere summer insolation, while multicentennial changes can be correlated with solar activity and changing strength of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation.
Brucato, Nicolas; Mazières, Stéphane; Guitard, Evelyne; Giscard, Pierre-Henri; Bois, Etienne; Larrouy, Georges; Dugoujon, Jean-Michel
The Hmong Diaspora is one of the widest modern human migrations. Mainly localised in South-East Asia, the United States of America, and metropolitan France, a small community has also settled the Amazonian forest of French Guiana. We have biologically analysed 62 individuals of this unique Guianese population through three complementary genetic markers: mitochondrial DNA (HVS-I/II and coding region SNPs), Y-chromosome (SNPs and STRs), and the Gm allotypic system. All genetic systems showed a high conservation of the Asian gene pool (Asian ancestry: mtDNA=100.0%; NRY=99.1%; Gm=96.6%), without a trace of founder effect. When compared across various Asian populations, the highest correlations were observed with Hmong-Mien groups still living in South-East Asia (Fst<0.05; P-value<0.05). Despite a long history punctuated by exodus, the French Guianese Hmong have maintained their original genetic diversity. Copyright © 2012 Académie des sciences. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.
Watanobe, Takuma; Ishiguro, Naotaka; Nakano, Masuo; Takamiya, Hiroto; Matsui, Akira; Hongo, Hitomi
Ancient DNAs of Sus scrofa specimens excavated from archaeological sites on the Okinawa islands were examined to clarify the genetic relationships among prehistoric Sus scrofa, modern wild boars and domestic pigs inhabiting the Ryukyu archipelago, the Japanese islands, and the Asian continent. We extracted remain DNA from 161 bone specimens excavated from 12 archaeological sites on the Okinawa islands and successfully amplified mitochondrial DNA control region fragments from 33 of 161 specimens. Pairwise difference between prehistoric and modern S. scrofa nucleotide sequences showed that haplotypes of the East Asian domestic pig lineage were found from archaeological specimens together with Ryukyu wild boars native to the Ryukyu archipelago. Phylogenetic analysis of 14 ancient sequences (11 haplotypes; 574 bp) indicated that S. scrofa specimens from two Yayoi-Heian sites (Kitahara and Ara shellmiddens) and two Recent Times sites (Wakuta Kiln and Kiyuna sites) are grouped with modern East Asian domestic pigs. Sus scrofa specimens from Shimizu shellmidden (Yayoi-Heian Period) were very closely related to modern Sus scrofa riukiuanus but had a unique nucleotide insertion, indicating that the population is genetically distinct from the lineage of modern Ryukyu wild boars. This genetic evidence suggests that domestic pigs from the Asian continent were introduced to the Okinawa islands in the early Yayoi-Heian period (1700-2000 BP), or earlier.
Rozin, Paul; Moscovitch, Morris; Imada, Sumio
We present evidence that individuals from East or South Asian cultures (Japanese college students in Japan and East or South Asian born and raised college students in the USA) tend to exhibit default thinking that corresponds to right hemisphere holistic functions, as compared to Caucasian individuals from a Western culture (born and raised in the USA). In two lateralized tasks (locating the nose in a scrambled face, and global-local letter task), both Asian groups showed a greater right hemisphere bias than the Western group. In a third lateralized task, judging similarity in terms of visual form versus functional/semantic categorizations, there was not a reliable difference between the groups. On a classic, ambiguous face composed of vegetables, both Eastern groups displayed a greater right hemisphere (holistic face processing) bias than the Western group. These results support an "East - Right Hemisphere, West - Left Hemisphere" hypothesis, as originally proposed by Ornstein (1972). This hypothesis is open as to the degree to which social-cultural forces were involved in hemispheric specialization, or the opposite, or both. Our aim is to encourage a more thorough analysis of this hypothesis, suggesting both lateralization studies corresponding to documented East-West differences, and East-West studies corresponding to lateralization differences. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Masuda, Takahiko; Gonzalez, Richard; Kwan, Letty; Nisbett, Richard E
Prior research indicates that East Asians are more sensitive to contextual information than Westerners. This article explored aesthetics to examine whether cultural variations were observable in art and photography. Study 1 analyzed traditional artistic styles using archival data in representative museums. Study 2 investigated how contemporary East Asians and Westerners draw landscape pictures and take portrait photographs. Study 3 further investigated aesthetic preferences for portrait photographs. The results suggest that (a) traditional East Asian art has predominantly context-inclusive styles, whereas Western art has predominantly object-focused styles, and (b) contemporary members of East Asian and Western cultures maintain these culturally shaped aesthetic orientations. The findings can be explained by the relation among attention, cultural resources, and aesthetic preference.
Sumie Sato; Mototsugu Fukushige
Using the Atkinson inequality measure of income distribution, we analyze the impact of China as a single country and examine the effect of its domestic income inequality on total income inequality among East Asian countries. First, we find that China's domestic income inequality exacerbated income inequality among East Asian countries from the 1980s, and this effect became even more pronounced from 1990. Second, the growth of China's per capita GDP had an equalizing effect on income distribut...
Yang, Maeng Ho; Lee, Tae Jun; Lee, Byung Jun
The objective of this study is to investigate the status of nuclear policy environments and nuclear power programmes of South-east Asian countries which are emerging as major markets in the international nuclear industry. To do this, the study investigated seven South-east Asian countries which are especially expected to strengthen nuclear cooperation with our country : China, Indonesia, Thailand, Malaysia, Vietnam, India and the Philippines. Considering the above, the study concentrated upon the status and the environment of nuclear development, as well as its planning and regulatory structure including energy resource environments, energy development policy and planning, and the major problems in nuclear power development encountered by those counties. This study could be used to develop the national policy of nuclear technological cooperation and nuclear business with South-east Asian countries, which will be expected to develop active nuclear power programmes int eh future. 41 tabs., 9 figs., 49 refs. (Author)
Yang, Maeng Ho; Lee, Tae Jun; Lee, Byung Jun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)
The objective of this study is to investigate the status of nuclear policy environments and nuclear power programmes of South-east Asian countries which are emerging as major markets in the international nuclear industry. To do this, the study investigated seven South-east Asian countries which are especially expected to strengthen nuclear cooperation with our country : China, Indonesia, Thailand, Malaysia, Vietnam, India and the Philippines. Considering the above, the study concentrated upon the status and the environment of nuclear development, as well as its planning and regulatory structure including energy resource environments, energy development policy and planning, and the major problems in nuclear power development encountered by those counties. This study could be used to develop the national policy of nuclear technological cooperation and nuclear business with South-east Asian countries, which will be expected to develop active nuclear power programmes int eh future. 41 tabs., 9 figs., 49 refs. (Author).
As the most populated region of the world, Asia is a major source of aerosols with potential large impact over vast downstream areas, Papers published in this special section describe the variety of aerosols observed in China and their effects and interactions with the regional climate as part of the East Asian Study of Tropospheric Aerosols and their Impact on Regional Climate (EAST-AIRC), The majority of the papers are based on analyses of observations made under three field projects, namely, the Atmospheric Radiation Measurements (ARM) Mobile Facility mission in China (AMF-China), the East Asian Study of Tropospheric Aerosols: An International Regional Experiment (EAST-AIRE), and the Atmospheric Aerosols of China and their Climate Effects (AACCE), The former two are U,S,-China collaborative projects, and the latter is a part of the China's National Basic Research program (or often referred to as "973 project"), Routine meteorological data of China are also employed in some studies, The wealth of general and speCIalized measurements lead to extensive and close-up investigations of the optical, physical, and chemical properties of anthropogenic, natural, and mixed aerosols; their sources, formation, and transport mechanisms; horizontal, vertical, and temporal variations; direct and indirect effects; and interactions with the East Asian monsoon system, Particular efforts are made to advance our understanding of the mixing and interaction between dust and anthropogenic pollutants during transport. Several modeling studies were carried out to simulate aerosol impact on radiation budget, temperature, precipitation, wind and atmospheric circulation, fog, etc, In addition, impacts of the Asian monsoon system on aerosol loading are also simulated.
Byong Kwon Song
Full Text Available This paper seeks to consider the various types of regionalisms in East Asia during the 1940’s, and Korea’s position in the United States’ “Great China Policy” and demilitarization and democratization plans for Japan. After World War II, although aspects of regionalism were formed by the Cold War in East Asia, the regional structure of Northeast Asia was originally formed from the ‘turn of the century’ through the Asian Pacific War. From the beginning of the 1940’s, Japan promoted the idea of a “Greater East Asia Co-prosperity Sphere” in order to justify its hegemonic position in the East Asian regional order. In addition, the United States and Japan’s readjustment plans appeared to be related to strategies regarding the regional order of East Asia. During World War II, the victorious U.S. had already become one of the world’s superpowers and by principle, collaboration between the superpowers (United States, Great Britain, China, and the Soviet Union revealed an initiative for a four country police state. Japan devised a survival strategy in the case of its defeat. During the war in the early 1940’s, these policies and plans were used to recognize Großraum around the East Asian region. This paper points out the significance of the 1940’s and the continuity between the awareness of the wartime situation and the prospective situation during the postwar period. During the 1940’s, three forms of regionalism in East Asia appeared. The first was Japan’s regional hegemony over the East Asian regional order. In order to preserve regional hegemony, Imperial Japan gave specific meaning to Korea as an extension of its own economy. The second is based on the United States as an offshore hegemonic power, which chose China as a subordinate partner within East Asia and used the division of labor through sub-horizontal industry based on an initiative to suppress Japan. In order to weaken the economic dominance of Japanese Empire
Full Text Available In 1912 Josef Strzygowski founded the ‘Section for East Asian Art History’ at the University of Vienna, which attracted many students who would continue their careers in museums and at universities and thus established East Asian art history as an academic field. This paper examines these early art historical engagements with East Asian art: First, I discuss the role of East Asian art in Strzygowski’s agenda of broadening art history’s geographical scope beyond Europe and in his argument about the dominance of ‘Nordic’ artistic traditions in Europe and in Asia. Secondly, I introduce the work of two early students at the ‘Section for East Asian Art History’ in Vienna, Karl With and Alfred Salmony. Their respective approaches to East Asian art exemplify a range of methodological concerns of their time, from stylistic narratives, the concept of ars una, comparative frameworks, to ideas about cultural or national ‘purity’ in the arts, and an interest in cross-cultural adaption and transformation of motifs and symbolism.
Regionalism in East Asia is driven by historical patterns of cooperation, the common challenge of the West, the century-long quest for an Asian identity, and growing economic interdependence and integration...
Kuper, Gerard; Lestano, L
This paper examines the dynamic relationship between stock returns and exchange rate changes using daily data from January 3, 1994 - September 27, 2013 for six East Asian countries: Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, South Korea and Thailand. We estimate conditional correlations using
Chaudhuri, K.R.; Klaassen, F.
The 1997-98 East Asian crisis was accompanied by high volatility of East Asian stock returns. This paper examines whether the volatility has already come down to the level of the years before the crisis. We use a regime-switching model to account for possible structural change in the unconditional
Lestano, L; Kuper, Gerard H.
We examine the dynamic relationship between stock returns and exchange rate changes using daily data from January 1994 to September 2013 for six East Asian countries. We use the multivariate GARCH-DCC model in order to disclose the relationship between stock markets and foreign exchange markets
Ganesh K. Trichur
Full Text Available This paper highlights contemporary Chinas long-term continuities with the historical EastAsian developmental path in relation to its post-1978 revival of market-economy traditions. Therevival of market economy traditions does not exemplify the unfolding of processes associatedwith the one-size-fits-all Washington Consensus. Rural land reforms were driven from belowand strongly influenced policy changes from above. Neither rural nor urban land use relationssuggest a more general unfolding of neoliberal processes of capitalist accumulation bydispossession. Contemporary Chinese land relations reflect the effects of continuities withhistorical East Asian regional traditions more strongly than do some discontinuities andruptures that emerged in the conjuncture of the mid-1980s. These continuities remain moreimportant in understanding the future of the China-led East Asian region. Like the Ming andQing dynasties, Chinas Party-State is sharply focused on problems of governance. Retaininglegitimacy and recreating a welfare state to promote harmonious development rather thangrowth fetishism appears to characterize Chinas current trajectory.
Woo, Jane S T; Brotto, Lori A; Yule, Morag A
Evidence from studies of ethnic differences in sexual conservativeness and Papanicolaou (Pap) testing behaviors suggests that there may be culture-linked differences in rates of participation in physically invasive sexuality studies, resulting in volunteer bias. The effects of ethnicity and acculturation on participation in female psychophysiological sexual arousal research were investigated in a sample of Euro-Canadian (n = 50) and East Asian (n = 58) women. Participants completed a battery of questionnaires and were given either course credits or $10 for their participation. Participants were then informed about the opportunity to participate in a second phase of the study, which involved psychophysiological sexual arousal testing and which was completely optional. Contrary to expectations, the results showed that the East Asian women were more likely to participate in Phase 2 than the Euro-Canadian women. Among the East Asian women, greater heritage acculturation and lower mainstream acculturation predicted a lower likelihood of Phase 2 participation. The findings suggest the need to be wary of overgeneralizing female psychophysiological sexual arousal research results and may have implications for improving Pap testing behaviors in East Asian women.
Prieler, Michael; Ivanov, Alex; Hagiwara, Shigeru
In this study, 432 television advertisements from Hong Kong, Japan, and South Korea were analyzed to determine their representations of older people. Findings demonstrate that in East Asian advertisements, older people are highly underrepresented, appear in major roles, mostly alongside younger people, and older men clearly outnumber older women. The other variables investigated (i.e., setting and product categories) led to no conclusive findings for the three societies. In short, our study, employing ethnolinguistic vitality theory to analyze television advertisements, demonstrates how East Asian societies greatly marginalize older people. Potential effects of such representations are discussed using social cognitive theory and cultivation theory.
Maker, Azmaira H.; Shah, Priti V.; Agha, Zia
The present study examined the prevalence, characteristics, beliefs, and demographic predictors of parent-child physical violence among South Asian, Middle Eastern, East Asian, and Latina women in the United States. Two hundred fifty-one college-educated women from a middle to high SES (South Asian/Middle Eastern, n = 93; East Asian, n = 72;…
Akira Kohsaka; Jun-ichi Shinkai
We examine the role of financial shocks in business cycles in general and in financial crises in particular in East Asia (Indonesia, Korea, Malaysia and Thailand) since the 1990s. Estimating a Financial Conditions Index, we found that financial shocks explain most of business downturns in all the economies in the Asian Financial Crisis (AFC) in 1997-98, but that the effects of financial shocks are diverse across economies in the Global Financial Crisis (GFC) in 2008-09. In the GFC, the financ...
Liu, Jiewei; Li, Ming; Su, Bing
Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have identified multiple schizophrenia (SCZ) risk variants for samples of European and East Asian descent, but most of the identified susceptibility variants are population-specific to either Europeans or East Asians. This strong genetic heterogeneity suggests that differential population histories may play a role in SCZ susceptibility. Here, we explored this possibility by examining the allele frequency divergence of 136 previously reported genome-wide SCZ risk SNPs between European and East Asian populations. Our results showed that two SNPs (rs11038167 and rs11038172) at TSPAN18, reported as genome-wide significant SCZ risk variants in Han Chinese, were entirely monomorphic in Europeans, indicating a deep between-population divergence at this gene locus. To explore the evolutionary history of TSPAN18 in East Asians, we conducted population genetic analyses including multiple neutrality tests, the haplotype-based iHS and EHH tests, as well as haplotype bifurcation map and network constructions. We found that the protective allele of rs11038172 (G allele) had a long extended haplotype with much slower decay compared to the A allele. The star-like shape of the G-allele-carrying haplotypes indicates a recent enrichment in East Asians. Together, the evidences suggest that the protective allele of rs11038172 has experienced recent Darwinian positive selection in East Asians. These findings provide new insights that may help explain the strong genetic heterogeneity in SCZ risk and previous inconsistent association results for SCZ among both Europeans and East Asians. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Shim, Jae-Mahn; Kim, Jibum
Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) has been one of the popular strategies for health promotion. Traditional East Asian medicine (TEAM) is one of the most popular CAM practices in the world and there are suggestions that its holistic utilization is important for users to gain its effects for health promotion. In this context, this study investigates the extent to which TEAM users in East Asian countries utilize various modalities of TEAM holistically. It provides a model that explains cross-national differences in the extent of the holistic use of TEAM between China, Japan, Korea and Taiwan. Using the 2010 East Asian Social Survey, regression models specify the relationship between the holistic use of TEAM and the geographical location (country). The presence of TEAM doctors who hold the comprehensive and exclusive practice rights over TEAM is found to be conducive to the holistic utilization of various TEAM modalities. Thus, Taiwanese and Koreans use TEAM more holistically than Chinese and even more so than Japanese. The result suggests that the manner in which TEAM is institutionalized affect the extent to which TEAM users utilize various TEAM modalities together and potentially the health promotion effects of TEAM. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Yana Valeryevna Dyomina
Full Text Available The paper examines the equilibrium state of balance of payments of East Asian countries by means of the monetary policy instruments. For this purpose the author determines the value of the equilibrium exchange rate of AMU (Asian Monetary Unit against the U.S. dollar. The equilibrium exchange rate is the one that smoothes values of net merchandise exports and net capital exports. The author employs panel data regression analysis (using statistics of trade and capital (foreign direct investment flows between East Asian countries and the United States to obtain quantitative estimation of trade and investment effects of the coordinated monetary policy. The paper shows that transition of East Asian region (China, Japan, Republic of Korea, Indonesia, Malaysia, Vietnam, the Philippines and Thailand to the single currency (AMU will have a negative effect on the balance of payments of the studied countries: this will increase the mismatch between commodity and capital flows
A reading-writing initiative began in 2011-12 at the University of Toronto as a partnership between an East Asian Studies (EAS) department and an English Language Learning (ELL) Program. In this institution, students are expected to enter into scholarly discussions in their first year essays, yet many (both native English speakers and non-native…
Homma, Yuko; Saewyc, Elizabeth M.; Wong, Sabrina T.; Zumbo, Bruno D.
Despite the large number of adolescents of East Asian origin in Canada, there is limited research on sexual health among this population. A first step to develop strategies for sexual health promotion for adolescents is to document the prevalence of sexual behaviours. This study thus estimated the prevalence of sexual health and risk behaviours among East Asian adolescents in grades 7 to 12, using the province-wide, school-based 2008 British Columbia Adolescent Health Survey (unweighted N = 4...
Ahn, Joong-Bae; Lee, Doo-Young; Yoo, Jin‑Ho
Using the retrospective forecasts of seven state-of-the-art coupled models and their multi-model ensemble (MME) for boreal summers, the prediction skills of climate models in the western tropical Pacific (WTP) and East Asian region are assessed. The prediction of summer rainfall anomalies in East Asia is difficult, while the WTP has a strong correlation between model prediction and observation. We focus on developing a new approach to further enhance the seasonal prediction skill for summer rainfall in East Asia and investigate the influence of convective activity in the WTP on East Asian summer rainfall. By analyzing the characteristics of the WTP convection, two distinct patterns associated with El Niño-Southern Oscillation developing and decaying modes are identified. Based on the multiple linear regression method, the East Asia Rainfall Index (EARI) is developed by using the interannual variability of the normalized Maritime continent-WTP Indices (MPIs), as potentially useful predictors for rainfall prediction over East Asia, obtained from the above two main patterns. For East Asian summer rainfall, the EARI has superior performance to the East Asia summer monsoon index or each MPI. Therefore, the regressed rainfall from EARI also shows a strong relationship with the observed East Asian summer rainfall pattern. In addition, we evaluate the prediction skill of the East Asia reconstructed rainfall obtained by hybrid dynamical-statistical approach using the cross-validated EARI from the individual models and their MME. The results show that the rainfalls reconstructed from simulations capture the general features of observed precipitation in East Asia quite well. This study convincingly demonstrates that rainfall prediction skill is considerably improved by using a hybrid dynamical-statistical approach compared to the dynamical forecast alone. Acknowledgements This work was carried out with the support of Rural Development Administration Cooperative Research
Rapee, R.M.; Kim, J.; Wang, J.; Liu, X.; Hofmann, S.G.; Chen, J.; Oh, K.Y.; Bögels, S.M.; Arman, S.; Heinrichs, N.; Alden, L.E.
The current study compared the predicted social and career impact of socially withdrawn and reticent behaviors among participants from Western and East Asian countries. Three hundred sixty-one college students from 5 Western countries and 455 students from 3 East Asian countries read hypothetical
This study applies a simple and powerful nonlinear unit root test to test the validity of long-run purchasing power parity (PPP) in a sample of 10 East-Asian countries (i.e., China, Hong Kong, Indonesia, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, Taiwan and Thailand) over the period of March 1985 to September 2008. The empirical results indicate that PPP holds true for half of these 10 East-Asian countries under study, and the adjustment toward PPP is found to be nonlinear and in ...
objections by the United States to a proposed East Asian Economic Caucus (EAEC) propounded primarily by Malaysia under former Prime Minister Mahathir Mohamad...proposed in 1990 by former Prime Minister Mahathir Mohamad of Malaysia. At the time, the United States opposed such an exclusive East Asian grouping...proposed by Malaysian Prime Minister Mahathir Mohamad in 1990, the U.S. strategy took two tracks. The first was to oppose its founding through
Morton, Heather; Gorzalka, Boris B
The purpose of this study was to investigate the sexual beliefs of female undergraduates, as well as the thoughts they experience during sexual experiences. The study aimed to determine potential differences in these variables between East Asian-Canadians and Euro-Canadians, as well as the influence of acculturation on these variables. In addition, the relationships between sexual beliefs, automatic thoughts, and specific aspects of sexual functioning were examined. Euro-Canadian (n = 77) and East Asian-Canadian (n = 123) undergraduate women completed the Sexual Dysfunctional Beliefs Questionnaire, the Sexual Modes Questionnaire, the Female Sexual Function Index, and the Vancouver Index of Acculturation. East Asian women endorsed almost all sexual beliefs assessed in this study more than did Euro-Canadian women, and endorsement of these beliefs was associated with acculturation. In addition, East Asian-Canadian and Euro-Canadian women differed in the frequency of experiencing negative automatic thoughts. Results also revealed associations between difficulties in sexual functioning, and both sexual beliefs and automatic thoughts. Together, these results provide preliminary support for the hypothesis that differences in cognitive aspects of sexuality may underlie the differences in sexual functioning previously observed between these two groups.
Srinivas, Nisha [ORNL; Rose, Derek C [ORNL; Bolme, David S [ORNL; Mahalingam, Gayathri [ORNL; Atwal, Harleen [ORNL; Ricanek, Karl [ORNL
This paper examines the difficulty associated with performing machine-based automatic demographic prediction on a sub-population of Asian faces. We introduce the Wild East Asian Face dataset (WEAFD), a new and unique dataset to the research community. This dataset consists primarily of labeled face images of individuals from East Asian countries, including Vietnam, Burma, Thailand, China, Korea, Japan, Indonesia, and Malaysia. East Asian turk annotators were uniquely used to judge the age and fine grain ethnicity attributes to reduce the impact of the other race effect and improve quality of annotations. We focus on predicting age, gender and fine-grained ethnicity of an individual by providing baseline results with a convolutional neural network (CNN). Finegrained ethnicity prediction refers to predicting ethnicity of an individual by country or sub-region (Chinese, Japanese, Korean, etc.) of the East Asian continent. Performance for two CNN architectures is presented, highlighting the difficulty of these tasks and showcasing potential design considerations that ease network optimization by promoting region based feature extraction.
Full Text Available Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D is one of the most serious global health problems. This is partly a result of its drastic increase in East Asia, which now comprises more than a quarter of the global diabetes population. Ethnicity and lifestyle factors are two determinants in the aetiology of T2D, and changes such as increased animal fat intake and decreased physical activity link readily to T2D in East Asians, which is characterised primarily by β-cell dysfunction that is evident immediately after ingestion of glucose or a meal, and less adiposity compared with T2D in Caucasians. These pathophysiological differences have an important impact on therapeutic approaches. Incretin-based therapies, such as dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors (DPP-4i and glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1RA, have become widely available for the management of T2D. Incretins, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide, and glucagon-like peptide-1 are secreted from the gut in response to the ingestion of various nutrients, including carbohydrates, proteins, and fats, and enhance insulin secretion via a glucose-dependent pathway to exert their glucose-lowering effects. Recent meta-analyses of clinical trials of DPP-4i and GLP-1RA found the drugs to be more effective in East Asians, most likely due to amelioration of the primary β-cell dysfunction by increased stimulation through incretin activity. In addition, our finding that the glycosylated haemoglobin-lowering effects of DPP-4i are enhanced by fish intake, and possibly worsened by animal fat intake, suggests that dietary habits such as eating more fish and less meat can affect the secretion of incretins, and supports the greater efficacy of incretin-based therapies in East Asians.
Zhou, Botao; Xu, Ying; Shi, Ying
The summer Asian-Pacific oscillation (APO), one of the major modes of climate variability over the Asian-Pacific sector, has a pronounced effect on variations of large-scale atmospheric circulations and climate. This study evaluated the capability of 30 state-of-the-art climate models among the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) in simulating its association with the atmospheric circulations over the Asian-Pacific region and the precipitation over East Asia. Furthermore, their future connections under the RCP8.5 scenario were examined. The evaluation results show that 5 out of 30 climate models can well capture the observed APO-related features in a comprehensive way, including the strengthened South Asian high (SAH), deepened North Pacific trough (NPT) and northward East Asian jet (EAJ) in the upper troposphere; an intensification of the Asian low and the North Pacific subtropical high (NPSH) as well as a northward shift of the western Pacific subtropical high (WPSH) in the lower troposphere; and a decrease in East Asian summer rainfall (EASR) under the positive APO phase. Based on the five CMIP5 models' simulations, the dynamic linkages of the APO to the SAH, NPT, AL, and NPSH are projected to maintain during the second half of the twenty-first century. However, its connection with the EASR tends to reduce significantly. Such a reduction might result from the weakening of the linkage of the APO to the meridional displacement of the EAJ and WPSH as a response to the warming scenario.
Maker, Azmaira H; Shah, Priti V; Agha, Zia
The present study examined the prevalence, characteristics, beliefs, and demographic predictors of parent-child physical violence among South Asian, Middle Eastern, East Asian, and Latina women in the United States. Two hundred fifty-one college-educated women from a middle to high SES (South Asian/Middle Eastern, n = 93; East Asian,n = 72; Latina,n = 86) completed a self-report survey on childhood experiences and beliefs regarding physical abuse. Seventy-three percent of the South Asian and Middle Eastern sample, 65% of the East Asian sample, and 78% of the Latina sample reported experiencing at least one type of physical abuse. Significant differences in characteristics and perpetrators of abuse were found across groups. Demographic factors did not predict physical abuse. Experiencing physical abuse was the only predictor for acceptance of physical discipline and as a parental privilege or right across groups. Implications of alternate cultural models of family violence based on beliefs and exposure to violence are discussed.
Rapee, Ronald M; Kim, Jinkwan; Wang, Jianping; Liu, Xinghua; Hofmann, Stefan G; Chen, Junwen; Oh, Kyung Ya; Bögels, Susan M; Arman, Soroor; Heinrichs, Nina; Alden, Lynn E
The current study compared the predicted social and career impact of socially withdrawn and reticent behaviors among participants from Western and East Asian countries. Three hundred sixty-one college students from 5 Western countries and 455 students from 3 East Asian countries read hypothetical vignettes describing socially withdrawn and shy behaviors versus socially outgoing and confident behaviors. Participants then answered questions following each vignette indicating the extent to which they would expect the subject of the vignette to be socially liked and to succeed in their career. Participants also completed measures of their own social anxiety and quality of life. The results indicated significant vignette-by-country interactions in that the difference in perceived social and career impact between shy and outgoing vignettes was smaller among participants from East Asian countries than from Western countries. In addition, significant negative correlations were shown between personal level of shyness and experienced quality of life for participants from both groups of countries, but the size of this relationship was greater for participants from Western than East Asian countries. The results point to the more negative impact of withdrawn and socially reticent behaviors for people from Western countries relative to those from East Asia. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Hudson, Nicholas J; Naval-Sánchez, Marina; Porto-Neto, Laercio; Pérez-Enciso, Miguel; Reverter, Antonio
Asian and European wild boars were independently domesticated ca. 10,000 years ago. Since the 17th century, Chinese breeds have been imported to Europe to improve the genetics of European animals by introgression of favourable alleles, resulting in a complex mosaic of haplotypes. To interrogate the structure of these haplotypes further, we have run a new haplotype segregation analysis based on information theory, namely compression efficiency (CE). We applied the approach to sequence data from individuals from each phylogeographic region (n = 23 from Asia and Europe) including a number of major pig breeds. Our genome-wide CE is able to discriminate the breeds in a manner reflecting phylogeography. Furthermore, 24,956 non-overlapping sliding windows (each comprising 1,000 consecutive SNP) were quantified for extent of haplotype sharing within and between Asia and Europe. The genome-wide distribution of extent of haplotype sharing was quite different between groups. Unlike European pigs, Asian pigs haplotype sharing approximates a normal distribution. In line with this, we found the European breeds possessed a number of genomic windows of dramatically higher haplotype sharing than the Asian breeds. Our CE analysis of sliding windows capture some of the genomic regions reported to contain signatures of selection in domestic pigs. Prominent among these regions, we highlight the role of a gene encoding the mitochondrial enzyme LACTB which has been associated with obesity, and the gene encoding MYOG a fundamental transcriptional regulator of myogenesis. The origin of these regions likely reflects either a population bottleneck in European animals, or selective targets on commercial phenotypes reducing allelic diversity in particular genes and/or regulatory regions.
Shields, E D; Jones, G
The history of the immigration of East Asians to America during the last glacial period remains controversial. In an attempt to add critical data to this problem, a large sample of whole teeth derived from Southeast Asian, Mongolian, Thule, Western Inuit, and pre-Inca (Huari) people was quantified (N = 4,507 teeth from 495 individuals; approximately 30 variables per tooth). Multivariate analysis helped establish that all Native Americans were likely derived from one ancient, extinct population that resided in the region of Mongolia (east Central Asia), and that Mongolians and Southeast Asians are two independent groups. A controversial and enigmatic Central Canadian Arctic "Thule culture Inuit" group on Southampton Island that survived until 1902 was identified as a relic, mainly Paleoeskimo Dorset community. Surprisingly, there was little, or no, indication of Dorset-to-Thule gene flow. Cumulatively, the data suggest that a small population of Paleoindian founders remained resident in Beringia, may have blocked further immigration, and were the antecedents to the Thule/Inuit. With the confluence of the Arctic and Pacific oceans at the breakup of Beringia, the resulting increased availability of marine animal food sources allowed this population to increase in size and expand throughout the eastern Arctic.
Yan, Min-Chi; Kim, Sunyoung; Kang, Hyun-Ju; Wilkerson, Kimber L.
The purpose of the current literature review is to understand how East Asian American (EAA) parents of students with disabilities perceive disabilities and special education. These parental perspectives are compared to those of their East Asian (EA) parents to better understand whether EAA parents adjust their perceptions in the U.S. Findings from…
Bartlett, R. E.; Bollasina, M. A.
Anthropogenic aerosols exert significant climate forcing, which increases with emissions following trends of growing population and industry. Globally, aerosols cause a net cooling, counteracting greenhouse gas warming; however, regional impacts vary since emissions are spatially and temporally heterogeneous. While European and North American emissions have decreased in recent decades, Asian, particularly East Asian, emissions continued to rise into the 21st century. In addition to links between Asian anthropogenic aerosols and significant local climate impacts - for example, changes to the Asian monsoon system - studies have also shown influences on remote climate. Sulfate aerosols are particularly important for East Asia, remaining at constant levels higher than column burdens of other aerosol species. If a concerted effort - as laid out by government policies aiming to improve air quality - is made, the effects of anthropogenic aerosols (due to their short atmospheric lifetime) could be quickly reversed. Thus, it is vital to understand the climate impact aerosols have had up to now to aid in determining what will happen in the future. We use transient climate modelling experiments with the Community Earth System Model to investigate the impacts of East Asian sulfate aerosols in the present day compared to 1950 (i.e. before rapid industrialisation in this region), focusing on dynamical mechanisms leading to the occurrence of such impacts, and how their influence can spread to remote regions. We find, in addition to significant monsoon impacts, noticeable shifts in large-scale circulation features such as the ITCZ and the Pacific Walker cell. Through diabatic heating responses, changes to upper-level atmospheric dynamics are evident, leading to downstream effects on surface climate - for example, surface cooling over Europe. Understanding of these impacts is vital when considering how the good intentions of air quality improvement might inadvertently have
Chentsova-Dutton, Yulia E; Chu, Joyce P; Tsai, Jeanne L; Rottenberg, Jonathan; Gross, James J; Gotlib, Ian H
Studies of Western samples (e.g., European Americans [EAs]) suggest that depressed individuals tend to show diminished emotional reactivity (J. G. Gehricke & A. J. Fridlund, 2002; G. E. Schwartz, P. L. Fair, P. Salt, M. R. Mandel, & G. L. Klerman, 1976a, 1976b). Do these findings generalize to individuals oriented to other cultures (e.g., East Asian cultures)? The authors compared the emotional reactions (i.e., reports of emotional experience, facial behavior, and physiological reactivity) of depressed and nondepressed EAs and Asian Americans of East Asian descent (AAs) to sad and amusing films. Their results were consistent with previous findings: Depressed EAs showed a pattern of diminished reactivity to the sad film (less crying, less intense reports of sadness) compared with nondepressed participants. In contrast, depressed AAs showed a pattern of heightened emotional reactivity (greater crying) compared with nondepressed participants. Across cultural groups, depressed and nondepressed participants did not differ in their reports of amusement or facial behavior during the amusing film. Physiological reactivity to the film clips did not differ between depressed and control participants for either cultural group. Thus, although depression may influence particular aspects of emotional reactivity across cultures (e.g., crying), the specific direction of this influence may depend on prevailing cultural norms regarding emotional expression. (c) 2007 APA
Gangoli, Geetanjali; McCarry, Melanie; Razak, Amina
This article addresses the links between child marriage and forced marriage in the UK, drawing from a research study on South Asian communities in North East England. It looks at definitional issues through an analysis of UK and South Asian policies. It also analyses how these concepts are understood by service providers, survivors of child…
Chee, Michael Wei Liang; Zheng, Hui; Goh, Joshua Oon Soo; Park, Denise; Sutton, Bradley P.
There is an emergent literature suggesting that East Asians and Westerners differ in cognitive processes because of cultural biases to process information holistically (East Asians) or analytically (Westerners). To evaluate the possibility that such differences are accompanied by differences in brain structure, we conducted a large comparative…
Regional tendencies in higher education are increasingly important, for example the common rise of North-East Asian universities in China, Hong Kong SAR, Taiwan and South Korea, and Singapore in South-East Asia, to a major global role, following the prior trajectory of Japan. Though the rapidly modernizing Post-Confucian countries do not…
Baldwin, Richard E.
The paper argues that East Asian regionalism is fragile, since (i) each nation's industrial competitiveness depends on the smooth functioning of "Factory Asia" — in particular, on intra-regional trade; (ii) the unilateral tariff-cutting that created "Factory Asia" is not subject to WTO discipline (bindings); (iii) there is no "top-level management" to substitute for WTO discipline, i.e., to ensure that bilateral trade tensions — tensions that are inevitable in East Asia — do not spillover int...
In the past, the experience of the ‘East Asian Miracle’ and the sufferings from the ‘East Asian Meltdown’ were the impetus to generate and develop East Asian regional identity. The situation, however, is changing drastically. The future of East Asia regionalism has become amorphous because of complicated new trends. Japan, one of the important actors that constitute triangular relationships in East Asia, has been encouraging development of East Asian regionalism in the economic arena. Austral...
Zhu, A.; Ramanathan, V.
The Pacific Dust Experiment (PACDEX) provides the first detailed sampling of dust-soot mixtures from the western Pacific to the eastern Pacific Ocean. The data includes down and up spectral irradiance, mixing state of dust and soot, and other aerosol properties. This study attempts to simulate the radiative forcing by dust-soot mixtures during the experimental period. The MODTRAN band model was employed to investigate the spectral signatures of solar irradiance change induced by aerosols at moderate spectral resolutions. For the short wave band (300-1100nm) used in this study, the reduction of downward irradiance at surface by aerosols greatly enhances with increasing wavelength in the UV band (300-400nm), reaches a maximum in the blue band, then gradually decreases toward the red band. In the near-IR band (700-1100nm), irradiance reduction by aerosols shows great fluctuations in the band with center wavelength at around 940nm, 820nm, 720nm, 760nm, 690nm, where the aerosol effect is overwhelmed by the water vapor and O2 absorptions. The spectral pattern of irradiance reduction varies for different aerosol species. The maximum reduction lies at around 450nm for soot, and shifting to about 490nm for East Asian mineral dust. It's worth noting that although soot aerosols reduce more irradiance than East Asian dust in the UV and blue band, the impact of dust to the irradiance exceeds that by soot at the longer wavelength band (i.e. around 550nm). The reduction of irradiance by East Asian dust (soot) in the UV band, visible band, and near-IR accounts for about 6% (10%), 56% (64%), and 38% (26%) of total irradiance reduction. As large amount of soot aerosols are involved during the long range transport of East Asian dust, the optical properties of dust aerosols are modified with different mixing state with soot, the spectral pattern of the irradiance reduction will be changed. The study of aerosol forcing at moderate spectral resolutions has the potential application for
Thomas M Begley; Wee-Liang Tan
This study uses a theory of face to identify predictors of interest in entrepreneurship in six East Asian and four Anglo-Saxon countries. At the cultural level, social status of entrepreneurship and shame from business failure predict interest in entrepreneurship better in East Asian than Anglo countries. At the individual level, social status predicts interest in entrepreneurship in the entire sample.© 2001 JIBS. Journal of International Business Studies (2001) 32, 537–553
Homma, Yuko; Chen, Weihong; Poon, Colleen S.; Saewyc, Elizabeth M.
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between substance use and sexual orientation among Asian adolescents in Canada. We analyzed an East- and Southeast-Asian subsample of a province-wide, school-based survey (weighted N = 51,349). Compared to heterosexual adolescents of the same gender, gay, lesbian, bisexual, and mostly…
Xu, Xinping; Li, Fei; He, Shengping; Wang, Huijun
Although there has been a considerable amount of research conducted on the East Asian winter-mean climate, subseasonal surface air temperature (SAT) variability reversals in the early and late winter remain poorly understood. In this study, we focused on the recent winter of 2014/15, in which warmer anomalies dominated in January and February but colder conditions prevailed in December. Moreover, Arctic sea-ice cover (ASIC) in September-October 2014 was lower than normal, and warmer sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies occurred in the Niño4 region in winter, together with a positive Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO|+) phase. Using observational data and CMIP5 historical simulations, we investigated the PDO|+ phase modulation upon the winter warm Niño4 phase (autumn ASIC reduction) influence on the subseasonal SAT variability of East Asian winter. The results show that, under a PDO|+ phase modulation, warm Niño4 SST anomalies are associated with a subseasonal delay of tropical surface heating and subsequent Hadley cell and Ferrel cell intensification in January-February, linking the tropical and midlatitude regions. Consistently, the East Asian jet stream (EAJS) is significantly decelerated in January-February and hence promotes the warm anomalies over East Asia. Under the PDO|+ phase, the decrease in ASIC is related to cold SST anomalies in the western North Pacific, which increase the meridional temperature gradient and generate an accelerated and westward-shifted EAJS in December. The westward extension of the EAJS is responsible for the eastward-propagating Rossby waves triggered by declining ASIC and thereby favors the connection between ASIC and cold conditions over East Asia.
'Development' is to improve the quality of people's lives by creating an environment for them to engage in a wide range of activities, to be healthy and well nourished, to be knowledgeable and to be able to participate in the community life. The Human Development Index (HDI) is a multi-dimensional index of development as it is the combination of three development indices- health index, education index and income index. This article attempts to compare the HDI and its components between various South East Asian countries. Secondary data is used. India's position on the HDI scale is equivalent to the South East Asian average and rank 134 out of more than 190 countries. In South East Asia, India stood fifth in HDI, behind Sri Lanka, Thailand, Maldives and Indonesia. Country has launched several schemes and programs to improve the health indicators, to provide elementary education to every child and to alleviate poverty. India's HDI value has improved with time but still country has a long way to go in achieving an acceptable HDI. Need is to strengthen the existing schemes and programs.
Lee, D. Y.; Ahn, J. B.; Yoo, J. H.
The prediction skills of climate model simulations in the western tropical Pacific (WTP) and East Asian region are assessed using the retrospective forecasts of seven state-of-the-art coupled models and their multi-model ensemble (MME) for boreal summers (June-August) during the period 1983-2005, along with corresponding observed and reanalyzed data. The prediction of summer rainfall anomalies in East Asia is difficult, while the WTP has a strong correlation between model prediction and observation. We focus on developing a new approach to further enhance the seasonal prediction skill for summer rainfall in East Asia and investigate the influence of convective activity in the WTP on East Asian summer rainfall. By analyzing the characteristics of the WTP convection, two distinct patterns associated with El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) developing and decaying modes are identified. Based on the multiple linear regression method, the East Asia Rainfall Index (EARI) is developed by using the interannual variability of the normalized Maritime continent-WTP indices (MPIs), as potentially useful predictors for rainfall prediction over East Asia, obtained from the above two main patterns. For East Asian summer rainfall, the EARI has superior performance to the East Asia summer monsoon index (EASMI) or each MP index (MPI). Therefore, the regressed rainfall from EARI also shows a strong relationship with the observed East Asian summer rainfall pattern. In addition, we evaluate the prediction skill of the East Asia reconstructed rainfall obtained by statistical-empirical approach using the cross-validated EARI from the individual models and their MME. The results show that the rainfalls reconstructed from simulations capture the general features of observed precipitation in East Asia quite well. This study convincingly demonstrates that rainfall prediction skill is considerably improved by using the statistical-empirical method compared to the dynamical models
Apr 29, 2016 ... Levers for change: philanthropy in select South East Asian countries ... the low donor awareness of societal needs and the lack of donor education and skills development. ... Tourism is an important driver of economic growth throughout Southeast Asia. ... Supporting sustainable economic growth in ASEAN.
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to provide a structural overview about indigenous approaches to learning in South East Asian countries, with a particular reference to education initiatives that have been operating in this region; and especially to investigate information and communication technologies (ICT) systems, in combination with…
Shim, Gayoung; Freund, Henning; Stopsack, Malte; Kämmerer, Annette; Barnow, Sven
The present study explores acculturation and its associated aspects of two East Asian student groups with different levels of exposure to German culture (100 international students from East Asian countries [IS]; 61 second generation students of East Asian descent [SGS]). First, we investigated the relationships between acculturation, self-construal, depressive and somatic symptoms, and differences between the student groups in these variables. Second, the four acculturation types (integration, assimilation, separation and marginalization) were examined regarding their relationship to self-construal and health outcomes. The results showed that the acculturation dimensions (mainstream, heritage) were relevant to the level of depressive symptoms for IS which was not the case for SGS. Furthermore, IS reported more somatic symptoms whereas there was no difference between the two groups in the level of depressive symptoms. In the analysis of acculturation types, assimilated and integrated students were characterized by high independent self-construal, while separated and integrated students showed high interdependent self-construal. Assimilated students displayed the least depressive symptoms of all acculturation groups. This study highlights different characteristics of East Asian students in acculturation, self-construal and health outcomes, and discusses the complexity of the relationships between acculturation types and health. © 2013 International Union of Psychological Science.
Edwards, Melissa; Cha, David; Krithika, S; Johnson, Monique; Cook, Gillian; Parra, Esteban J
In this study, we present a new quantitative method to measure iris colour based on high-resolution photographs. We applied this method to analyse iris colour variation in a sample of individuals of East Asian, European and South Asian ancestry. We show that measuring iris colour using the coordinates of the CIELAB colour space uncovers a significant amount of variation that is not captured using conventional categorical classifications, such as 'brown', 'blue' or 'green'. We tested the association of a selected panel of polymorphisms with iris colour in each population group. Six markers showed significant associations with iris colour in the European sample, three in the South Asian sample and two in the East Asian sample. We also observed that the marker HERC2 rs12913832, which is the main determinant of 'blue' versus 'brown' iris colour in European populations, is also significantly associated with central heterochromia in the European sample. © 2015 The Authors. Pigment Cell & Melanoma Research Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Wang, Zhibiao; Wu, Renguang; Chen, Shangfeng; Huang, Gang; Liu, Ge; Zhu, Lihua
The influence of boreal winter-spring eastern Tibetan Plateau snow anomalies on the East Asian summer rainfall variability has been the focus of previous studies. The present study documents the impacts of boreal summer western and southern Tibetan Plateau snow cover anomalies on summer rainfall over East Asia. Analysis shows that more snow cover in the western and southern Tibetan Plateau induces anomalous cooling in the overlying atmospheric column. The induced atmospheric circulation changes are different corresponding to more snow cover in the western and southern Tibetan Plateau. The atmospheric circulation changes accompanying the western Plateau snow cover anomalies are more obvious over the midlatitude Asia, whereas those corresponding to the southern Plateau snow cover anomalies are more prominent over the tropics. As such, the western and southern Tibetan Plateau snow cover anomalies influence the East Asian summer circulation and precipitation through different pathways. Nevertheless, the East Asian summer circulation and precipitation anomalies induced by the western and southern Plateau snow cover anomalies tend to display similar distribution so that they are more pronounced when the western and southern Plateau snow cover anomalies work in coherence. Analysis indicates that the summer snow cover anomalies over the Tibetan Plateau may be related to late spring snow anomalies due to the persistence. The late spring snow anomalies are related to an obvious wave train originating from the western North Atlantic that may be partly associated with sea surface temperature anomalies in the North Atlantic Ocean.
Full Text Available Four East Asian winter monsoon (EAWM indices are compared in this paper. In the research periods, all the indices show similar interannual and decadal-interdecadal variations, with predominant periods centering in 3–4 years, 6.5 years and 9–15 years, respectively. Besides, all the indices show remarkable weakening trends since the 1980s. The correlation coefficient of each two indices is positive with a significance level of 99%. Both the correlation analyses and the composites indicate that in stronger EAWM years, the Siberian high and the higher-level subtropical westerly jet are stronger, and the Aleutian low and the East Asia trough are deeper. This circulation pattern is favorable for much stronger northwesterly wind and lower air temperature in the subtropical regions of East Asia, while it is on the opposite in weaker EAWM years. Besides, EAWM can also exert a remarkable leading effect on the summer monsoon. After stronger (weaker EAWM, less (more summer precipitation is seen over the regions from the Yangtze River valley of China to southern Japan, while more (less from South China Sea to the tropical western Pacific.
Lin, Yi-Jiun; Flores, Lisa Y.
Using a sample of 86 East Asian international graduate students, this study examined Bandura's perceived self-efficacy model (1986) in the domain of job search self-efficacy and tested the mediating effects of job search self-efficacy in the relationship between efficacy source variables and job search behaviors. Results show that both performance…
Groenen, Martien A. M.; Archibald, Alan L.; Uenishi, Hirohide; Tuggle, Christopher K.; Takeuchi, Yasuhiro; Rothschild, Max F.; Rogel-Gaillard, Claire; Park, Chankyu; Milan, Denis; Megens, Hendrik-Jan; Li, Shengting; Larkin, Denis M.; Kim, Heebal; Frantz, Laurent A. F.; Caccamo, Mario; Ahn, Hyeonju; Aken, Bronwen L.; Anselmo, Anna; Anthon, Christian; Auvil, Loretta; Badaoui, Bouabid; Beattie, Craig W.; Bendixen, Christian; Berman, Daniel; Blecha, Frank; Blomberg, Jonas; Bolund, Lars; Bosse, Mirte; Botti, Sara; Bujie, Zhan; Bystrom, Megan; Capitanu, Boris; Silva, Denise Carvalho; Chardon, Patrick; Chen, Celine; Cheng, Ryan; Choi, Sang-Haeng; Chow, William; Clark, Richard C.; Clee, Christopher; Crooijmans, Richard P. M. A.; Dawson, Harry D.; Dehais, Patrice; De Sapio, Fioravante; Dibbits, Bert; Drou, Nizar; Du, Zhi-Qiang; Eversole, Kellye; Fadista, João; Fairley, Susan; Faraut, Thomas; Faulkner, Geoffrey J.; Fowler, Katie E.; Fredholm, Merete; Fritz, Eric; Gilbert, James G. R.; Giuffra, Elisabetta; Gorodkin, Jan; Griffin, Darren K.; Harrow, Jennifer L.; Hayward, Alexander; Howe, Kerstin; Hu, Zhi-Liang; Humphray, Sean J.; Hunt, Toby; Hornshøj, Henrik; Jeon, Jin-Tae; Jern, Patric; Jones, Matthew; Jurka, Jerzy; Kanamori, Hiroyuki; Kapetanovic, Ronan; Kim, Jaebum; Kim, Jae-Hwan; Kim, Kyu-Won; Kim, Tae-Hun; Larson, Greger; Lee, Kyooyeol; Lee, Kyung-Tai; Leggett, Richard; Lewin, Harris A.; Li, Yingrui; Liu, Wansheng; Loveland, Jane E.; Lu, Yao; Lunney, Joan K.; Ma, Jian; Madsen, Ole; Mann, Katherine; Matthews, Lucy; McLaren, Stuart; Morozumi, Takeya; Murtaugh, Michael P.; Narayan, Jitendra; Nguyen, Dinh Truong; Ni, Peixiang; Oh, Song-Jung; Onteru, Suneel; Panitz, Frank; Park, Eung-Woo; Park, Hong-Seog; Pascal, Geraldine; Paudel, Yogesh; Perez-Enciso, Miguel; Ramirez-Gonzalez, Ricardo; Reecy, James M.; Zas, Sandra Rodriguez; Rohrer, Gary A.; Rund, Lauretta; Sang, Yongming; Schachtschneider, Kyle; Schraiber, Joshua G.; Schwartz, John; Scobie, Linda; Scott, Carol; Searle, Stephen; Servin, Bertrand; Southey, Bruce R.; Sperber, Goran; Stadler, Peter; Sweedler, Jonathan V.; Tafer, Hakim; Thomsen, Bo; Wali, Rashmi; Wang, Jian; Wang, Jun; White, Simon; Xu, Xun; Yerle, Martine; Zhang, Guojie; Zhang, Jianguo; Zhang, Jie; Zhao, Shuhong; Rogers, Jane; Churcher, Carol; Schook, Lawrence B.
For 10,000 years pigs and humans have shared a close and complex relationship. From domestication to modern breeding practices, humans have shaped the genomes of domestic pigs. Here we present the assembly and analysis of the genome sequence of a female domestic Duroc pig (Sus scrofa) and a comparison with the genomes of wild and domestic pigs from Europe and Asia. Wild pigs emerged in South East Asia and subsequently spread across Eurasia. Our results reveal a deep phylogenetic split between European and Asian wild boars ~1 million years ago, and a selective sweep analysis indicates selection on genes involved in RNA processing and regulation. Genes associated with immune response and olfaction exhibit fast evolution. Pigs have the largest repertoire of functional olfactory receptor genes, reflecting the importance of smell in this scavenging animal. The pig genome sequence provides an important resource for further improvements of this important livestock species, and our identification of many putative disease-causing variants extends the potential of the pig as a biomedical model. PMID:23151582
Philip Taylor; Christopher Findlay
This paper reviews the implications of economic growth for food consumption in Asia, the East Asian supply responses and the determinants of Australian competitiveness in meeting Asian demand from production in Australia. Our special interests are to draw out some implications for Australia’s irrigated agriculture and for the organisation of the export business of that sector of the economy. A key question is the scope for increased exports of fresh rather than processed products. Sources of ...
Little research has been done to investigate the influence of cultural differences on students' second/foreign language learning styles, with a focus on comparing between East and West classroom cultures. This study investigates the differences that East Asian students may encounter when studying in the English-medium academic environment. By…
Under the condition of land-atmosphere heat and water conservation, a set of sensitive numerical experiments are set up to investigate the response of the East Asian climate system to global frozen soil change. This is done by introducing the supercooled soil water process into the Community Land Model (CLM3.0), which has been coupled to the National Center of Atmospheric Research Community Atmosphere Model (CAM3.1). Results show that: 1) The ratio between soil ice and soil water in CLM3.0 is clearly changed by the supercooled soil water process. Ground surface temperature and soil temperature are also affected. 2) The Eurasian (including East Asian) climate system is sensitive to changes of heat and water in frozen soil regions. In January, the Aleutian low sea level pressure circulation is strengthened, Ural blocking high at 500 hPa weakened, and East Asian trough weakened. In July, sea level pressure over the Aleutian Islands region is significantly reduced; there are negative anomalies of 500 hPa geopotential height over the East Asian mainland, and positive anomalies over the East Asian ocean. 3) In January, the southerly component of the 850 hPa wind field over East Asia increases, indicating a weakened winter monsoon. In July, cyclonic anomalies appear on the East Asian mainland while there are anticyclonic anomalies over the ocean, reflective of a strengthened east coast summer monsoon. 4) Summer rainfall in East Asia changed significantly, including substantial precipitation increase on the southern Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, central Yangtze River Basin, and northeast China. Summer rainfall significantly decreased in south China and Hainan Island, but slightly decreased in central and north China. Further analysis showed considerable upper air motion along 30°N latitude, with substantial descent of air at its north and south sides. Warm and humid air from the Northeast Pacific converged with cold air from northern land areas, representing the main cause of
de Grijs, Richard; Zhang, Ziping; He, Jinhua
At the 2012 General Assembly of the International Astronomical Union (IAU), the Office of Astronomy for Development announced a number of exciting new partnerships to assist with the IAU's decadal strategic plan (2010-2020). These landmark decisions included establishing a new coordinating centre that aims at using astronomy as a tool for development in East Asia. The agreement covers two important functions. One is known as a Regional Node, which entails the coordination of astronomy-for-development activities in countries within the general geographical region of East Asia. The other is known as a Language Expertise Centre which deals with all aspects relating to (mainly) the Chinese language and culture. The impact of the latter may obviously spread well beyond the geographical region to other parts of the world. Here we provide an update of the achievements and aims of the East Asian Office of Astronomy for Development.
Lim, Young-Kwon; Kim, Hae-Dong
The impact of European teleconnections including the East AtlanticWest Russia (EA-WR), the Scandinavia (SCA), and the East Atlantic (EA) on East Asian winter temperature variability was quantified and compared with the combined effect of the Arctic Oscillation (AO), the Western Pacific (WP), and the El-Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO), which are originated in the Northern Hemispheric high-latitudes or the Pacific. Three European teleconnections explained 22-25 percent of the total monthly upper-tropospheric height variance over Eurasia. Regression analysis revealed warming by EA-WR and EA and cooling by SCA over mid-latitude East Asia during their positive phase and vice versa. Temperature anomalies were largely explained by the advective temperature change process at the lower troposphere. The average spatial correlation over East Asia (90-180E, 10-80N) for the last 34 winters between observed and reconstructed temperature comprised of AO, WP and ENSO effect (AWE) was approximately 0.55, and adding the European teleconnection components (ESE) to the reconstructed temperature improved the correlation up to approximately 0.64. Lower level atmospheric structure demonstrated that approximately five of the last 34 winters were significantly better explained by ESE than AWE to determine East Asian seasonal winter temperatures. We also compared the impact between EA-WR and AO on the 1) East Asian winter monsoon, 2) cold surge, and 3) the Siberian high. These three were strongly coupled, and their spatial features and interannual variation were somewhat better explained by EA-WR than AO. Results suggest that the EA-WR impact must be treated more importantly than previously thought for a better understanding of East Asian winter temperature and monsoon variability.
de Grijs, Richard; Zhang, Ziping
At the 2012 General Assembly of the International Astronomical Union (IAU), the Office of Astronomy for Development (OAD) programme announced a number of exciting new partnerships to assist with the IAU's decadal strategic plan (2010-2020). These landmark decisions included establishing a new coordinating centre that aims at using astronomy as a tool for development in East Asia. The agreement covers two important functions. One is known as a Regional Node, which entails the coordination of astronomy-for-development activities in countries within the general geographical region of East Asia (in first instance China, Mongolia and the DPRK, but without placing firm geographical limits on the region). The other is known as a Language Expertise Centre which will deal with all aspects relating to (mainly) the Chinese language and culture. The impact of the latter may obviously spread well beyond the geographical region to other parts of the world. At this next General Assembly, we aim at updating the community of the achievements and aims of the East Asian Office of Astronomy for Development.
Fujimura, Naoki; Obara, Hideaki; Matsubara, Kentaro; Watada, Susumu; Shibutani, Shintaro; Akiyoshi, Takurin; Harada, Hirohisa; Kitagawa, Yuko
Clinically distinct differences exist between East Asian and Caucasian subjects, but data for type 2 endoleak (T2EL) are limited in the East Asian population. The aim of this study was to analyze the characteristics of East Asian T2EL using a Japanese multicenter database. Retrospective analysis of 832 endovascular aneurysm repairs performed from 2008 to 2014 were conducted. T2EL was observed in 234 cases (28.1%), and in 32 cases (3.8%) it led to sac expansion >5 mm caused by isolated T2EL (median follow-up, 35.6 months). On univariate and multivariate analysis, non-smoker status (odds ratio [OR], 2.216; P<0.001), Excluder stent graft (OR, 2.027; P<0.001), and T2EL at final angiogram (OR, 2.080; P<0.001) were risk factors for T2EL. On multivariate analysis for isolated T2EL with sac expansion, only non-smoker status remained (OR, 2.671; P<0.001). Other than T1EL, isolated T2EL was the most significant risk factor for sac expansion (OR, 18.486; P<0.001). Furthermore, out of 11 transarterial embolization procedures initiated, 4 led to rupture during follow-up. East Asian T2EL had a strong relationship with non-smoker status. Also, T2EL was a significant risk factor for sac expansion, which sometimes led to rupture even after intervention. Along with the high prevalence of T2EL observed, East Asian T2EL may not always be benign.
