WorldWideScience

Sample records for east asian medical

  1. [The trend and prospect of studies of East Asian medical history in Korea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sihn, Kyuhwan

    2010-06-30

    Studies of East Asian medical history in Korea have progressively accumulated in the last twenty years. First, Korean scholars broadened the focus of research from China-centered research to East Asian research. Studies of Toyo medical history in Korea mainly concentrated on Chinese medical history. Toyo medical history originated from Japanese orientalism and imperialism. Today the studies of East Asian medical history in Korea include Korea, China and Japan, and attempt to deal with East Asia as a single conceptual category. Second, researchers in East Asian medical history are steadily increasing. They study Chinese medical history or Japanese medical history from universities. As they continue their research in academic positions, successive researchers emerge. Third, the number of Korean scholars remains relatively small, but they pursue original research. Their interests are in the discourse of East Asian medical history, colonial modernity, environmental history, oral history, and history of disease.

  2. Cultivating Medical Intentionality: The Phenomenology of Diagnostic Virtuosity in East Asian Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Taewoo

    2017-03-01

    This study examines the perceptual basis of diagnostic virtuosity in East Asian medicine, combining Merleau-Ponty's phenomenology and an ethnographic investigation of Korean medicine in South Korea. A novice, being exposed to numerous clinical transactions during apprenticeship, organizes perceptual experience that occurs between him or herself and patients. In the process, the fledgling practitioner's body begins to set up a medically-tinged "intentionality" interconnecting his or her consciousness and medically significant qualities in patients. Diagnostic virtuosity is gained when the practitioner embodies a cultivated medical intentionality. In the process of becoming a practitioner imbued with virtuosity, this study focuses on the East Asian notion of "Image" that maximizes the body's perceptual capacity, and minimizes possible reductions by linguistic re-presentation. "Image" enables the practitioner to somatically conceptualize the core notions of East Asian medicine, such as Yin-Yang, and to use them as an embodied litmus as the practitioner's cultivated body instinctively conjures up medical notions at clinical encounters. In line with anthropological critiques of reductionist frameworks that congeal human existential and perceptual vitality within a "scientific" explanatory model, this article attempts to provide an example of various knowing and caring practices, institutionalized external to the culture of science.

  3. East Asian welfare regime

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamson, Peter

    2017-01-01

    The paper asks if East Asian welfare regimes are still productivist and Confucian? And, have they developed public care policies? The literature is split on the first question but (mostly) confirmative on the second. Care has to a large, but insufficient extent, been rolled out in the region. Pol...... focusing on outcomes or causal links tend to suggest that legacies prevail, but there is (nearly) consensus that Confucianism exercises great influence in the whole region....

  4. The South East Asian Federation of Organizations for Medical Physics (SEAFOMP): Its history and role in the ASEAN countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Kh; Wong, Jhd

    2008-04-01

    Informal discussion started in 1996 and the South East Asian Federation of Organizations for Medical Physics (SEAFOMP) was officially accepted as a regional chapter of the IOMP at the Chicago World Congress in 2000 with five member countries, namely Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore and Thailand. Professor Kwan-Hoong Ng served as the founding president until 2006. Brunei (2002) and Vietnam (2005) joined subsequently. We are very grateful to the founding members of SEAFOMP: Anchali Krisanachinda, Kwan-Hoong Ng, Agnette Peralta, Ratana Pirabul, Djarwani S Soejoko and Toh-Jui Wong.The objectives of SEAFOMP are to promote (i) co-operation and communication between medical physics organizations in the region; (ii) medical physics and related activities in the region; (iii) the advancement in status and standard of practice of the medical physics profession; (iv) to organize and/or sponsor international and regional conferences, meetings or courses; (v) to collaborate or affiliate with other scientific organizations.SEAFOMP has been organizing a series of congresses to promote scientific exchange and mutual support. The South East Asian Congress of Medical Physics (SEACOMP) series was held respectively in Kuala Lumpur (2001), Bangkok (2003), Kuala Lumpur (2004) and Jakarta (2006). The respective congress themes indicated the emphasis and status of development. The number of participants (countries in parentheses) was encouraging: 110 (17), 150 (16), 220 (23) and 126 (7).In honour of the late Professor John Cameron, an eponymous lecture was established. The inaugural John Cameron Lecture was delivered by Professor Willi Kalender in 2004. His lecture was titled "Recent Developments in Volume CT Scanning".

  5. The South East Asian Federation of Organizations for Medical Physics (SEAFOMP): Its history and role in the ASEAN countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, KH; Wong, JHD

    2008-01-01

    Informal discussion started in 1996 and the South East Asian Federation of Organizations for Medical Physics (SEAFOMP) was officially accepted as a regional chapter of the IOMP at the Chicago World Congress in 2000 with five member countries, namely Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore and Thailand. Professor Kwan-Hoong Ng served as the founding president until 2006. Brunei (2002) and Vietnam (2005) joined subsequently. We are very grateful to the founding members of SEAFOMP: Anchali Krisanachinda, Kwan-Hoong Ng, Agnette Peralta, Ratana Pirabul, Djarwani S Soejoko and Toh-Jui Wong. The objectives of SEAFOMP are to promote (i) co-operation and communication between medical physics organizations in the region; (ii) medical physics and related activities in the region; (iii) the advancement in status and standard of practice of the medical physics profession; (iv) to organize and/or sponsor international and regional conferences, meetings or courses; (v) to collaborate or affiliate with other scientific organizations. SEAFOMP has been organizing a series of congresses to promote scientific exchange and mutual support. The South East Asian Congress of Medical Physics (SEACOMP) series was held respectively in Kuala Lumpur (2001), Bangkok (2003), Kuala Lumpur (2004) and Jakarta (2006). The respective congress themes indicated the emphasis and status of development. The number of participants (countries in parentheses) was encouraging: 110 (17), 150 (16), 220 (23) and 126 (7). In honour of the late Professor John Cameron, an eponymous lecture was established. The inaugural John Cameron Lecture was delivered by Professor Willi Kalender in 2004. His lecture was titled “Recent Developments in Volume CT Scanning”. PMID:21614324

  6. East Asian astronomical records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, F. Richard

    Chinese, Japanese and Korean celestial observations have made major contributions to Applied Historical Astronomy, especially in the study of supernovae, comets, Earth's rotation (using eclipses) and solar variability (via sunspots and aurorae). Few original texts now survive; almost all extant records exist only in printed versions, often with the loss of much detail. The earliest Chinese astronomical observations extend back to before 1000 BC. However, fairly systematic records are only available since 200 BC - and even these have suffered losses through wars, etc. By around AD 800, many independent observations are available from Japan and Korea and these provide a valuable supplement to the Chinese data. Throughout East Asia dates were expressed in terms of a luni-solar calendar and conversion to the Julian or Gregorian calendar can be readily effected.

  7. Development of a Modified Korean East Asian Student Stress Inventory by Comparing Stress Levels in Medical Students with Those in Non-Medical Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Hee Kon; Kang, Seok Hoon; Lim, Sun-Hye; Yang, Jeong Hee; Chae, Sunguk

    2016-01-01

    Medical students are usually under more stress than that experienced by non-medical students. Stress testing tools for Korean medical students have not been sufficiently studied. Thus, we adapted and modified the East Asian Student Stress Inventory (EASSI), a stress testing tool for Korean students studying abroad, and verified its usefulness as a stress test in Korean university students. We also compared and analyzed stress levels between medical and non-medical students. A questionnaire survey was conducted on medical and non-medical students of a national university, and the responses of 224 students were analyzed for this study. Factor analysis and reliability testing were performed based on data collected for 25 adapted EASSI questions and those on the Korean version of the Global Assessment of Recent Stress Scale (GARSS). A correlation analysis was performed between the 13 modified EASSI questions and the GARSS, and validity of the modified EASSI was verified by directly comparing stress levels between the two student groups. The 13 questions adapted for the EASSI were called the modified EASSI and classified into four factors through a factor analysis and reliability testing. The Pearson's correlation analysis revealed a significant correlation between the modified EASSI and the Korean version of the GARSS, suggesting a complementary strategy of using both tests. The validity and reliability of the EASSI were verified. The modified Korean EASSI could be a useful stress test for Korean medical students. Our results show that medical students were under more stress than that of non-medical students. Thus, these results could be helpful for managing stress in medical students.

  8. Multinationals and East Asian Integration | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    In Multinationals and East Asian Integration, leading Asian economists examine the role of foreign private-sector firms, especially from Japan and the United States, in the recent and rapid economic growth and integration in East Asia. With examples from China, Hong Kong, Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, ...

  9. Asian Black Carbon Influence on East Asian Summer Monsoons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, R.; Li, S.

    2012-04-01

    Since the black carbon (BC) emission in East and South Asia has increased significantly during the last decades of the 20th century, there is an ever growing concern about its impact on Asian monsoon. In this study we provide an in-depth analysis of the influence by performing several ensemble sensitive experiments with or without historical BC concentrations over East Asia, South Asia, and the combined East and South Asia in an atmospheric general circulation model, GFDL AM2.1. The results show that: (a) The East Asian summer climate is sensitive to the East Asian BC (EABC) concentrations in a sense that EABC contributes significantly to the frequently occurring north-drought and south-flood patterns in Eastern China. In detail, the large scale precipitation anomalies induced by EABC characterize more rainfalls over central/south China, East China Sea and southern Japan and less rainfall over northern China and the west Pacific region between 10° to 20°N. These anomalous precipitation patterns are mainly attributed to the EABC induced large scale circulation changes including the weakened Western Pacific Subtropical High (WPSH), anomalous ascent motions over central-southern China (centering over the Yangtze River valley (YRV)) and the subsequent descent motions over northern China and the South China Sea. These modeled results suggest that the EABC experiment reproduces the climate shift event of eastern China during the late 1970s, including intensified rainfall in the YRV and the weakened summer monsoonal circulation. (b) The anomalous results of South Asian BC (SABC) experiment signify a tri-polar precipitation response over East Asia, with a reduction from the YRV to East China Sea and southern Japan sandwiched with increases over a northern domain from northern China/ Korea to northern Japan and over southern China. As for southern China, particularly the YRV, the impact of SABC is to offset a fraction of intensified rainfall induced by local BC of East

  10. East African Medical journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    312 EAST AFRICAN MEDICAL JOURNAL JulyZOO7. East African Medical journal Vol. 84 N0. 7 Iuly 2007. MANAGEMENT PATHWAY FOR CONGENITAL HEART DISEASE AT KENYATTA NATIONAL HOSPITAL,. NAIROBI. M.N. Awori, MBChB, MMed (Surg), Tutorial Fellow, S.W.O. Ogendo, MBChB, MMed (Surg), Associate.

  11. Correlation Dynamics in East Asian Financial Markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuper, Gerard; Lestano, L

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the dynamic relationship between stock returns and exchange rate changes using daily data from January 3, 1994 - September 27, 2013 for six East Asian countries: Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, South Korea and Thailand. We estimate conditional correlations using

  12. Global Change and East Asian Policy Initiatives

    OpenAIRE

    Shahid, Yusuf; Altaf, M. Anjum; Nabeshima, Kaoru

    2004-01-01

    Many East Asian economies have grown briskly in the past few years. However, future development will depend on the quality and timeliness of regional and national policy actions. The policy agenda must address the problems that buffeted the region in the late 1990s-associated with the weakness of domestic institutions and policies in the context of globalization. These problems include fin...

  13. Social anxiety among East Asians in North America: East Asian socialization or the challenge of acculturation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Lorena; Woody, Sheila R; Lee, Hoon-Jin; Peng, Yunshi; Zhou, Xiaolu; Ryder, Andrew G

    2012-04-01

    North American research has consistently reported higher social anxiety among people of Asian heritage compared to people of Western heritage. The present study used a cross-national sample of 692 university students to explore explanatory hypotheses using planned contrasts of group differences in social anxiety and related variables. The East Asian socialization hypothesis proposed social anxiety would show a linear relation corresponding to the degree of exposure to East Asian cultural norms. This hypothesis was not supported. The cultural discrepancy hypothesis examined whether bicultural East Asian participants (residing in Canada) would endorse higher social anxiety in comparison to unicultural participants (Western-heritage Canadians and native Koreans and Chinese). Compared to unicultural participants, bicultural East Asian participants reported higher social anxiety and depression, a relation that was partially mediated by bicultural participants' reports of lower self-efficacy about initiating social relationships and lower perceived social status. Overall, the results suggest higher reports of social anxiety among bicultural East Asians may be conceptualized within the context of cultural discrepancy with the mainstream culture. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.

  14. EAST AFRICAN MEDICAL JOURNAL

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    East African Medical Journal Vol. 79 No. 2 February 2002. HAEMATOLÖGICAL ALTERATIONS IN LEPROSY PATIENTS TREATED WITH DAPSONE. N.K.D. Halim, MBChB, FMCPath, Senior Lecturer and Head, Department of Haematology and Blood Transfusion, College of Medical Sciences,. University of Benin, Benin ...

  15. Relationship between Indian and East Asian summer rainfall variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Renguang

    2017-01-01

    The Indian and East Asian summer monsoons are two components of the whole Asian summer monsoon system. Previous studies have indicated in-phase and out-of-phase variations between Indian and East Asian summer rainfall. The present study reviews the current understanding of the connection between Indian and East Asian summer rainfall. The review covers the relationship of northern China, southern Japan, and South Korean summer rainfall with Indian summer rainfall; the atmospheric circulation anomalies connecting Indian and East Asian summer rainfall variations; the long-term change in the connection between Indian and northern China rainfall and the plausible reasons for the change; and the influence of ENSO on the relationship between Indian and East Asian summer rainfall and its change. While much progress has been made about the relationship between Indian and East Asian summer rainfall variations, there are several remaining issues that need investigation. These include the processes involved in the connection between Indian and East Asian summer rainfall, the non-stationarity of the connection and the plausible reasons, the influences of ENSO on the relationship, the performance of climate models in simulating the relationship between Indian and East Asian summer rainfall, and the relationship between Indian and East Asian rainfall intraseasonal fluctuations.

  16. Turkey's East Asian Policy: From Security Concerns to Trade Partnerships

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Selçuk Çolakoglu

    2012-01-01

      Turkey's Asian policy entered a new period after the Second World War as Ankara began to establish relations with East Asian countries,1 based upon its own foreign policy vision and economic capacity...

  17. East African Medical Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2007-05-05

    May 5, 2007 ... 242 EAST A FRICAN MEDICAL J O URNAL. This partially compromised blood supply and resulted in gangrene. After debridement, the patient lost the whole of the skin and subcutaneous layer' of the right forearm with the thumb, index and little fingers (Figure3). She had skin grafting subsequently and she ...

  18. EAST AFRICAN MEDICAL JOURNAL

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2002-01-01

    Jan 1, 2002 ... include hypothermia, reduced appetite, depressed overall sexual potency and clinical spermatorrhoea ..... EAST AFRICAN MEDICAL JOURNAL. 25. Table 4. Drug consumption and semen volume. (GMH, BMS, 1992-1995). No. Drag consumed. 0-2. No. %. No. Semen volume (ml). 2-6. % No. >6. %. No.

  19. Comparison of East Asian winter monsoon indices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao Hui

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Four East Asian winter monsoon (EAWM indices are compared in this paper. In the research periods, all the indices show similar interannual and decadal-interdecadal variations, with predominant periods centering in 3–4 years, 6.5 years and 9–15 years, respectively. Besides, all the indices show remarkable weakening trends since the 1980s. The correlation coefficient of each two indices is positive with a significance level of 99%. Both the correlation analyses and the composites indicate that in stronger EAWM years, the Siberian high and the higher-level subtropical westerly jet are stronger, and the Aleutian low and the East Asia trough are deeper. This circulation pattern is favorable for much stronger northwesterly wind and lower air temperature in the subtropical regions of East Asia, while it is on the opposite in weaker EAWM years. Besides, EAWM can also exert a remarkable leading effect on the summer monsoon. After stronger (weaker EAWM, less (more summer precipitation is seen over the regions from the Yangtze River valley of China to southern Japan, while more (less from South China Sea to the tropical western Pacific.

  20. Multinationals and East Asian Integration | CRDI - Centre de ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... Singapore, Taiwan, and Thailand, this book is the first to explore the successful synergy between government policies and industrial strategies in the diverse economies of East Asia. Multinationals and East Asian Integration provides and expert insight on how the "tigers" and "dragons" of East Asia have emerged among ...

  1. The Roots and Implications of East Asian Regionalism

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Miller, John

    2004-01-01

    Regionalism in East Asia is driven by historical patterns of cooperation, the common challenge of the West, the century-long quest for an Asian identity, and growing economic interdependence and integration...

  2. 398 EAST AFRICAN MEDICAL JOURNAL

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    398 EAST AFRICAN MEDICAL JOURNAL. August 2004. East African Medical Journal Vol. 81 No. 8 August 2004. POTENTIAL PATHOGENS IN THE LOWER GENITAL TRACT AT MANUAL VACUUM ASPIRATION FOR INCOMPLETE ABORTION IN KORLE. BU TEACHING HOSPITAL, GHANA. A. T. Lassey, FRCOG ...

  3. Forming, transfer and globalization of medical-pharmaceutical knowledge in South East Asian missions (17th to 18th c.) - historical dimensions and modern perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anagnostou, Sabine

    2015-06-05

    From the 17th to the 18th centuries, missionaries in Southeast Asia dedicated themselves to providing and establishing a professional medical-pharmaceutical supply for the local population and therefore explored the genuine Materia medica for easily available and affordable remedies, especially medicinal plants. In characteristic medical-pharmaceutical compendia, which can be classified as missionary pharmacopoeias, they laid down their knowledge to advise others and to guarantee a professional health care. As their knowledge often resulted from an exchange with indigenous communities, these compendia provide essential information about traditional plant uses of Southeast Asian people. Individual missionaries such as the Jesuit Georg Joseph Kamel (1661-1706) not only strove to explore medicinal plants but performed botanical studies and even composed comprehensive herbals. The Jesuit missionaries in particular played roles in both the order's own global network of transfer of medicinal drugs and knowledge about the application, and within the contemporary local and European scientific networks which included, for example, the famous Royal Society of London. The results of their studies were distributed all over the world, were introduced into the practical Materia medica of other regions, and contributed significantly to the academization of knowledge. In our article we will explain the different intentions and methods of exploring, the resulting works and the consequences for the forming of the pharmaceutical and scientific knowledge. Finally, we will show the options which the works of the missionaries can offer for the saving of traditional ethnopharmacological knowledge and for the development of modern phytotherapeutics and pharmaceutical supply. The publication is based on a comprehensive study on the phenomenon of missionary pharmacy which has been published as a book in 2011 (Anagnostou, 2011a) and shows now the potential of historical medical

  4. Regional conditions in East Asian development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søborg, Henrik

    2006-01-01

    The present volume contains case studies of how government og firms in a number of Asian countries have responded to challenges of globalisation and how that has affected their economic transformation.......The present volume contains case studies of how government og firms in a number of Asian countries have responded to challenges of globalisation and how that has affected their economic transformation....

  5. East Asian Attitudes toward Death- A Search for the Ways to Help East Asian Elderly Dying in Contemporary America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sok K

    2009-01-01

    The art of dying well has been a quintessential subject of ethicoreligious matters among the people in the West and the East. Most of us wish to die at home; however, about 50% of Americans die in acute care hospitals. Furthermore, immigrants from East Asian cultures feel more uncomfortable near death, because their physicians are not familiar with their traditions.This article is written to help American physicians understand the unique aspects of East Asian Confucian Ethics for the better care of the dying elderly. Western attitudes toward death are briefly reviewed and the six East Asian concepts related to death are elaborated from Confucian Chinese philosophy. To widen the horizon of bioethics and to embrace the Confucian wisdom of dying well, three pearls of wisdom from classical Confucianism are proposed: the relational autonomy of family, Confucian creative self-transformation, and the unity of transcendence and the human being.

  6. East Asian Attitudes toward Death— A Search for the Ways to Help East Asian Elderly Dying in Contemporary America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sok K

    2009-01-01

    The art of dying well has been a quintessential subject of ethicoreligious matters among the people in the West and the East. Most of us wish to die at home; however, about 50% of Americans die in acute care hospitals. Furthermore, immigrants from East Asian cultures feel more uncomfortable near death, because their physicians are not familiar with their traditions. This article is written to help American physicians understand the unique aspects of East Asian Confucian Ethics for the better care of the dying elderly. Western attitudes toward death are briefly reviewed and the six East Asian concepts related to death are elaborated from Confucian Chinese philosophy. To widen the horizon of bioethics and to embrace the Confucian wisdom of dying well, three pearls of wisdom from classical Confucianism are proposed: the relational autonomy of family, Confucian creative self-transformation, and the unity of transcendence and the human being. PMID:20740092

  7. 90 EAST AFRICAN MEDICAL JOURNAL

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    East African Medical Journal Vol. 78 No. 2 February 2001. TRANSMISSION BIJOCKING VACCINE STUDIES IN LEISHMANIASIS: II. EFFECT OF IMMUNISATION USING LEISHMANIA MAJOR DERIVED 63. KILODALTON GLYCOPROTEIN, LIPOPHOSPHOGLYCAN AND WHOLE PARASITE ANTIGENS ON THE COURSE ...

  8. Negotiating Intra-Asian Games Networks: On Cultural Proximity, East Asian Games Design, and Chinese Farmers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dean Chan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A key feature of networked games in East Asia is the relationship between the adaptation of regional Asian aesthetic and narrative forms in game content, and the parallel growth in more regionally-focused marketing and distribution initiatives. This essay offers a contextual analysis of intra-Asian games networks, with reference to the production, marketing and circulation of Asian MMORPGs. My discussion locates these networks as part of broader discourses on regionalism, East Asian cultural production and Asian modernity. At the same time, I consider how these networks highlight structural asymmetry and uneven power relations within the region; and I examine the emergent use of gamer-workers known as Chinese farmers in the digital game-items trade.

  9. Teaching East and Southeast Asia through Asian Eyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tracy C. Barrett

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Colonialism and indigenous responses to its varied forms dominate modern Asian historiography and imbue the history of the region with rich and multifaceted connections to world history. As a result, the histories of East and Southeast Asian nation-states since 1500 cannot be viewed outside of the context of global affairs. Imagining Asian peoples and cultures during this time is problematic for students, who typically approach colonialism from a western perspective. This presentation explores various means of incorporating into the classroom pedagogical materials and diverse media sources that facilitate a more grounded examination of East and Southeast Asian colonies, peoples, and nation-states.It pays special attention to teaching colonialism, anti-colonialism, nationalism, and transnationalism from the perspective of Southeast Asia’s indigenous peoples.

  10. The Representation of Older People in East Asian Television Advertisements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieler, Michael; Ivanov, Alex; Hagiwara, Shigeru

    2017-06-01

    In this study, 432 television advertisements from Hong Kong, Japan, and South Korea were analyzed to determine their representations of older people. Findings demonstrate that in East Asian advertisements, older people are highly underrepresented, appear in major roles, mostly alongside younger people, and older men clearly outnumber older women. The other variables investigated (i.e., setting and product categories) led to no conclusive findings for the three societies. In short, our study, employing ethnolinguistic vitality theory to analyze television advertisements, demonstrates how East Asian societies greatly marginalize older people. Potential effects of such representations are discussed using social cognitive theory and cultivation theory.

  11. Did China follow the East Asian development model?

    OpenAIRE

    Boltho, Andrea; Weber, Maria

    2009-01-01

    China is located in East Asia and, just as Japan, Taiwan or (South) Korea at earlier stages of their development, has now grown very rapidly for some three decades. That is not enough, however, for it to qualify for membership of the club. The East Asian development model has a number of additional and important characteristics. Four are selected for discussion: the almost constant encouragement given to investment, the manufacturing sector and external competitiveness, and pursued via a vari...

  12. East African Medical Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2009-09-09

    .), Medical Manager, KAVI,. University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 19676-00202, Nairobi, Kenya, P. Fast, MD, PhD, Chief Medical Officer, Research and. Development, International AIDS Vaccine Initiative (IAVI), 110 William Street, ...

  13. East African Medical Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2002-08-01

    Aug 1, 2002 ... burns infections and resistance to various antimicrobials. The continous selection of resistant flora together .... unit-and kitchen level training and education of all staff, medical and non-medical. It may also ..... patients with Acquired immunodeficiency Syndrome. N. Engl. J. Med. 1992; 326:]514-1521. Jeena ...

  14. Impact of Stratospheric Sudden Warming on East Asian Winter Monsoons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Quanliang

    2017-04-01

    Quanliang Chen, Luyang Xu, and Hongke Cai College of Atmospheric Science, Chengdu University of Information Technology and Plateau Atmospheric and Environment Laboratory of Sichuan Province, Chengdu 610225, China Fifty-two stratospheric sudden warming (SSW) events that occurred from 1957 to 2002 were analysed based on the 40-year European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts Reanalysis dataset. Those that could descent to the troposphere were composited to investigate their impacts on the East Asian winter monsoon (EAWM). It reveals that when the SSW occurs, the Arctic Oscillation (AO) and the North Pacific Oscillation (NPO) are both in the negative phase and that the tropospheric circulations quite wave-like. The Siberian high and the Aleutian low are both strengthened, leading to an increased gradient between the Asian continent and the North Pacific. Hence, strong EAWM is observed with widespread cooling over in land and coastal East Asia. After the peak of the SSW, in contrast, the tropospheric circulation is quite zonally symmetric with negative phases of AO and NPO. The mid-tropospheric East Asian trough deepens and shifts eastward. This configuration facilitates warming over the East AsianinlandandcoolingoverthecoastalEastAsiacenteredoverJapan.Theactivitiesofplanetarywavesduringthelifecycleofthe SSW were analysed. The anomalous propagation and the attendant altered amplitude of the planetary waves can well explain the observed circulation and the EAWM.

  15. Preventing preeclampsia and its fetal complications with low-dose aspirin in East Asians and non-East Asians:A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Jie; He, Huan; Qi, Hongbo

    2016-08-01

    Low-dose aspirin can reduce the incidence of preeclampsia and intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). However, the effects of ethnicity upon low-dose aspirin's efficacy has not been analyzed. Here, we comparatively evaluated the efficacy of low-dose aspirin in preventing preeclampsia and related fetal complications in East Asian and non-East Asian pregnant women at risk for preeclampsia. Several databases were searched for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing low-dose aspirin with either placebo or no treatment in pregnant women at risk for preeclampsia. Odds ratios (ORs) and associated 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for preeclampsia and related fetal outcomes were tabulated. Low-dose aspirin significantly reduced preeclampsia risk in both East Asians (OR = 0.20, 95% CI: 0.11-0.35) and non-East Asians (OR = 0.84, 95% CI: 0.77-0.92). Low-dose aspirin significantly reduced IUGR risk in East Asians (OR = 0.36, 95% CI: 0.20-0.67) but not in non-East Asians (OR = 0.85, 95% CI: 0.41-1.77). Low-dose aspirin did not significantly reduce the risk of cesarean section in either East Asians (OR = 0.67, 95% CI: 0.14-3.22) or non-East Asians (OR = 1.01, 95% CI: 0.86-1.19). Low-dose aspirin is effective in reducing preeclampsia risk in both East Asians and non-East Asians and has differential effects in East Asians and non-East Asians with respect to IUGR.

  16. East African Medical journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: To investigate and compare the outcomes of invasive cervical cancer patients with ... Subjects: Medical records of thirty six patients treated in our department between May and July. 2000 ..... Summary of outcomes for the seronegative patients (shown as percentages of the total number of people on fol low-up.

  17. East- African Medical Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2006-08-08

    Aug 8, 2006 ... METHOD. M. Chardoli, MD, Department of Emergency Medicine, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran and V. Rahimi-. Movaghar, MD, Department of Neurosurgery, ... Objective: To evaluate validity of TRISS (Trauma score and injury severity score) method in trauma ... analysed using T-tests.

  18. East- African Medical Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2006-08-08

    Aug 8, 2006 ... Request for reprints to: Dr. M. Chardoli, Department of Emergency Medicine, Iran University of Medical Sciences,. Tehran .... Trauma mortality in Khatam-ol—anbia Hospital and its match predicted in UK and USA in dlflerent departments. Khatam ... facilities in this relation, increasing neurosurgeons or short ...

  19. EAST AFRICAN MEDICAL JOURNAL

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The number of HIV infected patients is increasing considerably in Nigeria and other developing countries(4) and the provision of medical care to seropositive patients is becoming a major activity for many health care personnel. The occupational risk of HIV infection results when workers are exposed to HIV infected. fluids.

  20. East African Medical Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2002-05-05

    May 5, 2002 ... Objective: To assess the prevalence and risk factors of cigarette smoking and khat chewing. Design: College based cross sectional. Setting: Four colleges found in north west Ethiopia namely Gondar College of Medical. Sciences, Gondar College of Teachers Education, Bahr Dar University Engineering ...

  1. EAST AFRICAN MEDICAL JOURNAL

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2003-05-01

    May 1, 2003 ... Discipline of Anatomy, School of Basic and Applied Medical Sciences,. University of Durban-Westville, Private Bag X54001, Durban, 4001, South Africa. Request for reprints ... Operative findings - inferior lumbar hernia. Note: (a) Lumbodorsal fascia of floor of inferior lumbar triangle flanking aponeuroses of ...

  2. EAST AFRICAN MEDICAL JOURNAL

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2001-02-01

    Feb 1, 2001 ... employment status, religion, marital status and educational level for the cases and their matched controls with a mean parity of 4 in both. Table 1. Medical and surgical history afeases and controls. Risk factor. Cases n=186. Freq. (%). Freq. Controls n=180. (%). X2. P value. Sign. Abortion. Yes. 58. (31.2). 39.

  3. EAST AFRICAN MEDICAL JOURNAL 29

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2002-01-01

    Jan 1, 2002 ... East African Medical Journal Vol. 79 No. 1 January 2002. EFFICACY OF OXAMNIQUINE AND PRAZIQUANTEL IN SCHOOL CHILDREN FROM TWO SCHISTOSOMA MANSON] ENDEMIC AREAS l . F. W. Thiong'o, MSc, PhD, Senior Parasitologist, Division'of Vector Borne Diseases, Ministry of Health, ...

  4. East African Medical Journal: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Author Guidelines. The East African Medical Journal (EAMJ) aims to improve the practice of all aspects of medicine and health care in general. To achieve these objectives, the journal publishes original scientific articles, reviews, clinical case reports and letters dealing with any factor impacting on health. EAMJ in published ...

  5. 298 EAST AFRICAN MEDICAL JOURNAL

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    June 2003. East African Medical Journal Vol. 80 No. 6 June 2003. NOISE INDUCED HEARING LOSS AMONG INDUSTRIAL WORKERS IN DAR ES SALAAM. BM, Minja MBChB (EA), MMed (Surgery) MSc (ORL), NH. Moshi, MD, MMed (Surgery) MSc (ORL), Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Muhimbili. University ...

  6. 88 EAST AFRICAN MEDICAL JOURNAL

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2007-02-02

    Feb 2, 2007 ... The low incision in a capacious abdomen may lend a lost sponge difficult to visualise at the end of the laparotomy. Although reports suggest that emergency surgery is the culprit in a number of cases of retained sponges, one must consider a diagnosis of retained. EAST AFRICAN MEDICAL JOURNAL 91.

  7. 442 EAST AFRICAN MEDICAL JOURNAL

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    East African Medical Journal Vol. 79 N0. 8 August 2002. SOIL TRANSMITTED NEMATODES IN CHILDREN IN BUEA HEALTH DISTRICT OF CAMEROON. L. Ndenecho, BSc., MSc., Graduate Assistant, KIN. Ndamukong, BSc, MSc, PhD, Senior Lecturer and Faculty Officer and M.M. Mature. BSc, MSc. PhD,. Lecturer and ...

  8. 666 EAST AFRICAN MEDICAL JOURNAL

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    East African Medical Joumal Vol. 78 No. 12 December 2001. MAJOR OBSTETRIC INTERVENTIONS AMONG ENCAMPED REFUGEES AND THE LOCAL POPULATION IN TURKANA DISTRICT, KENYA. W. Odero, MD, PhD, Associate Professor, Department of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, Institute of Public ...

  9. Silent Cerebral Infarction in East Asian vs. Non-Asian Atrial Fibrillation Patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Senoo, Keitaro; Kondo, Yusuke; Kobayashi, Yoshio

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common arrhythmia in the ageing population in East Asia. Silent cerebral infarction (SCI) is defined as cerebral infarction in the absence of corresponding clinical symptoms, and is a highly prevalent and morbid condition in AF. SCI is increasingly...... being recognized as a risk factor for future stroke, which can lead to cognitive decline or dementia. The latter is an increasingly common health problem in East Asia.Methods and Results:We conducted a meta-analysis to compare the association of AF and SCI between East Asian and non-Asian patients. AF...... was associated with SCI in patients with no symptomatic stroke history (relative risk [RR], 2.24; 95% CI: 1.26-3.99, I2=83%; P=0.006) although the prevalence varied widely between studies (P for heterogeneitycontrols (RR, 1.85; 95...

  10. The East Asian Regional Office of Astronomy for Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Grijs, Richard; Zhang, Ziping; He, Jinhua

    2016-10-01

    At the 2012 General Assembly of the International Astronomical Union (IAU), the Office of Astronomy for Development announced a number of exciting new partnerships to assist with the IAU's decadal strategic plan (2010-2020). These landmark decisions included establishing a new coordinating centre that aims at using astronomy as a tool for development in East Asia. The agreement covers two important functions. One is known as a Regional Node, which entails the coordination of astronomy-for-development activities in countries within the general geographical region of East Asia. The other is known as a Language Expertise Centre which deals with all aspects relating to (mainly) the Chinese language and culture. The impact of the latter may obviously spread well beyond the geographical region to other parts of the world. Here we provide an update of the achievements and aims of the East Asian Office of Astronomy for Development.

  11. Medical education reform: the Asian experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Tai Pong; Lam, Yu Ying Bess

    2009-09-01

    Medical education reform is taking place all over the world including Asia, which has 60% of the world's population. Confronted with diverse social and cultural needs as well as resource constraints, various regions in Asia have carried out medical education reform at different levels and directions. In this article, the authors describe the application of Western-inspired reforms and localization and adaptation of Western models to fit the cultural and community needs in the five different subregions of Asia: (1) Eastern Asia, (2) Southern Asia, (3) Southeastern Asia, (4) Central Asia, and (5) Western Asia. The article reviews whether the medical education reforms brought improvement to the medical curricula and effectively fulfilled the cultural and social needs of Asian countries. The authors also explore the establishment of medical education departments in many Asian medical schools and the incorporation of research findings into medical practice. Departments of medical education will facilitate localization and promote further development of medical education reform in Asia despite the challenges ahead.

  12. Cancers among South-East Asian Nationals in Brunei Darussalam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Vui Heng; Telisinghe, Pemasari Upali; Lim, Edwin; Tan, Jackson; Chong, Chee Fui

    2016-01-01

    Worldwide, the incidence of cancers is increasing and is becoming a major public health issue, including those in the Asia Pacific region. South-East Asia is a region with diverse populations with different disease spectra. This study looked at the spectrum of cancers among South-East Asians working in Brunei Darussalam. The cancer registry from 1994 to 2012 maintained by the State Laboratory was retrospectively reviewed. Crude incidence rates were calculated based on the population census of 2010. Altogether, there was a total of 418 cancer cases diagnosed among South-East Asians, giving an incidence of 5.1% (n=418/8,253). The affected nationals in decreasing frequency were Malaysians (53.1%), followed by Filipinos (25.8%), Indonesians (15.3%), Thais (3.8%), Myanmese (1.7%) and Vietnamese (0.2%) with no recorded cases for Singapore and the People's Republic of Laos. The overall mean age of diagnosis was 46.1±4.2 years old, with an increasing trend over the years (pcancers of the digestive system (19.9%), followed by female reproductive/gynecologic system (16.0%), breast (15.6%), hematological/lymphatic (12.0%) and head/neck (8.1%). There were differences in the prevalence of cancers among the various nationalities with highest crude incidence rate among the Myanmese (141.2/100,000), followed by the Malaysian (88.5/100,000), and the Filipinos (40.6/100,000) and the lowest among the Thais (18.4/100,000), Indonesians (10.5/100,000) and the Vietnamese (6.3/100,000). Cancers among South-East Asian residing in Brunei Darussalam accounted for 5.1% of all cancers. The most common cancers were cancers of the digestive, gynecologic/female reproductive system and breast with certain types slowly increasing in proportions. There mean age of diagnoses was increasing.

  13. Suggestions for an East Asian Monetary Union: Focusing on the Effects of Monetary Integration on Bilateral Trade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min-Chang Ko

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available This study explores alternative ways toward the East Asian monetary union, focusing on the effect of monetary integration on bilateral trade. For this purpose, we analyze with gravity model changes of the bilateral trade among countries of EU, NAFTA, and East Asia. A distinctive feature of this model is that it includes the dummy variables that show the cultural intimacy among North-East Asian countries, Asian NIEs countries, and East Asian countries (North-East Asian and ASEAN countries. We discovered that bilateral trade increased at a highest level among East Asian countries than the other two cases. This result suggests that the once-and-for-all strategy to develop an East Asian monetary union including North-East Asian and ASEAN countries would be more efficient than the multitrack strategy that forms the monetary union of North-East Asian countries in the first place and then tries to extend it to ASEAN countries.

  14. Smoking among East Asian college students: prevalence and correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Dong-Chul; Torabi, Mohammad R; Kim, Nayoung; Lee, Chung Gun; Choe, Siyoung

    2013-03-01

    To compare the prevalence and correlates of cigarette smoking among East Asian college students. Data were collected from college students (N=16,558) in China, Hong Kong, Malaysia, Singapore, South Korea, and Taiwan (response rate: 78%). Religion was independently associated with college students' smoking in China (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.82) and South Korea (AOR = 0.80). Being a heavy drinker and having a higher exposure to secondhand smoke were associated with higher smoking rates (Ps college smoking but a similar pattern of relationship with its correlates.

  15. East Asian seas: A hot spot of pelagic microplastics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isobe, Atsuhiko; Uchida, Keiichi; Tokai, Tadashi; Iwasaki, Shinsuke

    2015-12-30

    To investigate concentrations of pelagic micro- (5mm) in the East Asian seas around Japan, field surveys using two vessels were conducted concurrently in summer 2014. The total particle count (pieces km(-2)) was computed based on observed concentrations (pieces m(-3)) of small plastic fragments (both micro- and mesoplastics) collected using neuston nets. The total particle count of microplastics within the study area was 1,720,000 pieces km(-2), 16 times greater than in the North Pacific and 27 times greater than in the world oceans. The proportion of mesoplastics increased upstream of the northeastward ocean currents, such that the small plastic fragments collected in the present surveys were considered to have originated in the Yellow Sea and East China Sea southwest of the study area. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  16. Genetic evidence for an East Asian origin of domestic dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savolainen, Peter; Zhang, Ya-ping; Luo, Jing; Lundeberg, Joakim; Leitner, Thomas

    2002-11-22

    The origin of the domestic dog from wolves has been established, but the number of founding events, as well as where and when these occurred, is not known. To address these questions, we examined the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequence variation among 654 domestic dogs representing all major dog populations worldwide. Although our data indicate several maternal origins from wolf, >95% of all sequences belonged to three phylogenetic groups universally represented at similar frequencies, suggesting a common origin from a single gene pool for all dog populations. A larger genetic variation in East Asia than in other regions and the pattern of phylogeographic variation suggest an East Asian origin for the domestic dog, approximately 15,000 years ago.

  17. Understanding Mind-Body Interaction from the Perspective of East Asian Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye-Seul Lee

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Attempts to understand the emotion have evolved from the perspective of an independent cognitive system of the mind to that of an interactive response involving the body. This study aimed to quantify and visualize relationships between different emotions and bodily organ systems from the perspective of East Asian medicine. Methods. Term frequency-inverse document frequency (tf-idf method was used to quantify the significance of Five Viscera and the gallbladder relative to seven different emotions through the classical medical text of DongUiBoGam. Bodily organs that corresponded to different emotions were visualized using a body template. Results. The emotions had superior tf-idf values with the following bodily organs: anger with the liver, happiness with the heart, thoughtfulness with the heart and spleen, sadness with the heart and lungs, fear with the kidneys and the heart, surprise with the heart and the gallbladder, and anxiety with the heart and the lungs. Specific patterns between the emotions and corresponding bodily organ systems were identified. Conclusion. The present findings will further the current understanding of the relationship between the mind and body from the perspective of East Asian medicine. Western medicine characterizes emotional disorders using “neural” language while East Asian medicine uses “somatic” language.

  18. Differences and links between the East Asian and South Asian summer monsoon systems: Characteristics and Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ronghui; Liu, Yong; Du, Zhencai; Chen, Jilong; Huangfu, Jingliang

    2017-10-01

    This paper analyzes the differences in the characteristics and spatio-temporal variabilities of summertime rainfall and water vapor transport between the East Asian summer monsoon (EASM) and South Asian summer monsoon (SASM) systems. The results show obvious differences in summertime rainfall characteristics between these two monsoon systems. The summertime rainfall cloud systems of the EASM show a mixed stratiform and cumulus cloud system, while cumulus cloud dominates the SASM. These differences may be caused by differences in the vertical shear of zonal and meridional circulations and the convergence of water vapor transport fluxes. Moreover, the leading modes of the two systems' summertime rainfall anomalies also differ in terms of their spatiotemporal features on the interannual and interdecadal timescales. Nevertheless, several close links with respect to the spatiotemporal variabilities of summertime rainfall and water vapor transport exist between the two monsoon systems. The first modes of summertime rainfall in the SASM and EASM regions reveal a significant negative correlation on the interannual and the interdecadal timescales. This close relationship may be linked by a meridional teleconnection in the regressed summertime rainfall anomalies from India to North China through the southeastern part over the Tibetan Plateau, which we refer to as the South Asia/East Asia teleconnection pattern of Asian summer monsoon rainfall. The authors wish to dedicate this paper to Prof. Duzheng YE, and commemorate his 100th anniversary and his great contributions to the development of atmospheric dynamics.

  19. Perceived impact of socially anxious behaviours on individuals’ lives in Western and East Asian countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rapee, R.M.; Kim, J.; Wang, J.; Liu, X.; Hofmann, S.G.; Chen, J.; Oh, K.Y.; Bögels, S.M.; Arman, S.; Heinrichs, N.; Alden, L.E.

    2011-01-01

    The current study compared the predicted social and career impact of socially withdrawn and reticent behaviors among participants from Western and East Asian countries. Three hundred sixty-one college students from 5 Western countries and 455 students from 3 East Asian countries read hypothetical

  20. Cultural influences on stigmatization of problem gambling: East Asian and Caucasian canadians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhillon, Jasmin; Horch, Jenny D; Hodgins, David C

    2011-12-01

    Cultural influences on problem gambling stigma were examined using a between subject vignette study design. Students of East Asian (n = 64) and Caucasian (n = 50) ancestry recruited from a Canadian University rated a vignette describing either an East Asian problem gambler or a Caucasian problem gambler on a measure of attitudinal social distance. In accordance with the hypothesis, a factorial ANOVA revealed that East Asian Canadians stigmatize problem gambling more than Caucasian Canadians. Moreover, East Asian participants stigmatized the East Asian individual described in the vignette more than they did the Caucasian individual. Individuals with gambling problems were generally not perceived as being dangerous. However, participants who perceived problem gambling as a dangerous condition wanted more social distance than those who did not perceive individuals with a gambling problem as dangerous.

  1. Did China follow the East Asian development model?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boltho, Andrea

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available China is located in East Asia and, just as Japan, Taiwan or (South Korea at earlier stages of their development, has now grown very rapidly for some three decades. That is not enough, however, for it to qualify for membership of the club. The East Asian development model has a number of additional and important characteristics. Four are selected for discussion: the almost constant encouragement given to investment, the manufacturing sector and external competitiveness, and pursued via a variety of fairly interventionist industrial, trade and financial policies; a concomitant belief in the virtues of intense domestic (Japan and Taiwan and foreign (Korea competition; a set of broadly sensible and appropriate macroeconomic policies; and a number of favourable (pre-conditions, such as the presence of a homogeneous population, a relatively high stock of human capital, reasonable income equality and fairly authoritarian governments. China, since reforms began in the late 1970s, has shared some of these characteristics, but not all. In particular, it is still much more of a command economy than the other three countries have ever been, yet, at the same time, has embraced globalization with, arguably, much greater enthusiasm than was done, in earlier times, by Japan, Taiwan or Korea. If China's experience, however, is compared with that of other, more or less successful, developing countries, the similarities with the East Asia development model would seem to dwarf such differences

  2. The East Asian Office of Astronomy for Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Grijs, Richard; Zhang, Ziping

    2015-08-01

    At the 2012 General Assembly of the International Astronomical Union (IAU), the Office of Astronomy for Development (OAD) programme announced a number of exciting new partnerships to assist with the IAU's decadal strategic plan (2010-2020). These landmark decisions included establishing a new coordinating centre that aims at using astronomy as a tool for development in East Asia. The agreement covers two important functions. One is known as a Regional Node, which entails the coordination of astronomy-for-development activities in countries within the general geographical region of East Asia (in first instance China, Mongolia and the DPRK, but without placing firm geographical limits on the region). The other is known as a Language Expertise Centre which will deal with all aspects relating to (mainly) the Chinese language and culture. The impact of the latter may obviously spread well beyond the geographical region to other parts of the world. At this next General Assembly, we aim at updating the community of the achievements and aims of the East Asian Office of Astronomy for Development.

  3. A possible impact of the North Atlantic Oscillation on the east Asian summer monsoon precipitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Mi-Kyung; Kwon, Won-Tae; Baek, Hee-Jeong; Boo, Kyung-On; Lim, Gyu-Ho; Kug, Jong-Seong

    2006-11-01

    This letter reports on a possible delayed impact of the winter North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) on the following east Asian summer monsoon precipitation. An analysis of weather station data shows significant correlations between the December NAO index and precipitation over Korea and China in the subsequent summer. It appears that the correlation may be related to a wave train pattern which originates from the North Atlantic. The east Asian branch of this wave train can affect large-scale circulation and the precipitation over east Asia in early summer. We also found a significant interdecadal change of this relationship, which is possibly linked to a climatological change of the east Asian jet stream.

  4. February2007 EAST AFRICAN MEDICAL JOURNAL - _77

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2007-02-01

    Feb 1, 2007 ... February2007 EAST AFRICAN MEDICAL JOURNAL - _77. East African Medical Journal Vol. 84 N0. ... Tropical Institute, Department of Biomedical Research, Royal Tropical Institute. Request for reprints to: Dr. L. ... to optimize diagnosis and therapy; it enhances compliance and provides information on what.

  5. February2006 EAST AFRICAN MEDICAL JOURNAL 95

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2006-02-01

    Feb 1, 2006 ... February2006 EAST AFRICAN MEDICAL JOURNAL 95. East African Medical Iournal Vol 83 N0. 2 February ... community health, and a university nursing college with midwifery option. The maternity unit of the .... of births defects among livebirths in Singapore. Teratology. 1992; 46: 277-281. Ahuka O.L. ...

  6. Rivaroxaban for stroke prevention in East Asian patients from the ROCKET AF trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Ka Sing Lawrence; Hu, Dai Yi; Oomman, Abraham; Tan, Ru-San; Patel, Manesh R; Singer, Daniel E; Breithardt, Günter; Mahaffey, Kenneth W; Becker, Richard C; Califf, Robert; Fox, Keith A A; Berkowitz, Scott D; Hacke, Werner; Hankey, Graeme J

    2014-06-01

    In Rivaroxaban Once Daily Oral Direct Factor Xa Inhibitor Compared With Vitamin K Antagonism for Prevention of Stroke and Embolism Trial in Atrial Fibrillation (ROCKET AF) trial, rivaroxaban was noninferior to dose-adjusted warfarin in preventing stroke or systemic embolism among patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation at moderate to high stroke risk. Because of differences in patient demographics, epidemiology, and stroke risk management in East Asia, outcomes and relative effects of rivaroxaban versus warfarin were assessed to determine consistency among East Asians versus other ROCKET AF participants. Baseline demographics and interaction of treatment effects of rivaroxaban and warfarin among patients within East Asia and outside were assessed. A total of 932 (6.5%) ROCKET AF participants resided in East Asia. At baseline, East Asians had lower weight, creatinine clearance, and prior vitamin K antagonist use; higher prevalence of prior stroke; and less congestive heart failure and prior myocardial infarction than other participants. Despite higher absolute event rates for efficacy and safety outcomes in East Asians, the relative efficacy of rivaroxaban (20 mg once daily; 15 mg once daily for creatinine clearance of 30-49 mL/min) versus warfarin with respect to the primary efficacy end point (stroke/systemic embolism) was consistent among East Asians and non-East Asians (interaction P=0.666). Relative event rates for the major or nonmajor clinically relevant bleeding in patients treated with rivaroxaban and warfarin were consistent among East Asians and non-East Asians (interaction P=0.867). Observed relative efficacy and safety of rivaroxaban versus warfarin were similar among patients within and outside East Asia. Rivaroxaban, 20 mg once daily, is an alternative to warfarin for stroke prevention in East Asians with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  7. June2007 EAST AFRICAN MEDICAL JOURNAL 279

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    June2007 EAST AFRICAN MEDICAL JOURNAL 279. East African ... Objective: To determine whether a single weekly low dose of erythropoietin (EPO), haematenics ... adults respectively. Weekly chloroquine of 300mg for adults and 60mg for the two year old, and a high protein diet of fish, meat and beans were also given.

  8. The development and psychometric testing of East Asian Acculturation Scale among Asian immigrant women in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Shu-Fen; Chang, Wen-Yin; Chang, Lu-I; Chou, Yu-Hua; Chen, Ching-Min

    2013-01-01

    This is a report of development and psychometric testing of the East Asian Acculturation Measure-Chinese version (EAAM-C) scale. An instrument validation design with a cross-sectional survey was conducted. The process was carried in two phases. In Phase 1, Barry's East Asian Acculturation Measure was translated and back translated to evaluate its content, face validity, and feasibility validity. In Phase 2, the 16-item EAAM-C was pilot-tested among 485 female immigrants for test-retest reliability, internal consistency, theoretically-supported construct validity and concurrent validity. The pilot work and the survey results indicated the tools possessed adequate content and face validity. The Cronbach's Alphas for the EAAM-C was 0.72, and 0.76-0.79 for its subscales, and the correlation of test-retest reliability (at 3 weeks) was 0.75. After dropping one item, four theoretically-supported factors which explained 61.82% of the variance were abstracted using exploratory factor analysis: assimilation, integration, separation, and marginalization. Based on the underlying four-factor theoretical structures of the EAAM, the confirmatory factor analysis of the EAAM-C was further examined. The analysis revealed that the four-factor model was an acceptable fit for the data which demonstrated adequate finding in its construct validity. These factors were inter-correlated, and showed statistically significant correlation with the Chinese Health Questionnaire, indicating adequate concurrent validity. The scale shows acceptable validity and consistency, and suggests that immigrant acculturation is a complex construct. This quick evaluation instrument can be applied to assess clients' acculturation and in further developing certain interventions to improve their health.

  9. 242 EAST AFRICAN MEDICAL JOURNAL

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2002-05-05

    May 5, 2002 ... methodologies in settings with high disease prevalence. INTRODUCTION .... Subspecics Oxygen Growth on TCH Cyclo» PZA Nitrate preference pyruvate/ serine reduction gycerol. Classical A P=G R S S. Asian A PIG S S S. Africanum I M ..... in HIV-infected and uninfected adults in Uganda: application of a.

  10. Reactive nitrogen deposition to South East Asian rainforest

    Science.gov (United States)

    di Marco, Chiara F.; Phillips, Gavin J.; Thomas, Rick; Tang, Sim; Nemitz, Eiko; Sutton, Mark A.; Fowler, David; Lim, Sei F.

    2010-05-01

    The supply of reactive nitrogen (N) to global terrestrial ecosystems has doubled since the 1960s as a consequence of human activities, such as fertilizer application and production of nitrogen oxides by fossil-fuel burning. The deposition of atmospheric N species constitutes a major nutrient input to the biosphere. Tropical forests have been undergoing a radical land use change by increasing cultivation of sugar cane and oil palms and the remaining forests are increasingly affected by anthropogenic activities. Yet, quantifications of atmospheric nitrogen deposition to tropical forests, and nitrogen cycling under near-pristine and polluted conditions are rare. The OP3 project ("Oxidant and Particle Photochemical Processes above a Southeast Asian Tropical Rainforest") was conceived to study how emissions of reactive trace gases from a tropical rain forest mediate the regional scale production and processing of oxidants and particles, and to better understand the impact of these processes on local, regional and global scale atmospheric composition, chemistry and climate. As part of this study we have measured reactive, nitrogen containing trace gas (ammonia, nitric acid) and the associated aerosol components (ammonium, nitrate) at monthly time resolution using a simple filter / denuder for 16 months. These measurements were made at the Bukit Atur Global Atmospheric Watch tower near Danum Valley in the Malaysian state of Sabah, Borneo. In addition, the same compounds were measured at hourly time-resolution during an intensive measurement period, with a combination of a wet-chemistry system based on denuders and steam jet aerosol collectors and an aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS), providing additional information on the temporal controls. During this period, concentrations and fluxes of NO, NO2 and N2O were also measured. The measurements are used for inferential dry deposition modelling and combined with wet deposition data from the South East Asian Acid

  11. Effects of Quantitative Easing Monetary Policy Exit Strategy on East Asian Currencies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ogawa, Eiji; Wang, Zhiqian

    2016-01-01

    .... Specifically, we use data on interest rates as a monetary policy instrument to investigate how changes in the US interest rates affect interest rates, exchange rates, and capital flows in East Asian...

  12. East Asian Seas Regional Climatology Version 2.0 from 1804 to 2014 (NODC Accession 0123300)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The East Asian Seas Regional Climatology Version 2.0 is an update to the preliminary version released in May 2012. This update includes new temperature and salinity...

  13. East meets West: ethnic differences in prostate cancer epidemiology between East Asians and Caucasians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Tomomi

    2012-09-01

    Prostate cancer is the most prevalent cancer in males in Western countries. The reported incidence in Asia is much lower than that in African Americans and European Caucasians. Although the lack of systematic prostate cancer screening system in Asian countries explains part of the difference, this alone cannot fully explain the lower incidence in Asian immigrants in the United States and west-European countries compared to the black and non-Hispanic white in those countries, nor the somewhat better prognosis in Asian immigrants with prostate cancer in the United States. Soy food consumption, more popular in Asian populations, is associated with a 25% to 30% reduced risk of prostate cancer. Prostate-specific antigen(PSA) is the only established and routinely implemented clinical biomarker for prostate cancer detection and disease status. Other biomarkers, such as urinary prostate cancer antigen 3 RNA, may increase accuracy of prostate cancer screening compared to PSA alone. Several susceptible loci have been identified in genetic linkage analyses in populations of countries in the West, and approximately 30 genetic polymorphisms have been reported to modestly increase the prostate cancer risk in genome-wide association studies. Most of the identified polymorphisms are reproducible regardless of ethnicity. Somatic mutations in the genomes of prostate tumors have been repeatedly reported to include deletion and gain of the 8p and 8q chromosomal regions, respectively; epigenetic gene silencing of glutathione S-transferase Pi(GSTP1); as well as mutations in androgen receptor gene. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying carcinogenesis, aggressiveness, and prognosis of prostate cancer remain largely unknown. Gene-gene and/or gene-environment interactions still need to be learned. In this review, the differences in PSA screening practice, reported incidence and prognosis of prostate cancer, and genetic factors between the populations in East and West factors are

  14. 476 EAST AFRICAN MEDICAL JOURNAL September 2002 East ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2002-09-09

    Sep 9, 2002 ... East African Medical Journal Vol. 79 No 9 September 2002. CHLAMYDIA AS A CAUSE OF LATE NEONATAL PNEUMONIA AT KENYATTA NATIONAL HOSPITAL. NAIROBI. F.N. Were, MBChB, MMed, FNIC, Lecturer. A.F. Govedi, MBChB, Senior House Officer, Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, ...

  15. Fudo: An East Asian Notion of Climate and Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Baek

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available My paper discusses an East Asian notion of climate and its significance for sustainability. A particular reference is the environmental philosophy of Tetsuro Watsuji (1889–1960, a Japanese philosopher who reflected upon the meaning of climate, or “fudo” in the Sino-Japanese linguistic tradition. Watsuji sees fudo not merely as a collection of natural features—climatic, scenic, and topographical—of a given land, but also as the metaphor of subjectivity, or “who I am”. Furthermore, this self-discovery through fudo is never private but collective. By referring to a phenomenological notion of “ek-sistere”, or “to be out among other ‘I’s”, Watsuji demonstrates the pervasiveness of a climatic phenomenon and the ensuing inter-personal joining of different individuals to shape a collective sustainable measure in response to the phenomenon. My paper lastly concretizes the significance of fudo and its inter-personal ethical basis for sustainability by dwelling upon cross-ventilation in Japanese vernacular residential architecture. Cross-ventilation emerges only through what Watsuji calls “selfless openness” between different rooms predicated upon the joining of different ‘I’s soaked in hotness and humidity. Watsuji’s fudo thus offers a lesson that without considering the collective humane characteristic of a natural climatic phenomenon, any sustainable act is flawed and inefficient.

  16. Interannual variation of East Asian Winter Monsoon and ENSO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yi; Sperber, Kenneth R.; Boyle, James S.

    1996-12-01

    This paper examines the interannual variation of the East Asian winter monsoon and its relationship with EJSO based on the 1979-1995 NCEP/NCAR reanalysis. Two stratifications of cold surges are used. The first one, described as the conventional cold surges, indicates that the surge frequency reaches a urn one year after El Nino events. The second one, originated from the same region as the first, is defined as the maximum wind events near the South China Sea. The variation of this stratification of surges is found to be in good agreement with the South Oscillation Index (SOI). Low SOI (high SOI) events coincide with years of low (high) surge frequency. The interannual variation of averaged meridional wind near the South China Sea and western Pacific is dominated by the South China Sea cold surges, and is also well correlated (R--O.82) with the SOI. Strong wind seasons are associated with La Nina and high SOI events; likewise, weak wind years are linked with El Nino and low SOI cases. This pattern is restricted north of the equator within the region of (OON-20 N, 11OOE-1300E), and is confined to the near surface layer. The surface Siberian high, 500 hPa trough and 200 hPa jetstream, all representing the large-scale monsoon flow, are found to be weaker than normal during El Nino years. In particular, the interannual variation of the Siberian high is in general agreement with the SOL.

  17. Coding region mitochondrial DNA SNPs: targeting East Asian and Native American haplogroups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Iglesias, V; Jaime, J C; Carracedo, A; Salas, A

    2007-03-01

    We have developed a single PCR multiplex SNaPshot reaction that consists of 32 coding region SNPs that allows (i) increasing the discrimination power of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) typing in forensic casework, and (ii) haplogroup assignments of mtDNA profiles in both human population studies (e.g. anthropological) and medical research. The selected SNPs target the East Asian phylogeny, including its Native American derived branches. We have validated this multiplex assay by genotyping a sample of East Asians (Taiwanese) and Native Americans (Argentineans). In addition to the coding SNP typing, we have sequenced the complete control region for the same samples. The genotyping results (control region plus SNaPshot profiles) are in good agreement with previous human population genetic studies (based on e.g. complete sequencing) and the known mtDNA phylogeny. We observe that the SNaPshot method is reliable, rapid, and cost effective in comparison with other techniques of multiplex SNP genotyping. We discuss the advantages of our SNP genotyping selection with respect to previous attempts, and we highlight the importance of using the known mtDNA phylogeny as a framework for SNP profile interpretation and as a tool to minimize genotyping errors.

  18. New loci and coding variants confer risk for age-related macular degeneration in East Asians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Ching-Yu; Yamashiro, Kenji; Chen, Li Jia; Ahn, Jeeyun; Huang, Lulin; Huang, Lvzhen; Cheung, Chui Ming G; Miyake, Masahiro; Cackett, Peter D; Yeo, Ian Y; Laude, Augustinus; Mathur, Ranjana; Pang, Junxiong; Sim, Kar Seng; Koh, Adrian H; Chen, Peng; Lee, Shu Yen; Wong, Doric; Chan, Choi Mun; Loh, Boon Kwang; Sun, Yaoyao; Davila, Sonia; Nakata, Isao; Nakanishi, Hideo; Akagi-Kurashige, Yumiko; Gotoh, Norimoto; Tsujikawa, Akitaka; Matsuda, Fumihiko; Mori, Keisuke; Yoneya, Shin; Sakurada, Yoichi; Iijima, Hiroyuki; Iida, Tomohiro; Honda, Shigeru; Lai, Timothy Yuk Yau; Tam, Pancy Oi Sin; Chen, Haoyu; Tang, Shibo; Ding, Xiaoyan; Wen, Feng; Lu, Fang; Zhang, Xiongze; Shi, Yi; Zhao, Peiquan; Zhao, Bowen; Sang, Jinghong; Gong, Bo; Dorajoo, Rajkumar; Yuan, Jian-Min; Koh, Woon-Puay; van Dam, Rob M; Friedlander, Yechiel; Lin, Ying; Hibberd, Martin L; Foo, Jia Nee; Wang, Ningli; Wong, Chang Hua; Tan, Gavin S; Park, Sang Jun; Bhargava, Mayuri; Gopal, Lingam; Naing, Thet; Liao, Jiemin; Ong, Peng Guan; Mitchell, Paul; Zhou, Peng; Xie, Xuefeng; Liang, Jinlong; Mei, Junpu; Jin, Xin; Saw, Seang-Mei; Ozaki, Mineo; Mizoguchi, Takanori; Kurimoto, Yasuo; Woo, Se Joon; Chung, Hum; Yu, Hyeong-Gon; Shin, Joo Young; Park, Dong Ho; Kim, In Taek; Chang, Woohyok; Sagong, Min; Lee, Sang-Joon; Kim, Hyun Woong; Lee, Ji Eun; Li, Yi; Liu, Jianjun; Teo, Yik Ying; Heng, Chew Kiat; Lim, Tock Han; Yang, Suk-Kyun; Song, Kyuyoung; Vithana, Eranga N; Aung, Tin; Bei, Jin Xin; Zeng, Yi Xin; Tai, E Shyong; Li, Xiao Xin; Yang, Zhenglin; Park, Kyu-Hyung; Pang, Chi Pui; Yoshimura, Nagahisa; Wong, Tien Yin; Khor, Chiea Chuen

    2015-01-28

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a major cause of blindness, but presents differently in Europeans and Asians. Here, we perform a genome-wide and exome-wide association study on 2,119 patients with exudative AMD and 5,691 controls, with independent replication in 4,226 patients and 10,289 controls, all of East Asian descent, as part of The Genetics of AMD in Asians (GAMA) Consortium. We find a strong association between CETP Asp442Gly (rs2303790), an East Asian-specific mutation, and increased risk of AMD (odds ratio (OR)=1.70, P=5.60 × 10(-22)). The AMD risk allele (442Gly), known to protect from coronary heart disease, increases HDL cholesterol levels by 0.17 mmol l(-1) (P=5.82 × 10(-21)) in East Asians (n=7,102). We also identify three novel AMD loci: C6orf223 Ala231Ala (OR=0.78, P=6.19 × 10(-18)), SLC44A4 Asp47Val (OR=1.27, P=1.08 × 10(-11)) and FGD6 Gln257Arg (OR=0.87, P=2.85 × 10(-8)). Our findings suggest that some of the genetic loci conferring AMD susceptibility in East Asians are shared with Europeans, yet AMD in East Asians may also have a distinct genetic signature.

  19. Child Marriage or Forced Marriage? South Asian Communities in North East England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangoli, Geetanjali; McCarry, Melanie; Razak, Amina

    2009-01-01

    This article addresses the links between child marriage and forced marriage in the UK, drawing from a research study on South Asian communities in North East England. It looks at definitional issues through an analysis of UK and South Asian policies. It also analyses how these concepts are understood by service providers, survivors of child…

  20. Differences in sexual guilt and desire in east Asian and Euro-Canadian men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brotto, Lori A; Woo, Jane S T; Gorzalka, Boris B

    2012-01-01

    Differences in sexual desire between individuals of East Asian and European descent are well-documented, with East Asian individuals reporting lower sexual desire. The mechanisms that underlie this disparity have received little empirical attention. Recent research has found that sex guilt, "a generalized expectancy for self-mediated punishment for violating or for anticipating violating standards of proper sexual conduct" (Mosher & Cross, 1971 , p. 27), mediates the relationship between culture and sexual desire in East Asian and Euro-Canadian women. The goal of this study was to explore this role of sex guilt in men. Male Euro-Canadian (n = 38) and East Asian (n = 45) university students completed online questionnaires. The East Asian men reported significantly lower sexual desire and significantly higher sex guilt. Sex guilt was a significant mediator of the relationship between ethnicity and sexual desire, as well as a significant mediator between mainstream acculturation and sexual desire. Among the East Asian men, mainstream acculturation was significantly and negatively correlated with sex guilt such that increasing mainstream acculturation was associated with less sex guilt. The diagnostic and clinical implications of the findings are discussed.

  1. Early East Asian art history in Vienna and its trajectories: Josef Strzygowski, Karl With, Alfred Salmony

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Orell

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In 1912 Josef Strzygowski founded the ‘Section for East Asian Art History’ at the University of Vienna, which attracted many students who would continue their careers in museums and at universities and thus established East Asian art history as an academic field. This paper examines these early art historical engagements with East Asian art: First, I discuss the role of East Asian art in Strzygowski’s agenda of broadening art history’s geographical scope beyond Europe and in his argument about the dominance of ‘Nordic’ artistic traditions in Europe and in Asia. Secondly, I introduce the work of two early students at the ‘Section for East Asian Art History’ in Vienna, Karl With and Alfred Salmony. Their respective approaches to East Asian art exemplify a range of methodological concerns of their time, from stylistic narratives, the concept of ars una, comparative frameworks, to ideas about cultural or national ‘purity’ in the arts, and an interest in cross-cultural adaption and transformation of motifs and symbolism.

  2. 290 EAST AFRICAN MEDICAL JOURNAL

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2001-06-02

    Jun 2, 2001 ... This paper was presented at the 12th International Association for Dental Research (IADR), East and Southern Africa Division, Conference in Nairobi, Kenya ... Setting: Division of Prosthetic Dentistry, Faculty of Dental Sciences, University of ... extent, their compromised facial appearances (aesthetics).

  3. The Contribution of East Asian Countries to Internationally Published Asian Higher Education Research: The Role of System Development and Internationalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Jisun; Horta, Hugo

    2015-01-01

    Studies of higher education by scholars based in Asia have been growing in volume, following worldwide trends. To a large extent, this growth has been driven by East Asian countries, but little is known about the characteristics of the contribution of these countries. This study analyses their overall and specific contribution. The paper concludes…

  4. The East-Asian vector of the Indian external policy: priorities in the South-East Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Valerievna Galistcheva

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is the analysis of the key direction of the East-Asian vector of the Indian external economic policy in 1990-2000s - its ties with the South-East Asian countries. The article highlights the main direction of the Indian government’s policy in the region - trade cooperation. The author examines the composition of the Indian exports to the South-East Asian countries and imports from this region as well as the main trade partners. The article also presents statistical data on the Grubel-Lloyd Index which measures India and the ASEAN-countries intra-industry trade of five main import and export products. The article also highlights the current bilateral investment interaction. It is noted that the investment cooperation between India and the South-East Asian countries is characterized by significantly higher activity of Indian investors. As a whole it helps accelerating bilateral economic relations. The author notes the mechanism of the Indian assistance to the South-East Asian countries and points out that providing assistance India wins markets for their products as well as favorable conditions for its companies to penetrate the South-East Asian region which ultimately stimulates the growth of bilateral trade. The author stresses that the Indian policy of providing assistance aims at consolidating its economic positions in the region as well as at spreading its geopolitical influence. The article presents statistical data characterizing the present state of the Indian external economic ties with this region.

  5. The Strategic Positioning of Australian Research Universities in the East Asian Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marginson, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Regional tendencies in higher education are increasingly important, for example the common rise of North-East Asian universities in China, Hong Kong SAR, Taiwan and South Korea, and Singapore in South-East Asia, to a major global role, following the prior trajectory of Japan. Though the rapidly modernizing Post-Confucian countries do not…

  6. Baseline predictability of daily east Asian summer monsoon circulation indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, Shucong; Chen, Quanliang; Li, Jianping; Ding, Ruiqiang; Zhong, Quanjia

    2017-05-01

    The nonlinear local Lyapunov exponent (NLLE) method is adopted to quantitatively determine the predictability limit of East Asian summer monsoon (EASM) intensity indices on a synoptic timescale. The predictability limit of EASM indices varies widely according to the definitions of indices. EASM indices defined by zonal shear have a limit of around 7 days, which is higher than the predictability limit of EASM indices defined by sea level pressure (SLP) difference and meridional wind shear (about 5 days). The initial error of EASM indices defined by SLP difference and meridional wind shear shows a faster growth than indices defined by zonal wind shear. Furthermore, the indices defined by zonal wind shear appear to fluctuate at lower frequencies, whereas the indices defined by SLP difference and meridional wind shear generally fluctuate at higher frequencies. This result may explain why the daily variability of the EASM indices defined by zonal wind shear tends be more predictable than those defined by SLP difference and meridional wind shear. Analysis of the temporal correlation coefficient (TCC) skill for EASM indices obtained from observations and from NCEP's Global Ensemble Forecasting System (GEFS) historical weather forecast dataset shows that GEFS has a higher forecast skill for the EASM indices defined by zonal wind shear than for indices defined by SLP difference and meridional wind shear. The predictability limit estimated by the NLLE method is shorter than that in GEFS. In addition, the June-September average TCC skill for different daily EASM indices shows significant interannual variations from 1985 to 2015 in GEFS. However, the TCC for different types of EASM indices does not show coherent interannual fluctuations.

