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Sample records for east area greenland

  1. Valanginian ammonites in East Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alsen, Peter

    2001-01-01

    ammonites, Boreal, Tethys, bed-by-bed collection, Valanginian, Wollaston Forland, East Greenland......ammonites, Boreal, Tethys, bed-by-bed collection, Valanginian, Wollaston Forland, East Greenland...

  2. Orogenic gold mineralisation hosted by Archaean basement rocks at Sortekap, Kangerlussuaq area, East Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holwell, D. A.; Jenkin, G. R. T.; Butterworth, K. G.; Abraham-James, T.; Boyce, A. J.

    2013-04-01

    Paleogene mafic intrusions. The identification of this occurrence of orogenic-style Au mineralisation has implications for exploration in the underexplored area of east Greenland between 62 and 69° N, where other, similar supracrustal units are known to be present.

  3. Comparison of satellite imagery and infrared aerial photography as vegetation mapping methods in an arctic study area: Jameson Land, East Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Birger Ulf; Mosbech, Anders

    1994-01-01

    Remote Sensing, vegetation mapping, SPOT, Landsat TM, aerial photography, Jameson Land, East Greenland......Remote Sensing, vegetation mapping, SPOT, Landsat TM, aerial photography, Jameson Land, East Greenland...

  4. Cenozoic burial and exhumation history of the Kangerlussuaq area, East Greenland, revealed by new apatite fission-track data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Japsen, Peter; Green, Paul F.; Bonow, Johan M.; Nielsen, Troels F.

    2010-05-01

    The Kangerlussuaq area in East Greenland (c. 68°N) has witnessed a complex geological development during the Cenozoic. The Skaergaard intrusion and the up to 5 km thick flood basalts formed during a short period around 55 Ma, and subsequently numerous intrusive bodies were emplaced, primarily during the Eocene. Relatively little is known about the geological history over the last 35 Myr, other than that an outlier of Middle Miocene lavas is located in the area at an elevation of c. 2.7 km. At the present-day, the area is deeply eroded and magmatic bodies that were emplaced deeply in the crust, are now exposed at the surface, but at the same time, the area has a significant elevation and even hosts the highest peak in Greenland, Gunbjørn Fjeld, 3.7 km above sea level. To unravel the history of burial and exhumation in the Kangerlussuaq area, new apatite fission-track analysis (AFTA) data has been acquired for 75 rock samples. Preliminary results show that the area has been subject to several phases of cooling since burial under the Palaeogene flood basalts. Phases of regional cooling along the coast that occurred at the Eocene-Oligocene transition and in the late Neogene are interpreted to be due to uplift and exhumation. Cooling events of local extent that occurred in the Eocene, Oligocene and Miocene are interpreted to be related to both exhumation and to circulating hot fluids. Results from samples along vertical transects reveal details of the protracted exhumation history, and that the present topography was formed during the late Neogene.

  5. Bryophytes collected during a Dutch botanical East Greenland expedition to the Angmagsslalik area in 1966

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molenaar, de J.G.

    1968-01-01

    From a bryological point of view Greenland is not well known in detail. Unlike Siberia or Arctic America, it is not known through a few large collections, but through multitudes of mostly relatively small gatherings. In this arctic island that is almost 2000 miles long and extends from below 60° N.l

  6. East Greenland Caledonides: stratigraphy, structure and geochronology: Lower Palaeozoic stratigraphy of the East Greenland Caledonides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith, M. Paul

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The Lower Palaeozoic stratigraphy of the East Greenland Caledonides, from the fjord region of North-East Greenland northwards to Kronprins Christian Land, is reviewed and a number of new lithostratigraphical units are proposed. The Slottet Formation (new is a Lower Cambrian quartzite unit, containing Skolithos burrows, that is present in the Målebjerg and Eleonore Sø tectonic windows, in the nunatak region of North-East Greenland. The unit is the source of common and often-reported glacial erratic boulders containing Skolithos that are distributed throughout the fjord region. The Målebjerg Formation (new overlies the Slottet Formation in the tectonic windows, and comprises limestones and dolostones of assumed Cambrian–Ordovician age. The Lower Palaeozoic succession of the fjord region of East Greenland (dominantly limestones and dolostones is formally placed in the Kong Oscar Fjord Group (new. Amendments are proposed for several existing units in the Kronprins Christian Land and Lambert Land areas, where they occur in autochthonous, parautochthonous and allochthonous settings.

  7. East Greenland Ridge in the North Atlantic Ocean

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Arne Døssing; Dahl-Jensen, T.; Thybo, Hans

    2008-01-01

    The combined Greenland-Senja Fracture Zones (GSFZ) represent a first-order plate tectonic feature in the North Atlantic Ocean. The GSFZ defines an abrupt change in the character of magnetic anomalies with well-defined seafloor spreading anomalies in the Greenland and Norwegian basins to the south...... but ambiguous and weak magnetic anomalies in the Boreas Basin to the north. Substantial uncertainty exists concerning the plate tectonic evolution of the latter area, including the role of the East Greenland Ridge, which is situated along the Greenland Fracture Zone. In 2002, a combined ocean-bottom seismometer...... and multichannel seismic (MCS) survey acquired two intersecting wide-angle reflection and coincident MCS profiles across and along the East Greenland Ridge. We present the results of integrated reflection seismic interpretation, first-arrival tomography, 2D kinematic raytracing, full-wave amplitude modeling...

  8. Holocene stratigraphy and vegetation history in the Scoresby Sund area, East Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Funder, Svend Visby

    1978-01-01

    areas, and a 'poor' heath dominated by the high arctic Salix Arctica and Cassiope tetragona expanded. These two species, which are now extremely common, apparently did not grow in the area until c. 6000 yrBP. In lakes in the coastal area minerogenic sedimentation at c. 2800 yr BP, reflecting the general......The Holocene stratigraphy in Scoresby Sund is based on climatic change as reflected by fluctuations in fjord and valley glaciers, immigration and extinction of marine molluscs, and the vegetation history recorded in pollen diagrams from five lakes. The histories are dated by C-14, and indirectly...... into the area, and in the period until 5000 yr BP dense dwarf shrub heath grew in areaS where it is now absent. In the fjords the subarctic Mytilus edulis and Pecten islandica lived, suggesting a climate warmer than the present. From c. 5000 yr BP the dense dwarf shrub heath began to disappear in the coastal...

  9. The East Greenland rifted volcanic margin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Kent Brooks

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The Palaeogene North Atlantic Igneous Province is among the largest igneous provinces in the world and this review of the East Greenland sector includes large amounts of information amassed since previous reviews around 1990.The main area of igneous rocks extends from Kangerlussuaq (c. 67°N to Scoresby Sund (c. 70°N, where basalts extend over c. 65 000 km2, with a second area from Hold with Hope (c. 73°N to Shannon (c. 75°N. In addition, the Ocean Drilling Project penetrated basalt at five sites off South-East Greenland. Up to 7 km thickness of basaltic lavas have been stratigraphically and chemically described and their ages determined. A wide spectrum of intrusions are clustered around Kangerlussuaq, Kialeeq (c. 66°N and Mesters Vig (c. 72°N. Layered gabbros are numerous (e.g. the Skaergaard and Kap Edvard Holm intrusions, as are under- and oversaturated syenites, besides small amounts of nephelinite-derived products, such as the Gardiner complex (c. 69°N with carbonatites and silicate rocks rich in melilite, perovskite etc. Felsic extrusive rocks are sparse. A single, sanidine-bearing tuff found over an extensive area of the North Atlantic is thought to be sourced from the Gardiner complex.The province is famous for its coast-parallel dyke swarm, analogous to the sheeted dyke swarm of ophiolites, its associated coastal flexure, and many other dyke swarms, commonly related to central intrusive complexes as in Iceland. The dyke swarms provide time markers, tracers of magmatic evolution and evidence of extensional events. A set of dykes with harzburgite nodules gives unique insight into the Archaean subcontinental lithosphere.Radiometric dating indicates extrusion of huge volumes of basalt over a short time interval, but the overall life of the province was prolonged, beginning with basaltic magmas at c. 60 Ma and continuing to the quartz porphyry stock at Malmbjerg (c. 72°N at c. 26 Ma. Indeed, activity was renewed in the Miocene with

  10. Estimates of reproductive potential of Greenland halibut (Reinhardtius hippoglossoides) in East Greenland based on an update of maturity status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kennedy, James; Hedeholm, Rasmus B.; Gundersen, Agnes C.

    2014-01-01

    ), respectively. Combining the maturity data with abundance data of Greenland halibut in East Greenland, spawning stock biomass (SSB) and total egg production (TEP) was estimated in four quadrants between 1998 and 2012 using both the previous and current interpretation of the maturity scale. Using the new...... interpretation of the scale led to a decrease in SSB estimates of 28–92% in specific areas and years, with an average of 56%. Estimates of TEP were directly proportional to SSB so this approach did not offer any advantages over SSB as a measure of reproductive potential. Length composition of Greenland halibut...

  11. Holocene changes in climate and vegetation in the Ammassalik area, East Greenland, recorded in lake sediments and soil profiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Bjarne Holm; Fredskild, Bent; Pedersen, Jørn Bjarke Torp

    2008-01-01

    Holocene climatic, vegetational and environmental changes on the Ammassalik Island in SE Greenland (65.5 N and 37.5 W) have been studied in lake sediments and soil profiles. Based on the stratigraphy of sediments, geobiochemical characteristics, pollen and other biological proxies, a history....... Generally decreasing insolation, a still colder landscape and near coastal sea, potentially further cooled by the negative albedo feedback from snow and ice, generally increase a gradient driven circulation of heat and moisture northwards in the western part of the North Atlantic. Counteracting...

  12. Movements of female polar bears (Usrus maritimus) in the East Greenland pack ice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiig, Øystein; Born, Erik W.; Pedersen, Leif Toudal

    2003-01-01

    The movements of two adult female polar bears (Ursus maritimus) in East Greenland and the Greenland Sea area were studied by use of satellite telemetry between the fall of 1994 and the summer of 1998. One female was tracked for 621 days, the other for 1,415 days. During this time the females used...... for a closer monitoring of the effects of this change on the East Greenland polar bear population....... movement rates varied between 0.32 and 0.76km/h. Both bears had very large home ranges (242,000 and 468,000 km(2)) within the dynamic pack ice of the Greenland Sea. The facts that the bears made extensive use of the offshore sea ice and that there is a marked reduction of the Greenland Sea ice call...

  13. Depositional evolution of a reef-dominated Upper Permian carbonate platform, Wegener Halvoe Formation, Karstryggen area, East Greenland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stemmrik, L.

    1996-12-31

    The Wegener Halvoe Formation carbonate platform in the Karstryggen area consists of three third order depositional sequences that formed in response to three Kazanian sea level cycles. Pinning point curves for the sub-aerial exposure surfaces separating the depositional sequences quantify the amplitude of the relative sea level fluctuations in the range of 70-140 m. The Karstryggen platform developed on top of a karstified older Permian carbonate platform and pre-depositional relief was locally exceeding 70 m. The pre-depositional relief influenced deposition in all three sequences. Algal-cement buildups formed over karst pinnacles and merged during time to form a N-S trending barrier dissected by deep fluvially modified karst channels. Peritidal carbonates formed behind the barrier whereas off platform sedimentation was dominated by thin transgressive siliciclastics overlain by shallow marine algal-foraminifer grain-stones in the first two sequences. During the last sea level cycle pro-grading oolitic grain-stones formed basin-wards of the algal-cement buildups. Transgressive systems tracts are thin and often dominated by condensed siliciclastic units in off platform areas and palaeolows. Over palaeotopographic highs it consists of aggrading algal cement-stones. High-stand deposits are limited to palaeotopographic elevated areas and consist of algal cementstones along the basin margin and shallow sub-tidal to inter-tidal carbonates and evaporites in the platform area. Outside these areas carbonate deposition took place during falling sea level, and during deposition of the first two sequences thin laterally extensive units of shallow marine grain-stones were deposited directly on top of deeper marine siliciclastics. During the final sea level fall, thick pro-grading units of oolitic grain-stones were deposited. (au) Appendix no. 3. 28 refs.

  14. Luminescence dating of Late Quaternary sediments from East Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mejdahl, V.; Funder, Svend Visby

    1994-01-01

    Luminescence dating based on K-feldspars and using both TL and OSL methods have been performed on 94 sediment samples from East Greenland. The ages go back more than 380 ka, but are mainly from the last interglaciation and the subsequent period and include both shallow-marine/coastal-fluvial and ......Luminescence dating based on K-feldspars and using both TL and OSL methods have been performed on 94 sediment samples from East Greenland. The ages go back more than 380 ka, but are mainly from the last interglaciation and the subsequent period and include both shallow...

  15. Luminescence dating of Late Quaternary sediments from East Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mejdahl, V.; Funder, Svend Visby

    1994-01-01

    Luminescence dating based on K-feldspars and using both TL and OSL methods have been performed on 94 sediment samples from East Greenland. The ages go back more than 380 ka, but are mainly from the last interglaciation and the subsequent period and include both shallow-marine/coastal-fluvial and ......Luminescence dating based on K-feldspars and using both TL and OSL methods have been performed on 94 sediment samples from East Greenland. The ages go back more than 380 ka, but are mainly from the last interglaciation and the subsequent period and include both shallow...

  16. Recent changes in the freshwater composition east of Greenland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Steur, L.; Pickart, R.S.; Torres, D.J.; Valdimarsson, H.

    2015-01-01

    Results from three hydrographic surveys across the East Greenland Current between 2011 and 2013 are presented with focus on the freshwater sources. End-member analysis using salinity, d18O, and nutrient data shows that while meteoric water dominated the freshwater content, a significant amount of Pa

  17. First indication of Storegga tsunami deposits from East Greenland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagner, B.; Bennike, O.; Klug, M.; Cremer, H.

    2007-01-01

    A 2.73 m long sediment sequence from Loon Lake, located at 18m a.s.l. on outer Geographical Society Ø, East Greenland, was investigated for its chronology and changes in physical and biogeochemical properties, macrofossils, and grain-size distribution. The predominance of marine fossils throughout t

  18. Age of the youngest Palaeogene flood basalts in East Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heilmann-Clausen, C.; Piasecki, Stefan; Abrahamsen, Niels

    2008-01-01

    results, this constrains the termination of the East Greenland Paleogene Igneous Province to the Early-Middle Eocene transition (nannoplankton chronozones NP13-NP14/earliest NP15). This is 6-8 Ma younger than according to previous biostratigraphic age assignments. The new data show that flood basalt...

  19. Greenland Fracture Zone-East Greenland Ridge(s) revisited: Indications of a C22-change in plate motion?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Døssing, Arne; Funck, T.

    2012-01-01

    Fracture Zone and separation of the 200-km-long, fracture-zone-parallel continental East Greenland Ridge from the Eurasia plate is thought to be related to a major change in relative plate motions between Greenland and Eurasia during the earliest Oligocene (Chron 13 time). This study presents...... a reinterpretation of the Greenland Fracture Zone -East Greenland Ridge based on new and existing geophysical data. Evidence is shown for two overstepping ridge segments (Segments A and B) of which Segment A corresponds to the already known East Greenland Ridge while Segment B was not detected previously....... Interpretation of sonobuoy data and revised modeling of existing OBS data across Segment B indicate a continental composition of the segment. This interpretation is supported by magnetic anomaly data. The Segments A and B are bounded by portions of the Greenland Fracture Zone with a distinct similar to 10...

  20. Fecundity of Greenland halibut (Reinhardtius hippoglossoides Walbaum) in East Greenland waters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gundersen, Agnes Christine; Rønneberg, Jan Erich; Boje, Jesper

    2001-01-01

    Fecundity is described for Greenland halibut, based on ovaries collected in July 1997 in ICES Division XIVb in East Greenland waters. The mean potential fecundity was estimated to be 113700 (range 32500–277100). Fecundity was significantly determined by total length. Fecundity–length and fecundity......–weight (round and gutted) relationships were estimated. Vitellogenic oocytes appearing dark in the microscope with a diameter ranging from 900 to 1650μm were counted and used in the fecundity estimates. This stage was easily distinguished from an early vitellogenic stage, with a diameter ranging from 490...

  1. Petroleum geological investigations in East greenland: project `Resources of the sedimentary basins of North and East Greenland`

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stemmerik, L.; Clausen, O.R.; Larsen, M.; Piasecki, S.; Therkelsen, J. [Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland, Copenhagen (Denmark); Korstgaard, J. [Univ. of Aarhus, Geological Inst., Aarhus (Denmark); Seidler, L.; Surlyk, F. [Univ. of Copenhagen, Geological Inst., Copenhagen (Denmark)

    1997-12-31

    The multidisciplinary research project `Resources of the sedimentary basins of North and East Greenland` was initiated in 1995. The 1996 field work in East Greenland concentrated on integrated structural, sedimentological and biostratigraphical studies of the Upper Permian and Mesozoic successions. The most important new results arising from the 1996 field work are: 1) Re-interpretation of the Upper Permian Schuchert Dal Formation as a low stand turbidite unit within the Ravnefjeld Formation; 2) Recognition of Middle Jurassic deposits and thick lowermost Cretaceous sandstones on Hold with Hope; 3) Interpretation of a full spectrum of scarp-derived coarse-clastic mass movement deposits inter-bedded with Cretaceous shales on eastern Traill Oe; 4) The presence of a thick sand-rich Cretaceous turbidite succession on eastern Traill Oe; 5) Re-interpretation of the Mesozoic-Cenozoic fault systems on Traill Oe and Geographical Society Oe. (EG) 24 refs.

  2. Sea ice studies in the Spitsbergen-Greenland area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinje, T. E. (Principal Investigator)

    1976-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Detailed information on the outflow through the Fram Strait of ice from the Polar Ocean over shorter periods was obtained. It is found that the speed of the outflow may vary about 100% over periods of a few days. The core of the East Greenland Current is found between 2 deg E and 4 deg W. The speed of the surface water at 81 deg N is for a calm period estimated to be about 10 cm/s. A new surging glacier was discovered and new fronts of several glaciers were determined. The variation of the snow line with respect to distance from the coast was for the first time determined for the southern part of Spitsbergen. Great variations were observed, from 200 m in east to 550 m in the central area of the island.

  3. The East Greenland Caledonides—teleseismic signature, gravity and isostasy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiffer, Christian; Jacobsen, Bo Holm; Balling, Niels

    2015-01-01

    surrounding the North Atlantic. Teleseismic receiver function interpretation in the Central Fjord Region of East Greenland recently suggested the presence of a fossil Caledonian subduction complex, including a slab of eclogitised mafic crust and an overlying wedge of serpentinised mantle peridotite. Here we...... as a fossil subduction zone complex. The spatial relations with Caledonian structures suggest a Caledonian origin. The results indicate that topography is isostatically compensated by density variations within the lithosphere, and that significant dynamic topography is not required at the present day....

  4. Investigating the potential for "water piracy" in North East Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Nanna B.; Dahl-Jensen, Dorthe

    2013-04-01

    The incorporation of subglacial processes in ice flow models remains a challenge while at the same time observational evidence increasingly underscores the important role liquid water plays in ice flow dynamics. One of the many problems ice flow models face (that also includes scarcity of data at the bed and the deformational properties of water-saturated sediments) is the different time-scales on which the processes operate. For example, observations indicate that subglacial water may be re-routed to a neighbouring ice stream in response to changes in surface elevation. This implies that ice flow models have to allow for changes in ice flow mode where, depending on the basal properties, the flow may be dominated by deformation or basal sliding. The re-routing of water between neighbouring ice streams is often termed "water piracy" and in this study we demonstrate that the potential for water piracy exists even in regions with very small surface elevation changes. We use a simple, vertically integrated, 2D-plane ice flow model based on the shallow ice flow approximation to model the large-scale changes in surface elevation of North East Greenland in response to gravity and mass balance. Considering time-scales of 100-500 years the model predicts changes in elevation of less than a metre per year which is in agreement with data from remote sensing. We then calculate the corresponding changes in hydrological pressure potential and use evidence from radio-echo sounding data to identify areas with basal melting and thus potential liquid water production. The corresponding change in hydrological pressure potential in response to the surface elevation changes is sufficient to divert the subglacial water to different pathways. This change in subglacial water pathways could be sufficient to change the ice flow mode from deformation to sliding and might initiate speed-up and/or slow-down of the ice streams at the margins of the basin.

  5. Exploration history and place names of northern East Greenland: Colophon, abstract, introduction, official place names in Greenland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Higgins, Anthony K.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The first recorded landing by Europeans on the coast of northern East Greenland (north of 69°N was that of William Scoresby Jr., a British whaler, in 1822. This volume includes a chronological summary of the pioneer 19th century exploration voyages made by British, Danish, Norwegian, Swedish, French and German expeditions – all of whom reported that the region had previously been occupied by the Inuit or Eskimo; also included are brief outlines of the increasing number of government and privately sponsored expeditions throughout the 20th century, whose objectives included cartography, geology, zoology, botany, trapping and the ascent of the highest mountain summits. In 1934 the Place Name Committee for Greenland was established, the tasks of which included a review of all place names hitherto recorded on published maps of Greenland, their formal adoption in danicised form, and the approval or rejection of new name proposals. In northern East Greenland, by far the largest numbers of new place names were those proposed by scientists associated with Lauge Koch’s geological expeditions that lasted from 1926 until 1958. This volume records the location and origin of more than 3000 officially approved place names as well as about 2650 unapproved names.The author’s interest in the exploration history and place names of northern East Greenland started in 1968, when the Geological Survey of Greenland initiated a major five-year geological mapping programme in the Scoresby Sund region. Systematic compilation of names began about 1970, initially with the names given by William Scoresby Jr., and subsequently broadened in scope to include the names proposed by all expeditions to northern East Greenland. The author has participated in 16 summer mapping expeditions with the Survey to northern East Greenland. Publication of this volume represents the culmination of a lifetime working in the Arctic.

  6. Ice age plant refugia in East Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Funder, Svend Visby

    1979-01-01

    evidence it is inferred that the flora in the refugia comprised mainly species which today occur over a wide geographical and ecological range. The "odd" occurrences that initiated the discussion may represent random.seed dispersal accumulated in the ice-free areas through long periods of time...

  7. The subfossil occurrence of Mytilus edulis L. in central East Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjort, Christian; Funder, Svend Visby

    1974-01-01

    The subfossil occurrence of Mytilus edulis in central East Greenland has been CH-dated to roughly between 8000 B.P. and 5500 B.P.; compared with other areas this is a short period. Its immigration coincides with the final deglaciation of the innermost fjords, and its disappearance is contemporane...... islandica can or could live, even if this was not possible along the surrounding and more hostile outer coasts. The reason for the absence of Mytilus edulis from the region today is probably not the local climate....

  8. Preliminary results of a geophysical study of the East Greenland Caledonides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiffer, Christian; Jacobsen, B. H.; Balling, N.

    The present-day topography and crustal structure of the East Greenland Caledonides were intensively influenced by several constructive and destructive processes, including the Caledonian orogeny, the subsequent extensional collapse, continental breakup and fluvial and glacial erosional processes....

  9. Glacial flutings in bedrock, an observation in East Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Funder, Svend Visby

    1978-01-01

    Large scale glacial flutings cover an area of 4 x 1.5 km on the northern shore of Harefjord in the interior Scoresby Sund fjord complex. The flutings are modelled in coarse sandstone and conglomerates, a few small features are probably composed of till. The ridges measure up to' 2000 m in length...... and 5 m in height and occur between 50 and 250 m above sea level inthe gently sloping lowland area adjacent to the fjord. They were probably formed beneath the lateral part of the former Harefjord-Glacier which receded rapidly in the fjord and exposed the area at c. 7500 years BP. Large scale glacial...... flutings have not been recorded before in Greenland, but seem to be of common occurrence in parts of North America. They have probably been formed near the margin of actively moving glaciers, and secondary flow in the basal ice may have played an important role...

  10. Geologic Assessment of Undiscovered Oil and Gas Resources of the West Greenland-East Canada Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Christopher J.

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) recently assessed the potential for undiscovered oil and gas resources of the West Greenland-East Canada Province as part of the USGS Circum-Arctic Resource Appraisal program. The province lies in the offshore area between western Greenland and eastern Canada and includes Baffin Bay, Davis Strait, Lancaster Sound, and Nares Strait west of and including part of Kane Basin. A series of major tectonic events led to the formation of several distinct structural domains that are the geologic basis for defining five assessment units (AU) in the province, all of which are within the Mesozoic-Cenozoic Composite Total Petroleum System (TPS). Potential petroleum source rocks within the TPS include strata of Ordovician, Early and Late Cretaceous, and Paleogene ages. The five AUs defined for this study-the Eurekan Structures AU, Northwest Greenland Rifted Margin AU, Northeast Canada Rifted Margin AU, Baffin Bay Basin AU, and the Greater Ungava Fault Zone AU-encompass the entire province and were assessed for undiscovered, technically recoverable resources.

  11. Last Interglacial (MIS5e) hydrographic shifts linked to meltwater discharges from the East Greenland margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuravleva, Anastasia; Bauch, Henning A.; Van Nieuwenhove, Nicolas

    2017-05-01

    Proximal evidence of the surface ocean response to size reduction of the Greenland Ice Sheet (GIS) during the Last Interglacial (MIS5e) and preceding glacial termination (T2) remains largely elusive. Using a new sediment record from the western Iceland Sea, the behavior of the northeastern GIS and its relation to the subpolar North Atlantic surface hydrography is examined. Extremely light oxygen isotopic (δ18O) values are found off central East Greenland during early MIS5e and point to enhanced meltwater release, potentially from the northeastern sector of the GIS. Data from downstream the cold East Greenland Current (EGC) and its eastward branches suggest a far-reaching effect of this meltwater not only in the Nordic Seas but also in the SE Labrador Sea. In particular, whereas an early MIS5e warming (at ∼128.5-126.5 ka) in the two regions coincided with the relative reduction of meltwater input into the EGC, the subsequent cooling noted at ∼126.5 ka followed a renewed major freshwater event off central East Greenland. Our data further indicate persistent freshwater influence from the East Greenland margin over the entire MIS5e interval and, in addition, also reveal a late MIS5e meltwater event. The latter event occurred just prior to the last glacial inception and emphasizes the importance of Greenland meltwater as forcing factor on Interglacial climates.

  12. Field relations and geochemistry of the Ruinnæsset intrusion and related magmatic rocks of the Archaean Skjoldungen province, East Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blichert-Toft, Janne; Rosing, Minik T.; Lesher, C.E.

    1992-01-01

    Archaean alkaline rocks, Skjoldungen, East Greenland, Ruinnæsset intrusion, hornblende, major and re elements......Archaean alkaline rocks, Skjoldungen, East Greenland, Ruinnæsset intrusion, hornblende, major and re elements...

  13. Greenland

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈玮

    2002-01-01

    Greenland is the largest is land in the world.it is in the_____of Europe(欧洲)。Near Greenland is another island.it is small.its_____is lceland.do you think that greenland is green and warm? do you think that iceland is white with ice? if you do,you are______.

  14. Last Interglacial (MIS5e) hydrographic shifts linked to meltwater discharges from the East Greenland margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuravleva, Anastasia; Bauch, Henning A.; Van Nieuwenhove, Nicolas

    2016-04-01

    The East Greenland Current (EGC) plays a key role in transporting polar water from the Arctic to convectional sites of the Iceland and Labrador seas. Ongoing melting of the Greenland Ice Sheet (GIS) as well as the Arctic sea ice prompts freshening of the EGC and accumulation of low-density water in the subpolar North Atlantic, thus affecting the stabilities of water mass overturning and subsequent northward heat transfer. To assess natural eastern GIS dynamics and possible freshwater-induced regional oceanic reorganizations we analyzed several sediment sequences from the poorly investigated area along the eastern Greenland margin and the western Nordic Seas. Records span the last interglacial (LIG, MIS5e) cycle, including deglacial Termination 2 and the LIG climatic optimum. On a global scale, the latter is believed to have been warmer than present, with a higher sea level, and may, therefore, serve as a promising analogue for future hydrographic changes. Based on various proxy data (stable isotopes, planktic foraminiferal assemblages, ice-rafted debris) our reconstructions support the notion of a "two-step development" of Termination 2 which underwent severe surface freshening in the subpolar North Atlantic. This is shown in extremely light oxygen isotopic values registered all along the eastern Greenland margin during early MIS5e, which are indicative for pronounced eastern/central GIS retreat and a further propagation of the resulting meltwater southward via the EGC. In addition, we find compelling evidence for at least two separate meltwater episodes in proximity of the eastern GIS during early MIS5e. The climatic episode in between is correlated with an early LIG warm peak, which may be linked to enhanced presence of Atlantic water in the central Nordic Seas (Bauch et al., 2012) and further downstream along southern Greenland (Hillaire-Marcel et al., 1994, Irvali et al., 2012). Our data, therefore, reveal a complex and variable dynamic of the EGC during MIS5e

  15. Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gad, Ulrik Pram

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between Greenland and the European Union (EU) can best be understood by exploring the development from Danish colonialism to a future independent Greenlandic state. In 1985, Greenland became the first territory ever to leave the European Economic Community (EEC) when it opted...... in 1979 and made the 1985 withdrawal possible. On 25 November 2008, a majority of the people of Greenland voted in favour of enhanced home rule – ‘self-government’ – still within formal Danish sovereignty. Denmark and Greenland alike are preparing for a future envisioned as involving climate change......, intensive raw material extraction, new transportation corridors and new claims to sovereignty over the Arctic. Greenland uses this imagined future as a way of enhancing its subjectivity, not the least when dealing with the EU. This article analyses how the Greenlandic self-understanding as being on the way...

  16. Comparison of the glacial chronology of Eastern Baffin Island, East Greenland and Camp century accumulation record

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andrews, John; Funder, Svend Visby; Hjort, Chritian;

    1974-01-01

    level between 120,000 and 70,000 B.P. may well be related to glacierization of high arctic land masses under conditions of heavy snowfall. The subsequent reduction of accumulation in these high arctic areas then leads to a reduction of ice volume with a dry, cold interstadial correlative in time......Independently derived glacial chronologies from eastern Baffin Island, Canadian Arctic, and from East Greenland show essentially similar glaciologic trends that arc notably different from the response of the southern margins of the Laurentide and FCllnoscandia Ice Sheets. The critical aspe......~ts of both chronologies and the related extcn t of the ice sheets are (1) an early and maximum glacial stade, during the early phase of the last glaciation, reaching its peak abqut 100,000 to 75,000 yr ago; (2) an in terstadial about .70,000 n.p.; (3) an ice advance peaking about 45,000 yr ago; (4...

  17. Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gad, Ulrik Pram

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between Greenland and the European Union (EU) can best be understood by exploring the development from Danish colonialism to a future independent Greenlandic state. In 1985, Greenland became the first territory ever to leave the European Economic Community (EEC) when it opted for....... On the other hand, the representation of the Greenland–EU relationship as one of sovereign equality – present and future – might just be able to provoke the resources necessary to make the dream come true....

  18. Terra nullius, Inuit Habitation and Norse Occupation – With Special Emphasis on the 1933 East Greenland Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Thomas Ørebech

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Sovereignty acquired by occupation entails “recognize[d] title based on discovery,” “a reasonable period [of] … effective occupation of the region claimed to be discovered” and “the continuous and peaceful display of State authority.” Only terra nullius is subject to occupation. A territory inhabited by indigenous groups that sustain social and political organization may impede an occupying power because the terra nullius requirement fails. While sovereignty over thinly populated areas are often lax, case law requires less public involvement in these sparsely inhabited areas. This study reveals that the Dano-Norwegian Kings regarded the Inuit as “our subjects.” The Kings’ pretention of absolutum dominium and jurisdiction involved both the Norse and Inuit ethnic groups and “bygð ok ubygð” (settled and unsettled land. The exodus of the Norse peoples in 1450 AD for 200 years did not undermine the acquired sovereignty of the Dano-Norwegian Crown, which as a result, spoiled the 1931 Norwegian pretentions to legally occupy East-Greenland. Denmark's triumph in the 1933-East Greenland case resulted from a “zero-sum principle.” More than a 100 years earlier, the Danish Kingdom lost a succession of countries and dependencies. The 1814 Kiel Treaty transferred mainland Norway to Sweden, but explicitly states that none of the ancient Norwegian dependencies, Greenland, Iceland and Faroe Islands would follow suit. Thus, these territories remained part of the Kingdom of Denmark.

  19. The Quaternary geology of the Narssaq area, South Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Funder, Svend Visby

    1979-01-01

    The topography and glacial striations in th~ Narssaq area indicate that the ice age glacial regime in this part of Greenland was characterized by ice movement constrained by the local topography, and a shallow depth of the ice cover. Erratics observed 1200 m above sea level provide a minimum esti...

  20. Bottom fish assemblages at the shelf and continental slope off East Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Ole A; Hvingel, Carsten; Møller, P.R.

    2015-01-01

    During 2006 and 2008 two bottom trawl surveys were conducted at East Greenland to 72°N covering depths down to 1500 m. In the 149 trawl hauls in total 113 fish species were recorded of which 37 were considered pelagic and excluded from the analyses. As a first step the abundance data for the 76 b...

  1. Xenoendocrine pollutants May Reduce Size of Sexual Organs in East Greenland Polar Bears (Ursus Maritimus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, Christian; Leifsson, Pall S.; Dietz, Rune

    2006-01-01

    Reproductive organs from 55 male and 44 female East Greenland polar bears were examined to investigate the potential negative impact from organohalogen pollutants (OHCs). Multiple regressions normalizing for age showed a significant inverse relationship between OHCs and testis length and baculum ...

  2. A fossil subduction zone in the East Greenland Caledonides revealed by a Receiver Function analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiffer, Christian; Jacobsen, B. H.; Balling, N.;

    evidence for the processes before and under the Caledonian orogeny. We performed a Receiver Function analysis of data from 11 seismological broadband stations forming the Ella-Øarray. This array, maintained by Aarhus University, covered an approximately 270 km long profile, spanning the East Greenland...

  3. Pb isotope evidence for contributions from different Iceland mantle components to Palaeogene East Greenland flood basalts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peate, David; Stecher, Ole

    2003-01-01

    We present new Pb isotope data on 21 samples of break-up-related flood basalts (56–54 Ma) from the Blosseville Kyst region of East Greenland. These samples show a considerable range in isotopic composition (206Pb/204Pb 17.6 to 19.3) that broadly correlates with compositional type. The ‘low-Ti’ type...

  4. Roughhead grenadier (Macrourus berglax) in the waters off East Greenland: Distribution and biology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fossen, Inge; Jørgensen, Ole A; Gundersen, Agnes C.

    2003-01-01

    The study focuses on distribution, catch rates and biological parameters of roughhead grenadier (Macrourus berglax) at East Greenland based on data from trawl surveys, longline surveys and commercial catches from the period 1994-2000. Roughhead grenadier was recorded at most fished stations...

  5. Geophysical investigations of the East Greenland Caledonides using receiver functions, gravity and topography data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiffer, Christian; Balling, N.; Jacobsen, B. H.

    array crosses the East Greenland Caledonides from the ice sheet to the coastline at about 73 north. The data are of high quality. Initial Receiver Function results are interpreted together with corresponding gravity and topography data and additionally compared with synthetic data, using velocity models...

  6. Deshayesitid ammonites from the lower Aptian (Lower Cretaceous) of North-East Greenland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kelly, S.R.A.; Whitham, A.G.

    1999-01-01

    Two deshayesitid ammonite assemblages are described from the Lower Cretaceous succession of the north coast of Hold with Hope, North-East Greenland, and their biostratigraphical significance is assessed. In the earlier assemblage Prodeshayesites cf. bodei and P. laeviusculus occur. The second assemb

  7. PREVALENCE OF ANTIBODIES AGAINST TOXOPLASMA GONDII IN POLAR BEARS (URSUS MARITIMUS) FROM SVALBARD AND EAST GREENLAND

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serum samples from 419 polar bears (Ursus maritimus) from Svalbard and the Barents Sea (collected 1990 - 2000) and 108 polar bears from East Greenland (collected 1999 - 2004) were assayed for antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii using the modified agglutination test (MAT). Antibody prevalences were ...

  8. Bottom fish assemblages at the shelf and continental slope off East Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Ole A; Hvingel, Carsten; Møller, P.R.

    2015-01-01

    During 2006 and 2008 two bottom trawl surveys were conducted at East Greenland to 72°N covering depths down to 1500 m. In the 149 trawl hauls in total 113 fish species were recorded of which 37 were considered pelagic and excluded from the analyses. As a first step the abundance data for the 76 b...

  9. Glacial evolution of Central-East Greenland Margin: a GLANAM project contribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Lara F.; Nielsen, Tove

    2017-04-01

    The dynamic evolution of the Greenland Ice Sheet is directly related to the Northern Hemisphere glaciation. The ice sheet has influenced the Greenland margins construction conditioning their morphology and their reply to other control factors in the evolution, as tectonic and oceanographic events. Thus, the sedimentary record preserved around Greenland has registered the glacial oscillations of the Northern Hemisphere, as well as the influence of other conditioning factors in the development of a permanent ice sheet on Greenland. The aim of this work is to summarize the new insights of Central-East Greenland glacial evolution reached within the framework of the Marie Curie Initial Training Network (ITN-FP7-PEOPLE-2012-ITN): Glaciated North Atlantic Margins (GLANAM) project. Several multichannel seismic profiles have been acquired along Central-East Greenland Margin, with both research and exploration proposes. They enable the large-scale reconstruction of the major stratigraphic events from late Miocene to Present, in agreement with an age correlation with ODP sites along the margin. High-resolution seismic, sub-bottom profiles, swath bathymetry and sediment cores are also locally available supporting detailed interpretation of the Quaternary sedimentary record. While ice-rafter debris (IRD) in the northern seas have been interpreted as indicators of tidewater glaciers on Greenland, the acoustic and seismic evidences summarized in this work allow reconstruction of different episodes of cross-shelf advances of the Greenland Ice Sheet along the central-east margin. The results of this work reveal an early cross-shelf glaciation occurred off Blosseville Kyst during late Miocene and early Pliocene followed by major ice-stream activity off Scoresby Sund during early Quaternary and glacial advance off Liverpool Land in late Quaternary. Higher resolution of the Quaternary data off Liverpool Land suggests that the intense ice-stream of the Scoresby Sund fjord was gradually

  10. Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Lisbet

    2015-01-01

    the article includes updated informations regarding church-state relations in Greenland re the latest changes of the Church law......the article includes updated informations regarding church-state relations in Greenland re the latest changes of the Church law...

  11. Coeval dust accumulation minima in Greenland and East Central Europe over 31-23 ka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Újvári, Gábor; Stevens, Thomas; Varga, György; Kovács, János; Molnár, Mihály

    2016-04-01

    As reflected in δ18O values in ice cores, the North Atlantic area experienced a series of abrupt, dramatic climatic fluctuations over the last glacial during which oceanic and atmospheric conditions alternated between full glacial (stadial) and relatively mild (interstadial) conditions [1,2]. Beyond the δ18O profiles, calcium ion concentration data (hereafter [Ca2+]) also exhibit particularly clear stadial/interstadial contrasts [3]. The Ca2+/dust concentration records are considered as a proxy for the amount of terrestrial dust reaching the ice sheet [4] and/or changing dust storm activity in the source areas around the Northern Hemisphere, mainly in East Asia [5,6]. The mode of the dust size distributions is thought to reflect transit times during transport, with larger modes indicating shorter transit times and transport routes, i.e. changed atmospheric circulation patterns [5]. However, based on clay mineralogy and Sr-Nd isotopic compositions of loess sediments Újvári, et al. [7] suggested that Central European dust cannot be excluded as a potential source of Greenland dust. As such, it is vital to analyze dust deposition in the key dust depocentres of Eastern Europe. As a record of Carpathian Basin dust source activity, we therefore studied loess sedimentation and grain size changes in the Dunaszekcsö loess sequence in Southern Hungary. For this record, we developed the highest resolution geochronological dataset for European loess based on 61 AMS 14C dates from molluscs and charcoal fragments. This allowed us to establish a uniquely high precision Bayesian age-depth model, with the mean 95% confidence ranges that vary between 119 and 798 yr. Sedimentation rates (SR) calculated from the age-depth model vary between 0.36-1.7 mm yr-1 and the estimated bulk dust mass accumulation rates (MAR) range from 551 to 2525 g m-2 yr-1. Both the SR and MAR display millennial/sub-millennial scale variations, visible uniquely due to the high precision dating, together

  12. A persistent and dynamic East Greenland Ice Sheet over the past 7.5 million years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bierman, Paul R; Shakun, Jeremy D; Corbett, Lee B; Zimmerman, Susan R; Rood, Dylan H

    2016-12-07

    Climate models show that ice-sheet melt will dominate sea-level rise over the coming centuries, but our understanding of ice-sheet variations before the last interglacial 125,000 years ago remains fragmentary. This is because terrestrial deposits of ancient glacial and interglacial periods are overrun and eroded by more recent glacial advances, and are therefore usually rare, isolated and poorly dated. In contrast, material shed almost continuously from continents is preserved as marine sediment that can be analysed to infer the time-varying state of major ice sheets. Here we show that the East Greenland Ice Sheet existed over the past 7.5 million years, as indicated by beryllium and aluminium isotopes ((10)Be and (26)Al) in quartz sand removed by deep, ongoing glacial erosion on land and deposited offshore in the marine sedimentary record. During the early Pleistocene epoch, ice cover in East Greenland was dynamic; in contrast, East Greenland was mostly ice-covered during the mid-to-late Pleistocene. The isotope record we present is consistent with distinct signatures of changes in ice sheet behaviour coincident with major climate transitions. Although our data are continuous, they are from low-deposition-rate sites and sourced only from East Greenland. Consequently, the signal of extensive deglaciation during short, intense interglacials could be missed or blurred, and we cannot distinguish between a remnant ice sheet in the East Greenland highlands and a diminished continent-wide ice sheet. A clearer constraint on the behaviour of the ice sheet during past and, ultimately, future interglacial warmth could be produced by (10)Be and (26)Al records from a coring site with a higher deposition rate. Nonetheless, our analysis challenges the possibility of complete and extended deglaciation over the past several million years.

  13. A persistent and dynamic East Greenland Ice Sheet over the past 7.5 million years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bierman, Paul R.; Shakun, Jeremy D.; Corbett, Lee B.; Zimmerman, Susan R.; Rood, Dylan H.

    2016-12-01

    Climate models show that ice-sheet melt will dominate sea-level rise over the coming centuries, but our understanding of ice-sheet variations before the last interglacial 125,000 years ago remains fragmentary. This is because terrestrial deposits of ancient glacial and interglacial periods are overrun and eroded by more recent glacial advances, and are therefore usually rare, isolated and poorly dated. In contrast, material shed almost continuously from continents is preserved as marine sediment that can be analysed to infer the time-varying state of major ice sheets. Here we show that the East Greenland Ice Sheet existed over the past 7.5 million years, as indicated by beryllium and aluminium isotopes (10Be and 26Al) in quartz sand removed by deep, ongoing glacial erosion on land and deposited offshore in the marine sedimentary record. During the early Pleistocene epoch, ice cover in East Greenland was dynamic; in contrast, East Greenland was mostly ice-covered during the mid-to-late Pleistocene. The isotope record we present is consistent with distinct signatures of changes in ice sheet behaviour coincident with major climate transitions. Although our data are continuous, they are from low-deposition-rate sites and sourced only from East Greenland. Consequently, the signal of extensive deglaciation during short, intense interglacials could be missed or blurred, and we cannot distinguish between a remnant ice sheet in the East Greenland highlands and a diminished continent-wide ice sheet. A clearer constraint on the behaviour of the ice sheet during past and, ultimately, future interglacial warmth could be produced by 10Be and 26Al records from a coring site with a higher deposition rate. Nonetheless, our analysis challenges the possibility of complete and extended deglaciation over the past several million years.

  14. The East Greenland Caledonides from the viewpoint of Receiver Functions, gravity and topography data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiffer, Christian; Balling, N.; Jacobsen, B. H.;

    and the subsequent major collision and orogeny (420 Ma) the Caledonian deformation included several early stages of terrain accretion along the involved continents [1]. The high topographic elevation in the Caledonides and its longevity attract special attention, but also shallow extensional features, a lower...... to 2011) 11 temporary broadband stations were deployed and maintained by Aarhus University, forming the approximately 270 km long Ella-Ø-array. The profile extends from the Greenland ice sheet to the coastline, crossing the East Greenland Caledonides at about 73° north. The data are of high quality. P...

  15. Evolution of a trough-fan system: Scoresby Sund fjord, central-east Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Lara F.; Nielsen, Tove; Knutz, Paul C.; Kuijpers, Antoon; Damm, Volkmar

    2016-04-01

    The continental shelf along the east margin of Greenland is shaped by several, glacially carved transverse troughs that constitute the oceanward extension of the major fjords. Scoresby Sund is the most prominent fjord of central-east Greenland and separates Liverpool Land, to the north, from Blosseville Kyst to the south. Offshore of Scoresby Sund a large glacial trough mouth fan (TMF) has been built through successive phases of glacial advances. Morpho-structural and seismo-stratigraphic analyses of the Scoresby Sund TMF have been done using all Multichannel Seismic (MCS) profiles available in the area. The ODP site 987 of the leg 162 is located in the abyssal plain offshore of Scoresby Sund and was used for age estimations. The width of the continental shelf in the study area ranges from a 65 km narrow part along the Blosseville Kyst to 120 km off Scoresby Sund. The average water depth is shallower than 300 m, deepening to 600 m along Scoresby Sund glacial trough. Oceanwards a steep slope, seafloor falls into the 2250 m deep abyssal plain of the south Greenland Sea. The sedimentary cover displays maximum thickness along the middle continental shelf (2.8 s TWTT on average). Seven major stratigraphic discontinuities could be identified within the sedimentary record. They restrict eight major seismic units, named from 8 to 1, in upward stratigraphic order. The distribution and seismic facies of these units reveal the evolutionary sequence of the study area from early Cenozoic to Present. The lowest unit, Unit 8, is post-basalt to middle-late Miocene age and represents a pre-glacial depositional stage when tectonic events controlled the sedimentation. Deposition of Unit 7 occurred by late Miocene, revealing glacial-related deposits and ice-stream along Scoresby Sund fjord. Unit 6 was formed during early Pliocene by glacial advance over the continental shelf leading to strong erosive surfaces in the shelf area and Mass Transport Deposits (MTDs) in the northern abyssal

  16. The Jurassic of East Greenland: a sedimentary record of thermal subsidence, onset and culmination of rifting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Surlyk, F. [Univ. of Copenhagen, Copenhagen (Denmark)]. Geological Inst.

    2003-07-01

    The Late Palaeozoic - Mesozoic extensional basin complex of East Greenland contains a record of deposition during a period of Rhaetian - Early Bajocian thermal subsidence, the onset of rifting in the Late Bajocian, its growth during the Bathonian-Kimmeridgian, culmination of rifting in the Volgian - Early Ryazanian, and waning in the Late Ryazanian - Hauterivian.,The area was centred over a palaeolatitude of about 45 deg C N in the Rhaetian and drifted northwards to about 50 deg C N in the Hauterivian. A major climate change from arid to humid subtropical conditions took place at the Norian-Rhaetian transition. Deposition was in addition governed by a long-term sea-level rise with highstands in the Toarcian-Aalenian, latest Callovian and Kimmeridgian, and lowstands in the latest Bajocian - earliest Bathonian, Middle Oxfordian and Volgian. The Rhaetian - Lower Bajocian succession is considered the upper part of a megasequence, termed Jl, with its base in the upper Lower Triassic, whereas the Upper Bajocian - Hauterivian succession forms a complete, syn-rift megasequence, termed J2. The southem part of the basin complex in Jameson Land contains a relatively complete Rhaetian-Ryazanian succession and underwent only minor tilting during Middle Jurassic - earliest Cretaceous rifting. Rhaetian - Lower Jurassic deposits are absent north of Jameson Land and this region was fragmented into strongly tilted fault blocks during the protracted rift event. The syn-rift successions of the two areas accordingly show different long-term trends in sedimentary facies. In the southern area, the J2 syn-rift megasequence forms a symmetrical regressive-transgressive-regressive cycle, whereas the J2 megasequence in the northem area shows an asymmetrical, stepwise deepening trend. A total of eight tectonostratigraphic sequences are recognised in the Rhaetian-Hauterivian interval. They reflect major changes in basin configuration, drainage systems, sediment transport and distribution

  17. The Greenland analogue project. Geomodel version 1 of the Kangerlussuaq area on Western Greenland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engstroem, J.; Paananen, M. [GTK Geological Survey of Finland, Espoo (Finland); Klint, K.E. [GEUS Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland, Copenhagen (Denmark)

    2012-02-15

    During the 2nd annual Greenland Analogue Project modelling workshop in Toronto, November 2010, the hydrological modellers requested an updated geological map and structural model of the field area around Kangerlussuaq, Western Greenland. This report presents an updated GAP Geomodel which utilizes all available information in order to improve the accuracy of the model, especially beneath the ice-sheet. The modelling area was divided into two scales: The regional scale area and the site scale area. The site scale refers to the area were surface mapping has been performed, and where two drillholes (DH-GAP01 and DH-GAP03) were drilled during 2009. Geological and topographical maps from GEUS (sub-model 1) and data extracted from the Geophysical map, GEUS, (sub-model 2) were used in the process to develop GAP Geomodel version 1. These two interpretations were independent from each other and in the final stage these sub-models were integrated and developed into GAP Geological model version 1. The integration resulted in a total of 158 lineaments. These lineaments are referred in the final model as deformation zones and faults, where deformation zones are larger features and faults are single fractures indicating some sense of movement. Four different sets of deformation zones and faults were identified in the regional area. The most prominent feature is the ductile/brittle roughly ENE-WSW trending zones crosscutting the whole area; referred as Type 1. Type 2 and Type 3 zones are in general smaller scale than Type 1 and mostly dominated by brittle deformation. The Type 2 system generally trends NW-SE, while the Type 3 system generally trends NE-SW. The Type 4 features are a brittle and roughly N-S orientated younger system, thus crosscutting all other types. Confirmation and validation of the regional model is based on detailed surface-based examination of fractures within the site area, although the scale is different the same orientations were also identified in the

  18. The Greenland Analogue Project. Geomodel version 1 of the Kangerlussuaq area on Western Greenland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engstroem, Jon; Paananen, Markku (Geological Survey of Finland (Finland)); Klint, Knud Erik (The National Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (Denmark))

    2012-02-15

    During the 2nd annual Greenland Analogue Project modelling workshop in Toronto, November 2010, the hydrological modellers requested an updated geological map and structural model of the field area around Kangerlussuaq, Western Greenland. This report presents an updated GAP geomodel which utilizes all available information in order to improve the accuracy of the model, especially beneath the ice sheet. The modelling area was divided into two scales: The regional scale area and the site scale area. The site scale refers to the area were surface mapping has been performed, and where two boreholes (DH-GAP01 and DH-GAP03) were drilled during 2009. Geological and topographical maps from GEUS (sub-model 1) and data extracted from the geophysical map, GEUS, (sub-model 2) were used in the process to develop GAP geomodel version 1. These two interpretations were independent from each other and in the final stage these sub-models were integrated and developed into GAP geological model version 1. The integration resulted in a total of 158 lineaments. These lineaments are referred in the final model as deformation zones and faults, where deformation zones are larger features and faults are single fractures indicating some sense of movement. Four different sets of deformation zones and faults were identified in the regional area. The most prominent feature is the ductile/brittle roughly ENE-WSW trending zones crosscutting the whole area, referred as Type 1. Type 2 and Type 3 zones are in general smaller scale than Type 1 and mostly dominated by brittle deformation. The Type 2 system generally trends NW-SE, while the Type 3 system generally trends NE-SW. The Type 4 features are a brittle and roughly N-S orientated younger system, thus crosscutting all other types. Confirmation and validation of the regional model is based on detailed surface-based examination of fractures within the site area, although the scale is different the same orientations were also identified in the

  19. Size and density of East Greenland polar bear (Ursus maritimus) skulls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, C.; Bechshøft, T.O.; Rigét, F.F.