Lau, Kwok Chi
The study has integrated the data from PISA 2006 to 2012 to give an overall picture of the cognitive and affective performances and pedagogy of East Asian regions on PISA scientific literacy. Attempts are made to account for their performances based on the PISA data and cultural characteristics. The cognitive science performance of East Asian…
Barry, Declan T; Bernard, Matthew J; Beitel, Mark
Child-rearing attitudes among East Asian groups have been emphasized in the developmental psychology literature in the context of their association with academic achievement. Although child-rearing attitudes play an important role in the transmission of cultural values, much of the research on East Asian child-rearing attitudes has ignored cultural variables and has instead focused on authoritarian parenting style. The current study examined the association between three classes of variables-culture (i.e., ethnic identity, self-construal, acculturation), demographics (sex, years in the US, English fluency), and self-disclosure-and traditional child-rearing attitudes (TCRA) among East Asian immigrants in the United States. It was hypothesized that higher levels of TCRA would be associated with higher levels of ethnic identity, interdependent self-construal, separation, and guarded self-disclosure, and fewer years spent in the United States. The participants included 170 East Asian (Chinese, Japanese, and Korean) immigrants (88 men, 82 women) who were administered a battery of psychometrically established measures. Our hypotheses were largely supported. We found that, while there was no significant sex by ethnicity effect for TCRA, men were significantly more likely than women to endorse TCRA and the Korean group had significantly higher TCRA than the Japanese group. Ethnic identity, interdependent self-construal, separation, years in the US, and guarded self-disclosure were significant independent predictors of TCRA. The findings suggest the need for broadening the content of assessment tools of child-rearing attitudes and measuring associated cultural and noncultural variables among East Asian ethnic groups. Future research on child-rearing attitudes among Asian ethnic groups may benefit from (1) measuring multiple dimensions of TCRA, (2) assessing associated cultural variables directly rather than inferring them in an ad hoc fashion based on observed ethnicity
Sung, Helen Y.
Academic success among East Asian students is well known and almost stereotypical. Yet the attention to emotional well-being continues to be minimal. The discrepancy between academic success and social/emotional difficulties appears to be a problem among East Asian adolescents. This qualitative grounded theory study examines how the cultural…
Homma, Yuko; Chen, Weihong; Poon, Colleen S.; Saewyc, Elizabeth M.
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between substance use and sexual orientation among Asian adolescents in Canada. We analyzed an East and Southeast Asian subsample of a province-wide, school-based survey (weighted N = 51,349). Compared to heterosexual adolescents of the same gender, gay, lesbian, bisexual, and mostly heterosexual adolescents were more likely to use alcohol, marijuana, or other illicit drugs. Particularly, sexual minority girls were at increased risk fo...
Full Text Available A rapid surge of female breast cancer has been observed in young women in several East Asian countries. The BIM deletion polymorphism, which confers cell resistance to apoptosis, was recently found exclusively in East Asian people with prevalence rate of 12%. We aimed to evaluate the possible role of this genetic alteration in carcinogenesis of breast cancer in East Asians.Female healthy volunteers (n = 307, patients in one consecutive stage I-III breast cancer cohort (n = 692 and one metastatic breast cancer cohort (n = 189 were evaluated. BIM wild-type and deletion alleles were separately genotyped in genomic DNAs.Both cancer cohorts consistently showed inverse associations between the BIM deletion polymorphism and patient age (≤35 y vs. 36-50 y vs. >50 y: 29% vs. 22% vs. 15%, P = 0.006 in the consecutive cohort, and 40% vs. 23% vs. 13%, P = 0.023 in the metastatic cohort. In healthy volunteers, the frequencies of the BIM deletion polymorphism were similar (13%-14% in all age groups. Further analyses indicated that the BIM deletion polymorphism was not associated with specific clinicopathologic features, but it was associated with poor overall survival (adjusted hazard ratio 1.71 in the consecutive cohort.BIM deletion polymorphism may be involved in the tumorigenesis of the early-onset breast cancer among East Asians.
Goto-Yamamoto, Nami; Sawler, Jason; Myles, Sean
Koshu is a grape cultivar native to Japan and is one of the country's most important cultivars for wine making. Koshu and other oriental grape cultivars are widely believed to belong to the European domesticated grape species Vitis vinifera. To verify the domesticated origin of Koshu and four other cultivars widely grown in China and Japan, we genotyped 48 ancestry informative single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and estimated wild and domesticated ancestry proportions. Our principal components analysis (PCA) based ancestry estimation revealed that Koshu is 70% V. vinifera, and that the remaining 30% of its ancestry is most likely derived from wild East Asian Vitis species. Partial sequencing of chloroplast DNA suggests that Koshu's maternal line is derived from the Chinese wild species V. davidii or a closely related species. Our results suggest that many traditional East Asian grape cultivars such as Koshu were generated from hybridization events with wild grape species.
Hu, Kaiming; Huang, Gang; Wu, Renguang; Wang, Lin
Based on observational and reanalysis datasets, this study investigates the structure and dynamics of a wave-like atmospheric teleconnection pattern along the wintertime Asian jet and its influence on East Asian climate. Along the jet, the leading empirical orthogonal function (EOF) mode of monthly meridional winds at 250-hPa in winter (December, January, and February) is organized as a wave train with maximum anomalies at upper troposphere. The wave train propagates northeastward from the North Atlantic to Europe, turns southeastward to the Middle East with amplifying amplitude, propagates along the jet to South China, and reaches Japan, which is partly induced by sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies in the equatorial eastern Pacific and the North Atlantic Oscillation. Over the sector from Europe to the Middle East, the anomalous vortices in the wave train tilt northwestward with height and tilt northeast/southwest in horizontal at 250 hPa, favoring for extracting available potential energy and kinetic energy from mean flows effectively. In addition, there exists a positive feedback between transient eddies and the wave train-related anomalous circulation over the North Atlantic and Europe. These processes help to maintain and amplify the wave train. Moreover, the wave train can exert significant influences on the wintertime climate in East Asia. When it is in the phase with a cyclone (anticyclone) over South China (Japan), rainfall tends to be above normal in South and East China and surface air temperature tends to be above normal around Japan and the Korea peninsula.
Yu, Guirui; Chen, Zhi; Piao, Shilong; Peng, Changhui; Ciais, Philippe; Wang, Qiufeng; Li, Xuanran; Zhu, Xianjin
Temperate- and high-latitude forests have been shown to contribute a carbon sink in the Northern Hemisphere, but fewer studies have addressed the carbon balance of the subtropical forests. In the present study, we integrated eddy covariance observations established in the 1990s and 2000s to show that East Asian monsoon subtropical forests between 20°N and 40°N represent an average net ecosystem productivity (NEP) of 362 ± 39 g C m−2 yr−1 (mean ± 1 SE). This average forest NEP value is higher than that of Asian tropical and temperate forests and is also higher than that of forests at the same latitudes in Europe–Africa and North America. East Asian monsoon subtropical forests have comparable NEP to that of subtropical forests of the southeastern United States and intensively managed Western European forests. The total NEP of East Asian monsoon subtropical forests was estimated to be 0.72 ± 0.08 Pg C yr−1, which accounts for 8% of the global forest NEP. This result indicates that the role of subtropical forests in the current global carbon cycle cannot be ignored and that the regional distributions of the Northern Hemisphere's terrestrial carbon sinks are needed to be reevaluated. The young stand ages and high nitrogen deposition, coupled with sufficient and synchronous water and heat availability, may be the primary reasons for the high NEP of this region, and further studies are needed to quantify the contribution of each underlying factor. PMID:24639529
Li, Jiaqi; Wang, Yanlin; Xiao, Feiya
The present article reports a systematic review of the studies related to psychological well-being among East Asian international students. A total of 18 quantitative studies published in peer-reviewed journals from 2000 to 2011 were reviewed. Our review revealed three major results: (1) a majority of researchers (n = 13, 72.2%) tend to choose…
Abe, Makiko; Ito, Hidemi; Oze, Isao; Nomura, Masatoshi; Ogawa, Yoshihiro; Matsuo, Keitaro
Little is known about the difference of genetic predisposition for CRC between ethnicities; however, many genetic traits common to colorectal cancer have been identified. This study investigated whether more SNPs identified in GWAS in East Asian population could improve the risk prediction of Japanese and explored possible application of genetic risk groups as an instrument of the risk communication. 558 Patients histologically verified colorectal cancer and 1116 first-visit outpatients were included for derivation study, and 547 cases and 547 controls were for replication study. Among each population, we evaluated prediction models for the risk of CRC that combined the genetic risk group based on SNPs from GWASs in European-population and a similarly developed model adding SNPs from GWASs in East Asian-population. We examined whether adding East Asian-specific SNPs would improve the discrimination. Six SNPs (rs6983267, rs4779584, rs4444235, rs9929218, rs10936599, rs16969681) from 23 SNPs by European-based GWAS and five SNPs (rs704017, rs11196172, rs10774214, rs647161, rs2423279) among ten SNPs by Asian-based GWAS were selected in CRC risk prediction model. Compared with a 6-SNP-based model, an 11-SNP model including Asian GWAS-SNPs showed improved discrimination capacity in Receiver operator characteristic analysis. A model with 11 SNPs resulted in statistically significant improvement in both derivation (P = 0.0039) and replication studies (P = 0.0018) compared with six SNP model. We estimated cumulative risk of CRC by using genetic risk group based on 11 SNPs and found that the cumulative risk at age 80 is approximately 13% in the high-risk group while 6% in the low-risk group. We constructed a more efficient CRC risk prediction model with 11 SNPs including newly identified East Asian-based GWAS SNPs (rs704017, rs11196172, rs10774214, rs647161, rs2423279). Risk grouping based on 11 SNPs depicted lifetime difference of CRC risk. This might be useful for
Full Text Available Koshu is a grape cultivar native to Japan and is one of the country's most important cultivars for wine making. Koshu and other oriental grape cultivars are widely believed to belong to the European domesticated grape species Vitis vinifera. To verify the domesticated origin of Koshu and four other cultivars widely grown in China and Japan, we genotyped 48 ancestry informative single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs and estimated wild and domesticated ancestry proportions. Our principal components analysis (PCA based ancestry estimation revealed that Koshu is 70% V. vinifera, and that the remaining 30% of its ancestry is most likely derived from wild East Asian Vitis species. Partial sequencing of chloroplast DNA suggests that Koshu's maternal line is derived from the Chinese wild species V. davidii or a closely related species. Our results suggest that many traditional East Asian grape cultivars such as Koshu were generated from hybridization events with wild grape species.
Bonghan Kim; Seeun Jeong
This paper empirically analyzes the relative effects of the dollar and yen on the value of East Asian currencies. We focus especially on countries that have chosen to adopt floating regimes in the post-financial crisis period, such as South Korea, Taiwan, Indonesia, the Philippines and Thailand. First, we calculate a exchange rate flexibility index and carry out a regression using Frankel and Wei's (1994) methodology. The results confirm an increase in the coupling of East Asian currencies vi...
Tamagawa, T.; Urata, Y.; Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo; Huang, K. Y.; Ip, W.H.; Qiu, Y.; Hu, J.Y.; Zhou, Xn.; Onda, K.; Tokyo Univ. of Sciences, Tokyo; Makishima, K.; Tokyo Univ., Tokyo
In 2004, we established a Japan-Taiwan-China collaboration for GBR study in the East-Asian region. This serves as a valuable addiction to the world-wide optical and infrared follow-up network, because the East-Asia region would otherwise be blank. We have been carrying out imaging and spectroscopy follow-up observations at Lulin (Taiwan), Kiso (Japan), WIDGET (Japan) and Xinglong (China). From Xinglong and Kiso, we can locate candidates and obtain early time spectra for afterglows. While WIDGET provides early time observations before the bursts, the high-time resolution for multi-band light curves can be obtained at Lulin. With the data from these sites, we can obtain detailed information about the light curve and redshift of GRBs, which are important to understand the mechanism of the afterglows. Up to March 2005, ten follow-up observations have been provided by this East-Asia cooperation. Two optical afterglows were detected, GRB 040924 and GRB 041006. The results of the two detected afterglows are reported in this paper
Tamagawa, T. [RIKEN, Saitama (Japan); Urata, Y. [RIKEN, Saitama (Japan); Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan). Department of Physics; Huang, K. Y.; Ip, W.H. [National Centre University, Tokyo (Japan). Institute of Astronomy; Qiu, Y.; Hu, J.Y.; Zhou, Xn. [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China). National Astronomical Observatoires; Onda, K. [RIKEN, Saitama (Japan); Tokyo Univ. of Sciences, Tokyo (Japan). Department of Physics; Makishima, K. [RIKEN, Saitama (Japan); Tokyo Univ., Tokyo (Japan). Department of Physics
In 2004, we established a Japan-Taiwan-China collaboration for GBR study in the East-Asian region. This serves as a valuable addiction to the world-wide optical and infrared follow-up network, because the East-Asia region would otherwise be blank. We have been carrying out imaging and spectroscopy follow-up observations at Lulin (Taiwan), Kiso (Japan), WIDGET (Japan) and Xinglong (China). From Xinglong and Kiso, we can locate candidates and obtain early time spectra for afterglows. While WIDGET provides early time observations before the bursts, the high-time resolution for multi-band light curves can be obtained at Lulin. With the data from these sites, we can obtain detailed information about the light curve and redshift of GRBs, which are important to understand the mechanism of the afterglows. Up to March 2005, ten follow-up observations have been provided by this East-Asia cooperation. Two optical afterglows were detected, GRB 040924 and GRB 041006. The results of the two detected afterglows are reported in this paper.
Full Text Available Native duck populations have lower productivity, and have not been developed as much as commercials duck breeds. However, native ducks have more importance in terms of genetic diversity and potentially valuable economic traits. For this reason, population discriminable genetic markers are needed for conservation and development of native ducks. In this study, 24 highly polymorphic microsatellite (MS markers were investigated using commercial ducks and native East and South Asian ducks. The average polymorphic information content (PIC value for all MS markers was 0.584, indicating high discrimination power. All populations were discriminated using 14 highly polymorphic MS markers by genetic distance and phylogenetic analysis. The results indicated that there were close genetic relationships among populations. In the structure analysis, East Asian ducks shared more haplotypes with commercial ducks than South Asian ducks, and they had more independent haplotypes than others did. These results will provide useful information for genetic diversity studies in ducks and for the development of duck traceability systems in the market.
Breyer, Christian; Bogdanov, Dmitrii; Komoto, Keiichi; Ehara, Tomoki; Song, Jinsoo; Enebish, Namjil
Further development of the North-East Asian energy system is at a crossroads due to severe limitations of the current conventional energy based system. For North-East Asia it is proposed that the excellent solar and wind resources of the Gobi desert could enable the transformation towards a 100% renewable energy system. An hourly resolved model describes an energy system for North-East Asia, subdivided into 14 regions interconnected by high voltage direct current (HVDC) transmission grids. Simulations are made for highly centralized, decentralized and country-wide grids scenarios. The results for total system levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) are 0.065 and 0.081 €/(kW·h) for the centralized and decentralized approaches for 2030 assumptions. The presented results for 100% renewable resources-based energy systems are lower in LCOE by about 30-40% than recent findings in Europe for conventional alternatives. This research clearly indicates that a 100% renewable resources-based energy system is THE real policy option.
Full Text Available In this paper, we attempt to make a critical assessment of East Asia's free trIn this paper, we attempt to make a critical assessment of East Asia's free trade agreements (FTAs and suggest future steps of action. The FTAs of three Northeast Asian countries and five ASEAN countries are examined. We find that the concluded and currently negotiated FTAs of East Asia have produced a fairly limited impact on trade and welfare. The limitation came from the fact that the selection of FTA partners was not based on economic gains but on an ad hoc basis or a defensive purpose. Therefore, we suggest that East Asian countries concentrate FTA activities on trade partners with large trade volumes. In this regard, the successful conclusion of the ongoing Korea-Japan FTA negotiation is crucial, and the two governments need to dissociate social and historical concerns with economic considerations. The FTAs between China, Korea, Japan and the U.S. should immediately follow the Korea-Japan FTA to realize the potentials and to prevent biased specialization. The FTAs of East Asia allowed a wide range of exemptions to protect inefficient sectors such as agriculture. The proper approach, we suggest, is not to avoid the problem but to proceed with comprehensive agreements and thus maximize the gains of FTAs. Restructuring industries and reallocating resources to the sectors with comparative advantage, while providing adequate assistance programs, is required. We also note that East Asian countries should utilize existing unilateral, regional and multilateral methods of liberalization as well as bilateral FTAs.
Na, Sumin; Ryder, Andrew G; Kirmayer, Laurence J
Studies have consistently found that East Asian immigrants in North America are less likely to use mental health services even when they experience levels of distress comparable to Euro-Americans. Although cultural factors that may prevent East Asian immigrants from seeking mental health care have been identified, few studies have explored ways to foster appropriate help-seeking and use of mental health services. Recent work on mental health literacy provides a potential framework for strategies to increase appropriate help-seeking and use of services. This paper reviews the literature on help-seeking for mental health problems among East Asian immigrants living in Western countries to critically assess the relevance of the mental health literacy approach as a framework for interventions to improve appropriate use of services. Modifications needed to develop a culturally responsive framework for mental health literacy are identified. © Society for Community Research and Action 2016.
This study investigated the mediating and moderating roles of self-compassion and emotional approach coping in the relationship between maladaptive perfectionism and psychological distress among East Asian international students. Data were collected through an online survey completed by 255 East Asian international students in a large public…
Yana Valeryevna Dyomina
Full Text Available The article examines the interdependence of East Asian stock and bond markets. Hierarchical cluster analysis of bond markets of ten regional countries shows that the most similar ones are the following: Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines and Singapore. In 2006-2009 Thailand also belonged with this group, however, since 2010 it is a separate cluster. The second cluster includes Hong Kong, the Republic of Korea and China, the third one - Japan, the fourth one - Vietnam. As for regional equity markets, the study shows that regional stock indices respond to the dynamics of American ones to a greater extent than to the dynamics of each other. In addition, Asian indices’ interconnection is chiefly negative. To assess stock indices’ convergence the author employs cluster analysis which divides 16 studied stock exchanges in 7 different groups. According to the obtained results, the author concludes that integration of regional capital markets is the long-term goal. Besides, markets’ integration will be easier and faster within clusters; inter-cluster mergers will be the next step. The basic problem here arises from the Japanese market, which, in the case of forced or ill-conceived program of events, will absorb all other markets or end up outside the integration processes
Li, Jiaqi; Wang, Yanlin; Liu, Xun; Xu, Yusu; Cui, Tingting
This study used a consensual qualitative research method to explore academic adaptation experiences of international students (N = 13) from East Asian countries at a U.S. university. The analysis yielded five domains from the data (challenges, feelings, strategies, suggestions, and self-reflections). Implications for college counselors, university…
Yamanaka, Atsushi; Mulyatno, Kris Cahyo; Susilowati, Helen; Hendrianto, Eryk; Utsumi, Takako; Amin, Mochamad; Lusida, Maria Inge; Soegijanto, Soegeng; Konishi, Eiji
Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is a fatal disease in Asia. Pigs are considered to be the effective amplifying host for JEV in the peridomestic environment. Bali Island and Java Island in Indonesia provide a model to assess the effect of pigs on JEV transmission, since the pig density is nearly 100-fold higher in Bali than Java, while the geographic and climatologic environments are equivalent in these areas. We surveyed antibodies to JEV among 123 pigs in Mengwi (Bali) and 96 pigs in Tulungagung (East Java) in 2008 by the hemagglutination-inhibition (HAI) test. Overall prevalences were 49% in Bali and 6% in Java, with a significant difference between them (P Java. In addition, 2-mercaptoethanol-sensitive antibodies were found only from Bali samples. Further, the average HAI antibody titer obtained from positive samples was significantly higher in Bali (1:52) than Java (1:10; P Java.
Ng, Edwin; Muntaner, Carles; Chung, Haejoo
Recent scholarship offers different theories on how macrosocial determinants affect the population health of East and Southeast Asian nations. Dominant theories emphasize the effects of welfare regimes, welfare generosity, and labor market institutions. In this article, we conduct exploratory time-series cross-sectional analyses to generate new evidence on these theories while advancing a political explanation. Using unbalanced data of 7 East Asian countries and 11 Southeast Asian nations from 1960 to 2012, primary findings are 3-fold. First, welfare generosity measured as education and health spending has a positive impact on life expectancy, net of GDP. Second, life expectancy varies significantly by labor markets; however, these differences are explained by differences in welfare generosity. Third, as East and Southeast Asian countries become more democratic, welfare generosity increases, and population health improves. This study provides new evidence on the value of considering politics, welfare states, and labor markets within the same conceptual framework. © 2016 APJPH.
Full Text Available Research has found that contagion-minimizing behavioral tendencies are amplified in pathogen-prevalent regions. We investigated whether reactions to the “swine flu” outbreak of 2009 were stronger among East Asians than Westerners, populations residing in regions that now enjoy comparable advances in healthcare but that are characterized by relatively high and low historical pathogen prevalence, respectively. In a survey, East Asians reported greater concerns about infection, especially from foreigners. Analyses of international air travel data around the time of the outbreak provided corroborating evidence: Immediately following the outbreak, airports in the Asia-Pacific region lost more international traffic relative to their Western counterparts, and East Asian airlines reported greater declines in international traffic compared to Western airlines. These differences are unlikely to reflect objective threat posed by swine flu (whose casualties were concentrated in the Americas; rather, they appear to reflect culturally adapted behavioral patterns forged and sustained by regionally variable levels of pathogen prevalence.
Zhu, Jianlei; Liao, Hong; Li, Jianping
China has been experiencing increased concentrations of aerosols, commonly attributed to the large increases in emissions associated with the rapid economic development. We show by using a chemical transport model driven by the assimilated meteorological fields that the observed decadal-scale weakening of the East Asian summer monsoon also contributed to the increases in aerosols in China. We find that the simulated aerosol concentrations have strong negative correlations with the strength of the East Asian Summer monsoon. Accounting for sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, black carbon, and organic carbon aerosols, the summer surface-layer PM2.5 concentration averaged over eastern China (110°-125°E, 20°-45°N) can be 17.7% higher in the weakest monsoon years than in the strongest monsoon years. The weakening of the East Asian Summer monsoon increases aerosol concentrations mainly by the changes in atmospheric circulation (the convergence of air pollutants) in eastern China.
Ahmad, Mahyudin; Marwan, Nur Fakhzan
To an otherwise extensive literature with yet mixed findings on the long run Purchasing Power Parity (PPP) theory, this paper extends the evidence against the PPP hypothesis in three East Asian economies namely Indonesia, Malaysia, and Thailand based on quarterly data spanning forty years (1968:Q1-2008:Q1). The testing of PPP hypothesis in this study employs two methods namely Engle-Granger procedure and Johansen multivariate cointegration method.
Jung, Jisun; Horta, Hugo
Studies of higher education by scholars based in Asia have been growing in volume, following worldwide trends. To a large extent, this growth has been driven by East Asian countries, but little is known about the characteristics of the contribution of these countries. This study analyses their overall and specific contribution. The paper concludes…
Choi, Jae-Won; Cha, Yumi; Kim, Jeoung-Yun
Correlation between the frequency of summer tropical cyclones (TCs) affecting Korea and the East Asian summer monsoon index (EASMI) was analyzed over the last 37 years. A clear positive correlation existed between the two variables, and this high positive correlation remained unchanged even when excluding El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) years. To investigate the causes of the positive correlation between the two variables in non-ENSO years, after the 8 years with the highest EASMI (high EASMI years) and the 8 years with the lowest EASMI (low EASMI years) were selected, and the average difference between the two phases was analyzed. In high EASMI years, in the difference between the two phases regarding 850 and 500 hPa streamline, anomalous cyclones were reinforced in the tropical and subtropical western North Pacific, while anomalous anticyclones were reinforced in mid-latitude East Asian areas. Due to these two anomalous pressure systems, anomalous southeasterlies developed near Korea, with these anomalous southeasterlies playing the role of anomalous steering flows making the TCs head toward areas near Korea. In addition, a monsoon trough strengthened more eastward, and TCs in high EASMI years occurred more in east ward over the western North Pacific.
Zou, Liang; Hu, Bangqi; Li, Jun; Dou, Yanguang; Xie, Luhua; Dong, Liang
The East Asian monsoon system influences the sedimentation and transport of organic matter in East Asian marginal seas that is derived from both terrestrial and marine sources. In this study, we determined organic carbon (OC) isotope values, concentrations of marine biomarkers, and levels of OC and total nitrogen (TN) in core YSC-1 from the central South Yellow Sea (SYS). Our objectives were to trace the sources of OC and variations in palaeoproductivity since the middle Holocene, and their relationships with the East Asian monsoon system. The relative contributions of terrestrial versus marine organic matter in core sediments were estimated using a two-end-member mixing model of OC isotopes. Results show that marine organic matter has been the main sediment constituent since the middle Holocene. The variation of terrestrial organic carbon concentration (OCter) is similar to the EASM history. However, the variation of marine organic carbon concentration (OCmar) is opposite to that of the EASM curve, suggesting OCmar is distinctly influenced by terrestrial material input. Inputs of terrestrial nutrients into the SYS occur in the form of fluvial and aeolian dust, while concentrations of nutrients in surface water are derived mainly from bottom water via the Yellow Sea circulation system, which is controlled by the East Asian winter monsoon (EAWM). Variations in palaeoproductivity represented by marine organic matter and biomarker records are, in general, consistent with the recent EAWM intensity studies, thus, compared with EASM, EAWM may play the main role to control the marine productivity variations in the SYS.
Hjulsager, Charlotte Kristiane; Larsen, Lars Erik; Heegaard, Peter M. H.
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome viruses (PRRSV) have been divided into Type 1 (European) and Type 2 (North American) viruses. PRRSV are very diverse and Type 1 viruses have even been further divided into subtypes. While Type 1 viruses from Western Europe belong to subtype 1, viruses...... the subtype 1 strains. The aim of this project was to study the infection dynamics and clinical and pathological impact of two east European Type 1 strains. In an experimental trial, infection of pigs with the Russian subtype 2 strain “Ili6” and the Belarusian atypical isolate “Bor59” were compared...... to an early “Lelystad-like” Danish subtype 1 isolate “18794”. Groups of seven pigs of unique high sanitary status were infected with one of the three PRRSV isolates, and a fourth group served as sham-inoculated controls. The pigs were monitored for 24 days, and nasal swabs and blood samples were taken at 0, 3...
This article reports on the COGEN Programme of the European Commission in association with the Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN), and considers the benefits of using biowaste for the production of energy using cogeneration with the corresponding reduction in the emission of greenhouse gases. The substitution of rice husks for the fuel in a cogeneration plant at a Thai rice mill, and the combustion of wood in the cogeneration plant at the Homet Raya plant in Malaysia are described, and details are given of the backgrounds to the projects, locations, the technologies used, and the process economics. The next phase of the COGEN programme due to start in 1998 which will see the programme expanded to include coal-fired and gas-fired cogeneration projects is discussed
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The East Asian Seas Regional Climatology Version 2.0 is an update to the preliminary version released in May 2012. This update includes new temperature and salinity...
Lang, LingLing; Irby, Beverly J.; Brown, Genevieve
For more than 2000 years, Confucian teaching has had tremendous influence on the history, politics, economy, and culture of East Asian countries and regions. Despite the rapid growth in gross domestic product (GDP), people's standard of living, and economic advancements, Confucian Asia continues to adhere to the Confucian cultural values that they…
Ming-Chang Tsai; Rueyling Tzeng
We compare attitudes toward foreign workers between two wealthy Western and four developing East Asian countries, using data from the 2006 and 2008 Asian Barometer surveys to test hypotheses on economic interests, cultural supremacy, and global exposure. Respondent majorities in all six countries expressed high levels of restrictivism. Regression model results indicate a consistent cultural superiority influence across the six countries, but only minor effects from economic interest factors. ...
Kim, S. J.; Kim, B. M.; Kim, J. H.
The Arctic is warming much more rapidly than the lower latitudes. In contrast to the rapid Arctic warming, in winters of the recent decade, the cold-air outbreaks over East Asia occur more frequently and stronger than in 1990s. By accompanying the snow over East Asia, the strong cold surges have led to a severe socio-economic impact. Such severe cold surges in recent decade over east Asia is consistent with the more dominant negative phase of the Arctic Oscillation (AO), that may be attributed by the Arctic amplification. In both observation-based reanalysis and numerical model experiments, the Arctic sea ice melting leads to the weakening of the AO polarity by reducing the meridional temperature gradient through a heat flux feedback. The Arctic warming and associated sea ice melting over the Kara-Barents area in late fall and early winter first release a lot of heat to the atmosphere from the ocean by a strong contrast in temperature and moisture and higher height anomaly is developed over the Kara/Barents and the Ural mountains The anomalous anticyclonic anomaly over the Arctic strengthen the Siberian High and at the same time the east Asian trough is developed over the western coast of the North Pacific. Through the passage between the margin of the Siberian High and east Asian tough, an extremely cold air is transported from east Siberia to east Asia for sometimes more than a week. Such a severe sold air brings about the moisture from nearby ocean, largely influencing the daily lives and economy in north East China, Korea, and Japan. The recent Arctic and associated sea ice melting is not only contributed to the local climate and weather, but also a severe weather in mid-latitudes through a modulation in polar vortex.
In The Rhetorical Making of the Asian/Asian American Face: Reading and Writing Asian Eyelids, I examine representations of East Asian blepharoplasty in online video in order to gain a sense of how cultural values change over time. Drawing on scholarship in and around rhetorical theory, cultural rhetorics, Asian American rhetoric, cultural studies, Asian American studies, and postcolonial theory alongside qualitative data analysis of approximately fifty videos and the numerous viewer comments ...
Rodríguez, José M.; Milton, Sean F.; Marzin, Charline
In this study the low-level monsoon circulation and observed sources of moisture responsible for the maintenance and seasonal evolution of the East Asian monsoon are examined, studying the detailed water budget components. These observational estimates are contrasted with the Met Office Unified Model (MetUM) climate simulation performance in capturing the circulation and water cycle at a variety of model horizontal resolutions and in fully coupled ocean-atmosphere simulations. We study the role of large-scale circulation in determining the hydrological cycle by analyzing key systematic errors in the model simulations. MetUM climate simulations exhibit robust circulation errors, including a weakening of the summer west Pacific Subtropical High, which leads to an underestimation of the southwesterly monsoon flow over the region. Precipitation and implied diabatic heating biases in the South Asian monsoon and Maritime Continent region are shown, via nudging sensitivity experiments, to have an impact on the East Asian monsoon circulation. By inference, the improvement of these tropical biases with increased model horizontal resolution is hypothesized to be a factor in improvements seen over East Asia with increased resolution. Results from the annual cycle of the hydrological budget components in five domains show a good agreement between MetUM simulations and ERA-Interim reanalysis in northern and Tibetan domains. In simulations, the contribution from moisture convergence is larger than in reanalysis, and they display less precipitation recycling over land. The errors are closely linked to monsoon circulation biases.
Full Text Available Background Currently, there is limited knowledge about the genetics underlying pigmentary traits in East Asian populations. Here, we report the results of the first genome-wide association study of pigmentary traits (skin and iris color in individuals of East Asian ancestry. Methods We obtained quantitative skin pigmentation measures (M-index in the inner upper arm of the participants using a portable reflectometer (N = 305. Quantitative measures of iris color (expressed as L*, a* and b* CIELab coordinates were extracted from high-resolution iris pictures (N = 342. We also measured the color differences between the pupillary and ciliary regions of the iris (e.g., iris heterochromia. DNA samples were genotyped with Illumina’s Infinium Multi-Ethnic Global Array (MEGA and imputed using the 1000 Genomes Phase 3 samples as reference haplotypes. Results For skin pigmentation, we did not observe any genome-wide significant signal. We followed-up in three independent Chinese samples the lead SNPs of five regions showing multiple common markers (minor allele frequency ≥ 5% with good imputation scores and suggestive evidence of association (p-values < 10−5. One of these markers, rs2373391, which is located in an intron of the ZNF804B gene on chromosome 7, was replicated in one of the Chinese samples (p = 0.003. For iris color, we observed genome-wide signals in the OCA2 region on chromosome 15. This signal is driven by the non-synonymous rs1800414 variant, which explains 11.9%, 10.4% and 6% of the variation observed in the b*, a* and L* coordinates in our sample, respectively. However, the OCA2 region was not associated with iris heterochromia. Discussion Additional genome-wide association studies in East Asian samples will be necessary to further disentangle the genetic architecture of pigmentary traits in East Asian populations.
McKone, Elinor; Wan, Lulu; Robbins, Rachel; Crookes, Kate; Liu, Jia
The Cambridge Face Memory Test (CFMT) is widely accepted as providing a valid and reliable tool in diagnosing prosopagnosia (inability to recognize people's faces). Previously, large-sample norms have been available only for Caucasian-face versions, suitable for diagnosis in Caucasian observers. These are invalid for observers of different races due to potentially severe other-race effects. Here, we provide large-sample norms (N = 306) for East Asian observers on an Asian-face version (CFMT-Chinese). We also demonstrate methodological suitability of the CFMT-Chinese for prosopagnosia diagnosis (high internal reliability, approximately normal distribution, norm-score range sufficiently far above chance). Additional findings were a female advantage on mean performance, plus a difference between participants living in the East (China) or the West (international students, second-generation children of immigrants), which we suggest might reflect personality differences associated with willingness to emigrate. Finally, we demonstrate suitability of the CFMT-Chinese for individual differences studies that use correlations within the normal range.
Woo, Jane S T; Morshedian, Negar; Brotto, Lori A; Gorzalka, Boris B
Research has examined the relationship between religiosity and sexuality but few studies have explored the mechanisms by which sexual variables are influenced by religiosity. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the role of sex guilt in the relationship between religiosity and sexual desire in women. Euro-Canadian (n = 178) and East Asian (n = 361) female university students completed a battery of questionnaires. Higher levels of religious fundamentalism, intrinsic religiosity and spirituality were associated with higher levels of sex guilt in both ethnic groups. Paranormal belief was not associated with sex guilt in either ethnic group. The Euro-Canadian women reported significantly higher levels of sexual desire and significantly less sex guilt than the East Asian women. Among the Euro-Canadian women, sex guilt mediated the relationships between spirituality and sexual desire, and fundamentalism and sexual desire; among the East Asian women, sex guilt mediated the relationships between spirituality and sexual desire, fundamentalism and sexual desire, and intrinsic religiosity and sexual desire. These findings suggest that sex guilt may be one mechanism by which religiosity affects sexual desire among women.
Full Text Available Despite their great diversity and biological importance, evolutionary relationships among the endemic clade of East Asian Cyprinidae remain ambiguous. Understanding the phylogenetic history of this group involves many challenges. For instance, ecomorphological convergence may confound morphology-based phylogenetic inferences, and previous molecular phylogenetic studies based on single genes have often yielded contradictory and poorly supported trees. We assembled a comprehensive data matrix of 100 nuclear gene segments (∼ 71132 base pairs for representative species of the endemic East Asian cyprinid fauna and recovered a robust phylogeny from this genome-wide signal supported by multiple analytical methods, including maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference. Relaxed molecular clock analyses indicated species radiations of this clade concentrated at approximately 1.9-7.6 MYA. We provide evidence that the bursts of diversification in this fauna are directly linked to major paleoenvironmental events associated with monsoon evolution occurring from late Miocene to Pliocene. Ancestral state reconstruction reveals convergent morphological characters are hypothesized to be independent products of similar selective pressures in ecosystems. Our study is the first comprehensive phylogenetic study of the enigmatic East-Asian cyprinids. The explicit molecular phylogeny provides a valuable framework for future research in genome evolution, adaptation and speciation of cyprinids.
Full Text Available China is located in East Asia and, just as Japan, Taiwan or (South Korea at earlier stages of their development, has now grown very rapidly for some three decades. That is not enough, however, for it to qualify for membership of the club. The East Asian development model has a number of additional and important characteristics. Four are selected for discussion: the almost constant encouragement given to investment, the manufacturing sector and external competitiveness, and pursued via a variety of fairly interventionist industrial, trade and financial policies; a concomitant belief in the virtues of intense domestic (Japan and Taiwan and foreign (Korea competition; a set of broadly sensible and appropriate macroeconomic policies; and a number of favourable (pre-conditions, such as the presence of a homogeneous population, a relatively high stock of human capital, reasonable income equality and fairly authoritarian governments. China, since reforms began in the late 1970s, has shared some of these characteristics, but not all. In particular, it is still much more of a command economy than the other three countries have ever been, yet, at the same time, has embraced globalization with, arguably, much greater enthusiasm than was done, in earlier times, by Japan, Taiwan or Korea. If China's experience, however, is compared with that of other, more or less successful, developing countries, the similarities with the East Asia development model would seem to dwarf such differences
Full Text Available Background: The Beijing lineage of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB is the most predominant MTB strain in Asian countries and is spreading worldwide, however, the East AfricanâIndian (EAI lineage is also particularly prevalent in many tropical Asian countries. The evolutionary relationships among MTB EAI isolates from Taiwan and those of tropical Asian countries remain unknown. Methods: The EAI strains collected from patients in Taiwan were analyzed using spacer oligonucleotide typing and mycobacterial interspersed repetitive unitâvariable number of tandem repeats (MIRU-VNTR typing, and compared with published profiles from Cambodia and Singapore to investigate potential epidemiological linkages. Results: Among the three countries, the EAI lineage was most prevalent in Cambodia (60%; Singapore, 25.62%; and Taiwan, 21.85%, having also the highest rates of multidrug resistance and lowest rates of clustering of MTB isolates. We describe a convenient method using seven selected MIRU-VNTR loci for first-line typing to discriminate Beijing and EAI lineages. A potential epidemiological linkage in these tropical Asian countries is also discussed based on a minimum-spanning tree constructed using 24 MIRU-VNTR loci of MTB EAI strains. Conclusion: This study identified evolutionary relationships among MTB EAI isolates from Taiwan and those of two other tropical Asian countries, Cambodia and Singapore. Keywords: East AfricanâIndian family, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, tropical Asian countries
S, Emy Koestanti; Misaco, Wiwik; Chusniati, Sri; Maslachah, Lilik
Brucellosis in pigs at East Java Indonesia has not only cause great economic losses due to a decrease in productivity of livestock but also are zoonotic. Infection on free brucelosis pigs were initially begun with the infected pigs both male and female, or the use of superior male pigs together. The elimination of the disease either on a group or population is considered as the most effective way to prevent the spread of the disease in pigs. Prevention efforts mainly addressed to vaccination, sanitary maintenace and government policy. The purpose of this study was to isolated and identified Brucella suis as the causative agent. The survey area were the pig farm owned by breeder farmers in the area of East Java Indonesia, at Kediri, Malang, Blitar and Probolinggo district. Blood samples obtained were tested with RBT. Pigs are suspected of being infected with Brucella if the RBT was positive that characterized with agglutination in the test results. If RBT was positive, bacteriological examination will be performed, with samples of visceral foetus organ, ie liver, spleen, placenta and amniotic fluid. Isolation and identification of Brucella suis were used Brucella Broth and Brucella Agar, and if the bacteri growthwill be continued with biochemical test ie H2S, urease, citrate, catalase and oxidase test. The positive results of Brucella suis showed positive urease, catalase andoxidase, but negative for citrate and H2S. RBT and bacteriolgical examination showed that 1 sample was positive Brucella suis , and 19 negative. The positive results showed positive urease, catalase and oxidase, but negative for citrate and H2S. Based on RBT test and bacteriological examination, there was 1 positive sample of brucellla suis, that is sample coming from Kediri district.
Beny, François; Toucanne, Samuel; Skonieczny, Charlotte; Bayon, Germain; Ziegler, Martin
The reconstruction of the long-term evolution of the East Asian Monsoon remains controversial. In this study, we aim to give a new outlook on this evolution by studying a 400 kyr long sediment record (U1429) from the northern East China Sea recovered during IODP Expedition 346. Neodymium isotopic ratios and rare earth element concentrations of different grain-size fractions reveal significant provenance changes of the sediments in the East China Sea between East Asian continental sources (mainly Yellow River) and sediment contributions from the Japanese Archipelago. These provenance changes are interpreted as the direct impact of sea level changes, due to the reorganization of East Asian river mouth locations and ocean circulation on the East China Sea shelf, and latitudinal shifts of the intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ) from the interior of Asia to the western North Pacific Ocean. Our data reveal the dominance of winter and summer monsoons during glacial and interglacial periods, respectively, except for glacial MIS 6d (∼150-180 ka) during which unexpected summer monsoon dominated conditions prevailed. Finally, our data suggests a possible strengthening of the interglacial summer monsoon rainfalls over the East Asian continent and Japan throughout the past 400 kyr, and between MIS 11 and MIS 5 in particular. This could result from a gradual northward migration of the ITCZ.
M. Kabir Hassan; M. Ershad Hussain
This paper examines whether the risk-taking behavior of commercial banks in five countries of South-East Asia changed after the Asian Crises of 1997. The paper utilizes the framework created by Gruben et al (1997, 1998, and 2003). It also examines the connection between the risk-taking behavior and depositor discipline of these banks after the Asian Crises of 1997. Based on bank level data from the Bank Scope, 2005 CD, he paper presents evidence that the state of depositor discipline is very ...
Lindstrom, Kati; Uchiyama, Junzo
The boundaries of landscape policies often coincide with political or economic boundaries, thus creating a situation where a unit of landscape protection or management reflects more its present political status than its historico-geographical situation, its historical function and formation. At the same time, it is evident that no unit can exist independently of the context that has given birth to it and that environmental protection in isolated units cannot be very effective. The present paper will discuss inland sea as a landscape unit from prehistory to modern days and its implications for future landscape planning, using EastAsian inland sea (Japan Sea and East China Sea) rim as an example. Historically an area of active communication, EastAsian inland sea rim has become a politically very sharply divided area. The authors will bring examples to demonstrate how cultural communication on the inland sea level has influenced the formation of several landscape features that are now targets for local or national landscape protection programs, and how a unified view could benefit the future of landscape policies in the whole region.
Patel, Neesha R; Kennedy, Anne; Blickem, Christian; Reeves, David; Chew-Graham, Carolyn
Diabetes is disproportionately high among British South Asians compared to the general UK population. Whilst the migrant British South Asians group has received most attention on research related to diabetes management, little consideration has been given to impact of travel back to the East. This study aimed to explore the role of social networks and beliefs about diabetes in British South Asians, to better understand their management behaviours whilst holidaying in the East. Semistructured interviews were conducted in Greater Manchester. Forty-four participants were recruited using random and purposive sampling techniques. Interviews were analysed thematically using a constant comparison approach. Migrant British South Asians expressed a strong preference to be in a hot climate; they felt they had a healthier lifestyle in the East and often altered or abandoned their diabetes medication. Information acquisition on diabetes and availability of social networks in the East was valued. Social networks in the East are a valued source of information and support for diabetes. The lack of adherence to medication whilst abroad suggests that some migrant British South Asians have a poor understanding of diabetes. Future research needs to explore whether patients are seeking professional advice on diabetes management prior to their extended holiday.
Ruby, Matthew B; Falk, Carl F; Heine, Steven J; Villa, Covadonga; Silberstein, Orly
Previous research has revealed differences in how people value and pursue positive affect in individualistic and collectivistic cultural contexts. Whereas Euro-Americans place greater value on high activation positive affect (HAP; e.g., excitement, enthusiasm, elation) than do Asian Americans and Hong Kong Chinese, the opposite is true for low activation positive affect (LAP; e.g., calmness, serenity, tranquility). Although the form of collectivism present in East Asia dictates that individuals control and subdue their emotional expressions so as to maintain harmonious relationships, the opposite norm emerges in Mexico and other Latin American countries, in that the cultural script of simpatía promotes harmony through the open and vibrant expression of positive emotion. Across two studies, we found that Mexicans display a pattern of HAP/LAP preference different from those from East Asian collectivistic cultures, endorsing HAP over LAP. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.
Zheng, Wei; Zhang, Ben; Cai, Qiuyin; Sung, Hyuna; Michailidou, Kyriaki; Shi, Jiajun; Choi, Ji-Yeob; Long, Jirong; Dennis, Joe; Humphreys, Manjeet K.; Wang, Qin; Lu, Wei; Gao, Yu-Tang; Li, Chun; Cai, Hui; Park, Sue K.; Yoo, Keun-Young; Noh, Dong-Young; Han, Wonshik; Dunning, Alison M.; Benitez, Javier; Vincent, Daniel; Bacot, Francois; Tessier, Daniel; Kim, Sung-Won; Lee, Min Hyuk; Lee, Jong Won; Lee, Jong-Young; Xiang, Yong-Bing; Zheng, Ying; Wang, Wenjin; Ji, Bu-Tian; Matsuo, Keitaro; Ito, Hidemi; Iwata, Hiroji; Tanaka, Hideo; Wu, Anna H.; Tseng, Chiu-chen; Van Den Berg, David; Stram, Daniel O.; Teo, Soo Hwang; Yip, Cheng Har; Kang, In Nee; Wong, Tien Y.; Shen, Chen-Yang; Yu, Jyh-Cherng; Huang, Chiun-Sheng; Hou, Ming-Feng; Hartman, Mikael; Miao, Hui; Lee, Soo Chin; Putti, Thomas Choudary; Muir, Kenneth; Lophatananon, Artitaya; Stewart-Brown, Sarah; Siriwanarangsan, Pornthep; Sangrajrang, Suleeporn; Shen, Hongbing; Chen, Kexin; Wu, Pei-Ei; Ren, Zefang; Haiman, Christopher A.; Sueta, Aiko; Kim, Mi Kyung; Khoo, Ui Soon; Iwasaki, Motoki; Pharoah, Paul D.P.; Wen, Wanqing; Hall, Per; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Easton, Douglas F.; Kang, Daehee
In a consortium including 23 637 breast cancer patients and 25 579 controls of East Asian ancestry, we investigated 70 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 67 independent breast cancer susceptibility loci recently identified by genome-wide association studies (GWASs) conducted primarily in European-ancestry populations. SNPs in 31 loci showed an association with breast cancer risk at P Asians and provided evidence for associations of breast cancer risk in the East Asian population with nearly half of the genetic risk variants initially reported in GWASs conducted in European descendants. Taken together, these common genetic risk variants explain ∼10% of excess familial risk of breast cancer in Asian populations. PMID:23535825
Kuo, Shu-Fen; Chang, Wen-Yin; Chang, Lu-I; Chou, Yu-Hua; Chen, Ching-Min
This is a report of development and psychometric testing of the East Asian Acculturation Measure-Chinese version (EAAM-C) scale. An instrument validation design with a cross-sectional survey was conducted. The process was carried in two phases. In Phase 1, Barry's East Asian Acculturation Measure was translated and back translated to evaluate its content, face validity, and feasibility validity. In Phase 2, the 16-item EAAM-C was pilot-tested among 485 female immigrants for test-retest reliability, internal consistency, theoretically-supported construct validity and concurrent validity. The pilot work and the survey results indicated the tools possessed adequate content and face validity. The Cronbach's Alphas for the EAAM-C was 0.72, and 0.76-0.79 for its subscales, and the correlation of test-retest reliability (at 3 weeks) was 0.75. After dropping one item, four theoretically-supported factors which explained 61.82% of the variance were abstracted using exploratory factor analysis: assimilation, integration, separation, and marginalization. Based on the underlying four-factor theoretical structures of the EAAM, the confirmatory factor analysis of the EAAM-C was further examined. The analysis revealed that the four-factor model was an acceptable fit for the data which demonstrated adequate finding in its construct validity. These factors were inter-correlated, and showed statistically significant correlation with the Chinese Health Questionnaire, indicating adequate concurrent validity. The scale shows acceptable validity and consistency, and suggests that immigrant acculturation is a complex construct. This quick evaluation instrument can be applied to assess clients' acculturation and in further developing certain interventions to improve their health.
Yang, Jean Sook Ryu
College Students enrolled in East Asian language classes were surveyed about their language learning motivational orientations (MOs). MOs were classified and measured on seven subscales; integrative, instrumental, heritage-related, travel, interest, school-related, and language use. Learners were highly influenced by interest, language use, and…
Full Text Available Focusing on a political-economic perspective, this article examines on the background and objectives of China's approach toward FTAs with East Asian nations. It appears that China's strategy to regional economic integration recently has transformed from a passive direction to active initiative, pushing forward its winning strategies － economic liberalization and its resolve to become a regional leader － while spearheading projects to create a regional free trade zone. China has a tendency to take a serious view on the significance of non-economic factors or international politics and security in regard to pursuing FTAs with neighboring countries. Behind China's ASEAN+1 plan, the implication of security is deeply rooted; and through its pursuit of economic integration within the region, China seems to be seeking change in the regional security order. China has also been bringing security discussions into the mechanism of regional economic cooperation among Korea, China and Japan. China also appears to have a few types of ideological mentality when pursuing FTAs. It seems that China's "great-power mentality"(daguo xintai is somewhat robust. This mentality is prone to be extended to hegemonic contention within the region. If China combines the "great-power mentality" with nationalism in the process of pursuing FTAs with neighboring countries, then this might entail exclusive regionalism. Both Japan and China are basically in rivalry over regional hegemony, and competing for leadership in intra-regional FTA initiatives. In pursuing FTAs with South Korea, China and Japan seem to have quite a contradictory approach. Japan, which wants to control the rise of China, seems to be ruling out the China-Japan-Korea FTA plan and actively pursuing a Japan-Korea FTA. On the contrary, Beijing is expected to actively propose to pursue China-Korea FTA in order to hold back rapid progress in Japan-Korea FTA negotiations, which have already commenced. On the
Areepattamannil, Shaljan; Caleon, Imelda S
The authors examined the relationships of cognitive (i.e., memorization and elaboration) and metacognitive learning strategies (i.e., control strategies) to mathematics achievement among 15-year-old students in 4 high-performing East Asian education systems: Shanghai-China, Hong Kong-China, Korea, and Singapore. In all 4 East Asian education systems, memorization strategies were negatively associated with mathematics achievement, whereas control strategies were positively associated with mathematics achievement. However, the association between elaboration strategies and mathematics achievement was a mixed bag. In Shanghai-China and Korea, elaboration strategies were not associated with mathematics achievement. In Hong Kong-China and Singapore, on the other hand, elaboration strategies were negatively associated with mathematics achievement. Implications of these findings are briefly discussed.
Seo, Dong-Chul; Torabi, Mohammad R.; Chin, Ming-Kai; Lee, Chung Gun; Kim, Nayoung; Huang, Sen-Fang; Chen, Chee Keong; Mok, Magdalena Mo Ching; Wong, Patricia; Chia, Michael; Park, Bock-Hee
Objective: To identify levels of moderate-intensity physical activity (MPA) and vigorous-intensity physical activity (VPA) in a representative sample of college students in six East Asian economies and examine their relationship with weight, alcohol consumption and cigarette smoking. Design: Cross-sectional survey. Setting: College students…
Matsumoto, Toshimi; Okumura, Naohiko; Uenishi, Hirohide; Hayashi, Takeshi; Hamasima, Noriyuki; Awata, Takashi
We have collected more than 190000 porcine expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from full-length complementary DNA (cDNA) libraries and identified more than 2800 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). In this study, we tentatively chose 222 SNPs observed in assembled ESTs to study pigs of different breeds; 104 were selected by comparing the cDNA sequences of a Meishan pig and samples of three-way cross pigs (Landrace, Large White, and Duroc: LWD), and 118 were selected from LWD samples. To evaluate the genetic variation between the chosen SNPs from pig breeds, we determined the genotypes for 192 pig samples (11 pig groups) from our DNA reference panel with matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Of the 222 reference SNPs, 186 were successfully genotyped. A neighbor-joining tree showed that the pig groups were classified into two large clusters, namely, Euro-American and East Asian pig populations. F-statistics and the analysis of molecular variance of Euro-American pig groups revealed that approximately 25% of the genetic variations occurred because of intergroup differences. As the F(IS) values were less than the F(ST) values(,) the clustering, based on the Bayesian inference, implied that there was strong genetic differentiation among pig groups and less divergence within the groups in our samples. © 2011 The Authors. Animal Science Journal © 2011 Japanese Society of Animal Science.
Wendi J. OTTO
Full Text Available It has been widely reported that Korean-American students as a group outperform most other groups of students in terms of academic achievement due to having parents with especially high academic expectations due to traditional Confucian values. To examine this achievement, this study examines the common factors across the indigenous East Asian parenting ideologies, styles, and practices based on the perceptions of high-achieving, Korean-American primary school students through the East Asian Parenting Model. Perceptions about child development and learning, the mother-child relationship, authoritarian parenting style, and specific East Asian parenting practices are patterns explored in this study. These findings may inform teachers, pre-service teachers, and others involved in the education of Korean-American students about differentiating factors (i.e., specific East Asian parental and/or teaching practices that may be influential for explaining and improving the academic achievement for the children in this group.
Wendi J. Otto
Full Text Available It has been widely reported that Korean-American students as a group outperform most other groups of students in terms of academic achievement due to having parents with especially high academic expectations due to traditional Confucian values. To examine this achievement, this study examines the common factors across the indigenous East Asian parenting ideologies, styles, and practices based on the perceptions of high-achieving, Korean-American primary school students through the East Asian Parenting Model. Perceptions about child development and learning, the mother-child relationship, authoritarian parenting style, and specific East Asian parenting practices are patterns explored in this study. These findings may inform teachers, pre-service teachers, and others involved in the education of Korean-American students about differentiating factors (i.e., specific East Asian parental and/or teaching practices that may be influential for explaining and improving the academic achievement for the children in this group.
Zhang, Ran; Jiang, Dabang; Ramstein, Gilles; Zhang, Zhongshi; Lippert, Peter C.; Yu, Entao
Previous climate modeling studies suggest that the surface uplift of the Himalaya-Tibetan plateau (TP) is a crucial parameter for the onset and intensification of the East Asian monsoon during the Cenozoic. Most of these studies have only considered the Himalaya-TP in its present location between ∼26°N and ∼40°N despite numerous recent geophysical studies that reconstruct the Himalaya-TP 10° or more of latitude to the south during the early Paleogene. We have designed a series of climate simulations to explore the sensitivity of East Asian climate to the latitude of the Himalaya-TP. Our simulations suggest that the East Asian climate strongly depends on the latitude of the Himalaya-TP. Surface uplift of a proto-Himalaya-TP in the subtropics intensifies aridity throughout inland Asia north of ∼40°N and enhances precipitation over East Asia. In contrast, the rise of a proto-Himalaya-TP in the tropics only slightly intensifies aridity in inland Asia north of ∼40°N, and slightly increases precipitation in East Asia. Importantly, this climate sensitivity to the latitudinal position of the Himalaya-TP is non-linear, particularly for precipitation across East Asia. The simulated precipitation patterns across East Asia are significantly different between our scenarios in which a proto-plateau is situated between ∼11°N and ∼25°N and between ∼20°N and ∼33°N, but they are similar when the plateau translates northward from between ∼20°N and ∼33°N to its modern position. Our simulations, when interpreted in the context of climate proxy data from Central Asia, support geophysically-based paleogeographic reconstructions in which the southern margin of a modern-elevation proto-Himalaya-TP was located at ∼20°N or further north in the Eocene.
Tanimoto, H.; Ohara, T.; Uno, I.
We examine springtime ozone trends at nine remote locations in East Asian Pacific rim during the last decade (1998-2007). The observed decadal ozone trends are relatively small at surface sites but are substantially larger at a mountainous site. The level and increasing rate of ozone at the mountainous site are both higher than those observed at background sites in Europe and North America. We use a regional chemistry-transport model to explore the observed changes and how changes in Asian anthropogenic emissions have contributed to the observed increasing trends. The model with yearly-dependent regional emissions successfully reproduces the levels, variability, and interannual variations of ozone at all the surface sites. It predicts increasing trends at the mountainous site, suggesting that increasing Asian anthropogenic emissions account for about half the observed increase. However, the discrepancy between the observation and model results after 2003 (the time of largest emission increase) suggests significant underestimation of the actual growth of the Asian anthropogenic emissions and/or incompleteness in the modeling of pollution export from continental Asia. These findings imply that improving emissions inventory and transport scheme is needed to better understand rapidly evolving tropospheric ozone in East Asia and its potential climatic and environmental impacts.
Venkatakrishnan, Karthik; Kim, Tae Min; Lin, Chia-Chi; Thye, Lim Soon; Chng, Wee Joo; Ma, Brigette; Chen, Ming Huang; Zhou, Xiaofei; Liu, Hua; Kelly, Virginia; Kim, Won Seog
This phase 1 study assessed the pharmacokinetics (PK), maximum tolerated dose (MTD)/recommended phase 2 dose (RP2D), safety, and preliminary efficacy of the investigational Aurora A kinase inhibitor, alisertib, in East Asian patients with advanced solid tumors or lymphomas. Patients received alisertib twice-daily (BID) for 7 days in 21-day cycles. Doses were escalated (3 + 3) from 30 mg BID based on cycle 1 dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs) until the MTD, followed by expansion for PK/safety characterization. Thirty-six patients (61 % Chinese, 36 % Korean, 3 % Malay) received alisertib (30 mg BID, n = 30; 40 mg BID, n = 6; median, 2.5 cycles). Alisertib exposures increased approximately dose proportionally, and mean half-life was 16 h. Geometric mean apparent oral clearance (2.65 L/h) was 40 % lower than previous estimates in Western patients, resulting in approximately 70 % higher mean dose-normalized, steady-state exposures (735 nM*h/mg) in East Asian patients. Two patients experienced DLTs at 40 mg BID (grade 3 stomatitis; grade 4 neutropenia); the MTD/RP2D was 30 mg BID. Common toxicities (grade ≥3 at RP2D) were neutropenia (50 %), diarrhea (13 %), and stomatitis (10 %). One patient with extranodal T-/NK-cell lymphoma (nasal type) achieved a partial response and 18 (51 %) had stable disease. The MTD/RP2D of alisertib in East Asian patients (30 mg BID) was lower than in Western patients (50 mg BID), consistent with higher systemic exposures in the East Asian population. Alisertib was generally well tolerated and showed signs of antitumor activity in East Asian cancer patients.
A. van Donkelaar
Full Text Available We interpret a suite of satellite, aircraft, and ground-based measurements over the North Pacific Ocean and western North America during April–May 2006 as part of the Intercontinental Chemical Transport Experiment Phase B (INTEX-B campaign to understand the implications of long-range transport of East Asian emissions to North America. The Canadian component of INTEX-B included 33 vertical profiles from a Cessna 207 aircraft equipped with an aerosol mass spectrometer. Long-range transport of organic aerosols was insignificant, contrary to expectations. Measured sulfate plumes in the free troposphere over British Columbia exceeded 2 μg/m3. We update the global anthropogenic emission inventory in a chemical transport model (GEOS-Chem and use it to interpret the observations. Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD retrieved from two satellite instruments (MISR and MODIS for 2000–2006 are analyzed with GEOS-Chem to estimate an annual growth in Chinese sulfur emissions of 6.2% and 9.6%, respectively. Analysis of aircraft sulfate measurements from the NASA DC-8 over the central Pacific, the NSF C-130 over the east Pacific and the Cessna over British Columbia indicates most Asian sulfate over the ocean is in the lower free troposphere (800–600 hPa, with a decrease in pressure toward land due to orographic effects. We calculate that 56% of the measured sulfate between 500–900 hPa over British Columbia is due to East Asian sources. We find evidence of a 72–85% increase in the relative contribution of East Asian sulfate to the total burden in spring off the northwest coast of the United States since 1985. Campaign-average simulations indicate anthropogenic East Asian sulfur emissions increase mean springtime sulfate in Western Canada at the surface by 0.31 μg/m3 (~30% and account for 50% of the overall regional sulfate burden between 1 and 5 km. Mean measured daily surface sulfate concentrations taken in the Vancouver area increase by
Jiang, Z.; Yang, S.; He, J.; Li, J.; Liang, J.