  7. Nationalism, Nationalistic Demos and Democracy: East Asian Experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jungmin Seo

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This research is an attempt to offer a new theoretical framework to understand the political dynamics of East Asian nationalism(s, a topic overlooked by both historians and political scientists. The political dynamics of nationalism shown in the two historical case studies investigated here, the bottom-up ultra-right-wing nationalism in 1930s Japan and the anti-state left-wing/anti-imperial nationalism in 1980s Korea, poses a strong anti-thesis against our commonsensical understanding of nationalism. From the Eurocentric perspectives, the nationalist projects of nation-making always create a homogeneous –either real or fictive – population that is willing to fight and die for the state. The historical case studies shown in this study, however, refute the monolithic interpretation of nationalism in the modern history. Assuming that the nation-making projects in Japan and Korea were very successful, the histories of 1930s Japan and 1980s Korea show a hidden face of nationalism – the more nationalized, the more rebellious – as the nationalized subjects claimed ownership of the state. The experiences of nationalistic fever in Japan and Korea provide a prism to analyze contemporary Chinese neo-nationalism, which has become one of the most important research subjects in China. The experiences of Japan and Korea suggest that the only outcome we can predict from the surge of nationalism is the vitiated and weakened state capability to control the ideological realm of the society. Therefore, we can expect that the surge of nationalistic sentiments from the bottom up in Chinese societies pose a threat to the domestic stability managed by the Chinese Communist Party.

  8. EAST AFRICAN MEDICAL JOURNAL 343

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2002-07-07

    Jul 7, 2002 ... Department of Medical Microbiology and Parasitology, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of llorin. P.M.B. ISIS. Ilorin. ... syrup depending on group. Setting: College of Medicine of the University of Lagos Medical Microbiology and .... therapeutic at this dosage as the concentration of the active ingredients.

  9. Electronic health records approaches and challenges: a comparison between Malaysia and four East Asian countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd Ghani, Mohd Khanapi; Bali, Rajeev K; Naguib, Raouf N G; Marshall, Ian M

    2008-01-01

    An integrated Lifetime Health Record (LHR) is fundamental for achieving seamless and continuous access to patient medical information and for the continuum of care. However, the aim has not yet been fully realised. The efforts are actively progressing around the globe. Every stage of the development of the LHR initiatives had presented peculiar challenges. The best lessons in life are those of someone else's experiences. This paper presents an overview of the development approaches undertaken by four East Asian countries in implementing a national Electronic Health Record (EHR) in the public health system. The major challenges elicited from the review including integration efforts, process reengineering, funding, people, and law and regulation will be presented, compared, discussed and used as lessons learned for the further development of the Malaysian integrated LHR.

  10. Right: Left:: East: West. Evidence that individuals from East Asian and South Asian cultures emphasize right hemisphere functions in comparison to Euro-American cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozin, Paul; Moscovitch, Morris; Imada, Sumio

    2016-09-01

    We present evidence that individuals from East or South Asian cultures (Japanese college students in Japan and East or South Asian born and raised college students in the USA) tend to exhibit default thinking that corresponds to right hemisphere holistic functions, as compared to Caucasian individuals from a Western culture (born and raised in the USA). In two lateralized tasks (locating the nose in a scrambled face, and global-local letter task), both Asian groups showed a greater right hemisphere bias than the Western group. In a third lateralized task, judging similarity in terms of visual form versus functional/semantic categorizations, there was not a reliable difference between the groups. On a classic, ambiguous face composed of vegetables, both Eastern groups displayed a greater right hemisphere (holistic face processing) bias than the Western group. These results support an "East - Right Hemisphere, West - Left Hemisphere" hypothesis, as originally proposed by Ornstein (1972). This hypothesis is open as to the degree to which social-cultural forces were involved in hemispheric specialization, or the opposite, or both. Our aim is to encourage a more thorough analysis of this hypothesis, suggesting both lateralization studies corresponding to documented East-West differences, and East-West studies corresponding to lateralization differences. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The Academic Success of East Asian American Youth: The Role of Shadow Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byun, Soo-yong; Park, Hyunjoon

    2013-01-01

    Using data from the Education Longitudinal Study, this study assessed the relevance of shadow education to the high academic performance of East Asian American students by examining how East Asian American students differed from other racial/ethnic students in the prevalence, purpose, and effects of using the two forms – commercial test preparation service and private one-to-one tutoring – of SAT coaching, defined as the American style of shadow education. East Asian American students were most likely to take a commercial SAT test preparation course for the enrichment purpose, and benefited most from taking this particular form of SAT coaching. However, this was not the case for private SAT one-to-one tutoring. While black students were most likely to utilize private tutoring for the remedial purpose, the impact of private tutoring was trivial for all racial/ethnic groups including East Asian American students. The authors discussed broader implications of the findings on racial/ethnic inequalities in educational achievement beyond the relevance of shadow education for the academic success of East Asian American students. PMID:24163483

  12. 554 EAST AFRICAN MEDICAL JOURNAL

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2003-11-02

    Nov 2, 2003 ... Medical Physics, Democritus University of Thrace, J. Venizelos, PhD, Department of Pathology, Ippokration Hospital of Salonica, T. Jivannakis, MD, Department of Pathology, General Hospital of Drama, P. Skaphida, PhD, Department of Cytology, General Hospital of Alexandroupolis and N. Papadopoulos, ...

  13. 60 EAST AFRICAN MEDICAL JOURNAL

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2001-02-02

    Feb 2, 2001 ... medical persounel including nurses were poorly or hardly utilised for cervical cancer screening. Treatment ... Conclusion: There is an urgent need to introduce systematic screening against cervical cancer and treatment of ..... whose prevention should be integrated in all existing primary health care and ...

  14. 442 EAST AFRICAN MEDICAL JOURNAL

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2002-08-08

    Aug 8, 2002 ... World Development Report 1993: Investing in Health. Oxford University Press. 1993'. Cheesbrough, M. Medical Laboratory Manual for Tropical. Countries (2nd ed.). Butterworth and Brough, Green Kent. 1991. Booth, M. and Bundy, D.A P. Comparative prevalence of. Arcaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura ...

  15. 22 EAST AFRICAN MEDICAL JOURNAL

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2002-01-02

    Jan 2, 2002 ... Design: A prospective cross-sectional study. Setting: Infertility clinics at the Gandhi Memorial Women's hospital and Brook Medical ... In the male, the causes are multifactorial and include endocrine, organic, familial and ..... induces pronounced anorexia in addition to constipation, gastritis and insomnia; and ...

  16. 102 EAST AFRICAN MEDICAL JOURNAL

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2001-02-02

    Feb 2, 2001 ... books and instructions, and the twelve-months recording periods were not all simultaneous. Demographic projections based on the 1979 census were used for estimates of surgical rates. Handwritten primary data recorded by the staff at health facilities were coded at the Medical Research Centre, Kenya.

  17. EAST AFRICAN MEDICAL JOURNAL 49

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Officer and J . Kiryabwire, MBChB, MMed, Surgeon, Makerere University Medical School, Mulago Hospital, PO. Box 7072, Kampala, Uganda ... neurological manifestation of a disease which affects many in our region and which if left untreated can lead to ... a clinical and laboratory investigation protocol for the diagnosis of ...

  18. HIV infection in elderly medical patients | Mtei | East African Medical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HIV infection in elderly medical patients. L. N. Mtei, P. Pallangyo. Abstract. (East African Medical Journal: 2001 78(3): 144-147). Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/eamj.v78i3.9081 · AJOL African Journals Online.

  19. September 2004 EAST AFRICAN MEDICAL JOURNAL 459

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2004-09-01

    Sep 1, 2004 ... East African Medical Journal Vol. 81 No. 9 September 2004. SOLITARY THYROID NODULE: THE RISK OF CANCER AND THE EXTENT OF SURGICAL THERAPY I ~ ~ . G. A. Khairy, FRCS, MS, Assistant Professor and Consultant General Surgeon, College of Medicine and King Khalid University Hospital,.

  20. 24 EAST AFRICAN MEDICAL JOURNAL January2007

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    East African Medical [oumal Vol. 84 No. 1 Ianuary 2007 I . EFFECT OF DIAGNOSIS AND TREATMENT OF INOPERABLE CERVICAL CANCER ON QUALITY OF LIFE AMONG. WOMEN RECEIVING RADIOTHERAPY AT KENYATTA NATIONAL HOSPITAL ' v. R.K. Kamau, MBChB (Nbi), MMed, Obs/ Gyn '(Nbi), Chairman and ...

  1. I30 EAST AFRICAN MEDICAL JOURNAL

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    March 2003. East African Medical Journal Vol. 80 No. 3 March 2003. CHRONIC SUPPURATIVE OTITIS MEDIA IN SCHOOL PUPILS IN NIGERIA. FE. Ologe, MBBS, FWACS, FMCORL, Lecturer, Department of ... in chi]dhood(1-3). Its incidence has been reported to depend on race and socio- economic factors(4). A high.

  2. 232 EAST AFRICAN MEDICAL JOURNAL May 2002

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    a prevalence of 79% in 29 Italian type II diabetics. In another European study, Gentile et al.(10) found 74% of. 164 type II diabetics as compared to 50% controls with H. pylori infection. N 0 local studies have so ... EAST AFRICAN MEDICAL JOURNAL 233 congestive cardiac failure and onewith hepatitis were also excluded.

  3. Current food and nutrition situation in south Asian and south-east Asian countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalan, C

    1996-09-01

    Food production in the countries of South and South-East Asia has shown a general upward trend during the last decade. Despite the considerable increase in population in many of these countries, food production per capita in 1988-90 was significantly higher as compared to 1979-81 figures, the increase being specially marked in such countries as Vietnam, Cambodia, Indonesia, and Malaysia. Available daily calorie supply was adequate to meet the requirement. The overall pattern of food production however has shown little change, with cereal production continuing to account for a predominant part of food production. There is no evidence of a significant uptrend with respect to production of pulses, milk, horticultural products, poultry or meat production in most countries. A unique and unfortunate feature of the nutrition situation in South-Asian countries is that the incidence of low birth weight deliveries is as high as 34% (1990), ranging from 25% in Sri Lanka to 50% in Bangladesh (as against less than 7% in the countries of Europe and North America). Even in countries of Africa where the overall food and nutrition situation is worse than in South Asia, the incidence is well below 20%. This is a reflection of the poor state of maternal nutrition in pregnancy. Florid nutritional deficiency diseases have shown a steep decline over the last two decades, but goitre and iron deficiency anaemia continue to be major public health problems, though some headway has been made with regard to the control of the former. Severe forms of growth retardation in children have declined but the majority suffer from mild and moderate forms of growth retardation. Countries of the Region are in varying stages of developmental transition. Among the burgeoning middle classes in some of these countries there are evidences of escalation of degenerative diseases such as diabetes and coronary heart disease. With increasing life expectancy, geriatric nutritional problems will demand increasing

  4. Between Tradition and Modernity: Modern Confucianism as a Form of East Asian Social Knowledge

    OpenAIRE

    Jana S. ROŠKER

    2017-01-01

    In the last decades of the 20th century, the revival of traditional Confucianism assumed increasing importance and relevance. The revitalization of its complex philosophical heritage thus became part of the most important theoretical currents in contemporary East Asian societies. Due to its potentially stabilizing social function and compatibility with capitalism, Confucianism is often seen as the Asian equivalent of Max Weber’s “protestant ethic”. In modern sinology, this view is known as th...

  5. Impact of aerosol direct effect on East Asian air quality during the EAST-AIRE campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Allen, Dale J.; Pickering, Kenneth E.; Li, Zhanqing; He, Hao

    2016-06-01

    WRF-Chem simulations were performed for the March 2005 East Asian Studies of Tropospheric Aerosols: an International Regional Experiment (EAST-AIRE) Intensive Observation Campaign (IOC) to investigate the direct effects of aerosols on surface radiation and air quality. Domain-wide, WRF-Chem showed a decrease of 20 W/m2 in surface shortwave (SW) radiation due to the aerosol direct effect (ADE), consistent with observational studies. The ADE caused 24 h surface PM2.5 (particulate matter with diameter < 2.5 µm) concentrations to increase in eastern China (4.4%), southern China (10%), western China (2.3%), and the Sichuan Basin (9.6%), due to different aerosol compositions in these four regions. Conversely, surface 1 h maximum ozone was reduced by 2.3% domain-wide and up to 12% in eastern China because less radiation reached the surface. We also investigated the impact of reducing SO2 and black carbon (BC) emissions by 80% on aerosol amounts via two sensitivity simulations. Reducing SO2 decreased surface PM2.5 concentrations in the Sichuan Basin and southern China by 5.4% and decreased ozone by up to 6 ppbv in the Sichuan Basin and Southern China. Reducing BC emissions decreased PM2.5 by 3% in eastern China and the Sichuan Basin but increased surface ozone by up to 3.6 ppbv in eastern China and the Sichuan Basin. This study indicates that the benefits of reducing PM2.5 associated with reducing absorbing aerosols may be partially offset by increases in ozone at least for a scenario when NOx and VOC emissions are unchanged.

  6. Novel cynomolgus macaque MHC-DPB1 polymorphisms in three South-East Asian populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sano, K; Shiina, T; Kohara, S; Yanagiya, K; Hosomichi, K; Shimizu, S; Anzai, T; Watanabe, A; Ogasawara, K; Torii, R; Kulski, J K; Inoko, H

    2006-04-01

    Cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis, Mafa), alias the crab-eating monkeys or long-tailed macaques, live across a vast range of South-East Asia. These non-human primates have emerged as important animal models in infectious and chronic diseases and transplantation studies, necessitating a more extensive characterization of their major histocompatibility complex polymorphic regions. The current information on the polymorphic variation or diversity of the Mafa-DPB1 locus is largely limited in comparison with the more commonly studied rhesus macaque DPB1 locus. In this article, to better elucidate the degree and types of polymorphisms and genetic differences of Mafa-DPB1 locus among three South-East Asian populations and to investigate how the allele differences between macaques and humans might affect their respective immune responses, we identified 40 alleles within exon 2 of the Mafa-DPB1 locus by DNA sequencing using 217 individuals. We also performed evolutionary and population analyses using these sequences to reveal some population-specific alleles and trans-species allelic conservation between the cynomolgus macaques and the rhesus macaques. Of the 40 new alleles, eight belong to a newly identified lineage group not previously found in the rhesus macaque species. This allele information will be useful for medical researchers using the cynomolgus macaques in disease and immunological studies.

  7. Meta-analysis identifies common variants associated with body mass index in East Asians

    OpenAIRE

    Wen, Wanqing; Cho, Yoon Shin; Zheng, Wei; Dorajoo, Rajkumar; Kato, Norihiro; Qi, Lu; Chen, Chien-Hsiun; Delahanty, Ryan J.; Okada, Yukinori; Tabara, Yasuharu; Gu, Dongfeng; Zhu, Dingliang; Haiman, Christopher A.; Mo, Zengnan; Gao, Yu-Tang

    2012-01-01

    Multiple genetic loci associated with obesity or body mass index (BMI) have been identified through genome-wide association studies conducted predominantly in populations of European ancestry. We conducted a meta-analysis of associations between BMI and approximately 2.4 million SNPs in 27,715 East Asians, followed by in silico and de novo replication in 37,691 and 17,642 additional East Asians, respectively. We identified ten BMI-associated loci at the genome-wide significance level (P

  8. Characteristics, processes, and causes of the spatio-temporal variabilities of the East Asian monsoon system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ronghui; Chen, Jilong; Wang, Lin; Lin, Zhongda

    2012-09-01

    Recent advances in the study of the characteristics, processes, and causes of spatio-temporal variabilities of the East Asian monsoon (EAM) system are reviewed in this paper. The understanding of the EAM system has improved in many aspects: the basic characteristics of horizontal and vertical structures, the annual cycle of the East Asian summer monsoon (EASM) system and the East Asian winter monsoon (EAWM) system, the characteristics of the spatio-temporal variabilities of the EASM system and the EAWM system, and especially the multiple modes of the EAM system and their spatio-temporal variabilities. Some new results have also been achieved in understanding the atmosphere-ocean interaction and atmosphere-land interaction processes that affect the variability of the EAM system. Based on recent studies, the EAM system can be seen as more than a circulation system, it can be viewed as an atmosphere-ocean-land coupled system, namely, the EAM climate system. In addition, further progress has been made in diagnosing the internal physical mechanisms of EAM climate system variability, especially regarding the characteristics and properties of the East Asia-Pacific (EAP) teleconnection over East Asia and the North Pacific, the "Silk Road" teleconnection along the westerly jet stream in the upper troposphere over the Asian continent, and the dynamical effects of quasi-stationary planetary wave activity on EAM system variability. At the end of the paper, some scientific problems regarding understanding the EAM system variability are proposed for further study.

  9. Relationships of Cognitive and Metacognitive Learning Strategies to Mathematics Achievement in Four High-Performing East Asian Education Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Areepattamannil, Shaljan; Caleon, Imelda S.

    2013-01-01

    The authors examined the relationships of cognitive (i.e., memorization and elaboration) and metacognitive learning strategies (i.e., control strategies) to mathematics achievement among 15-year-old students in 4 high-performing East Asian education systems: Shanghai-China, Hong Kong-China, Korea, and Singapore. In all 4 East Asian education…

  10. The Influence of Culture on Parenting Practices of East Asian Families and Emotional Intelligence of Older Adolescents: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Helen Y.

    2010-01-01

    Academic success among East Asian students is well known and almost stereotypical. Yet the attention to emotional well-being continues to be minimal. The discrepancy between academic success and social/emotional difficulties appears to be a problem among East Asian adolescents. This qualitative grounded theory study examines how the cultural…

  11. Perceptions of Disability and Special Education among East Asian Parents: U.S. Immigrants and Non-Immigrants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Min-Chi; Kim, Sunyoung; Kang, Hyun-Ju; Wilkerson, Kimber L.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the current literature review is to understand how East Asian American (EAA) parents of students with disabilities perceive disabilities and special education. These parental perspectives are compared to those of their East Asian (EA) parents to better understand whether EAA parents adjust their perceptions in the U.S. Findings from…

  12. Lessons of Global Neo-liberalism? The East Asian Economic Crisis Reconsidered

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, David A

    1999-01-01

    This paper begins with some comments on the way globalization has been linked to neo-liberal ideology. Then, the discussion shifts to East Asian (and specifically South Korean) political economy. Premised on an appreciation of the distinctiveness of the East Asia situation and economic trajectory, I will move into discussion of three key points about economic governance/organization: 1) foreign direct investment or, the historical lack thereof, during the decades of growth, 2) continuing te...

  13. Potential Mental Health Problems of South East Asian Refugees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piotrowski, Maryann

    1980-01-01

    Reports on the findings of a workshop conducted to study the mental health problems of Southeast Asian refugees and to project possible future problems. Findings show the refugees' preconceived notions of America, their inability to communicate, and their feelings of alienation and homesickness underlie most of the emotional problems. (PJM)

  14. Afro Middle East Asian symposium on cancer cooperation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purvish M Parikh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This manuscript captures the discussion and recommendations that came out of a special Afro Asian symposium involving 13 countries. Unmet needs and cost-effective solutions with special emphasis on training form the backbone of practical next steps.

  15. The Roots and Implications of East Asian Regionalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-09-01

    them from the sedentary agriculturalists of India, China, and Persia with whom they maintained close political and economic contacts. The western nomads...traders and missionaries . Still, Southeast Asians never became “Indians.” Their cultural borrowing from South and West Asia was controlled and tailored

  16. Are Asian international medical students just rote learners?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavakol, Mohsen; Dennick, Reg

    2010-08-01

    A wide variety of countries are seeking to attract international medical students. This could be due to the fact that their universities not only receive the economic benefit from these students, but also because they recognise the issues of cultural diversity and pedagogical practice. This review paper draws on literature to understand more fully the learning process of Asian international students. Whereas views on learning are different across cultures, medical school teachers must understand how Asian international students learn based on their culture. Two general themes emerged from the literature review: firstly culture's influence on learning and secondly memorisation versus understanding, both of which relate to the learning process of Asian international students. This study shows that Asian international students have a different approach to learning, which is not just about rote learning. Changes in attitudes towards Asian international students may stimulate the internationalisation of a more culturally sensitive form of medical education. The paper suggests further work on the area of appreciative thinking in order to identify the epistemological and ontological dimensions for a flexible approach to learning.

  17. Physical Activity, Body Mass Index, Alcohol Consumption and Cigarette Smoking among East Asian College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Dong-Chul; Torabi, Mohammad R.; Chin, Ming-Kai; Lee, Chung Gun; Kim, Nayoung; Huang, Sen-Fang; Chen, Chee Keong; Mok, Magdalena Mo Ching; Wong, Patricia; Chia, Michael; Park, Bock-Hee

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To identify levels of moderate-intensity physical activity (MPA) and vigorous-intensity physical activity (VPA) in a representative sample of college students in six East Asian economies and examine their relationship with weight, alcohol consumption and cigarette smoking. Design: Cross-sectional survey. Setting: College students…

  18. Cognitive aspects of sexual functioning: differences between East Asian-Canadian and Euro-Canadian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Heather; Gorzalka, Boris B

    2013-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the sexual beliefs of female undergraduates, as well as the thoughts they experience during sexual experiences. The study aimed to determine potential differences in these variables between East Asian-Canadians and Euro-Canadians, as well as the influence of acculturation on these variables. In addition, the relationships between sexual beliefs, automatic thoughts, and specific aspects of sexual functioning were examined. Euro-Canadian (n = 77) and East Asian-Canadian (n = 123) undergraduate women completed the Sexual Dysfunctional Beliefs Questionnaire, the Sexual Modes Questionnaire, the Female Sexual Function Index, and the Vancouver Index of Acculturation. East Asian women endorsed almost all sexual beliefs assessed in this study more than did Euro-Canadian women, and endorsement of these beliefs was associated with acculturation. In addition, East Asian-Canadian and Euro-Canadian women differed in the frequency of experiencing negative automatic thoughts. Results also revealed associations between difficulties in sexual functioning, and both sexual beliefs and automatic thoughts. Together, these results provide preliminary support for the hypothesis that differences in cognitive aspects of sexuality may underlie the differences in sexual functioning previously observed between these two groups.

  19. Indicators of quality use of medicines in South-East Asian countries : a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, H. T.; Wirtz, V. J.; Haaijer-Ruskamp, F. M.; Taxis, K.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To identify indicators of quality use of medicines used in South-East Asian region. Methods A systematic review was conducted searching MEDLINE, Embase and The International Network for Rational Use of Drugs (INRUD) and The World Health Organization (WHO) website. Original studies or

  20. Beyond Language Barriers: Teaching Self-Efficacy among East Asian International Teaching Assistants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eunha

    2009-01-01

    The present study examined roles that perceived English fluency and sociocultural adaptation difficulty play in predicting self-efficacy beliefs for teaching in a sample of 119 international teaching assistants (ITAs) from East Asian countries of China, Japan, Korea and Taiwan. Results showed that a positive relationship between perceived English…

  1. What We Should and Should Not Learn from the Japanese and Other East Asian Education Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeynes, William

    2008-01-01

    The author argues that there is an ongoing debate among educators concerning the extent to which American educators can learn from East Asian school systems. Some social scientists argue that cultural differences make this impossible. Others argue that there are many ways that Americans can benefit. The author believes that both sides of this…

  2. Job Search Self-Efficacy of East Asian International Graduate Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yi-Jiun; Flores, Lisa Y.

    2013-01-01

    Using a sample of 86 East Asian international graduate students, this study examined Bandura's perceived self-efficacy model (1986) in the domain of job search self-efficacy and tested the mediating effects of job search self-efficacy in the relationship between efficacy source variables and job search behaviors. Results show that both performance…

  3. Contemporary East Asian Civilization Resource Unit II, Grade 8. Providence Social Studies Curriculum Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Providence Public Schools, RI.

    GRADES OR AGES: Grade 8. SUBJECT MATTER: Social studies, contemporary East Asian civilization. ORGANIZATION AND PHYSICAL APPEARANCE: The central part of the guide is divided into 11 subunits, each of which is laid out in three columns, one each for topics, activities, and materials. Other sections are in list form. The guide is mimeographed and…

  4. Academic Adaptation among International Students from East Asian Countries: A Consensual Qualitative Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiaqi; Wang, Yanlin; Liu, Xun; Xu, Yusu; Cui, Tingting

    2018-01-01

    This study used a consensual qualitative research method to explore academic adaptation experiences of international students (N = 13) from East Asian countries at a U.S. university. The analysis yielded five domains from the data (challenges, feelings, strategies, suggestions, and self-reflections). Implications for college counselors, university…

  5. An Emergent Leadership Model Based on Confucian Virtues and East Asian Leadership Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, LingLing; Irby, Beverly J.; Brown, Genevieve

    2012-01-01

    For more than 2000 years, Confucian teaching has had tremendous influence on the history, politics, economy, and culture of East Asian countries and regions. Despite the rapid growth in gross domestic product (GDP), people's standard of living, and economic advancements, Confucian Asia continues to adhere to the Confucian cultural values that they…

  6. Academic Achievement Trajectories of Adolescents from Mexican and East Asian Immigrant Families in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Yu-Jin; Acock, Alan C.

    2014-01-01

    Drawing on the National Educational Longitudinal Survey 1988 (NELS:88), this study identified (1) the growth pattern of academic achievement of adolescent children from Mexican and East Asian immigrant families; (2) investigated to what extent ethnicity and family capital influenced the trajectories in the academic achievement of children from…

  7. African Lion Cities: Deflating the MDG success of East Asian Tigers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In analysing the latest cross-country and household survey data, the paper finds that the MDG performance of African coastal capitals and island states is more like that of East Asian Tigers (which also have relatively small land size) compared to the national averages in mainland African countries. This is largely explained ...

  8. An effective analytical psychotherapy in crosscultural context. An East Asian student in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, S C

    1998-01-01

    An effective analytical psychotherapy of a severe anxiety disorder with panic, in a crosscultural context of East Asia and the United States, specifically a Japanese student studying English, is presented. What was crucial in facilitating the therapeutic process was an introduction of analytical way of looking at life born of Western culture into an integrative orientation of Asian culture and mentality.

  9. Challenges of University Adjustment in the UK: A Study of East Asian Master's Degree Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wenli; Hammond, Michael

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports on the adjustment of East Asian Master's level students who came to study at a campus-based university in the UK during 2004-05. International students face challenges in respect to language proficiency, academic expectations and social participation. In this longitudinal study the experiences of a group of students from East…

  10. Impact of Social Support and Coping on Acculturation and Acculturative Stress of East Asian International Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ra, Young-An; Trusty, Jerry

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of social support and coping on acculturation and acculturative stress of international students. The authors used hierarchical multiple regression analysis to study a sample of 232 East Asian international students. The results indicate that social support and coping were partial mediators…

  11. Why Are Incretin-Based Therapies More Efficient in East Asians? Perspectives from the Pathophysiology of Type 2 Diabetes and East Asian Dietary Habits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daisuke Yabe

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D is one of the most serious global health problems. This is partly a result of its drastic increase in East Asia, which now comprises more than a quarter of the global diabetes population. Ethnicity and lifestyle factors are two determinants in the aetiology of T2D, and changes such as increased animal fat intake and decreased physical activity link readily to T2D in East Asians, which is characterised primarily by β-cell dysfunction that is evident immediately after ingestion of glucose or a meal, and less adiposity compared with T2D in Caucasians. These pathophysiological differences have an important impact on therapeutic approaches. Incretin-based therapies, such as dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors (DPP-4i and glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1RA, have become widely available for the management of T2D. Incretins, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide, and glucagon-like peptide-1 are secreted from the gut in response to the ingestion of various nutrients, including carbohydrates, proteins, and fats, and enhance insulin secretion via a glucose-dependent pathway to exert their glucose-lowering effects. Recent meta-analyses of clinical trials of DPP-4i and GLP-1RA found the drugs to be more effective in East Asians, most likely due to amelioration of the primary β-cell dysfunction by increased stimulation through incretin activity. In addition, our finding that the glycosylated haemoglobin-lowering effects of DPP-4i are enhanced by fish intake, and possibly worsened by animal fat intake, suggests that dietary habits such as eating more fish and less meat can affect the secretion of incretins, and supports the greater efficacy of incretin-based therapies in East Asians.

  12. East meets West: ethnic differences in epidemiology and clinical behaviors of lung cancer between East Asians and Caucasians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wei; Christiani, David C

    2011-05-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death worldwide, with large variation of the incidence and mortality across regions. Although the mortality of lung cancer has been decreasing, or steady in the US, it has been increasing in Asia for the past two decades. Smoking is the leading cause of lung cancer, and other risk factors such as indoor coal burning, cooking fumes, and infections may play important roles in the development of lung cancer among Asian never smoking women. The median age of diagnosis in Asian patients with lung cancer is generally younger than Caucasian patients, particularly among never-smokers. Asians and Caucasians may have different genetic susceptibilities to lung cancer, as evidenced from candidate polymorphisms and genome-wide association studies. Recent epidemiologic studies and clinical trials have shown consistently that Asian ethnicity is a favorable prognostic factor for overall survival in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), independent of smoking status. Compared with Caucasian patients with NSCLC, East Asian patients have a much higher prevalence of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation (approximately 30% vs. 7%, predominantly among patients with adenocarcinoma and never-smokers), a lower prevalence of K-Ras mutation (less than 10% vs. 18%, predominantly among patients with adenocarcinoma and smokers), and higher proportion of patients who are responsive to EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors. The ethnic differences in epidemiology and clinical behaviors should be taken into account when conducting global clinical trials that include different ethnic populations.

  13. Should Antithrombotic Treatment Strategies in East Asians Differ from Caucasians? Focused on ACS or PCI-treated Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Jae Seok; Ahn, Jong-Hwa; Tantry, Udaya; Gurbel, Paul A; Jeong, Young-Hoon

    2018-01-16

    With over 1.5 billion people, East Asians are the most populous race in the world. Health status in this population is an important global issue. In the contemporary trials of antithrombotic treatment, East Asian patients have a lower risk for atherothrombotic diseases (especially, coronary artery disease [CAD]) and a higher risk for bleeding (especially, gastrointestinal bleeding and hemorrhagic stroke). Despite these observations, antithrombotic treatment strategies in East Asian patients are mainly based on the American or European guidelines that are derived from randomized, controlled trials including mostly Caucasians. Despite a low response to clopidogrel, East Asian patients with CAD show a similar or even a lower rate of ischemic event occurrence and higher bleeding risk compared with Caucasian patients. The latter is referred to as the "East Asian Paradox", suggesting a dissimilar therapeutic window for antiplatelet therapy than Caucasians. In addition, different net clinical benefits have been observed between the races with potent P2Y12 inhibitors that may be related to racial differences in pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profiles. Furthermore, there is emerging concern regarding differences between East Asian vs. Western patients in pharmacodynamic and clinical efficacies of anticoagulant agents. We now summarize experimental and clinical evidence of the efficacy and safety of antithrombotic agents in the East Asian population. We suggest the concept of "race-tailored antithrombotic treatment" in CAD patients and/or in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  14. Cervical cancer prevention training in South East Asian LMICs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Soon-Yau Ng

    2017-02-01

    Singapore is a first-world economy with a healthcare system that can support this mode of training and is geographically proximate to Southeast Asian LMICs that need this training. This makes it possible for model of tiered training with trainers on site in the LMICs and more advanced training where trainees receive training in Singapore. We present a case study where this tiered system of training is applied to Cambodia and demonstrate that this model of training is not only effective but also sustainable.

  15. Selection and reduced population size cannot explain higher amounts of Neandertal ancestry in East Asian than in European human populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Bernard Y; Lohmueller, Kirk E

    2015-03-05

    It has been hypothesized that the greater proportion of Neandertal ancestry in East Asians than in Europeans is due to the fact that purifying selection is less effective at removing weakly deleterious Neandertal alleles from East Asian populations. Using simulations of a broad range of models of selection and demography, we have shown that this hypothesis cannot account for the higher proportion of Neandertal ancestry in East Asians than in Europeans. Instead, more complex demographic scenarios, most likely involving multiple pulses of Neandertal admixture, are required to explain the data. Copyright © 2015 The American Society of Human Genetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The IAU's East Asian Regional Office of Astronomy for Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Grijs, Richard

    2014-09-01

    At the 2012 General Assembly of the International Astronomical Union (IAU), the Office of Astronomy for Development (OAD) programme announced a number of exciting new partnerships to assist with the IAU's decadal strategic plan (2010-2020). These landmark decisions included establishing a new coordinating centre that aims at using astronomy as a tool for development in East Asia. The agreement covers two important functions. One is known as a Regional Node, which entails the coordination of astronomy-for-development activities in countries within the general geographical region of East Asia (in first instance China, Mongolia and the DPRK, but without placing firm geographical limits on the region). The other is known as a Language Expertise Centre which will deal with all aspects relating to (mainly) the Chinese language and culture. The impact of the latter may obviously spread well beyond the geographical region to other parts of the world.

  17. A first report of East Asian students' perception of progress testing: a focus group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuyama, Yasushi; Muijtjens, Arno M M; Kikukawa, Makoto; Stalmeijer, Renee; Murakami, Reiko; Ishikawa, Shizukiyo; Okazaki, Hitoaki

    2016-09-22

    Progress testing (PT) is used in Western countries to evaluate students' level of functional knowledge, and to enhance meaning-oriented and self-directed learning. However, the use of PT has not been investigated in East Asia, where reproduction-oriented and teacher-centered learning styles prevail. Here, we explored the applicability of PT by focusing on student perceptions. Twenty-four students from Years 2, 3, and 5 at Jichi Medical University in Japan attended a pilot PT session preceded by a brief introduction of its concept and procedures. Variations in obtained test scores were analyzed by year, and student perceptions of PT were explored using focus groups. Formula scores (mean ± standard deviation) in Years 2, 3, and 5 were 12.63 ± 3.53, 35.88 ± 14.53, and 71.00 ± 18.31, respectively. Qualitative descriptive analysis of focus group data showed that students disfavored testing of medical knowledge without tangible goals, but instead favored repetitive assessment of knowledge that had been learned and was tested on a unit basis in the past in order to achieve deep learning. Further, students of all school years considered that post-test explanatory lectures by teachers were necessary. East Asian students' perceptions indicated that, in addition to their intensive memorization within narrow test domains compartmentalized by end-of-unit tests, the concept of PT was suitable for repetitive memorization, as it helped them to integrate their knowledge and to increase their understanding. Post-test explanatory lectures might lessen their dislike of the intangible goals of PT, but at the expense of delaying the development of self-directed learning. Key issues for the optimization of PT in East Asia may include administration of PT after completed end-of-unit tests and a gradual change in feedback methodology over school years from test-oriented post-test lectures to the provision of literature references only, as a means of enhancing test self

  18. Antidepressant medication treatment patterns in Asian patients with major depressive disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novick D

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Diego Novick,1 William Montgomery,2 Victoria Moneta,3 Xiaomei Peng,4 Roberto Brugnoli,5 Josep Maria Haro3 1Eli Lilly and Company, Windlesham, Surrey, UK; 2Eli Lilly Australia Pty Ltd, West Ryde, Australia; 3Parc Sanitari Sant Joan de Déu, CIBERSAM, Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain; 4Eli Lilly and Company, Indianapolis, IN, USA; 5Department of Neuroscience, School of Medicine, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy Purpose: To describe pharmacological treatment patterns in Asian patients with major depressive disorder (MDD, including duration of treatment, reasons for medication discontinuation, rate of medication nonadherence, factors associated with medication nonadherence, and impact of medication nonadherence on depression outcomes.Patients and methods: Data were from a prospective, observational 3-month study of East Asian MDD inpatients from 40 sites in six East Asian countries who initiated antidepressant treatment at baseline (n=569. Assessments included the Clinical Global Impression-Severity scale (CGI-S, 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD-17, painful physical symptoms, response and remission, employment status, quality of life (QoL (EuroQOL Questionnaire-5 Dimensions [EQ-5D] and health state using the visual analog scale, adherence by clinician opinion, and patient self-report. Cox proportional hazards modeling, Kaplan–Meier survival analysis, and regression modeling were employed.Results: Median time to discontinuation for any reason was 70 days (95% confidence interval: 47; 95. Reasons for discontinuation were inadequate response in 64.1%, nonadherence in 6.2%, and adverse events in 4.1%; 25.6% who discontinued experienced an adequate response to treatment. In those patients who had an adequate response, age and country were significantly associated with time to medication discontinuation. Patient-reported nonadherence was 57.5% and clinician-reported nonadherence was 14.6% (62/426. At 3 months, nonadherent

  19. Phylogeography of Semiterrestrial Isopod, Tylos granuliferus, on East Asian Coasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niikura, Miyuki; Honda, Masanao; Yahata, Kensuke

    2015-01-01

    We conducted phylogenetic analyses using mitochondrial COI gene sequences of Tylos granuliferus, a semiterrestrial coastal isopod in East Asia, to clarify possible phylogeographic patterns and to assess relationships between present and past marine environments and genetic population structures. Our results strongly suggest the presence of four clades of T. granuliferus, one of which consists of three subclades. The distribution pattern of clades and subclades seems to have been affected by ocean current activities. Our results also suggest that historical changes in oceanic environments and the subsequence bifurcation of current streamlines affected the first and second divergences of T. granuliferus during the late Miocene and near the beginning of the Pliocene, respectively.

  20. Possible influence of Arctic oscillation on precipitation along the East Asian rain belt during boreal spring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Jingxuan; Gong, Daoyi; Mao, Rui; Yang, Jing; Li, Sang

    2017-10-01

    In this study, the possible influence of the springtime Arctic oscillation (AO) on precipitation along the East Asian rain belt has been studied for the period of 1979 to 2014. To capture the features of the large-scale variability of the atmospheric circulation and precipitation, singular value decomposition (SVD) analysis was performed. The domain for precipitation is from 21.25 to 33.75° N and 111.25 to 133.25° E, and the 1000 hPa heights are from 20° N northward. Prior to analysis, the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) signals were linearly fitted and subtracted from the variables of interest. The first paired modes explain 51.1 % of the total squared covariance. The spatial feature of the pressure mode is almost identical to that of the positive AO pattern, while the precipitation mode displays an overall less-than-normal anomaly along the rain belt. The AO indices are highly correlated with the time coefficients of the pressure mode at a value of 0.91, and for the time coefficients of the precipitation mode, the correlation is -0.44, both of which are significant at the 99 % level. The regional atmospheric circulation anomalies in association with the negative phase AO mode display consistent changes, including the anomalous southerly winds and vapor flux convergence in the lower troposphere over East Asia, the stronger East Asian westerly jet stream, and the enhanced ascending air motion between 20 and 30° N. There are two possible mechanisms linking the AO and East Asian circulation and precipitation, i.e., the wave-trains along the westerly jet stream from North Africa to the Middle East and East Asia and the dipole of an anti-cyclone and a cyclone over the North Pacific.

  1. East Asian Regionalisms and Korea in the 1940’s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byong Kwon Song

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper seeks to consider the various types of regionalisms in East Asia during the 1940’s, and Korea’s position in the United States’ “Great China Policy” and demilitarization and democratization plans for Japan. After World War II, although aspects of regionalism were formed by the Cold War in East Asia, the regional structure of Northeast Asia was originally formed from the ‘turn of the century’ through the Asian Pacific War. From the beginning of the 1940’s, Japan promoted the idea of a “Greater East Asia Co-prosperity Sphere” in order to justify its hegemonic position in the East Asian regional order. In addition, the United States and Japan’s readjustment plans appeared to be related to strategies regarding the regional order of East Asia. During World War II, the victorious U.S. had already become one of the world’s superpowers and by principle, collaboration between the superpowers (United States, Great Britain, China, and the Soviet Union revealed an initiative for a four country police state. Japan devised a survival strategy in the case of its defeat. During the war in the early 1940’s, these policies and plans were used to recognize Großraum around the East Asian region. This paper points out the significance of the 1940’s and the continuity between the awareness of the wartime situation and the prospective situation during the postwar period. During the 1940’s, three forms of regionalism in East Asia appeared. The first was Japan’s regional hegemony over the East Asian regional order. In order to preserve regional hegemony, Imperial Japan gave specific meaning to Korea as an extension of its own economy. The second is based on the United States as an offshore hegemonic power, which chose China as a subordinate partner within East Asia and used the division of labor through sub-horizontal industry based on an initiative to suppress Japan. In order to weaken the economic dominance of Japanese Empire

  2. East Asian Regionalisms and Korea in the 1940’s

    OpenAIRE

    Byong Kwon Song

    2014-01-01

    This paper seeks to consider the various types of regionalisms in East Asia during the 1940’s, and Korea’s position in the United States’ “Great China Policy” and demilitarization and democratization plans for Japan. After World War II, although aspects of regionalism were formed by the Cold War in East Asia, the regional structure of Northeast Asia was originally formed from the ‘turn of the century’ through the Asian Pacific War. From the beginning of the 1940’s, Japan promoted the idea of ...

  3. Modi's 'Make in India' Industrial Reform Policy and East Asian Flying-Geese Paradigm

    OpenAIRE

    Nam, Chang Woon; Nam, Sumin; Steinhoff, Peter

    2017-01-01

    The on-going ‘Make in India’ campaign aims at manufacturing revival. Its characteristics resemble East Asian industrial reform and growth policies based on the flying-geese model which highlights ‘step-by-step’ changes in a country’s specialisation pattern and global competitiveness accompanied by economic growth. Unlikely, ‘Make in India’ comprises heterogeneous measures ‘simultaneously’ supporting industries in different development stages from labour and capital-intensive to high-tech indu...

  4. Immigrant Entrepreneurship in United Arab Emirates: An exploratory study on East African Asian Immigrant Businesses

    OpenAIRE

    Khakoo, Mohamed Hussein Turabali

    2008-01-01

    Immigrant entrepreneurship has always existed and has developed remarkably. It is related to migration flows over time and has brought increasing attention from researchers and management practitioners in recent years. The research sets out to investigate the process by which immigrants enter into entrepreneurship. The idea of starting a small business and the internationalization strategies they follow. A homogeneous ethnic minority is researched upon, the East African Asians who had migrate...

  5. Genome-wide association study of pigmentary traits (skin and iris color) in individuals of East Asian ancestry

    OpenAIRE

    Rawofi, Lida; Edwards, Melissa; Krithika, S; Le, Phuong; Cha, David; Yang, Zhaohui; Ma, Yanyun; Wang, Jiucun; Su, Bing; Jin, Li; Norton, Heather L.; Parra, Esteban J.

    2017-01-01

    Background Currently, there is limited knowledge about the genetics underlying pigmentary traits in East Asian populations. Here, we report the results of the first genome-wide association study of pigmentary traits (skin and iris color) in individuals of East Asian ancestry. Methods We obtained quantitative skin pigmentation measures (M-index) in the inner upper arm of the participants using a portable reflectometer (N = 305). Quantitative measures of iris color (expressed as L*, a* and b* C...

  6. The Socio-Cultural Environment for Entrepreneurship: A Comparison Between East Asian and Anglo-Saxon Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas M Begley; Wee-Liang Tan

    2001-01-01

    This study uses a theory of face to identify predictors of interest in entrepreneurship in six East Asian and four Anglo-Saxon countries. At the cultural level, social status of entrepreneurship and shame from business failure predict interest in entrepreneurship better in East Asian than Anglo countries. At the individual level, social status predicts interest in entrepreneurship in the entire sample.© 2001 JIBS. Journal of International Business Studies (2001) 32, 537–553

  7. Challenges of university adjustment in the UK : a study of East Asian Master’s degree students

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Wenli; Hammond, Michael

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports on the adjustment of East Asian Master’s level students who came to study at a campus-based university in the UK during 2004–05. International students face challenges in respect to language proficiency, academic expectations and social participation. In this longitudinal study the experiences of a group of students from East Asian countries were surveyed, with a sample of eight students from five countries tracked through regular interviews. The paper describes the level o...

  8. East Asian Developmental Path and Land-Use Rights in China

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    Ganesh K. Trichur

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper highlights contemporary China’s long-term continuities with the historical EastAsian developmental path in relation to its post-1978 revival of market-economy traditions. Therevival of market economy traditions does not exemplify the unfolding of processes associatedwith the “one-size-fits-all” Washington Consensus. Rural land reforms were driven from belowand strongly influenced policy changes from above. Neither rural nor urban land use relationssuggest a more general unfolding of neoliberal processes of capitalist accumulation bydispossession. Contemporary Chinese land relations reflect the effects of continuities withhistorical East Asian regional traditions more strongly than do some discontinuities andruptures that emerged in the conjuncture of the mid-1980s. These continuities remain moreimportant in understanding the future of the China-led East Asian region. Like the Ming andQing dynasties, China’s Party-State is sharply focused on problems of governance. Retaininglegitimacy and recreating a welfare state to promote harmonious development rather thangrowth fetishism appears to characterize China’s current trajectory.

  9. Phylogenetic information in polymorphic L1 and Alu insertions from East Asians and Native American populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateus Pereira, L H; Socorro, A; Fernandez, I; Masleh, M; Vidal, D; Bianchi, N O; Bonatto, S L; Salzano, F M; Herrera, R J

    2005-09-01

    This study attempts to ascertain genetic affinities between Native American and East Asian populations by analyzing four polymorphic Alu insertions (PAIs) and three L1 polymorphic loci. These two genetic systems demonstrated strong congruence when levels of diversity and genetic distances were considered. Overall, genetic relatedness within Native American groups does not correlate with geographical and linguistic structure, although strong grouping for Native Americans with East Asians was demonstrated, with clear discrimination from African and European groups. Most of the variation was assigned to differences occurring within groups, but the interpopulation variation found for South Amerindians was recognizably higher in comparison to the other sampled groups of populations. Our data suggest that bottleneck events followed by strong influence of genetic drift in the process of the peopling of the Americas may have been determinant factors in delineating the genetic background of present-day South Amerindians. Since no clear subgroups were detected within Native Americans and East Asians, there is no indication of multiple waves in the early colonization of the New World. (c) 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  10. Survey of clinical practice for irritable bowel syndrome in East asian countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukudo, Shin; Hahm, Ki-Baik; Zhu, Qi; Sollano, Jose D; Rani, Abdul A; Syam, Ari F; Kachintorn, Udom; Suzuki, Hidekazu; Kamiya, Takeshi; Joh, Takashi; Uchiyama, Kazuhiko; Naito, Yuji; Takahashi, Shin'ichi; Kinoshita, Yoshikazu; Ueno, Fumiaki; Yamagami, Hirokazu; Chan, Francis K L; Fock, Kwong M; Arakawa, Tetsuo

    2015-01-01

    Sociocultural factors are important because their different effects on the features of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) between countries will provide clues towards solving this problem. The aims of this study were to depict the clinical realities of IBS in East Asian countries and test the hypothesis that the diagnosis and treatment of IBS differ between countries. Study participants were 251 physicians involved in the clinical practice of IBS at major institutions in Japan, South Korea, China, the Philippines, Indonesia and Singapore. The questionnaire contained 45 questions focused on the clinical practice of IBS. Subjects in Japan, South Korea, China, Indonesia, the Philippines and Singapore accounted for 55.4, 17.9, 8.8, 8.0, 6.4 and 3.6% of the study cohort, respectively. Amongst East Asian physicians, the most important symptom was considered to be abdominal pain by 33.4%, whilst 24.3% regarded alternating diarrhea and constipation to be the most important symptoms. Total colonoscopy and histopathology use showed no difference among countries. Prescriptions given for mild (p differed between the countries. Except for several minor points, IBS specialists showed no significant difference in their diagnosis and treatment of IBS when compared to nonspecialists. This survey provided data on the clinical treatment of IBS among East Asian countries. The results supported the hypothesis that the diagnosis and treatment of IBS differs between countries. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Reintroduction of a Homocysteine Level-Associated Allele into East Asians by Neanderthal Introgression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Ya; Ding, Qiliang; He, Yungang; Xu, Shuhua; Jin, Li

    2015-12-01

    In this study, we present an analysis of Neanderthal introgression at the dipeptidase 1 gene, DPEP1. A Neanderthal origin for the putative introgressive haplotypes was demonstrated using an established three-step approach. This introgression was under positive natural selection, reached a frequency of >50%, and introduced a homocysteine level- and pigmentation-associated allele (rs460879-T) into East Asians. However, the same allele was also found in non-East Asians, but not from Neanderthal introgression. It is likely that rs460879-T was lost in East Asians and was reintroduced subsequently through Neanderthal introgression. Our findings suggest that Neanderthal introgression could reintroduce an important previously existing allele into populations where the allele had been lost. This study sheds new light on understanding the contribution of Neanderthal introgression to the adaptation of non-Africans. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. The East Asian Atmospheric Water Cycle and Monsoon Circulation in the Met Office Unified Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, José M.; Milton, Sean F.; Marzin, Charline

    2017-10-01

    In this study the low-level monsoon circulation and observed sources of moisture responsible for the maintenance and seasonal evolution of the East Asian monsoon are examined, studying the detailed water budget components. These observational estimates are contrasted with the Met Office Unified Model (MetUM) climate simulation performance in capturing the circulation and water cycle at a variety of model horizontal resolutions and in fully coupled ocean-atmosphere simulations. We study the role of large-scale circulation in determining the hydrological cycle by analyzing key systematic errors in the model simulations. MetUM climate simulations exhibit robust circulation errors, including a weakening of the summer west Pacific Subtropical High, which leads to an underestimation of the southwesterly monsoon flow over the region. Precipitation and implied diabatic heating biases in the South Asian monsoon and Maritime Continent region are shown, via nudging sensitivity experiments, to have an impact on the East Asian monsoon circulation. By inference, the improvement of these tropical biases with increased model horizontal resolution is hypothesized to be a factor in improvements seen over East Asia with increased resolution. Results from the annual cycle of the hydrological budget components in five domains show a good agreement between MetUM simulations and ERA-Interim reanalysis in northern and Tibetan domains. In simulations, the contribution from moisture convergence is larger than in reanalysis, and they display less precipitation recycling over land. The errors are closely linked to monsoon circulation biases.

  13. A hypervariable STR polymorphism in the CFI gene: southern origin of East Asian-specific group H alleles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuasa, Isao; Jin, Feng; Harihara, Shinji; Matsusue, Aya; Fujihara, Junko; Takeshita, Haruo; Akane, Atsushi; Umetsu, Kazuo; Saitou, Naruya; Chattopadhyay, Prasanta K

    2013-09-01

    Previous studies of four populations revealed that a hypervariable short tandem repeat (iSTR) in intron 7 of the human complement factor I (CFI) gene on chromosome 4q was unique, with 17 possible East Asian-specific group H alleles observed at relatively high frequencies. To develop a deeper anthropological and forensic understanding of iSTR, 1161 additional individuals from 11 Asian populations were investigated. Group H alleles of iSTR and c.1217A allele of a SNP in exon 11 of the CFI gene were associated with each other and were almost entirely confined to East Asian populations. Han Chinese in Changsha, southern China, showed the highest frequency for East Asian-specific group H alleles (0.201) among 15 populations. Group H alleles were observed to decrease gradually from south to north in 11 East Asian populations. This expansion of group H alleles provides evidence that southern China and Southeast Asia are a hotspot of Asian diversity and a genetic reservoir of Asians after they entered East Asia. The expected heterozygosity values of iSTR ranged from 0.927 in Thais to 0.874 in Oroqens, higher than those of an STR in the fibrinogen alpha chain (FGA) gene on chromosome 4q. Thus, iSTR is a useful marker for anthropological and forensic genetics. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. A new approach to modeling aerosol effects on East Asian climate: Parametric uncertainties associated with emissions, cloud microphysics, and their interactions: AEROSOL EFFECTS ON EAST ASIAN CLIMATE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Huiping [College of Atmospheric Sciences, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou China; Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland Washington USA; Qian, Yun [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland Washington USA; Zhao, Chun [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland Washington USA; Wang, Hailong [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland Washington USA; Wang, Minghuai [Institute for Climate and Global Change Research and School of Atmospheric Science, Nanjing University, Nanjing China; Jiangsu Collaborative Innovation Center for Climate Change, Nanjing China; Yang, Ben [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland Washington USA; Institute for Climate and Global Change Research and School of Atmospheric Science, Nanjing University, Nanjing China; Liu, Xiaohong [Department of Atmospheric Science, University of Wyoming, Laramie Wyoming USA; Fu, Qiang [College of Atmospheric Sciences, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou China; Department of Atmospheric Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle Washington USA

    2015-09-09

    In this study, we adopt a parametric sensitivity analysis framework that integrates the quasi-Monte Carlo parameter sampling approach and a surrogate model to examine aerosol effects on the East Asian Monsoon climate simulated in the Community Atmosphere Model (CAM5). A total number of 256 CAM5 simulations are conducted to quantify the model responses to the uncertain parameters associated with cloud microphysics parameterizations and aerosol (e.g., sulfate, black carbon (BC), and dust) emission factors and their interactions. Results show that the interaction terms among parameters are important for quantifying the sensitivity of fields of interest, especially precipitation, to the parameters. The relative importance of cloud-microphysics parameters and emission factors (strength) depends on evaluation metrics or the model fields we focused on, and the presence of uncertainty in cloud microphysics imposes an additional challenge in quantifying the impact of aerosols on cloud and climate. Due to their different optical and microphysical properties and spatial distributions, sulfate, BC, and dust aerosols have very different impacts on East Asian Monsoon through aerosol-cloud-radiation interactions. The climatic effects of aerosol do not always have a monotonic response to the change of emission factors. The spatial patterns of both sign and magnitude of aerosol-induced changes in radiative fluxes, cloud, and precipitation could be different, depending on the aerosol types, when parameters are sampled in different ranges of values. We also identify the different cloud microphysical parameters that show the most significant impact on climatic effect induced by sulfate, BC and dust, respectively, in East Asia.

  15. Vitamin D in North-East Asian clinical nutrition practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahlqvist, Mark L

    2013-01-01

    Sound clinical nutrition practice is grounded in evidence and stimulated by research. Yet, there are unanswered questions about food-health relationships. Clinical nutrition involves the identification of nutritional disorders and the motivation to rectify them with all required care. Vitamin D health exemplifies the biomedical, societal and environmental dimensions of clinical nutrition, its science and practice. It depends most of all on access to sunshine and food and probably represents a paradigm in human health which is still at its beginning. Nevertheless, the problem of its deficiency is much more widespread and common than has been thought since it was first identified as a cause of rickets and osteomalacia. It is now known to spare no body organ or system. The problem in North-East Asia is comparable to much of the rest of the world, but the risk profile for it is exaggerated by atmospheric pollution, cultures with sun-avoidance on account of skin colour and potentially mitigated by foodstuffs like fish, eggs, organ meats and mushrooms which can partially offset sunshine-deficiency. Diagnosis requires a high index of suspicion and confirmation by biochemistry which may not be affordable. Therefore a close working relationship between public health and clinical nutritionist is essential.

  16. Lung function and long-term safety of tiotropium/olodaterol in East Asian patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bai C

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Chunxue Bai,1 Masakazu Ichinose,2 Sang Haak Lee,3 Kwan Ho Lee,4 Olaf Jöns,5 Ulrich Bothner,6 Yihua Zhao,7 Roland Buhl8 1Department of Pulmonary Medicine, Shanghai Respiratory Research Institute, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, China; 2Department of Respiratory Medicine, Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Sendai, Japan; 3Department of Internal Medicine, St Paul’s Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, South Korea; 4Department of Internal Medicine, Yeungnam University Medical Center, Daegu, South Korea; 5Department of Medicine TA Respiratory Diseases, 6Department of Pharmacovigilance, Boehringer Ingelheim Pharma GmbH & Co. KG, Ingelheim, Germany; 7Department of Biostatistics and Data Sciences, Boehringer Ingelheim Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Ridgefield, CT, USA; 8Pulmonary Department, Mainz University Hospital, Mainz, Germany Background and purpose: While the efficacy and safety of combined tiotropium and olodaterol in patients with COPD was established in a large clinical trial program, it is important to assess whether clinical data can be applied to geographic patient groups, particularly for East Asian patients who may have a different phenotypic profile to the global trial population. This study aimed to compare the lung function and safety profiles of tiotropium/olodaterol and monocomponents in East Asian and global populations from the TONADO® trials.Materials and methods: In the replicate, double-blind, parallel-group, active-controlled, randomized, 52-week, Phase III TONADO studies, patients received tiotropium/olodaterol, tiotropium, or olodaterol. We assessed the forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1 area under the curve from 0 to 3 hours (AUC0–3 response and trough FEV1 response at 24 weeks for the approved doses, tiotropium/olodaterol 5/5 µg, tiotropium 5 µg, and olodaterol 5 µg. Treatment-emergent adverse events were recorded throughout treatment and ≤21 days

  17. Medication Errors in the Southeast Asian Countries: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmasi, Shahrzad; Khan, Tahir Mehmood; Hong, Yet Hoi; Ming, Long Chiau; Wong, Tin Wui

    2015-01-01

    Medication error (ME) is a worldwide issue, but most studies on ME have been undertaken in developed countries and very little is known about ME in Southeast Asian countries. This study aimed systematically to identify and review research done on ME in Southeast Asian countries in order to identify common types of ME and estimate its prevalence in this region. The literature relating to MEs in Southeast Asian countries was systematically reviewed in December 2014 by using; Embase, Medline, Pubmed, ProQuest Central and the CINAHL. Inclusion criteria were studies (in any languages) that investigated the incidence and the contributing factors of ME in patients of all ages. The 17 included studies reported data from six of the eleven Southeast Asian countries: five studies in Singapore, four in Malaysia, three in Thailand, three in Vietnam, one in the Philippines and one in Indonesia. There was no data on MEs in Brunei, Laos, Cambodia, Myanmar and Timor. Of the seventeen included studies, eleven measured administration errors, four focused on prescribing errors, three were done on preparation errors, three on dispensing errors and two on transcribing errors. There was only one study of reconciliation error. Three studies were interventional. The most frequently reported types of administration error were incorrect time, omission error and incorrect dose. Staff shortages, and hence heavy workload for nurses, doctor/nurse distraction, and misinterpretation of the prescription/medication chart, were identified as contributing factors of ME. There is a serious lack of studies on this topic in this region which needs to be addressed if the issue of ME is to be fully understood and addressed.

  18. Medication Errors in the Southeast Asian Countries: A Systematic Review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahrzad Salmasi

    Full Text Available Medication error (ME is a worldwide issue, but most studies on ME have been undertaken in developed countries and very little is known about ME in Southeast Asian countries. This study aimed systematically to identify and review research done on ME in Southeast Asian countries in order to identify common types of ME and estimate its prevalence in this region.The literature relating to MEs in Southeast Asian countries was systematically reviewed in December 2014 by using; Embase, Medline, Pubmed, ProQuest Central and the CINAHL. Inclusion criteria were studies (in any languages that investigated the incidence and the contributing factors of ME in patients of all ages.The 17 included studies reported data from six of the eleven Southeast Asian countries: five studies in Singapore, four in Malaysia, three in Thailand, three in Vietnam, one in the Philippines and one in Indonesia. There was no data on MEs in Brunei, Laos, Cambodia, Myanmar and Timor. Of the seventeen included studies, eleven measured administration errors, four focused on prescribing errors, three were done on preparation errors, three on dispensing errors and two on transcribing errors. There was only one study of reconciliation error. Three studies were interventional.The most frequently reported types of administration error were incorrect time, omission error and incorrect dose. Staff shortages, and hence heavy workload for nurses, doctor/nurse distraction, and misinterpretation of the prescription/medication chart, were identified as contributing factors of ME. There is a serious lack of studies on this topic in this region which needs to be addressed if the issue of ME is to be fully understood and addressed.

  19. Air pollution episodes associated with East Asian winter monsoons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hien, P.D., E-mail: pdhien@gmail.com [Vietnam Atomic Energy Agency, 59 Ly Thuong Kiet str. Hanoi (Viet Nam); Loc, P.D.; Dao, N.V. [National Hydro-Meteorological Center, 62-A2 Nguyen Chi Thanh str. Hanoi (Viet Nam)

    2011-11-01

    A dozen multi-day pollution episodes occur from October to February in Hanoi, Vietnam due to prolonged anticyclonic conditions established after the northeast monsoon surges (cold surges). These winter pollution episodes (WPEs) account for most of the 24-h PM{sub 10} exceedances and the highest concentrations of gaseous pollutants in Hanoi. In this study, WPEs were investigated using continuous air quality monitoring data and information on upper-air soundings and air mass trajectories. The 24-h pollutant concentrations are lowest during cold surges; concurrently rise thereafter reaching the highest levels toward the middle of a monsoon cycle, then decline ahead of the next cold surge. Each monsoon cycle usually proceeds through a dry phase and a humid phase as Asiatic continental cold air arrives in Hanoi through inland China then via the East China Sea. WPEs are associated with nighttime radiation temperature inversions (NRTIs) in the dry phase and subsidence temperature inversions (STIs) in the humid phase. In NRTI periods, the rush hour pollution peak is more pronounced in the evening than in the morning and the pollution level is about two times higher at night than in daytime. In STI periods, broad morning and evening traffic peaks are observed and pollution is as high at night as in daytime. The close association between pollution and winter monsoon meteorology found in this study for the winter 2003-04 may serve as a basis for advance warning of WPEs and for forecasting the 24-h pollutant concentrations. - Highlights: {yields} Dozen pollution episodes from Oct. to Feb in Hanoi associated with anticyclones after monsoon surges. {yields} 24-h concentrations of PM{sub 10}, SO{sub 2}, NO{sub 2}, CO rise after surge and decline ahead of the next. {yields} Episodes caused by nighttime radiation and subsidence inversions in dry and humid monsoon phases. {yields} Distinct diurnal variations of pollutant concentrations observed in the two periods. {yields} Close

  20. Use of antenatal corticosteroids prior to preterm birth in four South East Asian countries within the SEA-ORCHID project

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    McDonald Steven J

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is strong evidence supporting the use of antenatal corticosteroids in women at risk of preterm birth to promote fetal lung maturation and reduce neonatal mortality and morbidity. This audit aimed to assess the use of antenatal corticosteroids prior to preterm birth in the nine hospitals in four South East Asian countries participating in the South East Asia Optimising Reproductive Health in Developing Countries (SEA-ORCHID Project. Method We reviewed the medical records of 9550 women (9665 infants including 111 twins and two triplets admitted to the labour wards of nine hospitals in four South East Asian countries during 2005. For women who gave birth before 34 weeks gestation we collected information on women's demographic and pregnancy background, the type, dose and use of corticosteroids, and key birth and infant outcomes. Results Administration of antenatal corticosteroids to women who gave birth before 34 weeks gestation varied widely between countries (9% to 73% and also between hospitals within countries (0% to 86%. Antenatal corticosteroids were most commonly given when women were between 28 and 34 weeks gestation (80%. Overall 6% of women received repeat doses of corticosteroids. Dexamethasone was the only type of antenatal corticosteroid used. Women receiving antenatal corticosteroids compared with those not given antenatal corticosteroids were less likely to have had a previous pregnancy and to be booked for birth at the hospital and almost three times as likely to have a current multiple pregnancy. Exposed women were less likely to be induced and almost twice as likely to have a caesarean section, a primary postpartum haemorrhage and postpartum pyrexia. Infants exposed to antenatal corticosteroids compared with infants not exposed were less likely to die. Live born exposed infants were less likely to have Apgar scores of Conclusion In this survey the use of antenatal corticosteroids prior to preterm birth

  1. China's Political-Economic Approach toward FTAs with East Asian Nations and Its Implications for Korea

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    Hyun-jun Cho

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Focusing on a political-economic perspective, this article examines on the background and objectives of China's approach toward FTAs with East Asian nations. It appears that China's strategy to regional economic integration recently has transformed from a passive direction to active initiative, pushing forward its winning strategies - economic liberalization and its resolve to become a regional leader - while spearheading projects to create a regional free trade zone. China has a tendency to take a serious view on the significance of non-economic factors or international politics and security in regard to pursuing FTAs with neighboring countries. Behind China's ASEAN+1 plan, the implication of security is deeply rooted; and through its pursuit of economic integration within the region, China seems to be seeking change in the regional security order. China has also been bringing security discussions into the mechanism of regional economic cooperation among Korea, China and Japan. China also appears to have a few types of ideological mentality when pursuing FTAs. It seems that China's "great-power mentality"(daguo xintai is somewhat robust. This mentality is prone to be extended to hegemonic contention within the region. If China combines the "great-power mentality" with nationalism in the process of pursuing FTAs with neighboring countries, then this might entail exclusive regionalism. Both Japan and China are basically in rivalry over regional hegemony, and competing for leadership in intra-regional FTA initiatives. In pursuing FTAs with South Korea, China and Japan seem to have quite a contradictory approach. Japan, which wants to control the rise of China, seems to be ruling out the China-Japan-Korea FTA plan and actively pursuing a Japan-Korea FTA. On the contrary, Beijing is expected to actively propose to pursue China-Korea FTA in order to hold back rapid progress in Japan-Korea FTA negotiations, which have already commenced. On the

  2. Genetic Diversity Analysis of South and East Asian Duck Populations Using Highly Polymorphic Microsatellite Markers

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    Dongwon Seo

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Native duck populations have lower productivity, and have not been developed as much as commercials duck breeds. However, native ducks have more importance in terms of genetic diversity and potentially valuable economic traits. For this reason, population discriminable genetic markers are needed for conservation and development of native ducks. In this study, 24 highly polymorphic microsatellite (MS markers were investigated using commercial ducks and native East and South Asian ducks. The average polymorphic information content (PIC value for all MS markers was 0.584, indicating high discrimination power. All populations were discriminated using 14 highly polymorphic MS markers by genetic distance and phylogenetic analysis. The results indicated that there were close genetic relationships among populations. In the structure analysis, East Asian ducks shared more haplotypes with commercial ducks than South Asian ducks, and they had more independent haplotypes than others did. These results will provide useful information for genetic diversity studies in ducks and for the development of duck traceability systems in the market.

  3. Interdecadal variations of East Asian summer monsoon northward propagation and influences on summer precipitation over East China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Z.; Yang, S.; He, J.; Li, J.; Liang, J.

    2008-08-01

    The interdecadal variation of northward propagation of the East Asian Summer Monsoon (EASM) and summer precipitation in East China have been investigated using daily surface rainfall from a dense rain gauge network in China for 1957 2001, National Center for Environmental Prediction/National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCEP/NCAR) reanalysis, European Center for Medium-Range Weather Forecast (ECMWF) reanalysis, and Global Mean Sea Level Pressure Dataset (GMSLP2) from Climatic Research Unit (CRU). Results in general show a consistent agreement on the interdecadal variability of EASM northward propagations. However, it appears that the interdecadal variation is stronger in NCEP than in ECMWF and CRU datasets. A newly defined normalized precipitation index (NPI), a 5-day running mean rainfall normalized with its standard deviation, clearly depicts the characteristics of summer rainbelt activities in East China in terms of jumps and durations during its northward propagations. The EASM northward propagation shows a prominent interdecadal variation. EASM before late 1970s had a rapid northward advance and a northern edge beyond its normal position. As a result, more summer rainfall occurred for the North China rainy season, Huaihe-River Mei-Yu, and South China Mei-Yu. In contrast, EASM after late 1970s had a slow northward movement and a northern edge located south of its normal position. Less summer precipitation occurred in East China except in Yangtze River basin. The EASM northernmost position (ENP), northernmost intensity (ENI), and EASM have a complex and good relationship at interdecadal timescales. They have significant influences on interdecadal variation of the large-scale precipitation anomalies in East China.

  4. Change in the tropical cyclone activity around Korea by the East Asian summer monsoon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jae-Won; Cha, Yumi; Kim, Jeoung-Yun

    2017-12-01

    Correlation between the frequency of summer tropical cyclones (TCs) affecting Korea and the East Asian summer monsoon index (EASMI) was analyzed over the last 37 years. A clear positive correlation existed between the two variables, and this high positive correlation remained unchanged even when excluding El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) years. To investigate the causes of the positive correlation between the two variables in non-ENSO years, after the 8 years with the highest EASMI (high EASMI years) and the 8 years with the lowest EASMI (low EASMI years) were selected, and the average difference between the two phases was analyzed. In high EASMI years, in the difference between the two phases regarding 850 and 500 hPa streamline, anomalous cyclones were reinforced in the tropical and subtropical western North Pacific, while anomalous anticyclones were reinforced in mid-latitude East Asian areas. Due to these two anomalous pressure systems, anomalous southeasterlies developed near Korea, with these anomalous southeasterlies playing the role of anomalous steering flows making the TCs head toward areas near Korea. In addition, a monsoon trough strengthened more eastward, and TCs in high EASMI years occurred more in east ward over the western North Pacific.