    2013-01-01

    density (BMD) in 87 East Greenland male polar bears (Ursus maritimus) sampled in the time period of 1892-2010. The purpose of the study was to investigate if these measures are potential candidates as indicators for stress associated with climate change and long-range transported toxic industrial...... chemicals. The analyses showed that both BMD and CBL in polar bears sampled in period 4 (1999-2010, n = 57) were significantly lower when compared with period 2 (1920-1936, n = 19) (both p ... that BMD and body size have decreased in East Greenland polar bear males over the past 120 years and that exposure to organohalogen contaminants may explain the BMD reductions. It is, however, not entirely clear if and how climatic oscillations affected the reductions in body size and BMD mainly because...

  20. Formation of source and reservoir rocks in a sequence stratigraphic framework Jameson Land East Greenland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piasecki, S.; Dam, G.; Hansen, C.F.; Koppelhus, E.B.; Stemmerik, L.; Surlyk, F.

    1996-12-31

    Sedimentological, biostratigraphical and sequence stratigraphical analyses of East Greenland sedimentary successions with significant source and reservoir qualities have resulted in a major increase in the understanding of their depositional conditions, distribution and geometry`s. A biostratigraphical scheme of the Jurassic succession based on spores, pollen and dinoflaggelate cyst has been constructed for correlation and dating of the very detailed sequence stratigraphical units across the North Atlantic Ocean. Middle and Upper Jurassic dinoflaggelate stratigraphy is closely correlated to Boreal ammonite stratigraphy and deviations from the NW-European standard dinocyst stratigraphy have been recorded. The Upper Permian Folvik Creek Group was deposited in a marine, carbonate-dominated depositional system under arid climatic conditions. The organic-rich shales of the Ravnefjeld Formation represents highstand systems tracts. Reservoir rocks were formed by secondary dissolution of carbonates which were exposed during low relativ sea-level and as sandy turbidites deposited in lowstand systems tract. The uppermost Triassic - lowermost Jurassic Kap Stewart Group was deposited in a large rift lake. Organic-rich shales were deposited distally during lake level highstand. Deltaic reservoir sandstones were deposited in lowstand systems tracts as a respond to forced regressin induced by rapid variations in relative lake-level. The overlying marine Jurassic deposits include several sandstone units with reservoir potential representing both lowstand and high stand systems tracts. The organic rich mudstones were only developed as potential source rocks for oil when the deposition was combined with high marine organic production and basinal anoxic conditions e.g. during deposition of the Middle Jurassic Sortehat Formation and the Upper Jurassic Hareelv Formations. Several of the largestloilfields in the North Sea and on the Norwegian shelf have close analogues in the Jurassic

  1. Formation of source and reservoir rocks in a sequence stratigraphic framework Jameson Land East Greenland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piasecki, S.; Dam, G.; Hansen, C.F.; Koppelhus, E.B.; Stemmerik, L.; Surlyk, F.

    1996-12-31

    Sedimentological, biostratigraphical and sequence stratigraphical analyses of East Greenland sedimentary successions with significant source and reservoir qualities have resulted in a major increase in the understanding of their depositional conditions, distribution and geometry`s. A biostratigraphical scheme of the Jurassic succession based on spores, pollen and dinoflaggelate cyst has been constructed for correlation and dating of the very detailed sequence stratigraphical units across the North Atlantic Ocean. Middle and Upper Jurassic dinoflaggelate stratigraphy is closely correlated to Boreal ammonite stratigraphy and deviations from the NW-European standard dinocyst stratigraphy have been recorded. The Upper Permian Folvik Creek Group was deposited in a marine, carbonate-dominated depositional system under arid climatic conditions. The organic-rich shales of the Ravnefjeld Formation represents highstand systems tracts. Reservoir rocks were formed by secondary dissolution of carbonates which were exposed during low relativ sea-level and as sandy turbidites deposited in lowstand systems tract. The uppermost Triassic - lowermost Jurassic Kap Stewart Group was deposited in a large rift lake. Organic-rich shales were deposited distally during lake level highstand. Deltaic reservoir sandstones were deposited in lowstand systems tracts as a respond to forced regressin induced by rapid variations in relative lake-level. The overlying marine Jurassic deposits include several sandstone units with reservoir potential representing both lowstand and high stand systems tracts. The organic rich mudstones were only developed as potential source rocks for oil when the deposition was combined with high marine organic production and basinal anoxic conditions e.g. during deposition of the Middle Jurassic Sortehat Formation and the Upper Jurassic Hareelv Formations. Several of the largest oilfields in the North Sea and on the Norwegian shelf have close analogues in the Jurassic

  2. The crust and upper mantle of central East Greenland - implications for continental accretion and rift evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiffer, Christian; Balling, Niels; Ebbing, Jörg; Holm Jacobsen, Bo; Bom Nielsen, Søren

    2016-04-01

    The geological evolution of the North Atlantic Realm during the past 450 Myr, which has shaped the present-day topographic, crustal and upper mantle features, was dominated by the Caledonian orogeny and the formation of the North Atlantic and associated igneous activity. The distinct high altitude-low relief landscapes that accompany the North Atlantic rifted passive margins are the focus of a discussion of whether they are remnant and modified Caledonian features or, alternatively, recently uplifted peneplains. Teleseismic receiver function analysis of 11 broadband seismometers in the Central Fjord Region in East Greenland indicates the presence of a fossil subduction complex, including a slab of eclogitised mafic crust and an overlying wedge of hydrated mantle peridotite. This model is generally consistent with gravity and topography. It is shown that the entire structure including crustal thickness variations and sub-Moho heterogeneity gives a superior gravity and isostatic topographic fit compared to a model with a homogeneous lithospheric layer (1). The high topography of >1000 m in the western part of the area is supported by the c. 40 km thick crust. The eastern part requires buoyancy from the low velocity/low density mantle wedge. The geometry, velocities and densities are consistent with structures associated with a fossil subduction zone. The spatial relations with Caledonian structures suggest a Caledonian origin. The results indicate that topography is isostatically compensated by density variations within the lithosphere and that significant present-day dynamic topography seems not to be required. Further, this structure is suggested to be geophysically very similar to the Flannan reflector imaged north of Scotland, and that these are the remnants of the same fossil subduction zone, broken apart and separated during the formation of the North Atlantic in the early Cenozoic (2). 1) Schiffer, C., Jacobsen, B.H., Balling, N., Ebbing, J. and Nielsen, S

  3. Late Permian carbonate concretions in the marine siliciclastic sediments of the Ravnefjeld Formation, East Greenland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, J.K. [Univ. of Copenhagen, Geological Inst., Copenhagen (Denmark); Hanken, N.M. [Univ. of Tromsoe, Dept. of Geology, Tromsoe (Norway)

    2002-07-01

    The investigation of carbonate concretions from the Late Permian Ravnefjeld Formation in East Greenland forms part of the multi-disciplinary research project Research of the Sedimentary Basins of North and East Greenland (TUPOLAR). The TUPOLAR project focuses on investigations and evaluation of potential hydrocarbon and mineral resources of the Upper Permian - Mesozoic sedimentary basins. In this context, the Upper Permian Ravnefjeld Formation occupies a pivotal position because it contains local mineralization and has source rock potential for hydrocarbons adjacent to potential carbonate reservoir rocks of the partly time-equivalent Wegener Halvoe Formation. A better understanding of the sedimentary facies and diagenesis of the Ravnefjeld Formation is therefore crucial for an evaluation of the economic evaluation of East Greenland. The original fieldwork was carried out in 1998, when sampling was undertaken of representative carbonate concretions and surrounding beds from a limited number of well-exposed sections in the Ravnefjeld Formation. The sampled material was subsequently investigated by a combination of petrography and stable isotope chemistry to decipher the relationships between the diagenetic development of the carbonate concretions and the mineralization in the sequence. The sequential precipitation of the cement generations was analysed in cement-filled primary voids in gastropods because these showed the most complete development of the different cement generations. The geochemistry of stable isotopes was also studied. During the petrographic work, we became aware of a hitherto unrecognised biota dominated by calcispheres. The well-developed cement generations in primary cavities in skeletal material were used to elucidate the diagenesis. (BA)

  4. From volcanic plains to glaciated peaks: Burial, uplift and exhumation history of southern East Greenland after opening of the NE Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Japsen, Peter; Green, Paul F.; Bonow, Johan M.; Nielsen, Troels F. D.; Chalmers, James A.

    2014-05-01

    In southern East Greenland (68-70°N), voluminous flood basalts erupted onto a largely horizontal lava plain near sea level at the Paleocene-Eocene transition when sea-floor spreading started in the NE Atlantic. Based on synthesis of geological observations, stratigraphic landform analysis and apatite fission-track analysis data in 90 rock samples, we show how three regional phases of uplift and exhumation subsequently shaped the present-day margin and controlled the discontinuous history of the Greenland ice sheet. A late Eocene phase of uplift led to formation of a regional erosion surface near sea level (the Upper Planation Surface, UPS). Uplift of the UPS in the late Miocene led to formation of the Lower Planation Surface (LPS) by incision below the uplifted UPS, and a Pliocene phase led to incision of valleys and fjords below the uplifted LPS, leaving mountain peaks reaching 3.7 km above sea level. Local uplift affected the Kangerlussuaq area (~ 68°N) during early Eocene emplacement of the Kangerlussuaq Intrusion and during late Oligocene block movements, that may be related to the detachment of the Jan Mayen microcontinent from Greenland, while middle Miocene thermal activity, coeval with lava eruptions, heated rocks along a prominent fault within the early Cretaceous to Paleocene Kangerlussuaq Basin. The three regional uplift phases are synchronous with phases in West Greenland, overlap in time with similar events in North America and Europe and also correlate with changes in plate motion. The much higher elevation of East Greenland compared to West Greenland suggests support in the east from the Iceland plume. These observations indicate a connection between mantle convection, changes in plate motion and vertical movements along passive continental margins.

  5. Quotas on narwhal (Monodon monoceros) hunting in East Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Martin Reinhardt; Meilby, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluates the introduction of quotas on narwhal hunting in East Greenland with respect to effects on Inuit culture and based on trends in narwhal killed per hunter and assessment of migration patterns. Cultural aspects were assessed through group discussions and comparison between East....../hunter; and suggest southwest- bound migration, implying potential immigration from non-hunted populations that was not considered in quota setting. The implementation of quotas without local consultations and legal basis in the relevant executive order is therefore in our opinion inappropriate. Conservation...

  6. Oceanic heat delivery via Kangerdlugssuaq Fjord to the south-east Greenland ice sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inall, Mark E.; Murray, Tavi; Cottier, Finlo R.; Scharrer, Kilian; Boyd, Timothy J.; Heywood, Karen J.; Bevan, Suzanne L.

    2014-02-01

    Acceleration of the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) tidewater outlet glaciers has increased the ice sheet's contribution to global sea level rise over the last two decades. Coincident increases in atmospheric temperatures around Greenland explain some of the increased ice loss, but warm Atlantic-origin water (AW) is increasingly recognized as contributing to the accelerating ice-mass loss, particularly, via the outlet glaciers of south-east (SE) Greenland. However, there remains a lack of understanding of the variability in heat content of the water masses found to the east of Greenland and how this heat is communicated to the outlet glaciers of the GrIS. Here a new analysis is presented of ocean/GrIS interaction in which the oceanic heat flux toward the ice sheet in Kangerdlugssuaq Fjord (0.26 TW) is an order-of-magnitude greater than that reported for the other major outlet glacier of SE Greenland (Helheim). Heat delivered by AW to the calving front of Kangerdlugssuaq is equivalent to ˜10 m d-1 melt (i.e., 30-60% of the ice flow speed), and thus is highly significant. During the observational campaign in September 2010 warm Polar Surface Water (PSWw) melted a substantial volume of ice within the fjord; equivalent to 25% of the volume melted by AW alone. Satellite-derived sea surface temperatures show large interannual variability in PSWw over the 20 year period 1991-2011. Anomalously warm PSWw was observed within the fjord prior to the well-documented major ice front retreats of May 2004 and November 2010.

  7. Hydrothermal flake graphite mineralisation in Paleoproterozoic rocks of south-east Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosing-Schow, Nanna; Bagas, Leon; Kolb, Jochen

    2017-01-01

    Flake graphite mineralisation is hosted in the Kuummiut Terrane of the Paleoproterozoic Nagssugtoqidian Orogen, south-east Greenland. Eclogite-facies peak-metamorphic assemblages record temperatures of 640–830 °C and pressures of 22–25 kbar, and are retrogressed in the high-pressure amphibolite......-facies during ca. 1870–1820 Ma. Graphite occurs as lenses along cleavage planes in breccia and as garnet-quartzgraphite veins in various metamorphic host rocks in the Tasiilaq area at Auppaluttoq, Kangikajik, and Nuuk-Ilinnera. Graphite contents reach >30 vol% in 0.2–4 × 20mwide semimassive mineralisation...... (Auppaluttoq, Kangikajik). Supergene alteration formed 1- to 2-m-thick and up to a 2.5 × 2.5 km wide loose limonitic gravel containing graphite flakes in places. The flake size ranges from 1 to6mm in diameter with an average of ~3 mm. Liberation efficiency is at minimum 60%. Hydrothermal fluids at ~600 °C...

  8. Geometry and kinematics of the Triassic rift basin in Jameson Land (East Greenland)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarnieri, Pierpaolo; Brethes, Anaïs.; Rasmussen, Thorkild M.

    2017-04-01

    The Triassic rift basin along the east Greenland margin described in this paper is represented by NE-SW trending basins and highs segmented by NW-SE trending transfer zones. Coarse-grained sediments along the eastern side of Jameson Land are shown to be hosted in half-graben structures belonging to the Carlsberg Fjord Basin that is bounded by NW dipping normal faults mapped and described after fieldwork in the Klitdal area in Liverpool Land. New aeromagnetic and electromagnetic data together with new drill cores allow the reinterpretation of available seismic lines showing the continuation of the Triassic rift basin toward the SW where it is buried under the Upper Triassic postrift sediments and the Jurassic successions of the Jameson Land Basin. The N-S trending Liverpool Land, interpreted as the boundary block of the Triassic basin, is shown to represent a structural high inherited from the Late Carboniferous tectonics and faulted during the Triassic rifting. The Carlsberg Fjord Basin and the Klitdal Fault System described in this paper should be seen as analogues to the Helgeland Basin in the Norwegian offshore that is bounded by the Ylvingen Fault Zone and to the Papa and West of Shetlands Basins that are bounded by the Spine Fault. The Triassic rift zone and transfer faults on both conjugate margins show a straightforward correlation with the trends of the initial spreading line and fracture zones of the northeast Atlantic indicating a possible inheritance of the Triassic rifting.

  9. Historical ablation rates on south-east Greenland glaciers measured in the 1933 warm summer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bent Hasholt

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Ice ablation rates measured on four glaciers in south-east Greenland in summer 1933 are recovered from an old field book of geologist K. Milthers. These unpublished ablation data are among the first measured in Greenland and were obtained during a warm period comparable to that of recent years. Ablation rates of up to 45 mm ice eq. d−1 were observed. Using the Tasiilaq meteorological record, we calculate degree-day factors of ca. 3–5 mm ice eq. d−1°C−1. Comparing these results with 1996–2012 observations at one of Milthers’ glaciers (Mittivakkat, we find that ablation rates and degree-day factors are significantly higher (61±50% in recent years. We speculate this to be due to a reduction in surface albedo, and perhaps the retreat of the glaciers out of the cold maritime inversion layer. Our findings suggest that using a temperature-index method that assumes constant degree-day factors may produce inaccurate long-term ablation estimates for south-east Greenland glaciers, further emphasizing the value of the rare 1933 measurements for validation of ablation models.

  10. Changes in the marine-terminating glaciers of central east Greenland, 2000–2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. M. Walsh

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Marine-terminating outlet glaciers of the Greenland Ice Sheet have undergone substantial changes over the past decade. The synchronicity of these changes suggest a regional external forcing, such as changes in coastal ocean heat transport and/or increased surface melt and subglacial runoff. A distinct contrast in rates of ice front retreat has been observed between glaciers north and south of 69° N latitude on along the East Greenland coast. This latitude corresponds with the northward limit of subtropical waters carried by the Irminger Current, suggesting variability in ocean heat transport as the dominant forcing. Glacier surging, however, is yet another mechanism of change in this region. In order to provide further spatial and temporal constraint on glacier change across this important oceanographic transition zone, we construct time series of thinning, retreat and flow speed of 37 marine-terminating glaciers along the central east Greenland coast from 2000 to 2010. We assess this dataset for spatial and temporal patterns that may elucidate the mechanisms of glacier change. We confirm that glacial retreat, dynamical thinning, and acceleration have been more pronounced south of 69° N, with a high degree of variability along the Blosseville Coast and little inter-annual change in Scoresby Sound. Our results support the conclusion that variability in coastal ocean heat transport is the primary driver of regional glacier change, but that local factors, such as surging and/or individual glacier morphology, are overprinted on this regional signal.

  11. No Abrupt Changes in redox conditions associated with the end-Permian marine ecosystem collapse in the east Greenland basin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jesper K.; Shen, Y; Piasecki, Stefan

    2010-01-01

    compositions of pyrites from the East Greenland Basin. The size distributions of framboidal pyrites in sediments from a continuous section across the Permian–Triassic boundary reveal that sulfidic conditions in water columns were established about 0.7 m above the extinction event in the East Greenland Basin...... is not indicative of an abrupt change of redox chemistry in water columns, in contrast to previous claims. The integration of isotope and framboidal pyrite data provides a nearly continuous record of ocean chemistry evolution and new insights into the end-Permian extinction and delayed biotic recovery in the East...

  12. Spatial and temporal melt variability at Helheim Glacier, East Greenland, and its effect on ice dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, M. L.; Larsen, T. B.; Nettles, M.

    2010-01-01

    Understanding the behavior of large outlet glaciers draining the Greenland Ice Sheet is critical for assessing the impact of climate change on sea level rise. The flow of marine-terminating outlet glaciers is partly governed by calving-related processes taking place at the terminus but is also...... influenced by the drainage of surface runoff to the bed through moulins, cracks, and other pathways. To investigate the extent of the latter effect, we develop a distributed surface-energy-balance model for Helheim Glacier, East Greenland, to calculate surface melt and thereby estimate runoff. The model...... is driven by data from an automatic weather station operated on the glacier during the summers of 2007 and 2008, and calibrated with independent measurements of ablation. Modeled melt varies over the deployment period by as much as 68% relative to the mean, with melt rates approximately 77% higher...

  13. Micromorphology of diamicton affected by iceberg-keel scouring, Scoresby Sund, East Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linch, Lorna D.; Dowdeswell, Julian A.

    2016-11-01

    Icebergs are important as agents of deposition and seafloor reworking on glacier-influenced continental margins. When the keel of an iceberg exceeds water depth it ploughs through soft sediments producing scours/ploughmarks that can be kilometres long, hundreds of metres wide and sometimes tens of metres deep. Because the influence of iceberg keels on sediment is a critical factor when offshore structures (e.g. pipelines, power cables) are installed, the surface morphology of iceberg scours on the seafloor is relatively well-documented. Less however, is known about sub-scour deformation below the seafloor. This is particularly true of iceberg scoured diamicton (poorly sorted sediment comprising a variety of particle sizes), which is present in many high-latitude fjords and continental shelves. The aim of this research is to examine directly (macroscopically and microscopically, with thin sections) the style and intensity of deformation caused by the scouring action of iceberg keels in diamicton offshore of East Greenland. Results show that a distinctive suite of deformation structures (individual structures and overprinted structural patterns) dominated by planar shear, sediment mixing and high porewater, and dropstones characterises iceberg scoured diamicton. In addition, diamicton from areas of high-intensity iceberg scouring tends to show a wider variety, higher frequency and distribution, more abundant and better-developed deformation structures than diamicton from areas of intermediate- and low-intensity iceberg scouring. Characterising the effects of iceberg scour in diamicton is important more widely to inform: i) reconstruction of the geometry and dynamics of former ice sheets; and ii) installation and protection of offshore engineering structures in diamicton where iceberg scouring presents a geohazard. The value of micromorphology is significant especially in the absence of macroscopic sediment exposures/outcrops where the study of cores is necessary

  14. Oceanographic Data from Northwest Greenland Sea: Arctic East 1979 Survey of the USCGC Westwind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    AD-A091 80 SCIENCE APPLICATIONS INC LA JOLLA CA F/6 A/10 OCEANOGRAPHIC DATA FROM NORTHWEST GREENLAND SEA: ARCTIC EAST 19--ETC(U) IW81 J L NEWTON . L E...PIPER NOOOIA-79-C-0689 NCLASSIFIED SAI-202-81I03"LJ NL 3EIIEEE IEEE, mmmmhhIIIIIIu LEYE V scewce AppIcloNs IKEic Si3 23 064 r/£SAT -81- 3-L3...in the scientific group were: Dr. John L. Newton , Science Applications, Inc., La Jolla, CA Chief Scientist Mr. Lee Piper, Science Applications, Inc

  15. Sedimentology and distribution of Upper Permian lowstand fans, Bredehorn Member, Schuchert Dal Formation, East Greenland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kreiner-Moeller, M.; Piasecki, S.; Stemmerik, L.

    1999-07-01

    The Upper Permian basin of central East Greenland was characterized by shallow marine platform carbonates along the basin margins and over fault crests, and deeper water siliciclastics in the basin centres during the later stages of deposition. The basinal, siliciclastic-dominated succession includes the organic rich, source prone shales of the Ravnefjeld Formation and sandy and silty sediments of the Schuchert Dal Formation. The traditional view of these formations is that they represent discrete stages of basin evolution. However, renewed fieldwork indicates that the lower part of the sandy Bredehorn Member of the Schuchert Dal Formation is time equivalent to the upper part of the Ravnefjeld Formation. The presentation discusses the details.

  16. Is bone mineral composition disrupted by organochlorines in east Greenland polar bears (Ursus maritimus)?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, Christian; Dietz, Rune; Born, Erik W;

    2004-01-01

    ), dichlorodiphenyl trichloroethane (DDT) and its metabolites, chlordanes (CHLs), dieldrin, hexacyclohexanes, hexachlorobenzene] and polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) compounds. To ensure that the BMD value in skull represented the mineral status of the skeletal system in general, we compared BMD values in femur...... and three lumbar vertebrae with skull in a subsample. We detected highly significant correlations between BMD in skull and femur (r = 0.99; p PBDE period (1892.......04) and SigmaCHL (p PBDE in subadults were also found (p = 0.06). In conclusion, the strong correlative relationships suggest that disruption of the bone mineral composition in East Greenland polar...

  17. Lithologic mapping of mafic intrusions in East Greenland using Landsat Thematic Mapper data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naslund, H. Richard; Birnie, R. W.; Parr, J. T.

    1989-01-01

    The East Greenland Tertiary Igneous Province contains a variety of intrusive and extrusive rock types. The Skaergaard complex is the most well known of the intrusive centers. Landsat thematic mapping (TM) was used in conjunction with field spectrometer data to map these mafic intrusions. These intrusions are of interest as possible precious metal ore deposits. They are spectrally distinct from the surrounding Precambrian gneisses. However, subpixel contamination by snow, oxide surface coatings, lichen cover and severe topography limit the discrimination of lithologic units within the gabbro. Imagery of the Skaergaard and surrounding vicinity, and image processing and enhancement techniques are presented. Student theses and other publications resulting from this work are also listed.

  18. Hydrothermal flake graphite mineralisation in Paleoproterozoic rocks of south-east Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosing-Schow, Nanna; Bagas, Leon; Kolb, Jochen; Balić-Žunić, Tonči; Korte, Christoph; Fiorentini, Marco L.

    2017-06-01

    Flake graphite mineralisation is hosted in the Kuummiut Terrane of the Paleoproterozoic Nagssugtoqidian Orogen, south-east Greenland. Eclogite-facies peak-metamorphic assemblages record temperatures of 640-830 °C and pressures of 22-25 kbar, and are retrogressed in the high-pressure amphibolite-facies during ca. 1870-1820 Ma. Graphite occurs as lenses along cleavage planes in breccia and as garnet-quartz-graphite veins in various metamorphic host rocks in the Tasiilaq area at Auppaluttoq, Kangikajik, and Nuuk-Ilinnera. Graphite contents reach >30 vol% in 0.2-4 × 20 m wide semi-massive mineralisation (Auppaluttoq, Kangikajik). Supergene alteration formed 1- to 2-m-thick and up to a 2.5 × 2.5 km wide loose limonitic gravel containing graphite flakes in places. The flake size ranges from 1 to 6 mm in diameter with an average of 3 mm. Liberation efficiency is at minimum 60%. Hydrothermal fluids at 600 °C, transporting carbon as CO2 and CH4, formed the mineralisation commonly hosted by shear zones, which acted as pathways for the mineralising fluids. The hydrothermal alteration assemblage is quartz-biotite-grunerite-edenite-pargasite-K-feldspar-titanite. The δ13C values of graphite, varying from -30 to -18‰ PDB, indicate that the carbon was derived from organic matter most likely from metasedimentary sources. Devolatilisation of marble may have contributed a minor amount of carbon by fluid mixing. Precipitation of graphite involved retrograde hydration reactions, depleting the fluid in H2O and causing graphite saturation. Although the high-grade mineralisation is small, it represents an excellent example of hydrothermal mineralisation in an eclogite-facies terrane during retrograde exhumation.

  19. Hydrothermal flake graphite mineralisation in Paleoproterozoic rocks of south-east Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosing-Schow, Nanna; Bagas, Leon; Kolb, Jochen; Balić-Žunić, Tonči; Korte, Christoph; Fiorentini, Marco L.

    2016-11-01

    Flake graphite mineralisation is hosted in the Kuummiut Terrane of the Paleoproterozoic Nagssugtoqidian Orogen, south-east Greenland. Eclogite-facies peak-metamorphic assemblages record temperatures of 640-830 °C and pressures of 22-25 kbar, and are retrogressed in the high-pressure amphibolite-facies during ca. 1870-1820 Ma. Graphite occurs as lenses along cleavage planes in breccia and as garnet-quartz-graphite veins in various metamorphic host rocks in the Tasiilaq area at Auppaluttoq, Kangikajik, and Nuuk-Ilinnera. Graphite contents reach >30 vol% in 0.2-4 × 20 m wide semi-massive mineralisation (Auppaluttoq, Kangikajik). Supergene alteration formed 1- to 2-m-thick and up to a 2.5 × 2.5 km wide loose limonitic gravel containing graphite flakes in places. The flake size ranges from 1 to 6 mm in diameter with an average of 3 mm. Liberation efficiency is at minimum 60%. Hydrothermal fluids at 600 °C, transporting carbon as CO2 and CH4, formed the mineralisation commonly hosted by shear zones, which acted as pathways for the mineralising fluids. The hydrothermal alteration assemblage is quartz-biotite-grunerite-edenite-pargasite-K-feldspar-titanite. The δ13C values of graphite, varying from -30 to -18‰ PDB, indicate that the carbon was derived from organic matter most likely from metasedimentary sources. Devolatilisation of marble may have contributed a minor amount of carbon by fluid mixing. Precipitation of graphite involved retrograde hydration reactions, depleting the fluid in H2O and causing graphite saturation. Although the high-grade mineralisation is small, it represents an excellent example of hydrothermal mineralisation in an eclogite-facies terrane during retrograde exhumation.

  20. Skull pathology in East Greenland and Svalbard polar bears (Ursus maritimus) during 1892 to 2002 in relation to organochlorine pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sonne, Christian [National Environmental Research Institute, Department of Arctic Environment, Frederiksborgvej 399, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark) and Department of Veterinary Basic Sciences, Royal Veterinary and Agricultural University, Buelowsvej 17, DK-1870 Frederiksberg C (Denmark)]. E-mail: csh@dmu.dk; Riget, Frank F. [National Environmental Research Institute, Department of Arctic Environment, Frederiksborgvej 399, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Dietz, Rune [National Environmental Research Institute, Department of Arctic Environment, Frederiksborgvej 399, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Wiig, Oystein [Natural History Museum, University of Oslo, PO Box 1172 Blindern, N-0562 Oslo (Norway); Kirkegaard, Maja [National Environmental Research Institute, Department of Arctic Environment, Frederiksborgvej 399, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Born, Erik W. [Greenland Institute of Natural Resources, PO Box 570, DK-3900 Nuuk, Greenland (Denmark)

    2007-01-01

    East Greenland and Svalbard polar bears (Ursus maritimus) are heavily polluted with long-range transported organochlorines such as PCBs (polychlorinated biphenyls). To investigate the negative health impacts, a time-trend study of skull pathology was conducted on 269 East Greenland and 241 Svalbard polar bears. The skulls were sampled during 1892-2002 and 1964-1992, respectively. Seven different pathological changes were found: adonti, displacement of teeth, caries, osseous proliferations, exostosis, tooth wear and periodontitis. Only tooth wear and periodontitis was in a prevalence that allowed statistical treatment. The most severe cases of tooth wear and periodontitis were accompanied by a substantial loss of alveolar bone structure. The prevalence of tooth wear and periodontitis increased significantly with age (p < 0.001) with incisor wear being more severe than in canines, premolars and molars (p < 0.001). No sex difference was found for tooth wear (p = 0.22) while a significant difference between sexes was found for periodontitis (p = 0.01) with males having higher prevalence than females (odds ratio of 2.5 for males:females). In East Greenland, the prevalence of tooth wear was significantly higher in polar bears collected in the pre pollution period (< 1960) than in bears sampled during polluted periods (1960-1980 and 1981-2002) (p < 0.001). Regarding periodontitis, the prevalence was not significantly different between pre-pollution and pollution periods (p = 0.309). Polar bears from Svalbard had significantly higher prevalence of tooth wear (p < 0.001) and periodontitis (p = 0.02) than polar bears from East Greenland. The tooth wear and periodontitis odds ratios for Svalbard:East Greenland were 135 and 2.6, respectively. Hence, we found a clear age/sex link and geographical difference but no evidence for an association between skull pathology and exposure to organochlorines in East Greenland and Svalbard polar bears.

  1. The Jurassic of Denmark and Greenland: The Jurassic of East Greenland: a sedimentary record of thermal subsidence, onset and culmination of rifting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surlyk, Finn

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available The Late Palaeozoic – Mesozoic extensional basin complex of East Greenland contains a record of deposition during a period of Rhaetian – Early Bajocian thermal subsidence, the onset of riftingin the Late Bajocian, its growth during the Bathonian–Kimmeridgian, culmination of rifting in the Volgian – Early Ryazanian, and waning in the Late Ryazanian – Hauterivian. The area was centred over a palaeolatitude of about 45°N in the Rhaetian and drifted northwards to about 50°N in the Hauterivian. A major climate change from arid to humid subtropical conditions took place at the Norian–Rhaetian transition. Deposition was in addition governed by a long-term sea-level rise with highstands in the Toarcian–Aalenian, latest Callovian and Kimmeridgian, and lowstands in the latest Bajocian – earliest Bathonian, Middle Oxfordian and Volgian.The Rhaetian – Lower Bajocian succession is considered the upper part of a megasequence, termed J1, with its base in the upper Lower Triassic, whereas the Upper Bajocian – Hauterivian succession forms a complete, syn-rift megasequence, termed J2. The southern part of the basin complex in Jameson Land contains a relatively complete Rhaetian–Ryazanian succession and underwent only minor tilting during Middle Jurassic – earliest Cretaceous rifting. Rhaetian – Lower Jurassic deposits are absent north of Jameson Land and this region was fragmented into strongly tilted fault blocks during the protracted rift event. The syn-rift successions of the two areas accordingly show different long-term trends in sedimentary facies. In the southern area, the J2 syn-rift megasequence forms a symmetrical regressive–transgressive–regressive cycle, whereas the J2 megasequence in the northern area shows an asymmetrical, stepwise deepening trend.A total of eight tectonostratigraphic sequences are recognised in the Rhaetian–Hauterivian interval. They reflect major changes in basin configuration, drainage systems

  2. Between Greenland and America : cross-cultural contacts and the environment in the Baffin Bay area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hacquebord, Louwrens; Vaughan, Richard

    1987-01-01

    Contents: Preface Robert Petersen Continuity and discontinuity in the Political Development of Modern Greenland Jørgen Meldgaard The Prehistoric Cultures in Greenland: Discontinuities in a Marginal Area A.G.F. van Holk Continuity and Discontinuity in Lingulstic Change: A semiotic approach to the

  3. Ice-water vortex at the edge of the East Greenland current

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wadhams, P.; Squire, V.A.

    1983-03-30

    During the Ymer-80 cruise in August 1980 we observed an ice feature of 60-km diameter having the shape of a breaking wave. It lay at the edge of the East Greenland drift ice in Fram Strait with its center at 79/sup 0/15'N, 00/sup 0/38'E, and the wave was breaking upstream relative to the East Greenland current. Two conductivity, temperature, and depth sections across the feature in N-S and E-W directions revealed warm (up to 4.3 C) water some 60 km inside the polar front, in lenses centered at 40-m depth but with an effect to beyond 600 m. The temperature anomalies were accompanied by salinity anomalies so that there was little net effect on the density profile. The form of the sections, together with the ice distribution (observed by vertical photography from a helicopter) and surface motion (observed by tracking four radar transponders) all suggest that the feature is a vortex produced by an instability in the polar front. It has similar characteristics to vortices investigated experimentally and theoretically by Griffiths and Linden (1981a, b, 1982) and observationally by Wadhams et al. (1979).

  4. An ice-water vortex at the edge of the East Greenland Current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadhams, P.; Squire, V. A.

    1983-03-01

    During the Y mer-80 cruise in August 1980 we observed an ice feature of 60-km diameter having the shape of a breaking wave. It lay at the edge of the East Greenland drift ice in Fram Strait with its center at 79°15'N, 00°38'E, and the wave was breaking upstream relative to the East Greenland Current. Two conductivity, temperature, and depth sections across the feature in N-S and E-W directions revealed warm (up to 4.3°C) water some 60 km inside the polar front, in lenses centered at 40-m depth but with an effect to beyond 600 m. The temperature anomalies were accompanied by salinity anomalies so that there was little net effect on the density profile. The form of the sections, together with the ice distribution (observed by vertical photography from a helicopter) and surface motion (observed by tracking four radar transponders) all suggest that the feature is a vortex produced by an instability in the polar front. It has similar characteristics to vortices investigated experimentally and theoretically by Griffiths and Linden (1981a, b, 1982) and observationally by Wadhams et al. (1979).

  5. The Neoproterozoic Tillite Group from Ella Ø, East Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buchardt, Bjørn; Kristiansen, Kasper K.; Houmark-Nielsen, Michael

    is ~1200 m. The Ulvesø Fm rests conformably on shales and stromatolithic calcareous rocks of suggested warm water origin, and the Storeelv Fm is conformably overlain by clastic rocks showing pseudomorphoses after halite in the uppermost unit. The two diamictitic units are separated by the ~250 m thick Area...... is disconformably overlain by sediments of Cambrian age. Fieldwork by us on Ella Ø has questioned the glacial origin of at least the lower diamictitic unit (Ulvesø Fm), while the upper unit (Storeelv Fm) shows unequivocal evidence of glacial activities at the base. On Ella Ø, the thickness of the Tillite Group...... compositions of the stromatolithic carbonates of Bed Group 18 are significantly enriched compared to modern values with a mean of +7‰ V-PDB. The shift from calcareous rocks of Bed Group 18 to shaly and cherty sediments of Bed Group 19 is accompanied by a negative shift in d13C of more that 15‰, and average...

  6. At-sea observations of the spring migration and pair bonding of ivory gulls (Pagophila eburnea around Svalbard and East Greenland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrik Kylin

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Because of logistical constraints little previous information exists on ivory gulls (Pagophila eburnea in the waters around Svalbard and the east coast of Greenland in late winter/early spring. The Swedish Arctic Ocean 2002 expedition investigated these areas at that time of year and in this paper I report on the observations of ivory gulls made during the expedition. The ivory gull was essentially absent from open waters but was the most common seabird in areas with pack ice, showing behavioural differences depending on local conditions. Generally, the number of ivory gulls was low when there was little plankton in the water. Ivory gulls followed the ship depending on the availability of food items in the wake and also depending on competition from other species, particularly glaucous gulls (Larus hyperboreus. Although ivory gulls were present in most of Fram Strait and the northern part of the East Greenland Current during 6 and 19 May, sightings were few and correlated to the amount of plankton in the water. Aggregations of several hundred were seen on the ice where copulation and other social interaction took place. A previously undescribed pair bonding behaviour during which females seemed to select between two competing males was observed north of Svalbard on 30 April–1 May. Off Scoresby Sound on 25 May, more than 700 birds were seen migrating north, while farther south along the Greenland coast on 30 May there was little indication of migration although many ivory gulls were seen.

  7. Sediment thicknesses and holocene glacial marine sedimentation rates in three east Greenland fjords (ca. 68°N)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, J.T.; Milliman, John D.; Jennings, A.E.; Rynes, N.; Dwyer, J.

    1994-01-01

    We compared measured and estimated sediment budgets in heavily glaciated fjords in East Greenland. Mass balance calculations and regional glacio-climatic conditions suggest that the sediment flux to the seafloor in Kangerdlugssuaq and Nansen fjords should be dominated by iceberg rafting and not by the rain-out of suspended particulates in meltwater, as the glacier calving flux is estimated at 15 and $2 km^{3}/yr$, compared to meltwater volumes of 4.4 and $1.7 km^{3}/yr$, respectively. Gravity cores in the three fjords indicate that the uppermost 1-2.5 m of sediment consists of diamictons or fine-grained laminated muds. AMS radiocarbon dates on calcareous foramininfera or shells (16 total) indicate sedimentation rates of 110 to 340 cm/ka within the fjords over the last 1 ka, and 10-20 cm/ka during the Holecene on the inner and middle shelf. Annual sediment discharge is around $0.67 \\times 10^{6}$ tonnes/yr within the Kangerdlugssuaq Fjord and Trough system, which translates into an average basin-wide rate of denudation of 0.01 mm/yr (0.01 m/ka). Air gun and deep-towed (Huntec) seismic profiling was carried out in Kangerdlugssuaq and Nansen fjords, East Greenland, and showed that sediment fills averaged 500 and 350 m respectively; they consist primarily of acoustically stratified sediments. If the sediment fills are entirely Holocene in age then the required average sediment accumulation rates of 35-50 m/ka are an order of magnitude larger than the $^{14}C $controlled rates of the last 1-2 ka. This raises the possibility that fjord sediments may be by-passed and not always recycled during glacial advances; this will affect sedimentation rates on adjacent shelves and deep-sea areas during successive glaciations

  8. Liquid freshwater transport estimates from the East Greenland Current based on continuous measurements north of Denmark Strait

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Steur, L.; Pickart, R.S.; Macrander, A.; Våge, K.; Harden, B.; Jónsson, S.; Østerhus, S.; Valdimarsson, H.

    2017-01-01

    Liquid freshwater transports of the shelfbreak East Greenland Current (EGC) and the separated EGC are determined from mooring records from the Kögur section north of Denmark Strait between August 2011 and July 2012. The 11 month mean freshwater transport (FWT), relative to a salinity of 34.8, was 65

  9. A preliminary report on coprolites from the Late Triassic part of the Kap Stewart Formation, Jameson Land, East Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milàn, Jesper; Clemmensen, Lars B; Adolphsen, Jan Schulz;

    2012-01-01

    The basal part of the Triassic-Jurassic (Rhaetian-Sinemurian) Kap Stewart Formation, exposed at Jameson Land, East Greenland, yields an extensive coprolite collection from black, parallel-laminated mudstone (“paper shale”), representing an open lacustrine system. Preliminary investigations show...

  10. Tracing Mycobacterium tuberculosis transmission by whole genome sequencing in a high incidence setting: a retrospective population-based study in East Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjorn-Mortensen, K.; Soborg, B.; Koch, A.; Ladefoged, K.; Merker, M.; Lillebaek, T.; Andersen, A. B.; Niemann, S.; Kohl, T. A.

    2016-01-01

    In East Greenland, a dramatic increase of tuberculosis (TB) incidence has been observed in recent years. Classical genotyping suggests a genetically similar Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) strain population as cause, however, precise transmission patterns are unclear. We performed whole genome sequencing (WGS) of Mtb isolates from 98% of culture-positive TB cases through 21 years (n = 182) which revealed four genomic clusters of the Euro-American lineage (mainly sub-lineage 4.8 (n = 134)). The time to the most recent common ancestor of lineage 4.8 strains was found to be 100 years. This sub-lineage further diversified in the 1970s, and massively expanded in the 1990s, a period of lowered TB awareness in Greenland. Despite the low genetic strain diversity, WGS data revealed several recent short-term transmission events in line with the increasing incidence in the region. Thus, the isolated setting and the uniformity of circulating Mtb strains indicated that the majority of East Greenlandic TB cases originated from one or few strains introduced within the last century. Thereby, the study shows the consequences of even short interruptions in TB control efforts in previously TB high incidence areas and demonstrates the potential role of WGS in detecting ongoing micro epidemics, thus guiding public health efforts in the future. PMID:27615360

  11. Middle to late Holocene fluctuations of the Vindue glacier, an outlet glacier of the Greenland Ice Sheet, central East Greenland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, L.; Hammer, S. K.; Kelly, M. A.; Lowell, T. V.; Hall, B. L.; Howley, J. A.; Wilcox, P.; Medford, A.

    2014-12-01

    The margins of the Greenland Ice Sheet are currently responding to present-day climate changes. Determining how the ice sheet margins have responded to past climate changes provides a means to understand how they may respond in the future. Here we present a multi-proxy record used to reconstruct the Holocene fluctuations of the Vindue glacier, an ice sheet outlet glacier in eastern Greenland. Lake sediment cores from Qiviut lake (informal name), located ~0.75 km from the present-day Vindue glacier margin contain a sharp transition from medium sand/coarse silt to laminated gyttja just prior to 6,340±130 cal yr BP. We interpret this transition to indicate a time when the Vindue glacier retreated sufficiently to cease glacial sedimentation into the lake basin. Above this contact the core contains laminated gyttja with prominent, ~0.5 cm thick, silt layers. 10Be ages of boulders on bedrock located between Qiviut lake and the present-day ice margin date to 6.81 ± 0.67 ka (n = 3), indicating the time of deglaciation. These ages also agree well with the radiocarbon age of the silt-gyttja transition in Qiviut lake cores. 10Be ages on boulders on bedrock located more proximal to the ice margin (~0.5 km) yield ages of 2.67 ± 0.18 ka (n = 2). These ages indicate either the continued recession of the ice margin during the late Holocene or an advance at this time. Boulders on the historical moraines show that ice retreated from the moraine by AD 1620 ± 20 yrs (n = 2). These results are in contrast with some areas of the western margin of the ice sheet where 10Be ages indicate that the ice sheet was behind its Historical limit from the middle Holocene (~6-7 ka) to Historical time. This may indicate that the eastern margin may have responded to late Holocene cooling more sensitively or that the advance associated with the Historical moraines overran any evidence of late Holocene fluctuations along the western margin of the ice sheet.

  12. Strategic environmental impact assessment of hydrocarbon activities in the Disko West area[Greenland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mosbech, A.; Boertmann, D.; Jespersen, Martin

    2007-05-15

    This publication is a strategic environmental impact assessment of activities related to exploration, development and exploitation of hydrocarbons in the sea of West Greenland between 67 deg. and 71 deg. N (= the Disko West Area). (au)

  13. Crustal Decoupling in Collisional Orogenesis: Examples from the East Greenland Caledonides and Himalaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodges, K. V.

    2016-06-01

    Mature orogenic systems built by continent-continent collision feature orogenic plateaus flanked by accretionary wedges. Thermal-mechanical models of these systems predict the development of a thermally weakened orogenic infrastructure that is capable of lateral flow toward the orogenic foreland. Such flow, if it occurs, strongly influences the evolutionary pathway of a wedge. Although the architecture of a wedge features numerous large-displacement faults, three are preeminent in mature orogens: one that marks the base of the wedge and two others that mark the base and top, respectively, of the weakened infrastructure. These structures represent major decoupling horizons separating domains with distinctive deformational and thermal histories. Reviews of the geology of orogenic wedges in two mature orogenic systems—the Cenozoic Himalaya and the Paleozoic East Greenland Caledonides—show how this simple conceptual model provides a valuable context for studies of how collisional orogenic systems develop and how they interact with the surrounding lithosphere.

  14. Iceberg Calving and Flow Dynamics at Helheim Glacier, East Greenland, from Time-Lapse Photography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, G. S.; Khan, S. A.; Schild, K. M.; Stearns, L. A.; Nettles, M.; Ahlstrøm, A. P.; Andersen, M. L.; Davis, J. L.; Ekström, G.; Elósegui, P.; Forsberg, R.; de Juan, J.; Larsen, T. B.; Stenseng, L.

    2008-12-01

    Helheim Glacier in East Greenland is the focus of coordinated studies aimed at understanding tidewater outlet-glacier dynamics and kinematics, and their link to glacial earthquakes. As part of this effort, we installed three time-lapse cameras overlooking the calving terminus of the glacier during the Arctic summer of 2008. Images were captured every five minutes during the mostly unattended period of operation. Several interesting aspects of the glacier's behavior are observed in the image sequences, including vertical displacement of the glacier terminus by ocean tides, and very large calving events. These observations, in combination with simultaneous measurements of ice flow, ocean tides (including tsunamis) and seismic activity, contribute to our understanding of the dynamics of Helheim Glacier and the source mechanism of glacial earthquakes.