The interdecadal variation of northward propagation of the East Asian Summer Monsoon (EASM) and summer precipitation in East China have been investigated using daily surface rainfall from a dense rain gauge network in China for 1957 2001, National Center for Environmental Prediction/National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCEP/NCAR) reanalysis, European Center for Medium-Range Weather Forecast (ECMWF) reanalysis, and Global Mean Sea Level Pressure Dataset (GMSLP2) from Climatic Research Unit (CRU). Results in general show a consistent agreement on the interdecadal variability of EASM northward propagations. However, it appears that the interdecadal variation is stronger in NCEP than in ECMWF and CRU datasets. A newly defined normalized precipitation index (NPI), a 5-day running mean rainfall normalized with its standard deviation, clearly depicts the characteristics of summer rainbelt activities in East China in terms of jumps and durations during its northward propagations. The EASM northward propagation shows a prominent interdecadal variation. EASM before late 1970s had a rapid northward advance and a northern edge beyond its normal position. As a result, more summer rainfall occurred for the North China rainy season, Huaihe-River Mei-Yu, and South China Mei-Yu. In contrast, EASM after late 1970s had a slow northward movement and a northern edge located south of its normal position. Less summer precipitation occurred in East China except in Yangtze River basin. The EASM northernmost position (ENP), northernmost intensity (ENI), and EASM have a complex and good relationship at interdecadal timescales. They have significant influences on interdecadal variation of the large-scale precipitation anomalies in East China.
Bartnik, Roman; Wilhelm, Miriam; Fujimoto, Takahiro
East Asia is the origin and target market for an increasing number of technological innovations. We use the East Asian automotive industry as a focal point to discuss central questions of innovation research such as modularity, product architecture, and the dynamics of state sponsorship in national
Wu, Wenli; Hammond, Michael
This paper reports on the adjustment of East Asian Master's level students who came to study at a campus-based university in the UK during 2004-05. International students face challenges in respect to language proficiency, academic expectations and social participation. In this longitudinal study the experiences of a group of students from East…
Full Text Available Chunxue Bai,1 Masakazu Ichinose,2 Sang Haak Lee,3 Kwan Ho Lee,4 Olaf Jöns,5 Ulrich Bothner,6 Yihua Zhao,7 Roland Buhl8 1Department of Pulmonary Medicine, Shanghai Respiratory Research Institute, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, China; 2Department of Respiratory Medicine, Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Sendai, Japan; 3Department of Internal Medicine, St Paul’s Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, South Korea; 4Department of Internal Medicine, Yeungnam University Medical Center, Daegu, South Korea; 5Department of Medicine TA Respiratory Diseases, 6Department of Pharmacovigilance, Boehringer Ingelheim Pharma GmbH & Co. KG, Ingelheim, Germany; 7Department of Biostatistics and Data Sciences, Boehringer Ingelheim Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Ridgefield, CT, USA; 8Pulmonary Department, Mainz University Hospital, Mainz, Germany Background and purpose: While the efficacy and safety of combined tiotropium and olodaterol in patients with COPD was established in a large clinical trial program, it is important to assess whether clinical data can be applied to geographic patient groups, particularly for East Asian patients who may have a different phenotypic profile to the global trial population. This study aimed to compare the lung function and safety profiles of tiotropium/olodaterol and monocomponents in East Asian and global populations from the TONADO® trials.Materials and methods: In the replicate, double-blind, parallel-group, active-controlled, randomized, 52-week, Phase III TONADO studies, patients received tiotropium/olodaterol, tiotropium, or olodaterol. We assessed the forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1 area under the curve from 0 to 3 hours (AUC0–3 response and trough FEV1 response at 24 weeks for the approved doses, tiotropium/olodaterol 5/5 µg, tiotropium 5 µg, and olodaterol 5 µg. Treatment-emergent adverse events were recorded throughout treatment and ≤21 days
Woo, Sumin; Singh, Gyan Prakash; Oh, Jai-Ho; Lee, Kyoung-Min
The present paper examined the teleconnections between two huge Asian summer monsoon components (South and East Asia) during three time slices in future: near-(2010-2039), mid-(2040-2069) and far-(2070-2100) futures under the RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 scenarios. For this purpose, a high-resolution atmospheric general circulation model is used and integrated at 40 km horizontal resolution. To get more insight into the relationships between the two Asian monsoon components, we have studied the spatial displaying correlation coefficients (CCs) pattern of precipitation over the entire Asian monsoon region with that of South Asia and three regions of East Asia (North China, Korea-Japan and Southern China) separately during the same three time slices. The possible factors responsible for these teleconnections are explored by using mean sea level pressure (MSLP) and wind fields at 850 hPa. The CC pattern of precipitation over South Asia shows an in-phase relationship with North China and an out-of-phase relationship with Korea-Japan, while precipitation variations over Korea-Japan and Southern China exhibit an out-of-phase relationship with South Asia. The CCs analysis between the two Asian blocks during different time slices shows the strongest CCs during the near and far future with the RCP8.5 scenario. The CC pattern of precipitation over Korea-Japan and Southern China with the wind (at 850 hPa) and MSLP fields indicate that the major parts of the moisture over Korea-Japan gets transported from the west Pacific along the western limb of NPSH, while the moisture over Southern China comes from the Bay of Bengal and South China Seas for good monsoon activity.
Full Text Available This paper examines Korea's intra-industry trade (IIT by disentangling vertical from horizontal IIT, and analyzes the determinants of both IIT types in trade with East Asian countries during the period of 1991-2005. Korea's IIT with East Asian countries has increased rapidly, especially its high quality IIT, which has increased faster than horizontal IIT and low quality IIT, implying that Korea's product quality has improved over time. Korea's high quality IIT is larger in trade with developing countries, but its low quality IIT is larger in trade with Japan. The regression results show that the income differences between countries have a negative effect on horizontal IIT, and that Korea's high quality IIT becomes larger when Korea's income is higher than the income of partner countries. This supports the theory of IIT. Foreign direct investment (FDI inflow has had a positive effect on increases in IIT, but the effects of FDI outflow are not certain. This suggests a policy implication that FDI inflow has a more positive effect on IIT than FDI outflow.
Fazelina Sahul Hamid; Norhanishah Mohd Yunus
The third pillar of the Basel II highlights the role of market discipline in easing the existing pressure on traditional monitoring measures like capital requirement and government supervision. This study test the effectiveness of market discipline in inducing prudential risk management practices among the East Asian banks over the 1995 to 2005 period. Market discipline is measured using information disclosure and interbank deposit holdings. We find that only the latter is an effective market...
Muro, Kei; Oh, Sang Cheul; Shimada, Yasuhiro; Lee, Keun-Wook; Yen, Chia-Jui; Chao, Yee; Cho, Jae Yong; Cheng, Rebecca; Carlesi, Roberto; Chandrawansa, Kumari; Orlando, Mauro; Ohtsu, Atsushi
East Asia has higher gastric cancer incidence and mortality rates than other regions. We present a subgroup analysis of East Asians in the positive study RAINBOW. Patients with advanced gastric or gastroesophageal junction adenocarcinoma previously treated with platinum and fluoropyrimidine received ramucirumab 8 mg/kg or placebo on days 1 and 15 plus paclitaxel 80 mg/m(2) on days 1, 8, and 15 of a 28-day cycle. Of 665 intention-to-treat patients, 223 were East Asian. Median overall survival was 12.1 months for ramucirumab plus paclitaxel and 10.5 months for placebo plus paclitaxel (hazard ratio: 0.986, 95% confidence interval: 0.727-1.337, P = 0.929). Median progression-free survival was 5.5 months for ramucirumab plus paclitaxel and 2.8 months for placebo plus paclitaxel (hazard ratio: 0.628, 95% confidence interval: 0.473-0.834, P = 0.001). Objective response rates were 34% for ramucirumab plus paclitaxel and 20% for placebo plus paclitaxel. Grade ≥ 3 neutropenia (60% vs 28%) and leukopenia (34% vs 13%) were higher for ramucirumab plus paclitaxel. The rate of febrile neutropenia was low (4% vs 4%). Special interest adverse events included any grade bleeding/hemorrhage (55% vs 25%), proteinuria (27% vs 7%), and hypertension (22% vs 2%). Ramucirumab plus paclitaxel significantly improves progression-free survival and response rate, with prolonged median overall survival and an acceptable safety profile in East Asians with advanced gastric cancer. © 2015 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.
Ra, Young-An; Trusty, Jerry
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of social support and coping on acculturation and acculturative stress of international students. The authors used hierarchical multiple regression analysis to study a sample of 232 East Asian international students. The results indicate that social support and coping were partial mediators…
Full Text Available
For more than 50 years the East Asia Department of the Berlin State Library has been hosting a special interest collection on East- and Southeast Asia. Integrated into a federal network of German libraries, supervised and in part financed by the German Research Foundation (DFG – Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft, this collection has become the largest of its kind in Europe. The East Asia Department supplies German and European libraries with publications in East Asian languages through a special inter-library loan service. Since 2002 the Berlin State Library has offered access to electronic resources like databases and electronic journals from the East Asian region via the virtual library CrossAsia. Furthermore the East Asia Department has become an access point to East Asian databases for European consortia.
T. Shinozaki; M. Uchida; K. Minoura; M. Kondo; S. F. Rella; Y. Shibata
Understanding of the mechanism of the East Asian Summer Monsoon (EASM) is required for the prediction of climate change in East Asia in a scenario of modern global warming. In this study, we present high-resolution climate records from peat sediments in Northeast Japan to reconstruct the EASM variability based on peat bulk cellulose δ13C since the last deglaciation. We used a 8.8 m long peat sediment core collected from the Tashiro Bog, Northeast Japan. Based ...
Nagatomo, S; Leisman, G
This paper addresses a need to re-examine the mind-body dualism established since Descartes. Descartes' dualism has been regarded by modern philosophers as an extremely insufficient solution to the problem of mind and body, from which is derived a long opposition in modern epistomology between idealism and empiricism. This dualism, bifurcating the region of spirit and matter, and the dichotomous models of thinking based on this dualism, have long dominated the world of modern philosophy and science. The paper examines states of conscious experience from an East Asian perspective allowing analysis on achieved supernormal consciousness rather than a focus on "normal" or "subnormal." The nature of the "transformation" of human consciousness will be studied both philosophically, as a transformation from "provisional" dualism to non-dualism, and neurophysiologically. The theoretical structure of the transformation will, in part, be examined through the model provided by a Japanese medieval Zen master, Takuan Sôhô. Then, to verify Takuan's theoretical explanation, toposcopic analysis of electroencephalographs will be presented of the performance of individuals practicing the martial arts technique of tôate.
McAllister, Stacy L; Sun, Katherine; Gross, Eric R
The goal of precision medicine is to separate patient populations into groups to ultimately provide customized care tailored to patients. In terms of precision medicine, ~540 million people in the world have a genetic variant of the aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) enzyme causing a flushing response and tachycardia after alcohol consumption. The genetic variant is identified as ALDH2*2 and originates from East Asian descendants of the Han Chinese. The variant is particularly important to consider when discussing lifestyle choices with patients in terms of risk for developing specific diseases, preventative screening, and selection of medications for treatment. Here we provide examples why patients with an ALDH2*2 variant need more individualized medical management which is becoming a more standard practice in the precision medicine era.
Deng, Jiechun; Xu, Haiming; Shi, Ning; Zhang, Leying; Ma, Jing
Roles of the Tibetan Plateau (TP) in forming and changing the seasonal Asian climate system have been widely explored. However, little is known about modulation effects of the TP on extratropical transient eddies (TEs) and subsequent synoptic responses of the East Asian rainfall. In this study, the Community Atmosphere Model version 5.1 coupled with a slab ocean model is employed to highlight the important role of the TP in regulating the upper-tropospheric transient wave train. Comparison between sensitivity experiments with and without the TP shows that the northern TP excites a strong anomalous anticyclone, which shifts the upper-level East Asian westerly jet northward and helps transfer barotropic and baroclinic energy from the mean flow to the synoptic TE flow. The transient wave train is primarily shifted northward by northern TP and is forced to propagate southeastward along the eastern flank of the TP until reaching eastern China. Before the strengthening of monsoonal southerlies, the TP-modulated transient wave train cools the troposphere, which decreases the static stability over northern China. Meanwhile, the associated anomalous warm advection induces ascending motion, leading to excessive rainfall by releasing unstable energy as the southerly strengthens. Due to the southeastward propagation of the wave train, anomalous heavy rainfall subsequently appears over eastern China from north to south, which increases day-to-day rainfall variation in this region. Additionally, occurrence of this upper-tropospheric transient wave train associated with low-level southerly peak is substantially increased by northern TP.
Arshad, Shaista; Rizvi, Syed Aun R.
The EMH has been the subject of much debate over the past few decades, with a recent surge in interest in Asian markets. Asian markets which traditionally comprise of many emerging markets are more volatile and speculative in nature. The heart of our study focuses on the East Asian economies, which have experienced massive capital inflows. This begs the question of whether or not the stock markets are efficient enough for further investment and development. Our paper differs from existing literature as it focuses on deriving weak form efficiency rankings during different business cycle phases. We endeavour further to assess the volatility and business cycle phases. Taking Malaysia, Indonesia, Singapore and South Korea owing to their economic and financial development, we use MF-DFA to derive efficiency rankings and find firstly, the overall efficiency has improved over the past two decades and secondly, markets are more efficient in growth phases in comparison to its preceding decline. Similarly, employing wavelet decomposition in conjunction with EGARCH, we obtain volatility of stock markets in two distinct time horizons, i.e. short term and long term. We find the markets to be more stable during economic boom than its preceding bust. Our results confer with mainstream literature.
Hamamura, Toshitaka; Laird, Philip G.
This study examined relationships among acculturative stress, grade point average satisfaction, maladaptive perfectionism, and depression in 52 East Asian international students and 126 North American students. Results indicated that a combined effect of perfectionism and acculturative stress accounted for more than 30% of the variance related to…
Full Text Available Cave sediments, especially stalagmites, have been providing absolute dated climate records that can extend from the present to over 500,000 years ago. Based on the reconstructed temperature time series, a comprehensive overview of the climatic differences and similarities between the Indian and the East Asian Monsoon regions of China over the last millennium is presented. Evidence from accurately dated and high-resolution records including stalagmites, ice cores and tree rings show that there was a “Medieval Warm Period” (around 1000 to 1400 AD in north and east China where climate is dominated by the East Asian monsoon; whilst no such interval is evident in the records including stalagmites and ice cores from southwest China where climate is dominated by the Indian monsoon. However, both regions underwent a significant cooling during the Little Ice Age (around the mid 1500s to the 1800s. The result achieved here may allow a possibility of distinguishing the boundary between Indian monsoon and East Asian monsoon regions over the last millennium with increase of climate records, especially stalagmites that are mostly suitable for accurate U/Th dating and/or lamina counting.
Soh, Nerissa L; Touyz, Stephen; Dobbins, Timothy A; Clarke, Simon; Kohn, Michael R; Lee, Ee Lian; Leow, Vincent; Ung, Ken E K; Walter, Garry
To investigate the relationship between skinfold thickness and body mass index (BMI) in North European Caucasian and East Asian young women with and without anorexia nervosa (AN) in two countries. Height, weight and skinfold thicknesses were assessed in 137 young women with and without AN, in Australia and Singapore. The relationship between BMI and the sum of triceps, biceps, subscapular and iliac crest skinfolds was analysed with clinical status, ethnicity, age and country of residence as covariates. For the same BMI, women with AN had significantly smaller sums of skinfolds than women without AN. East Asian women both with and without AN had significantly greater skinfold sums than their North European Caucasian counterparts after adjusting for BMI. Lower BMI goals may be appropriate when managing AN patients of East Asian ancestry and the weight for height diagnostic criterion should be reconsidered for this group.
Ashton, David; Green, Francis; James, Donna; Sung, Johnny
This book provides a detailed analysis of the development of education and training systems in Asia and the relationship with the process of economic growth. Focus is on four impoverished agrarian economies--Hong Kong, Singapore, South Korea, and Taiwan--that were transformed in little more than a generation into East Asian "tigers":…
Pradhan, M.P.; Waters, H.; Saadah, F.
This article identifies the effects of the 1997-98 East Asian economic crisis on health care use and health status in Indonesia. The article places the findings in the context of a framework showing the complex cause and effect relationships underlying the effects of economic downturns on health and
Hirota, Nagio; Takahashi, Masaaki
A tripolar anomaly pattern with centers located around the Philippines, China/Japan, and East Siberia dominantly appears in climate variations of the East Asian summer monsoon. In this study, we extracted this pattern as the first mode of a singular value decomposition (SVD1) over East Asia. The squared covariance fraction of SVD1 was 59 %, indicating that this pattern can be considered a dominant pattern of climate variations. Moreover, the results of numerical experiments suggested that the structure is also a dominant pattern of linear responses, even if external forcing is distributed homogeneously over the Northern Hemisphere. Thus, the tripolar pattern can be considered an internal mode that is characterized by the internal atmospheric processes. In this pattern, the moist processes strengthen the circulation anomalies, the dynamical energy conversion supplies energy to the anomalies, and the Rossby waves propagate northward in the lower troposphere and southeastward in the upper troposphere. These processes are favorable for the pattern to have large amplitude and to influence a large area.
Hirota, Nagio; Takahashi, Masaaki [University of Tokyo, Atmosphere and Ocean Research Institute, Chiba (Japan)
A tripolar anomaly pattern with centers located around the Philippines, China/Japan, and East Siberia dominantly appears in climate variations of the East Asian summer monsoon. In this study, we extracted this pattern as the first mode of a singular value decomposition (SVD1) over East Asia. The squared covariance fraction of SVD1 was 59 %, indicating that this pattern can be considered a dominant pattern of climate variations. Moreover, the results of numerical experiments suggested that the structure is also a dominant pattern of linear responses, even if external forcing is distributed homogeneously over the Northern Hemisphere. Thus, the tripolar pattern can be considered an internal mode that is characterized by the internal atmospheric processes. In this pattern, the moist processes strengthen the circulation anomalies, the dynamical energy conversion supplies energy to the anomalies, and the Rossby waves propagate northward in the lower troposphere and southeastward in the upper troposphere. These processes are favorable for the pattern to have large amplitude and to influence a large area. (orig.)
Nakano, Takashi; Kato, Shingo; Cao, Jianping; Zhou Juying; Susworo, Raden; Supriana, Nana; Sato, Shinichiro; Ohno, Tatsuya; Suto, Hisao; Nakamura, Yuzuru; Cho, Chul-Koo; Ismail, Fuad B.; Calaguas, Miriam J.C.; Reyes, Rey H. de los; Chansilpa, Yaowalak; Thephamongkhol, Kullathom; Nguyen Ba Duc; To Anh Dung; Tsujii, Hirohiko
Purpose: Radiotherapy differed widely in east and south-east Asia because of technical, cultural, and socio-economic differences. With the purpose of standardizing radiotherapy for cervical cancer in the region, an international clinical study was conducted. Materials and methods: Eleven institutions in eight Asian countries participated in the study. Between 1996 and 1998, 210 patients with stage IIIB cervical cancer were enrolled. Patients were treated with a combination of external beam radiotherapy (total dose, 50 Gy) and either high-dose-rate (HDR) or low-dose-rate (LDR) intracavitary brachytherapy (ICBT) according to the institutional practice. The planned point A dose was 20-28 Gy/4 fractions for HDR-ICBT and 30-40 Gy/1-2 fractions for LDR-ICBT. Results: Hundred patients were treated with HDR-ICBT and 110 were treated with LDR-ICBT. The ICBT doses actually delivered to point A ranged widely: 12-32 Gy in the HDR group and 26-52.7 Gy in the LDR group. The 5-year follow-up rate among the countries differed greatly, from 29% to 100%. The 5-year major complication rates were 6% in the HDR group and 10% in the LDR group. The 5-year overall survival rates were 51.1% in the HDR group and 57.5% in the LDR group. Conclusions: Although there were several problems with treatment compliance and patients' follow-up, the study suggests that the protocols provided favorable outcomes with acceptable rates of late complications in the treatment of advanced cervical cancer in east and south-east Asia
Wang, Zhili; Wang, Qiuyan; Zhang, Hua
We used an online aerosol-climate model to study the equilibrium climate response of the East Asian summer monsoon (EASM) to increases in anthropogenic emissions of sulfate, organic carbon, and black carbon aerosols from 1850 to 2000. Our results show that each of these aerosol species has a different effect on the EASM as a result of changes in the local sea-land thermal contrast and atmospheric circulation. The increased emission of sulfate aerosol leads to a decrease in the thermal contrast between the land and ocean, a southward shift of the East Asian subtropical jet, and significant northerly wind anomalies at 850 hPa over eastern China and the ambient oceans, markedly dampening the EASM. An increase in organic carbon aerosol results in pronounced surface cooling and the formation of an anomalous anticyclone over the oceans north of 30°N. These effects cause a slight increase in the sea-land thermal contrast and southerly flow anomalies to the west of the anticyclonic center, strengthening the northern EASM. An increase in organic carbon emission decreases the sea-land thermal contrast over southern China, which weakens the southern EASM. The response of the summer 850-hPa winds and rainfall over the East Asian monsoon region to an increase in black carbon emission is generally consistent with the response to an increase in organic carbon. The increase in black carbon emission leads to a strengthening of the northern EASM north of 35°N and a slight weakening of the southern EASM south of 35°N. The simulated response of the EASM to the increase in black carbon emission is unchanged when the emission of black carbon is scaled up by five times its year 2000 levels, although the intensities of the response is enhanced. The increase in sulfate emission primarily weakens the EASM, whereas the increases in black carbon and organic carbon emissions mitigate weakening of the northern EASM.
Background/Context: East Asian schools receive much attention for the comparatively high achievement of their students. To account for this success, scholars and commentators advance broad claims about the rote character of instruction or the complexity of classroom practice, typically generalizing to an entire nation. Yet little is known about…
Full Text Available Corporate governance theory predicts that leverage affects agency costs and thereby influences firm performance. Agency costs represent important problems in corporate governance in both financial and non-financial industries. Prior evidences have demonstrated an association between ownership structures, capital structure, and firm performance. This study extends the literature by proposing a further link between capital structure and firm performance in term of post Asian Financial Crisis that is rarely investigated. Using an agency framework, the research argues that the distribution of equity ownership among corporate managers and external block holders has a significant relationship with leverage and firm performance, and there is reverse causality effect between ownership structure, capital structure, and firm performance. The paper tests two hypotheses that explore various aspects of this relationship. This study uses 532 East Asian companies, which are located in INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ECONOMICS AND FINANCE STUDIES Vol 3, No 2, 2011 ISSN: 1309-8055 (Online 2 seven most affected countries when the crisis took place during period 1996-1997. The time frame of analysis is 2000-2001 period that is believed as a start of recovery period. Statistic methods used for testing the hypothesis are t-test and multivariate regression model. The empirical results indicate that the East Asian companies after the crisis apply the efficiency-risk argument. In analyzing the reverse causation of capital structure and corporate performance relation, the result confirms the incentive signaling approach, which debt can be used to signal the fact that firm has prospect and equity issues may be interpreted as a negative signal.
Stan, C.; Jin, Y.
The response of East Asian Summer Monsoon (EASM) to the abrupt quadrupling of atmospheric CO2 concentration is investigated using the Super-Parameterized Community Climate Model, version 4 (SP-CCSM4). The EASM precipitation and circulation intensify in response to global warming and these changes are related to the westward extension of the Western North Pacific Subtropical High (WNPSH). The displacement of WNPSH is caused by two mechanisms: i) the increase of sea surface temperature and ii) the reduction of latent heat flux over the South China Sea and adjacent western Pacific Ocean. The changes in the surface fluxes over the tropics induce a Gill-type anti-cyclonic circulation to the north of the heating anomaly and a Rossy wave train from the tropics into the midlatitude Pacific Ocean. The westerly anomalies on the northern side of the anticyclone strengthen the southwesterly flow on the western edge of WNPSH. This flow further affects the wind anomalies and moisture transport over East Asia.
Jung, Chun-Yong; Shin, Ho-Jeong; Jang, Chan Joo; Kim, Hyung-Jin
The summer monsoon considerably affects water resource and natural hazards including flood and drought in East Asia, one of the world's most densely populated area. In this study, we investigate future changes in summer precipitation over East Asia induced by global warming through dynamical downscaling with the Weather Research and Forecast model. We have selected a global model from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 based on an objective evaluation for East Asian summer monsoon and applied its climate change under Representative Concentration Pathway 4.5 scenario to a pseudo global warming method. Unlike the previous studies that focused on a qualitative description of projected precipitation changes over East Asia, this study tried to identify the physical causes of the precipitation changes by analyzing a local moisture budget. Projected changes in precipitation over the eastern foothills area of Tibetan Plateau including Sichuan Basin and Yangtze River displayed a contrasting pattern: a decrease in its northern area and an increase in its southern area. A local moisture budget analysis indicated the precipitation increase over the southern area can be mainly attributed to an increase in horizontal wind convergence and surface evaporation. On the other hand, the precipitation decrease over the northern area can be largely explained by horizontal advection of dry air from the northern continent and by divergent wind flow. Regional changes in future precipitation in East Asia are likely to be attributed to different mechanisms which can be better resolved by regional dynamical downscaling.
Some progresses in impacts of Western Pacific Ocean (WPO) on East Asian monsoon and stratosphere climate are reviewed from the following aspects. (1) Impact of the IPOD (a cross-basin dipole pattern of SSTA variability between the Indo-Pacific warm pool (IPWP) and North Pacific Ocean) on the East Asian summer monsoon (EASM).The IPOD exhibits a considerable correlation with the EASM. In summers with a positive IPOD phase, the western Pacific subtropical high (WPSH) weakens and shrinks with WPSH ridge moving northwards, which favours an intensified EASM and a decrease in summer rainfall in the Yangtze River valley, and vice versa. (2) TheIndo-Western Pacific convection oscillation (IPCO),which is an out-of-phase fluctuation in convection anomalies between the north Indian Ocean and the western North Pacific region,is closely related to the EASM.Negative IPCO phases, which exhibit an enhanced convection over the north Indian Ocean and a suppressed convection over the western North Pacific, favor a weakened EASM and an increase of summer rainfall in the Yangtze River valley with the joint actions of the stronger than normal Ural and Okhotsk blocking highs and the subtropical western Pacific high, and vice versa.(3) Asymmetric influence of the two types of ENSO on summer rainfall in China. The two types of ENSO have asymmetric impacts on summer rainfall over the Yangtze River Valley. The relation between summer rainfall over this valley and the cold tongue (CT) El Niño is significantly positive, while the relation with the CT La Niña is not significant. The negative phase of the warm pool (WP) ENSO has a significant positive influence, whereas no significant relation with the positive phase. They indicated that this asymmetric response of the EASM is likely to be linked to the different spatial patterns of the two types of ENSO.(4) Linkage between recent winter precipitation increase in the middle-lower Yangtze River valley (MLY) since the late 1970s andwarming in the
Khakoo, Mohamed Hussein Turabali
Immigrant entrepreneurship has always existed and has developed remarkably. It is related to migration flows over time and has brought increasing attention from researchers and management practitioners in recent years. The research sets out to investigate the process by which immigrants enter into entrepreneurship. The idea of starting a small business and the internationalization strategies they follow. A homogeneous ethnic minority is researched upon, the East African Asians who had migrate...
Christoph D. Schubart
Full Text Available A single adult male specimen of the East Asian crab Hemigrapsus sanguineus (de Haan, 1835 was collected in August 2001 in the northern Adriatic Sea along the northwest coast of the peninsula of Istra. This is the first record of this genus and species from the Mediterranean Sea. Previously, Hemigrapsus sanguineus had been reported to invade the Atlantic coasts of North America and of western France, while the congeneric East Asian species, Hemigrapsus penicillatus (de Haan, 1835, has established breeding populations along the Atlantic coast of Europe. The current absence of Hemigrapsus sanguineus in southern Europe and the western Mediterranean suggests an independent human-mediated introduction of the Croatian specimen. Preliminary genetic analyses reveal that specimens from Istra, North America, and Japan have identical DNA haplotypes corresponding to the mitochondrial large subunit rRNA gene (16S mtDNA, while the homologous sequence from a specimen of Taiwan differs in two out of 525 nucleotides.
Chung, Woo Jin [Korea Energy Economics Institute, Euiwang (Korea)
In Northeast Asian region, there are East Russia with abundant resources, Japan a large energy consumption country, Korea and China with rapidly increasing energy consumption due to their economic development, but the utilization rate of East Russian resources are very low and the resource trading and investment among Korea, China and Japan are also low. Korea and Japan use most of energy imported from Middle East. It is expected that import of petroleum and gas except coal will be increasing in China and most of imported energy will be imported mainly from the Middle East. For Korea, with not much energy resources and foreign-oriented economic system, if investment on resource development among Northeast Asian countries is active and energy transportation among these countries is liberalized, the enhancement of energy cooperation in Northeast Asia has a high possibility to provide North and South Korean energy cooperation as well as to secure energy security and to develop energy industry. Therefore, Korean government needs to promote Northeast Asian energy cooperation by taking its lead. (author). 28 refs., 8 figs., 44 tabs.
Choi, Hyunkyung; Van Riper, Marcia
The purpose of this integrative literature review was to understand the experiences of East Asian families of children with Down syndrome and identify factors affecting their adaptation in the Resiliency Model of Family Stress, Adjustment and Adaptation. Socio-cultural factors influence how well families adapt following the birth of a child with Down syndrome. Existing literature in this area has focused primarily on families from Western cultures. This is problematic because nurses care for families from all over the world. Therefore, the focus of this review is on families of children with Down syndrome living in East Asia, where Confucianism is dominant. Integrative literature review. Online databases (i.e. PubMed, CINAHL and PsycINFO) and a public search engine (i.e. Google Scholar) were used along with manual searches of reference lists and major journals. Studies were limited to original publications written in English and published between 1990-2014. Two authors independently performed integrative review processes proposed by Whittemore and Knafl and a quality assessment using the Mixed Methods Appraisal Tool. Like families in Western cultures, some East Asian families of children with Down syndrome adapted well and even thrived while others struggled. Various socio-cultural factors, including some associated with Confucianism, played a role in how individuals, dyads and families adapted. An understanding of socio-cultural influences can help nurses implement culturally sensitive family-centred interventions with families of children with Down syndrome. It may also facilitate policy changes concerning resources for these families. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Kim, M. H.; Lim, Y. J.; Kang, H. S.; Kim, B. J.; Cho, C.
This study investigates the effects of freshwater from the Changiang river basin over the East Asian region for summer season. To do this, we simulated global seasonal forecasting system (GloSea5) of KMA (Korea Meteorology Administration). GloSea5 consists of atmosphere, ocean, sea ice and land model. Also, it has river routing model (TRIP), which links between land and ocean using freshwater. It is very important component in long-term forecast because of be able to change the air-sea interaction. To improve more the freshwater performance over the East Asian region, we realistically modified the river mouth, direction and storage around Changiang river basin of TRIP in GloSea5. Here, the comparison study among the no freshwater forcing experiment to ocean model (TRIP-OFF), the operated original file based freshwater coupled experiment (TRIP-ON) and the improved one (TRIP-MODI) has been carried out and the results are evaluated against the reanalysis data. As a result, the amount of fresh water to the Yellow Sea increase in TRIP-ON experiment and it attributes to the improvement of bias and RMSE of local SST over the East Asia. The implementation of the realistic river related ancillary files (TRIP-MODI) improves the abnormal salinity distribution around the Changjiang river gate and its related SST reduces cold bias about 0.37˚C for July over the East Sea. Warm SST over this region is caused by barrier layer (BL). Freshwater flux and salinity changes can create a pronounced salinity-induced mixed layer (ML) above the top of the thermocline. The layer between the base of the ML and the top of the thermocline is called a barrier layer (BL), because it isolates the warm surface water from cold deep water. In addition, the improved fresh water forcing can lead to the change in the local volume transport from the Kuroshio to the Strait of Korea and Changed the transport and SST over the Straits of Korea have correlation 0.57 at 95% confidence level. For the
Full Text Available Deep-sea and ice-core records show that interglacial periods were overall less "warm" before about 420 000 years ago than after, with relatively higher ice volume and lower greenhouse gases concentration. This is particularly the case for the interglacial Marine Isotope Stage 13 which occurred about 500 000 years ago. However, by contrast, the loess and other proxy records from China suggest an exceptionally active East Asian summer monsoon during this interglacial. A three-dimension Earth system Model of Intermediate complexity was used to understand this seeming paradox. The astronomical forcing and the remnant ice sheets present in Eurasia and North America were taken into account in a series of sensitivity experiments. Expectedly, the seasonal contrast is larger and the East Asian summer monsoon is reinforced compared to Pre-Industrial time when Northern Hemisphere summer is at perihelion. Surprisingly, the presence of the Eurasian ice sheet was found to reinforce monsoon, too, through a south-eastwards perturbation planetary wave. The trajectory of this wave is influenced by the Tibetan plateau.
Full Text Available This study aims to answer two questions using input-output decomposition analysis: 1 Have emerging Asian economies decoupled? 2 What are the sources of structural changes in gross outputs and value-added of emerging Asian economies related to the first question? The main findings of the study are as follows: First, since 1990, there has been a trend of increasing dependence on exports to extra-regions such as G3 and the ROW, indicating no sign of "decoupling", but rather an increasing integration of emerging Asian countries into global trade. Second, there is a contrasting feature in the sources of structural changes between non-China emerging Asia and China. Dependence of non-China emerging Asia on intra-regional trade has increased in line with strengthening economic integration in East Asia, whereas China has disintegrated from the region. Therefore, it can be said that China has contributed to no sign of decoupling of emerging Asia as a whole.
This article explores how cultural identity reveals itself in East Asian higher education. The following questions are addressed. First, what is culture and what is the characteristic of East Asian culture? Second, what are cultural situations of East Asian higher education? Third, how does the cultural identity of East Asia reveal itself in…
Shim, C.; Henze, D. K.; Deng, F.
The world largest CO2 emissions are from East Asia. However, there are large uncertainties in CO2 emission inventories, mainly because of imperfections in bottom-up statistics and a lack of observations for validating emission fluxes, particularly over China. Here we tried to constrain East Asian CO2 emissions with GOSAT retrievals applying 4-Dvar GEOS-Chem and its adjoint model. We applied the inversion to only the cold season (November - February) in 2009 - 2010 since the summer monsoon and greater transboundary impacts in spring and fall greatly reduced the GOSAT retrievals. In the cold season, the a posteriori CO2 emissions over East Asia generally higher by 5 - 20%, particularly Northeastern China shows intensively higher in a posteriori emissions ( 20%), where the Chinese government is recently focusing on mitigating the air pollutants. In another hand, a posteriori emissions from Southern China are lower 10 - 25%. A posteriori emissions in Korea and Japan are mostly higher by 10 % except over Kyushu region. With our top-down estimates with 4-Dvar CO2 inversion, we will evaluate the current regional CO2 emissions inventories and potential uncertainties in the sectoral emissions. This study will help understand the quantitative information on anthropogenic CO2 emissions over East Asia and will give policy implications for the mitigation targets.
Wendi J. Otto
It has been widely reported that Korean-American students as a group outperform most other groups of students in terms of academic achievement due to having parents with especially high academic expectations due to traditional Confucian values. To examine this achievement, this study examines the common factors across the indigenous East Asian parenting ideologies, styles, and practices based on the perceptions of high-achieving, Korean-American primary school students through the East Asian ...
The present volume contains case studies of how government og firms in a number of Asian countries have responded to challenges of globalisation and how that has affected their economic transformation.......The present volume contains case studies of how government og firms in a number of Asian countries have responded to challenges of globalisation and how that has affected their economic transformation....
Using a narrative approach (i.e., Clandinin and Connelly 2000; Dewey 1938 ), this article explores the identity constructions and negotiations of two East Asian women teachers of English in MATESOL programs. The focus of this article explores the ways in which the two women's privileged experiences coexisted with issues of marginalization…
Noh, Jin-Won; Kim, Jinseok; Yang, Youngmi; Park, Jumin; Cheon, Jooyoung; Kwon, Young Dae
There have been conflicting findings regarding the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and self-rated health (SRH) worldwide. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between BMI and SRH by comparing its relationship in four East Asian countries: South Korea, China, Japan, and
金, 炳宣; Byung Sun, Kim; 経済学研究科
This paper studies the evolution of the exchange rate regime on East Asian economies between pre- and post-crisis periods, especially with a focus on the impacts of change in yen-dollar rate, using a regression model based on the work by Frankel and Wei (1994). As a result of the study, the following points are understood. Firstly, a greater diversity in exchange rate regime is seen for the post-crisis period than the pre-crisis period. At one extreme, Hong Kong under a stable dollar peg thro...
Liu, Jiawei; Xu, Haiming; Deng, Jiechun
Much research is needed regarding the two long-term warming targets of the 2015 Paris Agreement, i.e., 1.5 and 2 °C above pre-industrial levels, especially from a regional perspective. The East Asian summer monsoon (EASM) intensity change and associated precipitation change under both warming targets are explored in this study. The multimodel ensemble mean projections by 19 CMIP5 models show small increases in EASM intensity and general increases in summer precipitation at 1.5 and 2 °C warming, but with large multimodel standard deviations. Thus, a novel multimodel ensemble pattern regression (EPR) method is applied to give more reliable projections based on the concept of emergent constraints, which is effective at tightening the range of multimodel diversity and harmonize the changes of different variables over the EASM region. Future changes projected by using the EPR method suggest decreased precipitation over the Meiyu belt and increased precipitation over the high latitudes of East Asia and Central China, together with a considerable weakening of EASM intensity. Furthermore, reduced precipitation appears over 30-40° N of East Asia in June and over the Meiyu belt in July, with enhanced precipitation at their north and south sides. These changes in early summer are attributed to a southeastward retreat of the western North Pacific subtropical high (WNPSH) and a southward shift of the East Asian subtropical jet (EASJ), which weaken the moisture transport via southerly wind at low levels and alter vertical motions over the EASM region. In August, precipitation would increase over the high latitudes of East Asia with more moisture from the wetter area over the ocean in the east and decrease over Japan with westward extension of WNPSH. These monthly precipitation changes would finally contribute to a tripolar pattern of EASM precipitation change at 1.5 and 2 °C warming. Corrected EASM intensity exhibits a slight difference between 1.5 and 2 °C, but a
Luo, Xiao; Wang, Bin
Previous studies have found that snow Eurasian anomalies in autumn can affect East Asian winter monsoon (EAWM), but the mechanisms remain controversial and not well understood. The possible mechanisms by which Eurasian autumn snow anomalies affect EAWM are investigated by numerical experiments with a coupled general circulation model and its atmospheric general circulation model component. The leading empirical orthogonal function mode of the October-November mean Eurasian snow cover is characterized by a uniform anomaly over a broad region of central Eurasia (40°N-65°N, 60°E-140°E). However, the results from a 150-ensemble mean simulation with snow depth anomaly specified in October and November reveal that the Mongolian Plateau and Vicinity (MPV, 40°-55°N, 80°-120°E) is the key region for autumn snow anomalies to affect EAWM. The excessive snow forcing can significantly enhance EAWM and the snowfall over the northwestern China and along the EAWM front zone stretching from the southeast China to Japan. The physical process involves a snow-monsoon feedback mechanism. The excessive autumn snow anomalies over the MPV region can persist into the following winter, and significantly enhance winter snow anomalies, which increase surface albedo, reduce incoming solar radiation and cool the boundary layer air, leading to an enhanced Mongolian High and a deepened East Asian trough. The latter, in turn, strengthen surface northwesterly winds, cooling East Asia and increasing snow accumulation over the MPV region and the southeastern China. The increased snow covers feedback to EAWM system through changing albedo, extending its influence southeastward. It is also found that the atmosphere-ocean coupling process can amplify the delayed influence of Eurasian snow mass anomaly on EAWM. The autumn surface albedo anomalies, however, do not have a lasting "memory" effect. Only if the albedo anomalies are artificially extended into December and January, will the EAWM be
Full Text Available Over the past decades, Beijing, the capital city of China, has encountered increasingly frequent persistent haze events (PHE. While the increased pollutant emissions are considered as the most important reason, changes in regional atmospheric circulations associated with large-scale climate warming also play a role. In this study, we find a significant positive trend of PHE in Beijing for the winters from 1980 to 2016 based on updated daily observations. This trend is closely related to an increasing frequency of extreme anomalous southerly episodes in North China, a weakened East Asian trough in the mid-troposphere and a northward shift of the East Asian jet stream in the upper troposphere. These conditions together depict a weakened East Asian winter monsoon (EAWM system, which is then found to be associated with an anomalous warm, high-pressure system in the middle–lower troposphere over the northwestern Pacific. A practical EAWM index is defined as the seasonal meridional wind anomaly at 850 hPa in winter over North China. Over the period 1900–2016, this EAWM index is positively correlated with the sea surface temperature anomalies over the northwestern Pacific, which indicates a wavy positive trend, with an enhanced positive phase since the mid-1980s. Our results suggest an observation-based mechanism linking the increase in PHE in Beijing with large-scale climatic warming through changes in the typical regional atmospheric circulation.
He, Shengping; Gao, Yongqi; Furevik, Tore; Wang, Huijun; Li, Fei
In contrast to previous studies that have tended to focus on the influence of the total Arctic sea-ice cover on the East Asian summer tripole rainfall pattern, the present study identifies the Barents Sea as the key region where the June sea-ice variability exerts the most significant impacts on the East Asian August tripole rainfall pattern, and explores the teleconnection mechanisms involved. The results reveal that a reduction in June sea ice excites anomalous upward air motion due to strong near-surface thermal forcing, which further triggers a meridional overturning wave-like pattern extending to midlatitudes. Anomalous downward motion therefore forms over the Caspian Sea, which in turn induces zonally oriented overturning circulation along the subtropical jet stream, exhibiting the east-west Rossby wave train known as the Silk Road pattern. It is suggested that the Bonin high, a subtropical anticyclone predominant near South Korea, shows a significant anomaly due to the eastward extension of the Silk Road pattern to East Asia. As a possible descending branch of the Hadley cell, the Bonin high anomaly ultimately triggers a meridional overturning, establishing the Pacific-Japan pattern. This in turn induces an anomalous anticyclone and cyclone pair over East Asia, and a tripole vertical convection anomaly meridionally oriented over East Asia. Consequently, a tripole rainfall anomaly pattern is observed over East Asia. Results from numerical experiments using version 5 of the Community Atmosphere Model support the interpretation of this chain of events.
Kaya-Bahçe, Seçil; Özmen, Erdal
This paper investigates whether the recent experience of the emerging East Asian countries with current account surpluses is consistent with the “saving glut” hypothesis and the Feldstein and Horioka puzzle. The evidence suggests that the saving retention coefficients declined substantially in most of the countries after an endogenous break date coinciding with a major exchange rate regime change with the 1997-1998 crisis. Exchange rate flexibility appears to be enhancing financial integration. The results are consistent with an “investment slump” explanation rather than the “saving glut” postulation.
Trezise, Philip H.
What we can expect in the future from the miracle economies of Japan, South Korea, Taiwan, Singapore, and Hong Kong, whether they pose a threat to the older industrial states of Western Europe and North American, and whether China is to be the next emerging Asian economy are discussed. The amazing economic recovery of these East Asian countries…
Tian, Baoqiang; Fan, Ke; Yang, Hongqing
The East Asian winter monsoon (EAWM) is the major climate system in the Northern Hemisphere during boreal winter. In this study, we developed two schemes to improve the forecasting skill of the interannual variability of the EAWM index (EAWMI) using the interannual increment prediction method, also known as the DY method. First, we found that version 2 of the NCEP's Climate Forecast System (CFSv2) showed higher skill in predicting the EAWMI in DY form than not. So, based on the advantage of the DY method, Scheme-I was obtained by adding the EAWMI DY predicted by CFSv2 to the observed EAWMI in the previous year. This scheme showed higher forecasting skill than CFSv2. Specifically, during 1983-2016, the temporal correlation coefficient between the Scheme-I-predicted and observed EAWMI was 0.47, exceeding the 99% significance level, with the root-mean-square error (RMSE) decreased by 12%. The autumn Arctic sea ice and North Pacific sea surface temperature (SST) are two important external forcing factors for the interannual variability of the EAWM. Therefore, a second (hybrid) prediction scheme, Scheme-II, was also developed. This scheme not only involved the EAWMI DY of CFSv2, but also the sea-ice concentration (SIC) observed the previous autumn in the Laptev and East Siberian seas and the temporal coefficients of the third mode of the North Pacific SST in DY form. We found that a negative SIC anomaly in the preceding autumn over the Laptev and the East Siberian seas could lead to a significant enhancement of the Aleutian low and East Asian westerly jet in the following winter. However, the intensity of the winter Siberian high was mainly affected by the third mode of the North Pacific autumn SST. Scheme-I and Scheme-II also showed higher predictive ability for the EAWMI in negative anomaly years compared to CFSv2. More importantly, the improvement in the prediction skill of the EAWMI by the new schemes, especially for Scheme-II, could enhance the forecasting skill of
Morita, Tatsuya; Oyama, Yasuhiro; Cheng, Shao-Yi; Suh, Sang-Yeon; Koh, Su Jin; Kim, Hyun Sook; Chiu, Tai-Yuan; Hwang, Shinn-Jang; Shirado, Akemi; Tsuneto, Satoru
Clarification of the potential differences in end-of-life care among East Asian countries is necessary to provide palliative care that is individualized for each patient. The aim was to explore the differences in attitude toward patient autonomy and a good death among East Asian palliative care physicians. A cross-sectional survey was performed involving palliative care physicians in Japan, Taiwan, and Korea. Physicians' attitudes toward patient autonomy and physician-perceived good death were assessed. A total of 505, 207, and 211 responses were obtained from Japanese, Taiwanese, and Korean physicians, respectively. Japanese (82%) and Taiwanese (93%) physicians were significantly more likely to agree that the patient should be informed first of a serious medical condition than Korean physicians (74%). Moreover, 41% and 49% of Korean and Taiwanese physicians agreed that the family should be told first, respectively; whereas 7.4% of Japanese physicians agreed. Physicians' attitudes with respect to patient autonomy were significantly correlated with the country (Japan), male sex, physician specialties of surgery and oncology, longer clinical experience, and physicians having no religion but a specific philosophy. In all 12 components of a good death, there were significant differences by country. Japanese physicians regarded physical comfort and autonomy as significantly more important and regarded preparation, religion, not being a burden to others, receiving maximum treatment, and dying at home as less important. Taiwanese physicians regarded life completion and being free from tubes and machines as significantly more important. Korean physicians regarded being cognitively intact as significantly more important. There are considerable intercountry differences in physicians' attitudes toward autonomy and physician-perceived good death. East Asia is not culturally the same; thus, palliative care should be provided in a culturally acceptable manner for each country
O'Shea, Taryn; Thomas, Nathaniel; Webb, Bradley Todd; Dick, Danielle M; Kendler, Kenneth S; Chartier, Karen G
The ALDH2*2 allele (A-allele) at rs671 is more commonly carried by Asians and is associated with alcohol-related flushing, a strong adverse reaction to alcohol that is protective against drinking. Social factors, such as having friends who binge drink, also contribute to drinking in Asian youth. This study examined the interplay between ALDH2*2, peer drinking, and alcohol consumption in college students. We hypothesized that the relationship between ALDH2*2 and standard grams of ethanol per month would vary based on the level of peer drinking. Subjects (N = 318, 63.25% female) were East Asian college students in the United States who reported drinking alcohol. Data were from the freshman year of a university survey that included a saliva DNA sample. ALDH2*2 status was coded ALDH2*2(+) (A/G and A/A genotypes) and ALDH2*2(-) (G/G genotype). Peer drinking was students' perception of how many of their friends "got drunk". Main effects of ALDH2*2(-) and having more friends who got drunk were associated with greater alcohol consumption. The ALDH2*2 × peer drunkenness interaction showed a stronger positive association with alcohol consumption for ALDH2*2(-) versus ALDH2*2(+) at increasing levels of peer drunkenness. Follow-up comparisons within each peer drunkenness level identified significantly higher alcohol consumption for ALDH2*2(-) compared to ALDH2*2(+) at the all friends got drunk level. There was evidence of a stronger effect for ALDH2*2(-) compared to ALDH2*2(+) with greater alcohol use when students were more exposed to peer drinking. Findings contribute to a growing literature on the interrelationships between genetic influences and more permissive environments for alcohol consumption.
MacKinnon, John; Verkuil, Yvonne I; Murray, Nicholas
The IUCN Species Survival Commission and IUCN Asia Regional Office commissioned this independent report to assess the state and condition of intertidal habitats along the East Asian- Australasian Flyway (EAAF), in response to growing concerns expressed by IUCN members over observed declines in
Li, Shu; Wang, Tijian; Huang, Xing; Pu, Xi; Li, Mengmeng; Chen, Pulong; Yang, Xiu-Qun; Wang, Minghuai
Tropospheric ozone plays a key role in regional and global atmospheric and climate systems. In East Asia, ozone can be affected both in concentration level and spatial pattern by typical monsoon climate. This paper uses three different indices to identify the strength of East Asian summer monsoon (EASM) and explores the possible impact of EASM intensity on the ozone pattern through synthetic and process analysis. The difference in ozone between three strong and three weak monsoon years was analyzed using the simulations from regional climate model RegCM4-Chem. It was found that EASM intensity can significantly influence the spatial distribution of ozone in the lower troposphere. When EASM is strong, ozone in the eastern part of China (28°N - 42° N) is reduced, but the inverse is detected in the north and south. The surface ozone difference ranges from -7 to 7 ppbv during the 3 months (June to August) of the EASM, with the most obvious difference in August. Difference of the 3 months' average ozone ranges from -3.5 to 4 ppbv. Process analysis shows that the uppermost factor controlling ozone level during summer monsoon seasons is the chemistry process. Interannual variability of EASM can impact the spatial distribution of ozone through wind in the lower troposphere, cloud cover, and downward shortwave radiation, which affect the transport and chemical formation of ozone. The phenomenon should be addressed when considering the interaction between ozone and the climate in East Asia region.
Kim, Choung Soo; Choi, Young Deuk; Lee, Sang Eun; Lee, Hyun Moo; Ueda, Takeshi; Yonese, Junji; Fukagai, Takashi; Chiong, Edmund; Lau, Weber; Abhyankar, Sarang; Theeuwes, Ad; Tombal, Bertrand; Beer, Tomasz M; Kimura, Go
Enzalutamide is an androgen receptor (AR) inhibitor that acts on different steps in the AR signaling pathway. In PREVAIL, an international, phase III, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, enzalutamide significantly reduced the risk of radiographic progression by 81% (hazard ratio [HR], 0.19; P PREVAIL trial, we performed a post hoc analysis of the Japanese, Korean, and Singaporean patients. PREVAIL enrolled patients with asymptomatic or mildly symptomatic chemotherapy-naïve metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer who had progressed on androgen deprivation therapy. During the study, patients received enzalutamide (160 mg/d) or placebo (1:1) until death or discontinuation because of radiographic progression or skeletal-related event and initiation of subsequent therapy. Centrally assessed radiographic progression-free survival (rPFS) and overall survival (OS) were coprimary endpoints. The secondary endpoints of the PREVAIL trial were investigator-assessed rPFS, time to initiation of chemotherapy, time to prostate-specific antigen (PSA) progression, and PSA response (≥50% decline). Of 1717 patients, 148 patients were enrolled at sites in East Asia (enzalutamide 73, placebo 75). Treatment effect of enzalutamide versus placebo was consistent with that for the overall population as indicated by the HRs (95% confidence interval) of 0.38 (0.10-1.44) for centrally assessed rPFS, 0.59 (0.29-1.23) for OS, 0.33 (0.19-0.60) for time to chemotherapy, and 0.32 (0.20-0.50) for time to PSA progression. In East Asian patients, PSA responses were observed in 68.5% and 14.7% of enzalutamide- and placebo-treated patients, respectively. The enzalutamide plasma concentration ratio (East Asian:non-Asian patients) was 1.12 (90% confidence interval, 1.05-1.20) at 13 weeks. Treatment-related adverse events grade ≥ 3 occurred in 1.4% and 2.7% of enzalutamide- and placebo-treated East Asian patients, respectively. Treatment effects and safety of enzalutamide in East Asian
Lyons, Nicholas A.; Lyoo, Young S.; King, Donald P.; Paton, David J.
Vaccination can play a central role in the control of outbreaks of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) by reducing both the impact of clinical disease and the extent of virus transmission between susceptible animals. Recent incursions of exotic FMD virus lineages into several East Asian countries have highlighted the difficulties of generating and maintaining an adequate immune response in vaccinated pigs. Factors that impact vaccine performance include (i) the potency, antigenic payload, and formulation of a vaccine; (ii) the antigenic match between the vaccine and the heterologous circulating field strain; and (iii) the regime (timing, frequency, and herd-level coverage) used to administer the vaccine. This review collates data from studies that have evaluated the performance of foot-and-mouth disease virus vaccines at the individual and population level in pigs and identifies research priorities that could provide new insights to improve vaccination in the future. PMID:27965966
Wen, Xinyu; Liu, Zhengyu; Wang, Shaowu; Cheng, Jun; Zhu, Jiang
Understanding the past significant changes of the East Asia Summer Monsoon (EASM) and Winter Monsoon (EAWM) is critical for improving the projections of future climate over East Asia. One key issue that has remained outstanding from the paleo-climatic records is whether the evolution of the EASM and EAWM are correlated. Here, using a set of long-term transient simulations of the climate evolution of the last 21,000 years, we show that the EASM and EAWM are positively correlated on the orbital timescale in response to the precessional forcing, but are anti-correlated on millennial timescales in response to North Atlantic melt water forcing. The relation between EASM and EAWM can differ dramatically for different timescales because of the different response mechanisms, highlighting the complex dynamics of the East Asian monsoon system and the challenges for future projection.
Indonesia always continually failed international assessments even though many efforts have been made. The results of PISA 2012 put Indonesian students in the worst position. In contrast, East Asian countries' performance well in mathematics, reading, and science. Indeed, Singapore has the best performance in the Southeast Asia region even in the…
Kristensen, Pal; Weisaeth, Lars; Heir, Trond
The authors examined predictors of complicated grief (CG) in Norwegians 2 years after bereavement in the 2004 South-East Asian tsunami. A cross-sectional postal survey retrospectively covering disaster experiences and assessing CG according to the Inventory of Complicated Grief yielded 130 respondents (35 directly disaster-exposed and 95 not…
di Marco, Chiara F.; Phillips, Gavin J.; Thomas, Rick; Tang, Sim; Nemitz, Eiko; Sutton, Mark A.; Fowler, David; Lim, Sei F.
The supply of reactive nitrogen (N) to global terrestrial ecosystems has doubled since the 1960s as a consequence of human activities, such as fertilizer application and production of nitrogen oxides by fossil-fuel burning. The deposition of atmospheric N species constitutes a major nutrient input to the biosphere. Tropical forests have been undergoing a radical land use change by increasing cultivation of sugar cane and oil palms and the remaining forests are increasingly affected by anthropogenic activities. Yet, quantifications of atmospheric nitrogen deposition to tropical forests, and nitrogen cycling under near-pristine and polluted conditions are rare. The OP3 project ("Oxidant and Particle Photochemical Processes above a Southeast Asian Tropical Rainforest") was conceived to study how emissions of reactive trace gases from a tropical rain forest mediate the regional scale production and processing of oxidants and particles, and to better understand the impact of these processes on local, regional and global scale atmospheric composition, chemistry and climate. As part of this study we have measured reactive, nitrogen containing trace gas (ammonia, nitric acid) and the associated aerosol components (ammonium, nitrate) at monthly time resolution using a simple filter / denuder for 16 months. These measurements were made at the Bukit Atur Global Atmospheric Watch tower near Danum Valley in the Malaysian state of Sabah, Borneo. In addition, the same compounds were measured at hourly time-resolution during an intensive measurement period, with a combination of a wet-chemistry system based on denuders and steam jet aerosol collectors and an aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS), providing additional information on the temporal controls. During this period, concentrations and fluxes of NO, NO2 and N2O were also measured. The measurements are used for inferential dry deposition modelling and combined with wet deposition data from the South East Asian Acid
Barry, Declan T; Beitel, Mark
Although sex role ideology (i.e., beliefs about the proper roles for men and women) is linked with self-definition and male-female interactions, researchers have rarely examined such beliefs among U.S. immigrants. This study examined the cultural (ethnic identity, self-construal) and demographic (gender, age, years in United States) correlates of sex role ideology among 170 (88 male, 82 female) East Asian immigrants using psychometrically established measures. Male participants who endorsed ethnic identity and interdependent self-construal were more likely to report traditional sex roles; female participants who lived for a longer period of time in the United States and who endorsed independent self-construal were more likely to report sex role equality. Clinicians should consider assessing sex role ideology to reduce the likelihood of stereotyping their immigrant clients. (c) 2007 APA, all rights reserved
Sheu, G.; Lee, C.; Lin, N.; Wang, J.; Ouyang, C.
Taiwan is located to the downwind side of both East and Southeast Asia, which are the major anthropogenic mercury (Hg) source region worldwide. Also, it has been suggested that mountain-top monitoring sites, which are frequently in the free troposphere, are essential to the understanding of the global Hg transport. Accordingly, continuous measurements of atmospheric Hg have been conducting at Lulin Atmospheric Background Station (LABS, 2862 m a.s.l.) in Taiwan since April 13, 2006 to study the trans-boundary transport and transformation of Hg in the free troposphere. Three types of atmospheric Hg, including gaseous elemental Hg (GEM), reactive gaseous Hg (RGM), and particulate Hg (PHg), are measured using the Tekran 2537A/1130/1135 speciation system. Diurnal variations in the concentrations of GEM, RGM, ozone, and water vapor (WV) mixing ratio indicated the influence of boundary layer air in daytime and the subsidence of free tropospheric air masses from higher altitudes at night. Seasonal variation in GEM concentrations was evident with elevated concentrations usually observed between fall and spring when air masses were more or less under the influence of Asian continent. Low summer GEM values were associated with marine air masses. Spikes of RGM were frequently detected between midnight and early morning with concurrent decreases in GEM and WV mixing ratio and increases in ozone concentrations, suggesting the oxidation of GEM and formation of RGM in free troposphere. Concentrations of PHg were usually low; however, elevated concentrations were detected in spring when the Southeast Asian biomass burning plumes affected the LABS. Analysis of the collected data indicate that at LABS the distribution of atmospheric Hg is dynamically controlled by background atmosphere, exchange and mixing of free troposphere/boundary layer air, chemical transformation, and long-range transport from East and Southeast Asia.