  5. Numerical Simulation of the Direct Radiative Effects of Dust Aerosol on the East Asian Winter Monsoon

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    Hui Sun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Variations of the East Asian winter monsoon (EAWM induced by dust aerosol are studied by using a regional climate model (RegCM4/Dust. Dust coupled and uncoupled experiments are carried out for the past decade (2000–2009. The coupled RegCM4 captures three centers of dust mixing ratio (DMR located in the Taklamakan Desert, western Inner Mongolia, and northern Xinjiang, respectively, with maximum values greater than 500 µg kg−1 in winter. The surface total radiation change induced by dust is negative, and its central value of −8 W m−2 results in surface temperature cooling by 1.5°C in winter. Dust induced radiation change at the top of the atmosphere (TOA is also negative in Northern China, except over the Tibetan Plateau (TP, and up to −5 W m−2 in Central China. Dust cooling effects increase the sea level pressure (SLP gradient between land and ocean, the cold surge frequency, and the East Asian jet stream (EAJ intensity and then enhance the EAWM. The dry and cold wind pervade most areas of East Asia, suppressing large-scale precipitation and eventually leading to a rainfall decrease of about 10–30% in Northern China and the middle Yangtze River Valley.

  6. Report on Disaster Medical Operations with Acupuncture/Massage Therapy after the Great East Japan Earthquake

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    Shin Takayama

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Great East Japan Earthquake inflicted immense damage over a wide area of eastern Japan with the consequent tsunami. Department of Traditional Asian Medicine, Tohoku University, started providing medical assistance to the disaster-stricken regions mainly employing traditional Asian therapies. We visited seven evacuation centers in Miyagi and Fukushima Prefecture and provided acupuncture/massage therapy. While massage therapy was performed manually, filiform needles and press tack needles were used to administer acupuncture. In total, 553 people were treated (mean age, 54.0 years; 206 men, 347 women. Assessment by interview showed that the most common complaint was shoulder/back stiffness. The rate of therapy satisfaction was 92.3%. Many people answered that they experienced not only physical but also psychological relief. At the time of the disaster, acupuncture/massage therapy, which has both mental and physical soothing effects, may be a therapeutic approach that can be effectively used in combination with Western medical practices.

  7. Possible teleconnections between East and South Asian summer monsoon precipitation in projected future climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Sumin; Singh, Gyan Prakash; Oh, Jai-Ho; Lee, Kyoung-Min

    2018-01-01

    The present paper examined the teleconnections between two huge Asian summer monsoon components (South and East Asia) during three time slices in future: near-(2010-2039), mid-(2040-2069) and far-(2070-2100) futures under the RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 scenarios. For this purpose, a high-resolution atmospheric general circulation model is used and integrated at 40 km horizontal resolution. To get more insight into the relationships between the two Asian monsoon components, we have studied the spatial displaying correlation coefficients (CCs) pattern of precipitation over the entire Asian monsoon region with that of South Asia and three regions of East Asia (North China, Korea-Japan and Southern China) separately during the same three time slices. The possible factors responsible for these teleconnections are explored by using mean sea level pressure (MSLP) and wind fields at 850 hPa. The CC pattern of precipitation over South Asia shows an in-phase relationship with North China and an out-of-phase relationship with Korea-Japan, while precipitation variations over Korea-Japan and Southern China exhibit an out-of-phase relationship with South Asia. The CCs analysis between the two Asian blocks during different time slices shows the strongest CCs during the near and far future with the RCP8.5 scenario. The CC pattern of precipitation over Korea-Japan and Southern China with the wind (at 850 hPa) and MSLP fields indicate that the major parts of the moisture over Korea-Japan gets transported from the west Pacific along the western limb of NPSH, while the moisture over Southern China comes from the Bay of Bengal and South China Seas for good monsoon activity.

  8. Multiplex APLP System for High-Resolution Haplogrouping of Extremely Degraded East-Asian Mitochondrial DNAs.

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    Tsuneo Kakuda

    Full Text Available Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA serves as a powerful tool for exploring matrilineal phylogeographic ancestry, as well as for analyzing highly degraded samples, because of its polymorphic nature and high copy numbers per cell. The recent advent of complete mitochondrial genome sequencing has led to improved techniques for phylogenetic analyses based on mtDNA, and many multiplex genotyping methods have been developed for the hierarchical analysis of phylogenetically important mutations. However, few high-resolution multiplex genotyping systems for analyzing East-Asian mtDNA can be applied to extremely degraded samples. Here, we present a multiplex system for analyzing mitochondrial single nucleotide polymorphisms (mtSNPs, which relies on a novel amplified product-length polymorphisms (APLP method that uses inosine-flapped primers and is specifically designed for the detailed haplogrouping of extremely degraded East-Asian mtDNAs. We used fourteen 6-plex polymerase chain reactions (PCRs and subsequent electrophoresis to examine 81 haplogroup-defining SNPs and 3 insertion/deletion sites, and we were able to securely assign the studied mtDNAs to relevant haplogroups. Our system requires only 1×10-13 g (100 fg of crude DNA to obtain a full profile. Owing to its small amplicon size (<110 bp, this new APLP system was successfully applied to extremely degraded samples for which direct sequencing of hypervariable segments using mini-primer sets was unsuccessful, and proved to be more robust than conventional APLP analysis. Thus, our new APLP system is effective for retrieving reliable data from extremely degraded East-Asian mtDNAs.

  9. Genes Regulated by Vitamin D in Bone Cells Are Positively Selected in East Asians.

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    Elena Arciero

    Full Text Available Vitamin D and folate are activated and degraded by sunlight, respectively, and the physiological processes they control are likely to have been targets of selection as humans expanded from Africa into Eurasia. We investigated signals of positive selection in gene sets involved in the metabolism, regulation and action of these two vitamins in worldwide populations sequenced by Phase I of the 1000 Genomes Project. Comparing allele frequency-spectrum-based summary statistics between these gene sets and matched control genes, we observed a selection signal specific to East Asians for a gene set associated with vitamin D action in bones. The selection signal was mainly driven by three genes CXXC finger protein 1 (CXXC1, low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 5 (LRP5 and runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2. Examination of population differentiation and haplotypes allowed us to identify several candidate causal regulatory variants in each gene. Four of these candidate variants (one each in CXXC1 and RUNX2 and two in LRP5 had a >70% derived allele frequency in East Asians, but were present at lower (20-60% frequency in Europeans as well, suggesting that the adaptation might have been part of a common response to climatic and dietary changes as humans expanded out of Africa, with implications for their role in vitamin D-dependent bone mineralization and osteoporosis insurgence. We also observed haplotype sharing between East Asians, Finns and an extinct archaic human (Denisovan sample at the CXXC1 locus, which is best explained by incomplete lineage sorting.

  10. European bone mineral density loci are also associated with BMD in East-Asian populations.

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    Unnur Styrkarsdottir

    Full Text Available Most genome-wide association (GWA studies have focused on populations of European ancestry with limited assessment of the influence of the sequence variants on populations of other ethnicities. To determine whether markers that we have recently shown to associate with Bone Mineral Density (BMD in Europeans also associate with BMD in East-Asians we analysed 50 markers from 23 genomic loci in samples from Korea (n = 1,397 and two Chinese Hong Kong sample sets (n = 3,869 and n = 785. Through this effort we identified fourteen loci that associated with BMD in East-Asian samples using a false discovery rate (FDR of 0.05; 1p36 (ZBTB40, P = 4.3×10(-9, 1p31 (GPR177, P = 0.00012, 3p22 (CTNNB1, P = 0.00013, 4q22 (MEPE, P = 0.0026, 5q14 (MEF2C, P = 1.3×10(-5, 6q25 (ESR1, P = 0.0011, 7p14 (STARD3NL, P = 0.00025, 7q21 (FLJ42280, P = 0.00017, 8q24 (TNFRSF11B, P = 3.4×10(-5, 11p15 (SOX6, P = 0.00033, 11q13 (LRP5, P = 0.0033, 13q14 (TNFSF11, P = 7.5×10(-5, 16q24 (FOXL1, P = 0.0010 and 17q21 (SOST, P = 0.015. Our study marks an early effort towards the challenge of cataloguing bone density variants shared by many ethnicities by testing BMD variants that have been established in Europeans, in East-Asians.

  11. Colorimetric measurements of iris colour and their significance in East Asian patients with skin cancer.

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    Kim, J W; Seo, S H; Kye, Y C; Ahn, H H

    2010-10-01

    A light-coloured iris is considered a risk factor for skin cancer in general. However, iris colour cannot be considered a plausible risk factor for skin cancer in East Asian populations because of the relative homogeneity of iris colours. Furthermore, subjective classifications of iris colour cannot distinguish between different East Asian individuals as to their likelihood of developing cancer. To measure human iris colours quantitatively and to assess the significances of iris colours with respect to skin cancer in Korean patients. Reference Commission Internationale d'Eclairage (CIE) L*a*b* coordinates on a ColorCheck chart were recorded using a reflectance spectrophotometer and compared with computed CIE L*a*b* coordinates from digital images to determine equations to calibrate CIE L*a*b* values. We then took iris images and measured iris colours and the colours of sun-exposed and sun-protected skin in 42 Korean patients with various cutaneous malignancies and nonmalignant dermatological diseases. Results were statistically analysed with regard to iris and skin colours in CIE L*a*b* coordinates. Patients with skin cancer had significantly lighter irises or higher L* values than dermatological patients without a malignancy (P = 0.02). Colour differences (ΔE*ab) between sun-exposed skin and sun-protected skin were greater in men (P < 0.01) and in patients with skin cancer (P < 0.01), and the lightness (L*) values of sun-exposed skins decreased with age (r = -0.32, P < 0.05). Iris colour appears to be a possible skin cancer risk factor in East Asian populations. The larger colour differences seen between sun-protected and sun-exposed skin in men and in patients with skin cancer may have been due to chronic or excessive sun exposure. © 2009 The Author(s). Journal compilation © 2009 British Association of Dermatologists.

  12. The adaptive variant EDARV370A is associated with straight hair in East Asians.

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    Tan, Jingze; Yang, Yajun; Tang, Kun; Sabeti, Pardis C; Jin, Li; Wang, Sijia

    2013-10-01

    Hair straightness/curliness is a highly heritable trait amongst human populations. Previous studies have reported European specific genetic variants influencing hair straightness, but those in East Asians remain unknown. One promising candidate is a derived coding variant of the ectodysplasin A receptor (EDAR), EDARV370A (370A), associated with several phenotypic changes of epidermal appendages. One of the strongest signals of natural selection in human genomes, 370A, has risen to high prevalence in East Asian and Native American populations, whilst being almost absent in Europeans and Africans. This striking frequency distribution and the pleiotropic nature of 370A led us to pursue if hair straightness, another epidermal appendage-related phenotype, is affected by this variant. By studying 1,718 individuals from four distinctive East Asian populations (Han, Tibetan, Mongolian, and Li), we found a significant association between 370A and the straight hair type in the Han (p = 2.90 × 10(-6)), Tibetan (p = 3.07 × 10(-2)), and Mongolian (p = 1.03 × 10(-5)) populations. Combining all the samples, the association is even stronger (p = 5.18 × 10(-10)). The effect of 370A on hair straightness is additive, with an odds ratio of 2.05. The results indicate very different biological mechanisms of straight hair in Europe and Asia, and also present a more comprehensive picture of the phenotypic consequences of 370A, providing important clues into the potential adaptive forces shaping the evolution of this extraordinary genetic variant.

  13. East Asian perspective on the interaction between proton pump inhibitors and clopidogrel.

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    Zou, Duowu; Goh, Khean-Lee

    2017-06-01

    Both proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) and clopidogrel are widely prescribed in the Asia-Pacific population. PPIs are the mainstay therapeutic agents for prophylaxis against aspirin gastropathy and for acid-related disorders including gastroesophageal reflux disease. They are also co-prescribed with oral anticoagulant agents and with dual-antiplatelet therapy for the treatment and prevention of gastrointestinal bleeding. Clopidogrel belongs to the drug class of thienopyridines and is currently the most widely prescribed oral anticoagulant agent either alone or in combination with aspirin. Platelet inhibition by clopidogrel is prone to significant inter-individual variability and is believed to be affected by several factors such as genetics and drug-drug interactions. Since it was first reported in 2009, the potential for drug-drug interactions between PPIs and clopidogrel has remained headline news, and its significance in clinical practice is the subject of an ongoing debate. For East Asian patients in particular, the clinical relevance of the interaction between PPIs and clopidogrel remains unclear because of conflicting data, as well as underrepresentation of East Asian subjects in landmark trials. Increased CYP2C19 genetic polymorphisms in individuals from Asia-Pacific countries only fuel the confusion. Recent studies in East Asian cohorts suggests that the potential of PPIs to attenuate the efficacy of clopidogrel could be minimized by the use of newer PPIs with weaker affinity for the CYP2C19 isoenzyme, namely, pantoprazole, dexlansoprazole, and rabeprazole. This review aims to help clinicians choose the most appropriate PPI for co-prescription with clopidogrel in patients from Asia-Pacific countries. © 2016 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  14. Sino-Tibetan Language Data and the Origin of East-Asian People

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    Qianzi Tian

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we introduce in brief the basic conditions of the Sino-Tibetan data resources, the STEDT project (the Sino-Tibetan Etymological Dictionary and Thesaurus at the University of California, Berkeley and the STDP (The Sino-Tibetan Database and Retrieval System Project at the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences (CASS, including the data structures, data volumes, and retrieval methods. We also discuss interdisciplinary information on the origin of East Asian civilization, which consists of several disciplines, including linguistics, molecular biology, human genetics, and archaeology.

  15. Spectral Signature of Radiative Forcing by East Asian Dust-Soot Mixture

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    Zhu, A.; Ramanathan, V.

    2007-12-01

    The Pacific Dust Experiment (PACDEX) provides the first detailed sampling of dust-soot mixtures from the western Pacific to the eastern Pacific Ocean. The data includes down and up spectral irradiance, mixing state of dust and soot, and other aerosol properties. This study attempts to simulate the radiative forcing by dust-soot mixtures during the experimental period. The MODTRAN band model was employed to investigate the spectral signatures of solar irradiance change induced by aerosols at moderate spectral resolutions. For the short wave band (300-1100nm) used in this study, the reduction of downward irradiance at surface by aerosols greatly enhances with increasing wavelength in the UV band (300-400nm), reaches a maximum in the blue band, then gradually decreases toward the red band. In the near-IR band (700-1100nm), irradiance reduction by aerosols shows great fluctuations in the band with center wavelength at around 940nm, 820nm, 720nm, 760nm, 690nm, where the aerosol effect is overwhelmed by the water vapor and O2 absorptions. The spectral pattern of irradiance reduction varies for different aerosol species. The maximum reduction lies at around 450nm for soot, and shifting to about 490nm for East Asian mineral dust. It's worth noting that although soot aerosols reduce more irradiance than East Asian dust in the UV and blue band, the impact of dust to the irradiance exceeds that by soot at the longer wavelength band (i.e. around 550nm). The reduction of irradiance by East Asian dust (soot) in the UV band, visible band, and near-IR accounts for about 6% (10%), 56% (64%), and 38% (26%) of total irradiance reduction. As large amount of soot aerosols are involved during the long range transport of East Asian dust, the optical properties of dust aerosols are modified with different mixing state with soot, the spectral pattern of the irradiance reduction will be changed. The study of aerosol forcing at moderate spectral resolutions has the potential application for

  16. Exchange rate regimes, saving glut and the Feldstein Horioka puzzle: The East Asian experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya-Bahçe, Seçil; Özmen, Erdal

    2008-04-01

    This paper investigates whether the recent experience of the emerging East Asian countries with current account surpluses is consistent with the “saving glut” hypothesis and the Feldstein and Horioka puzzle. The evidence suggests that the saving retention coefficients declined substantially in most of the countries after an endogenous break date coinciding with a major exchange rate regime change with the 1997-1998 crisis. Exchange rate flexibility appears to be enhancing financial integration. The results are consistent with an “investment slump” explanation rather than the “saving glut” postulation.

  17. Ethics and animal welfare evaluations in South East Asian zoos: a case study of Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agoramoorthy, Govindasamy; Harrison, Bernard

    2002-01-01

    Concern for zoo animals is palpable throughout society in many countries in South East Asia. It is important to understand problems of animal welfare in order for zoos to make significant improvement in maintaining high standards. With a case study of 3 zoos in Thailand, this article presents results for the first time on how ethics and welfare evaluations are conducted in South East Asian zoos. The study identified several major and minor welfare problems and provided constructive suggestions to zoo authorities, which in turn significantly improved the standards of animal welfare. Thus, the data presented in this article could serve as a model for other zoos to follow animal welfare evaluations locally, regionally, and globally.

  18. Higher Levels of Neanderthal Ancestry in East Asians than in Europeans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, Jeffrey D.; Yang, Melinda A.; Jay, Flora; Kim, Sung K.; Durand, Eric Y.; Stevison, Laurie S.; Gignoux, Christopher; Woerner, August; Hammer, Michael F.; Slatkin, Montgomery

    2013-01-01

    Neanderthals were a group of archaic hominins that occupied most of Europe and parts of Western Asia from ∼30,000 to 300,000 years ago (KYA). They coexisted with modern humans during part of this time. Previous genetic analyses that compared a draft sequence of the Neanderthal genome with genomes of several modern humans concluded that Neanderthals made a small (1–4%) contribution to the gene pools of all non-African populations. This observation was consistent with a single episode of admixture from Neanderthals into the ancestors of all non-Africans when the two groups coexisted in the Middle East 50–80 KYA. We examined the relationship between Neanderthals and modern humans in greater detail by applying two complementary methods to the published draft Neanderthal genome and an expanded set of high-coverage modern human genome sequences. We find that, consistent with the recent finding of Meyer et al. (2012), Neanderthals contributed more DNA to modern East Asians than to modern Europeans. Furthermore we find that the Maasai of East Africa have a small but significant fraction of Neanderthal DNA. Because our analysis is of several genomic samples from each modern human population considered, we are able to document the extent of variation in Neanderthal ancestry within and among populations. Our results combined with those previously published show that a more complex model of admixture between Neanderthals and modern humans is necessary to account for the different levels of Neanderthal ancestry among human populations. In particular, at least some Neanderthal–modern human admixture must postdate the separation of the ancestors of modern European and modern East Asian populations. PMID:23410836

  19. Higher levels of neanderthal ancestry in East Asians than in Europeans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, Jeffrey D; Yang, Melinda A; Jay, Flora; Kim, Sung K; Durand, Eric Y; Stevison, Laurie S; Gignoux, Christopher; Woerner, August; Hammer, Michael F; Slatkin, Montgomery

    2013-05-01

    Neanderthals were a group of archaic hominins that occupied most of Europe and parts of Western Asia from ∼30,000 to 300,000 years ago (KYA). They coexisted with modern humans during part of this time. Previous genetic analyses that compared a draft sequence of the Neanderthal genome with genomes of several modern humans concluded that Neanderthals made a small (1-4%) contribution to the gene pools of all non-African populations. This observation was consistent with a single episode of admixture from Neanderthals into the ancestors of all non-Africans when the two groups coexisted in the Middle East 50-80 KYA. We examined the relationship between Neanderthals and modern humans in greater detail by applying two complementary methods to the published draft Neanderthal genome and an expanded set of high-coverage modern human genome sequences. We find that, consistent with the recent finding of Meyer et al. (2012), Neanderthals contributed more DNA to modern East Asians than to modern Europeans. Furthermore we find that the Maasai of East Africa have a small but significant fraction of Neanderthal DNA. Because our analysis is of several genomic samples from each modern human population considered, we are able to document the extent of variation in Neanderthal ancestry within and among populations. Our results combined with those previously published show that a more complex model of admixture between Neanderthals and modern humans is necessary to account for the different levels of Neanderthal ancestry among human populations. In particular, at least some Neanderthal-modern human admixture must postdate the separation of the ancestors of modern European and modern East Asian populations.

  20. Patterns of East Asian pig domestication, migration, and turnover revealed by modern and ancient DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Greger; Liu, Ranran; Zhao, Xingbo; Yuan, Jing; Fuller, Dorian; Barton, Loukas; Dobney, Keith; Fan, Qipeng; Gu, Zhiliang; Liu, Xiao-Hui; Luo, Yunbing; Lv, Peng; Andersson, Leif; Li, Ning

    2010-04-27

    The establishment of agricultural economies based upon domestic animals began independently in many parts of the world and led to both increases in human population size and the migration of people carrying domestic plants and animals. The precise circumstances of the earliest phases of these events remain mysterious given their antiquity and the fact that subsequent waves of migrants have often replaced the first. Through the use of more than 1,500 modern (including 151 previously uncharacterized specimens) and 18 ancient (representing six East Asian archeological sites) pig (Sus scrofa) DNA sequences sampled across East Asia, we provide evidence for the long-term genetic continuity between modern and ancient Chinese domestic pigs. Although the Chinese case for independent pig domestication is supported by both genetic and archaeological evidence, we discuss five additional (and possibly) independent domestications of indigenous wild boar populations: one in India, three in peninsular Southeast Asia, and one off the coast of Taiwan. Collectively, we refer to these instances as "cryptic domestication," given the current lack of corroborating archaeological evidence. In addition, we demonstrate the existence of numerous populations of genetically distinct and widespread wild boar populations that have not contributed maternal genetic material to modern domestic stocks. The overall findings provide the most complete picture yet of pig evolution and domestication in East Asia, and generate testable hypotheses regarding the development and spread of early farmers in the Far East.

  1. Psychometric Evaluation of the 6-item Version of the Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure with East Asian Adolescents in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homma, Yuko; Zumbo, Bruno D; Saewyc, Elizabeth M; Wong, Sabrina T

    2014-01-01

    We examined the psychometric properties of scores on a 6-item version of the Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure (MEIM) among East Asian adolescents in Canada. A series of confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was conducted for 4,190 East Asians who completed a provincial survey of students in grades 7 to 12. The MEIM measured highly correlated dimensions of ethnic identity (exploration and commitment). Further, multi-group CFA indicated that the scale measured the same constructs on the same metric across three age groups and across four groups with varying degrees of exposure to Canadian and East Asian cultures. The findings suggest the short version of the MEIM can be used to compare levels of ethnic identity across different age or acculturation groups.

  2. Regional Differences in Pathogen Prevalence and Defensive Reactions to the “Swine Flu” Outbreak among East Asians and Westerners

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    Takeshi Hamamura

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Research has found that contagion-minimizing behavioral tendencies are amplified in pathogen-prevalent regions. We investigated whether reactions to the “swine flu” outbreak of 2009 were stronger among East Asians than Westerners, populations residing in regions that now enjoy comparable advances in healthcare but that are characterized by relatively high and low historical pathogen prevalence, respectively. In a survey, East Asians reported greater concerns about infection, especially from foreigners. Analyses of international air travel data around the time of the outbreak provided corroborating evidence: Immediately following the outbreak, airports in the Asia-Pacific region lost more international traffic relative to their Western counterparts, and East Asian airlines reported greater declines in international traffic compared to Western airlines. These differences are unlikely to reflect objective threat posed by swine flu (whose casualties were concentrated in the Americas; rather, they appear to reflect culturally adapted behavioral patterns forged and sustained by regionally variable levels of pathogen prevalence.

  3. Korea's Horizontal and Vertical Intra-Industry Trade and FDI in Trade with East Asian Countries

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    Taegi Kim

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines Korea's intra-industry trade (IIT by disentangling vertical from horizontal IIT, and analyzes the determinants of both IIT types in trade with East Asian countries during the period of 1991-2005. Korea's IIT with East Asian countries has increased rapidly, especially its high quality IIT, which has increased faster than horizontal IIT and low quality IIT, implying that Korea's product quality has improved over time. Korea's high quality IIT is larger in trade with developing countries, but its low quality IIT is larger in trade with Japan. The regression results show that the income differences between countries have a negative effect on horizontal IIT, and that Korea's high quality IIT becomes larger when Korea's income is higher than the income of partner countries. This supports the theory of IIT. Foreign direct investment (FDI inflow has had a positive effect on increases in IIT, but the effects of FDI outflow are not certain. This suggests a policy implication that FDI inflow has a more positive effect on IIT than FDI outflow.

  4. L-Shaped Columellar Strut in East Asian Nasal Tip Plasty

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    Eun-Sang Dhong

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Nasal tip support is an essential consideration for rhinoplasty in East Asians.There are many techniques to improve tip projection, and among them, the columellar strut isthe most popular technique. However, the conventional design is less supportive for rotatingthe tip. The amount of harvestable septal cartilage is relatively small in East Asians. For anoptimal outcome, we propose an L-shaped design for applying the columellar strut.Methods To evaluate the anthropometric outcomes, the change in nasal tip projection andthe columella-labial angle were analyzed by comparing preoperative and postoperative photographs.The anthropometric study group consisted of 25 patients who underwent the sameoperative technique of an L-shaped strut graft using septal cartilage and were followed upfor more than 9 months.Results There were statistically significant differences between the preoperative and postoperativevalues in the nasal tip projection ratio and columella-labial angle. We did not observeany complications directly related to the L-shaped columellar strut in the anthropometricstudy group.Conclusions The L-shaped columellar strut has advantages not only in the controlling of tipprojection and rotation, but in that it needs a smaller amount of cartilage compared to theconventional septal extension graft. It can therefore be an alternative technique for nasal tipplasty when there is an insufficient amount of harvestable septal cartilage.

  5. Diagnosing prosopagnosia in East Asian individuals: Norms for the Cambridge Face Memory Test-Chinese.

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    McKone, Elinor; Wan, Lulu; Robbins, Rachel; Crookes, Kate; Liu, Jia

    2017-07-01

    The Cambridge Face Memory Test (CFMT) is widely accepted as providing a valid and reliable tool in diagnosing prosopagnosia (inability to recognize people's faces). Previously, large-sample norms have been available only for Caucasian-face versions, suitable for diagnosis in Caucasian observers. These are invalid for observers of different races due to potentially severe other-race effects. Here, we provide large-sample norms (N = 306) for East Asian observers on an Asian-face version (CFMT-Chinese). We also demonstrate methodological suitability of the CFMT-Chinese for prosopagnosia diagnosis (high internal reliability, approximately normal distribution, norm-score range sufficiently far above chance). Additional findings were a female advantage on mean performance, plus a difference between participants living in the East (China) or the West (international students, second-generation children of immigrants), which we suggest might reflect personality differences associated with willingness to emigrate. Finally, we demonstrate suitability of the CFMT-Chinese for individual differences studies that use correlations within the normal range.

  6. Pollen evidence for a mid-Holocene East Asian summer monsoon maximum in northern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Ruilin; Xiao, Jule; Fan, Jiawei; Zhang, Shengrui; Yamagata, Hideki

    2017-11-01

    There is a controversy regarding whether the high precipitation delivered by an intensified East Asian summer monsoon occurred during the early Holocene, or during the middle Holocene, especially in the context of the monsoonal margin region. The conflicting views on the subject may be caused by chronological uncertainties and ambiguities in the interpretation of different climate proxies measured in different sedimentary sequences. Here, we present a detailed record of the Holocene evolution of vegetation in northern China based on a high-resolution pollen record from Dali Lake, located near the modern summer monsoon limit. From 12,000-8300 cal BP, the sandy land landscape changed from desert to open elm forest and shrubland, while dry steppe dominated the hilly lands and patches of birch forest developed in the mountains. Between 8300 and 6000 cal BP, elm forest was extensively distributed in the sandy lands, while typical steppe covered the hilly lands and mixed coniferous-broadleaved forests expanded in the mountains. Our pollen evidence contradicts the view that the monsoonal rainfall increased during the early Holocene; rather, it indicates that the East Asian summer monsoon did not become intensified until ∼8000 cal BP in northern China. The low precipitation during the early Holocene can be attributed to the boundary conditions, i.e., to the remnant high-latitude Northern Hemisphere ice sheets and the relatively low global sea level.

  7. The troika of business cycle, efficiency and volatility. An East Asian perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arshad, Shaista; Rizvi, Syed Aun R.

    2015-02-01

    The EMH has been the subject of much debate over the past few decades, with a recent surge in interest in Asian markets. Asian markets which traditionally comprise of many emerging markets are more volatile and speculative in nature. The heart of our study focuses on the East Asian economies, which have experienced massive capital inflows. This begs the question of whether or not the stock markets are efficient enough for further investment and development. Our paper differs from existing literature as it focuses on deriving weak form efficiency rankings during different business cycle phases. We endeavour further to assess the volatility and business cycle phases. Taking Malaysia, Indonesia, Singapore and South Korea owing to their economic and financial development, we use MF-DFA to derive efficiency rankings and find firstly, the overall efficiency has improved over the past two decades and secondly, markets are more efficient in growth phases in comparison to its preceding decline. Similarly, employing wavelet decomposition in conjunction with EGARCH, we obtain volatility of stock markets in two distinct time horizons, i.e. short term and long term. We find the markets to be more stable during economic boom than its preceding bust. Our results confer with mainstream literature.

  8. Continued obliquity pacing of East Asian summer precipitation after the mid-Pleistocene transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tao; Liu, Fei; Abels, Hemmo A.; You, Chen-Feng; Zhang, Zeke; Chen, Jun; Ji, Junfeng; Li, Laifeng; Li, Le; Liu, Hou-Chun; Ren, Chao; Xia, Renyuan; Zhao, Liang; Zhang, Wenfang; Li, Gaojun

    2017-01-01

    Records from natural archives show that the strength of the East Asian summer monsoon (EASM) strongly depends on the orbital configuration of the Earth. However, the dominant orbital cycles driving EASM have been found to be spatially different. Speleothem stable oxygen isotopic records from southern China, which are believed to reflect large-scale changes in the Asian monsoon system, are dominated by climatic precession cycles. Further north, on the Chinese Loess Plateau (CLP), loess-and-paleosol sequences, which are argued to be controlled by monsoon intensity, are in pace with global ice volume changes dominated by obliquity, and after the mid-Pleistocene transition by 100-kyr cycles. To understand these critical discrepancies, here we apply a novel proxy based on the trace metal compositions of pedogenic carbonate in the eolian deposits on the CLP to reconstruct summer precipitation over the last 1.5 million years. Our reconstructions show that summer precipitation on the CLP is dominantly forced by obliquity not in pace with the ice-volume-imprinted loess-paleosol sequences before and after the mid-Pleistocene transition or with the precession-paced speleothem oxygen isotopic records. Coupled with climate model results, we suggest that the obliquity-driven variations of summer precipitation may originate from the gradient of boreal insolation that modulates the thermal contrast between the Asian continent and surrounding oceans.

  9. Variability and teleconnections of South and East Asian summer monsoons in present and future projections of CMIP5 climate models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preethi, Bhaskar; Mujumdar, Milind; Prabhu, Amita; Kripalani, Ramesh

    2017-05-01

    Coupled Model Inter-comparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) model outputs of the South and East Asian summer monsoon variability and their tele-connections are investigated using historical simulations (1861-2005) and future projections under the RCP4.5 scenario (2006-2100). Detailed analyses are performed using nine models having better representation of the recent monsoon teleconnections for the interactive Asian monsoon sub-systems. However, these models underestimate rainfall mainly over South Asia and Korea-Japan sector, the regions of heavy rainfall, along with a bias in location of rainfall maxima. Indeed, the simulation biases, underestimations of monsoon variability and teleconnections suggest further improvements for better representation of Asian monsoon in the climate models. Interestingly, the performance of Australian Community Climate and Earth System Simulator version 1.0 (ACCESS1.0) in simulating the annual cycle, spatial pattern of rainfall and multi-decadal variations of summer monsoon rainfall over South and East Asia appears to more realistic. In spite of large spread among the CMIP5 models, historical simulations as well as future projections of summer monsoon rainfall indicate multi-decadal variability. These rainfall variations, displaying certain epochs of more rainfall over South Asia than over East Asia and vice versa, suggest an oscillatory behaviour. Teleconnections between South and East Asian monsoon rainfall also exhibit a multi-decadal variation with alternate epochs of strengthening and weakening relationship. Furthermore, large-scale circulation features such as South Asian monsoon trough and north Pacific subtropical high depict zonal oscillatory behaviour with east-west-east shifts. Periods with eastward or westward extension of the Mascarene High, intensification and expansion of the upper tropospheric South Asian High are also projected by the CMIP5 models.

  10. Age, Gender, and Fine-Grained Ethnicity Prediction using Convolutional Neural Networks for the East Asian Face Dataset

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    Srinivas, Nisha [ORNL; Rose, Derek C [ORNL; Bolme, David S [ORNL; Mahalingam, Gayathri [ORNL; Atwal, Harleen [ORNL; Ricanek, Karl [ORNL

    2017-01-01

    This paper examines the difficulty associated with performing machine-based automatic demographic prediction on a sub-population of Asian faces. We introduce the Wild East Asian Face dataset (WEAFD), a new and unique dataset to the research community. This dataset consists primarily of labeled face images of individuals from East Asian countries, including Vietnam, Burma, Thailand, China, Korea, Japan, Indonesia, and Malaysia. East Asian turk annotators were uniquely used to judge the age and fine grain ethnicity attributes to reduce the impact of the other race effect and improve quality of annotations. We focus on predicting age, gender and fine-grained ethnicity of an individual by providing baseline results with a convolutional neural network (CNN). Finegrained ethnicity prediction refers to predicting ethnicity of an individual by country or sub-region (Chinese, Japanese, Korean, etc.) of the East Asian continent. Performance for two CNN architectures is presented, highlighting the difficulty of these tasks and showcasing potential design considerations that ease network optimization by promoting region based feature extraction.

  11. 666 EAST AFRICAN MEDICAL JOURNAL DecemberZOO6 East ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Diarrhoea Section. Centre for Virus Research, Kenya. Medical Research Institute. He is working on viral diarrhoea pathogens, mainly rotaviruses. REFERENCES. 1. Hoshino Y. and Kapikian A.Z. Rotavirus serotypes: classification and importance in epidemiology, immunity and vaccine development. I. Hlfh. Popul. Nutr.

  12. Prediction of breast cancer risk based on common genetic variants in women of East Asian ancestry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Wanqing; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Guo, Xingyi; Cai, Qiuyin; Long, Jirong; Bolla, Manjeet K; Michailidou, Kyriaki; Dennis, Joe; Wang, Qin; Gao, Yu-Tang; Zheng, Ying; Dunning, Alison M; García-Closas, Montserrat; Brennan, Paul; Chen, Shou-Tung; Choi, Ji-Yeob; Hartman, Mikael; Ito, Hidemi; Lophatananon, Artitaya; Matsuo, Keitaro; Miao, Hui; Muir, Kenneth; Sangrajrang, Suleeporn; Shen, Chen-Yang; Teo, Soo H; Tseng, Chiu-Chen; Wu, Anna H; Yip, Cheng Har; Simard, Jacques; Pharoah, Paul D P; Hall, Per; Kang, Daehee; Xiang, Yongbing; Easton, Douglas F; Zheng, Wei

    2016-12-08

    Approximately 100 common breast cancer susceptibility alleles have been identified in genome-wide association studies (GWAS). The utility of these variants in breast cancer risk prediction models has not been evaluated adequately in women of Asian ancestry. We evaluated 88 breast cancer risk variants that were identified previously by GWAS in 11,760 cases and 11,612 controls of Asian ancestry. SNPs confirmed to be associated with breast cancer risk in Asian women were used to construct a polygenic risk score (PRS). The relative and absolute risks of breast cancer by the PRS percentiles were estimated based on the PRS distribution, and were used to stratify women into different levels of breast cancer risk. We confirmed significant associations with breast cancer risk for SNPs in 44 of the 78 previously reported loci at P women in the middle quintile of the PRS, women in the top 1% group had a 2.70-fold elevated risk of breast cancer (95% CI: 2.15-3.40). The risk prediction model with the PRS had an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.606. The lifetime risk of breast cancer for Shanghai Chinese women in the lowest and highest 1% of the PRS was 1.35% and 10.06%, respectively. Approximately one-half of GWAS-identified breast cancer risk variants can be directly replicated in East Asian women. Collectively, common genetic variants are important predictors for breast cancer risk. Using common genetic variants for breast cancer could help identify women at high risk of breast cancer.

  13. Education and Training for Development in East Asia: The Political Economy of Skill Formation in East Asian Newly Industrialised Economies. ESRC Pacific Asia Programme [Series].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashton, David; Green, Francis; James, Donna; Sung, Johnny

    This book provides a detailed analysis of the development of education and training systems in Asia and the relationship with the process of economic growth. Focus is on four impoverished agrarian economies--Hong Kong, Singapore, South Korea, and Taiwan--that were transformed in little more than a generation into East Asian "tigers":…

  14. Adaptation in families of children with Down syndrome in East Asian countries: an integrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hyunkyung; Van Riper, Marcia

    2017-08-01

    The purpose of this integrative literature review was to understand the experiences of East Asian families of children with Down syndrome and identify factors affecting their adaptation in the Resiliency Model of Family Stress, Adjustment and Adaptation. Socio-cultural factors influence how well families adapt following the birth of a child with Down syndrome. Existing literature in this area has focused primarily on families from Western cultures. This is problematic because nurses care for families from all over the world. Therefore, the focus of this review is on families of children with Down syndrome living in East Asia, where Confucianism is dominant. Integrative literature review. Online databases (i.e. PubMed, CINAHL and PsycINFO) and a public search engine (i.e. Google Scholar) were used along with manual searches of reference lists and major journals. Studies were limited to original publications written in English and published between 1990-2014. Two authors independently performed integrative review processes proposed by Whittemore and Knafl and a quality assessment using the Mixed Methods Appraisal Tool. Like families in Western cultures, some East Asian families of children with Down syndrome adapted well and even thrived while others struggled. Various socio-cultural factors, including some associated with Confucianism, played a role in how individuals, dyads and families adapted. An understanding of socio-cultural influences can help nurses implement culturally sensitive family-centred interventions with families of children with Down syndrome. It may also facilitate policy changes concerning resources for these families. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. The Role of Self-Compassion and Emotional Approach Coping in the Relationship between Maladaptive Perfectionism and Psychological Distress among East Asian International Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Heweon

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the mediating and moderating roles of self-compassion and emotional approach coping in the relationship between maladaptive perfectionism and psychological distress among East Asian international students. Data were collected through an online survey completed by 255 East Asian international students in a large public…

  16. Major population expansion of East Asians began before neolithic time: evidence of mtDNA genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Hong-Xiang; Yan, Shi; Qin, Zhen-Dong; Wang, Yi; Tan, Jing-Ze; Li, Hui; Jin, Li

    2011-01-01

    It is a major question in archaeology and anthropology whether human populations started to grow primarily after the advent of agriculture, i.e., the Neolithic time, especially in East Asia, which was one of the centers of ancient agricultural civilization. To answer this question requires an accurate estimation of the time of lineage expansion as well as that of population expansion in a population sample without ascertainment bias. In this study, we analyzed all available mtDNA genomes of East Asians ascertained by random sampling, a total of 367 complete mtDNA sequences generated by the 1000 Genome Project, including 249 Chinese (CHB, CHD, and CHS) and 118 Japanese (JPT). We found that major mtDNA lineages underwent expansions, all of which, except for two JPT-specific lineages, including D4, D4b2b, D4a, D4j, D5a2a, A, N9a, F1a1'4, F2, B4, B4a, G2a1 and M7b1'2'4, occurred before 10 kya, i.e., before the Neolithic time (symbolized by Dadiwan Culture at 7.9 kya) in East Asia. Consistent to this observation, the further analysis showed that the population expansion in East Asia started at 13 kya and lasted until 4 kya. The results suggest that the population growth in East Asia constituted a need for the introduction of agriculture and might be one of the driving forces that led to the further development of agriculture.

  17. East Asian child-rearing attitudes: an exploration of cultural, demographic and self-disclosure factors among US immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Declan T; Bernard, Matthew J; Beitel, Mark

    2009-10-01

    Child-rearing attitudes among East Asian groups have been emphasized in the developmental psychology literature in the context of their association with academic achievement. Although child-rearing attitudes play an important role in the transmission of cultural values, much of the research on East Asian child-rearing attitudes has ignored cultural variables and has instead focused on authoritarian parenting style. The current study examined the association between three classes of variables-culture (i.e., ethnic identity, self-construal, acculturation), demographics (sex, years in the US, English fluency), and self-disclosure-and traditional child-rearing attitudes (TCRA) among East Asian immigrants in the United States. It was hypothesized that higher levels of TCRA would be associated with higher levels of ethnic identity, interdependent self-construal, separation, and guarded self-disclosure, and fewer years spent in the United States. The participants included 170 East Asian (Chinese, Japanese, and Korean) immigrants (88 men, 82 women) who were administered a battery of psychometrically established measures. Our hypotheses were largely supported. We found that, while there was no significant sex by ethnicity effect for TCRA, men were significantly more likely than women to endorse TCRA and the Korean group had significantly higher TCRA than the Japanese group. Ethnic identity, interdependent self-construal, separation, years in the US, and guarded self-disclosure were significant independent predictors of TCRA. The findings suggest the need for broadening the content of assessment tools of child-rearing attitudes and measuring associated cultural and noncultural variables among East Asian ethnic groups. Future research on child-rearing attitudes among Asian ethnic groups may benefit from (1) measuring multiple dimensions of TCRA, (2) assessing associated cultural variables directly rather than inferring them in an ad hoc fashion based on observed ethnicity

  18. 92 EAST AFRICAN MEDICAL JOURNAL ' Apri12006

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    for both girl's and boy' s dental aesthetics. Asearch for data on malocclusion studies among East African children in connection with awareness and concern about malocclusion reveals very little information. A study by Ng'ang' a et al. (4) among subjects aged 13-. 15 years in Nairobi showed more females being dissatisfied ...

  19. Fertility trends and prospects in East and South-East Asian countries and implications for policies and programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leete, R

    1991-01-01

    Fertility trends and prospects for east and southeast Asian countries including cities in China, Taiwan, the Republic of Korea, Thailand, Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Myanmar, and Viet Nam are described. Additional discussion focuses on family planning methods, marriage patterns, fertility prospects, theories of fertility change, and policy implications for the labor supply, labor migrants, increased female participation in the labor force (LFP), human resource development, and social policy measures. Figures provide graphic descriptions of total fertility rates (TFRS) for 12 countries/areas for selected years between 1960-90, TFR for selected Chinese cities between 1955-90, the % of currently married women 15-44 years using contraception by main method for selected years and for 10 countries, actual and projected TFR and annual growth rates between 1990-2020 for Korea and Indonesia. It is noted that the 1st southeast Asian country to experience a revolution in reproductive behavior was Japan with below replacement level fertility by 1960. This was accomplished by massive postponement in age at marriage and rapid reduction in marital fertility. Fertility was controlled primarily through abortion. Thereafter every southeast Asian country experienced fertility declines. Hong Kong, Penang, Shanghai, Singapore, and Taipei and declining fertility before the major thrust of family planning (FP). Chinese fertility declines were reflected in the 1970s to the early 1980s and paralleled the longer, later, fewer campaign and policy which set ambitious targets which were strictly enforced at all levels of administration. Korea and Taiwan's declines were a result of individual decision making to restrict fertility which was encouraged by private and government programs to provide FP information and subsidized services. The context was social and economic change. Indonesia's almost replacement level fertility was achieved dramatically through the 1970s and 1980s by

  20. East African Medical Journal Vol. 79 No. 2 February 2002

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2002-02-02

    Feb 2, 2002 ... East African Medical Journal Vol. 79 No. 2 February 2002. VERBAL AUTOPSY IN ESTABLISHING CAUSE OF PERINATAL DEATH. N. Iriya, MD, MMed (Paed), Bugando Medical Centre, Mwanza, Tanzania, K. P. Ma'nji, MBBS, MMed (Paed) and R.L Mbise, MBChB, MMed., M.Sc., Department of. Paediatrics ...

  1. JanuaryZi'KW EAST AFRICAN MEDICAL JOURNAL 3

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2007-01-01

    Jan 1, 2007 ... JanuaryZi'KW EAST AFRICAN MEDICAL JOURNAL 3. Rust African Medical Ioumul Vol. 534 No. l .... of the frequent causes of bloodstream infections. (BSI) among febrile adults with advanced HIV ... liigmnclroilrle primers: A single set of oligonucleot it in primers was used (Mill. ., lllerlin, (l;erinanybi'jii.

  2. Preface to special section on East Asian Studies of Tropospheric Aerosols: An International Regional Experiment (EAST-AIRE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhanqing; Chen, H.; Cribb, M.; Dickerson, R.; Holben, B.; Li, C.; Lu, D.; Luo, Y.; Maring, H.; Shi, G.; Tsay, S.-C.; Wang, P.; Wang, Y.; Xia, X.; Zheng, Y.; Yuan, T.; Zhao, F.

    2007-11-01

    Papers published in this special section report findings from the East Asian Study of Tropospheric Aerosols: An International Regional Experiment (EAST-AIRE). They are concerned with (1) the temporal and spatial distributions of aerosol loading and precursor gases, (2) aerosol single scattering albedo (SSA), (3) aerosol direct radiative effects, (4) validation of satellite products, (5) transport mechanisms, and (6) the effects of air pollution on ecosystems. Aerosol loading is heaviest in mideastern China with a mean aerosol optical depth (AOD) of 0.5 and increasing to 0.7 around major cities that reduced daily mean surface solar radiation by ˜30-40 W m-2, but barely changed solar reflection at the top of the atmosphere. Aerosol loading, particle size and composition vary considerably with location and season. The MODIS AOD data from Collection 5 (C5) agree much better with ground data than earlier releases, but considerable discrepancies still exist because of treatments of aerosol SSA and surface albedo. Four methods are proposed/adopted to derive the SSA by means of remote sensing and in situ observation, which varies drastically with time and space. The nationwide means of AOD, Ångström exponent, and SSA (0.5 μm) in China are 0.69 ± 0.17, 1.06 ± 0.26, and 0.89 ± 0.04, respectively. Measurements of trace gases reveal substantial uncertainties in emission inventories. An analysis of aircraft measurements revealed that dry convection is an important mechanism uplifting pollutants over northern China. Model simulations of nitrogen deposition and impact of ozone pollution on net primary productivity indicate an increasing threat of air pollution on the ecosystem.

  3. Body mass index and self-rated health in East Asian countries : Comparison among South Korea, China, Japan, and Taiwan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noh, Jin-Won; Kim, Jinseok; Yang, Youngmi; Park, Jumin; Cheon, Jooyoung; Kwon, Young Dae

    2017-01-01

    There have been conflicting findings regarding the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and self-rated health (SRH) worldwide. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between BMI and SRH by comparing its relationship in four East Asian countries: South Korea, China, Japan, and

  4. The Effect of Perfectionism and Acculturative Stress on Levels of Depression Experienced by East Asian International Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamamura, Toshitaka; Laird, Philip G.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined relationships among acculturative stress, grade point average satisfaction, maladaptive perfectionism, and depression in 52 East Asian international students and 126 North American students. Results indicated that a combined effect of perfectionism and acculturative stress accounted for more than 30% of the variance related to…

  5. Education, Politics and Sino-Japanese Relations: Reflections on a Three-Year Project on "East Asian Images of Japan"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vickers, Edward

    2014-01-01

    Drawing on a recent collaborative and interdisciplinary study of East Asian Images of Japan, this article discusses contemporary Chinese portrayals of Japan, their political context, and their significance for Sino-Japanese relations. It questions some widely-held assumptions concerning the extent of "thought control" in an authoritarian…

  6. Acculturation, self-construal, mental and physical health: an explorative study of East Asian students in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Gayoung; Freund, Henning; Stopsack, Malte; Kämmerer, Annette; Barnow, Sven

    2014-08-01

    The present study explores acculturation and its associated aspects of two East Asian student groups with different levels of exposure to German culture (100 international students from East Asian countries [IS]; 61 second generation students of East Asian descent [SGS]). First, we investigated the relationships between acculturation, self-construal, depressive and somatic symptoms, and differences between the student groups in these variables. Second, the four acculturation types (integration, assimilation, separation and marginalization) were examined regarding their relationship to self-construal and health outcomes. The results showed that the acculturation dimensions (mainstream, heritage) were relevant to the level of depressive symptoms for IS which was not the case for SGS. Furthermore, IS reported more somatic symptoms whereas there was no difference between the two groups in the level of depressive symptoms. In the analysis of acculturation types, assimilated and integrated students were characterized by high independent self-construal, while separated and integrated students showed high interdependent self-construal. Assimilated students displayed the least depressive symptoms of all acculturation groups. This study highlights different characteristics of East Asian students in acculturation, self-construal and health outcomes, and discusses the complexity of the relationships between acculturation types and health. © 2013 International Union of Psychological Science.

  7. Iris pigmentation as a quantitative trait: variation in populations of European, East Asian and South Asian ancestry and association with candidate gene polymorphisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Melissa; Cha, David; Krithika, S; Johnson, Monique; Cook, Gillian; Parra, Esteban J

    2016-03-01

    In this study, we present a new quantitative method to measure iris colour based on high-resolution photographs. We applied this method to analyse iris colour variation in a sample of individuals of East Asian, European and South Asian ancestry. We show that measuring iris colour using the coordinates of the CIELAB colour space uncovers a significant amount of variation that is not captured using conventional categorical classifications, such as 'brown', 'blue' or 'green'. We tested the association of a selected panel of polymorphisms with iris colour in each population group. Six markers showed significant associations with iris colour in the European sample, three in the South Asian sample and two in the East Asian sample. We also observed that the marker HERC2 rs12913832, which is the main determinant of 'blue' versus 'brown' iris colour in European populations, is also significantly associated with central heterochromia in the European sample. © 2015 The Authors. Pigment Cell & Melanoma Research Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Genetic diversity of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis East African–Indian family in three tropical Asian countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yih-Yuan Chen

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Beijing lineage of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB is the most predominant MTB strain in Asian countries and is spreading worldwide, however, the East African–Indian (EAI lineage is also particularly prevalent in many tropical Asian countries. The evolutionary relationships among MTB EAI isolates from Taiwan and those of tropical Asian countries remain unknown. Methods: The EAI strains collected from patients in Taiwan were analyzed using spacer oligonucleotide typing and mycobacterial interspersed repetitive unit–variable number of tandem repeats (MIRU-VNTR typing, and compared with published profiles from Cambodia and Singapore to investigate potential epidemiological linkages. Results: Among the three countries, the EAI lineage was most prevalent in Cambodia (60%; Singapore, 25.62%; and Taiwan, 21.85%, having also the highest rates of multidrug resistance and lowest rates of clustering of MTB isolates. We describe a convenient method using seven selected MIRU-VNTR loci for first-line typing to discriminate Beijing and EAI lineages. A potential epidemiological linkage in these tropical Asian countries is also discussed based on a minimum-spanning tree constructed using 24 MIRU-VNTR loci of MTB EAI strains. Conclusion: This study identified evolutionary relationships among MTB EAI isolates from Taiwan and those of two other tropical Asian countries, Cambodia and Singapore. Keywords: East African–Indian family, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, tropical Asian countries

  9. Eating Habits of Malaysian Children: Findings of the South East Asian Nutrition Surveys (SEANUTS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Kar Hau; Wu, Suet Kei; Noor Hafizah, Yatiman; Bragt, Marjolijn C E; Poh, Bee Koon

    2016-07-01

    This article aims to describe the eating habits of Malaysian children using a nationally representative data set from the South East Asian Nutrition Surveys (SEANUTS) in Malaysia. A total of 2797 children aged 2 to 12 years were included in this analysis. Eating habits and dietary intakes of children were assessed using questionnaires. Overall, 56.1% of children consumed 3 main meals every day. Approximately 20% of children snacked 3 times per day, whereas 9.7% ate fast food on a weekly basis. Irregular meal patterns were significantly associated with lower micronutrient intakes, and the groups with higher odds for this pattern were older children, Malays, and those living in rural areas. Considering the relatively high rate of irregular meal consumption and its potential influence on dietary nutrient intake, persistent efforts must be continued to promote and inculcate healthy eating habits among children from an early age. © 2016 APJPH.

  10. Market Discipline and Bank Risk Taking: Evidence from the East Asian Banking Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fazelina Sahul Hamid

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The third pillar of the Basel II highlights the role of market discipline in easing the existing pressure on traditional monitoring measures like capital requirement and government supervision. This study test the effectiveness of market discipline in inducing prudential risk management practices among the East Asian banks over the 1995 to 2005 period. Market discipline is measured using information disclosure and interbank deposit holdings. We find that only the latter is an effective market discipline tool. However, the former becomes effective when market concentration is higher. We find that government owned, foreign owned and recapilatised banks are subject to market disciplining when disclosure in taken account but the opposite is true when interbank deposits is taken into account. Finally, we find that banks that disclose more risk related information hold more capital against their non-performing loan. The implications of the findings are discussed.

  11. The JCMT as operated by the East Asian Observatory: a brief (but thrilling) history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dempsey, Jessica T.; Ho, Paul T. P.; Walther, Craig; Friberg, Per; Bell, Graham S.; Parsons, Harriet; Chen, Ming-Tang

    2016-07-01

    The newly formed East Asian Observatory assumed operations of the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope in March of 2015. In just three weeks, the facility needed to run up completely mothballed observatory operations, introduce the telescope to a vast new scientist base with no familiarity with the facility, and create a non-existent science program. The handover to the EAO has since been a succession of challenging time-lines, and nearly unique problems requiring novel solutions. The results, however, have been spectacular, with subscription rates at unprecedented levels, a new series of Large Programs underway, as well as an exciting Future Instrumentation Project that together promises to keep JCMT at the forefront of wide-field submillimeter astronomy for the next decade.

  12. Urban heat mitigation by roof surface materials during the East Asian summer monsoon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seungjoon; Ryu, Youngryel; Jiang, Chongya

    2017-04-01

    Roof surface materials, such as green and white roofs, have attracted attention in their role in urban heat mitigation, and various studies have assessed the cooling performance of roof surface materials during hot and sunny summer seasons. However, summers in the East Asian monsoon climate region are characterized by significant fluctuations in weather events, such as dry periods, heatwaves, and rainy and cloudy days. This study investigated the efficacy of different roof surface materials for heat mitigation, considering the temperatures both at and beneath the surface of the roof covering materials during a summer monsoon in Seoul, Korea. We performed continuous observations of temperature at and beneath the surface of the roof covering materials, and manual observation of albedo and the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) for a white roof, two green roofs (grass [Poa pratensis] and sedum [Sedum sarmentosum]), and a reference surface. Overall, the surface temperature of the white roof was significantly lower than that of the grass and sedum roofs (1.1 and 1.3°C), whereas the temperature beneath the surface of the white roof did not differ significantly from that of the grass and sedum roofs during the summer. The degree of cloudiness significantly modified the surface temperature of the white roof compared with that of the grass and sedum roofs, which depended on plant metabolisms. It was difficult for the grass to maintain its cooling ability without adequate watering management. After considering the cooling performance and maintenance efforts for different environmental conditions, we concluded that white roof performed better in urban heat mitigation than grass and sedum during the East Asian summer monsoon. Our findings will be useful in urban heat mitigation in the region.

  13. ALDH2*2 and peer drinking in East Asian college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Shea, Taryn; Thomas, Nathaniel; Webb, Bradley Todd; Dick, Danielle M; Kendler, Kenneth S; Chartier, Karen G

    2017-11-01

    The ALDH2*2 allele (A-allele) at rs671 is more commonly carried by Asians and is associated with alcohol-related flushing, a strong adverse reaction to alcohol that is protective against drinking. Social factors, such as having friends who binge drink, also contribute to drinking in Asian youth. This study examined the interplay between ALDH2*2, peer drinking, and alcohol consumption in college students. We hypothesized that the relationship between ALDH2*2 and standard grams of ethanol per month would vary based on the level of peer drinking. Subjects (N = 318, 63.25% female) were East Asian college students in the United States who reported drinking alcohol. Data were from the freshman year of a university survey that included a saliva DNA sample. ALDH2*2 status was coded ALDH2*2(+) (A/G and A/A genotypes) and ALDH2*2(-) (G/G genotype). Peer drinking was students' perception of how many of their friends "got drunk". Main effects of ALDH2*2(-) and having more friends who got drunk were associated with greater alcohol consumption. The ALDH2*2 × peer drunkenness interaction showed a stronger positive association with alcohol consumption for ALDH2*2(-) versus ALDH2*2(+) at increasing levels of peer drunkenness. Follow-up comparisons within each peer drunkenness level identified significantly higher alcohol consumption for ALDH2*2(-) compared to ALDH2*2(+) at the all friends got drunk level. There was evidence of a stronger effect for ALDH2*2(-) compared to ALDH2*2(+) with greater alcohol use when students were more exposed to peer drinking. Findings contribute to a growing literature on the interrelationships between genetic influences and more permissive environments for alcohol consumption.

  14. Formulae for estimating skeletal height in modern South-East Asians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gocha, Timothy P; Vercellotti, Giuseppe; McCormick, Lara E; Van Deest, Traci L

    2013-09-01

    Estimating stature in human skeletal remains of Asian ancestry is problematic for forensic anthropologists due to the paucity and uncertain suitability of regression formulae. To address this issue, our study analyzed 64 individuals from a modern skeletal collection of South-East Asian origin and developed population-specific ordinary least squares regression formulae to estimate skeletal height from each of the long bones of the upper and lower limbs, as well as from trunk length. Results indicate that the most accurate estimates of skeletal height from a single bone (as measured by standard error of the estimate-SEE) are from tibial length in males (SEE = 2.40 cm) and from humeral length in females (SEE = 2.59 cm), followed by femoral length (SEE = 2.84 cm). When multiple elements are considered, the combination of femoral and tibial length yields the best estimates in both sexes as well as combined sex samples (male SEE = 2.40 cm; female SEE = 2.77 cm; combined sex SEE = 2.54 cm). © 2013 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  15. Consensus of the Present and Prospects on Endoscopic Diagnosis and Treatment in East Asian Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeshi Kamiya

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim. New diagnostic or therapeutic methods in endoscopy have been used. Current clinical application of these procedures is not well known. The aim of this study is to investigate the present situation on endoscopic diagnosis and treatment of gastrointestinal disorders in East Asian countries. Method. A representative member from the International Gastrointestinal Consensus Symposium Committee provided a questionnaire to physicians in China, Indonesia, Japan, Korea, the Philippines, and Thailand. Results. In total, 514 physicians including gastroenterologists, surgeons, and general practitioners enrolled. The most frequently occurring disorder as the origin of upper gastrointestinal bleeding is gastric ulcer. Capsule endoscopy is selected as the first choice for the diagnosis of small intestine bleeding. The second choice was double-balloon endoscopy or angiography. For patients with gastric adenoma, the number of physicians who choose endoscopic mucosal resection is larger than those selecting endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD in China, Indonesia, the Philippines, and Thailand. ESD is chosen first in Japan and Korea. Conclusion. New instruments or techniques on endoscopy have not come into wide use yet, and there is diversity in the situation on it in Asian countries. We should unify the endoscopic diagnostic criteria or treated strategy in patients with GI disease.

  16. CSSP MESETA : Simulation of the East Asian Summer Monsoon with idealized Tibetan Plateau orography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Kai Chi; Turner, Andrew

    2017-04-01

    Contrary to the traditional view on monsoon dynamics, recent modelling studies have shown that orographic blocking from the Himalayas is perhaps more important than the elevated heating from the Tibetan Plateau (TP) in maintaining the South Asian summer monsoon (SASM). For the East Asian summer monsoon (EASM), the mechanism is less clear. The CSSP MESETA project aims to further investigate the TP's orographic forcing on the dynamic and thermodynamic structures of regional and downstream climate. Using the UK Met Office HadGEM3 model in its atmosphere only configuration, various experiments with idealised orography were performed to assess the orographic forcing exerted by the TP, Himalayas (HM) and Iranian Plateau (IP). Our results confirm that elevated heating from the TP is indeed not required to maintain the SASM while the HM and IP are both important in sheltering the Indian landmass from the cooler extratropical airmass. Meanwhile, the EASM weakens in all simulations that removed the TP. Whether this is due to the lack of elevated heating or orographic blocking will be the focus of future investigation. This work contributes to the goals of the Global Monsoon Model Intercomparison Project (GMMIP), an endorsed component of CMIP6.

  17. Between Tradition and Modernity: Modern Confucianism as a Form of East Asian Social Knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana S. ROŠKER

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In the last decades of the 20th century, the revival of traditional Confucianism assumed increasing importance and relevance. The revitalization of its complex philosophical heritage thus became part of the most important theoretical currents in contemporary East Asian societies. Due to its potentially stabilizing social function and compatibility with capitalism, Confucianism is often seen as the Asian equivalent of Max Weber’s “protestant ethic”. In modern sinology, this view is known as the “post-Confucian hypothesis”. The appearance of the “vacuum of values” in modern China and its problematization and connection to the transformation of the structure, role, and function of social knowledge provide a good example of the consequences of explosive social transformation. This also raises the question of whether the Confucian modernization model is indeed capable of generating a non-individualistic version of modernity. Proceeding from this hypothesis, the present paper aims to show that the purported relation between modernity and individualism, which international modernization theories have always viewed as “inevitable” or “intrinsic”, is, in fact, little more than an outcome of Western historical paradigms.

  18. Philippine Sea and East Asian plate tectonics since 52 Ma constrained by new subducted slab reconstruction methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jonny; Suppe, John; Lu, Renqi; Kanda, Ravi

    2016-06-01

    We reconstructed Philippine Sea and East Asian plate tectonics since 52 Ma from 28 slabs mapped in 3-D from global tomography, with a subducted area of ~25% of present-day global oceanic lithosphere. Slab constraints include subducted parts of existing Pacific, Indian, and Philippine Sea oceans, plus wholly subducted proto-South China Sea and newly discovered "East Asian Sea." Mapped slabs were unfolded and restored to the Earth surface using three methodologies and input to globally consistent plate reconstructions. Important constraints include the following: (1) the Ryukyu slab is ~1000 km N-S, too short to account for ~20° Philippine Sea northward motion from paleolatitudes; (2) the Marianas-Pacific subduction zone was at its present location (±200 km) since 48 ± 10 Ma based on a >1000 km deep slab wall; (3) the 8000 × 2500 km East Asian Sea existed between the Pacific and Indian Oceans at 52 Ma based on lower mantle flat slabs; (4) the Caroline back-arc basin moved with the Pacific, based on the overlapping, coeval Caroline hot spot track. These new constraints allow two classes of Philippine Sea plate models, which we compared to paleomagnetic and geologic data. Our preferred model involves Philippine Sea nucleation above the Manus plume (0°/150°E) near the Pacific-East Asian Sea plate boundary. Large Philippine Sea westward motion and post-40 Ma maximum 80° clockwise rotation accompanied late Eocene-Oligocene collision with the Caroline/Pacific plate. The Philippine Sea moved northward post-25 Ma over the northern East Asian Sea, forming a northern Philippine Sea arc that collided with the SW Japan-Ryukyu margin in the Miocene (~20-14 Ma).

  19. Application of Dynamical and Statistical Downscaling to East Asian Summer Precipitation for Finely Resolved Datasets

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    Yoo-Bin Yhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Various downscaling approaches have been developed to overcome the limitation of the coarse spatial resolution of general circulation models (GCMs. Such techniques can be grouped into two approaches of dynamical and statistical downscaling. In this study, we investigated the performances of different downscaling methods, focusing on East Asian summer monsoon precipitation to obtain more finely resolved and value added datasets. The dynamical downscaling was conducted by the Regional Model Program (RMP of the Global/Regional Integrated Model system (GRIMs, while the statistical downscaling was performed through coupled pattern-based simple linear regression. The dynamical downscaling resulted in a better representation of the spatial distribution and long-term trend than the GCM produced; however, it tended to overestimate precipitation over East Asia. In contrast, the application of the statistical downscaling resulted in a bias in the amount of precipitation, due to low variance that is inherent in regression-based downscaling. A combination of dynamical and statistical downscaling produced the best results in time and space. This study provides a guideline for determining the most effective and robust downscaling method in the hydrometeorological applications, which are quite sensitive to the accuracy of downscaled precipitation.

  20. Clinical characteristics, risk factors and outcomes of South-East Asian patients with acute pulmonary embolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mok, Kwang How; Wong, Shiun Woei; Wong, Yee May; Foo, David; Watson, Timothy James; Ho, Hee Hwa

    2017-12-15

    The clinical features of acute PE have not been well studied in South-East Asia. We therefore sought to evaluate the clinical characteristics, risk factors and outcomes of patients diagnosed with acute pulmonary embolism (PE) in our region. From January 2008 to March 2013, 343 patients were admitted to our tertiary institution with acute PE. Data were collected retrospectively on baseline clinical characteristics, presenting signs and symptoms, results of electrocardiographic and imaging studies, therapeutic modality and hospital course. 91% of the patients presented with submassive PE. 6.1% of patients had saddle PE. The most common presenting symptom was dyspnea (72.3%) followed by chest pain (12.8%), hemoptysis (2.6%), syncope (2.6%) and cardiovascular collapse (1.2%). Risk factors for PE were idiopathic cause (33.5%), immobilization (21%), malignancy (6.1%) and hypercoagulable state (2.9%). The overall in-hospital mortality was 5%. Factors associated with mortality were massive PE, tachycardia at presentation, right ventricular dysfunction and cardiogenic shock. Bleeding complications occurred in 10.2% of patients (major bleeding in 3.5%). Acute PE in the South-East Asian patients is associated with an overall mortality rate of 5%. The bleeding complications from treatment are also high. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Can the Pragmatic East Asian Approach to Human Security Offer a Way for the Deepening of the Long Peace of East Asia?

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    Timo Kivimäki

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available East Asia (including Southeast and Northeast Asia has witnessed the most spectacular pacification in the world during the past 30 years. Certain dimensions related to human security have been perceived as weak points in the long peace of East Asia. Despite progress, authoritarian violence is still a reality in East Asia. At the same time, certain other dimensions of human security—most distinctively those elements related to "freedom from want"—have developed very well during the long peace of East Asia. This article will study whether the concept of human security constructs realities that are useful for peace in East Asia. For this, the article will look at how the way in which "human" and "security" are linked, serve and deepen the existing social realities of peace in the region. Furthermore, the article will look inside the concepts of "human" and "security" to see how human security is constructed and whether the construction serves to deepen the long peace of East Asia. The article will argue that the East Asian human security debate could be an intellectual adaptation strategy useful for the promotion of the long peace of East Asia in a deeper sense.

  2. East Asian SO2 pollution plume over Europe – Part 2: Evolution and potential impact

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    A. Stohl

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available We report on the first observation-based case study of an aged East Asian anthropogenic SO2 pollution plume over Europe. Our airborne measurements in that plume detected highly elevated SO2 mole fractions (up to 900 pmol/mol between about 5000 and 7000 m altitude. Here, we focus on investigations of the origin, dispersion, evolution, conversion, and potential impact of the observed excess SO2. In particular, we investigate SO2 conversion to gas-phase sulfuric acid and sulfuric acid aerosols. Our FLEXPART and LAGRANTO model simulations, along with additional trace gas measurements, suggest that the plume originated from East Asian fossil fuel combustion sources and, 8–7 days prior to its arrival over Europe, ascended over the coast region of central East Asia to 9000 m altitude, probably in a cyclonic system with an associated warm conveyor belt. During this initial plume ascent a substantial fraction of the initially available SO2 must have escaped from removal by cloud processes. Hereafter, while mostly descending slowly, the plume experienced advection across the North Pacific, North America and the North Atlantic. During its upper troposphere travel, clouds were absent in and above the plume and OH-induced gas-phase conversion of SO2 to gas-phase sulfuric acid (GSA was operative, followed by GSA nucleation and condensation leading to sulfuric acid aerosol formation and growth. Our AEROFOR model simulations indicate that numerous large sulfuric acid aerosol particles were formed, which at least tempora-rily, caused substantial horizontal visibility degradation, and which have the potential to act as water vapor condensation nuclei in liquid water cloud formation, already at water vapor supersaturations as low as about 0.1%. Our AEROFOR model simulations also indicate that those fossil fuel combustion generated soot particles, which have survived cloud induced removal during the initial plume ascent, have experienced extensive H2SO4/H2O

  3. Seasonal Transitions and the Westerly Jet in the Holocene East Asian Summer Monsoon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, W.; Chiang, J. C. H.

    2015-12-01

    The Holocene East Asian Summer Monsoon (EASM) was characterized by a trend to weaker monsoon intensity paced by orbital insolation. Here, we attribute the stronger EASM intensity in the early-mid Holocene to changes in the timing of the transition between the EASM seasonal stages - Spring, pre Mei- Yu, Mei-Yu, and Summer - during that time. Following the recent 'jet transition hypothesis' (Chiang et al., 2015), we explore the role of north-south displacement of the westerlies relative to the Tibetan Plateau that is hypothesized to control the downstream EASM seasonality changes across the Holocene. To this end, we analyze model simulations of the Holocene EASM, compare the simulated Holocene climate with the paleodata observations, and examine the role of atmospheric circulation and specifically the westerlies in modulating the East Asia summer climate. The PMIP3 climate model simulations suggest that, compared to the pre-industrial, the Mei-Yu onset and the transition from Mei-Yu to Summer rainfall occur earlier in the mid-Holocene. The advanced seasonal rainfall transition is accompanied by the weakened and northward-shifted upstream westerlies. In our atmospheric general circulation model (coupled to a slab ocean) simulations of various time periods across the Holocene (9ka, 6ka, 3ka, and pre-industrial), we quantitatively show that the timing and the length of each rainfall stage are closely related to the jet position over East Asia. We also show that the simulated changes in the maximum annual rainfall band and dust emission over East Asia largely agree with the paleo-proxy observations. In addition, we find that changes to the seasonal rainfall transitions, latitudinal westerly position, and stationary eddy activity over East Asia co-vary across the Holocene. In particular, we argue that the changes in the rainfall seasonal transitions are tied to an altered stationary wave pattern, resembling today's the so-called 'Silk Road Pattern', riding along the

  4. 178 EAST AFRICAN MEDICAL JOURNAL April2007

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2007-04-04

    Apr 4, 2007 ... Restorative Dentistry, Radboud University Medical Centre, Nijmegen, ... Main outcome measures: Number and type of restorations and tooth extractions rendered, daily ..... Gugushe T. Compulsory community service audit for.