  15. Dynamic behaviour of ice streams: the North East Greenland Ice Stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bons, Paul D.; Jansen, Daniela; Schaufler, Svenja; de Riese, Tamara; Sachau, Till; Weikusat, Ilka

    2017-04-01

    The flow of ice towards the margins of ice sheets is far from homogeneous. Ice streams show much higher flow velocities than their surroundings and may extend, for example the North East Greenland Ice Stream (NEGIS), towards the centre of the sheet. The elevated flow velocity inside an ice stream causes marginal shearing and convergent flow, which in turn leads to folding of ice layers. Such folding was documented in the Petermann Glacier in northern Greenland (Bons et al., 2016). 3-dimensional structural modelling using radargrams shows that folding is more intense adjacent to NEGIS than inside it, despite the strong flow perturbation at NEGIS. Analysis of fold amplitude as a function of stratigraphic level indicates that folding adjacent to NEGIS ceased in the early Holocene, while it is currently active inside NEGIS. The presence of folds adjacent of NEGIS, but also at other sites far in the interior of the Greenland Ice Sheet with no direct connection to the present-day surface velocity field, indicates that ice flow is not only heterogeneous in space (as the present-day flow velocity field shows), but also in time. The observations suggest that ice streams are dynamic, ephemeral structures that emerge and die out, and may possibly shift during their existence, but leave traces within the stratigraphic layering of the ice. The dynamic nature of ice streams such as NEGIS speaks against deterministic models for their accelerated flow rates, such as bedrock topography or thermal perturbations at their base. Instead, we suggest that ice streams can also result from strain localisation induced inside the ice sheet by the complex coupling of rheology, anisotropy, grain-size changes and possibly shear heating. Bons, P.D., Jansen, D., Mundel, F., Bauer, C.C., Binder, T., Eisen, O., Jessell, M.W., Llorens, M.-G, Steinbach, F., Steinhage, D. & Weikusat, I. 2016. Converging flow and anisotropy cause large-scale folding in Greenland's ice sheet. Nature Communications 7

  16. The Jurassic of Denmark and Greenland: Shallow marine syn-rift sedimentation: Middle Jurassic Pelion Formation, Jameson Land, East Greenland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Engkilde, Michael

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available The Middle Jurassic Pelion Formation – Fossilbjerget Formation couplet of Jameson Land, East Greenland, is a well-exposed example of the Middle Jurassic inshore–offshore successions characteristicof the rifted seaways in the Northwest European – North Atlantic region. Early Jurassic deposition took place under relatively quiet tectonic conditions following Late Permian – earliest Triassic and Early Triassic rift phases and the Lower Jurassic stratal package shows an overall layer-cake geometry. A long-term extensional phase was initiated in Middle Jurassic (Late Bajocian time, culminated in the Late Jurassic (Kimmeridgian–Volgian, and petered out in the earliest Cretaceous (Valanginian. The Upper Bajocian – Middle Callovian early-rift succession comprises shallow marine sandstones of the Pelion Formation and correlative offshore siltstones of theFossilbjerget Formation. Deposition was initiated by southwards progradation of shallow marine sands of the Pelion Formation in the Late Bajocian followed by major backstepping in Bathonian–Callovian times and drowning of the sandy depositional system in the Middle–Late Callovian. Six facies associations are recognised in the Pelion–Fossilbjerget couplet, representing estuarine, shoreface, offshore transition zone and offshore environments. The north–southtrendingaxis of the Jameson Land Basin had a low inclination, and deposition was sensitive to even small changes in relative sea level which caused the shorelines to advance or retreat over tens to several hundreds of kilometres. Eight composite sequences, termed P1–P8, are recognised and are subdivided into a total of 28 depositional sequences. The duration of the two orders of sequences was about 1–2 Ma and 360,000 years, respectively. The Upper Bajocian P1–2 sequencesinclude the most basinally positioned shallow marine sandstones, deposited during major sealevel lowstands. The lowstands were terminated by significant marine

  17. The Association Between Fog and Temperature Inversions from Ground and Radiosonde Observations in East Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilson, G.; Jiskoot, H.

    2016-12-01

    Many Arctic glaciers terminate along coasts where temperature inversions and sea fog are frequent during summer. Both can influence glacier ablation, but the effects of fog may be complex. To understand fog's physical and radiative properties and its association to temperature inversions it is important to determine accurate Arctic coastal fog climatologies In previous research we determined that fog in East Greenland peaks in the melt season and can be spatially extensive over glacierized terrain. In this study we aim to understand which environmental factors influence fog occurrence in East Greenland; understand the association between fog and temperature inversions; and quantify fog height. We analyzed fog observations and other weather data from coastal synoptic weather stations, and extracted temperature inversions from the Integrated Global Radiosonde Archive radiosonde profiles. Fog height was calculated from radiosonde profiles, based on a method developed for radiation fog which we expanded to include advection and steam fog. Our results show that Arctic coastal fog requires sea ice breakup and a sea breeze with wind speed between 1-4 m/s. Fog is mostly advective, occurring under stable synoptic conditions characterized by deep and strong low-level temperature inversions. Steam fog may occur 5-30% of the time. Fog can occur under near-surface subsidence, with a subsaturated inversion base, or a saturated inversion base. We classified five types of fog based on their vertical sounding characteristics: only at the surface, below an inversion, capped by an inversion, inside a surface-based inversion, or inside a low-level inversion. Fog is commonly 100-400 m thick, often reaching the top of the boundary layer. Fog height is greater at northern stations, where daily fog duration is longer and relative humidity lower. Our results will be included in glacier energy-balance models to account for the influence of fog and temperature inversions on glacier melt.

  18. Oxygen and carbon isotope composition of Quaternary bivalve shells as a water mass indicator: Last interglacial and Holocene, East Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Israelson, C.; Buchardt, Bjørn; Funder, S.V.

    1994-01-01

    to south along the Ea5t Greenland coast \\\\as also present during the Holaccnc dimatil.: optimum 800n -7{JOO yr B.P. Analyses of b;\\'al\\t: shells from the last interglacial sho\\\\! that Scoresby Sund during that time was weB circulated and that mell\\\\Jter from 1h.... Greenland ice sheet and sea ice meltwater......Oxygen and carhon isotope composition of arctic bivahe shells are used in an attempt to reCO'1struct -.urface water temperature and salinities in Scoresby Sund. East Greenland. The oxygen i:;otope compositions or .1,tw mllicuf£!. Hialclla arctica and Tridmlla hOl'm!is han~ been compared...

  19. Climatology and firn processes in the lower accumulation area of the Greenland ice sheet

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    The Greenland ice sheet is the largest Northern Hemisphere store of fresh water, and it is responding rapidly to the warming climate. In situ observations document the changing ice sheet properties in the lower accumulation area, Southwest Greenland. Firn densities from 1840 meters above sea level retrieved in May 2012 revealed the existence of a 5.5-meter-thick, near-surface ice layer in response to the recent increased melt and refreezing in firn. As a consequence, vertical meltwater percol...

  20. Xenoestrogenic and dioxin-like activity in blood of East Greenland polar bears (Ursus maritimus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdmann, Simon E; Dietz, Rune; Sonne, Christian; Bechshøft, Thea Ø; Vorkamp, Katrin; Letcher, Robert J; Long, Manhai; Bonefeld-Jørgensen, Eva C

    2013-07-01

    The aims of the project were to (i) extract the lipophilic persistent organic pollutants (POPs) from the blood of 99 East Greenland polar bears and assess the combined mixture effect on the estrogen receptor (ER) and the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) mediated transactivity; (ii) To evaluate whether the receptor transactivities were associated with selected POP markers, and (iii) compare the receptor transactivities in polar bears with earlier studies on Greenlandic Inuit. Lipophilic POPs were extracted using a combination of solid-phase extraction (SPE) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). ER mediated transactivity was determined using the ER luciferase reporter MVLN cell assay. The extracts were tested alone (XER) and together with 17β-estradiol (E2) as a physiological mimic (XERcomp). Dioxins and dioxin-like (DL) compounds were extracted by a combination of SPE and the Supelco Dioxin Prep System®. AhR mediated dioxin-like transactivity was determined using the AhR luciferase reporter Hepa 1.12cR cell assay. Agonistic ER transactivity was elicited by 19% of the samples, and a further increased E2 induced ER response was found for 52%, whereas 17% antagonized the E2 induced ER response. Positive correlations were found in subadult bears between XER and several POP biomarkers. XER and XERcomp correlated positively to each other. A total of 91% of the polar bear blood extracts elicited agonistic AhR transactivity. The AhR-TCDD equivalent (AhR-TEQ) median levels were higher among adult bears compared to subadult bears, but not significantly.

  1. Organohalogen concentrations and a gross and histologic assessment of multiple organ systems in East Greenland polar bears (Ursus maritimus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, C.

    To investigate the relation between biological parameters, not earlier investigated in the polar bear, and organohalogen pollution in East Greenland polar bears, we initiated a sampling of adipose tissue, internal organs and skulls from more than 100 free-ranging polar bears killed by local...... in the adipose tissue and pathological changes in skulls and internal organs. Our results suggested a decrease in adipose tissue concentrations of organohalogens in East Greenland polar bears from 1990 to 1999-2001. Two of the biological effect parameters (FA and enlarged clitoris) did not indicate a link......, infectious agents, season and meaby chronic exposure to organohalogens. These result fill out an existing knowledge gap in potential effects of environmental, organic contaminants on fluctuating asymmetry, bone mineral density and functional anatomy (histology) in the polar bear. In addition, the results may...

  2. Multi-decadal record of ice dynamics on Daugaard Jensen Gletscher, East Greenland, from satellite imagery and terrestrial measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stearns, L.A.; Hamilton, G.S.; Reeh, Niels

    2005-01-01

    The history of ice velocity and calving front position of Daugaard Jensen Gletscher, a large outlet glacier in East Greenland, is reconstructed from field measurements, aerial photography and satellite imagery for the period 1950-2001. The calving terminus of the glacier has remained in approxima......The history of ice velocity and calving front position of Daugaard Jensen Gletscher, a large outlet glacier in East Greenland, is reconstructed from field measurements, aerial photography and satellite imagery for the period 1950-2001. The calving terminus of the glacier has remained...... vs snow accumulation in the interior catchment show that Daugaard Jensen Gletscher has a small negative mass balance. This result is consistent with other mass-balance estimates for the inland region of the glacier....

  3. Trace-element record in zircons during exhumation from UHP conditions, North-East Greenland Caledonides

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClelland, W.C.; Gilotti, J.A.; Mazdab, F.K.; Wooden, J.L.

    2009-01-01

    Coesite-bearing zircon formed at ultrahigh-pressure (UHP) conditions share general characteristics of eclogite-facies zircon with trace-element signatures characterized by depleted heavy rare earth elements (HREE), lack of an Eu anomaly, and low Th/ U ratios. Trace-element signatures of zircons from the Caledonian UHP terrane in North-East Greenland were used to examine the possible changes in signature with age during exhumation. Collection and interpretation of age and trace-element analyses of zircon from three samples of quartzofeldspathic gneiss and two leucocratic intrusions were guided by core vs. rim zoning patterns as imaged by cathodoluminesence. Change from igneous to eclogite-facies metamorphic trace-element signature in protolith zircon is characterized by gradual depletion of HREE, whereas newly formed metamorphic rims have flat HREE patterns and REE concentrations that are distinct from the recrystallized inherited cores. The signature associated with eclogite-facies metamorphic zircon is observed in coesite-bearing zircon formed at 358 ?? 4 Ma, metamorphic rims formed at 348 ?? 5 Ma during the initial stages of exhumation, and metamorphic rims formed at 337 ?? 5 Ma. Zircons from a garnet-bearing granite emplaced in the neck of an eclogite boudin and a leucocratic dike that cross-cuts amphibolite-facies structural fabrics have steeply sloping HREE patterns, variably developed negative Eu anomalies, and low Th/U ratios. The granite records initial decompression melting and exhumation at 347 ?? 2 Ma and later zircon rim growth at 329 ?? 5. The leucocratic dike was likely emplaced at amphibolite-facies conditions at 330 ?? 2 Ma, but records additional growth of compositionally similar zircon at 321 ??2 Ma. The difference between the trace-element signature of metamorphic zircon in the gneisses and in part coeval leucocratic intrusions indicates that the zircon signature varies as a function of lithology and context, thus enhancing its ability to aid in

  4. Muskox site fidelity and group cohesion in Jameson Land, East Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aastrup, P. J.

    2004-01-01

    Increasing hunting pressure in Greenland demands improved knowledge on Muskox (Ovibos moschatus) biology in general and movement and grouping behaviour in specific to insure their proper management. Improving the exchange of information between hunters and managers is also necessary. Muskox site...... fidelity and group cohesion was examined over a 16-year period using 477 earmarked individuals tagged in 1982 and 1983. Combining information from scientists and hunters, observations of live individuals were primarily made from 1983 to 1990, while the latest tagged muskoxen reported shot was from 1998....... Muskoxen in this area had a very loose group structure, with mother-young pairs as the only apparent bond between individuals. Furthermore, the tagged muskoxen lacked strong fidelity to the site where they were tagged and roamed within an 11.000-km2 area. Hunters reported tagged muskoxen shot up to 120 km...

  5. Response of the large-scale subglacial drainage system of North East Greenland to surface elevation changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. B. Karlsson

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of subglacial water on the dynamics of ice flow has been the object of increasing interest in the past decade. In this study we focus on large-scale, long-term changes in surface elevation over North East Greenland, and the corresponding changes in subglacial water routes. Our results show that over time-scales ranging from decades to millennia the area may experience redistribution of and fluctuation in subglacial water outflux under the main glacier outlets. The fluctuations in subglacial water routing occur even in the absence of external forcing. Based on these results we conclude that changes in the subglacial water routes are an intrinsic part of the drainage basin dynamics, where the subglacial system is likely always in a transient state. The results also imply that fluctuations at the margins observed at present might originate from changes several hundred kilometres upstream. Since surface elevation changes may propagate upstream over time-scales much longer than the observational period, the cause of the fluctuations may not be present in current observational records.

  6. Extended correlation of the Paleogene Faroe Islands and East Greenland plateau basalts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søager, Nina; Holm, Paul Martin

    2008-01-01

    New analytical data are presented for 13 enriched high-Ti tholeiitic basalts from the top of the Faroese lava pile that was formed by the time of break-up of the North Atlantic  56-55  Ma ago and are located on the eastern continental margin of the Atlantic Ocean. The samples fall in three groups....../204Pb = 17.59-18.30 while the High-Ti3 group has 206Pb/204Pb = 18.88-19.12. The three Faroese lava groups can be correlated with the East Greenland syn-breakup basalt formations using their geochemistry, lava morphology and phenocryst contents. The High-Ti1 group correlates with the Milne Land......-Ti1 and Milne Land Formation lavas have a higher content of most incompatible elements compared to High-Ti2 and Geikie Plateau Formation. This is unexpected because the Zr/Nb ratio indicates that the High-Ti2 and Geikie Plateau Formation lavas are formed by lower degrees of melting. An explanation may...

  7. Lateral Reactive Infiltration in a Vertical Gabbroic Crystal Mush, Skaergaard Intrusion, East Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namur, O.; Humphreys, M.; Holness, M. B.

    2012-12-01

    The Marginal Border Series of the Skaergaard intrusion (East Greenland) is comprised of rocks having crystallized in situ along the vertical walls of the magma chambers. It is subdivided into an outer Unbanded Division and an inner Banded Division. The Banded Division contains abundant cm- to dm-thick bands dominated by fine-grained mafic minerals, with a morphology evolving from almost planar to deeply scalloped and fingered with increasing distance from the intrusion margin. The morphology of these bands is reminiscent of the reaction fronts described in sedimentary basins infiltrated by reactive fluid. We propose that the banding in the Skaergaard Marginal Border Series is produced by chemical disequilibrium into the crystal mush resulting from the suction of primitive liquid from the main magma body into the crystal mush. Shrinkage of the mush during solidification is the driving force for liquid migration. Liquid porous flow produces partial dissolution of evolved pre-existing mafic minerals in the mush, which changes the new mush liquid composition to one capable of crystallizing mafic rocks with a very minor plagioclase component. Abrupt solidification of this liquid, which results in the formation of the actual colloform bands, is explained by supersaturation of some mafic mineral components (e.g. olivine, clinopyroxene, Fe-Ti oxides) in the infiltrating melt. The morphological evolution of the colloform bands, from almost planar to deeply scalloped and fingered with increasing distance from the intrusion margin, is thought to result from increasing crystal mush thickness with progressive differentiation.

  8. Greenland surface mass-balance observations from the ice-sheet ablation area and local glaciers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Machguth, Horst; Thomsen, Henrik H.; Weidick, Anker

    2016-01-01

    in glacier melt independently from model output. Here, we present a comprehensive database of Greenland glacier surface mass-balance observations from the ablation area of the ice sheet and local glaciers. The database spans the 123 a from 1892 to 2015, contains a total of similar to 3000 measurements from......Glacier surface mass-balance measurements on Greenland started more than a century ago, but no compilation exists of the observations from the ablation area of the ice sheet and local glaciers. Such data could be used in the evaluation of modelled surface mass balance, or to document changes...

  9. Greenland surface mass-balance observations from the ice-sheet ablation area and local glaciers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Machguth, Horst; Thomsen, Henrik H.; Weidick, Anker;

    2016-01-01

    Glacier surface mass-balance measurements on Greenland started more than a century ago, but no compilation exists of the observations from the ablation area of the ice sheet and local glaciers. Such data could be used in the evaluation of modelled surface mass balance, or to document changes...... in glacier melt independently from model output. Here, we present a comprehensive database of Greenland glacier surface mass-balance observations from the ablation area of the ice sheet and local glaciers. The database spans the 123 a from 1892 to 2015, contains a total of similar to 3000 measurements from...

  10. The nature of nursing practice in rural and remote areas of Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hounsgaard, Lise; Jensen, A.B.; Præst Wilche, J.

    2013-01-01

    Background The Greenlandic Healthcare Reform (2010) required improved quality of services for health promotion, prevention of infectious and lifestyle diseases, family nursing and evidence-based clinical nursing. Aim To investigate current nursing practice in Greenland and to identify whether......, and subsequently interviewed. Interviews included in-depth questioning, based on emerging outcomes from observation. Interviews were recorded and transcribed; they were analysed within a phenomenological–hermeneutic approach. Results Nurses in rural and remote areas navigate their health promotion and preventive...... nursing, medical and social work. Conclusion The nature of nursing practice in rural and remote Greenland is characterised by a high degree of variability and complexity, with a requirement for a wide range of knowledge and skills. Nurses need to be better prepared with regard to acute medical care...

  11. High-Resolution Monitoring of Glacier Dynamics During Calving Events at Helheim Glacier South-East Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, T.; Rutt, I. C.; O'Farrell, T.; Edwards, S.; Selmes, N.; Martin, I.; James, T.; Aspey, R.; Bevan, S. L.; Loskot, P.; Baugé, T.

    2013-12-01

    By bringing together expertise in glaciology, GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite System) technology and processing, and wireless networks we have designed, installed and operated a wireless network of GNSS sensors very close to the margin of the heavily crevassed and fast-flowing Helheim Glacier in south-east Greenland. In 2012, we undertook field trials installing 3 GNSS sensors on the glacier's flowline, and observed the dynamic effects of a major calving event. In 2013, a full 20 node wireless network was installed together with 5 oblique cameras, instrumenting an area ~16 km^2 of the glacier margin. The network will run throughout the summer months. In combination with auxiliary data, such as airborne lidar measurement of surface topography, crevasse spacing and calving rates, oblique photogrammetry, and DEMs and velocity fields from TanDEM-X satellite imagery, the network provides velocity and elevation data of unprecedented resolution in time and space for the key marginal area of the glacier, where recent changes in glacier dynamics appear to have initiated. We present data showing the glacier's dynamic and topographic response to calving events. These data will provide rich opportunities for testing calving models and to improve understanding of the controls on the contribution of these tidewater glaciers to sea-level rise. The network has low energy consumption and a novel base-station topology providing diversity and redundancy: it is also robust to the loss of nodes as the glacier calves. Such a network would also be suitable for data collection in a number of harsh environmental settings such as earthquake, landslide or volcano monitoring.

  12. Testing EGM2008 on Leveling Data from Scandinavia, adjacent Baltic areas, and Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strykowski, Gabriel; Forsberg, René

    2009-01-01

    We tested EGM2008 on GPS/leveling data from Scandinavia and adjacent areas. EGM2008 performs at the same level as the best regional geoid model, NKG2004. However, the direct evaluation of EGM2008 is difficult in Greenland because no leveling data are available. Nevertheless, we show on 78 GPS-MSS...

  13. Changing surface-atmosphere energy exchange and refreezing capacity of the lower accumulation area, West Greenland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Charalampidis, C.; van As, D.; Box, J. E.; van den Broeke, M. R.; Colgan, W. T.; Doyle, S. H.; Hubbard, A. L.; MacFerrin, M.; Machguth, H.; Smeets, C. J. P. P.

    2015-01-01

    We present 5 years (2009–2013) of automatic weather station measurements from the lower accumulation area (1840 m a.s.l. – above sea level) of the Greenland ice sheet in the Kangerlussuaq region. Here, the summers of 2010 and 2012 were both exceptionally warm, but only 2012 resulted in a strongly ne

  14. Greenland surface mass-balance observations from the ice-sheet ablation area and local glaciers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Machguth, Horst; Thomsen, Henrik H.; Weidick, Anker; Ahlstrøm, Andreas P.; Abermann, Jakob; Andersen, Morten L.; Andersen, Signe B.; Bjørk, Anders A.; Box, Jason E.; Braithwaite, Roger J.; Bøggild, Carl E.; Citterio, Michele; Clement, Poul; Colgan, William; Fausto, Robert S.; Gleie, Karin; Gubler, Stefanie; Hasholt, Bent; Hynek, Bernhard; Knudsen, Niels T.; Larsen, Signe H.; Mernild, Sebastian H.; Oerlemans, Johannes; Oerter, Hans; Olesen, Ole B.; Smeets, C. J P Paul; Steffen, Konrad; Stober, Manfred; Sugiyama, Shin; Van As, Dirk; Van Den Broeke, Michiel R.; Van De Wal, Roderik S W

    2016-01-01

    Glacier surface mass-balance measurements on Greenland started more than a century ago, but no compilation exists of the observations from the ablation area of the ice sheet and local glaciers. Such data could be used in the evaluation of modelled surface mass balance, or to document changes in glac

  15. Greenland surface mass-balance observations from the ice-sheet ablation area and local glaciers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Machguth, Horst; Thomsen, Henrik; Weidick, Anker;

    2016-01-01

    Glacier surface mass-balance measurements on Greenland started more than a century ago, but no compilation exists of the observations from the ablation area of the ice sheet and local glaciers. Such data could be used in the evaluation of modelled surface mass balance, or to document changes in g...

  16. Growth of wild muskoxen under two nutritional regimes in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aastrup, Peter; Thing, Henning; Olesen, Carsten Riis

    1994-01-01

    Growth of muskoxen in Jameson Land, East Greenland (EG) and in Angujaartorfiup Nunaa, West Greenland (WG) is affected by the different nutritional conditions in the two areas. The abundance and availability of forage plants is highest in WG. Muskoxen in WG reach sexual maturity one year earlier...

  17. Late Pleistocene to early Holocene environmental changes on Store Koldewey, coastal north-east Greenland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Klug

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A lake sediment sequence from southern Store Koldewey, north-east Greenland, has been investigated using a multidisciplinary approach, including geophysical, geochemical, biogeochemical, biological and sedimentological methods. Chronological constraints are provided by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS 14C dating of bulk sediment and complemented with published water moss ages. The record consists of three major sediment units. Their individual structural, textural, geophysical and geochemical characteristics indicate variable input of sediment and meltwater due to variable proximity of the ice margin and therefore reflect the growth and decay of a local glacier during the late Weichselian. Radiocarbon dating of bulk sediment samples from the lowermost unit gave ages of 42 to 34 calibrated thousand years (cal Ky B.P. and indicates that this material is redeposited in the lake basin during or after the ice advance at the end of the Pleistocene. Increased meltwater and sediment input from a retreating ice margin following the Younger Dryas is indicated by the occurrence of a sandy to gravely section. Fine-grained and laminated sediments were deposited during the Pleistocene–Holocene transition and indicate calm sedimentation conditions with an ice margin outside of the lake catchment. The reoccurrence of coarse sediments during the early Holocene may indicate increased meltwater input in response to the cold spell at about 9.3 Kya with increased snow accumulation rather than fluctuations of local glaciers. The dating results furthermore show that AMS 14C dating of bulk sediment samples deposited during glacier decay in High Arctic environments can give problematic ages.

  18. Depositional environment and organic geochemistry of the Upper Permian Ravenfjeld Formation source rock in East Greenland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christiansen, F.G.; Piasecki, S.; Stemmerik, L. (Geologoical Survey of Greenland, Copenhagen (Denmark)); Telnaes, N. (Norsk Hydro Research Center, Bergen (Norway))

    1993-09-01

    The Upper Permian Ravnefjeld Formation in East Greenland is composed of shales that laterally pass into carbonate buildups and platforms of the Wegener Halvo Formation. The Ravnefjeld Formation is subdivided into five units that can be traced throughout the Upper Permian depositional basin. Two of the units are laminated and organic rich and were deposited under anoxic conditions. They are considered good to excellent source rocks for liquid hydrocarbons with initial average TOC (total organic carbon) values between 4 and 5% and HI (hydrogen index) between 300 and 400. The cumulative source rocks are separated and enclosed by three units of bioturbated siltstone with a TOC of less than 0.5% and an HI of less than 100. These siltstones were deposited under relatively oxic conditions. The organic geochemistry of the source rocks is typical for marine source rocks with some features normally associated with carbonate/evaporite environments [low Pr/Ph (pristane/phytane), low CPI (carbon preference index), distribution of tricyclic and pentacyclic terpanes]. The establishment of anoxic conditions and subsequent source rock deposition was controlled by eustatic sea level changes. The subenvironment (paleogeographic setting, influx of carbonate material, water depth, salinity) has some influence on a number of bulk parameters [TOC-HI relations, TOC-TS (total sulfur) relations] and, in particular, biomarker parameters such as Pr/Ph and terpane ratios. All the basal shales or shales in the vicinity of carbonate buildups of platforms are characterized by low Pr/Ph, high C[sub 23] tricyclic terpanes, and high C[sub 35] and C[sub 33] hopanes. 52 refs., 20 figs., 3 tabs.

  19. Source apportionment of particles at Station Nord, North East Greenland during 2008–2010 using COPREM and PMF analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Quynh; Skov, Henrik; Sørensen, Lise Lotte;

    2013-01-01

    , which were all influenced by metal industries. One anthropogenic source was dominated by Zn of which air mass back trajectories using the Hybrid Single Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT) model suggested a Canadian Arctic origin, despite certain influences from Southern and Eastern......In order to develop strategies for controlling and reducing Arctic air pollution, there is a need to understand the basic mechanisms for determining the fate of air pollution in the Arctic. Sources of atmospheric particles at Station Nord (81° 36' N, 16° 40' W) in North East Greenland were...

  20. Field metabolic rate and PCB adipose tissue deposition efficiency in East Greenland polar bears derived from contaminant monitoring data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlova, Viola; Nabe-Nielsen, Jacob; Dietz, Rune; Svenning, Jens-Christian; Vorkamp, Katrin; Rigét, Frank Farsø; Sonne, Christian; Letcher, Robert J; Grimm, Volker

    2014-01-01

    Climate change will increasingly affect the natural habitat and diet of polar bears (Ursus maritimus). Understanding the energetic needs of polar bears is therefore important. We developed a theoretical method for estimating polar bear food consumption based on using the highly recalcitrant polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congener, 2,2',4,4',55-hexaCB (CB153) in bear adipose tissue as an indicator of food intake. By comparing the CB153 tissue concentrations in wild polar bears with estimates from a purposely designed individual-based model, we identified the possible combinations of field metabolic rates (FMR) and CB153 deposition efficiencies in East Greenland polar bears. Our simulations indicate that if 30% of the CB153 consumed by polar bear individuals were deposited into their adipose tissue, the corresponding FMR would be only two times the basal metabolic rate. In contrast, if the modelled CB153 deposition efficiency were 10%, adult polar bears would require six times more energy than that needed to cover basal metabolism. This is considerably higher than what has been assumed for polar bears in previous studies though it is similar to FMRs found in other marine mammals. An implication of this result is that even relatively small reductions in future feeding opportunities could impact the survival of East Greenland polar bears.

  1. Field metabolic rate and PCB adipose tissue deposition efficiency in East Greenland polar bears derived from contaminant monitoring data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viola Pavlova

    Full Text Available Climate change will increasingly affect the natural habitat and diet of polar bears (Ursus maritimus. Understanding the energetic needs of polar bears is therefore important. We developed a theoretical method for estimating polar bear food consumption based on using the highly recalcitrant polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB congener, 2,2',4,4',55-hexaCB (CB153 in bear adipose tissue as an indicator of food intake. By comparing the CB153 tissue concentrations in wild polar bears with estimates from a purposely designed individual-based model, we identified the possible combinations of field metabolic rates (FMR and CB153 deposition efficiencies in East Greenland polar bears. Our simulations indicate that if 30% of the CB153 consumed by polar bear individuals were deposited into their adipose tissue, the corresponding FMR would be only two times the basal metabolic rate. In contrast, if the modelled CB153 deposition efficiency were 10%, adult polar bears would require six times more energy than that needed to cover basal metabolism. This is considerably higher than what has been assumed for polar bears in previous studies though it is similar to FMRs found in other marine mammals. An implication of this result is that even relatively small reductions in future feeding opportunities could impact the survival of East Greenland polar bears.

  2. Are liver and renal lesions in East Greenland polar bears (Ursus maritimus associated with high mercury levels?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Born Erik W

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the Arctic, polar bears (Ursus maritimus bio-accumulate mercury as they prey on polluted ringed seals (Phoca hispida and bearded seals (Erignathus barbatus. Studies have shown that polar bears from East Greenland are among the most mercury polluted species in the Arctic. It is unknown whether these levels are toxic to liver and kidney tissue. Methods We investigated the histopathological impact from anthropogenic long-range transported mercury on East Greenland polar bear liver (n = 59 and kidney (n = 57 tissues. Results Liver mercury levels ranged from 1.1–35.6 μg/g wet weight and renal levels ranged from 1–50 μg/g wet weight, of which 2 liver values and 9 kidney values were above known toxic threshold level of 30 μg/g wet weight in terrestrial mammals. Evaluated from age-correcting ANCOVA analyses, liver mercury levels were significantly higher in individuals with visible Ito cells (p Conclusion Based on these relationships and the nature of the chronic inflammation we conclude that the lesions were likely a result of recurrent infections and ageing but that long-term exposure to mercury could not be excluded as a co-factor. The information is important as it is likely that tropospheric mercury depletion events will continue to increase the concentrations of this toxic heavy metal in the Sub Arctic and Arctic marine food webs.

  3. Palynofloral associations before and after the Permian-Triassic mass extinction, Kap Stosch, East Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneebeli-Hermann, Elke; Hochuli, Peter A.; Bucher, Hugo

    2017-08-01

    The Permian-Triassic boundary (PTB) interval is known to document a major biodiversity crisis in the history of life. It is generally accepted that this crisis had a significant impact on marine invertebrates. The consequences for terrestrial ecosystems are still controversially discussed. Based on palynological analysis we present a high time resolution microfloral succession of the expanded Late Permian (Wuchiapingian)-Early Triassic (Dienerian) section from Kap Stosch, East Greenland. The quantitative distribution of palynomorphs (range charts and relative abundance data) allows for the differentiation of six distinct palynofloral associations. Ammonoids and conodonts provide independent age control for these assemblages. The Wuchiapingian association I, documented from the Ravnefjeld Formation, shows a typical Late Permian assemblage dominated by bisaccate and monosaccate pollen grains and Vittatina spp. It is separated from association II, present in the basal part of the Wordie Creek Formation, by an important hiatus. This association of Changhsingian or earliest Griesbachian age is characterised by the common occurrence of Ephedripites spp. and reduced abundance and diversity of Vittatina spp. Association III, dated as Griesbachian by the presence of ammonoids, is marked by high relative abundances of taeniate bisaccate pollen grains and high spore diversity. A distinct floral break occurs between the gymnosperm dominated Permian and Griesbachian floras and the lycopsid spore dominated Dienerian associations IV-VI. Ammonoid occurrences verify a Dienerian age for the latter associations. Association V is marked by the absence of non-taeniate bisaccate, striate monosaccate pollen grains, and Vittatina spp. Aratrisporites spp. a typical Triassic lycopsid spore occur consistently from this level onwards. Association VI is characterised by highest lycopsid spore abundances. Cluster analysis demonstrates that Griesbachian assemblages (associations II?-III) are

  4. Parasites as biological tags to track an ontogenetic shift in the feeding behaviour of Gadus morhua off West and East Greenland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Münster, Julian; Klimpel, Sven; Fock, Heino O; MacKenzie, Ken; Kuhn, Thomas

    2015-07-01

    Parasites, being an integral part of every ecosystem and trophically transmitted along the food webs, can provide detailed insights into the structure of food webs and can close the information gap between short-term stomach content analyses and long-term fish otolith analyses. They are useful for tracking ontogenetic shifts in the host's diet, the occurrence of specific organisms or migratory behaviour of their hosts, even in inaccessible environments. In the present study, stomach content analyses and parasitological examinations were performed on 70 Atlantic cod Gadus morhua, one of the most important high-level predators of small fish in the North Atlantic, caught during one research vessel cruise from West and East Greenlandic waters. Analyses revealed significant differences in fish size with higher values for East Greenland (average total length (TL) of 50.5 cm) compared to West Greenland (average TL of 33.3 cm). Clear differences were also present in prey and parasite composition. Crustacea was the main food source for all fish (IRI = 10082.70), while the importance of teleosts increased with fish size. With a prevalence of 85 % in West Greenland and 100 % in East Greenland, Nematoda were the most abundant parasite group. The results indicate an ontogenetic shift in the diet, which are discussed in the context of the common distribution theory, stock dynamics and migratory behaviour.

  5. Testing EGM2008 on Leveling Data from Scandinavia, adjacent Baltic areas, and Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strykowski, Gabriel; Forsberg, René

    2009-01-01

    We tested EGM2008 on GPS/leveling data from Scandinavia and adjacent areas. EGM2008 performs at the same level as the best regional geoid model, NKG2004. However, the direct evaluation of EGM2008 is difficult in Greenland because no leveling data are available. Nevertheless, we show on 78 GPS......-MSS data that EGM2008 also performs at the same level as the best regional geoid model GOCINA04....

  6. Testing EGM2008 on Leveling Data from Scandinavia, Adjacent Baltic Areas, and Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strykowski, Gabriel; Forsberg, René

    2010-01-01

    We tested EGM2008 on GPS/leveling data from Scandinavia and adjacent areas. EGM2008 performs at the same level as the best regional geoid model, NKG2004. However, the direct evaluation of EGM2008 is difficult in Greenland because no leveling data are available. Nevertheless, we show on 78 GPS......-MSS data that EGM2008 also performs at the same level as the best regional geoid model GOCINA04....

  7. Vegetation phenology gradients along the west and east coasts of Greenland from 2001 to 2015

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karami, Mojtaba; Hansen, Birger; Westergaard-Nielsen, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to characterize the spatiotemporal variations of vegetation phenology along latitudinal and altitudinal gradients in Greenland, and to examine local and regional climatic drivers. Time-series from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) were analyzed...

  8. Late Permian-earliest Triassic high-resolution organic carbon isotope and palynofacies records from Kap Stosch (East Greenland)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanson-Barrera, Anna; Hochuli, Peter A.; Bucher, Hugo; Schneebeli-Hermann, Elke; Weissert, Helmut; Adatte, Thierry; Bernasconi, Stefano M.

    2015-10-01

    During and after the end Permian mass extinction terrestrial and marine biota underwent major changes and reorganizations. The latest Permian and earliest Triassic is also characterized by major negative carbon isotope shifts reflecting fundamental changes in the carbon cycle. The present study documents a high-resolution bulk organic carbon isotope record and palynofacies analysis spanning the latest Permian-earliest Triassic of East Greenland. An almost 700 meter thick composite section from Kap Stosch allowed discriminating 6 chemostratigraphic intervals that provide the basis for the correlation with other coeval records across the world, and for the recognition of basin wide transgressive-regressive events documenting tectonic activity during the opening of the Greenland-Norway Basin. The identification of the main factors that influenced the organic carbon isotope signal during the earliest Triassic (Griesbachian to Dienerian) was possible due to the combination of bulk organic carbon isotope, palynofacies and Rock-Eval data. Two negative carbon isotopic shifts in the Kap Stosch record can be correlated with negative shifts recorded in coeval sections across the globe. A first negative shift precedes the base of the Triassic as defined by the first occurrence of the conodont Hindeodus parvus in the Meishan reference section, and the second one coincides with the suggested Griesbachian-Dienerian boundary. This new organic carbon isotope record from the extended Kap Stosch section from the Boreal Realm documents regional and global carbon cycle signals of the interval between the latest Palaeozoic and the onset of the Mesozoic.

  9. The campsite dykes: A window into the early post-solidification history of the Skaergaard Intrusion, East Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holness, Marian B.; Richardson, Chris; Andersen, Jens C. Ø.

    2013-12-01

    The Skaergaard Intrusion of East Greenland is cut by several generations of dykes, the earliest of which is thought to have intruded shortly after solidification of the Skaergaard. Two ~ 6 m wide doleritic dykes from the earliest generation are exposed in the campsite area near Homestead Bay of the Skaergaard Peninsula. One of the dykes (the Campsite Dyke) locally contains abundant xenoliths of troctolitic cumulate. The other (the Plagioclase-phyric Dyke) contains abundant large plagioclase phenocrysts. Cross-cutting relationships between the two dykes are not exposed. The median clinopyroxene-plagioclase-plagioclase dihedral angle, Θcpp, in the Campsite Dyke is 88-89.5°, whereas that of the Plagioclase-phyric Dyke is 79°. Using an empirical relationship between Θcpp and the duration of crystallisation derived from dolerite sills, the observed Θcpp suggests that the Campsite Dyke is the older of the two, intruding the Skaergaard when it had cooled to 920-970 °C. The Plagioclase-phyric Dyke intruded later, once the Skaergaard had cooled below 670 °C. The troctolitic xenoliths divide into two separate groups. Type A xenoliths have microstructures similar to those of the Skaergaard Layered Series although mineral compositions are generally more primitive than those of the exposed cumulates - this type of xenolith is likely to have been derived from either deeper levels in the Skaergaard Intrusion or from a closely-related underlying magma chamber. One Type A xenolith has mineral compositions and Θcpp consistent with an origin in LZb of the Layered Series - this xenolith contains partially inverted pigeonite, suggesting that inversion of low-Ca pyroxene in the lower part of the Layered Series took place after the intrusion had completely solidified. Type B xenoliths are characterized by plagioclase containing large and abundant melt inclusions. Comparison with the microstructures of glassy crystalline nodules from Iceland points to a multi-stage cooling history

  10. Exposure to mixtures of organohalogen contaminants and associative interactions with thyroid hormones in East Greenland polar bears (Ursus maritimus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villanger, Gro D.; Jenssen, Bjørn M.; Fjeldberg, Rita R.

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the multivariate relationships between adipose tissue residue levels of 48 individual organohalogen contaminants (OHCs) and circulating thyroid hormone (TH) levels in polar bears (Ursus maritimus) from East Greenland (1999–2001, n=62), using projection to latent structure (PLS...... influenced by biological factors such as age, sex, body size, lipid content of adipose tissue and sampling date. When controlling for biological variables, the major relationships from the PLS models for SubA, AdF_N and AdF_S were found significant in partial correlations. The most important OHCs...... that influenced TH levels in the significant PLS models may potentially act through similar mechanisms on the hypothalamic–pituitary–thyroid (HPT) axis, suggesting that both combined effects by dose and response addition and perhaps synergistic potentiation may be a possibility in these polar bears. Statistical...

  11. Source apportionment of particles at Station Nord, North East Greenland during 2008–2010 using COPREM and PMF analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Quynh; Skov, Henrik; Sørensen, Lise Lotte

    2013-01-01

    In order to develop strategies for controlling and reducing Arctic air pollution, there is a need to understand the basic mechanisms for determining the fate of air pollution in the Arctic. Sources of atmospheric particles at Station Nord (81° 36' N, 16° 40' W) in North East Greenland were......, which were all influenced by metal industries. One anthropogenic source was dominated by Zn of which air mass back trajectories using the Hybrid Single Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT) model suggested a Canadian Arctic origin, despite certain influences from Southern and Eastern...... evaluated for a two-year period from March 2008 to February 2010. Source apportionment using Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) and COnstrained Physical REceptor Model (COPREM) was based on measurements of black carbon, elements (Al, Si, S, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ga, As, Se, Br, Rb, Sr, Zr...

  12. Species of Thaumatomastix (Thaumatomastigidae, Protista incertae sedis) from the Arctic sea ice biota (North-East Water Polynya, NE Greenland)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomsen, Helge Abildhauge; Ikävalko, Johanna

    1997-01-01

    The sea ice biota of polar regions contains numerous heterotrophic flagellates very few of which have been properly identified. The whole mount technique for transmission electron microscopy enables the identification of loricate and scaly forms. A survey of Arctic ice samples (North-East Water Polynya, NE Greenland) revealed the presence of ca. 12 taxa belonging to the phagotrophic genus Thaumatomastix (Protista incertae sedis). Species of Thaumatomastix possess siliceous body scales and one naked and one scale-covered flagellum. The presence in both Arctic samples and sea ice material previously examined from the Antarctic indicates that this genus is most likely ubiquitous in polar sea ice and may be an important component in sea ice biota microbial activities.

  13. Pb isotopes during crustal melting and magma mingling - A cautionary tale from the Miki Fjord macrodike, central east Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waight, Tod Earle; Lesher, Charles

    2010-01-01

    Pb isotopic data are presented for hybrid rocks formed by mingling between mantle-derived tholeiitic magma of the Eocene Miki Fjord macrodike (East Greenland) and melt derived from the adjacent Precambrian basement. Bulk mixing and AFC processes between end-members readily identified in the field...... fail to model the Pb isotope systematics. Selective contamination during diffusional exchange, which can explain the complex Sr and Nd isotope compositions of the hybrid rocks (Blichert-Toft et al., 1992), cannot fully account for the variability of the Pb isotopic data using the identified crustal end......-members. The crustal anatectic end-member, although similar in Sr and Nd isotope composition, has a markedly different Pb isotopic composition than its source gneiss. The differences are consistent with preferential incorporation of radiogenic Pb from accessory phases such as metamict zircon or loosely-bound Pb from...

  14. Pb isotopes during crustal melting and magma mingling - A cautionary tale from the Miki Fjord macrodike, central east Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waight, Tod Earle; Lesher, Charles

    2010-01-01

    Pb isotopic data are presented for hybrid rocks formed by mingling between mantle-derived tholeiitic magma of the Eocene Miki Fjord macrodike (East Greenland) and melt derived from the adjacent Precambrian basement. Bulk mixing and AFC processes between end-members readily identified in the field...... fail to model the Pb isotope systematics. Selective contamination during diffusional exchange, which can explain the complex Sr and Nd isotope compositions of the hybrid rocks (Blichert-Toft et al., 1992), cannot fully account for the variability of the Pb isotopic data using the identified crustal end......-members. The crustal anatectic end-member, although similar in Sr and Nd isotope composition, has a markedly different Pb isotopic composition than its source gneiss. The differences are consistent with preferential incorporation of radiogenic Pb from accessory phases such as metamict zircon or loosely-bound Pb from...

  15. Exposure to mixtures of organohalogen contaminants and associative interactions with thyroid hormones in East Greenland polar bears (Ursus maritimus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villanger, Gro D.; Jenssen, Bjørn M.; Fjeldberg, Rita R.

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the multivariate relationships between adipose tissue residue levels of 48 individual organohalogen contaminants (OHCs) and circulating thyroid hormone (TH) levels in polar bears (Ursus maritimus) from East Greenland (1999–2001, n=62), using projection to latent structure (PLS......) regression for four groupings of polar bears; subadults (SubA), adult females with cubs (AdF_N), adult females without cubs (AdF_S) and adult males (AdM). In the resulting significant PLS models for SubA, AdF_N and AdF_S, some OHCs were especially important in explaining variations in circulating TH levels...... that influenced TH levels in the significant PLS models may potentially act through similar mechanisms on the hypothalamic–pituitary–thyroid (HPT) axis, suggesting that both combined effects by dose and response addition and perhaps synergistic potentiation may be a possibility in these polar bears. Statistical...

  16. Multi-decadal record of ice dynamics on Daugaard Jensen Gletscher, East Greenland, from satellite imagery and terrestrial measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stearns, L.A.; Hamilton, G.S.; Reeh, Niels

    2005-01-01

    The history of ice velocity and calving front position of Daugaard Jensen Gletscher, a large outlet glacier in East Greenland, is reconstructed from field measurements, aerial photography and satellite imagery for the period 1950-2001. The calving terminus of the glacier has remained...... in approximately the same position over the past similar to 50 years. There is no evidence of a change in ice motion between 1968 and 2001, based on a comparison of velocities derived from terrestrial surveying and feature tracking using sequential satellite images. Estimates of flux near the entrance to the fjord...... vs snow accumulation in the interior catchment show that Daugaard Jensen Gletscher has a small negative mass balance. This result is consistent with other mass-balance estimates for the inland region of the glacier....

  17. The nature of nursing practice in rural and remote areas of Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hounsgaard, Lise; Jensen, A. B.; Wilche, J.P.

    2013-01-01

    it meets the requirements of healthcare reform. Design This ethnographic study utilised documentary analysis, participant observation and qualitative interviewing carried out in remote areas of Greenland during 2011–2012. Eight registered nurses, four women and four men, aged between 35 and 55......, and subsequently interviewed. Interviews included in-depth questioning, based on emerging outcomes from observation. Interviews were recorded and transcribed; they were analysed within a phenomenological–hermeneutic approach. Results Nurses in rural and remote areas navigate their health promotion and preventive...

  18. East Greenland flood basalt volcanism: duration, volatile flux and correlation to the Paleocene-Eocene thermal maximum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tegner, C.; Heilmann-Clausen, C.; Larsen, R. B.; Kent, A. J. R.

    2012-04-01

    estimates for volatile fluxes can also be considered as minima, as we have only considered the volume of the E Greenland and Faeroe lavas. If volcanism associated with continental breakup in the remainder of the North Atlantic occurred over a similarly short duration, then fluxes will be considerably higher. For example, if the 4 x 106 km3 volume estimated for the southern portion of the Northeast Atlantic Igneous Province erupted over 300,000 years then our flux estimates would be an order of magnitude higher. These fluxes approach those associated with much shorter duration historic basaltic eruptions, such as Laki (190 Gt SO2 over ~9 months), which had markedly deleterious effects in Iceland and throughout northern Europe. The climatic effects of the release of S and Cl in these amounts, and for periods extending for several hundred thousand years, remain unclear, but are likely to be significant. One consequence of East Greenland and related flood basalt volcanism may have been initiation of global cooling to end the Palaeocene-Eocene thermal maximum.

  19. The Greenlandic sea areas and activity level up to 2025

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Uffe; í Dali, Birita

    2016-01-01

    . It includes an overview of types of vessels and other objects involved in different activities, and the volume of traffic connected to different types of activities, such as fisheries, petroleum, tourism, navy and research. Furthermore, this report estimates the maritime activity level in the area the next...... ten years, or until 2025, and the potential development of the regional preparedness system. The data within this report is derived both from secondary and primary sources. The analysis of the current maritime activity is based on published analytical reports on maritime activity, facts and statistics......, petroleum activity, tourism and research/government activity. The last chapter is devoted to summarizing findings about the current developed activity level in the High North sea and coastal regions and the estimated activity level up to 2025. Possible implications for the preparedness system in the High...

  20. Water temperature, conductivity, and currents data collected by CTDs and current meters on moored buoys in the Sermilik Fjord and Kangerdlugssuaq Glacier, in East Greenland from 2009-08 to 2012-09 (NCEI Accession 0127320)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The data included in this dataset were collected in East Greenland in the Sermilik Fjord, located in the Ammassalik district close to the town of Tasiilaq and at the...

  1. Muskox site fidelity and group cohesion in Jameson Land, East Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aastrup, P. J.

    2004-01-01

    Increasing hunting pressure in Greenland demands improved knowledge on Muskox (Ovibos moschatus) biology in general and movement and grouping behaviour in specific to insure their proper management. Improving the exchange of information between hunters and managers is also necessary. Muskox site...... fidelity and group cohesion was examined over a 16-year period using 477 earmarked individuals tagged in 1982 and 1983. Combining information from scientists and hunters, observations of live individuals were primarily made from 1983 to 1990, while the latest tagged muskoxen reported shot was from 1998...... that such cooperation can provide important information for management related to muskox harvesting and monitoring....

  2. Thermal tracing of retained meltwater in the lower accumulation area of the Southwestern Greenland ice sheet

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    We present in situ firn temperatures from the extreme 2012 melt season in the southwestern lower accumulation area of the Greenland ice sheet. The upper 2.5 m of snow and firn was temperate during the melt season, when vertical meltwater percolation was inefficient due to a c. 5.5 m thick ice layer underlying the temperate firn. Meltwater percolation and refreezing beneath 2.5 m depth only occurred after the melt season. Deviations from temperatures predicted by pure conductivity suggest that...

  3. Changing surface–atmosphere energy exchange and refreezing capacity of the lower accumulation area, West Greenland

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    We present 5 years (2009–2013) of automatic weather station measurements from the lower accumulation area (1840 m a.s.l. – above sea level) of the Greenland ice sheet in the Kangerlussuaq region. Here, the summers of 2010 and 2012 were both exceptionally warm, but only 2012 resulted in a strongly negative surface mass budget (SMB) and surface meltwater run-off. The observed run-off was due to a large ice fraction in the upper 10 m of firn that prevented meltwat...

  4. Thermal tracing of retained meltwater in the lower accumulation area of the Southwestern Greenland ice sheet

    OpenAIRE

    Charalampidis, Charalampos; van As, Dirk; Colgan, William T.; FAUSTO, ROBERT S.; MacFerrin, Michael; MACHGUTH, HORST

    2016-01-01

    We present in situ firn temperatures from the extreme 2012 melt season in the southwestern lower accumulation area of the Greenland ice sheet. The upper 2.5 m of snow and firn was temperate during the melt season, when vertical meltwater percolation was inefficient due to a c. 5.5 m thick ice layer underlying the temperate firn. Meltwater percolation and refreezing beneath 2.5 m depth only occurred after the melt season. Deviations from temperatures predicted by pure conductivity suggest that...