Efficacy and safety of paliperidone palmitate three-monthly formulation in East Asian patients with schizophrenia: subgroup analysis of a global, randomized, double-blind, Phase III, noninferiority study
Full Text Available Adam J Savitz,1 Haiyan Xu,2 Srihari Gopal,1 Isaac Nuamah,2 Paulien Ravenstijn,3 David Hough,1 Maju Mathews,4 Yu Feng,5 Lu Yu,6 Masayoshi Takahashi,7 Dennis Liu,8 Gang Wang,9 Jin-Sang Yoon,10 Jiahn-Jyh Chen11 1Department of Central Nervous System, 2Department of Clinical Biostatistics, Janssen Research & Development, LLC, Titusville, NJ, USA; 3Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Janssen Research & Development, Beerse, Belgium; 4Global Medical Affairs, Neurosciences, Janssen Research & Development, NY, USA; 5Medical Affairs, Neurosciences, Janssen Pharmaceutical Companies of Johnson and Johnson, Singapore; 6Department of Clinical Development, Janssen Research & Development, Beijing, China; 7Department of Central Nervous System, Janssen Pharmaceutical KK, Tokyo, Japan; 8Playford Community Team, Northern Adelaide Local Health Network, Adelaide, SA, Australia; 9National Clinical Research Center for Mental Disorders, Beijing Anding Hospital, Affiliated Capital University of Medical Science, Beijing, China; 10Department of Psychiatry, Chonnam National University Hospital, Gwangju, South Korea; 11Department of Geriatric Psychiatry, Taoyuan Mental Hospital, Taoyuan, Taiwan Objective: To demonstrate the efficacy and safety of paliperidone palmitate three-monthly (PP3M formulation in an East Asian population with schizophrenia by subgroup analysis of a double-blind (DB, multicenter, noninferiority study. Patients and methods: Of 1,429 patients who entered the open-label (OL phase, 510 were East Asian (China: 296 [58%], Japan: 175 [34%], South Korea: 19 [4%] and Taiwan: 20 [4%]. In the 17-week OL phase, patients received paliperidone palmitate once-monthly (PP1M formulation on day 1 (150 mg eq., day 8 (100 mg eq. and once-monthly thereafter (50–150 mg eq., flexible. Following the OL phase, patients (n=344 East Asian entered DB phase and were randomized (1:1 to PP1M (n=174 or PP3M (n=170. Primary efficacy endpoint was the percentage of patients who
Beneville, Margaret A.; Li, Chieh
Purpose: There is a notable dearth of interventions that have been specifically designed for Asian English Language Learner (ELL) students, and the existing research on ELL students often lacks population validity and sample diversity. In response to this need, this paper aims to review current research on literacy interventions for East/Southeast…
A longitudinal bibliometric analysis of publications indexed in Thomson Reuters' Incites and Elsevier's Scopus, and published from the Arab Gulf States and neighbouring countries, shows clear effects of major political events during the past 35 years. Predictions made in 2006 by the US diplomat Richard N. Haass on political changes in the Middle East have come true in the Gulf States’ national scientific research systems, to the extent that Iran has become in 2015 by far the leading country in the Arab Gulf, and South-East Asian countries including China, Malaysia and South Korea have become major scientific collaborators, displacing the USA and other large Western countries. But collaborations patterns among Gulf States show no apparent relationship with differences in Islam denominations. (Author)
Full Text Available Much research is needed regarding the two long-term warming targets of the 2015 Paris Agreement, i.e., 1.5 and 2 °C above pre-industrial levels, especially from a regional perspective. The East Asian summer monsoon (EASM intensity change and associated precipitation change under both warming targets are explored in this study. The multimodel ensemble mean projections by 19 CMIP5 models show small increases in EASM intensity and general increases in summer precipitation at 1.5 and 2 °C warming, but with large multimodel standard deviations. Thus, a novel multimodel ensemble pattern regression (EPR method is applied to give more reliable projections based on the concept of emergent constraints, which is effective at tightening the range of multimodel diversity and harmonize the changes of different variables over the EASM region. Future changes projected by using the EPR method suggest decreased precipitation over the Meiyu belt and increased precipitation over the high latitudes of East Asia and Central China, together with a considerable weakening of EASM intensity. Furthermore, reduced precipitation appears over 30–40° N of East Asia in June and over the Meiyu belt in July, with enhanced precipitation at their north and south sides. These changes in early summer are attributed to a southeastward retreat of the western North Pacific subtropical high (WNPSH and a southward shift of the East Asian subtropical jet (EASJ, which weaken the moisture transport via southerly wind at low levels and alter vertical motions over the EASM region. In August, precipitation would increase over the high latitudes of East Asia with more moisture from the wetter area over the ocean in the east and decrease over Japan with westward extension of WNPSH. These monthly precipitation changes would finally contribute to a tripolar pattern of EASM precipitation change at 1.5 and 2 °C warming. Corrected EASM intensity exhibits a slight difference
Western and East Asian people hold fundamentally different beliefs about learning that influence how they approach child rearing and education. Reviewing decades of research, Dr. Jin Li presents an important conceptual distinction between the Western mind model and the East Asian virtue model of learning. The former aims to cultivate the mind to…
Kusunoki, Shoji; Mizuta, Ryo [Meteorological Research Institute, Climate Research Department, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Matsueda, Mio [Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology (JAMSTEC), Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)
Global warming projection experiments were conducted using a 20-km mesh global atmospheric model, focusing on the change in the rain band of East Asian summer monsoon. To assess the uncertainty of climate change projections, we performed ensemble simulations with the 60-km resolution model combining four different SSTs and three atmospheric initial conditions. In the present-day climate simulations, the 20-km model reproduces the rain band of East Asian summer monsoon better than lower resolution models in terms of geographical distribution and seasonal march. In the future climate simulation by the 20-km model, precipitation increases over the Yangtze River valley in May through July, Korean peninsula in May, and Japan in July. The termination of rainy season over Japan tends to be delayed until August. Ensemble simulations by the 60-km model show that precipitation in the future climate for July increases over the Yangtze River valley, the East China Sea and Japan. These changes in precipitation are partly consistent with those projected by the 20-km model. Simulations by the 20-km and 60-km models consistently show that in the future climate the termination of rainy season over Japan tends to be delayed until August. The changes in the vertically integrated water vapor flux show the intensification of clockwise moisture transport over the western Pacific subtropical high. Most precipitation changes over the East Asia can be interpreted as the moisture convergence resulting from change in the horizontal transport of water vapor. (orig.)
Climate research, particularly application studies for water, agriculture, forestry, fishery and energy management require fine scale multi-decadal information of meteorological, oceanographic and land states. Unfortunately, spatially and temporally homogeneous multi-decadal observations of these variables in high horizontal resolution are non-existent. Some long term surface records of temperature and precipitation exist, but the number of observation is very limited and the measurements are often contaminated by changes in instrumentation over time. Some climatologically important variables, such as soil moisture, surface evaporation, and radiation are not even measured over most of East Asia. Reanalysis is one approach to obtaining long term homogeneous analysis of needed variables. However, the horizontal resolution of global reanalysis is of the order of 100 to 200 km, too coarse for many application studies. Regional climate models (RCMs) are able to provide valuable regional finescale information, especially in regions where the climate variables are strongly regulated by the underlying topography and the surface heterogeneity. In this study, we will provide accurately downscaled regional climate over East Asia using the Global/Regional Integrated Model system [GRIMs; Hong et al. 2013]. A mixed layer model is embedded within the GRIMs in order to improve air-sea interaction. A detailed description of the characteristics of the East Asian summer and winter climate will be presented through the high-resolution numerical simulations. The increase in horizontal resolution is expected to provide the high-quality data that can be used in various application areas such as hydrology or environmental model forcing.
Full Text Available The Asian currency crisis in 1997 and the launch of the euro in 1999 made the possibility and desirability of introducing a regional currency union in East Asia a point of debate. At present, the empirical findings and policy implications of previous studies are mixed. We are still in need of theoretical and empirical studies that capture the salient features of East Asia, and give us reliable recommendations for incentive structures, configurations and policy instruments in monetary cooperation in its various stages. This paper aims to review major conceptual and empirical issues relevant to monetary cooperation in East Asia, including proposals for a regional cooperative framework for exchange rate stability or forming a currency union in the region. East Asian countries have no experience with any type of monetary cooperation and all we have are hypothetical predictions. Nevertheless, East Asian countries may be on the brink of an historical evolution to economic and monetary integration, as Europe was half a century ago. The progressive integration of markets in East Asia has conferred a commonality of economic interest upon the countries in the region. As the economic structures of East Asian countries converge with one another through closer ties of trade, investment and finance, the necessity for monetary cooperation will be more likely to emerge in the future. Monetary cooperation in East Asia will be a long process. East Asian countries should make efforts to build collective institutions in the beginning.
Motoya, Satoshi; Watanabe, Mamoru; Kim, Hyo Jong; Kim, Young Ho; Han, Dong Soo; Yuasa, Hirotoshi; Tabira, Junichi; Isogawa, Naoki; Arai, Shoko; Kawaguchi, Isao; Hibi, Toshifumi
Tofacitinib is an oral, small-molecule Janus kinase inhibitor being investigated for ulcerative colitis (UC). In OCTAVE Induction 1 and 2, patients with moderately to severely active UC received placebo or tofacitinib 10 mg twice daily (BID) for 8 weeks. Clinical responders in OCTAVE Induction were re-randomized to 52 weeks' therapy with placebo, tofacitinib 5 mg BID, or tofacitinib 10 mg BID. We conducted post-hoc efficacy and safety analyses of East Asian patients in OCTAVE Induction 1 and 2 and OCTAVE Sustain. A total of 121 East Asian (Japan, Korea, and Taiwan) patients were randomized in OCTAVE Induction 1 and 2 (placebo, n=26; tofacitinib 10 mg BID, n=95), and 63 in OCTAVE Sustain (placebo, n=20; tofacitinib 5 mg BID, n=22; tofacitinib 10 mg BID, n=21). At week 8 of OCTAVE Induction 1 and 2, 18.9% of patients (18/95) achieved remission with tofacitinib 10 mg BID versus 3.8% (1/26) with placebo. In OCTAVE Sustain, the week 52 remission rates were 45.5% (10/22), 47.6% (10/21), and 15.0% (3/20) with 5 mg BID, 10 mg BID, and placebo, respectively. Adverse event rates were similar between groups in OCTAVE Induction and numerically higher with tofacitinib in OCTAVE Sustain. Serious adverse event rates were similar across groups in all studies. Infections were numerically more frequent with tofacitinib than placebo. Increases in serum lipid levels were observed with tofacitinib. In East Asian patients with UC, tofacitinib demonstrated numerically greater efficacy versus placebo as induction and maintenance therapy, with a safety profile consistent with the global study population. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01465763; NCT01458951; NCT01458574.
Benitez-Garcia, Gibran; Nakamura, Tomoaki; Kaneko, Masahide
Darwin was the first one to assert that facial expressions are innate and universal, which are recognized across all cultures. However, recent some cross-cultural studies have questioned this assumed universality. Therefore, this paper presents an analysis of the differences between Western and East-Asian faces of the six basic expressions (anger, disgust, fear, happiness, sadness and surprise) focused on three individual facial regions of eyes-eyebrows, nose and mouth. The analysis is conducted by applying PCA for two feature extraction methods: appearance-based by using the pixel intensities of facial parts, and geometric-based by handling 125 feature points from the face. Both methods are evaluated using 4 standard databases for both racial groups and the results are compared with a cross-cultural human study applied to 20 participants. Our analysis reveals that differences between Westerns and East-Asians exist mainly on the regions of eyes-eyebrows and mouth for expressions of fear and disgust respectively. This work presents important findings for a better design of automatic facial expression recognition systems based on the difference between two racial groups.
Energy is an important factor in international relations and recently the global energy paradigm has been seen to be shifting towards the East. In light of such change, a comparative assessment of the role of energy in Qatar’ East Asian foreign relations will be conducted by taking China, Japan and South Korea as case studies. The research aimed to assess each of the bilateral relationship in terms of their origin and development in the energy sector generating an interpretation of their grow...
Huang, Zhongwei; Yong, Eu-Leong
Ethnicity has not been accounted for in the diagnostic criteria for polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). It is increasingly recognised that ethnic differences are likely contributors to the differing manifestations of PCOS. Generally, rates of PCOS may be lower in East Asians. It is clear that East Asians are less hirsute than Caucasians. Hirsutism cut-off thresholds need to be lower in East Asian populations than in Caucasian populations. Despite population-adjusted scoring, Caucasians have higher hirsutism rates among patients diagnosed with PCOS. Rates of hyperandrogenaemia do not appear to differ among PCOS subjects, although serum androstenedione appeared to be higher in Caucasians in one study. Interestingly, higher prevalence of the polycystic ovarian morphology has been reported in East Asian PCOS populations than in Caucasian PCOS subjects. Hence, there is a need for comparative studies across different ethnicities to establish whether epidemiological differences observed reflect a true ethnic difference in the phenotype of PCOS and whether there is an Asian phenotype for PCOS. Copyright Â© 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Qin, Zhen-Dong; Wang, Yi; Tan, Jing-Ze; Li, Hui; Jin, Li
It is a major question in archaeology and anthropology whether human populations started to grow primarily after the advent of agriculture, i.e., the Neolithic time, especially in East Asia, which was one of the centers of ancient agricultural civilization. To answer this question requires an accurate estimation of the time of lineage expansion as well as that of population expansion in a population sample without ascertainment bias. In this study, we analyzed all available mtDNA genomes of East Asians ascertained by random sampling, a total of 367 complete mtDNA sequences generated by the 1000 Genome Project, including 249 Chinese (CHB, CHD, and CHS) and 118 Japanese (JPT). We found that major mtDNA lineages underwent expansions, all of which, except for two JPT-specific lineages, including D4, D4b2b, D4a, D4j, D5a2a, A, N9a, F1a1'4, F2, B4, B4a, G2a1 and M7b1'2'4, occurred before 10 kya, i.e., before the Neolithic time (symbolized by Dadiwan Culture at 7.9 kya) in East Asia. Consistent to this observation, the further analysis showed that the population expansion in East Asia started at 13 kya and lasted until 4 kya. The results suggest that the population growth in East Asia constituted a need for the introduction of agriculture and might be one of the driving forces that led to the further development of agriculture. PMID:21998705
Park, Hye-Jin; Ahn, Joong-Bae
The combined effects of the Arctic Oscillation (AO) and Western Pacific (WP) teleconnection pattern on the East Asian winter monsoon (EAWM) over the last 56 years (1958/59-2013/2014) were investigated using NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data (Park and Ahn, 2015). The study results revealed that the effect of the AO on winter temperature in East Asia could be changed depending on the phases of the WP pattern in the North Pacific. The negative relationship between the EAWM and the AO increased when the AO and WP were in-phase with each other. Hence, when winter negative (positive) AO was accompanied by negative (positive) WP, negative (positive) temperature anomalies were dominant across the entire East Asia region. Conversely, when the AO and WP were of-of-phase, the winter temperature anomaly in East Asia did not show distinct changes. Furthermore, from the perspective of stationary planetary waves, the zonal wavenumber-2 patterns of sea level pressure and geopotential height at 500hPa circulation strengthened when the AO and WP were in-phase but were not significant for the out-of-phase condition. It explained the possible mechanism of the combined effects of the AO and WP on the circulation related to EAWM. Reference Park, H.-J., and J.-B. Ahn (2015) Combined effect of the Arctic Oscillation and the Western Pacific pattern on East Asia winter temperature, Clim. Dyn. DOI:10.1007/s00382-015-2763-2. Acknowledgements This work was funded by the Korea Meteorological Administration Research and Development Program under grant KMIPA2015-2081.
Kong, Hanghui; Condamine, Fabien L; Harris, A J; Chen, Junlin; Pan, Bo; Möller, Michael; Hoang, Van Sam; Kang, Ming
Karst ecosystems in southern China are species-rich and have high levels of endemism, yet little is known regarding the evolutionary processes responsible for the origin and diversification of karst biodiversity. The genus Primulina (Gesneriaceae) comprises ca. 170 species endemic to southern China with high levels of ecological (edaphic) specialization, providing an exceptional model to study the plant diversification in karsts. We used molecular data from nine chloroplast and 11 nuclear regions and macroevolutionary analyses to assess the origin and cause of species diversification due to palaeoenvironmental changes and edaphic specialization in Primulina. We found that speciation was positively associated with changes in past temperatures and East Asian monsoons through the evolutionary history of Primulina. Climatic change around the mid-Miocene triggered an early burst followed by a slowdown of diversification rate towards the present with the climate cooling. We detected different speciation rates among edaphic types, and transitions among soil types were infrequently and did not impact the overall speciation rate. Our findings suggest that both global temperature changes and East Asian monsoons have played crucial roles in floristic diversification within the karst ecosystems in southern China, such that speciation was higher when climate was warmer and wetter. This is the first study to directly demonstrate that past monsoon activity is positively correlated with speciation rate in East Asia. This case study could motivate further investigations to assess the impacts of past environmental changes on the origin and diversification of biodiversity in global karst ecosystems, most of which are under threat. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
In Multinationals and East Asian Integration, leading Asian economists examine the role of foreign private-sector firms, especially from Japan and the United States, in the recent and rapid economic growth and integration in East Asia. With examples from China, Hong Kong, Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, ...
In Multinationals and East Asian Integration, leading Asian economists examine the role of foreign private-sector firms, especially from Japan and the United States, in the recent and rapid economic growth and integration in East Asia. With examples from China, Hong Kong, Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, ...
Full Text Available We report on the first observation-based case study of an aged East Asian anthropogenic SO2 pollution plume over Europe. Our airborne measurements in that plume detected highly elevated SO2 mole fractions (up to 900 pmol/mol between about 5000 and 7000 m altitude. Here, we focus on investigations of the origin, dispersion, evolution, conversion, and potential impact of the observed excess SO2. In particular, we investigate SO2 conversion to gas-phase sulfuric acid and sulfuric acid aerosols. Our FLEXPART and LAGRANTO model simulations, along with additional trace gas measurements, suggest that the plume originated from East Asian fossil fuel combustion sources and, 8–7 days prior to its arrival over Europe, ascended over the coast region of central East Asia to 9000 m altitude, probably in a cyclonic system with an associated warm conveyor belt. During this initial plume ascent a substantial fraction of the initially available SO2 must have escaped from removal by cloud processes. Hereafter, while mostly descending slowly, the plume experienced advection across the North Pacific, North America and the North Atlantic. During its upper troposphere travel, clouds were absent in and above the plume and OH-induced gas-phase conversion of SO2 to gas-phase sulfuric acid (GSA was operative, followed by GSA nucleation and condensation leading to sulfuric acid aerosol formation and growth. Our AEROFOR model simulations indicate that numerous large sulfuric acid aerosol particles were formed, which at least tempora-rily, caused substantial horizontal visibility degradation, and which have the potential to act as water vapor condensation nuclei in liquid water cloud formation, already at water vapor supersaturations as low as about 0.1%. Our AEROFOR model simulations also indicate that those fossil fuel combustion generated soot particles, which have survived cloud induced removal during the initial plume ascent, have experienced extensive H2SO4/H2O
Muro, Tomonori; Iida, Reiko; Fujihara, Junko; Yasuda, Toshihiro; Watanabe, Yukina; Imamura, Shinji; Nakamura, Hiroaki; Kimura-Kataoka, Kaori; Yuasa, Isao; Toga, Tomoko; Takeshita, Haruo
Identification of the population origin of an individual is very useful for crime investigators who need to narrow down a suspect based on specimens left at a crime scene. Single nucleotide polymorphisms of the Y chromosome (Y-SNPs) are a class of markers of interest to forensic investigators because many of the markers indicate regional specificity, thus providing useful information about the geographic origin of a subject. We selected seven informative Y-SNPs (M168, M130, JST021355, M96, P126, P196, and P234) to differentiate the three major population groups (East Asian, European, and African) and used them to develop forensic application. SNP genotyping was carried out by multiplex PCR reaction and multiplex single base extension (MSBE) reaction followed by capillary electrophoresis of extension products. This method can be used to assign a haplogroup from both degraded male DNA samples and DNA samples containing a mixture of female and male DNA through PCR primers that generate small amplicons (less than about 150 bp) and are highly specific for targets on the Y chromosome. The allelic state of each marker was definitively determined from a total of 791 males from the three major population groups. As expected, samples from the three major population groups showed Y-haplogroups common in the region of provenance: Y haplogroups C, D, and O for East Asians; IJ and R1 for Europeans; and AB and E for Africans. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.
Sapkota, Jeet Bahadur; Shuto, Motoko
Asia is growing economically faster than any other region in the world; this led to the shift of the center of gravity of the global economy from the West to the East. However, it is not clear whether the Asian economy is integrating regionally or globally. In the context of the growing efforts of regional or sub-regional pan-Asian integration, it is worthwhile to explore the pan-Asian trade flows regionally as well as globally. Thus, this paper examines the trend and determinants of economic...
Lee, Mo Yee; Mjelde-Mossey, LeeAnn
In traditional East Asian cultures, high value is assigned to family harmony and filial piety coupled with the expectation that elders will be honored and obeyed. A lifetime of such expectations shapes how elders perceive their role and status in the family. Problems can arise when younger, less traditional, generations do not share these expectations. This article describes a solution-focused approach that facilitates the family in creating a beneficial harmony in situations of cultural dissonance. Family members are empowered to draw on personal strengths in which multiple worldviews and values of individual members are recognized, incorporated, and negotiated.
Mar 28, 2011 ... African Journal of Biotechnology Vol. ... ISSN 1684–5315 © 2011 Academic Journals ... 2Livestock Research Institute, Council of Agriculture, Executive ... with both the European and Asian pig breeds; the genetic exchange ...
Li, Tong; Gao, Jian-jun; Lu, Jin-ming; Ji, Xing-lai; Chen, Hong-wei
The phylogenetic relationship among 27 East Asian species of the Stegana genus group was reconstructed using DNA sequences of mitochondrial (COI and ND2) and nuclear (28S) genes. The results lent support to the current generic/subgeneric taxonomic classification in the genus group with the exceptions of the paraphyly of the genus Parastegana and the subgenus Oxyphortica in the genus Stegana. The ancestral areas and divergence times in the genus group were reconstructed/estimated, and accordingly, the biogeographical history of this important clade was discussed. It was proposed that, the evolution of the plant family Fagaceae, especially Quercus, may have played a certain role in facilitating the diversification of the Stegana genus group. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
The international competitiveness of Japanese electronics firms is fading as firms in East Asian countries such as China, Korea, and Taiwan catch up. In this paper, we have constructed an electronics industry database from 1996 to 2005 for China, Korea, Japan, Taiwan, and the United States. It covers industrial statistics in these countries including trade and overseas production statistics, which makes it possible to control for global production activities of electronics firms. We have also...
SABRI, BUSHRA; CAMPBELL, JACQUELYN C.; DABBY, FIROZA CHIC
This study explored differences in intimate partner homicides (IPHs) among Asian Americans. Data from newspapers and femicide reports by different state coalitions on 125 intimate partner killings occurring between 2000 and 2005 was analyzed. Men were the perpetrators in nearly nine out of ten cases of Asian IPHs. Gender differences were found in ages of victims and perpetrators, types of relationship between partners, and methods of killing. Most homicides occurred among South-east Asians, and East Asians had the highest within group proportion of suicides. The findings call for culturally competent risk assessment and intervention strategies to prevent IPHs among at-risk Asian Americans. PMID:26391620
In the North-East of Thailand native, so-called Kadon pigs are typically kept on small-holder farms. Kadon pig is believed to be on the edge of extinction and in 2003 it was designated as a protected species of production animals. The main objective of this thesis was to study various nutritional
Eiji Yamamura; Antonio Rodriguez
Using individual-level data for China,South Korea, and Japan for2006, this research examines how life satisfaction for married males and femalesin East Asian countries isinfluenced bythe age of theirchildren. Our results show that the life satisfaction of males is barely affected by a child of the relationship, whereas the life satisfaction of females with a young child is lower than that of females who do not have a child. This result holds for countries at different development stages. Ther...
Full Text Available Background/Aims : Tofacitinib is an oral, small-molecule Janus kinase inhibitor being investigated for ulcerative colitis (UC. In OCTAVE Induction 1 and 2, patients with moderately to severely active UC received placebo or tofacitinib 10 mg twice daily (BID for 8 weeks. Clinical responders in OCTAVE Induction were re-randomized to 52 weeks' therapy with placebo, tofacitinib 5 mg BID, or tofacitinib 10 mg BID. Methods : We conducted post-hoc efficacy and safety analyses of East Asian patients in OCTAVE Induction 1 and 2 and OCTAVE Sustain. Results : A total of 121 East Asian (Japan, Korea, and Taiwan patients were randomized in OCTAVE Induction 1 and 2 (placebo, n=26; tofacitinib 10 mg BID, n=95, and 63 in OCTAVE Sustain (placebo, n=20; tofacitinib 5 mg BID, n=22; tofacitinib 10 mg BID, n=21. At week 8 of OCTAVE Induction 1 and 2, 18.9% of patients (18/95 achieved remission with tofacitinib 10 mg BID versus 3.8% (1/26 with placebo. In OCTAVE Sustain, the week 52 remission rates were 45.5% (10/22, 47.6% (10/21, and 15.0% (3/20 with 5 mg BID, 10 mg BID, and placebo, respectively. Adverse event rates were similar between groups in OCTAVE Induction and numerically higher with tofacitinib in OCTAVE Sustain. Serious adverse event rates were similar across groups in all studies. Infections were numerically more frequent with tofacitinib than placebo. Increases in serum lipid levels were observed with tofacitinib. Conclusion : In East Asian patients with UC, tofacitinib demonstrated numerically greater efficacy versus placebo as induction and maintenance therapy, with a safety profile consistent with the global study population. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01465763; NCT01458951; NCT01458574.
This article examines the use of the notions of "Asian" and "East Asian" in definitions of bioethics. Using examples from East Asia, I argue that the verbal Asianization of bioethics is based on the notion of "Asia" as a family metaphor and serves as a platform of bioethical debate, networking, and political change. I maintain that the use of "Asia" and "East Asia" to shape bioethics is not so much a sign of inward-looking regionalism, but an attempt to build bridges among Asian countries, while putting up a common stance against what educated elites interpret as undesirable global trends of Westernization through bioethics. Using the notions of "grouping" and "segmentary systems" to show the performative nature of characterizations of (East) Asian bioethics, allowing users to mark regional identity, share meanings, take political positions, and network. Deploying Peter Haas's notion of "epistemic communities," I argue that academic and political elites translate "home" issues into "Asia speak," while at the same time, introducing and giving shape to "new" bioethical issues. Although the "Asianisms" and group-marking activities of Asian networks of bioethics are ideological, thereby engaging in the politics of in/exclusion, they succeed in putting politically sensitive topics on the agenda.
Wu, Lei; He, Yao; Zhang, Di
To systematically evaluate the association between single nucleotide polymorphism of rs2231142 genetic susceptibility and gout in East Asian population. The literature retrieval was conducted by using English databases (Medline, EMbase), Chinese databases (CNKI, Vip, Wanfang, SinaMed) and others to collect the published papers on the association between single nucleotide polymorphism of rs2231142 genetic susceptibility and gout by the end of December 2014. Meta-analysis was performed with software Stata 12.0. Nine studies were included. There were significant associations between increased risk of gout and single nucleotide polymorphism of rs2231142, the combined OR was 2.04 (95%CI: 1.82-2.28) for A allele and C allele, 1.97 (95%CI: 1.57-2.48) for CA and CC, 3.71 (95%CI: 3.07-4.47) for AA and CC. Sex and region specific subgroup analysis showed less heterogeneity. There is significant association between gout and single nucleotide polymorphism of rs2231142 in East Asian population, and A allele is a high risk gene for gout.
Cui, E.; Xia, J.; Huang, K.; Ito, A.; Arain, M. A.; Jain, A. K.; Poulter, B.; Peng, C.; Hayes, D. J.; Ricciuto, D. M.; Huntzinger, D. N.; Tian, H.; Mao, J.; Fisher, J.; Schaefer, K. M.; Huang, M.; Peng, S.; Wang, W.
East Asian monsoon region, benefits from sufficient water-heat availability and increasing nitrogen deposition, represents significantly higher net ecosystem productivity than the same latitudes of Europe-Africa and North America. A better understanding of major contributions to the uncertainties of terrestrial carbon cycle in this region is greatly important for evaluating the global carbon balance. This study analyzed the key carbon processes and parameters derived from a series of terrestrial biosphere models. A wide range of inter-model disagreement on GPP was found in China's subtropical regions. Then, this large difference was traced to a few traceable components included in terrestrial carbon cycle. The increase in ensemble mean GPP over 1901-2010 was predominantly resulted from increasing atmospheric CO2 concentration and nitrogen deposition, while high frequent land-use change over this region showed a slightly negative effect on GPP. However, inter-model differences of GPP were mainly attributed to the baseline simulations without changes in external forcing. According to the variance decomposition, the large spread in simulated GPP was well explained by the differences in leaf area index (LAI) and specific leaf area (SLA) among models. In addition, the underlying errors in simulated GPP propagate through the model and introduce some additional errors to the simulation of NPP and biomass. By comparing the simulations with satellite-derived, data-oriented and observation-based datasets, we further found that GPP, vegetation carbon turn-over time, aboveground biomass, LAI and SLA were all overestimated in most of the models while biomass distribution in leaves was significantly underestimated. The results of this study indicate that model performance on ecosystem productivity in East Asian monsoon region can be improved by a more realistic representation of leaf functional traits.
Guo, Zhun; Zhou, Tianjun; Wang, Minghuai; Qian, Yun
The impacts of cloud radiative heating on the East Asian Summer Monsoon (EASM) over southeastern China (105°–125°E, 20°–35°N) are addressed by using the Community Atmosphere Model version 5 (CAM5). Sensitivity experiments demonstrate that the radiative heating of clouds leads to a positive effect on the local EASM circulation over southeastern China. Without the radiative heating of clouds, the EASM circulation and precipitation would be much weaker than that in normal conditions. The longwave heating of clouds dominates the changes of EASM circulation. The positive effect of clouds on EASM circulation is explained by the thermodynamic energy equation, i.e. the different heating rate between cloud base and cloud top enhances the convective instability over southeastern China, which consequently enhances updraft. The strong updraft would further result in a southward meridional wind above the center of the updraft through Sverdrup vorticity balance. (letter)
István Csaba Moldicz
Full Text Available The term “developmental state” describes a very conscious, however, more or less market-friendly approach to economic development. The developmental states of the East Asian region can be characterized by a strong emphasis on diverse forms of state intervention generally; however, these sets of institutions differ in the Japanese, Taiwanese, and South Korean economies. The aim of this paper is to offer a comparative analysis of economic institutions and their alterations after the Asian financial crisis. The paper includes Taiwan, Japan and South Korea in the analysis. The paper seeks to define the peculiar features of Taiwanese economic institutions in contrast to Japan and South Korea. By doing so, the paper investigates different aspects of economic institutions in Japan, Taiwan and South Korea: firm structure, the ability of firms to shape and organize regional supply chains, the role of state and trade unions, the composition of GDP/GNP, economic openness (trade, exchange regimes and financial sectors’ capability to channel funds and encourage saving and investments. One of the findings of the paper is that Taiwan’s defining feature is its very close cooperation with Mainland China. However, the deep interconnectedness of the two economies, often called “Chiwan”, is going to be changed. The reason for this is not only a new economic policy, Taiwan’s “New Southbound Policy” of enhanced cooperation with countries of the Southeast Asia, South Asia and Oceania, but the upgrading of the Chinese economy, which is losing its place in the global supply chains as a cheap-labour country.
Wen, Wanqing; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Guo, Xingyi; Cai, Qiuyin; Long, Jirong; Bolla, Manjeet K; Michailidou, Kyriaki; Dennis, Joe; Wang, Qin; Gao, Yu-Tang; Zheng, Ying; Dunning, Alison M; García-Closas, Montserrat; Brennan, Paul; Chen, Shou-Tung; Choi, Ji-Yeob; Hartman, Mikael; Ito, Hidemi; Lophatananon, Artitaya; Matsuo, Keitaro; Miao, Hui; Muir, Kenneth; Sangrajrang, Suleeporn; Shen, Chen-Yang; Teo, Soo H; Tseng, Chiu-Chen; Wu, Anna H; Yip, Cheng Har; Simard, Jacques; Pharoah, Paul D P; Hall, Per; Kang, Daehee; Xiang, Yongbing; Easton, Douglas F; Zheng, Wei
Approximately 100 common breast cancer susceptibility alleles have been identified in genome-wide association studies (GWAS). The utility of these variants in breast cancer risk prediction models has not been evaluated adequately in women of Asian ancestry. We evaluated 88 breast cancer risk variants that were identified previously by GWAS in 11,760 cases and 11,612 controls of Asian ancestry. SNPs confirmed to be associated with breast cancer risk in Asian women were used to construct a polygenic risk score (PRS). The relative and absolute risks of breast cancer by the PRS percentiles were estimated based on the PRS distribution, and were used to stratify women into different levels of breast cancer risk. We confirmed significant associations with breast cancer risk for SNPs in 44 of the 78 previously reported loci at P women in the middle quintile of the PRS, women in the top 1% group had a 2.70-fold elevated risk of breast cancer (95% CI: 2.15-3.40). The risk prediction model with the PRS had an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.606. The lifetime risk of breast cancer for Shanghai Chinese women in the lowest and highest 1% of the PRS was 1.35% and 10.06%, respectively. Approximately one-half of GWAS-identified breast cancer risk variants can be directly replicated in East Asian women. Collectively, common genetic variants are important predictors for breast cancer risk. Using common genetic variants for breast cancer could help identify women at high risk of breast cancer.
Chan, Duo; Zhang, Yang; Wu, Qigang
East Asian Jet Stream (EASJ) is charactered by obvious interannual variability in strength and position (latitude), with wide impacts on East Asian climate in all seasons. In this study, two indices are established to measure the interannual variability in intensity and position of EAJS. Possible causing factors, including both local signals and non-local large-scale circulation, are examined using NCAP-NCAR reanalysis data to investigate their relations with jet variation. Our analysis shows that the relationship between the interannual variations of EASJ and these factors depends on seasons. In the summer, both the intensity and position of EASJ are closely related to the meridional gradient of local surface temperature, but display no apparent relationship with the larg-scale circulation. In cold seasons (autumn, winter and spring), both the local factor and the large-scale circulation, i.e. the Pacific/North American teleconnection pattern (PNA), play important roles in the interannual variability of the jet intensity. The variability in the jet position, however, is more correlated to the Arctic Oscillation (AO), especially in winter. Diagnostic analysis indicates that transient eddy activity plays an important role in connecting the interannual variability of EASJ position with AO.
These proceedings comprise selected, edited papers that were presented at the 13th SOUTH EAST ASIAN CONGRESS OF MEDICAL PHYSICS with the theme of “Improving the quality of human health through physics”, held in Yogyakarta, Indonesia, 10-12 December 2015. It was hosted by Sunan Kalijaga State Islamic University (UIN Sunan Kalijaga), Institut Teknologi Bandung (ITB) and University of Indonesia (UI) in association with the South East Asia Federation of Organizations for Medical Physics (SEAFOMP). Yogyakarta was the ancient capital of Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta. It is famous for the UNESCO world heritage site of Borobudur temple. This temple was built in the 9 th century during the reign of the Sailendra Dynasty. The temple was designed in the Javanese Buddhist architectural style. The monument was restored by the Indonesian government with UNESCO's help in 1975 and 1982. The congress attracted about 241 participants from 13 countries. Twelve invited speakers delivered nine plenary lectures as well as four pre-congress workshops. A total of 86 oral and 65 poster presentations were given. A variety of topics were discussed, ranging from the most advanced topics such as proton therapy, image-guided radiotherapy, functional MRI to the more conventional ones such as dose distribution, simulation, dosimetry, quality assurance, etc. In this proceedings papers are published under five categories, namely therapeutics, diagnostics, nuclear medicine, biomedical engineering and biophysics. (paper)
Shi, Hong; Qi, Xuebin; Zhong, Hua; Peng, Yi; Zhang, Xiaoming; Ma, Runlin Z; Su, Bing
The Y-chromosome haplogroup N-M231 (Hg N) is distributed widely in eastern and central Asia, Siberia, as well as in eastern and northern Europe. Previous studies suggested a counterclockwise prehistoric migration of Hg N from eastern Asia to eastern and northern Europe. However, the root of this Y chromosome lineage and its detailed dispersal pattern across eastern Asia are still unclear. We analyzed haplogroup profiles and phylogeographic patterns of 1,570 Hg N individuals from 20,826 males in 359 populations across Eurasia. We first genotyped 6,371 males from 169 populations in China and Cambodia, and generated data of 360 Hg N individuals, and then combined published data on 1,210 Hg N individuals from Japanese, Southeast Asian, Siberian, European and Central Asian populations. The results showed that the sub-haplogroups of Hg N have a distinct geographical distribution. The highest Y-STR diversity of the ancestral Hg N sub-haplogroups was observed in the southern part of mainland East Asia, and further phylogeographic analyses supports an origin of Hg N in southern China. Combined with previous data, we propose that the early northward dispersal of Hg N started from southern China about 21 thousand years ago (kya), expanding into northern China 12-18 kya, and reaching further north to Siberia about 12-14 kya before a population expansion and westward migration into Central Asia and eastern/northern Europe around 8.0-10.0 kya. This northward migration of Hg N likewise coincides with retreating ice sheets after the Last Glacial Maximum (22-18 kya) in mainland East Asia.
Sabri, Bushra; Campbell, Jacquelyn C; Dabby, Firoza Chic
This study explored differences in intimate partner homicides (IPHs) among Asian Americans. Data from newspapers and femicide reports by different state coalitions on 125 intimate partner killings occurring between 2000 and 2005 were analyzed. Men were the perpetrators in nearly 9 out of 10 cases of Asian IPHs. Gender differences were found in ages of victims and perpetrators, types of relationship between partners, and methods of killing. Most homicides occurred among South-east Asians, and East Asians had the highest within-group proportion of suicides. The findings call for culturally competent risk assessment and intervention strategies to prevent IPHs among at-risk Asian Americans. © The Author(s) 2015.
Maria L Martinez
Full Text Available Global participation in international education in the last two decades has increased exponentially. International students face difficulties in adjusting to the culture of their host country due to their unique needs (Bertram, Poulakis, Elsasser & Kumar, 2014. This article presents themes comprising the international education phenomenon involving the experiences of East Asian international students in English-speaking countries. The literature reviewed for this article pertains to many aspects of international education, covering the factors that influence the decision to embark on the international education journey to the adjustment experienced by students to the host culture. The authors suggest that the international education experience is comprised of four dimensions: structural, linguistic, internal, and external. We also posit that Confucianism, which many East Asian students follow, influences not only the psycho-social dimension of the international education experience but also their instructional preferences within the structural dimension. We further contend that students’ actual and perceived proficiency (or the lack thereof in the host country’s language greatly shapes all aspects of the student’s international education experience, which then determines the degree of acculturative stress involved and plays a key role in each of the three dimensions. Because of the anticipated continued growth in the number of international students from East Asia attending higher education institutions in English-speaking countries such as the United States, Australia, Canada, and parts of Africa, it is important to examine how each of the dimensions proposed impact each other. Approaching the study of the international education experience one dimension at a time, as many scholars have done, does not completely address all of the unique needs of international students. We suggest that research in this area be conducted holistically by
Koehler, P. [Centre for Environmental Systems Research, University of Kassel, Kurt-Wolters-Str. 3, D-34109 Kassel (Germany); Huth, A. [Centre for Environmental Research Leipzig-Halle, Department of Ecological Modelling, P.O. Box 500 136, D-04301 Leipzig (Germany)
There is increasing evidence that the future recruitment in South-East Asian dipterocarp trees species depending on mast-fruiting events might be endangered by climate change or enhanced seed predation in forest fragments. Especially in combination with the ongoing tree harvesting in this region the recruitment threat imposes a severe danger on the species richness and forest structure of the whole area. We here assess with the process-based forest growth model FORMIND2.0 the impacts of common tree-logging strategies in those recruitment endangered forests. FORMIND2.0 is based on the calculations of the carbon balance of individual trees belonging to 13 different plant functional types. Even single logging events in those rainforests threatened by a lack of recruitment led to shifts in the abundances of species, to species loss, and to forest decline and dieback. The results show that current logging practices in South-East Asia seriously overuse the forests especially in the light of changing climate conditions.
Full Text Available This paper empirically analyzes the relative effects of the dollar and yen on the value of East Asian currencies. We focus especially on countries that have chosen to adopt floating regimes in the post-financial crisis period, such as South Korea, Taiwan, Indonesia, the Philippines and Thailand. First, we calculate a exchange rate flexibility index and carry out a regression using Frankel and Wei's (1994 methodology. The results confirm an increase in the coupling of East Asian currencies vis-a-vis the yen since the 1997 financial crisis. In addition to coupling, we calculate using a non-linear unit root test the exchange rates for four currencies vis-a-vis the yen, excluding the Philippine peso, which has a band-reverting tendency. As a second step, we examine the band-reverting tendency in more detail using the Markov-regime switching model and a three-regime threshold vector error correction model. As the results indicate, band-reverting tendencies are verifiable for all currencies, except for the Philippine peso. In particular, symmetrical band-reverting tendencies are observed whether exchange rates are beyond the upper boundary or below the lower boundary of the band. In the case of the Korean won and Taiwanese dollar, when these two currency exchange rates (measured against the yen deviate from a certain band, an adjustment process takes place in order to return toward the band.
Full Text Available 無The major problem of data processing for library material in East Asian languages are the design of character set, hardware for inputting, storing, processing, transmitting etc. and MARC Format. RLIN is the first institution to implement online network cataloging system in East Asian Languages. In this paper RLIN's achievement and effort on this area are described and what can we learn from it to develop the Chinese library automation system in the R. O. C. are suggested.
Qiu, Jingya; Moore, Jason H; Darabos, Christian
Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have led to the discovery of over 200 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Additionally, East Asians develop T2DM at a higher rate, younger age, and lower body mass index than their European ancestry counterparts. The reason behind this occurrence remains elusive. With comprehensive searches through the National Human Genome Research Institute (NHGRI) GWAS catalog literature, we compiled a database of 2,800 ancestry-specific SNPs associated with T2DM and 70 other related traits. Manual data extraction was necessary because the GWAS catalog reports statistics such as odds ratio and P-value, but does not consistently include ancestry information. Currently, many statistics are derived by combining initial and replication samples from study populations of mixed ancestry. Analysis of all-inclusive data can be misleading, as not all SNPs are transferable across diverse populations. We used ancestry data to construct ancestry-specific human phenotype networks (HPN) centered on T2DM. Quantitative and visual analysis of network models reveal the genetic disparities between ancestry groups. Of the 27 phenotypes in the East Asian HPN, six phenotypes were unique to the network, revealing the underlying ancestry-specific nature of some SNPs associated with T2DM. We studied the relationship between T2DM and five phenotypes unique to the East Asian HPN to generate new interaction hypotheses in a clinical context. The genetic differences found in our ancestry-specific HPNs suggest different pathways are involved in the pathogenesis of T2DM among different populations. Our study underlines the importance of ancestry in the development of T2DM and its implications in pharmocogenetics and personalized medicine. © 2016 The Authors. *Genetic Epidemiology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Ehrlich, Linda; Ma, Ning
Provides guidelines for instructors who teach entire courses on (or who include) films from Japan and China. Considers issues of concern in contemporary Asian cinema such as conflicts between tradition and modernity, indigenous definitions of cultural identity and artistic form, and internationalization. (KEH)
Full Text Available Performing an online health search is a popular activity conducted on the Internet. Research studies from developed countries provide information on source used, type of search performed and devices used to perform the search. However, the same cannot be said about the online health information searching scene in South East Asia. Online health information searching is gaining popularity in South East Asia. Citizens in these countries are turning to the Internet to obtain health information quickly. Current research studies pertaining to online health information searching in South East Asian is limited, particularly relating to search experiences of South East Asian health searchers. Search experience is pertinent asit could deter or encourage the possibility of conducting future health searches. In this research study, a user study was conducted to describe the online search experience of South East Asian health searchers. A face to face interview with 50 participants was conducted. The interview was audio recorded and transcribed verbatim. Results indicate participants have positive and negative search experiences. In some cases, post search outcomes influenced the search experience. Results of this research study contribute to the growing domain of knowledge in relation to online health information searching. Results of this study also provide an understanding pertaining to the search experience of South East Asian online health searchers.
Full Text Available In this paper, we have developed a forecasting system for currency crisis in East Asia based on a signaling approach. Our system uses 15 monthly indicators of five East Asian countries including Indonesia, Korea, Malaysia, the Philippines and Thailand that were severely hit by the currency crisis in 1997. We investigate the performance of the system through deploying out-of-sample forecasting for the periods both before and after the 1997 East Asian currency crisis. Unlike the existing research based on the signaling approach, our out-of-sample forecasting does not fix the in-sample period. The out-of-sample forecasting between July 1995 and June 1997 shows that prior to breakout of the crisis, several indicators including real exchange rates and exports sent frequent warnings to all crisis-hit East Asian countries except the Philippines. This may indicate that a signaling-based early warning system for currency crisis could have been an useful method of forecasting the East Asian crisis. On the other hand, we also find that our forecasting system often generates warning signals during the out-of-sample period between July 1999 and June 2001. Since we have not observed any currency crisis in this region after 1998, these are all false alarms, indicating that our system may be seriously exposed to the type II error. We can, however, mitigate this problem if we adjust the optimal critical values of indicators depending on the preferences of forecasting system manager.
Mohamad, Bahtiar; Zulkepli, Jafri; Ismail, Ahmed Rageh; Bakar, Hassan Abu
The aim of this study is to examine the intrinsic work values that were perceived by the university undergraduates in the three nations (Malaysia, Thailand and Indonesia) to influence cooperative communication. These three nations are among the founders of Association of South-East Asian Nations in 1967 that represents half of the population of the region. Intrinsic work values are an important medium through which employee behaviour can be understood and managed. Previous research suggests t...
Leslie, Edwina E C; Christley, Robert M; Geong, Maria; Ward, Michael P; Toribio, Jenny-Ann L M L
Knowledge of live animal movement through markets and from farm-to-farm is needed to inform strategies for control of trans-boundary animal diseases (TADs) in south-east Asia, particularly due to consumer preference for fresh meat. In eastern Indonesia a TAD of principal interest for control is classical swine fever (CSF) due to its impacts on smallholder farmers. Pig movement is considered a contributor to failure of current CSF control efforts but pig movement patterns are not well understood. This study investigated movement of live pigs in West Timor, Flores and Sumba islands during 2009-2010, with the aim of informing CSF control policies for Nusa Tenggara Timor province. A market survey of 292 pig sellers and 281 pig buyers across nine live pig markets and a farmer survey across 18 villages with 289 smallholder farmers were conducted and information collected on pig movements. The data obtained was used for social network analysis (SNA) on formal (via a market) and informal (village-to-village) movements using information on trading practices, source and destination locations, and the number of pigs being moved. Both inter- and intra-island movements were identified, however inter-island movement was only observed between Flores and Sumba islands. West Timor and Sumba had highly connected networks where large numbers of villages were directly and indirectly linked through pig movement. Further for West Timor, both formal and informal pig movements linked the capital Kupang, on the eastern end of the island to the western districts bordering East Timor connecting all five districts and demonstrating that informal movement transports pigs over distances similar to formal movement on this island. Sumba had a higher potential for pigs to move to a greater number of sequential locations across the entire island. Flores was found to have a more fragmented network, with pig movements concentrated in its eastern or western regions, influenced by terrain. Markets were
Oceanographic Currents and Local Ecological Knowledge Indicate, and Genetics Does Not Refute, a Contemporary Pattern of Larval Dispersal for The Ornate Spiny Lobster, Panulirus ornatus in the South-East Asian Archipelago.
Hoc Tan Dao
Full Text Available Here we utilize a combination of genetic data, oceanographic data, and local ecological knowledge to assess connectivity patterns of the ornate spiny lobster Panulirus ornatus (Fabricius, 1798 in the South-East Asian archipelago from Vietnam to Australia. Partial mitochondrial DNA control region and 10 polymorphic microsatellites did not detect genetic structure of 216 wild P. ornatus samples from Australia, Indonesia and Vietnam. Analyses show no evidence for genetic differentiation among populations (mtDNA control region sequences ΦST = -0.008; microsatellite loci FST = 0.003. A lack of evidence for regional or localized mtDNA haplotype clusters, or geographic clusters of microsatellite genotypes, reveals a pattern of high gene flow in P. ornatus throughout the South-East Asian Archipelago. This lack of genetic structure may be due to the oceanography-driven connectivity of the pelagic lobster larvae between spawning grounds in Papua New Guinea, the Philippines and, possibly, Indonesia. The connectivity cycle necessitates three generations. The lack of genetic structure of P. ornatus population in the South-East Asian archipelago has important implications for the sustainable management of this lobster in that the species within the region needs to be managed as one genetic stock.
The Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry has been conducting active global warming research programs focusing on development of a method to forecast climate change accompanying global warming both globally and in East Asia. A regional climate change forecasting method is being developed and researches are conducted on impacts of climate change on the natural and social environment in East Asia. Researches are also conducted focusing on the relationship between emissions and deposition of acid substances and assessment of the environmental impacts of acid rain in East Asia. 4 figs
Full Text Available The Y-chromosome haplogroup N-M231 (Hg N is distributed widely in eastern and central Asia, Siberia, as well as in eastern and northern Europe. Previous studies suggested a counterclockwise prehistoric migration of Hg N from eastern Asia to eastern and northern Europe. However, the root of this Y chromosome lineage and its detailed dispersal pattern across eastern Asia are still unclear. We analyzed haplogroup profiles and phylogeographic patterns of 1,570 Hg N individuals from 20,826 males in 359 populations across Eurasia. We first genotyped 6,371 males from 169 populations in China and Cambodia, and generated data of 360 Hg N individuals, and then combined published data on 1,210 Hg N individuals from Japanese, Southeast Asian, Siberian, European and Central Asian populations. The results showed that the sub-haplogroups of Hg N have a distinct geographical distribution. The highest Y-STR diversity of the ancestral Hg N sub-haplogroups was observed in the southern part of mainland East Asia, and further phylogeographic analyses supports an origin of Hg N in southern China. Combined with previous data, we propose that the early northward dispersal of Hg N started from southern China about 21 thousand years ago (kya, expanding into northern China 12-18 kya, and reaching further north to Siberia about 12-14 kya before a population expansion and westward migration into Central Asia and eastern/northern Europe around 8.0-10.0 kya. This northward migration of Hg N likewise coincides with retreating ice sheets after the Last Glacial Maximum (22-18 kya in mainland East Asia.
Ang, Q Q; Wing, Y K; He, Y; Sulaiman, A H; Chiu, N-Y; Shen, Y-C; Wang, G; Zhang, C; Lee, K-H; Singh, P; Granger, R E; Raskin, J; Dossenbach, M
Reports from non-Asian populations indicate that painful physical symptoms (PPS) are associated with poorer clinical and functional outcomes in major depressive disorder (MDD). The purpose of this study is to report comparative changes in disease severity, treatment patterns and quality of life observed in East Asian patients with MDD, with and without PPS, as assessed prospectively over a 3-month observation period. This observational study enrolled 909 patients with MDD in psychiatric care settings in China, Hong Kong, Korea, Malaysia, Singapore and Taiwan. Patients were classified as PPS positive (PPS+) or negative (PPS-) based on mean modified Somatic Symptom Inventory scores of >or= 2 or Depression Rating Scale (HAMD(17)) determined depression severity; a visual analogue scale (VAS) determined pain severity; and the EuroQoL (EQ-5D) assessed well-being after 3 months observation. Of the 909 enrollees, 355/471 (75.4%) of PPS+ patients and 363/438 (82.9%) of PPS- patients completed the study (p = 0.006). PPS+ patients improved less than PPS- patients on depression, pain and quality of life measures during the study (HAMD(17) p < 0.001, CGI-S p < 0.001, VAS p = 0.008 and EQ-5D p = 0.004). Fewer PPS+ patients (46.5%) achieved remission compared with PPS- patients (69.4%, p < 0.001). As the presence of PPS is associated with poorer outcomes in East Asian MDD patients, clinical management should aim to address both the mental and PPS associated with MDD.
Full Text Available We report a paleomagnetic investigation on Permian volcanic rocks in the middle-east Inner Mongolia, NE China, aiming to puzzle out the timing and position of the final closure of the eastern Paleo-Asian ocean (PAO and further to better understand tectonic evolution of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB. Two pre-folding characteristic components are isolated from the Sanmianjing and Elitu formations (~283–266 Ma in the northern margin of the North China block (NMNCB and the Dashizhai Formation (~280 Ma in the Songliao-Xilinhot block (SXB, respectively.
Cheng, Shao-Yi; Suh, Sang-Yeon; Morita, Tatsuya; Oyama, Yasuhiro; Chiu, Tai-Yuan; Koh, Su Jin; Kim, Hyun Sook; Hwang, Shinn-Jang; Yoshie, Taeko; Tsuneto, Satoru
Abstract The primary aim of this study was to explore common beliefs and practices when death is approaching in East-Asian countries. A cross-sectional survey was performed involving palliative care physicians in Japan, Korea, and Taiwan. Measurement outcomes were physician-perceived frequencies of the following when patient death was approaching: (1) reluctance to take part in end-of-life discussions, (2) role of family members, (3) home death, and (4) circumstances surrounding death. A total of 505, 211, and 207 responses were obtained from Japanese, Korea, and Taiwan physicians, respectively. While 50% of the Japanese physicians reported that they often or very often experienced families as being reluctant to discuss end-of-life issues, the corresponding figures were 59% in Korea and 70% in Taiwan. Two specific reasons to avoid end-of-life discussion, “bad things happen after you say them out loud” and “a bad life is better than a good death” were significantly more frequently observed in Taiwan. Prioritizing the oldest of the family in breaking bad news and having all family members present at the time of death were significantly more frequently observed in Korea and Taiwan. Half of Taiwanese physicians reported they often or very often experienced the patients/family wanted to go back home to die because the soul would not be able to return from the hospital. In all countries, more than 70% of the physicians reported certain family members were expected to care for the patient at home. At the time of death, while no Japanese physicians stated that they often experienced patients wanted a religious person to visit, the corresponding figure in Korean and Taiwan was about 40%. Uncovered expression of emotion was significantly frequently observed in Korean and Taiwan, and 42% of the Japanese physicians reported family members cleaned the dead body of the patient themselves. There seem to be significant intercountry differences in beliefs and practices when
Full Text Available My paper discusses an East Asian notion of climate and its significance for sustainability. A particular reference is the environmental philosophy of Tetsuro Watsuji (1889–1960, a Japanese philosopher who reflected upon the meaning of climate, or “fudo” in the Sino-Japanese linguistic tradition. Watsuji sees fudo not merely as a collection of natural features—climatic, scenic, and topographical—of a given land, but also as the metaphor of subjectivity, or “who I am”. Furthermore, this self-discovery through fudo is never private but collective. By referring to a phenomenological notion of “ek-sistere”, or “to be out among other ‘I’s”, Watsuji demonstrates the pervasiveness of a climatic phenomenon and the ensuing inter-personal joining of different individuals to shape a collective sustainable measure in response to the phenomenon. My paper lastly concretizes the significance of fudo and its inter-personal ethical basis for sustainability by dwelling upon cross-ventilation in Japanese vernacular residential architecture. Cross-ventilation emerges only through what Watsuji calls “selfless openness” between different rooms predicated upon the joining of different ‘I’s soaked in hotness and humidity. Watsuji’s fudo thus offers a lesson that without considering the collective humane characteristic of a natural climatic phenomenon, any sustainable act is flawed and inefficient.
Lan, R.; Cohen, J. B.
Biomass burning over the South, South East and East Asian Monsoon regions, is a crucial contributor to the total local aerosol loading. Furthermore, the impact of the ITCZ, and Monsoonal circulation patterns coupled with complex topography also have a prominent impact on the aerosol loading throughout much of the Northern Hemisphere. However, at the present time, biomass burning emissions are highly underestimated over this region, in part due to under-reported emissions in space and time, and in part due to an incomplete understanding of the physics and chemistry of the aerosols emitted in fires and formed downwind from them. Hence, a better understanding of the four-dimensional source distribution, plume rise, and in-situ processing, in particular in regions with significant quantities of urban air pollutants, is essential to advance our knowledge of this problem. This work uses a new modeling methodology based on the simultaneous constraints of measured AOD and some trace gasses over the region. The results of the 4-D constrained emissions are further expanded upon using different fire plume height rise and in-situ processing assumptions. Comparisons between the results and additional ground-based and remotely sensed measurements, including AERONET, CALIOP, and NOAA and other ground networks are included. The end results reveal a trio of insights into the nonlinear processes most-important to understand the impacts of biomass burning in this part of the world. Model-measurement comparisons are found to be consistent during the typical burning years of 2016. First, the model performs better under the new emissions representations, than it does using any of the standard hotspot based approaches currently employed by the community. Second, long range transport and mixing between the boundary layer and free troposphere contribute to the spatial-temporal variations. Third, we indicate some source regions that are new, either because of increased urbanization, or of
Fukuyama, Taijiro; Fujiwara, Hideshi
Both Asian dust (kosa) transported from the East Asian continent and locally suspended dust near monitoring sites contribute to the observed atmospheric deposition of 137 Cs in Japan. To estimate the relative contribution of these dust phenomena to the total 137 Cs deposition, we monitored weekly deposition of mineral particles and 137 Cs in spring. Deposition of 137 Cs from a single Asian dust event was 62.3 mBq m -2 and accounted for 67% of the total 137 Cs deposition during the entire monitoring period. Furthermore, we found high 137 Cs specific activity in the Asian dust deposition sample. Although local dust events contributed to 137 Cs deposition, their contribution was considerably smaller than that of Asian dust. We conclude that the primary source of atmospheric 137 Cs in Japan is dust transported from the East Asian continent
Fertility trends and prospects for east and southeast Asian countries including cities in China, Taiwan, the Republic of Korea, Thailand, Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Myanmar, and Viet Nam are described. Additional discussion focuses on family planning methods, marriage patterns, fertility prospects, theories of fertility change, and policy implications for the labor supply, labor migrants, increased female participation in the labor force (LFP), human resource development, and social policy measures. Figures provide graphic descriptions of total fertility rates (TFRS) for 12 countries/areas for selected years between 1960-90, TFR for selected Chinese cities between 1955-90, the % of currently married women 15-44 years using contraception by main method for selected years and for 10 countries, actual and projected TFR and annual growth rates between 1990-2020 for Korea and Indonesia. It is noted that the 1st southeast Asian country to experience a revolution in reproductive behavior was Japan with below replacement level fertility by 1960. This was accomplished by massive postponement in age at marriage and rapid reduction in marital fertility. Fertility was controlled primarily through abortion. Thereafter every southeast Asian country experienced fertility declines. Hong Kong, Penang, Shanghai, Singapore, and Taipei and declining fertility before the major thrust of family planning (FP). Chinese fertility declines were reflected in the 1970s to the early 1980s and paralleled the longer, later, fewer campaign and policy which set ambitious targets which were strictly enforced at all levels of administration. Korea and Taiwan's declines were a result of individual decision making to restrict fertility which was encouraged by private and government programs to provide FP information and subsidized services. The context was social and economic change. Indonesia's almost replacement level fertility was achieved dramatically through the 1970s and 1980s by
V. Fuentes, Màrius
In certain Asian countries, a third form of human Taenia, also known as the Asian Taenia, has been discovered. This Asian Taenia seems to be an intermediate between Taenia solium and T. saginata since in morphological terms it is similar to T. saginata, yet biologically, as it uses the same intermediate host (pigs), it is more akin to T. solium. Taenia solium causes human cysticercosis, while T. saginata does not. It is not known whether the Asian taeniid is able to develop to the larval stage in humans or not. The arguments proposed by those authors who consider it unlikely that the Asian Taenia causes human cysticercosis are: (a) its molecular similarities with T. saginata; (b) the absence of cases of human cysticercosis in populations where the Asian adult is highly prevalent; and (c) the unsupporting results derived from an experimental infestation study. These three arguments are debated, although bearing in mind that at present there is still no clear scientific data to support that human cysticercosis can be caused by the Asian Taenia. PMID:10743352
Clemens, S. C.; Holbourn, A.; Kubota, Y.; Lee, K. E.; Liu, Z.; Chen, G.