  5. Primary intracranial germ cell tumours: experience of a single South-East Asian institution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foo, Aaron S C; Lim, Cindy; Chong, Dawn Q Q; Tan, Daniel Y H; Tham, Chee Kian

    2014-10-01

    Primary intracranial germ cell tumours (ICGCT) are a rare group of brain tumours arising predominantly in the paediatric and pre-adult population, accounting for up to 9.5% of paediatric brain tumours in East Asia. The National Cancer Centre Singapore (NCCS) is a tertiary referral centre for patients from all over South-East Asia. Our study aims to describe the characteristics of ICGCT patients in South-East Asia. Data on all patients with ICGCT who were seen at the Therapeutic Radiology Department of NCCS from 2000 to 2013 were collected retrospectively. Patient demographics, disease characteristics and treatment outcomes were analysed. Characteristics and survival of our patients were similar to other centres. Pure germinomas demonstrated 5 year overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) rates of 89.2% (95% confidence interval [CI] 60.2-97.5) and 85.2% (95%CI 60.8-95.0) respectively. Secreting germinomas, non-germinomatous germ cell tumours and mixed germ cell tumours were evaluated together and demonstrated 5 year OS of 70.6% (95%CI 41.0-87.3) and DFS of 61.4% (95%CI 31.9-81.3). Patients ⩽ 12 years had marginally better 5 year OS than their older counterparts (81.0% [95%CI 49.5-93.9] versus 77.9% [95%CI 47.3-92.0], respectively). Patients who underwent extended field radiotherapy had longer OS and DFS than those who received local field irradiation. Treatment outcomes of our ICGCT patients are comparable with those in other Asian and Western centres. Extended field radiotherapy is a pivotal component of ICGCT treatment. Adding chemotherapy confers no extra survival benefit in treating germinomas. Treatment of mixed germ cell tumours and non-germinomatous germ cell tumours involves a multidisciplinary approach that varies for each histological subtype. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Remote response of the East Asian winter monsoon to tropical forcing related to El Niño-Southern Oscillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Kumi; Kawamura, Ryuichi

    2009-03-01

    The mechanism of the East Asian winter monsoon variability in response to El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO)-related tropical forcing is investigated using Japanese long-term reanalysis project data, additionally aided by the Japan Meteorological Agency climate data assimilation system. There are at least two different responses, zonally symmetric and asymmetric, of the Asian jet over South Asia to the ENSO-related tropical convective forcing during the Northern Hemisphere winter. The zonally symmetric response, induced by zonally extended anomalous convection from the Philippine Sea through southern India and Sri Lanka, is pronounced at the mature phase of ENSO. The zonally asymmetric response is intimately associated with anomalous convection localized in the vicinity of the Philippine and South China seas, accompanied by an anomalous Walker circulation cell between the Maritime Continent and tropical Indian Ocean. When this asymmetric response is prominent, ENSO-related anomalous convection can give rise to a change in the East Asian winter monsoon system through stationary Rossby wave propagation along the South Asian waveguide. The North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO)-related extratropical forcing is also a crucial factor and contributes not only to the downstream development of subpolar teleconnections across northern Eurasia but also to the reinforcement of the zonally asymmetric pattern of the Asian jet over South Asia, resulting in a significant effect on the East Asian winter monsoon circulation. A combination of the ENSO- and NAO-related forcing plays a vital role in triggering the occurrence of extraordinary anomalous monsoon circulations, such as extremely heavy snowfall in the 2005/2006 winter in Japan.

  7. The northward shift of the Tibetan Plateau as an important factor for understanding East Asian climate during Cenozoic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ran; Jiang, Dabang; Ramstein, Gilles; Zhang, Zhongshi; Lippert, Peter C.; Yu, Entao

    2017-04-01

    Previous climate modeling studies suggest that the surface uplift of the Himalaya-Tibetan plateau (TP) is a crucial parameter for the onset and enhancement of the East Asian monsoon during the Cenozoic. However, most of these studies have only considered the Himalaya-TP in its present location despite numerous geophysical studies that reconstruct the Himalaya-TP 10° or more of latitude to the south during the early Paleogene. We have designed a series of climate simulations that account for not only changes in the surface elevation of the Himalaya-TP, but also the latitudinal distribution of this regionally high elevation. Here we demonstrate that the East Asian climate strongly depends on the latitude of the Himalaya-TP. The northward motion of the Himalaya-TP likely contribute to the reorganization atmospheric circulation in East Asia, thereby leading to intensified inland Asian aridity and enhanced monsoon climate over East Asia. Moreover, our simulations also bring new constrains on the southern margin of a modern-elevation proto-Himalaya-TP in the Eocene.

  8. Clinical outcomes of elderly South-East Asian patients in primary percutaneous coronary intervention for ST-elevation myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Jieli; Xiang, Wen Wei; Ang, An Shing; Sim, Wen Jun; Quah, Kien Hong; Foo, David; Ong, Paul Jau Lueng; Ho, Hee Hwa

    2016-10-01

    To evaluate the clinical characteristics and in-hospital outcomes of elderly South-East Asian patients undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI). From January 2009 to December 2012, 1268 patients (86.4% male, mean age of 58.4 ± 12.2 years) presented to our hospital for ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) and underwent PPCI. They were divided into two groups: elderly group defined as age ≥ 70 years and non-elderly group defined as age Asian patients undergoing PPCI for STEMI was high. Further studies into the optimal STEMI management strategy for these elderly patients are warranted.

  9. Anthropogenic aerosol effects on East Asian winter monsoon: The role of black carbon-induced Tibetan Plateau warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yiquan; Yang, Xiu-Qun; Liu, Xiaohong; Yang, Dejian; Sun, Xuguang; Wang, Minghuai; Ding, Aijun; Wang, Tijian; Fu, Congbin

    2017-06-01

    This study investigates anthropogenic aerosol effects on East Asian winter monsoon (EAWM) with Community Atmospheric Model version 5. In winter, the anthropogenic aerosol optical depth is the largest over southern East Asia and adjacent oceans. The associated EAWM change, however, is the most significant in northern East Asia, which is characterized by a significant surface cooling in northern East Asia and an acceleration of the jet stream around 40°N, indicating an intensification of the EAWM northern mode. Such an intensification is attributed to anthropogenic black carbon (BC)-induced Tibetan Plateau (TP) warming. The BC is mostly transported from northern South Asia by wintertime westerly and southwesterly and then deposited on snow, giving rise to a reduction of surface albedo and an increase of surface air temperature via the snow-albedo feedback. The TP warming increases meridional temperature gradient and lower tropospheric baroclinicity over northern East Asia, leading to the jet stream acceleration around 40°N and the westward shift of East Asian major trough via the transient eddy-mean flow feedback. Such upper tropospheric pattern favors more cold air outbreak, leading to a large surface cooling in northern East Asia. In southern East Asia, the effect of nonabsorbing aerosols is dominant. The solar flux at surface is significantly reduced directly by scattering of nonabsorbing aerosols and indirectly by intensification of short wave cloud forcing. Accordingly, the surface air temperature in southern East Asia is reduced. The precipitation is also significantly reduced in South China and Indo-China Peninsula, where the aerosol indirect effect is the largest.

  10. 16 EAST AFRICAN MEDICAL JOURNAL January2007

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    through the Provincial General Hospital Kakamega administration and the Provincial Medical Officer. January 2007. (PMO). The records were coded and patients' names were not used. The proposal was submitted to, and approval granted by, the Ethical and Research. Committee of Kenyatta National Hospital. RESULTS.

  11. March 2001 EAST AFRICAN MEDICAL JOURNAL

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2001-03-01

    Mar 1, 2001 ... Request for reprints to: Dr. D.l-I.O. Kwamanga, Centre for Respiratory Diseases, Kenya Medical Research Institute, PO. Box 47855, Nairobi. ... factors of cigarette smoking and tobacco consumption among primary school teachers in Nairobi. .... Basic education system in Nairobi, like in all other provinces in ...

  12. 300 EAST AFRICAN MEDICAL JOURNAL June 2001

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    2001-06-06

    Jun 6, 2001 ... Identification of factors that facilitate or impede effective use of health services by young people ... the Health Behaviour Model to explain utilisation of other forms of health services such as traditional ... medical and dental services, whereas having a physical health problem (need factor) and socio-demo ...

  13. April 2002 EAST AFRICAN MEDICAL JOURNAL 181

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    2002-04-04

    Apr 4, 2002 ... Lecturer I. Department of Human Physiology and BC. ... Setting: Departments of Human Physiology and Anatomy, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, .... inflammatory cell infiltration of the uterine endometrium during the process of menstruation. These endometrial changes are initiated by the sudden loss of ...

  14. 226 EAST AFRICAN MEDICAL JOURNAL May2007

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    D.S. Rwakatema, DDS, MDS, Assistant Lecturer, Department of Dentistry, Kilimanjaro Christian Medical College,. Tumaini ... Subjects: Two hundred and eighty nine randomly selected primary school children in Moshi municipality in the year ... Anterior openbite and antero-posterior molar relation discrepancies occurred in ...

  15. 524 EAST AFRICAN MEDICAL JOURNAL October 2004

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    2004-10-10

    Oct 10, 2004 ... Methods: Salt intake was determined with Corning clinical flame photometer using. 24 hour ... There are experimental, epidemiological and clinical ..... Richard, C. and Andrew, M. Systemic arterial hypertension. In: Cardiology, mainstream Medicine. Oxford Heinmann. Medical Books. 1989; 340-375. 10.

  16. Editorial : Clinical drug interactions | Kokwaro | East African Medical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal Home > Vol 78, No 10 (2001) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. Editorial: Clinical drug interactions. G. O. Kokwaro. Abstract. (East African Medical Journal 2001 78 (10): 505-506). Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT

  17. Doctors lifestyle in Enugu, Nigeria | Aghaji | East African Medical ...

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    East African Medical Journal. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 77, No 9 (2000) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Download this PDF file. The PDF file you selected should ...

  18. Leprosy in Nkhotakota District Hospital | Chisi | East African Medical ...

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    East African Medical Journal. Journal Home · ABOUT · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 80, No 12 (2003) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Download this PDF file. The PDF file you selected should load here if your ...

  19. Adhesive intestinal obstruction | Kuremu | East African Medical Journal

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    No Abstract. East African Medical Journal Vol. 83(6) 2006: 333-336. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/eamj.v83i6.9441 · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians ...

  20. Testicular torsion: case report | Kuremu | East African Medical Journal

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    East African Medical Journal. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 81, No 5 (2004) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Download this PDF file. The PDF file you selected should ...

  1. Goldenhar 's syndrome: case report | Adeoye | East African Medical ...

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    East African Medical Journal. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 79, No 9 (2002) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Download this PDF file. The PDF file you selected should ...

  2. Goldenhar 's syndrome: case report | Adeoye | East African Medical ...

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    Goldenhar 's syndrome: case report. A. O. Adeoye. Abstract. (East African Medical Journal: 2002 79(9): 502-504). Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/eamj.v79i9.9125 · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL ...

  3. East African Medical Journal Vol. 78 No. 4 April 2001

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2001-04-04

    Apr 4, 2001 ... mostly among young adults most of whom were farmers. Postoperative complications occurred in 36 ... April 2001 EAST AFRICAN MEDICAL JOURNAL 209. Table 1. Causes of acute intestinal obstruction in .... and ingest single voluminous meals late in the afternoon. This association is in conformity with ...

  4. Anorexia nervosa in Kenya | Njenga | East African Medical Journal

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    East African Medical Journal. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 81, No 4 (2004) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Download this PDF file. The PDF file you selected should ...

  5. Gene-centric meta-analysis of lipid traits in African, East Asian and Hispanic populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara C Elbers

    Full Text Available Meta-analyses of European populations has successfully identified genetic variants in over 100 loci associated with lipid levels, but our knowledge in other ethnicities remains limited. To address this, we performed dense genotyping of ∼2,000 candidate genes in 7,657 African Americans, 1,315 Hispanics and 841 East Asians, using the IBC array, a custom ∼50,000 SNP genotyping array. Meta-analyses confirmed 16 lipid loci previously established in European populations at genome-wide significance level, and found multiple independent association signals within these lipid loci. Initial discovery and in silico follow-up in 7,000 additional African American samples, confirmed two novel loci: rs5030359 within ICAM1 is associated with total cholesterol (TC and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C (p = 8.8×10(-7 and p = 1.5×10(-6 respectively and a nonsense mutation rs3211938 within CD36 is associated with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C levels (p = 13.5×10(-12. The rs3211938-G allele, which is nearly absent in European and Asian populations, has been previously found to be associated with CD36 deficiency and shows a signature of selection in Africans and African Americans. Finally, we have evaluated the effect of SNPs established in European populations on lipid levels in multi-ethnic populations and show that most known lipid association signals span across ethnicities. However, differences between populations, especially differences in allele frequency, can be leveraged to identify novel signals, as shown by the discovery of ICAM1 and CD36 in the current report.

  6. Differences in East Asian Economic Institutions: Taiwan in a Regional Comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    István Csaba Moldicz

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The term “developmental state” describes a very conscious, however, more or less market-friendly approach to economic development. The developmental states of the East Asian region can be characterized by a strong emphasis on diverse forms of state intervention generally; however, these sets of institutions differ in the Japanese, Taiwanese, and South Korean economies. The aim of this paper is to offer a comparative analysis of economic institutions and their alterations after the Asian financial crisis. The paper includes Taiwan, Japan and South Korea in the analysis. The paper seeks to define the peculiar features of Taiwanese economic institutions in contrast to Japan and South Korea. By doing so, the paper investigates different aspects of economic institutions in Japan, Taiwan and South Korea: firm structure, the ability of firms to shape and organize regional supply chains, the role of state and trade unions, the composition of GDP/GNP, economic openness (trade, exchange regimes and financial sectors’ capability to channel funds and encourage saving and investments. One of the findings of the paper is that Taiwan’s defining feature is its very close cooperation with Mainland China. However, the deep interconnectedness of the two economies, often called “Chiwan”, is going to be changed. The reason for this is not only a new economic policy, Taiwan’s “New Southbound Policy” of enhanced cooperation with countries of the Southeast Asia, South Asia and Oceania, but the upgrading of the Chinese economy, which is losing its place in the global supply chains as a cheap-labour country.

  7. Forced and internal modes of variability of the East Asian summer monsoon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Liu

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The modern instrumental record (1979–2006 is analyzed in an attempt to reveal the dynamical structure and origins of the major modes of interannual variability of East Asian summer monsoon (EASM and to elucidate their fundamental differences with the major modes of seasonal variability. These differences are instrumental in understanding of the forced (say orbital and internal (say interannual modes of variability in EASM. We show that the leading mode of interannual variation, which accounts for about 39% of the total variance, is primarily associated with decaying phases of major El Nino, whereas the second mode, which accounts for 11.3% of the total variance, is associated with the developing phase of El Nino/La Nina. The EASM responds to ENSO in a nonlinear fashion with regard to the developing and decay phases of El Nino. The two modes are determined by El Nino/La Nina forcing and monsoon-warm ocean interaction, or essentially driven by internal feedback processes within the coupled climate system. For this internal mode, the intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ and subtropical EASM precipitations exhibit an out-of-phase variations; further, the Meiyu in Yangtze River Valley is also out-of-phase with the precipitation in the central North China.

    In contrast, the annual cycle forced by the solar radiation shows an in-phase variation between the ITCZ and the subtropical EASM precipitation. Further, the seasonal march of precipitation displays a continental-scale northward advance of a southwest-northeastward tilted rainband from mid-May toward the end of July. This coherent seasonal advance between Indian and East Asian monsoons suggests that the position of the northern edge of the summer monsoon over the central North China may be an adequate measure of the monsoon intensity for the forced mode. Given the fact that the annual modes share the similar external forcing with orbital variability, the difference between the annual

  8. Multi-Decadal Modulations in the Variability of the East Asian Summer Monsoon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, H.; Machimura, T.; Ogawa, S.; Kosaka, Y.; Nishii, K.; Miyasaka, T.

    2015-12-01

    The East Asian summer monsoon fluctuates from its climatological activity on monthly and interannual time scales, and the most dominant pattern of the variability is known as the Pacific-Japan (PJ) pattern. Characterized by a meridional teleconnection in anomalous activity of the Meiyu/Baiu rainband, tropical storms and a surface subtropical anticyclone (the Bonin High) in between, the PJ pattern exerts substantial influence on summertime climatic conditions over East Asia and the western North Pacific. Despite the recent warming trend observed in its background state, no assessment thus far has been made on how substantially the PJ has undergone, if any, multi-decadal modulations in its structure and/or dominance. Through an EOF analysis applied to a new dataset of global atmospheric reanalysis (JRA-55), the predominance of the PJ pattern is confirmed as being extracted in the leading EOF of lower-tropospheric monthly vorticity anomalies over 55 recent years. Both efficient barotropic/baroclinic energy conversion from the climatological-mean state and efficient generation of available potential energy through anomalous convective activity over the tropical western Pacific are shown to be essential for the maintenance of the monthly atmospheric anomalies of the PJ pattern over the entire 55-year period. At the same time, however, the same EOF analysis as above but applied separately to each of the sub-periods reveals a distinct signature of long-term modulations in amplitude and thus the dominance of the PJ pattern. While being extracted in the first EOF up to the 1980s, the PJ pattern is extracted in the second EOF in the period since the 1990s with marked reductions in both the variance fraction explained and the efficiency of energy conversion/generation. The resultant modulations of the summertime meridional teleconnection are also discussed with implications for future changes.

  9. Competing Atmospheric and Surface-Driven Impacts of Absorbing Aerosols on the East Asian Summer Monsoon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persad, G.; Paynter, D.; Ming, Y.; Ramaswamy, V.

    2015-12-01

    Absorbing aerosols, by attenuating shortwave radiation within the atmosphere and reemitting it as longwave radiation, redistribute energy both vertically within the surface-atmosphere column and horizontally between polluted and unpolluted regions. East Asia has the largest concentrations of anthropogenic absorbing aerosols globally, and these, along with the region's scattering aerosols, have both reduced the amount of solar radiation reaching the Earth's surface regionally ("solar dimming") and increased shortwave absorption within the atmosphere, particularly during the peak months of the East Asian Summer Monsoon (EASM). We here analyze how atmospheric absorption and surface solar dimming compete in driving the response of EASM circulation to anthropogenic absorbing aerosols, which dominates, and why—issues of particular importance for predicting how the EASM will respond to projected changes in absorbing and scattering aerosol emissions in the future. We probe these questions in a state-of-the-art general circulation model (GCM) using a combination of realistic and idealized aerosol perturbations that allow us to analyze the relative influence of absorbing aerosols' atmospheric and surface-driven impacts on EASM circulation. In combination, our results make clear that, although absorption-driven dimming has a less detrimental effect on EASM circulation than purely scattering-driven dimming, aerosol absorption is still a net impairment to EASM strength when both its atmospheric and surface effects are considered. Because atmospheric heating is not efficiently conveyed to the surface, the surface dimming and associated cooling from even a pure absorber is sufficient to counteract its atmospheric heating, resulting in a net reduction in EASM strength. These findings elevate the current understanding of the impacts of aerosol absorption on the EASM, improving our ability to diagnose EASM responses to current and future regional changes in aerosol emissions.

  10. Neanderthal introgression at chromosome 3p21.31 was under positive natural selection in East Asians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Qiliang; Hu, Ya; Xu, Shuhua; Wang, Jiucun; Jin, Li

    2014-03-01

    Studies of the Neanderthal and Denisovan genomes demonstrate archaic hominin introgression in Eurasians. Here, we present evidence of Neanderthal introgression within the chromosome 3p21.31 region, occurring with a high frequency in East Asians (ranging from 49.4% to 66.5%) and at a low frequency in Europeans. We also detected a signal of strong positive selection in this region only in East Asians. Our data indicate that likely candidate targets of selection include rs12488302-T and its associated alleles--among which four are nonsynonymous, including rs35455589-G in HYAL2, a gene related to the cellular response to ultraviolet-B irradiation. Furthermore, suggestive evidence supports latitude-dependent selection, implicating a role of ultraviolet-B. Interestingly, the distribution of rs35455589-G suggests that this allele was lost during the exodus of ancestors of modern Eurasians from Africa and reintroduced to Eurasians from Neanderthals.

  11. Relationships of cognitive and metacognitive learning strategies to mathematics achievement in four high-performing East Asian education systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Areepattamannil, Shaljan; Caleon, Imelda S

    2013-01-01

    The authors examined the relationships of cognitive (i.e., memorization and elaboration) and metacognitive learning strategies (i.e., control strategies) to mathematics achievement among 15-year-old students in 4 high-performing East Asian education systems: Shanghai-China, Hong Kong-China, Korea, and Singapore. In all 4 East Asian education systems, memorization strategies were negatively associated with mathematics achievement, whereas control strategies were positively associated with mathematics achievement. However, the association between elaboration strategies and mathematics achievement was a mixed bag. In Shanghai-China and Korea, elaboration strategies were not associated with mathematics achievement. In Hong Kong-China and Singapore, on the other hand, elaboration strategies were negatively associated with mathematics achievement. Implications of these findings are briefly discussed.

  12. Absence of ethnic differences in the pharmacokinetics of moxifloxacin, simvastatin, and meloxicam among three East Asian populations and Caucasians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasunuma, Tomoko; Tohkin, Masahiro; Kaniwa, Nahoko; Jang, In-Jin; Yimin, Cui; Kaneko, Masaru; Saito, Yoshiro; Takeuchi, Masahiro; Watanabe, Hiroshi; Yamazoe, Yasushi; Uyama, Yoshiaki; Kawai, Shinichi

    2016-06-01

    To examine whether strict control of clinical trial conditions could reduce apparent differences of pharmacokinetic (PK) parameters among ethnic groups. Open-label, single dose PK studies of moxifloxacin, simvastatin and meloxicam were conducted in healthy male subjects from three East Asian populations (Japanese, Chinese and Koreans) and one Caucasian population as a control. These three drugs were selected because differences in PK parameters have been reported, even though the backgrounds of these East Asian populations are similar. Moxifloxacin (400 mg) was administered orally to 20 subjects, and plasma and urine levels of moxifloxacin and its metabolite (M2) were measured. Simvastatin (20 mg) was given to 40 subjects, and plasma levels of simvastatin and simvastatin acid were measured. Meloxicam (7.5 mg) was given to 30 subjects and its plasma concentration was determined. Intrinsic factors (polymorphism of UGT1A1 for moxifloxacin, SLCO1B1 for simvastatin, and CYP2C9 for meloxicam) were also examined. AUCinf values for moxifloxacin, simvastatin and meloxicam showed no significant differences among the East Asian groups. Cmax values of moxifloxacin and simvastatin, but not meloxicam, showed significant differences. There were no significant differences of data for M2 or simvastatin acid. Genetic analysis identified significant differences in the frequencies of relevant polymorphisms, but these differences did not affect the PK parameters observed. Although there were some differences in PK parameters among the three East Asian groups, the present study performed under strictly controlled conditions did not reproduce the major ethnic differences observed in previous studies. © 2016 The Authors. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of The British Pharmacological Society.

  13. Genome-wide association study of pigmentary traits (skin and iris color in individuals of East Asian ancestry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lida Rawofi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background Currently, there is limited knowledge about the genetics underlying pigmentary traits in East Asian populations. Here, we report the results of the first genome-wide association study of pigmentary traits (skin and iris color in individuals of East Asian ancestry. Methods We obtained quantitative skin pigmentation measures (M-index in the inner upper arm of the participants using a portable reflectometer (N = 305. Quantitative measures of iris color (expressed as L*, a* and b* CIELab coordinates were extracted from high-resolution iris pictures (N = 342. We also measured the color differences between the pupillary and ciliary regions of the iris (e.g., iris heterochromia. DNA samples were genotyped with Illumina’s Infinium Multi-Ethnic Global Array (MEGA and imputed using the 1000 Genomes Phase 3 samples as reference haplotypes. Results For skin pigmentation, we did not observe any genome-wide significant signal. We followed-up in three independent Chinese samples the lead SNPs of five regions showing multiple common markers (minor allele frequency ≥ 5% with good imputation scores and suggestive evidence of association (p-values < 10−5. One of these markers, rs2373391, which is located in an intron of the ZNF804B gene on chromosome 7, was replicated in one of the Chinese samples (p = 0.003. For iris color, we observed genome-wide signals in the OCA2 region on chromosome 15. This signal is driven by the non-synonymous rs1800414 variant, which explains 11.9%, 10.4% and 6% of the variation observed in the b*, a* and L* coordinates in our sample, respectively. However, the OCA2 region was not associated with iris heterochromia. Discussion Additional genome-wide association studies in East Asian samples will be necessary to further disentangle the genetic architecture of pigmentary traits in East Asian populations.

  14. The role of East Asian monsoon system in shaping population divergence and dynamics of a constructive desert shrub Reaumuria soongarica

    OpenAIRE

    Hengxia Yin; Xia Yan; Yong Shi; Chaoju Qian; Zhonghu Li; Wen Zhang; Lirong Wang; Yi Li; Xiaoze Li; Guoxiong Chen; Xinrong Li; Eviatar Nevo; Xiao-Fei Ma

    2015-01-01

    Both of the uplift of Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (QTP) and the development of East Asian monsoon system (EAMS) could have comprehensively impacted the formation and evolution of Arid Central Asia (ACA). To understand how desert plants endemic to ACA responded to these two factors, we profiled the historical population dynamics and distribution range shift of a constructive desert shrub Reaumuria soongarica (Tamaricaceae) based on species wide investigation of sequence variation of chloroplast DNA ...

  15. ICU-COE North East Asian Dialogue (NEAD) Project, Year III ーJapan, China, Korea, and Russiaー

    OpenAIRE

    Wasilewski, Jacqueline; Jacqueline, Wasilewski

    2008-01-01

    This paper is divided into five main sections. It 1) reviews the first two years of the North East Asian Dialogue (NEAD) Project, 2) explains the nine major activities of the third year of the Project, activities meant to cultivate a new generation of transnational non-state actors, 3) lists presentations, networking, media coverage and other activities associated with the third year of the Project, 4) outlines future activities stemming from the Project and 5) describes the emergence of a cl...

  16. Genome-wide association study of pigmentary traits (skin and iris color) in individuals of East Asian ancestry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawofi, Lida; Edwards, Melissa; Krithika, S; Le, Phuong; Cha, David; Yang, Zhaohui; Ma, Yanyun; Wang, Jiucun; Su, Bing; Jin, Li; Norton, Heather L; Parra, Esteban J

    2017-01-01

    Currently, there is limited knowledge about the genetics underlying pigmentary traits in East Asian populations. Here, we report the results of the first genome-wide association study of pigmentary traits (skin and iris color) in individuals of East Asian ancestry. We obtained quantitative skin pigmentation measures (M-index) in the inner upper arm of the participants using a portable reflectometer ( N  = 305). Quantitative measures of iris color (expressed as L*, a* and b* CIELab coordinates) were extracted from high-resolution iris pictures ( N  = 342). We also measured the color differences between the pupillary and ciliary regions of the iris (e.g., iris heterochromia). DNA samples were genotyped with Illumina's Infinium Multi-Ethnic Global Array (MEGA) and imputed using the 1000 Genomes Phase 3 samples as reference haplotypes. For skin pigmentation, we did not observe any genome-wide significant signal. We followed-up in three independent Chinese samples the lead SNPs of five regions showing multiple common markers (minor allele frequency ≥ 5%) with good imputation scores and suggestive evidence of association ( p -values color, we observed genome-wide signals in the OCA2 region on chromosome 15. This signal is driven by the non-synonymous rs1800414 variant, which explains 11.9%, 10.4% and 6% of the variation observed in the b*, a* and L* coordinates in our sample, respectively. However, the OCA2 region was not associated with iris heterochromia. Additional genome-wide association studies in East Asian samples will be necessary to further disentangle the genetic architecture of pigmentary traits in East Asian populations.

  17. Comparative Analysis of Policies of Architectural Heritage Conservation in East Asian and European Countries (Legislation, Administration and Finance)

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Ke

    2017-01-01

    Architectural heritage, as an important form of the past, has been attracted increasing awareness. Nowadays there is a shared common view in the world that to protect architectural heritage reasonably and based on scientific methods is a necessity of our age. This dissertation intends to analyze and compare the policies for the protection of the architectural heritage in East Asian and European countries. Japan, China, Singapore, Italy, Britain and Germany are selected as representative count...

  18. Two modes of the East Asian summer monsoon during the Pliocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, S.; Nie, J.; Breecker, D.

    2016-12-01

    The Middle Pliocene Warm Period is a potential analog for future climate. Tibetan uplift, Panama Seaway closure, ocean salinity/temperature variations, and glaciation of the Northern Hemisphere have all been proposed to affect East Asian summer monsoon (EASM) during the Pliocene, a system affecting life of billions of people in Asia, but debates remain about their respective role despite decades of studies. A main reason that the mechanisms for Pliocene EASM variation are debated is a lack of consistency between various monsoon proxy records. Magnetic susceptibility and Rb/Sr ratio show that the EASM intensified during the late Pliocene; by contrast, degree of soil formation, chemical index of alteration (CIA), pollen and mollusk assemblages suggest decreased monsoon precipitation during the late Pliocene. Here we present the first oxygen isotope record spanning the entire Pliocene based on pedogenic carbonates from the Chinese Loess Plateau. The record shows that the less negative side of oxygen isotopes, presumably corresponding to the glacial period values, have an increasing trend after 4.5 Ma, consistent with decreased EASM as inferred by CIA, pedogenic features, and biological proxies. However, the minimum d18O values during the late Pliocene, presumably corresponding to interglacial period values, are persistently more negative than the early Pliocene, consistent with intensified EASM as inferred by magnetic susceptibility and Rb/Sr. This record demonstrates that EASM have two modes of variability during the Pliocene and settles the inconsistency between different EASM proxy records.

  19. Northward extent of East Asian monsoon covaries with intensity on orbital and millennial timescales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldsmith, Yonaton; Broecker, Wallace S.; Xu, Hai; Polissar, Pratigya J.; deMenocal, Peter B.; Porat, Naomi; Lan, Jianghu; Cheng, Peng; Zhou, Weijian; An, Zhisheng

    2017-02-01

    The magnitude, rate, and extent of past and future East Asian monsoon (EAM) rainfall fluctuations remain unresolved. Here, late Pleistocene-Holocene EAM rainfall intensity is reconstructed using a well-dated northeastern China closed-basin lake area record located at the modern northwestern fringe of the EAM. The EAM intensity and northern extent alternated rapidly between wet and dry periods on time scales of centuries. Lake levels were 60 m higher than present during the early and middle Holocene, requiring a twofold increase in annual rainfall, which, based on modern rainfall distribution, requires a ˜400 km northward expansion/migration of the EAM. The lake record is highly correlated with both northern and southern Chinese cave deposit isotope records, supporting rainfall “intensity based” interpretations of these deposits as opposed to an alternative “water vapor sourcing” interpretation. These results indicate that EAM intensity and the northward extent covary on orbital and millennial timescales. The termination of wet conditions at 5.5 ka BP (˜35 m lake drop) triggered a large cultural collapse of Early Neolithic cultures in north China, and possibly promoted the emergence of complex societies of the Late Neolithic.

  20. East Asian adolescents' ethnic identity development and cultural integration: A qualitative investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Eunju; Adams, Kristen; Clawson, Angela; Chang, Hanna; Surya, Shruti; Jérémie-Brink, Gihane

    2017-01-01

    Drawing on the current conceptualization of acculturation/enculturation as bilinear, multidimensional processes proceeding in interaction with surrounding contexts, this study examined ethnic identity development and cultural integration of 13 adolescents from East Asian immigrant families. Five domains emerged via the Consensual Qualitative Research method: ethnic/cultural identity and socialization; bicultural living; racial context-racism and stereotypes; family context-parental expectation; and peer context-friendship/dating. Overall, the participants experienced a cultural split and discontinuity between the 2 worlds of home and ethnic community versus school and society in general. They received strong ethnic socialization messages from family and ethnic community. Although most participants experienced hurtful racial discrimination, they used passive coping (e.g., dismiss, minimize, defend perpetrators). The model minority stereotype was prevalent and deeply engrained in many aspects of their lives including ethnic identity development, cultural socialization messages from mainstream society, discrimination experiences, and academic/occupational demands imposed by self, parents, peers, and society. Although they appreciated parents' high expectations of academic/occupational success, they felt pressured and desired to have space and independence. Friendship/dating patterns reflected ethnic identity development as well as contextual influence. Implications for research and practice are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Volatility Forecasting Models and Market Co-Integration: A Study on South-East Asian Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erie Febrian

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Volatility forecasting is an imperative research field in financial markets and crucial component in most financial decisions. Nevertheless, which model should be used to assess volatility remains a complex issue as different volatility models result in different volatility approximations. The concern becomes more complicated when one tries to use the forecasting for asset distribution and risk management purposes in the linked regional markets. This paper aims at observing the effectiveness of the contending models of statistical and econometric volatility forecasting in the three South-east Asian prominent capital markets, i.e. STI, KLSE, and JKSE. In this paper, we evaluate eleven different models based on two classes of evaluation measures, i.e. symmetric and asymmetric error statistics, following Kumar's (2006 framework. We employ 10-year data as in sample and 6-month data as out of sample to construct and test the models, consecutively. The resulting superior methods, which are selected based on the out of sample forecasts and some evaluation measures in the respective markets, are then used to assess the markets cointegration. We find that the best volatility forecasting models for JKSE, KLSE, and STI are GARCH (2,1, GARCH(3,1, and GARCH (1,1, respectively. We also find that international portfolio investors cannot benefit from diversification among these three equity markets as they are cointegrated.

  2. Northward extent of East Asian monsoon covaries with intensity on orbital and millennial timescales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldsmith, Yonaton; Broecker, Wallace S; Xu, Hai; Polissar, Pratigya J; deMenocal, Peter B; Porat, Naomi; Lan, Jianghu; Cheng, Peng; Zhou, Weijian; An, Zhisheng

    2017-02-21

    The magnitude, rate, and extent of past and future East Asian monsoon (EAM) rainfall fluctuations remain unresolved. Here, late Pleistocene-Holocene EAM rainfall intensity is reconstructed using a well-dated northeastern China closed-basin lake area record located at the modern northwestern fringe of the EAM. The EAM intensity and northern extent alternated rapidly between wet and dry periods on time scales of centuries. Lake levels were 60 m higher than present during the early and middle Holocene, requiring a twofold increase in annual rainfall, which, based on modern rainfall distribution, requires a ∼400 km northward expansion/migration of the EAM. The lake record is highly correlated with both northern and southern Chinese cave deposit isotope records, supporting rainfall "intensity based" interpretations of these deposits as opposed to an alternative "water vapor sourcing" interpretation. These results indicate that EAM intensity and the northward extent covary on orbital and millennial timescales. The termination of wet conditions at 5.5 ka BP (∼35 m lake drop) triggered a large cultural collapse of Early Neolithic cultures in north China, and possibly promoted the emergence of complex societies of the Late Neolithic.

  3. In situ measurements of isoprene and monoterpenes within a south-east Asian tropical rainforest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. E. Jones

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs emitted from tropical rainforests comprise a substantial fraction of global atmospheric VOC emissions, however there are only relatively limited measurements of these species in tropical rainforest regions. We present observations of isoprene, α-pinene, camphene, Δ-3-carene, γ-terpinene and limonene, as well as oxygenated VOCs (OVOCs of biogenic origin such as methacrolein, in ambient air above a tropical rainforest in Malaysian Borneo during the Oxidant and Particle Photochemical Processes above a south-east Asian tropical rainforest (OP3 project in 2008. Daytime composition was dominated by isoprene, with an average mixing ratio of the order of ~1 ppb. γ-terpinene, limonene and camphene were the most abundant monoterpenes, with average daytime mixing ratios of 102, 71 and 66 ppt respectively, and with an average monoterpene toisoprene ratio of 0.3 during sunlit hours, compared to 2.0 at night. Limonene and camphene abundances were seen to be related to both temperature and light conditions. In contrast, γ-terpinene emission continued into the late afternoon/evening, under relatively low temperature and light conditions. The contributions of isoprene, monoterpenes and other classes of VOC to the volatile carbon budget and OH reactivity have been summarised for this rainforest location. We observe good agreement between surface and aircraft measurements of boundary layer isoprene and methacrolein above the natural rainforest, suggesting that the ground-level observations are broadly representative of isoprene emissions from this region.

  4. Electronic Libraries and the Future:Implications for Academic Libraries with East Asian Collections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhijia Shen、Susan Anthes

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available

    頁次:4-17

    Academic libraries are stepping into uncharted territories with the advent of electronic books (ebooks and electronic libraries. This article provides an overview of the current status of both electronic books and libraries, including a description of a beta test of a new service netLibrary(tm at the University of Colorado at Boulder. Possible implications of new technology for various aspects of academic librarianship in the areas of acquisition, collection development, preservation, reference, circulation, interlibrary loan, and cataloging are discussed. Particular reference is given to East Asian collections. Benefits as well as liabilities are discussed. The authors raise issues regarding the potential of the new technology, and speculate on possible trends and areas for future research for academic librarians.

  5. Kin and birth order effects on male child mortality: three East Asian populations, 1716-1945().

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Hao; Manfredini, Matteo; Kurosu, Satomi; Yang, Wenshan; Lee, James Z

    2017-03-01

    Human child survival depends on adult investment, typically from parents. However, in spite of recent research advances on kin influence and birth order effects on human infant and child mortality, studies that directly examine the interaction of kin context and birth order on sibling differences in child mortality are still rare. Our study supplements this literature with new findings from large-scale individual-level panel data for three East Asian historical populations from northeast China (1789-1909), northeast Japan (1716-1870), and north Taiwan (1906-1945), where preference for sons and first-borns is common. We examine and compare male child mortality risks by presence/absence of co-resident parents, grandparents, and other kin, as well as their interaction effects with birth order. We apply discrete-time event-history analysis on over 172,000 observations of 69,125 boys aged 1-9 years old. We find that in all three populations, while the presence of parents is important for child survival, it is more beneficial to first/early-borns than to later-borns. Effects of other co-resident kin are however null or inconsistent between populations. Our findings underscore the importance of birth order in understanding how differential parental investment may produce child survival differentials between siblings.

  6. Clinical phenotype of South-East Asian Temporomandibular Disorder patients with Upper Airway Resistance Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tay, David K L; Pang, Kenny P

    2017-08-14

    To document the clinical phenotype of temporomandibular disorder (TMD) patients with concomitant upper airway resistance syndrome (UARS) in a South East Asian population. A multi-center prospective series of 86 TMD patients (26 men and 60 women / mean age 35.7 years) with UARS. All had excessive daytime sleepiness, high arousal index and apnea-hypopnea index (AHI)temporomandibular joint (TMJ) arthralgia while 90.7% reported sleep bruxism (SB). Unlike patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), hypertension was uncommon (4.7%) whilst depression was prevalent at 68.6% with short REM latency of 25% documented in 79.6% and 57.6% of these depressed patients, respectively. 65.1% displayed a posteriorly displaced condyle at maximum intercuspation with or without TMJ clicking. Most exhibited a forward head posture (FHP) characterized by loss of normal cervical lordosis (80.2%), C0-C1 narrowing (38.4%) or an elevated hyoid position (50%), and 91.9% had nasal congestion. The TMD-UARS phenotype may have originally developed as an adaptive response to 'awake' disordered breathing during growth. Patients with persistent TMD and/or reporting SB should be screened for UARS and chronic nasal obstruction, especially when they also present with FHP. The lateral cephalogram is a useful tool in the differentiation of UARS from other OSA phenotypes. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  7. OH reactivity in urban and suburban regions in Seoul, South Korea - an East Asian megacity in a rapid transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Saewung; Sanchez, Dianne; Wang, Mark; Seco, Roger; Jeong, Daun; Hughes, Stacey; Barletta, Barbara; Blake, Donald R; Jung, Jinsang; Kim, Deugsoo; Lee, Gangwoong; Lee, Meehye; Ahn, Joonyoung; Lee, Sang-Deok; Cho, Gangnam; Sung, Min-Young; Lee, Yong-Hwan; Kim, Dan Bi; Kim, Younha; Woo, Jung-Hun; Jo, Duseong; Park, Rokjin; Park, Jeong-Hoo; Hong, You-Deog; Hong, Ji-Hyung

    2016-07-18

    South Korea has recently achieved developed country status with the second largest megacity in the world, the Seoul Metropolitan Area (SMA). This study provides insights into future changes in air quality for rapidly emerging megacities in the East Asian region. We present total OH reactivity observations in the SMA conducted at an urban Seoul site (May-June, 2015) and a suburban forest site (Sep, 2015). The total OH reactivity in an urban site during the daytime was observed at similar levels (∼15 s(-1)) to those previously reported from other East Asian megacity studies. Trace gas observations indicate that OH reactivity is largely accounted for by NOX (∼50%) followed by volatile organic compounds (VOCs) (∼35%). Isoprene accounts for a substantial fraction of OH reactivity among the comprehensive VOC observational dataset (25-47%). In general, observed total OH reactivity can be accounted for by the observed trace gas dataset. However, observed total OH reactivity in the suburban forest area cannot be largely accounted for (∼70%) by the trace gas measurements. The importance of biogenic VOC (BVOCs) emissions and oxidations used to evaluate the impacts of East Asian megacity outflows for the regional air quality and climate contexts are highlighted in this study.

  8. The climatology of East Asian winter monsoon and cold surges from 1979--1995 NCEP/NCAR reanalyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yi Zhang; Sperber, K.; Boyle, J.

    1996-04-01

    The East Asian winter monsoon, which is associated with the Siberian high and active cold surges, is one of the most energetic monsoon circulation systems. The dramatic shift of northeasterlies and the outbreak of cold surges dominate the winter weather and local climate in the East Asian region, and may exert a strong impact on the extratropical and tropical planetary-scale circulations and influence the SSTs in the tropical western Pacific. General characteristics of the winter monsoon and cold surges and their possible link with tropical disturbances are revealed in many observational studies. Little attention has been given to the climatological aspects of the winter monsoon and cold surges. The purpose of this study is to compile and document the East Asian mean winter circulation, and present the climatology of cold surges and the Siberian high based on the 1979--1995 NCEP/NCAR reanalyses. Of particular interest is the interannual variation of winter monsoon circulation and cold surge events. Given that the cold surge activity and the Indonesian convection are much reduced during the 1982--83 period, one of the goals is to determine whether there exists a statistically significant relationship between ENSO and the interannual variation of winter monsoon and cold surges.

  9. East Asian origin of central Greenland last glacial dust: just one possible scenario?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Újvári, Gábor; Stevens, Thomas; Svensson, Anders; Klötzli, Urs Stephan; Manning, Christina; Németh, Tibor; Kovács, János

    2016-04-01

    Dust in Greenland ice cores is used to reconstruct the activity of dust emitting regions and atmospheric circulation for the last glacial period. However, the source dust material to Greenland over this period is the subject of considerable uncertainty. Here we use new clay mineral and Sr-Nd isotopic data from eleven loess samples collected around the Northern Hemisphere and compare the 87Sr/86Sr and 143Nd/144Nd isotopic signatures of fine (3.6) K/C ratios and extremely high (>~70%) smectite contents. At the same time, Sr-Nd isotopic compositions demonstrate that ice core dust isotopic compositions can be explained by East Asian (Chinese loess) and/or Central/East Central European dust contributions. Central/East Central European loess Sr-Nd isotopic compositions overlap most with ice core dust, while the Sr isotopic signature of Chinese loess is slightly more radiogenic. Nevertheless, an admixture of 90‒10 % from Chinese loess and circum-Pacific volcanic material would also account for the Sr‒Nd isotopic ratios of central Greenland LGM dust. At the same time, sourcing of ice core dust from Alaska, continental US and NE Siberia seems less likely based on Sr and Nd isotopic signatures. The data demonstrate that currently no unique source discrimination for Greenland dust is possible using both published and our new data [3]. Thus, there is a need to identify more diagnostic tracers. Based on initial Hf isotope analyses of fine separates of three loess samples (continental US, Central Europe, China), an apparent dependence of Hf isotopic signatures on the relative proportions of radiogenic clay minerals (primarily illite) was found, as these fine dust fractions are apparently zircon-free. The observed difference between major potential source regions in 176Hf/177Hf that reach several ɛHf units and the first order clay mineralogy dependence of Hf isotopic signatures means there is strong potential for distinguishing between the two hypothesized Greenland dust

  10. On the atmospheric dynamical responses to land-use change in East Asian monsoon region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Huqiang [Centre for Australian Weather and Climate Research, Melbourne, VIC (Australia); China Meteorological Administration, Institute of Arid Meteorology, Lanzhou (China); Gao, Xuejie [National Climate Center, China Meteorological Administration, Beijing (China); Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste (Italy)

    2009-08-15

    This study aims at (1) exploring dominant atmospheric dynamical processes which are responsible for climate model-simulated land-use impacts on Asian monsoon; and (2) assessing uncertainty in such model simulations due to their skills in simulating detailed monsoon circulations in the region. Firstly, results from a series of the Australian Bureau of Meteorology Research Centre (BMRC) global model simulations of land-use vegetation changes (LUC) in China are analysed. The model showed consistent signals of changes in atmospheric low-level vertical profile and regional circulations responding to LUC. In northern winter, the model-simulated rainfall reduction and surface cooling are associated with an enhanced southward penetration of dry and cold air mass, which impedes warm and humid air reaching the region for generating cold-front rainfall. In its summer, an enhanced cyclonic circulation responding to LUC further blocks the northeast penetration of southwesterly summer monsoon flow into the region and results in rainfall decreases and a surface warming. Secondly, we have explored uncertainties in the proposed mechanism operating in the global model. By comparing its results with a set of high-resolution regional model simulations using the same vegetation datasets, it reveals similar changes in winter rainfall but opposite features in summer rainfall responses. In the global model, there is a cyclonic low-level circulation pattern over the South China Sea and adjacent region, an unsatisfactory feature commonly seen in other global climate models. With the reduction in surface roughness following LUC, such a deficiency becomes more prominent which further results in a weakened south/southwesterly summer monsoon flow and rainfall reduction. In contrast, in the regional model, its southwesterly summer monsoon flow is further enhanced due to the same process as reduced surface roughness. The enhanced monsoon flow further pushes the East Asian monsoon rainfall belt

  11. Fractures of the mandible in children | Fasola | East African Medical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fractures of the mandible in children. A. O. Fasola, A. E. Obiechina, J. T. Arotiba. Abstract. (East African Medical Journal 2001 78 (11): 616-618). Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/eamj.v78i11.8954 · AJOL African ...

  12. Music as Intangible Cultural Heritage. Policy, Ideology, and Practice in the Preservation of East Asian Traditions, a cura di Keith Howard, SOAS-University of London, Ashgate, 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Casari

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The book focuses on music traditions and explores the policy, ideology and practice of preservation and promotion of East Asian intangible cultural heritage. In view of the framework defined by globalization, modernization, urbanization and the spread of the mass media, the essays provide an overview on East Asia’s case study (Japan, China, Korea and Taiwan.

  13. Music as Intangible Cultural Heritage. Policy, Ideology, and Practice in the Preservation of East Asian Traditions, a cura di Keith Howard, SOAS-University of London, Ashgate, 2012

    OpenAIRE

    Matteo Casari

    2015-01-01

    The book focuses on music traditions and explores the policy, ideology and practice of preservation and promotion of East Asian intangible cultural heritage. In view of the framework defined by globalization, modernization, urbanization and the spread of the mass media, the essays provide an overview on East Asia’s case study (Japan, China, Korea and Taiwan).

  14. Source-receptor relationships between East Asian sulfur dioxide emissions and Northern Hemisphere sulfate concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, J.; Mauzerall, D. L.; Horowitz, L. W.

    2008-07-01

    We analyze the effect of varying East Asian (EA) sulfur emissions on sulfate concentrations in the Northern Hemisphere, using a global coupled oxidant-aerosol model (MOZART-2). We conduct a base and five sensitivity simulations, in which sulfur emissions from each continent are tagged, to establish the source-receptor (S-R) relationship between EA sulfur emissions and sulfate concentrations over source and downwind regions. We find that from west to east across the North Pacific, EA sulfate contributes approximately 80% 20% of sulfate at the surface, but at least 50% at 500 hPa. Surface sulfate concentrations are dominated by local anthropogenic sources. Of the sulfate produced from sources other than local anthropogenic emissions (defined here as "background" sulfate), EA sources account for approximately 30% 50% (over the Western US) and 10% 20% (over the Eastern US). The surface concentrations of sulfate from EA sources over the Western US are highest in MAM (up to 0.15 μg/m3), and lowest in DJF (less than 0.06 μg/m3). Reducing EA SO2 emissions will significantly decrease the spatial extent of the EA sulfate influence (represented by the areas where at least 0.1 μg m-3 of sulfate originates from EA) over the North Pacific both at the surface and at 500 hPa in all seasons, but the extent of influence is insensitive to emission increases, particularly in DJF and JJA. We find that EA sulfate concentrations over most downwind regions respond nearly linearly to changes in EA SO2 emissions, but sulfate concentrations over the EA source region increase more slowly than SO2 emissions, particularly at the surface and in winter, due to limited availability of oxidants (in particular of H2O2, which oxidizes SO2 to sulfate in the aqueous phase). We find that similar estimates of the S-R relationship for trans-Pacific transport of EA sulfate would be obtained using either sensitivity (i.e., varying emissions from a region to examine the effects on downwind concentrations

  15. Source-receptor relationships between East Asian sulfur dioxide emissions and Northern Hemisphere sulfate concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Liu

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available We analyze the effect of varying East Asian (EA sulfur emissions on sulfate concentrations in the Northern Hemisphere, using a global coupled oxidant-aerosol model (MOZART-2. We conduct a base and five sensitivity simulations, in which sulfur emissions from each continent are tagged, to establish the source-receptor (S-R relationship between EA sulfur emissions and sulfate concentrations over source and downwind regions. We find that from west to east across the North Pacific, EA sulfate contributes approximately 80%–20% of sulfate at the surface, but at least 50% at 500 hPa. Surface sulfate concentrations are dominated by local anthropogenic sources. Of the sulfate produced from sources other than local anthropogenic emissions (defined here as "background" sulfate, EA sources account for approximately 30%–50% (over the Western US and 10%–20% (over the Eastern US. The surface concentrations of sulfate from EA sources over the Western US are highest in MAM (up to 0.15 μg/m3, and lowest in DJF (less than 0.06 μg/m3. Reducing EA SO2 emissions will significantly decrease the spatial extent of the EA sulfate influence (represented by the areas where at least 0.1 μg m−3 of sulfate originates from EA over the North Pacific both at the surface and at 500 hPa in all seasons, but the extent of influence is insensitive to emission increases, particularly in DJF and JJA. We find that EA sulfate concentrations over most downwind regions respond nearly linearly to changes in EA SO2 emissions, but sulfate concentrations over the EA source region increase more slowly than SO2 emissions, particularly at the surface and in winter, due to limited availability of oxidants (in particular of H2O2, which oxidizes SO2 to sulfate in the aqueous phase. We find that similar estimates of the S-R relationship for trans-Pacific transport of EA sulfate would be

  16. Phylogeny and classification of the East Asian Amitostigma alliance (Orchidaceae: Orchideae) based on six DNA markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Ying; Yukawa, Tomohisa; Bateman, Richard M; Jiang, Hong; Peng, Hua

    2015-05-26

    Tribe Orchideae dominates the orchid flora of the temperate Northern Hemisphere but its representatives in East Asia had been subject to less intensive phylogenetic study than those in Eurasia and North America. Although this situation was improved recently by the molecular phylogenetic study of Jin et al., comparatively few species were analyzed from the species-rich and taxonomically controversial East Asian Amitostigma alliance. Here, we present a framework nrITS tree of 235 accessions of Orchideae plus an in-depth analysis of 110 representative accessions, encompassing most widely recognized species within the alliance, to elucidate their relationships. We used parsimony, likelihood and Bayesian approaches to generate trees from data for two nuclear (nrITS, low-copy Xdh) and four chloroplast (matK, psbA-trnH, trnL-F, trnS-trnG) markers. Nuclear and plastid data were analyzed separately due to a few hard incongruences that most likely reflect chloroplast capture. Our results suggest key phylogenetic placements for Sirindhornia and Brachycorythis, and confirm previous assertions that the Amitostigma alliance is monophyletic and sister to the Eurasian plus European clades of subtribe Orchidinae. Seven robust clades are evident within the alliance, but none corresponds precisely with any of the traditional genera; the smaller and more morphologically distinct genera Tsaiorchis, Hemipilia, Neottianthe and Hemipiliopsis are monophyletic but each is nested within a polyphyletic plexus of species attributed to either Ponerorchis or the most plesiomorphic genus, Amitostigma. Two early-divergent clades that escaped analysis by Jin et al. undermine their attempt to circumscribe an expanded monophyletic genus Ponerorchis. We provide a new framework on the complex phylogenetic relationships between Amitostigma and other genera traditionally included in its alliance; based on which, we combine the entire Amitostigma alliance into a morphologically and molecularly

  17. The effect of regional changes in anthropogenic aerosols on rainfall of the East Asian Summer Monsoon

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    L. Guo

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The response of East Asian Summer Monsoon (EASM precipitation to long term changes in regional anthropogenic aerosols (sulphate and black carbon is explored in an atmospheric general circulation model, the atmospheric component of the UK High-Resolution Global Environment Model v1.2 (HiGAM. Separately, sulphur dioxide (SO2 and black carbon (BC emissions in 1950 and 2000 over East Asia are used to drive model simulations, while emissions are kept constant at year 2000 level outside this region. The response of the EASM is examined by comparing simulations driven by aerosol emissions representative of 1950 and 2000. The aerosol radiative effects are also determined using an off-line radiative transfer model. During June, July and August, the EASM was not significantly changed as either SO2 or BC emissions increased from 1950 to 2000 levels. However, in September, precipitation is significantly decreased by 26.4% for sulphate aerosol and 14.6% for black carbon when emissions are at the 2000 level. Over 80% of the decrease is attributed to changes in convective precipitation. The cooler land surface temperature over China in September (0.8 °C for sulphate and 0.5 °C for black carbon due to increased aerosols reduces the surface thermal contrast that supports the EASM circulation. However, mechanisms causing the surface temperature decrease in September are different between sulphate and BC experiments. In the sulphate experiment, the sulphate direct and the 1st indirect radiative effects contribute to the surface cooling. In the BC experiment, the BC direct effect is the main driver of the surface cooling, however, a decrease in low cloud cover due to the increased heating by BC absorption partially counteracts the direct effect. This results in a weaker land surface temperature response to BC changes than to sulphate changes. The resulting precipitation response is also weaker, and the responses of the monsoon circulation

  18. Simulation of the Indian and East-Asian summer monsoon in the ECMWF model: Sensitivity to horizontal resolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sperber, K.R.; Potter, G.L.; Boyle, J.S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Hameed, S. [State Univ. of New York, Stony Brook, NY (United States). Inst. for Terrestrial and Planetary Atmospheres

    1993-11-01

    The ability of the ECMWF model (Cycle 33) to simulate the Indian and East Asian summer monsoon is evaluated at four different horizontal resolutions: T21, T42, T63, and T106. Generally, with respect to the large scale features of the circulation, the largest differences among the simulations occur at T42 relative to T21. However, on regional scales, important differences among the high frequency temporal variabilitY serve as a further critical test of the model`s ability to simulate the monsoon. More generally, the results indicate the importance of evaluating high frequency time scales as a component of the climate system. T106 best captures both the spatial and temporal characteristics of the Indian and East Asian Monsoon, while T42 fails to correctly simulate the sequence and development of synoptic scale milestones that characterize the monsoon flow. In particular, T106 is superior at simulating the development and migration of the monsoon trough over the Bay of Bengal. In the T42 simulation, the development of the monsoon occurs one month earlier than typically observed. At this time the trough is incorrectly located adjacent to the east coast of India which results in an underestimate of precipitation over the Burma/Thailand region. This early establishment of the monsoon trough affects the evolution of the East-Asian monsoon and yields excessive preseason rainfall over the Mei-yu region. EOF analysis of precipitation over China indicates that T106 best simulates the Mei-yu mode of variability associated with an oscillation of the rainband that gives rise to periods of enhanced rainfall over the Yangize River Valley. The coarse resolution of T21 precludes simulation of the aforementioned regional scale monsoon flows.

  19. Source-Receptor Relationships for East Asian Sulfur Dioxide Emissions and Northern Hemisphere Sulfate Concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, J.; Mauzerall, D. L.; Horowitz, L. W.

    2007-12-01

    We analyze the effect of varying East Asian (EA) sulfur emissions on sulfate concentrations in the northern hemisphere based on a global coupled oxidant-aerosol model (MOZART-2) driven with NCEP reanalysis meteorology for 1991. We conduct a base and several sensitivity simulations, in which sulfur emissions from each continent are tagged, to establish the source-receptor (S-R) relationship between EA sulfur emissions and sulfate concentrations over the source and downwind regions. We find that reducing EA SO2 emissions will significantly decrease the spatial extent of the EA sulfate influence over the North Pacific, but raising EA SO2 emissions will not significantly increase the spatial extent of influence. We define a linearity index and find the S-R relationship between EA SO2 emissions and EA sulfate concentrations to be nearly linear over most downwind regions, but to be non-linear over the EA source region, particularly at the surface and in winter. In addition, we find that besides the direct transport of EA sulfate to North America (NA) and Europe (EU), the indirect response of locally-produced NA or EU sulfate to changes in EA SO2 emissions is negative (i.e., offsetting the direct effect) in winter, spring and fall, but becomes positive in summer. In summer the indirect response is as important as direct transport of EA sulfate over the southeastern U.S. and southern EU. This summertime positive indirect effect largely results from induced changes in H2O2 oxidant concentrations over these regions.

  20. Interdecadal changes in the East Asian winter monsoon and their possible causes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Junghee; Ha, Kyung-Ja

    2017-04-01

    Using Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition (EEMD) for detecting the interdecadal changes in the East Asian winter monsoon (EAWM), this study investigates that the intensity of the EAWM experienced remarkable transition around mid-1980s and late 2000s: a strong period (P1, 1960-1986), a weak period (P2, 1987-2007), and a strong period (P3, 2008-2013). The EAWM is influenced by a distinctive cold (warm) temperature anomaly, and cold (warm) sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies are present over the North Pacific (NP) during P1 (P2). In contrast with P1, the EAWM is characterized by a large temperature difference between Eurasian continent and NP, and a negative Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO)-like SST pattern is found over the NP during P3. During three periods, the Siberian high (SH) plays an important role in deciding the intensity of the EAWM. In addition, the EAWM exists under the influence of an enhanced atmospheric circulation associated with a positive North Pacific Oscillation (NPO) and a negative PDO during P2 and P3, respectively. Accordingly, to recognize the impacts of this climate variability on the weakening (strengthening) EAWM, the combined effect of the SH and NPO (SH and PDO) is explored during P1 and P2 (P2 and P3). Consequently, while the atmospheric variabilities such as SH and NPO are the dominant contributors to the weakening of EAWM after the mid-1980s, the SST variability such as PDO contributes to the strengthening of EAWM along with the SH variability in recent decade.

  1. Fluxes and concentrations of volatile organic compounds from a South-East Asian tropical rainforest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Langford

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available As part of the OP3 field study of rainforest atmospheric chemistry, above-canopy fluxes of isoprene, monoterpenes and oxygenated volatile organic compounds were made by virtual disjunct eddy covariance from a South-East Asian tropical rainforest in Malaysia. Approximately 500 hours of flux data were collected over 48 days in April–May and June–July 2008. Isoprene was the dominant non-methane hydrocarbon emitted from the forest, accounting for 80% (as carbon of the measured emission of reactive carbon fluxes. Total monoterpene emissions accounted for 18% of the measured reactive carbon flux. There was no evidence for nocturnal monoterpene emissions and during the day their flux rate was dependent on both light and temperature. The oxygenated compounds, including methanol, acetone and acetaldehyde, contributed less than 2% of the total measured reactive carbon flux. The sum of the VOC fluxes measured represents a 0.4% loss of daytime assimilated carbon by the canopy, but atmospheric chemistry box modelling suggests that most (90% of this reactive carbon is returned back to the canopy by wet and dry deposition following chemical transformation. The emission rates of isoprene and monoterpenes, normalised to 30 °C and 1000 μmol m−2 s−1 PAR, were 1.6 mg m−2 h−1 and 0.46mg m−2 h−1 respectively, which was 4 and 1.8 times lower respectively than the default value for tropical forests in the widely-used MEGAN model of biogenic VOC emissions. This highlights the need for more direct canopy-scale flux measurements of VOCs from the world's tropical forests.

  2. Benzotriazole, benzothiazole, and benzophenone compounds in indoor dust from the United States and East Asian countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Asimakopoulos, Alexandros G; Moon, Hyo-Bang; Nakata, Haruhiko; Kannan, Kurunthachalam

    2013-05-07

    Organic corrosion inhibitors (OCIs), including ultraviolet light filters, are widely used in plastics, rubbers, colorants, and coatings to increase the performance of products. Derivatives of benzotriazole (BTR), benzothiazole (BTH), and benzophenone (BP) are high-production volume OCIs that have been detected in the environment and human tissues. However, knowledge of their occurrence in indoor environments, as well as human exposure to them, is still lacking. In this study, BTR, BTH, BP and their 12 derivatives were determined in indoor dust for the first time. All three groups of OCIs were found in all 158 indoor dust samples from the U.S. and three East Asian countries (China, Japan, and Korea). The geometric mean (GM) concentration of the sum of six BTRs (GM CΣBTRs) ranged from 20 to 90 ng/g among the four countries studied, with a maximum CΣBTRs of ∼2000 ng/g found in a dust sample from China. Tolyltriazole was the major derivative of BTR measured in dust. GM CΣBTHs in indoor dust from the four countries ranged from 600 to 2000 ng/g. 2-OH-BTH was the predominant BTH in dust from the U.S., Japan, and Korea. GM CΣBPs in dust ranged from 80 to 600 ng/g, with 2-OH-4-MeO-BP and 2,4-2OH-BP, contributing to the majority of ∑BP concentrations. Based on the concentrations of three types of OCIs in indoor dust, human exposure through dust ingestion was calculated. Daily intake of OCIs through dust ingestion was higher for people in the U.S., Japan, and Korea than in China; the residents in urban China are exposed to higher levels of OCIs via dust ingestion than are those in rural China.

  3. Chromosome Aberrations of East Asian Bullfrog (Hoplobatrachus rugulosus around a Gold Mine Area with Arsenic Contamination

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    Atidtaya Suttichaiya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study are to investigate the chromosome aberrations of the East Asian Bullfrog (Hoplobatrachus rugulosus in the gold mine area compared to an unaffected area. Three H. rugulosus were collected, and chromosome aberrations were studied using bone marrow. The level of arsenic was measured in water, sediment and H. rugulosus samples. The average concentrations of arsenic in the water and sediment samples from the gold mine and unaffected areas were 0.03 ± 0.003 mg/l and not detected in water as well as 351.59 ± 5.73 and 1.37 ± 1.07 mg/kg in sediment, respectively. The gold mine values were higher than the permissible limit of the water and soil quality standards, but the arsenic concentrations in the samples from the unaffected area were within prescribed limit. The average concentrations of arsenic in H. rugulosus samples from the gold mine and unaffected areas were 0.39 ± 0.30 and 0.07 ± 0.01 mg/kg, respectively, which were both lower than the standard of arsenic contamination in food. The diploid chromosome number of H. rugulosus in both areas was 2n=26, and the percentage of chromosome breakages of H. rugulosus in the gold mine area were higher than the unaffected area. There were eight types of chromosome aberrations, including a single chromatid gap, isochromatid gap, single chromatid break, isochromatid break, centric fragmentation, deletion, fragmentation and translocation. The most common chromosome aberration in the samples from the affected area was deletion. The difference in the percentage of chromosome breakages in H. rugulosus from both areas was statistically significant (p<0.05.

  4. The influences of East Asian Monsoon on summer precipitation in Northeast China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Li; Shen, Baizhu; Sui, Bo; Huang, Bohua

    2017-03-01

    A unique dataset of 53-year (1961-2013) rainfall measurements from 104 stations uniformly distributed in the Northeast China, combined with the observation-based NCEP/NCAR atmospheric reanalysis, is used to analyze the precipitation anomalies in Northeast China during late boreal summer (July-August) and their relationship with the anomalous moisture transport associated with the fluctuations of the East Asian Summer Monsoon (EASM) circulation. Based on this analysis, a new EASM influence index ( I EASM ) is proposed to quantify the EASM effects on the Northeast China summer precipitation. The relationship between the IEASM variations and patterns of the anomalous regional atmospheric circulation is demonstrated. The characteristics of several precursors that lead to the major fluctuations of the I EASM index are also explored. The results show that the EASM influence index is closely linked to the anomalous rainfall in Northeast China and can be used as a major factor to measure the physical processes that affect the regional dry and wet conditions. The I EASM index responds to the large-scale anomalies of the atmospheric circulation sensitively. Specifically, the high I EASM values are associated with the intensified Mongolia cyclone, blocking developing near the Ural Mountains and a northwestward shift of subtropical high over the western Pacific. The low I EASM values are associated with a reversed pattern of these features. The I EASM anomalous fluctuation has some precursors. A major high (low) index during the summer is likely preceded with the pattern of the sea surface temperature anomalies of an El Niño (La Niña) event in the Pacific from the previous early fall to early winter.

  5. The East Asian Summer Monsoon at mid-Holocene: results from PMIP3 simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Zheng

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Ten Coupled General Circulation Models (CGCMs participated in the third phase of Paleoclimate Modelling Intercomparison Project (PMIP3 are assessed for the East Asian Summer Monsoon (EASM in both the pre-Industrial (PI, 0 ka and mid-Holocene (MH, 6 ka simulations. Results show that the PMIP3 model median captures well the large-scale characteristics of the EASM, including the two distinct features of the Meiyu rainbelt and the stepwise meridional displacement of the monsoonal rainbelt. At mid-Holocene, the PMIP3 model median shows significant warming (cooling during boreal summer (winter over Eurasia continent that are dominated by the changes of insolation. However, the PMIP3 models fail to simulate a warmer annual mean and winter surface air temperature (TAS over eastern China as derived from proxy records. The EASM at MH are featured by the changes of large-scale circulation over Eastern China while the changes of precipitation are not significant over its sub-domains of the Southern China and the lower reaches of Yangzi River. The inter-model differences for the monsoon precipitation can be associated with different configurations of the changes in large-scale circulation and the water vapour content, of which the former determines the sign of precipitation changes. The large model spread for the TAS over Tibetan Plateau has a positive relationship with the precipitation in the lower reaches of Yangzi River, yet this relationship does not apply to those PMIP3 models in which the monsoonal precipitation is more sensitive to the changes of large-scale circulation. Except that the PMIP3 model median captured the warming of annual mean TAS over Tibetan Plateau, no significant improvements can be concluded when compared with the PMIP2 models results.

  6. Differences in Helicobacter pylori CagA tyrosine phosphorylation motif patterns between western and East Asian strains, and influences on interleukin-8 secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argent, Richard H; Hale, James L; El-Omar, Emad M; Atherton, John C

    2008-09-01

    Helicobacter pylori strains from East Asia have an 'East Asian' type of CagA that is more active and predominantly comprises a single type. Strains from other countries have a 'western' type of CagA, which is less active and comprises many different types generated by intragenomic recombination. Co-culture of AGS gastric epithelial cells with isolates of western strains that displayed microevolution in CagA showed that isolates with additional copies of the C motif induced significantly more interleukin (IL)-8 secretion. Co-culture of AGS cells with western and East Asian strains, each expressing CagA with a single copy of the C or D motif, showed that East Asian strains induced significantly more IL-8 secretion. Analysis of the different CagA types from data deposited in GenBank and from the literature showed that western CagA is significantly more likely to undergo duplication of tyrosine phosphorylation motif C than East Asian CagA is of the corresponding D motif. Taken together, the data suggest that the already highly active East Asian CagA with one D motif has no requirement to increase its virulence, whereas the less active western CagA displays flexibility in its capacity to increase its number of tyrosine phosphorylation motifs to become more virulent.

  7. The role of May vegetation greenness on the southeastern Tibetan Plateau for East Asian summer monsoon prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jingyong; Wu, Lingyun; Huang, Gang; Zhu, Wenquan; Zhang, Yan

    2011-03-01

    It is well known that the slowly varying oceanic processes provide the primary source for East Asian summer monsoon (EASM) predictability. However, the memory inherent in the land surface state is less well understood or applied toward the EASM prediction. Here we investigate the role of antecedent vegetation conditions over East Asia for the EASM variation and prediction using March, April, May, and spring mean satellite-sensed Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) for the period of 1982-2006. Results show that May vegetation greenness on the southeastern Tibetan Plateau (TP) is most closely linked to the EASM, accounting for about half of the total EASM variance. May vegetation greenness on the southeastern TP has significant and positive correlations with summer rainfall over the southeastern TP, East Asian summer subtropical frontal region, and many areas of northern China. We further discuss the possible physical mechanism explaining our findings. It is proposed that increased TP vegetation greenness enhances surface thermal effects, which subsequently warm atmospheric temperature, as well as strengthen ascending motion, convergence at the lower layers and divergence at the higher layers, and summer monsoon circulation. Finally, a linear regression model is developed to predict the EASM strength by combination of El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and the vegetation greenness. Hindcast for the period 1982-2006 shows that the use of the southeastern TP vegetation information can highly improve the EASM prediction skill compared to that using ENSO alone.