  5. Coastal glaciers advanced onto Jameson Land, East Greenland during the late glacial–early Holocene Milne Land Stade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Alexanderson

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We report on 10Be and optically stimulated luminescence ages from moraines and glaciolacustrine sediments on eastern Jameson Land, East Greenland. Sampled landforms and sediment are associated with advances of outlet glaciers from the local Liverpool Land ice cap situated in the coastal Scoresby Sund region. Previous studies have tentatively correlated these advances with the Milne Land Stade moraines, which are prominent moraine sets deposited by mountain glaciers in the inner Scoresby Sund region. Recent constraints on the formation of the outer and inner of these moraines have suggested two advances of local glaciers, one prior to or during the Younger Dryas and another during the Preboreal. In this paper, we test the correlation of the Liverpool Land glacial advance with the Milne Land Stade. Our results show that outlet glaciers from the Liverpool Land ice cap reached ice-marginal positions marked by moraines in east-facing valleys on Jameson Land sometime during late glacial–early Holocene time (ca. 13–11 Kya. This confirms the correlation of these moraines with the Milne Land Stade moraines described elsewhere in the Scoresby Sund region.

  6. Massive Perched Ice Layers in the Shallow Firn of Greenland's Lower Accumulation Area Inhibit Percolation and Enhance Runoff

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacFerrin, M. J.; Machguth, H.; Charalampidis, C.; van As, D.; Abdalati, W.; Scambos, T. A.

    2014-12-01

    Greenland's recent trend of record-breaking melt seasons (2012, 2010, 2007, 2002, et al.) have substantially increased the amount of melt water generated in the ice sheet's lower accumulation area. Due to this enhanced refreezing in the firn, regions with low accumulation rates have formed multi-annual ice layers 5-10+ meters thick in the thermally active shallow firn that overlies porous firn at depth. The loss of pore space in the firn prevents the majority of melt water from percolating to depth and results in surface runoff where water previously would have refrozen. Here we present evidence from in situ ground-penetrating radar, firn cores and airborne radar from NASA's Operation IceBridge, collected both before and after Greenland's 2012 melt season, to illustrate the mechanism by which southwest Greenland's runoff zone in 2012 extended 20 kilometers inland from the long-term saturation line. Additional evidence from satellite imagery, firn temperature profiles and modeling support the notion that these layers blocked percolation and contributed to Greenland's record runoff in 2012. Should Greenland's trend of anomalously warm summers persist, these massive lenses are likely to grow thicker and extend further inland, resulting in enhanced runoff and rapid upslope migration of the equilibrium line. These results illustrate the vital importance of understanding subsurface firn changes in order to accurately predict Greenland's future runoff in a changing climate.

  7. Liquid freshwater transport estimates from the East Greenland Current based on continuous measurements north of Denmark Strait

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Steur, L.; Pickart, R. S.; Macrander, A.; Vâge, K.; Harden, B.; Jónsson, S.; Østerhus, S.; Valdimarsson, H.

    2017-01-01

    Liquid freshwater transports of the shelfbreak East Greenland Current (EGC) and the separated EGC are determined from mooring records from the Kögur section north of Denmark Strait between August 2011 and July 2012. The 11 month mean freshwater transport (FWT), relative to a salinity of 34.8, was 65 ± 11 mSv to the south. Approximately 70% of this was associated with the shelfbreak EGC and the remaining 30% with the separated EGC. Very large southward FWT ranging from 160 mSv to 120 mSv was observed from September to mid-October 2011 and was foremost due to anomalously low upper-layer salinities. The FWT may, however, be underestimated by approximately 5 mSv due to sampling biases in the upper ocean. The FWT on the Greenland shelf was estimated using additional inshore moorings deployed from 2012 to 2014. While the annual mean ranged from nearly zero during the first year to 18 mSv to the south during the second year, synoptically the FWT on the shelf can be significant. Furthermore, an anomalous event in autumn 2011 caused the shelfbreak EGC to reverse, leading to a large reduction in FWT. This reversed circulation was due to the passage of a large, 100 km wide anticyclone originating upstream from the shelfbreak. The late summer FWT of -131 mSv is 150% larger than earlier estimates based on sections in the late-1990s and early-2000s. This increase is likely the result of enhanced freshwater flux from the Arctic Ocean to the Nordic Seas during the early 2010s.

  8. Brain region-specific perfluoroalkylated sulfonate (PFSA) and carboxylic acid (PFCA) accumulation and neurochemical biomarker Responses in east Greenland polar Bears (Ursus maritimus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Kathrine Eggers; Basu, Niladri; Letcher, Robert

    2015-01-01

    to bioaccumulate in lipid rich tissues of the brain among other tissues such as liver, and can reach high concentrations in top predators including the polar bear. PFCA and PFSA bioaccummulation in the brain has the potential to pose neurotoxic effects and therefore we conducted a study to investigate...... if variations in neurochemical transmitter systems i.e. the cholinergic, glutaminergic, dopaminergic and GABAergic, could be related to brain-specific bioaccumulation of PFASs in East Greenland polar bears. Nine brain regions from nine polar bears were analyzed for enzyme activity (monoamine oxidase (MAO...... regions, whereas GS activity was positively correlated with PFASs primarily in occipital lobe. Results from the present study support the hypothesis that PFAS concentrations in polar bears from East Greenland have exceeded the threshold limits for neurochemical alterations. It is not known whether...

  9. How unique is the Udachnaya-East kimberlite? Comparison with kimberlites from the Slave Craton (Canada) and SW Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamenetsky, Vadim S.; Kamenetsky, Maya B.; Weiss, Yakov; Navon, Oded; Nielsen, Troels F. D.; Mernagh, Terrence P.

    2009-11-01

    The origin of alkali carbonates and chlorides in the groundmass of unaltered Udachnaya-East kimberlites in Siberia is still controversial. Contrary to existing dogma that the Udachnaya-East kimberlite was either contaminated by the crustal sediments or platform brines, magmatic origin of the groundmass assemblage has been proposed on the basis of melt immiscibility textures, melt inclusion studies, and strontium and neon isotope compositions. We further tested the idea of alkali- and chlorine enrichment of the kimberlite parental melt by studying olivine-hosted melt inclusions and secondary serpentine in kimberlites from the Slave Craton, Canada (Gahcho Kué, Jericho, Aaron and Leslie pipes) and southern West Greenland (Majuagaa dyke). Host olivine phenocrysts closely resemble groundmass olivine from the Udachnaya-East kimberlite in morphology, compositions (high-Fo, low-Ca), complex zoning with cores of varying shapes and compositions and rims of constant Fo. Melt inclusions in olivine consist of several translucent and opaque daughter phases and vapour bubble(s). The daughter crystals studied in unexposed inclusions by laser Raman spectroscopy and in carefully exposed inclusions by WDS-EDS are represented by Na-K chlorides, calcite, dolomite, magnesite, Ca-Na, Ca-Na-K and Ca-Mg-Ba carbonates, bradleyite Na 3 Mg(CO 3)(PO 4), K-bearing nahpoite Na 2(HPO 4), apatite, phlogopite and tetraferriphlogopite, unidentified sulphates, Fe sulphides, djerfisherite, pyrochlore (Na,Ca) 2Nb 2O 6(OH,F), monticellite, Cr-spinel and Fe-Ti oxides. High abundances of Na, K (e.g., (Na + K)/Ca = 0.15-0.85) and incompatible trace elements in the melt inclusions are confirmed by LA-ICPMS analysis of individual inclusions. Heating experiments show that melting of daughter minerals starts and completes at low temperatures (~ 100 °C and 600 °C, respectively), further reinforcing the similarity with the Udachnaya-East kimberlite. Serpentine minerals replacing olivine in some of the studied

  10. Multi-modal albedo distributions in the ablation area of the southwestern Greenland Ice Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moustafa, S. E.; Rennermalm, A. K.; Smith, L. C.; Miller, M. A.; Mioduszewski, J. R.; Koenig, L. S.; Hom, M. G.; Shuman, C. A.

    2015-05-01

    Surface albedo is a key variable controlling solar radiation absorbed at the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) surface and, thus, meltwater production. Recent decline in surface albedo over the GrIS has been linked to enhanced snow grain metamorphic rates, earlier snowmelt, and amplified melt-albedo feedback from atmospheric warming. However, the importance of distinct surface types on ablation area albedo and meltwater production is still relatively unknown. In this study, we analyze albedo and ablation rates using in situ and remotely sensed data. Observations include (1) a new high-quality in situ spectral albedo data set collected with an Analytical Spectral Devices Inc. spectroradiometer measuring at 325-1075 nm along a 1.25 km transect during 3 days in June 2013; (2) broadband albedo at two automatic weather stations; and (3) daily MODerate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) albedo (MOD10A1) between 31 May and 30 August 2012 and 2013. We find that seasonal ablation area albedos in 2013 have a bimodal distribution, with snow and ice facies characterizing the two peaks. Our results show that a shift from a distribution dominated by high to low albedos corresponds to an observed melt rate increase of 51.5% (between 10-14 July and 20-24 July 2013). In contrast, melt rate variability caused by albedo changes before and after this shift was much lower and varied between ~10 and 30% in the melting season. Ablation area albedos in 2012 exhibited a more complex multimodal distribution, reflecting a transition from light to dark-dominated surface, as well as sensitivity to the so called "dark-band" region in southwest Greenland. In addition to a darkening surface from ice crystal growth, our findings demonstrate that seasonal changes in GrIS ablation area albedos are controlled by changes in the fractional coverage of snow, bare ice, and impurity-rich surface types. Thus, seasonal variability in ablation area albedos appears to be regulated primarily as a function

  11. Greenland ice sheet melt area, volume, and runoff from satellite and in situ observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    van As, D.; Box, J. E.; Fausto, R. S.; Petersen, D.; Citterio, M.; Ahlstrom, A. P.; Andersen, S. B.; Steffen, K.

    2013-12-01

    Remote sensing provides surface melt area and regional mass change. In situ automatic weather station (AWS) data provide a relatively precise, but very local surface mass budget. Combining the two methods allows melt quantification for the entire Greenland ice sheet. We use interpolated near-surface air temperature from the GC-Net and PROMICE AWS networks, and remotely-sensed MODIS surface albedo to calculate melt with a temperature/albedo-index melt model. The calculations make use of albedo, combined with top-of-the-atmosphere solar radiation and cloud cover, to take into account absorbed shortwave radiation, the dominant melt parameter. In so doing the darkening due to the melt-albedo feedback is accounted. Calculated ablation is calibrated using AWS data. Assuming that surface albedo is a first-order indicator of the firn's available pore space and cold content, refreezing is parameterized as a function of it. Meltwater runoff for selected catchments is validated with river discharge data. The product: observation-based daily maps of near-surface air temperature, melt (extent and volume), and runoff for the Greenland ice sheet.

  12. Ocean tides modulation of flow at Helheim Glacier, East Greenland, observed using GPS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Juan, Julia; Elosegui, P.; Nettles, M.;

    Observations at high spatial and temporal resolution could be key for improving our understanding of the physical processes that govern outlet-glacier flow variations. We collected simultaneous high-rate GPS observations at several locations distributed along and across Helheim Glacier, East Gree...

  13. Detection and Monitoring of New-Ice in the East Greenland Sea Using the SeaWinds Scatterometer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Robert Ezraty

    2002-01-01

    Space borne radar scatterometers are primarily designed to measure the wind vector over the world ocean; yetthey also provide useful information on sea ice type and extent. In this paper, it is shown how the SeaWinds scatterometercan be used to detect new sea ice at the very beginning of its growth. Taking advantage of the very good coverage of the EastGreenland Sea by SeaWinds on board the QuikSCAT satellite it has been possible to detect the early stage of formation of thesea ice peninsula, named the Odden, and to monitor its evolution during March 2001. The early sea ice detection has beenvalidated by using RADARSAT Synthetic Aperture Radar scenes. It is also shown that microwave radiometers, such as theSpecial Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/I), which are used as standard sensors for sea ice monitoring, do not detect the veryearly stage of sea ice growth and lag behind new sea ice occurrence by about twelve to twenty four hours.

  14. Relationships between stylolites and cementation in sandstone reservoirs: Examples from the North Sea, U.K. and East Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, Martin; Parnell, John

    2007-01-01

    The reservoir potential of hydrocarbon sandstone reservoirs may be significantly reduced by compartmentation as a result of the development of stylolites. A petrographic and fluid inclusion microthermometric study was performed on sandstones containing abundant stylolites from the Buchan, Galley and Scott Fields in the Outer Moray Firth, offshore Scotland, and from a palaeo-oil bearing sequence in East Greenland. The main objective of this study was to further constrain the temperatures and burial depths at which stylolitization occurs in sandstone reservoirs. The sandstones containing abundant stylolites are also characterized by their highly cemented nature. Numerous occurrences of quartz overgrowths clearly truncated by sutured stylolites are evident in all of the samples. Fluid inclusion microthermometry reveals that quartz cementation, which is interpreted to be coeval with stylolitization, occurred at minimum temperatures of between 86 and 136 °C. Basin modelling of the Scott and Galley Fields indicates that quartz cementation and stylolite development formed at depths greater than 2.5 km which were attained during rapid Tertiary burial. The occurrence of hydrocarbon fluid inclusions within healed microfractures orientated at high angles to the stylolites suggests that these microfractures provided pathways for hydrocarbon migration in the highly cemented, low permeability zones associated with highly stylolitized sandstones.

  15. Organochlorines and heavy metals in pregnant women from the Disko Bay area in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, P; Hansen, J C

    2000-01-01

    Recent studies from Greenland and the Canadian Arctic have shown high concentrations of heavy metals, such as mercury, and organochlorines in the blood and fatty tissue of the Inuit. This is attributed in particular to their high consumption of the meat and blubber of marine mammals. In the prese...... study, 180 pregnant women and 178 newborn babies were studied, amounting to 36% of the total number of births in the Disko Bay area during 1994-1996. The pesticides found in the highest concentrations in maternal blood were DDE (4.8 micrograms/l wet wt.), trans-nonachlor (1.6 micrograms....... In a linear regression analysis, the concentrations of organochlorines, mercury and selenium increased with maternal age. Concentrations of mercury and cadmium increased with the consumption of marine mammals, and cadmium was associated with smoking. The contaminants are potentially toxic for several organ...

  16. Distribution and drift of Atlantic cod ( Gadus morhua ) eggs and larvae in Greenland offshore waters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wieland, Kai; Hovgård, Holger

    2002-01-01

    Catches of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) eggs and larvae from 45 national and international ichthyoplankton surveys conducted in Greenland offshore waters during the period 1950 to 1984 have been compiled and re-analysed. Southeast and Southwest Greenland were identified as im- portant spawning areas...... from which eggs and early larvae drift towards the southern Davis Strait. Only a part of the larval population remained in the vicinity of favourable settling areas off West Greenland while a considerable part was obviously transported westward across the Davis Strait and thus did not contribute...... to the recruitment of the West Greenland cod stock. It is also shown that cod eggs and larvae occasionally drift from Southwest Iceland across the Denmark Strait to the East Greenland shelf from where a subsequent transport and immigration of juveniles to West Greenland waters can occur. Larval transport across...

  17. Seismic structure of the crust and upper mantle in central-eastern Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kraft, Helene Anja

    at the east coast to 50 km in central Greenland. The observed crustal thicknesses indicate that the high topography in eastern Greenland of up to 3700 m cannot be explained by Airy type isostatic equilibrium alone. Major parts of the mantle transition zone below central-eastern Greenland are substantially......Geophysical and geological knowledge of the interior of Greenland is very limited. The lack of knowledge arises mainly due to the logistical challenges related to conducting geophysical fieldwork on the up to 3400 m thick ice sheet, which covers around 80% of the land area. This PhD thesis is based...... on the very first regional passive seismic study in central-Eastern Greenland, focusing on the area between Scoresby Sund and Summit. The study aims to image the structure of subsurface Greenland starting from the crust and down to the mantle transition zone. Furthermore, the thesis links these observations...

  18. The interglacial-glacial record at the mouth of Scoresby Sund, East Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mangerud, Jan; Funder, Svend Visby

    1994-01-01

    The sedimentary record around outer Scoresby Sund begins with the Scoresby Sund glaciation ( "" isotope stage 6), but is incomplete. Both at Kap Hope, seadward of the fjord mouth, and at Kikiakajik on the outer coast, there are shallow marine sediments, correlated with the Langelandselv interglac......The sedimentary record around outer Scoresby Sund begins with the Scoresby Sund glaciation ( "" isotope stage 6), but is incomplete. Both at Kap Hope, seadward of the fjord mouth, and at Kikiakajik on the outer coast, there are shallow marine sediments, correlated with the Langelandselv...... stade ( "" 19-15 ka BP) when, from marine geological data, it is suggested that the Scoresby Sund glacier terminated c. 30 km east of Kap Brewster. During the Milne Land stade (c. 10 ka BP) there was a resurgence of local ice caps in the mountains both north and south of the fjord mouth, but Scoresby...

  19. Uncovering the genetic history of the present-day greenlandic population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moltke, Ida; Fumagalli, Matteo; Korneliussen, Thorfinn Sand

    2015-01-01

    Because of past limitations in samples and genotyping technologies, important questions about the history of the present-day Greenlandic population remain unanswered. In an effort to answer these questions and in general investigate the genetic history of the Greenlandic population, we analyzed...... ∼200,000 SNPs from more than 10% of the adult Greenlandic population (n = 4,674). We found that recent gene flow from Europe has had a substantial impact on the population: more than 80% of the Greenlanders have some European ancestry (on average ∼25% of their genome). However, we also found...... that the amount of recent European gene flow varies across Greenland and is far smaller in the more historically isolated areas in the north and east and in the small villages in the south. Furthermore, we found that there is substantial population structure in the Inuit genetic component of the Greenlanders...

  20. The endocrine disruption properties of an adipose contaminant mixture extracted from East Greenland polar bears studied in the H295R cell line

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, R.; Letcher, R. J.; Blair, D.

    been well described and especially the polar bear (Ursus maritimus) is recognized as being one of the most contaminated species in the Arctic. The present study investigated the in vitro endocrine disruptive effects of the POP mixture found in adipose tissue from 10 East Greenland polar bears collected...... (dehydroepiandrosterone and androstenedione). These results demonstrated comprehensive in vitro effects of POPs extracted from polar bear adipose tissue on key elements in the steroidogenesis, and identifies disruption of CYP17 activity as a mode of action. A POP-induced interference with CYP17 can potentially explain...... previously observed hormone levels in polar bears and could pose a risk to their reproductive health....

  1. Appendicitis during pregnancy in a Greenlandic Inuit woman; antibiotic treatment as a bridge-to-surgery in a remote area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalsgaard Jensen, Trine; Penninga, Luit

    2016-05-18

    Appendicitis during pregnancy causes severe diagnostic problems, and is associated with an increase in perforation rate and morbidity compared to that in the normal population. In addition, it may cause preterm birth and fetal loss. In remote areas, appendicitis during pregnancy, besides presenting diagnostic problems, also creates treatment difficulties. In Northern Greenland, geographical distances are vast, and weather conditions can be extreme. We report a case of a Greenlandic Inuit woman who presented with appendicitis during pregnancy. The nearest hospital with surgical and anaesthetic care was located nearly 1200 km away, and, due to extreme weather conditions, she could not be transferred immediately. She was treated with intravenous antibiotic treatment, and after weather conditions had improved, she was transferred by aeroplane and underwent appendicectomy. She recovered without complications. Our case suggests that appendicitis during pregnancy may be treated with antibiotics in remote areas until surgical treatment is available.

  2. Meltwater flux and runoff modeling in the abalation area of jakobshavn Isbrae, West Greenland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mernild, Sebastian Haugard [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Chylek, Petr [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Liston, Glen [COLORADO STATE UNIV.; Steffen, Konrad [UNIV OF COLORADO

    2009-01-01

    The temporal variability in surface snow and glacier melt flux and runoff were investigated for the ablation area of lakobshavn Isbrae, West Greenland. High-resolution meteorological observations both on and outside the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) were used as model input. Realistic descriptions of snow accumulation, snow and glacier-ice melt, and runoff are essential to understand trends in ice sheet surface properties and processes. SnowModel, a physically based, spatially distributed meteorological and snow-evolution modeling system was used to simulate the temporal variability of lakobshavn Isbrre accumulation and ablation processes for 2000/01-2006/07. Winter snow-depth observations and MODIS satellite-derived summer melt observations were used for model validation of accumulation and ablation. Simulations agreed well with observed values. Simulated annual surface melt varied from as low as 3.83 x 10{sup 9} m{sup 3} (2001/02) to as high as 8.64 x 10{sup 9} m{sup 3} (2004/05). Modeled surface melt occurred at elevations reaching 1,870 m a.s.l. for 2004/05, while the equilibrium line altitude (ELA) fluctuated from 990 to 1,210 m a.s.l. during the simulation period. The SnowModel meltwater retention and refreezing routines considerably reduce the amount of meltwater available as ice sheet runoff; without these routines the lakobshavn surface runoff would be overestimated by an average of 80%. From September/October through May/June no runoff events were simulated. The modeled interannual runoff variability varied from 1.81 x 10{sup 9} m{sup 3} (2001/02) to 5.21 x 10{sup 9} m{sup 3} (2004/05), yielding a cumulative runoff at the Jakobshavn glacier terminus of {approx}2.25 m w.eq. to {approx}4.5 m w.eq., respectively. The average modeled lakobshavn runoff of {approx}3.4 km{sup 3} y{sup -1} was merged with previous estimates of Jakobshavn ice discharge to quantify the freshwater flux to Illulissat Icefiord. For both runoff and ice discharge the average trends are

  3. Thermal tracing of retained meltwater in the lower accumulation area of the Southwestern Greenland ice sheet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Charalampidis, Charalampos; Van As, Dirk; Colgan, William T.

    2016-01-01

    We present in situ firn temperatures from the extreme 2012 melt season in the southwestern lower accumulation area of the Greenland ice sheet. The upper 2.5 m of snow and firn was temperate during the melt season, when vertical meltwater percolation was inefficient due to a similar to 5.5 m thick...... ice layer underlying the temperate firn. Meltwater percolation and refreezing beneath 2.5 m depth only occurred after the melt season. Deviations from temperatures predicted by pure conductivity suggest that meltwater refroze in discrete bands at depths of 2.0-2.5, 5.0-6.0 and 8.0-9.0 m. While we find...... winter was on average 4.7 degrees C warmer due to meltwater refreezing. Our observations also suggest that the 2012 firn conditions were preconditioned by two warm summers and ice layer formation in 2010 and 2011. Overall, firn temperatures during the years 2009-13 increased by 0.6 ºC....

  4. Changing surface-atmosphere energy exchange and refreezing capacity of the lower accumulation area, West Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Charalampidis, C.; Van As, D.; Box, J. E.

    2015-01-01

    negative surface mass budget (SMB) and surface meltwater run-off. The observed run-off was due to a large ice fraction in the upper 10 m of firn that prevented meltwater from percolating to available pore volume below. Analysis reveals an anomalously low 2012 summer-averaged albedo of 0.71 (typically ∼ 0.......78), as meltwater was present at the ice sheet surface. Consequently, during the 2012 melt season, the ice sheet surface absorbed 28 % (213 MJ m-2) more solar radiation than the average of all other years. A surface energy balance model is used to evaluate the seasonal and interannual variability of all surface......We present 5 years (2009-2013) of automatic weather station measurements from the lower accumulation area (1840 m a.s.l.-above sea level) of the Greenland ice sheet in the Kangerlussuaq region. Here, the summers of 2010 and 2012 were both exceptionally warm, but only 2012 resulted in a strongly...

  5. Polyhalogenated compounds (PCBs, chlordanes, HCB and BFRs) in four polar bears (Ursus maritimus) that swam malnourished from East Greenland to Iceland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetter, Walter; Gall, Vanessa; Skírnisson, Karl

    2015-11-15

    Levels of organohalogen compounds (PCBs, chlordane, PBB 153, PBDEs, HCB) were determined in adipose tissue, liver, kidney and muscle of four polar bears which swam and/or drifted to Iceland in extremely malnourished condition. Since the colonization in the 9th century polar bears have been repeatedly observed in Iceland. However, in recent years three of the animals have clearly left their natural habitat in poor condition in May or June, i.e. at the end of the major feeding season. The fourth bear is believed to have drifted with melting ice to North-Eastern Iceland in mid-winter. The concentrations of the POPs were within the range or higher than the typical concentrations measured in polar bears from the East Greenland population. In addition to the targeted compounds, we tentatively detected Dechlorane 602 and its potential hydrodechlorinated Cl11-metabolite in all samples. Moreover, a polychlorinated compound which partly co-eluted with PCB 209 was detected in all liver samples but not in adipose tissue, kidney or muscle. The mass spectrum of the potential metabolite did not allow determining its structure. Polar bears are good swimmers and can reach Iceland from the ice edge of East Greenland within a few days. Potential reasons for the swims are briefly discussed.

  6. Regional variation of caesium-137 in minke whales ¤Balaenoptera acutorostrata¤ from West Greenland, the Northeast Atlantic and the North Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Born, E.W.; Dahlgaard, H.; Riget, F.F.

    2002-01-01

    Levels of radioactive caesium (Cs-137) were determined in minke whales (Balaenoptera acutorostrata) from West Greenland, the Northeast Atlantic region and the North Sea. The sample consisted of muscle tissue from 135 minke whales caught in 1998 in 7 different areas: West Greenland, n = 44; East G...

  7. Changing surface–atmosphere energy exchange and refreezing capacity of the lower accumulation area, west Greenland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Charalampidis

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available We present five years (2009–2013 of automatic weather station measurements from the lower accumulation area (1840 m a.s.l. of the ice sheet in the Kangerlussuaq region, western Greenland. Here, the summers of 2010 and 2012 were both exceptionally warm, but only 2012 resulted in a strongly negative surface mass budget (SMB and surface meltwater runoff. The observed runoff was due to a large ice fraction in the upper 10 m of firn that prevented meltwater from percolating to available pore volume below. Analysis reveals a relatively low 2012 summer albedo of ~0.7 as meltwater was present at the surface. Consequently, during the 2012 melt season the surface absorbed 29% (213 MJ m-2 more solar radiation than the average of all other years. A surface energy balance model is used to evaluate the seasonal and interannual variability of all surface energy fluxes. The model reproduces the observed melt rates as well as the SMB for each season. A sensitivity test reveals that 71% of the additional solar radiation in 2012 was used for melt, corresponding to 36% (0.64 m of the 2012 surface lowering. The remaining 1.14 m was primarily due to the high atmospheric temperatures up to +2.6 °C daily average, indicating that 2012 would have been a negative SMB year at this site even without the melt-albedo feedback. Longer time series of SMB, regional temperature and remotely sensed albedo (MODIS show that 2012 was the first strongly negative SMB year with the lowest albedo at this elevation on record. The warm conditions of the last years resulted in enhanced melt and reduction of the refreezing capacity at the lower accumulation area. If high temperatures continue the current lower accumulation area will turn into a region with superimposed ice in coming years.

  8. Changing surface-atmosphere energy exchange and refreezing capacity of the lower accumulation area, West Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charalampidis, C.; van As, D.; Box, J. E.; van den Broeke, M. R.; Colgan, W. T.; Doyle, S. H.; Hubbard, A. L.; MacFerrin, M.; Machguth, H.; Smeets, C. J. P. P.

    2015-11-01

    We present 5 years (2009-2013) of automatic weather station measurements from the lower accumulation area (1840 m a.s.l. - above sea level) of the Greenland ice sheet in the Kangerlussuaq region. Here, the summers of 2010 and 2012 were both exceptionally warm, but only 2012 resulted in a strongly negative surface mass budget (SMB) and surface meltwater run-off. The observed run-off was due to a large ice fraction in the upper 10 m of firn that prevented meltwater from percolating to available pore volume below. Analysis reveals an anomalously low 2012 summer-averaged albedo of 0.71 (typically ~ 0.78), as meltwater was present at the ice sheet surface. Consequently, during the 2012 melt season, the ice sheet surface absorbed 28 % (213 MJ m-2) more solar radiation than the average of all other years. A surface energy balance model is used to evaluate the seasonal and interannual variability of all surface energy fluxes. The model reproduces the observed melt rates as well as the SMB for each season. A sensitivity analysis reveals that 71 % of the additional solar radiation in 2012 was used for melt, corresponding to 36 % (0.64 m) of the 2012 surface lowering. The remaining 64 % (1.14 m) of surface lowering resulted from high atmospheric temperatures, up to a +2.6 °C daily average, indicating that 2012 would have been a negative SMB year at this site even without the melt-albedo feedback. Longer time series of SMB, regional temperature, and remotely sensed albedo (MODIS) show that 2012 was the first strongly negative SMB year, with the lowest albedo, at this elevation on record. The warm conditions of recent years have resulted in enhanced melt and reduction of the refreezing capacity in the lower accumulation area. If high temperatures continue, the current lower accumulation area will turn into a region with superimposed ice in coming years.

  9. The East Greenland Current and its impacts on the Nordic Seas: observed trends in the past decade

    OpenAIRE

    Rudels, B.; M. Korhonen; Budeus, G.; Beszczynska-Moller, A.; Schauer, U.; Nummelin, A.; Quadfasel, D.; Valdimarsson, H.

    2012-01-01

    For the past 30 years, it has been known that dense waters are created in the Arctic Ocean. However, before the late 1980s, observations indicated that Arctic Ocean deep waters only modified the deep water in the Greenland Sea, which was still thought of as the major source of dense water. In the mid-1990s, this picture began to fade. The deep convection in the Greenland Sea weakened and only Arctic Intermediate Water was formed. A deep salinity maximum was reinforced and a temperature max...

  10. The western Greenland Sea. A preliminary strategic environmental impact assessment of hydrocarbon activities in the KANUMAS East area; Greenland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boertmann, D.; Johansen, K.; Maltha Rasmussen, L.; Schiedek, D.; Ugarte, F.; Mosbech, A.; Frederiksen, M.; Bjerrum, M.

    2009-05-15

    The environmental impacts of exploration activities will mainly be disturbance from activities creating noise such as seismic surveys and drilling. The impacts are expected to be relatively small, local and temporary, because of the intermittent nature of the exploration activities. Furthermore, the season for exploration activities is very short and limited to the few months with light ice conditions (June-October). The activities during development, production and transport are on the other hand long-lasting, and there are several activities which have the potential to cause severe environmental impacts. Careful Health, Safety and Environment (HSE) procedures, application of Best Available Technique (BAT) and Best Environmental Practice (BEP), zero-discharge policy and planning in combination with thorough background studies and application of the Precautionary Principle can mitigate most of these. The environmentally most severe accident would be a large oil spill. This has the potential to impact the marine ecosystem on all levels from primary production to the top predators. Oil spill trajectory modelling was carried out by DMI as a part of this SEIA. In most of the modelled oil spill drift scenarios oil does not reach the coasts, but stays offshore. However, three of the 24 scenarios indicate 11 that under certain conditions, oil may reach shores up to several hundred kilometres from the spill site. (ln)

  11. Bottling plant location of microbreweries in East Midlands area, UK

    OpenAIRE

    Zheng, Chi

    2013-01-01

    Facility location decisions are critical in real-life projects, which impact on profitability of investment and service levels from demand side. In this paper, a project-based facility location problem should be resolved which refers to the establishment of a centralized bottling plant to serve microbreweries in East Midlands area of UK. This problem will be structured by firstly finding a mathematically theoretical location using the centre-of-gravity method and then formulate the problem as...

  12. Q fever in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Anders; Svendsen, Claus Bo; Christensen, Jens Jorgen

    2010-01-01

    We report a patient with Q fever endocarditis in a settlement in eastern Greenland (Isortoq, Ammassalik area). Likely animal sources include sled dogs and seals. Q fever may be underdiagnosed in Arctic areas but may also represent an emerging infection.......We report a patient with Q fever endocarditis in a settlement in eastern Greenland (Isortoq, Ammassalik area). Likely animal sources include sled dogs and seals. Q fever may be underdiagnosed in Arctic areas but may also represent an emerging infection....

  13. Q fever in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Anders; Svendsen, Claus Bo; Christensen, Jens Jorgen

    2010-01-01

    We report a patient with Q fever endocarditis in a settlement in eastern Greenland (Isortoq, Ammassalik area). Likely animal sources include sled dogs and seals. Q fever may be underdiagnosed in Arctic areas but may also represent an emerging infection.......We report a patient with Q fever endocarditis in a settlement in eastern Greenland (Isortoq, Ammassalik area). Likely animal sources include sled dogs and seals. Q fever may be underdiagnosed in Arctic areas but may also represent an emerging infection....

  14. Uncovering the genetic history of the present-day Greenlandic population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moltke, Ida; Fumagalli, Matteo; Korneliussen, Thorfinn S; Crawford, Jacob E; Bjerregaard, Peter; Jørgensen, Marit E; Grarup, Niels; Gulløv, Hans Christian; Linneberg, Allan; Pedersen, Oluf; Hansen, Torben; Nielsen, Rasmus; Albrechtsen, Anders

    2015-01-01

    Because of past limitations in samples and genotyping technologies, important questions about the history of the present-day Greenlandic population remain unanswered. In an effort to answer these questions and in general investigate the genetic history of the Greenlandic population, we analyzed ∼200,000 SNPs from more than 10% of the adult Greenlandic population (n = 4,674). We found that recent gene flow from Europe has had a substantial impact on the population: more than 80% of the Greenlanders have some European ancestry (on average ∼25% of their genome). However, we also found that the amount of recent European gene flow varies across Greenland and is far smaller in the more historically isolated areas in the north and east and in the small villages in the south. Furthermore, we found that there is substantial population structure in the Inuit genetic component of the Greenlanders and that individuals from the east, west, and north can be distinguished from each other. Moreover, the genetic differences in the Inuit ancestry are consistent with a single colonization wave of the island from north to west to south to east. Although it has been speculated that there has been historical admixture between the Norse Vikings who lived in Greenland for a limited period ∼600-1,000 years ago and the Inuit, we found no evidence supporting this hypothesis. Similarly, we found no evidence supporting a previously hypothesized admixture event between the Inuit in East Greenland and the Dorset people, who lived in Greenland before the Inuit.

  15. Protected areas: mixed success in conserving East Africa's evergreen forests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marion Pfeifer

    Full Text Available In East Africa, human population growth and demands for natural resources cause forest loss contributing to increased carbon emissions and reduced biodiversity. Protected Areas (PAs are intended to conserve habitats and species. Variability in PA effectiveness and 'leakage' (here defined as displacement of deforestation may lead to different trends in forest loss within, and adjacent to, existing PAs. Here, we quantify spatial variation in trends of evergreen forest coverage in East Africa between 2001 and 2009, and test for correlations with forest accessibility and environmental drivers. We investigate PA effectiveness at local, landscape and national scales, comparing rates of deforestation within park boundaries with those detected in park buffer zones and in unprotected land more generally. Background forest loss (BFL was estimated at -9.3% (17,167 km(2, but varied between countries (range: -0.9% to -85.7%; note: no BFL in South Sudan. We document high variability in PA effectiveness within and between PA categories. The most successful PAs were National Parks, although only 26 out of 48 parks increased or maintained their forest area (i.e. Effective parks. Forest Reserves (Ineffective parks, i.e. parks that lose forest from within boundaries: 204 out of 337, Nature Reserves (six out of 12 and Game Parks (24 out of 26 were more likely to lose forest cover. Forest loss in buffer zones around PAs exceeded background forest loss, in some areas indicating leakage driven by Effective National Parks. Human pressure, forest accessibility, protection status, distance to fires and long-term annual rainfall were highly significant drivers of forest loss in East Africa. Some of these factors can be addressed by adjusting park management. However, addressing close links between livelihoods, natural capital and poverty remains a fundamental challenge in East Africa's forest conservation efforts.

  16. Organohalogen concentrations and a gross and histologic assessment of multiple organ systems in East Greenland polar bears (Ursus maritimus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, C.

    subsistence hunters from Central East Greenland (69°00'N to 74°00'N)during 1999-2002. The present thesis exposes the first and most important results from this large multidisciplinary study of this material, and evaluates the possible connection between the relatively high levels of organohalogens...... to the relatively high levels of organohalogens. But, there was indications of strong relationships between various organohalogen compounds and skull mineral density indicating disruption of the bone mineral composition. The histopathological changes found in liver- and kidney tissue were a result of ageing......, infectious agents, season and meaby chronic exposure to organohalogens. These result fill out an existing knowledge gap in potential effects of environmental, organic contaminants on fluctuating asymmetry, bone mineral density and functional anatomy (histology) in the polar bear. In addition, the results may...

  17. Vitamins A and E in liver, kidney, and whole blood of East Greenland polar bears sampled 1994–2008: reference values and temporal trends

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bechshoft, T.; Sonne, C.; Jakobsen, Jette;

    2015-01-01

    Vitamins A (retinol) and E (α-tocopherol) are dietary vitamins, essential for, e.g., growth and development, reproduction, and immune function. Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) have been found to be related to vitamin A and E metabolism. However, few investigations have been published...... on this health issue in polar bears (Ursus maritimus). The aim of this study was thus to provide reference values for concentrations of vitamin A in liver, kidney cortex, and whole blood and vitamin E in kidney cortex and whole blood from 166 East Greenland polar bears, as well as to assess the relationship...... between POPs and vitamin concentrations. In addition, vitamin concentrations were analyzed for temporal trends (1994–2008). Results showed vitamin A in liver to be higher in adult bears and the concentrations of vitamin E in kidney and blood to likewise be generally higher in adult bears. In addition, all...

  18. Reproductive performance in East Greenland polar bears (Ursus maritimus) may be affected by organohalogen contaminants as shown by physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, Christian; Gustavson, Kim; Rigét, Frank F.

    2009-01-01

    quotient (RQ) evaluation to more quantitatively evaluate the effect risk on reproduction (embryotoxicity and teratogenicity) based on the critical body residue (CBR) concept and using a physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model. We applied modelling approaches to PCBs, p,p′-DDE, dieldrin......, oxychlordane, HCHs, HCB, PBDEs and PFOS in East Greenland polar bears based on known OHC pharmacokinetics and dynamics in laboratory rats (Rattus rattus). The results showed that subcutaneous adipose tissue concentrations of dieldrin (range: 79–1271 ng g−1 lw) and PCBs (range: 4128–53 923 ng g−1 lw) reported...... and for dieldrin (range: 43–640 ng g−1 lw), PCBs (range: 3491–13 243 ng g−1 lw) and PFOS (range: 1332–6160 ng g−1 ww) in the year 2006. The concentrations of oxychlordane, DDTs, HCB and HCHs in polar bears resulted in RQs

  19. Preliminary screening of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and other fluorochemicals in fish, birds and marine mammals from Greenland and the Faroe Islands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bossi, Rossana [National Environmental Research Institute, Frederiksborgvej 399, 4000-Roskilde (Denmark)]. E-mail: rbo@dmu.dk; Riget, Frank F. [National Environmental Research Institute, Frederiksborgvej 399, 4000-Roskilde (Denmark); Dietz, Rune [National Environmental Research Institute, Frederiksborgvej 399, 4000-Roskilde (Denmark); Sonne, Christian [National Environmental Research Institute, Frederiksborgvej 399, 4000-Roskilde (Denmark); Fauser, Patrik [National Environmental Research Institute, Frederiksborgvej 399, 4000-Roskilde (Denmark); Dam, Maria [Food and Environmental Agency, Thorshavn, Faroe Islands (Denmark); Vorkamp, Katrin [National Environmental Research Institute, Frederiksborgvej 399, 4000-Roskilde (Denmark)

    2005-07-15

    Extensive screening analyses of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and related perfluorinated compounds in biota samples from all over the world have identified PFOS as a global pollutant and have shown its bioaccumulation into higher trophic levels in the food chain. Perfluorinated compounds have been found in remote areas as the Arctic. In this study a preliminary screening of PFOS and related compounds has been performed in liver samples of fish, birds and marine mammals from Greenland and the Faroe Islands. PFOS was the predominant fluorochemical in the biota analyzed, followed by perfluorooctane sulfonamide (PFOSA). PFOS was found at concentrations above LOQ (10 ng/g wet weight) in 13 out of 16 samples from Greenland and in all samples from the Faroe Islands. The results from Greenland showed a biomagnification of PFOS along the marine food chain (shorthorn sculpineast Greenland (mean: 1285 ng/g wet weight, n=2). The geographical distribution of perfluorinated compounds in Greenland was similar to that of persistent organohalogenated compounds (OHCs), with the highest concentrations in east Greenland, indicating a similar geographical distribution to that of OHCs, with higher concentrations in east Greenland than in west Greenland. - Perfluorinated acids were detected in livers of fish, birds and marine mammals from Greenland and the Faroe Islands.

  20. Spatial Modeling in The Coastal Area of East Java Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadlilah Kurniawati, Ummi

    2017-07-01

    The existence of gaps that occur between regions, shows that it is a reasonable process considering that each region has different initial endowment factors. The first step that can be done to controll disparity is know what is the benchmark of the gap. The revenue growth indicator is one of benchmark for measuring regional disparities. The regional output is represented by the gross domestic regional income per capita. Concerning the phenomenon of regional disparity, East Java Province is concentrated in the north-south part, especially in coastal areas is an early indication of the gap. This is what prompted the analysis of predictor factors affecting the disparity in East Java Coastal Areas through a spatial modeling approach. Spatial modeling is done on the consideration that there are different local characteristics or potentials in each regency / city. Factors Economic growth, social factors, and physical development factors are the main factors in this study will be described in derived variables to obtain a clear picture of the influence of each factor to the disparity that occurred in the Coastal Region of East Java Province.

  1. Gravity Investigation in Area East of River Nile (Khartoum State)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Eldawi M G; Farwa A G

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to investigate the subsurface geology of the area. For quantitative interpretation of the resulting Bouguer anomalies, borehole data are explored. This is done along several profiles obtained from software program G. model C version 2. 2 No. 175. This program is based on two -dimensional mass distribution. The interpretation reveals two basinal features filling depressions in the basement complex named as Abu Harira basin and Kabbashi basin. They are structurally related to Khartoum basin. As a result, a geological/structural map of the area in east of the Nile is produced. The basinal features in the study area are considered as parts of the central Sudan (Khartoum basin) that had been subjected to several tectonic events that resulted in the formation of several fracture systems associated with block subsidence and formation of these basins.

  2. Envisat derived Elevation Changes of the Greenland Ice Sheet, and a Comparison with ICESat Results in the Accumulation Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandberg Sørensen, L.; Simonsen, S. B.; Meister, R.; Forsberg, R.; Levinsen, J. F.; Flament, T.

    2014-12-01

    We show that an along track method for deriving rates of elevation change can successfully be applied to Envisat radar altimetry data over Greenland (2002-2010). The results provide improved resolution and coverage compared to previous results obtained from cross-over methods. Also, we find that temporal changes in the elevation change rate can be derived from Envisat data, and show clear examples of this by generating five-year running means for selected areas of the Greenland ice sheet. For a period between 2003 and 2009, the elevation of the ice sheets was measured by both the laser altimeter on board ICESat and the radar altimeter on board Envisat. We compare rates of elevation change derived from ICESat and Envisat for this time span in which both sensors were operating. We focus on the area above the equilibrium line altitude, in order to specifically derive information on snow parameters. A comparison of the elevation changes observed by the two sensors shows a complex pattern, which can be explained regionally by model output describing the changes in both firn air content and accumulation rates.

  3. Evidence for regional cooling, frontal advances, and East Greenland Ice Sheet changes during the demise of the last interglacial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irvalı, Nil; Ninnemann, Ulysses S.; Kleiven, Helga (Kikki) F.; Galaasen, Eirik V.; Morley, Audrey; Rosenthal, Yair

    2016-10-01

    High-resolution lithic and sea surface climate records are used to portray the progression of North Atlantic climate, hydrography, and Greenland Ice Sheet (GIS) activity through the peak of Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 5e into the last glacial inception. We use Eirik Drift sediment core MD03-2664 (57°26.34‧N, 48°36.35‧W), recovered south of Greenland, strategically located to monitor fluctuations in GIS extent and iceberg calving events. Our results show that a significant amount of ice-rafted debris (IRD) was present during the early MIS 5e, until gradually tapering off by 122 kyr BP due to a diminishing GIS. Sea surface temperatures (SSTs) in the northern subpolar gyre reached peak values early in MIS 5e coinciding with peak insolation. Regional cooling leading to the demise of the last interglacial started prior to the end of the MIS 5e benthic δ18O plateau, at approximately 119 kyr BP, as summer insolation waned. This gradual cooling trend is interrupted by an abrupt and brief cooling episode at ∼117 kyr BP. Increased IRD abundance during the 117 kyr BP cooling event suggests that regional ice sheet growth occurred prior to the end of the MIS 5e benthic δ18O plateau, and the major glacial inception. SSTs south of Greenland followed a two-step cooling during the glacial inception similar to the pattern observed across much of the North Atlantic and Europe. Benthic δ18O increases in parallel, suggesting that this two-step cooling is linked to a two-phased intensification of Northern Hemisphere glaciation.

  4. Possible Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    Organizing in Greenland is a complex matter. We have been on an arctic odyssey exploring the different aspects of the Greenlandic reality and have created a publication in which a wide range of Greenlandic and international profiles and stakeholders give their opinion and visions for the future...... development in Greenland. By creating a platform for a wide range of ideas about the Possible Greenland to be discussed now and in the future, we give Greenlanders and Greenlandic decision makers access to the greatest amount of possible solutions to the challenges they are facing. We look more closely...... at Greenland's structure, and ask some threshold questions. Which aspects of society are rooted in our human hardware? And, if we had the rare opportunity to build a new nation, what would we choose for ourselves? We hope this will inspire an open, imaginative and thoroughly human discussion about how...

  5. Envisioning Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ren, Carina Bregnholm

    2012-01-01

    Currently, the traditional ‘cool’ representation of Greenland as a frozen landscape devoid of people and human structures is being challenged by an emerging vision of Greenland as ‘hot’. This article presents and describes these two versions of Greenland, showing how demarcations of what is ‘nature...

  6. Possible Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    Organizing in Greenland is a complex matter. We have been on an arctic odyssey exploring the different aspects of the Greenlandic reality and have created a publication in which a wide range of Greenlandic and international profiles and stakeholders give their opinion and visions for the future d...

  7. WEST AND EAST PALISADES ROADLESS AREAS, IDAHO AND WYOMING.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oriel, Steven S.; Benham, John R.

    1984-01-01

    Studies of the West and East Palisades Roadless Areas, which lie within the Idaho-Wyoming thrust belt, document structures, reservoir formations, source beds, and thermal maturities comparable to those in producing oil and gas field farther south in the belt. Therefore, the areas are highly favorable for the occurrence of oil and gas. Phosphate beds of appropriate grade within the roadless areas are thinner and less accessible than those being mined from higher thrust sheets to the southwest; however, they contain 98 million tons of inferred phosphate rock resources in areas of substantiated phosphate resource potential. Sparsely distributed thin coal seams occur in the roadless areas. Although moderately pure limestone is present, it is available from other sources closer to markets. Geochemical anomalies from stream-sediment and rock samples for silver, copper, molydenum, and lead occur in the roadless areas but they offer little promise for the occurrence of metallic mineral resources. A possible geothermal resource is unproven, despite thermal phenomena at nearby sites.

  8. Evaluation of Satellite Remote Sensing Albedo Retrievals over the Ablation Area of the Southwestern Greenland Ice Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moustafa, Samiah E.; Rennermalm, Asa K.; Roman, Miguel O.; Wang, Zhuosen; Schaaf, Crystal B.; Smith, Laurence C.; Koenig, Lora S.; Erb, Angela

    2017-01-01

    MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) albedo products have been validated over spatially uniform, snow-covered areas of the Greenland ice sheet (GrIS) using the so-called single 'point-to-pixel' method. This study expands on this methodology by applying a 'multiple-point-to-pixel' method and examination of spatial autocorrelation (here using semivariogram analysis) by using in situ observations, high-resolution World- View-2 (WV-2) surface reflectances, and MODIS Collection V006 daily blue-sky albedo over a spatially heterogeneous surfaces in the lower ablation zone in southwest Greenland. Our results using 232 ground-based samples within two MODIS pixels, one being more spatial heterogeneous than the other, show little difference in accuracy among narrow and broad band albedos (except for Band 2). Within the more homogenous pixel area, in situ and MODIS albedos were very close (error varied from -4% to +7%) and within the range of ASD standard errors. The semivariogram analysis revealed that the minimum observational footprint needed for a spatially representative sample is 30 m. In contrast, over the more spatially heterogeneous surface pixel, a minimum footprint size was not quantifiable due to spatial autocorrelation, and far exceeds the effective resolution of the MODIS retrievals. Over the high spatial heterogeneity surface pixel, MODIS is lower than ground measurements by 4-7%, partly due to a known in situ undersampling of darker surfaces that often are impassable by foot (e.g., meltwater features and shadowing effects over crevasses). Despite the sampling issue, our analysis errors are very close to the stated general accuracy of the MODIS product of 5%. Thus, our study suggests that the MODIS albedo product performs well in a very heterogeneous, low-albedo, area of the ice sheet ablation zone. Furthermore, we demonstrate that single 'point-to-pixel' methods alone are insufficient in characterizing and validating the variation of surface

  9. A contribution to the phytogeography of the Angmagssalik area, East Greenland, with special reference to Chionophily

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molenaar, de J.G.

    1968-01-01

    As delimited by Polunin (1951), the Arctic is situated on the Northern hemisphere North of (1) a line 50 miles North of the coniferous forest line, (2) the Northern limit of microphanerophytic growth, or (3) the Nordenskjöld line, according to the formula V = 9-0,1K. According to this delimination t

  10. Tidal Modulation of Ice Flow on Kangerdlugssuaq and Helheim Glaciers, East Greenland, from High-Rate GPS Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamilton, G. S.; Stearns, L. A.; Elosegui, P.