Confidence in reconstruction of East Asian paleomonsoon rainfall using precipitation isotope proxies is a matter of considerable debate, largely due to the lack of correlation between precipitation amount and isotopic composition in the present climate. We present four new, very highly resolved records spanning the past 300,000 years ( 200 year sample spacing) from IODP Site U1429 in the East China Sea. We demonstrate that all the orbital- and millennial-scale variance in the onshore Yangtze River Valley speleothem δ18O record1 is also embedded in the offshore Site U1429 seawater δ18O record (derived from the planktonic foraminifer Globigerinoides ruber and sea surface temperature reconstructions). Signal replication in these two independent terrestrial and marine archives, both controlled by the same monsoon system, uniquely identifies δ18O of precipitation as the primary driver of the precession-band variance in both records. This proxy-proxy convergence also eliminates a wide array of other drivers that have been called upon as potential contaminants to the precipitation δ18O signal recorded by these proxies. We compare East Asian precipitation isotope proxy records to precipitation amount from a CCSM3 transient climate model simulation of the past 300,000 years using realistic insolation, ice volume, greenhouse gasses, and sea level boundary conditions. This model-proxy comparison suggests that both Yangtze River Valley precipitation isotope proxies (seawater and speleothem δ18O) track changes in summer-monsoon rainfall amount at orbital time scales, as do precipitation isotope records from the Pearl River Valley2 (leaf wax δ2H) and Borneo3 (speleothem δ18O). Notably, these proxy records all have significantly different spectral structure indicating strongly regional rainfall patterns that are also consistent with model results. Transient, isotope-enabled model simulations will be necessary to more thoroughly evaluate these promising results, and to
Fazelina Sahul Hamid
Full Text Available The third pillar of the Basel II highlights the role of market discipline in easing the existing pressure on traditional monitoring measures like capital requirement and government supervision. This study test the effectiveness of market discipline in inducing prudential risk management practices among the East Asian banks over the 1995 to 2005 period. Market discipline is measured using information disclosure and interbank deposit holdings. We find that only the latter is an effective market discipline tool. However, the former becomes effective when market concentration is higher. We find that government owned, foreign owned and recapilatised banks are subject to market disciplining when disclosure in taken account but the opposite is true when interbank deposits is taken into account. Finally, we find that banks that disclose more risk related information hold more capital against their non-performing loan. The implications of the findings are discussed.
Full Text Available The three-dimensional evolution of an East Asian dust storm during 23–26 April 2009 was investigated by utilizing a regional air quality model system (RAQMS and satellite measurements. This severe dust storm hit Mt. Tai in east China with daily mean PM10 concentration reaching 1400 μg/m3 and the model captured the PM10 variation reasonably well. Modeled spatial distributions of AOD and vertical profiles of aerosol extinction coefficient during the dust storm were compared with MODIS and CALIPSO data, demonstrating that RAQMS was able to reproduce the 3D structure and the evolution of the dust storm reasonably well. During early days of the dust storm, daily mean dust-induced AOD exceeded 2.0 over dust source regions (the Gobi desert and the Taklamakan desert and was in a range of 1.2–1.8 over the North China Plain, accounting for about 98% and up to 90% of total AOD over corresponding areas, respectively. The top of the dust storm reached about 8 km over east China, with high dust concentration locating at around 40°N. Dust aerosol below 2 km was transported southeastward off the Gobi desert while dust above 2 km was transported out of China along 40°–45°N.
Development of East Asia's petrochemical industry has been phenomenal, with major complexes built in numerous locations. The Southeast Asian countries of particular interest are members of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN): Singapore, Thailand, Malaysia, Indonesia, the Philippines, Brunei and Vietnam. As new capacity is built in this region, these large operating facilities will affect supply and demand for key petrochemical products--ethylene and polyolefins. What are the potential regional effects from this new capacity? Traditional net export countries will have to re-evaluate their future marketing strategies to remain competitive in Southeast Asia and other trading areas. As East Asia's petrochemical industry comes of age, competition will undoubtedly increase. However, this growing region offers opportunities to widen manufacturing basis. The paper discusses basic chemical demands and the outlook for the Asian petrochemical industry
Koh, D; Chia, S E; Jeyaratnam, J
In order to discuss the subject of occupational medicine in the next century, changes in the present demographic profile and work activity must be considered first. Only then can the challenges be identified, and appropriate strategies be formulated to respond to them. In the diverse countries of South-East Asia, improved health and work conditions, the advent of new technology, a redistribution of work activity, and an ageing workforce can be expected. Two other factors that have specific impact in the region are the recent financial crisis and the occurrence of an international environmental haze from forest fires. The various countries in South-East Asia, which are in different stages of development, and have different problems and priorities, will respond differently to the demands for occupational health. It is likely that there will be a shift in the focus of current health care activities towards specific work sectors, the recognition of new hazards at work, the identification of newly emerging work related diseases, and an increase in health promotion in the workplace. Hopefully, there will be improved training of health professionals to ensure that there are adequate numbers and that they are well prepared to face these changes. Responsive, appropriate and well enforced labour legislation to protect the health of all workers, and international cooperation in occupational and environmental health are also required. As global and regional economic conditions continue to remain unstable and the impact of the crisis further takes its course, the final effect on occupational health in South-East Asia remains to be seen.
Mahadeva, Sanjiv; Wee, Hwee-Lin; Goh, Khean-Lee; Thumboo, Julian
Abstract Background Treatment objectives for dyspepsia include improvements in both symptoms and health-related quality of life (HRQoL). There is a lack of disease-specific instruments measuring HRQoL in South East Asian dyspeptics. Objectives To validate English and locally translated version of the Short-Form Nepean Dyspepsia Index (SF-NDI) in Malaysian patients who consult for dyspepsia. Methods The English version of the SF-NDI was culturally adapted locally and a Malay translation was de...
Full Text Available AIMS: East Asian genome-wide association studies (GWAS for type 2 diabetes identified 8 loci with genome-wide significance, and 2 loci with a borderline association. However, the associations of these loci except MAEA locus with type 2 diabetes have not been evaluated in independent East Asian cohorts. We performed a replication study to investigate the association of these susceptibility loci with type 2 diabetes in an independent Japanese population. METHODS: We genotyped 7,379 Japanese participants (5,315 type 2 diabetes and 2,064 controls for each of the 9 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs, rs7041847 in GLIS3, rs6017317 in FITM2-R3HDML-HNF4A, rs6467136 near GCCI-PAX4, rs831571 near PSMD6, rs9470794 in ZFAND3, rs3786897 in PEPD, rs1535500 in KCNK16, rs16955379 in CMIP, and rs17797882 near WWOX. Because the sample size in this study was not sufficient to replicate single SNP associations, we constructed a genetic risk score (GRS by summing a number of risk alleles of the 9 SNPs, and examined the association of the GRS with type 2 diabetes using logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: With the exception of rs1535500 in KCNK16, all SNPs had the same direction of effect (odds ratio [OR]>1.0 as in the original reports. The GRS constructed from the 9 SNPs was significantly associated with type 2 diabetes in the Japanese population (p = 4.0 × 10(-4, OR = 1.05, 95% confidence interval: 1.02-1.09. In quantitative trait analyses, rs16955379 in CMIP was nominally associated with a decreased homeostasis model assessment of β-cell function and with increased fasting plasma glucose, but neither the individual SNPs nor the GRS showed a significant association with the glycemic traits. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that 9 loci that were identified in the East Asian GWAS meta-analysis have a significant effect on the susceptibility to type 2 diabetes in the Japanese population.
Dec 29, 2014 ... Key-words: pig dung, fertilization, zooplankton production. ... an already widespread practice in many Asian countries (fukusho, et al., ..... Elsevier Scientific Publishing Company,. New York ... Effect on Water Quality, pond productivity and. Growth of ... McQueen DJ, Johannes MRS, Post JR, Stewart TJ, Lean.
Full Text Available This research intends to investigate the progress made in East Asian bond market integration thus far. Price-based measures (AAD indicator and beta-convergence measure, quantity-based measures and econometric techniques (co-integration test, error correction model based Granger causality test are employed in the analysis. Even though East Asian government bond markets have become more integrated since 2001, the differentials among the markets still remain significantly high. The bond market integration process seems slow. The convergence of bond markets sped up in 2003 and after the 2008 world financial crisis, implying the important role of government policies in integrating the regional bond markets. East Asian bond market integration may need more government-directed measures.
Yonekura, Emmi; Hall, Timothy M.
Improvements on a statistical tropical cyclone (TC) track model in the western North Pacific Ocean are described. The goal of the model is to study the effect of El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) on East Asian TC landfall. The model is based on the International Best-Track Archive for Climate Stewardship (IBTrACS) database of TC observations for 1945-2007 and employs local regression of TC formation rates and track increments on the Nino-3.4 index and seasonally varying climate parameters. The main improvements are the inclusion of ENSO dependence in the track propagation and accounting for seasonality in both genesis and tracks. A comparison of simulations of the 1945-2007 period with observations concludes that the model updates improve the skill of this model in simulating TCs. Changes in TC genesis and tracks are analyzed separately and cumulatively in simulations of stationary extreme ENSO states. ENSO effects on regional (100-km scale) landfall are attributed to changes in genesis and tracks. The effect of ENSO on genesis is predominantly a shift in genesis location from the southeast in El Nino years to the northwest in La Nina years, resulting in higher landfall rates for the East Asian coast during La Nina. The effect of ENSO on track propagation varies seasonally and spatially. In the peak activity season (July-October), there are significant changes in mean tracks with ENSO. Landfall-rate changes from genesis- and track-ENSO effects in the Philippines cancel out, while coastal segments of Vietnam, China, the Korean Peninsula, and Japan show enhanced La Nina-year increases.
Suleiman, A B; Lye, M S; Yon, R; Teoh, S C; Alias, M
In the wake of the east Asian economic crisis, the health budget for the public sector in Malaysia was cut by 12%. The Ministry of Health responded swiftly with a series of broad-based and specific strategies. There was a careful examination of the operating expenditure and where possible measures were taken to minimise the effects of the budget constraints at the service interface. The MOH reprioritised the development of health projects. Important projects such as rural health projects and training facilities, and committed projects, were continued. In public health, population-based preventive and promotive activities were expected to experience some form of curtailment. There is a need to refocus priorities, maximise the utilisation of resources, and increase productivity at all levels and in all sectors, both public and private, in order to minimise the impact of the economic downturn on health.
Tsai, Ginger J; Cameron, Carrie A; Czerwinski, Jennifer L; Mendez-Figueroa, Hector; Peterson, Susan K; Noblin, Sarah Jane
Recognizing the heterogeneity of the Asian population with regards to acculturation, education, health awareness, and cultural values is vital for tailoring culturally sensitive and appropriate care. Prior studies show that cultural values influence perceptions of genetics within Asian populations. The reputation of the family unit factors into decisions such as pregnancy termination and disclosure of family medical history, and the nondirective model of American genetic counseling may conflict with the historical Asian model of paternalistic health care. Previous studies also provide conflicting evidence regarding correlations between education, acculturation, age, and awareness and perceptions of genetic testing. The aims of this study were to describe attitudes towards prenatal genetics among Southeast and East Asian women living in the United States for varying amounts of time and to explore sociocultural factors influencing those attitudes. Twenty-three Asian women who were members of Asian cultural organizations in the United States were interviewed via telephone about their attitudes towards prenatal genetic counseling, prenatal genetic testing, and termination of pregnancy. Responses were transcribed and coded for common themes using a thematic analysis approach. Four major themes emerged. In general, participants: (1) had diverse expectations for genetic counselors; (2) tended to weigh risks and benefits with regards to genetic testing decisions; (3) had mixed views on termination for lethal and non-lethal genetic conditions; and (4) identified cultural factors which influenced testing and termination such as lack of available resources, societal shame and stigma, and family pressure. These findings may allow prenatal genetic counselors to gain a richer, more nuanced understanding of their Asian patients and to offer culturally tailored prenatal genetic counseling.
Hirose, K.; Sugimura, Y.
Thorium isotopes in the airborne dust collected at Tsukuba Science City in Japan from January 1981 to December 1982 show clear seasonal variations. Especially 228 Th in the airborne particles have a typical maximum concentration between February and April, which is about an order of magnitude higher than during the remainder of the year. According to the result of size distribution of thorium isotope-bearing particles in the air, about 53% of 228 Th is associated with the particles less than 1.6 μm aerodynamic diameter. These results reveal that 228 Th in the airborne particles is present in fine soily matters originating from the East Asian deserts. (orig.)
Kim, Young Uk; Kim, Young Jin; Lee, Jong-Young; Park, Kiejung
Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have become popular as an approach for the identification of large numbers of phenotype-associated variants. However, differences in genetic architecture and environmental factors mean that the effect of variants can vary across populations. Understanding population genetic diversity is valuable for the investigation of possible population specific and independent effects of variants. EvoSNP-DB aims to provide information regarding genetic diversity among East Asian populations, including Chinese, Japanese, and Korean. Non-redundant SNPs (1.6 million) were genotyped in 54 Korean trios (162 samples) and were compared with 4 million SNPs from HapMap phase II populations. EvoSNP-DB provides two user interfaces for data query and visualization, and integrates scores of genetic diversity (Fst and VarLD) at the level of SNPs, genes, and chromosome regions. EvoSNP-DB is a web-based application that allows users to navigate and visualize measurements of population genetic differences in an interactive manner, and is available online at [http://biomi.cdc.go.kr/EvoSNP/].
Full Text Available This research is an attempt to offer a new theoretical framework to understand the political dynamics of East Asian nationalism(s, a topic overlooked by both historians and political scientists. The political dynamics of nationalism shown in the two historical case studies investigated here, the bottom-up ultra-right-wing nationalism in 1930s Japan and the anti-state left-wing/anti-imperial nationalism in 1980s Korea, poses a strong anti-thesis against our commonsensical understanding of nationalism. From the Eurocentric perspectives, the nationalist projects of nation-making always create a homogeneous –either real or fictive – population that is willing to fight and die for the state. The historical case studies shown in this study, however, refute the monolithic interpretation of nationalism in the modern history. Assuming that the nation-making projects in Japan and Korea were very successful, the histories of 1930s Japan and 1980s Korea show a hidden face of nationalism – the more nationalized, the more rebellious – as the nationalized subjects claimed ownership of the state. The experiences of nationalistic fever in Japan and Korea provide a prism to analyze contemporary Chinese neo-nationalism, which has become one of the most important research subjects in China. The experiences of Japan and Korea suggest that the only outcome we can predict from the surge of nationalism is the vitiated and weakened state capability to control the ideological realm of the society. Therefore, we can expect that the surge of nationalistic sentiments from the bottom up in Chinese societies pose a threat to the domestic stability managed by the Chinese Communist Party.
Clift, Peter; Kuhnt, Wolfgang; Wang, Pinxian; Hayes, Dennis
The study of the complex interactions between continents and oceans has become a leading area for 21st century earth cience. In this volume, continent—ocean interactions in tectonics, arc-continent collision, sedimentology, and climatic volution within the East Asian Marginal Seas take precedence. Links between oceanic and continental climate, the sedimentology of coastal and shelf areas, and the links between deformation of continental and oceanic lithosphere are also discussed. As an introduction to the science presented throughout the volume, Wang discusses many of the possible interactions between the tectonic evolution of Asia and both regional and global climate. He speculates that uplift of central Asia in the Pliocene may have triggered the formation of many of the major rivers that drain north through Siberia into the Arctic Ocean. He also argues that it is the delivery of this fresh water that allows the formation of sea ice in that area and triggered the start of Northern Hemispheric glaciation. This may be one of the most dramatic ways in which Asia has shaped the Earth's climate and represents an alternative to the other competing models that have previously emphasized the role of oceanic gateway closure in Central America. Moreover, his proposal for major uplift of at least part of Tibet and Mongolia as late as the Pliocene, based on the history of drainage evolution in Siberia, supports recent data from the southern Tarim Basin and from the Qilian Shan and Qaidam and Jiuxi Basins in northeast Tibet that indicate surface uplift at that time. Constraining the timing and patterns of Tibetan surface uplift is crucial to testing competing models for strain accommodation in Asia following India—Asia collision.
Peiris-John, Roshini; Wong, Agnes; Sobrun-Maharaj, Amritha; Ameratunga, Shanthi
INTRODUCTION In New Zealand, while the term 'Asians' in popular discourse means East and South-east Asian peoples, Statistics New Zealand's definition includes people of many nationalities from East, South and South-east Asia, all with quite different cultural norms, taboos and degrees of conservatism. In a context where 'Asian' youth data are typically presented in aggregate form, there are notable gaps in knowledge regarding the contextual determinants of health in this highly heterogeneous group. This qualitative study explored key stakeholder views on issues that would be most useful to explore on the health and wellbeing of Asian youth and processes that would foster engagement of Asian youth in health research. METHODS Interviews were conducted with six key stakeholders whose professional activities were largely focused on the wellbeing of Asian people. The general inductive approach was used to identify and analyse themes in the qualitative text data. FINDINGS Six broad themes were identified from the key stakeholder interviews framed as priority areas that need further exploration: cultural identity, integration and acculturation; barriers to help-seeking; aspects to consider when engaging Asian youth in research (youth voice, empowerment and participatory approach to research); parental influence and involvement in health research; confidentiality and anonymity; and capacity building and informing policy. CONCLUSION With stakeholders strongly advocating the engagement of Asian youth in the health research agenda this study highlights the importance of engaging youth alongside service providers to collaborate on research and co-design responsive primary health care services in a multicultural setting. KEYWORDS Asian youth; New Zealand; health research; minority health; Community and social participation.
Soon, Ting-Kueh [Tunku Abdul Rahman College, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Lau, Wai-Yoo [Malaysian Scientific Association, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)
The Association of South East Asian Nations or ASEAN is a regional association of seven countries, namely Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, Brunei and Vietnam, located at the south eastern part of the Asian continent. Together with the East Asian States of Japan, China, Korea and Taiwan, this part of the world is experiencing rapid economic growth, especially in the last decade. Rapid industrialization has resulted in an increased demand for energy in the manufacturing and transport sectors, and also for infrastructure development. This has led to a significant increase in gaseous emissions and a corresponding increase in atmospheric acidity. Acid deposition study in the ASEAN countries began in the mid-70s when Malaysia first started her acid rain monitoring network in 1976. This was followed closely by Singapore and the other ASEAN countries in the 80s. By now all ASEAN countries have their own acid rain monitoring networks with a number of these countries extending the monitoring to dry deposition as well.
Abd Ghani, Mohd Khanapi; Bali, Rajeev K; Naguib, Raouf N G; Marshall, Ian M
An integrated Lifetime Health Record (LHR) is fundamental for achieving seamless and continuous access to patient medical information and for the continuum of care. However, the aim has not yet been fully realised. The efforts are actively progressing around the globe. Every stage of the development of the LHR initiatives had presented peculiar challenges. The best lessons in life are those of someone else's experiences. This paper presents an overview of the development approaches undertaken by four East Asian countries in implementing a national Electronic Health Record (EHR) in the public health system. The major challenges elicited from the review including integration efforts, process reengineering, funding, people, and law and regulation will be presented, compared, discussed and used as lessons learned for the further development of the Malaysian integrated LHR.
Full Text Available The study aims to probe the effect of perceived price, perceived quality, brand awareness, and social influence on purchase intention of South East Asian (SEA Young Adults towards global smartphone brands. This explanatory research uses quantitative empirical data collected from 200 SEA Young Adults studying in one of the public universities in Malaysia. Stratified random sampling is used while ensuring fair representation of SEA countries, viz., Singapore, Malaysia, Philippines, Thailand, Indonesia, Vietnam, and Cambodia. Correlation and regression analysis were carried out using SPSS 20.0. The study resulted in the finding that social influence has the highest level of linear relationship and so is the most influential factor among four. The findings provide guidelines to global smartphone brands for developing value proposition and better promotion mix for smartphones promotion.
G. Oonk (Gijsbert)
textabstractSummary Asian businessmen in East Africa supplied goods, services and capital to African, Arabic, Asian and European customers, traders and other businessmen. In this complex cultural environment, they had to choose what to wear on any given what occasion. Expressing dignity, wealth,
Prema-chandra Athukorala; Archanun Kohpaiboon
This paper examines the export experience of China and other East Asian economies in the aftermaths of the global financial crisis against the backdrop of pre-crisis trade patterns. The analysis is motivated by the decoupling' thesis, which was a popular theme in the Asian policy circles in the lead-up to the onset of the recent financial crisis, and aims to probe three key issues: Was the East Asian trade integration story that underpinned the decoupling thesis simply a statistical artifact...
Shinozaki, T.; Uchida, M.; Minoura, K.; Kondo, M.; Rella, S. F.; Shibata, Y.
Understanding of the mechanism of the East Asian Summer Monsoon (EASM) is required for the prediction of climate change in East Asia in a scenario of modern global warming. In this study, we present high-resolution climate records from peat sediments in Northeast Japan to reconstruct the EASM variability based on peat bulk cellulose δ13C since the last deglaciation. We used a 8.8 m long peat sediment core collected from the Tashiro Bog, Northeast Japan. Based on 42 14C measurements, the core bottom reaches ~15.5 ka. δ13C, accumulation rate and accumulation flux time-series correlate well to Greenland ice core δ18O variability, suggesting that the climate record in Northeast Japan is linked to global climate changes. The δ13C record at Tashiro Bog and other paleo-EASM records at Northeast and Southern China consistently demonstrate that hydrological environments were spatially different in mid-high and mid-low latitude regions over the last 15.5 kyr. During global cooling (warming) periods, mid-high and mid-low latitude regions were characterized by wet (dry) and dry (wet) environments, respectively. We suggest that these climatic patterns are related to the migration of the EASM-related rain belt during global climate changes, as a consequence of variations in intensity and location of both the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) and the Western Pacific Subtropical High (STH). The location of the rain belt largely influences the East Asian hydrological environment. Our δ13C time-series are characterized by a 1230 yr throughout the Holocene and a 680 yr periodicity during the early Holocene. The 1230 yr periodicity is in agreement with North Atlantic ice-rafted debris (IRD) events, suggesting a teleconnection between the Northeast Japan and the North Atlantic during the Holocene. In addition, it is the first evidence that the Bond events were recorded in terrestrial sediment in Japan. On the other hand, the 680 yr periodicity between 10.0 and 8.0 kyr is
Using individual-level data for China, Korea, and Japan for 2006, this research examines how the age of children influences life satisfaction for males and females in East Asian countries. Our results show that the life satisfaction of males is barely affected by a child of the relationship, whereas the life satisfaction of females with a young child is lower than that of females who do not have a child. This result holds for countries at different development stages. There is also a gender d...
Lam, Samuel M
Cosmetic surgery of the Asian face has become increasingly popular in the Far East and the West. The Asian male identity has undergone an evolution in Western media toward a more positive change. The standards of beauty have also changed, being defined by more multicultural models and styles of dress than before. To undertake cosmetic surgery of the Asian face, particularly of the Asian male, requires a different psychological understanding of the individual as well as an entirely different surgical technique in most cases. This brief article does not delve into the technical details of each procedure but concentrates on the salient differences in how to approach the Asian male patient for each of the different procedures, including Asian blepharoplasty, augmentation rhinoplasty, lip reduction, dimple fabrication, otoplasty, facial contouring and aging face procedures, and hair restoration.
Chong, Kar Hau; Wu, Suet Kei; Noor Hafizah, Yatiman; Bragt, Marjolijn C E; Poh, Bee Koon
This article aims to describe the eating habits of Malaysian children using a nationally representative data set from the South East Asian Nutrition Surveys (SEANUTS) in Malaysia. A total of 2797 children aged 2 to 12 years were included in this analysis. Eating habits and dietary intakes of children were assessed using questionnaires. Overall, 56.1% of children consumed 3 main meals every day. Approximately 20% of children snacked 3 times per day, whereas 9.7% ate fast food on a weekly basis. Irregular meal patterns were significantly associated with lower micronutrient intakes, and the groups with higher odds for this pattern were older children, Malays, and those living in rural areas. Considering the relatively high rate of irregular meal consumption and its potential influence on dietary nutrient intake, persistent efforts must be continued to promote and inculcate healthy eating habits among children from an early age. © 2016 APJPH.
Shi, Jiajun; Zhang, Ben; Choi, Ji-Yeob; Gao, Yu-Tang; Li, Huaixing; Lu, Wei; Long, Jirong; Kang, Daehee; Xiang, Yong-Bing; Wen, Wanqing; Park, Sue K; Ye, Xingwang; Noh, Dong-Young; Zheng, Ying; Wang, Yiqin; Chung, Seokang; Lin, Xu; Cai, Qiuyin; Shu, Xiao-Ou
Age at menarche (AM) and age at natural menopause (ANM) are complex traits with a high heritability. Abnormal timing of menarche or menopause is associated with a reduced span of fertility and risk for several age-related diseases including breast, endometrial and ovarian cancer, cardiovascular disease, and osteoporosis. To identify novel genetic loci for AM or ANM in East Asian women and to replicate previously identified loci primarily in women of European ancestry by genome-wide association studies (GWASs), we conducted a two-stage GWAS. Stage I aimed to discover promising novel AM and ANM loci using GWAS data of 8073 women from Shanghai, China. The Stage II replication study used the data from another Chinese GWAS (n = 1230 for AM and n = 1458 for ANM), a Korean GWAS (n = 4215 for AM and n = 1739 for ANM), and de novo genotyping of 2877 additional Chinese women. Previous GWAS-identified loci for AM and ANM were also evaluated. We identified two suggestive menarcheal age loci tagged by rs79195475 at 10q21.3 (beta = -0.118 years, P = 3.4 × 10 -6 ) and rs1023935 at 4p15.1 (beta = -0.145 years, P = 4.9 × 10 -6 ) and one menopausal age locus tagged by rs3818134 at 22q12.2 (beta = -0.276 years, P = 8.8 × 10 -6 ). These suggestive loci warrant a further validation in independent populations. Although limited by low statistical power, we replicated 19 of the 98 menarche loci and 5 of the 20 menopause loci previously identified in women of European ancestry in East Asian women, suggesting a shared genetic architecture for these two traits across populations.
Asian butch-dykes have been overlooked in analyses of Chinese cinema, studies that often concentrate on "feminized" transgender roles. This article examines cinematic representations of Asian butch-dykes through film analysis of Enter the Mullet (2004), a five-minute short, and in-depth interviews with the filmmaker, Donna Lee, a Chinese-Canadian in Vancouver. Lee's film is inspired by Enter the Dragon (1973), starring Bruce Lee, the most recognized icon of Asian masculinity. Combining with the mullet hairstyle, which is often associated with White working-class, the filmmaker introduces viewers to the hybrid masculinity of Asian butch-dykes. The article argues that Asian female masculinity can be a strategic means of destabilizing the hegemony of White-male-middle-class masculinity.
Lin, N.; Tsay, S.; Hsu, N. C.; Holben, B. N.; Anh, N.; Reid, J. S.; Sheu, G.; Chi, K.; Wang, S.; Lee, C.; Wang, L.; Wang, J.; Chen, W.; Welton, E. J.; Liang, S.; Sopajaree, K.; Maring, H. B.; Janjai, S.; Chantara, S.
The Seven South East Asian Studies (7-SEAS) is a grass-root program and seeks to perform interdisciplinary research in the field of aerosol-meteorology and climate interaction in the Southeast Asian region, particularly for the impact of biomass burning on cloud, atmospheric radiation, hydrological cycle, and regional climate. Participating countries include Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, Taiwan, Vietnam, and USA. A series of field experiments have been conducted during springtime biomass burning seasons in northern Southeast Asia, i.e., Dongsha Experiment in 2010, Son La Campaigns in 2011 and 2012, and BASELInE (Biomass-burning Aerosols & Stratocumulus Environment: Lifecycles and Interactions Experiment) in 2013, respectively. Given an example, during 2010 Dongsha Experiment, a monitoring network for ground-based measurements was established, including five stations from northern Thailand and central Vietnam to Taiwan, with a supersite at the Dongsha Island (i.e. Pratas Island) in South China Sea (or East Sea). Aerosol chemistry sampling was performed for each station for characterizing the compositions of PM2.5/PM10 (some for TSP) including water-soluble ions, metal elements, BC/OC, Hg and dioxins. This experiment provides a relatively complete and first dataset of aerosol chemistry and physical observations conducted in the source/sink region for below marine boundary layer and lower free troposphere of biomass burning/air pollutants in the northern SE Asia. This presentation will give an overview of these 7-SEAS activities and their results, particularly for the characterization of biomass-burning aerosol at source regions in northern Thailand and northern Vietnam, and receptor stations in Taiwan, which is rarely studied.
Ng, Kh; Wong, Jhd
Informal discussion started in 1996 and the South East Asian Federation of Organizations for Medical Physics (SEAFOMP) was officially accepted as a regional chapter of the IOMP at the Chicago World Congress in 2000 with five member countries, namely Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore and Thailand. Professor Kwan-Hoong Ng served as the founding president until 2006. Brunei (2002) and Vietnam (2005) joined subsequently. We are very grateful to the founding members of SEAFOMP: Anchali Krisanachinda, Kwan-Hoong Ng, Agnette Peralta, Ratana Pirabul, Djarwani S Soejoko and Toh-Jui Wong.The objectives of SEAFOMP are to promote (i) co-operation and communication between medical physics organizations in the region; (ii) medical physics and related activities in the region; (iii) the advancement in status and standard of practice of the medical physics profession; (iv) to organize and/or sponsor international and regional conferences, meetings or courses; (v) to collaborate or affiliate with other scientific organizations.SEAFOMP has been organizing a series of congresses to promote scientific exchange and mutual support. The South East Asian Congress of Medical Physics (SEACOMP) series was held respectively in Kuala Lumpur (2001), Bangkok (2003), Kuala Lumpur (2004) and Jakarta (2006). The respective congress themes indicated the emphasis and status of development. The number of participants (countries in parentheses) was encouraging: 110 (17), 150 (16), 220 (23) and 126 (7).In honour of the late Professor John Cameron, an eponymous lecture was established. The inaugural John Cameron Lecture was delivered by Professor Willi Kalender in 2004. His lecture was titled "Recent Developments in Volume CT Scanning".
Zheng, Xufeng; Li, Anchun; Wan, Shiming; Kao, Shuhji; Kuhn, Gerhard
Deep-sea fan sediments provide an excellent geological archive for paleoenvironment reconstruction. Grain size, clay mineral and elemental (Ti, Fe, Ca) compositions were measured for a core retrieved from a submarine fan in the Okinawa Trough. Varimax-rotated Principal Component Analysis (V-PCA) on time-evolution of grain size spectrum reveals that, since the Holocene, sediment was transported mainly by the benthic nepheloid layer (33%) and upper layers (33%) which is driven by the East Asian winter monsoon (EAWM). The intensification of the Kuroshio Current during the Holocene, masks the fluvial signal of the summer monsoon and obstructs clay minerals derived from the Yellow River, a major contributor prior to 12 ka BP. A new grain size index (GSI), which represents the EAWM well, exhibits a negative correlation with the δ18O record in Dongge Cave, China during the Holocene when sea level was relatively steady. This anticorrelation suggests the southward migration of the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ). The consistency among our records and rainfall records in Peru, Ti counts in the Cariaco Basin, monsoon records in Oman and the averaged summer insolation pattern at 30°N further support the ITCZ's impact on monsoon systems globally. Cross-Correlation Analyses for GSI and log(Ti/Ca) against δ18O record in Dongge Cave reveal a decoupling between the East Asian winter and summer monsoon during 5500-2500 cal yr BP, with greater complexity in the last 2500 years. This can be attributed to exacerbated ENSO mode fluctuations and possibly anthropogenic interference superimposed on insolation and ITCZ forcing.
Yamamura, Eiji; Rodriguez Andres, Antonio
Using individual-level data for China,South Korea, and Japan for2006, this research examines how life satisfaction for married males and femalesin East Asian countries isinfluenced bythe age of theirchildren. Our results show that the life satisfaction of males is barely affected by a child of the relationship, whereas the life satisfaction of females with a young child is lower than that of females who do not have a child. This result holds for countries at different development stages. Ther...
Chang, C.-P.; Zhang, Yongsheng; Li, Tim
The interannual relationship between the East Asian summer monsoon and the tropical Pacific SSTs is studied using rainfall data in the Yangtze River Valley and the NCEP reanalysis for 1951–96. The datasets are also partitioned into two periods, 1951–77 and 1978–96, to study the interdecadal variations of this relationship. A wet summer monsoon is preceded by a warm equatorial eastern Pacific in the previous winter and followed by a cold equatorial eastern Pacific in the following fa...
Quigley, John M.
This paper suggests that activities in the real estate markets in Southeast and East Asian economies were an important contributing force to the financial crises of 1997 in the Asian economies. The analysis relies upon unpublished data reported contemporaneously by financial institutions and market watchers to document the extent of the imbalances in the real property market that were evident to informed observers at the time of the financial collapse. The analysis argues that a series of ref...
Takekawa, John Y.; Newman, S.H.; Xiao, X.; Prosser, D.J.; Spragens, K.A.; Palm, E.C.; Yan, B.; Li, T.; Lei, F.; Zhao, D.; Douglas, David C.; Muzaffar, S.B.; Ji, W.
Poyang Lake is situated within the East Asian Flyway, a migratory corridor for waterfowl that also encompasses Guangdong Province, China, the epicenter of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1. The lake is the largest freshwater body in China and a significant congregation site for waterfowl; however, surrounding rice fields and poultry grazing have created an overlap with wild waterbirds, a situation conducive to avian influenza transmission. Reports of HPAI H5N1 in healthy wild ducks at Poyang Lake have raised concerns about the potential of resilient free-ranging birds to disseminate the virus. Yet the role wild ducks play in connecting regions of HPAI H5N1 outbreak in Asia is hindered by a lack of information about their migratory ecology. During 2007-08 we marked wild ducks at Poyang Lake with satellite transmitters to examine the location and timing of spring migration and identify any spatiotemporal relationship with HPAI H5N1 outbreaks. Species included the Eurasian wigeon (Anas penelope), northern pintail (Anas acuta), common teal (Anas crecca), falcated teal (Anas falcata), Baikal teal (Anas formosa), mallard (Anas platyrhynchos), garganey (Anas querquedula), and Chinese spotbill (Anas poecilohyncha). These wild ducks (excluding the resident mallard and Chinese spotbill ducks) followed the East Asian Flyway along the coast to breeding areas in northern China, eastern Mongolia, and eastern Russia. None migrated west toward Qinghai Lake (site of the largest wild bird epizootic), thus failing to demonstrate any migratory connection to the Central Asian Flyway. A newly developed Brownian bridge spatial analysis indicated that HPAI H5N1 outbreaks reported in the flyway were related to latitude and poultry density but not to the core migration corridor or to wetland habitats. Also, we found a temporal mismatch between timing of outbreaks and wild duck movements. These analyses depend on complete or representative reporting of outbreaks, but by
Barry, Declan T; Bernard, Matthew J; Beitel, Mark
This study examined the relationship between gender, sex role ideology, and self-esteem among 170 (88 male, 82 female) East Asian immigrants in the United States. Participants were administered a battery of psychometrically established measures. Men and women did not differ on personal or collective self-esteem (CSE). Women who endorsed traditional sex roles were significantly more likely to report higher private, identity, and total CSE. Personal self-esteem was a significant independent predictor of traditional sex role for women. Participants who endorsed sex role equality were significantly more likely to report public, membership, and total CSE. Sex role equality was associated with enhanced private CSE for men and attenuated personal self-esteem for women. These findings point to the importance of assessing multiple facets of self-esteem, which appear to be differentially associated with sex role ideology for men and women.
Despite their long history in the United States, relatively little scholarly attention has been paid to Asian Americans and their lived experience in sports. The purpose of this study was to give voices to Asian American men by focusing on their experiences in sports. In particular, this study examined the experiences of East Asian and Southeast Asian American male college students who were often perceived as “foreign” and “pejoratively feminine” racialized minority yet participated in sports...
Qi, Xin-Shuai; Chen, Chen; Comes, Hans Peter; Sakaguchi, Shota; Liu, Yi-Hui; Tanaka, Nobuyuki; Sakio, Hitoshi; Qiu, Ying-Xiong
East Asia's temperate deciduous forests served as sanctuary for Tertiary relict trees, but their ages and response to past climate change remain largely unknown. To address this issue, we elucidated the evolutionary and population demographic history of Cercdiphyllum, comprising species in China/Japan (Cercdiphyllum japonicum) and central Japan (Cercdiphyllum magnificum). Fifty-three populations were genotyped using chloroplast and ribosomal DNA sequences and microsatellite loci to assess molecular structure and diversity in relation to past (Last Glacial Maximum) and present distributions based on ecological niche modelling. Late Tertiary climate cooling was reflected in a relatively recent speciation event, dated at the Mio-/Pliocene boundary. During glacials, the warm-temperate C. japonicum experienced massive habitat losses in some areas (north-central China/north Japan) but increases in others (southwest/-east China, East China Sea landbridge, south Japan). In China, the Sichuan Basin and/or the middle-Yangtze were source areas of postglacial northward recolonization; in Japan, this may have been facilitated through introgressive hybridization with the cool-temperate C. magnificum. Our findings challenge the notion of relative evolutionary and demographic stability of Tertiary relict trees, and may serve as a guideline for assessing the impact of Neogene climate change on the evolution and distribution of East Asian temperate plants. © 2012 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2012 New Phytologist Trust.
Zhou, Derong; Ding, Aijun; Mao, Huiting; Fu, Congbin; Ding, Ke; Zhang, Yang; Liu, Jane; Wang, Tao; Chan, L Y; Lu, An; Hao, Nan
The impact of the East Asian monsoon (EAM) on climatology and interannual variability of tropospheric ozone (O 3 ) over the coastal South China was investigated by analyzing 11 years of ozonesonde data over Hong Kong with the aid of Lagrangian dispersion modeling of carbon monoxide and calculation of an EAM index. It was found that the seasonal cycle of O 3 in the lower troposphere is highly related to the EAM over the study region. Ozone enhancements in the free troposphere are associated with the monsoon-induced transport of pollutants of continental anthropogenic and biomass burning origins. Lower tropospheric O 3 levels showed high interannual variability, with an annual averaged amplitude up to 61% of averaged concentrations in the boundary layer (0–1 km altitudes) and 49% below 3 km altitude. In spring and autumn, the interannual variability in boundary layer O 3 levels was predominately influenced by the EAM intensity, with high O 3 mixing ratios associated with northeasterly circulation anomalies. (letter)
Lee, Jae Young; Park, Eun Ha; Lee, Sunghee; Ko, GwangPyo; Honda, Yasushi; Hashizume, Masahiro; Deng, Furong; Yi, Seung-Muk; Kim, Ho
The global diversity of airborne bacteria has not yet been studied, despite its importance in human health and climate change. Here, we focused on the diversity of airborne bacteria and their correlations with meteorological/environmental conditions in China, South Korea, and Japan. Beijing (China) had more diverse airborne bacteria, followed by Seoul (South Korea) and Nagasaki (Japan), and seasonal variations were observed. Beijing and Seoul had more diverse airborne bacteria during the winter, whereas Nagasaki showed greater diversity during the summer. According to principal component analysis and Bray-Curtis similarity, higher similarity was observed between Beijing and Seoul than between Seoul and Nagasaki during all seasons except summer. Among meteorological/environmental variables, temperature and humidity were highly correlated with the diversity of airborne bacteria on the measurement day, whereas wind speeds and the frequency of northwest winds were highly correlated for 2-3-day moving averages. Thus, proximity and resuspension could enhance bacterial diversity in East Asian cities.
Using individual-level data for China, Korea, and Japan for 2006, this research examines how life satisfaction for married males and females in East Asian countries is influenced by the age of their children. Our results show that the life satisfaction of males is barely affected by a child of the relationship, whereas the life satisfaction of females with a young child is lower than that of females who do not have a child. This result holds for countries at different development stages. Ther...
While individuals of note have been documented, there has been a paucity of research into the collective voices of Asian women faculty in higher education. To fill this gap, the study brings forward the narratives of nine Asian women faculty members in the Canadian academy who have roots in East Asia. Employing the concept of Orientalism within a…
Zhijia Shen、Susan Anthes
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Academic libraries are stepping into uncharted territories with the advent of electronic books (ebooks and electronic libraries. This article provides an overview of the current status of both electronic books and libraries, including a description of a beta test of a new service netLibrary(tm at the University of Colorado at Boulder. Possible implications of new technology for various aspects of academic librarianship in the areas of acquisition, collection development, preservation, reference, circulation, interlibrary loan, and cataloging are discussed. Particular reference is given to East Asian collections. Benefits as well as liabilities are discussed. The authors raise issues regarding the potential of the new technology, and speculate on possible trends and areas for future research for academic librarians.
This conference presentation examined global oil market development and the role of Asian demand. It discussed plateau change versus cyclical movement in the global oil market; supply and demand issues of OPEC and non-OPEC oil; if high oil prices reduce demand; and the Asian oil picture in the global context. Asian oil demand has accounted for about 50 per cent of the global incremental oil market growth. The presentation provided data charts in graphical format on global and Asia-Pacific incremental oil demand from 1990-2005; Asia oil demand growth for selected nations; real GDP growth in selected Asian countries; and, Asia-Pacific oil production and net import requirements. It also included charts in petroleum product demand for Asia-Pacific, China, India, Japan, and South Korea. Other data charts included key indicators for China's petroleum sector; China crude production and net oil import requirements; China's imports and the share of the Middle East; China's oil exports and imports; China's crude imports by source for 2004; China's imports of main oil products for 2004; India's refining capacity; India's product balance for net-imports and net-exports; and India's trade pattern of oil products. tabs., figs
Huang, Zhongwei; Huang, Jianping; Wang, Shanshan; Zhou, Tian; Jin, Hongchun; Hayasaka, Tadahiro
Asian dust can be transported long distances from the Taklimakan or Gobi desert to North America across the Pacific Ocean, and it has been found to have a significant impact on ecosystems, climate, and human health. Although it is well known that Asian dust is transported all over the globe, there are limited observations reporting Asian dust transported to the Arctic. We report a case study of a large-scale heavy dust storm over East Asia on 19 March 2010, as shown by ground-based and space-borne multi-sensor observations, as well as NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data and HYSPLIT trajectories. Our analysis suggests that Asian dust aerosols were transported from northwest China to the Arctic within 5 days, crossing eastern China, Japan and Siberia before reaching the Arctic. The results indicate that Asian dust can be transported for long distances along a previously unreported transport path. Evidence from other dust events over the past decade (2001–2010) also supports our results, indicating that dust from 25.2% of Asian dust events has potentially been transported directly to the Arctic. The transport of Asian dust to the Arctic is due to cyclones and the enhanced East Asia Trough (EAT), which are very common synoptic systems over East Asia. This suggests that many other large dust events would have generated long-range transport of dust to the Arctic along this path in the past. Thus, Asian dust potentially affects the Arctic climate and ecosystem, making climate change in the Arctic much more complex to be fully understood. (letter)
the use of bilateral agreements and alliances to isolate and power balance in East Asia constitutes a schizophrenic presentation of strategy...military posture, despite prohibitions in the Japanese constitution .17 Importantly, this process is not limited to Japan. Nationalist and anti- Great...though some motivation exists to create an effective East Asian economic order, similar in structure to NAFTA , powerful East Asian actors
This account of two residencies in Northeastern England by a writer who conducted creative writing workshops for Asian immigrants touches upon conflicting ideologies, the richness of immigrant experience, and the problems of funding and publication of student writing. (SK)
Lee, Chien-Hung; Ko, Albert Min-Shan; Yen, Cheng-Fang; Chu, Koung-Shing; Gao, Yi-Jun; Warnakulasuriya, Saman; Sunarjo; Ibrahim, Salah Osman; Zain, Rosnah Binti; Patrick, Walter K; Ko, Ying-Chin
Despite gradual understanding of the multidimensional health consequences of betel-quid chewing, information on the effects of dependent use is scant. To investigate the 12-month prevalence patterns of betel-quid dependence in six Asian populations and the impact of this dependence on oral potentially malignant disorders (OPMD). A multistage random sample of 8922 participants was recruited from Taiwan, mainland China, Indonesia, Malaysia, Sri Lanka and Nepal. Participants were evaluated for betel-quid dependency using DSM-IV and ICD-10 criteria and assessed clinically for oral mucosal lesions. The 12-month prevalence of dependence was 2.8-39.2% across the six Asian samples, and 20.9-99.6% of those who chewed betel-quid were betel-quid dependent. Men dominated the prevalence among the east Asian samples and women dominated the prevalence in south-east Asian samples. 'Time spent chewing' and 'craving' were the central dependence domains endorsed by the Chinese and southern/south-east Asian samples respectively, whereas the Nepalese samples endorsed 'tolerance' and 'withdrawal'. Dependency was linked to age, gender, schooling years, drinking, smoking, tobacco-added betel-quid use and environmental accessibility of betel-quid. Compared with non-users, those with betel-quid dependency had higher pre-neoplastic risks (adjusted odds ratios 8.0-51.3) than people with non-dependent betel-quid use (adjusted odds ratio 4.5-5.9) in the six Asian populations. By elucidating differences in domain-level symptoms of betel-quid dependency and individual and environmental factors, this study draws attention to the population-level psychiatric problems of betel-quid chewing that undermine health consequences for OPMD in six Asian communities.
Marcus Miller; Lei Zhang
How are we to understand the East Asian crisis? There are two popular explanations: first that it was just like a nineteenth century British bank panic, calling for prompt action by a 'lender of last resort', namely the IMF; second that it was much worse —nothing less than the bursting of a modern-day South Sea Bubble. Jeffrey Sachs of Harvard University is closely associated with the first view. He stresses the liquidity crisis facing the emerging East Asian economies as foreign short-term c...
Purvish M Parikh
Full Text Available This manuscript captures the discussion and recommendations that came out of a special Afro Asian symposium involving 13 countries. Unmet needs and cost-effective solutions with special emphasis on training form the backbone of practical next steps.
Wu, Z.; Guo, Z.
We measured 15 parent polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in atmosphere and water during a research cruise from the East China Sea (ECS) to the northwestern Pacific Ocean (NWP) in the spring of 2015 to investigate the occurrence, air-sea gas exchange, and gas-particle partitioning of PAHs with a particular focus on the influence of East Asian continental outflow. The gaseous PAH composition and identification of sources were consistent with PAHs from the upwind area, indicating that the gaseous PAHs (three- to five-ring PAHs) were influenced by upwind land pollution. In addition, air-sea exchange fluxes of gaseous PAHs were estimated to be -54.2 to 107.4 ng m-2 d-1, and was indicative of variations of land-based PAH inputs. The logarithmic gas-particle partition coefficient (logKp) of PAHs regressed linearly against the logarithmic subcooled liquid vapor pressure, with a slope of -0.25. This was significantly larger than the theoretical value (-1), implying disequilibrium between the gaseous and particulate PAHs over the NWP. The non-equilibrium of PAH gas-particle partitioning was shielded from the volatilization of three-ring gaseous PAHs from seawater and lower soot concentrations in particular when the oceanic air masses prevailed. Modeling PAH absorption into organic matter and adsorption onto soot carbon revealed that the status of PAH gas-particle partitioning deviated more from the modeling Kp for oceanic air masses than those for continental air masses, which coincided with higher volatilization of three-ring PAHs and confirmed the influence of air-sea exchange. Meanwhile, significant linear regressions between logKp and logKoa (logKsa) for PAHs were observed for continental air masses, suggesting the dominant effect of East Asian continental outflow on atmospheric PAHs over the NWP during the sampling campaign.
Cody J. Perry
Full Text Available Asian students make up the largest proportion of international students who study in the United States. Seeking a degree in higher education can be challenging for any student, but Asian students often encounter more obstacles to completion than many other international and domestic students. Culture, family and health concerns, and safety are some of the largest concerns that this study found among Asian students in the US. The study found that East-Asian international students had more issues than students from other parts of Asia and difficulty with the English language was of major importance to respondents. In addition, safety is an issue that Asian students were concerned with while studying in the US. The study was exploratory in nature and informs the field on future avenues of research.
Aquino, Yves Saint James; Steinkamp, Norbert
This review aims to identify (1) sources of knowledge and (2) important themes of the ethical debate related to surgical alteration of facial features in East Asians. This article integrates narrative and systematic review methods. In March 2014, we searched databases including PubMed, Philosopher's Index, Web of Science, Sociological Abstracts, and Communication Abstracts using key terms "cosmetic surgery," "ethnic*," "ethics," "Asia*," and "Western*." The study included all types of papers written in English that discuss the debate on rhinoplasty and blepharoplasty in East Asians. No limit was put on date of publication. Combining both narrative and systematic review methods, a total of 31 articles were critically appraised on their contribution to ethical reflection founded on the debates regarding the surgical alteration of Asian features. Sources of knowledge were drawn from four main disciplines, including the humanities, medicine or surgery, communications, and economics. Focusing on cosmetic surgery perceived as a westernising practice, the key debate themes included authenticity of identity, interpersonal relationships and socio-economic utility in the context of Asian culture. The study shows how cosmetic surgery of ethnic features plays an important role in understanding female identity in the Asian context. Based on the debate themes authenticity of identity, interpersonal relationships, and socio-economic utility, this article argues that identity should be understood as less individualistic and more as relational and transformational in the Asian context. In addition, this article also proposes to consider cosmetic surgery of Asian features as an interplay of cultural imperialism and cultural nationalism, which can both be a source of social pressure to modify one's appearance.
Full Text Available This paper tries to investigate whether there exist international integrated markets among East Asian economies, by employing the Generalized Purchasing Power Parity (G-PPP model, then, it would help to suggest whether the East Asian region is the Optimum Currency Area (OCA or not. The empirical results in this paper suggest that holding the G-PPP among nine Asian countries (China, Indonesia, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, Thailand and Vietnam becomes more applicable in 2000–2013 than of that in 1984–1997. In the period of “globalization,” which is characterized by expansion of world trade, increase of international capital flows, and development of information and communications technologies, Asian economic development has been promoting not only economic integrations but also constructing the stable linkages of real exchange rates. Therefore, it would help to adopt regional coordination for monetary policies to assure the feasibility of a possible monetary union.
Clara C Elbers
Full Text Available Meta-analyses of European populations has successfully identified genetic variants in over 100 loci associated with lipid levels, but our knowledge in other ethnicities remains limited. To address this, we performed dense genotyping of ∼2,000 candidate genes in 7,657 African Americans, 1,315 Hispanics and 841 East Asians, using the IBC array, a custom ∼50,000 SNP genotyping array. Meta-analyses confirmed 16 lipid loci previously established in European populations at genome-wide significance level, and found multiple independent association signals within these lipid loci. Initial discovery and in silico follow-up in 7,000 additional African American samples, confirmed two novel loci: rs5030359 within ICAM1 is associated with total cholesterol (TC and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C (p = 8.8×10(-7 and p = 1.5×10(-6 respectively and a nonsense mutation rs3211938 within CD36 is associated with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C levels (p = 13.5×10(-12. The rs3211938-G allele, which is nearly absent in European and Asian populations, has been previously found to be associated with CD36 deficiency and shows a signature of selection in Africans and African Americans. Finally, we have evaluated the effect of SNPs established in European populations on lipid levels in multi-ethnic populations and show that most known lipid association signals span across ethnicities. However, differences between populations, especially differences in allele frequency, can be leveraged to identify novel signals, as shown by the discovery of ICAM1 and CD36 in the current report.
Sundaram, S.; Yin, Q.Z.; Berger, A.; Muri, H. [Universite Catholique de Louvain, Earth and Life Institute (ELI), Georges Lemaitre Centre for Earth and Climate Research (TECLIM), Louvain la Neuve (Belgium)
Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 13, an interglacial about 500,000 years ago, is unique due to an exceptionally strong East Asia summer monsoon (EASM) occurring in a relatively cool climate with low greenhouse gas concentrations (GHG). This paper attempts to find one of the possible mechanisms for this seeming paradox. Simulations with an Earth System model LOVECLIM show that the presence of ice sheets over North America and Eurasia during MIS-13 induces a positive phase of the winter North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) like feature. The ocean having a longer memory than the atmosphere, the oceanic anomalies associated with NAO persists until summer. The signals of summer NAO are transmitted to East Asia to reinforce the monsoon there through the stationary waves excited at the Asian Jet entrance. The geopotential height shows clearly a mid-latitude wave train with positive anomalies over the eastern Mediterranean/Caspian Sea and the Okhotsk Sea and a negative anomaly over Lake Baikal. This reinforces the effect of the high-latitude wave train induced independently by the Eurasian ice sheet topography as shown in previous study. These features reinforce the Meiyu front and enhance the precipitation over East Asia. The results obtained from LOVECLIM are further confirmed by an atmospheric general circulation model, ARPEGE. (orig.)
Shah, Baiju R; Griffiths, Rebecca; Hall, Stephen F
The highest rates of thyroid cancer are observed in Pacific Island nations as well as Australia and Asian countries bordering the Pacific. The objective of this study was to determine the risk for thyroid cancer among immigrants to Canada from Southeast and East Asia compared with immigrants from other regions and nonimmigrants. This was a population-based, longitudinal cohort study using health care administrative data to examine all residents of Ontario without pre-existing thyroid cancer. Individuals were followed from January 1997 or 5 years after they became eligible for health care coverage in Ontario, whichever came later. Patients were followed until March 2015 for incident-differentiated thyroid cancer, and then for recurrence. The study followed 14,659,733 individuals for a median of 17 years. Thyroid cancer incidence was 43.8 cases per 100,000 person-years among Southeast Asian immigrants, 28.6 cases per 100,000 person-years among East Asian immigrants, 21.5 cases per 100,000 person-years among other immigrants, and 14.5 cases per 100,000 person-years among nonimmigrants. Incidence was highest among immigrants from the Philippines (52.7 cases per 100,000 person-years), South Korea (33.5 cases per 100,000 person-years), and China (30.0 cases per 100,000 person-years). Adjusted hazard ratios for thyroid cancer compared with nonimmigrants were 2.66 (95% confidence interval, 2.48-2.84) for Southeast Asian immigrants, 1.87 (95% confidence interval, 1.75-2.00) for East Asian immigrants, and 1.51 (95% confidence interval, 1.45-1.57) for other immigrants. Immigrants were more likely to have papillary histology and stage I cancer. East Asian immigrants, but not Southeast Asian immigrants, had a lower risk of recurrence (hazard ratio, 0.73 [95% confidence interval, 0.57-0.94] and 1.01 [95% confidence interval, 0.81-1.26], respectively). Immigrants from Southeast and East Asia had markedly higher thyroid cancer incidence than nonimmigrants. At particularly elevated
Wen, Bo; Xu, Shuhua; Wang, Yi; Lu, Yan; Wei, Lanhai; Wang, Chuanchao; Li, Shilin; Huang, Xingqiu; Jin, Li; Li, Hui
Molecular anthropological studies of the populations in and around East Asia have resulted in the discovery that most of the Y-chromosome lineages of East Asians came from Southeast Asia. However, very few Southeast Asian populations had been investigated, and therefore, little was known about the purported migrations from Southeast Asia into East Asia and their roles in shaping the genetic structure of East Asian populations. Here, we present the Y-chromosome data from 1,652 individuals belonging to 47 Mon-Khmer (MK) and Hmong-Mien (HM) speaking populations that are distributed primarily across Southeast Asia and extend into East Asia. Haplogroup O3a3b-M7, which appears mainly in MK and HM, indicates a strong tie between the two groups. The short tandem repeat network of O3a3b-M7 displayed a hierarchical expansion structure (annual ring shape), with MK haplotypes being located at the original point, and the HM and the Tibeto-Burman haplotypes distributed further away from core of the network. Moreover, the East Asian dominant haplogroup O3a3c1-M117 shows a network structure similar to that of O3a3b-M7. These patterns indicate an early unidirectional diffusion from Southeast Asia into East Asia, which might have resulted from the genetic drift of East Asian ancestors carrying these two haplogroups through many small bottle-necks formed by the complicated landscape between Southeast Asia and East Asia. The ages of O3a3b-M7 and O3a3c1-M117 were estimated to be approximately 19 thousand years, followed by the emergence of the ancestors of HM lineages out of MK and the unidirectional northward migrations into East Asia. PMID:21904623
Yoon, Eunju; Adams, Kristen; Clawson, Angela; Chang, Hanna; Surya, Shruti; Jérémie-Brink, Gihane
Drawing on the current conceptualization of acculturation/enculturation as bilinear, multidimensional processes proceeding in interaction with surrounding contexts, this study examined ethnic identity development and cultural integration of 13 adolescents from East Asian immigrant families. Five domains emerged via the Consensual Qualitative Research method: ethnic/cultural identity and socialization; bicultural living; racial context-racism and stereotypes; family context-parental expectation; and peer context-friendship/dating. Overall, the participants experienced a cultural split and discontinuity between the 2 worlds of home and ethnic community versus school and society in general. They received strong ethnic socialization messages from family and ethnic community. Although most participants experienced hurtful racial discrimination, they used passive coping (e.g., dismiss, minimize, defend perpetrators). The model minority stereotype was prevalent and deeply engrained in many aspects of their lives including ethnic identity development, cultural socialization messages from mainstream society, discrimination experiences, and academic/occupational demands imposed by self, parents, peers, and society. Although they appreciated parents' high expectations of academic/occupational success, they felt pressured and desired to have space and independence. Friendship/dating patterns reflected ethnic identity development as well as contextual influence. Implications for research and practice are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Jang, Haeyoung; Koo, Fung Kuen; Ke, Liang; Clemson, Lindy; Cant, Rosemary; Fraser, David R; Seibel, Marcus J; Tseng, Marilyn; Mpofu, Elias; Mason, Rebecca S; Brock, Kaye
In this qualitative study, researchers examined cultural and attitudinal factors that might be related to sun-exposure behaviors among East Asian women living in Australia. Researchers asked Chinese (n = 20) and Korean (n = 16) immigrant women who participated in a larger cross-sectional quantitative study of vitamin D blood levels to volunteer to participate in an in-depth interview in 2010. These women reported a number of cultural factors related to their attitudes and behaviors with regard to sun exposure. They expressed preference for fair skin, a tradition of covering skin when outdoors, and no sunbathing culture. They believed that fair skin was more beautiful than tanned skin. They reported that beauty was the reason for active avoidance of sunlight exposure. Although they reported knowledge of the need for sun avoidance due to skin cancer risk, few reported knowledge about the benefits of sun exposure for adequate vitamin D levels. These findings may provide some reasons for vitamin D deficiency previously reported in these populations. Thus, researchers recommend that these attitudes of excessive sun protection and limiting sun exposure be further investigated as they may have implications for planning and delivery of health promotion programs to this growing population of immigrants in Australia.