  8. The role of East Asian monsoon system in shaping population divergence and dynamics of a constructive desert shrub Reaumuria soongarica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Hengxia; Yan, Xia; Shi, Yong; Qian, Chaoju; Li, Zhonghu; Zhang, Wen; Wang, Lirong; Li, Yi; Li, Xiaoze; Chen, Guoxiong; Li, Xinrong; Nevo, Eviatar; Ma, Xiao-Fei

    2015-10-29

    Both of the uplift of Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (QTP) and the development of East Asian monsoon system (EAMS) could have comprehensively impacted the formation and evolution of Arid Central Asia (ACA). To understand how desert plants endemic to ACA responded to these two factors, we profiled the historical population dynamics and distribution range shift of a constructive desert shrub Reaumuria soongarica (Tamaricaceae) based on species wide investigation of sequence variation of chloroplast DNA and nuclear ribosomal ITS. Phylogenetic analysis uncovered a deep divergence occurring at ca. 2.96 Mya between the western and eastern lineages of R. soongarica, and ecological niche modeling analysis strongly supported that the monsoonal climate could have fragmented its habitats in both glacial and interglacial periods and impelled its intraspecific divergence. Additionally, the population from the east monsoonal zone expanded rapidly, suggesting that the local monsoonal climate significantly impacted its population dynamics. The isolation by distance tests supported strong maternal gene flow along the direction of the East Asian winter monsoon, whose intensification induced the genetic admixture along the latitudinal populations of R. soongarica. Our results presented a new case that the development of EAMS had prominently impacted the intraspecific divergence and population dynamics of this desert plant.

  9. A Social Cognitive Examination of East Asian American Career Development: Contextual Factors Influencing Career Choice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jane

    2012-01-01

    Despite their educational and economic achievements in the United States, Asian Americans continue to be occupationally segregated in the labor force. Asian Americans are overrepresented in mathematics, engineering and biological sciences while underrepresented in field such as education, humanities, social and behavioral sciences (Bureau of Labor…

  10. Social Exclusion and Its Causes in East Asian Societies: Evidences from SQSQ Survey Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ka; Xu, Yun; Huang, Tianhai; Zhang, Jiahua

    2013-01-01

    Using data from surveys on "social quality survey questionnaires", carried out by the Asian Consortium for Social Quality between 2009 and 2011, this study investigates the causes of social exclusion in six Asian societies. About 6,460 questionnaires were completed and the analysis of the data reveals the features and the causes of…

  11. Factors influencing medication adherence in South Asian people with cardiac disorders: an ethnographic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ens, T A; Seneviratne, C C; Jones, C; King-Shier, K M

    2014-11-01

    South Asians experience higher rates of cardiovascular disease than any other ethnic group. Some evidence suggests that South Asians may be less adherent to cardiac medication regimens than Whites residing in Canada. Identification of the key factors contributing to adherence may assist this growing population to optimize their cardiac health. To explore key factors associated with adherence to cardiac medications among South Asian people with cardiac disease. Ethnography was used to highlight population specific themes and domains related to medication adherence. Ethnographic observations were undertaken of patients, as well as their family (primary care) physicians and pharmacists (including their staff), while in physician offices and pharmacies. A purposive sample of patients (n=8), as well as physicians (n=3) and pharmacists (n=2) underwent in-depth interviews. Field note and interview data were transcribed verbatim and analyzed using ethnographic domain and thematic analysis. The patients relied on family members for instrumental support in remaining adherent with their medications. Relationships with healthcare professionals who demonstrated clear communication and cultural awareness was associated with enhanced medication adherence. Memory mechanisms needed to be individualized and were generally 'low technology'. While prepackaging of medications enhanced adherence, patients who used them were less knowledgeable about their medications. Healthcare providers should understand the importance of including family members in the care of South Asian people with heart disease. They also need to appreciate that the quality of provider-patient relationships are important to South Asian patients and will influence adherence to healthcare regimens. Expanding the role of nurse in the primary healthcare team could provide a cost-effective means of enhancing medication adherence. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Clay minerals as proxies of the late Quaternary East Asian monsoon evolution in the South China Sea revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Z.; Li, X.; He, Z.; Colin, C.; Zhao, Y.

    2012-12-01

    Clay minerals have a significant role in sedimentation and paleoenvironment studies of the South China Sea. Many previous studies showed that the time series variation in late Quaternary clay mineral assemblages presents mostly glacial-interglacial cyclicity, and they were interpreted chemical weathering closely related to contemporaneous climatic changes of source areas. It is quite debatable whether clay minerals can directly indicate the East Asian monsoon evolution. To answer this question, we investigated sediment cores collected in various locations in the South China Sea during the MARCO POLO cruise in 2005, MD05-2904 (2066 m water depth, abbreviated w.d.) and MD05-2905 (1198 m w.d.) in the north, MD05-2901 (1254 m w.d.) and MD05-2899 (2393 m w.d.) in the west, and MD05-2895 (1982 m w.d.) in the south. Our results show that provenance supply and current transport directly control the clay mineralogical compositions in core and surface sediments, with various expression forms in different locations. In the north, the clay mineral assemblage indicates a relationship between surface current transport (for smectite) under the significant influence of the Kuroshio intrusion and deep water transport (for illite and chlorite). In the west, the East Asian monsoons forced surface currents and different clay-composition provenances affect the glacial-interglacial cyclicity of clay mineral variations. In the south, land-sea distribution variations controlled by the sea level change determine the sources of clay minerals. Our new studies suggest that the late Quaternary clay minerals in the South China Sea do not bear contemporaneous paleoclimatic features, and their implication for proxies of the East Asian monsoon evolution is realized through both the provenance supply and current transport processes.

  13. Relation of unprocessed, processed red meat and poultry consumption to blood pressure in East Asian and Western adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oude Griep, Linda M; Seferidi, Paraskevi; Stamler, Jeremiah; Van Horn, Linda; Chan, Queenie; Tzoulaki, Ioanna; Steffen, Lyn M; Miura, Katsuyuki; Ueshima, Hirotsugu; Okuda, Nagako; Zhao, Liancheng; Soedamah-Muthu, Sabita S; Daviglus, Martha L; Elliott, Paul

    2016-09-01

    Epidemiologic evidence suggests that relationships of red meat consumption with risk of cardiovascular diseases depends on whether or not the meat is processed, including addition of preservatives, but evidence is limited for blood pressure (BP). To examine cross-sectional associations with BP of unprocessed and processed red meat and poultry consumption, total and by type, using data from the INTERnational study on MAcro/micronutrients and blood Pressure. INTERnational study on MAcro/micronutrients and blood Pressure included 4680 men and women ages 40-59 years from 17 population samples in Japan, China, the United Kingdom, and the United States. During four visits, eight BP measurements, four multipass 24-h dietary recalls, and two timed 24-h urine samples were collected. Average daily total unprocessed/processed meat consumption (g/1000 kcal) was 20/5 in East Asian and 38/21 in Western participants. Unprocessed meat intakes comprised red meat for 75% in East Asian and 50% in Western participants. In Westerners, multiple linear regression analyses showed SBP/DBP differences for total unprocessed red meat consumption higher by 25 g/1000 kcal +0.74/+0.57 mmHg (P = 0.03/0.01) and for unprocessed poultry of +0.79/+0.16 mmHg (P = 0.02/0.50). Unprocessed red meat was not related to BP in East Asian participants. In Westerners, SBP/DBP differences for processed red meat higher by 12.5 g/1000 kcal were +1.20/+0.24 mmHg (P meat intake (processed and unprocessed) to maintain and improve cardiovascular health.

  14. Health Impact Assessment of PM10 and PM2.5 in 27 Southeast and East Asian Cities

    OpenAIRE

    Yorifuji, Takashi; Bae, Sanghyuk; Kashima, Saori; Tsuda, Toshihide; Doi,Hiroyuki; Honda, Yasushi; Kim, Ho; Hong, Yun-Chul

    2015-01-01

    Objective: We aimed to evaluate the annual health impacts of particulate matter (PM) less than 10 μm diameter (PM10) and less than 2.5-μm diameter (PM2.5) in 27 cities in Southeast and East Asian countries (Japan, the Philippines, the Republic of Korea, Singapore, and Vietnam) for the year 2009 (n = 50,756,699).Methods: We estimated the number of cases attributable to long-term exposure. We used a scenario that reduced the annual mean values for PM10 and PM2.5 to 20 and 10 μg/m3, respectively...

  15. Three exceptionally strong East-Asian summer monsoon events during glacial times in the past 470 kyr

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    D.-D. Rousseau

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Chinese loess sequences are interpreted as a reliable record of the past variation of the East Asian monsoon regime through the alternation of loess and paleosols units, dominated by the winter and summer monsoon, respectively. Different proxies have been used to describe this system, mostly geophysical, geochemical or sedimentological. Terrestrial mollusks are also a reliable proxy of past environmental conditions and are often preserved in large numbers in loess deposits. The analysis of the mollusk remains in the Luochuan sequence, comprising L5 loess to S0 soil, i.e. the last 500 ka, shows that for almost all identified species, the abundance is higher at the base of the interval (L5 to L4 than in the younger deposits. Using the present ecological requirements of the identified mollusk species in the Luochuan sequence allows the definition of two main mollusk groups varying during the last 500 kyr. The cold-aridiphilous individuals indicate the so-called Asian winter monsoon regime and predominantly occur during glacials, when dust is deposited. The thermal-humidiphilous mollusks are prevalent during interglacial or interstadial conditions of the Asian summer monsoon, when soil formation takes place. In the sequence, three events with exceptionally high abundance of the Asian summer monsoon indicators are recorded during the L5, L4 and L2 glacial intervals, i.e., at about 470, 360 and 170 kyr, respectively. The L5 and L4 events appear to be the strongest (high counts. Similar variations have also been identified in the Xifeng sequence, distant enough from Luochuan, but also in Lake Baikal further North, to suggest that this phenomenon is regional rather than local. The indicators of the summer monsoon within the glacial intervals imply a strengthened East-Asian monsoon interpreted as corresponding to marine isotope stages 12, 10 and 6, respectively. The L5 and L2 summer monsoons are coeval with Mediterranean sapropels S12 and S6, which

  16. ENSO and East Asian winter monsoon relationship modulation associated with the anomalous northwest Pacific anticyclone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji-Won; An, Soon-Il; Jun, Sang-Yoon; Park, Hey-Jin; Yeh, Sang-Wook

    2017-08-01

    Using observational datasets and numerical model experiments, the mechanism on the slowly varying change in the relationship between the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and the East Asian winter monsoon (EAWM) is investigated. The decadal-window (11-, 15-, and 21-year) moving correlations show a significant change in the boreal wintertime ENSO-EAWM relationship between two sub-periods of 1976‒1992 and 1997‒2013. Such recent change in ENSO-EAWM relationship is mainly attributed to the changes in the intensity and zonal location of the anomalous lower-tropospheric northwest Pacific anticyclone (NWP-AC). NWP-AC commonly develops near the region of the Philippine Sea during the ENSO's peak phase and plays an important role of bridging the tropical convection and mid-latitude teleconnection. On one hand, the intensity of the NWP-AC is influenced by the interdecadal variation in a linkage between ENSO and the Indian Ocean sea surface temperature (SST) variability, referring that a strong connection between the Pacific and Indian Oceans results in the strengthening of NWP-AC response to ENSO. On the other hand, the zonal displacement of the NWP-AC is associated with the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) and the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO). That is, the tropical Pacific mean state (i.e., zonal SST gradient between climatologically warm western Pacific and cold eastern Pacific)—strengthened by either the negative PDO phase or the positive AMO phase—drives the anomalous ENSO-induced convection to be shifted to the west. With this westward shift, the zonal center of the NWP-AC also migrates westward over the Philippine Islands and exerts stronger connection between ENSO and EAWM. In contrast, the relaxed zonal SST contrast associated with either the positive PDO phase or the negative AMO phase tends to exhibit weaker ENSO-EAWM relationship via both of eastward shifted zonal centers of the anomalous ENSO-induced convection and the NWP-AC. Finally, a

  17. Aerosol pollution and its potential impacts on outdoor human thermal sensation: East Asian perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wai, Ka-Ming; Ng, Edward Y Y; Wong, Charles M S; Tan, Tanya Z; Lin, Tang-Huang; Lien, Wei-Hung; Tanner, Peter A; Wang, Carlo S H; Lau, Kevin K L; He, Neon M H; Kim, Jhoon

    2017-10-01

    Aerosols affect the insolation at ground and thus the Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD, a measure of aerosol pollution) plays an important role on the variation of the Physiological Equivalent Temperature (PET) at locations with different aerosol climatology. The aerosol effects upon PET were studied for the first time at four East Asian cities by coupling a radiative transfer model and a human thermal comfort model which were previously well evaluated. Evident with the MODIS and AERONET AOD observations, the aerosol pollution at Beijing and Seoul was higher than at Chiayi (Taiwan) and Hong Kong. Based on the AERONET data, with background AOD levels the selected temperate cities had similar clear-sky PET values especially during summertime, due to their locations at similar latitudes. This also applied to the sub-tropical cities. Increase in the AOD level to the seasonal average one led to an increase in diffuse solar radiation and in turn an increase in PET for people living in all the cities. However, the heavy aerosol loading environment in Beijing and Seoul in summertime (AODs > 3.0 in episodic situations) reduced the total radiative flux and thus PET values in the cities. On the contrary, relatively lower episodic AOD levels in Chiayi and Hong Kong led to strong diffuse and still strong direct radiative fluxes and resulted in higher PET values, relative to those with seasonal averaged AOD levels. People tended to feel from "hot" to "very hot" during summertime when the AOD reached their average levels from the background level. This implies that in future aerosol effects add further burden to the thermal environment apart from the effects of greenhouse gas-induced global warming. Understanding the interaction between ambient aerosols and outdoor thermal environment is an important first step for effective mitigation measures such as urban greening to reduce the risk of human heat stress. It is also critical to make cities more attractive and enhancing to human well

  18. Role of the tropical Pacific Ocean in strengthening the East Asian Monsoon: Climate model study of MIS-13

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karami, M.; Herold, N.; Yin, Q.; Berger, A.

    2012-12-01

    Studying past climates is a valuable approach to improve our understanding of the present and future climate systems. Among the significant events in the history of climate, the interglacial periods are good candidates for representation of the future climate because of their astronomical characteristics and their similarity to predicted anthropogenic warming. Moreover, some interglacials exhibited significant changes in atmospheric and oceanic properties due to only small changes in their climatic forcing (greenhouse gases and solar insolation) which also make them a good case for investigating past climates. For instance, the interglacial stage of around 0.5 Ma identified as Marine Isotopic stage 13 (MIS-13), the focus of this study, was characterized by extremely strong East Asian and Indian summer monsoons while the CO2 and CH4 levels were lower and seasonal radiation energy could reach up to 50 Wm-2 higher than today. The extreme monsoon precipitation is quite unexpected for a climate with such forcing. To understand the physics-based mechanism that enhances the East Asian Summer Monsoon (EASM) during MIS-13, we used two fully coupled general circulation models, the HadCM3 and CCSM3. In MIS-13 experiments, concentrations of greenhouse gases were prescribed lower than in pre-industrial and seasonal insolation characterised by Northern-Hemisphere (NH) summer occurring at perihelion instead of aphelion as it does today. Results of both models confirm increased summer precipitation in the monsoon regions. We find that the tropical Pacific Ocean plays a major role in strengthening the EASM in MIS-13. Simulations of MIS-13 show stronger easterly surface winds along the equatorial Pacific and a subsequent increase in the mean thermocline tilt, in addition to a westward shift of the cold tongue. These changes alter the background climatic state of the equatorial Pacific towards a La Niña-type state. The interannual variability around the La Niña-like background

  19. Iran’s scientific dominance and the emergence of South-East Asian countries in the Arab Gulf Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moed, H.

    2016-07-01

    A longitudinal bibliometric analysis of publications indexed in Thomson Reuters' Incites and Elsevier's Scopus, and published from the Arab Gulf States and neighbouring countries, shows clear effects of major political events during the past 35 years. Predictions made in 2006 by the US diplomat Richard N. Haass on political changes in the Middle East have come true in the Gulf States’ national scientific research systems, to the extent that Iran has become in 2015 by far the leading country in the Arab Gulf, and South-East Asian countries including China, Malaysia and South Korea have become major scientific collaborators, displacing the USA and other large Western countries. But collaborations patterns among Gulf States show no apparent relationship with differences in Islam denominations. (Author)

  20. Antigenic Variation of East/Central/South African and Asian Chikungunya Virus Genotypes in Neutralization by Immune Sera.

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    Chong-Long Chua

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Chikungunya virus (CHIKV is a re-emerging mosquito-borne virus which causes epidemics of fever, severe joint pain and rash. Between 2005 and 2010, the East/Central/South African (ECSA genotype was responsible for global explosive outbreaks across India, the Indian Ocean and Southeast Asia. From late 2013, Asian genotype CHIKV has caused outbreaks in the Americas. The characteristics of cross-antibody efficacy and epitopes are poorly understood.We characterized human immune sera collected during two independent outbreaks in Malaysia of the Asian genotype in 2006 and the ECSA genotype in 2008-2010. Neutralizing capacity was analyzed against representative clinical isolates as well as viruses rescued from infectious clones of ECSA and Asian CHIKV. Using whole virus antigen and recombinant E1 and E2 envelope glycoproteins, we further investigated antibody binding sites, epitopes, and antibody titers. Both ECSA and Asian sera demonstrated stronger neutralizing capacity against the ECSA genotype, which corresponded to strong epitope-antibody interaction. ECSA serum targeted conformational epitope sites in the E1-E2 glycoprotein, and E1-E211K, E2-I2T, E2-H5N, E2-G118S and E2-S194G are key amino acids that enhance cross-neutralizing efficacy. As for Asian serum, the antibodies targeting E2 glycoprotein correlated with neutralizing efficacy, and I2T, H5N, G118S and S194G altered and improved the neutralization profile. Rabbit polyclonal antibody against the N-terminal linear neutralizing epitope from the ECSA sequence has reduced binding capacity and neutralization efficacy against Asian CHIKV. These findings imply that the choice of vaccine strain may impact cross-protection against different genotypes.Immune serum from humans infected with CHIKV of either ECSA or Asian genotypes showed differences in binding and neutralization characteristics. These findings have implications for the continued outbreaks of co-circulating CHIKV genotypes and effective

  1. Numerical Modeling of Topography-Modulated Dust Aerosol Distribution and Its Influence on the Onset of East Asian Summer Monsoon

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    Hui Sun

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A regional climate model coupled with a dust module was used to simulate dust aerosol distribution and its effects on the atmospheric heat source over the TP, East Asian summer monsoon onset, and precipitation in East Asia modulated by the uplift of the northern TP. We carried out four experiments, including a modern (i.e., high-mountain experiment with (HMD and without (HM the major deserts in Northwest China and a low-mountain experiment with (LMD and without (LM the deserts. The results show that dust greatly increases in the Taklamakan Desert accompanied with the uplift of the northern TP, and the increase exceeds 150 µg kg−1 in spring. A strong cyclone in the Tarim Basin produced by the uplifted northern TP enhances dust emissions in the Taklamakan Desert in summer. Meanwhile, the dust loading over the TP also increases induced by the uplift of the northern TP, causing the heat source over the TP decreased. Under the condition of the northern TP uplift to present altitude, dust delays the East Asia summer monsoon onset by two pentads and one pentad, respectively, in the southern and northern monsoon regions and greatly suppresses precipitation in East Asia compared with results in the low terrain experiments.

  2. Recent Reversal of the Upper-Tropospheric Temperature Trend and its Role in Intensifying the East Asian Summer Monsoon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Siyao; Li, Jian; Yu, Rucong; Chen, Haoming

    2015-07-02

    At the beginning of the 21st century, the July and August (JA) mean upper-tropospheric temperature over East Asia shows a significant increasing trend, contrary to the decreasing trend in the late 1970 s. The largest warming center is over northern China (between 30°N-45°N and 85°E-120°E) around 300 hPa. Together with the temperature rising, the geo-potential height rises above the warming center and drops below, which connects closely to a correspondingly significant decadal shift of the general circulation over East Asia. In the upper-level of the troposphere, an anomalous anti-cyclone dominates, and the 200-hPa westerly jet strengthens due to the increasing pole-ward geo-potential height gradient. In the lower-troposphere, the anomalous southerly wind increases around Yangtze River Valley and the East Asian summer monsoon intensifies. The integrated circulation changes seriously impact summer precipitation over East Asia. The so-called "southern flood and northern drought" (SFND) pattern since the 1970 s over eastern China has changed. As the cooling center in the 1970 s moves southward, the dry belt moves southward as well. A wet belt dominates the Huaihe River Valley after the temperature trend reversal at 2005 while southern China experiences a dry condition.

  3. Health Impact Assessment of PM10 and PM2.5 in 27 Southeast and East Asian Cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yorifuji, Takashi; Bae, Sanghyuk; Kashima, Saori; Tsuda, Toshihide; Doi, Hiroyuki; Honda, Yasushi; Kim, Ho; Hong, Yun-Chul

    2015-07-01

    We aimed to evaluate the annual health impacts of particulate matter (PM) less than 10 μm diameter (PM10) and less than 2.5-μm diameter (PM2.5) in 27 cities in Southeast and East Asian countries (Japan, the Philippines, the Republic of Korea, Singapore, and Vietnam) for the year 2009 (n = 50,756,699). We estimated the number of cases attributable to long-term exposure. We used a scenario that reduced the annual mean values for PM10 and PM2.5 to 20 and 10 μg/m, respectively. A reduction in long-term exposure to PM10 and PM2.5 would have postponed 8% to 9% of all-cause mortality or about 37,000 deaths. One third of them were associated with cardiopulmonary mortality and one ninth of them were associated with lung cancer mortality. Current air pollution levels in Southeast and East Asian countries have a nonnegligible public health impact.

  4. Meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies identifies 8 new loci for type 2 diabetes in East Asians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Yoon Shin; Chen, Chien-Hsiun; Hu, Cheng; Long, Jirong; Ong, Rick Twee Hee; Sim, Xueling; Takeuchi, Fumihiko; Wu, Ying; Go, Min Jin; Yamauchi, Toshimasa; Chang, Yi-Cheng; Kwak, Soo Heon; Ma, Ronald C.W.; Yamamoto, Ken; Adair, Linda S.; Aung, Tin; Cai, Qiuyin; Chang, Li-Ching; Chen, Yuan-Tsong; Gao, Yutang; Hu, Frank B.; Kim, Hyung-Lae; Kim, Sangsoo; Kim, Young Jin; Lee, Jeannette Jen-Mai; Lee, Nanette R.; Li, Yun; Liu, Jian Jun; Lu, Wei; Nakamura, Jiro; Nakashima, Eitaro; Ng, Daniel Peng-Keat; Tay, Wan Ting; Tsai, Fuu-Jen; Wong, Tien Yin; Yokota, Mitsuhiro; Zheng, Wei; Zhang, Rong; Wang, Congrong; So, Wing Yee; Ohnaka, Keizo; Ikegami, Hiroshi; Hara, Kazuo; Cho, Young Min; Cho, Nam H; Chang, Tien-Jyun; Bao, Yuqian; Hedman, Åsa K.; Morris, Andrew P.; McCarthy, Mark I.; Takayanagi, Ryoichi; Park, Kyong Soo; Jia, Weiping; Chuang, Lee-Ming; Chan, Juliana C.N.; Maeda, Shiro; Kadowaki, Takashi; Lee, Jong-Young; Wu, Jer-Yuarn; Teo, Yik Ying; Tai, E Shyong; Shu, Xiao Ou; Mohlke, Karen L.; Kato, Norihiro; Han, Bok-Ghee; Seielstad, Mark

    2013-01-01

    We conducted a three-stage genetic study to identify susceptibility loci for type 2 diabetes (T2D) in East Asian populations. The first stage meta-analysis of eight T2D genome-wide association studies (6,952 cases and 11,865 controls) was followed by a second stage in silico replication analysis (5,843 cases and 4,574 controls) and a stage 3 de novo replication analysis (12,284 cases and 13,172 controls). The combined analysis identified eight new T2D loci reaching genome-wide significance, which were mapped in or near GLIS3, PEPD, FITM2-R3HDML-HNF4A, KCNK16, MAEA, GCC1-PAX4, PSMD6 and ZFAND3. GLIS3, involved in pancreatic beta cell development and insulin gene expression1,2, is known for its association with fasting glucose levels3,4. The evidence of T2D association for PEPD5 and HNF4A6,7 has been detected in previous studies. KCNK16 may regulate glucose-dependent insulin secretion in the pancreas. These findings derived from East Asians provide new perspectives on the etiology of T2D. PMID:22158537

  5. The Eurasian ice sheet reinforces the East Asian summer monsoon during the interglacial 500 000 years ago

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    Qiuzhen Yin

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Deep-sea and ice-core records show that interglacial periods were overall less "warm" before about 420 000 years ago than after, with relatively higher ice volume and lower greenhouse gases concentration. This is particularly the case for the interglacial Marine Isotope Stage 13 which occurred about 500 000 years ago. However, by contrast, the loess and other proxy records from China suggest an exceptionally active East Asian summer monsoon during this interglacial. A three-dimension Earth system Model of Intermediate complexity was used to understand this seeming paradox. The astronomical forcing and the remnant ice sheets present in Eurasia and North America were taken into account in a series of sensitivity experiments. Expectedly, the seasonal contrast is larger and the East Asian summer monsoon is reinforced compared to Pre-Industrial time when Northern Hemisphere summer is at perihelion. Surprisingly, the presence of the Eurasian ice sheet was found to reinforce monsoon, too, through a south-eastwards perturbation planetary wave. The trajectory of this wave is influenced by the Tibetan plateau.

  6. Decoupling and Sources of Structural Transformation of East Asian Economies: An International Input-Output Decomposition Analysis

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    Jong-Hwan Ko

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to answer two questions using input-output decomposition analysis: 1 Have emerging Asian economies decoupled? 2 What are the sources of structural changes in gross outputs and value-added of emerging Asian economies related to the first question? The main findings of the study are as follows: First, since 1990, there has been a trend of increasing dependence on exports to extra-regions such as G3 and the ROW, indicating no sign of "decoupling", but rather an increasing integration of emerging Asian countries into global trade. Second, there is a contrasting feature in the sources of structural changes between non-China emerging Asia and China. Dependence of non-China emerging Asia on intra-regional trade has increased in line with strengthening economic integration in East Asia, whereas China has disintegrated from the region. Therefore, it can be said that China has contributed to no sign of decoupling of emerging Asia as a whole.

  7. Traditional East Asian medicine: how to understand and approach diagnostic findings and patterns in a modern scientific framework?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birch, Stephen; Alraek, Terje

    2014-05-01

    Research into the diagnostic methods and patterns of traditional East Asian medical (TEAM) systems of practice such as acupuncture and herbal medicine face certain challenges due to the nature of thinking in TEAM and the subjective basis of judgments made in practice. The TEAM-based diagnosis can take into account various findings and signs such as the appearance of the tongue, palpable qualities of the radial pulses, palpable qualities and findings on the abdomen, the complexion of the patient and so on. Both diagnostic findings and the patterns of diagnosis cannot be assumed to have objective bases or to be causally related to the complaints of the patient. However, the diagnoses of TEAM based acupuncture and herbal medicine have tended to look at pictures of the whole patient and rather than focus on a particular symptom, they have looked across a myriad of signs and symptoms to decide or identify the 'pattern' of diagnosis according to the theory in question. Although open for selective and subjective biases each diagnosis pattern always comes with a prescribed treatment tailored to the pattern. Further, the same research requirements needed for the validation of the diagnoses are needed also for these clinical observations and judgments. Hence, it is necessary, albeit challenging for research on TEAM diagnoses to first address these issues before proceeding to more complex investigations such as the development of instruments for making diagnostic observations, instruments for forming diagnostic conclusions or studies investigating the physiological bases of the diagnostic patterns. Preliminary work has started and instruments have been made, but we suggest that any instrumentation must necessarily be first validated by matching of the calibrated or scaled observations or judgments to observations made and agreed upon by relevant experts. Reliability of all observations and judgments are needed before any other tool, technology or more advanced approach can

  8. Help-seeking intention among college students: Cross-cultural study between East Asian international students and domestic students in the Unites States

    OpenAIRE

    Kang, Ji Yun

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to understand East Asian international student’s underutilization of counseling services (versus U.S. domestic students) by applying Theory of Reasoned Action/Planned Behavior (TRA/PB) and Ludwikowski, Vogel, and Armstrong (2009)’s stigma model to help-seeking. Participants were 146 East Asian international students and 210 domestic college students at Purdue University. AMOS 23.0 for Structural Equation Modeling was used to conduct a Latent Mean Analysis (LMA) an...

  9. Association of the OCA2 polymorphism His615Arg with melanin content in east Asian populations: further evidence of convergent evolution of skin pigmentation.

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    Melissa Edwards

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The last decade has witnessed important advances in our understanding of the genetics of pigmentation in European populations, but very little is known about the genes involved in skin pigmentation variation in East Asian populations. Here, we present the results of a study evaluating the association of 10 Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs located within 5 pigmentation candidate genes (OCA2, DCT, ADAM17, ADAMTS20, and TYRP1 with skin pigmentation measured quantitatively in a sample of individuals of East Asian ancestry living in Canada. We show that the non-synonymous polymorphism rs1800414 (His615Arg located within the OCA2 gene is significantly associated with skin pigmentation in this sample. We replicated this result in an independent sample of Chinese individuals of Han ancestry. This polymorphism is characterized by a derived allele that is present at a high frequency in East Asian populations, but is absent in other population groups. In both samples, individuals with the derived G allele, which codes for the amino acid arginine, show lower melanin levels than those with the ancestral A allele, which codes for the amino acid histidine. An analysis of this non-synonymous polymorphism using several programs to predict potential functional effects provides additional support for the role of this SNP in skin pigmentation variation in East Asian populations. Our results are consistent with previous research indicating that evolution to lightly-pigmented skin occurred, at least in part, independently in Europe and East Asia.

  10. Role of Atmospheric Circulation and Westerly Jet Changes in the mid-Holocene East Asian Summer Monsoon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, W.; Chiang, J. C. H.

    2014-12-01

    The East Asian Summer Monsoon (EASM) varies on inter-decadal to interglacial-glacial timescales. The EASM is stronger in the mid-Holocene than today, and these changes can be readily explained by orbitally-driven insolation increase during the boreal summer. However, a detailed understanding of the altered seasonal evolution of the EASM during this time is still lacking. In particular, previous work has suggested a close link between seasonal migration of the EASM and that of the mid-latitude westerlies impinging on the Tibetan Plateau. In this study, we explore, this problem in PMIP3 climate model simulations of the mid-Holocene, focusing on the role of atmospheric circulation and in particular how the westerly jet modulates the East Asia summer climate on paleoclimate timescales. Analysis of the model simulations suggests that, compared to the preindustrial simulations, the transition from Mei-Yu to deep summer rainfall occurs earlier in the mid-Holocene. This is accompanied by an earlier weakening and northward shift of westerly jet away from the Tibetan Plateau. The variation in the strength and the 3-D structure of the westerly jet in the mid-Holocene is summarized. We find that changes to the monsoonal rainfall, westerly jet and meridional circulation covary on paleoclimate timescales. Meridional wind changes in particular are tied to an altered stationary wave pattern, resembling today's the so-called 'Silk Road' teleconnection pattern, riding along the westerly jet. Diagnostic analysis also reveals changes in moist static energy and eddy energy fluxes associated with the earlier seasonal transition of the EASM. Our analyses suggest that the westerly jet is critical to the altered dynamics of the East Asian summer monsoon during the mid-Holocene.

  11. Experience of International Education of East Asian Students in English-speaking Countries: A four-dimensional approach

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    Maria L Martinez

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Global participation in international education in the last two decades has increased exponentially. International students face difficulties in adjusting to the culture of their host country due to their unique needs (Bertram, Poulakis, Elsasser & Kumar, 2014. This article presents themes comprising the international education phenomenon involving the experiences of East Asian international students in English-speaking countries. The literature reviewed for this article pertains to many aspects of international education, covering the factors that influence the decision to embark on the international education journey to the adjustment experienced by students to the host culture. The authors suggest that the international education experience is comprised of four dimensions: structural, linguistic, internal, and external. We also posit that Confucianism, which many East Asian students follow, influences not only the psycho-social dimension of the international education experience but also their instructional preferences within the structural dimension. We further contend that students’ actual and perceived proficiency (or the lack thereof in the host country’s language greatly shapes all aspects of the student’s international education experience, which then determines the degree of acculturative stress involved and plays a key role in each of the three dimensions. Because of the anticipated continued growth in the number of international students from East Asia attending higher education institutions in English-speaking countries such as the United States, Australia, Canada, and parts of Africa, it is important to examine how each of the dimensions proposed impact each other. Approaching the study of the international education experience one dimension at a time, as many scholars have done, does not completely address all of the unique needs of international students. We suggest that research in this area be conducted holistically by

  12. Disentangling fast and slow responses of the East Asian summer monsoon to reflecting and absorbing aerosol forcings

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    Z. Wang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available We examine the roles of fast and slow responses in shaping the total equilibrium response of the East Asian summer monsoon (EASM to reflecting (sulfate, SO4 and absorbing (black carbon, BC aerosol forcings over the industrial era using the Community Earth System Model version 1 (CESM1. Our results show that there is a clear distinction between fast and slow responses of the EASM to aerosol forcings and the slow climate response due to aerosol-induced change in sea surface temperature (SST plays an important role in the impacts of aerosols on the EASM. The EASM is weakened by a decrease in land–sea surface thermal contrast in the fast response (FR component to SO4 forcing, whereas the weakening is more intensive due to the changes in tropospheric thermodynamic and dynamic structures in the slow response (SR component to SO4. The total climate adjustment caused by SO4 is a significant weakening of the EASM and a decrease in precipitation. The BC-induced fast adjustment strengthens the EASM both by increasing the local land–sea surface thermal contrast and shifting the East Asian subtropical jet (EASJ northwards. The BC-induced slow climate adjustment, however, weakens the EASM through altering the atmospheric temperature and circulation. Consequently, the EASM is slightly enhanced, especially north of 30° N, in the total response (TR to BC. The spatial patterns of precipitation change over East Asia due to BC are similar in the total response and slow response. This study highlights the importance of ocean response to aerosol forcings in driving the changes of the EASM.

  13. Medical consequences of the Asian black hornet (Vespa velutina) invasion in Southwestern France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Haro, Luc; Labadie, Magali; Chanseau, Pierre; Cabot, Claudine; Blanc-Brisset, Ingrid; Penouil, Françoise

    2010-01-01

    The presence of the Asian black hornet Vespa velutina in Southwestern France has been confirmed since 2005. The medical literature indicates that in comparison with other Asian hornets' species V. velutina is not a major health threat in Asia. A review of data from French Poison Control Centers showed only one envenomation clearly linked to V. velutina. The victim developed severe symptoms with neuralgia sequels after being stung 12 times on the head. This case demonstrates that like native French hornet species V. velutina can be dangerous for man after multiple stings. The experience of Poison Control Centers in France shows that the increase of this Asian hornet population in the southwestern regions has not been correlated with an increase in the number of hymenoptera stings. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Study on self-medication practice among consumers in parts of East Bengaluru

    OpenAIRE

    Merlin T Silvan

    2016-01-01

    Background: Self medication is defined as the use of medication by a patient on his own initiative or on the advice of a pharmacist or a lay person instead of seeking advice a medical practitioner. Objectives: To assess the self medication practices for allopathic drugs in East Bengaluru and also identify the association between self-medication practice and socio demographic characteristics in the study population. Methodology: A community based cross sectional study was conducted in East Ben...

  15. East Asian's Perception of Western Countries' Urban Hygiene and Public Health in the Late Nineteenth Century: A Review Article.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, You-Ki; Park, Sam-Hun

    2017-10-01

    Modern hygiene administration in Japan and Korea began to be organized in the end of 19th Century by accepting Western public health system. Then, how did the elite in these two East Asian countries recognize and understand Western public health movement in the 19th Century? Answering this question could provide historical knowledge about the background of starting modern hygiene administration in East Asia. To understand the birth of modern public health system in East Asia, Japanese and Korean elite's records on Western countries were reviewed. The documents examined were The Iwakura Embassy 1871-73 published in 1878 as an account of Japanese Meiji government's special ambassador sent to the United States and Europe, and Seoyugyeonmun (observations on travels in the West) published in 1895 by a Korean intelligent. The Iwakura Embassy 1871-73 suggested modern water supply and drainage, roadside trees, and parks, to prevent contagious diseases and improve urban hygiene. Seoyugyeonmun emphasizes that hygiene is an important task that civilized government has to be in charge. So, specific tasks of public health should be imposed on sanitary police. Public health was one of the major factors that contributed to national prosperity in the 19th century. Such recognition enabled organization of hygiene administration to be part of the project pursuing enlightenment, modernization, and civilization at the end of the 19th century in Japan and Korea.

  16. Investigation of Three-Dimensional Evolution of East Asian Dust Storm by Modeling and Remote Sensing Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiawei Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The three-dimensional evolution of an East Asian dust storm during 23–26 April 2009 was investigated by utilizing a regional air quality model system (RAQMS and satellite measurements. This severe dust storm hit Mt. Tai in east China with daily mean PM10 concentration reaching 1400 μg/m3 and the model captured the PM10 variation reasonably well. Modeled spatial distributions of AOD and vertical profiles of aerosol extinction coefficient during the dust storm were compared with MODIS and CALIPSO data, demonstrating that RAQMS was able to reproduce the 3D structure and the evolution of the dust storm reasonably well. During early days of the dust storm, daily mean dust-induced AOD exceeded 2.0 over dust source regions (the Gobi desert and the Taklamakan desert and was in a range of 1.2–1.8 over the North China Plain, accounting for about 98% and up to 90% of total AOD over corresponding areas, respectively. The top of the dust storm reached about 8 km over east China, with high dust concentration locating at around 40°N. Dust aerosol below 2 km was transported southeastward off the Gobi desert while dust above 2 km was transported out of China along 40°–45°N.

  17. Population and development beyond the first demographic transition: a focus on the experience of east and southeast Asian countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gavin W. Jones

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper covers a wide scope, focusing on some trends in East and Southeast Asia that may be of interest to Latin America. The first demographic transition has essentially been completed in both regions. The issue is what should now be the focus of our consideration of population and development? East Asian countries are now stressing issues of ultra-low fertility, and policies to raise fertility. They are not comfortable with the prospect of making up future deficits through international migration. The paper also deals briefly with studies of dynamics of change in mega-urban regions, and argues that comparative studies on Latin America and Asia could be valuable. Issues of poverty, development, and equity are then addressed, with particular emphasis on the role of education as a key to equality and development. One dilemma is that in East Asia, the generally commendable obsession with education is one factor making for very low levels of fertility. Finally, the paper touches on population and environmental issues.

  18. Shifting East Asian approaches to home ownership and the housing welfare pillar

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ronald, R.; Doling, J.

    2010-01-01

    Despite diversity in market and policy frameworks, late twentieth century housing systems across industrialised economies in East Asia became increasingly focused on facilitating home ownership. Governments became characteristically interventionist in the housing sector, which was assumed to play

  19. IUCN situation analysis on East and Southeast Asian intertidal habitats, with particular reference to the Yellow Sea (including the Bohai Sea).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MacKinnon, John; Verkuil, Yvonne I; Murray, Nicholas

    2012-01-01

    The IUCN Species Survival Commission and IUCN Asia Regional Office commissioned this independent report to assess the state and condition of intertidal habitats along the East Asian- Australasian Flyway (EAAF), in response to growing concerns expressed by IUCN members over observed declines in

  20. What Should Educational Reform in Indonesia Look Like?--Learning from the PISA Science Scores of East-Asian Countries and Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suprapto, Nadi

    2016-01-01

    Indonesia always continually failed international assessments even though many efforts have been made. The results of PISA 2012 put Indonesian students in the worst position. In contrast, East Asian countries' performance well in mathematics, reading, and science. Indeed, Singapore has the best performance in the Southeast Asia region even in the…

  1. Predictors of Complicated Grief after a Natural Disaster: A Population Study Two Years after the 2004 South-East Asian Tsunami

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristensen, Pal; Weisaeth, Lars; Heir, Trond

    2010-01-01

    The authors examined predictors of complicated grief (CG) in Norwegians 2 years after bereavement in the 2004 South-East Asian tsunami. A cross-sectional postal survey retrospectively covering disaster experiences and assessing CG according to the Inventory of Complicated Grief yielded 130 respondents (35 directly disaster-exposed and 95 not…

  2. Hispanic-Asian Immigrant Inequality in Perceived Medical Need and Access to Regular Physician Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe Hasanali, Stephanie; De Jong, Gordon F; Roempke Graefe, Deborah

    2016-02-01

    In the face of continuing large immigrant streams, Hispanic and Asian immigrants' human and social capital inequalities will heighten U.S. race/ethnic health and health care disparities. Using data from the 2004 and 2008 panels of the Survey of Income and Program Participation, this study assessed Hispanic-Asian immigrant disparity in access to health care, measured by perceived medical need and regular access to a physician. Logistic regression results indicated that Hispanics had lower perceived met medical need and were less likely to see a doctor regularly. These disparities were significantly attenuated by education and health insurance. Assimilation-related characteristics were significantly associated with a regular doctor visit and were not fully mediated by socioeconomic variables. Findings indicate the importance of education above and beyond insurance coverage for access to health care and suggest the potential for public health efforts to improve preventive care among immigrants.

  3. Genetic evidence of an East Asian origin and paleolithic northward migration of Y-chromosome haplogroup N.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Shi

    Full Text Available The Y-chromosome haplogroup N-M231 (Hg N is distributed widely in eastern and central Asia, Siberia, as well as in eastern and northern Europe. Previous studies suggested a counterclockwise prehistoric migration of Hg N from eastern Asia to eastern and northern Europe. However, the root of this Y chromosome lineage and its detailed dispersal pattern across eastern Asia are still unclear. We analyzed haplogroup profiles and phylogeographic patterns of 1,570 Hg N individuals from 20,826 males in 359 populations across Eurasia. We first genotyped 6,371 males from 169 populations in China and Cambodia, and generated data of 360 Hg N individuals, and then combined published data on 1,210 Hg N individuals from Japanese, Southeast Asian, Siberian, European and Central Asian populations. The results showed that the sub-haplogroups of Hg N have a distinct geographical distribution. The highest Y-STR diversity of the ancestral Hg N sub-haplogroups was observed in the southern part of mainland East Asia, and further phylogeographic analyses supports an origin of Hg N in southern China. Combined with previous data, we propose that the early northward dispersal of Hg N started from southern China about 21 thousand years ago (kya, expanding into northern China 12-18 kya, and reaching further north to Siberia about 12-14 kya before a population expansion and westward migration into Central Asia and eastern/northern Europe around 8.0-10.0 kya. This northward migration of Hg N likewise coincides with retreating ice sheets after the Last Glacial Maximum (22-18 kya in mainland East Asia.

  4. Regular aerobic exercise and blood pressure in East Asians: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igarashi, Yutaka; Akazawa, Nobuhiko; Maeda, Seiji

    2017-10-30

    The aim of this meta-analysis was to evaluate the effects of regular aerobic exercise on blood pressure in East Asians. The inclusion criteria of the randomized controlled trials were healthy East Asian adults, exercise group performing regular aerobic exercise and control group not exercising, and a description of the mean systolic blood pressure or diastolic blood pressure at rest. This study included 31 study groups and 1994 subjects. Pooled changes in blood pressure showed significant reductions (systolic blood pressure: -4.7 mmHg; diastolic blood pressure: -3.2 mmHg). In subgroup analyses, the change in systolic blood pressure for randomized controlled trials meeting the America Heart Association and American College of Sports Medicine guidelines for physical activity to maintain health was significantly larger than in randomized controlled trials not meeting the guidelines. In addition, meta-regression indicated that the change in systolic blood pressure was significantly related to "exercise time × exercise frequency." The ideal volume of exercise is that for a long time at a high frequency, such as the volume recommended in the America Heart Association and American College of Sports Medicine guidelines: moderate intensity and >150 min per week. List of abbreviations: BP: blood pressure; BMI: body mass index; SBP: systolic blood pressure; DBP: diastolic blood pressure; RCT: randomized controlled trial; AHA: America Heart Association; ACSM: America College of Sports Medicine; SD: standard deviation; HDL-C: high-density lipoprotein cholesterol; LDL-C: low-density lipoprotein cholesterol; TC: total cholesterol; TG: triglycerides; PEDro: Physiotherapy Evidence Database; CI: confidence intervals; %HRmax: percentage of maximal heart rate.

  5. ENSO Effect on East Asian Tropical Cyclone Landfall via Changes in Tracks and Genesis in a Statistical Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yonekura, Emmi; Hall, Timothy M.

    2014-01-01

    Improvements on a statistical tropical cyclone (TC) track model in the western North Pacific Ocean are described. The goal of the model is to study the effect of El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) on East Asian TC landfall. The model is based on the International Best-Track Archive for Climate Stewardship (IBTrACS) database of TC observations for 1945-2007 and employs local regression of TC formation rates and track increments on the Nino-3.4 index and seasonally varying climate parameters. The main improvements are the inclusion of ENSO dependence in the track propagation and accounting for seasonality in both genesis and tracks. A comparison of simulations of the 1945-2007 period with observations concludes that the model updates improve the skill of this model in simulating TCs. Changes in TC genesis and tracks are analyzed separately and cumulatively in simulations of stationary extreme ENSO states. ENSO effects on regional (100-km scale) landfall are attributed to changes in genesis and tracks. The effect of ENSO on genesis is predominantly a shift in genesis location from the southeast in El Nino years to the northwest in La Nina years, resulting in higher landfall rates for the East Asian coast during La Nina. The effect of ENSO on track propagation varies seasonally and spatially. In the peak activity season (July-October), there are significant changes in mean tracks with ENSO. Landfall-rate changes from genesis- and track-ENSO effects in the Philippines cancel out, while coastal segments of Vietnam, China, the Korean Peninsula, and Japan show enhanced La Nina-year increases.

  6. Impacts of the East Asian Monsoon on springtime dust concentrations over China: IMPACTS OF MONSOON ON DUST

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lou, Sijia [Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla California USA; Now at Atmospheric Science and Global Change Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland Washington USA; Russell, Lynn M. [Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla California USA; Yang, Yang [Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla California USA; Now at Atmospheric Science and Global Change Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland Washington USA; Xu, Li [Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla California USA; Lamjiri, Maryam A. [Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla California USA; DeFlorio, Michael J. [Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla California USA; Miller, Arthur J. [Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla California USA; Ghan, Steven J. [Now at Atmospheric Science and Global Change Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland Washington USA; Liu, Ying [Now at Atmospheric Science and Global Change Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland Washington USA; Singh, Balwinder [Now at Atmospheric Science and Global Change Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland Washington USA

    2016-07-12

    We use 150 year preindustrial simulations of the Community Earth System Model to quantify the impacts of the East Asian Monsoon strength on interannual variations of springtime dust concentrations over China. The simulated interannual variations in March-April-May (MAM) dust column concentrations range between 20–40% and 10–60% over eastern and western China, respectively. The dust concentrations over eastern China correlate negatively with the East Asian Monsoon (EAM) index, which represents the strength of monsoon, with a regionally averaged correlation coefficient of 0.64. Relative to the strongest EAM years, MAMdust concentrations in the weakest EAM years are higher over China, with regional relative differences of 55.6%, 29.6%, and 13.9% in the run with emissions calculated interactively and of 33.8%, 10.3%, and 8.2% over eastern, central, and western China, respectively, in the run with prescribed emissions. Both interactive run and prescribed emission run show the similar pattern of climate change between the weakest and strongest EAM years. Strong anomalous northwesterly and westerly winds over the Gobi and Taklamakan deserts during the weakest EAM years result in larger transport fluxes, and thereby increase the dust concentrations over China. These differences in dust concentrations between the weakest and strongest EAM years (weakest-strongest) lead to the change in the net radiative forcing by up to 8 and 3Wm2 at the surface, compared to 2.4 and +1.2Wm2 at the top of the atmosphere over eastern and western China, respectively.

  7. Culture in Asian American community psychology: beyond the East-West binary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okazaki, Sumie; Saw, Anne

    2011-03-01

    In response to a call to better integrate culture in community psychology (O'Donnell in American Journal of Community Psychology 37:1-7 2006), we offer a cultural-community framework to facilitate a collaborative engagement between community psychologists and ethnic minority communities, focusing on Asian American communities as illustrations. Extending Hays' (Addressing cultural complexities in practice: Assessment, diagnosis, and therapy, American Psychological Association, Washington, DC, 2008) ADDRESSING framework for considering cultural influences on a counseling relationship, the proposed framework provides a broad but systematic guidepost for considering three major cultural-ecological influences on Asian American communities: Race and Ethnicity (R), Culture (C), and Immigration and Transnational Ties (I). We provide a sequence of steps that incorporate the ADDRESSING and the RCI frameworks to facilitate the collaborative community-based research or social action.

  8. Paleoparasitological report on Ascaris aDNA from an ancient East Asian sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Seok Oh

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, Ascaris DNA was extracted and sequenced from a medieval archaeological sample in Korea. While Ascaris eggs were confirmed to be of human origin by archaeological evidence, it was not possible to pinpoint the exact species due to close genetic relationships among them. Despite this shortcoming, this is the first Ascaris ancient DNA (aDNA report from a medieval Asian country and thus will expand the scope of Ascaris aDNA research.

  9. ANALYSIS OF EAST ASIAN MEAT IMPORT DEMAND: MARKET PROSPECTS FOR ALBERTA AND CANADA

    OpenAIRE

    Veeman, Michele M.; Veeman, Terrence S.; Adilu, Shiferaw

    2002-01-01

    This study focuses on the demand for meat and the market vulnerabilities that apply to four selected Asian markets that are of potential importance to meat exporters. The markets identified for this purpose are Japan, South Korea, Indonesia, and Singapore. An initial overview of market prospects and vulnerabilities based on previous studies is reported. Detailed assessments of import demand and substitution between various meats for meat exports from Canada/Alberta to each of these markets wa...

  10. Medical ethics, bioethics and research ethics education perspectives in South East Europe in graduate medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mijaljica, Goran

    2014-03-01

    Ethics has an established place within the medical curriculum. However notable differences exist in the programme characteristics of different schools of medicine. This paper addresses the main differences in the curricula of medical schools in South East Europe regarding education in medical ethics and bioethics, with a special emphasis on research ethics, and proposes a model curriculum which incorporates significant topics in all three fields. Teaching curricula of Medical Schools in Bulgaria, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Serbia, Macedonia and Montenegro were acquired and a total of 14 were analyzed. Teaching hours for medical ethics and/or bioethics and year of study in which the course is taught were also analyzed. The average number of teaching hours in medical ethics and bioethics is 27.1 h per year. The highest national average number of teaching hours was in Croatia (47.5 h per year), and the lowest was in Serbia (14.8). In the countries of the European Union the mean number of hours given to ethics teaching throughout the complete curriculum was 44. In South East Europe, the maximum number of teaching hours is 60, while the minimum number is 10 teaching hours. Research ethics topics also show a considerable variance within the regional medical schools. Approaches to teaching research ethics vary, even within the same country. The proposed model for education in this area is based on the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization Bioethics Core Curriculum. The model curriculum consists of topics in medical ethics, bioethics and research ethics, as a single course, over 30 teaching hours.

  11. Genome-wide association study of Parkinson's disease in East Asians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foo, Jia Nee; Tan, Louis C; Irwan, Ishak D; Au, Wing-Lok; Low, Hui Qi; Prakash, Kumar-M; Ahmad-Annuar, Azlina; Bei, Jinxin; Chan, Anne Yy; Chen, Chiung Mei; Chen, Yi-Chun; Chung, Sun Ju; Deng, Hao; Lim, Shen-Yang; Mok, Vincent; Pang, Hao; Pei, Zhong; Peng, Rong; Shang, Hui-Fang; Song, Kyuyoung; Tan, Ai Huey; Wu, Yih-Ru; Aung, Tin; Cheng, Ching-Yu; Chew, Fook Tim; Chew, Soo-Hong; Chong, Siow-Ann; Ebstein, Richard P; Lee, Jimmy; Saw, Seang-Mei; Seow, Adeline; Subramaniam, Mythily; Tai, E-Shyong; Vithana, Eranga N; Wong, Tien-Yin; Heng, Khai Koon; Meah, Wee-Yang; Khor, Chiea Chuen; Liu, Hong; Zhang, Furen; Liu, Jianjun; Tan, Eng-King

    2017-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) on Parkinson's disease (PD) have mostly been done in Europeans and Japanese. No study has been done in Han Chinese, which make up nearly a fifth of the world population. We conducted the first Han Chinese GWAS analysing a total of 22,729 subjects (5,125 PD cases and 17,604 controls) from Singapore, Hong Kong, Malaysia, Korea, mainland China and Taiwan. We performed imputation, merging and logistic regression analyses of 2,402,394 SNPs passing quality control filters in 779 PD cases, 13,227 controls, adjusted for the first three principal components. 90 SNPs with association P Asian PD. We also identified significant (P Asian-specific loci with large effects (OR > 1.45) on PD risk. Our results also demonstrate some differences in the genetic contribution to PD between Europeans and Asians. Further pan-ethnic meta-analysis with European GWAS cohorts may unravel new PD loci. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Can evidence from genome-wide association studies and positive natural selection surveys be used to evaluate the thrifty gene hypothesis in East Asians?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuan-Han Koh

    Full Text Available Body fat deposition and distribution differ between East Asians and Europeans, and for the same level of obesity, East Asians are at higher risks of Type 2 diabetes (T2D and other metabolic disorders. This observation has prompted the reclassifications of body mass index thresholds for the definitions of "overweight" and "obese" in East Asians. However, the question remains over what evolutionary mechanisms have driven the differences in adiposity morphology between two population groups that shared a common ancestor less than 80,000 years ago. The Thrifty Gene hypothesis has been suggested as a possible explanation, where genetic factors that allowed for efficient food-energy conversion and storage are evolutionarily favoured by conferring increased chances of survival and fertility. Here, we leveraged on the existing findings from genome-wide association studies and large-scale surveys of positive natural selection to evaluate whether there is currently any evidence to support the Thrifty Gene hypothesis. We first assess whether the existing genetic associations with obesity and T2D are located in genomic regions that are reported to be under positive selection, and if so, whether the risk alleles sit on the extended haplotype forms. In addition, we interrogate whether these risk alleles are the derived forms that differ from the ancestral alleles, and whether there is significant evidence of population differentiation at these SNPs between East Asian and European populations. Our systematic survey did not yield conclusive evidence to support the Thrifty Gene hypothesis as a possible explanation for the differences observed between East Asians and Europeans.

  13. Can evidence from genome-wide association studies and positive natural selection surveys be used to evaluate the thrifty gene hypothesis in East Asians?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Xuan-Han; Liu, Xuanyao; Teo, Yik-Ying

    2014-01-01

    Body fat deposition and distribution differ between East Asians and Europeans, and for the same level of obesity, East Asians are at higher risks of Type 2 diabetes (T2D) and other metabolic disorders. This observation has prompted the reclassifications of body mass index thresholds for the definitions of "overweight" and "obese" in East Asians. However, the question remains over what evolutionary mechanisms have driven the differences in adiposity morphology between two population groups that shared a common ancestor less than 80,000 years ago. The Thrifty Gene hypothesis has been suggested as a possible explanation, where genetic factors that allowed for efficient food-energy conversion and storage are evolutionarily favoured by conferring increased chances of survival and fertility. Here, we leveraged on the existing findings from genome-wide association studies and large-scale surveys of positive natural selection to evaluate whether there is currently any evidence to support the Thrifty Gene hypothesis. We first assess whether the existing genetic associations with obesity and T2D are located in genomic regions that are reported to be under positive selection, and if so, whether the risk alleles sit on the extended haplotype forms. In addition, we interrogate whether these risk alleles are the derived forms that differ from the ancestral alleles, and whether there is significant evidence of population differentiation at these SNPs between East Asian and European populations. Our systematic survey did not yield conclusive evidence to support the Thrifty Gene hypothesis as a possible explanation for the differences observed between East Asians and Europeans.

  14. Teleconnection between sea ice in the Barents Sea in June and the Silk Road, Pacific-Japan and East Asian rainfall patterns in August

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Shengping; Gao, Yongqi; Furevik, Tore; Wang, Huijun; Li, Fei

    2018-01-01

    In contrast to previous studies that have tended to focus on the influence of the total Arctic sea-ice cover on the East Asian summer tripole rainfall pattern, the present study identifies the Barents Sea as the key region where the June sea-ice variability exerts the most significant impacts on the East Asian August tripole rainfall pattern, and explores the teleconnection mechanisms involved. The results reveal that a reduction in June sea ice excites anomalous upward air motion due to strong near-surface thermal forcing, which further triggers a meridional overturning wave-like pattern extending to midlatitudes. Anomalous downward motion therefore forms over the Caspian Sea, which in turn induces zonally oriented overturning circulation along the subtropical jet stream, exhibiting the east-west Rossby wave train known as the Silk Road pattern. It is suggested that the Bonin high, a subtropical anticyclone predominant near South Korea, shows a significant anomaly due to the eastward extension of the Silk Road pattern to East Asia. As a possible descending branch of the Hadley cell, the Bonin high anomaly ultimately triggers a meridional overturning, establishing the Pacific-Japan pattern. This in turn induces an anomalous anticyclone and cyclone pair over East Asia, and a tripole vertical convection anomaly meridionally oriented over East Asia. Consequently, a tripole rainfall anomaly pattern is observed over East Asia. Results from numerical experiments using version 5 of the Community Atmosphere Model support the interpretation of this chain of events.

  15. Analysis of aircraft and satellite measurements from the Intercontinental Chemical Transport Experiment (INTEX-B to quantify long-range transport of East Asian sulfur to Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. van Donkelaar

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available We interpret a suite of satellite, aircraft, and ground-based measurements over the North Pacific Ocean and western North America during April–May 2006 as part of the Intercontinental Chemical Transport Experiment Phase B (INTEX-B campaign to understand the implications of long-range transport of East Asian emissions to North America. The Canadian component of INTEX-B included 33 vertical profiles from a Cessna 207 aircraft equipped with an aerosol mass spectrometer. Long-range transport of organic aerosols was insignificant, contrary to expectations. Measured sulfate plumes in the free troposphere over British Columbia exceeded 2 μg/m3. We update the global anthropogenic emission inventory in a chemical transport model (GEOS-Chem and use it to interpret the observations. Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD retrieved from two satellite instruments (MISR and MODIS for 2000–2006 are analyzed with GEOS-Chem to estimate an annual growth in Chinese sulfur emissions of 6.2% and 9.6%, respectively. Analysis of aircraft sulfate measurements from the NASA DC-8 over the central Pacific, the NSF C-130 over the east Pacific and the Cessna over British Columbia indicates most Asian sulfate over the ocean is in the lower free troposphere (800–600 hPa, with a decrease in pressure toward land due to orographic effects. We calculate that 56% of the measured sulfate between 500–900 hPa over British Columbia is due to East Asian sources. We find evidence of a 72–85% increase in the relative contribution of East Asian sulfate to the total burden in spring off the northwest coast of the United States since 1985. Campaign-average simulations indicate anthropogenic East Asian sulfur emissions increase mean springtime sulfate in Western Canada at the surface by 0.31 μg/m3 (~30% and account for 50% of the overall regional sulfate burden between 1 and 5 km. Mean measured daily surface sulfate concentrations taken in the Vancouver area increase by

  16. East Asian hydroclimate and agro-ecosystem research using the UC-LLNL regional climate system model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, N.L.; Kim, J.; Chung, T.; Oh, J.; Bae, D.

    1997-05-01

    Investigations of East Asian hydroclimate and agro-ecosystem response to hydroclimate variability have been initiated using the University of California Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Regional Climate System Model (RCSM). This system simulates climate from the global scale down to the watershed catchment scale, and consists of data pre- and post-processors, and four model components. The four model components are (1) a mesoscale atmospheric simulation model, (2) a soil-plant-snow model, (3) a watershed hydrology-riverflow modeling suite, and (4) a crop response modeling suite. The first three model components have been coupled, and the system includes two-way feedbacks between the soil-plant-snow model and the mesoscale atmospheric simulation model. Integration of the fourth component - the Decision Support System for Agrotechnology Transfer (DSSAT) into the RCSM is part of our current research plan. This paper provides a brief overview of agro-ecosystem modeling, the RCSM, applications of the RCSM to East Asia, and future directions.

  17. HALO aircraft measurements of East Asian anthropogenic SO2 import into the lower stratosphere by a warm conveyor belt uplift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlager, H.; Arnold, F.; Aufmhoff, H.; Baumann, R.; Pirjola, L.; Roiger, A.; Sailer, T.; Wirth, M.; Schumann, U.

    2012-04-01

    We report on a case study of anthropogenic SO2 pollution transport into the lower stratosphere from East Asian source regions. The pollution layer was observed over Central Europe by measurements from the new German research aircraft HALO. The layer contained enhanced SO2, HNO3 and water vapor and caused increased Lidar backscatter radiation. Meteorological analysis and air mass transport and dispersion model simulations reveal that the detected pollutants were released from ground-based sources in East-China, South-Korea, and Japan. The pollution plume was uplifted by a warm conveyor belt associated with a West-Pacific cyclone and finally injected into the lower stratosphere. Our HALO measurements were performed 5 days after the air mass uplift event, when significant parts of the Northern Hemisphere were already covered by the pollution plume. Accompanying trajectory chemistry and aerosol box model simulations indicate that H2SO4/H2O aerosol droplets were generated in the SO2-rich plume and grew to sizes large enough to explain the observed increased Lidar backscatter signal. Implications of the SO2 transport pathway into the lower stratosphere presented in this study will be discussed.

  18. A new Orussus species from South Korea, and a key to the East Asian Orussidae (Hymenoptera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jin-Kyung; Wei, Meicai; Vilhelmsen, Lars; Lee, Jong-Wook

    2014-10-16

    Orussus melanosoma Lee & Wei, sp. nov. from South Korea is described and illustrated. Phylogenetic analyses place the new species basally in Orussus, together with other species from the Far East. A key to species of Orussidae from the eastern Palaearctic is provided. 

  19. Linguistic and Cultural Factors in East Asian Students' Oral Participation in U.S. University Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ee Lin

    2007-01-01

    Since the 1950s, the United States education system has undergone a dramatic demographic shift characterized by a continuing increase in the cultural diversification of the student population. According to the National Center for Education Statistics, in 1999-2000 international students from East Asia (i.e., China, Hong Kong, Japan, Korea, and…

  20. Review Essay: Moving beyond Global Encounters toward Global Reciprocity: Christian Education in East Asian Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun-Sook

    2015-01-01

    Christianity as a world religion was propagated from Europe and North America to Africa and Asia. Global Christianity spread to East Asia when Robert Morrison (1782-1843) arrived in Canton, China in 1807, and later in the late 19th-century Protestant missionaries from North America arrived in Japan and Korea. This Christianity experienced a modern…

  1. Implications of overestimated anthropogenic CO2 emissions on East Asian and global land CO2 flux inversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeki, Tazu; Patra, Prabir K.

    2017-12-01

    Measurement and modelling of regional or country-level carbon dioxide (CO2) fluxes are becoming critical for verification of the greenhouse gases emission control. One of the commonly adopted approaches is inverse modelling, where CO2 fluxes (emission: positive flux, sink: negative flux) from the terrestrial ecosystems are estimated by combining atmospheric CO2 measurements with atmospheric transport models. The inverse models assume anthropogenic emissions are known, and thus the uncertainties in the emissions introduce systematic bias in estimation of the terrestrial (residual) fluxes by inverse modelling. Here we show that the CO2 sink increase, estimated by the inverse model, over East Asia (China, Japan, Korea and Mongolia), by about 0.26 PgC year-1 (1 Pg = 1012 g) during 2001-2010, is likely to be an artifact of the anthropogenic CO2 emissions increasing too quickly in China by 1.41 PgC year-1. Independent results from methane (CH4) inversion suggested about 41% lower rate of East Asian CH4 emission increase during 2002-2012. We apply a scaling factor of 0.59, based on CH4 inversion, to the rate of anthropogenic CO2 emission increase since the anthropogenic emissions of both CO2 and CH4 increase linearly in the emission inventory. We find no systematic increase in land CO2 uptake over East Asia during 1993-2010 or 2000-2009 when scaled anthropogenic CO2 emissions are used, and that there is a need of higher emission increase rate for 2010-2012 compared to those calculated by the inventory methods. High bias in anthropogenic CO2 emissions leads to stronger land sinks in global land-ocean flux partitioning in our inverse model. The corrected anthropogenic CO2 emissions also produce measurable reductions in the rate of global land CO2 sink increase post-2002, leading to a better agreement with the terrestrial biospheric model simulations that include CO2-fertilization and climate effects.

  2. Impact of air-sea interaction on simulation of East Asian summer monsoon in CMIP5 models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Soheon; Cha, Dong-Hyun

    2017-04-01

    In the western North Pacific (WNP), it is well known that there is a negative correlation between sea surface temperature (SST) and precipitation indicating that the atmosphere may force the ocean. If global climate models (GCMs) cannot capture the air-sea interaction over the WNP, it leads to the failure in simulating regional climate over East Asia. The East Asian summer monsoon (EASM) is an intrinsic atmospheric phenomenon in East Asia, which significantly affect the surrounding countries. In this study, therefore, we investigate the impact of the air-sea interaction on simulating the EASM in multi-GCMs. The GCMs from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project 3 (CMIP3) have large errors in cross correlation between SST and precipitation over the WNP, which means that the models could not capture the negative correlation realistically. On the contrary, the GCMs participating in CMIP5 improve the air-sea interaction compared to CMIP3 models. They have smaller errors in cross correlation between SST and precipitation. Among CMIP5 models, the models which have the smaller errors in cross correlation showed realistic simulation of the EASM in terms of its evolution and associated principal mode. However, GCMs with larger errors tend to simulate the EASM unreasonably. This indicates that the realistic air-sea interaction over the WNP is required to improve the EASM simulation. Acknowledgements The research was supported by the Korea Meteorological Administration Research and Development program under grant KMIPA 2015-2083 and the National Research Foundation of Korea Grant funded by the Ministry of Science, ICT and Future Planning of Korea (NRF-2016M3C4A7952637) for its support and assistant in completion of the study.

  3. Climatic differences and similarities between Indian and East Asian Monsoon regions of China over the last millennium: a perspective based mainly on stalagmite records.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Tan

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Cave sediments, especially stalagmites, have been providing absolute dated climate records that can extend from the present to over 500,000 years ago. Based on the reconstructed temperature time series, a comprehensive overview of the climatic differences and similarities between the Indian and the East Asian Monsoon regions of China over the last millennium is presented. Evidence from accurately dated and high-resolution records including stalagmites, ice cores and tree rings show that there was a “Medieval Warm Period” (around 1000 to 1400 AD in north and east China where climate is dominated by the East Asian monsoon; whilst no such interval is evident in the records including stalagmites and ice cores from southwest China where climate is dominated by the Indian monsoon. However, both regions underwent a significant cooling during the Little Ice Age (around the mid 1500s to the 1800s. The result achieved here may allow a possibility of distinguishing the boundary between Indian monsoon and East Asian monsoon regions over the last millennium with increase of climate records, especially stalagmites that are mostly suitable for accurate U/Th dating and/or lamina counting.

  4. The more from East-Asian, the better: risk prediction of colorectal cancer risk by GWAS-identified SNPs among Japanese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Makiko; Ito, Hidemi; Oze, Isao; Nomura, Masatoshi; Ogawa, Yoshihiro; Matsuo, Keitaro

    2017-12-01

    Little is known about the difference of genetic predisposition for CRC between ethnicities; however, many genetic traits common to colorectal cancer have been identified. This study investigated whether more SNPs identified in GWAS in East Asian population could improve the risk prediction of Japanese and explored possible application of genetic risk groups as an instrument of the risk communication. 558 Patients histologically verified colorectal cancer and 1116 first-visit outpatients were included for derivation study, and 547 cases and 547 controls were for replication study. Among each population, we evaluated prediction models for the risk of CRC that combined the genetic risk group based on SNPs from GWASs in European-population and a similarly developed model adding SNPs from GWASs in East Asian-population. We examined whether adding East Asian-specific SNPs would improve the discrimination. Six SNPs (rs6983267, rs4779584, rs4444235, rs9929218, rs10936599, rs16969681) from 23 SNPs by European-based GWAS and five SNPs (rs704017, rs11196172, rs10774214, rs647161, rs2423279) among ten SNPs by Asian-based GWAS were selected in CRC risk prediction model. Compared with a 6-SNP-based model, an 11-SNP model including Asian GWAS-SNPs showed improved discrimination capacity in Receiver operator characteristic analysis. A model with 11 SNPs resulted in statistically significant improvement in both derivation (P = 0.0039) and replication studies (P = 0.0018) compared with six SNP model. We estimated cumulative risk of CRC by using genetic risk group based on 11 SNPs and found that the cumulative risk at age 80 is approximately 13% in the high-risk group while 6% in the low-risk group. We constructed a more efficient CRC risk prediction model with 11 SNPs including newly identified East Asian-based GWAS SNPs (rs704017, rs11196172, rs10774214, rs647161, rs2423279). Risk grouping based on 11 SNPs depicted lifetime difference of CRC risk. This might be useful for

  5. A REMAINING OPEN PALEOGEOGRAPHY OF PALEO-ASIAN OCEAN BY EARLY PERMIAN: PALEOMAGNETIC CONSTRAINTS FROM THE PERMIAN VOLCANIC ROCKS IN MIDDLE-EAST INNER MONGOLIA, NE CHINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donghai Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a paleomagnetic investigation on Permian volcanic rocks in the middle-east Inner Mongolia, NE China, aiming to puzzle out the timing and position of the final closure of the eastern Paleo-Asian ocean (PAO and further to better understand tectonic evolution of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB. Two pre-folding characteristic components are isolated from the Sanmianjing and Elitu formations (~283–266 Ma in the northern margin of the North China block (NMNCB and the Dashizhai Formation (~280 Ma in the Songliao-Xilinhot block (SXB, respectively.