    Boundary conditions at the frontal margins of tidewater glaciers provide important constraints on the balance of forces affecting ice flow and iceberg calving. For many large outlet glaciers in Greenland, the type of boundary condition (floating vs grounded ice) is not well known, owing to limited...... periods of 2-5 days in July 2005, and June, July and August 2006. The data were post-processed using a Kalman predictive filter to yield epoch-by-epoch station positions and elevations. Modeled ocean tides are shown to have good agreement with the tide stage measured over ~~3 weeks in July-August 2006...... in Sermilik fjord, close to the terminus of Helheim Glacier. An analysis of ice vertical displacement and modeled ocean tide for Kangerdlugssuaq Glacier indicates the calving terminus was likely at near-flotation in July 2005. A tidal amplitude of ~~2.5 m produced an uplift of ~~2 m...

  11. Discussion on final rifting evolution and breakup : insights from the Mid Norwegian - North East Greenland rifted system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peron-Pinvidic, Gwenn; Terje Osmundsen, Per

    2016-04-01

    In terms of rifted margin studies, the characteristics of the distal and outer domains are among the today's most debated questions. The architecture and composition of deep margins are rarely well constrained and hence little understood. Except from in a handful number of cases (eg. Iberia-Newfoundland, Southern Australia, Red Sea), basement samples are not available to decipher between the various interpretations allowed by geophysical models. No consensus has been reached on the basement composition, tectonic structures, sedimentary geometries or magmatic content. The result is that non-unique end-member interpretations and models are still proposed in the literature. So, although these domains mark the connection between continents and oceans, and thus correspond to unique stages in the Earth's lithospheric life cycle, their spatial and temporal evolution are still unresolved. The Norwegian-Greenland Sea rift system represents an exceptional laboratory to work on questions related to rifting, rifted margin formation and sedimentary basin evolution. It has been extensively studied for decades by both the academic and the industry communities. The proven and expected oil and gas potentials led to the methodical acquisition of world-class geophysical datasets, which permit the detailed research and thorough testing of concepts at local and regional scales. This contribution is issued from a three years project funded by ExxonMobil aiming at better understanding the crustal-scale nature and evolution of the Norwegian-Greenland Sea. The idea was to take advantage of the data availability on this specific rift system to investigate further the full crustal conjugate scale history of rifting, confronting the various available datasets. In this contribution, we will review the possible structural and sedimentary geometries of the distal margin, and their connection to the oceanic domain. We will discuss the definition of 'breakup' and introduce a first order conceptual

  12. Fall 1998 200 East area biological vector contamination report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CONNELL, D.J.

    1999-03-17

    The purpose of this report is to document the investigation into the cause of the spread of radioactive contamination in September and October 1998 at the Hanford Site's 200 East Area and its subsequent spread to the City of Richland Landfill; identify the source of the contamination; and present corrective actions. The focus and thrust of managing the incident was based on the need to accomplish the following, listed in order of importance: (1) protect the health and safety of the Site workers and the public; (2) contain and control the spread of contamination; (3) identify the source of contamination and the pathways for its spread; and (4) identify the causal factors enabling the contamination.

  13. Greenland from Archaean to Quaternary, Descriptive text to the 1995 Geological Map of Greenland 1:2 500 000, 2nd edition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalsbeek, Feiko

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The geological development of Greenland spans a period of nearly 4 Ga, from Eoarchaean to the Quaternary. Greenland is the largest island on Earth with a total area of 2 166 000 km2, but only c. 410 000 km2 are exposed bedrock, the remaining part being covered by a major ice sheet (the Inland Ice reaching over 3 km in thickness. The adjacent offshore areas underlain by continental crust have an area of c. 825 000 km2. Greenland is dominated by crystalline rocks of the Precambrian shield, which formed during a succession of Archaean and Palaeoproterozoic orogenic events and stabilised as a part of the Laurentian shield about 1600 Ma ago. The shield area can be divided into three distinct types of basement provinces: (1 Archaean rocks (3200–2600 Ma old, with local older units up to >3800Ma that were almost unaffected by Proterozoic or later orogenic activity; (2 Archaean terrains reworked during the Palaeoproterozoic around 1900–1750 Ma ago; and (3 terrains mainly composed of juvenile Palaeoproterozoic rocks (2000–1750 Ma in age.Subsequent geological developments mainly took place along the margins of the shield. During the Proterozoic and throughout the Phanerozoic major sedimentary basins formed, notably in North and North-East Greenland, in which sedimentary successions locally reaching 18 km in thickness were deposited. Palaeozoic orogenic activity affected parts of these successions in the Ellesmerian fold belt of North Greenland and the East Greenland Caledonides; the latter also incorporates reworked Precambrian crystalline basement complexes. Late Palaeozoic and Mesozoic sedimentary basins developed along the continent–ocean margins in North, East and West Greenland and are now preserved both onshore and offshore. Their development was closely related to continental break-up with formation of rift basins. Initial rifting in East Greenland in latest Devonian to earliest Carboniferous time and succeeding phases culminated with the

  14. Telemedicine in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lasse Overballe; Krebs, Hans Jørgen; Albert, Nancy M.

    2017-01-01

    . Regarding challenges in using telemedicine in Greenland, the geographical and cultural context hinders accessibility to the Greenlandic healthcare system, and telemedicine equipment is not sufficiently mobile. CONCLUSION: Greenlandic citizens are positive toward telemedicine and regard telemedicine......BACKGROUND: Telemedicine may have the possibility to provide better access to healthcare delivery for the citizens. Telemedicine in arctic remote areas must be tailored according to the needs of the local population. Therefore, we need more knowledge about their needs and their view of telemedicine....... OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study has been to explore how citizens living in the Greenlandic settlements experience the possibilities and challenges of telemedicine when receiving healthcare delivery in everyday life. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Case study design was chosen as the overall research design...

  15. The nature and genesis of marginal Cu-PGE-Au sulphide mineralisation in Paleogene Macrodykes of the Kangerlussuaq region, East Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holwell, David A.; Abraham-James, Thomas; Keays, Reid R.; Boyce, Adrian J.

    2012-01-01

    The Kangerlussuaq region of East Greenland hosts a variety of early Tertiary extrusive and intrusive igneous rocks related to continental break up and the passage of the ancestral Iceland plume. These intrusive bodies include a number of gabbroic macrodykes, two of which—the Miki Fjord Macrodyke, and the newly discovered Togeda Macrodyke—contain Cu-PGE-Au sulphide mineralisation along their margins. Sulphides occur as disseminated interstitial blebs and rounded globules of chalcopyrite and pyrrhotite with some Fe-Ti oxides and platinum-group minerals, comprising largely Pd bismuthides and tellurides. The globules are interpreted to have formed from fractionation of trapped droplets of an immiscible Cu- and Pd-rich sulphide melt and show geopetal indicators. Sulphur isotopes imply a local crustal source of S in these from pyritic sediments of the Kangerlussuaq Basin. Thus, generation of these sulphide occurrences was controlled by local country rock type. Low Ni/Cu and Pt/Pd ratios, also present in the Platinova reefs in the Skaergaard Intrusion, indicate that early fractionation of olivine may have depleted the magma of Ni and suggest the likely presence of a large magma chamber at depth. Xenoliths of Ni-rich olivine cumulates in the Miki Fjord Macrodyke may have been sourced from such a body. The location of thus far unidentified conduit or feeder zones to the macrodykes beneath the present day surface may represent potential targets for more massive sulphide orebodies.

  16. Applications of Landsat Thematic Mapper and ground-based spectrometer data to a study of the Skaergaard and other mafic intrusions of East Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birnie, Richard W.; Naslund, H. Richard; Nichols, Jennifer D.; Turner, Patricia A.; Parr, J. Thomas

    1989-01-01

    Landsat TM data have been used in conjunction with field spectrometer data to map the lithologic units associated with a series of gabbroic intrusions in the East Greenland Tertiary Igneous Province. The general lack of vegetation combined with the difficulty of access to these intrusions make them ideal candidates for lithologic mapping using remote sensing techniques. In addition, these bodies are of interest as possible precious metal ore deposits. The intrusions are spectrally distinct from the surrounding Precambrian gneisses; however, subpixel contamination by snow, oxide surface coatings, and lichen cover and severe topography limit the discrimination of lithologic units within the gabbro. The spectral nature of the surface contaminants was evaluated with a Barringer Hand Held Ratioing Radiometer (HHRR). These HHRR data indicate that bare rock exposures have distinct TM signatures for each lithologic unit but that even small amounts of subpixel contamination are enough to mask these differences because of the large differences between the TM signatures of the rocks and the contaminants.

  17. First Younger Dryas moraines in Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funder, Svend; Larsen, Nicolaj K.; Linge, Henriette; Möller, Per; Schomacker, Anders; Fabel, Derek; Kjær, Kurt H.; Xu, Sheng

    2016-04-01

    Over the Greenland ice sheet the Younger Dryas (YD) cold climate oscillation (12.9-11.7 kaBP) began with up to 10°C drop in temperatures and ended with up to 12°C abrupt warming. In the light of the present warming and melting of the ice sheet, and its importance for future climate change, the ice sheet's response to these dramatic changes in the past is of great interest. However, even though much effort has gone into charting YD ice margin behaviour around Greenland in recent years, no clear-cut signal of response to the oscillation has been uncovered. Here we show evidence to suggest that three major outlets from a local ice cap at Greenland's north coast advanced and retreated synchronously during YD. The evidence comprises OSL (optically stimulated luminescence) dates from a marine transgression of the coastal valleys that preceded the advance, and exposure ages from boulders on the moraines, formed by glaciers that overrode the marine sediment. The OSL ages suggest a maximum age of 12.4 ±0.6 kaBP for the marine incursion, and 10 exposure ages on boulders from the three moraines provide an average minimum age of 12.5 ±0.7 kaBP for the moraines, implying that the moraines were formed within the interval 11.8-13.0 kaBP. Elsewhere in Greenland evidence for readvance has been recorded in two areas. Most notably, in the East Greenland fjord zone outlet glaciers over a stretch of 800 km coast advanced through the fjords. In Scoresby Sund, where the moraines form a wide belt, an extensive 14C and exposure dating programme has shown that the readvance here probably culminated before YD, while cessation of moraine formation and rapid retreat from the moraine belt did not commence until c. 11.5 kaBP, but no moraines have so far been dated to YD. Readvance is also seen in Disko Bugt, the largest ice sheet outlet in West Greenland. However, here the advance and retreat of the ice stream took place in mid YD times, and lasted only a few hundred years, while YD in

  18. The Simulation of the Influenza Transmission Dynamics in Tropical Area and Subtropical Area in East Asia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Gong-li

    2014-01-01

    The underlying theory of the summer influenza transmission peaks in tropical area and subtropical area in East Asia is still unclear. We built an agent-based model (ABM) to simulate the influenza transmission dynamics. We modeled two main routes of influenza transmission in the model: the aerosol route and the fomite-mediated route. Our results show that the absolute humidity (AH) is strikingly associated with the influenza transmission in different season; Fomite-mediated route particularly plays an important role in influenza transmission, the two-route transmission model can be better used for explaining the summer transmission peaks.

  19. Population Structure of West Greenland Narwhals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riget, F.; Dietz, R.; Møller, P.;

    The hypothesis that different populations of narwhals in the West Greenland area exist has been tested by different biomarkers (metal and organochlorine concentrations, stable isotopes and DNA). Samples of muscle, liver, kidney, blubber and skin tissues of narwhals from West Greenland have been...... isotopes could not support the population structure with two West Greenland populations suggested by the genetic study....

  20. The APEX-related RINK project in Greenland in 2010 and 2011 – a report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Funder, Svend Visby; Kjær, Kurt H.; Larsen, Nicolaj

    for their Holocene organic sediments as part of our research into sedDNA and, combined with geochemical parameters, its use as climatic and environmental proxy. Among these lakes was Johs Iversen Sø, one of the most extensively investigated lakes in Greenland. The field work also comprised a revision...... of the deglaciation history of this area, using exposure samples from large valley systems in this area of alpine and heavily dissected topography, and OSL dating of large deglacial sediment accumulations. Another group (2 persons/3 weeks) worked along the same lines in Sermilik Fjord in south-east Greenland...

  1. Stratigraphy and sedimentology of a basement-onlapping shallow marine sandstone succession, the Charcot Bugt Formation, Middle-Upper Jurassic, East Greenland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, M.; Piasecki, S. [Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland, Copenhagen (Denmark)]. Geocenter; Surlyk, F. [Univ. of Copenhagen, Copenhagen (Denmark)]. Geological Inst.

    2003-07-01

    A rocky shore developed in early Middle Jurassic times by transgression of the crystalline basement in Milne'Land at the western margin of the East Greenland rift basin. The basement is onlapped by shallow marine sandstones of the Charcot Bugt Formation, locally with a thin fluvial unit at the base. The topography of the onlap surface suggests that a relative sea-level rise of at least 300 m took place in Early Bathonian - Middle Oxfordian times. The sea-level rise was punctuated by relative stillstands and falls during which progradation of the shoreline took place. Palynological data tied to the Boreal ammonite stratigraphy have greatly improved time resolution within the Charcot Bugt Formation, and the Jurassic succession in Milne Land can now be understood in terms of genetically-related depositional systems with a proximal to distal decrease in grain size. The sequence stratigraphic interpretation suggests that translation of the depositional systems governed by relative sea-level changes resulted in stacking of sandstone-dominated falling stage deposits in the Bastern, basinwards parts of Milne Land, whereas thick, remarkably coarsegrained transgressive systems tract deposits formed along the western basin margin. The bulk of the Charcot Bugt Formation consists of stacked sandstone-dominated shoreface units that prograded during highstands. The overall aggradational to backstepping stacking pattem recognised in the Charcot Bugt Formation is comparable to that in the contemporaneous Pelion Formation of the Jameson Land Basin and in correlative units of the mid-Norway shelf and the Northern North Sea. We suggest that the long-term evolution of the depositional systems may have been controlled by long-term eustatic rise acting in concert with relative sea-level changes reflecting regionally contemporaneous phases of rift initiation, dimax and gradual cessation of rifting. (au)

  2. Overlap in diet and distribution of two goose species suggests potential for competition at a common moulting area in West Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raundrup, Katrine; Levermann, Nette; Poulsen, Michael

    2012-01-01

    decreased over the last 15-20 years, while the Canada Goose, a species new to the area, has increased. This study explores the overlap in diet and space use of these species in Mudderbugten and Kvandalen, together with factors that could influence the degree of competition between the two species. Data...... on activity budgets and spatial distribution were obtained from observations of behaviour, and diet selection was determined through analyses of plant epidermal fragments in faecal samples that were subsequently genotyped to goose species. No differences in diet or spatial distribution of the two species were......Inter-specific competition can occur where two or more species overlap in diet and/or spatial distribution. Such interactions might be most prevalent where a species invades areas previously occupied by another species. In West Greenland, the number of native Greenland White-fronted Geese has...

  3. Exotism of Batu Putih area in Samarinda, East Kalimantan as conservation area for ecotourism destination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutan, Syamsidar; Cahyani, Rina Wahyu; Alam, Fajar; Syuhada, Endy Mukhlis

    2017-02-01

    Batu Putih is a limestone hill complex in Air Putih area, Samarinda, East Kalimantan. The unique value of this region is a towering limestone ridge which easily recognizable at a distance, water catchment area in the city, great place to learn earth science as understanding the ancient marine deposition and hydrocarbon potential development, and the heritage of the region. The objective of this research is toreview the potential of Batu Putih area and surrounding as a green conservation area for ecotourism destination. Batu Putih area, geologically part of Kutai Basin, is controlled by tectonic event, resulted on Northeast-Southwest undulated trend known as Samarinda anticlinorium. Data collected cover several aspects: (1) geological aspects: various types of rocks, groundwater condition and other related data; (2) vegetation aspects; (3) cultural aspect: heritage and historical place. By results from evaluation of existing data, development plan will be commenced. Research found 2 spots for landscape viewing, 3 water resources, various marine fossils in some locations and mud volcano. Vegetations are dominated by "kersen" (Muntingia calabura L.), "aren" (Arenga pinnata) and "pletekan" (Ruellia tuberosa). Based on the findings of the existing kinds of uniqueness, conservation of the area are mandatories. Protection and preservation of the region in integrated manner and area development for ecotourism and education are things should be done in Batu Putih, as increasingly damaged and depleted by limestone mining activities using heavy equipment.

  4. Avoidable deaths in Greenland 1968-1985

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Peter; Juel, K

    1990-01-01

    and several showed an increasing time trend. The regional patterns were particularly clear for infectious diseases and accidents, which showed low mortality rates in the capital and other towns and high mortality rates in settlements and in the remote East Greenland, while mortality rates from suicides...... and political will of the society. A list of avoidable deaths is proposed for Greenland which includes, inter alia, meningitis, lung cancer, acute respiratory infections, suicides, boat accidents and alcohol related diseases and accidents. All were considerably more common in Greenland than in Denmark...... and alcohol related diseases were high in the capital and East Greenland and low in West Greenlandic settlements. It is concluded that further studies on preventable diseases and causes of death, in particular certain infectious diseases, accidents and suicides, are needed....

  5. South Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This report is a preliminary strategic environmental impact assessment of activities related to exploration, development and exploitation of oil in the Greenland sector of the Labrador Sea and the southeast Davis Strait......This report is a preliminary strategic environmental impact assessment of activities related to exploration, development and exploitation of oil in the Greenland sector of the Labrador Sea and the southeast Davis Strait...

  6. Frost flowers and sea-salt aerosols over seasonal sea-ice areas in northwestern Greenland during winter–spring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Hara

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Sea salts and halogens in aerosols, frost flowers, and brine play an important role in atmospheric chemistry in polar regions. Simultaneous sampling and observations of frost flowers, brine, and aerosol particles were conducted around Siorapaluk in northwestern Greenland during December 2013 to March 2014. Results show that water-soluble frost flower and brine components are sea-salt components (e.g., Na+, Cl−, Mg2+, K+, Ca2+, Br−, and iodine. Concentration factors of sea-salt components of frost flowers and brine relative to seawater were 1.14–3.67. Sea-salt enrichment of Mg2+, K+, Ca2+, and halogens (Cl−, Br−, and iodine in frost flowers is associated with sea-salt fractionation by precipitation of mirabilite and hydrohalite. High aerosol number concentrations correspond to the occurrence of higher abundance of sea-salt particles in both coarse and fine modes, and blowing snow and strong winds. Aerosol number concentrations, particularly in coarse mode, are increased considerably by release from the sea-ice surface under strong wind conditions. Sulfate depletion by sea-salt fractionation was found to be limited in sea-salt aerosols because of the presence of non-sea-salt (NSS SO42−. However, coarse and fine sea-salt particles were found to be rich in Mg. Strong Mg enrichment might be more likely to proceed in fine sea-salt particles. Magnesium-rich sea-salt particles might be released from the surface of snow and slush layer (brine on sea ice and frost flowers. Mirabilite-like and ikaite-like particles were identified only in aerosol samples collected near new sea-ice areas. From the field evidence and results from earlier studies, we propose and describe sea-salt cycles in seasonal sea-ice areas.

  7. Inuit health in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, P; Curtis, T; Borch-Johnsen, K

    2003-01-01

    specimens (blood, urine, subcutaneous fat tissue). The clinical examinations included anthropometric measurements, an oral glucose tolerance test, ECG, ultrasound of thyroid gland and carotid arteries, a skin prick test, and lung function. The data collection areas in Greenland ranged from the westernized...

  8. Pressure conditions for the solidification of the Skaergaard intrusion: Eruption of East Greenland flood basalts in less than 300,000 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Rune B.; Tegner, Christian

    2006-11-01

    Primary granophyres are differentiated from olivine tholeiitic magma and occur interstitially throughout the cumulus stratigraphy of the Skaergaard intrusion, East Greenland. Samples from the Lower Zones a-c (LZa-c), the Middle Zone (MZ) and the Sandwich Horizon (SH) are included in the present study together with granophyric accumulations in gabbroic pegmatite from LZa-c. Fluid inclusions in quartz and the mineral assemblage in the granophyres record the pressure under which the Skaergaard intrusion crystallised. Pegmatitic granophyre from LZa-c consists mainly of quartz, plagioclase (An 4-7) and alkali feldspar (Or 40-80) enclosing an earlier formed assemblage of ferrohastingsitic and ferroedenitic hornblende, fayalite (Fo 4-5), titanite, biotite and fluor-apatite. Granophyric quartz, albite and alkali feldspar crystallised from water-saturated granitic melts near eutectic minimum conditions between 680 and 660 °C. The pressure of granophyre crystallisation was modelled by the intercept between fluid inclusion isochores and the minimum melt solidus for granitic compositions. Pressures, recalculated to the roof pendant of the intrusion, are 0.7 ± 0.5 for LZa, 2.0 ± 0.2 for LZb-c, 2.3 ± 0.8 for MZ (the Triple Group level) and 3.3 ± 1.3 kb for SH. Amphibole geobarometry, independently, confirm the pressure estimates for pegmatitic granophyres in LZa-c. The granophyres formed as the intrusion cooled through the minimum melt solidus in LZa, LZb, LZc, MZ and SH, respectively. The pressure increase from LZa to SH granophyres is explained by progressive burial during cooling of the intrusion and contemporaneous outpouring of 5.3-6.3 ± 2.7 km of flood basalts during the initial opening of the Northeast Atlantic Ocean. Accordingly, the Skaergaard intrusion evolved from a subvolcanic magma chamber at emplacement to a more deep-seated igneous system during terminal crystallization when the majority of the intercumulus phases formed. The present cooling history suggests

  9. Extreme enrichment of Se, Te, PGE and Au in Cu sulfide microdroplets: evidence from LA-ICP-MS analysis of sulfides in the Skaergaard Intrusion, east Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holwell, David A.; Keays, Reid R.; McDonald, Iain; Williams, Megan R.

    2015-12-01

    The Platinova Reef, in the Skaergaard Intrusion, east Greenland, is an example of a magmatic Cu-PGE-Au sulfide deposit formed in the latter stages of magmatic differentiation. As is characteristic with such deposits, it contains a low volume of sulfide, displays peak metal offsets and is Cu rich but Ni poor. However, even for such deposits, the Platinova Reef contains extremely low volumes of sulfide and the highest Pd and Au tenor sulfides of any magmatic ore deposit. Here, we present the first LA-ICP-MS analyses of sulfide microdroplets from the Platinova Reef, which show that they have the highest Se concentrations (up to 1200 ppm) and lowest S/Se ratios (190-700) of any known magmatic sulfide deposit and have significant Te enrichment. In addition, where sulfide volume increases, there is a change from high Pd-tenor microdroplets trapped in situ to larger, low tenor sulfides. The transition between these two sulfide regimes is marked by sharp peaks in Au, and then Te concentration, followed by a wider peak in Se, which gradually decreases with height. Mineralogical evidence implies that there is no significant post-magmatic hydrothermal S loss and that the metal profiles are essentially a function of magmatic processes. We propose that to generate these extreme precious and semimetal contents, the sulfides must have formed from an anomalously metal-rich package of magma, possibly formed via the dissolution of a previously PGE-enriched sulfide. Other processes such as kinetic diffusion may have also occurred alongside this to produce the ultra-high tenors. The characteristic metal offset pattern observed is largely controlled by partitioning effects, producing offset peaks in the order Pt+Pd>Au>Te>Se>Cu that are entirely consistent with published D values. This study confirms that extreme enrichment in sulfide droplets can occur in closed-system layered intrusions in situ, but this will characteristically form ore deposits that are so low in sulfide that they do

  10. Modeling Heat Transfer to Explain Observed Temperature Anomalies in Near-Surface Ice, Greenland Ice Sheet Ablation Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hills, B. H.; Harper, J. T.; Meierbachtol, T. W.; Humphrey, N. F.; Johnson, J. V.

    2016-12-01

    Measured ice temperatures in over 30 boreholes at 6 different field sites within the Greenland Ice Sheet ablation area indicate that the near-surface ice temperature warms toward the margin. The rate of warming is significantly greater than the atmospheric lapse rate, meaning that the mean annual ice temperature is far warmer than the mean annual air temperature near the margin. Theoretically, ice within 15 meters of the surface should oscillate seasonally around the mean air temperature. However, observations of mean ice and air temperatures differ by as much as 5 degrees Celsius. Here we numerically model heat transfer in ice to investigate the physical processes that could drive this discrepancy. Modeling results are compared to measured ice temperatures in the first 20 meters of ice below the surface. First, we model pure conduction to analyze the thermal effect of snow accumulation, a fixed melting temperature, ablation at the ice surface, emergent flow of ice, and long-term changes in the mean air temperature. Next, we consider a secondary process beyond pure conduction with the air - a latent heat flux which adds energy by refreezing meltwater below the surface. While our measurement locations have no open crevasses exposed to the surface, borehole field observations reveal that void spaces exist below the ice surface. These subsurface voids could provide a route for water to move to depth where it then refreezes and adds energy to the surrounding ice, thus warming ice above the mean air temperature. Finally, we use the near-surface results as a boundary condition for heat transfer through the full thickness of the ice column. The subsequent model output is compared to borehole temperature measurements at depth to examine the effect of near-surface heat transfer on the rest of the ice column.

  11. Migration and breeding biology of arctic terns in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egevang, Carsten

    (Sandøen) in high-Arctic Northeast Greenland. The level of knowledge of the Arctic tern in Greenland before 2002 was to a large extent poor, with aspects of its biology being completely unknown in the Greenland population. This thesis presents novel findings for the Arctic tern, both on an international...... by the distribution of breeding Arctic terns as suggested by Egevang et al. (2004). Included in the thesis are furthermore results with an appeal to the Greenland management agencies. Along with estimates of the Arctic tern population size at the two most important Arctic tern colonies in West Greenland and East...

  12. Paleoceanographical development off Sisimiut, West Greenland, during the mid- and late Holocene. A multiproxy study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erbs-Hansen, D.R.; Knudsen, K.L.; Olsen, Jesper

    2013-01-01

    A multiproxy study of paleoceanographic and climatic changes in Holsteinsborg Dyb on the West Greenland shelf shows that the area is sensitive to variations in the mixing between the two components of the West Greenland Current, i.e., the Atlantic Water of the Irminger Current and the Polar Water...... from the East Greenland Current. A seismic profile illustrates the general development in the area since the deglaciation, and analyses of benthic foraminifera, stable isotopes (δ18O and δ13C), and X-ray fluorescence elemental counts in two cores, covering ca. 6650 and 1100years, respectively, provide...... details on the oceanographic changes during the mid- and late Holocene. The chronology is based on 210Pb and AMS 14C age determinations. During the time interval of 6650-1600cal.yr BP, the bottom waters are characterized by the presence of modified Atlantic Water, with some influence of meltwater, either...

  13. Self-regulation of ice flow varies across the ablation area in south-west Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Wal, R. S. W.; Smeets, C. J. P. P.; Boot, W.; Stoffelen, M.; van Kampen, R.; Doyle, S. H.; Wilhelms, F.; van den Broeke, M. R.; Reijmer, C. H.; Oerlemans, J.; Hubbard, A.

    2015-04-01

    The concept of a positive feedback between ice flow and enhanced melt rates in a warmer climate fuelled the debate regarding the temporal and spatial controls on seasonal ice acceleration. Here we combine melt, basal water pressure and ice velocity data. Using 20 years of data covering the whole ablation area, we show that there is not a strong positive correlation between annual ice velocities and melt rates. Annual velocities even slightly decreased with increasing melt. Results also indicate that melt variations are most important for velocity variations in the upper ablation zone up to the equilibrium line altitude. During the extreme melt in 2012, a large velocity response near the equilibrium line was observed, highlighting the possibility of meltwater to have an impact even high on the ice sheet. This may lead to an increase of the annual ice velocity in the region above S9 and requires further monitoring.

  14. Seabird Colonies in Western Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boertmann, D.; Mosbech, A.; Falk, K.;

    surveys of seabird colonies are needed, due to a lack of information or because the present information probably is outdated. The most immediate threats to the colonial seabirds in western Greenland during the breeding time is hunting and egging. Oil pollution is a minor threat to-day, but will increase...... if offshore areas with oil potential are explored and developed. Tab. 6 gives an overview of each species sensitivity to oil spills and the capacity to recover, as well as a comparison of the western Greenland population numbers to the North Atlantic population numbers. The most significant western Greenland...

  15. Why is Transparency Greenland Necessary?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Boris Brorman

    2012-01-01

    Greenland is facing significant changes in the composition of its economy, and is moving rapidly in the direction of becoming a commodities economy. Studies conducted by Transparency International in other parts of the world suggest that oil exploration and mining are among the areas of economic...... activity, which carry the greatest risk of corruption. It is therefore important that Greenlandic society is prepared for the new economic players, and the risks this may entail....

  16. High air-sea CO 2 uptake rates in nearshore and shelf areas of Southern Greenland: Temporal and spatial variability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rysgaard, Søren; Mortensen, J.; Juul-Pedersen, T.

    2012-01-01

    The present study is based on hourly samplings of wind speed, monthly sampling sessions of temperature, salinity, dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity, nutrients, primary productivity and vertical export in the outer sill region (station GF3) of a sub-arctic SW Greenland fjord (Godthåbsfjord...... be considered as a strong sink (7.2tons C month -1km -2) for atmospheric CO 2. In addition, measurements from Godthåbsfjord during the summer season showed that mixing between glacial meltwater and coastal water could explain a large part of the low pCO 2-values observed in the innermost part of the fjord....... Finally, a larger survey confirmed the existence of very low pCO 2 conditions in nearshore and shelf waters around Southern Greenland. © 2011 Elsevier B.V....

  17. Precambrian crustal evolution and Cretaceous–Palaeogene faulting in West Greenland: Pre-Nagssugtoqidian crustal evolution in West Greenland: geology, geochemistry and deformation of supracrustal and granitic rocks north-east of Kangaatsiaq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Watt, Gordon R.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The area north-east of Kangaatsiaq features polyphase grey orthogneisses, supracrustal rocks and Kangaatsiaq granite exposed within a WSW–ENE-trending synform. The supracrustal rocks are comprised of garnet-bearing metapelites, layered amphibolites and layered, likewise grey biotite paragneisses. Their association and geochemical compositions are consistent with a metamorphosed volcano-sedimentary basin (containing both tholeiitic and calc-alkali lavas and is similar to other Archaean greenstone belts. The Kangaatsiaq granite forms a 15 × 3 km flat, subconcordant body of deformed,pink, porphyritic granite occupying the core of the supracrustal synform, and is demonstrably intrusive into the amphibolites. The granite displays a pronounced linear fabric (L or L > S. Thepost-granite deformation developed under lower amphibolite facies conditions (400 ± 50°C, and is characterised by a regular, NE–SW-trending subhorizontal lineation and an associated irregular foliation, whose poles define a great circle; together they are indicative of highly constrictional strain. The existence of a pre-granite event is attested by early isoclinal folds and a foliation within the amphibolites that is not present in the granite, and by the fact that the granite cuts earlier structures in the supracrustal rocks. This early event, preserved only in quartz-free lithologies, resulted in high-temperature fabrics being developed under upper amphibolite to granulite facies conditions.

  18. Interglacial insects and their possible survival in Greenland during the last glacial stage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøcher, Jens Jensenius

    2012-01-01

    Sediments from the last interglacial (Eemian) in Jameson Land, East Greenland, and the Thule area, NW Greenland, have revealed a number of insect fragments of both arctic and more or less warmth-demanding species. Altogether, the interglacial fauna of Coleoptera (beetles) indicates boreal...... beetle species such as Amara alpina and Isochnus arcticus did not survive the last glacial stage in Greenland. Two factors that have not been sufficiently considered when discussing survival contra extinction are the importance of microclimate and the number of sun-hours during the Arctic summer. Even...... among the Coleoptera, which as a group fares quite badly in the Arctic, there might be survivors, at least among those found both during the interglacial and as fossils during the early Holocene. First of all, glacial survival applies to the seed bug Nysius groenlandicus, which was widespread during...

  19. Greenland ice sheet initiation and Arctic sea ice coincide with Eocene and Oligocene CO2 changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripati, Aradhna; Darby, Dennis

    2016-04-01

    Earth's modern ocean-climate system is largely defined by the presence of glacial ice on landmasses in both hemispheres. Northern Hemisphere ice was previously thought to have formed no earlier than the Miocene or Oligocene, about 20-30 million years after the widespread onset of Antarctic glaciation at the Eocene-Oligocene boundary. Controversially, the episodic presence of seasonal Arctic sea ice and glacial ice in the Northern Hemisphere beginning in the early Oligocene to Middle Eocene has been inferred from multiple observations. Here we use precise source determinations based on geochemical measurements of ice-rafted debris (IRD) from an ODP core in the Greenland Sea (75° N) to constrain glacial ice and sea ice-rafting in the Northern Hemisphere during the middle Eocene through early Oligocene. The chemical fingerprint of 2,334 detrital Fe oxide grains indicates most of these grains are from Greenland with >98% certainty. Thus the coarse IRD in the Greenland Sea originates from widespread areas of east Greenland as far south as the Denmark Strait area (~68° N), with additional IRD sources from the circum-Arctic Ocean. This is the first definitive evidence that mid-Eocene IRD in the Greenland Sea is from Greenland. Episodic glaciation of different source regions on Greenland is synchronous with times of ice-rafting in the western Arctic and ephemeral perennial Arctic ice cover. Intervals of bipolar glacial ice storage in the middle Eocene through early Oligocene coincide with evidence for periods of reduced CO2, associated with carbon cycle perturbations.

  20. High-resolution Moho model for Greenland from EIGEN-6C4 gravity data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steffen, Rebekka; Strykowski, Gabriel; Lund, Björn

    2017-01-01

    are difficult to obtain. Here, we take advantage of the global gravity model EIGEN-6C4, together with the Parker-Oldenburg algorithm, to estimate the depth to the Moho beneath Greenland and surroundings. The available free-air gravity data are corrected for the topographic effect and the effect of sedimentary...... basins. We also correct for the effect on gravity due to the weight of the ice sheet and the accompanying deflection of the Earth's surface, which has not previously been taken into account in gravity studies of currently glaciated regions. Our final Moho depth model for Greenland has an associated...... uncertainty of ±4.5 km for areas with sedimentary basins and ±4 km for areas without sedimentary basins. The model shows maximum Moho depths below east Greenland of up to 55 km and values less than 20 km offshore east Greenland. There is a marked increase in Moho depth of 10–15 km from northern to central...

  1. Envisat-derived elevation changes of the Greenland ice sheet, and a comparison with ICESat results in the accumulation area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Louise Sandberg; Simonsen, Sebastian Bjerregaard; Meister, Rakia;

    2015-01-01

    We show, for the first time over the Greenland ice sheet, that an along track method for deriving rates of elevationchange can successfully be applied to Envisat radar altimetry data (2002–2010). The results provide improved resolution and coverage compared to previous results obtained from cross...... information on snow parameters. A comparison of the elevation changes observedby the two sensors shows a complex pattern, which can be explained regionally by model output describing the changes in both firn air content and accumulation rates....

  2. gold mineralization in Masjeddaghi area, east of Jolfa, NW Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Imamalipour

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Two types of mineralization including porphyry copper and epithermal gold mineralization have occurred in relation with an intermediate volcano-plutonic complex in Masjeddaghi area. Different alterations including silica, advanced argillic, intermediate argillic and propylitic have been distinguished in relation with epithermal mineralization, which have a zonal pattern. Elemental mass gains and losses during alterations were calculated using Zr as an immobile monitor. Silica zone has enriched in SiO2 and relatively in Al2O3 and K2O, and has depleted in Na2O, MgO and CaO. Ba, Sr, Pb, Rb and Cu elements have also enriched. The advanced argillic zone shows enrichment in SO3, Al2O3, SiO2, K2O, MgO and L.O.I; and depletion in Fe2O3, CaO, Na2O, MnO and MgO. Barium, Cu, Sr and Zn have depleted in this zone. Propylitic zone has enriched in MgO, CaO, L.O.I and SiO2, and has depleted in Na2O and K2O. Geochemical and mineralogical evidences indicate that the hydrothermal leaching of mafic minerals in parent rocks and formation of quartz, kaolinite, sericite and alunite assemblage in advanced argillic zone; and chlorite, epidote and calcite assemblage in propylitic zone is responsible for the above mentioned chemical variations. It is likely that the gains and losses of elements have been controlled by agents such as water/rock ratios, temperature changes and chemistry of hydrothermal solutions. The CIA and MIA indicators in the altered rocks indicate the intensity of alteration in silica and advanced argillic zones in comparison with propylitic zone.

  3. Revised Hydrogeology for the Suprabasalt Aquifer System, 200-East Area and Vicinity, Hanford Site, Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Bruce A.; Bjornstad, Bruce N.; Schalla, Ronald; Webber, William D.

    2000-04-20

    This study supports the Hanford Groundwater/Vadose integration project objectives to better understand the risk of groundwater contamination and potential risk to the public via groundwater flow paths. The primary objective of this study was to refine the conceptual groundwater flow model for the 200-East Area and vicinity.

  4. High air-sea CO 2 uptake rates in nearshore and shelf areas of Southern Greenland: Temporal and spatial variability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rysgaard, Søren; Mortensen, J.; Juul-Pedersen, T.;

    2012-01-01

    The present study is based on hourly samplings of wind speed, monthly sampling sessions of temperature, salinity, dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity, nutrients, primary productivity and vertical export in the outer sill region (station GF3) of a sub-arctic SW Greenland fjord (Godthåbsfjord...... of 76-106gCm -2yr -1. Furthermore, the estimated vertical export of phytoplankton carbon to depths below 60m of 38-89gCm -2 suggests that a large fraction of the mineralization (release of CO 2) occurs in deeper waters in the outer sill region of the fjord. However, there was no statistically...... significant correlation between average annual gross primary production and annual air-sea flux during 2005-2010, which suggests that regulation of pCO 2 in the fjord is more complex. Despite three confined periods with supersaturated pCO 2 conditions in surface waters during 2005-2010, Godthåbsfjord can...

  5. Ice-margin and meltwater dynamics during the mid-Holocene in the Kangerlussuaq area of west Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carrivick, Jonathan L.; Yde, Jacob; Russell, Andrew J.

    2017-01-01

    Land-terminating parts of the west Greenland ice sheet have exhibited highly dynamic meltwater regimes over the last few decades including episodes of extremely intense runoff driven by ice surface ablation, ponding of meltwater in an increasing number and size of lakes, and sudden outburst floods......, or jokulhlaups', from these lakes. However, whether this meltwater runoff regime is unusual in a Holocene context has not been questioned. This study assembled high-resolution topographical data, geological and landcover data, and produced a glacial geomorphological map covering similar to 1200km(2). Digital...... analysis of the landforms reveals a mid-Holocene land-terminating ice margin that was predominantly cold-based. This ice margin underwent sustained active retreat but with multiple minor advances. Over c.1000years meltwater runoff became impounded within numerous and extensive proglacial lakes...

  6. 21st Century Strategies for Protected Areas in East Asia--Briefs of the 3rd Conference on Conservative Land in East Asia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Zurong

    2001-01-01

    @@ The author had the opportunity to attend the 3rd Conference on the Conservative Land in East Asia in Seoul, Korea in September 1999, whose theme was " 21st Century Strategies for Protected Areas in East Asia". As the majority of protected areas in China is located in mountain areas,since the government announced prohibition of any commercial wood cutting, all mountains have become sort of protected areas in a certain degree. The following is a brief introduction on the major issues discussed at the conference.

  7. Holocene changes in climate and vegetation in the Ammassalik area, East Greenland, recorded in lake sediments and soil profiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Bjarne Holm; Fredskild, Bent; Pedersen, Jørn Bjarke Torp

    2008-01-01

    , appears to have experienced the warmest Holocene summer conditions, ice-free seas and limited snow covers. The climate situation seems to have been to a considerable extent based on internal regional meteorological processes and largely without strong and regular cyclonic impacts from lower latitudes...

  8. Life history parameters of narwhals (Monodon monoceros) from Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garde, Eva; Hansen, Steen H; Ditlevsen, Susanne

    2015-01-01

    Life history parameters for narwhals (Monodon monoceros) were estimated based on age estimates from aspartic acid racemization of eye lens nuclei. Eyes, reproductive organs, and measures of body lengths were collected from 282 narwhals in East and West Greenland in the years 1993, 2004, and 2007...... projection matrix was parameterized with the data on age structure and fertility rates. The annual rate of increase of narwhals in East Greenland was estimated to be 3.8% while narwhals in West Greenland had a rate of increase at 2.6%. Key words:...

  9. MIZEX. A Program for Mesoscale Air-Ice-Ocean Interaction Experiments in Arctic Marginal Ice Zones. II. A Science Plan for a Summer Marginal Ice Zone Experiment in the Fram Strait/Greenland Sea: 1984.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-05-01

    salinity, southward-flowing East Greenland Current from the more saline water in the Greenland Sea; or more transient, such as ice edge meltwater fronts... meltwater fronts) in the Fram Strait and Greenland Sea marginal ice zones? What is their temporal and spatial variability over a period of days? What is...three-dimensional structure of the fronts (East Greenland polar front and meltwater fronts) in the Fram Strait- Greenland Sea MIZ, their short-period

  10. Using GPS and absolute gravity observations to separate the effects of present-day and Pleistocene ice-mass changes in South East Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dam, T.; Francis, O.; Wahr, J.; Khan, S. A.; Bevis, M.; van den Broeke, M. R.

    2017-02-01

    Measurements of vertical crustal uplift from bedrock sites around the edge of the Greenland ice sheet (GrIS) can be used to constrain present day mass loss. Interpreting any observed crustal displacement around the GrIS in terms of present day changes in ice is complicated, however, by the glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) signal. With GPS observations alone, it is impossible to separate the uplift driven by present day mass changes from that due to ice mass changes in the past. Wahr et al. (1995) demonstrated that viscoelastic surface displacements were related to the viscoelastic gravity changes through a proportionality constant that is nearly independent of the choice of Earth viscosity or ice history model. Thus, by making measurements of both gravity and surface motion at a bedrock site, the viscoelastic effects could be removed from the observations and we would be able to constrain present day ice mass changes. Alternatively, we could use the same observations of surface displacements and gravity to determine the GIA signal. In this paper, we extend the theory of Wahr et al. (1995) by introducing a constant, Z, that represents the ratio between the elastic changes in gravity and elastic uplift at a particular site due to present day mass changes. Further, we combine 20 yrs of GPS observations of uplift with eight absolute gravity observations over the same period to determine the GIA signal near Kulusuk, a site on the southeastern side of the GrIS, to experimentally demonstrate the theory. We estimate that the GIA signal in the region is 4.49 ± 1.44mm/yr and is inconsistent with most previously reported model predictions that demonstrate that the GIA signal here is negative. However, as there is very little in situ data to constrain the GIA rate in this part of Greenland, the Earth model or the ice history reconstructions could be inaccurate (Khan et al., 2016). Improving the estimate of GIA in this region of Greenland will allow us to better determine

  11. Comparative Area Studies and Middle East Politics after the Arab Uprisings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Bank

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The Arab uprisings have brought about a new wave of Middle East political science research that seeks to comparatively account for the different political trajectories in the region. In order to situate these diverse post-2011 scholarly studies, this paper introduces Comparative Area Studies (CAS as an analytical perspective which combines the context sensitivity of area studies with the explicit and systematic use of comparisons. It finds that while intra-regional comparisons are the mainstay of political science studies of the Arab uprisings, there is also an emerging, very promising strand of cross-regional comparisons that draws on insights from, for example, the post-Soviet space or from European history. The paper concludes by evaluating the promises, risks and prospects of following a CAS perspective in the study of Middle East politics.

  12. Active predation by Greenland shark Somniosus microcephalus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Julius; hedeholm, Rasmus; Simon, Malene

    2013-01-01

    Dansk Havforskermøde 2013 Julius Nielsen, Rasmus Hedeholm, Malene Simon og John Fleng Steffensen The Greenland shark is ubiquitous in the northern part of the North Atlantic ranging from eastern Canada to northwest Russia . Although knowledge is scarce it is believed to be abundant and potentially...... important part of the ecosystem. Whether Greenland sharks in general should be considered opportunistic scavengers or active predators is therefore important in understanding ecosystem dynamics. Due to its sluggish appearance and a maximum reported swimming speed of 74 cm per second scavenging seems...... the most likely feeding strategy. However, recent studies suggest that Greenland sharks in some areas feed actively upon seals . Feeding ecology is poorly described in Greenland waters. In this study we provide information on feeding habits of 29 sharks caught in Greenland waters in the summer 2012...

  13. Operational Safety Requirements and Operating Specification Documentation compliance instrumentation matrices: 200 East Area Tank Farms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Story, D.R.

    1995-03-01

    This document contains information about matrices complied of instrumentation used to comply with the existing Operational Safety Requirements from Safety Analysis Reports and Operating, Specification Documentation requirements for 200 East Area Tank Farms. These matrices contain the primary instrumentation needed to comply with each OSR and/or OSD requirement as well as any backup instrumentation that may be used should the primary device be out of service. The referenced matrices are provided as attachments to this document.

  14. Ocean surface conditions on the SE Greenland shelf during the last millennium - from abrupt changes to centennial variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miettinen, Arto; Divine, Dmitry; Husum, Katrine; Koç, Nalan; Jennings, Anne

    2016-04-01

    August sea surface temperatures (aSST) and April sea-ice concentrations (aSIC) covering the last 2900 years have been reconstructed in order to investigate the variability of summer surface conditions along possible forcing factors on the SE Greenland shelf. In this diatom-based study, we focus on the interval ca. 870-1910 Common Era (CE) reconstructed at a high temporal resolution of 3-8 years. The results demonstrate both abrupt changes and a clear centennial-bicentennial variability for the last millennium. The Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA) between 1000 and 1200 CE represents the warmest ocean surface conditions of the SE Greenland shelf over the late Holocene (880 BCE-1910 CE). MCA in the current record is characterized by abrupt, decadal to multidecadal changes, such as an abrupt warming of ~2.4 °C in 55 years around 1000 CE. Temperature changes of these magnitudes are rarely observed in other proxy records from the North Atlantic. Compared to regional air temperature reconstructions, our results indicate a lag of about 50 years in ocean surface warming either due to increased freshwater discharge from the Greenland ice sheet or intensified sea-ice export from the Arctic as a response to atmospheric warming at the beginning of the MCA. A cool phase, from 1200-1890 CE, associated with the Little Ice Age (LIA), ends with the rapid warming of aSST and diminished aSIC in the early 20th century. The phases of warm aSST and aSIC minima on the SE Greenland shelf and solar minima of the last millennium are antiphased, suggesting that solar forcing possibly amplified by atmospheric forcing has been behind the aSST variability on the SE Greenland over the last millennium. The results might indicate decreased sea ice formation on the SE Greenland shelf due to diminished freshwater input from the Greenland Ice Sheet during the cold climate periods. The results show that the SE Greenland shelf is a climatologically sensitive area where extremely rapid changes are

  15. Airborne geoid mapping of land and sea areas of East Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamil, H.; Kadir, M.; Forsberg, R.; Olesen, A.; Isa, M. N.; Rasidi, S.; Mohamed, A.; Chihat, Z.; Nielsen, E.; Majid, F.; Talib, K.; Aman, S.

    2017-02-01

    This paper describes the development of a new geoid-based vertical datum from airborne gravity data, by the Department of Survey and Mapping Malaysia, on land and in the South China Sea out of the coast of East Malaysia region, covering an area of about 610,000 square kilometres. More than 107,000 km flight line of airborne gravity data over land and marine areas of East Malaysia has been combined to provide a seamless land-to-sea gravity field coverage; with an estimated accuracy of better than 2.0 mGal. The iMAR-IMU processed gravity anomaly data has been used during a 2014-2016 airborne survey to extend a composite gravity solution across a number of minor gaps on selected lines, using a draping technique. The geoid computations were all done with the GRAVSOFT suite of programs from DTU-Space. EGM2008 augmented with GOCE spherical harmonic model has been used to spherical harmonic degree N = 720. The gravimetric geoid first was tied at one tide-gauge (in Kota Kinabalu, KK2019) to produce a fitted geoid, my_geoid2017_fit_kk. The fitted geoid was offset from the gravimetric geoid by +0.852 m, based on the comparison at the tide-gauge benchmark KK2019. Consequently, orthometric height at the six other tide gauge stations was computed from HGPS Lev = hGPS - Nmy_geoid2017_.t_kk. Comparison of the conventional (HLev) and GPS-levelling heights (HGPS Lev) at the six tide gauge locations indicate RMS height difference of 2.6 cm. The final gravimetric geoidwas fitted to the seven tide gauge stations and is known as my_geoid2017_fit_east. The accuracy of the gravimetric geoid is estimated to be better than 5 cm across most of East Malaysia land and marine areas

  16. 33 CFR 165.156 - Regulated Navigation Area: East Rockaway Inlet to Atlantic Beach Bridge, Nassau County, Long...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., thence easterly along the shore to the east side of the Atlantic Beach Bridge, State Route 878, over East... Rockaway Inlet to Atlantic Beach Bridge, Nassau County, Long Island, New York. 165.156 Section 165.156... to Atlantic Beach Bridge, Nassau County, Long Island, New York. (a) Location. The following area is...