Masaaki Kuroyanagi; Junji Yano; Yasuo Nakanishi; Masaaki Komatsu; Hidehiko Futamura; Tsuyoshi Mihira
The rapid, stable economic development of Asian countries has been an important topic of empirical study in recent years. The remarkable results of this steady economic development have been called a "miracle" in the recent literature of development economics. This cross-country study attempts to investigate the roots of the rapid, sustained economic growth of East Asian countries. In "The East Asian Miracle" (The World Bank, 1993), rapid growth of human capital, productivity improvement and ...
Shergis, Johannah Linda; Wu, Lei; May, Brian H; Zhang, Anthony Lin; Guo, Xinfeng; Lu, Chuanjian; Xue, Charlie Changli
Chronic cough is a significant health burden. Patients experience variable benefits from over the counter and prescribed products, but there is an unmet need to provide more effective treatments. Natural products have been used to treat cough and some plant compounds such as pseudoephedrine from ephedra and codeine from opium poppy have been developed into drugs. Text mining historical literature may offer new insight for future therapeutic development. We identified natural products used in the East Asian historical literature to treat chronic cough. Evaluation of the historical literature revealed 331 natural products used to treat chronic cough. Products included plants, minerals and animal substances. These natural products were found in 75 different books published between AD 363 and 1911. Of the 331 products, the 10 most frequently and continually used products were examined, taking into consideration findings from contemporary experimental studies. The natural products identified are promising and offer new directions in therapeutic development for treating chronic cough. © The Author(s) 2015.
Fauzi, R. R.; Hidayat, R.
Intensity of precipitation in Indonesia is influenced by convection and propagation of southwest wind. Objective of this study is to analyze the relationship between cold surge and the phenomenon of intra-seasonal climate variability Madden-julian Oscillation (MJO) for affecting precipitation in Indonesia. The data used for identifying the occurrence of cold surge are meridional wind speed data from the ERA-Interim. In addition, this study also used RMM1 and RMM2 index data from Bureau of Meteorology (BOM) for identifying MJO events. The results showed that during East Asian Winter Monsoon (EAWM) in 15 years (2000-2015), there are 362 cold surge events, 186 MJO events, and 113 cold surge events were associated with MJO events. The spread of cold surge can penetrate to equator and brought mass of water vapor that causes dominant precipitation in the Indonesian Sea up to 50-75% from climatological precipitation during EAWM. The MJO convection activity that moves from west to east also increases precipitation, but the distribution of rainfall is wider than cold surge, especially in Eastern Indonesia. MJO and cold surge simultaneously can increase rainfall over 100-150% in any Indonesian region that affected by MJO and cold surge events. The mechanism of heavy rainfall is illustrated by high activity of moisture transport in areas such as Java Sea and coastal areas of Indonesia.
Kim, Judy Joo-Hyun
This study explored the effectiveness of an instructional tool, elaborate analogy, in teaching the particle theory to both Grade 7 mainstream and East or South Asian ESL students. Ten Grade 7 science classes from five different schools in a large school district in the Greater Toronto area participated. Each of the ten classes were designated as either Group X or Y. Using a quasi-experimental counterbalanced design, Group X students were taught one science unit using the elaborate analogies, while Group Y students were taught by their teachers' usual methods of teaching. The instructional methods used for Group X and Y were interchanged for the subsequent science unit. Quantitative data were collected from 95 students (50 mainstream and 45 ESL) by means of a posttest and a follow-up test for each of the units. When the differences between mainstream and East or South Asian ESL students were analyzed, the results indicate that both groups scored higher on the posttests when they were instructed with elaborate analogies, and that the difference between the two groups was not significant. That is, the ESL students, as well as the mainstream students, benefited academically when they were instructed with the elaborate analogies. The students obtained higher inferential scores on the posttest when their teacher connected the features of less familiar and more abstract scientific concepts to the features of the familiar and easy-to-visualize concept of school dances. However, after two months, the students were unable to recall inferential content knowledge. This is perhaps due to the lack of opportunity for the students to represent and test their initial mental models. Rather than merely employing elaborate analogies, perhaps, science teachers can supplement the use of elaborate analogies with explicit guidance in helping students to represent and test the coherence of their mental models.
Cho, Yoon Shin; Chen, Chien-Hsiun; Hu, Cheng
We conducted a three-stage genetic study to identify susceptibility loci for type 2 diabetes (T2D) in east Asian populations. We followed our stage 1 meta-analysis of eight T2D genome-wide association studies (6,952 cases with T2D and 11,865 controls) with a stage 2 in silico replication analysis...... (5,843 cases and 4,574 controls) and a stage 3 de novo replication analysis (12,284 cases and 13,172 controls). The combined analysis identified eight new T2D loci reaching genome-wide significance, which mapped in or near GLIS3, PEPD, FITM2-R3HDML-HNF4A, KCNK16, MAEA, GCC1-PAX4, PSMD6 and ZFAND3...
This article will examine Asian women's experiences of financial support in higher education. The article is based on 30 in-depth interviews with Asian women who were studying at a "new" (post-1992) university in the South East of England. Women identified themselves as Muslim, Hindu and Sikh. The findings reveal that women's religious…
The regional economic integrations, bilateral trade agreements (BTAs), and otherinternational strategic alliances have affected countries' dynamic comparative advantagesand specialization. Whether there are systematic changes in the comparative advantageand specialization of trade in the East-Asian countries has been a crucial issue for thefuture development of the East-Asian economic integration. One of the most importantissues in the international trade is exchange rate. Purchasing Power Pa...
Maria A Matuszek
Full Text Available To identify biochemical and genetic variation relating to increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease in young, lean male and female adults of different ethnicities.Fasting blood and urine and non-fasting blood following oral glucose intake were analysed in 90 Caucasians, South Asians and South East/East Asians.There were no differences in age, birthweight, blood pressure, body mass index, percent body fat, total energy, percentage of macronutrient intake, microalbumin, leptin, cortisol, adrenocorticotropic hormone, nitric oxide metabolites, C-reactive protein, homocysteine, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6, von Willebrand factor, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, and tissue plasminogen activator. Fasting total cholesterol (P = .000, triglycerides (P = .050, low density lipoprotein (P = .009 and non-fasting blood glucose (15 min (P = .024 were elevated in South Asians compared with Caucasians, but there was no significant difference in glucose area under curve (AUC. Non-fasting insulin in South Asians (15-120 min, in South East/East Asians (60-120 min, and insulin AUC in South Asians and South East/East Asians, were elevated compared with Caucasians (P≤0.006. The molar ratio of C-peptide AUC/Insulin AUC (P = .045 and adiponectin (P = .037 were lower in South Asians compared with Caucasians. A significant difference in allele frequency distributions in Caucasians and South Asians was found for rs2166706 (P = 0.022 and rs10830963 (P = 0.009, which are both near the melatonin receptor MTNR1B.Elevated non-fasting insulin exists in young South Asians of normal fasting glucose and insulin. Hepatic clearance of insulin may be reduced in South Asians. No current biochemical evidence exists of endothelial dysfunction at this stage of development. MTNR1B signalling may be a useful therapeutic target in Asian populations in the prevention of type 2 diabetes mellitus.
Matuszek, Maria A; Anton, Angelyn; Thillainathan, Sobana; Armstrong, Nicola J
To identify biochemical and genetic variation relating to increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease in young, lean male and female adults of different ethnicities. Fasting blood and urine and non-fasting blood following oral glucose intake were analysed in 90 Caucasians, South Asians and South East/East Asians. There were no differences in age, birthweight, blood pressure, body mass index, percent body fat, total energy, percentage of macronutrient intake, microalbumin, leptin, cortisol, adrenocorticotropic hormone, nitric oxide metabolites, C-reactive protein, homocysteine, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6, von Willebrand factor, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, and tissue plasminogen activator. Fasting total cholesterol (P = .000), triglycerides (P = .050), low density lipoprotein (P = .009) and non-fasting blood glucose (15 min) (P = .024) were elevated in South Asians compared with Caucasians, but there was no significant difference in glucose area under curve (AUC). Non-fasting insulin in South Asians (15-120 min), in South East/East Asians (60-120 min), and insulin AUC in South Asians and South East/East Asians, were elevated compared with Caucasians (P≤0.006). The molar ratio of C-peptide AUC/Insulin AUC (P = .045) and adiponectin (P = .037) were lower in South Asians compared with Caucasians. A significant difference in allele frequency distributions in Caucasians and South Asians was found for rs2166706 (P = 0.022) and rs10830963 (P = 0.009), which are both near the melatonin receptor MTNR1B. Elevated non-fasting insulin exists in young South Asians of normal fasting glucose and insulin. Hepatic clearance of insulin may be reduced in South Asians. No current biochemical evidence exists of endothelial dysfunction at this stage of development. MTNR1B signalling may be a useful therapeutic target in Asian populations in the prevention of type 2 diabetes mellitus.
Ottoni, Claudio; Flink, Linus Girdland; Evin, Allowen; Geoerg, Christina; De Cupere, Bea; Van Neer, Wim; Bartosiewicz, Laszlo; Linderholm, Anna; Barnett, Ross; Peters, Joris; Decorte, Ronny; Waelkens, Marc; Vanderheyden, Nancy; Ricaut, Francois-Xavier; Cakirlar, Canan; Cevik, Ozlem; Hoelzel, A. Rus; Mashkour, Marjan; Karimlu, Azadeh Fatemeh Mohaseb; Seno, Shiva Sheikhi; Daujat, Julie; Brock, Fiona; Pinhasi, Ron; Hongo, Hitomi; Perez-Enciso, Miguel; Rasmussen, Morten; Frantz, Laurent; Megens, Hendrik-Jan; Crooijmans, Richard; Groenen, Martien; Arbuckle, Benjamin; Benecke, Nobert; Vidarsdottir, Una Strand; Burger, Joachim; Cucchi, Thomas; Dobney, Keith; Larson, Greger
Zooarcheological evidence suggests that pigs were domesticated in Southwest Asia similar to 8,500 BC. They then spread across the Middle and Near East and westward into Europe alongside early agriculturalists. European pigs were either domesticated independently or more likely appeared so as a
Ottoni, C.; Flink, L.G.; Evin, A.; Georg, C.; Cupere, De B.; Neer, van W.; Bartosiewicz, L.; Linderholm, A.; Barnett, R.; Peters, J.; Decorte, R.; Waelkens, M.; Vanderheyden, N.; Ricaut, F.X.; Cakirlar, C.; Cevik, O.; Hoelzel, A.R.; Mashkour, M.; Karimlu, A.F.M.; Seno, S.S.; Daujat, J.; Brock, F.; Pinhasi, R.; Hongo, H.; Perez-Enciso, M.; Rasmussen, M.; Frantz, L.A.F.; Megens, H.J.W.C.; Crooijmans, R.P.M.A.; Groenen, M.A.M.; Arbuckle, B.; Benecke, N.; Vidarsdottir, U.S.; Burger, J.; Cucchi, T.; Dobney, K.; Larson, G.
Zooarcheological evidence suggests that pigs were domesticated in Southwest Asia ~8,500 BC. They then spread across the Middle and Near East and westward into Europe alongside early agriculturalists. European pigs were either domesticated independently or more likely appeared so as a result of
Yong, Rita Y Y; Mustaffa, Su'Aidah B; Wasan, Pavandip S; Sheng, Liang; Marshall, Christian R; Scherer, Stephen W; Teo, Yik-Ying; Yap, Eric P H
The human amylase gene locus at chromosome 1p21.1 is structurally complex. This region contains two pancreatic amylase genes, AMY2B, AMY2A, and a salivary gene AMY1. The AMY1 gene harbors extensive copy number variation (CNV), and recent studies have implicated this variation in adaptation to starch-rich diets and in association to obesity for European and Asian populations. In this study, we showed that by combining quantitative PCR and digital PCR, coupled with careful experimental design and calibration, we can improve the resolution of genotyping CNV with high copy numbers (CNs). In two East Asian populations of Chinese and Malay ethnicity studied, we observed a unique non-normal distribution of AMY1 diploid CN genotypes with even:odd CNs ratio of 4.5 (3.3-4.7), and an association between the common AMY2A CN = 2 genotype and odd CNs of AMY1, that could be explained by the underlying haplotypic structure. In two further case-control cohorts (n = 932 and 145, for Chinese and Malays, respectively), we did not observe the previously reported association between AMY1 and obesity or body mass index. Improved methods for accurately genotyping multiallelic CNV loci and understanding the haplotype complexity at the AMY1 locus are necessary for population genetics and association studies. © 2016 WILEY PERIODICALS, INC.
Energy is an important factor in international relations and recently the global energy paradigm has been seen to be shifting towards the East. In light of such change, a comparative assessment of the role of energy in Qatar' East Asian foreign relations will be conducted by taking China, Japan and South Korea as case studies. The research aimed to assess each of the bilateral relationship in terms of their origin and development in the energy sector generating an interpretation of their growing interdependence, taking into consideration the various domestic, regional and international influencing factors. At this level, LNG development and trade was adopted to see the extent of energy cooperation. In general, energy cooperation played the leading role in the three relationships, but to different degrees. Furthermore, all three bilateral relationship pertain to the 'complex interdependence approach' that is supported by the use of institutionalism and soft power.
This article is a 1995 Summer Meeting panel session summary on infrastructure, interconnections, and electricity exchanges in Asia and Australia. Panelists focused on the present and future state of the electric power sector, future expansion of Asian and Australian power systems, interconnections and power exchanges, cooperation, new capacity, direction of reforming the industry, interstate relations in the fuel and energy complex, and the impact of privatization on electric supply. They addressed electricity and energy issues in both developing and developed Asian countries and in Australia as seen by the United Nations (UN), the World Energy Council (WEC), The World Bank, Japan, Australia, India, China, East Russia, Vietnam, and Malaysia
Giovanni Capannelli; See Seng Tan
The formation of regional production networks in East Asia has occurred mainly through market forces, without much help from regional institutions in promoting the creation of a single Asian market. While this approach has served the region well in the past, the drastic changes experienced since the 2008â€“2009 financial crisis and the challenges Asian countries are facingâ€”growing inequalities and competition, on the one hand, and enhanced threats to the environment and peopleâ€™s health on...
Full Text Available A large SO2-rich pollution plume of East Asian origin was detected by aircraft based CIMS (Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometry measurements at 3–7.5 km altitude over the North Atlantic. The measurements, which took place on 3 May 2006 aboard of the German research aircraft Falcon, were part of the INTEX-B (Intercontinental Chemical Transport Experiment-B campaign. Additional trace gases (NO, NOy, CO, H2O were measured and used for comparison and source identification. The atmospheric SO2 mole fraction was markedly increased inside the plume and reached up to 900 pmol/mol. Accompanying lagrangian FLEXPART particle dispersion model simulations indicate that the probed pollution plume originated at low altitudes from densely populated and industrialized regions of East Asia, primarily China, about 8–12 days prior to the measurements.
Full Text Available Thiopurines are clinically useful in the management of diverse immunological and malignant conditions. Nevertheless, these purine analogues can cause lethal myelosuppression, which may be prevented by prospective testing for variants in the thiopurine S-methyltransferase (TPMT and, in East Asians, Nudix hydrolase 15 (NUDT15 genes. Two single-tube, tetra-primer amplification refractory mutation system polymerase chain reaction (ARMS-PCR assays were developed to genotype the common loss-of-function variants NUDT15 c.415C>T (rs116855232 and TPMT*3C c.719A>G (rs1142345. In a group of 60 unselected patients, one and seven were found to be homozygous and heterozygous, respectively, for NUDT15 c.415C>T; one was found to be heterozygous for TPMT*3C c.719A>G. There was no non-specific amplification, and the genotypes were 100% concordant with Sanger sequencing. Limit-of-detection for both assays was below 1 ng of heterozygous template per reaction. Time- and cost-effective ARMS-PCR assays, suitable for genotyping East-Asian patients for thiopurine intolerance, were successfully developed and validated.
Wang, K.; Ye, Z.; Li, H. [Zhejiang Univ., Hangzhou City (China). School of Biosystems Engineering and Food Science
This paper reported on an experimental simulation in which ammonia emissions from naturally ventilated pig houses were monitored and the ventilation airflow rate was estimated. Two identical pig houses and the same number of pigs were used in the study. Natural ventilation was used in the experimental pig house while the reference pig house had mechanical ventilation. Both houses had the same air temperature and relative humidity. The ventilation airflow rate of the experimental pig house was estimated by calculating the ventilation airflow rate in the reference pig house. The ventilation airflow rate of the experimental pig house was also estimated based on heat pressure theory. The room air temperature and relative humidity were found to be related to inlet air temperature and relative humidity for both ventilation systems. After 19 days, the average air temperature in the room with mechanical ventilation was about 4.1 degrees C higher than inlet air temperature, but the relative humidity was lower by 7.1 per cent. In the room with natural ventilation, the average air temperature after 19 days was about 3.9 degrees C higher than inlet air temperature, but the relative humidity was lower by 4.3 per cent.
A regional gas pipeline network for South East Asia, proposed in 1996, linking Brunei, Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, the Philippines, Singapore and Vietnam, could solve the regions gas demand crisis, which has been gravely affected by the current economic collapse many Asian currencies are experiencing. Massive deposits of natural gas, located off the Island of Natuna could, if exploited, provide enough electricity and gas to fuel the whole of South East Asia and China. The collapse of local economies makes Western investment less likely and local initiatives are urged. (UK)
Hwa, Hsiao-Lin; Lin, Chih-Peng; Huang, Tsun-Ying; Kuo, Po-Hsiu; Hsieh, Wei-Hsin; Lin, Chun-Yen; Yin, Hsiang-I; Tseng, Li-Hui; Lee, James Chun-I
Ancestry informative single-nucleotide polymorphism (AISNP) panels for differentiating between East and Southeast Asian populations are scarce. This study aimed to identify AISNPs for ancestry assignment of five East and Southeast Asian populations, and Caucasians. We analyzed 145 autosomal SNPs of the 627 DNA samples from individuals of six populations (234 Taiwanese Han, 91 Filipinos, 79 Indonesians, 60 Thais, 71 Vietnamese, and 92 Caucasians) using arrays. The multiple logistic regression model and a multi-tier approach were used for ancestry classification. We observed that 130 AISNPs were effective for classifying the ethnic origins with fair accuracy. Among the 130 AISNPs, 122 were useful for stratification between these five Asian populations and 64 were effective for differentiating between Caucasians and these Asian populations. For differentiation between Caucasians and Asians, an accuracy rate of 100% was achieved in these 627 subjects with 50 optimal AISNPs among the 64 effective SNPs. For classification of the five Asian populations, the accuracy rates of ancestry inference using 20 to 57 SNPs for each of the two Asian populations ranged from 74.1% to 100%. Another 14 degraded DNA samples with incomplete profiling were analyzed, and the ancestry of 12 (85.7%) of those subjects was accurately assigned. We developed a 130-AISNP panel for ethnic origin differentiation between the five East and Southeast Asian populations and Caucasians. This AISNP set may be helpful for individual ancestral assignment of these populations in forensic casework.
Full Text Available Fifteen years have passed since Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO launched the Globally Important Agricultural Heritage Systems (GIAHS project in 2002. In this time, participation from East Asian countries has been increasing rapidly with interest flowing over into several related subjects and disciplines. Culture is one of the selection criteria that has to be satisfied to become a GIAHS site, and equally culture plays an important role in the development of tourism to a destination. However, few scientists or GIAHS members have discussed directly how to apply cultural features in GIAHS. Therefore, the purposes of this paper are firstly to recognize the importance and contribution of culture in GIAHS. Then, through detailing the current forms of cultural management in the GIAHS located in Japan, Korea, and China, we identify some of the key cultural problems and prospects in those sites. Two social surveys conducted in Japan show that culture is a prime motivation for tourist visitation, as well as being a core GIAHS selection criteria. These surveys further highlight that GIAHS needs to incorporate culture more effectively into their management strategies. Detailed descriptions of the three countries analyzed in this paper outline each has to engage with particular cultural management challenges: Japan has a well-arranged list of cultural assets, but is unclear how to move forward with that information and data. Korea has just begun to generate a strategy on how to manage cultural heritage features in GIAHS with the use of approaches such as Agrostories or Gil tourism, in recognition of the gradual changes that are occurring in local identity. China has the longest history of engagement with GIAHS in the East Asia region. However, the utilization of the model here has recognized further issues of change in cultural identity not least through commercialization. This paper therefore identifies, discusses and arranges eight problems and
Liu, Bo; Huang, Gang; Hu, Kaiming; Wu, Renguang; Gong, Hainan; Wang, Pengfei; Zhao, Guijie
This study investigates the multidecadal variations of the interannual relationship between the East Asian summer monsoon (EASM) and El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) in 1000-year simulation of a coupled climate model. The interannual relationship between ENSO and EASM has experienced pronounced changes throughout the 1000-year simulation. During the periods with significant ENSO-EASM relationship, the ENSO-related circulation anomalies show a Pacific-Japan (PJ)-like pattern with significant wave-activity flux propagating from the tropics to the north in lower troposphere and from the mid-latitudes to the south in upper troposphere. The resultant ENSO-related precipitation anomalies are more (less) than normal over the East Asia (western North Pacific) in the decaying summers of El Niño events. In contrast, the circulation and precipitation anomalies are weak over East Asia-western North Pacific during the periods with weak ENSO-EASM relationship. Based on the energy conversion analysis, the related anomalies achieve barotropic and baroclinic energy from the mean flow during the periods with strong ENSO-EASM relationship. On the contrary, during the low-correlation periods, the energy conversion is too weak to form the link between the tropics and mid-latitudes. The main reason for the multidecadal variations of ENSO-EASM relationship is the amplitude discrepancy of SST anomalies over the Indo-western Pacific Ocean which, in turn, leads to the intensity difference of the western North Pacific anomalous anticyclone (WPAC) and related climate anomalies.
Toh Knon Peng
Abstract: Because of the economic boom, the extensive use of English, and the vital process of acculturation, English is now used in South East Asia to communicate amongst South East Asians, to express sociocultural meanings. Hence English should not be treated as a foreign language and learners of English should be firmly grounded in their own culture, traditions and values.
Wang, Le; Wan, Zi Yi; Lim, Huan Sein; Yue, Gen Hua
Genomewide analysis of genetic divergence is critically important in understanding the genetic processes of allopatric speciation. We sequenced RAD tags of 131 Asian seabass individuals of six populations from South-East Asia and Australia/Papua New Guinea. Using 32 433 SNPs, we examined the genetic diversity and patterns of population differentiation across all the populations. We found significant evidence of genetic heterogeneity between South-East Asian and Australian/Papua New Guinean populations. The Australian/Papua New Guinean populations showed a rather lower level of genetic diversity. FST and principal components analysis revealed striking divergence between South-East Asian and Australian/Papua New Guinean populations. Interestingly, no evidence of contemporary gene flow was observed. The demographic history was further tested based on the folded joint site frequency spectrum. The scenario of ancient migration with historical population size changes was suggested to be the best fit model to explain the genetic divergence of Asian seabass between South-East Asia and Australia/Papua New Guinea. This scenario also revealed that Australian/Papua New Guinean populations were founded by ancestors from South-East Asia during mid-Pleistocene and were completely isolated from the ancestral population after the last glacial retreat. We also detected footprints of local selection, which might be related to differential ecological adaptation. The ancient gene flow was examined and deemed likely insufficient to counteract the genetic differentiation caused by genetic drift. The observed genomic pattern of divergence conflicted with the 'genomic islands' scenario. Altogether, Asian seabass have likely been evolving towards allopatric speciation since the split from the ancestral population during mid-Pleistocene. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Wu, Zilan; Lin, Tian; Li, Zhongxia; Jiang, Yuqing; Li, Yuanyuan; Yao, Xiaohong; Gao, Huiwang; Guo, Zhigang
We measured 15 parent polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in atmosphere and water during a research cruise from the East China Sea (ECS) to the northwestern Pacific Ocean (NWP) in the spring of 2015 to investigate the occurrence, air-sea gas exchange, and gas-particle partitioning of PAHs with a particular focus on the influence of East Asian continental outflow. The gaseous PAH composition and identification of sources were consistent with PAHs from the upwind area, indicating that the gaseous PAHs (three-to five-ring PAHs) were influenced by upwind land pollution. In addition, air-sea exchange fluxes of gaseous PAHs were estimated to be -54.2-107.4 ng m -2 d -1 , and was indicative of variations of land-based PAH inputs. The logarithmic gas-particle partition coefficient (logK p ) of PAHs regressed linearly against the logarithmic subcooled liquid vapor pressure (logP L 0 ), with a slope of -0.25. This was significantly larger than the theoretical value (-1), implying disequilibrium between the gaseous and particulate PAHs over the NWP. The non-equilibrium of PAH gas-particle partitioning was shielded from the volatilization of three-ring gaseous PAHs from seawater and lower soot concentrations in particular when the oceanic air masses prevailed. Modeling PAH absorption into organic matter and adsorption onto soot carbon revealed that the status of PAH gas-particle partitioning deviated more from the modeling K p for oceanic air masses than those for continental air masses, which coincided with higher volatilization of three-ring PAHs and confirmed the influence of air-sea exchange. Meanwhile, significant linear regressions between logK p and logK oa (logK sa ) for PAHs were observed for continental air masses, suggesting the dominant effect of East Asian continental outflow on atmospheric PAHs over the NWP during the sampling campaign. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Timmer, Marcel P.; Szirmai, Adam
The growth experience in manufacturing in South and East Asian economies is well documented. Less is known about absolute levels of economic performance. This paper presents a star comparison of six Asian economies (China, India, Indonesia, Japan, South Korea and Taiwan) and the USA, the world
Li, Jiao; Ding, Ruiqiang; Wu, Zhiwei; Zhong, Quanjia; Li, Baosheng; Li, Jianping
The significant inter-decadal change in potential predictability of the East Asian summer monsoon (EASM) has been investigated using the signal-to-noise ratio method. The relatively low potential predictability appears from the early 1950s through the late 1970s and during the early 2000s, whereas the potential predictability is relatively high from the early 1980s through the late 1990s. The inter-decadal change in potential predictability of the EASM can be attributed mainly to variations in the external signal of the EASM. The latter is mostly caused by the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) inter-decadal variability. As a major external signal of the EASM, the ENSO inter-decadal variability experiences phase transitions from negative to positive phases in the late 1970s, and to negative phases in the late 1990s. Additionally, ENSO is generally strong (weak) during a positive (negative) phase of the ENSO inter-decadal variability. The strong ENSO is expected to have a greater influence on the EASM, and vice versa. As a result, the potential predictability of the EASM tends to be high (low) during a positive (negative) phase of the ENSO inter-decadal variability. Furthermore, a suite of Pacific Pacemaker experiments suggests that the ENSO inter-decadal variability may be a key pacemaker of the inter-decadal change in potential predictability of the EASM.
Subagyo, Toto Hardiyanto
Despite the recent Asian economics crisis (1997-1998), air traffic volumes in Asia- Pacific will continue to grow over the next decade. As the market is becoming more and more attractive, the competition amongst the airlines operating in the region has challenged the Southeast Asian carriers. The demanded quality of product/service by the customer has become a crucial issue. The ability to provide quality products and services is increasingly becoming a key determinant of an...
Park, Chorong; Nam, Soohyun; Whittemore, Robin
It is important to understand East Asian immigrants (EAIs)' unique perspectives in managing diabetes in order to provide culturally-competent care. However, it is not known whether EAIs' perspectives are addressed in diabetes self-management interventions developed for EAIs. Therefore, a mixed-study review was conducted to identify EAIs' perspective from qualitative research (n = 9 studies) and to evaluate the components of EAI diabetes self-management interventions (n = 7). Themes from the qualitative synthesis demonstrated that EAIs have unique cultural values and traditional health beliefs while struggling with multi-contextual barriers due to immigration. The evaluation of EAI diabetes self-management interventions revealed that there was a lack of consensus on cultural strategies for EAIs' across the interventions. Addressing language barriers was the only factor consistently integrated in the cultural components of intervention by employing bilingual interventionists. EAIs' perspectives and experiences need to be incorporated in the future diabetes self-management interventions to better provide culturally-competent care.
McPherson, S; Valappil, M; Moses, S E; Eltringham, G; Miller, C; Baxter, K; Chan, A; Shafiq, K; Saeed, A; Qureshi, R; Hudson, M; Bassendine, M F
Chronic infection with the hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a frequent cause of cirrhosis and liver cancer. Targeted HBV screening is recommended by the Centre for Disease Control (CDC) and Prevention for subjects born in countries with >2% HBV prevalence. However, there are no UK guidelines. Here, we applied the (CDC) recommendations to the British-Chinese and British-South Asian community of North-East (NE) England. British-Chinese and South Asian subjects were invited to attend for HBV education and screening sessions held in community centres. Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and hepatitis B core total antibody (HBcAb) were tested with dry blood spot tests. South Asians were also tested for hepatitis C antibody (HCVAb). A total of 1126 subjects (606 Chinese and 520 South Asian) were screened. Sixty-two (5.5%) were HBsAg positive. Ten of these reported a previous diagnosis of HBV. The prevalence of HBsAg positivity was 4.6% when previously diagnosed individuals were excluded. The HBsAg prevalence was significantly higher in the Chinese subjects compared with South Asians (8.7% VS. 1.7% P < 0.001). In Chinese subjects, HBsAg positivity was highest in subjects born in Vietnam (17.4%), followed by China (11%), Hong Kong (7.8%) and the UK (6.7%). Subjects from Pakistan had the highest HBsAg and HCV Ab prevalence in the South Asians (3.1% and 1.8%, respectively). Ten percentage of HBsAg positive patients who had follow-up assessment had active disease requiring antiviral treatment. Undiagnosed HBV infection was above the 2% threshold for screening suggested by the CDC in the British-Chinese and Pakistani community of NE England, which provides evidence for a UK HBV-targeted screening programme. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Goldsmith, Yonaton; Broecker, Wallace S.; Xu, Hai; Polissar, Pratigya J.; deMenocal, Peter B.; Porat, Naomi; Lan, Jianghu; Cheng, Peng; Zhou, Weijian; An, Zhisheng
The magnitude, rate, and extent of past and future East Asian monsoon (EAM) rainfall fluctuations remain unresolved. Here, late Pleistocene-Holocene EAM rainfall intensity is reconstructed using a well-dated northeastern China closed-basin lake area record located at the modern northwestern fringe of the EAM. The EAM intensity and northern extent alternated rapidly between wet and dry periods on time scales of centuries. Lake levels were 60 m higher than present during the early and middle Holocene, requiring a twofold increase in annual rainfall, which, based on modern rainfall distribution, requires a ˜400 km northward expansion/migration of the EAM. The lake record is highly correlated with both northern and southern Chinese cave deposit isotope records, supporting rainfall “intensity based” interpretations of these deposits as opposed to an alternative “water vapor sourcing” interpretation. These results indicate that EAM intensity and the northward extent covary on orbital and millennial timescales. The termination of wet conditions at 5.5 ka BP (˜35 m lake drop) triggered a large cultural collapse of Early Neolithic cultures in north China, and possibly promoted the emergence of complex societies of the Late Neolithic.
Goldsmith, Yonaton; Broecker, Wallace S; Xu, Hai; Polissar, Pratigya J; deMenocal, Peter B; Porat, Naomi; Lan, Jianghu; Cheng, Peng; Zhou, Weijian; An, Zhisheng
The magnitude, rate, and extent of past and future East Asian monsoon (EAM) rainfall fluctuations remain unresolved. Here, late Pleistocene-Holocene EAM rainfall intensity is reconstructed using a well-dated northeastern China closed-basin lake area record located at the modern northwestern fringe of the EAM. The EAM intensity and northern extent alternated rapidly between wet and dry periods on time scales of centuries. Lake levels were 60 m higher than present during the early and middle Holocene, requiring a twofold increase in annual rainfall, which, based on modern rainfall distribution, requires a ∼400 km northward expansion/migration of the EAM. The lake record is highly correlated with both northern and southern Chinese cave deposit isotope records, supporting rainfall "intensity based" interpretations of these deposits as opposed to an alternative "water vapor sourcing" interpretation. These results indicate that EAM intensity and the northward extent covary on orbital and millennial timescales. The termination of wet conditions at 5.5 ka BP (∼35 m lake drop) triggered a large cultural collapse of Early Neolithic cultures in north China, and possibly promoted the emergence of complex societies of the Late Neolithic.
Full Text Available Fragmented production means organization of production in which different stages of production are divided among different suppliers that are located in different countries. East Asia is one of the most important manufacturing centers in the world, China imports components from other East Asian economies for processing and then exports to the United States. The volume of export from China to the United States increase in traditional international trade statistics. Therefore, the solution of Sino-U.S. trade imbalance should pay attention to the relationship between the United States, China, and other East Asian economies.
Lee, Sang Heon; Kang, Chang-Keun; Lee, Chung IL; Kwak, Jung Hyun
The East/Japan Sea (hereafter the East Sea) is changing quickly. Warming and structural changes in the East Sea have been reported by CREAMS, an acronym of ″Circulation Research of the East Asian Marginal Seas″, which began in 1993 as an international research program to understand the water mass structure and circulation in the East Sea (Kim and Kim, 1996; Kim, 1997; Kim et al., 2001, 2002). A subsequent research program of the EAST-I, an acronym of ″the East Asian Seas Time-series″, was launched by PICES (North Pacific Marine Science Organization) and financially supported by the Korean government, allowing us to deepen our knowledge about rapidly changing processes in the East Sea (Chang et al., 2010). Although there has been considerable progress in developing a mechanistic understanding of the East Sea ecosystem responses to disturbances, more comprehensive studies are needed to address the impacts of the frequency and intensity of disturbances on marine ecosystems. The most important question of the research has been: how do environmental changes affect structural and functional biodiversity? Recently launched research on ″Long-term change of structure and function in marine ecosystems of Korea″, which has been supported by the Korean government since 2011, has given an unprecedented insight into the ecosystem dynamics in the East Sea. It therefore seems an appropriate time to devote a special issue to the topic of ″Current status of the East Sea ecosystem in a changing world″.
Kyoung Sun Moon
Full Text Available Supported by rapid economic growth, major cities in Asia and the Middle East have been rising as new centers for tall buildings. This article reviews the state of tall building developments in Asian and Middle Eastern countries with an emphasis on supertall buildings, with their greater urban and global impacts. Focusing primarily on physical construction, this article examines technological responses for building tall in Asian and Middle Eastern contexts. The architectural transformation and globalization of what was once called the “American Building Type” in Asian and Middle Eastern countries is studied. Sustainable design technology transfer and adjustment in Asian and Middle Eastern climates are presented. Further, future prospects on supertall design in Asian and Middle Eastern contexts are discussed.
Juego, Bonn; Schmidt, Johannes Dragsbæk
Policies in Southeast Asia (Thailand and Indonesia in particular, but also Malaysia and the Philippines) in a comparative perspective with the East Asian experience (Japan, Korea and Taiwan - excl. labor), and the Scandinavian experience with corporatism (incl. labor). Are there lessons to be lea......Policies in Southeast Asia (Thailand and Indonesia in particular, but also Malaysia and the Philippines) in a comparative perspective with the East Asian experience (Japan, Korea and Taiwan - excl. labor), and the Scandinavian experience with corporatism (incl. labor). Are there lessons...... definite conclusions or policy prescriptions. As a matter of fact, in terms of social welfare, equity and labor market policies the pre-crisis model of East Asia might offer lessons for the West and vice versa. Mutual learning and dialogue must be the key for future understanding and cooperation....
Galán-Puchades, M Teresa; Fuentes, Màrius V
An epidemiological study on taeniasis and cysticercosis in northern India has recently updated the epidemiology of Taenia asiatica. Practically, all the detected cases of taeniasis were caused by T. asiatica, cited for the first time in humans in that country. The finding widens the geographical distribution of T. asiatica, a species wrongly considered an exclusive South-Eastern Asian parasite. Due to the introduction of molecular techniques in Taenia diagnosis, the species is slowly showing its true distribution. A human Taenia species with cosmopolitan hosts (the same as the other two Taenia species) but limited to a specific geographical area and not affected by globalisation would certainly be hard to believe. Regarding cysticercosis, there is a remarkable finding concerning T. asiatica pig cysticercosis, specifically the presence of the cysticercus of T. asiatica not only in the liver (its preferential infection site) but also in muscle. This is the first time that the cysticercus of T. asiatica has been found in muscle in a naturally infected pig. This fact is actually relevant since people are at a greater risk of becoming infected by T. asiatica than previously expected since the liver is no longer the only site of pig infection. The Taenia species causing Taenia saginata-like taeniasis around the world, as well as pig and human cysticercosis, should always be molecularly confirmed since T. asiatica could be involved.
Hp 630 Dual Core
Countries in the Afro Asian stone belt (stretching from Egypt and Sudan, through the Middle East, India, Pakistan, Burma, Thailand, Indonesia and the Philippines) falling within the .... BJU International, 89(suppl.1): 62 68,. 2002. 10. J.U.V. Monu, Pattern of urolithiasis in Benin City, Nigeria. Journal of the national medical.
Zheng, Jiayu; Feng, Juan; Li, Jianping
This study demonstrates a robust relationship between the Indo-Pacific warm pool (IPWP) and North Pacific Ocean dipole (IPOD) and the East Asian summer monsoon (EASM) using observational datasets and sensitivity tests from the Community Atmosphere Model version 3.1 of the National Center for Atmospheric Research. The IPOD, which is a significant pattern of boreal summer SSTA in the Indian and Pacific oceans characterized by positive (negative) sea-surface temperature anomalies (SSTA) in the North Pacific and negative (positive) SSTA in the IPWP, appears around May, intensifies in the following months, and weakens in September. In summers with a positive IPOD phase, the western Pacific subtropical high (WPSH) weakens and shrinks with the axis of the WPSH ridge moving northwards, which favours an intensified EASM and a decrease in summer rainfall in the Yangtze River valley, and vice versa. (letter)
Kirkpatrick, Andy; Liddicoat, Anthony J.
East and Southeast Asia represents a linguistically and culturally diverse region. For example, more than 700 languages are spoken in Indonesia alone. It is against this backdrop of diversity that the ten countries that comprise Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN) have recently signed the ASEAN Charter which, while calling for respect…
Kishore, Jugal; Jena, Pratap Kumar; Bandyopadhyay, Chandan; Swain, Monali; Das, Sagarika; Banerjee, Indrani
Hardcore smoking is represented by a subset of daily smokers with high nicotine dependence, inability to quit and unwillingness to quit. Estimating the related burden could help us in identifying a high risk population prone to tobacco induced diseases and improve cessation planning for them. This study assessed the prevalence and associated factors of hardcore smoking in three South-East Asian countries and discussed its implication for smoking cessation intervention in this region. Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) data of India, Bangladesh and Thailand were analyzed to quantify the hardcore smoking prevalence in the region. On the basis of review, an operational definition of hardcore smoking was adopted that includes (1) current daily smoker, (2) no quit attempt in the past 12 months of survey or last quit attempt of less than 24 hours duration, (3) no intention to quit in next 12 months or not interested in quitting, (4) time to first smoke within 30 minutes of waking up, and (5) knowledge of smoking hazards. Logistic regression analysis was carried out using hardcore smoking status as response variable and gender, type of residence, occupation, education, wealth index and age-group as possible predictors. There were 31.3 million hardcore smokers in the three Asian countries. The adult prevalence of hardcore smoking in these countries ranges between 3.1% in India to 6% in Thailand. These hardcore smokers constitute 18.3-29.7% of daily smokers. The logistic regression model indicated that age, gender, occupation and wealth index are the major predictors of hardcore smoking with varied influence across countries. Presence of a higher number of hardcore smoking populations in Asia is a major public health challenge for tobacco control and cancer prevention. There is need of intensive cessation interventions with due consideration of contextual predictors.
Ren, Weicheng; Li, Wei; Ye, Xiaofei; Liu, Hui; Pan-Hammarström, Qiang
Here, we give an updated overview of the subtype distribution of lymphomas in East Asia and also present the genome sequencing data on two major subtypes of these tumors. The distribution of lymphoma types/subtypes among East Asian countries is very similar, with a lower proportion of B-cell malignancies and a higher proportion of T/natural killer (NK)-cell lymphomas as compared to Western populations. Extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma is more frequently observed in East Asia, whereas follicular lymphoma and chronic lymphocytic leukemia, are proportionally lower. The incidence rate of lymphoma subtypes in Asians living in the US was generally intermediate to the general rate in US and Asia, suggesting that both genetic and environmental factors may underlie the geographical variations observed.Key cancer driver mutations have been identified in Asian patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma or extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma through genome sequencing. A distinct somatic mutation profile has also been observed in Chinese diffuse large B-cell lymphoma patients. The incidence and distribution of lymphoma subtypes differed significantly between patients from East Asia and Western countries, suggesting subtype-specific etiologic mechanisms. Further studies on the mechanism underlying these geographical variations may give new insights into our understanding of lymphomagenesis.
Messner, Steven F
This paper considers the ways in which established criminological theories born and nurtured in the West might need to be transformed to be applicable to the context of East Asian societies. The analyses focus on two theoretical perspectives-Situational Action Theory and Institutional Anomie Theory-that are located at opposite ends of the continuum with respect to levels of analysis. I argue that the accumulated evidence from cross-cultural psychology and criminological research in East Asian societies raises serious questions about the feasibility of simply transporting these perspectives from the West to the East. Instead, my analyses suggest that the formulation of theoretical explanations of crime that are truly universal will require criminologists to create and incorporate new concepts that are more faithful to the social realities of non-Western societies, societies such as those in East Asia and Asia more generally.
Full Text Available Poland achieved an excellent reputation for economic transformation during the recent global recession. The European debt crisis, however, quickly forced the reorientation of Poland’s trade outside of the European Union (EU, especially toward the dynamic region of East Asia. This study analyzes time series data from 1999 to 2013 to detect outliers in order to determine the bilateral trade paths between Poland and each East Asian country during the events of Poland’s accession to the EU in 2004, the global financial crisis from 2008 to 2009, and the European debt crisis from 2010 to 2013. From the Polish standpoint, the results showed significantly clustering outliers in the above periods and in the general trade paths from dependence through distancing and improvement to the chance of approaching East Asian partners. This study also shows that not only China but also several other countries present an excellent opportunity for boosting bilateral trade, especially with regard to Poland’s exports.
Full Text Available The main objective of this study is to examine the stock markets’ shock due to the effect of the price of oil in the East Asia Region. Particularly, this study examines if there is stock market interdependence during global oil price shocks (sudden changes for a sample of five total oil importers (the Philippines, Hong Kong SAR, Taiwan, South Korea, and Japan, four net oil importers (Indonesia, Singapore, Thailand, and China, and one net oil exporter (Malaysia between 1999 and 2014. From the result, an oil price change is collectively found to have a small but significant positive impact on the stock markets, in particular where a sudden decrease in oil prices tends to cause a stock market downturn and volatility. The world economy’s spending, financial investments in oil futures and foreign investment by oil rich nations are some underlying motives for inducing this oil-stock positive relation. The same direction of time-varying conditional correlations is found across East Asian stock markets during negative oil price shocks. The integration among East Asian stock markets is inducing the oil shock contagion to be transmitted from direct oil-affected countries (South Korea, Hong Kong, and Singapore to non-direct oil affected countries’ (Japan and Taiwan stock markets. In spite of a long practiced ASEAN+3 macroeconomics surveillance process and Early Warning System (EWS which can be customized for stock markets to prevent or detect the oil risk, hedging against initial oil-affected stock markets and a stronger influence by the East Asian countries in the global world of oil and capital investment are strongly suggested.
Enriqueta Camps; Maria Camou; Silvana Maubrigades; Natalia Mora-Sitja
In this paper we analyse the reasons behind the evolution of the gender gap and wage inequality in South and East Asian and Latin American countries. Health human capital improvements, the exposure to free market openness and equal treatment enforcement laws seem to be the main exogenous variables affecting womenís economic condition. During the second globalization era (in the years 1975-2000) different combinations of these variables in South East Asian and Latin American countries have had...
Peterse, F.; Prins, M.A.; Beets, C.J.; Troelstra, S.R.; Zheng, H.B.; Gu, Z.Y.; Schouten, S.; Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.
Our understanding of the continental climate development in East Asia is mainly based on loess-paleosol sequences and summer monsoon precipitation reconstructions based on oxygen isotopes (delta O-18) of stalagmites from several Chinese caves. Based on these records, it is thought that East Asian
Pokhrel, Pallav; Fagan, Pebbles; Cassel, Kevin; Trinidad, Dennis R; Kaholokula, Joseph Keawe'aimoku; Herzog, Thaddeus A
Cigarette smoking may be one of the factors contributing to the high levels of cancer-related mortality experienced by certain Asian/Pacific Islander (A/PI) subgroups (e.g., Native Hawaiian). Given the collectivist cultural orientation attributed to A/PI groups, social strategies are recommended for substance abuse or smoking cessation treatment among A/PI. However, research examining how social network characteristics and social support relate to smoking across A/PI subgroups has been lacking. This study investigated the associations between social network characteristics (e.g., size, composition), perceived social support, and recent cigarette use across Native Hawaiian, Filipino, and East Asian (e.g., Japanese, Chinese) young adults (18-35 year old). Cross-sectional, self-report data were collected from N = 435 participants (M age = 25.6, SD = 8.3; 61% women). Ethnic differences were found in a number of pathways linking social network characteristics, perceived social support, and cigarette smoking. Larger network size was strongly associated with higher perceived social support and lower recent cigarette smoking among Native Hawaiians but not Filipinos or East Asians. Higher perceived social support was associated with lower recent smoking among East Asians and Filipinos but not Native Hawaiians. Implications are discussed with regard to smoking prevention and cessation among A/PI. © Society for Community Research and Action 2016.
OHNO Sanae; FUKUDA Shin-ichi
Since the onset of the Asian crisis, what characterizes the East Asian exchange rates has been a topic of considerable discussion. In the pre-crisis period, the de facto pegs to the U.S. dollar sometimes destabilized the real "effective" exchange rates of these currencies. Several economists have, thus, proposed the desirability of intermediate exchange rate regimes in East Asia that might stabilize their effective exchange rates. The post-crisis experience in East Asia, however, taught us th...
Anna A. Kireeva
Full Text Available The article focuses on major dimensions, achievements, challenges and prospects of relations between Russia and East Asia. Strategic importance of the region is shaped by East Asia's increasing role in world politics and economy as well as by its appeal for Russia's modernization agenda. Russia's great power status rests upon the effectiveness of its East Asian policy and development model of Siberia and the Russian Far East. Russia's positions in East Asia have improved substantially over the 2000s. However, its involvement in regional economic interaction is still insignificant and Russia cannot be regarded as a full-fledged regional player in this domain. Russian-Chinese strategic partnership has been the axis of Russia's East Asian foreign policy, though overdependence on China threatens Russia's independent policy in the region and encourages Russia to search for ways to diversify its ties. Russia's national interests reside in multivector policy, aimed at developing substantive relations not only with China but also with Japan, South Korea, ASEAN (Vietnam in the first place and India along with Russia's involvement in the resolution of Korean nuclear crisis. The rise of China and the US counter-offensive have resulted in a changing strategic environment in East Asia. A need for balancing between the US and China has brought about ASEAN countries' desire to welcome Russia as a "balancer" or an "honest player" in the region. It corresponds with Russia's course on playing a greater role in regional cooperation and integration. Russia's improving ties in political, economic, energy and security dimensions have the potential to contribute to the stability of the emerging polycentric regional order in East Asia and development of Russia's regions of Siberia and the Far East.
Anna A. Kireeva
Full Text Available The article focuses on major dimensions, achievements, challenges and prospects of relations between Russia and East Asia. Strategic importance of the region is shaped by East Asia's increasing role in world politics and economy as well as by its appeal for Russia's modernization agenda. Russia's great power status rests upon the effectiveness of its East Asian policy and development model of Siberia and the Russian Far East. Russia's positions in East Asia have improved substantially over the 2000s. However, its involvement in regional economic interaction is still insignificant and Russia cannot be regarded as a full-fledged regional player in this domain. Russian-Chinese strategic partnership has been the axis of Russia's East Asian foreign policy, though overdependence on China threatens Russia's independent policy in the region and encourages Russia to search for ways to diversify its ties. Russia's national interests reside in multivector policy, aimed at developing substantive relations not only with China but also with Japan, South Korea, ASEAN (Vietnam in the first place and India along with Russia's involvement in the resolution of Korean nuclear crisis. The rise of China and the US counter-offensive have resulted in a changing strategic environment in East Asia. A need for balancing between the US and China has brought about ASEAN countries' desire to welcome Russia as a "balancer" or an "honest player" in the region. It corresponds with Russia's course on playing a greater role in regional cooperation and integration. Russia's improving ties in political, economic, energy and security dimensions have the potential to contribute to the stability of the emerging polycentric regional order in East Asia and development of Russia's regions of Siberia and the Far East.
Brown, Sarah K.; Pedersen, Niels C.; Jafarishorijeh, Sardar; Bannasch, Danika L.; Ahrens, Kristen D.; Wu, Jui-Te; Okon, Michaella; Sacks, Benjamin N.
Modern genetic samples are commonly used to trace dog origins, which entails untested assumptions that village dogs reflect indigenous ancestry or that breed origins can be reliably traced to particular regions. We used high-resolution Y chromosome markers (SNP and STR) and mitochondrial DNA to analyze 495 village dogs/dingoes from the Middle East and Southeast Asia, along with 138 dogs from >35 modern breeds to 1) assess genetic divergence between Middle Eastern and Southeast Asian village dogs and their phylogenetic affinities to Australian dingoes and gray wolves (Canis lupus) and 2) compare the genetic affinities of modern breeds to regional indigenous village dog populations. The Y chromosome markers indicated that village dogs in the two regions corresponded to reciprocally monophyletic clades, reflecting several to many thousand years divergence, predating the Neolithic ages, and indicating long-indigenous roots to those regions. As expected, breeds of the Middle East and East Asia clustered within the respective regional village dog clade. Australian dingoes also clustered in the Southeast Asian clade. However, the European and American breeds clustered almost entirely within the Southeast Asian clade, even sharing many haplotypes, suggesting a substantial and recent influence of East Asian dogs in the creation of European breeds. Comparison to 818 published breed dog Y STR haplotypes confirmed this conclusion and indicated that some African breeds reflect another distinct patrilineal origin. The lower-resolution mtDNA marker consistently supported Y-chromosome results. Both marker types confirmed previous findings of higher genetic diversity in dogs from Southeast Asia than the Middle East. Our findings demonstrate the importance of village dogs as windows into the past and provide a reference against which ancient DNA can be used to further elucidate origins and spread of the domestic dog. PMID:22194840
Lee, Chien-Hung; Ko, Albert Min-Shan; Warnakulasuriya, Saman; Ling, Tian-You; Sunarjo; Rajapakse, Palandage Sunethra; Zain, Rosnah Binti; Ibrahim, Salah Osman; Zhang, Shan-Shan; Wu, Han-Jiang; Liu, Lin; Kuntoro; Utomo, Budi; Warusavithana, Supun Amila; Razak, Ishak Abdul; Abdullah, Norlida; Shrestha, Prashanta; Shieh, Tien-Yu; Yen, Cheng-Fang; Ko, Ying-Chin
We investigated the population burden of betel quid abuse and its related impact on oral premalignant disorders (OPDs) in South, Southeast, and East Asia. The Asian Betel-Quid Consortium conducted a multistage sampling of 8922 representative participants from Taiwan, Mainland China, Malaysia, Indonesia, Nepal, and Sri Lanka. Participants received an interviewer-administered survey and were examined for oral mucosal disorders. The prevalence of betel quid abuse was 0.8% to 46.3% across 6 Asian populations. The abuse frequency was over 40.5% for current chewers, with the highest proportion in Nepalese and Southeast Asian chewers (76.9%-99.6%). Tobacco-added betel quid conferred higher abuse rates (74.4%-99.6%) among Malaysian, Indonesian, and Sri Lankan men than did tobacco-free betel quid (21.8%-89.1%). Gender, lower education level, younger age at chewing initiation, and clustering of familial betel quid use significantly contributed to higher abuse rates. Indonesian betel quid abusers showed the highest prevalence of OPDs and had a greater risk of OPDs than did nonabusers. Betel quid abuse is high in regions of Asia where it is customarily practiced, and such abuse correlates highly with OPDs. By recognizing abuse-associated factors, health policies and preventive frameworks can be effectively constructed to combat these oral preneoplasms.
Zhang, Wangang; Naveena, B Maheswarappa; Jo, Cheorun; Sakata, Ryoichi; Zhou, Guanghong; Banerjee, Rituparna; Nishiumi, Tadayuki
A rapid increase in the economy, population, industrialization, and urbanization of Asian countries has driven the fast development of their meat industries over recent decades. This consistent increase in meat production and consumption in Asia has been the major cause for the development of the global meat industry. Meat production methods and consumption are very diverse across different regions and countries in Asia, and thus, it is impossible to cover the technological demands of all Asian countries in this review. Here, we have mainly highlighted the differences in meat production methods and consumption in Asia during recent decades and the meat technology demands of three east Asian countries, namely China, Korea, and Japan, and one south Asian country, India. A brief introduction of the meat industry, in particular the production and consumption trend in these countries, is provided in this article. The technology demands for fresh and processed meat products are then reviewed. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Syed Aun R. Rizvi; Shaista Arshad
Much research has been undertaken in the Efficient Market Hypothesis (EMH) over the preceding two decades. With Asian countries emerging as a global powerhouse in terms of regional economics, the interest in their stock markets has picked up recently. Asian markets traditionally comprised of many emerging markets are generally assumed to be more volatile and speculative in nature. Based on this crux, we focus specifically on the response of these markets efficiency to major crisis. In recent ...
Shi, Xunpeng; Padinjare Variam, Hari Malamakkavu
In the East Asian gas markets, issues like gas trading hubs, hub indexed pricing, and destination flexibility are being debated. This paper examines the impact of a change in East Asia's pricing benchmark and contract flexibility on the regional and global gas markets. The paper uses the Nexant World Gas Model, a linear program with global cost minimization as the objective. To our knowledge, this study on hub competition, price benchmark change and contract flexibility improvement in East Asia will be the first in the literature and have real policy relevance. The results show that both price benchmark change and contract flexibility improvements will create an overall benefit for the world and East Asia importers, but the impacts are different among exporters and importers. However, there is no evidence of competition among different benchmark hubs and no evidence that destination restrictions cause the “Asia Premium”. It implies that removal of destination clauses has higher priority than the change to hub indexation for Japan, Korea and Chinese Taipei, but both should be treated equally in China. The study also suggests that East Asian importers should cooperate among themselves and with exporters to facilitate the hub creation and contract changes in East Asia. - Highlights: •Gas trading hubs in Japan and China are not mutually exclusive. •Both price benchmark changes and contract flexibility improvements are beneficial. •The “Asian Premium” is not caused by destination restriction. •Destination flexibility is much more important than hub indexation in East Asia except China. •Hub indexation is as important as destination flexibility in China due to pipeline imports.
Contains Executive Summary and Chapters on: Pertamina; Petronas; Petroleum Authority of Thailand; Philippines National Oil Company; Petro Vietnam; Myanmar Oil and Gas Enterprise; Singapore; Asean Free Trade Agreement, and Appendix on Petroleum tax legislation in the main south east Asian countries. (Author)
Lee, Hyewon; Honda, Yasushi; Hashizume, Masahiro; Guo, Yue Leon; Wu, Chang-Fu; Kan, Haidong; Jung, Kweon; Lim, Youn-Hee; Yi, Seungmuk; Kim, Ho
Few studies on size-specific health effects of particulate matter have been conducted in Asia. We examined the association between both fine and coarse particles (PM_2_._5 and PM_1_0_−_2_._5) and mortality across 11 East Asian cities from 4 countries (Korea, Japan, Taiwan, and China). We performed a two-stage analysis: we generated city-specific estimates using a time-series analysis with a generalized additive model (Quasi-Poisson distribution), and estimated the overall effects by conducting a meta-analysis. Each 10−μg/m"3 increase in PM_2_._5 (lag01) was associated with an increase of 0.38% (95% confidence interval = 0.21%–0.55%) in all causes mortality, 0.96% (0.46%–1.46%) in cardiovascular mortality, and 1% (0.23%–1.78%) in respiratory mortality. Each 10−μg/m"3 increase in PM_1_0_−_2_._5 (lag01) was associated with cardiovascular mortality (0.69%, [0.05%–1.33%]), although this association attenuated after controlling for other pollutants, especially PM_2_._5. Increased mortality was associated with increasing PM_2_._5 and PM_1_0_−_2_._5 concentrations over 11 East Asian cities. - Highlights: • Few studies on size-specific health effects of PM have been conducted in East Asia. • We estimated size-specific PM effects on mortality over 11 East Asian cities. • Both fine and coarse particles were associated with mortality in East Asian cites. • Effect estimates for fine particles were higher than those for coarse particles. - Short-term exposure to PM_2_._5 and PM_1_0_−_2_._5 was associated with an increased risk of mortality in East Asian cities, and PM_2_._5 effect estimates were higher than PM_1_0_−_2_._5.