  6. Isolation of compound microsatellite markers in Begonia fenicis (Begoniaceae) endemic to East and Southeast Asian islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Koh; Huang, Chiun-Jr; Rubite, Rosario Rivera; Leong, Wai-Chao; Kono, Yoshiko; Yang, Hsun-An; Peng, Ching-I

    2012-01-01

    We developed compound microsatellite markers for Begonia fenicis, a species endemic to eastern and southeastern Asian islands, to investigate geographical genetic structure. Using the compound microsatellite marker technique, 21 markers were developed and six polymorphic markers were characterized for samples from four islands in Taiwan and southern Japan. The number of alleles per locus ranged from two to six (mean = 4.33). Observed and expected heterozygosities were 0.125-0.725 (0.383) and 0.498-0.719 (0.641), and polymorphic information content was 0.371-0.664 (0.567). The interspecific transferability of the 21 markers was evaluated for eight species of the section Diploclinium from the Philippines; 15 markers were successfully amplified in one to eight species. These results indicate the utility of the six microsatellite markers in B. fenicis to investigate geographical genetic structure. The transferable markers are potentially useful for other species of the section.

  7. Using Single-Scattering Albedo Spectral Curvature to Characterize East Asian Aerosol Mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Carlson, Barbara E.; Lacis, Andrew A.

    2015-01-01

    Spectral dependence of aerosol single-scattering albedo (SSA) has been used to infer aerosol composition. In particular, aerosol mixtures dominated by dust absorption will have monotonically increasing SSA with wavelength while that dominated by black carbon absorption has monotonically decreasing SSA spectra. However, by analyzing SSA measured at four wavelengths, 440, 675, 870, and 1020 nm from the Aerosol Robotic Network data set, we find that the SSA spectra over East Asia are frequently peaked at 675 nm. In these cases, we suggest that SSA spectral curvature, defined as the negative of the second derivative of SSA as a function of wavelength, can provide additional information on the composition of these aerosol mixtures. Aerosol SSA spectral curvatures for East Asia during fall and winter are considerably larger than those found in places primarily dominated by biomass burning or dust aerosols. SSA curvature is found to increase as the SSA magnitude decreases. The curvature increases with coarse mode fraction (CMF) to a CMF value of about 0.4, then slightly decreases or remains constant at larger CMF. Mie calculations further verify that the strongest SSA curvature occurs at approx. 40% dust fraction, with 10% scattering aerosol fraction. The nonmonotonic SSA spectral dependence is likely associated with enhanced absorption in the shortwave by dust, absorption by black carbon at longer wavelengths, and also the flattened absorption optical depth spectral dependence due to the increased particle size.

  8. Predictable climate dynamics of abnormal East Asian winter monsoon: once-in-a-century snowstorms in 2007/2008 winter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhiwei; Li, Jianping; Jiang, Zhihong; He, Jinhai

    2011-10-01

    In 2008 (January-February), East Asia (EA) experiences the most severe and long-persisting snowstorm in the past 100 years. Results in this study show that 2007/2008 winter is dominant by the third principal mode of the East Asian winter monsoon (EAWM) which explains 8.7% of the total surface air temperature variance over EA. Significantly distinguished from the first two leading modes, the third mode positive phase features an increased surface pressure over the northwestern EA, an enhanced central Siberian high (CSH), a strengthened and northwestward extended western Pacific subtropical high (WPSH) and anomalously strong moisture transport from western Pacific, Arabian Sea and Bay of Bengal to EA. It also exhibits an intimate linkage with the sea surface temperature anomalies (SSTAs) in the Arctic Ocean areas adjacent to northern Eurasian continent, central North Pacific and northeastern Pacific. Such SSTAs emerge in prior autumn and persist through ensuing winter, signifying precursory conditions for the anomalous third EAWM mode. Numerical experiments with a simple general circulation model demonstrate that the Arctic SSTAs excite geo-potential height anomalies over northern Eurasian continent and impacts on the CSH, while the extra-tropical Pacific SSTAs deform the WPSH. Co-effects of them play crucial roles on origins of the third EAWM mode. Based on these results, an empirical model is established to predict the third mode of the EAWM. Hindcast is performed for the 1957-2008 period, which shows a quite realistic prediction skill in general and good prediction ability in the extreme phase of the third mode of the EAWM such as 2007/2008 winter. Since all these predictors can be readily monitored in real time, this empirical model provides a real time forecast tool and may facilitate the seasonal prediction of high-impact weather associated with the abnormal EAWM.

  9. Predictable climate dynamics of abnormal East Asian winter monsoon: once-in-a-century snowstorms in 2007/2008 winter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Zhiwei [Chinese Academy of Sciences, LASG, Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Beijing (China); Environment Canada, Meteorological Research Division, Dorval, QC (Canada); Li, Jianping [Chinese Academy of Sciences, LASG, Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Beijing (China); Jiang, Zhihong; He, Jinhai [Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology, Key Laboratory of Meteorological Disaster of Ministry of Education, Nanjing (China)

    2011-10-15

    In 2008 (January-February), East Asia (EA) experiences the most severe and long-persisting snowstorm in the past 100 years. Results in this study show that 2007/2008 winter is dominant by the third principal mode of the East Asian winter monsoon (EAWM) which explains 8.7% of the total surface air temperature variance over EA. Significantly distinguished from the first two leading modes, the third mode positive phase features an increased surface pressure over the northwestern EA, an enhanced central Siberian high (CSH), a strengthened and northwestward extended western Pacific subtropical high (WPSH) and anomalously strong moisture transport from western Pacific, Arabian Sea and Bay of Bengal to EA. It also exhibits an intimate linkage with the sea surface temperature anomalies (SSTAs) in the Arctic Ocean areas adjacent to northern Eurasian continent, central North Pacific and northeastern Pacific. Such SSTAs emerge in prior autumn and persist through ensuing winter, signifying precursory conditions for the anomalous third EAWM mode. Numerical experiments with a simple general circulation model demonstrate that the Arctic SSTAs excite geo-potential height anomalies over northern Eurasian continent and impacts on the CSH, while the extra-tropical Pacific SSTAs deform the WPSH. Co-effects of them play crucial roles on origins of the third EAWM mode. Based on these results, an empirical model is established to predict the third mode of the EAWM. Hindcast is performed for the 1957-2008 period, which shows a quite realistic prediction skill in general and good prediction ability in the extreme phase of the third mode of the EAWM such as 2007/2008 winter. Since all these predictors can be readily monitored in real time, this empirical model provides a real time forecast tool and may facilitate the seasonal prediction of high-impact weather associated with the abnormal EAWM. (orig.)

  10. Ethnic status and engagement with health services: Attitudes toward help-seeking and intercultural willingness to interact among South East Asian students in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, Shanna; Steel, Zachary; Hunt, Caroline

    2017-04-01

    Previous research has demonstrated the importance of intercultural willingness to interact; however, these investigations have yet to be applied to a health context or to compare an ethnic minority with a majority sample. Consequently, the current study sought to better understand engagement with health services by investigating both attitudes towards seeking psychological help and intercultural willingness to interact within an ethnic minority South East Asian population, relative to an Anglo Australian sample. As predicted, negative attitudes towards seeking psychological help were higher in the South East Asian sample, with this relationship persisting across generations, despite significant differences in acculturation. In contrast, intercultural willingness to interact was not associated with ethnicity status but was associated with higher anxiety, uncertainty, ethnocentrism and help-seeking, consistent with current empirical and theoretical literature. The current study also sought to examine factors associated with help-seeking attitudes and found that ethnocentrism was a significant predictor, when accounting for previous health experience.

  11. What teachers should know about why these students perform so well: An examination of Korean-american achievement through student perspectives of East Asian parenting beliefs, styles and practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendi J. Otto

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available It has been widely reported that Korean-American students as a group outperform most other groups of students in terms of academic achievement due to having parents with especially high academic expectations due to traditional Confucian values. To examine this achievement, this study examines the common factors across the indigenous East Asian parenting ideologies, styles, and practices based on the perceptions of high-achieving, Korean-American primary school students through the East Asian Parenting Model. Perceptions about child development and learning, the mother-child relationship, authoritarian parenting style, and specific East Asian parenting practices are patterns explored in this study. These findings may inform teachers, pre-service teachers, and others involved in the education of Korean-American students about differentiating factors (i.e., specific East Asian parental and/or teaching practices that may be influential for explaining and improving the academic achievement for the children in this group.

  12. What Teachers Should Know About Why These Students Perform so Well: An Examination of Korean-American Achievement through Student Perspectives of East Asian Parenting Beliefs, Styles and Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendi J. OTTO

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available It has been widely reported that Korean-American students as a group outperform most other groups of students in terms of academic achievement due to having parents with especially high academic expectations due to traditional Confucian values. To examine this achievement, this study examines the common factors across the indigenous East Asian parenting ideologies, styles, and practices based on the perceptions of high-achieving, Korean-American primary school students through the East Asian Parenting Model. Perceptions about child development and learning, the mother-child relationship, authoritarian parenting style, and specific East Asian parenting practices are patterns explored in this study. These findings may inform teachers, pre-service teachers, and others involved in the education of Korean-American students about differentiating factors (i.e., specific East Asian parental and/or teaching practices that may be influential for explaining and improving the academic achievement for the children in this group.

  13. What Teachers Should Know About Why These Students Perform so Well: An Examination of Korean-American Achievement through Student Perspectives of East Asian Parenting Beliefs, Styles and Practices

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wendi J Otto

    2016-01-01

    ... expectations due to traditional Confucian values. To examine this achievement, this study examines the common factors across the indigenous East Asian parenting ideologies, styles, and practices based on the perceptions of high-achieving, Korean...

  14. 專論/從柏林國立圖書館東亞部看德國國家東亞研究資料資源/考恩 | The East Asia Department of the Berlin State Library: German National Resources for East Asian Materials / Matthias Kaun

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    考恩

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available

    For more than 50 years the East Asia Department of the Berlin State Library has been hosting a special interest collection on East- and Southeast Asia. Integrated into a federal network of German libraries, supervised and in part financed by the German Research Foundation (DFG – Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft, this collection has become the largest of its kind in Europe. The East Asia Department supplies German and European libraries with publications in East Asian languages through a special inter-library loan service. Since 2002 the Berlin State Library has offered access to electronic resources like databases and electronic journals from the East Asian region via the virtual library CrossAsia. Furthermore the East Asia Department has become an access point to East Asian databases for European consortia.

    頁次:9-18

  15. What teachers should know about why these students perform so well: An examination of Korean-american achievement through student perspectives of East Asian parenting beliefs, styles and practices

    OpenAIRE

    Wendi J. Otto

    2016-01-01

    It has been widely reported that Korean-American students as a group outperform most other groups of students in terms of academic achievement due to having parents with especially high academic expectations due to traditional Confucian values. To examine this achievement, this study examines the common factors across the indigenous East Asian parenting ideologies, styles, and practices based on the perceptions of high-achieving, Korean-American primary school students through the East Asian ...

  16. What Teachers Should Know About Why These Students Perform so Well: An Examination of Korean-American Achievement through Student Perspectives of East Asian Parenting Beliefs, Styles and Practices

    OpenAIRE

    Wendi J. OTTO

    2016-01-01

    It has been widely reported that Korean-American students as a group outperform most other groups of students in terms of academic achievement due to having parents with especially high academic expectations due to traditional Confucian values. To examine this achievement, this study examines the common factors across the indigenous East Asian parenting ideologies, styles, and practices based on the perceptions of high-achieving, Korean-American primary school students through the East Asian ...

  17. Mineralogical evidence of reduced East Asian summer monsoon rainfall on the Chinese loess plateau during the early Pleistocene interglacials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Xianqiang; Liu, Lianwen; Wang, Xingchen T.; Balsam, William; Chen, Jun; Ji, Junfeng

    2018-03-01

    The East Asian summer monsoon (EASM) is an important component of the global climate system. A better understanding of EASM rainfall variability in the past can help constrain climate models and better predict the response of EASM to ongoing global warming. The warm early Pleistocene, a potential analog of future climate, is an important period to study EASM dynamics. However, existing monsoon proxies for reconstruction of EASM rainfall during the early Pleistocene fail to disentangle monsoon rainfall changes from temperature variations, complicating the comparison of these monsoon records with climate models. Here, we present three 2.6 million-year-long EASM rainfall records from the Chinese Loess Plateau (CLP) based on carbonate dissolution, a novel proxy for rainfall intensity. These records show that the interglacial rainfall on the CLP was lower during the early Pleistocene and then gradually increased with global cooling during the middle and late Pleistocene. These results are contrary to previous suggestions that a warmer climate leads to higher monsoon rainfall on tectonic timescales. We propose that the lower interglacial EASM rainfall during the early Pleistocene was caused by reduced sea surface temperature gradients across the equatorial Pacific, providing a testable hypothesis for climate models.

  18. Incorporating Cultural Perspectives into Diabetes Self-Management Programs for East Asian Immigrants: A Mixed-Study Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Chorong; Nam, Soohyun; Whittemore, Robin

    2016-04-01

    It is important to understand East Asian immigrants (EAIs)' unique perspectives in managing diabetes in order to provide culturally-competent care. However, it is not known whether EAIs' perspectives are addressed in diabetes self-management interventions developed for EAIs. Therefore, a mixed-study review was conducted to identify EAIs' perspective from qualitative research (n = 9 studies) and to evaluate the components of EAI diabetes self-management interventions (n = 7). Themes from the qualitative synthesis demonstrated that EAIs have unique cultural values and traditional health beliefs while struggling with multi-contextual barriers due to immigration. The evaluation of EAI diabetes self-management interventions revealed that there was a lack of consensus on cultural strategies for EAIs' across the interventions. Addressing language barriers was the only factor consistently integrated in the cultural components of intervention by employing bilingual interventionists. EAIs' perspectives and experiences need to be incorporated in the future diabetes self-management interventions to better provide culturally-competent care.

  19. An Investigation on Attributes of Ambient Temperature and Diurnal Temperature Range on Mortality in Five East-Asian Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Whan-Hee; Lim, Youn-Hee; Dang, Tran Ngoc; Seposo, Xerxes; Honda, Yasushi; Guo, Yue-Liang Leon; Jang, Hye-Min; Kim, Ho

    2017-08-31

    Interest in the health effects of extremely low/high ambient temperature and the diurnal temperature range (DTR) on mortality as representative indices of temperature variability is growing. Although numerous studies have reported on these indices independently, few studies have provided the attributes of ambient temperature and DTR related to mortality, concurrently. In this study, we aimed to investigate and compare the mortality risk attributable to ambient temperature and DTR. The study included data of 63 cities in five East-Asian countries/regions during various periods between 1972 and 2013. The attributable risk of non-accidental death to ambient temperature was 9.36% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 8.98-9.69%) and to DTR was 0.59% (95% CI: 0.53-0.65%). The attributable cardiovascular mortality risks to ambient temperature (15.63%) and DTR (0.75%) are higher than the risks to non-accidental/respiratory-related mortality. We verified that ambient temperature plays a larger role in temperature-associated mortality, and cardiovascular mortality is susceptible to ambient temperature and DTR.

  20. Decadal shifts of East Asian summer monsoon in a climate model free of explicit GHGs and aerosols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Renping; Zhu, Jiang; Zheng, Fei

    2016-12-01

    The East Asian summer monsoon (EASM) experienced decadal transitions over the past few decades, and the associated "wetter-South-drier-North" shifts in rainfall patterns in China significantly affected the social and economic development in China. Two viewpoints stand out to explain these decadal shifts, regarding the shifts either a result of internal variability of climate system or that of external forcings (e.g. greenhouse gases (GHGs) and anthropogenic aerosols). However, most climate models, for example, the Atmospheric Model Intercomparison Project (AMIP)-type simulations and the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP)-type simulations, fail to simulate the variation patterns, leaving the mechanisms responsible for these shifts still open to dispute. In this study, we conducted a successful simulation of these decadal transitions in a coupled model where we applied ocean data assimilation in the model free of explicit aerosols and GHGs forcing. The associated decadal shifts of the three-dimensional spatial structure in the 1990s, including the eastward retreat, the northward shift of the western Pacific subtropical high (WPSH), and the south-cool-north-warm pattern of the upper-level tropospheric temperature, were all well captured. Our simulation supports the argument that the variations of the oceanic fields are the dominant factor responsible for the EASM decadal transitions.

  1. Negative Affect during a Collective (but Not an Individual Task Is Associated with Holistic Attention in East Asian Cultural Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hitoshi Tominaga

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have suggested that individuals from East Asian cultures are more likely to show holistic attention—a pattern of attention that incorporates contextual information into focal stimuli—than individuals from North American cultures. Holistic attention is also prevalent in communities that require close cooperation. However, it is not yet known how cooperation is related to holistic attention. We theorized that holistic attention increases when people experience negative affect (e.g., worry, sadness, and frustration during collective tasks (but not during individual tasks because negative affect in social contexts signals the existence of potential threats to social harmony, thus indicating a need to restore social harmony. To examine this hypothesis, an experiment was conducted in which participants performed a musical duet either with another participant (a collective task requiring cooperation, or individually with a computer (an individual task. After the musical task, the Framed Line Task (FLT was administered to examine their holistic attention. Participants also reported their emotional states both before and after the music task. Results suggested that negative affect in the collective task—but not the individual task—was positively correlated with a holistic pattern of attention. The function of negative affect in social contexts as motivation to restore relationships and how this enhances holistic attention is discussed. The moderating effect of social context on the link between negative affect and cognition is also discussed.

  2. Analysis of non-synonymous-coding variants of Parkinson's disease-related pathogenic and susceptibility genes in East Asian populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foo, Jia Nee; Tan, Louis C; Liany, Herty; Koh, Tat Hung; Irwan, Ishak D; Ng, Yen Yek; Ahmad-Annuar, Azlina; Au, Wing-Lok; Aung, Tin; Chan, Anne Y Y; Chong, Siow-Ann; Chung, Sun Ju; Jung, Yusun; Khor, Chiea Chuen; Kim, Juyeon; Lee, Jimmy; Lim, Shen-Yang; Mok, Vincent; Prakash, Kumar-M; Song, Kyuyoung; Tai, E-Shyong; Vithana, Eranga N; Wong, Tien-Yin; Tan, Eng-King; Liu, Jianjun

    2014-07-15

    To evaluate the contribution of non-synonymous-coding variants of known familial and genome-wide association studies (GWAS)-linked genes for Parkinson's disease (PD) to PD risk in the East Asian population, we sequenced all the coding exons of 39 PD-related disease genes and evaluated the accumulation of rare non-synonymous-coding variants in 375 early-onset PD cases and 399 controls. We also genotyped 782 non-synonymous-coding variants of these genes in 710 late-onset PD cases and 9046 population controls. Significant enrichment of LRRK2 variants was observed in both early- and late-onset PD (odds ratio = 1.58; 95% confidence interval = 1.29-1.93; P = 8.05 × 10(-6)). Moderate enrichment was also observed in FGF20, MCCC1, GBA and ITGA8. Half of the rare variants anticipated to cause loss of function of these genes were present in healthy controls. Overall, non-synonymous-coding variants of known familial and GWAS-linked genes appear to make a limited contribution to PD risk, suggesting that clinical sequencing of these genes will provide limited information for risk prediction and molecular diagnosis. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies identifies eight new loci for type 2 diabetes in east Asians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cho, Yoon Shin; Chen, Chien-Hsiun; Hu, Cheng

    2012-01-01

    We conducted a three-stage genetic study to identify susceptibility loci for type 2 diabetes (T2D) in east Asian populations. We followed our stage 1 meta-analysis of eight T2D genome-wide association studies (6,952 cases with T2D and 11,865 controls) with a stage 2 in silico replication analysis...... (5,843 cases and 4,574 controls) and a stage 3 de novo replication analysis (12,284 cases and 13,172 controls). The combined analysis identified eight new T2D loci reaching genome-wide significance, which mapped in or near GLIS3, PEPD, FITM2-R3HDML-HNF4A, KCNK16, MAEA, GCC1-PAX4, PSMD6 and ZFAND3....... GLIS3, which is involved in pancreatic beta cell development and insulin gene expression, is known for its association with fasting glucose levels. The evidence of an association with T2D for PEPD and HNF4A has been shown in previous studies. KCNK16 may regulate glucose-dependent insulin secretion...

  4. Genetic Diversity and Phylogenetic Analysis of South-East Asian Duck Populations Based on the mtDNA D-loop Sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Sultana

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The maternally inherited mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA D–loop region is widely used for exploring genetic relationships and for investigating the origin of various animal species. Currently, domestic ducks play an important role in animal protein supply. In this study, partial mtDNA D–loop sequences were obtained from 145 samples belonging to six South-East Asian duck populations and commercial duck population. All these populations were closely related to the mallard duck (Anas platyrhynchos, as indicated by their mean overall genetic distance. Sixteen nucleotide substitutions were identified in sequence analyses allowing the distinction of 28 haplotypes. Around 42.76% of the duck sequences were classified as Hap_02, which completely matched with Anas platyrhynchos duck species. The neighbor-joining phylogenetic tree also revealed that South-East Asian duck populations were closely related to Anas platyrhynchos. Network profiles were also traced using the 28 haplotypes. Overall, results showed that those duck populations D-loop haplotypes were shared between several duck breeds from Korea and Bangladesh sub continental regions. Therefore, these results confirmed that South-East Asian domestic duck populations have been domesticated from Anas platyrhynchos duck as the maternal origins.

  5. Control region sequences for East Asian individuals in the Scientific Working Group on DNA Analysis Methods forensic mtDNA data set.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allard, Marc W; Wilson, Mark R; Monson, Keith L; Budowle, Bruce

    2004-03-01

    The Scientific Working Group on DNA Analysis Methods (SWGDAM) mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) population data set is used to infer the relative rarity of mtDNA profiles obtained from evidence samples and of profiles used to identify missing persons. In this study, the East Asian haplogroup patterns in the SWGDAM data sets were analyzed in a phylogenetic context to determine relevant single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and to describe haplogroup distributions for Asians (n = 753; with a breakdown of individuals from China n = 356, Korea n = 182, Japan n = 163, and Thailand n = 52). We focus on the patterns observed in the SWGDAM Chinese data set and refer to interesting differences in the smaller subgroup data sets for the other East Asian populations (Japanese, Korean, and Thai). A total of 218 SNPs were observed in the data set, including 37 observed positions not previously reported. In the largest of the East Asian SWGDAM data sets (Chinese), these SNPs ranged from having 1 to 29 changes in the phylogenetic tree, with site 16519 being the most variable. On average there were 4.5 changes for a character on the tree. The most variable sites (with 14 or more changes each listed from fastest to slowest) observed were 16519 (L = 29), 16311 (L = 27), 152 (L = 24), 146 (L = 21), 16172 (L = 17), 16189 (L = 17), 195 (L = 16), 16362 (L = 15), 16093 (L = 14), 16129 (L = 14) and 150 (L = 14). These rapidly changing sites are consistent with other published analyses. Only 28 SNPs are needed to identify all clusters containing 1% (n = 7) or more individuals in the East Asian data set. All 36 haplogroups previously observed in East Asian populations were also seen in the SWGDAM data sets and include: A, B, B4, B4a, B4b, B5a, B5b, C, D, D4, D4a, D4b, D5, D5a, F, F1, F1a, F1b, F1c, F2a, G2, G2a, M, M7a1, M7b, M7b1, M7b2, M7c, M8a, M9, M10, N9a, R, R9a, Y, and Z. Haplogroups A, B4a, D4, and F1a were the most commonly observed clusters in the Chinese data set (the largest of the data

  6. C-reactive protein and risk of atrial fibrillation in East Asians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Chang Hee; Kang, Jung Gyu; Lee, Hyun Jong; Kim, Nan Hee; Sung, Joo-Wook; Cheong, EunSun; Sung, Ki-Chul

    2017-10-01

    Inflammation has been suggested to play a role in the pathogenesis of atrial fibrillation (AF). It is uncertain whether C-reactive protein, a robust inflammatory marker, is associated with AF incidence in Asians with lower levels of C-reactive protein compared with western population. This study aimed to determine the association between C-reactive protein and risk of AF in a large population of Koreans. A total of 402 946 Koreans were enrolled in a health screening programme from January 2002 to December 2013. Among them, 210 208 subjects were analysed during the mean follow-up of 4.59 years (1 062 513 person-years). Atrial fibrillation was identified by electrocardiography at every visits. Atrial fibrillation was identified in 561 subjects (0.1%) at baseline. The median (inter-quartile) baseline C-reactive protein levels were higher in subject with AF than in those without AF [0.9 mg/L (0.4-0.9) vs. 0.4 mg/L (0.2-1.0), P C-reactive protein had more AF than those in the lowest quartile [adjusted odds ratio (OR) 2.02, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.45-2.81; PC-reactive protein had a 1.68-fold (95% CI 1.06-2.67) increased risk of AF than the lowest quartile in multivariate Cox regression analysis. Baseline C-reactive protein levels are significantly associated with the prevalence of AF and the risk of AF in Korean populations even C-reactive protein concentrations are substantially lower than reported in white populations.

  7. Comparison of emergency medical services systems across Pan-Asian countries: a Web-based survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Sang Do; Ong, Marcus Eng Hock; Tanaka, Hideharu; Ma, Matthew Huei-Ming; Nishiuchi, Tatsuya; Alsakaf, Omer; Karim, Sarah Abdul; Khunkhlai, Nalinas; Lin, Chih-Hao; Song, Kyoung Jun; Ryoo, Hyun Wook; Ryu, Hyun Ho; Tham, Lai Peng; Cone, David C

    2012-01-01

    There are great variations in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) survival outcomes among different countries and different emergency medical services (EMS) systems. The impact of different systems and their contribution to enhanced survival are poorly understood. This paper compares the EMS systems of several Asian sites making up the Pan-Asian Resuscitation Outcomes Study (PAROS) network. Some preliminary cardiac arrest outcomes are also reported. This is a cross-sectional descriptive survey study addressing population demographics, service levels, provider characteristics, system operations, budget and finance, medical direction (leadership), and oversight. Most of the systems are single-tiered. Fire-based EMS systems are predominant. Bangkok and Kuala Lumpur have hospital-based systems. Service level is relatively low, from basic to intermediate in most of the communities. Korea, Japan, Singapore, and Bangkok have intermediate emergency medical technician (EMT) service levels, while Taiwan and Dubai have paramedic service levels. Medical direction and oversight have not been systemically established, except in some communities. Systems are mostly dependent on public funding. We found variations in available resources in terms of ambulances and providers. The number of ambulances is 0.3 to 3.2 per 100,000 population, and most ambulances are basic life support (BLS) vehicles. The number of human resources ranges from 4.0 per 100,000 population in Singapore to 55.7 per 100,000 population in Taipei. Average response times vary between 5.1 minutes (Tainan) and 22.5 minutes (Kuala Lumpur). We found substantial variation in 11 communities across the PAROS EMS systems. This study will provide the foundation for understanding subsequent studies arising from the PAROS effort.

  8. Complete Genomic DNA Sequence of the East Asian Spotted Fever Disease Agent Rickettsia japonica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsutani, Minenosuke; Ogawa, Motohiko; Takaoka, Naohisa; Hanaoka, Nozomu; Toh, Hidehiro; Yamashita, Atsushi; Oshima, Kenshiro; Hirakawa, Hideki; Kuhara, Satoru; Suzuki, Harumi; Hattori, Masahira; Kishimoto, Toshio; Ando, Shuji; Azuma, Yoshinao; Shirai, Mutsunori

    2013-01-01

    Rickettsia japonica is an obligate intracellular alphaproteobacteria that causes tick-borne Japanese spotted fever, which has spread throughout East Asia. We determined the complete genomic DNA sequence of R. japonica type strain YH (VR-1363), which consists of 1,283,087 base pairs (bp) and 971 protein-coding genes. Comparison of the genomic DNA sequence of R. japonica with other rickettsiae in the public databases showed that 2 regions (4,323 and 216 bp) were conserved in a very narrow range of Rickettsia species, and the shorter one was inserted in, and disrupted, a preexisting open reading frame (ORF). While it is unknown how the DNA sequences were acquired in R. japonica genomes, it may be a useful signature for the diagnosis of Rickettsia species. Instead of the species-specific inserted DNA sequences, rickettsial genomes contain Rickettsia-specific palindromic elements (RPEs), which are also capable of locating in preexisting ORFs. Precise alignments of protein and DNA sequences involving RPEs showed that when a gene contains an inserted DNA sequence, each rickettsial ortholog carried an inserted DNA sequence at the same locus. The sequence, ATGAC, was shown to be highly frequent and thus characteristic in certain RPEs (RPE-4, RPE-6, and RPE-7). This finding implies that RPE-4, RPE-6, and RPE-7 were derived from a common inserted DNA sequence. PMID:24039725

  9. Teaching of ophthalmology in undergraduate curricula: a survey of Australasian and Asian medical schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Jennifer C; Sherwin, Trevor; McGhee, Charles N J

    2007-01-01

    Despite established international guidelines on preferred teaching components for ophthalmology in undergraduate curricula, with increasingly less specialty-based undergraduate teaching within curricula, teaching of core ophthalmology knowledge and skills may become marginalized. This survey aims to evaluate the current state of undergraduate ophthalmology teaching in Australasia and proximate Asian medical schools. A questionnaire was developed to determine the content and extent of ophthalmology teaching in the undergraduate medical curriculum. The questionnaire was sent to 25 medical schools throughout Australasia and Asia. Nineteen of the 25 questionnaires were returned (76% response rate). Ophthalmology teaching programmes ranged from 2 to 20 days: five (26%) medical schools having one ophthalmology attachment; six schools (32%) two attachments; and the remainder three or more. Only seven of the schools taught all 13 ophthalmology topics recommended in current curriculum guidelines. Ocular examination (100%), lens and cataract (95%) and ocular manifestations of systemic disease (95%) were the most commonly taught topics, with intraocular tumours only covered by 10 schools (53%). Students in 14 schools (74%) attended ophthalmology operating theatre, but only two schools (11%) offered attendance at optometry clinics. Ten schools (53%) required a pass in ophthalmology to complete the academic year. Ophthalmology may increasingly be a small, or even absent, component of undergraduate medical curricula. Despite established international ophthalmology curriculum guidelines, this survey highlights significant lack of uniformity in their implementation.

  10. Atmospheric Transport Modelling confining potential source location of East-Asian radionuclide detections in May 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, J. Ole; Ceranna, Lars

    2016-04-01

    The radionuclide component of the International Monitoring System (IMS) to verify compliance with the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) is in place to detect tiny traces of fission products from nuclear explosions in the atmosphere. The challenge for the interpretation of IMS radionuclide data is to discriminate radionuclide sources of CTBT relevance against emissions from nuclear facilities. Remarkable activity concentrations of Ba/La-140 occurred at the IMS radionuclide stations RN 37 (Okinawa) and RN 58 (Ussurysk) mid of May 2010. In those days also an elevated Xe-133 level was measured at RN 38 (Takasaki). Additional regional measurements of radioxenon were reported in the press and further analyzed in various publications. The radionuclide analysis gives evidence for the presence of a nuclear fission source between 10 and 12 May 2010. Backward Atmospheric Transport Modelling (ATM) with HYSPLIT driven by 0.2° ECMWF meteorological data for the IMS samples indicates that, assuming a single source, a wide range of source regions is possible including the Korean Peninsula, the Sea of Japan (East Sea), and parts of China and Russia. Further confinement of the possible source location can be provided by atmospheric backtracking for the assumed sampling periods of the reported regional xenon measurements. New studies indicate a very weak seismic event at the DPRK test site on early 12 May 2010. Forward ATM for a pulse release caused by this event shows fairly good agreement with the observed radionuclide signature. Nevertheless, the underlying nuclear fission scenario remains quite unclear and speculative even if assuming a connection between the waveform and the radionuclide event.

  11. Linkages between the South and East Asian summer monsoons: a review and revisit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Kyung-Ja; Seo, Ye-Won; Lee, June-Yi; Kripalani, R. H.; Yun, Kyung-Sook

    2017-07-01

    The relationship between the South Asia monsoon (SAM) and the East Asia monsoon (EAM) possibly modulated by both external forcings and internal dynamics has been a long-standing and controversial issue in climate sciences. This study reviews their linkages as revealed in modern records and model simulations during the past, present and future, and provides a comprehensive explanation of the key mechanisms controlling the diversity of the SAM-EAM relationship. Particular attention is paid to several external forcings that modulate the relationship, including El Niño and Southern Oscillation, Indian Ocean Dipole mode (IODM), boreal summer teleconnections, and Eurasian snow extent on intraseasonal to interdecadal timescales. The major focus is placed on two integral views of the inter-connection between the two monsoon systems: one is the positive inter-correlation, which is associated with decaying El Niño and developing Indian Ocean sea surface temperature (SST) warming anomalies; the other is the negative inter-correlation, resulting from developing El Niño and western Pacific SST cooling. The IODM mode also has a delayed impact on the negative connection by modulating Eurasian snow cover. The observed evidence reveals that the recent intensification of the negative relationship is attributable to the strengthening of the zonal SST gradient along the Indian Ocean, western Pacific, and eastern Pacific. Analysis of experiments in the fifth phase of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project further indicates a possibility for the negative linkage to be further enhanced under anthropogenic global warming with considerable interdecadal modulation in mid and late twenty-first century.

  12. East African Medical Journal Vol. 81 No. 9 September 2004

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Population and Housing Census 2002 Vol. 2, Age and Sex distribution. Central Census Office, National Bureau of. Statistics, President's Office, Planning and Privatisation. Published September 2003, pg 125. 10. Shija, J.K. Childhood intussusception in Dares-Salaam. The proceedings of the Association of Surgeons of East.

  13. East African Medical Journal - Vol 94, No 2 (2017)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Occupational cycling is a risk factor for erectile dysfunction in east Africa · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT ... Assessment of cold chain management practices in immunisation centres in Kacheliba division, Pokot County, Kenya · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT ...

  14. Particulate matter and heavy metal deposition on the leaves of Euonymus japonicus during the East Asian monsoon in Beijing, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tong Zhang

    Full Text Available Plants can be effectively used as bio-monitors of environmental pollution. However, how the particulate matter (PM and heavy metal retention ability of plants changes in different areas with human disturbance along with monsoon has not yet been investigated in urban ecosystems. In this study, we measured the amount of PM and heavy metals such as Ni, Cr, Cu, Pb, and Zn accumulated by the leaves of Euonymus japonicus during the East Asian monsoon from different functional units in Beijing, China. A rinse-and-weigh method developed in our laboratory was used to determine the mass of the PM, and electro-thermal atomic absorption spectrometry was used for heavy metal analysis. We found that the types of functional units had little influence, whereas the monsoon had a significant effect on the deposition of PM: northwest areas during the monsoon had the lowest effect (with 0.005, 0.453, 0.643, and 1.569 g/m2 fine, coarse, large, and total PM, respectively, and the southeast areas during the monsoon had the highest effect (0.015, 2.687, 1.941, and 4.228 g/m2 for fine, coarse, large, and total PM, respectively. Notable, we found considerable variations in heavy metal accumulation across the functional units analyzed, that is, the accumulation level was higher in communities than in parks (P < 0.0001 for all heavy metals. Moreover, a positive relationship was found between PM retention and heavy metal accumulation by the leaves of E. japonicus. Taken together, our results suggested that the PM and heavy metal retention ability of E. japonicus was sensitive to human disturbance and monsoon in Beijing. Since E. japonicus is a widely distributed tree and has the ability of to purify the atmosphere, it is an ideal plant for mitigating urban environmental pollution.

  15. Probabilistic versus deterministic skill in predicting the western North Pacific-East Asian summer monsoon variability with multimodel ensembles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiu-Qun; Yang, Dejian; Xie, Qian; Zhang, Yaocun; Ren, Xuejuan; Tang, Youmin

    2017-04-01

    Based on historical forecasts of three quasi-operational multi-model ensemble (MME) systems, this study assesses the superiority of coupled MME over contributing single-model ensembles (SMEs) and over uncoupled atmospheric MME in predicting the Western North Pacific-East Asian summer monsoon variability. The probabilistic and deterministic forecast skills are measured by Brier skill score (BSS) and anomaly correlation (AC), respectively. A forecast-format dependent MME superiority over SMEs is found. The probabilistic forecast skill of the MME is always significantly better than that of each SME, while the deterministic forecast skill of the MME can be lower than that of some SMEs. The MME superiority arises from both the model diversity and the ensemble size increase in the tropics, and primarily from the ensemble size increase in the subtropics. The BSS is composed of reliability and resolution, two attributes characterizing probabilistic forecast skill. The probabilistic skill increase of the MME is dominated by the dramatic improvement in reliability, while resolution is not always improved, similar to AC. A monotonic resolution-AC relationship is further found and qualitatively explained, whereas little relationship can be identified between reliability and AC. It is argued that the MME's success in improving the reliability arises from an effective reduction of the overconfidence in forecast distributions. Moreover, it is examined that the seasonal predictions with coupled MME are more skillful than those with the uncoupled atmospheric MME forced by persisting sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies, since the coupled MME has better predicted the SST anomaly evolution in three key regions.

  16. Partial least regression approach to forecast the East Asian winter monsoon using Eurasian snow cover and sea surface temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Lulu; Wu, Zhiwei; Zhang, Renhe; Yang, Xin

    2017-06-01

    Seasonal prediction of the East Asian (EA) winter monsoon (EAWM) is of great significance yet a challenging issue. In this study, three statistical seasonal prediction models for the EAWM are established using three leading modes of the Eurasian snow cover (ESC), the first leading mode of sea surface temperature (SST) and the four leading modes of the combination of the ESC and SST in preceding autumn, respectively. These leading modes are identified by the partial-least square (PLS) regression. The first PLS (PLS1) mode for the ESC features significantly anomalous snow cover in Siberia and Tibetan Plateau regions. The ESC second PLS (PLS2) mode corresponds to large areas of snow cover anomalies in the central Siberia, whereas the third PLS (PLS3) mode a meridional seesaw pattern of ESC. The SST PLS1 mode basically exhibits an El Niño-Southern Oscillation developing phase in equatorial eastern Pacific and significant SST anomalies in North Atlantic. A strong EAWM tends to emerge in a La Niña year concurrent with cold SST anomalies in the North Atlantic, and vice versa. After a 35-year training period (1967-2001), three PLS seasonal prediction models are constructed and the 11-year hindcast is performed for the period of 2002-2012, respectively. The PLS model based on combination of the autumn ESC and SST exhibits the best hindcast skill among the three models, its correlation coefficient between the observation and the hindcast reaching 0.86. This indicates that this physical-based PLS model may provide another practical tool for the EAWM. In addition, the relative contribution of the ESC and SST is also examined by assessing the hindcast skills of the other two PLS models constructed solely by the ESC or SST. Possible physical mechanisms are also discussed.

  17. A physical-empirical model of the East Asian winter monsoon using Eurasian snow cover and sea surface temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Lulu; Wu, Zhiwei; Zhang, Renhe

    2017-04-01

    Seasonal prediction of the East Asian (EA) winter monsoon (EAWM) is of great significance yet a challenging issue. In this study, three physical-empirical (PE) seasonal prediction models for the EAWM are established using three leading modes of the Eurasian snow cover (ESC), the first leading mode of sea surface temperature (SST) and the first leading mode of the combination of the ESC and SST in preceding autumn, respectively. These leading modes are identified by the partial-least square (PLS) regression. The first PLS (PLS1) mode for the ESC features significantly anomalous snow cover in Siberia and Tibetan Plateau regions. The ESC second PLS (PLS2) mode corresponds to large areas of snow cover anomalies in the central Siberia, whereas the third PLS (PLS3) mode a meridional seesaw pattern of ESC. The SST PLS1 mode basically exhibits an El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) developing phase in equatorial eastern Pacific and significant SST anomalies in North Atlantic. A strong EAWM tends to emerge in a La Niña year concurrent with cold SST anomalies in the North Atlantic, and vice versa. After a 35-yr training period (1967t2001), three PE seasonal prediction models are constructed and the 13-yr hindcast is performed for the period of 2002t2014, respectively. The PE model based on combination of the autumn ESC and SST exhibits the best hindcast skill among the three models, its correlation coefficient between the observation and the hindcast reaching 0.88. This indicates that this PE model may provide another practical tool for the EAWM. In addition, the relative contribution of the ESC and SST is also examined by assessing the hindcast skills of the other two PE models constructed solely by the ESC or SST. Possible physical mechanisms are also discussed.

  18. Characterization of light-absorbing carbon particles at three altitudes in East Asian outflow by transmission electron microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Zhu

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The morphology, microstructure, and composition of the submicron fraction of individual light-absorbing carbon (LAC particles collected by research aircraft during the ACE-Asia (Asian Pacific Regional Aerosol Characterization Experiment project above the Yellow Sea at altitudes of 120, 450 and 1500 m are investigated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM, and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS. Two types of carbonaceous particles, small spherule soot with graphitic spherules and amorphous carbonaceous spheres (brown carbon, are found at all altitudes in high concentration. For soot particles, emphasis of the study is on the component subparticles (spherules. The nanoscopic structures of the small spherule soot show no significant difference at three altitudes although the size distribution of primary spherules showed that 70% of the total volume lies in the ranges 30–50, 50–85 and 30–50 nm, respectively. For the amorphous carbonaceous spheres, 70% of the total volume from three altitudes lies in the range 200–350, 160–470 and 150–320 nm, respectively. Within the size fraction studied (submicron, with most particles in the range 50 to 500 nm the number concentration ratios of the amorphous carbonaceous spheres to primary spherules in soot at altitudes of 120, 450 and 1500 m are about 1, 1.5 and 10, respectively and their volume ratios are about 260, 50 and 1400. Lower relative concentrations of large spherule soot with intermediate graphitic structure were observed at 120 m. Also, low relative number concentrations of carbon cenospheres were observed at 120 and 1500 m. A key result of the study is that in vertically stratified outflow from East Asia, the character of LAC may have strong variance with altitude thus resulting in optical characteristics that vary with altitude. Also, apparent "aging" of LAC deduced from samples at multiple ground stations may instead reflect differences in the original carbon aerosols.

  19. Characterization of light-absorbing carbon particles at three altitudes in East Asian outflow by transmission electron microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, J.; Crozier, P. A.; Anderson, J. R.

    2013-07-01

    The morphology, microstructure, and composition of the submicron fraction of individual light-absorbing carbon (LAC) particles collected by research aircraft during the ACE-Asia (Asian Pacific Regional Aerosol Characterization Experiment) project above the Yellow Sea at altitudes of 120, 450 and 1500 m are investigated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). Two types of carbonaceous particles, small spherule soot with graphitic spherules and amorphous carbonaceous spheres (brown carbon), are found at all altitudes in high concentration. For soot particles, emphasis of the study is on the component subparticles (spherules). The nanoscopic structures of the small spherule soot show no significant difference at three altitudes although the size distribution of primary spherules showed that 70% of the total volume lies in the ranges 30-50, 50-85 and 30-50 nm, respectively. For the amorphous carbonaceous spheres, 70% of the total volume from three altitudes lies in the range 200-350, 160-470 and 150-320 nm, respectively. Within the size fraction studied (submicron, with most particles in the range 50 to 500 nm) the number concentration ratios of the amorphous carbonaceous spheres to primary spherules in soot at altitudes of 120, 450 and 1500 m are about 1, 1.5 and 10, respectively and their volume ratios are about 260, 50 and 1400. Lower relative concentrations of large spherule soot with intermediate graphitic structure were observed at 120 m. Also, low relative number concentrations of carbon cenospheres were observed at 120 and 1500 m. A key result of the study is that in vertically stratified outflow from East Asia, the character of LAC may have strong variance with altitude thus resulting in optical characteristics that vary with altitude. Also, apparent "aging" of LAC deduced from samples at multiple ground stations may instead reflect differences in the original carbon aerosols.

  20. Forced response of the East Asian summer rainfall over the past millennium: results from a coupled model simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Jian; Wang, Hongli; Ti, Ruyuan [Nanjing Institute of Geography and Limnology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, State Key Laboratory of Lake Science and Environment, Nanjing (China); Wang, Bin [University of Hawaii at Manoa, Department of Meteorology and IPRC, Honolulu, HI (United States); Kuang, Xueyuan [Nanjing University, School of Atmospheric Sciences, Nanjing (China)

    2011-01-15

    The centennial-millennial variation of the East Asian summer monsoon (EASM) precipitation over the past 1000 years was investigated through the analysis of a millennium simulation of the coupled ECHO-G model. The model results indicate that the centennial-millennial variation of the EASM is essentially a forced response to the external radiative forcing (insolation, volcanic aerosol, and green house gases). The strength of the response depends on latitude; and the spatial structure of the centennial-millennial variation differs from the interannual variability that arises primarily from the internal feedback processes within the climate system. On millennial time scale, the extratropical and subtropical precipitation was generally strong during Medieval Warm Period (MWP) and weak during Little Ice Age (LIA). The tropical rainfall is insensitive to the effective solar radiation forcing (insolation plus radiative effect of volcanic aerosols) but significantly responds to the modern anthropogenic radiative forcing. On centennial time scale, the variation of the extratropical and subtropical rainfall also tends to follow the effective solar radiation forcing closely. The forced response features in-phase rainfall variability between the extratropics and subtropics, which is in contrast to the anti-correlation on the interannual time scale. Further, the behavior of the interannual-decadal variation in the extratropics is effectively modulated by change of the mean states on the millennial time scale, suggesting that the structure of the internal mode may vary with significant changes in the external forcing. These findings imply that on the millennial time scale, (a) the proxy data in the extratropical EA may more sensitively reflect the EASM rainfall variations, and (b) the Meiyu and the northern China rainfall provide a consistent measure for the EASM strength. (orig.)

  1. Evaluation of a multi-scale WRF-CAM5 simulation during the 2010 East Asian Summer Monsoon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, Patrick; Zhang, Yang; Wang, Kai; Leung, Ruby; Fan, Jiwen; Zheng, Bo; Zhang, Qiang; He, Kebin

    2017-11-01

    The Weather Research and Forecasting model with Chemistry (WRF-Chem) with the physics package of the Community Atmosphere Model Version 5 (CAM5) has been applied at multiple scales over Eastern China (EC) and the Yangtze River Delta (YRD) to evaluate how increased horizontal resolution with physics designed for a coarser resolution climate model impacts aerosols and clouds, and the resulting precipitation characteristics and performance during the 2010 East Asian Summer Monsoon (EASM). Despite large underpredictions in surface aerosol concentrations and aerosol optical depth, there is good spatial agreement with surface observations of chemical predictions, and increasing spatial resolution tends to improve performance. Model bias and normalized root mean square values for precipitation predictions are relatively small, but there are significant differences when comparing modeled and observed probability density functions for precipitation in EC and YRD. Increasing model horizontal resolution tends to reduce model bias and error for precipitation predictions. The surface and column aerosol loading is maximized between about 32N and 42N in early to mid-May during the 2010 EASM, and then shifts north while decreasing in magnitude during July and August. Changing model resolution moderately changes the spatiotemporal relationships between aerosols, cloud properties, and precipitation during the EASM, thus demonstrating the importance of model grid resolution in simulating EASM circulation and rainfall patterns over EC and the YRD. Results from this work demonstrate the capability and limitations in the aerosol, cloud, and precipitation representation of WRF-CAM5 for regional-scale applications down to relatively fine horizontal resolutions. Further WRF-CAM5 model development and application in this area is needed.

  2. Evaluation of a multi-scale WRF-CAM5 simulation during the 2010 East Asian Summer Monsoon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Patrick; Zhang, Yang; Wang, Kai; Leung, Ruby; Fan, Jiwen; Zheng, Bo; Zhang, Qiang; He, Kebin

    2017-11-01

    The Weather Research and Forecasting model with Chemistry (WRF-Chem) with the physics package of the Community Atmosphere Model Version 5 (CAM5) has been applied at multiple scales over Eastern China (EC) and the Yangtze River Delta (YRD) to evaluate how increased horizontal resolution with physics designed for a coarser resolution climate model impacts aerosols and clouds, and the resulting precipitation characteristics and performance during the 2010 East Asian Summer Monsoon (EASM). Despite large underpredictions in surface aerosol concentrations and aerosol optical depth, there is good spatial agreement with surface observations of chemical predictions, and increasing spatial resolution tends to improve performance. Model bias and normalized root mean square values for precipitation predictions are relatively small, but there are significant differences when comparing modeled and observed probability density functions for precipitation in EC and YRD. Increasing model horizontal resolution tends to reduce model bias and error for precipitation predictions. The surface and column aerosol loading is maximized between about 32°N and 42°N in early to mid-May during the 2010 EASM, and then shifts north while decreasing in magnitude during July and August. Changing model resolution moderately changes the spatiotemporal relationships between aerosols, cloud properties, and precipitation during the EASM, thus demonstrating the importance of model grid resolution in simulating EASM circulation and rainfall patterns over EC and the YRD. Results from this work demonstrate the capability and limitations in the aerosol, cloud, and precipitation representation of WRF-CAM5 for regional-scale applications down to relatively fine horizontal resolutions. Further WRF-CAM5 model development and application in this area is needed.

  3. The most important questions in cancer research and clinical oncology : Question 1. Could the vertical transmission of human papilloma virus (HPV) infection account for the cause, characteristics, and epidemiology of HPV-positive oropharyngeal carcinoma, non-smoking East Asian female lung adenocarcinoma, and/or East Asian triple-negative breast carcinoma?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wee, Joseph T S; Poh, Sharon Shuxian

    2017-01-16

    Specific research foci: (1) Mouse models of gamma-herpes virus-68 (γHV-68) and polyomavirus (PyV) infections during neonatal versus adult life. (2) For human papilloma virus (HPV)-positive oropharyngeal carcinoma (OPC)-(a) Asking the question: Is oral sex a powerful carcinogen? (b) Examining the evidence for the vertical transmission of HPV infection. (c) Examining the relationship between HPV and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infections and nasopharyngeal cancer (NPC) in West European, East European, and East Asian countries. (d) Examining the association between HPV-positive OPC and human leukocyte antigen (HLA). (3) For non-smoking East Asian female lung adenocarcinoma-(a) Examining the incidence trends of HPV-positive OPC and female lung adenocarcinoma according to birth cohorts. (b) Examining the association between female lung adenocarcinoma and HPV. (c) Examining the associations of lung adenocarcinoma with immune modulating factors. (4) For triple-negative breast carcinoma (TNBC) in East Asians-(a) Examining the association between TNBC and HPV. (b) Examining the unique epidemiological characteristics of patients with TNBC. A summary "epidemiological" model tying some of these findings together.

  4. Phylogeny and Historical Biogeography of Asian Pterourus Butterflies (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae): A Case of Intercontinental Dispersal from North America to East Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Li-Wei; Yen, Shen-Horn; Lees, David C; Lu, Chih-Chien; Yang, Ping-Shih; Hsu, Yu-Feng

    2015-01-01

    The phylogenetic status of the well-known Asian butterflies often known as Agehana (a species group, often treated as a genus or a subgenus, within Papilio sensu lato) has long remained unresolved. Only two species are included, and one of them especially, Papilio maraho, is not only rare but near-threatened, being monophagous on its vulnerable hostplant, Sassafras randaiense (Lauraceae). Although the natural history and population conservation of "Agehana" has received much attention, the biogeographic origin of this group still remains enigmatic. To clarify these two questions, a total of 86 species representatives within Papilionidae were sampled, and four genes (concatenated length 3842 bp) were used to reconstruct their phylogenetic relationships and historical scenarios. Surprisingly, "Agehana" fell within the American Papilio subgenus Pterourus and not as previously suggested, phylogenetically close to the Asian Papilio subgenus Chilasa. We therefore formally synonymize Agehana with Pterourus. Dating and biogeographic analysis allow us to infer an intercontinental dispersal of an American ancestor of Asian Pterourus in the early Miocene, which was coincident with historical paleo-land bridge connections, resulting in the present "East Asia-America" disjunction distribution. We emphasize that species exchange between East Asia and America seems to be a quite frequent occurrence in butterflies during the Oligocene to Miocene climatic optima.

  5. Phylogeny and Historical Biogeography of Asian Pterourus Butterflies (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae: A Case of Intercontinental Dispersal from North America to East Asia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Wei Wu

    Full Text Available The phylogenetic status of the well-known Asian butterflies often known as Agehana (a species group, often treated as a genus or a subgenus, within Papilio sensu lato has long remained unresolved. Only two species are included, and one of them especially, Papilio maraho, is not only rare but near-threatened, being monophagous on its vulnerable hostplant, Sassafras randaiense (Lauraceae. Although the natural history and population conservation of "Agehana" has received much attention, the biogeographic origin of this group still remains enigmatic. To clarify these two questions, a total of 86 species representatives within Papilionidae were sampled, and four genes (concatenated length 3842 bp were used to reconstruct their phylogenetic relationships and historical scenarios. Surprisingly, "Agehana" fell within the American Papilio subgenus Pterourus and not as previously suggested, phylogenetically close to the Asian Papilio subgenus Chilasa. We therefore formally synonymize Agehana with Pterourus. Dating and biogeographic analysis allow us to infer an intercontinental dispersal of an American ancestor of Asian Pterourus in the early Miocene, which was coincident with historical paleo-land bridge connections, resulting in the present "East Asia-America" disjunction distribution. We emphasize that species exchange between East Asia and America seems to be a quite frequent occurrence in butterflies during the Oligocene to Miocene climatic optima.

  6. Scaling Information Infrastructures: the Case of the Medical Licensing System in a Southeast Asian Country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thanh Ngoc Nguyen

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Scaling health information system from small scale pilots to national systems in developing countries poses a key challenge to system designers and health managers. As a consequence, many projects dissolve and die before they reach the scale where they are useful for information management. The concept of bootstrapping from the Information Infrastructure literature has proven useful to discuss and understand how to initiate and grow large-scale, complex and networked information systems from scratch. We use this concept to analyze and discuss an empirical case of building a large scale medical licensing system in a Southeast Asian country. Beyond describing the process leading up to the success of the licensing system, we contribute by identifying a range of factors influencing the bootstrapping process and we suggest extensions to make the bootstrapping strategy relevant in this context.

  7. Vertical Variation of Optical Properties of Mixed Asian Dust/Pollution Plumes According to Pathway of Airmass Transport Over East Asia

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    Shin Sung-Kyun

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We use five years (2009 – 2013 of multiwavelength Raman lidar measurements at Gwangju, Korea (35.10° N, 126.53° E for the identification of changes of optical properties of East Asian dust in dependence of its transport path over China. Profiles of backscatter and extinction coefficients, lidar ratios, and backscatter-related Ångström exponents (wavelength pair 355/532nm were measured at Gwangju. Linear particle depolarization ratios were used to identify East Asian dust layers. We used backward trajectory modelling to identify the pathway and the vertical position of dust-laden air masses over China during long-range transport. Most cases of Asian dust events can be described by the emission of dust in desert areas and subsequent transport over highly polluted regions of China. The Asian dust plumes could be categorized into two classes according to the height above ground in which these plumes were transported: (I the dust layers passed over China at high altitude levels until arrival over Gwangju, and (II the Asian dust layers were transported near the surface and the lower troposphere over industrialized areas before they arrived over Gwangju. We find that the optical characteristics of these mixed Asian dust layers over Gwangju differ in dependence of their vertical position above ground over China and the change of height above ground during transport. The mean linear particle depolarization ratio was 0.21±0.06 (at 532 nm, the mean lidar ratios were 52±7 sr at 355 nm and 53±8 sr at 532 nm, and the mean Ångström exponent was 0.74±0.31 in case I. In contrast, plumes transported at lower altitudes (case II showed low depolarization ratios, and higher lidar ratio and Ångström exponents. The mean linear particle depolarization ratio was 0.13 ± 0.04, the mean lidar ratios were 63±9 sr at 355 nm and 62±8 sr at 532 nm, respectively, and the mean Ångström exponent was 0.98±0.51. These numbers show that the optical

  8. Late presentation of esophageal cancer: observations in a multiracial South-East Asian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Muhammad; Karim, Adil Abdel; Goh, Khean-Lee

    2010-02-01

    Esophageal cancer (ECA) is an important cancer in Malaysia. The aim of the study is to review the demographic data and clinical presentation of patients with ECA seen at the University of Malaya Medical Centre, Kuala Lumpur. Patients with histologically proven ECA were recruited for the study. Patients' case notes, endoscopy and operating theater records were reviewed. All cases were histologically confirmed. A total of 143 patients with ECA was diagnosed between 1998 and 2003. The mean age of the patients was 63.1 +/- 12.1 years with a male : female ratio of 1.8:1. Of these 50.3 percent were Indians, 32.9 percent, Chinese and 16.8 percent Malays. The overall hospital-based prevalence rates per 100 000 admissions according to races were: Malay; 23.5, Chinese; 57.4 and Indian; 134.1. The location of the tumors was: upper; 16 (11.2%) middle; 52 (36.4%) and lower; 75 (52.4%). The histological type of ECA were: squamous cell carcinomas; 113 (79.0%) and adenocarcinomas; 30 (21.0%). The ECA stage at diagnosis, was: II; 18 (12.6%), III; 23 (16.1%) and IV; 102 (71.3%). Only 24 (16.8%) patients underwent surgery and13 (9.1%) were considered curative. Overall 114 (79.7%) patients underwent palliative endoscopic stenting and six (4.2%) were given other palliative therapy including radiotherapy. Squamous cell cancer was the predominant type. ECA presents late in our patients and only a minority of patients underwent curative surgery.

  9. Reliability of Manual Pulse Diagnosis Methods in Traditional East Asian Medicine: A Systematic Narrative Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilton, Karen; Zaslawski, Chris

    2016-08-01

    Little evidence shows the reliability of Chinese medicine pulse diagnosis. Regularly used in modern practice, it is believed to gather important diagnostic information. However, in the current evidence-based healthcare system, basing clinical decisions on unproven methods is problematic and obviously questions the relevancy of the procedure. Therefore, the literature on reliability of practitioners implementing the method was reviewed. Major medical databases and reference lists of identified articles were searched. All studies published in English that investigated manual pulse diagnosis applied to the radial artery by human testers were considered. Twelve eligible studies were included; three evaluated intra- and inter-rater pulse diagnosis reliability, and nine assessed inter-rater reliability. Acceptable levels of intra- and inter-rater reliability were achieved with operationally defined methods. Poor reliability was related to unclear definitions and terminology existing within the classical definitions, and with standardized systems to persisting imprecise descriptions that can be interpreted differently. Reliability of pulse qualities was influenced by sensation complexity and the amount of sensory input provided to the testers' fingers by the impulse. Consistent study limitations included small sample sizes; the possibility that testers' prior knowledge confounded the data; and, most notably, the fact that many studies did not consider intra-rater reliability. Assessing the effectiveness of interventions in clinical practice is guided by comparisons of markers to baseline. The absence of intra-rater results may therefore raise methodologic concerns for these types of studies. Strategies for future studies include using pulse methods with concrete operational definitions; investigating intra- and inter-rater reliability for extrapolation to clinical practice; similar training and experience in the method to control for tester variance; maintaining

  10. Genetic analysis of CRHRA1 and CRHRA2 microsatellites and their association with rheumatoid arthritis in South Asian and Caucasian populations of the East Midlands, UK.

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    Anant Ghelani

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Two microsatellites from corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH gene locus (CRHRA1 and CRHRA2 were reported to be associated with rheumatoid arthritis (RA in Caucasians. This study aims to replicate the association in a South Asian (SA and Caucasian RA sample from the East Midlands, UK. DNA from 281 South Asians (111 patients, 43 siblings, 127 controls and 287 Caucasians (116 patients, 64 siblings, 107 controls were genotyped. The Odds Ratio for carrying at least one copy of the CRHRA1*10 risk allele was 1.32 (Confidence Interval, CI=0.77-2.28 in Caucasians and 1.55 (CI=0.92-2.63 in South Asians, indicative of a trend for association. The risk allele CRHRA2*14 was lower in South Asians compared to Caucasians (5.5%-8.6% vs. 17.7-18.2 %; P<0.005. Significant linkage disequilibrium was observed between CRHRA1 and CRHRA2 in both cohorts. CRHRA1*10 was the frequently transmitted allele in SA patients. A non-significant association was observed with CRHRA1*10 allele in both RA populations.

  11. Risk and clinical predictors of osteoporotic fracture in East Asian patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a population-based cohort study

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    Ping-Hsueh Lee

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Osteoporosis is becoming an impending epidemic in the Asia-Pacific region. The association between risk of osteoporotic fracture (OTPF and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD in East Asian patients is yet to be fully examined. We conducted a nationwide population-based retrospective cohort study of 98,700 patients aged ≥50 years with or without COPD using a national administrative claims dataset. Materials and Methods The patients were divided into COPD and comparison groups comprising 19,740 and 78,960 patients, respectively. The groups were 1 to 4 matched for age, gender, index date, diabetes mellitus, pre-existing osteoporosis and chronic kidney disease. Information such as the geographic area where southern part represented more sunshine exposure, smoking-related diagnoses, alcohol use disorder, whether there was regular use of inhaled corticosteroids and oral corticosteroids, vitamin D prescriptions, Charlson-Deyo comorbidity index score, and other relevant medical comorbidities were extracted for analysis. They were followed up until OTPF or the end of the year 2013. The outcome measure was an osteoporotic vertebral fracture and other long-bone fractures. A multivariate Cox model was constructed to derive adjusted hazard ratios (aHR for OTPF with corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI after controlling for age, sex, insurance premium category, vitamin D prescription, osteoporosis, and coronary heart disease (CHD. Kaplan–Meier curves of the probability of OTPF-free survival for each cohort were compared using the log-rank test. Patients with OTPF during the first follow-up year were excluded from the overall risk calculation. Contributing factors to the increased risk of OTPF in COPD patients were examined in a sensitivity analysis. Results After a total follow-up of 68,743 patient-years for the COPD group and 278,051 patient-years for the matched comparison group, the HR for OTPF was 1.24 (95% CI [1.02–1

  12. Statistical Problems In Medical Research | Okeh | East African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Many medical specialties have reviewed the drawbacks of statistical methods in medical diagnosis in specialized areas in their journals. To my knowledge this has not been done in general practice. Given the main role of a general practitioner as a biostatistician, I thought it would be of interest to enumerate statistical ...

  13. Medical education in Uganda - A critique | Kigonya | East and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Even more alarming, is the significant number of our senior medical students and house officers who are deficient in basic clinical skills of taking a focused history and making a physical examination. If these matters are to be rectified, we need a fundamental rethink of the role of our medical schools in producing the doctors ...

  14. The Malawi "hybrid" medical graduates (1992-1998) | Adeloye | East ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Many have shown encouraging interest in pursuing postgraduate education. In September 1994 the epoch of hybridisation was brought to a close with the admission of the first set of students who will train fully here in Malawi and become our first batch of home-grown doctors. Keywords: medical education, medical school, ...

  15. Rumbles in the Medical Schools? | Craven | East and Central ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    I note disquiet among those who teach in the regions medical schools. Two recent articles in this journal report their unresponsiveness to the needs of the students and, even more importantly, to the needs of the populace who look towards them to provide the medical services the region sorely needs. The issue of this ...

  16. 1st Global Conference on Biomedical Engineering & 9th Asian-Pacific Conference on Medical and Biological Engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Shyh-Hau; Yeh, Ming-Long

    2015-01-01

    This volume presents the proceedings of the 9th Asian-Pacific Conference on Medical and Biological Engineering (APCMBE 2014). The proceedings address a broad spectrum of topics from Bioengineering and Biomedicine, like Biomaterials, Artificial Organs, Tissue Engineering, Nanobiotechnology and Nanomedicine, Biomedical Imaging, Bio MEMS, Biosignal Processing, Digital Medicine, BME Education. It helps medical and biological engineering professionals to interact and exchange their ideas and experiences.

  17. Concurrent variation between the East Asian subtropical jet and polar front jet during persistent snowstorm period in 2008 winter over southern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Zhijie; Zhang, Yaocun

    2013-06-01

    The concurrent variation features between the East Asian subtropical jet and polar front jet were investigated during persistent snowstorm period in 2007/2008 winter over southern China. The East Asian subtropical jet was divided into two parts: (1) the plateau jet, located along the southern side of the Tibetan Plateau, and (2) the ocean jet, situated at the southeastern Japan Island. The concurrent intensity variation among the polar front jet, plateau jet, and ocean jet and the associated atmospheric anomalous signals were examined. A possible mechanism for concurrent variation among the three jets was also investigated from a perspective of synoptic-scale transient eddy activities (STEA). The enhanced plateau jet was simultaneously correlated with the weakened polar front jet, while the variation of the ocean jet lagged the variation of the plateau jet (polar front jet) about 5 days. The concurrent variation between the plateau jet and the polar front jet acted as an important bridge that linked the snowstorm to the atmospheric anomalous signals associated with the cold and warm air activities. Due to the opposite trends of STEA variation over the southern and northern sides of the Tibetan Plateau, the plateau jet and the polar front jet exhibited a significant concurrent variation feature. The STEA anomalies over the plateau jet and polar front jet regions propagated downstream to the East Asian coast as a wave train along the southern and northern sides of the Tibetan Plateau, respectively, resulting in a 5 day lag variation relationship between the ocean jet and the plateau jet (polar front jet).

  18. 466 EAST AFRICAN MEDICAL JOURNAL 0ct0ber2007

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    REVSS. KENYA MEDICAL ASSOCIATION HOUSE P. 0. BOX 41632-00100. CHYULU ROAD NAIROBI. OFF NGONG ROAD 'l'liL: 254-0202712010. I'AX: 2540202724617. Ii—muil: emnj@wananehi.eom. Website: www.cnmjeom. SUBSCRIBE ...

  19. Quality of life in South East Asian patients who consult for dyspepsia: Validation of the short form Nepean Dyspepsia Index

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    Goh Khean-Lee

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Treatment objectives for dyspepsia include improvements in both symptoms and health-related quality of life (HRQoL. There is a lack of disease-specific instruments measuring HRQoL in South East Asian dyspeptics. Objectives To validate English and locally translated version of the Short-Form Nepean Dyspepsia Index (SF-NDI in Malaysian patients who consult for dyspepsia. Methods The English version of the SF-NDI was culturally adapted locally and a Malay translation was developed using standard procedures. English and Malay versions of the SF-NDI were assessed against the SF-36 and the Leeds Dyspepsia Questionnaire (LDQ, examining internal consistency, test-retest reliability and construct validity. Results Pilot testing of the translated Malay and original English versions of the SF-NDI in twenty subjects did not identify any cross-cultural adaptation problems. 143 patients (86 English-speaking and 57 Malay speaking with dyspepsia were interviewed and the overall response rate was 100% with nil missing data. The median total SF-NDI score for both languages were 72.5 and 60.0 respectively. Test-retest reliability was good with intraclass correlation coefficients of 0.90 (English and 0.83 (Malay, while internal consistency of SF-NDI subscales revealed α values ranging from 0.83 – 0.88 (English and 0.83 – 0.90 (Malay. In both languages, SF-NDI sub-scales and total score demonstrated lower values in patients with more severe symptoms and in patients with functional vs organic dyspepsia (known groups validity, although these were less marked in the Malay language version. There was moderate to good correlation (r = 0.3 – 0.6 between all SF-NDI sub-scales and various domains of the SF-36 (convergent validity. Conclusion This study demonstrates that both English and Malay versions of the SF-NDI are reliable and probably valid instruments for measuring HRQoL in Malaysian patients with dyspepsia.

  20. Coal Ash Aerosol in East Asian Outflow as a Source for Oceanic Deposition of Iron and Other Metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, J. R.; Hua, X.