  17. Unconformity-related uranium deposits, Athabasca area, Saskatchewan, and East Alligator Rivers area, Northern Territory, Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, L.A.; Burrill, G.H.R. (Saskatchewan Mining Development Corp., Saskatoon (Canada))

    1981-07-01

    Most unconformity-type uranium deposits in Saskatchewan occur within a few tens of metres above and/or below the basal unconformity of the 1.45 b.y. Athabasca Sandstone. Graphitic basement rocks coincident with post-Athabasca faulting or brecciation at or near the unconformity are important in localizing uranium deposits which form as tabular, ribbon-like bodies with grades averaging over 2 percent uranium and containing up to 50,000 tonnes U/sub 3/O/sub 8/. Some of these deposits have similar contents of nickel and arsenic. In the genetic model used to explain these deposits, traces of uranium were leached from the sandstone and basement rocks by oxidized formation waters. A thick clay regolith absorbed uranium from the solution, and the fixed uranium was reduced through an indirect reaction with graphite. The clay mineral surfaces were thus continuously cleared to allow further adsorption. Fluid convection was induced by topographic relief and/or crustal heating from radioactive decay, and would continue uranium deposition until all permeability was plugged by minerals. The East Alligator Rivers uranium deposits in Northern Territory, Australia occur within Middle Proterozoic quartz-chlorite and quartz-muscovite schists overlain by sandstone. Highest grades occur in silicified breccias where carbonate beds were leached out. Mineralization ages are both pre- and post-Kombolgie Sandstone, but, to date, no significant uranium mineralization has been found in the sandstone. There are many similarities with Saskatchewan deposits, but also important differences.

  18. Estimates of groundwater recharge rates and sources in the East Mountain area, Eastern Bernalillo County, New Mexico, 2005-12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Steven E.; Crilley, Dianna M.

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Bernalillo County Public Works Division, has conducted a monitoring program in the East Mountain area of eastern Bernalillo County, New Mexico, since 2000 to better define the hydrogeologic characteristics of the East Mountain area and to provide scientific information that will assist in the sustainable management of water resources. This report presents estimates of groundwater recharge to the aquifers that supply water to a network of springs that discharged within the East Mountain area of eastern Bernalillo County during 2005–12. Chloride concentration, the mass ratio of chloride to bromide, and the stable isotope ratios of hydrogen and oxygen were used to estimate annual groundwater recharge rates and to identify the sources and timing of recharge to the aquifers in the East Mountain area. Groundwater recharge rates were estimated by using a chloride mass-balance (CMB) method applied to data from selected springs located in the study area.

  19. Vertical Electrical Sounding Investigation in East River Nile Area (Khartoum State),Sudan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Eldawi M G; Farwa A G; Liu Tianyou

    2003-01-01

    Vertical electrical sounding (VES) was carried out in the east of the River Nile. The main objectives of the resistivity survey are to determine the types and thicknesses of sedimentary units in the area, to defime the contact separating the sediments from the crystalline basement complex, and to determine the structural features of the subsurface formations. Several local depressions, whose maximum depth to the basement surface is about 160 m, are revealed as an outcome of the VES method, and suggested to have been infilled with undifferentiated units of the Nubian Group in particular Omdurman Formation. Thus, a depth to the basement complex is calculated and the associated structural map of the east of the River Nile is drawn. The map is useful for the groundwater drilling, as far as the presence or absence of the aquifer is concerned.

  20. The peopling of Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pereira, Vania; Tomas Mas, Carmen; Sanchez, Juan J

    2015-01-01

    The peopling of Greenland has a complex history shaped by population migrations, isolation and genetic drift. The Greenlanders present a genetic heritage with components of European and Inuit groups; previous studies using uniparentally inherited markers in Greenlanders have reported evidence of ...

  1. Spatial and temporal oxygen isotope variability in northern Greenland - implications for a new climate record over the past millennium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weißbach, S.; Wegner, A.; Opel, T.; Oerter, H.; Vinther, B. M.; Kipfstuhl, S.

    2016-02-01

    We present for the first time all 12 δ18O records obtained from ice cores drilled in the framework of the North Greenland Traverse (NGT) between 1993 and 1995 in northern Greenland. The cores cover an area of 680 km × 317 km, 10 % of the Greenland ice sheet. Depending on core length (100-175 m) and accumulation rate (90-200 kg m-2 a-1) the single records reflect an isotope-temperature history over the last 500-1100 years. Lowest δ18O mean values occur north of the summit and east of the main divide as a consequence of Greenland's topography. In general, ice cores drilled on the main ice divide show different results than those drilled east of the main ice divide that might be influenced by secondary regional moisture sources. A stack of all NGT records and the NGRIP record is presented with improved signal-to-noise ratio. Compared to single records, this stack represents the mean δ18O signal for northern Greenland that is interpreted as proxy for temperature. Our northern Greenland δ18O stack indicates distinctly enriched δ18O values during medieval times, about AD 1420 ± 20 and from AD 1870 onwards. The period between AD 1420 and AD 1850 has depleted δ18O values compared to the average for the entire millennium and represents the Little Ice Age. The δ18O values of the 20th century are comparable to the medieval period but are lower than that about AD 1420.

  2. Geologic mapping in Greenland with polarimetric SAR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dall, Jørgen; Madsen, Søren Nørvang; Brooks, C. K.

    1995-01-01

    The application of synthetic aperture radar (SAR) for geologic mapping in Greenland is investigated by the Danish Center for Remote Sensing (DCRS) in co-operation with the Danish Lithosphere Centre (DLC). In 1994 a pilot project was conducted in East Greenland. The Danish airborne SAR, EMISAR......, acquired fully polarimetric C-band data which, upon processing and calibration, was interpreted jointly by DCRS and DLC. Several geologic phenomena are readily identified in the SAR imagery, while different lithologies seem to be indistinguishable because they have similar geomorphologies. The geologic...

  3. Population Structure of West Greenland Narwhals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riget, F.; Dietz, R.; Møller, P.

    The hypothesis that different populations of narwhals in the West Greenland area exist has been tested by different biomarkers (metal and organochlorine concentrations, stable isotopes and DNA). Samples of muscle, liver, kidney, blubber and skin tissues of narwhals from West Greenland have been...... analysed for heavy metals, organochlorines, stable isotopes and DNA. The obtained results of metal concentrations and DNA were included in the existing database, whereas no previous data on organochlorines and stable isotopes in West Greenland narwhals existed. The metal and POP concentrations and stable...

  4. Valuing quality of vegetation in recharge area of Seruk Spring, Pesanggrahan Valley, Batu City, East Java

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SITI SOFIAH

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Yulistyarini T, Sofiah S (2011 Valuing quality of vegetation in recharge area of Seruk Spring, Pesanggrahan Valley, Batu City, East Java. Biodiversitas 12: 229-234. A Seruk spring is one of the springs in Batu city which has water debit less than 1 liter per second. Land use changes of Seruk spring recharge area was occured in 2001. Recharge area of Seruk Spring consists of anthropogenic forest, eucalypts plantation, bamboo forest, pines plantation, horticulture and housing. The aim of this research was to valuing the quality of vegetation which supported ground water recharge in Seruk spring. Quality of vegetation were determined by vegetation structure, diversity, the thickness of litter and C-stock of each land use systems. Forests, eucalypts plantation and bamboo forests had almost same quality of vegetation.

  5. North East Atlantic vs. Mediterranean Marine Protected Areas as Fisheries Management Tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angel Pérez-Ruzafa

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of management initiatives implemented in the context of the European Common Fisheries Policy has been questioned, especially with regard to the Mediterranean. Some of the analyses made to compare the fishing activity and management measures carried out in the North East Atlantic and in the Mediterranean do not take into account some of the differentiating peculiarities of each of these regions. At the same time, they resort to traditional fisheries management measures and do not discuss the role of marine protected areas as a complementary management tool. In this respect, the apparent failure of marine protected areas in the North-East Atlantic compared with the same in the Mediterranean is challenging European fishery scientists. Application of the classical holistic view of ecological succession to the functioning of fishery closures and no-use areas highlights the importance of combining both management regimes to fully satisfy both fishery- and biodiversity-oriented goals. We advocate that an optimal management strategy for designing an MPA to protect biodiversity and sustain fishing yields consists of combining a network of no-use areas (close to their mature state with fish boxes (buffer zones maintained by fishing disturbance in a relatively early successional stage, where productivity is higher, under a multi-zoning scheme. In this framework, the importance of no-use areas for fisheries is based on several observations: (1 They preserve biological diversity at regional scale, at all levels—specific, habitat/seascape, and also genetic diversity and the structure of populations, allowing natural selection to operate. (2 They permit the natural variability of the system to be differentiated from the effects of regulation and to be integrated in appropriate sampling schemes as controls. (3 They maintain the natural size and age structure of the populations, hence maximizing potential fecundity, allowing biomass export to

  6. IDENTITIES AND CONCEPTIONS OF BORDER AREA POPULATIONS IN EAST-CENTRAL AND SOUTH-EAST EUROPE – THEMATIC ASPECTS AND QUESTIONS OF AN ACTUAL RESEARCH FIELD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilfried HELLER

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This article will be structured as follows: Firstly, it will be described what is to be understood by the term ‘identity’. After that, this article will explore the significance of the topic ‘identities of population’ regarding the political, social, economic and cultural developments in the border areas of East-Central and South-East Europe. Because identities are not essentially but constructed phenomena, the next chapter will deal with the role of conceptions of the border area populations for the building of identity. The then following remarks on categories of border areas shall suggest that a great variety of border areas needs to be considered if one is occupied with the subject of this article. From these explanations the article’s relation to application will be derived, and groups of questions as well as detailed questions will be developed.

  7. ENTREPRENEURIAL CONSULTING AND DEVELOPMENT FOR YOUTH WITHIN RURAL AREAS - A CASE STUDY FOR DEVELOPING NORTH EAST, CENTRAL AND SOUTH EAST REGIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marin BURCEA

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available We propose to show the connection between consulting and entrepreneurial approach, emphasizing the normality of including assistance within the entrepreneurs’ activity. The theoretical component deals with the elements that define the consulting activity in business and the specific approach to initiate and develop business by young rural entrepreneurs. The applicative component is represented by the presentation of the specific consulting needs for business initiating and development in the rural areas within developing regions of North East, Central and South East. The undertaken sociological research is representative for the study group and was held within the SOP HRD strategic project “Rural Manager”.

  8. The Ramsar Sites of Disko, West Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egevang, C.; Boertmann, D.

    The three Ramsar sites of Disko Island in West Greenland were surveyed for breeding and staging waterbirds in July 2001. Two of the areas (no. 1 and 2) held a high diversity of waterbirds and proved to be of international importance for the Greenland white-fronted goose, while the third (no. 3......) held very few waterbirds and hardly meet any of the specific waterbird criteria of the Ramsar convention...

  9. Ambulance Dispatches From Unaffected Areas After the Great East Japan Earthquake: Impact on Emergency Care in the Unaffected Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagihara, Akihito; Onozuka, Daisuke; Nagata, Takashi; Abe, Takeru; Hasegawa, Manabu; Nabeshima, Yoshihiro

    2015-12-01

    Although dispatching ambulance crews from unaffected areas to a disaster zone is inevitable when a major disaster occurs, the effect on emergency care in the unaffected areas has not been studied. We evaluated whether dispatching ambulance crews from unaffected prefectures to those damaged by the Great East Japan Earthquake was associated with reduced resuscitation outcomes in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) cases in the unaffected areas. We used the Box-Jenkins transfer function model to assess the relationship between ambulance crew dispatches and return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) before hospital arrival or 1-month survival after the cardiac event. In a model whose output was the rate of ROSC before hospital arrival, dispatching 1000 ambulance crews was associated with a 0.474% decrease in the rate of ROSC after the dispatch in the prefectures (p=0.023). In a model whose output was the rate of 1-month survival, dispatching 1000 ambulance crews was associated with a 0.502% decrease in the rate of 1-month survival after the dispatch in the prefectures (p=0.011). The dispatch of ambulances from unaffected prefectures to earthquake-stricken areas was associated with a subsequent decrease in the ROSC and 1-month survival rates in OHCA cases in the unaffected prefectures.

  10. Diurnal variation of surface ozone in mountainous areas: Case study of Mt. Huang, East China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Jin, Lianji; Zhao, Tianliang; Yin, Yan; Zhu, Bin; Shan, Yunpeng; Guo, Xiaomei; Tan, Chenghao; Gao, Jinhui; Wang, Haoliang

    2015-12-15

    To explore the variations in atmospheric environment over mountainous areas, measurements were made from an intensive field observation at the summit of Mt. Huang (30.13°N, 118.15°E, 1841m above sea level), a rural site located in East China, from June to August 2011. The measurements revealed a diurnal change of surface O3 with low concentrations during the daytime and high concentrations during the nighttime. The causes of diurnal O3 variations over the mountain peak in East China were investigated by using a fairly comprehensive WRF-Chem and HYSPLIT4 modeling approach with observational analysis. By varying model inputs and comparing the results to a baseline modeling and actual air quality observations, it is found that nearby ozone urban/anthropogenic emission sources were contributing to a nighttime increase in mountaintop ozone levels due to a regional transport lag and residual layer effects. Positive correlation of measured O3 and CO concentrations suggested that O3 was associated with anthropogenic emissions. Sensitivity modeling experiments indicated that local anthropogenic emissions had little impact on the diurnal pattern of O3. The diurnal pattern of O3 was mainly influenced by regional O3 transport from the surrounding urban areas located 100-150km away from the summit, with a lag time of 10h for transport.

  11. Chromosome Aberrations of East Asian Bullfrog (Hoplobatrachus rugulosus around a Gold Mine Area with Arsenic Contamination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atidtaya Suttichaiya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study are to investigate the chromosome aberrations of the East Asian Bullfrog (Hoplobatrachus rugulosus in the gold mine area compared to an unaffected area. Three H. rugulosus were collected, and chromosome aberrations were studied using bone marrow. The level of arsenic was measured in water, sediment and H. rugulosus samples. The average concentrations of arsenic in the water and sediment samples from the gold mine and unaffected areas were 0.03 ± 0.003 mg/l and not detected in water as well as 351.59 ± 5.73 and 1.37 ± 1.07 mg/kg in sediment, respectively. The gold mine values were higher than the permissible limit of the water and soil quality standards, but the arsenic concentrations in the samples from the unaffected area were within prescribed limit. The average concentrations of arsenic in H. rugulosus samples from the gold mine and unaffected areas were 0.39 ± 0.30 and 0.07 ± 0.01 mg/kg, respectively, which were both lower than the standard of arsenic contamination in food. The diploid chromosome number of H. rugulosus in both areas was 2n=26, and the percentage of chromosome breakages of H. rugulosus in the gold mine area were higher than the unaffected area. There were eight types of chromosome aberrations, including a single chromatid gap, isochromatid gap, single chromatid break, isochromatid break, centric fragmentation, deletion, fragmentation and translocation. The most common chromosome aberration in the samples from the affected area was deletion. The difference in the percentage of chromosome breakages in H. rugulosus from both areas was statistically significant (p<0.05.

  12. Local glaciers and the marginal sector of the Inland Ice with respect to utilization of hydropower in basins near urban areas. Location and ice cover. [Greenland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weidick, A.; Hoejmark Thomsen, H.

    1983-02-01

    A review is made of glaciers connected with a research programme for hydropower potential connected to Greenland towns. The inventory covers the basins with varying ice cover consisting of 257 local glaciers and 29 lobes from the Inland Ice. Location; exposition, size, altitude and description of type and morphology are given in tabular form for the individual glaciers. To ensure homogeneity and clearness, the descriptions are given in code, and the meaning of the individual values are listed. For each basin an outline of morphology and geology connected to the former and present glaciation is given and the source material (topographical, geological and glaciological maps, aerial photo routes) is listed. The general description of the basins also contains reviews of the character of the ice cover, occurrence of glacier hazards (avalanches, rockfalls, ice-dammed lakes) and documented glacier changes in the basins or in the neighbouring areas. Glaciation limit and snow line are only described within the restrictions of the available maps and aerial photos. An update review of measurements of mass balance is made. Such measurements are performed in four basins covered by the project (Taseq, Buksefjord, Qapiarfiup sermia and Jakobshavn) and in a regional context these measurements can be supplemented with mass measurements on four other glaciers namely Johan Dahl Land , Qamanarssup sermia and Tasersiaq. The optimal utilization of the present glaciological information is primarily restricted by the lack of detailed maps of the selected basins. Also the quality of a regional glaciological evaluation of glacier runoff in the individual basins is dependent on the length of time for which the mass balance measurements have been made in the selected areas. Measurements for glaciers in the basins will cover at the most three years at the end of the 1982/83 season.

  13. Popular music from Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Otte, Andreas Roed

    Popular music from Greenland – Globalization, nationalism and performance of place. This thesis is based on fieldwork done within the popular music scene in Greenland from 2008 to 2014. It engages with the question of how music and conceptions of the nation (Greenland) affect each other in social...... spaces, and analyses on how popular music can be used to construct senses of place and situate individuals within these places. The thesis is centered on four articles that engage with Greenlandic popular music from different perspectives. The first article looks at the historical development in inducing...... a sense of place in popular music. The second probes different strategies for co-branding popular music and Greenland. The third is concerned with music consumption patterns among Greenlandic youth. And the fourth article engages with an alternative form of nationalism found within the Nuuk underground...

  14. Hepatitis B prevalence and incidence in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Børresen, Malene Landbo; Andersson, Mikael; Wohlfahrt, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Greenland remains a highly endemic area for hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. This is in sharp contrast to other modern societies, such as Denmark. To address this discrepancy, we investigated the natural history of HBV infection in Greenland by estimating the age-specific incidence of HBV...... infection, the proportion of chronic carriers, and the rates of hepatitis B surface antigen seroclearance. In total, 8,879 Greenlanders (16% of the population) from population-based surveys conducted in 1987 and 1998 were followed through March 2010. Data on HBV status were supplemented by HBV test results...... from all available HBV registries in Greenland to determine changes in HBV status over time. Incidence rates of HBV infection and hepatitis B surface antigen seroclearance were estimated after taking into account interval censoring. The incidence of HBV infection in 5-14-year-old subjects was less than...

  15. Semen quality in Greenland

    OpenAIRE

    Toft, Gunnar; Pedersen, Henning Sloth; Bonde, Jens Peter; research team, INUENDO

    2004-01-01

    Objectives. To quantify semen quality in the Greenlandic population. Study design. A cross-sectional study including recently proven fertile men from four regions including nine municipalities and one settlement in Greenland. Methods. The samples were analysed for sperm cell concentrations and motility using standard methods. Results. In total 201 semen samples were collected. The median sperm cell concentration of fertile men in Greenland was 53 x106 sperm cells/ml, with a median sperm cell ...

  16. Glaciation and erosion of Eastern Greenland at the Eocene-Oligocene transition: Insights from low-temperature thermochronology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Thomas; Steer, Philippe; Gallagher, Kerry; Szulc, Adam; Whittam, Andrew

    2016-04-01

    Climate cooling through the Late Cenozoic was important in the evolution of glaciated mountain ranges. While the onset of accelerated Cenozoic exhumation is generally associated with the Quaternary at mid-latitudes, coincident with the local onset of glaciation, some high-latitude passive margins may have experienced earlier glaciation starting at 30-38 Ma or even 45 Ma. To address this issue, we use a set of new AFT data from 16 sub-vertical profiles sampled along the fjords of the central Eastern Greenland margin between 68° and 76° N, combined with new apatite (U-Th-Sm)/He (AHe) data from selected profiles. To infer thermal histories and exhumation from these profiles, we use the software QTQt. The modeling results show a major phase of exhumation in the East Greenland margin between 68° and 76° N starting at 30±5 Ma. The spatial distribution of the exhumation shows that normal faulting on East Greenland margin had no resolvable influence on exhumation related to the cooling phase. However, the timing is coincident with the dramatic worldwide fall of surface temperature at the Eocene-Oligocene transition. We therefore suggest that a transition from an Eocene fluvial to an Oligocene glacial-dominated landscape triggered a period of enhanced erosion. We infer from the thermal histories that around 2.7±1.9 km of erosion occurred close to the coast since the Eocene-Oligocene transition. This amount of erosion is consistent with the incision of the fjords and with the effective removal of 2.3±1.5 km of basalt thickness, deduced by the thermal modeling of a heating phase at 55±5 Ma. This phase of erosion is most strongly evidenced near the coast, suggesting either that continental ice extent was limited to the coastal areas or that erosion was less efficient outside these areas, leading to no obvious signal in thermochronometric data further north. Overall, this study provides the first onshore evidence of the onset of continental ice in East Greenland margin

  17. Evaluation of area of review variance opportunities for the East Texas field. Annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warner, D.L.; Koederitz, L.F.; Laudon, R.C.; Dunn-Norman, S.

    1995-05-01

    The East Texas oil field, discovered in 1930 and located principally in Gregg and Rusk Counties, is the largest oil field in the conterminous United States. Nearly 33,000 wells are known to have been drilled in the field. The field has been undergoing water injection for pressure maintenance since 1938. As of today, 104 Class II salt-water disposal wells, operated by the East Texas Salt Water Disposal Company, are returning all produced water to the Woodbine producing reservoir. About 69 of the presently existing wells have not been subjected to U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Area-of-Review (AOR) requirements. A study has been carried out of opportunities for variance from AORs for these existing wells and for new wells that will be constructed in the future. The study has been based upon a variance methodology developed at the University of Missouri-Rolla under sponsorship of the American Petroleum Institute and in coordination with the Ground Water Protection Council. The principal technical objective of the study was to determine if reservoir pressure in the Woodbine producing reservoir is sufficiently low so that flow of salt-water from the Woodbine into the Carrizo-Wilcox ground water aquifer is precluded. The study has shown that the Woodbine reservoir is currently underpressured relative to the Carrizo-Wilcox and will remain so over the next 20 years. This information provides a logical basis for a variance for the field from performing AORs.

  18. Greenland and Natural Resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyck, Lise

    Greenland policy can delay and maybe change the future of the forecasted development of the use of natural resources. This book is relevant for anyone interested in Greenland in general and the development of Greenland both politically and economically and in relation natural resources.......The Greenland development is a story about: Having a hinterland position in relation to the global development. An indigenous people achieving more political influence. How conflicts and discussions on power and ownership of the subsurface resources between a state and an autonomy (Home Rule) can...

  19. Performance assessment for the disposal of low-level waste in the 200 east area burial grounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, M.I., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-08-15

    A performance assessment analysis was completed for the 200 East Area Low-Level Burial Grounds (LLBG) to satisfy compliance requirements in DOE Order 5820.2A. In the analysis, scenarios of radionuclide release from the 200 East Area Low-Level waste facility was evaluated. The analysis focused on two primary scenarios leading to exposure. The first was inadvertent intrusion. In this scenario, it was assumed that institutional control of the site and knowledge of the disposal facility has been lost. Waste is subsequently exhumed and dose from exposure is received. The second scenario was groundwater contamination.In this scenario, radionuclides are leached from the waste by infiltrating precipitation and transported through the soil column to the underlying unconfined aquifer. The contaminated water is pumped from a well 100 m downstream and consumed,causing dose. Estimates of potential contamination of the surrounding environment were developed and the associated doses to the maximum exposed individual were calculated. The doses were compared with performance objective dose limits, found primarily in the DOE order 5850.2A. In the 200 East Area LLBG,it was shown that projected doses are estimated to be well below the limits because of the combination of environmental, waste inventory, and disposal facility characteristics of the 200 East Area LLBG. Waste acceptance criteria were also derived to ensure that disposal of future waste inventories in the 200 East Area LLBG will not cause an unacceptable increase in estimated dose.

  20. Uranium favorability of the San Rafael Swell area, east-central Utah

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mickle, D G; Jones, C A; Gallagher, G L; Young, P; Dubyk, W S

    1977-10-01

    The San Rafael Swell project area in east-central Utah is approximately 3,000 sq mi and includes the San Rafael Swell anticline and the northern part of the Waterpocket Fold monocline at Capitol Reef. Rocks in the area are predominantly sedimentary rocks of Pennsylvanian through Cretaceous age. Important deposits of uranium in the project area are restricted to two formations, the Chinle (Triassic) and Morrison (Jurassic) Formations. A third formation, the White Rim Sandstone (Permian), was also studied because of reported exploration activity. The White Rim Sandstone is considered generally unfavorable on the basis of lithologic characteristics, distance from a possible source of uranium, lack of apparent mineralization, and the scarcity of anomalies on gamma-ray logs or in rock, water, and stream-sediment samples. The lower Chinle from the Moss Back Member down to the base of the formation is favorable because it is a known producer. New areas for exploration are all subsurface. Both Salt Wash and Brushy Basin Members of the Morrison Formation are favorable. The Salt Wash Member is favorable because it is a known producer. The Brushy Basin Member is favorable as a low-grade resource.

  1. Diachronous retreat of the Greenland ice sheet during the last deglaciation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, G.; Carlson, A. E.; Mix, A. C.; Lecavalier, B. S.; Milne, G.; Mathias, A.; Buizert, C.; DeConto, R.

    2016-08-01

    The last deglaciation is the most recent interval of large-scale climate change that drove the Greenland ice sheet from continental shelf to within its present extent. Here, we use a database of 645 published 10Be ages from Greenland to document the spatial and temporal patterns of retreat of the Greenland ice sheet during the last deglaciation. Following initial retreat of its marine margins, most land-based deglaciation occurred in Greenland following the end of the Younger Dryas cold period (12.9-11.7 ka). However, deglaciation in east Greenland peaked significantly earlier (13.0-11.5 ka) than that in south Greenland (11.0-10 ka) or west Greenland (10.5-7.0 ka). The terrestrial deglaciation of east and south Greenland coincide with adjacent ocean warming. 14C ages and a recent ice-sheet model reconstruction do not capture this progression of terrestrial deglacial ages from east to west Greenland, showing deglaciation occurring later than observed in 10Be ages. This model-data misfit likely reflects the absence of realistic ice-ocean interactions. We suggest that oceanic changes may have played an important role in driving the spatial-temporal ice-retreat pattern evident in the 10Be data.

  2. Bathymetry of Greenland Fjords

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochran, J. R.; Boghosian, A.; Tinto, K. J.; Bell, R. E.; Porter, D. F.

    2013-12-01

    Operation IceBridge (OIB) has performed extensive airborne gravity surveys of Greenlandic fjords in order to model their bathymetry. Bathymetry inversions from gravity data provide a model of the fjord bathymetry in areas that are otherwise difficult to survey. We use these gravity surveys along with other OIB datasets to create bathymetry models for fjords surveyed by OIB from 2009-2012. These models allow us to estimate depths to the grounding line in areas with poor radar returns and sill depths and overdeepenings in the fjords. Models have been constructed by combining ice-surface and ice-thickness data from coincident OIB lidar and radar surveys. The inversion of gravity anomalies to bathymetry models is dependent on assumptions of both local and regional variations in geology. Local variations can often be identified with OIB magnetic anomalies. Regional geoid variations produce long-wavelength gravity anomalies that are part of the observed gravity, but not present in the forward modeled gravity over the known bed. This effect varies in magnitude around Greenland. In long fjords, removing the long-wavelength components of the observed anomalies reduces the uncertainties from regional geological variations. The average combined error for absolute model depths varies regionally between 50 m and 200 m. The error budget takes into account the measurement uncertainty of the gravity survey along with sensitivity of the model to regional gravity corrections and the point at which the model is pinned to known bed. Gravity inversions model bathymetry at ~5 km wavelengths, while bed topography onshore is known at a higher resolution from radar surveys. This change of length scale must be taken into account when using bathymetry models to consider grounding line morphology as well as when combining modeled bathymetry with offshore bathymetric data. Models can be improved by pinning to ship surveys of offshore bathymetry. Our dataset has incorporated available offshore

  3. Air quality management on the areas of North-East Estonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liblik, V.; Kundel, H.; Raetsep, A. [Estonian Academy of Sciences, Tallinn (Estonia). North-East Estonian Dept.

    1995-12-31

    Most biggest polluters of atmospheric air among Estonian enterprises are located in the north-eastern part of republic. Volatile gases, vapours and fly ash from thermal power plants, chemical and other industries form a considerable aerotechnogenic load upon landscapes and dwelling regions, reaching also the areas of Gulf of Finland, and even the neighbouring states. Complicated pollution situation needs serious attention and systematic air quality control, assessing, forecasting and management, which is now organized on local, regional and state levels. It is well-known that for studies of various pollution situations the atmospheric dispersion models will be used. This present article deals with the special imitation system for maintenance of information about polluters and air contamination state in North-East (NE) Estonia, also for estimation of pollutants spreading and overground concentration fields by computer-based modelling. The system consists of regional Data Banks, imitation model for calculation of pollutants dispersion, common and application programs. (author)

  4. Effect of elevation and latitude on spring phenology of Rhododendron at Kanchenjunga Conservation Area, East Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sailesh Ranjitkar

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Mountainous terrain in East corner of Nepal is good location for phenological studies. Spring phenology in Rhododendron arboreum Sm. was monitored around Ghunsa river valley in Kanchenjunga Conservation Area of Nepal. Observations were carried our following the crown density method; flowering events of the selected species were recorded in 15-days interval. Flowering activity including duration of flowering and synchrony were determined. In addition, expected difference in flower onset time in two consecutive monitoring plots was determined. Elevation, latitude and longitude were regressed against flower onset to determine effect of each variable on flower onset. Delay in flower onset with rise in elevation, North latitude and West longitude was found in the results of the regression. Full bloom phase was found highly synchronized throughout the elevation gradient with contraction of flowering duration. High synchrony also indicates that the reproductive timing might plastic enough to cope with short-term change in environment.

  5. Historical Tank Content Estimate for the Northwest Quandrant of the Hanford 200 East Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brevick, C.H.; Gaddis, L.A.; Pickett, W.W.

    1994-06-01

    Historical Tank Content Estimate of the Northeast Quadrant provides historical evaluations on a tank by tank basis of the radioactive mixed wastes stored in the underground single-shell tanks of the Hanford 200 East area. This report summaries historical information such at waste history, temperature, tank integrity, inventory estimates and tank level history on a tank by tank basis. Tank Farm aerial photos and in-tank photos of each tank are provided. A brief description of instrumentation methods used for waste tank surveillance, along with the components of the data management effort, such as waste status and Transaction Record Summary, Tank Layering Model, Defined Waste Types, and Inventory Estimates to generate these tank content estimates are also given in this report.

  6. Gravity-derived High-resolution Moho Model for Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffen, R.; Strykowski, G.; Lund, B.

    2016-12-01

    Obtaining knowledge of the depth of the crust-mantle boundary (Mohorovičić discontinuity, Moho) beneath Greenland is important for the understanding of ice mass losses as those estimates depend on earth model parameters. However, the ice sheet on Greenland impedes the access and installation of seismological stations as well as the gathering of reflection and refraction seismic data, making the use of the most common methods to determine the crust-mantle boundary difficult. However, the Moho depth can be estimated also from gravity data through an inversion procedure and such data can, on the contrary, be obtained not only through ground measurements, but also through airborne campaigns as well as from satellite missions. Here, we use the Parker-Oldenburg algorithm together with the most recent EIGEN-6C4 gravity model to estimate the crust-mantle boundary beneath Greenland and surroundings. The available gravity data are corrected for the topographic effect, the gravity effect of sediments and the gravity effect of the ice load induced deformation. The resulting Moho model for Greenland shows maximum depths below east Greenland of up to 55 km and and values less than 20 km offshore east Greenland. The northern part of Greenland has a shallower Moho of only 30 km compared to southern Greenland, indicating a change in the crustal structures and the presence of two different crustal blocks in Greenland. An uncertainty of ±2.5 km is determined for the final model, which has a spatial resolution of 0.1°. The results of the gravity inversion are consistent with previous Moho models determined by seismological and seismic data mainly, where those are available. The comparison to previously estimated models based on older gravity data and using different inversion algorithms shows only small differences.

  7. Puhimau thermal area: a window into the upper east rift zone of Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGee, K.A.; Sutton, A.J.; Elias, T.; Doukas, M.P.; Gerlach, T.M.

    2006-01-01

    We report the results of two soil CO2 efflux surveys by the closed chamber circulation method at the Puhimau thermal area in the upper East Rift Zone (ERZ) of Kilauea volcano, Hawaii. The surveys were undertaken in 1996 and 1998 to constrain how much CO2 might be reaching the ERZ after degassing beneath the summit caldera and whether the Puhimau thermal area might be a significant contributor to the overall CO2 budget of Kilauea. The area was revisited in 2001 to determine the effects of surface disturbance on efflux values by the collar emplacement technique utilized in the earlier surveys. Utilizing a cutoff value of 50 g m−2 d−1 for the surrounding forest background efflux, the CO2 emission rates for the anomaly at Puhimau thermal area were 27 t d−1 in 1996 and 17 t d−1 in 1998. Water vapor was removed before analysis in all cases in order to obtain CO2 values on a dry air basis and mitigate the effect of water vapor dilution on the measurements. It is clear that Puhimau thermal area is not a significant contributor to Kilauea's CO2 output and that most of Kilauea's CO2 (8500 t d−1) is degassed at the summit, leaving only magma with its remaining stored volatiles, such as SO2, for injection down the ERZ. Because of the low CO2 emission rate and the presence of a shallow water table in the upper ERZ that effectively scrubs SO2 and other acid gases, Puhimau thermal area currently does not appear to be generally well suited for observing temporal changes in degassing at Kilauea.

  8. Characteristics of Physician Outflow from Disaster Areas following the Great East Japan Earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Kazuo; Matsumoto, Masatoshi

    2017-01-01

    Objective The shortage of physicians after a major disaster is a crucial issue. We aimed to evaluate the characteristics of physicians who left affected areas following the accident at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant caused by the Great East Japan Earthquake on March 11, 2011. Methods Using data from a physician census conducted in 2010 (pre-disaster) and 2012 (post-disaster), we evaluated changes in the number of physicians in affected areas. We then calculated the odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals using a logistic regression model to evaluate the association between physician characteristics and outflow. We also conducted stratified analyses based on physician characteristics. Results The number of physicians decreased in Fukushima Prefecture (–5.3%) and increased in Miyagi Prefecture (2.8%). The decrease in Fukushima and increase in Miyagi were evident even after taking the prefecture’s population change into account (change in physician to population ratios: –1.9% and 3.2%, respectively). Compared with physicians who lived in areas >100 km from the nuclear power plant, physicians living 20–50 km and 50–100 km were, respectively, 3.9 times (95% confidence interval, 2.6–5.7) and 2.6 times (95% confidence interval, 1.7–3.8) more likely to migrate to distant areas. In the stratified analysis, younger physicians and those earlier in their careers had higher odds ratios for outflow than other physicians (P for interaction = 0.02 and <0.01, respectively). Conclusions The risk of outflow was greater among younger and early-career physicians in areas around the power plant. Political support may be necessary to recruit and retain such physicians, who will be responsible for future community health in the disaster area. PMID:28046089

  9. Evaluation of the use of common sculpin (Myoxocephalus scorpius) organ histology as bioindicator for element exposure in the fjord of the mining area Maarmorilik, West Greenland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sonne, Christian, E-mail: csh@dmu.dk [Aarhus University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Bioscience, Arctic Research Centre (ARC), Frederiksborgvej 399, P.O. Box 358, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Bach, Lis; Søndergaard, Jens; Rigét, Frank F.; Dietz, Rune; Mosbech, Anders [Aarhus University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Bioscience, Arctic Research Centre (ARC), Frederiksborgvej 399, P.O. Box 358, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Leifsson, Pall S. [University of Copenhagen, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, Department of Veterinary Disease Biology, Bülowsvej 17, DK-1870 Frederiksberg (Denmark); Gustavson, Kim [Aarhus University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Bioscience, Arctic Research Centre (ARC), Frederiksborgvej 399, P.O. Box 358, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark)

    2014-08-15

    The former Black Angel lead–zinc mine in Maarmorilik, West Greenland, is a historic example of how mining activity may result in a significant impact on the surrounding fjord system in terms of elevated concentrations of especially lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) in seawater, sediments and surrounding biota. In order to shed light on the present contamination and possible effects in the fjord we initiated a range of studies including a pilot study on gill and liver morphology of common sculpins (Myoxocephalus scorpius) around Maarmorilik. Sculpins were caught and sampled at five different stations known to represent a gradient of Pb concentrations. Fish livers from all specimens were analyzed for relevant elements in the area: Fe, Zn, As, Cu, Se, Cd, Pb, Ag, Hg, Co and Ni. Lead, As and Hg showed significant differences among the five stations. For 20% of the sculpins, Hg concentrations were in the range of lowest observed effect dose (LOED) of 0.1–0.5 μg/g ww for toxic threshold on reproduction and subclinical endpoints. Likewise LOEDs for tissue lesions, LOEDs for biochemistry, growth, survival and reproduction were exceeded for Cd (0.42–1.8 μg/g ww) and for As (11.6 μg/g ww) in 28% and 85% of the sculpins, respectively. Similar to this, the no observed effect dose (NOED) for biochemistry was exceeded for Pb (0.32 μg/g ww) and for growth, mortality and reproduction for Zn (60–68 μg/g ww) in 33% and 24% of the sculpins, respectively. For all sculpins, females were significantly larger than males and for five of the elements (Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Se) females had higher concentrations. The chronic lesions observed in liver (mononuclear cell infiltrates, necrosis, vacuolar hepatocytes, portal fibrosis, bile duct hyperplasia, active melanomacrophage centers) and gills (fusion and edema of secondary lamellae, laminar telangiectasis, mononuclear cell infiltrates, blebs) were similar to those in the literature studies for both wild and laboratory exposed sculpins and

  10. Geology and Stratigraphy of the East and West Firing Areas Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Site 300

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehman, K D

    2006-05-10

    The purpose of this project is to gain a better understanding of the stratigraphy and geologic structure of the East and West Firing Areas, at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Site 300 (Figure 1). This analysis is designed to help better delineate hydrostratigraphic units (HSUs) in order to enhance the understanding of the fate and transport of contaminants in the subsurface. Specific objectives of the investigation include: (1) Evaluation of the stratigraphic relationships between the units that contain tritium in ground water that originates from Pit 7 and the Building 850 area in the vicinity of Doall Ravine; (2) The correlation of these units across the Elk Ravine Fault Zone; and (3) The correlation of these units between the Building 865, Pit 1, Pit 2, and Building 812 areas. These issues were raised by regulators at the Regional Water Quality Control Board in the review of the Pit 7 RI/FS (Taffet and others, 2005). The results of this investigation will assist Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) hydrogeologists to conduct work in a more focused and cost-effective manner. This document is submitted to fulfill contract obligations for subcontract B539658.

  11. CHEMICAL AND MINERALOGICAL PROPERTIES OF ULTISOLS OF SASAMBA AREA, EAST KALIMANTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.H. Prasetyo

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Ultisols are a major group of marginal soils extensively found in the upland area of Indonesia. To better understand the potential of the Ultisols developed from claystone and sandstone in the Sasamba Integrated Economical Development Area in East Kalimantan, chemical and mineralogical characteristics of 27 Ultisols pedons consisting of 76 topsoil and 118 subsoil samples were investigated. Besides analysis and interpretation of data, relationships of several soil characteristics were constructed using simple regression. The results indicated that Ultisols showed acid to very acid reaction, had low content of organic matter and low base saturation. Soils generally exhibited net negative charge, and the point of zero charge was reached at pH 3.6. Both potential and available phosphates were low, and there was a trend that amorphous aluminum was responsible for phosphate fixation. The low content of exchangeable potassium in topsoil and subsoil indicated a positive correlation with potential potassium. Clay mineral was composed chiefly of kaolinite, with small amounts of illite, vermiculite, and quartz. The domination of kaolinite and low organic matter content causes the soils to have low cation exchange capacity. Soil management in this area should be focused on building up and maintaining soil fertility, and applying appropriate soil conservation techniques to minimize erosion. To obtain sustained productivity, various soil amendments including the use of farm and/or green manure, liming with agricultural lime, and application of rock phosphate and K fertilizers were highly recommended.

  12. Development of bearing capacity of fine grained permafrost deposits in western greenland urban areas subject to soil temperature changes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agergaard, Frederik Ancker; Ingeman-Nielsen, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    by 2-3 °C during the 21st century. This paper presents a relation between undrained shear strength and temperature based on a series triaxial tests of fine-grained permafrost in the interval from -3 °C to -1 °C. Moderately ice-rich permafrost and excess ice free refrozen active-layer were retrieved...... with increasing temperature. Both excess ice free and moderately ice-rich samples show a strength decrease of 21 %/°C from -3 °C to -1 °C. Other authors’ data suggest the same trend for moderately ice-rich samples, whereas it is suggested that further studies are conducted to validate the trend for excess ice....... The established trends could provide a valuable tool for foundation design in fine-grained permafrost areas....

  13. West Greenlandic Eskimo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trondhjem, Naja Blytmann; Fortescue, Michael David

    the principal economic activity. Research projects and language initiatives currently in progress within Greenland will be touched upon, as will the possibilities of communication with North American Inuit. West Greenlandic is unique among the native languages of the North American Arctic and Sub...

  14. Health expectancy in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iburg, K M; Brønnum-Hansen, Henrik; Bjerregaard, P

    2001-01-01

    Mortality and disease patterns in Greenland have greatly changed since the 1950s. Infectious diseases have decreased markedly; chronic diseases, suicides and violent deaths have increased.......Mortality and disease patterns in Greenland have greatly changed since the 1950s. Infectious diseases have decreased markedly; chronic diseases, suicides and violent deaths have increased....

  15. Inuit health in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, P; Curtis, T; Borch-Johnsen, K

    2003-01-01

    During 1997-2001 a population survey was carried out amongst Greenland Inuit living in Denmark and West Greenland (Nuuk, Sisimiut, Qasigiannguit and four villages in Uummannaq municipality). Data collection comprised an interview, a questionnaire, clinical examinations and sampling of biological ...

  16. Shrub expansion in SW Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Rasmus Halfdan

    to increasing shrub cover. Despite this, there is only limited experimental evidence that growth of the species responds to warming. Plant populations in fragmented and isolated locations could face problems adapting to a warming climate due to limited genetic variation and restricted migration from southern...... of firewood collection. A delayed reaction to the ending of the little ice age cannot be excluded, but seems rather unlikely considering other studies from Greenland. Effects of global warming in SW Greenland must be studied over even longer time periods than the 120 years of the current study. To answer......Arctic regions have experienced higher temperatures in recent decades, and the warming trend is projected to continue in the coming years. Arctic ecosystems are considered to be particularly vulnerable to climate change. Expansion of shrubs has been observed widely in tundra areas across the Arctic...

  17. Studying health in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Peter; Mulvad, Gert; Olsen, Jørn

    2003-01-01

    Health research in Greenland has contributed with several findings of interest for the global scientific community and has documented health problems and risk factors of importance for planning the local health care system. The study of how health develops in small, scattered communities during...... to that of the industrialized world, while still including local outbreaks of tuberculosis. Health research in Greenland is logistically difficult and costly, but offers opportunities not found elsewhere in the world. A long tradition of registration enhances the possibilities for research. A number of research institutions...... in Denmark and Greenland have conducted health research in Greenland for many years in cooperation with, among others, researchers in Canada and Alaska. National and international cooperation is supported by the Danish/Greenlandic Society for Circumpolar Health, the International Union for Circumpolar Health...

  18. A Coupled Ocean-Iceberg Model Over The 20th Century: Iceberg Flux At 48°N As A Proxy For Greenland Iceberg Discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigg, G. R.; Wilton, D.; Hanna, E.

    2013-12-01

    Grant R. Bigg1 , David J. Wilton1 and Edward Hanna1 1Department of Geography, The University of Sheffield, Sheffield, S10 2TN We have used a coupled ocean-iceberg model, the Fine Resolution Greenland and Labrador ocean model [1], to study the variation in, and trajectory of, icebergs over the twentieth century, focusing particularly on Greenland and surrounding areas. The model is forced with daily heat, freshwater and wind fluxes derived from the Twentieth Century Reanalysis Project [2]. We use the observed iceberg flux at 48°N off Newfoundland (I48N) from 1900 to 2008 [3] to assess the iceberg component of the model. Model I48N is calculated with both a variable and constant annual calving rate. The results show that ocean and atmosphere changes alone do not account for the variation in observed I48N and suggests that this series can be used as a proxy for iceberg discharge from west Greenland tidewater glaciers. The implication of this proxy is that there is significant interannual variability in Greenland iceberg discharge over the whole twentieth century. Our model results suggest that in the early decades of the twentieth century I48N was dominated by icebergs originating from south Greenland (below latitude 65°N) with west Greenland becoming the main source of I48N from the late 1930s onwards. Modeled icebergs from the east of Greenland very rarely reach 48°N. We also present results from the ocean model showing the variation of ocean transport fluxes over the course of the twentieth and early twenty first century. References 1. M. R. Wadley, and G. R. Bigg, (2002), Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc., 128, 2187-2203 2. G. P. Compo, et al. (2011), Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc., 137, 1-28 3. D. L. Murphy (2011) http://www.navcen.uscg.gov/?pageName=IIPIcebergCounts

  19. Rapid population increase in an introduced muskox population, West Greenland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carsten Riis Olesen

    1993-10-01

    Full Text Available In 1962 and 1965, 27 (13 and 14 muskox yearlings were translocated from East Greenland (71°N to the Angujaartorfiup Nunaa range in West Greenland (67°N. Angujaartorfiup Nunaa is a 6600 km2 icefree, continental area where caribou are indigenous. The climate is strictly continental with a minimum of precipitation but with abundant vegetation. Aerial surveys in 1990 documented that the muskox population has increased to 2600 heads despite quota-based harvesting since 1988. The annual quota was 200, 300 and 400 for 1988, 1989 and 1990, respectively. Distribution of muskoxen shows a significant preference for low altitude habitats southeast of Kangerlussuaq Airport and around Arnangarnup Qoorua (Paradise valley. Annual population increment averages 30% and the calf crop is around 24% of the population. Yearling recruitment in the population reveals that calf mortality during winter is very limited. About half of the 1-year-old females are served and they eventually give birth to their first calf when they turn 2 years old. With half of the 2-year-old females reproducing, the calf/cow ration ranges between 0.9 and 1.0.

  20. The study of ore minerals parageneses in Ponorogo area, East Java

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiwik Dyah Hastuti Endang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was undertaken in the Southern Mountain Range of East Jawa, Ponorogo District. Tectonically, the region extends along the Magmatic Sunda-Banda Arc, which comprises predominantly volcanic rocks of Mandalika Formation, sedimentary rock units of Arjosari Formation, and intrusive sequences such as dacite, andesite and diorite. Structurally, the region is controlled by faults striking NE-SW, NW-SE and N-S. Mandalika Formation and Arjosari Formation have an interfingering relation and are Oligo-Miocene. Results of the field observation and analyses of petrography and mineragraphy on outcrops reveal that the region has commonly undergone alteration and mineralisation. The principle ore minerals occurring in the Ponorogo area are pyrite and sphalerite with abundant mineral assemblages of chalcopyrite, magnetite, hematite, galena, covelite, bornite, and limonite. Mineralisation occurs in argillic zone and subprophyllitic zone. Based on textures, structures and ore mineral assemblages, mineralisation in the study area can be devided at least into two stages. The earlier stage was present in relation to hypogene processes, and resulted in pyrite–sphalerite–chalcopyrite–magnetite– galena. The subsequent stage took place due to supergene enrichment processes, and yielded pyrite– sphalerite–covelite–bournite–limonite. Such mineral assemblages suggest that they are formed at temperatures of about 100–360° C.

  1. Regional scale hydrodynamic modelling of offshore wind farm development areas off the east coast of Scotland

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hara Murray, Rory; Gallego, Alejandro

    2013-04-01

    There is considerable interest in Scotland, supported by the Scottish Government, in the expansion of renewable energy production. In particular, significant offshore wind energy developments are already planned in coastal waters to the east of the Forth and Tay estuaries. It is important to understand the local and cumulative environmental impact of such developments within this region, to aid licensing decisions but also to inform marine spatial planning in general. Substantial wind farm developments may affect physical processes within the region, such as tidal-, wind-, and wave-driven circulation, as well as coastal sediment transport and more complex estuarine dynamics. Such physical impacts could have ecological and, ultimately, socio-economic consequences. The Firth of Forth and Tay areas both exhibit complex estuarine characteristics due to fresh water input, complex bathymetry and coastline, and tidal mixing. Our goal is to construct an unstructured grid hydrodynamic model of the wider Firth of Forth and Tay region using the Finite-Volume Coastal Ocean Model (FVCOM), resolving the complex estuarine hydrography of the area and representing offshore wind developments. Hydrodynamic modelling will provide an accurate baseline of the hydrography in this region but also allow the assessment of the effect on the physical environment of multiple wind farm development scenarios.

  2. Characterizing gas shaly sandstone reservoirs using the magnetic resonance technology in the Anaco area, East Venezuela

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fam, Maged; August, Howard [Halliburton, Houston, TX (United States); Zambrano, Carlos; Rivero, Fidel [PDVSA Gas (Venezuela)

    2008-07-01

    With demand for natural gas on the rise every day, accounting for and booking every cubic foot of gas is becoming very important to operators exploiting natural gas reservoirs. The initial estimates of gas reserves are usually established through the use of petrophysical parameters normally based on wireline and/or LWD logs. Conventional logs, such as gamma ray, density, neutron, resistivity and sonic, are traditionally used to calculate these parameters. Sometimes, however, the use of such conventional logs may not be enough to provide a high degree of accuracy in determining these petrophysical parameters, which are critical to reserve estimates. Insufficient accuracy can be due to high complexities in the rock properties and/or a formation fluid distribution within the reservoir layers that is very difficult to characterize with conventional logs alone. The high degree of heterogeneity in the shaly sandstone rock properties of the Anaco area, East Venezuela, can be characterized by clean, high porosity, high permeability sands to very shaly, highly laminated, and low porosity rock. This wide variation in the reservoir properties may pose difficulties in identifying gas bearing zones which may affect the final gas reserves estimates in the area. The application of the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) logging technology in the area, combined with the application of its latest acquisition and interpretation methods, has proven to be very adequate in detecting and quantifying gas zones as well as providing more realistic petrophysical parameters for better reserve estimates. This article demonstrates the effectiveness of applying the MRI logging technology to obtain improved petrophysical parameters that will help better characterize the shaly-sands of Anaco area gas reservoirs. This article also demonstrates the value of MRI in determining fluid types, including distinguishing between bound water and free water, as well as differentiating between gas and liquid

  3. Uncovering the genetic history of the present-day greenlandic population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moltke, Ida; Fumagalli, Matteo; Korneliussen, Thorfinn Sand;

    2015-01-01

    ∼200,000 SNPs from more than 10% of the adult Greenlandic population (n = 4,674). We found that recent gene flow from Europe has had a substantial impact on the population: more than 80% of the Greenlanders have some European ancestry (on average ∼25% of their genome). However, we also found...... between the Norse Vikings who lived in Greenland for a limited period ∼600-1,000 years ago and the Inuit, we found no evidence supporting this hypothesis. Similarly, we found no evidence supporting a previously hypothesized admixture event between the Inuit in East Greenland and the Dorset people, who...