Full Text Available Prostate cancer is now becoming an emerging health priority in East Asia. Most of our current knowledge on Prostate cancer has been generated from studies conducted in Western population; however, there is considerable heterogeneity of Prostate cancer between East and West. In this article, we reviewed epidemiologic trends, risk factors, disease characteristics and management of Prostate cancer in East Asian population over the last decade. Growing evidence from East Asia suggests an important role of genetic and environmental risk factors interactions in the carcinogenesis of Prostate cancer. Exposure to westernized diet and life style and improvement in health care in combination contribute substantially to the increasing epidemic in this region. Diagnostic and treatment guidelines in East Asia are largely based on Western knowledge. Although there is a remarkable improvement in the outcome over the last decade, ample evidence suggests an inneglectable difference in diagnostic accuracy, treatment efficacy and adverse events between different populations. The knowledge from western countries should be calibrated in the Asian setting to provide a better race-based treatment approach. In this review, we intend to reveal the evolving trend of Prostate cancer in the last decade, in order to gain evidence to improve Prostate cancer prevention and control in East Asia.
Aquino, Y.S.; Steinkamp, N.L.
This review aims to identify (1) sources of knowledge and (2) important themes of the ethical debate related to surgical alteration of facial features in East Asians. This article integrates narrative and systematic review methods. In March 2014, we searched databases including PubMed, Philosopher's
Nath, B G; Pathak, P K; Ngachan, S V; Tripathi, A K; Mohanty, A K
The present study was conducted to know the smallholder pig production system in tribal areas of Sikkim State, India. Two hundred tribal farmers were selected randomly from the North and East District of the state. Information on socio-economic characteristics of farmers (gender, occupation, educational status, and farming experience), management practices, disease prevalence, and economics in pig production was collected. The study recorded the mean land holding as 1.2 ± 0.8 ha, and the number of pigs per farm was 5.0 ± 0.28. Pigs were mainly kept as a source of income, and 70 % of farmers reared crossbreed pigs. Ninety percent (90 %) of respondents practiced the intensive system of management whereby kitchen wastes along with cooked mixture comprising maize bhusa, mustard oil cake, pseudostem of banana, tuber, stem, and plant leaves were used to feed their animals. About 40.5 % of farmers procured their breeding stock from government farms that had good records and utilized veterinary services like timely vaccination and deworming. The diseases prevalent in the study area were swine fever, diarrhea, helminthoses, sarcoptic mange, pneumonia, etc. The litter sizes at birth (local, 4.3 ± 0.45; crossbreed, 7.2 ± 0.33), at weaning (local, 2.79 ± 0.24; crossbreed, 6.1 ± 0.21), and age at first farrowing (local, 365.39 ± 7.96 days; crossbreed, 337.24 ± 8.79 days) were recorded. Production costs of meat extracted from local and crossbred pigs were 1.08 $/kg and 0.86 $/kg, respectively.
Yang, Bin; Cui, Leilei; Perez-Enciso, Miguel; Traspov, Aleksei; Crooijmans, Richard P M A; Zinovieva, Natalia; Schook, Lawrence B; Archibald, Alan; Gatphayak, Kesinee; Knorr, Christophe; Triantafyllidis, Alex; Alexandri, Panoraia; Semiadi, Gono; Hanotte, Olivier; Dias, Deodália; Dovč, Peter; Uimari, Pekka; Iacolina, Laura; Scandura, Massimo; Groenen, Martien A M; Huang, Lusheng; Megens, Hendrik-Jan
Pigs were domesticated independently in Eastern and Western Eurasia early during the agricultural revolution, and have since been transported and traded across the globe. Here, we present a worldwide survey on 60K genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data for 2093 pigs, including 1839 domestic pigs representing 122 local and commercial breeds, 215 wild boars, and 39 out-group suids, from Asia, Europe, America, Oceania and Africa. The aim of this study was to infer global patterns in pig domestication and diversity related to demography, migration, and selection. A deep phylogeographic division reflects the dichotomy between early domestication centers. In the core Eastern and Western domestication regions, Chinese pigs show differentiation between breeds due to geographic isolation, whereas this is less pronounced in European pigs. The inferred European origin of pigs in the Americas, Africa, and Australia reflects European expansion during the sixteenth to nineteenth centuries. Human-mediated introgression, which is due, in particular, to importing Chinese pigs into the UK during the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, played an important role in the formation of modern pig breeds. Inbreeding levels vary markedly between populations, from almost no runs of homozygosity (ROH) in a number of Asian wild boar populations, to up to 20% of the genome covered by ROH in a number of Southern European breeds. Commercial populations show moderate ROH statistics. For domesticated pigs and wild boars in Asia and Europe, we identified highly differentiated loci that include candidate genes related to muscle and body development, central nervous system, reproduction, and energy balance, which are putatively under artificial selection. Key events related to domestication, dispersal, and mixing of pigs from different regions are reflected in the 60K SNP data, including the globalization that has recently become full circle since Chinese pig breeders in the past
Williams, Carolyn L.; Westermeyer, Joseph
Presenting complaints and problems of 28 Southeast Asian adolescent refugees who were seen by therapists at a U.S. hospital psychiatry department are described. Journal Availability: Subscription Department, The Williams Wilkins Co., 428 East Preston St., Baltimore, MD 21202. (SEW)
Paik, Susan J.; Rahman, Zaynah; Kula, Stacy M.; Saito, L. Erika; Witenstein, Matthew A.
Based on 11 diverse Asian American (AA) communities, this article discusses the similarities and differences across East, South, and Southeast Asians. Of two parts in this journal issue, Part 1 presents a review of literature and census data to understand the cultural and structural factors of different types of coethnic communities (strong, weak,…
Han, J.; Shin, B.; Lee, M.; Hwang, G.; Kim, J.; Shim, J.; Lee, G.; Shim, C.
Ieodo Ocean Research Station (IORS), a research tower (~ 40 m a.s.l.) for atmospheric and oceanographic observations, is located in the East China Sea (32.07° N, 125.10° E). The IORS is almost equidistant from South Korea, China, and Japan and, therefore, it is an ideal place to observe Asian outflows without local emission effects. The seasonal variation of ozone was distinct, with a minimum in August (37 ppbv) and two peaks in April and October (62 ppbv), and was largely affected by the seasonal wind pattern over east Asia. At IORS, six types of air masses were distinguished with different levels of O3 concentrations by the cluster analysis of backward trajectories. Marine air masses from the Pacific Ocean represent a relatively clean background air with a lowest ozone level of 32 ppbv, which was most frequently observed in summer (July-August). In spring (March-April) and winter (December-February), the influence of Chinese outflows was dominant with higher ozone concentrations of 62 and 49 ppbv, respectively. This study confirms that the influence of Chinese outflows was the main factor determining O3 levels at IORS and its extent was dependent on meteorological state, particularly at a long-term scale.
Moon, Sunjin; Kim, Tae-Hun; Lee, Kyung-Tai; Kwak, Woori; Lee, Taeheon; Lee, Si-Woo; Kim, Myung-Jick; Cho, Kyuho; Kim, Namshin; Chung, Won-Hyong; Sung, Samsun; Park, Taesung; Cho, Seoae; Groenen, Martien Am; Nielsen, Rasmus; Kim, Yuseob; Kim, Heebal
Animal domestication involved drastic phenotypic changes driven by strong artificial selection and also resulted in new populations of breeds, established by humans. This study aims to identify genes that show evidence of recent artificial selection during pig domestication. Whole-genome resequencing of 30 individual pigs from domesticated breeds, Landrace and Yorkshire, and 10 Asian wild boars at ~16-fold coverage was performed resulting in over 4.3 million SNPs for 19,990 genes. We constructed a comprehensive genome map of directional selection by detecting selective sweeps using an F ST-based approach that detects directional selection in lineages leading to the domesticated breeds and using a haplotype-based test that detects ongoing selective sweeps within the breeds. We show that candidate genes under selection are significantly enriched for loci implicated in quantitative traits important to pig reproduction and production. The candidate gene with the strongest signals of directional selection belongs to group III of the metabolomics glutamate receptors, known to affect brain functions associated with eating behavior, suggesting that loci under strong selection include loci involved in behaviorial traits in domesticated pigs including tameness. We show that a significant proportion of selection signatures coincide with loci that were previously inferred to affect phenotypic variation in pigs. We further identify functional enrichment related to behavior, such as signal transduction and neuronal activities, for those targets of selection during domestication in pigs.
Saeki, Tazu; Patra, Prabir K.
Measurement and modelling of regional or country-level carbon dioxide (CO2) fluxes are becoming critical for verification of the greenhouse gases emission control. One of the commonly adopted approaches is inverse modelling, where CO2 fluxes (emission: positive flux, sink: negative flux) from the terrestrial ecosystems are estimated by combining atmospheric CO2 measurements with atmospheric transport models. The inverse models assume anthropogenic emissions are known, and thus the uncertainties in the emissions introduce systematic bias in estimation of the terrestrial (residual) fluxes by inverse modelling. Here we show that the CO2 sink increase, estimated by the inverse model, over East Asia (China, Japan, Korea and Mongolia), by about 0.26 PgC year-1 (1 Pg = 1012 g) during 2001-2010, is likely to be an artifact of the anthropogenic CO2 emissions increasing too quickly in China by 1.41 PgC year-1. Independent results from methane (CH4) inversion suggested about 41% lower rate of East Asian CH4 emission increase during 2002-2012. We apply a scaling factor of 0.59, based on CH4 inversion, to the rate of anthropogenic CO2 emission increase since the anthropogenic emissions of both CO2 and CH4 increase linearly in the emission inventory. We find no systematic increase in land CO2 uptake over East Asia during 1993-2010 or 2000-2009 when scaled anthropogenic CO2 emissions are used, and that there is a need of higher emission increase rate for 2010-2012 compared to those calculated by the inventory methods. High bias in anthropogenic CO2 emissions leads to stronger land sinks in global land-ocean flux partitioning in our inverse model. The corrected anthropogenic CO2 emissions also produce measurable reductions in the rate of global land CO2 sink increase post-2002, leading to a better agreement with the terrestrial biospheric model simulations that include CO2-fertilization and climate effects.
Lu, Fuzhi; Ma, Chunmei; Zhu, Cheng; Lu, Huayu; Zhang, Xiaojian; Huang, Kangyou; Guo, Tianhong; Li, Kaifeng; Li, Lan; Li, Bing; Zhang, Wenqing
Projecting how the East Asian summer monsoon (EASM) rainfall will change with global warming is essential for human sustainability. Reconstructing Holocene climate can provide critical insight into its forcing and future variability. However, quantitative reconstructions of Holocene summer precipitation are lacking for tropical and subtropical China, which is the core region of the EASM influence. Here we present high-resolution annual and summer rainfall reconstructions covering the whole Holocene based on the pollen record at Xinjie site from the lower Yangtze region. Summer rainfall was less seasonal and 30% higher than modern values at 10-6 cal kyr BP and gradually declined thereafter, which broadly followed the Northern Hemisphere summer insolation. Over the last two millennia, however, the summer rainfall has deviated from the downward trend of summer insolation. We argue that greenhouse gas forcing might have offset summer insolation forcing and contributed to the late Holocene rainfall anomaly, which is supported by the TraCE-21 ka transient simulation. Besides, tropical sea-surface temperatures could modulate summer rainfall by affecting evaporation of seawater. The rainfall pattern concurs with stalagmite and other proxy records from southern China but differs from mid-Holocene rainfall maximum recorded in arid/semiarid northern China. Summer rainfall in northern China was strongly suppressed by high-northern-latitude ice volume forcing during the early Holocene in spite of high summer insolation. In addition, the El Niño/Southern Oscillation might be responsible for droughts of northern China and floods of southern China during the late Holocene. Furthermore, quantitative rainfall reconstructions indicate that the Paleoclimate Modeling Intercomparison Project (PMIP) simulations underestimate the magnitude of Holocene precipitation changes. Our results highlight the spatial and temporal variability of the Holocene EASM precipitation and potential forcing
Doling, J.; Ronald, R.
Housing and home ownership has been strongly embedded in East Asian socioeconomic and policy models. Based on the primacy of national economic growth objectives, it was promoted as a means of, on the one hand, contributing directly to economic growth through the motor of the construction industry,
Nguyen Bao, Khanh Le; Sandjaja, Sandjaja; Poh, Bee Koon; Rojroongwasinkul, Nipa; Huu, Chinh Nguyen; Sumedi, Edith; Aini, Jamil Nor; Senaprom, Sayamon; Deurenberg, Paul; Bragt, Marjolijn; Khouw, Ilse
Despite a major decrease in undernutrition worldwide over the last 25 years, underweight and stunting in children still persist as public health issues especially in Africa and Asia. Adequate nutrition is one of the key factors for healthy growth and development of children. In this study, the associations between dairy consumption and nutritional status in the South East Asian Nutrition Survey (SEANUTS) were investigated. National representative data of 12,376 children in Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam aged between 1 and 12 years were pooled, representing nearly 88 million children in this age category. It was found that the prevalence of stunting and underweight was lower in children who consumed dairy on a daily basis (10.0% and 12.0%, respectively) compared to children who did not use dairy (21.4% and 18.0%, respectively) ( p diet plays an important role in growth and supports a healthy vitamin A and vitamin D status.
The United Nations-related Committee for Coordination of Joint Prospecting for Mineral Resources in Asian Offshore Areas (CCOP), in cooperation with the International Union of Geological Sciences and Circum-Pacific Council, is implementing the East Asia Basin Analysis Project. National and regional organizations, principally members of the ASEAN Council of Petroleum, are compiling maps at a scale of 1:2 million and stratigraphic cross sections of basins, with particular initial emphasis on defining and assessing oil and gas plays and with later analytical focus on other sedimentary minerals (e.g., coal, phosphate, evaporites, and uranium). Completion is anticipated in 1988. Two major elements of the project are being contributed from other agencies. (1) Base maps. - The US Geological Survey (USGS) has partly compiled eight sheets covering east Asia that show bathymetry, shorelines, and drainage systems. One sheet also presents topography and selected cultural features. All sheets are scheduled to be completed in 1987. (2) Geotectonic maps. - The Working Group on Studies of East Asian Tectonics and Resources (SEATAR) is now completing 10 transect studies with crustal profiles and strip maps at a scale of 1:1 million. One map for each transect shows a plate tectonic interpretation. Transect coordinators or others will be encouraged to extrapolate between the strips and complete the geotectonic interpretation (on USGS bases) in 1987. The IGCP Project 220 is also compiling on (USGS bases) the tin and tungsten granites of east Asia, emphasizing geochemical data needed to identify predictive models. Other mapping will probably follow mineral-deposit modeling workshops on ophiolotic chromite and regional symposia on oceanic massive sulfide and subvolcanic gold and base metals. Completion may be possible by 1989
This article introduces a methodological framework to study institutions in European and Asian energy markets with a comparative case study on the EU and east Asia. A distinction is made between informal and three types of formal institutions; and their transaction cost reducing, order creating and ecological/climatic functions. The operation of energy markets is explained through the structure of institutions, their types and functions. It is found that order-creating institutions guarantee enough stability, (mutual) trust and solidarity among EU Member States to support the competitive markets institution and supranational formal institutions as the underpinnings of trade in the internal energy market, which nevertheless retains some corporatist features. In the east Asian markets the nature of order-creating institutions sovereignty, energy diplomacy and great power management prevents the emergence of supranational formal institutions and a shared idea of trade. The prevailing structure has a large number of sub-regional organisations with overlapping tasks and few powers. In both markets the functions of institutions signify more than their number; transaction cost reducing institutions are dependent on order-creating institutions, while both of these functions are better realised on the regional level than ecological/climatic functions; ultimately informal institutions are most influential. - Highlights: • Institutions include informal types and three formal types. • The functions of institutions relate to transaction costs, order and ecology. • Transaction cost reduction depends on order creating institutions. • Ecological functions are the most difficult to realise regionally. • Informal institutions are most influential in the EU and east Asian markets
Full Text Available As a regional self-help system of liquidity support established in the aftermath of the Asian crisis of 1997, the Chiang Mai Initiative (CMI and its recent multilateralization have been touted in some quarters as important achievements in a region where institutionalized financial cooperation had been sorely lacking, taking East Asia one step closer to the resuscitation of the still-born Asian Monetary Fund. Against such a sanguine assessment, I argue that the significance of the CMI, even after its multilateralization, is largely limited to symbolism and its practical implications are inconsequential. Despite the progress associated with CMI multilateralization, the underlying political dynamics in the region render East Asia fundamentally incapable of producing a coherent regional solution to the recurring problem of global financial instability.
Igor Hernández; Diego Guerrero
Lower United States dependency on crude imports has caused shipments from Latin America and Africa to fall. Asia has also made efforts to diversify the sources of its supply to meet its energy demands and thereby reduce exposure to the Middle East. These developments have implications for the projects aiming to increase Latin American and African participation in the Asian market. In this context, this article examines the significance of the expansion of Asian funding linked to the energy se...
Syed Aun R. Rizvi
Full Text Available Much research has been undertaken in the Efficient Market Hypothesis (EMH over the preceding two decades. With Asian countries emerging as a global powerhouse in terms of regional economics, the interest in their stock markets has picked up recently. Asian markets traditionally comprised of many emerging markets are generally assumed to be more volatile and speculative in nature. Based on this crux, we focus specifically on the response of these markets efficiency to major crisis. In recent years, the Asian markets have experienced a phenomenal boom in attracting foreign capital inflow, with Singapore evolving into a global financial hub in terms of banking and financial services. Scepticism and cautious nature raises the question of whether these stock markets are efficient enough for further investment and development. Our study is unique in nature, as we focus on the efficiency of these market in response to crisis periods, comparing it with their pre-crisis period, both in shorter term of 1 year as well as longer term of 5 years post and pre crisis period. Taking Malaysia, Indonesia, Singapore and South Korea owing to their economic and financial development, we use MF-DFA to derive efficiency measure for comparative analysis with its own past. The findings put forth a notion of generally a deteriorating and negative impact of the Asian financial crisis, while the sub-prime crisis impact varies based on the economic structure of the economies. The findings concur with the mainstream literature and similar studies for other countries and region.
Omran, A R; Roudi, F
Labor force interdependence creates a complex pattern among countries in the Middle East. Oil-rich countries (Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates) must import two-thirds of their labor force, including 80% of their professional and technical workers. These migrant workers come from Egypt (60%), Jordan, Yemen, Sudan, and South Asia, and the money they send home is a major factor in the economies of their native lands. Many Arabs who are considered foreign laborers have spent their entire lives, or have even been born, in the oil-rich countries; they have no hope of attaining citizenship. South Asians compete with Arabs for work in the Gulf States and tend to accept less-desirable jobs and lower wages. South Asian workers migrate from Bangladesh, India, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Indonesia, Korea, the Philippines, and Thailand. Middle Eastern women have social constraints on labor force participation, and most of the women working n the Gulf States are Asian; they often work as domestics. The women of the Middle East are an untapped resource for this labor market.
Full Text Available This paper presents the findings of an expert working group of researchers from East Asian countries. The group was tasked with developing a theoretically sound and practically implementable methodology for assessing the sustainability of biomass utilisation in East Asian countries based on the needs and potential of biomass resources in this region. Building on six years of research conducted between 2007 and 2013, the working group formulated a set of main and secondary indicators for biomass utilisation under three pillars of sustainability. For the environmental pillar, the main indicator was life cycle greenhouse gas emissions and secondary indicators were water consumption and soil quality. For the economic pillar, the main indicator was total value added and secondary indicators were net profit, productivity, and net energy balance. For the social pillar, the main indicators were employment generation and access to modern energy, and the secondary indicator was the human development index. The application of the working group methodology and indicators in sustainability assessments of biomass utilisation will enable decision makers in East Asian countries to compare the sustainability of biomass utilisation options and to make decisions on whether or not to launch or sustain biomass utilisation initiatives.
Li, Chongyin; Pan, Jing
The onset of the Asian summer monsoon has been a focus in the monsoon study for many years. In this paper, we study the variability and predictability of the Asian summer monsoon onset and demonstrate that this onset is associated with specific atmospheric circulation characteristics. The outbreak of the Asian summer monsoon is found to occur first over the southwestern part of the South China Sea (SCS) and the Malay Peninsula region, and the monsoon onset is closely related to intra-seasonal oscillations in the lower atmosphere. These intra-seasonal oscillations consist of two low-frequency vortex pairs, one located to the east of the Philippines and the other over the tropical eastern Indian Ocean. Prior to the Asian summer monsoon onset, a strong low-frequency westerly emerges over the equatorial Indian Ocean and the low-frequency vortex pair develops symmetrically along the equator. The formation and evolution of these low-frequency vortices are important and serve as a good indicator for the Asian summer monsoon onset. The relationship between the northward jumps of the westerly jet over East Asia and the Asian summer monsoon onset over SCS is investigated. It is shown that the northward jump of the westerly jet occurs twice during the transition from winter to summer and these jumps are closely related to the summer monsoon development. The first northward jump (from 25° 28°N to around 30°N) occurs on 8 May on average, about 7 days ahead of the summer monsoon onset over the SCS. It is found that the reverse of meridional temperature gradient in the upper-middle troposphere (500 200 hPa) and the enhancement and northward movement of the subtropical jet in the Southern Hemispheric subtropics are responsible for the first northward jump of the westerly jet.
Vangala, Sai K.; Silver, Samuel A.; Wong, Steven C.W.; Huang, Michael; Rapi, Lindita; Nash, Michelle M.; Zaltzman, Jeffrey S.
Summary Background and objectives South Asians (SAs) comprise 25% of all Canadian visible minorities. SAs constitute a group at high risk for cardiovascular disease in the general population, but the risk in SA kidney transplant recipients has never been studied. Design, setting, participants, & measurements In a cohort study of 864 kidney recipients transplanted from 1998 to 2007 and followed to June 2009, we identified risk factors including ethnicity associated with major cardiac events (MACEs, a composite of nonfatal myocardial infarction, coronary intervention, and cardiac death) within and beyond 3 months after transplant. Kaplan-Meier methodology and multivariate Cox regression analysis were used to determine risk factors for MACEs. Results There was no difference among SAs (n = 139), whites (n = 550), blacks (n = 65), or East Asians (n = 110) in baseline risk, including pre-existing cardiac disease. Post-transplant MACE rate in SAs was 4.4/100 patient-years compared with 1.31, 1.16, and 1.61/100 patient-years in whites, blacks, and East Asians, respectively (P diabetes, systolic BP, and prior cardiac disease. SAs also experienced more MACEs within 3 months after transplant compared with whites (P < 0.0001), blacks (P = 0.04), and East Asians (P = 0.006). However, graft and patient survival was similar to other groups. Conclusions SA ethnicity is an independent risk factor for post-transplant cardiac events. Further study of this high-risk group is warranted. PMID:20884776
Natalya V. Stapran
Full Text Available After the end of the Cold War Russia has significantly increased its participation in multilateral mechanisms in the Asia-Pacific region and is clearly trying to become a significant player in regional institution-building. For two post-Cold War Russia decades was involved in almost all the basic mechanisms of multilateral cooperation in the Asia-Pacific region. However, often Russia isn't perceived by Asian partners as an equal participant in the Asia-Pacific region, it is felt particularly in the area of multilateral economic cooperation. Russia's entry into the WTO (2011 and the formation of the Common Economic stimulated Russia's engagement in multilateral economic structures. Russia's inclusion in the negotiating framework of ASEM (2010 and EAS (2011 perceives that Asian countries are willing to see Russia as a full member not only in regional processes, but also globally. The main stimulus for the revision of the Asian direction of foreign policy and the role of Siberia and the Far East appears during APEC summit in Vladivostok in 2012. The APEC summit demonstrated the geostrategic importance of the development of the Russian Far East and Siberia, as a key element of Russia's inclusion in the mechanisms of regional cooperation, on the other hand, it became clear that without the participation of foreign partners effective development of the Far Eastern territories is hardly possible. Large-scale investment and infrastructure projects in the Far East has already significantly revived the situation in the region opening new opportunities for multilateral cooperation.
Natalya V. Stapran
Full Text Available After the end of the Cold War Russia has significantly increased its participation in multilateral mechanisms in the Asia-Pacific region and is clearly trying to become a significant player in regional institution-building. For two post-Cold War Russia decades was involved in almost all the basic mechanisms of multilateral cooperation in the Asia-Pacific region. However, often Russia isn't perceived by Asian partners as an equal participant in the Asia-Pacific region, it is felt particularly in the area of multilateral economic cooperation. Russia's entry into the WTO (2011 and the formation of the Common Economic stimulated Russia's engagement in multilateral economic structures. Russia's inclusion in the negotiating framework of ASEM (2010 and EAS (2011 perceives that Asian countries are willing to see Russia as a full member not only in regional processes, but also globally. The main stimulus for the revision of the Asian direction of foreign policy and the role of Siberia and the Far East appears during APEC summit in Vladivostok in 2012. The APEC summit demonstrated the geostrategic importance of the development of the Russian Far East and Siberia, as a key element of Russia's inclusion in the mechanisms of regional cooperation, on the other hand, it became clear that without the participation of foreign partners effective development of the Far Eastern territories is hardly possible. Large-scale investment and infrastructure projects in the Far East has already significantly revived the situation in the region opening new opportunities for multilateral cooperation.
Barry, Declan T; Mizrahi, Trina C
This study examined the relationship between guarded self-disclosure, psychological distress, and willingness to use psychological services if distressed among 170 (88 male, 82 female) East Asian immigrants in the United States. Participants were administered a battery of psychometrically established measures. Participants who endorsed overall guarded self-disclosure, self-concealment (i.e., unwillingness to reveal affect to others), or conflict avoidance (i.e., maintenance of harmony via suppression of feelings) were significantly more likely to report psychological distress and were significantly less likely to report willingness to use psychological services. While conflict avoidance was a significant independent predictor of psychological distress, self-concealment was a significant independent predictor of willingness to use psychological services. These findings point to the importance of assessing multiple facets of guarded self-disclosure, which appear to be differentially associated with psychological distress and willingness to use psychological services.
Tay, D K L; Pang, K P
Clinical and radiographic characteristics of a subset of South East Asian temporomandibular disorder (TMD) patients with comorbid upper airway resistance syndrome (UARS) were documented in a multi-center prospective series of 86 patients (26 men and 60 women / mean age 35.7 years). All had excessive daytime sleepiness, high arousal index and Apnoea-Hypopnoea Index (AHI) temporomandibular joint (TMJ) arthralgia while 90·7% reported sleep bruxism (SB). Unlike patients with obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA), hypertension was uncommon (4·7%) while depression was prevalent at 68·6% with short REM latency of 25% documented in 79·6% and 57·6% of these depressed patients, respectively. 65·1% displayed a posteriorly displaced condyle at maximum intercuspation with or without TMJ clicking. Most exhibited a forward head posture (FHP) characterised by loss of normal cervical lordosis (80·2%), C0-C1 narrowing (38·4%) or an elevated hyoid position (50%), and 91·9% had nasal congestion. We postulate the TMD-UARS phenotype may have originally developed as an adaptive response to 'awake' disordered breathing during growth. Patients with persistent TMD and/or reporting SB should be screened for UARS and chronic nasal obstruction, especially when they also present with FHP. The lateral cephalogram is a useful tool in the differentiation of UARS from other OSA phenotypes. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Full Text Available Volatility forecasting is an imperative research field in financial markets and crucial component in most financial decisions. Nevertheless, which model should be used to assess volatility remains a complex issue as different volatility models result in different volatility approximations. The concern becomes more complicated when one tries to use the forecasting for asset distribution and risk management purposes in the linked regional markets. This paper aims at observing the effectiveness of the contending models of statistical and econometric volatility forecasting in the three South-east Asian prominent capital markets, i.e. STI, KLSE, and JKSE. In this paper, we evaluate eleven different models based on two classes of evaluation measures, i.e. symmetric and asymmetric error statistics, following Kumar's (2006 framework. We employ 10-year data as in sample and 6-month data as out of sample to construct and test the models, consecutively. The resulting superior methods, which are selected based on the out of sample forecasts and some evaluation measures in the respective markets, are then used to assess the markets cointegration. We find that the best volatility forecasting models for JKSE, KLSE, and STI are GARCH (2,1, GARCH(3,1, and GARCH (1,1, respectively. We also find that international portfolio investors cannot benefit from diversification among these three equity markets as they are cointegrated.
Okazaki, Sumie; Saw, Anne
In response to a call to better integrate culture in community psychology (O'Donnell in American Journal of Community Psychology 37:1-7 2006), we offer a cultural-community framework to facilitate a collaborative engagement between community psychologists and ethnic minority communities, focusing on Asian American communities as illustrations. Extending Hays' (Addressing cultural complexities in practice: Assessment, diagnosis, and therapy, American Psychological Association, Washington, DC, 2008) ADDRESSING framework for considering cultural influences on a counseling relationship, the proposed framework provides a broad but systematic guidepost for considering three major cultural-ecological influences on Asian American communities: Race and Ethnicity (R), Culture (C), and Immigration and Transnational Ties (I). We provide a sequence of steps that incorporate the ADDRESSING and the RCI frameworks to facilitate the collaborative community-based research or social action.
Ha, Kyung-Ja; Lee, Sun-Seon [Pusan National University, Department of Atmospheric Sciences, Busan (Korea)
In order to assess how the Bonin high affects interannual variability of the East Asian summer monsoon (EASM) around the Korean Peninsula, the pulsation of the Bonin high and its association with teleconnection patterns was examined. The major factor for the interannual intensity of the EASM is the center position of the Bonin high rather than its center pressure. Up to 12 harmonics over time can be used to reconstruct the Bonin high, demonstrating its intraseasonal variation. The interannual variability of the Bonin high correlates with the Tibet high. This correlation is dominant for the EASM onset time, though not its retreat. The primary teleconnection pattern, reliant up on the interannual variability of the Bonin high, is the Western Pacific oscillation (WPO) in April. In relation to long-term variability, the correlation between the WPO and the Bonin high appears to contribute to the retreat stage of the EASM, which has itself increased since the mid-1970s. Furthermore, the WPO in May and the Tibet correlation has marked the onset rather than the retreat of the EASM since the 1970s. This highly correlated pattern since the mid-1970s may be the result of El Nino. (orig.)
Wang, Shixin; Zuo, Hongchao; Zhao, Shuman; Zhang, Jiankai; Lu, Sha
Existing studies show that the change in the meridional position of East Asian westerly jet (EAWJ) is associated with rainfall anomalies in Yangtze-Huaihe River Valley (YHRV) in summer. However, the dynamic mechanism has not been resolved yet. The present study reveals underlying mechanisms for this impact for early summer and midsummer, separately. Mechanism1: associated with EAWJ's anomalously southward displacement, the 500-hPa westerly wind over YHRV is strengthened through midtropospheric horizontal circulation anomalies; the westerly anomalies are related to the formation of warm advection anomalies over YHRV, which cause increased rainfall through adiabatic ascent motion and convective activities; the major difference in these processes between early summer and midsummer is the midtropospheric circulation anomaly pattern. Mechanism 2: associated with EAWJ's anomalously southward displacement, the large day-to-day variability of midtropospheric temperature advection in midlatitudes is displaced southward by the jet's trapping transient eddies; this change enhances the day-to-day variability of temperature advection over YHRV, which in turn causes the increased rainfall in most part of YHRV through "lower-bound effect" (rainfall amount can not become negative); there is not much difference in these processes between early summer and midsummer.
Full Text Available Introduction. Facial diagnosis is a major component of the diagnostic method in traditional East Asian medicine. We investigated the association of quantitative facial color features with cold pattern using a fully automated facial color parameterization system. Methods. The facial color parameters of 64 participants were obtained from digital photographs using an automatic color correction and color parameter calculation system. Cold pattern severity was evaluated using a questionnaire. Results. The a⁎ values of the whole face, lower cheek, and chin were negatively associated with cold pattern score (CPS (whole face: B=-1.048, P=0.021; lower cheek: B=-0.494, P=0.007; chin: B=-0.640, P=0.031, while b⁎ value of the lower cheek was positively associated with CPS (B=0.234, P=0.019. The a⁎ values of the whole face were significantly correlated with specific cold pattern symptoms including cold abdomen (partial ρ=-0.354, P<0.01 and cold sensation in the body (partial ρ=-0.255, P<0.05. Conclusions. a⁎ values of the whole face were negatively associated with CPS, indicating that individuals with increased levels of cold pattern had paler faces. These findings suggest that objective facial diagnosis has utility for pattern identification.
Dong, Hao; Manfredini, Matteo; Kurosu, Satomi; Yang, Wenshan; Lee, James Z
Human child survival depends on adult investment, typically from parents. However, in spite of recent research advances on kin influence and birth order effects on human infant and child mortality, studies that directly examine the interaction of kin context and birth order on sibling differences in child mortality are still rare. Our study supplements this literature with new findings from large-scale individual-level panel data for three East Asian historical populations from northeast China (1789-1909), northeast Japan (1716-1870), and north Taiwan (1906-1945), where preference for sons and first-borns is common. We examine and compare male child mortality risks by presence/absence of co-resident parents, grandparents, and other kin, as well as their interaction effects with birth order. We apply discrete-time event-history analysis on over 172,000 observations of 69,125 boys aged 1-9 years old. We find that in all three populations, while the presence of parents is important for child survival, it is more beneficial to first/early-borns than to later-borns. Effects of other co-resident kin are however null or inconsistent between populations. Our findings underscore the importance of birth order in understanding how differential parental investment may produce child survival differentials between siblings.
Lim, Young-Kwon; Kim, Hae-Dong
Monthly mean geopotential height for the past 33 DJF seasons archived in Modern Era Retrospective analysis for Research and Applications reanalysis is decomposed into the large-scale teleconnection patterns to explain their impacts on winter temperature variability over East Asia. Following Arctic Oscillation (AO) that explains the largest variance, East Atlantic/West Russia (EA/WR), West Pacific (WP) and El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) are identified as the first four leading modes that significantly explain East Asian winter temperature variation. While the northern part of East Asia north of 50N is prevailed by AO and EA/WR impacts, temperature in the midlatitudes (30N-50N), which include Mongolia, northeastern China, Shandong area, Korea, and Japan, is influenced by combined effect of the four leading teleconnections. ENSO impact on average over 33 winters is relatively weaker than the impact of the other three teleconnections. WP impact, which has received less attention than ENSO in earlier studies, characterizes winter temperatures over Korea, Japan, and central to southern China region south of 30N mainly by advective process from the Pacific. Upper level wave activity fluxes reveal that, for the AO case, the height and circulation anomalies affecting midlatitude East Asian winter temperature is mainly located at higher latitudes north of East Asia. Distribution of the fluxes also explains that the stationary wave train associated with EA/WR propagates southeastward from the western Russia, affecting the East Asian winter temperature. Investigation on the impact of each teleconnection for the selected years reveals that the most dominant teleconnection over East Asia is not the same at all years, indicating a great deal of interannual variability. Comparison in temperature anomaly distributions between observation and temperature anomaly constructed using the combined effect of four leading teleconnections clearly show a reasonable consistency between
Full Text Available First we review several syntheses of paleodata (pollen, lake-levels showing the climate variations in China and Mongolia from the last glacial maximum to Present and in particular the precipitation increase at mid Holocene related to enhanced monsoon. All these results concur to a much enhanced monsoon on most of China during the first half of the Holocene. Second we present, in some details, a temporal study of a core (Lake Bayanchagan, Inner Mongolia located in an arid region at the edge of the present East Asian Monsoon (EAM influence and then sensitive to climatic change. This study involves pollen data together with other macro-remains and stable isotope curve to obtain a robust climate reconstruction. This study shows a long wet period between 11 000 and 5000 years BP divided in two parts, a warmer one from 11 000 and 8000 (marked by large evapotranspiration and a cooler one more favourable to forest expansion. Third, we present a spatial study based on pollen data only and covering all China and Mongolia at 6000 years BP, but using a mechanistic modelling approach, in an inverse mode. It has the advantage to take into account environmental context different from the present one (lower atmospheric CO2, different seasonality. This study shows temperature generally cooler than present one in southern China, but a significant warming was found over Mongolia, and a slightly higher in northeast China. Precipitation was generally higher than today in southern, northeast China, and northern Mongolia, but lower or similar to today in northwest China and north China. Enhanced EAM was then found in the southern half of China and in northeast China.
Ningombam, Somorjit Singh; Chhungi, Varhlun; Newmei, Masan Kambo; Rajkumari, Sunanda; Devi, Naorem Kiranmala; Mondal, Prakash Ranjan; Saraswathy, Kallur Nava
The fat mass and obesity associated (FTO) rs9939609 gene polymorphism is most widely studied in terms of obesity in various populations. Recently, the prevalence of obesity has been reported to be very high among the North-Eastern State of India. The major aim of the present study is to understand the extent of FTO rs9939609 gene polymorphism and its association with obesity among the two North-East Indian tribal populations with similar East Asian ancestry. Somatometric data and fasting blood sample were collected from 521 tribal individuals (258 Liangmai and 263 Mizo) of Manipur after obtaining written informed consent. Genotyping of FTO rs9939609 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) was done using restriction fragment length polymorphism method for PCR-amplified fragments. Both the presently studied populations were not following Hardy-Weinberg law. The prevalence of obesity and minor allele frequency of FTO rs9939609 polymorphism was found to be significantly higher among the Mizo tribe compared to that of Liangmai. The selected polymorphism was found to be significantly associated with obesity (BMI) only among the Liangmai tribe (Odds ratio-3.0; 95% CI-1.4, 6.4; p-0.003), after adjusting for age and occupation. Age-cohort wise distribution and absolute fitness analysis indicated the lower fitness of minor allele in the higher age group among the Liangmai tribe. To the best of the author's knowledge this is the first study, associating FTO rs9939609 gene polymorphism and obesity in the North-eastern Indian tribal populations with East-Asian ancestry. This study revealed the FTO rs9939609 polymorphism is observed to be associated with obesity only among the Liangmai tribe not among the Mizo tribe. The differential distribution and association observed in the two selected tribes, inhabited in a similar geographical region, could be attributed to differences in their migratory histories in terms of both route and time of settlement. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B
Malyarchuk, Boris; Derenko, Miroslava; Mikhailova, Ekaterina; Denisova, Galina
Phylogenetic and statistical analyses of DNA sequences of two genes, cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (cox 1) of the mitochondrial DNA and 18S subunit of the nuclear ribosomal RNA (18S rRNA), was used to characterize Neoechinorhynchus species from fishes collected in different localities of North-East Asia. It has been found that four species can be clearly recognized using molecular markers-Neoechinorhynchus tumidus, Neoechinorhynchus beringianus, Neoechinorhynchus simansularis and Neoechinorhynchus salmonis. 18S sequences ascribed to Neoechinorhynchus crassus specimens from North-East Asia were identical to those of N. tumidus, but differed substantially from North American N. crassus. We renamed North-East Asian N. crassus specimens to N. sp., although the possibility that they represent a subspecies of N. tumidus cannot be excluded, taking into account a relatively small distance between cox 1 sequences of North-East Asian specimens of N. crassus and N. tumidus. Maximum likelihood, maximum parsimony and Bayesian inference analyses were performed for phylogeny reconstruction. All the phylogenetic trees showed that North-East Asian species of Neoechinorhynchus analyzed in this study represent independent clades, with the only exception of N. tumidus and N. sp. for 18S data. Phylogenetic analysis has shown that the majority of species sampled (N. tumidus+N. sp., N. simansularis and N. beringianus) are probably very closely related, while N. salmonis occupies separate position in the trees, possibly indicating a North American origin of this species. © 2013.
Schellart, Wouter P.; Lister, G. S.
East Asia is a region of widespread deformation, dominated by normal and strike-slip faults. Deformation has been interpreted to result from extrusion tectonics related to the India-Eurasia collision, which started in the Early Eocene. In East and SE China, however, deformation started earlier than
Harto, Syafri; ", Ardianyah
This research describes the interest of Oman to create a Asian Beach Games II in Muscat 2010. Conflict politics, social and security in Middle East has been influence to region generally and to Oman. This conflict influence the bad image of Oman in international world.The research method used was a qualitative with descriptive as a technic of the research. Writer collects data from books, encyclopedia, journal, mass media and websites to analyze interest of Oman to create a Asian Beach Games ...
Full Text Available In today’s dominant discourse, the development trajectory of many East Asian countries is pictured as a success, whereas that of many sub-Saharan African countries is considered a failure. The Asian success stories often refer to the developmental state model, which highlights the pivotal role played by Asian political elites in catalyzing economic growth and broad-based development. The model includes economic liberalization and outward-oriented policies, with targeted support to – and protection of – strategic sectors and infant industries.How far is this underlying assumption supported by empirical evidence? This working paper examines a wide range of economic, social, institutional and governance indicators for a sample of six sub-Saharan and five South East Asian countries. Contrary to our research hypothesis, we did not find any significant difference in the level of government involvement in the domestic economy between the countries of the two regions, nor in the quality of institutions and governance indicators, nor in the share of imports and exports in GDP.Even if there are important gaps between the two regions, for instance with regard to the demographic transition, the agricultural sector or tertiary education, the picture is much more nuanced than portrayed by the dominant discourse. Our review of economic and socio-political indicators tells a rather different story, but not the whole story. Nevertheless, the indicators fail to take into account all the historical, institutional and structural factors that matter a great deal for development. Hence our analysis should be complemented by detailed country case studies to uncover the specific dynamics underlying different development trajectories and outcomes.
This doctoral thesis is about young Asian Dutch, panethnic Asian identities and identifications, and Asian/Asian Dutch popular culture. It addresses several pressing questions, including: why do young Asian Dutch, who were born and/or raised in the Netherlands, identify as Asian and construct Asian identities? What is the content or meaning of these Asian identities and identifications young Asian Dutch imagine? And how do these relate to young Asian Dutch’ Dutch and homeland identities and i...
Ryu, Kwangsun; Oyama, Koh-Ichiro; Bankov, Ludmil; Chen, Chia-Hung; Devi, Minakshi; Liu, Huixin; Liu, Jann-Yenq
To investigate whether the link between seismic activity and EIA (equatorial ionization anomaly) enhancement is valid for mid-latitude seismic activity, DEMETER observations around seven large earthquakes in the north-east Asian region were fully analyzed (M ⩾ 6.8). In addition, statistical analysis was performed for 35 large earthquakes (M ⩾ 6.0) that occurred during the DEMETER observation period. The results suggest that mid-latitude earthquakes do contribute to EIA enhancement, represented as normalized equatorial Ne , and that ionospheric change precedes seismic events, as has been reported in previous studies. According to statistical studies, the normalized equatorial density enhancement is sensitive and proportional to both the magnitude and the hypocenter depth of an earthquake. The mechanisms that can explain the contribution of mid-latitude seismic activity to EIA variation are briefly discussed based on current explanations of the geochemical and ionospheric processes involved in lithosphere-ionosphere interaction.
Lopez, Jobina; Hurwood, David; Dryden, Bart; Fuller, Susan
Feral pigs occur throughout tropical far north Queensland, Australia and are a significant threat to biodiversity and World Heritage values, agriculture and are a vector of infectious diseases. One of the constraints on long-lasting, local eradication of feral pigs is the process of reinvasion into recently controlled areas. This study examined the population genetic structure of feral pigs in far north Queensland to identify the extent of movement and the scale at which demographically independent management units exist. Genetic analysis of 328 feral pigs from the Innisfail to Tully region of tropical Queensland was undertaken. Seven microsatellite loci were screened and Bayesian clustering methods used to infer population clusters. Sequence variation at the mitochondrial DNA control region was examined to identify pig breed. Significant population structure was identified in the study area at a scale of 25 to 35 km, corresponding to three demographically independent management units (MUs). Distinct natural or anthropogenic barriers were not found, but environmental features such as topography and land use appear to influence patterns of gene flow. Despite the strong, overall pattern of structure, some feral pigs clearly exhibited ancestry from a MU outside of that from which they were sampled indicating isolated long distance dispersal or translocation events. Furthermore, our results suggest that gene flow is restricted among pigs of domestic Asian and European origin and non-random mating influences management unit boundaries. We conclude that the three MUs identified in this study should be considered as operational units for feral pig control in far north Queensland. Within a MU, coordinated and simultaneous control is required across farms, rainforest areas and National Park Estates to prevent recolonisation from adjacent localities.
Joseph Soon-Yau Ng
Singapore is a first-world economy with a healthcare system that can support this mode of training and is geographically proximate to Southeast Asian LMICs that need this training. This makes it possible for model of tiered training with trainers on site in the LMICs and more advanced training where trainees receive training in Singapore. We present a case study where this tiered system of training is applied to Cambodia and demonstrate that this model of training is not only effective but also sustainable.
Despite their educational and economic achievements in the United States, Asian Americans continue to be occupationally segregated in the labor force. Asian Americans are overrepresented in mathematics, engineering and biological sciences while underrepresented in field such as education, humanities, social and behavioral sciences (Bureau of Labor…
Pyeon, Cheol Ho
This status report describes the current status on research and development (R and D) of accelerator-driven system (ADS) and nuclear transmutation techniques (NTT), including nuclear data, accelerator techniques, Pb-Bi target, fuel technologies and reactor physics, in East Asian countries: Japan, Korea and China. The report also includes all presentation materials presented in 'the 10th International Workshop on Asian Network for ADS and NTT (ADS+NTT 2012)' held at the Kyoto University Research Reactor Institute, Osaka, Japan on 6th and 7th December, 2012. The objective of this workshop is to make actual progress of ADS R and D especially in East Asian countries, as well as in European countries, through sharing mutual interests and conducting the information exchange each other. The 5 of 27 papers presented at the entitled report and meeting are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)
This doctoral thesis is about young Asian Dutch, panethnic Asian identities and identifications, and Asian/Asian Dutch popular culture. It addresses several pressing questions, including: why do young Asian Dutch, who were born and/or raised in the Netherlands, identify as Asian and construct Asian
Lee, Whan-Hee; Lim, Youn-Hee; Dang, Tran Ngoc; Seposo, Xerxes; Honda, Yasushi; Guo, Yue-Liang Leon; Jang, Hye-Min; Kim, Ho
Interest in the health effects of extremely low/high ambient temperature and the diurnal temperature range (DTR) on mortality as representative indices of temperature variability is growing. Although numerous studies have reported on these indices independently, few studies have provided the attributes of ambient temperature and DTR related to mortality, concurrently. In this study, we aimed to investigate and compare the mortality risk attributable to ambient temperature and DTR. The study included data of 63 cities in five East-Asian countries/regions during various periods between 1972 and 2013. The attributable risk of non-accidental death to ambient temperature was 9.36% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 8.98-9.69%) and to DTR was 0.59% (95% CI: 0.53-0.65%). The attributable cardiovascular mortality risks to ambient temperature (15.63%) and DTR (0.75%) are higher than the risks to non-accidental/respiratory-related mortality. We verified that ambient temperature plays a larger role in temperature-associated mortality, and cardiovascular mortality is susceptible to ambient temperature and DTR.
C. E. Jones
Full Text Available Biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs emitted from tropical rainforests comprise a substantial fraction of global atmospheric VOC emissions, however there are only relatively limited measurements of these species in tropical rainforest regions. We present observations of isoprene, α-pinene, camphene, Δ-3-carene, γ-terpinene and limonene, as well as oxygenated VOCs (OVOCs of biogenic origin such as methacrolein, in ambient air above a tropical rainforest in Malaysian Borneo during the Oxidant and Particle Photochemical Processes above a south-east Asian tropical rainforest (OP3 project in 2008. Daytime composition was dominated by isoprene, with an average mixing ratio of the order of ~1 ppb. γ-terpinene, limonene and camphene were the most abundant monoterpenes, with average daytime mixing ratios of 102, 71 and 66 ppt respectively, and with an average monoterpene toisoprene ratio of 0.3 during sunlit hours, compared to 2.0 at night. Limonene and camphene abundances were seen to be related to both temperature and light conditions. In contrast, γ-terpinene emission continued into the late afternoon/evening, under relatively low temperature and light conditions. The contributions of isoprene, monoterpenes and other classes of VOC to the volatile carbon budget and OH reactivity have been summarised for this rainforest location. We observe good agreement between surface and aircraft measurements of boundary layer isoprene and methacrolein above the natural rainforest, suggesting that the ground-level observations are broadly representative of isoprene emissions from this region.
Srivorakun, H; Fucharoen, G; Sanchaisuriya, K; Fucharoen, S
We have evaluated an automated capillary isoelectric focusing (cIEF)-based Hb analyzer in diagnosis of hemoglobinopathies commonly found among South East Asian population. Study was performed on a cohort of 665 adult Thai subjects and 13 fetal blood specimens obtained at routine thalassemia diagnostic laboratory. Hb analysis was performed using the cIEF system. Thalassemia genotypes were defined by DNA analysis. The system revealed satisfactorily within-run and between-run precision for quantitation of Hb A 2 and Hb E (CV: 0.02-0.09%). The reference ranges of Hb A 2 and Hb E were 2.6-4.0% and 25.7-33.1%, respectively. The system identified the cases of β-thalassemia and Hb E disorders correctly. Several thalassemia genotypes and Hb variants were identifiable. However, Hb Constant Spring was separated closely to Hb A 2 and Hbs Bart's and H were relatively difficult to be reported due to interfering peaks separating at the same regions. Prenatal diagnosis by fetal blood analysis was found to be accurate for Hb Bart's hydrops fetalis and Hb E-β 0 -thalassemia disease. The cIEF system could accurately diagnose β-thalassemia and Hb E carriers and demonstrate many Hb variants found in the region. The system cannot report Hb A 2 in the presence of Hb E whereas Hbs Lepore and F are comigrated. Diagnosis of α-thalassemia disease based on Hb H and Hb Bart's might be difficult. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
D. P. Gladkochub
Full Text Available The origin of the Central-Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB, especially of its northern segment nearby the southern margin of the Siberian craton (SC is directly related to development and closure of the Paleo-Asian Ocean (PAO. Signatures of early stages of the PAO evolution are recorded in the Late Precambrian sedimentary successions of the Sayan-Baikal-Patom Belt (SBPB on the southern edge of SC. These successions are spread over 2000 km and can be traced along this edge from north-west (Sayan area to south-east (Baikal area and further to north-east (Patom area. Here we present the synthesis of all available and reliable LA-ICP-MS U-Pb geochronological studies of detrital zircons from these sedimentary successions.
Pyeon, Cheol Ho
The proceedings describe the current status on research and development (R and D) of accelerator-driven system (ADS) and nuclear transmutation techniques (NTT), including nuclear data, accelerator techniques, Pb-Bi target, fuel technologies and reactor physics, in East Asian countries: China, Korea and Japan. The proceedings also include all presentation materials presented in 'the 14th International Workshop on Asian Network for ADS and NTT (ADS-NTT2016)' held at Mito, Japan on 5th September, 2016. The objective of this workshop is to make actual progress of ADS R and D especially in East Asian countries, as well as in European countries, through sharing mutual interests and conducting the information exchange each other. The report is composed of these following items: Presentation materials: ADS-NTT 2016. (author)
Jocelyn Yi-Hsuan Lai
Full Text Available This essay investigates the East Asia-oriented TV and film productions of Taiwanese producer-director Tsai Yueh-hsun. His productions have made wide use of the transnational bankability of Taiwanese TV stars. Set in nationally non-specific urban societies, they are categorized as post-Confucian TV dramas, adopting liberal Western values and presenting problems in the authoritative patriarchal culture of the modern yet Confucian East Asia. They have competed in this market with neo-Confucian Korean and mainland Chinese TV dramas that follow Confucian patriarchal values. His productions in the 2000s entered many East Asian markets, including Southeast Asian countries, Japan, and mainland China, with the latter airing censored versions. In the 2010s, his productions have prioritized the rapidly increasing mainland Chinese market among all East Asian markets and adopted Taiwanese-mainland Chinese cooperation. The productions maintain the post-Confucian style of presentation, but remove the political viewpoint commonly perceived in Taiwan. Confronted with Taiwanese skepticism toward the Taiwanese-mainland Chinese cooperation, Tsai argues that this strategy will contribute to the development of Taiwan’s film and TV industry. The presentation of Taiwan’s modern places in the productions will help promote its tourism.
To clarify how the species diversity of highly dispersible parasites has developed, molecular phylogenetic analyses of Meteterakis spp., multi-host endoparasitic nematodes of reptiles and amphibians from the East Asian islands, were conducted. The results demonstrated the existence of two major clades, the J- and A-groups, with exclusive geographic ranges that are discordant with the host faunal province. However, diversification within the J-group was concordant with the host biogeography and suggested co-divergence of this group with vicariance of the host fauna. In contrast, the phylogenetic pattern within the A-group was discordant with host biogeography and implied diversification by repeated colonization. In addition, the mosaic distribution pattern of a J-group and an A-group species in the Japanese Archipelago, along with comparison of population genetic parameters and the genetic distance from their closest relatives, suggested the initial occurrence of a J-group lineage followed by exclusion in the western part of this region caused by invasion of an A-group lineage. Thus, the present study suggested that the species diversity of highly dispersible parasites including Meteterakis is formed not only by co-divergence with host faunal vicariance but also by peripatric speciation and exclusive interactions between species. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
The East Asian countries achieved extraordinarily fast economic growth during the last four decades. Indeed, it would be no exaggeration to say that they represented the most successful case of rapid industrialisation and sustained economic growth in the history of mankind. An economy like South Korea’s was unequivocally industrially backward in the mid-1950s. Its per capita industrial output was at the time US$ 8 compared with US$ 7 for India and US$ 60 for Mexico. By mid 1990, the cou...
Ku, Chee-Seng; Pawitan, Yudi; Sim, Xueling; Ong, Rick T H; Seielstad, Mark; Lee, Edmund J D; Teo, Yik-Ying; Chia, Kee-Seng; Salim, Agus
Research on the role of copy number variations (CNVs) in the genetic risk of diseases in Asian populations has been hampered by a relative lack of reference CNV maps for Asian populations outside the East Asians. In this article, we report the population characteristics of CNVs in Chinese, Malay, and Asian Indian populations in Singapore. Using the Illumina Human 1M Beadchip array, we identify 1,174 CNV loci in these populations that corroborated with findings when the same samples were typed on the Affymetrix 6.0 platform. We identify 441 novel loci not previously reported in the Database of Genomic Variations (DGV). We observe a considerable number of loci that span all three populations and were previously unreported, as well as population-specific loci that are quite common in the respective populations. From this we observe the distribution of CNVs in the Asian Indian population to be considerably different from the Chinese and Malay populations. About half of the deletion loci and three-quarters of duplication loci overlap UCSC genes. Tens of loci show population differentiation and overlap with genes previously known to be associated with genetic risk of diseases. One of these loci is the CYP2A6 deletion, previously linked to reduced susceptibility to lung cancer. (c) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Oosterhaven, J.; Stelder, T.M.
This paper evaluates a recently published semi-survey international input-output table for nine East-Asian countries and the USA with four non-survey estimation alternatives. A new generalized RAS procedure is used with stepwise increasing information from both import and export statistics as
Hovdestad, W. R.; Belgrave, J. D. M.
Development schedule, and natural gas resources available to Southeast Asian countries were discussed in view of the area's rapidly growing market for natural gas. As evidence, the increased regional trade and cooperation are evident in the form of organizations like the Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN) and Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) Forum were cited. Liquid natural gas pipeline grids were about 1/3 complete at the time of writing. Further development and completion of this system was expected to occur over the next 3 decades. Integration of new and existing facilities were seen to be inevitable future developments. The potential for international movement of natural gas from producing countries to consuming countries was assessed and was expected to remain favourable in the long term
Sheu, G.; Lin, N.; Wang, J.; Lee, C.; Chang, S.
East Asia is the major atmospheric mercury (Hg) source region in the world due to the excessive coal combustion, industrial emission, and biomass burning in this area. Nonetheless, studies concerning the export of atmospheric Hg from East Asia are still limited. Accordingly, atmospheric Hg has been measured at various sites in Taiwan to study its temporal and spatial distribution, and the significance of long-range transport from the East Asian continent as well. Here we report the data collected in Fu-guei-jiao (121.97°E, 25.47°N, ~30 m a.s.l.), Mt. Bamboo (121.54°E, 25.19°N, 1025 m a.s.l.), and Lulin Atmospheric Background Station (LABS; 120.87°E, 23.47°N, 2862 m a.s.l.) to discuss the atmospheric Hg export from the East Asian continent. Twenty-four hour-integrated total atmospheric Hg (THg) samples were manually collected in Fu-guei-jiao and Mt. Bamboo in 2007-2008 and quantified by dual amalgamation CVAFS. On the other hand, continuous measurements of gaseous elemental Hg (GEM), reactive gaseous Hg (RGM), and particulate Hg (PHg) at LABS began since April 13, 2006 using the Tekran 2537A/1130/1135 speciation system. Mean(±S.D.) THg concentrations were 2.09±0.71 and 1.86±0.50 ng m-3 for Fu-guei-jiao and Mt. Bamboo, respectively. At LABS between April 2006 and April 2009, the mean(±S.D.) concentrations of GEM, RGM and PHg were 1.77±0.54 ng m-3, 22.4±43.8 pg m-3 and 6.3±10.9 pg m-3, respectively. Evident seasonal distribution in THg/GEM concentrations was observed at all sites with higher values usually occurred between fall and spring when the air masses were mainly from the East Asian continent, indicating the influence of the East Asian atmospheric Hg outflow. This also demonstrated that the atmospheric Hg export is occurring both in the boundary layer and in the free troposphere. Concentrations of PHg were usually low at LABS; however, elevated values were detected in spring when the Indochina Peninsula biomass burning plumes frequently affected
Soh, Nerissa Li-Wey; Touyz, Stephen; Dobbins, Timothy A; Surgenor, Lois J; Clarke, Simon; Kohn, Michael R; Lee, Ee Lian; Leow, Vincent; Rieger, Elizabeth; Ung, Ken Eng Khean; Walter, Garry
To investigate eating disorder psychopathology, restraint and eating concern in young women with and without an eating disorder from two different ethnic groups in Australia and Singapore. The relationship of Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire Global, Restraint and Eating Concern scores to cultural orientation and sociocultural factors was analysed in 154 women with and without an eating disorder. Participants were from the following backgrounds: North European Australian, East Asian Australian, Singaporean Chinese and North European expatriates in Singapore. Women with eating disorders had similar psychopathology across the cultural groups. Among controls, Singaporean Chinese reported significantly greater overall eating disorder psychopathology than other cultural groups and greater restraint than North European Australians/expatriates. Eating concern was not associated with cultural group overall or acculturation to Western culture. Dissatisfaction with family functioning, socioeconomic status and education level were not significantly associated with any of the eating disorder measures. In eating disorder psychopathology, the specific symptom of eating concern may transcend cultural influences.