    2008-12-01

    While ocean deposition of East Asian dust is given significant emphasis as a source of biologically-active trace elements, iron in particular, dust events are episodic and highly seasonal. There is, however, a constant source of aerosol that is chemically similar to dust (albeit amorphous in structure rather than crystalline) in the ash particles emitted from many hundreds of coal-fired power plants that are sited along the entire coastal region of China and Korea. The emission controls on these facilities vary widely and, in even cases of state-of-the-art emission controls, the secondary release of ash can be significant. There are of course even more small industrial and household sources of coal combustion emissions, in most cases with little or no emissions controls. Ash from a modern coal-fired power facility in Korea has been examined chemically and morphologically with electron microscopic techniques. As is characteristic of all such facilities, two principal types of ash are present: (1) flyash, silicate glass spheres that are emitted with the smoke and removed by electrostatic precipitators; and (2) bottom ash, "clinkers" and noncombustible material sticking to the furnace walls that are mixed with water and ground after cooling, then removed as a slurry to a dumping area. In addition, iron sulfide (pyrite) is a common constituent of coal and provides both a source of sulfur dioxide gas and also molten iron spherical particles in the ash. The iron spheres then are rapidly oxidized upon cooling. Bottom ash is a more complex material than flyash in that it contains more iron and other trace metals, plus it contains varying amounts of uncombusted carbon. The post-combustion handling of bottom ash can lead to significant emissions despite the fact that little or none goes out the stack. The iron oxide spheres can also be emitted by this secondary method. The concentrations of ash can be very high in close proximity to power plants (PM10 of several hundred

  1. Deficiencies and possibilities for long-lead coupled climate prediction of the Western North Pacific-East Asian summer monsoon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sun-Seon; Ha, Kyung-Ja [Pusan National University, Division of Earth Environmental System, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Lee, June-Yi; Wang, Bin [University of Hawaii, Department of Meteorology and International Pacific Research Center, Honolulu, HI (United States); Schemm, Jae Kyung E. [Climate Prediction Center/NCEP, Camp Springs, MD (United States)

    2011-03-15

    Long-lead prediction of waxing and waning of the Western North Pacific (WNP)-East Asian (EA) summer monsoon (WNP-EASM) precipitation is a major challenge in seasonal time-scale climate prediction. In this study, deficiencies and potential for predicting the WNP-EASM precipitation and circulation one or two seasons ahead were examined using retrospective forecast data for the 26-year period of 1981-2006 from two operational couple models which are the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) Climate Forecast System (CFS) and the Bureau of Meteorology Research Center (BMRC) Predictive Ocean-Atmosphere Model for Australia (POAMA). While both coupled models have difficulty in predicting summer mean precipitation anomalies over the region of interest, even for a 0-month lead forecast, they are capable of predicting zonal wind anomalies at 850 hPa several months ahead and, consequently, satisfactorily predict summer monsoon circulation indices for the EA region (EASMI) and for the WNP region (WNPSMI). It should be noted that the two models' multi-model ensemble (MME) reaches 0.40 of the correlation skill for the EASMI with a January initial condition and 0.75 for the WNPSMI with a February initial condition. Further analysis indicates that prediction reliability of the EASMI is related not only to the preceding El Nino and Southern Oscillation (ENSO) but also to simultaneous local SST variability. On other hand, better prediction of the WNPSMI is accompanied by a more realistic simulation of lead-lag relationship between the index and ENSO. It should also be noted that current coupled models have difficulty in capturing the interannual variability component of the WNP-EASM system which is not correlated with typical ENSO variability. To improve the long-lead seasonal prediction of the WNP-EASM precipitation, a statistical postprocessing was developed based on the multiple linear regression method. The method utilizes the MME prediction of the EASMI and

  2. Direct radiative effects of dust aerosols emitted from the Tibetan Plateau on the East Asian summer monsoon – a regional climate model simulation

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    H. Sun

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available While dust aerosols emitted from major Asian sources such as Taklimakan and Gobi deserts have been shown to have strong effect on Asian monsoon and climate, the role of dust emitted from Tibetan Plateau (TP itself, where aerosols can directly interact with the TP heat pump because of their physical proximity both in location and elevation, has not been examined. This study uses the dust-coupled RegCM4.1 regional climate model (RCM to simulate the spatiotemporal distribution of dust aerosols originating within the TP and their radiative effects on the East Asian summer monsoon (EASM during both heavy and light dust years. Two 20-year simulations with and without the dust emission from TP showed that direct radiative cooling in the mid-troposphere induced by the TP locally produced dust aerosols resulted in an overall anticyclonic circulation anomaly in the low troposphere centered over the TP region. The northeasterly anomaly in the EASM region reduces its strength considerably. The simulations found a significant negative correlation between the TP column dust load produced by local emissions and the corresponding anomaly in the EASM index (r = −0.46. The locally generated TP dust can cause surface cooling far downstream in Bohai Gulf and the China–North Korea border area through stationary Rossby wave propagation. Although dust from within TP (mainly Qaidam Basin is a relatively small portion of total Asian aerosols, its impacts on Asian monsoon and climate seems disproportionately large, likely owning to its higher elevation within TP itself.

  3. East Asian SO2 pollution plume over Europe – Part 1: Airborne trace gas measurements and source identification by particle dispersion model simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Stohl

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available A large SO2-rich pollution plume of East Asian origin was detected by aircraft based CIMS (Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometry measurements at 3–7.5 km altitude over the North Atlantic. The measurements, which took place on 3 May 2006 aboard of the German research aircraft Falcon, were part of the INTEX-B (Intercontinental Chemical Transport Experiment-B campaign. Additional trace gases (NO, NOy, CO, H2O were measured and used for comparison and source identification. The atmospheric SO2 mole fraction was markedly increased inside the plume and reached up to 900 pmol/mol. Accompanying lagrangian FLEXPART particle dispersion model simulations indicate that the probed pollution plume originated at low altitudes from densely populated and industrialized regions of East Asia, primarily China, about 8–12 days prior to the measurements.

  4. East German medical aid to Nicaragua: the politics of solidarity between biomedicine and primary health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borowy, Iris

    2017-01-01

    Between 1979 and 1989 the government of the German Democratic Republic provided health assistance to Sandinista Nicaragua. After initial relief aid, the Sandinista embrace of a primary health care-based health system made East German health support difficult. The non-convertible currency, the repressive quality of the East German leadership, and the lack of experience with primary health care processes all limited its potential to provide support. After 1985, when implementation of this system stalled, East German health assistance was revitalized with the donation of the Hospital Carlos Marx. Providing medical services to three hundred thousand people, it combined elements of a strictly East German institution, using German personnel and equipment, with some integration into local systems.

  5. Doctors-to-be at the doorstep - comparing service-learning programs in an Asian medical school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wee, Liang En; Xin, Yeo Wei; Koh, Gerald Choon-Huat

    2011-01-01

    Service-learning is a powerful, but underutilized, educational tool in Asian medical schools. We compared the ability of two programs providing medical care to low-income populations (clinic-based versus home-based approach) to teach community medicine skills in an Asian medical school. We conducted a cross-sectional study using a self-administered anonymized questionnaire on medical students who participated in the programs using the Fund for the-Improvement of Postsecondary Education Survey Instrument. Participants also gave an overall score for their learning experience in the programs. Participation rates were 97.4% (760/780) and 95.8% (230/240) across the two programs. A majority of participants in either program felt that the experience helped them to improve in all domains surveyed. Regardless of whether one compared those who participated in either program or both programs, the home-based approach was superior at teaching communication skills, teamwork, identifying social issues, gaining knowledge, and applying knowledge. Improved knowledge on long-term management of chronic diseases (β = 1.25, 95% CI, 0.55-1.96) was strongly associated with the overall score for those participating in the home-based program. Service-learning programs, in the Asian context, have potential educational value for medical students in a wide range of domains. The home-based approach is superior at teaching certain aspects of community care.

  6. Between East And West: Garcia de Orta’s Colloquies and the Circulation of Medical Knowledge in the Sixteenth Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fontes da Costa, Palmira

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the importance of Garcia de Orta’s Colloquies on the simples and drugs of India (Goa, 1563 in the construction and circulation of Asian botanical and medical knowledge in the sixteenth century. It begins by examining the combined importance of experience and testimony in Orta’s assessment of materia medica from India. It then considers the relevance of interaction and exchange of medical systems between the West and the East in the Portuguese physician’s understanding of medical knowledge and practices. Finally, it analyses how medical and botanical information provided by this work was reframed by Carolus Clusius and circulated in new forms in Europe.En este artículo se analiza la importancia de los Coloquios sobre los medicamentos simples y drogas de la India [Colóquios sobre os simples e drogas da Índia] (Goa, 1563 de Garcia de Orta en la construcción y circulación del conocimiento médico y botánico en Asia en el siglo XVI. Se comienza examinando la importancia combinada de la experiencia y el testimonio en la evaluación de Orta sobre la materia medica de la India. A continuación se examina la importancia de la interacción y el intercambio de los sistemas médicos entre Occidente y Oriente en la comprensión del médico portugués sobre las prácticas y conocimientos médicos. Por último, se analiza como la información médica y botánica que ofrece este trabajo fue reformulada por Carolus Clusius y distribuida en una nueva forma en Europa.

  7. East African Medical Journal - Vol 91, No 2 (2014)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sequential Low Cost Interventions Double Hand Hygiene Rates Among Medical Teams in a Resource Limited Setting. Results of a Hand Hygiene Quality Improvement Project Conducted At University Teaching Hospital of Kigali (Chuk), Kigali, Rwanda · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD ...

  8. Apri12006 ' EAST AFRICAN MEDICAL JOURNAL ' I 105

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2006-04-04

    Apr 4, 2006 ... ... AND CAPCELLIA METHODS WITH FACSCOUNT FOR THE ESTIMATION OF. CD4 T-LYMPHOCYTE LEVELS IN HIV/ AIDS PATIENTS IN LAGOS, NIGERIA. E.O. Idigbe, PhD, Director General, R.A. Audu, PhD, Senior Research Fellow, C.T. Oparaugo, FIMLS, MSc, Principal. Medical Laboratory Scientist ...

  9. Systemic ototoxicity: a review | Shine | East African Medical Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: To review the literature pertaining to the ototoxic potential of three frequently prescribed systemic medications in the sub-Saharan setting; quinine, furosemide and aminoglycoside antibiotics. The pathophysiology, clinical manifestations and risk factors and risk minimisation strategies regarding the ototoxicity ...

  10. Sedimentary provenance in response to Carboniferous arc-basin evolution of East Junggar and North Tianshan belts in the southwestern Central Asian Orogenic Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Bo; Fu, Dong; Kusky, Timothy; Ruan, Kunpeng; Zhou, Wenxiao; Zhang, Xionghua

    2018-01-01

    The North Tianshan and East Junggar belts in north Xinjiang, China, are two key terranes for the Paleozoic tectonic reconstruction of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB). However, their Carboniferous paleogeographic setting and arc-basin relationships remain disputed. To better-constrain these problems, we carried out an investigation on the provenance of Carboniferous sandstones from the Yaomoliang Formation in East Junggar and the Qijiaojing Formation in North Tianshan. Modal and geochemical analyses reveal that the sediments are mainly derived from arc-related terranes. Detrital zircon U-Pb age spectra show distinct differences between the East Junggar and North Tianshan belts. The upper Yaomoliang Formation has a Late Carboniferous depositional age (ca. 315 Ma) with a single peak spectrum of detrital zircon ages, which is similar with zircon ages from the igneous rocks and associated accretionary complexes in East Junggar belt, suggesting that it was probably derived from the East Junggar arc. The samples from the Qijiaojing Formation have Early Carboniferous depositional ages (ca. 330 Ma to 354 Ma). Their complicated detrital zircon age peaks resemble the detrital and igneous zircon ages from the Harlik-Dananhu arc, implying that their source terrane could be the Harlik-Dananhu arc, as revealed by the near-source petrographic and arc-derived geochemical features. In combination with our results and the published data, we suggest two distinctive Carboniferous arc-basin systems, the Kelamaili Ocean-related arc-basin which is characterized by the northward subduction beneath the East Junggar arc, and the Bogda intra-arc basin which evolved from splitting the previous Harlik-Dananhu arc by the rollback of the subducting North Tianshan oceanic plate. The sedimentary provenance evidence reveals that the Kelamaili Ocean has not closed until ca. 315 Ma. The multiple arc-basin systems in North Xinjiang indicate an archipelago-type subduction and accretionary

  11. Profile of suicide in Dar es Salaam | Ndosi | East African Medical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    East African Medical Journal. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 81, No 4 (2004) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Download this PDF file. The PDF file you selected should ...

  12. Cleft lip and palate: the Jos exprience | Orkar | East African Medical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    East African Medical Journal. Journal Home · ABOUT · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 79, No 10 (2002) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Download this PDF file. The PDF file you selected should load here if your ...

  13. Vitamin A levels in HIV/AIDS | Kafwembe | East African Medical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    East African Medical Journal 2001 78 (9): 451-453). Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/eamj.v78i9.8972 · AJOL African Journals Online.

  14. The dependence on atmospheric resolution of ENSO and related East Asian-western North Pacific summer climate variability in a coupled model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bo; Zhao, Guijie; Huang, Gang; Wang, Pengfei; Yan, Bangliang

    2017-08-01

    The authors present results for El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and East Asian-western North Pacific climate variability simulated in a new version high-resolution coupled model (ICM.V2) developed at the Center for Monsoon System Research of the Institute of Atmospheric Physics (CMSR, IAP), Chinese Academy of Sciences. The analyses are based on the last 100-year output of a 1000-year simulation. Results are compared to an earlier version of the same coupled model (ICM.V1), reanalysis, and observations. The two versions of ICM have similar physics but different atmospheric resolution. The simulated climatological mean states show marked improvement over many regions, especially the tropics in ICM.V2 compared to those in ICM.V1. The common bias in the cold tongue has reduced, and the warm biases along the ocean boundaries have improved as well. With improved simulation of ENSO, including its period and strength, the ENSO-related western North Pacific summer climate variability becomes more realistic compared to the observations. The simulated East Asian summer monsoon anomalies in the El Niño decaying summer are substantially more realistic in ICM.V2, which might be related to a better simulation of the Indo-Pacific Ocean capacitor (IPOC) effect and Pacific decadal oscillation (PDO).

  15. Positive selection on the osteoarthritis-risk and decreased-height associated variants at the GDF5 gene in East Asians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Dong-Dong; Li, Gui-Mei; Jin, Wei; Li, Yan; Zhang, Ya-Ping

    2012-01-01

    GDF5 is a member of the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) gene family, and plays an important role in the development of the skeletal system. Variants of the gene are associated with osteoarthritis and height in some human populations. Here, we resequenced the gene in individuals from four geographically separated human populations, and found that the evolution of the promoter region deviated from neutral expectations, with the sequence evolution driven by positive selection in the East Asian population, especially the haplotypes carrying the derived alleles of 5' UTR SNPs rs143384 and rs143383. The derived alleles of rs143384 and rs143383, which are associated with a risk of osteoarthritis and decreased height, have high frequencies in non-Africans and show strong extended haplotype homozygosity and high population differentiation in East Asian. It is concluded that positive selection has driven the rapid evolution of the two osteoarthritis osteoarthritis-risk and decreased height associated variants of the human GDF5 gene, and supports the suggestion that the reduction in body size during the terminal Pleistocene and Holocene period might have been an adaptive process influenced by genetic factors.

  16. Phylogeny and biogeography of East Asian evergreen oaks (Quercus section Cyclobalanopsis; Fagaceae): Insights into the Cenozoic history of evergreen broad-leaved forests in subtropical Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Min; Jiang, Xiao-Long; Hipp, Andrew L; Manos, Paul S; Hahn, Marlene

    2018-02-01

    The evolutionary history of Quercus section Cyclobalanopsis, a dominant lineage in East Asian evergreen broadleaved forests (EBLFs), has not been comprehensively studied using molecular tools. In this study, we reconstruct the first comprehensive phylogeny of this lineage using a genomic approach (restriction-site associated DNA sequencing, RAD-seq), sampling 35 of the ca. 90 species currently recognized, representing all main morphological groups of section Cyclobalanopsis. In addition, 10 other species of Quercus and two outgroups were also sampled. Divergence times were estimated using a relaxed clock model and two fossil calibrations. Ancestral areas and dispersal routes were inferred using statistical dispersal-vicariance analysis and the dispersal-extinction-cladogenesis (DEC) model. The phylogeny of Quercus section Cyclobalanopsis demonstrates the section to be monophyletic, comprising two main lineages and six subclades that are well supported by anatomical traits. Biogeographical reconstructions indicate that the wide northern hemisphere distribution of Quercus was disrupted in the Late Eocene, leading to the main extant groups at about 33 Ma. The earliest divergences in section Cyclobalanopsis correspond to the phased uplift of the Himalayas and lateral extrusion of Indochina at the transition of the Oligocene and Miocene, where the highest rate of diversification occurred in the late Miocene. Dispersal from Sino-Himalaya and the Palaeotropics to Sino-Japan in the Miocene was facilitated by the increased intensity of East Asian summer monsoons and by the Middle Miocene Climatic Optimum. Our results highlight the importance of climatic changes and Indo-Eurasian collision-induced tectonic activities from the Neogene onward to the spatial-temporal diversification patterns of Asian EBLF lineages. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Sources, solubility, and acid processing of aerosol iron and phosphorous over the South China Sea: East Asian dust and pollution outflows vs. Southeast Asian biomass burning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, S.-C.; Gong, G.-C.; Shiah, F.-K.; Hung, C.-C.; Kao, S.-J.; Zhang, R.; Chen, W.-N.; Chen, C.-C.; Chou, C. C.-K.; Lin, Y.-C.; Lin, F.-J.; Lin, S.-H.

    2014-08-01

    Iron and phosphorous are essential to marine microorganisms in vast regions in oceans worldwide. Atmospheric inputs are important allochthonous sources of Fe and P. The variability in airborne Fe deposition is hypothesized to serve an important function in previous glacial-interglacial cycles, contributing to the variability in atmospheric CO2 and ultimately the climate. Understanding the mechanisms underlying the mobilization of airborne Fe and P from insoluble to soluble forms is critical to evaluate the biogeochemical effects of these elements. In this study, we present a robust power-law correlation between fractional Fe solubility and non-sea-salt-sulfate / Total-Fe (nss-sulfate / FeT) molar ratio independent of distinct sources of airborne Fe of natural and/or anthropogenic origins over the South China Sea. This area receives Asian dust and pollution outflows and Southeast Asian biomass burning. This correlation is also valid for nitrate and total acids, demonstrating the significance of acid processing in enhancing Fe mobilization. Such correlations are also found for P, yet source dependent. These relationships serve as straightforward parameters that can be directly incorporated into available atmosphere-ocean coupling models that facilitate the assessment of Fe and P fertilization effects. Although biomass burning activity may supply Fe to the bioavailable Fe pool, pyrogenic soils are possibly the main contributors, not the burned plants. This finding warrants a multidisciplinary investigation that integrates atmospheric observations with the resulting biogeochemistry in the South China Sea, which is influenced by atmospheric forcings and nutrient dynamics with monsoons.

  18. Observed variability of summer precipitation pattern and extreme events in East China associated with variations of the East Asian summer monsoon: VARIABILITY OF SUMMER PRECIPITATION AND EXTREME EVENT IN EAST CHINA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Lei [School of Atmospheric Sciences, Nanjing University, China; Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Qian, Yun [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Zhang, Yaocun [School of Atmospheric Sciences, Nanjing University, China; Zhao, Chun [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Leung, L. Ruby [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Huang, Anning [School of Atmospheric Sciences, Nanjing University, China; Xiao, Chuliang [Cooperative Institute for Limnology and Ecosystems Research, School of Natural Resources and Environment, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor MI USA

    2015-11-09

    This paper presents a comprehensive analysis of interannual and interdecadal variations of summer precipitation and precipitation-related extreme events in China associated with variations of the East Asian summer monsoon (EASM) from 1979-2012. A high-quality daily precipitation dataset covering 2287 weather stations in China is analyzed. Based on the precipitation pattern analysis using empirical orthogonal functions, three sub-periods of 1979-1992 (period I), 1993-1999 (period II) and 2000-2012 (period III) are identified to be representative of the precipitation variability. Similar significant variability of the extreme precipitation indices is found across four sub-regions in eastern China. The spatial patterns of summer mean precipitation, the number of days with daily rainfall exceeding 95th percentile precipitation (R95p) and the maximum number of consecutive wet days (CWD) anomalies are consistent, but opposite to that of maximum consecutive dry days (CDD) anomalies during the three sub-periods. However, the spatial patterns of hydroclimatic intensity (HY-INT) are notably different from that of the other three extreme indices, but highly correlated to the dry events. The changes of precipitation anomaly patterns are accompanied by the change of the EASM regime and the abrupt shift of the position of the west Pacific subtropical high around 1992/1993 and 1999/2000, respectively, which influence the moisture transport that contributes most to the precipitation anomalies. Lastly, the EASM intensity is linked to sea surface temperature anomaly over the tropical Indian and Pacific Ocean that influences deep convection over the oceans.

  19. Contrasting patterns of spatial genetic differentiation in two east asian five-needle pine species, Pinus koraiensis and P. armandii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.M. Belokon

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Two species of East Asian five-needle pines of the section Strobus, Korean pine, Pinus koraiensis Sieb. et Zucc. and Armand's pine, Pinus armandii Franch are traditionally placed in two different subsections, Cembrae and Strobi, respectively. However, data on similarity of these pines in needle anatomy and pollen structure are reported. By means of starch gel electrophoresis we studied allozyme variation within populations of these species and between the two species. Among 30 studied loci we selected 17 polymorphic loci with reliable interpretation of allele correspondence between species. Allozyme patterns were similar in both species with respect to number of loci and predominant alleles at most loci. Intra-specific differentiation among 12 populations of Pinus koraiensis from Russia, Northeast China and South Korea was low, FST (proportion of among population variation in total variation was as low as 0.019, DN (Nei's genetic distance varied between 0.001 and 0.006. This genetic uniformity can be explained by a common gene pool of this species within virtually continuous range under similar ecological conditions. Common vectors of selection, natural gene flow through pollen and seed dispersal as well as mixing of genetic material between regions by humans (at least in Russian forestry practice are putative factors responsible for low differentiation in Korean stone pine. We estimated the same parameters in Pinus armandii from continental China (Guizhou, Shaanxi, Shenyan where its range is highly fragmented, and found differentiation in this species to be much more pronounced (FST = 0.067, DN = 0.011-0.029. By adding a sample from Taiwan both FST (0.338 and DN (up to 0.232 were substantially higher indicating high level of differences between continental and Taiwanese P. armandii, putatively due to longer isolation time. Maximal contribution was from loci Adh-1, Got-3, Mdh-1, 6-Pgd-3, Pgm-2 and Skdh-2. Differences were mainly caused by

  20. Contrasting patterns of spatial genetic differentiation in two east asian five-needle pine species, Pinus koraiensis and P. armandii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belokon M.-M.

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Two species of East Asian five-needle pines of the section Strobus, Korean pine, Pinus koraiensis Sieb. et Zucc. and Armand's pine, Pinus armandii Franch are traditionally placed in two different subsections, Cembrae and Strobi, respectively.However, data on similarity of these pines in needle anatomy and pollen structure are reported. By means of starch gel electrophoresis we studied allozyme variation within populations of these species and between the two species. Among 30 studied loci we selected 17 polymorphic loci with reliable interpretation of allele correspondencebetween species. Allozyme patterns were similar in both species with respect to number of loci and predominant alleles at most loci. Intra-specific differentiation among 12 populations of Pinus koraiensis from Russia, Northeast China and South Korea was low, FST (proportion of among population variation in total variation was as low as 0.019, DN (Nei's genetic distance varied between 0.001 and 0.006. This genetic uniformity can be explained by a common gene pool of this species within virtually continuous range under similar ecological conditions. Common vectors of selection, natural gene flow through pollen and seed dispersal as well as mixing of genetic material between regions by humans (at least in Russian forestry practice are putative factors responsible for low differentiation in Korean stone pine. We estimated the same parameters in Pinus armandii from continental China (Guizhou, Shaanxi, Shenyan where its range is highly fragmented, and found differentiation in this species to be much more pronounced (FST = 0.067, DN = 0.011-0.029. By adding a sample from Taiwan both FST (0.338 and DN (up to 0.232 were substantially higher indicating high level of differences between continental and Taiwanese P. armandii, putatively due to longer isolation time. Maximal contribution was fromloci Adh-1, Got-3, Mdh-1, 6-Pgd-3, Pgm-2 and Skdh-2. Differences were mainly caused by allelic

  1. Air-sea exchange and gas-particle partitioning of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons over the northwestern Pacific Ocean: Role of East Asian continental outflow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zilan; Lin, Tian; Li, Zhongxia; Jiang, Yuqing; Li, Yuanyuan; Yao, Xiaohong; Gao, Huiwang; Guo, Zhigang

    2017-11-01

    We measured 15 parent polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in atmosphere and water during a research cruise from the East China Sea (ECS) to the northwestern Pacific Ocean (NWP) in the spring of 2015 to investigate the occurrence, air-sea gas exchange, and gas-particle partitioning of PAHs with a particular focus on the influence of East Asian continental outflow. The gaseous PAH composition and identification of sources were consistent with PAHs from the upwind area, indicating that the gaseous PAHs (three-to five-ring PAHs) were influenced by upwind land pollution. In addition, air-sea exchange fluxes of gaseous PAHs were estimated to be -54.2-107.4 ng m(-2) d(-1), and was indicative of variations of land-based PAH inputs. The logarithmic gas-particle partition coefficient (logKp) of PAHs regressed linearly against the logarithmic subcooled liquid vapor pressure (logPL(0)), with a slope of -0.25. This was significantly larger than the theoretical value (-1), implying disequilibrium between the gaseous and particulate PAHs over the NWP. The non-equilibrium of PAH gas-particle partitioning was shielded from the volatilization of three-ring gaseous PAHs from seawater and lower soot concentrations in particular when the oceanic air masses prevailed. Modeling PAH absorption into organic matter and adsorption onto soot carbon revealed that the status of PAH gas-particle partitioning deviated more from the modeling Kp for oceanic air masses than those for continental air masses, which coincided with higher volatilization of three-ring PAHs and confirmed the influence of air-sea exchange. Meanwhile, significant linear regressions between logKp and logKoa (logKsa) for PAHs were observed for continental air masses, suggesting the dominant effect of East Asian continental outflow on atmospheric PAHs over the NWP during the sampling campaign. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Attitudes of Korean and Chinese traditional medical doctors on education of East Asian traditional medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun-Ji Lee

    2016-03-01

    Conclusion: This study revealed the attitude of Korean and Chinese TRM doctors on their educational system, and discussed the implication of similarities and differences between them. It would provide foundations for the improvement of the TRM educational curriculums.

  3. Phylogeography reveals an ancient cryptic radiation in East-Asian tree frogs (Hyla japonica group) and complex relationships between continental and island lineages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufresnes, Christophe; Litvinchuk, Spartak N; Borzée, Amaël; Jang, Yikweon; Li, Jia-Tang; Miura, Ikuo; Perrin, Nicolas; Stöck, Matthias

    2016-11-23

    In contrast to the Western Palearctic and Nearctic biogeographic regions, the phylogeography of Eastern-Palearctic terrestrial vertebrates has received relatively little attention. In East Asia, tectonic events, along with Pleistocene climatic conditions, likely affected species distribution and diversity, especially through their impact on sea levels and the consequent opening and closing of land-bridges between Eurasia and the Japanese Archipelago. To better understand these effects, we sequenced mitochondrial and nuclear markers to determine phylogeographic patterns in East-Asian tree frogs, with a particular focus on the widespread H. japonica. We document several cryptic lineages within the currently recognized H. japonica populations, including two main clades of Late Miocene divergence (~5 Mya). One occurs on the northeastern Japanese Archipelago (Honshu and Hokkaido) and the Russian Far-East islands (Kunashir and Sakhalin), and the second one inhabits the remaining range, comprising southwestern Japan, the Korean Peninsula, Transiberian China, Russia and Mongolia. Each clade further features strong allopatric Plio-Pleistocene subdivisions (~2-3 Mya), especially among continental and southwestern Japanese tree frog populations. Combined with paleo-climate-based distribution models, the molecular data allowed the identification of Pleistocene glacial refugia and continental routes of postglacial recolonization. Phylogenetic reconstructions further supported genetic homogeneity between the Korean H. suweonensis and Chinese H. immaculata, suggesting the former to be a relic population of the latter that arose when the Yellow Sea formed, at the end of the last glaciation. Patterns of divergence and diversity were likely triggered by Miocene tectonic activities and Quaternary climatic fluctuations (including glaciations), causing the formation and disappearance of land-bridges between the Japanese islands and the continent. Overall, this resulted in a ring

  4. The influence of climate regime shifts on the marine environment and ecosystems in the East Asian Marginal Seas and their mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kun Jung, Hae; Rahman, SM Mustafizur; Kang, Chang-Keun; Park, Se-Young; Heon Lee, Sang; Je Park, Hyun; Kim, Hyun-Woo; Il Lee, Chung

    2017-09-01

    Step changes to seawater temperature (SWT) in the East Asian marginal seas (EAMS) are associated with three recent climate regime shifts (CRS) occurring in the mid-1970s, late 1980s, and late 1990s, but the responses of the ocean conditions and marine ecosystems had regional differences. A step change in SWT in the East China Sea (ECS) was detected after the CRS of the 1970s as were step changes in the North Pacific Index (NPI), Pacific Decadal Oscillation Index (PDOI), and East Asian Winter Monsoon Index (EAWMI). SWT in the ECS decreased with decreasing warm water volume transport into the EAMS and a strong monsoon, but step changes in SWT in other regions were not detected as clearly. After the CRS of the 1980s, SWT in all EAMS increased rapidly with step changes detected in all five climate indices examined. These changes were associated with a weak winter monsoon, increasing surface air temperature (SAT), and increasing warm water volume transport into the EAMS. However, after the CRS of the 1990s, a decrease in SWT around the EAMS was detected in the northern part of East China Sea (NECS), and the ECS with step changes also in the EAWMI and the Arctic Oscillation Index (AOI). In contrast, SWT in the East Sea/Sea of Japan (EJS) and the Yellow Sea (YS) continuously increased during this time. Long-term changes in zooplankton biomass were affected by regional differences in the responses of atmospheric and oceanic variability to CRSs. Specifically, long-term changes in the timing of peaks in zooplankton abundances exhibited differences. During warm periods (e.g. after the 1980s CRS) in the EJS, the amount of zooplankton biomass in October increased, while in February it decreased. On the contrary, in the YS and the NECS, the peaks of October and June in zooplankton biomass occurred during cold periods (after the 1970s and 1990s CRS). Major fisheries resources also responded to the three CRSs, although warm and cold water species responded differently to changes

  5. Impact of ice sheet induced North Atlantic oscillation on East Asian summer monsoon during an interglacial 500,000 years ago

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sundaram, S.; Yin, Q.Z.; Berger, A.; Muri, H. [Universite Catholique de Louvain, Earth and Life Institute (ELI), Georges Lemaitre Centre for Earth and Climate Research (TECLIM), Louvain la Neuve (Belgium)

    2012-09-15

    Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 13, an interglacial about 500,000 years ago, is unique due to an exceptionally strong East Asia summer monsoon (EASM) occurring in a relatively cool climate with low greenhouse gas concentrations (GHG). This paper attempts to find one of the possible mechanisms for this seeming paradox. Simulations with an Earth System model LOVECLIM show that the presence of ice sheets over North America and Eurasia during MIS-13 induces a positive phase of the winter North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) like feature. The ocean having a longer memory than the atmosphere, the oceanic anomalies associated with NAO persists until summer. The signals of summer NAO are transmitted to East Asia to reinforce the monsoon there through the stationary waves excited at the Asian Jet entrance. The geopotential height shows clearly a mid-latitude wave train with positive anomalies over the eastern Mediterranean/Caspian Sea and the Okhotsk Sea and a negative anomaly over Lake Baikal. This reinforces the effect of the high-latitude wave train induced independently by the Eurasian ice sheet topography as shown in previous study. These features reinforce the Meiyu front and enhance the precipitation over East Asia. The results obtained from LOVECLIM are further confirmed by an atmospheric general circulation model, ARPEGE. (orig.)

  6. Rapid retreat of the East Asian summer monsoon in the middle Holocene and a millennial weak monsoon interval at 9 ka in northern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Jinguo; Shen, Chuan-Chou; Kong, Xinggong; Wu, Chung-Che; Hu, Hsun-Ming; Ren, Haojia; Wang, Yi

    2018-01-01

    Knowledge of hydroclimatic dynamics in the East Asian monsoon region during the Holocene was hindered by few absolutely-dated and decadally-resolved proxy records in northern China. Here we present replicated carbonate δ18O records of six stalagmites with sub-decadal to multi-decadal resolutions from the Lianhua cave to reveal a detailed evolution of the East Asian Summer Monsoon (EASM) intensity in northern China since 11.5 thousand years before present (ka BP, before 1950 CE). Our composite record shows that solar forcing dominated hydroclimatic changes regionally, including an intensified monsoon at the Holocene Optimum from the termination of Younger Dryas to 6.5 ka BP, and a subsequent multi-millennial weakening monsoon, that agrees with cave records in central and southern China. However, the EASM has retreated southwards more rapidly than the Indian summer monsoon after ∼6.5 ka BP, resulting in aridity conditions occurring at 4.0 ka BP in northern China, which is almost 2000-year earlier than that in central and southern China. This north-south asynchroneity is likely related to the different regional responses among the coupling of the EASM, Indian summer monsoon, the solar forcing, and the differences in thermal forcing due to complex geographical configurations. In addition, a relative enrichment of 1‰ in 18O data of the Lianhua record from 9.5 to 8.1 ka BP shows that the Holocene Optimum was punctuated by a millennial-long weakening monsoon interval, which is not registered among previous cave records in central and southern China. The fresh water-induced cold climate conditions in the North Atlantic region could create stronger East Asian winter monsoon, and induce a weakened EASM and a southward shift of rain belt in northern China. Therefore, it shall not be surprised that there are strong heterogeneities among regional hydroclimatic conditions across monsoonal China, given the complex interplay between external and internal forcing mechanisms

  7. Late Quaternary evolution of the East Asian summer monsoon: Clay and magnetic mineralogical records retrieved from the northern South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Q.; Liu, Z.; Kissel, C.

    2016-12-01

    East Asian monsoon is a major component of global monsoon system. Acting as the largest marginal sea in the western Pacific, the South China Sea is a natural laboratory recording East Asian monsoon evolution. In order to reconstruct the late Quaternary evolution of the monsoon, we analyzed in details the 50.8-m-long Core MD12-3432 retrieved from the northern South China Sea at 2125 m water depth. Carbonate and magnetic stratigraphy indicates that Core MD12-3432 covers the last 400 ka. Clay mineralogical analysis was performed every 10 cm using XRD method. Bulk magnetic properties (susceptibility, NRM, ARM, and IRM) were measured on u-channel samples with a resolution of 2 cm. Cumulative log Gaussian decomposition analysis was performed on 33 high resolution IRM acquisition curves to evaluate the contribution of coercivity components. Three-axis thermal demagnetization was conducted on 14 samples to identify the nature of magnetic minerals. Clay mineral assemblage of Core MD12-3432 is dominated by smectite (23-59%) and illite (22-43%), with minor chlorite (13-27%) and kaolinite (4-13%). Because smectite is formed by rapid chemical weathering of volcanic rocks in Luzon, while illite and chlorite are primary minerals formed by physical erosion, smectite/(illite+chlorite) ratio constitutes a proxy of chemical weathering intensity. Magnetic fraction of Core MD12-3432 is composed by minerals with different coercivities, the relative proportion of which varies along the core. The high coercivity is carried by hematite and the low coercivity fraction is mainly composed by magnetite with some iron-sulphides. Luzon is the most efficient source of magnetite because of the rapid eluviation and weathering of volcanic rocks, while the Pearl River basin is the only source that produces hematite mainly through physical degradation of bedrocks. Thus, the bulk coercivity as indicated by S-ratio can serve as a proxy of chemical weathering. Both indicators, smectite

  8. A cross-sectional characterization of insulin resistance by phenotype and insulin clamp in East Asian Americans with type 1 and type 2 diabetes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William C Hsu

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Classic features of type 1 and type 2 diabetes may not apply in Asian Americans, due to shared absence of common HLA DR-DQ genotype, low prevalence of positive anti-islet antibodies and low BMI in both types of diabetes. Our objective was to characterize diabetic phenotypes in Asian Americans by clamp and clinical features. MATERIALS/METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study conducted in a referral center. Thirty East young Asian American adult volunteers (27.6±5.5 years with type 1, type 2 diabetes or controls underwent hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp to assess insulin resistance and DEXA to assess adiposity. RESULTS: Gender, BMI, waist/hip ratio, leptin, LDL, anti-GAD, anti-IA2 antibodies and C-reactive protein were similar among three groups. Serum C-peptide, adiponectin, free fatty acid, HDL concentrations and truncal fat by DEXA, were different between diabetic groups. Glucose disposal rate by clamp was lowest in type 2 diabetes, followed by type 1 diabetes and controls (5.43±2.70, 7.62±2.59, 8.61±2.37 mg/min/kg, respectively, p = 0.001. Free fatty acid concentration universally plummeted during steady state of the clamp procedure regardless of diabetes types in all three groups. Adipocyte fatty acid binding protein in the entire cohort (r = -0.625, p = 0.04 and controls (r = -0.869, p = 0.046 correlated best with insulin resistance, independent of BMI. CONCLUSIONS: Type 2 diabetes in Asian Americans was associated with insulin resistance despite having low BMI as type 1 diabetes, suggesting a potential role for targeting insulin resistance apart from weight loss. Adipocyte fatty acid binding protein, strongly associated with insulin resistance, independent of adiposity in the young Asian American population, may potentially serve as a biomarker to identify at-risk individuals. Larger studies are needed to confirm this finding.

  9. Medical physics is alive and well and growing in South East Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, K; Pirabul, R; Peralta, A; Soejoko, D

    1997-03-01

    In recent years there has been a significant economic growth in South East Asia, along with it a concurrent development of medical physics. The status of four countries--Malaysia, Thailand, the Philippines and Indonesia are presented. Medical physicists in these countries have been experiencing the usual problems of lack of recognition, low salaries, and insufficient facilities for education and training opportunities. However the situation has improved recently through the initiative of local enthusiastic medical physicists who have started MS graduate programs in medical physics and begun organizing professional activities to raise the profile of medical physics. The tremendous support and catalytic roles of the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) and international organizations such as International Organization for Medical Physics (IOMP), International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), World Health Organization (WHO), and International Center for Theoretical Physics (ICTP) have been instrumental in achieving progress. Contributions by these organizations include co-sponsorship of workshops and conferences, travel grants, medical physics libraries programs, and providing experts and educators. The demand for medical physicists is expected to rise in tandem with the increased emphasis on innovative technology for health care, stringent governmental regulation, and acceptance by the medical community of the important role of medical physicists.

  10. Evidence for genetic association between East Asian and western North American Crataegus L. (Rosaceae) and rapid divergence of the eastern North American lineages based on multiple DNA sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Eugenia Y Y; Stefanović, Sasa; Christensen, Knud Ib; Dickinson, Timothy A

    2009-05-01

    Phylogeographic relationships were constructed for 72 Old and New World Crataegus species using combinations of four chloroplast and up to five nuclear regions. Maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood, and Bayesian results yield consistent relationships among major lineages. The close associations of the East Asian and western North American species point toward ancient trans-Beringian migrations. Relationships among eastern North American species are poorly resolved and few groups are identified that are congruent with existing classifications. Scant variation and short internal branches among these species suggest rapid divergence associated with polyploidy and hybridization. Incongruence between the chloroplast and nuclear data, and morphology suggest hybrid origins of three species from an extinct European lineage (the male parent) and three different North American female parents. Europe and eastern North America are suggested as the most recent common areas for Crataegus; at least four dispersal events are inferred to explain the present distribution of the genus.

  11. Syncrangon, a new crangonid genus, with redescriptions of S. angusticauda (De Haan) and S. dentata (Balss) (Crustacea, Decapoda, Caridea) from East Asian waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jung Nyun; Hayashi, Ken-Ichi

    2003-05-01

    A new genus of the crangonid shrimps, Syncrangon, is proposed for Crangon angusticauda De Haan, 1849 and C. (Sclerocrangon) angusticauda var. dentata Balss, 1914, both from East Asian waters. The new genus is readily distinguished from all known genera of the Crangonidae by the flattened middorsal carina and the deep groove on each lateral side of the middorsal carina on the third to sixth abdominal somites. Syncrangon angusticauda new combination has previously been assigned to the genus Metacrangon, while S. dentata new combination has not been reported since the original description. These two species are easily distinguished from each other by many characters, especially the rostral and abdominal features. They are redescribed and illustrated in detail.

  12. Emerging Asian Economics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trezise, Philip H.

    What we can expect in the future from the miracle economies of Japan, South Korea, Taiwan, Singapore, and Hong Kong, whether they pose a threat to the older industrial states of Western Europe and North American, and whether China is to be the next emerging Asian economy are discussed. The amazing economic recovery of these East Asian countries…

  13. Multi-timescale variation of East Asian winter monsoon intensity and its relation with sea surface temperature during last millennium based on ECHO-G simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xueyuan, Kuang; Jian, Liu; Yaocun, Zhang; Danqing, Huang; Ying, Huang

    2011-11-01

    Based on the simulation results derived from ECHO-G global coupled climate model, several East Asian winter monsoon (EAWM) indices are compared in order to choose the most suitable one for signaling the intensity of winter monsoon in the last millennium. The index I_shi, which is defined with normalized sea level pressure difference between sea and land in mid and low latitudes, is selected to describe the winter monsoon intensity variation owing to its better capability for reflecting the variation of winter monsoon subsystems, such as the continental high pressure, Aleutian low, East Asian major trough, westerly jet stream, and surface air temperature than the other indices examined. Wavelet analysis on index I_shi shows that the EAWM intensity is characterized by multi-timescale variation with inter-annual, decadal, inter-decadal and inter-centennial oscillations on the background of a slight descending trend. Correlation analysis between the EAWM index and sea surface temperature (SST) at various timescales reveals that the SST in mid-latitudes might provide the background of the EAWM strength changes above decadal timescales, and a negative-feedback process lasting for about two years is found between the EAWM intensity and the SST in the eastern equatorial Pacific. According to the correlation, the El Nino occurrence in the second-half of the year leads to weaker EAWM than normal in the following winter and the weakened EAWM corresponds to lower SST in eastern equatorial Pacific after about half a year, which will then strengthen the EAWM intensity in the next winter. It is a stable feedback process and its mechanism is discussed.

  14. Profound climatic effects on two East Asian black-throated tits (Ave: Aegithalidae), revealed by ecological niche models and phylogeographic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Chuanyin; Zhao, Na; Wang, Wenjuan; Lin, Congtian; Gao, Bin; Yang, Xiaojun; Zhang, Zhengwang; Lei, Fumin

    2011-01-01

    Although a number of studies have assessed the effects of geological and climatic changes on species distributions in East Asian, we still have limited knowledge of how these changes have impacted avian species in south-western and southern China. Here, we aim to study paleo-climatic effects on an East Asian bird, two subspecies of black-throated tit (A. c. talifuensis-concinnus) with the combined analysis of phylogeography and Ecological Niche Models (ENMs). We sequenced three mitochondrial DNA markers from 32 populations (203 individuals) and used phylogenetic inferences to reconstruct the intra-specific relationships among haplotypes. Population genetic analyses were undertaken to gain insight into the demographic history of these populations. We used ENMs to predict the distribution of target species during three periods; last inter-glacial (LIG), last glacial maximum (LGM) and present. We found three highly supported, monophyletic MtDNA lineages and different historical demography among lineages in A. c. talifuensis-concinnus. These lineages formed a narrowly circumscribed intra-specific contact zone. The estimated times of lineage divergences were about 2.4 Ma and 0.32 Ma respectively. ENMs predictions were similar between present and LGM but substantially reduced during LIG. ENMs reconstructions and molecular dating suggest that Pleistocene climate changes had triggered and shaped the genetic structure of black-throated tit. Interestingly, in contrast to profound impacts of other glacial cycles, ENMs and phylogeographic analysis suggest that LGM had limited effect on these two subspecies. ENMs also suggest that Pleistocene climatic oscillations enabled the formation of the contact zone and thus support the refuge theory.

  15. How current Clinical Practice Guidelines for low back pain reflect Traditional Medicine in East Asian Countries: a systematic review of Clinical Practice Guidelines and systematic reviews.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun-Woo Cho

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The aims of this study were to investigate whether there is a gap between evidence of traditional medicine (TM interventions in East-Asian countries from the current Clinical Practice Guidelines (CPGs and evidence from current systematic reviews and meta-analyses (SR-MAs and to analyze the impact of this gap on present CPGs. METHODS: We examined 5 representative TM interventions in the health care systems of East-Asian countries. We searched seven relevant databases for CPGs to identify whether core CPGs included evidence of TM interventions, and we searched 11 databases for SR-MAs to re-evaluate current evidence on TM interventions. We then compared the gap between the evidence from CPGs and SR-MAs. RESULTS: Thirteen CPGs and 22 SR-MAs met our inclusion criteria. Of the 13 CPGs, 7 CPGs (54% mentioned TM interventions, and all were for acupuncture (only one was for both acupuncture and acupressure. However, the CPGs did not recommend acupuncture (or acupressure. Of 22 SR-MAs, 16 were for acupuncture, 5 for manual therapy, 1 for cupping, and none for moxibustion and herbal medicine. Comparing the evidence from CPGs and SR-MAs, an underestimation or omission of evidence for acupuncture, cupping, and manual therapy in current CPGs was detected. Thus, applying the results from the SR-MAs, we moderately recommend acupuncture for chronic LBP, but we inconclusively recommend acupuncture for (subacute LBP due to the limited current evidence. Furthermore, we weakly recommend cupping and manual therapy for both (subacute and chronic LBP. We cannot provide recommendations for moxibustion and herbal medicine due to a lack of evidence. CONCLUSIONS: The current CPGs did not fully reflect the evidence for TM interventions. As relevant studies such as SR-MAs are conducted and evidence increases, the current evidence on acupuncture, cupping, and manual therapy should be rigorously considered in the process of developing or updating the CPG system.

  16. A comprehensive analysis of clinical outcomes in lung cancer patients harboring a MET exon 14 skipping mutation compared to other driver mutations in an East Asian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gow, Chien-Hung; Hsieh, Min-Shu; Wu, Shang-Gin; Shih, Jin-Yuan

    2017-01-01

    Recurrent somatic splice-site alterations at MET exon 14 (MET(Δ14)), which result in exon skipping and MET proto-oncogene, receptor tyrosine kinase (MET) activation, have been characterised. However, their demographic features and clinical outcomes in East Asian lung cancer patients have yet to be determined. A one-step reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), using RNA samples from 850 East Asian lung cancer patients, was performed in order to detect MET(Δ14) and five other major driver mutations, including those in the EGFR, KRAS, ALK, HER2, and ROS1 genes. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) was used to confirm the overexpression of MET in patients harbouring the MET(Δ14) mutation. We analysed the demographic data and clinical outcomes of MET(Δ14) mutation positive lung cancer patients and compared them to those of MET(Δ14) mutation negative lung cancer patients. In total, 27 lung adenocarcinoma (ADC) patients and 1 squamous cell carcinoma patient with the MET(Δ14) mutation were identified. The overall incidence was 3.3% for lung cancer and 4.0% for lung ADC. IHC demonstrated that the majority of lung cancer patients harboring a MET(Δ14) mutation exhibited a strong cytoplasmic expression of MET. MET(Δ14) mutation positive patients were generally quite elderly individuals. Stage IV MET(Δ14) mutation positive lung cancer patients receiving no specific anti-MET therapy were observed to have a similar overall survival (OS) compared to patients in the all negative group (P>0.05). In the multivariate analysis, mutation status was found not to be a major risk factor for OS in lung cancer patients without appropriate tyrosine kinase inhibitors treatment. The OS of MET(Δ14) mutation positive lung cancer patients is comparable to that of the major driver gene mutation negative lung cancer patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Profound Climatic Effects on Two East Asian Black-Throated Tits (Ave: Aegithalidae), Revealed by Ecological Niche Models and Phylogeographic Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenjuan; Lin, Congtian; Gao, Bin; Yang, Xiaojun; Zhang, Zhengwang; Lei, Fumin

    2011-01-01

    Although a number of studies have assessed the effects of geological and climatic changes on species distributions in East Asian, we still have limited knowledge of how these changes have impacted avian species in south-western and southern China. Here, we aim to study paleo-climatic effects on an East Asian bird, two subspecies of black-throated tit (A. c. talifuensis–concinnus) with the combined analysis of phylogeography and Ecological Niche Models (ENMs). We sequenced three mitochondrial DNA markers from 32 populations (203 individuals) and used phylogenetic inferences to reconstruct the intra-specific relationships among haplotypes. Population genetic analyses were undertaken to gain insight into the demographic history of these populations. We used ENMs to predict the distribution of target species during three periods; last inter-glacial (LIG), last glacial maximum (LGM) and present. We found three highly supported, monophyletic MtDNA lineages and different historical demography among lineages in A. c. talifuensis–concinnus. These lineages formed a narrowly circumscribed intra-specific contact zone. The estimated times of lineage divergences were about 2.4 Ma and 0.32 Ma respectively. ENMs predictions were similar between present and LGM but substantially reduced during LIG. ENMs reconstructions and molecular dating suggest that Pleistocene climate changes had triggered and shaped the genetic structure of black-throated tit. Interestingly, in contrast to profound impacts of other glacial cycles, ENMs and phylogeographic analysis suggest that LGM had limited effect on these two subspecies. ENMs also suggest that Pleistocene climatic oscillations enabled the formation of the contact zone and thus support the refuge theory. PMID:22195047

  18. Adherence to cardiovascular medications in the South Asian population: A systematic review of current evidence and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akeroyd, Julia M; Chan, Winston J; Kamal, Ayeesha K; Palaniappan, Latha; Virani, Salim S

    2015-12-26

    To review methods of assessing adherence and strategies to improve adherence to cardiovascular disease (CVD) medications, among South Asian CVD patients. We conducted a systematic review of English language studies that examined CVD medication adherence in South Asian populations from 1966 to April 1, 2015 in SCOPUS and PubMed. Working in duplicate, we identified 61 studies. After exclusions, 26 studies were selected for full text review. Of these, 17 studies were included in the final review. We abstracted data on several factors including study design, study population, method of assessing adherence and adherence rate. These studies were conducted in India (n = 11), Pakistan (n = 3), Bangladesh (n = 1), Nepal (n = 1) and Sri Lanka (n = 1). Adherence rates ranged from 32%-95% across studies. Of the 17 total publications included, 10 focused on assessing adherence to CVD medications and 7 focused on assessing the impact of interventions on medication adherence. The validated Morisky Medication Adherence Scale (MMAS) was used as the primary method of assessing adherence in five studies. Three studies used validated questionnaires similar to the MMAS, and one study utilized Medication Event Monitoring System caps, with the remainder of the studies utilizing pill count and self-report measures. As expected, studies using non-validated self-report measures described higher rates of adherence than studies using validated scale measurements and pill count. The included intervention studies examined the use of polypill therapy, provider education and patient counseling to improve medication adherence. The overall medication adherence rates were low in the region, which suggest a growing need for future interventions to improve adherence.

  19. A review of amnestic MCI screening in east/southeast Asian older adults with low education: implications for early informant-clinician collaboration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Magdalene L; Gomez, Rowena; Koopman, Cheryl

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study is to review the recent literature on established cognitive tests and appropriate screening methods for amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI) in East/Southeast Asian older adults with a focus on those with low education. Peer-reviewed empirical studies conducted in Asia (China, Hong Kong, Japan, Korea, Singapore, and Taiwan) were identified using databases in psychology and medicine with combinations of the search terms "mild cognitive impairment," "dementia," "screening," "literacy," "illiteracy," "low education," "informant," "family," "cognitive test," "memory complaints," "activities of daily living," and "clinical dementia rating," limiting articles to those published in English since 1 January 2002. Of note, is that the term "amnestic mild cognitive impairment" was not used for searching the articles because the related cognitive impairment were often categorized non-specifically as MCI, but participants included those with amnestic cognitive challenges. Hence, the general term "MCI" has been used often throughout the text. Twelve studies that examined MCI screens were identified. An integrative approach using a combination of cognitive test and informant-based measure may be more sensitive or accurate than using any single screening method alone. MCI misdiagnosis may be prevalent, highlighting the need for early collaborative work between informants and clinicians to improve the accuracy of this diagnosis in older Asian adults with low education. Findings were suggestive, although restricted in generalizability even within similar cultural groups or neighboring regions. Clinical application is limited, but some findings provide guidance for future research. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Reconstruction of the springtime East Asian Subtropical Jet and Western Pacific pattern from a millennial-length Taiwanese tree-ring chronology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, W. E.; Guan, B. T.; Tseng, Y.-H.; Cook, E. R.; Wei, K.-Y.; Chang, S.-T.

    2015-03-01

    The East Asian subtropical jet (EAJ) and the closely related Western Pacific pattern (WP) are among the most important features in global atmospheric dynamics, but little is known about their long-term variability. This study presents reconstructions of the Spring EAJ index (EAJI) and the Spring WP index (WPI) based on significant relationships identified between mean values for these features and a millennial length tree-ring width chronology of Chamaecyparis obtusa var. formosana, a high-mountain cloud forest species from northeastern Taiwan. Tree-ring based reconstructions of high pass filtered versions of the EAJI and WPI (EAJI 5YR and WPI 5YR) presented herein explain 42 and 31 % of the WPI 5YR and EAJI 5YR, respectively, and display acceptable reliability back to A.D. 1237. A significant trend present in the long-term variance of the reconstructed EAJI and WPI after A.D. 1860 suggests long-term increasing variability in the spring mean latitudinal placement and/or the strength/breadth of the EAJ core region near Taiwan and Japan and in the trajectory of the EAJ over the North Pacific. Related features affected by changes in the EAJ include the North Pacific storm track and Asian Dust transport.

  1. Light absorption and morphological properties of soot-containing aerosols observed at an East Asian outflow site, Noto Peninsula, Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Ueda, S.; Nakayama, T; F. Taketani; Adachi, K.; Matsuki, A.; Iwamoto, Y.; Y. Sadanaga; Matsumi, Y.

    2015-01-01

    The coating of black carbon (BC) with inorganic salts and organic compounds can enhance the magnitude of light absorption by BC. To elucidate the enhancement of light absorption of aged BC particles and its relation to the mixing state and morphology of individual particles, we conducted observations of particles at an Asian outflow site in Noto Peninsula, Japan, in the spring of 2013. Absorption and scattering coefficients at 405, 532, and 781 nm and mass concentrations/mix...

  2. Light absorption and morphological properties of soot-containing aerosols observed at an East Asian outflow site, Noto Peninsula, Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Ueda, Sayako; Nakayama, Tomoki; Taketani, Fumikazu; ADACHI, Kouji; Matsuki, Atsushi; Iwamoto, Yoko; SADANAGA, Yasuhiro; Matsumi, Yutaka

    2016-01-01

    The coating of black carbon (BC) with inorganic salts and organic compounds can enhance the magnitude of light absorption by BC. To elucidate the enhancement of light absorption of aged BC particles and its relation to the mixing state and morphology of individual particles, we conducted observations of particles at an Asian outflow site in Noto Peninsula, Japan, in the spring of 2013. Absorption and scattering coefficients at 405, 532, and 781 nm and mass concentrations/mix...

  3. Self-medication misuse in the Middle East: a systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalifeh, Malak M; Moore, Nicholas D; Salameh, Pascale R

    2017-08-01

    Regulations usually distinguish between prescription-only (POM) and over-the-counter (OTC) medicines. The former requires medical prescription; the latter are available for SM of common minor or easily treated ailments. However, in the Eastern Mediterranean countries, theoretical prescription medicines can easily be purchased without a prescription, as self-medication (SM) resulting in potential misuse and unnecessary risk for patients. The magnitude of this activity is uncertain. The aim of this article, therefore, is to undertake a comprehensive review to identify the different types of medicines that can easily be purchased as SM in Middle East and recognized as misused. An extensive review of the published literature (1990-2015) was conducted using Pubmed, web of science, Cochrane, and Google Scholar databases, for OTC medicine misuse in the Middle East. A total of 72 papers were identified. Medicines involved in misuse included: codeine containing products, topical anesthetics, topical corticosteroids, antimalarial, and antibiotics. Self-medication misuse of medicines seemed widespread. Individual treatment patterns were not clearly identified. Studies were not standardized, limiting the comparability between studies and the estimation of the scale of misuse. Pharmacists, friends, or parents were found to be the main sources of SMs. Knowledge and attitudes are an important contributing factor in the misuse of these medications. Strategies and interventions to limit misuse were rarely identified in literature. In conclusion, a massive problem involving a range of medicines was found in Middle East. Standardization of studies is a prerequisite to the understanding and prevention of misuse of self-medication. © 2017 The Authors. Pharmacology Research & Perspectives published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd, British Pharmacological Society and American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  4. Avoiding student infection during a Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS outbreak: a single medical school experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung Won Park

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: In outbreaks of infectious disease, medical students are easily overlooked in the management of healthcare personnel protection although they serve in clinical clerkships in hospitals. In the early summer of 2015, Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS struck South Korea, and students of Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine (SKKUSOM were at risk of contracting the disease. The purpose of this report is to share SKKUSOM’s experience against the MERS outbreak and provide suggestions for medical schools to consider in the face of similar challenges. Methods: Through a process of reflection-on-action, we examined SKKUSOM’s efforts to avoid student infection during the MERS outbreak and derived a few practical guidelines that medical schools can adopt to ensure student safety in outbreaks of infectious disease. Results: The school leadership conducted ongoing risk assessment and developed contingency plans to balance student safety and continuity in medical education. They rearranged the clerkships to another hospital and offered distant lectures and tutorials. Five suggestions are extracted for medical schools to consider in infection outbreaks: instant cessation of clinical clerkships; rational decision making on a school closure; use of information technology; constant communication with hospitals; and open communication with faculty, staff, and students. Conclusion: Medical schools need to take the initiative and actively seek countermeasures against student infection. It is essential that medical schools keep constant communication with their index hospitals and the involved personnel. In order to assure student learning, medical schools may consider offering distant education with online technology.

  5. Analysis of Long-Range Transport of Carbon Dioxide and Its High Concentration Events over East Asian Region Using GOSAT Data and GEOS-Chem Modeling

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    Seung-Yeon Kim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to evaluate the long-range transport of CO2 in East Asian region, using concentration data in a surface measurement site (Gosan Station, column averaged concentration data of satellite-borne instrument (GOSAT, and GEOS-Chem modeling results for the period of June 2009 to May 2011. We perform a validation of the data from GOSAT and GEOS-Chem with total column observations (TCCON. The analysis of the long-range transport and high concentration (HC events using surface/satellite observations and modeling results is conducted. During the HC events, the concentrations in CO2 and other air pollutants such as SO2 and CO are higher than that of all episodes. It means that CO2, known as a globally well-mixed gas, may also act as a fingerprint of human activity with unique regional characteristics like other air pollutants. This comprehensive analysis, in particular with GOSAT CO2 observation data, shows that CO2 plume with high concentration can be long-range transported with 1-2 days’ duration with regional scale. We can find out with GEOS-Chem tagging simulation that more than 45% of the elevated CO2 concentration over central/eastern China, Korea, and Japan on high concentration days can be explained by emission sources of East Asia mainland.

  6. Difference in Practice Patterns in the Management of Endometrial Cancer: A Survey of the Members of 4 East Asian Gynecologic Oncology Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jung-Yun; Kim, Jae Weon; Lee, Taek Sang; Zang, Rongyu; Chen, Xiaojun; Yang, Jiaxin; Wang, Kung-Liahng; Sugiyama, Toru

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this article was to identify current practice patterns of care in the surgical and adjuvant management of endometrial cancer in East Asia (Korea, Japan, China, and Taiwan) METHODS: A validated 20-item questionnaire on surgical and adjuvant procedures for endometrial cancer was sent to active members of the Gynecologic Oncology Group from 4 East Asian countries. Data were collected using an Internet survey database. A total of 376 members from Korea (n = 108), Japan (n = 140), China (n = 51), and Taiwan (n = 77) responded to the survey. With respect to early-stage endometrial cancer, laparotomy (57.7%) was the most preferred mode of surgery in Japan, whereas laparoscopy was the most common in the remaining 3 countries. For patients with presumed stage IA/G1 disease, approximately 65% of respondents favored systematic lymphadenectomy. For patients with presumed stage IB disease, most respondents stated that systematic lymphadenectomy should be performed (92.6% for stage IBG1, 95.8% for stage IBG3). Meanwhile, the extents of lymphadenectomy differed among countries (P Japan, whereas concurrent chemoradiotherapy was preferred in the other countries. Considerable agreement was identified with respect to the necessity for lymphadenectomy for surgical staging and the indications for adjuvant therapy. However, extents of surgery and preferred adjuvant treatment options for endometrial cancer varied widely between countries.

  7. The Industrial Revolution in the Twentieth Century, with a Focus on Japan and the East Asian Followers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ericson, Steven J.

    2000-01-01

    Addresses the suitability of the term "revolution," the national versus transnational focus, and characterizations of the industrial revolution. Considers a late-development model of industrialization and its application to East Asia. Focuses on issues in Japanese industrialization, such as the role of the Japanese government, militarism…

  8. Medical devices and the Middle East: market, regulation, and reimbursement in Gulf Cooperation Council states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Howard JJ

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Jason J Howard Division of Paediatric Orthopaedics, Department of Surgery, Sidra Medical and Research Center, Doha, Qatar Abstract: With some of the richest economies in the world, the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC is undergoing rapid growth not only in its population but also in health care expenditure. Despite the GCC's abundance of hydrocarbon-based wealth, the drivers of the medical device industry in the GCC are still in flux, with gains yet to be made in areas of infrastructure, regulation, and reimbursement. However, the regional disease burden, expanding health insurance penetration, increasing privatization, and a desire to attract skilled expatriate health care providers have led to favorable conditions for the medical device market in the GCC. The purpose of this article is to investigate the current state of the GCC medical device industry, with respect to market, regulation, and reimbursement, paying special attention to the three largest medical device markets: Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates, and Qatar. The GCC would seem to represent fertile ground for the development of medical technologies, especially those in line with the regional health priorities of the respective member states. Keywords: medical devices, regulation, reimbursement, Middle East 

  9. Medical educators working abroad: a pilot study of educators' experiences in the Middle East.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, Michelle; McKimm, Judy; Major, Stella

    2014-09-01

    Medical education is now a global enterprise, with many medical educators working internationally, either for short or longer periods or even permanently. In parallel, many medical schools are now involved in collaborations and partnerships with schools in other countries. With this in mind, we set out to explore what motivates, supports and inhibits medical educators who wish to or might work outside their "home country". This article reports on the pilot stage (in specific organizational contexts in Middle East) of a longitudinal project aimed at canvassing medical educators on a broader global scale, using reflective accounts and a questionnaire survey. The findings from this pilot study raise interesting issues about the lived experience of medical educators who have chosen to work in a different culture from their own. Respondents identify many advantages around skills, personal and professional development. Three main issues emerged in terms of educators' experiences: the academic environment, medical practice in a different cultural context and personal matters. Adapting to the local culture, gender segregation and the impact on learning and teaching was an overarching factor. We introduce an explanatory framework to explain the development of international educator identity, a cyclical process in which, through experiences and reflection, individual world views and perspectives are continually modified and developed. This pilot study tested the methodologies and developed a new conceptual model that will be used in a wider study across different cultures.

  10. “Diversity: Our Strength”: South and East Asian immigrants’ ethnic identity in the Greater Toronto Area

    OpenAIRE

    Lurye, Polina

    2016-01-01

    This Master’s thesis examines the history of Canadian immigration policies from the beginning of the 20th century until 2014, giving specific attention to the Greater Toronto Area (GTA). This Area is currently the most popular destination for immigrants in the country and population of immigrant descent is expected to become the majority in this region. The increase in its’ population is connected with the growing number of immigrants from South and East Asia and the thesis research focuses o...

  11. Development of the Japanese National Disaster Medical System and Experiences during the Great East Japan Earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homma, Masato

    2015-01-01

    After the Great Hanshin-Awaji Earthquake in 1995, the Japanese national disaster medical system (NDMS) was developed. It mainly consists of four components, namely, a disaster base hospital, an emergency medical information system, a disaster medical assistance team (DMAT), and national aeromedical evacuation (AE). The NDMS was tested for the first time in a real disaster situation during the Great East Japan Earthquake in 2011. Two airports and one base were appointed as DMAT gathering places, and approximately 393 DMAT members divided into 78 teams were transported by Japan Air Self-Defense Force (JASDF) aircrafts to two AE staging bases the following day. Staging care units were installed at Hanamaki Airport, Fukushima Airport, and the Japan Ground Self-Defense Force Camp Kasuminome, and 69, 14 and 24 DMAT teams were placed at those locations, respectively. In total, 19 patients were evacuated using JASDF fixed-wing aircraft. Important issues requiring attention became clear through the experiences of the Great East Japan Earthquake and will be discussed in this paper. PMID:26306054

  12. Inferiority of ticagrelor in the PHILO trial: Play of chance in East Asians or nightmare confirmation of PLATO-USA?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serebruany, Victor L; Tomek, Ales; Pya, Yury; Bekbossynova, Makhabbat; Kim, Moo Hyun

    2016-07-15

    Long-awaiting PHILO trial, conducted in 2011-2012 has been submitted and published late in 2015. In contrast to overall PLATO results, but similar to PLATO-US cohort, PHILO revealed numerical inferiority of ticagrelor with regard to death, myocardial infarction, stroke, and bleeding over clopidogrel. Hence, we comprehend the PHILO results in light of the PLATO-US evidence. To assess the PHILO (n=801) outcomes, applied statistics, and trial conduct, matching them with the PLATO-US (n=1413) patients. The Asian, predominantly Japanese ticagrelor patients had worsened outcomes even when compared to the negative American cohort with regard to death (OR=1.44 (PHILO) vs. 1.17 (PLATO-US); myocardial infarction (OR=1.63 vs. 1.38); and composite primary endpoint (OR=1.60 vs. 1.27); but not for stroke (OR=1.51 vs. 1.75). Moreover, in contrast to the trend in PLATO-US (OR=1.11; CI=0.84-1.48, p=0.46), PHILO revealed significant excess of PLATO-defined composite of major and minor bleeding events (OR=1.83; CI=1.27-2.63,p=0.0014). PLATO-defined "net clinical benefit" in PHILO was also significantly (OR=1.61; CI=1.11-2.34, p=0.0145) inferior for ticagrelor. The "number needed to harm" suggests that for every 29 PHILO patients treated for 12months with ticagrelor instead of clopidogrel, one will suffer an additional major bleeding event. Finally, unexplained premature closure of PHILO just after 200-210days mean drug exposure, and short 240days mean follow-up seems deliberate and concerning with regard to unblinding. Aside from some information censoring, early trial closure, and creative statistics, Asian ticagrelor patients did consistently worse in PHILO, than even in the negative PLATO-US cohort. Especially alarming is a significant bleeding inferiority justifying a necessity for a separate outcome-driven low-dose ticagrelor trial in Asian post-PCI patients. This strategy was successfully implemented with the low-dose prasugrel in Japan. Regulatory authorities in Asia may

  13. Impacts of East Asian summer and winter monsoons on interannual variations of mass concentrations and direct radiative forcing of black carbon over eastern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Yu-Hao; Liao, Hong; Chen, Hai-Shan

    2017-04-01

    We applied a global three-dimensional chemical transport model (GEOS-Chem) to examine the impacts of the East Asian monsoon on the interannual variations of mass concentrations and direct radiative forcing (DRF) of black carbon (BC) over eastern China (110-125° E, 20-45° N). With emissions fixed at the year 2010 levels, model simulations were driven by the Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS-4) meteorological fields for 1986-2006 and the Modern Era Retrospective-analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) meteorological fields for 1980-2010. During the period of 1986-2006, simulated June-July-August (JJA) and December-January-February (DJF) surface BC concentrations were higher in MERRA than in GEOS-4 by 0.30 µg m-3 (44 %) and 0.77 µg m-3 (54 %), respectively, because of the generally weaker precipitation in MERRA. We found that the strength of the East Asian summer monsoon (EASM; East Asian winter monsoon, EAWM) negatively correlated with simulated JJA (DJF) surface BC concentrations (r = -0. 7 (-0.7) in GEOS-4 and -0.4 (-0.7) in MERRA), mainly by the changes in atmospheric circulation. Relative to the 5 strongest EASM years, simulated JJA surface BC concentrations in the 5 weakest monsoon years were higher over northern China (110-125° E, 28-45° N) by 0.04-0.09 µg m-3 (3-11 %), but lower over southern China (110-125° E, 20-27° N) by 0.03-0.04 µg m-3 (10-11 %). Compared to the 5 strongest EAWM years, simulated DJF surface BC concentrations in the 5 weakest monsoon years were higher by 0.13-0.15 µg m-3 (5-8 %) in northern China and by 0.04-0.10 µg m-3 (3-12 %) in southern China. The resulting JJA (DJF) mean all-sky DRF of BC at the top of the atmosphere was 0.04 W m-2 (3 %; 0.03 W m-2, 2 %) higher in northern China but 0.06 W m-2 (14 %; 0.03 W m-2, 3 %) lower in southern China. In the weakest monsoon years, the weaker vertical convection at the elevated altitudes led to the lower BC concentrations above 1-2 km in southern China, and therefore the

  14. Mixing of Asian mineral dust with anthropogenic pollutants over East Asia: a model case study of a super-duststorm in March 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Li

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Mixing of Asian mineral dust with anthropogenic pollutants allows pollutants (e.g. sulfate and nitrate to be transported over longer distances (e.g. to the northern Pacific, even to North America along with dust particles. This mixing therefore affects the atmospheric and oceanic environment at local, regional and even continental scales. In this study, we used a three-dimensional regional chemical transport model (Nested Air Quality Predicting Modeling System, NAQPMS to examine the degree of mixing between Asian mineral dust and anthropogenic pollutants in a super-duststorm event during 19–22 March 2010. Influences of the mixing processes on regional atmospheric environmental and oceanic biogeochemical cycles were also investigated. A comparison with measurements showed that the model reproduced well the trajectory of long-range dust transport, the vertical dust profile, and the chemical evolution of dust particles. We found that along-path mixing processes during the long-range transport of Asian dust led to increasingly polluted particles. As a result, ~60% of the sulfate and 70–95% of the nitrate in the downwind regions was derived from active mixing processes of minerals with pollutants sourced from the North China Plain and enhanced by transport over South China. This mixing had a significant impact on the regional-scale atmospheric composition and oceanic biogeochemical cycle. Surface HNO3, SO2 and O3 were decreased by up to 90%, 40% and 30%, respectively, due to the heterogeneous reactions on dust particles. Fe solubility rose from ~0.5% in the Gobi region to ~3–5% in the northwestern Pacific, resulting from oxidization of SO2 on dust particles. Total Fe(II deposition in the ocean region of East Asia reached 327 tons during the 4-day dust event, and created a calculated primary productivity of ~520 mgC m−2 d−1 in the Kuril Islands, which can support almost 100

  15. Numerical Modeling of 1997-2006 Asian Dust and Mass Budget Analysis in East Asia and West Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, M.; Westphal, D. L.