  4. Netting and conventional tagging used to study movements of ringed seals (Phoca hispida in Greenland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Finn O Kapel

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Seven studies of netting and tagging of ringed seals (Phoca hispida in Greenland 1976-1997 are described. The areas of operation were: northern part of the Upernavik area (Northwest Greenland, Kong Oscars Fjord (Northeast Greenland, and Avanersuaq (Thule, North Greenland. Altogether, 135 seals were caught, of which 99 were tagged and released with Dalton Jumbo rototags. Recapture of 38 tagged seals has been reported to date. The recaptures demonstrate movements of ringed seals in Greenland of more than 100km within districts, as well as long-distance movementsof more than 1000km from the site of release.

  5. Errors in generating time-series and in dating events at late quaternary millenial (radiocarbon) time-scales: Examples from Baffin Bay, NW Labrador Sea, and East Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, John T.; Barber, Donald C.; Jennings, Anne E.

    A crucial question to understand the climate system at millennial time-scales is whether we can detect leads and lags. We examine errors on downcore age data sets resulting from the application of two depth/radiocarbon age models: 1) interpolation between dates, versus 2) ordinary least squares (OLS) regression. In areas affected by changes in sediment accumulation rates, interpolation between dates on facies boundaries would seem most appropriate, whereas in areas of constant sedimentation OLS regression would seem appropriate. We estimated the ages of 50 and 21 data points respectively, from cores HU87033-009 and HU93030-007 (both with rates of sediment accumulation ca. 30-40 cm/ky) using the two age models. Both cores show intervals of increased sediment accumulation associated with iceberg rafting events possibly coeval with H-1, -2 and -3(?). The two age models produced average age differences of 0.88 ky in HU87033-009 and 0.48 ky in HU93030-007. Monte Carlo simulation experiments indicated that the interpolation method consistently resulted in the larger errors. We then examine the age distribution for the basal ages of two detrital carbonate (DC) "events" in Baffin Bay and the NW Labrador Sea, including H-1, and show that errors on dating the onset of these events are considerable (˜± 300 yrs). We conclude that, when dealing with the generation of millennial time-series and correlation of abrupt events, more attention needs to be given to appropriate age/depth models and attendant errors. This analysis does not take into account the calibration of the radiocarbon time-scale nor bioturbation, both of which can introduce additional errors.

  6. Knowledge of Hazards of Self-Medication among Secondary School Students in Ethiopia East Local Government Area of Delta State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyeke, Patrick; Dafe, Onoharigho Festus

    2016-01-01

    This study is set out to ascertain the knowledge of hazards of self-medication among Secondary School Students. The descriptive Survey design was adopted for the work. The population of the study is 9,500 students in the public Secondary Schools, in Ethiope East Local Government Area of Delta State. The sample is 300 students randomly selected…

  7. A comparative life cycle analysis of low power PV lighting products for rural areas in South East Asia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Durlinger, Bart; Durlinger, B.P.J.; Reinders, Angelina H.M.E.; Toxopeus, Marten E.

    2012-01-01

    This paper evaluates the environmental effects of low power PV lighting products, which are increasingly used in rural areas in South East Asia, by means of a life cycle analysis (LCA). The main goals of the project are to determine (1) the environmental impacts, (2) which parts are contributing to

  8. A comparative life cycle analysis of low power PV lighting products for rural areas in South East Asia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Durlinger, B.P.J.; Reinders, A.H.M.E.; Toxopeus, M.E.

    2012-01-01

    This paper evaluates the environmental effects of low power PV lighting products, which are increasingly used in rural areas in South East Asia, by means of a life cycle analysis (LCA). The main goals of the project are to determine (1) the environmental impacts, (2) which parts are contributing to

  9. Heavy Metals Concentration Levels in Soils throughout the East San Francisco Bay Area, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagan, K.; Ramirez, N.; Diaz, J.; Cuff, K.; Adarkwah, N.

    2008-12-01

    Previous studies have shown that soils near structures made of pressure treated wood created before 2003 often contain high levels of arsenic, which was widely used in the processing of such wood. One such study, conducted by student scientists affiliated with the SF ROCKS program at San Francisco State University, found high levels of arsenic in soils collected from several children's play areas in San Francisco (Negrete, et al., 2006). Due to the known health risks associated with high concentrations of arsenic, and given a general lack of data related to soils of the East San Francisco Bay Area, the current study was initiated to determine whether or not dangerously high levels of arsenic exist in soils near public schools and playgrounds located in Richmond and Oakland, California. Soil samples were collected from approximately 100 locations in and around such areas, and analyzed for arsenic and a variety of other heavy metals concentration levels using an ICP spectrometer. Preliminary results demonstrate arsenic levels that exceed the EPA's 0.4 ppm action limit in 27 of the 100 sites from which samples were collected. Also, strong correlations between arsenic and various metals in the soil were found, such as arsenic with chromium (0.7022) and nickel (0.6588). Additionally, dangerously high levels of arsenic and lead were found in soils collected along the shores of a small lake fed by Leona Creek on the campus of Mills College in the Oakland foothills, approximately 2 kilometers downstream from a former iron sulphide mine. This occurrence constitutes evidence that the owner of the mine has not complied with recent orders from a local regulatory agency to make sure that mine effluents are safe.

  10. The Beam Profile Monitoring System for the IRRAD Proton Facility at the CERN PS East Area

    CERN Document Server

    Gkotse, Blerina; Matli, Emanuele; Ravotti, Federico; Gan, Kock Kiam; Kagan, Harris; Smith, Shane; Warner, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    In High Energy Physics (HEP) experiments, devices are frequently required to withstand a certain radiation level. As a result, detectors and electronics must be irradiated to determine their level of radiation tolerance. To perform these irradiations, CERN built a new irradiation facility in the East Area at the Proton Synchrotron (PS) accelerator. At this facility, named IRRAD, a high-intensity 24 GeV/c proton beam is used. During irradiation, it is necessary to monitor the intensity and the transverse profile of the proton beam. The Beam Profile Monitor (BPM) for IRRAD uses 39-channel pixel detectors to monitor the beam position. These pixel detectors are constructed using thin foil copper pads positioned on a flex circuit. When protons pass through the copper pads, they induce a measurable current. To measure this current and determine the total flux of protons passing through the thin foil copper detectors, a new data acquisition system was designed as well as a new database and on-line display system. In...

  11. Interpretation and modeling of a subsurface injection test, 200 East Area, Hanford, Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smoot, J.L. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Lu, A.H. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

    1994-11-01

    A tracer experiment was conducted in 1980 and 1981 in the unsaturated zone in the southeast portion of the Hanford 200 East Area near the Plutonium-Uranium Extraction (PUREX) facility. The field design consisted of a central injection well with 32 monitoring wells within an 8-m radius. Water containing radioactive and other tracers was injected weekly during the experiment. The unique features of the experiment were the documented control of the inputs, the experiment`s three-dimensional nature, the in-situ measurement of radioactive tracers, and the use of multiple injections. The spacing of the test wells provided reasonable lag distribution for spatial correlation analysis. Preliminary analyses indicated spatial correlation on the order of 400 to 500 cm in the vertical direction. Previous researchers found that two-dimensional axisymmetric modeling of moisture content generally underpredicts lateral spreading and overpredicts vertical movement of the injected water. Incorporation of anisotropic hydraulic properties resulted in the best model predictions. Three-dimensional modeling incorporated the geologic heterogeneity of discontinuous layers and lenses of sediment apparent in the site geology. Model results were compared statistically with measured experimental data and indicate reasonably good agreement with vertical and lateral field moisture distributions.

  12. Monitoring waste metal pollution at Ganga estuary via the East Calcutta Wetland areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Soumya; Chattopadhyay, Buddhadeb; Mukhopadhyay, S K

    2010-11-01

    East Calcutta Wetlands, a Ramsar site, receives a huge amount of the city's composite industrial effluent (∼600 million liters per day) throughout the year. The waste-element-contaminated water flows down through a major storm water flow (SWF) canal into the wetland for nearly 40 km farther eastward and is finally discharged into Kultigong river that flows through the eastern limit of the wetland and that in turn unites with river Ganga. Elemental load in water and bottom sediment at selected sites of the SWF canal was assessed by proton-induced X-ray emission and atomic absorption spectroscopy techniques. Gradual decrease in concentration levels of elements was observed in both water and bottom sediments of SWF canal up to its site of confluence at Kultigong, indicating natural remediation processes taking place along the canal up to the confluence at Ganga estuary. Any further conversion of this wetland area should be prevented to get the benefit from this no-cost natural cleanup process in connection to pollution prevention.

  13. Segregation analysis of hepatocellular carcinoma in a moderately high-incidence area of East China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ru-Lin Cai; Wei Meng; Hong-Yan Lu; Wen-Yao Lin; Feng Jiang; Fu-Min Shen

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To explore the mode of inheritance of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in a moderately high-incidence area of East China.METHODS: A pedigree survey was conducted in 210 families (3315 individuals) ascertained through 210 HCC probands in Haimen, Jiangsu Province. Simple segregation analysis was conducted using SEGRANB software. The probability of ascertainment (π), segregation ratio (p), and the proportion of sporadic cases (x) were estimated. Complex segregation analysis was performed using the REGTL program of S.A.G.E.Models were fitted on the data of 3212 individuals that allowed for personal HBsAg status and variable age of onset in REGTL program.RESULTS: The estimate of segregation ratio was 0.191 by SEGRANB. The probability of ascertainment was 0.0266, and the proportion of sporadic cases was 0.465. The results of complex segregation analysis showed that Mendelian autosomal recessive inheritance of a major gene that influenced the age of onset distribution of HCC, provided the best fit to the data. In the best-fitting recessive model,the frequency of the disease allele was 0.11138. HBsAg seropositive status would significantly increase the risk of developing HCC.CONCLUSION: These results suggest that at least one major gene is involved in the genetic predisposition to develop HCC at an earlier age of onset. The seropositive HBsAg status can significantly increase the risk of developing HCC, which provides strong support for the interaction between genetic and environmental risk factors.

  14. Physiological and Molecular Characteristics of Bacterial Isolates from Bandealit Coastal Area Jember, East Java, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DINA FITRIYAH

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Bacteria are the most dominant group of microorganisms in aquatic environments due to their role in organic matter decomposition. Decomposition activity is related to the type and dominance of bacteria in the communities. Therefore, study of bacterial diversity is an important step to understand their role in aquatic ecosystems. This study was to determine bacterial diversity and their physiological characters of bacteria from Bandealit Coast in Jember East Java Indonesia. The bacteria were confirmed by BOX-PCR profile for their genetic polymorphisms. Identification of potential isolate was conducted based on 16S rRNA gene sequence. The result showed that BA011109 isolate was able to utilize D-cellobiose as a sole substrate, indicating its ability to hydrolyse -glucoside bond. This isolate was a potential decomposer in the area considering that most of organic pollutants were from plants that cointain high cellulose. Based on its 16S rRNA gene sequence, this isolate was closely related to Microbacterium esteraromaticum with 100% homology. Further study on quantitative hydrolytic activities is needed to elucidate its role as an organic matter decomposer in aquatic environment.

  15. The geology and chronology of the Acheulean deposits in the Mieso area (East-Central Ethiopia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benito-Calvo, Alfonso; Barfod, Dan N; McHenry, Lindsay J; de la Torre, Ignacio

    2014-11-01

    This paper presents the Quaternary sequence of the Mieso area of Central-East Ethiopia, located in the piedmont between the SE Ethiopian Escarpment and the Main Ethiopian Rift-Afar Rift transition sector.In this region, a piedmont alluvial plain is terraced at þ25 m above the two main fluvial courses, the Mieso and Yabdo Rivers. The piedmont sedimentary sequence is divided into three stratigraphic units separated by unconformities. Mieso Units I and II contain late Acheulean assemblages and a weakly consolidated alluvial sequence, consisting mainly of fine sediments with buried soils and, to a lesser degree, conglomerates. Palaeo-wetland areas were common in the alluvial plain, represented by patches of tufas, stromatolites and clays. At present, the piedmont alluvial surface is preserved mainly on a dark brown soil formed at the top of Unit II. Unit III corresponds to a fluvial deposit overlying Unit II, and is defined by sands, silty clays and gravels, including several Later Stone Age (LSA) occurrences. Three fine-grained tephra levels are interbedded in Unit I (tuffs TBI and TA) and II (tuff CB), and are usually spatially-constrained and reworked. Argon/argon (40Ar/39Ar) dating from tuff TA, an ash deposit preserved in a palustrine environment, yielded an age of 0.212 ± 0.016 Ma (millions of years ago). This date places thetop of Unit I in the late Middle Pleistocene, with Acheulean sites below and above tuff TA. Regional correlations tentatively place the base of Unit I around the Early-Middle Pleistocene boundary, Unit II inthe late Middle Pleistocene and within the Late Pleistocene, and the LSA occurrences of Unit III in the LatePleistoceneeHolocene.

  16. Ende Diabetes Study: diabetes and its characteristics in rural area of East Nusa Tenggara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarwono Waspadji

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: There are only few studies about diabetes in rural area in Indonesia. Epidemiological study are needed to formulate health policy of disease management in specific area. The aim of this study was to find the prevalence of diabetes and knowledge of diabetes among the community in Nangapanda Village, Ende District, East Nusa Tenggara.Methods: A cross-sectional study “Ende Diabetes Study” was conducted in Nangapanda Village. This study use cluster random sampling method to a total number of 19756 residents in Nangapanda village. From the sampling frame of 1800 adult subjects who underwent screening with glucometer in 2008 and 2009, 125 subjects have been diagnosed as diabetes or impaired fasting glucose (IFG. All of the subjects who were diagnosed as diabetes or IFG from the previous screening and 218 subjects from control (normal subjects in the 2008 and 2009 screening were included in the present study. Each subject underwent general anamnesis, nutritional interview, complete physical examinations, and laboratory test (blood and urine. The data were analyzed using SPSS 13.0.Ressult: There were 343 subjects in this study. The prevalence of diabetes in Nangapanda using blood glucose criteria (using fasting and post-glucose load values was 2%; using post glucose load criteria, the prevalence of DM was 1.56%; while with HbA1c criteria, the prevalence was 2.83%. The prevalence of impaired glucose tolerance (IGT was 2.2%, and IFG was 6.2%. A number of 71.1% Nangapanda residents have sufficient knowledge about diabetes.Conclusion: Prevalence of diabetes in Nangapanda (using fasting and post-glucose load criteria was 2% and 1.56% (using post-glucose load values. As much as 71.1% of Nangapanda residents have sufficient knowledge about diabetes. (Med J Indones. 2013;22:30-8Keywords: Diabetes mellitus, Ende Diabetes Study, prevalence, rural Indonesia

  17. Isotopes in Greenland Precipitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faber, Anne-Katrine

    the Arctic Ocean. A comprehensive database is created based on ice core and weather station data from Greenland within the period 1890-2014. Present day annual and seasonal mean values are computed for 326 locations in Greenland. Parameterization of the spatial distribution of temperature and δ18O are used...... of model and data can be used to improve the understanding of climate changes. This is done through analysis of isotope modelling, observations and ice core measurements. This dissertation comprises three projects: (1) Modelling the isotopic response to changes in Arctic sea surface conditions, (2......) Constructing a new Greenland database of observations and present-day ice core measurements, and (3) Performance test of isotope-enabled CAM5 for Greenland. The recent decades of rapid Arctic sea ice decline are used as a basis for an observational-based model experiment using the isotope-enabled CAM model 3...

  18. Child health in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niclasen, Birgit V L; Bjerregaard, Peter

    2007-01-01

    importance to the health of children in Greenland. More accurate data on child health are necessary in the future to secure better prioritization. It is suggested to construct a set of reliable indicators of child health in Greenland to monitor the health of children on a national and regional basis....... were sorted by topic, type, quality of study, and relevance for child health today, providing 47 articles. RESULTS: Children in Greenland have become taller and have improved their general health. The morbidity found in Greenlandic children is similar to that found elsewhere even though the magnitude....... Overweight and obesity have tripled in 20 years and are a health threat as well as constituting negative health behaviour. Social ill health, socioeconomic inequity, and sociocultural changes also influence health but their consequences are not well investigated in children. CONCLUSIONS: A relatively high...

  19. Isotopes in Greenland Precipitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faber, Anne-Katrine

    Greenland ice cores offer a unique opportunity to investigate the climate system behaviour. The objective of this PhD project is to investigate isotope modelling of present- day conditions and conduct model-data comparison using Greenland ice cores. Thus this thesis investigates how the integration...... of model and data can be used to improve the understanding of climate changes. This is done through analysis of isotope modelling, observations and ice core measurements. This dissertation comprises three projects: (1) Modelling the isotopic response to changes in Arctic sea surface conditions, (2......) Constructing a new Greenland database of observations and present-day ice core measurements, and (3) Performance test of isotope-enabled CAM5 for Greenland. The recent decades of rapid Arctic sea ice decline are used as a basis for an observational-based model experiment using the isotope-enabled CAM model 3...

  20. Greenland climate change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Masson-Delmotte, Valerie; Swingedouw, D.; Landais, A.

    2012-01-01

    Climate archives available from deep-sea and marine shelf sediments, glaciers, lakes and ice cores in and around Greenland allow us to place the current trends in regional climate, ice sheet dynamics, and land surface changes in a broader perspective. We show that during the last decade (2000s...... regional climate and ice sheet dynamics. The magnitude and rate of future changes in Greenland temperature, in response to increasing greenhouse gas emissions, may be faster than any past abrupt events occurring under interglacial conditions. Projections indicate that within one century Greenland may......), atmospheric and sea-surface temperatures are reaching levels last encountered millennia ago when northern high latitude summer insolation was higher due to a different orbital configuration. Concurrently, records from lake sediments in southern Greenland document major environmental and climatic conditions...

  1. Modelling snow accumulation on Greenland in Eemian, glacial inception, and modern climates in a GCM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. J. Punge

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Changing climate conditions on Greenland influence the snow accumulation rate and surface mass balance (SMB on the ice sheet and, ultimately, its shape. This can in turn affect local climate via orography and albedo variations and, potentially, remote areas via changes in ocean circulation triggered by melt water or calving from the ice sheet. Examining these interactions in the IPSL global model requires improving the representation of snow at the ice sheet surface. In this paper, we present a new snow scheme implemented in LMDZ, the atmospheric component of the IPSL coupled model. We analyse surface climate and SMB on the Greenland ice sheet under insolation and oceanic boundary conditions for modern, but also for two different past climates, the last glacial inception (115 kyr BP and the Eemian (126 kyr BP. While being limited by the low resolution of the general circulation model (GCM, present-day SMB is on the same order of magnitude as recent regional model findings. It is affected by a moist bias of the GCM in Western Greenland and a dry bias in the north-east. Under Eemian conditions, the SMB decreases largely, and melting affects areas in which the ice sheet surface is today at high altitude, including recent ice core drilling sites as NEEM. In contrast, glacial inception conditions lead to a higher mass balance overall due to the reduced melting in the colder summer climate. Compared to the widely applied positive degree-day (PDD parameterization of SMB, our direct modelling results suggest a weaker sensitivity of SMB to changing climatic forcing. For the Eemian climate, our model simulations using interannually varying monthly mean forcings for the ocean surface temperature and sea ice cover lead to significantly higher SMB in southern Greenland compared to simulations forced with climatological monthly means.

  2. The Greenland shark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Costantini, David; Smith, Shona; Killen, Shaun S.;

    2017-01-01

    the oxidative status of the Greenland shark (Somniosus microcephalus), which has recently been found as the longest living vertebrate animal known to science with a lifespan of at least 272years. As compared to other species, the Greenland shark had body mass-corrected values of muscle glutathione peroxidase...... that the values of metrics of oxidative status we measured might be linked to ecological features (e.g., adaptation to cold waters and deep dives) of this shark species rather to its lifespan....

  3. The Greenland Ramsar Sites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egevang, C.; Boertmann, D.

    The eleven Ramsar sites in Greenland are reviewed in terms of their status as habitats for waterbirds and other fauna. Management and monitoring is proposed, as well as revisions of their boundaries. A number of potential new Ramsar sites are described......The eleven Ramsar sites in Greenland are reviewed in terms of their status as habitats for waterbirds and other fauna. Management and monitoring is proposed, as well as revisions of their boundaries. A number of potential new Ramsar sites are described...

  4. Walruses in West Greenland: Where do they belong?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Born, E. W.; Andersen, L. W.; Dietz, R.

    identity of walruses in CWG remains undetermined. Genetic studies indicate that CWG-walruses have only little exchange with walruses in Northwest and East Greenland. However, a comparison between walruses from Hudson Strait (HS) in Canada) and CWG indicated a source (HS)-sink (CWG) relationship between...

  5. Educational Tourism in Protected Natural Areas in South-East of the Baikal Region

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Vera Chizhova; Sergey Kirillov; Mikchail Slipenchuk

    2016-01-01

    The paper presents the implementation of the strategy of development of tourism in the south-east of the Baikal region on the territory of the Baikal Biosphere reserve and its subordinate federal sanctuaries...

  6. Can community outreach alleviate poaching pressure and recover wildlife in South‐East Asian protected areas?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Steinmetz, Robert; Srirattanaporn, Surasak; Mor‐Tip, Jirati; Seuaturien, Naret; Jones, Julia

    2014-01-01

    ...‐East Asia suffers the world's highest rate of wildlife declines, due mainly to poaching, yet there is little scientific attention on behaviour change, and few evaluations of the effectiveness...

  7. Plan of study to define hydrogeologic characteristics of the Madera Limestone in the east mountain area of central New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rankin, D.R.

    1999-01-01

    The east mountain area of central New Mexico includes the eastern one-third of Bernalillo County and portions of Sandoval, Santa Fe, and Torrance Counties. The area covers about 320 square miles. The Madera Limestone, the principal aquifer in the east mountain area, is the sole source of water for domestic, municipal, industrial, and agricultural uses for many residents. Some water is imported from wells near Edgewood by the Entranosa Water Cooperative, which serves a population of approximately 3,300. The remaining population is served by small water systems that derive supplies locally or by individually owned domestic wells. The population of the east mountain area has increased dramatically over the past 20 years. In 1970, the population of the east mountain area was about 4,000. Demographic projections suggest that approximately 1,000 people per year are moving into the area, and with a growth rate of 3.0 percent the population will be 16,700 in 2000. Consequently, ground-water withdrawals have increased substantially over the past 20 years, and will continue to increase. Little is known about the flow characteristics and hydrogeologic properties of the Madera Limestone. This report describes existing information about the geologic and hydrologic framework and flow characteristics of the Madera Limestone, and presents a plan of study for data-collection activities and interpretive studies that could be conducted to better define the hydrogeologic characteristics of the Madera Limestone. Data-collection activities and interpretive studies related to the hydrogeologic components of the Madera Limestone are prioritized. Activities that are necessary to improve the quantification of a component are prioritized as essential. Activities that could add additional understanding of a component, but would not be necessary to improve the quantification of a component, are prioritized as useful.

  8. A cascade of warming impacts brings bluefin tuna to Greenland waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKenzie, Brian R; Payne, Mark R; Boje, Jesper; Høyer, Jacob L; Siegstad, Helle

    2014-08-01

    Rising ocean temperatures are causing marine fish species to shift spatial distributions and ranges, and are altering predator-prey dynamics in food webs. Most documented cases of species shifts so far involve relatively small species at lower trophic levels, and consider individual species in ecological isolation from others. Here, we show that a large highly migratory top predator fish species has entered a high latitude subpolar area beyond its usual range. Bluefin tuna, Thunnus thynnus Linnaeus 1758, were captured in waters east of Greenland (65°N) in August 2012 during exploratory fishing for Atlantic mackerel, Scomber scombrus Linnaeus 1758. The bluefin tuna were captured in a single net-haul in 9-11 °C water together with 6 tonnes of mackerel, which is a preferred prey species and itself a new immigrant to the area. Regional temperatures in August 2012 were historically high and contributed to a warming trend since 1985, when temperatures began to rise. The presence of bluefin tuna in this region is likely due to a combination of warm temperatures that are physiologically more tolerable and immigration of an important prey species to the region. We conclude that a cascade of climate change impacts is restructuring the food web in east Greenland waters.

  9. An interdisciplinary approach for groundwater management in area contaminated by fluoride in East African Rift System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Pelo, Stefania; Melis, M. Teresa; Dessì, Francesco; Pistis, Marco; Funedda, Antonio; Oggiano, Giacomo; Carletti, Alberto; Soler Gil, Albert; Barbieri, Manuela; Pittalis, Daniele; Ghiglieri, Giorgio

    2017-04-01

    Groundwater is the main source of fresh water supply for most of the rural communities in Africa (approximately 75% of Africans has confidence in groundwater as their major source of drinking water). Many African countries has affected by high fluoride concentration in groundwater (up to 90 mg/L), generating the contamination of waters, soils and food, in particular in the eastern part of the continent. It seems that fluoride concentration is linked to geology of the Rift Valley: geogenic occurrence of fluoride is often connected to supergenic enrichment due to the weathering of alkaline volcanic rocks, fumaric gases and presence of thermal waters. The H2020 project FLOWERED (de-FLuoridation technologies for imprOving quality of WatEr and agRo-animal products along the East African Rift Valley in the context of aDaptation to climate change) wish to address environmental and health (human and animal) issues associated to the fluoride contamination in the African Rift Valley, in particular in three case study area located in Ethiopia, Tanzania and Kenya. FLOWERED aims to develop an integrated, sustainable and participative water and agriculture management at a cross-boundary catchment scale through a strong interdisciplinary research approach. It implies knowledge of geology, hydrogeology, mineralogy, geochemistry, agronomy, crop and animal sciences, engineering, technological sciences, data management and software design, economics and communication. The proposed approach is based on a detailed knowledge of the hydrogeological setting, with the identification and mapping of the specific geological conditions of water contamination and its relation with the different land uses. The East African Rift System (EARS) groundwater circulation and storage, today already poorly understood, is characterized by a complex arrangement of aquifers. It depends on the type of porosity and permeability created during and after the rock formation, and is strongly conditioned by the

  10. Evaluation of the use of common sculpin (Myoxocephalus scorpius) organ histology as bioindicator for element exposure in the fjord of the mining area Maarmorilik, West Greenland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonne, Christian; Bach, Lis; Søndergaard, Jens; Rigét, Frank F; Dietz, Rune; Mosbech, Anders; Leifsson, Pall S; Gustavson, Kim

    2014-08-01

    The former Black Angel lead-zinc mine in Maarmorilik, West Greenland, is a historic example of how mining activity may result in a significant impact on the surrounding fjord system in terms of elevated concentrations of especially lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) in seawater, sediments and surrounding biota. In order to shed light on the present contamination and possible effects in the fjord we initiated a range of studies including a pilot study on gill and liver morphology of common sculpins (Myoxocephalus scorpius) around Maarmorilik. Sculpins were caught and sampled at five different stations known to represent a gradient of Pb concentrations. Fish livers from all specimens were analyzed for relevant elements in the area: Fe, Zn, As, Cu, Se, Cd, Pb, Ag, Hg, Co and Ni. Lead, As and Hg showed significant differences among the five stations. For 20% of the sculpins, Hg concentrations were in the range of lowest observed effect dose (LOED) of 0.1-0.5 μg/g ww for toxic threshold on reproduction and subclinical endpoints. Likewise LOEDs for tissue lesions, LOEDs for biochemistry, growth, survival and reproduction were exceeded for Cd (0.42-1.8 μg/g ww) and for As (11.6 μg/g ww) in 28% and 85% of the sculpins, respectively. Similar to this, the no observed effect dose (NOED) for biochemistry was exceeded for Pb (0.32 μg/g ww) and for growth, mortality and reproduction for Zn (60-68 μg/g ww) in 33% and 24% of the sculpins, respectively. For all sculpins, females were significantly larger than males and for five of the elements (Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Se) females had higher concentrations. The chronic lesions observed in liver (mononuclear cell infiltrates, necrosis, vacuolar hepatocytes, portal fibrosis, bile duct hyperplasia, active melanomacrophage centers) and gills (fusion and edema of secondary lamellae, laminar telangiectasis, mononuclear cell infiltrates, blebs) were similar to those in the literature studies for both wild and laboratory exposed sculpins and other fish

  11. Scenario earthquake hazards for the Long Valley Caldera-Mono Lake area, east-central California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Rui; Branum, David M.; Wills, Chris J.; Hill, David P.

    2014-01-01

    As part of the U.S. Geological Survey’s (USGS) multi-hazards project in the Long Valley Caldera-Mono Lake area, the California Geological Survey (CGS) developed several earthquake scenarios and evaluated potential seismic hazards, including ground shaking, surface fault rupture, liquefaction, and landslide hazards associated with these earthquake scenarios. The results of these analyses can be useful in estimating the extent of potential damage and economic losses because of potential earthquakes and in preparing emergency response plans. The Long Valley Caldera-Mono Lake area has numerous active faults. Five of these faults or fault zones are considered capable of producing magnitude ≥6.7 earthquakes according to the Uniform California Earthquake Rupture Forecast, Version 2 (UCERF 2) developed by the 2007 Working Group of California Earthquake Probabilities (WGCEP) and the USGS National Seismic Hazard Mapping (NSHM) Program. These five faults are the Fish Slough, Hartley Springs, Hilton Creek, Mono Lake, and Round Valley Faults. CGS developed earthquake scenarios for these five faults in the study area and for the White Mountains Fault to the east of the study area. Earthquake scenarios are intended to depict the potential consequences of significant earthquakes. They are not necessarily the largest or most damaging earthquakes possible. Earthquake scenarios are both large enough and likely enough that emergency planners should consider them in regional emergency response plans. Earthquake scenarios presented here are based on fault geometry and activity data developed by the WGCEP, and are consistent with the 2008 Update of the United States National Seismic Hazard Maps (NSHM).For the Hilton Creek Fault, two alternative scenarios were developed in addition to the NSHM scenario to account for different opinions in how far north the fault extends into the Long Valley Caldera. For each scenario, ground motions were calculated using the current standard practice

  12. A world without Greenland: impacts on the Northern Hemisphere winter circulation in low- and high-resolution models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junge, M. M.; Blender, R.; Fraedrich, K.; Gayler, V.; Luksch, U.; Lunkeit, F.

    2005-02-01

    To investigate the effect of Greenland’s orography on the northern hemisphere winter circulation experiments with an atmospheric GCM are conducted: a perturbed integration where standard orography is reduced to sea level in the Greenland area is compared to a standard orography control integration. The outcome of these experiments suggests that the existence of high mountains at Greenland causes a reinforcement of the stationary wave field in the Atlantic sector, colder temperatures to the west of Greenland and warmer temperatures to the east and south, over the North Atlantic. The impact on the flow field cannot be understood in the framework of standing Rossby waves, but it indicates a resonance between remotely forced stationary waves and local (thermo-) dynamics. The pattern of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), in particular the northern centre, lies further to the east in the flat-Greenland experiment compared to the control run and the observations. Together with the fact that the climatological low-pressure system around Iceland hardly shifts, this suggests that the location of the NAO is not necessarily tied to the time mean pressure distributions. Considering the model resolution as a parameter, experiments with a high resolution (T106) suggest that the near-field changes are represented sufficiently by a T42 resolution, a standard resolution used in state-of-the-art coupled climate models. In contrast, far-field changes depend critically on model resolution. Hemispheric circulation and temperature changes differ substantially from low to high resolution, and generalized statements about the impact of Greenland’s orography cannot be made.

  13. Characteristics of Early Tertiary Saline Lake Deposition of Petroliferous Area in East China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Zhencheng; Yang Fan; Li Dongming; Peng Licai

    1997-01-01

    @@ Since the 1970's, reports on the discovery of marine fossil in Lower Tertiary, East China, have been published in succession, thus starting a discussion on whether the strata are of marine transgressive sedimentation or marine facies.The discussion has been extended from among paleontologists to among sedimentologists and even to all geologists.

  14. Distance learning in the arctic wilderness of northeast Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langebæk, Rikke

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT In North East Greenland, the Danish Sirius Sledge Patrol conducts long-range patrolling in pairs of two soldiers and a team of sled dogs. Trips last 4 months or more and soldiers have no outside human contact. Each year seven new soldiers are selected to undergo seven months training....../distance learning as an addition to the practical course. Thus, extensive video-filming was done on location in Greenland, illustrating a range of different situations related to handling, examining and treating the sled dogs. The narrated videos now constitute the new mobile teaching material that was implemented...

  15. How Greenland melts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van den Broeke M.R.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Satellite altimetry and gravimetry show that the Greenland ice sheet has been losing volume and mass since the beginning of this century. However, from these short time series of direct measurements we cannot infer what the causes of the mass loss are, i.e. ice dynamics or surface processes, or that maybe the ice sheet returns to normal after a period of volume increase and mass gain. By modelling and observing the individual components of the ice sheet mass balance, i.e. snowfall, meltwater runoff and iceberg production, we are able to identify the processes that led to the recent mass loss. We conclude that the Greenland ice sheet is significantly out of balance. Acceleration of outlet glaciers and increased runoff have contributed equally to recent Greenland mass loss. The potential for mass loss by surface processes, however, was three times greater than actually observed, due to refreezing and enhanced snowfall.

  16. CNS infections in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordholm, Anne Christine; Søborg, Bolette; Andersson, Mikael

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Indigenous Arctic people suffer from high rates of infectious diseases. However, the burden of central nervous system (CNS) infections is poorly documented. This study aimed to estimate incidence rates and mortality of CNS infections among Inuits and non-Inuits in Greenland...... and in Denmark. METHODS: We conducted a nationwide cohort study using the populations of Greenland and Denmark 1990-2012. Information on CNS infection hospitalizations and pathogens was retrieved from national registries and laboratories. Incidence rates were estimated as cases per 100,000 person......-years. Incidence rate ratios were calculated using log-linear Poisson-regression. Mortality was estimated using Kaplan-Meier curves and Log Rank test. RESULTS: The incidence rate of CNS infections was twice as high in Greenland (35.6 per 100,000 person years) as in Denmark (17.7 per 100,000 person years...

  17. The Greenland Analogue Project. Yearly Report 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-12-15

    A deep geological repository for spent nuclear fuel needs to be designed to keep used nuclear fuel isolated from mankind and the environment for a million years. Within this time frame glacial conditions are expected in regions that have been glaciated in the past two to ten million years. Climate induced changes such as the growth of ice sheets and permafrost will influence and alter the ground surface and subsurface environment, including its hydrology, which may impact repository safety. Glaciation impact assessments have to-date used over-simplified models and conservative assumptions, for example in the representation of ice sheet hydrology, that do not reflect the complexity of natural systems and processes. This is largely due to lack of direct observations of such processes from existing ice sheets, which if more readily available could help reduce uncertainties and provide a strong scientific basis for the treatment of glacial impacts in safety assessments. Our current understanding of the hydrological, hydrogeological and hydrogeochemical processes associated with glacial cycles and their impact on the long-term performance of deep geological repositories for spent nuclear fuel will be significantly improved by studying a modern analogue. To advance the understanding of processes associated with glaciation and their impact on the long-term performance of a deep geological repository, the Greenland Analogue Project (GAP), a four-year field and modelling study of the Greenland ice sheet and sub-surface conditions, has been initiated collaboratively by SKB, Posiva and NWMO. The study site encompasses a land terminus portion of the Greenland ice sheet east of Kangerlussuaq and is in many ways considered to be an appropriate analogue of the conditions that are expected to prevail in much of Canada and Fennoscandia during future glacial cycles. The project is planned to run from 2009 until 2012. The GAP will conduct the first in situ investigations of some of

  18. China and Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Uffe

    2014-01-01

    More thorough analysis and outreach on facts about Chinese activities in the Arctic are highly needed, not least in view of the almost alarmist response in Danish political debate to the prospects of growing Chinese interest in the Arctic in general and especially in Greenland......More thorough analysis and outreach on facts about Chinese activities in the Arctic are highly needed, not least in view of the almost alarmist response in Danish political debate to the prospects of growing Chinese interest in the Arctic in general and especially in Greenland...

  19. Groundwater resources of the East Mountain area, Bernalillo, Sandoval, Santa Fe, and Torrance Counties, New Mexico, 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartolino, James R.; Anderholm, Scott K.; Myers, Nathan C.

    2010-01-01

    The groundwater resources of about 400 square miles of the East Mountain area of Bernalillo, Sandoval, Santa Fe, and Torrance Counties in central New Mexico were evaluated by using groundwater levels and water-quality analyses, and updated geologic mapping. Substantial development in the study area (population increased by 11,000, or 50 percent, from 1990 through 2000) has raised concerns about the effects of growth on water resources. The last comprehensive examination of the water resources of the study area was done in 1980-this study examines a slightly different area and incorporates data collected in the intervening 25 years. The East Mountain area is geologically and hydrologically complex-in addition to the geologic units, such features as the Sandia Mountains, Tijeras and Gutierrez Faults, Tijeras syncline and anticline, and the Estancia Basin affect the movement, availability, and water quality of the groundwater system. The stratigraphic units were separated into eight hydrostratigraphic units, each having distinct hydraulic and chemical properties. Overall, the major hydrostratigraphic units are the Madera-Sandia and Abo-Yeso; however, other units are the primary source of supply in some areas. Despite the eight previously defined hydrostratigraphic units, water-level contours were drawn on the generalized regional potentiometric map assuming all hydrostratigraphic units are connected and function as a single aquifer system. Groundwater originates as infiltration of precipitation in upland areas (Sandia, Manzano, and Manzanita Mountains, and the Ortiz Porphyry Belt) and moves downgradient into the Tijeras Graben, Tijeras Canyon, San Pedro synclinorium, and the Hagan, Estancia, and Espanola Basins. The study area was divided into eight groundwater areas defined on the basis of geologic, hydrologic, and geochemical information-Tijeras Canyon, Cedar Crest, Tijeras Graben, Estancia Basin, San Pedro Creek, Ortiz Porphyry Belt, Hagan Basin, and Upper Sandia

  20. Vertical velocity of mantle flow of East Asia and adjacent areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Xianqiong; ZHU Jieshou; CAI Xuelin

    2007-01-01

    Based on the high-resolution body wave tomo- graphic image and relevant geophysical data, we calculated the form and the vertical and tangential velocities of mantle flow. We obtained the pattern of mantle convection for East Asia and the West Pacific. Some important results and under- standings are gained from the images of the vertical velocity of mantle flow for East Asia and the West Pacific. There is an upwelling plume beneath East Asia and West Pacific, which is the earth's deep origin for the huge rift valley there. We have especially outlined the tectonic features of the South China Sea, which is of the "工" type in the upper mantle shield type in the middle and divergent in the lower; the Siberian clod downwelling dives from the surface to near Core and mantle bounary (CMB), which is convergent in the upper mantle and divergent in the lower mantle; the Tethyan subduction region, centered in the Qinghai-Tibet plateau, is visible from 300 to 2 000 km, which is also convergent in the upper mantle and divergent in the lower mantle. The three regions of mantle convection beneath East Asia and the West Pacific are in accordance with the West Pacific, Ancient Asia and the Tethyan structure regions. The mantle upwelling orig- inates from the core-mantle boundary and mostly occurs in the middle mantle and the lower part of the upper mantle. The velocities of the vertical mantle flow are about 1-4 cm per year and the tangential velocities are 1-10 cm per year. The mantle flow has an effect on controlling the movement of plates and the distributions of ocean ridges, subduction zones and collision zones. The mantle upwelling regions are clearly related with the locations ofhotspots on the earth's surface.

  1. Multibeam Mapping of Remote Fjords in Southeast-Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinrebe, W.; Kjaer, K. H.; Kjeldsen, K. K.; Bjork, A. A.

    2015-12-01

    The fjords of Southeast-Greenland are among the most remote areas of the Northern Hemisphere. Access to this area is hampered by a broad belt of sea ice floating along the East-Greenland coast from North to South. Consequently, the majority of those fjords have never been surveyed in detail until now. During an expedition by the Center of GeoGenetics of the University of Copenhagen in summer of 2014 we were able to map the Skjoldungen Fjord system with multibeam bathymetry. The topsail schooner ACTIV, built 1951 as a cargo ship to supply remote settlements in Greenland was chosen for the expedition. Though a vintage vessel, the ACTIV was well suited to cross the belt of sea ice and to cruise the ice covered fjords. A portable ELAC-Seabeam 1050 multibeam system was temporarily installed on the vessel. The two transducer of the system were mounted at the lower end of a 6 m long pole attached outboard at port side to the hull of the vessel. Though the installation was quite demanding without any winches or cranes, the construction was sufficiently stable and easy to manage throughout the entire cruise. Nearly the entire fjord system, leaving only a small gap of 5 km at the innermost part and small stripes close to the shorelines could be surveyed during the cruise. For the first time, a comprehensive map of Skjoldungen Fjord is now available. The map displays water depths from close to zero up to 800 m, the deepest part along a stretch of about 10 km in the Southwest. The bathymetry of the northern fjord is remarkably different from the southern fjord: the southern fjord features an outer deep part showing water depths between 500 m and 800 m and a shallow inner part with depths less than 300 m and a prominent sill in between. The northern fjord shows a more gradual increase of water depths from 200 m in the inner part to 600 m at the entrance.

  2. High export of dissolved silica from the Greenland Ice Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meire, L.; Meire, P.; Struyf, E.; Krawczyk, D. W.; Arendt, K. E.; Yde, J. C.; Juul Pedersen, T.; Hopwood, M. J.; Rysgaard, S.; Meysman, F. J. R.

    2016-09-01

    Silica is an essential element for marine life and plays a key role in the biogeochemistry of the ocean. Glacial activity stimulates rock weathering, generating dissolved silica that is exported to coastal areas along with meltwater. The magnitude of the dissolved silica export from large glacial areas such as the Greenland Ice Sheet is presently poorly quantified and not accounted for in global budgets. Here we present data from two fjord systems adjacent to the Greenland Ice Sheet which reveal a large export of dissolved silica by glacial meltwater relative to other macronutrients. Upscaled to the entire Greenland Ice Sheet, the export of dissolved silica equals 22 ± 10 Gmol Si yr-1. When the silicate-rich meltwater mixes with upwelled deep water, either inside or outside Greenland's fjords, primary production takes place at increased silicate to nitrate ratios. This likely stimulates the growth of diatoms relative to other phytoplankton groups.

  3. COAL MINING OPERATIONS AND ITS IMPACT ON SECTORAL AND REGIONAL AREA: EVIDENCE OF EAST KALIMANTAN, INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rian Hilmawan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Mining sector plays important roles for Indonesian economic performance, especially in East Kalimantan. This study investigates: (a whether economic linkages of the mining sector related with other economic sectors in East Kalimantan, (b who gets benefit from such mining activities; (c how is the impact of mining sector for rural and urban households; and (d what happens if coal mining, oil and gas productions are completely depleted. The quantitative analysis framework using Input-Output and Social Accounting Matrix Tables in period 2009-2010 has been implemented as main data set. The result shows that mining sector was underdeveloped sector in East Kalimantan, including Kutai Kartanegara district. Activities from mining sector tended to give benefit for the owners of capital, which is larger than that benefit for workers employed. Structural Path Analysis (SPA shows that urban households gain the greatest advantages from the activities of this sector. The result also shows that the total output decreased by 65.12% when the mining, oil and gas dissapeared. A drastic reducing income after mining and oil and gas era will have an impact on the decline in the purchasing power in the region. However, the interesting finding of this research shows that the loss of mining and oil or gas sectors actually increases the strength of employment multiplier by 19%.

  4. The Greenland Ramsar Sites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egevang, C.; Boertmann, D.

    The eleven Ramsar sites in Greenland are reviewed in terms of their status as habitats for waterbirds and other fauna. Management and monitoring is proposed, as well as revisions of their boundaries. A number of potential new Ramsar sites are described...

  5. China and Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Uffe

    2014-01-01

    More thorough analysis and outreach on facts about Chinese activities in the Arctic are highly needed, not least in view of the almost alarmist response in Danish political debate to the prospects of growing Chinese interest in the Arctic in general and especially in Greenland...

  6. How Greenland melts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Broeke, M.R.

    2010-01-01

    Satellite altimetry and gravimetry show that the Greenland ice sheet has been losing volume and mass since the beginning of this century. However, from these short time series of direct measurements we cannot infer what the causes of the mass loss are, i.e. ice dynamics or surface processes, or that

  7. How Greenland melts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Broeke, M.R.

    2010-01-01

    Satellite altimetry and gravimetry show that the Greenland ice sheet has been losing volume and mass since the beginning of this century. However, from these short time series of direct measurements we cannot infer what the causes of the mass loss are, i.e. ice dynamics or surface processes, or that

  8. Commentary: Future Greenland 2015

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørst, Lill Rastad

    2015-01-01

    Every second year the Greenlandic Business Association host the two-day conference “Future Greenland” in Nuuk. The main theme of this year conference was “Growth and welfare – scenarios for the development of Greenland”. The conference had more than 400 participants - mostly from Denmark and Gree...

  9. APISSEQ Sisimiut – Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kotol, Martin

    This report summarizes the very first survey of the engineering dormitory Apisseq in Sisimiut, Greenland. The dormitory was inaugurated in August 2010 and the survey was performed in March 2011. The experienced problems and their possible causes are explained in the report. Furthermore possible...

  10. Geothermal assessment of the lower Bear River drainage and northern East Shore ground-water areas, Box Elder County, Utah

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klauk, R.H.; Budding, K.E.

    1984-07-01

    The Utah Geological and Mineral Survey (UGMS) has been researching the low-temperature geothermal resource potential in Utah. This report, part of an area-wide geothermal research program along the Wasatch Front, concerns the study conducted in the lower Bear River drainage and northern East Shore ground-water areas in Box Elder County, Utah. The primary purpose of the study is to identify new areas of geothermal resource potential. There are seven known low-temperature geothermal areas in this part of Box Elder County. Geothermal reconnaissance techniques used in the study include a temperature survey, chemical analysis of well and spring waters, and temperature-depth measurements in accessible wells. The geothermal reconnaissance techniques identified three areas which need further evaluation of their low-temperature geothermal resource potential. Area 1 is located in the area surrounding Little Mountain, area 2 is west and southwest of Plymouth, and area 3 is west and south of the Cutler Dam. 5 figures, 4 tables.

  11. Spatial and temporal trends of selected trace elements in liver tissue from polar bears (Ursus maritimus) from Alaska, Canada and Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Routti, H.; Letcher, R.J.; Born, E.W.; Branigan, M.; Dietz, R.; Evans, T.J.; Fisk, A.T.; Peacock, E.; Sonne, C.

    2011-01-01

    Spatial trends and comparative changes in time of selected trace elements were studied in liver tissue from polar bears from ten different subpopulation locations in Alaska, Canadian Arctic and East Greenland. For nine of the trace elements (As, Cd, Cu, Hg, Mn, Pb, Rb, Se and Zn) spatial trends were investigated in 136 specimens sampled during 2005-2008 from bears from these ten subpopulations. Concentrations of Hg, Se and As were highest in the (northern and southern) Beaufort Sea area and lowest in (western and southern) Hudson Bay area and Chukchi/Bering Sea. In contrast, concentrations of Cd showed an increasing trend from east to west. Minor or no spatial trends were observed for Cu, Mn, Rb and Zn. Spatial trends were in agreement with previous studies, possibly explained by natural phenomena. To assess temporal changes of Cd, Hg, Se and Zn concentrations during the last decades, we compared our results to previously published data. These time comparisons suggested recent Hg increase in East Greenland polar bears. This may be related to Hg emissions and/or climate-induced changes in Hg cycles or changes in the polar bear food web related to global warming. Also, Hg:Se molar ratio has increased in East Greenland polar bears, which suggests there may be an increased risk for Hg 2+-mediated toxicity. Since the underlying reasons for spatial trends or changes in time of trace elements in the Arctic are still largely unknown, future studies should focus on the role of changing climate and trace metal emissions on geographical and temporal trends of trace elements. ?? 2011 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  12. Integrated geophysical studies on the area east of Abu Gharadig basin, southern Cairo, Egypt, using potential field data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Mohamed El-Awady

    2016-12-01

    Euler deconvolution of magnetic and gravity data reveals clustering of solution along fault trends or causative bodies centers. The Euler depth estimate to the basement surface shows a good correlation with the depth determined by the power spectrum method where its value ranges around 4 km. The interpreted basement tectonic map of the study area is dominated by ENE–WSW Syrian Arc, NW–SE Gulf of Suez and Red Sea, NE–SW Aqaba, E–W Mediterranean and N–S East Africa tectonic trends. The older tectonic trends were reactivated then intersected by younger ones.