Lee, Seo-Jin; Lee, Mu-Yeong; Lin, Liang-Kong; Lin, Y Kirk; Li, Yuchun; Shin, E-Hyun; Han, Sang-Hoon; Min, Mi-Sook; Lee, Hang; Kim, Kyung Seok
Many peninsulas in the temperate zone played an important role as refugia of various flora and fauna, and the southern Korean Peninsula also served as a refugium for many small mammals in East Asia during the Pleistocene. The Asian lesser white-toothed shrew, Crocidura shantungensis, is a widely distributed species in East Asia, and is an appropriate model organism for exploring the role of the Korean Peninsula as a refugium of small mammals. Here, we investigated phylogenetic relationships and genetic diversity based on the entire sequence of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene (1140 bp). A Bayesian tree for 98 haplotypes detected in 228 C. shantungensis specimens from East Asia revealed the presence of three major groups with at least 5 subgroups. Most haplotypes were distributed according to their geographic proximity. Pairwise F ST 's and analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) revealed a high degree of genetic differentiation and variance among regions as well as among populations within region, implying little gene flow among local populations. Genetic evidence from South Korean islands, Jeju-do Island of South Korea, and Taiwan leads us to reject the hypothesis of recent population expansion. We observed unique island-type genetic characteristics consistent with geographic isolation and resultant genetic drift. Phylogeographic inference, together with estimates of genetic differentiation and diversity, suggest that the southern most part the Korean Peninsula, including offshore islands, played an important role as a refugium for C. shantungensis during the Pleistocene. However, the presence of several refugia on the mainland of northeast Asia is also proposed.
Cheng, Shao-Yi; Suh, Sang-Yeon; Morita, Tatsuya; Oyama, Yasuhiro; Chiu, Tai-Yuan; Koh, Su Jin; Kim, Hyun Sook; Hwang, Shinn-Jang; Yoshie, Taeko; Tsuneto, Satoru
The primary aim of this study was to explore common beliefs and practices when death is approaching in East-Asian countries. A cross-sectional survey was performed involving palliative care physicians in Japan, Korea, and Taiwan. Measurement outcomes were physician-perceived frequencies of the following when patient death was approaching: (1) reluctance to take part in end-of-life discussions, (2) role of family members, (3) home death, and (4) circumstances surrounding death. A total of 505, 211, and 207 responses were obtained from Japanese, Korea, and Taiwan physicians, respectively. While 50% of the Japanese physicians reported that they often or very often experienced families as being reluctant to discuss end-of-life issues, the corresponding figures were 59% in Korea and 70% in Taiwan. Two specific reasons to avoid end-of-life discussion, "bad things happen after you say them out loud" and "a bad life is better than a good death" were significantly more frequently observed in Taiwan. Prioritizing the oldest of the family in breaking bad news and having all family members present at the time of death were significantly more frequently observed in Korea and Taiwan. Half of Taiwanese physicians reported they often or very often experienced the patients/family wanted to go back home to die because the soul would not be able to return from the hospital. In all countries, more than 70% of the physicians reported certain family members were expected to care for the patient at home. At the time of death, while no Japanese physicians stated that they often experienced patients wanted a religious person to visit, the corresponding figure in Korean and Taiwan was about 40%. Uncovered expression of emotion was significantly frequently observed in Korean and Taiwan, and 42% of the Japanese physicians reported family members cleaned the dead body of the patient themselves. There seem to be significant intercountry differences in beliefs and practices when death is
Kita, Tomohiko; Nakasugi, Hideo; Wada, Yuko
The Accident at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station, caused by the Great East Japan Earthquake followed by Tsunami on March 11, 2011, has brought about strong socio-political impacts internationally including to Asian countries. This report provides updated information on nuclear energy development program in Asian countries. It also touches on impacts caused by the Fukushima Accident in Asian countries that plan to introduce nuclear power as well as those plan to expand their nuclear power programs. The article focuses on following countries in the regions: Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, Vietnam; India, and Pakistan. (author)
van Ruijven, B.J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304834521; van Vuuren, D.P.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/11522016X; van Vliet, J.; Mendoza Beltran, A.; Deetman, S.; den Elzen, M.G.J.
In order to limit global mean temperature increase, long-term greenhouse gas emissions need to be reduced. This paper discusses the implications of greenhouse gas emission reductions for major Asian regions (China, India, Indonesia, South-East Asia, Japan and Korea) based on results from the IMAGE
Liang, Ping; Lin, Hai
A useful sub-seasonal forecast is of great societal and economical value in the highly populated East Asian region, especially during boreal summer when frequent extreme events such as heat waves and persistent heavy rainfalls occur. Despite recent interest and development in sub-seasonal prediction, it is still unclear how skillful dynamical forecasting systems are in East Asia beyond 2 weeks. In this study we evaluate the sub-seasonal prediction over East Asia during boreal summer in the operational monthly forecasting system of Environment and Climate Change Canada (ECCC).Results show that the climatological intra-seasonal oscillation (CISO) of East Asian summer monsoonis reasonably well captured. Statistically significant forecast skill of 2-meter air temperature (T2m) is achieved for all lead times up to week 4 (days 26-32) over East China and Northeast Asia, which is consistent with the skill in 500 hPa geopotential height (Z500). Significant forecast skill of precipitation, however, is limited to the week of days 5-11. Possible sources of predictability on the sub-seasonal time scale are analyzed. The weekly mean T2m anomaly over East China is found to be linked to an eastward propagating extratropical Rossby wave from the North Atlantic across Europe to East Asia. The Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) and El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) are also likely to influence the forecast skill of T2m at the sub-seasonal timescale over East Asia.
An overview of the Asia-Pacific petrol and diesel markets is presented covering the diesel demand and quality in the sub regions of Australia/New Zealand, East Asia (Japan, China), South Asia, and Southeast Asia (Malaysia, Indonesia, Thailand, Philippines, Singapore) and the trend towards lower sulphur diesels in Asia. Plots are presented illustrating Asia-Pacific diesel demand by regional submarket (1985-2005), the steady reductions in Asia-Pacific diesel sulphur levels (1990-2000), and the average sulphur content and tpd sulphur in Asian diesel
Pyeon, Cheol Ho
The proceedings describe the current status on research and development (R and D) of accelerator-driven system (ADS) and nuclear transmutation techniques (NTT), including nuclear data, accelerator techniques, Pb-Bi target, fuel technologies and reactor physics, in East Asian countries: Korea, China and Japan. The proceedings also include all presentation materials presented in 'the 11th International Workshop on Asian Network for ADS and NTT (ADS+NTT 2013)' held at the Seoul National University, Seoul, Korea on 12th and 13th December, 2013. The objective of this workshop is to make actual progress of ADS R and D especially in East Asian countries, as well as in European countries, through sharing mutual interests and conducting the information exchange each other. The report is composed of these following items: Presentation materials: ADS+NTT 2013. (author)
Guo, Zhun; Zhou, Tianjun; Wu, Bo
El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events significantly affect the year-by-year variations of the East Asian winter monsoon (EAWM). However, the effect of La Niña events on the EAWM is not a mirror image of that of El Niño events. Although the EAWM becomes generally weaker during El Niño events and stronger during La Niña winters, the enhanced precipitation over the southeastern China and warmer surface air temperature along the East Asian coastline during El Niño years are more significant. These asymmetric effects are caused by the asymmetric longitudinal positions of the western North Pacific (WNP) anticyclone during El Niño events and the WNP cyclone during La Niña events; specifically, the center of the WNP cyclone during La Niña events is westward-shifted relative to its El Niño counterpart. This central-position shift results from the longitudinal shift of remote El Niño and La Niña anomalous heating, and asymmetry in the amplitude of local sea surface temperature anomalies over the WNP. However, such asymmetric effects of ENSO on the EAWM are barely reproduced by the atmospheric models of Phase 5 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5), although the spatial patterns of anomalous circulations are reasonably reproduced. The major limitation of the CMIP5 models is an overestimation of the anomalous WNP anticyclone/cyclone, which leads to stronger EAWM rainfall responses. The overestimated latent heat flux anomalies near the South China Sea and the northern WNP might be a key factor behind the overestimated anomalous circulations.
To date nothing is known about the attitudes of South Asian men in the UK toward women and domestic violence. Issues related to South Asian men and communities have remained largely under the surface due to religious and cultural sensitivity. The aim of the research is to examine the attitudes of South Asian men in London and the South East of England toward women and their understanding and justification of domestic violence. More specifically, the research explores a range of cultural and r...
Gordon de Brouwer
Market participants and policymakers have a growing interest in the development of East Asian financial markets, and to the extent to which these markets are open and influenced by world markets. This paper examines the information contained in interest parity conditions about the international integration of a wide range of economies in East Asia. Legal restrictions on the capital account and tests of covered, uncovered and real interest parity are presented in some detail. Using standard re...
Chris Manning; Alberto Posso
This paper seeks to explain different real wage outcomes in two groups of East Asian economies: two New Industrialising Economies (NIEs: Korea and Taiwan), and three Southeast Asian economies (ASEAN-3: Malaysia, Thailand and Indonesia), all of which grew rapidly for several decades prior to the Asian economic crisis. Drawing on international and national data sets, the paper examines dynamic interactions between manufacturing growth and labour market outcomes. It adopts the dualistic Lewis mo...
Yang, Soohyun; Paik, Kyungrock
South Korea has experienced significant socio-economic damages by Asian dust (also called Yellow sand or Yellow dust). Asian dust is a wind-driven natural phenomenon that carries fine sand particles along with surface pollutants from semi-arid areas in northern China, Inner Mongolia, the Gobi Desert, and the Taklimakan Desert to the East Asia. Its occurrence requires three necessary conditions: dry soil in source areas, strong ascending air current to lift sand particles up, and intense wind speed to transport the particles. Accordingly, the drier source areas are, the larger amount of source materials for Asian dust becomes. Further, regional wind speed and direction are key elements that determine the influencing boundary and level of damage. In this study, we investigate number of Asian dust days over South Korea. We utilize monthly data over 50 years (from 1961 to 2013) recorded at 12 stations, operated by the Korean Meteorological Administration, which are evenly distributed over the country. We find that annual number of Asian dust days in South Korea tends to increase until early 2000s and the increasing trend is ceased since then. Interestingly, this transition time (early 2000s) matches the time when the surface wind speed trend has reversed (Kim and Paik, 2015). Hence, we hypothesize that occurrence of Asian dust in South Korea can be largely captured by surface wind, instead of air circulation at high altitude. We also hypothesize that the transition in the trend around early 2000s is associated with expansion of cold air system during winter over the East Asia. Detailed analysis to support these findings will be presented. Reference Kim, JC., & Paik, K. (2015). Recent recovery of surface wind speed after decadal decrease: A focus on South Korea. Climate Dynamics, (Under review).
Huang, Keng-Yen; Calzada, Esther; Cheng, Sabrina; Brotman, Laurie Miller
To examine physical and mental health functioning among Asian-American children of US-born and immigrant parents. We used data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten Class of 1998-1999 base-year public data file. The sample was restricted to 7726 Asian and US-born white children. Asian subgroups were created based on parents' country of birth. Child physical and mental health was assessed based on multiple sources of data and measures. Analyses included multivariate linear and logistic regression. After adjusting for demographic and contextual differences, disparities were found for physical and mental health indicators. Children of foreign-born Asian families (from east, southeast, and south Asia) were at greater risk for poor physical health, internalizing problems, and inadequate interpersonal relationships compared with children of US-born white families. There is little support for the "model minority" myth with regard to physical and mental health. Evidence of physical and mental health disparities among young Asian-American children and differing risk based on region of origin of immigrant parents suggests the need for culturally informed prevention efforts during early childhood. Copyright © 2012 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
Huang, Keng-Yen; Calzada, Esther; Cheng, Sabrina; Brotman, Laurie Miller
Objective To examine physical and mental health functioning among Asian-American children of US-born and immigrant parents. Study design We used data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten Class of 1998–1999 base-year public data file. The sample was restricted to 7726 Asian and US-born white children. Asian subgroups were created based on parents’ country of birth. Child physical and mental health was assessed based on multiple sources of data and measures. Analyses included multivariate linear and logistic regression. Results After adjusting for demographic and contextual differences, disparities were found for physical and mental health indicators. Children of foreign-born Asian families (from east, southeast, and south Asia) were at greater risk for poor physical health, internalizing problems, and inadequate interpersonal relationships compared with children of US-born white families. Conclusion There is little support for the “model minority” myth with regard to physical and mental health. Evidence of physical and mental health disparities among young Asian-American children and differing risk based on region of origin of immigrant parents suggests the need for culturally informed prevention efforts during early childhood. PMID:21907351
Tsay, S.; Maring, H.
Airborne dust from northern China influences air quality and regional climate in Asia during springtime. However, with the economic growth in China, increased emission of particulate air pollutants from industrial and vehicular sources will not only impact the earth's radiation balance, but also adversely affect human health year round. In addition, both of dust and aerosol pollutants can be transported swiftly across the Pacific affecting North America within a few days. Asian dust and pollutant aerosols can be detected by their colored appearance using current Earth observing satellites (e.g., MODIS, SeaWiFS, TOMS, etc.) and by sunphotometers deployed on the surface of the earth. Biomass burning has been a regular practice for land clearing and conversion in many countries, especially those in Africa, South America, and Southeast Asia. However, the climatology of Southeast Asia is very different than that of Africa and South America, such that large-scale biomass burning causes smoke to interact extensively with clouds during the peak-burning season of March to April. Globally significant sources of greenhouse gases (eg., CO2, CH4), chemically active gases (e.g., NO, CO, HC, CH3Br), and atmospheric aerosols are produced by biomass burning. These gases influence the Earth-atmosphere system, impacting both global climate and tropospheric chemistry. Some aerosols can serve as cloud condensation nuclei, which play a role in determining cloud lifetime and precipitation, altering the earth's radiation and water budgets. Biomass burning also affects the biogeochemical cycling of nitrogen and carbon compounds; the hydrological cycle; land surface reflectivity and emissivity; and ecosystem biodiversity and stability. Two NASA initiatives, EAST-AIRE (East Asian Study of Tropospheric Aerosols: an International Regional Experiment) and BASE-ASIA (Biomass-burning Aerosols in South East-Asia: Smoke Impact Assessment) will be presented. The objectives of these initiatives is to
Concerns about nuclear proliferation by means of illicit enrichment of uranium or reprocessing of plutonium suggest limiting those technologies to a few, large facilities. In turn, countries that renounce acquiring those capabilities would be guaranteed fuel cycle services. Interdependence might lead to an Internationalized Nuclear Fuel Cycle (IFC), which could be formalized in voluntary regional compacts to share management of certain facilities. An IFC could add managerial oversight to strengthen the nonproliferation culture in the region and offer cost and efficiency benefits to participating countries, as well. An East Asian IFC would present opportunities to enhance the efficiency and effectiveness of international safeguards by consolidating inspection requirements into relatively few facilities. This may be an opportune time to consider an IFC before the growing national industries each invest in separate facilities. An East Asian IFC regime could minimize international safeguards burdens, strengthen regional non-proliferation cooperation, and help manage future energy costs. (author)
Crul, M.R.M.; Hong Long, N.
Most of the available Sustainable Product Innovation (SPI) approaches and tools have been developed in Western Europe, based upon European experiences. However, in South-East Asian economies like Vietnam, Cambodia and Laos, needs are different and more immediate. Also the characteristics of the
Full Text Available Finishing pigs carrying Salmonella enterica are believed to be the main source of carcass contamination at the beginning of slaughtering. The aim of this study was to assess the S. enterica carrier status of finishing pigs at herd level by sampling pooled faeces on farm and mesenteric lymph nodes at slaughter in the North East of Italy. Environmental faecal samples belonging to 30 batches of pigs were collected on farm. At slaughter, mesenteric lymph nodes were collected from five randomly selected pigs per batch. S. enterica was isolated from 16 lymph nodes out of 150 (10.6% and from seven out of 30 (23.3% faecal samples. Four batches (13.3% were positive to S. enterica both in lymph nodes and in faeces. The number of batches positive to S. enterica either in lymph nodes or in faeces was 13 out of 30 (43.3%. The most prevalent serovars from lymph nodes were S. Derby (25.0% and S. Typhimurium monophasic variant 1, 4,,12:i:- (18.6%, which were also isolated from faecal material (14.3 and 42.8% respectively. Contaminated faecal material or lymph nodes could be a primary source of carcass contamination at slaughter during evisceration. S. enterica contamination is widespread on pig farms and carrier pigs pass undetected the inspection visits at slaughter, entering the food chain. Therefore, in order to control S. enterica in pigs, the need to quantify possible risk factors at slaughter and develop effective management strategies on farm is of paramount importance to ensure food safety.
Yi, Liang; Shi, Zhengguo; Tan, Liangcheng; Deng, Chenglong
We conducted a statistical study to characterize the nonlinear response of the East Asian summer monsoon (EASM) to its potential forcing factors over the last 260 ka on orbital timescales. We find that both variation in solar insolation and global ice volume were responsible for the nonlinear forcing of orbital-scale monsoonal variations, accounting for 80% of the total variance. Specifically, EASM records with dominated precession variance exhibit a more sensitive response to changes in solar insolation during intervals of enhanced monsoon strength, but are less sensitive during intervals of reduced monsoon strength. In the case of global ice volume with 100-ka variance, this difference is not one of sensitivity but rather a difference in baseline conditions, such as the relative areas of land and sea which affected the land-sea thermal gradient. We therefore suggest that EASM records with dominated precession variance recorded the signal of a shift in the location of the Inter-tropical Convergence Zone, and the associated changes in the incidence of torrential rainfall; while for proxies with dominated 100-ka variance, it recorded changes in the land-sea thermal gradient via its effects on non-torrential precipitation.
This research investigates the ideological character of the English language in East Asia. It focuses on the prevailing beliefs, values and propositions relating to English as a global language and the spread of English in the non-English East Asian countries, namely China, Japan, South Korea and Taiwan. By analyzing how English is presented in…
Lee, Tsor-kui; Lee, James
While many East Asian economies have in the past witnessed the coexistence of economic growth and modern welfare provisions, this has no longer been the case since the Asian Financial Crisis. This article is an attempt to unravel the latent policy objectives behind an assessment tool for residential services ostensibly aimed at rationalizing…
Khartukov, E.; Starostina, E.
Russia's Far East and East Siberia are emerging as new major sources of gas supplies for East Asian energy markets. Thanks to ongoing and earmarked resource and infrastructure developments in Sakhalin, Yakutia (Sakha) and Irkutsk, by around 2020 these poorly developed but naturally endowed areas of the country's East can provide between 50 and 70 Bcm/yr (5-7 Bcfd) of natural gas, including up to 10 Mt/yr of LNG, available for exports to neighbouring Pacific countries (primarily to the PRC, Japan, South Korea as well as to Taiwan and the U.S. West Coast). This can noticeably reshape today's matrix of the Asia-Pacific energy flows and even destabilize the regional gas market. (author)
Full Text Available To construct maternal phylogeny and prehistoric dispersals of modern human being in the Indian sub continent, a diverse subset of 641 complete mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA genomes belonging to macrohaplogroup M was chosen from a total collection of 2,783 control-region sequences, sampled from 26 selected tribal populations of India. On the basis of complete mtDNA sequencing, we identified 12 new haplogroups--M53 to M64; redefined/ascertained and characterized haplogroups M2, M3, M4, M5, M6, M8'C'Z, M9, M10, M11, M12-G, D, M18, M30, M33, M35, M37, M38, M39, M40, M41, M43, M45 and M49, which were previously described by control and/or coding-region polymorphisms. Our results indicate that the mtDNA lineages reported in the present study (except East Asian lineages M8'C'Z, M9, M10, M11, M12-G, D are restricted to Indian region.The deep rooted lineages of macrohaplogroup 'M' suggest in-situ origin of these haplogroups in India. Most of these deep rooting lineages are represented by multiple ethnic/linguist groups of India. Hierarchical analysis of molecular variation (AMOVA shows substantial subdivisions among the tribes of India (Fst = 0.16164. The current Indian mtDNA gene pool was shaped by the initial settlers and was galvanized by minor events of gene flow from the east and west to the restricted zones. Northeast Indian mtDNA pool harbors region specific lineages, other Indian lineages and East Asian lineages. We also suggest the establishment of an East Asian gene in North East India through admixture rather than replacement.
Fu, Rose; Chang, Michelle Milee; Chen, Margaret; Rohde, Christine Hsu
Despite research supporting improved psychosocial well-being, quality of life, and survival for patients undergoing postmastectomy breast reconstruction, Asian patients remain one-fifth as likely as Caucasians to choose reconstruction. This study investigates cultural factors, values, and perceptions held by Asian women that might impact breast reconstruction rates. The authors conducted semistructured interviews of immigrant East Asian women treated for breast cancer in the New York metropolitan area, investigating social structure, culture, attitudes toward surgery, and body image. Three investigators independently coded transcribed interviews, and then collectively evaluated them through axial coding of recurring themes. Thirty-five immigrant East Asian women who underwent surgical treatment for breast cancer were interviewed. Emerging themes include functionality, age, perceptions of plastic surgery, inconvenience, community/family, fear of implants, language, and information. Patients spoke about breasts as a function of their roles as a wife or mother, eliminating the need for breasts when these roles were fulfilled. Many addressed the fear of multiple operations. Quality and quantity of information, and communication with practitioners, impacted perceptions about treatment. Reconstructive surgery was often viewed as cosmetic. Community and family played a significant role in decision-making. Asian women are statistically less likely than Caucasians to pursue breast reconstruction. This is the first study to investigate culture-specific perceptions of breast reconstruction. Results from this study can be used to improve cultural competency in addressing patient concerns. Improving access to information regarding treatment options and surgical outcomes may improve informed decision-making among immigrant Asian women.
Lin, Renping; Zhu, Jiang; Zheng, Fei
The East Asian summer monsoon (EASM) experienced decadal transitions over the past few decades, and the associated "wetter-South-drier-North" shifts in rainfall patterns in China significantly affected the social and economic development in China. Two viewpoints stand out to explain these decadal shifts, regarding the shifts either a result of internal variability of climate system or that of external forcings (e.g. greenhouse gases (GHGs) and anthropogenic aerosols). However, most climate models, for example, the Atmospheric Model Intercomparison Project (AMIP)-type simulations and the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP)-type simulations, fail to simulate the variation patterns, leaving the mechanisms responsible for these shifts still open to dispute. In this study, we conducted a successful simulation of these decadal transitions in a coupled model where we applied ocean data assimilation in the model free of explicit aerosols and GHGs forcing. The associated decadal shifts of the three-dimensional spatial structure in the 1990s, including the eastward retreat, the northward shift of the western Pacific subtropical high (WPSH), and the south-cool-north-warm pattern of the upper-level tropospheric temperature, were all well captured. Our simulation supports the argument that the variations of the oceanic fields are the dominant factor responsible for the EASM decadal transitions.
Gong, Dao-Yi; Yang, Jing; Hu, Miao [Beijing Normal University, State Key Laboratory of Earth Surface Processes and Resource Ecology, Beijing (China); Kim, Seong-Joong [Korea Polar Research Institute, Incheon (Korea, Republic of); Gao, Yongqi [Nansen-Zhu International Research Center, IAP/CAS, Beijing (China); Nansen Environmental and Remote Sensing Center/Bjerknes Center for Climate Research, Bergen (Norway); Guo, Dong [Beijing Normal University, State Key Laboratory of Earth Surface Processes and Resource Ecology, Beijing (China); Nansen-Zhu International Research Center, IAP/CAS, Beijing (China); Zhou, Tianjun [State Key Laboratory of Numerical Modeling for Atmospheric Sciences and Geophysical Fluid Dynamics (LASG), IAP/CAS, Beijing (China)
In the present study the links between spring Arctic Oscillation (AO) and East Asian summer monsoon (EASM) was investigated with focus on the importance of the North Pacific atmospheric circulation and sea surface temperature (SST). To reduce the statistical uncertainty, we analyzed high-pass filtered data with the inter-annual time scales, and excluded the El Nino/Southern Oscillation signals in the climate fields using a linear fitting method. The significant relationship between spring AO and EASM are supported by the changes of multi-monsoon components, including monsoon indices, precipitation, and three-dimensional atmospheric circulations. Following a stronger positive spring AO, an anomalous cyclonic circulation at 850 hPa appears in southeastern Asia and the western North Pacific in summer, with the easterly anomalies spanning from the Pacific to Asian continent along 25 N-30 N and the westerly anomalies south of 15 N. At the same time, the summer western North Pacific subtropical high becomes weaker. Consistently, the positive precipitation anomalies are developed over a broad region south of 30 N stretching from southern China to the western Pacific and the negative precipitation anomalies appear in the lower valley of the Yangtze River and southern Japan. The anomalous cyclone in the western North Pacific persisting from spring to summer plays a key role in modulating EASM and monsoon precipitation by a positive air-sea feedback mechanism. During spring the AO-associated atmospheric circulation change produces warmer SSTs between 150 E-180 near the equator. The anomalous sensible and latent heating, in turn, intensifies the cyclone through a Gill-type response of the atmosphere. Through this positive feedback, the tropical atmosphere and SST patterns sustain their strength from spring to summer, that consequently modifies the monsoon trough and the western North Pacific subtropical high and eventually the EASM precipitation. Moreover, the SST response to
Pyeon, Cheol Ho
The proceedings describe the current status on research and development (R and D) of accelerator-driven system (ADS) and nuclear transmutation techniques (NTT), including nuclear data, accelerator techniques, Pb-Bi target, fuel technologies and reactor physics, in East Asian countries: China, Japan and Korea. The proceedings also include all presentation materials presented in 'the 12th International Workshop on Asian Network for ADS and NTT (ADS+NTT 2014)' held at the Institute of Nuclear Energy and Safety Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, China on 15th and 16th December, 2014. The objective of this workshop is to make actual progress of ADS R and D especially in East Asian countries, as well as in European countries, through sharing mutual interests and conducting the information exchange each other. The report is composed of these following items: Presentation materials: ADS+NTT 2014. (author)
Full Text Available Ten Coupled General Circulation Models (CGCMs participated in the third phase of Paleoclimate Modelling Intercomparison Project (PMIP3 are assessed for the East Asian Summer Monsoon (EASM in both the pre-Industrial (PI, 0 ka and mid-Holocene (MH, 6 ka simulations. Results show that the PMIP3 model median captures well the large-scale characteristics of the EASM, including the two distinct features of the Meiyu rainbelt and the stepwise meridional displacement of the monsoonal rainbelt. At mid-Holocene, the PMIP3 model median shows significant warming (cooling during boreal summer (winter over Eurasia continent that are dominated by the changes of insolation. However, the PMIP3 models fail to simulate a warmer annual mean and winter surface air temperature (TAS over eastern China as derived from proxy records. The EASM at MH are featured by the changes of large-scale circulation over Eastern China while the changes of precipitation are not significant over its sub-domains of the Southern China and the lower reaches of Yangzi River. The inter-model differences for the monsoon precipitation can be associated with different configurations of the changes in large-scale circulation and the water vapour content, of which the former determines the sign of precipitation changes. The large model spread for the TAS over Tibetan Plateau has a positive relationship with the precipitation in the lower reaches of Yangzi River, yet this relationship does not apply to those PMIP3 models in which the monsoonal precipitation is more sensitive to the changes of large-scale circulation. Except that the PMIP3 model median captured the warming of annual mean TAS over Tibetan Plateau, no significant improvements can be concluded when compared with the PMIP2 models results.
This guide is an ideal learning tool and reference for Apache Pig, the open source engine for executing parallel data flows on Hadoop. With Pig, you can batch-process data without having to create a full-fledged application-making it easy for you to experiment with new datasets. Programming Pig introduces new users to Pig, and provides experienced users with comprehensive coverage on key features such as the Pig Latin scripting language, the Grunt shell, and User Defined Functions (UDFs) for extending Pig. If you need to analyze terabytes of data, this book shows you how to do it efficiently
The East Asian stone sheds and dolmens called in the present paper are distrlbuted in the Liaodong Peninsula of China，the Korean Peninsula，and Kyushu of Japan．According to studies，dolmens in Kyushu made their first appearance in the second half of the final stage of Jomon period．As commonly recognized in international academic circles，the Kyushu dolmens of Japan are the latest in date among the East Asian stone sheds and dolmens．Recently，based on“C dating，the National Museum of Japanese History antedated the beginning stage of Yayoi period to about 1000 BC，and the second half of the final stage of Jomon period，correspondingly，to more than 1000 BC．As a result，the first appearance of dolmens in Kyushu will be dated much earlier than that in the southern Korean Peninsula，which，obviously，would be an error．
Full Text Available The article studies both general trends and peculiar characteristics of processes of economic integration in the Great East Asia, which plays the role of one of the major centers of contemporary global development. The basic determinants and barriers for implementation of regional strategies by China, Japan, ASEAN that will influence the geo-economic policy of Ukraine not only in East Asian, but also European and Eurasian areas. Attention is focused on the basic principles of realized and potential future integration models in the "ASEAN+" format with variable composition of member states that correspond to different extents to strategic objectives of both specified key actors in the region and extra-regional states that have global and transnational interests. Extrapolation of dominant trends in the nature and dynamics of transformation processes of East Asian economic regionalization allowed forming a forecast for the longterm conservation of importance of free trade agreements in the absence of preconditions to create customs unions. At the same time it was stressed out that proper assurance of national interests of international economic relations will be based on contractual instruments at the international level, without creating institutional and legal superstructure similar to the European Union or the Eurasian Economic Union as supranational law and supranational bodies.
Belderbos, R.A.; Zou, J.
Although foreign divestment and international relocation by multinational firms carry important economic implications for the industrialization of East Asian countries, there has been little empirical research on these issues. In this paper we analyze the magnitude and pattern of foreign divestment
Du Plessis, D.; Laureshen, C.
The growing Asian interest in Alberta's oil sands and import opportunities was discussed along with the feasibility of marketing bitumen to Asia. Asia is an obvious new market for Canadian heavy oil and bitumen due to an increasing demand for petroleum products in Japan, Korea, Taiwan and China. This paper examined the following three criteria that will determine the success of any initiative to move Canadian crude oil to Asian-Pacific markets: (1) a sustainable supply from Alberta; a pipeline to transport the crude to a deepwater port on the west coast; and, a guaranteed market at the other end. The basis for Asian interest in Alberta's oil sands is the sustainable secure supply of oil for growing Asian markets; heavy dependence on supplies from the Middle East; the desire to diversify supply sources; and, opportunities to invest in oil sands developments. Examples of Asian (Japan, Korea, Taiwan and China) missions to Alberta were presented along with the challenges of getting products to market with reference to Enbridge's new market access plan, Terasen's staged capacity expansion for heavy crudes and refined products, and sea transport from Prince Rupert. The paper also included graphs depicting world GDP; incremental increase in world primary energy demand by fuel for 2000 to 2020; world oil demand by region; oil demand by region in Asia; oil demand and supply in northeast Asia (Japan, China, Korea) and dependence level on Middle Eastern oil; oil demand and supply in China; China's petroleum production and consumption; refined products market forecast for 2000 to 2020; 2002 crude oil imports to Asia; 2004 refining capacity; product quality comparisons; cost competitive study; and energy policy objectives for China, Japan, Korea and Taiwan. 19 figs
Corry, June; Fisher, Richard; Rischin, Danny; Peters, Lester J.
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to assess whether ethnicity is an independent prognostic factor in patients with World Health Organization (WHO) type 2 or 3 nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Specifically, we examined the patterns of relapse observed in patients classified as 'Asian' (born in southern China or southeast Asia) or 'non-Asian' (born in Australia, Europe, the Middle East, or the Pacific Islands). Methods and Materials: All patients planned for radical treatment at the Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre from April 1985 to December 1999 were included in this study. Pathology was reviewed to confirm WHO type 2 or 3 NPC. Patients were staged using the 1997 International Union Against Cancer (UICC) criteria. Mean potential follow-up time was 9.6 years (range, 1.0-18.5 years) Results: There were 158 patients: 86 Asian and 72 non-Asian. Stage groupings were: I-12 patients; II-32 patients; III-59 patients; and IV-55 patients. A staging computerized tomography was performed in 121 patients, and 53 (34%) also had a staging magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The Asian patients had significantly more women, more patients aged <45, and more with performance status 0 than the non-Asians. Other putative prognostic factors were not significantly different between the groups. The 5-year rates for freedom from local recurrence (FLR), failure-free survival (FFS), and overall survival (OS) for Asian and non-Asian patients were 74% vs. 82%, 61% vs. 55%, and 75% vs. 63%, respectively. Corresponding 10-year figures were: 62% vs. 82%, 43% vs. 48%, and 58% vs. 49%, respectively. Multifactor analysis showed stage and the use of MRI for staging to be significant prognostic factors for all three endpoints. Age was also significant for FFS and OS. There were no significant differences in FFS or OS between Asian and non-Asian patients. However, the FLR interval was significantly worse in the Asian group (hazard ratio [HR], 2.37; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.11-5.06), whereas
Full Text Available During the Asian summer monsoon, the circulation in the upper troposphere/lower stratosphere (UTLS is dominated by the Asian monsoon anticyclone (AMA. Pollutants convectively uplifted to the upper troposphere are trapped within this anticyclonic circulation that extends from the Pacific Ocean to the Eastern Mediterranean basin. Among the uplifted pollutants are ozone (O3 and its precursors, such as carbon monoxide (CO and nitrogen oxides (NOx. Many studies based on global modeling and satellite data have documented the source regions and transport pathways of primary pollutants (CO, HCN into the AMA. Here, we aim to quantify the O3 budget by taking into consideration anthropogenic and natural sources. We first use CO and O3 data from the MetOp-A/IASI sensor to document their tropospheric distributions over Asia, taking advantage of the useful information they provide on the vertical dimension. These satellite data are used together with MOZAIC tropospheric profiles recorded in India to validate the distributions simulated by the global GEOS-Chem chemistry transport model. Over the Asian region, UTLS monthly CO and O3 distributions from IASI and GEOS-Chem display the same large-scale features. UTLS CO columns from GEOS-Chem are in agreement with IASI, with a low bias of 11 ± 9 % and a correlation coefficient of 0.70. For O3, the model underestimates IASI UTLS columns over Asia by 14 ± 26 % but the correlation between both is high (0.94. GEOS-Chem is further used to quantify the CO and O3 budget through sensitivity simulations. For CO, these simulations confirm that South Asian anthropogenic emissions have a more important impact on enhanced concentrations within the AMA (∼ 25 ppbv than East Asian emissions (∼ 10 ppbv. The correlation between enhanced emissions over the Indo-Gangetic Plain and monsoon deep convection is responsible for this larger impact. Consistently, South Asian anthropogenic NOx emissions also
Joseph M. Kungu
Full Text Available Taenia solium cysticercosis is a disease of pigs and humans populations considered endemic in many developing countries of Latin America, Africa, and South East Asia having serious impact on public health and agriculture. We conducted an in-depth comparative analysis of literature on the disease situation and predisposing factors in selected countries known to be at the interface of poverty-emerging livestock systems-zoonoses and with a growing small holder pig industry. Transmission, methods of diagnosis and employed control strategies of T. solium infection in pig and human populations in these countries are also discussed. Limited knowledge on porcine cysticercosis (PC by various stakeholders expected to be key players in its control has undermined efforts for eliminating this potentially eradicable condition. Poor pig production practices, poor hygiene, and sanitation habits have also been important in the maintenance of the T. solium life-cycle. The major gaps identified in this review include scanty current information on PC prevalence in pigs with hardly any reports on the condition in humans in most developing countries. Factors affecting pattern of the infection and how they interact at the different levels of the pig value chain have not been exhaustively studied. Information on socioeconomic and public health impact is inadequate and not current.
de Grijs, Richard
At the 2012 General Assembly of the International Astronomical Union (IAU), the Office of Astronomy for Development (OAD) programme announced a number of exciting new partnerships to assist with the IAU's decadal strategic plan (2010-2020). These landmark decisions included establishing a new coordinating centre that aims at using astronomy as a tool for development in East Asia. The agreement covers two important functions. One is known as a Regional Node, which entails the coordination of astronomy-for-development activities in countries within the general geographical region of East Asia (in first instance China, Mongolia and the DPRK, but without placing firm geographical limits on the region). The other is known as a Language Expertise Centre which will deal with all aspects relating to (mainly) the Chinese language and culture. The impact of the latter may obviously spread well beyond the geographical region to other parts of the world.
Full Text Available East Asian economies have achieved spectacular growth rates in a relatively short timespan outstripping the rest of the developing world. Hence the concern of both scholarly and policymaking circles for their peculiar development strategies. Both their spectacular rise and provisional decline after the Asian financial crisis (AFC were explained from three major perspectives: statism, neoliberalism, and neoconfucianism.The paper purports to quantify and interpret the pre-crisis total factor productivity (TFP of three Northeast Asian economies by using the Solow Model. The interdependencies between their TFP dynamics were investigated via a VAR Model. The findings suggest that labour contribution has decreased over time in favour of capital inputs and/or TFP as speedy industrialisation, and a gradual refinement of international specialisation proceeded. However low or even negative TFP during the 1990s signal the emergence of structural problems that decelerate growth, and increase these economies’ vulnerability to exogenous shocks.
Yamomo, M.; Villaruz, B.E.; Balme, C.B.; Szymanski-Düll, B.
The rise of South East Asia as a region is inextricably linked to the birth of the Cold War. In no other region did the Cold War feel quite so ‘hot’. After decolonization, South East Asian nation-states forming new national identities each found allegiances with one or other of the two Cold War
Choi, Sung Chul; Ko, Do Kyeoung; Lee, Jong Min; Kim, Young Joon; Noh, Young Min
The Asian dust affect climate both directly and indirectly because they act as effective ice nuclei and forms ice cloud. However, little is known about spatial distribution and trajectory because few measurement data are available in the free troposphere over East Asia, where a large amount of Asian dust are transported form desert regions in Asian continent. LIDAR system is an effective tool for remotely measuring the vertical distribution of aerosol optical properties. For measurement of Asian dust optical properties, a multi-wavelength LIDAR system developed by the Advanced Environment Monitoring Research Center (ADEMRC), Gwangju Institute Science and Technology (GIST), Korea. This paper presents the results of ground-based multi-wavelength LIDAR measurements of the Asian dust aerosol over Anmyeon Island (36.40N, 126.10E) during the spring of 2004. To discriminate between Asian dust and cloud, depolarization ratio is useful for the detection of these particles and the LIDAR ratio. Also, we discuss the relationship between LIDAR ratio and other optical properties from LIDAR measurement, i.e., the depolarization ratio, aerosol extinction coefficient and LIDAR ratio
Askegaard, Søren; Ludvigsen, Hanne H.
This article origines as part of a Danish national food research program: Market-based Process and Product Innovation in the Food Sector (MAPP), presenting some of the results of a project concerning the cultural dimension of food consumption. Two questions of importance to Asian (with special...... attention to South East Asian) food producers and marketers are explored. First: To which extent can Asian food manufacturers consider Europe one single market? And second: Do change processes in the European food cultures faclitate adoption of more Asian food products in the coming years? Of course...... homogenoues export markets but ingeneral confirms the heterogeneity of the European fo cultures. Since these data did not contain specific information about our second question, the inclusion of Asian food products in European diets, we have investigated certain food consumption trends from a micro...
Full Text Available This paper evaluates Peter Gowans musings on the topic of a U.S.-centered capitalist world-empire. Gowans heterodox concept of a capitalist world-empire is intellectually defensible. And his claim that U.S. hegemony is historically unique, because unlike previous dominant powers the U.S. has been able to distinctly mold the accumulation regimes and security environments of its would-be rivals in the core, is more than convincing. However, Gowan tends to overstate the degree to which the U.S. in the 1990s enjoyed a productive sector revival, rather than a mere super-inflation of dollar-denominated assets. This tendency prevents him from anticipating just how summarily the U.S. would ditch consensual approaches to managing the capitalistworld-economy once the Wall Street bubble collapsed, and hence from appreciating just how fed up Western European and East Asian elites would become with the predatory character of U.S. hegemony in decay. In conclusion the paper argues that while the U.S. may have neither the resources nor the credibility to politically control the global division of labor, something akin to a U.S.-East Asian geo-economic bloc may be in the process of forming. This is so because the Chinese and Japanese economic growth models remain wedded to the underwriting of the U.S. seigniorage privileges', and because past and present frictions between China and Japan stand in the way of tighter Sino-Japanese political coordination.
Full Text Available Miyazima Hiroshi and Bae Hang-seob, eds. Tong Asia nŭn myŏt si inga?: Tong Asia-sa ŭi saeroun ihae rŭl ch’ajasŏ 동아시아는 몇 시인가?: 동아시아사의 새로운 이해를 찾아서 [What time is East Asia? In search of a new understanding of East Asian history]. Seoul: Nŏmŏ puksŭ, 2015. ISBN: 9788994606392. The Eurocentrism and modern-centrism that have established themselves as the predominant discourses of historians may need to be further pushed aside by new discourses. Sinocentrism, decentralism, multiple modernities, alternative modernity—these are just a few of the candidates. No one knows what the dominant discourse is going to be down the road. Fourteen authors, including editors Miyazima Hiroshi and Bae Hang-seob, contributed to the collection What Time Is East Asia? In Search of a New Understanding of East Asian History in 2015. This book presents a new historical discourse that emerged in Korea as a critique of Eurocentrism and modern-centrism. The title refers to a question posed by Alexander Woodside in his 2006 book, Lost Modernities, and is meant to suggest that the historical experience of East Asia cannot be grasped by historical perspectives based on Eurocentrism...
Cruz, Cristhopher D; Forshey, Brett M; Juarez, Diana S; Guevara, Carolina; Leguia, Mariana; Kochel, Tadeusz J; Halsey, Eric S
During the past decade, countries in South America have reported dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) associated with American/Asian genotype of dengue virus serotype 2 (DENV-2). DENV-2 strains have been associated with large outbreaks of dengue fever and DHF in numerous regions of Peru since the mid-1990s, but studies to address the origins, distribution, and genetic diversity of DENV-2 strains have been limited. To address this knowledge gap, we sequenced the envelope gene region of DENV-2 isolates from Peru, Ecuador, Paraguay, and Bolivia. Sequences were aligned and compared to a global sample of DENV-2 viruses. Phylogenetic analysis confirmed the circulation of two DENV-2 genotypes in Peru: American (prior to 2001) and American/Asian (2000 to present). American/Asian genotype variants can be classified into two lineages, and these were introduced into Peru from the north (Ecuador, Colombia, and/or Venezuela) and the east (Brazil and Bolivia). American/Asian lineage II replaced lineage I after 2009. We estimate the time to the most recent common ancestor for American/Asian DENV-2 genotype in the Americas was in 1980, and 1984 and 1989 for lineages I and II, respectively. In light of evidence for increased virulence of lineage II of American/Asian DENV-2, our results support the need for continuous monitoring for the emergence of new DENV genotypes that may be associated with severe disease. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Tripati, S.; ManiMurali, R.; JayaKumar, S.; Pradhan, A.K.; Behera, R.P.; Choudhury, R.
The history of Odisha, lying on the east coast of India, is well documented from the Stone Age onwards. The evidences suggest that the ports of Odisha had contacts with the Arabs, Mediterranean countries and South Asia, as well as Southeast Asian...
Ni, Pan; Bhuiyan, Ali Akbar; Chen, Jian-Hai; Li, Jingjin; Zhang, Cheng; Zhao, Shuhong; Du, Xiaoyong; Li, Hua; Yu, Hui; Liu, Xiangdong; Li, Kui
Up to date, the scarcity of publicly available complete mitochondrial sequences for European wild pigs hampers deeper understanding about the genetic changes following domestication. Here, we have assembled 26 de novo mtDNA sequences of European wild boars from next generation sequencing (NGS) data and downloaded 174 complete mtDNA sequences to assess the genetic relationship, nucleotide diversity, and selection. The Bayesian consensus tree reveals the clear divergence between the European and Asian clade and a very small portion (10 out of 200 samples) of maternal introgression. The overall nucleotides diversities of the mtDNA sequences have been reduced following domestication. Interestingly, the selection efficiencies in both European and Asian domestic pigs are reduced, probably caused by changes in both selection constraints and maternal population size following domestication. This study suggests that de novo assembled mitogenomes can be a great boon to uncover the genetic turnover following domestication. Further investigation is warranted to include more samples from the ever-increasing amounts of NGS data to help us to better understand the process of domestication.
Chang, Minwook; Lee, Hwa; Park, Min Soo; Baek, Sehyun
The aim of this study was to demonstrate the characteristics of sticky eyelid syndrome (SES) and to suggest a modified definition and new classification of the disease in relation to the severity of the syndrome in East Asian patients. Forty-four eyes of 31 patients with sticky eyelid syndrome were included in this study. The medical records of patients who were diagnosed with sticky eyelid syndrome were retrospectively reviewed. Sticky eyelid syndrome was defined as an abnormal adhesion between the upper and lower eyelids during blinking. We divided the subjects into four grades according to the severity of the disease. Among 31 patients, there were 10 men and 21 women. The mean age of patients was 62.5 years. A total of 13 patients had SES bilaterally. All patients had meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD). Thirty-three eyes had dermatochalasis, and 30 eyes had involutional ptosis. Horizontal lower lid laxity was observed in 23 eyes, and reverse ptosis found in 15 eyes. Patients were classified into four groups as follows: G1: 11 (25%), G2: 24 (54.5%), G3: 6 (13.6%) and G4: 3 eyes (6.8%). Patients in Grade 1 tended to improve only with medical treatment for MGD. However, surgical management was necessary for patients in Grades 3 and 4. Meibomian gland dysfunction is a fundamental risk factor for developing sticky eyelid syndrome. Further, combined upper lid ptosis or lower lid laxity may be aggravating factors. According to the grading, medical or surgical management can be chosen. © 2014 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Strugnell, Claudia; M N Renzaho, Andre; Ridley, Kate; Burns, Cate
Evidence suggests that physical activity (PA) and sedentary behaviour (SB) participation varies among culturally and linguistically diverse (CALD) adolescents. The present study examined differences in PA and SB among a CALD sample of Chinese Australian, South-east Asian and Anglo-Australian adolescents. Data from 286 adolescents aged 12-16 years involved in the Chinese and Australian Adolescent Health Survey in metropolitan Melbourne, Australia, were analysed. Accelerometry outcomes included median activity counts per minute (counts x min(-1)) and minutes per day (min x day(-1)) spent in light-intensity PA (LPA), moderate-to-vigorous-intensity PA (MVPA) and sedentary time (ST). Kruskal-Wallis one-way analysis of variance and sequential multiple hierarchical linear regressions were used to examine CALD differences in PA and ST. Multivariate analyses of accelerometry data found Chinese Australian and South-east Asian adolescents engaged in significantly less daily MVPA (5-8 min x day(-1)) and LPA (50-58 min x day(-1); P Asian adolescents compared with Anglo-Australian adolescents. These findings have important public health implications in furthering our understanding of CALD differences in PA and SB. SO WHAT? An understanding of the CALD differences in physical activity and sedentary behaviour among Australian adolescents has important implications for intervention planning and delivery as well as the wider health implications of these behaviours. This article furthers the current understanding of CALD adolescents' participation in physical activity and sedentary behaviour, of which limited information is available.
Full Text Available Qingyan Bo,1 Roberto Orsenigo,2 Junyi Wang,1 Louis Griffel,3 Clifford Brass3 1Beijing Novartis Pharma Co. Ltd., Shanghai, People’s Republic of China; 2Novartis Pharma AG, Basel, Switzerland; 3Novartis Pharmaceuticals Corporation, East Hanover, NJ, USA Abstract: Many studies have demonstrated a potential association between type 2 diabetes (T2D and hepatitis C virus infection in Western countries, while similar evidence is limited in Asia. We compared the prevalence of glucose abnormalities (impaired fasting glucose [IFG] and T2D and their risk factors between Asian and non-Asian chronic hepatitis C (CHC patients, and evaluated whether glucose abnormalities impacted the viral responses to peginterferon plus ribavirin treatment (current standard of care in most Asian countries. This study retrospectively analyzed data of 1,887 CHC patients from three Phase II/III studies with alisporivir (DEB025 as treatment for CHC. The chi-square test was used to compare the prevalence of IFG/T2D between Asian and non-Asian CHC patients, and logistic regression was used to adjust for sex, age, and cirrhosis status. Risk factors for IFG/T2D were evaluated using univariate and multivariate analysis. Our results indicated that the prevalence of IFG/T2D was high in both Asian and non-Asian CHC patients (23.0% vs 20.9%, and no significant difference was found between these two populations (adjusted odds ratio: 1.3, 95% confidence interval: 0.97, 1.7; P=0.08. Age, sex, and cirrhosis status were risk factors for IFG/T2D in both populations, while body mass index was positively associated with IFG/T2D in non-Asian but not in Asian participants. No significant differences in sustained virological response rates were seen between patients with normal fasting glucose and patients with IFG/T2D for both populations. These results demonstrate that the prevalence of glucose abnormalities in Asian CHC patients was similar to that in non-Asians, and glucose abnormalities had
Bartlett, Rachel E.; Bollasina, Massimo A.; Booth, Ben B. B.; Dunstone, Nick J.; Marenco, Franco; Messori, Gabriele; Bernie, Dan J.
Anthropogenic aerosols could dominate over greenhouse gases in driving near-term hydroclimate change, especially in regions with high present-day aerosol loading such as Asia. Uncertainties in near-future aerosol emissions represent a potentially large, yet unexplored, source of ambiguity in climate projections for the coming decades. We investigated the near-term sensitivity of the Asian summer monsoon to aerosols by means of transient modelling experiments using HadGEM2-ES under two existing climate change mitigation scenarios selected to have similar greenhouse gas forcing, but to span a wide range of plausible global sulfur dioxide emissions. Increased sulfate aerosols, predominantly from East Asian sources, lead to large regional dimming through aerosol-radiation and aerosol-cloud interactions. This results in surface cooling and anomalous anticyclonic flow over land, while abating the western Pacific subtropical high. The East Asian monsoon circulation weakens and precipitation stagnates over Indochina, resembling the observed southern-flood-northern-drought pattern over China. Large-scale circulation adjustments drive suppression of the South Asian monsoon and a westward extension of the Maritime Continent convective region. Remote impacts across the Northern Hemisphere are also generated, including a northwestward shift of West African monsoon rainfall induced by the westward displacement of the Indian Ocean Walker cell, and temperature anomalies in northern midlatitudes linked to propagation of Rossby waves from East Asia. These results indicate that aerosol emissions are a key source of uncertainty in near-term projection of regional and global climate; a careful examination of the uncertainties associated with aerosol pathways in future climate assessments must be highly prioritised.
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This paper reviews the establishment of a digital image library from 35mm slides to support faculty and student needs in a small-sized liberal arts college. The framework consists of central local resources, distributed faculty collections, and external resources. Standards and guidelines for digital preservation and access are also discussed. The pilot collections were multi-disciplinary resources in Middle East art and architecture and faculty slide collections in East Asian religions and Asian art history. Technical and management issues of integrating digital technology in the traditional slide library are also discussed.
Maricela Reyes López
Full Text Available East Timor, the newly independent and small country of the Southeast Asia applies to join ASEAN. ASEAN members debate pro and con arguments on that admission. Vietnam, Lao and Cambodia are pro because they are beneficiary countries in economic terms trough ASEAN. Also, they ....the integration of all countries of the region, including East Timor, will be improve in a meaningful way the political and economic stability in the region. Today government officials, analysts and academics are debating on the Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN enlargement to admit East Timor as the eleventh member. East Timor recently declared independence and could benefit regionally just now as favorable factors are improving its economy and political position. Pro and con arguments of such membership represent more than an individual vote from the region’s friendly governments. A positive consensus will mean certain effects in the region and beyond it. This paper discusses arguments of several actors concerning the acceptance of East Timor into the ASEAN and its regional implications.
Mahapatra, Mana; Upadhyaya, Sasmita; Aviso, Sharie; Babu, Aravindh; Hutchings, Geoff; Parida, Satya
Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is endemic in Southeast Asia (SEA) and East Asia with circulation of multiple serotypes and multiple genotypes within each serotype of the virus. Although countries like Japan and South Korea in the Far East were free of FMD, in 2010 FMD serotype O (O/Mya-98) outbreaks were recorded and since then South Korea has experienced several FMD outbreaks despite regular vaccination. In this study a total of 85 serotype O FMD viruses (FMDV) isolated from 2007 to 2012 from SEA, East Asia and Far East were characterized by virus neutralisation tests using antisera to four existing (O/HKN/6/83, O/IND/R2/75, O/SKR/2010 and O/PanAsia-2) and one putative (O/MYA/2009) vaccine strains, and by full capsid sequencing. Serological studies revealed broad cross-reactivity with the vaccine strains; O/PanAsia-2 exhibited a good match with 95.3%, O/HKN/6/83 with 91.8%, O/IND/R2/75 with 80%, and the putative strain O/MYA/2009 with 89.4% isolates employed in this study. Similarly O/PanAsia-2 and O/IND/R2/75 vaccines showed a good match with all eight viruses belonging to O-Ind-2001d sublineage whereas the vaccines of O/Mya-98 lineage, O/MYA/2009 and O/SKR/2010 exhibited the lowest match indicating their unsuitability to protect infections from O-Ind-2001d viruses. A Bayesian analysis of the capsid sequence data indicated these circulating viruses (n = 85) to be of either SEA or Middle East-South Asian (ME-SA) topotype. The ME-SA topotype viruses were mainly detected in Lao PDR, Vietnam, Myanmar and Thailand reflecting the trade links with the Indian subcontinent, and also within the SEA countries. Implications of these results in the context of FMD control in SEA and East Asian countries are discussed. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Prapaspongsa, Trakarn; Vu, Van Thi Khanh; Poulsen, Hanne Damgaard
The objectives of this study were to determine inputs and outputs of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and carbon (C) and to estimate the nutrient losses during housing and storage in order to address these important parts of the whole manure management systems in pigs fed different diets....
Shinji Takagi; Kazuo Yokokawa; Hiroshi Shibuya; Ryuzo Miyao; Yasuyuki Sawada; Satoshi Urasawa; Yoshinori Kinoshita; Kensho Hashikawa; Hidetoshi Tanaka; Hitoshi Maeda
In the latter half of 1997, a currency crisis, having spread over East Asia within a few months after the collapse of the Thai baht, sparked one of the most wide-ranging debates of the 20th century on the both economic theory and policy-making. From the 1980s to the 1990s, the East-Asian emerging market economies recorded high economic growth led by enormous amounts of capital inflows from developed countries under the premise of regulated macroeconomic policy, a stable dollar-pegged exchange...
Meng, Xianqiang; Liu, Lianwen; Wang, Xingchen T.; Balsam, William; Chen, Jun; Ji, Junfeng
The East Asian summer monsoon (EASM) is an important component of the global climate system. A better understanding of EASM rainfall variability in the past can help constrain climate models and better predict the response of EASM to ongoing global warming. The warm early Pleistocene, a potential analog of future climate, is an important period to study EASM dynamics. However, existing monsoon proxies for reconstruction of EASM rainfall during the early Pleistocene fail to disentangle monsoon rainfall changes from temperature variations, complicating the comparison of these monsoon records with climate models. Here, we present three 2.6 million-year-long EASM rainfall records from the Chinese Loess Plateau (CLP) based on carbonate dissolution, a novel proxy for rainfall intensity. These records show that the interglacial rainfall on the CLP was lower during the early Pleistocene and then gradually increased with global cooling during the middle and late Pleistocene. These results are contrary to previous suggestions that a warmer climate leads to higher monsoon rainfall on tectonic timescales. We propose that the lower interglacial EASM rainfall during the early Pleistocene was caused by reduced sea surface temperature gradients across the equatorial Pacific, providing a testable hypothesis for climate models.
Full Text Available Gas trading hubs have been initially developed in the US in 1980s, UK in 1990s, more recently in European in the 2000s and mulled in East Asia now. Due to its freshness and diversification in nationality, governance and culture, the European hub experience can offer valuable lessons for East Asia. This paper seeks to advance understanding of gas hub development in Europe and provide lessons for East Asia. The European experience highlights that market liberalization and transition of gas pricing mechanism are necessary in creating the competitive markets that are needed for functional gas hubs. Political will and regulations further safeguard the competition environment needed for hub development. Natural factors, such as significant domestic production and culture could have a significant impact on the hub development and transition of pricing mechanism. In East Asia, the path to gas trading hubs might be more difficult than in Europe but a growing market creates an opportunity to start new terms with new contracts. Nevertheless, East Asian needs to work hard to development its indigenous gas or LNG trading hubs.
Ahmad Monir Abdullah
Full Text Available This paper is the first attempt at testing the ‘time-varying’ and ‘time-scale dependent’ volatilities of and correlations between the selected Islamic stock indices of South East Asian countries and selected commodities for enhancing portfolio diversification benefits. Consistent with the results of our VECM, our analysis based on the application of the recent wavelet technique MODWT, indicates that the Singapore Islamic index is leading the other Islamic indices and the commodities. From the point of view of portfolio diversification benefits, based on the extent of dynamic correlations between variables, our results suggest that an investor should be aware that the Philippine Islamic stock index is less correlated with the crude oil in the short run (as evidenced in the continuous wavelet transform analysis and that an investor holding the crude oil can gain by including the Malaysian Islamic stock index in the portfolio (as evidenced in the Dynamic conditional correlation analysis.
Full Text Available The BRICS is an important rising force in the current global governance system. Since 2009, the priorities for cooperationamong BRICS members have been reforming the major international financial institutions. In recent years, those prioritieshave extended to include international security and development issues. At the regional level, BRICS leaders have helddialogues with their counterparts in Africa and South America at the Durban and Fortaleza summits respectively. However,the BRICS has not paid much attention to Asian economic issues and security issues in East Asia. This weak and unbalancedagenda towards Asian affairs is unusual considering the importance of Asia to BRICS members and the presence inthe BRICS of of three prominent Asian members with global ambitions. The absence of a strong Asian agenda reflects somedimensions of the BRICS grouping and the region itself. First, the priority of the BRICS countries is to promote their globalstatus, which makes global issues more attractive than regional issues. Second, the Asian members of the BRICS cannotsolve Asian security challenges individually or collectively. Third, as a region, Asia is not a highly integrated similar toAfrica and South America, partly because competitions among major powers including the Asian members of the BRICS.However, the BRICS cannot avoid exploring its influence in shaping Asia’s future considering the region’s rising importanceand challenges. In order to improve their influence in Asia against the background of competing regional institutions andthe renewed interest of the United States in Asia, BRICS countries need to coordinate their individual approaches to Asia,provide more regional public goods by multilateral means, offer either solutions or ideas to regional security issues, and finda more sustainable way to engage with the region.Is There a Role for the BRICS in Asian Affairs