    2006-12-01

    East Asia has two of the Earth's major natural dust sources: the Taklamakan Desert in west China and the Gobi Desert in Mongolia and northwest China. Desertification has increased dust-erodible areas surrounding the deserts so the dust storm frequency has increased in the last few decades. Severe dust storms not only impact East Asia, but also can reach far beyond the continent, as did the dust clouds of April 1998, 2001 and 2005 that drifted over the Pacific Ocean and to North America. The US Navy's operational Coupled Ocean/Atmospheric Mesoscale Prediction System (COAMPS) is used to simulate the dust events for the springs of 1997 through 2006 at a resolution of one quarter of degree with multiple size bins. We use the modeled data to investigate the spatial and temporal dependence of dust emission, transport and deposition, and estimate the impacts of dust on environment. The distribution of dust plumes in area coverage and vertical depth is studied, as is the inter-annual variation of dust patterns from the different deserts of China and Mongolia, and the fluxes across the Pacific. It is found that PM10 is the dominant fraction particles over the continent and near the ocean, while PM2.5 becomes dominant in the boundary outflow along 170E. The details of analyzed model results will be presented at the meeting.

  16. Prescribing patterns and adherence to medication among South-Asian, Chinese and white people with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, E; Wang, H; King-Shier, K M; Quan, H; Rabi, D M; Khan, N A

    2014-12-01

    To determine the prescribing of and adherence to oral hypoglycaemic agents, insulin, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers and statin therapy among South-Asian, Chinese and white people with newly diagnosed diabetes. The present study was a population-based cohort study using administrative and pharmacy databases to include all South-Asian, Chinese and white people aged ≥ 35 years with diabetes living in British Columbia, Canada (1997-2006). Adherence to each class of medication was measured using proportion of days covered over 1 year with optimum adherence defined as ≥ 80%. The study population included 9529 South-Asian, 14 084 Chinese and 143 630 white people with diabetes. The proportion of people who were prescribed angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers, statin or oral hypoglycaemic agents was ≤ 50% for all groups. South-Asian and Chinese people had significantly lower adherence for all medications than white people, with the lowest adherence to angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor treatment (South-Asian people: adjusted odds ratio 0.37, 95% CI 0.34-0.39; P2, 95% CI 0.67 - 0.77; PAdherence to evidence-based pharmacotherapy was substantially worse among the South-Asian and Chinese populations. Care providers need to be alerted to the high levels of non-adherence in these groups and the underlying causes need to be investigated. © 2014 The Authors. Diabetic Medicine © 2014 Diabetes UK.

  17. Practical Problems of Legal Regulation of Customs Duties Developing an International Trade Between the Republic of Lithuania And East Asian Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valantiejus Gediminas

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available For more than ten years (since 2004 the Republic of Lithuania is a member of the EU and is realizing its economic and trade relations with other foreign countries, and regulating customs duties according to the requirements of the EU Common Commercial Policy. However, in the recent years foreign trade (in particular - exports of goods remained one of the main factors which increased an economic growth (recovery in the Republic of Lithuania after the global economic crisis of the world, which began in 2008. In this context, the search for new markets and expansion of trade relations with new trade partners in Asia became essential in order to diversify the structure of the national economy and avoid dependence on traditional trade partners, such as Russia. Taking into account this strategic goal, the article seeks to answer a question whether an existing foreign trade regulation system ensures the status of Lithuania as an attractive partner of foreign trade with East Asian countries (Taiwan, Hong Kong, South Korea and Singapore and what regulatory instruments (customs duty rules and procedures should be used on the national level to ensure cooperation with these countries. In order to answer this problematic question, the first chapter of the article overviews general tendencies in Lithuanian foreign trade with the countries of East Asia, while the second chapter is dedicated to describe regulatory regime for import customs duties on the national level (in line with the major provisions of the EU Common Commercial Policy. The practical problems and obstacles to international trade are presented in the third chapter and are illustrated by the examples of case law, which was formed in disputes relating to the decisions and actions of Lithuanian national customs authorities for the period from 1 May, 2004 (since entry to the EU.

  18. Characteristics of the Extreme Low Temperature Events in Winter Half Year in China and Its Relationship to East Asian Winter Monsoon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yongqiu; Zhou, Lian-Tong

    2017-04-01

    Based on daily minimum temperature dataset from 553 stations from 1961 to 2012 in China, extreme low temperature (ELT) thresholds are determined for different stations and occurrence frequency of ELT events in winter half year for each station is estimated and analyzed. And then several partitions in China are divided by empirical orthogonal function and it is verified to be credible by correlation analysis. Meanwhile, the spatial and temporal distribution of ELT events in each sub-region is diagnosed. Finally, the relationship between ELT events and East Asian winter monsoon (EAWM) circulation is studied by doing some correlation analysis. The results suggest that: the ELT events in winter half year in China are remarkably decreased in recent 51 years, but there are some differences between southern and northern areas. From 1964 to 1980, the ELT events in northeast, north and northwest of China are more than average and that are less than average in south, east and southwest of China, while it is just the reverse from 1981 to 1996. Moreover, the distribution of ELT events also shows a longitudinal oscillation. The correlation analysis between the frequency of ELT events in winter half year and EAWM index indicates that the two has good correlation with each other. And meanwhile, the correlation analysis between the frequency of ELT events in winter half year and sea level pressure shows that the former has a good positive correlation with Siberian High. Besides, the distribution of the difference between two period mean sea level pressure, from 1961 to 1979 and from 1980 to 2011, shows that Siberian High has an obviously southwardly movement and a trend of weakening after 1980, which go against the outbreak of the cold, that is why the ELT events in winter half year in most areas of China have an abrupt decrease.

  19. Prevalence and characteristics of metabolic syndrome in South-East Asian psoriatic patients: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokpol, Chayada; Aekplakorn, Wichai; Rajatanavin, Natta

    2014-10-01

    The prevalence of metabolic syndrome in Asian psoriatic patients compared with that of the general population shows variable results. This study aimed to examine the association between psoriasis and metabolic syndrome in a Thai population. This case-control study included 199 psoriatic patients and 199 controls matched for sex and age from the general Thai population. There were 111 men (55.8%) and 88 women (44.2%) in both the psoriatic and control groups. The mean age (± standard deviation) of both groups was 50.04 ± 13.81 and 49.96 ± 14.39 years (P = 0.91), respectively. The majority of psoriatic cases (82.9%) were of plaque type. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was significantly higher in psoriatic patients than in the general population at 49.25% versus 30.65%. After controlling for age, sex, smoking and alcohol drinking the odds ratio was 2.25 (P metabolic components which were significantly higher in the cases than controls included hyperglycemia, high blood pressure (HBP) and abdominal obesity. No statistically significant difference was found between the cases and controls regarding prevalence of obesity, hypertriglyceridemia and low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Thai psoriatic patients had a higher prevalence of metabolic syndrome than the general population. In conclusion, the prevalence of HBP, hyperglycemia and abdominal obesity was significantly higher in cases than in controls. © 2014 Japanese Dermatological Association.

  20. South China, East Vietnam or West Philippine? Comparative Framing Analysis of Regional News Coverage of Southeast Asian Sea Disputes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freeman Bradley C.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available For years, the world paid scant attention to the sporadic skirmishes and sovereignty squabbles in what is known by many as the South China Sea. However, in the past few years, there have been several noteworthy happenings that have drawn the attention of media outlets, including a Chinese oil rig placement near Vietnam, a Philippineinternational court case, a U.S.–ASEAN summit, and Chinese reclamation projects. Many of the countries involved are members of the regional grouping known as ASEAN (Association of Southeast Asian Nations. This study examined Asean’s English-language press, looking at the amount, patterns, and tone of coverage given to regional maritime disputes. Results indicate that use of the term ‘South China Sea’ prevails in all countries except Vietnam. The Asean newspapers have devoted a consistent and substantial amount of space to covering the topic. Indonesia’s Jakarta Post tended to use neutral or positive language when mentioning Asean and the US, while China saw more negative associations in the coverage. Further research is suggested, taking into account mass communication theories and perspectives.

  1. Transport of East Asian dust storms to the marginal seas of China and the southern North Pacific in spring 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Sai-Chun; Li, Jiawei; Che, Huizheng; Chen, Bin; Wang, Hong

    2017-01-01

    The transport of a super-severe dust storm that occurred in East Asia from 19 to 22 March 2010 has been well documented by both model simulations and surface observations. We investigated the transport of this severe dust storm and several other spring 2010 dust storms using model simulations, backward trajectories, and measurements from the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation (CALIPSO) satellite. The model simulations indicated that the emission of dust in spring 2010 was about 35% higher than that in spring 2006 and was twice that of the 44-year average from 1960 to 2003. The dust emissions over two major source regions (western China and the Gobi Desert) in spring 2010 accounted for 86% of the total amount of dust. The simulated depositional flux over the two major source regions was c.2.7-9.0 times that over two marginal seas (the Yellow Sea and the East China Sea) and more than two magnitudes higher than that over the North Pacific Subtropical Gyre. The mean extinction coefficient observed by the CALIPSO satellite over the two source regions was c.1.3-3.7 times that over the two marginal seas and one magnitude higher than that over the North Pacific. This was consistent with the result from our model, suggesting that this model is able to capture the major features of dust storms. The vertical profiles recorded by the CALIPSO satellite indicated that the dust aerosol mainly floated from the ground to 13 km above ground level over the source regions and above the seas. A multiple dust layer appeared over the seas and the backward trajectories suggested that the dust aerosol in different layers may have been sourced from different regions.

  2. Characteristics of the built environment for people with dementia in East and Southeast Asian nursing homes: a scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Joanna; Fleming, Richard

    2017-11-02

    This scoping review explores the characteristics of the current built environment used to accommodate people with dementia in East and Southeast Asia. It is structured around the eight principles of design found in the Environmental Audit Tool High-Care. In addition, the review examines the level of knowledge and other influences contributing to the development of nursing homes in the region. The review was carried out utilizing the methodological framework recommended by Arksey and O'Malley. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses provided an overarching structural framework for the reporting process and the Population, Intervention, Comparison, Outcomes, and Context framework defined the scope of the review and focused on the research question. Six databases were accessed for the search, and 1,846 publications between 2001 and 2015 were retrieved. A total of 48 articles from 9 countries met the inclusion criteria. All articles presented discussions that fundamentally included at least one principle of design and with some including all principles. The most prevailing principle discussed, found in 59% of all the articles was the need for familiarity for residents in the environmental design of facilities. The review found that the eight principles of design, when applied with cultural sensitivity in countries in East and Southeast Asia can identify gaps in knowledge of the design for dementia enabling environments and suggest areas for improvement. An assessment tool based on the principles of design will be able to provide a guide for stakeholders in the design, development, or modification of nursing home environments.

  3. Molecular characterization and specific detection of two genetically distinguishable strains of East Asian Passiflora virus (EAPV) and their distribution in southern Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukumoto, Tomohiro; Nakamura, Masayuki; Rikitake, Miwako; Iwai, Hisashi

    2012-02-01

    The Ibusuki (IB) strain of the East Asian Passiflora virus (EAPV) causes mottling of fruit when it infects passionfruit, but not malformation or woodiness, unlike the Amami-O-shima (AO) strain, and the host range for these two strains are different. We determined the complete nucleotide sequence of the IB strain, and a comparison with that of the AO strain revealed the great diversity of the 5'-terminal region of the IB strain's genome (5' UTR and P1 gene). The involvement of these regions in the different symptoms on fruit and host range was suggested. The neighbor-joining tree constructed using the nucleotide sequences of coat protein gene of eight EAPV isolates including those from abroad showed the independent position of the IB strain, and that constructed using the whole ORFs also showed distant relationships between the AO and IB strains. We investigated the distribution of the two strains in southern Japan from 2005 to 2010. The AO strain was detected in the samples from AO at all periods, and its emergence was also observed in the Kagoshima mainland in 2005. In contrast, the IB strain is restricted to the Kagoshima mainland, and the distribution survey revealed that this strain is now extinct even in this region, indicating the uniqueness of the IB strain in terms of sequence properties and geographical distribution.

  4. Overview: oxidant and particle photochemical processes above a south-east Asian tropical rainforest (the OP3 project: introduction, rationale, location characteristics and tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. N. Hewitt

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In April–July 2008, intensive measurements were made of atmospheric composition and chemistry in Sabah, Malaysia, as part of the "Oxidant and particle photochemical processes above a South-East Asian tropical rainforest" (OP3 project. Fluxes and concentrations of trace gases and particles were made from and above the rainforest canopy at the Bukit Atur Global Atmosphere Watch station and at the nearby Sabahmas oil palm plantation, using both ground-based and airborne measurements. Here, the measurement and modelling strategies used, the characteristics of the sites and an overview of data obtained are described. Composition measurements show that the rainforest site was not significantly impacted by anthropogenic pollution, and this is confirmed by satellite retrievals of NO2 and HCHO. The dominant modulators of atmospheric chemistry at the rainforest site were therefore emissions of BVOCs and soil emissions of reactive nitrogen oxides. At the observed BVOC:NOx volume mixing ratio (~100 pptv/pptv, current chemical models suggest that daytime maximum OH concentrations should be ca. 105 radicals cm−3, but observed OH concentrations were an order of magnitude greater than this. We confirm, therefore, previous measurements that suggest that an unexplained source of OH must exist above tropical rainforest and we continue to interrogate the data to find explanations for this.

  5. Long-term genetic stability and a high-altitude East Asian origin for the peoples of the high valleys of the Himalayan arc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Choongwon; Ozga, Andrew T; Witonsky, David B; Malmström, Helena; Edlund, Hanna; Hofman, Courtney A; Hagan, Richard W; Jakobsson, Mattias; Lewis, Cecil M; Aldenderfer, Mark S; Di Rienzo, Anna; Warinner, Christina

    2016-07-05

    The high-altitude transverse valleys [>3,000 m above sea level (masl)] of the Himalayan arc from Arunachal Pradesh to Ladahk were among the last habitable places permanently colonized by prehistoric humans due to the challenges of resource scarcity, cold stress, and hypoxia. The modern populations of these valleys, who share cultural and linguistic affinities with peoples found today on the Tibetan plateau, are commonly assumed to be the descendants of the earliest inhabitants of the Himalayan arc. However, this assumption has been challenged by archaeological and osteological evidence suggesting that these valleys may have been originally populated from areas other than the Tibetan plateau, including those at low elevation. To investigate the peopling and early population history of this dynamic high-altitude contact zone, we sequenced the genomes (0.04×-7.25×, mean 2.16×) and mitochondrial genomes (20.8×-1,311.0×, mean 482.1×) of eight individuals dating to three periods with distinct material culture in the Annapurna Conservation Area (ACA) of Nepal, spanning 3,150-1,250 y before present (yBP). We demonstrate that the region is characterized by long-term stability of the population genetic make-up despite marked changes in material culture. The ancient genomes, uniparental haplotypes, and high-altitude adaptive alleles suggest a high-altitude East Asian origin for prehistoric Himalayan populations.

  6. Still in the “Drivers’ Seat”, But for How Long? ASEAN’s Capacity for Leadership in East-Asian International Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Jones

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper assesses the capacity of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN to moderate great-power relations in East Asia, especially in light of recent regional developments that have challenged ASEAN’s traditional modus operandi and its corporate cohesion. The first of three sections argues that capacity emerges not from institutional arrangements but rather the social relationships that give rise to particular institutions, and therefore can only be understood relationally. A number of key relationships are highlighted and explored in the rest of the paper. First, the relationships among regional great powers, which are considered in section two. Second, the relationships among ASEAN states, and between ASEAN states and their own societies, which are considered in section three. The paper's basic argument is that the first set of relationships is essentially what gives ASEAN its capacity to play a wider regional role. However, it also sets profound constraints for what this role can involve in practical terms. The second set of relationships also creates serious and deep constraints that are often not well understood. However, despite the serious limitations on ASEAN’s leadership role, unless the first set of relationships change, this role is likely to continue, regardless of how frustrating or ineffectual it might be.

  7. Cyclone induced East-Asian SO2 transport to the lower stratosphere: First proof by airborne measurements of SO2 and Fukushima Xe-133

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlager, Hans; Baumann, Robert; Aufmhoff, Heinfried; Reiter, Anja; Schumann, Ulrich [DLR, IPA, Oberpfaffenhofen (Germany); Arnold, Frank [MPIK, Heidelberg (Germany); DLR, IPA, Oberpfaffenhofen (Germany); Simgen, Hardy; Rauch, Ludwig; Lindemann, Sebastian; Kaether, Florian [MPIK, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    The stratospheric aerosol layer contributes to the planetary albedo and influences stratospheric chemistry, and therefore is of considerable interest. The layer is thought to be formed preferably via SO2 injection by volcanic eruptions. Here, we report on observations of anthropogenic SO2 injection into the lower stratosphere. We have conducted airborne measurements of elevated SO2 and Fukushima Xe-133 at altitudes up to 13 km. The Xe-133, which was released by the March 2011 Fukushima nuclear power plant complex accident, is chemically inert and served as an ideal transport tracer. It has a half-live (against radioactive decay) of 5.25 days, similar to the SO2 half-live (against OH-induced conversion to aerosol particles). Our measurements unambiguously proved that cyclone induced injection of East-Asian SO2 containing planetary boundary layer air into the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere is operative. Implications of the observed injected stratospheric SO2 are discussed, including the formation and effects of stratospheric aerosol particles.

  8. Was Jeju Island a glacial refugium for East Asian warm-temperate plants? Insights from the homosporous fern Selliguea hastata (Polypodiaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Mi Yoon; Moon, Myung-Ok; López-Pujol, Jordi; Maki, Masayuki; Yamashiro, Tadashi; Yukawa, Tomohisa; Sugiura, Naoto; Lee, Yung-I; Chung, Myong Gi

    2013-11-01

    We posed two hypotheses for broad scenarios of postglacial recolonization of Korea by the warm-temperate vegetation: (1) that extant Korean populations are derived from a single refugium, or (2) that they are derived from multiple refugia. We chose a homosporous fern typical of East Asian warm-temperate vegetation, Selliguea hastata, to test which of the two scenarios is more likely and to check whether Japan contained putative glacial refugia. Using 16 allozyme loci, we obtained genotypes of 756 individuals from 20 populations, representative of the whole distribution area in Korea (including Jeju Island), Japan, and Taiwan. We assessed genetic variability within and among populations, Wright's F-statistics, and conducted analysis of molecular variance, model-based Bayesian clustering, and bottleneck tests. We found no allozyme variation within populations of S. hastata in mainland Korea, whereas genetic polymorphism was detected for populations from Jeju Island, Japan (in particular a population from southeastern Shikoku), and Taiwan. The levels of inbreeding within populations were high, consistent with the potential of S. hastata for intragametophytic selfing. Data on allelic richness together with Bayesian clustering methods suggest a pattern of postglacial recolonization of mainland Korea from a single refugium, probably located either on Jeju Island or in Japan. Jeju Island should merit the highest priority for conservation biogeography, as it played a role as a Quaternary refugium for arctic-alpine, boreal, temperate as well as warm-temperate plants, as suggested here.

  9. Oceanographic Currents and Local Ecological Knowledge Indicate, and Genetics Does Not Refute, a Contemporary Pattern of Larval Dispersal for The Ornate Spiny Lobster, Panulirus ornatus in the South-East Asian Archipelago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dao, Hoc Tan; Smith-Keune, Carolyn; Wolanski, Eric; Jones, Clive M; Jerry, Dean R

    2015-01-01

    Here we utilize a combination of genetic data, oceanographic data, and local ecological knowledge to assess connectivity patterns of the ornate spiny lobster Panulirus ornatus (Fabricius, 1798) in the South-East Asian archipelago from Vietnam to Australia. Partial mitochondrial DNA control region and 10 polymorphic microsatellites did not detect genetic structure of 216 wild P. ornatus samples from Australia, Indonesia and Vietnam. Analyses show no evidence for genetic differentiation among populations (mtDNA control region sequences ΦST = -0.008; microsatellite loci FST = 0.003). A lack of evidence for regional or localized mtDNA haplotype clusters, or geographic clusters of microsatellite genotypes, reveals a pattern of high gene flow in P. ornatus throughout the South-East Asian Archipelago. This lack of genetic structure may be due to the oceanography-driven connectivity of the pelagic lobster larvae between spawning grounds in Papua New Guinea, the Philippines and, possibly, Indonesia. The connectivity cycle necessitates three generations. The lack of genetic structure of P. ornatus population in the South-East Asian archipelago has important implications for the sustainable management of this lobster in that the species within the region needs to be managed as one genetic stock.

  10. Oceanographic Currents and Local Ecological Knowledge Indicate, and Genetics Does Not Refute, a Contemporary Pattern of Larval Dispersal for The Ornate Spiny Lobster, Panulirus ornatus in the South-East Asian Archipelago.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoc Tan Dao

    Full Text Available Here we utilize a combination of genetic data, oceanographic data, and local ecological knowledge to assess connectivity patterns of the ornate spiny lobster Panulirus ornatus (Fabricius, 1798 in the South-East Asian archipelago from Vietnam to Australia. Partial mitochondrial DNA control region and 10 polymorphic microsatellites did not detect genetic structure of 216 wild P. ornatus samples from Australia, Indonesia and Vietnam. Analyses show no evidence for genetic differentiation among populations (mtDNA control region sequences ΦST = -0.008; microsatellite loci FST = 0.003. A lack of evidence for regional or localized mtDNA haplotype clusters, or geographic clusters of microsatellite genotypes, reveals a pattern of high gene flow in P. ornatus throughout the South-East Asian Archipelago. This lack of genetic structure may be due to the oceanography-driven connectivity of the pelagic lobster larvae between spawning grounds in Papua New Guinea, the Philippines and, possibly, Indonesia. The connectivity cycle necessitates three generations. The lack of genetic structure of P. ornatus population in the South-East Asian archipelago has important implications for the sustainable management of this lobster in that the species within the region needs to be managed as one genetic stock.

  11. Effect of the tropical Pacific and Indian Ocean warming since the late 1970s on wintertime Northern Hemispheric atmospheric circulation and East Asian climate interdecadal changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Cuijiao; Yang, Xiu-Qun; Sun, Xuguang; Yang, Dejian; Jiang, Yiquan; Feng, Tao; Liang, Jin

    2017-07-01

    Observation reveals that the tropical Pacific-Indian Ocean (TPIO) has experienced a pronounced interdecadal warming since the end of the 1970s. Meanwhile, the wintertime midlatitude Northern Hemispheric atmospheric circulation and East Asian climate have also undergone substantial interdecadal changes. The effect of the TPIO warming on these interdecadal changes are identified by a suite of AMIP-type atmospheric general circulation model experiments in which the model is integrated from September 1948 to December 1999 with prescribed historical, observed realistic sea surface temperature (SST) in a specific region and climatological SST elsewhere. Results show that the TPIO warming reproduces quite well the observed Northern Hemispheric wintertime interdecadal changes, suggesting that these interdecadal changes primarily originate from the TPIO warming. However, each sub-region of TPIO has its own distinct contribution. Comparatively, the tropical central-eastern Pacific (TCEP) and tropical western Pacific (TWP) warming makes dominant contributions to the observed positive-phase PNA-like interdecadal anomaly over the North Pacific sector, while the tropical Indian Ocean (TIO) warming tends to cancel these contributions. Meanwhile, the TIO and TWP warming makes dominant contributions to the observed positive NAO-like interdecadal anomaly over the North Atlantic sector as well as the interdecadal anomalies over the Eurasian sector, although the TWP warming's contribution is relatively small. These remote responses are directly attributed to the TPIO warming-induced tropical convection, rainfall and diabatic heating increases, in which the TIO warming has the most significant effect. Moreover, the TPIO warming excites a Gill-type pattern anomaly over the tropical western Pacific, with a low-level anticyclonic circulation anomaly over the Philippine Sea. Of three sub-regions, the TIO warming dominates such a pattern, although the TWP warming tends to cancel this effect

  12. Expressing one's feelings and listening to others increases emotional intelligence: a pilot study of Asian medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Keiko; Evans, Phillip; Austin, Elizabeth J; Suzuki, Yasuyuki; Fujisaki, Kazuhiko; Niwa, Masayuki; Aomatsu, Muneyoshi

    2013-06-07

    There has been considerable interest in Emotional Intelligence (EI) in undergraduate medical education, with respect to student selection and admissions, health and well-being and academic performance. EI is a significant component of the physician-patient relationship. The emotional well-being of the physician is, therefore, a significant component in patient care. The aim is to examine the measurement of TEIQue-SF in Asian medical students and to explore how the practice of listening to the feelings of others and expressing one's own feelings influences an individual's EI, set in the context of the emotional well-being of a medical practitioner. A group of 183 international undergraduate medical students attended a half-day workshop (WS) about mental-health and well-being. They completed a self-reported measure of EI on three occasions, pre- and post-workshop, and a 1-year follow-up. The reliability of TEIQue-SF was high and the reliabilities of its four factors were acceptable. There were strong correlations between the TEIQue-SF and personality traits. A paired t-test indicated significant positive changes after the WS for all students (n=181, p=.014), male students (n=78, p=.015) and non-Japanese students (n=112, p=.007), but a repeated measures analysis showed that one year post-workshop there were significant positive changes for all students (n=55, p=.034), female students (n=31, p=.007), especially Japanese female students (n=13, p=.023). Moreover, 80% of the students reported that they were more attentive listeners, and 60% agreed that they were more confident in dealing with emotional issues, both within themselves and in others, as a result of the workshop. This study found the measurement of TEIQue-SF is appropriate and reliable to use for Asian medical students. The mental health workshop was helpful to develop medical students' EI but showed different results for gender and nationality. The immediate impact on the emotional awareness of individuals

  13. Medical Hydrogeology of Asian Deltas: Status of Groundwater Toxicants and Nutrients, and Implications for Human Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad A. Hoque

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Drinking water, a fluid primarily for human hydration, is also a source of mineral nutrients. Groundwater, a drinking water source for more than 70% of inhabitants living in Asian deltas, has received much attention because of its naturally occurring arsenic, but the linkage of arsenic toxicity with other water constituents has not been studied. In addition, although nutrients are generally provided by food, in under developed rural settings, where people subsist on low nutrient diets, drinking-water-nutrients may supply quantities critical to human health thereby preventing diseases. Here, we show, using augmented datasets from three Asian deltas (Bengal, Mekong, and Red River, that the chemical content of groundwater is so substantial that in some areas individuals obtain up to 50% or more of the recommended daily intake (RDI of some nutrients (e.g., calcium, magnesium, iron from just two litres of drinking water. We also show some indications of a spatial association of groundwater nutrients and health outcome using demographic health data from Bangladesh. We therefore suggest that an understanding of the association of non-communicable disease and poor nutrition cannot be developed, particularly in areas with high levels of dissolved solids in water sources, without considering the contribution of drinking water to nutrient and mineral supply.

  14. Medical Hydrogeology of Asian Deltas: Status of Groundwater Toxicants and Nutrients, and Implications for Human Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoque, Mohammad A; Butler, Adrian P

    2015-12-26

    Drinking water, a fluid primarily for human hydration, is also a source of mineral nutrients. Groundwater, a drinking water source for more than 70% of inhabitants living in Asian deltas, has received much attention because of its naturally occurring arsenic, but the linkage of arsenic toxicity with other water constituents has not been studied. In addition, although nutrients are generally provided by food, in under developed rural settings, where people subsist on low nutrient diets, drinking-water-nutrients may supply quantities critical to human health thereby preventing diseases. Here, we show, using augmented datasets from three Asian deltas (Bengal, Mekong, and Red River), that the chemical content of groundwater is so substantial that in some areas individuals obtain up to 50% or more of the recommended daily intake (RDI) of some nutrients (e.g., calcium, magnesium, iron) from just two litres of drinking water. We also show some indications of a spatial association of groundwater nutrients and health outcome using demographic health data from Bangladesh. We therefore suggest that an understanding of the association of non-communicable disease and poor nutrition cannot be developed, particularly in areas with high levels of dissolved solids in water sources, without considering the contribution of drinking water to nutrient and mineral supply.

  15. Increasing synoptic scale variability in atmospheric CO2 at Hateruma Island associated with increasing East-Asian emissions

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    S. Hashimoto

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In-situ observations of atmospheric CO2 and CH4 at Hateruma Island (24.05° N, 123.80° E, 47 m a.s.l, Japan shows large synoptic scale variations during a 6-month period from November to April, when the sampled air is predominantly of continental origin due to the Asian winter monsoon. Synoptic scale variations are extracted from the daily averaged values for the years between 1996 and 2007, along with the annual standard deviations (σCO2 and σCH4 for CO2 and CH4, respectively for the relevant 6-month period. During this 6-month period the absolute mixing ratios of CO2 and CH4 at Hateruma are also elevated compared to those at two sites in the central North Pacific Ocean. The temporal change in σCO2 shows a systematic increase over the 12-year period, with elevated excursions in 1998 and 2003; there is no clear increase in σCH4. We also find that the σCO2/σCH4 ratio increases gradually from 1996 to 2002 and rapidly after 2002 without any extreme deviations that characterised σCO2. The σCO2/σCH4 ratio correlates closely with the recent rapid increase in fossil carbon emissions from China, as indicated in the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC database. This methodology can be applied to multiple chemical tracers of sufficient lifetime, for tracking overall changes in regional emissions.

  16. South-East Asian Fortified Stone Walls: Angkor Thom (Cambodia, Ho Citadel (Vietnam and Ratu Boko (Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Lluís Pérez Garcia

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to analyze three significant examples of defensive walls from South-East Asia made of solid stone blocks (both rock as well as stone-like laterite and provided with different but equivalent functions –a fortified imperial capital-city (Angkor Thom, in Cambodia, a fortified royal citadel (Ho Citadel, in the North of Vietnam and a royal palace with a partly fortified appearance (Ratu Boko, in Java Island, Indonesia–, focusing on their constructive and technical characteristics and establishing parallels between them and their closest counterparts, from China and India. We will see how their design and structure can be closely related to the fortifications of neighbouring empires, as places of origin of their strong cultural influences and, at the same time, we will try to identify the local particularities. We will pay special attention to the form of the fortified enceintes, considering the long tradition of the quadrangular plan in the walls of royal capitals, inspired in the ideal model of Chinese and Indian cities. Our research also make us think that the walls of Ratu Boko, despite their functions as symbolic limits or for retaining the soil, could also have had a defensive purpose, no matter if secondary, or at least they could be used to provide protection to the complex in case of external menace.

  17. Systematic Review of Breast Cancer Biology in Developing Countries (Part 2): Asian Subcontinent and South East Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhikoo, Riyaz, E-mail: riyazbhikoo@gmail.com; Srinivasa, Sanket; Yu, Tzu-Chieh [Department of Surgery, South Auckland Clinical School, University of Auckland, Auckland 1640 (New Zealand); Moss, David [Department of Surgery, Middlemore Hospital, Auckland 1640 (New Zealand); Hill, Andrew G [Department of Surgery, South Auckland Clinical School, University of Auckland, Auckland 1640 (New Zealand)

    2011-05-13

    There has been no systematic appraisal of ethnicity-based variations in breast cancer (BC) biology amongst women from developing countries. A qualitative systematic review was conducted of breast cancer size, stage, grade, histological type, extra-mammary involvement, hormone receptor status as well as patient demographics. This review includes patients from Africa, the Middle East, Eastern Europe, Mexico, the Caribbean and South America. BC in these regions present at an earlier age with large aggressive tumours. Distant metastases are frequently present at the time of diagnosis. African women have a higher frequency of triple negative tumours. Over half of Middle Eastern women have lymph node involvement at the time of diagnosis. Despite experiencing a lower incidence compared to the Ashkenazi Jewish population, Palestinian women have poorer five-year survival outcomes. The majority of women from Mexico and South America have stage two or three disease whilst over sixty percent of women from Eastern Europe have either stage one or stage two disease. The biological characteristics of BC in the Caribbean cannot be fully assessed due to a paucity of data from the region. BC amongst the developing world is characterised by an early peak age of onset with aggressive biological characteristics. Strategies that improve breast cancer awareness, address amenable risk factors and improve early detection are essential.

  18. High rates of pneumonia in children under two years of age in a South East Asian refugee population.

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    Claudia Turner

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There are an estimated 150 million episodes of childhood pneumonia per year, with 11-20 million hospital admissions and 1.575 million deaths. Refugee children are particularly vulnerable, with poorly defined pneumonia epidemiology. METHODS: We followed a birth cohort of 955 refugee infants, born over a one-year period, until two years of age. Clinical and radiographic pneumonia were diagnosed according to WHO criteria. Detailed characteristics were collected to determine risk factors for clinical, radiological and multiple episodes of pneumonia. Investigations were taken during a pneumonia episode to help determine or to infer an aetiological diagnosis. FINDINGS: The incidence of clinical pneumonia was 0.73 (95% CI 0.70-0.75 episodes per child year (/CY and of radiological primary endpoint pneumonia (PEP was 0.22/CY (95% CI 0.20-0.24. The incidence of pneumonia without severe signs was 0.50/CY (95% CI 0.48-0.53, severe pneumonia 0.15/CY (95% CI 0.13-0.17 and very severe pneumonia 0.06/CY (0.05-0.07. Virus was detected, from a nasopharyngeal aspirate, in 61.3% of episodes. A reduced volume of living space per person (IRR 0.99, 95% CI 0.99-1.0, p = 0.003 and young maternal age (IRR 1.59, 95% CI 1.12-2.27, p = 0.01 were risk factors for developing pneumonia. The risk of a child having >1 episode of pneumonia was increased by having a shorter distance to the next house (IRR 0.86, 95% CI 0.74-1.00, p = 0.04. Infants were at risk of having an episode of PEP if there was a shorter distance from stove to bed (IRR 0.89, 95% CI 0.80-0.99, p = 0.03. Raised CRP and neutrophil values were associated with PEP. CONCLUSIONS: There was a high incidence of pneumonia in young children in this SE Asian refugee population. Viral infections were important, however CXR and non-specific marker findings suggested that bacteria may be involved in up to a third of cases.

  19. Light absorption and morphological properties of soot-containing aerosols observed at an East Asian outflow site, Noto Peninsula, Japan

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    S. Ueda

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The coating of black carbon (BC with inorganic salts and organic compounds can enhance the magnitude of light absorption by BC. To elucidate the enhancement of light absorption of aged BC particles and its relation to the mixing state and morphology of individual particles, we conducted observations of particles at an Asian outflow site in Noto Peninsula, Japan, in the spring of 2013. Absorption and scattering coefficients at 405, 532, and 781 nm and mass concentrations/mixing states of refractory BC in PM2.5 were measured using a three-wavelength photoacoustic soot spectrometer and a single-particle soot photometer (SP2, respectively, after passage through a thermodenuder (TD maintained at 300 or 400 °C or a bypass line maintained at room temperature (25 °C. The average enhancement factor of BC light absorption due to coating was estimated by comparing absorption coefficients at 781 nm for particles that with and without passing through the TD at 300 °C and was found to be 1.22. The largest enhancements (> 1.30 were observed under high absorption coefficient periods when the air mass was long-range transported from urban areas in China. Aerosol samples were also analyzed using a transmission electron microscope (TEM equipped with an energy dispersive X-ray analyzer. The morphological features and mixing states of soot-containing particles of four samples collected during the high absorption events were analyzed by comparing microphotographs before and after the evaporation of beam-sensitive materials by irradiation with a high-density electron beam. The majority of the soot in all samples was found as mixed particles with sulfate-containing spherules or as clusters of such spherules. For samples showing high enhancement (> 1.30 of BC light absorption, the TEM showed that the internally mixed soot-containing particles tended to have a more spherical shape and to be thickly coated. The SP2 measurements also suggested that the

  20. Light absorption and morphological properties of soot-containing aerosols observed at an East Asian outflow site, Noto Peninsula, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, Sayako; Nakayama, Tomoki; Taketani, Fumikazu; Adachi, Kouji; Matsuki, Atsushi; Iwamoto, Yoko; Sadanaga, Yasuhiro; Matsumi, Yutaka

    2016-03-01

    The coating of black carbon (BC) with inorganic salts and organic compounds can enhance the magnitude of light absorption by BC. To elucidate the enhancement of light absorption of aged BC particles and its relation to the mixing state and morphology of individual particles, we conducted observations of particles at an Asian outflow site in Noto Peninsula, Japan, in the spring of 2013. Absorption and scattering coefficients at 405, 532, and 781 nm and mass concentrations/mixing states of refractory BC in PM2.5 were measured using a three-wavelength photoacoustic soot spectrometer and a single-particle soot photometer (SP2), respectively, after passage through a thermodenuder (TD) maintained at 300 or 400 °C or a bypass line maintained at room temperature (25 °C). The average enhancement factor of BC light absorption due to coating was estimated by comparing absorption coefficients at 781 nm for particles that with and without passing through the TD at 300 °C and was found to be 1.22. The largest enhancements (> 1.30) were observed under high absorption coefficient periods when the air mass was long-range transported from urban areas in China. Aerosol samples were also analyzed using a transmission electron microscope (TEM) equipped with an energy dispersive X-ray analyzer. The morphological features and mixing states of soot-containing particles of four samples collected during the high absorption events were analyzed by comparing microphotographs before and after the evaporation of beam-sensitive materials by irradiation with a high-density electron beam. The majority of the soot in all samples was found as mixed particles with sulfate-containing spherules or as clusters of such spherules. For samples showing high enhancement (> 1.30) of BC light absorption, the TEM showed that the internally mixed soot-containing particles tended to have a more spherical shape and to be thickly coated. The SP2 measurements also suggested that the proportion of thickly coated

  1. [Socio-medical profile of post-polio syndrome patients in center east of Tunisia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorgati, Asma; Maaref, Khaled; Naouar, Nader; Zaoui, Afif; Ghannouchi, Slaheddine

    2014-01-01

    The diagnosis of the post polio syndrome is purely clinic. It occurs few decade after poliomyelitis. It associates recent appearance or progressive worsening of muscular weakness, pain, muscular fatigue or atrophy. It remains not recognized in Tunisia. of our study is to identify the socio-medical profile of the postpolio population in the Tunisian east central region through a check of the risk factors and the clinical characteristics of these patients. Descriptive study analyzing 32 files (medical expertise) of post polio syndrome patients The risk factors of post polio syndrome such us female gender, obesity, low educational level, early age of poliomyelitis appearance and the importance of physical effort at work, were observed in our study and are in agreement with the literature data. Average delay of post polio syndrome occurrence was 40 years. Most Disturbing symptom was the muscular pain. All our patients indicated negative impact on their everyday life and their work. They all asked for their right for incapacity or long-term disease beside the National health insurance fund (CNAM). Recognition of patients affected by the Post polio syndrome and their social and medical needs are necessary.

  2. A comparison of psychotropic medication prescribing patterns in East of England prisons and the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Lamiece; Senior, Jane; Frisher, Martin; Edge, Dawn; Shaw, Jenny

    2014-04-01

    While the prevalence of mental illness is higher in prisons than in the community, less is known about comparative rates of psychotropic medicine prescribing. This is the first study in a decade to determine the prevalence and patterns of psychotropic medication prescribing in prisons. It is also the first study to comprehensively adjust for age when making comparisons with the general population. Four East of England prisons, housing a total of 2222 men and 341 women were recruited to the study. On census days, clinical records were used to identify and collect data on all prisoners with current, valid prescriptions for hypnotic, anxiolytic, antipsychotic, antimanic, antidepressant and/or stimulant medication, as listed in chapters 4.1 to 4.4 of the British National Formulary. Data on 280,168 patients were obtained for comparison purposes from the Clinical Practice Research Datalink. After adjusting for age, rates of psychotropic prescribing in prison were 5.5 and 5.9 times higher than in community-based men and women, respectively. We also found marked differences in the individual psychotropic drugs prescribed in prison and community settings. Further work is necessary to determine whether psychotropic prescribing patterns in prison reflect an appropriate balance between managing mental illness, physical health risks and medication misuse.

  3. The role of medical interpretation on breast and cervical cancer screening among Asian American and Pacific Islander women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Jeff; Lee, Jessica; Tran, Jacqueline H; Kagawa-Singer, Marjorie; Foo, Mary Anne; Nguyen, Tu-Uyen N; Valdez-Dadia, Annalyn; Thomson, Jasmin; Tanjasiri, Sora Park

    2010-06-01

    We examined whether the impact of medical interpretation services was associated with the receipt of a mammogram, clinical breast exam, and Pap smear. We conducted a large cross-sectional study involving four Asian American and Pacific Islander (AAPI) communities with high proportions of individuals with limited English proficiency (LEP). Participants were recruited from community clinics, churches and temples, supermarkets, and other community gathering sites in Northern and Southern California. Among those that responded, 98% completed the survey rendering a total of 1,708 AAPI women. In a series of multivariate logistic regression models, it was found that women who typically used a medical interpreter had a greater odds of having received a mammogram (odds ratio [OR] = 1.85; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.21, 2.83), clinical breast exam (OR = 3.03; 95% CI = 1.82, 5.03), and a Pap smear (OR = 2.34; 95% CI = 1.38, 3.97) than those who did not usually use an interpreter. The study provides support for increasing language access in healthcare settings. In particular, medical interpreters may help increase the utilization of breast and cervical cancer screening among LEP AAPI women.

  4. Spatio-temporal variation of fish taxonomic composition in a South-East Asian flood-pulse system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heng Kong

    Full Text Available The Tonle Sap Lake (TSL is a flood-pulse system. It is the largest natural lake in South-East Asia and constitutes one of the largest fisheries over the world, supporting the livelihood of million peoples. Nonetheless, the Mekong River Basin is changing rapidly due to accelerating water infrastructure development (hydropower, irrigation, flood control, and water supply and climate change, bringing considerable modifications to the annual flood-pulse of the TSL. Such modifications are expected to have strong impacts on fish biodiversity and abundance. This paper aims to characterize the spatio-temporal variations of fish taxonomic composition and to highlights the underlying determinants of these variations. For this purpose, we used data collected from a community catch monitoring program conducted at six sites during 141 weeks, covering two full hydrological cycles. For each week, we estimated beta diversity as the total variance of the site-by-species community matrix and partitioned it into Local Contribution to Beta Diversity (LCBD and Species Contribution to Beta Diversity (SCBD. We then performed multiple linear regressions to determine whether species richness, species abundances and water level explained the temporal variation in the contribution of site and species to beta diversity. Our results indicate strong temporal variation of beta diversity due to differential contributions of sites and species to the spatial variation of fish taxonomic composition. We further found that the direction, the shape and the relative effect of species richness, abundances and water level on temporal variation in LCBD and SCBD values greatly varied among sites, thus suggesting spatial variation in the processes leading to temporal variation in community composition. Overall, our results suggest that fish taxonomic composition is not homogeneously distributed over space and time and is likely to be impacted in the future if the flood-pulse dynamic of

  5. Spatio-temporal variation of fish taxonomic composition in a South-East Asian flood-pulse system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Heng; Chevalier, Mathieu; Laffaille, Pascal; Lek, Sovan

    2017-01-01

    The Tonle Sap Lake (TSL) is a flood-pulse system. It is the largest natural lake in South-East Asia and constitutes one of the largest fisheries over the world, supporting the livelihood of million peoples. Nonetheless, the Mekong River Basin is changing rapidly due to accelerating water infrastructure development (hydropower, irrigation, flood control, and water supply) and climate change, bringing considerable modifications to the annual flood-pulse of the TSL. Such modifications are expected to have strong impacts on fish biodiversity and abundance. This paper aims to characterize the spatio-temporal variations of fish taxonomic composition and to highlights the underlying determinants of these variations. For this purpose, we used data collected from a community catch monitoring program conducted at six sites during 141 weeks, covering two full hydrological cycles. For each week, we estimated beta diversity as the total variance of the site-by-species community matrix and partitioned it into Local Contribution to Beta Diversity (LCBD) and Species Contribution to Beta Diversity (SCBD). We then performed multiple linear regressions to determine whether species richness, species abundances and water level explained the temporal variation in the contribution of site and species to beta diversity. Our results indicate strong temporal variation of beta diversity due to differential contributions of sites and species to the spatial variation of fish taxonomic composition. We further found that the direction, the shape and the relative effect of species richness, abundances and water level on temporal variation in LCBD and SCBD values greatly varied among sites, thus suggesting spatial variation in the processes leading to temporal variation in community composition. Overall, our results suggest that fish taxonomic composition is not homogeneously distributed over space and time and is likely to be impacted in the future if the flood-pulse dynamic of the system is

  6. Medical response to the Great East Japan Earthquake in Ishinomaki City

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    Tadashi Ishii

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Problem: The Ishinomaki Red Cross Hospital is the only designated disaster hospital in the Ishinomaki Medical Zone, Japan that was undamaged from the Great East Japan Earthquake in March 2011. The tsunami completely destroyed a large part of the Ishinomaki Medical Zone.Context: The Ishinomaki Red Cross Hospital was designed with the capability to respond to disasters. An instruction manual for responding to disasters had been developed and was exercised through drills. Action: In accordance with the manual, the hospital disaster task force was established. The Ishinomaki Zone Joint Relief Team coordinated medical support from organizations such as physicians associations, dental associations, self-defence forces medical teams, pharmacists associations, the Japanese Red Cross and relief teams from hospitals all over the country. In three days, the joint relief team directly visited all emergency shelters to make an initial assessment and to collect information about the number and state of health of evacuees, provision of food and drinking water and the availability of electricity, water and sewerage. Outcome: Initial assessment revealed that 35 emergency shelters lacked a sufficient food supply and that 100 shelters had unsanitary conditions. The joint relief team provided the Miyagi Prefecture government and the Ishinomaki municipal government with information about emergency shelters that did not have a sufficient food supply. As of 30 September, the activities of the joint relief teams were completed, and there was no outbreak of communicable diseases in the Ishinomaki Medical Zone. A total of 328 shelters with 46 480 evacuees were managed by the Ishinomaki Zone Joint Relief Team.Discussion: Advanced preparation to quickly establish an initial response system, expertise, and decision-making ability and the ability to get things done are required for disaster response management.

  7. Holocene moisture and East Asian summer monsoon evolution in the northeastern Tibetan Plateau recorded by Lake Qinghai and its environs: A review of conflicting proxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fahu; Wu, Duo; Chen, Jianhui; Zhou, Aifeng; Yu, Junqing; Shen, Ji; Wang, Sumin; Huang, Xiaozhong

    2016-12-01

    Climatic and environmental changes in the northeastern Tibetan Plateau are controlled by the Asian summer monsoon (ASM) and the westerlies, two key circulation components of the global climate system which directly affect a large human population and associated ecosystems in eastern Asia. During the past few decades, a series of Holocene palaeoclimatic records have been obtained from sediment cores from Lake Qinghai and from various other geological archives in the surrounding area of the northeastern Tibetan Plateau. However, because of uncertainties regarding the sediment chronologies and the climatic significance of the proxies used, the nature of Holocene climatic changes in the region remains unclear and even controversial. Here we review all major classes of the published data from drilled cores from Lake Qinghai, as well as other evidence from lakes and aeolian deposits from surrounding areas, in order to reconstruct changes in moisture patterns and possible summer monsoon evolution in the area during the Holocene. Combining the results of moisture and precipitation proxies such as vegetation history, pollen-based precipitation reconstruction, aeolian activity, lake water depth/lake level changes, salinity and sediment redness, we conclude that moisture and precipitation began to increase in the early Holocene, reached their maximum during the middle Holocene, and decreased during the late Holocene - similar to the pattern of the East Asian summer monsoon (EASM) in northern China. It is clear that the region experienced a relatively dry climate and weak EASM during the early Holocene, as indicated by relatively low tree pollen percentages and fluctuating pollen concentrations; generally low lake levels of Lake Qinghai and the adjacent Lake Hurleg and Lake Toson in the Qaidam Basin; and widely distributed aeolian sand deposition in the Lake Qinghai Basin and the nearby Gonghe Basin to the south, and in the eastern Qaidam Basin to the west. We argue that the

  8. Modelling the Species Distribution of Flat-Headed Cats (Prionailurus planiceps), an Endangered South-East Asian Small Felid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hearn, Andrew J.; Hesse, Deike; Mohamed, Azlan; Traeholdt, Carl; Cheyne, Susan M.; Sunarto, Sunarto; Jayasilan, Mohd-Azlan; Ross, Joanna; Shapiro, Aurélie C.; Sebastian, Anthony; Dech, Stefan; Breitenmoser, Christine; Sanderson, Jim; Duckworth, J. W.; Hofer, Heribert

    2010-01-01

    Background The flat-headed cat (Prionailurus planiceps) is one of the world's least known, highly threatened felids with a distribution restricted to tropical lowland rainforests in Peninsular Thailand/Malaysia, Borneo and Sumatra. Throughout its geographic range large-scale anthropogenic transformation processes, including the pollution of fresh-water river systems and landscape fragmentation, raise concerns regarding its conservation status. Despite an increasing number of camera-trapping field surveys for carnivores in South-East Asia during the past two decades, few of these studies recorded the flat-headed cat. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study, we designed a predictive species distribution model using the Maximum Entropy (MaxEnt) algorithm to reassess the potential current distribution and conservation status of the flat-headed cat. Eighty-eight independent species occurrence records were gathered from field surveys, literature records, and museum collections. These current and historical records were analysed in relation to bioclimatic variables (WorldClim), altitude (SRTM) and minimum distance to larger water resources (Digital Chart of the World). Distance to water was identified as the key predictor for the occurrence of flat-headed cats (>50% explanation). In addition, we used different land cover maps (GLC2000, GlobCover and SarVision LLC for Borneo), information on protected areas and regional human population density data to extract suitable habitats from the potential distribution predicted by the MaxEnt model. Between 54% and 68% of suitable habitat has already been converted to unsuitable land cover types (e.g. croplands, plantations), and only between 10% and 20% of suitable land cover is categorised as fully protected according to the IUCN criteria. The remaining habitats are highly fragmented and only a few larger forest patches remain. Conclusion/Significance Based on our findings, we recommend that future conservation efforts for

  9. Blood cadmium concentrations and environmental exposure sources in newcomer South and East Asian women in the Greater Toronto Area, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiseman, C L S; Parnia, A; Chakravartty, D; Archbold, J; Zawar, N; Copes, R; Cole, D C

    2017-04-01

    Immigrant women are often identified as being particularly vulnerable to environmental exposures and health effects. The availability of biomonitoring data on newcomers is limited, thus, presenting a challenge to public health practitioners in the identification of priorities for intervention. In fulfillment of data needs, the purpose of this study was to characterize blood concentrations of cadmium (Cd) among newcomer women of reproductive age (19-45 years of age) living in the Greater Toronto Area (GTA), Canada and to assess potential sources of environmental exposures. A community-based model, engaging peer researchers from the communities of interest, was used for recruitment and follow-up purposes. Blood samples were taken from a total of 211 newcomer women from South and East Asia, representing primary, regional origins of immigrants to the GTA, and environmental exposure sources were assessed via telephone survey. Metal concentrations were measured in blood samples (diluted with 0.5% (v/v) ammonium hydroxide and 0.1% (v/v) octylphenol ethoxylate) using a quadrupole ICP-MS. Survey questions addressed a wide range of environmental exposure sources, including dietary and smoking patterns and use of nutritional supplements, herbal products and cosmetics. A geometric mean (GM) blood Cd concentration of 0.39µg/L (SD:±2.07µg/L) was determined for study participants (min/max: <0.045µg/L (LOD)/2.36µg/L). Several variables including low educational attainment (Relative Ratio (RR) (adjusted)=1.50; 95% CI 1.17-1.91), milk consumption (RR (adjusted)=0.86; 95% CI 0.76-0.97), and use of zinc supplements (RR (adjusted)=0.76; 95% CI 0.64-0.95) were observed to be significantly associated with blood Cd concentrations in the adjusted regression model. The variable domains socioeconomic status (R2adj=0.11) and country of origin (R2adj=0.236) were the strongest predictors of blood Cd. Blood Cd concentrations fell below those generally considered to be of human health

  10. Simulating atmospheric composition over a South-East Asian tropical rainforest: performance of a chemistry box model

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    T. A. M. Pugh

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric composition and chemistry above tropical rainforests is currently not well established, particularly for south-east Asia. In order to examine our understanding of chemical processes in this region, the performance of a box model of atmospheric boundary layer chemistry is tested against measurements made at the top of the rainforest canopy near Danum Valley, Malaysian Borneo. Multi-variate optimisation against ambient concentration measurements was used to estimate average canopy-scale emissions for isoprene, total monoterpenes and nitric oxide. The excellent agreement between estimated values and measured fluxes of isoprene and total monoterpenes provides confidence in the overall modelling strategy, and suggests that this method may be applied where measured fluxes are not available, assuming that the local chemistry and mixing are adequately understood. The largest contributors to the optimisation cost function at the point of best-fit are OH (29%, NO (22% and total peroxy radicals (27%. Several factors affect the modelled VOC chemistry. In particular concentrations of methacrolein (MACR and methyl-vinyl ketone (MVK are substantially overestimated, and the hydroxyl radical (OH concentration is substantially underestimated; as has been seen before in tropical rainforest studies. It is shown that inclusion of dry deposition of MACR and MVK and wet deposition of species with high Henry's Law values substantially improves the fit of these oxidised species, whilst also substantially decreasing the OH sink. Increasing OH production arbitrarily, through a simple OH recycling mechanism , adversely affects the model fit for volatile organic compounds (VOCs. Given the constraints on isoprene flux provided by measurements, a substantial decrease in the rate of reaction of VOCs with OH is the only remaining option to explain the measurement/model discrepancy for OH. A reduction in the isoprene+OH rate constant of 50%, in conjunction with

  11. Simulating atmospheric composition over a South-East Asian tropical rainforest: performance of a chemistry box model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugh, T. A. M.; MacKenzie, A. R.; Hewitt, C. N.; Langford, B.; Edwards, P. M.; Furneaux, K. L.; Heard, D. E.; Hopkins, J. R.; Jones, C. E.; Karunaharan, A.; Lee, J.; Mills, G.; Misztal, P.; Moller, S.; Monks, P. S.; Whalley, L. K.

    2010-01-01

    Atmospheric composition and chemistry above tropical rainforests is currently not well established, particularly for south-east Asia. In order to examine our understanding of chemical processes in this region, the performance of a box model of atmospheric boundary layer chemistry is tested against measurements made at the top of the rainforest canopy near Danum Valley, Malaysian Borneo. Multi-variate optimisation against ambient concentration measurements was used to estimate average canopy-scale emissions for isoprene, total monoterpenes and nitric oxide. The excellent agreement between estimated values and measured fluxes of isoprene and total monoterpenes provides confidence in the overall modelling strategy, and suggests that this method may be applied where measured fluxes are not available, assuming that the local chemistry and mixing are adequately understood. The largest contributors to the optimisation cost function at the point of best-fit are OH (29%), NO (22%) and total peroxy radicals (27%). Several factors affect the modelled VOC chemistry. In particular concentrations of methacrolein (MACR) and methyl-vinyl ketone (MVK) are substantially overestimated, and the hydroxyl radical (OH) concentration is substantially underestimated; as has been seen before in tropical rainforest studies. It is shown that inclusion of dry deposition of MACR and MVK and wet deposition of species with high Henry's Law values substantially improves the fit of these oxidised species, whilst also substantially decreasing the OH sink. Increasing OH production arbitrarily, through a simple OH recycling mechanism , adversely affects the model fit for volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Given the constraints on isoprene flux provided by measurements, a substantial decrease in the rate of reaction of VOCs with OH is the only remaining option to explain the measurement/model discrepancy for OH. A reduction in the isoprene+OH rate constant of 50%, in conjunction with increased

  12. Current progress toward eradicating Helicobacter pylori in East Asian countries: differences in the 2013 revised guidelines between China, Japan, and South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sun-Young

    2014-02-14

    New 2013 guidelines on Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection have been published in China, Japan, and South Korea. Like the previous ones, these new guidelines differ between the three countries with regard to the indications for H. pylori eradication, diagnostic methods, and treatment regimens. The most profound change among all of the guidelines is that the Japanese national health insurance system now covers the expenses for all infected subjects up to second-line treatment. This makes the Japanese indications for eradication much wider than those in China and South Korea. With regard to the diagnosis, a serum H. pylori antibody test is not recommended in China, whereas it is considered to be the most reliable method in Japan. A decrease relative to the initial antibody titer of more than 50% after 6-12 mo is considered to be the most accurate method for determining successful eradication in Japan. In contrast, only the urea breath test is recommended after eradication in China, while either noninvasive or invasive methods (except the bacterial culture) are recommended in South Korea. Due to the increased rate of antibiotics resistance, first-line treatment is omitted in China and South Korea in cases of clarithromycin resistance. Notably, the Japanese regimen consists of a lower dose of antibiotics for a shorter duration (7 d) than in the other countries. There is neither 14 d nor bismuth-based regimen in the first-line and second-line treatment in Japan. Such differences among countries might be due to differences in the approvals granted by the governments and national health insurance system in each country. Further studies are required to achieve the best results in the diagnosis and treatment of H. pylori infection based on cost-effectiveness in East Asian countries.

  13. Species composition, timing, and weather correlates of autumn open-water crossings by raptors migrating along the East-Asian Oceanic Flyway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Concepcion, Camille B.; Dumandan, Patricia T.; Silvosa, Medel R.; Bildstein, Keith L.; Katzner, Todd E.

    2017-01-01

    Raptor migration rarely involves long-distance movements across open oceans. One exception occurs along the East-Asian Oceanic Flyway. We collected migration data at two terrestrial hawkwatch sites along this flyway to better understand open-ocean movements along this largely overwater corridor. At the northern end of the Philippines, at Basco on the island of Batan, we recorded 7587 migratory raptors in autumn 2014. Near the southern end of the Philippines, at Cape San Agustin on the island of Mindanao, we recorded 27,399 raptors migrating in autumn 2012. Chinese Sparrowhawks (Accipiter soloensis) were the most common raptors observed, making up approximately 89% and 92% of total records for Basco and Cape San Agustin, respectively. The Grey-faced Buzzard (Butastur indicus) was the second most common raptor migrant, accounting for 8% of the total counts at both watch sites. The migration period was about 1–2 wk earlier at Basco, the more northerly site, than at Cape San Agustin. Overwater flights at Basco peaked in both the morning and late afternoon, whereas at Cape San Agustin there was only a morning peak. In general, the rate of migration passage at both sites was highest with clear skies when winds were blowing from the northwest. However, we observed interspecific differences in migration behavior at both sites, with Accipiters more likely to be observed with tailwinds and eastward winds, and Grey-faced Buzzards more likely observed with headwinds. These results help to characterize poorly known aspects of raptor biology and to identify potential migratory bottlenecks or key sites for raptor conservation in little-studied Philippine tropical ecosystems.

  14. 25-hydroxy-vitamin D demography and the risk of vitamin D insufficiency in the South East Asian Nutrition Surveys (SEANUTS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poh, Bee Koon; Rojroongwasinkul, Nipa; Nguyen, Bao Khanh Le; Sandjaja; Ruzita, Abd Talib; Yamborisut, Uruwan; Hong, Truong Nguyen; Ernawati, Fitrah; Deurenberg, Paul; Parikh, Panam

    2016-01-01

    The South East Asian Nutrition Surveys (SEANUTS) were conducted in 2010/2011 in Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand and Vietnam in country representative samples totalling 16,744 children aged 0.5 to 12 years. Information on socio-demographic and behavioural variables was collected using questionnaires and anthropometric variables were measured. In a sub-sample of 2016 children, serum 25-hydroxy-vitamin D (25(OH)D) was determined. Data were analysed using SPSS complex sample with weight factors to report population representative data. Children were categorized as deficient (=75 nmol/L). In Malaysia and Thailand, urban children had lower 25(OH)D than rural children. In all countries, except Vietnam, boys had higher 25(OH)D levels and older children had lower 25(OH)D. Regional differences after correcting for age, sex and area of residence were seen in all countries. In Thailand and Malaysia, 25(OH)D status was associated with religion. The percentage of children with adequate 25(OH)D (>=75 nmol/L) ranged from as low as 5% (Indonesia) to 20% (Vietnam). Vitamin D insufficiency (countries. Logistic regression showed that girls, urban area, region within the country and religion significantly increased the odds for being vitamin D insufficient. The high prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency in the (sub) tropical SEANUTS countries suggests a need for tailored approach to successfully combat this problem. Promoting active outdoor livestyle with safe sunlight exposure along with food-based strategies to improve vitamin D intake can be feasible options.

  15. [Sport-medical aspects concerning Asian martial arts Aikidô and Ving Tsun].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, D; Majerle, S; Schmidt, M; von Salis-Soglio, G

    2010-03-01

    Asian martial arts became very popular in Germany during the last years, nevertheless there are only few clinical inquiries concerning sportorthopaedic or -traumatological aspects. In this study we analyzed the risk and the prevalence of sport-injuries and sport-damages in Aikidô and Ving Tsun. 19 Aicidôca and 24 Ving Tsun athletes were to undergo broad survey and sport-orthopedic inspection. In this process an especially adapted examination-sheet after Baumann was used. 68.4 % of the Aikidoca and 79.2 % of the Ving Tsun athletes reported injuries, whereupon soft injuries dominated, severe injuries like luxations, ligamental und muscular ruptures appeared infrequently, the incidence of fractures was 1 % resp. 0.2 %. 37 % resp. 33.3 % of all injuries where related to the lower limb, 14.8 % resp. 16.7 % to the head and neck. Disorders dominated with 60 % resp. 50 % in the range of the knees. Persistent sport-damages could not be found in the clinical examinations. There is even just a low risk for severe sport-injuries and sport-damages while intensely practicing martial arts Aikidô and Ving Tsun for years. In the range of prevention the consequent use of protective gear (specificly bump cap and footwear) is important. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart, New York.

  16. Knowledge of Hazards of Self-Medication among Secondary School Students in Ethiopia East Local Government Area of Delta State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyeke, Patrick; Dafe, Onoharigho Festus

    2016-01-01

    This study is set out to ascertain the knowledge of hazards of self-medication among Secondary School Students. The descriptive Survey design was adopted for the work. The population of the study is 9,500 students in the public Secondary Schools, in Ethiope East Local Government Area of Delta State. The sample is 300 students randomly selected…

  17. Causes of delay in door-to-balloon time in south-east Asian patients undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen Jun Sim

    Full Text Available To evaluate causes and impact of delay in the door-to-balloon (D2B time for patients undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI.From January 2009 to December 2012, 1268 patients (86% male, mean age of 58 ± 12 years presented to our hospital for ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI and underwent PPCI. They were divided into two groups: Non-delay defined as D2B time ≤ 90 mins and delay group defined as D2B time > 90 mins. Data were collected retrospectively on baseline clinical characteristics, mode of presentation, angiographic findings, therapeutic modality and inhospital outcome.202 patients had delay in D2B time. There were more female patients in the delay group. They were older and tend to self-present to hospital. They were less likely to be smokers and have a higher prevalence of prior MI. The incidence of posterior MI was higher in the delay group. They also had a higher incidence of triple vessel disease. The 3 most common reasons for D2B delay was delay in the emergency department (39%, atypical clinical presentation (37.6% and unstable medical condition requiring stabilisation/computed tomographic imaging (26.7%. The inhospital mortality was numerically higher in the delay group (7.4% versus 4.8%, p = 0.12.Delay in D2B occurred in 16% of our patients undergoing PPCI. Several key factors for delay were identified and warrant further intervention.

  18. Causes of delay in door-to-balloon time in south-east Asian patients undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Wen Jun; Ang, An Shing; Tan, Mae Chyi; Xiang, Wen Wei; Foo, David; Loh, Kwok Kong; Jafary, Fahim Haider; Watson, Timothy James; Ong, Paul Jau Lueng; Ho, Hee Hwa

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate causes and impact of delay in the door-to-balloon (D2B) time for patients undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI). From January 2009 to December 2012, 1268 patients (86% male, mean age of 58 ± 12 years) presented to our hospital for ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) and underwent PPCI. They were divided into two groups: Non-delay defined as D2B time ≤ 90 mins and delay group defined as D2B time > 90 mins. Data were collected retrospectively on baseline clinical characteristics, mode of presentation, angiographic findings, therapeutic modality and inhospital outcome. 202 patients had delay in D2B time. There were more female patients in the delay group. They were older and tend to self-present to hospital. They were less likely to be smokers and have a higher prevalence of prior MI. The incidence of posterior MI was higher in the delay group. They also had a higher incidence of triple vessel disease. The 3 most common reasons for D2B delay was delay in the emergency department (39%), atypical clinical presentation (37.6%) and unstable medical condition requiring stabilisation/computed tomographic imaging (26.7%). The inhospital mortality was numerically higher in the delay group (7.4% versus 4.8%, p = 0.12). Delay in D2B occurred in 16% of our patients undergoing PPCI. Several key factors for delay were identified and warrant further intervention.

  19. Tracing atmospheric transport of soil microorganisms and higher plant waxes in the East Asian outflow to the North Pacific Rim by using hydroxy fatty acids: Year-round observations at Gosan, Jeju Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyagi, Poonam; Kawamura, Kimitaka; Kariya, Tadashi; Bikkina, Srinivas; Fu, Pingqing; Lee, Meehye

    2017-04-01

    Atmospheric transport of soil microorganisms and higher plant waxes in East Asia significantly influences the aerosol composition over the North Pacific. This study investigates the year-round atmospheric abundances of hydroxy fatty acids (FAs), tracers of soil microorganisms (β-isomers), and plant waxes (α- and ω-isomers), in total suspended particles collected at Gosan, Jeju Island, during April 2001 to March 2002. These hydroxy FAs showed a pronounced seasonality, higher concentrations in winter/spring and lower concentrations in summer/autumn, which are consistent with other tracers of soil microbes (trehalose), resuspended dust (nss-Ca2+), and stable carbon isotopic composition (δ13C) of total carbon. The molecular distributions of β-hydroxy FAs (predominance of C12 and C16 in winter/spring and summer/autumn, respectively) are consistent with those from a remote island (Chichijima) in the North Pacific and Asian dust standards (CJ-1 and CJ-2). This observation together with back trajectories over Gosan reveal that desert sources in China during winter and arid regions of Mongolia and Russian Far East during spring are the major contributors of soil microbes over the North Pacific. Predominance of ω-isomers (83%) over β-hydroxy FAs (16%) revealed a major contribution of terrestrial lipids from higher plant waxes over soil microbes in the East Asian outflow.

  20. Japan-China Joint Medical Workshop on Drug Discoveries and Therapeutics 2008: The need of Asian pharmaceutical researchers' cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakata, M; Tang, W

    2008-10-01

    The Japan-China Joint Medical Workshop on Drug Discoveries and Therapeutics 2008 (JCMWDDT 2008) was held from September 29 to October 1, 2008 at The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan. JCMWDDT is an international workshop that is mainly organized by Asian editorial members of Drug Discoveries & Therapeutics (http://www.ddtjournal.com/home) for the purpose of promoting research exchanges in the field of drug discovery and therapeutic. This year's JCMWDDT is the second workshop and focused particularly on novel development and technological innovation of anti-influenza agents. The workshop began with an announcement by the Japanese Co-chairperson, Dr. Sekimizu (Department of Microbiology, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, The University of Tokyo, Japan; Editorin- Chief of Drug Discoveries & Therapeutics, DDT) followed by a speech by the Chinese Co-chairperson, Dr. Wenfang Xu (School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Shandong University, Shandong, China; Editor in China Office of DDT), with additional speeches by Dr. Norio Matsuki (The University of Tokyo, Japan; Editor of DDT) and Dr. Guanhua Du (Chinese Academy of Medical Science, China; Editor of DDT). Fifty-nine titles were presented in 6 specialized sessions (Research Advances in Drug Discoveries and Therapeutics, Drug Synthesis/Clinical Therapeutics, Medicinal Chemistry/Natural Products, Anti-influenza Drugs, Anti-infection/antiviral Drugs, Biochemistry/Molecular Biology /Pharmacology) and a poster session (Drug Discov Ther 2008; 2, Suppl; available at http://www.ddtjournal.com/Announce/index.htm). An annual outbreak of avian influenza in Asian countries including China and Japan has sparked fears that the virus will mutate and then cause an epidemic in humans. Therefore, Asian researchers need to work together to control this infection. This year's JCMWDDT helped provide an opportunity to reiterate the crucial role of medicinal chemistry in conquering influenza and created an environment for cooperative