  13. Metallogenic Model and Prospecting Indicators of the Boron Deposits in East Liaoning Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qu Hongxiang; Zhang Guoren; Li Xiandong; Chen Shuliang; Yang Zhongzhu; Wang Zhongjiang

    2001-01-01

    The Paleoproterozoic boron deposits in east Liaoning occur in Mg- rich marble of Li' eryu Formation of Liaohe group. The mineralization was controlled by stratigraphic lithology. The volcano ~ sedimentation is the material base of ore-formation. Boron mainly derived from volcanic source. Boron in Li' eryu formation was activated and transferred by migmatization and then deposited into ore when metasomatism occurrs in Mg - rich marble. Structural deformation reconstructed the boron ore bodies. Meanwhile, ore - bearing hyd~othermal solution produced by structural deformation and remetasomated the host - ore rocks or filled in fissure of ore. Boron deposit is a stratabound deposit, which formed by migmatization and structural deformation mineralization.

  14. A new glacier monitoring site in West Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abermann, J.; van As, D.; Petersen, D.; Nauta, M.

    2014-12-01

    Greenland's mountain glaciers and ice caps have recently been shown to significantly contribute to current and future sea-level rise. Despite their importance in this respect they are heavily undersampled with only about 5 currently monitored glaciers out of more than 20000 distributed over complexly varying climatic regions. In 2012, Asiaq, Greenland Survey initiated therefore a glacier mass balance program at Qassinnguit glacier (64°9'N, 51°17'W), approx. 18 km East of Nuuk, Greenland's capital. The glacier is a representative example for mountain glaciers in South-West Greenland both in terms of size (ca 1 km2) and orientation (N). A dense stake network gives the basis for the determination of the surface mass balance with the glaciological method as well as flow velocity measurements and the first two complete years are presented. An automated camera is used to monitor ablation patterns and the evolution of the snow line. In early 2014, a ground-penetrating radar campaign was performed to determine the glacier volume. Ice thicknesses up to 50 m were measured with a 100 MHz antenna and the glacier was found to be largely cold-based with some minor temperate parts. In addition to direct glaciological measurements at the site, the monitoring program complements a 7 year long time series of runoff, which allows for quantifying Qassinnguit glacier's cryospheric contribution to the total catchment. In summer 2014 an on-glacier automated weather station was installed that measures parameters to determine the surface energy balance. Preliminary results will be presented and put into a larger spatial context by relating them to measurements with the same setup at an outlet glacier of the Greenland ice sheet approximately 100 km further East. Climate between these sites differs considerably with a marked negative West - East precipitation gradient.

  15. Dynamics of the Greenland Ice Sheet over multiple timescales

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Kristian Kjellerup

    behavior of the Greenland Ice Sheet on multiple timescales is investigated. These range from annual/decadal scale variations of ice surface heights and cyclic drainage patterns of ice-dammed lakes to long-term response of the ice sheet margin during the past 300,000 years. The results presented here show...... that the ice margin of the Greenland Ice Sheet responds highly dynamic and variable to climate change and oceanic forcing, with behavior additionally being governed by regional/local settings, e.g. topographical settings such as low-lying/mountainous areas and the presence or absence of deep fjords or shelf....../crossshelf troughs. Warming of ocean temperatures is suggested as being a main driver for periodic dynamic ice loss events in northwest Greenland while cooling of ocean temperatures around southern Greenland, in conjunction with increased snow accumulation, is found to drive a rapid readvance of glaciers in response...

  16. Tectonic Map of the Ellesmerian and Eurekan deformation belts on Svalbard, North Greenland and the Queen Elizabeth Islands (Canadian Arctic)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piepjohn, Karsten; von Gosen, Werner; Tessensohn, Franz; Reinhardt, Lutz; McClelland, William C.; Dallmann, Winfried; Gaedicke, Christoph; Harrison, Christopher

    2016-04-01

    The tectonic map presented here shows the distribution of the major post-Ellesmerian and pre-Eurekan sedimentary basins, parts of the Caledonian Orogen, the Ellesmerian Fold-and-Thrust Belt, structures of the Cenozoic Eurekan deformation, and areas affected by the Eurekan overprint. The present continental margin of North America towards the Arctic Ocean between the Queen Elizabeth Islands and Northeast Greenland and the present west margin of the Barents Shelf are characterized by the Paleozoic Ellesmerian Fold-and-Thrust Belt, the Cenozoic Eurekan deformation, and, in parts, the Caledonian Orogen. In many areas, the structural trends of the Ellesmerian and Eurekan deformations are more or less parallel, and often, structures of the Ellesmerian Orogeny are affected or reactivated by the Eurekan deformation. While the Ellesmerian Fold-and-Thrust Belt is dominated by orthogonal compression and the formation of wide fold-and-thrust zones on Ellesmere Island, North Greenland and Spitsbergen, the Eurekan deformation is characterized by a complex network of regional fold-and-thrust belts (Spitsbergen, central Ellesmere Island), large distinct thrust zones (Ellesmere Island, North Greenland) and a great number of strike-slip faults (Spitsbergen, Ellesmere Island). The Ellesmerian Fold-and-Thrust Belt was most probably related to the approach and docking of the Pearya Terrane (northernmost part of Ellesmere Island) and Spitsbergen against the north margin of Laurasia (Ellesmere Island/North Greenland) in the earliest Carboniferous. The Eurekan deformation was related to plate tectonic movements during the final break-up of Laurasia and the opening of Labrador Sea/Baffin Bay west, the Eurasian Basin north, and the Norwegian/Greenland seas east of Greenland. The tectonic map presented here shows the German contribution to the Tectonic Map of the Arctic 1:5,000,000 (TeMAr) as part of the international project "Atlas of geological maps of Circumpolar Arctic at 1

  17. Impact of deep-sea fishery for Greenland halibut (Reinhardtius hippoglossoides) on non-commercial fish species off West Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Ole A; Bastardie, Francois; Eigaard, Ole Ritzau

    2014-01-01

    . During the period 1988–2011, population abundance and size composition changed as catch and effort in the Greenland halibut fishery increased. Two species showed a significant decrease in abundance, and four populations showed a significant reduction in mean weight of individuals (p , 0.05). Correlation......Since the late 1980s, a deep-sea fishery for Greenland halibut (Reinhardtius hippoglossoides) has been developing gradually in West Greenland. Deep-sea fish species are generally long-lived and characterized by late age of maturity, low fecundity, and slow growth, features that probably cause low...... resilience following overexploitation. In order to evaluate whether populations of nine potential bycatch species are negatively affected by the commercial fishery for Greenland halibut, scientific data from bottom-trawl surveys conducted in the same area and period as the commercial fishery were analysed...

  18. Genetic similarity between Taenia solium cysticerci collected from the two distant endemic areas in North and North East India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Monika; Devi, Kangjam Rekha; Sehgal, Rakesh; Narain, Kanwar; Mahanta, Jagadish; Malla, Nancy

    2014-01-01

    Taenia solium taeniasis/cysticercosis is a major public health problem in developing countries. This study reports genotypic analysis of T. solium cysticerci collected from two different endemic areas of North (Chandigarh) and North East India (Dibrugarh) by the sequencing of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) gene. The variation in cox1 sequences of samples collected from these two different geographical regions located at a distance of 2585 km was minimal. Alignment of the nucleotide sequences with different species of Taenia showed the similarity with Asian genotype of T. solium. Among 50 isolates, 6 variant nucleotide positions (0.37% of total length) were detected. These results suggest that population in these geographical areas are homogenous.

  19. Bourdieu in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hussain, Naimah

    2017-01-01

    with a small elite and close ties between reporters and possible sources shape the field practically, professionally and socially (in a specific, local way). These tensions between the “global-colonial” and “local” capitals and capacities are negotiated and managed in the everyday practices of newsrooms......, structured space. At the same time, however, the “post-colonial” realities of Greenlandic journalism can help us to pose some questions about the limits – or the need for further development – of Bourdieu’s initial sketch about the journalistic field. This chapter tests the analytical concepts of capital......The scarcely populated island of Greenland offers a unique opportunity both to study the complex dependencies and tensions of contemporary “global” or “transnational” journalism and to test and develop the explanation power of one key theoretical framework, field theory. With only one (national...

  20. Wastewater Treatment in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gunnarsdottir, Ragnhildur

    The Arctic nature is vulnerable to environmental contaminants because of low biological diversity, lack of nutrients and extreme seasonal variations in light. In Greenland neither industrial nor domestic wastewater is treated before it is discharged to the recipients, which in most cases is the sea...... treatment in these regions. However, designing, constructing and operating wastewater collection systems in the Arctic is challenging because of e.g. permafrost conditions, hard rock surfaces, freezing, limited quantity of water and high costs of electricity, fuel and transportation, as well as a settlement...... collection systems, and be more economically and environmentally sustainable than traditional wastewater collection and treatment systems. Possible alternative wastewater treatment methods for Greenlandic communities are dry composting or anaerobic digestion of excreta, collected at household level using dry...

  1. Distribution and abundance of West Greenland humpback whales ( Megaptera novaeangliae )

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Finn; Hammond, P.S.

    2004-01-01

    Photo-identification surveys of humpback whales Megaptera novaeangliae were conducted at West Greenland during 1988-93, the last 2 years of which were part of the internationally coordinated humpback whale research programme YoNAH, with the primary aim of estimating abundance for the West Greenland...... effort. A total of 670 groups of humpback whales was encountered leading to the identification of 348 individual animals. Three areas of concentration were identified: an area off Nuuk; an area at c. 63degrees30'N; and an area off Frederikshab. Sequential Petersen capture-recapture estimates of abundance...

  2. Modelling Greenland icebergs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marson, Juliana M.; Myers, Paul G.; Hu, Xianmin

    2017-04-01

    The Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) is well known for carrying heat from low to high latitudes, moderating local temperatures. Numerical studies have examined the AMOC's variability under the influence of freshwater input to subduction and deep convections sites. However, an important source of freshwater has often been overlooked or misrepresented: icebergs. While liquid runoff decreases the ocean salinity near the coast, icebergs are a gradual and remote source of freshwater - a difference that affects sea ice cover, temperature, and salinity distribution in ocean models. Icebergs originated from the Greenland ice sheet, in particular, can affect the subduction process in Labrador Sea by decreasing surface water density. Our study aims to evaluate the distribution of icebergs originated from Greenland and their contribution to freshwater input in the North Atlantic. To do that, we use an interactive iceberg module coupled with the Nucleus for European Modelling of the Ocean (NEMO v3.4), which will calve icebergs from Greenland according to rates established by Bamber et al. (2012). Details on the distribution and trajectory of icebergs within the model may also be of use for understanding potential navigation threats, as shipping increases in northern waters.

  3. Three-dimensional glacier surface velocities of the Storstrømmen glacier, Greenland derived from radar interferometry and ice-sounding radar measurements

    OpenAIRE

    Reeh, N; Mohr, J. J.; Madsen, S.N.; Oerter, Hans; Gundestrup, N.

    2003-01-01

    Non-steady-state vertical velocities of up to 5 m y-1 exceed the vertical surface-parallel-flow components over much of the ablation area of Storstrømmen, a large outlet glacier from the East Greenland ice sheet. Neglecting a contribution to the vertical velocity of this magnitude, results in substantial errors (up to 20%) also on the south north component of horizontal velocities derived by satellite synthetic aperture radar interferometry (InSAR) measurements. In many glacier environments t...

  4. Atuarfitsialak: Greenland's Cultural Compatible Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyatt, Tasha R.

    2012-01-01

    In 2002, Greenlandic reform leaders launched a comprehensive, nation-wide reform to create culturally compatible education. Greenland's reform work spans the entire educational system and includes preschool through higher education. To assist their efforts, reform leaders adopted the Standards for Effective Pedagogy developed at the Center for…

  5. Copper, zinc and cadmium in benthic organisms from the Java Sea and estuarine and coastal areas around East Java

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everaarts, J. M.; Boon, J. P.; Kastoro, W.; Fischer, C. V.; Razak, H.; Sumanta, I.

    A study was made of the concentrations of copper, zinc and cadmium in benthic organisms, representing the phyla Mollusca, Arthropoda, Echinodermata and Pisces, from the riverine and estuarine areas of the rivers Brantas and Solo (East Java) and the adjacent coastal area. Moreover, an assessment was made of the contamination of the benthic biota with these elements in the Java Sea and Bali Sea. Benthic organisms show a species-specific uptake pattern for each element. Compared to the same type of animals from estuaries and coastal areas in temperate regions of western Europe, the concentrations of cadmium are considerably higher, while copper and zinc concentrations are somewhat lower. There is no general trend in concentration levels of the metals in specimens from rivers, estuaries, coastal zone and open sea. In some groups of organisms ( e.g. shrimp, starfish) the concentrations of copper and zinc are highest in specimens from rivers and estuaries. In contrast, cadmium concentration levels in e.g. crab, shrimp and squid are lowest in riverine and estuarine areas. Significant differences in metal concentrations in these organisms were found between the dry monsoon period (July, August) and the beginning of the wet monsoon (November, December). No relationship existed between the metal concentration of the organisms and the silt fraction of the sediment (grain size < 63 μm) or the bulk sediment.

  6. Tidal analysis in the venturi-shaped area between Zhenhai and Shenjiamen in the East China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lü, Huaqing; Hu, Jianjiong

    2009-02-01

    In order to better understand the general tidal features in the venturi-shaped area between Zhenhai and Shenjiamen in the northern coastal region of Zhejiang Province in the East China Sea, the tidal data were obtained from both the three permanent tide stations of Zhenhai, Dinghai and Shenjiamen, and four temporary tide stations of Mamu, Chuanshan, Guoju and Liuheng, along with the current speed being observed at Luotou Waterway. Results from harmonic analysis show that: (1) The area was dominated by shallow water tides with irregular semi-diurnal features, and the smallest tidal range occurred in the area near a crossing line between Zhenhai and Dinghai stations, indicating that a tidal node existed in the southern Hangzhou Bay; (2) Formulae, H_{S_2 } /H_{M_2 } > 0.4 and g_{M_2 } - (g_{K_1 } + g_{O_1 } ) =270° (where H and g are harmonic constants), could be used as judging criteria for high and low tidal level diurnal inequalities; (3) The duration difference between ebb and flood tides could be roughly assessed by the ratio of H_{M_4 } vs. H_{M_2 } ; and the larger the ratio is, the bigger the duration difference is. At the same time, the duration period could be assessed by 2g_{M_2 } - g_{M_4 } , the epoch difference between M 2 and M 4 tidal constituents. If 2g_{M_2 } - g_{M_4 } venturi-shaped area. Along the both sides of the area, the highest tidal level and tidal range became higher and larger, while the lowest tidal level became lower with the increase of the distance from the narrow throat area. This is somehow different from the theory that the tidal level increases gradually when it moves towards the top narrow area of a V-shaped bay or estuary.

  7. Exploring Land use and Land cover change in the mining areas of Wa East District, Ghana using Satellite Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basommi, Prosper Laari; Guan, Qingfeng; Cheng, Dandan

    2015-11-01

    Satellite imagery has been widely used to monitor the extent of environmental change in both mine and post mine areas. This study uses Remote sensing and Geographical Information System techniques for the assessment of land use/land cover dynamics of mine related areas in Wa East District of Ghana. Landsat satellite imageries of three different time periods, i.e., 1991, 2000 and 2014 were used to quantify the land use/cover changes in the area. Supervised Classification using Maximum Likelihood Technique in ERDAS was utilized. The images were categorized into five different classes: Open Savannah, Closed Savannah, Bare Areas, Settlement and Water. Image differencing method of change detection was used to investigate the changes. Normalized Differential Vegetative Index valueswere used to correlate the state of healthy vegetation. The image differencing showed a positive correlation to the changes in the Land use and Land cover classes. NDVI values reduced from 0.48 to 0.11. The land use change matrix also showed conversion of savannah areas into bare ground and settlement. Open and close savannah reduced from 50.80% to 36.5% and 27.80% to 22.67% respectively whiles bare land and settlement increased. Overall accuracy of classified 2014 image and kappa statistics was 83.20% and 0.761 respectively. The study revealed the declining nature of the vegetation and the significance of using satellite imagery. A higher resolution satellite Imagery is however needed to satisfactorily delineate mine areas from other bare areas in such Savannah zones.

  8. Early life of inshore fishes in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Swalethorp, Rasmus

    regimes, relative inflowof Atlantic water, temperature increase, glacial melting and runoff from land, the environment off West Greenland will undergo significant changes in the future. This thesis points out that in fjord systems, where such processes might change the timing and magnitude of freshwater....... The distribution of larvae generally overlapped the distribution of their preferred prey. Although no direct relationship could be found between prey availability and cod larval growth, the otolith growth rate was significantly improved in larvae that dispersing away from the spawning area. This was despite lower...... Greenlandic Godthåbsfjord system and the offshore Fyllas Bank, which encompass different oceanographic regimes, and which harbor different zooplanktoncommunities in specific regions. Significantly different patterns of distribution were shown for the fish larvae and these appeared linked to the specific...

  9. Power Scaling and Seasonal Changes of Floe Areas in the Arctic East Siberian Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geise, Gregory R.; Barton, Christopher C.; Tebbens, Sarah F.

    2017-01-01

    The cumulative number versus floe area distribution of seasonal sea floes from six satellite images of the Arctic Ocean during the summer breakup and melting is fit by two scale-invariant power law scaling regimes for floe areas ranging from 30 to 28,400,000 m2. Scaling exponents, β, for larger floe areas range from -0.6 to -1.0 with an average of -0.8. Scaling exponents, β, for smaller floe areas range from -0.3 to -0.6 with an average of -0.5. The inflection point between the two scaling regimes ranges from 283 × 102 to 4850 × 102 m2 and generally moves from larger to smaller floe areas through the summer melting season. The stability of the power scaling results is demonstrated for two of the images by dividing each in half and analyzing each half separately, with the result that the scaling exponents and the size of the inflection points are nearly the same for each half as for the whole image. We propose that the two scaling regimes and the inflection between them are established during the initial breakup of sea ice solely by the process of fracture. The distributions of floe size regimes retain their scaling exponents as the floe pack evolves from larger to smaller floe areas from the initial breakup through the summer season, due to grinding, crushing, fracture, and melting. The scaling exponents for floe area distribution are in the same range as those reported in previous studies of Arctic floes and for the single scaling exponents found for crushed and ground geologic materials including streambed gravel, lunar debris, and artificially crushed quartz. The single scaling exponent found for fault gouge falls below the range for floes possibly because the fracturing and grinding process in fault gouge takes place under high confining pressure. A probabilistic model of fragmentation is proposed that generates a single power law scaling distribution of fragment size.

  10. Greenland ice sheet surface mass balance: evaluating simulations and making projections with regional climate models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rae, J.G.L.; Aðalgeirsdóttir, G.; Edwards, T.L.; Fettweis, X.; Gregory, J.M.; Hewitt, H.T.; Lowe, J.A.; Lucas-Picher, P.; Mottram, R.H.; Payne, A.J.; Ridley, J.K.; Shannon, S.R.; van de Berg, W.J.; van de Wal, R.S.W.; van den Broeke, M.R.

    2012-01-01

    Four high-resolution regional climate models (RCMs) have been set up for the area of Greenland, with the aim of providing future projections of Greenland ice sheet surface mass balance (SMB), and its contribution to sea level rise, with greater accuracy than is possible from coarser-resolution gener

  11. A cascade of warming impacts brings bluefin tuna to Greenland waters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    MacKenzie, Brian R.; Payne, Mark R.; Boje, Jesper;

    2014-01-01

    for Atlantic mackerel, Scomber scombrus Linnaeus 1758. The bluefin tuna were captured in a single net-haul in 9-11 °C water together with 6 tonnes of mackerel, which is a preferred prey species and itself a new immigrant to the area. Regional temperatures in August 2012 were historically high and contributed...... to a warming trend since 1985, when temperatures began to rise. The presence of bluefin tuna in this region is likely due to a combination of warm temperatures that are physiologically more tolerable and immigration of an important prey species to the region. We conclude that a cascade of climate change...... impacts is restructuring the food web in east Greenland waters....

  12. Ethnicity, Education, and the Temporal Stability of Personality Traits In the East Baltimore Epidemiologic Catchment Area Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löckenhoff, Corinna E; Terracciano, Antonio; Bienvenu, O Joseph; Patriciu, Nicholas S; Nestadt, Gerald; McCrae, Robert R; Eaton, William W; Costa, Paul T

    2008-01-01

    We examined the influence of age, gender, Black vs. White ethnicity, and education on five indices of personality stability and change across an average interval of 8 years in the East Baltimore Epidemiologic Catchment Area study. In the full sample (n = 505, aged 30-88), examination of structural, rank-order, ipsative, and mean level stability, as well as indices of reliable change suggested that NEO-PI-R personality traits showed moderate to high levels of stability over time. There were few age and gender effects on temporal stability but rank-order, ipsative, and mean level stability were lower among Blacks and individuals with lower education. Future research should explore additional demographic predictors of temporal plasticity in a diverse range of samples, and employ observer ratings to assess personality.

  13. Characteristics of algal succession following rock scraping at Imwon area in the east coast of Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young Dae; Ahn, Jung Kwan; Nam, Myung Mo; Lee, Chu; Yoo, Hyun Il; Yeon, Su Yeoung; Kim, Young Hwan; Kim, Jang Kyun; Choi, Jae Suk

    2016-12-01

    This study was conducted to clarify the characteristics of algal succession following rock scraping using hoe or high-pressure water sprayer in the period from June 2010 to April 2011. We divided the research area off the eastern coast of Korean near Imwon into 3 categories depending upon the severity of the barren ground, i.e., the urchin barren-affected, urchin barren-ongoing and urchin barren-free areas. In April 2011, in the urchin barren-affected area with 25 seaweed species, the cover percentage and importance value (IV) of crustose coralline algae were higher than those of other species. In the urchin barren-ongoing area with 33 seaweed species, crustose coralline algae (mean IV = 62%) as well as Sargassum sp. (mean IV = 28%), and Gelidium amansii (mean IV = 19%) were observed following rock scraping. In the urchin barren-free area where seaweed communities were relatively abundant with 42 species, a variety of algal species including G. amansii (mean IV = 32%) underwent algal succession. Overall, it was observed that, as an aspect of algal succession, the weaker the barren ground severity was, the more frequent and diverse the seaweeds were, and the more complex the succession pattern was in the study. As an aspect of recovering algal community, rock scraping using hoe was shown to be superior to the method using high-pressure water spraying. Therefore, we conclude that rock scraping using hoe is a very effective strategy for recovering the algal community in urchin barren-ongoing area.

  14. Characteristics of Algal Succession Following Rock Scraping at Imwon Area in the East Coast of Korea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Young Dae Kim; Jung Kwan Ahn; Myung Mo Nam; Chu Lee; Hyun Il Yoo; Su Yeoung Yeon; Young Hwan Kim; Jang Kyun Kim; Jae Suk Choi

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to clarify the characteristics of algal succession following rock scraping using hoe or high-pressure water sprayer in the period from June 2010 to April 2011. We divided the research area off the eastern coast of Korean near Imwon into 3 categories depending upon the severity of the barren ground,i.e., the urchin barren-affected, urchin bar-ren-ongoing and urchin barren-free areas. In April 2011, in the urchin barren-affected area with 25 seaweed species, the cover per-centage and importance value (IV) of crustose coralline algae were higher than those of other species. In the urchin barren-ongoing area with 33 seaweed species, crustose coralline algae (mean IV=62%) as well asSargassumsp. (mean IV=28%), andGelidium amansii (mean IV=19%) were observed following rock scraping. In the urchin barren-free area where seaweed communities were relatively abundant with 42 species, a variety of algal species includingG. amansii (mean IV=32%) underwent algal succession. Overall, it was observed that, as an aspect of algal succession, the weaker the barren ground severity was, the more frequent and di-verse the seaweeds were, and the more complex the succession pattern was in the study. As an aspect of recovering algal community, rock scraping using hoe was shown to be superior to the method using high-pressure water spraying. Therefore, we conclude that rock scraping using hoe is a very effective strategy for recovering the algal community in urchin barren-ongoing area.

  15. 华东沿海地震海啸模拟%Tsunami Simulation for the Coast Area of East China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹振轩; 傅建武; 朱元清; 李俊

    2011-01-01

    利用数字地震资料及海洋地震地质基础数据,基于Matlab平台在Windows系统下重新编译Philip liu等人编写的海啸模拟源程序,将分层静态位移解结果与已建立的海啸传播初始场快速融合,用交错网格蛙跳差分方法求解笛卡尔坐标系下非线性浅水波方程,模拟华东沿海地区地震海啸传播过程,对华东沿海地区可能遭受海啸袭击的危险做出评估,结果显示华东沿海地区是发生地震海啸影响较弱地区.%Based on comprehensive consideration of topography, geological structure, seis-mological features and historical records, we simulated an earthquake tsunami with the rebuilt program from Prof. Philip Liu based on Matlab and Windows OS. We used crossed grid leap-frog difference scheme to solve linear or un-linear water wave functions in spherical coordinate and rectangular coordinate system, and simulated a scenario earthquake tsunami propagation in the coast area of East China, and evaluated the risk and hazards for the area. The results show that the coast of East China is lowly influenced by earthquake tsunami.

  16. Unglaciated areas in East Antarctica during the Last Glacial (Marine Isotope Stage 3) - New evidence from Rauer Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Sonja; White, Duanne A.; Bennike, Ole; Fülöp, Réka-H.; Fink, David; Wagner, Bernd; Melles, Martin

    2016-12-01

    Limited information on the East Antarctic Ice Sheet (EAIS) geometry during Marine Isotope Stage 3 (MIS 3; 60-25 ka) restricts our understanding of its behaviour during periods of climate and sea level change. Ice sheet models forced by global parameters suggest an expanded EAIS compared to the Holocene during MIS 3, but field evidence from East Antarctic coastal areas contradicts such modelling, and suggests that the ice sheet margins were no more advanced than at present. Here we present a new lake sediment record, and cosmogenic exposure results from bedrock, which confirm that Rauer Group (eastern Prydz Bay) was ice-free for much of MIS 3. We also refine the likely duration of the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) glaciation in the region. Lacustrine and marine sediments from Rauer Group indicate the penultimate period of ice retreat predates 50 ka. The lacustrine record indicates a change from warmer/wetter conditions to cooler/drier conditions after ca. 35 ka. Substantive ice sheet re-advance, however, may not have occurred until much closer to 20 ka. Contemporary coastal areas were still connected to the sea during MIS 3, restricting the possible extent of grounded ice in Prydz Bay on the continental shelf. In contrast, relative sea levels (RSL) deduced from field evidence indicate an extra ice load averaging several hundred metres thicker ice across the Bay between 45 and 32 ka. Thus, ice must either have been thicker immediately inland (with a steeper ice profile), or there were additional ice domes on the shallow banks of the outer continental shelf. Further work is required to reconcile the differences between empirical evidence of past ice sheet histories, and the history predicted by ice sheet models from far-field temperature and sea level records.

  17. Facies conditions of the 2. Lusatian seam horizon in the area East of Peitz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boenisch, R.; Liskow, C.

    1988-07-01

    Characterizes the Miocene brown coal deposit in the area Peitz, Jaenschwalde and Guben (GDR) by methods of paleobotany and paleogeography. Results of macropetrographic facies analysis and geophysical borehole measurements were employed in the study. Geologic profiles of the region as well as maps of seam distribution were drawn up. The analysis proves that prehistoric river meanders divide the brown coal moor into a northern and a southern section. A description of the paleoenvironment and the sedimentation process is given. A correlation between coal facies and technological coal quality is pointed out. The study is being used to develop a geologic seam model for this brown coal mining area. 9 refs.

  18. Temperature and conductivity data collected by CTDs on moored buoys in the Sermilik Fjord, Greenland from 2008-07 to 2009-08 (NODC Accession 0123217)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The data included in this dataset were collected in the Sermilik Fjord, located in East Greenland in the Ammassalik district close to the town of Tasiilaq. Data...

  19. Integrated geophysical studies on the area east of Abu Gharadig basin, southern Cairo, Egypt, using potential field data

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Awady, Mohammed Mohamed; El-Badrawy, Hussein Tawfek; Abuo El-Ela, Amin Mohamed; Solimaan, Mohamed Refaat; Alrefaee, Hamed Abdelhamid; Elbowab, Mostafa

    2016-12-01

    Potential field data of the area east of Abu Gharadig basin were used to delineate the tectonic framework of probable economic interest and for future development plans for the area. To achieve this goal, the RTP and Bouguer gravity maps of the study area were subjected to several filtering and processing techniques. The regional magnetic map shows NE-SW high regional magnetic trends at the northwestern and southeastern parts as well as low magnetic trends at the central part reflecting thick non-magnetized sediments and/or deep highly magnetized basement rocks. Similarly, the regional gravity map shows NE-SW diagonal high and low gravity trends across the entire area of study as well as a distinct increase of gravity values toward the northwest corner reflecting thickening of sedimentary cover and/or deepening of denser basement rock at the central part. The residual maps reveal many anomalies of shallow sources with different polarities, amplitudes and extensions in the form of alternating high and low gravity and magnetic indicating that the basement rocks are dissected by faults forming uplifted and downthrown blocks. Edge detection techniques outlined effectively the boarders and extensions of the structural highs and lows through showing gravity and magnetic maxima over the edges of these tectonic features. Moreover, the River Nile course is controlled by shallow normal faults affecting the recent Nile sediments and is clearly shown by edge detection maps of gravity data. Euler deconvolution of magnetic and gravity data reveals clustering of solution along fault trends or causative bodies centers. The Euler depth estimate to the basement surface shows a good correlation with the depth determined by the power spectrum method where its value ranges around 4 km. The interpreted basement tectonic map of the study area is dominated by ENE-WSW Syrian Arc, NW-SE Gulf of Suez and Red Sea, NE-SW Aqaba, E-W Mediterranean and N-S East Africa tectonic trends. The older

  20. Ethnic density and deliberate self harm; a small area study in south east London

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neeleman, J; Wilson-Jones, C; Wessely, S

    Study objective-Relative risks are frequently used to convey how strongly outcomes like mental illness and suicidal behaviour are associated with personal characteristics Like ethnic background. This study examined whether RRs for deliberate self harm (DSH) in ethnic groups vary between small areas

  1. Crust and upper mantle structure in east China and sea areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Eastern China and vicinal sea areas (98°~150°E, 5°~50°N) are located in the junction zone of Eurasian and Pacific plates, and it is also profoundly influenced by the collision between Indian and Eurasian plates. We utilized surface wave data recorded by 35 digital seismic stations in the area, extracted dispersion curves of fundamental-mode Rayleigh waves along 1 252 paths by means of time-frequency analysis based on multiple-filter and other tech-niques. The study area was divided into a grid of 1°′1°, group velocity distributions of fundamental Rayleigh waves between 10~158 s were determined by Occam¢s inversion. These velocity distributions roughly depict the lateral variations of shear wave velocities in different depth ranges. With the determined pure path dispersions we further inverted for the S wave velocity structures along two profiles from eastern Tibet to Pacific Ocean and from South China Sea to Mongolia. It is found that the lateral heterogeneity is obvious down to 400 km depth, and the velocity structures are correlated with tectonic units in the study area.

  2. A Case Study of Ika North East Local Government Area of Delta ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FIRST LADY

    2011-01-18

    Jan 18, 2011 ... policy implications for the socio-economic development of Delta State in particular and ... However, Ika South Local Government Area marks its ... culture is a product of industrial and urban transformations of the 19th century. Europe. ..... Recreation and Tourism Pattern and Trend, P. 415 – 421. Olayide ...

  3. Adventure Learning @ Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, B. G.; Cox, C. J.; Hougham, J.; Walden, V. P.; Eitel, K.; Albano, A.

    2013-12-01

    Teaching the general public and K-12 communities about scientific research has taken on greater importance as climate change increasingly impacts the world we live in. Science researchers and the educational community have a widening responsibility to produce and deliver curriculum and content that is timely, scientifically sound and engaging. To address this challenge, in the summer of 2012 the Adventure Learning @ Greenland (AL@GL) project, a United States' National Science Foundation (NSF) funded initiative, used hands-on and web-based climate science experiences for high school students to promote climate and science literacy. This presentation will report on an innovative approach to education and outreach for environmental science research known as Adventure Learning (AL). The purpose of AL@GL was to engage high school students in the US, and in Greenland, in atmospheric research that is being conducted in the Arctic to enhance climate and science literacy. Climate and science literacy was explored via three fundamental concepts: radiation, the greenhouse effect, and climate vs. weather. Over the course of the project, students in each location engaged in activities and conducted experiments through the use of scientific instrumentation. Students were taught science research principles associated with an atmospheric observatory at Summit Station, Greenland with the objective of connecting climate science in the Arctic to student's local environments. Summit Station is located on the Greenland Ice Sheet [72°N, 38°W, 3200 m] and was the primary location of interest. Approximately 35 students at multiple locations in Idaho, USA, and Greenland participated in the hybrid learning environments as part of this project. The AL@GL project engaged students in an inquiry-based curriculum with content that highlighted a cutting-edge geophysical research initiative at Summit: the Integrated Characterization of Energy, Clouds, Atmospheric state, and Precipitation at

  4. The Greenland analogue project. Yearly report 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harper, J.; Brinkerhoff, D.; Johnson, J. [University of Montana, Missoula (United States); Ruskeeniemi, T.; Engstroem, J.; Kukkonen, I. [Geological Survey of Finland (Finland)] [and others

    2012-04-15

    A four-year field and modelling study of the Greenland ice sheet and subsurface conditions, Greenland Analogue Project (GAP), has been initiated collaboratively by SKB, Posiva and NWMO to advance the understanding of processes associated with glaciation and their impact on the long-term performance of a deep geological repository. The study site encompasses a land terminus portion of the Greenland ice sheet, east of Kangerlussuaq, and is in many ways considered to be an appropriate analogue of the conditions that are expected to prevail in much of Canada and Fennoscandia during future glacial cycles. The project begins in 2009 and is scheduled for completion in 2012. Our current understanding of the hydrological, hydrogeological and hydrogeochemical processes associated with cold climate conditions and glacial cycles, and their impact on the long-term performance of deep geological repositories for spent nuclear fuel, will be significantly improved by studying a modern analogue. The GAP will conduct the first in situ investigations of some of the parameters and processes needed to achieve a better understanding of how an ice sheet may impact a deep repository, and will provide measurements, observations and data that may significantly improve our safety assessments and risk analyses of glaciation scenarios. This report was produced by the GAP team members and presents an overview of the activities within the GAP during the interval January 1 to December 31, 2010, as well as research results obtained during this time frame. Research for the GAP is ongoing, and additional results related to the data presented here may become available in the future and will be presented in subsequent annual reports. (orig.)

  5. The Greenland Sea Odden: Intra- and inter-annual variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, C.A.; Fischer, K.W.; Shuchman, R.A.; Josberger, E.G.

    1997-01-01

    The "Odden" is a large sea ice feature that forms in the East Greenland Sea which generally forms at the beginning of the winter season and can cover 300,000 km2. Throughout the winter, the outer edge of the Odden may advance and retreat by several hundred kilometers on time scales of a few days to weeks. Satellite passive microwave observations from 1978 through 1995 provide a continuous record of the spatial and temporal variations of this extremely dynamic phenomenon. The 17 year record shows both strong inter- and intra-annual variations in Odden extent and temporal behavior. An analysis of the satellite passive microwave derived ice area and extent time series along with meteorological data from the Arctic Drifting Buoy Network determined the meteorological forcing required for Odden growth, maintenance and decay. The key meteorological parameters which cause the rapid ice formation and decay associated with the Odden are, in order of importance, air temperature, wind speed, and wind direction. Atmospheric pressure was found not to play a significant role in the Odden events. Air temperature and wind direction are the dominant variables with temperatures below -9.5??C and winds from the west required to trigger significant Odden ice formation events. ??2004 Copyright SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering.

  6. Miocene uplift of the NE Greenland margin linked to plate tectonics: Seismic evidence from the Greenland Fracture Zone, NE Atlantic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Døssing, Arne; Japsen, Peter; Watts, Anthony; Nielsen, Tove; Jokat, Wilfried; Thybo, Hans

    2016-04-01

    Tectonic models predict that, following breakup, rift margins undergo only decaying thermal subsidence during their post-rift evolution. However, post-breakup stratigraphy beneath the NE Atlantic shelves shows evidence of regional-scale unconformities, commonly cited as outer margin responses to inner margin episodic uplift, including the formation of coastal mountains. The origin of these events remains enigmatic. We present a seismic reflection study from the Greenland Fracture Zone - East Greenland Ridge (GFZ-EGR) and the NE Greenland shelf. We document a regional intra-Miocene seismic unconformity (IMU), which marks the termination of syn-rift deposition in the deep-sea basins and onset of: (i) thermo-mechanical coupling across the GFZ, (ii) basin compression, and (iii) contourite deposition, north of the EGR. The onset of coupling across the GFZ is constrained by results of 2-D flexural backstripping. We explain the thermo-mechanical coupling and the deposition of contourites by the formation of a continuous plate boundary along the Mohns and Knipovich ridges, leading to an accelerated widening of the Fram Strait. We demonstrate that the IMU event is linked to onset of uplift and massive shelf-progradation on the NE Greenland margin. Given an estimated middle-to-late Miocene (~15-10 Ma) age of the IMU, we speculate that the event is synchronous with uplift of the East and West Greenland margins. The correlation between margin uplift and plate-motion changes further indicates that the uplift was triggered by plate tectonic forces, induced perhaps by a change in the Iceland plume (a hot pulse) and/or by changes in intra-plate stresses related to global tectonics.

  7. A Model Planning of Design and Means for Recuperation of East Japan Disaster Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izawa, Misaki; Emori, Hisashi; Tsunaki, Toshihiro; Kobayashi, Naoaki; Kawasaki, Toshiyuki; Nakamura, Masanori

    We propose the following recuperation planning in Tarou area in Miyako city as a model area with the aid of educational industrial complex. Proposed means and vision are the following. First, setting up networked anti disaster facility within 500 m evacuation distance. Second, planning a model city of fence off which is more agreeable to the 21st century concept than traditional fence up concept, using natural energy and anti-disaster bridge instead of giant embankment. Third, proposing hill side residence instead of hill top residence. Fourth, putting up computergraphics of model planning for the residents. Lastly, we examined the possibility of the solar energy city based on the energy test calculation of photovoltaic power generation by solar heat in the inundation ground.

  8. Revegetation increase bird diversity in coastal area of Socorejo, Tuban, East Java - Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lestari, Yeni Indah; Edi, Wasito; Alivvy, Alkautsar; Ibadah, Acib Setia; Sari, Fadina Yuliana; Nuraini, Finda; Yanuar, Ahmad; Satriyono, Agus; Riany, Citra Fitrie; Saptarini, Dian; Muzaki, Farid Kamal

    2017-06-01

    Study to address positive impact of revegetation program to increasing diversity of bird had been conducted in coastal area of Socorejo, Tuban - Indonesia. Field observation conducted during April 2011 (representing pre-revegetation period), April 2015 and May 2016 (representing post-revegetation period). A belt transect (500 meter long and 50 meter width) was used to survey the abundance and species composition of birds community. In general, we identified at least 51 bird species from three observation times. From 2011 to 2016, the numbers of the birds identified are 23, 37 and 37 species; while the Shannon-Wiener diversity indices (H') are 1.865, 2.071 and 2.957, respectively. In addition, there are 11 national or internationally protected species, 3 Indonesian endemic species and 12 migratory species occurred in the area. As a conclusion, the coastal revegetation program provides positive impact by generating habitat function for bird community.

  9. Melting at the base of the Greenland ice sheet explained by Iceland hotspot history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogozhina, Irina; Petrunin, Alexey G.; Vaughan, Alan P. M.; Steinberger, Bernhard; Johnson, Jesse V.; Kaban, Mikhail K.; Calov, Reinhard; Rickers, Florian; Thomas, Maik; Koulakov, Ivan

    2016-05-01

    Ice-penetrating radar and ice core drilling have shown that large parts of the north-central Greenland ice sheet are melting from below. It has been argued that basal ice melt is due to the anomalously high geothermal flux that has also influenced the development of the longest ice stream in Greenland. Here we estimate the geothermal flux beneath the Greenland ice sheet and identify a 1,200-km-long and 400-km-wide geothermal anomaly beneath the thick ice cover. We suggest that this anomaly explains the observed melting of the ice sheet’s base, which drives the vigorous subglacial hydrology and controls the position of the head of the enigmatic 750-km-long northeastern Greenland ice stream. Our combined analysis of independent seismic, gravity and tectonic data implies that the geothermal anomaly, which crosses Greenland from west to east, was formed by Greenland’s passage over the Iceland mantle plume between roughly 80 and 35 million years ago. We conclude that the complexity of the present-day subglacial hydrology and dynamic features of the north-central Greenland ice sheet originated in tectonic events that pre-date the onset of glaciation in Greenland by many tens of millions of years.

  10. East vergent structure of Backbone Range: Insights from A-Lan-Yi area and sandbox modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, C. A.; Lu, C. Y.

    2015-12-01

    Southern Taiwan, including Pingtung peninsula and Taitung, is the incipient oblique collision zone of Eurasian plate and Philippine Sea plate. The Luzon volcanic arc converged toward Taiwan Island and formed Hengchun Ridge south offshore Taiwan. Thus, Taiwan mountain belt developed from north to south as the Backbone Range, so that we can infer the incipient feature structure from the topography and outcrop study of southern Taiwan. Our field survey of this study concentrated at the southeast coastline of Taiwan, also known as A-Lan-Yi Trail. According to previous study, the deformational structures such as faults and folds are consistent with regional kinematic processes, and the preserved transpression structure is the most important evidence of incipient collision. In this study, we use the sedimentary sequences of study area to trace the regional tectonics from north to south. Discovered structures in this area show the similar kinematic history as the eastern flank of Backbone Range, so that we suggest they are at the same series of a tectonic event. To complete the regional structure mapping in this accessible area, besides the field geological data, we also applied the LiDAR-derived DTM which is a 3D visualization technology to improve our topography information. In addition, we use the sandbox modeling to demonstrate the development of structures in the eastern flank of Backbone Range. After combining the results of field observation and regional structure mapping, this study provides a strong evidence of backthrusting and backfolding deformation during the incipient oblique collision stage.

  11. Annual variations of frost table in Kangerlussuaq Airport, western Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2007-01-01

    Ground-penetrating radar (GPR) has been used to study the annual variations of the frost table beneath the southern parking area at Kangerlussuaq Airport, western Greenland. In autumn 2000, three test areas were painted white in order to reduce further development of depressions in the asphalt...

  12. Snapshots of the Greenland ice sheet configuration in the Pliocene to early Pleistocene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solgaard, Anne M.; Reeh, Niels; Japsen, Peter

    2011-01-01

    from the deposits of the Kap Kobenhavn Formation, North Greenland. Our experiments show that no coherent ice sheet is likely to have existed in Greenland during the Mid-Pliocene Warmth and that only local ice caps may have been present in the coastal mountains of East Greenland. Our results illustrate......The geometry of the ice sheets during the Pliocene to early Pleistocene is not well constrained. Here we apply an ice-flow model in the study of the Greenland ice sheet (GIS) during three extreme intervals of this period constrained by geological observations and climate reconstructions. We study...... the variability of the GIS during the Pliocene to early Pleistocene and underline the importance of including independent estimates of the GIS in studies of climate during this period. We conclude that the GIS did not exist throughout the Pliocene to early Pleistocene, and that it melted during interglacials even...

  13. Toxaphene in the aquatic environment of Greenland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorkamp, Katrin; Rigét, Frank F; Dietz, Rune

    2015-05-01

    The octa- and nonachlorinated bornanes (toxaphene) CHBs 26, 40, 41, 44, 50 and 62 were analysed in Arctic char (Salvelinus alpinus), shorthorn sculpin (Myoxocephalus scorpius), ringed seal (Pusa hispida) and black guillemot eggs (Cepphus grylle) from Greenland. Despite their high trophic level, ringed seals had the lowest concentrations of these species, with a Σ6Toxaphene median concentration of 13-20 ng/g lipid weight (lw), suggesting metabolisation. The congener composition also suggests transformation of nona- to octachlorinated congeners. Black guillemot eggs had the highest concentrations (Σ6Toxaphene median concentration of 971 ng/g lw). Although concentrations were higher in East than in West Greenland differences were smaller than for other persistent organic pollutants. In a circumpolar context, toxaphene had the highest concentrations in the Canadian Arctic. Time trend analyses showed significant decreases for black guillemot eggs and juvenile ringed seals, with annual rates of -5 to -7% for Σ6Toxaphene. The decreases were generally steepest for CHBs 40, 41 and 44.

  14. Environmental Assessment for East Housing Area Solar Energy Project, Vandenberg Air Force Base, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    with live music Gas lawn mower at 50 ft. 80 Noisy restaurant 70 Vacuum cleaner at 10 ft. Commercial/Urban area daytime Normal speech at 3 ft...LRR C) Depleted Matrix (F3) Redox Dark Surface (F6) Depleted Dark Surface (F7) Redox Depressions (F8) Sandy Redox (S5) Stripped Matrix (S6) Matrix...Surface (F6) Depleted Dark Surface (F7) Redox Depressions (F8) Sandy Redox (S5) Stripped Matrix (S6) Matrix Redox FeaturesDepth Loa y ucky ineral (F1

  15. Characteristics of Magmatic Rocks and Tectonic Setting of Mazhuangshan Area,East Tianshan,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈世忠; 周济元; 等

    2000-01-01

    The Mazhuangshan area lies in northeast to Aqikekuduke,where are distributed in-termediate-acid rocks,which were formed in the Middle-Late Carboniferous epoch.The magmatic rocks are peraluminous and belong to calcareous series.All values of ACNK(1.03-2.12),ANK(1.67-2.93),SI(4.1-33),δ(0.71-4.82),La/∑REE(0.09-0.26) ∑LREE/∑HREE(1.76-11.01),(La/Sm)N(1.60-6.35),(Sm/Nd)N(0.33-0.58),(La/Yb)N(4.7-12.1),LaN/Lux(5.9-11.8),(Ce/Yb)N(3.14-6.64),δEu(0.38-1.06),RbN/SrN(41-120)and Sr(0.02-0.2)demonstrate they vary with D_I(45-90).S-B diagram also shows that the lithophile elements are abundant in acidic magmatic rocks,Moreover,it is concluded that the primitive magma originated from a subduction zone at the continental edge,and underwent fractional crystallization and contamination,then generated the magmatic rocks,The multi-cation index(R:3055-3993,R2:286-438) shows that the primitive magma originated from the mantle,All these conclusions are beneficial for exploring gold deposits in the area.

  16. Greenland Telescope (GLT Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakamura M.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The GLT project is deploying a new submillimeter (submm VLBI station in Greenland. Our primary scientific goal is to image a shadow of the supermassive black hole (SMBH of six billion solar masses in M87 at the center of the Virgo cluster of galaxies. The expected SMBH shadow size of 40-50 μas requires superbly high angular resolution, suggesting that the submm VLBI would be the only way to obtain the shadow image. The Summit station in Greenland enables us to establish baselines longer than 9,000 km with ALMA in Chile and SMA in Hawaii as well as providing a unique u–v coverage for imaging M87. Our VLBI network will achieve a superior angular resolution of about 20 μas at 350 GHz, corresponding to ∼ 2.5 times of the Schwarzschild radius of the supermassive black hole in M87. We have been monitoring the atmospheric opacity at 230 GHz since August. 2011; we have confirmed the value on site during the winter season is comparable to the ALMA site thanks to high altitude of 3,200 m and low temperature of −50°C. We will report current status and future plan of the GLT project towards our expected first light on 2015–2016.

  17. Vegetation Diversity Quality in Mountainous Forest of Ranu Regulo Lake Area, Bromo Tengger Semeru National Park, East Java

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jehan Ramdani Hariyati

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim of this research was to study vegetation diversity quality in mountainous forest of Ranu Regulo Lake area in Bromo Tengger Semeru National Park (TNBTS, East Java. Field observation was carried out by vegetation analysis using sampling plots of 25x25 m2 for trees, 5x5 m2 for poles, 1x1 m2 for ground surface plants. Community structure of each lake side was determined by calculating vegetation's density, basal area, frequency, important value and stratification of species. While vegetations diversity was estimated by taxa richness, Shannon-Wiener diversity index, and rate of endemism. Each lake side forests were compared by Morisita community similarity index. Data were tabulated by Microsoft Excel 2007. The result showed that based on existed vegetation, mountainous forest surrounding Ranu Regulo Lake consisted of four ecosystems, i.e. heterogenic mountainous forest, pine forest, acacia forest and bushes. Bushes Area has two types of population, edelweiss and Eupatorium odoratum invaded area. Vegetation diversity quality in heterogenic mountainous forest of Ranu Regulo TNBTS was the highest, indicated by its multi-stratification to B stratum trees of 20-30m high. Heterogenic mountainous forest’s formation was Acer laurinum and Acmena accuminatissima for trees, Chyatea for poles. Taxa richness was found 59 species and 30 families, while the others were found below 28 species and 17 families. Diversity Index of heterogenic mountainous forest is the highest among others for trees is 2.31 and 3.24 for poles and second in bushes (H=3.10 after edelweiss ecosystem (H=3.39. Highest rate of endemism reached 100% for trees in heterogenic mountainous forest, 87% for poles in edelweiss area and 89% for bushes also in heterogenic mountainous forest. Trees, poles and herbs most similarity community showed by pine and acacia forest. Based on those five characters, vegetation diversity quality in Ranu Regulo Lake area was medium for heterogenic mountainous

  18. Earthquake hypocenter relocation using double difference method in East Java and surrounding areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    C, Aprilia Puspita; Nugraha, Andri Dian; Puspito, Nanang T.

    2015-04-01

    Determination of precise hypocenter location is very important in order to provide information about subsurface fault plane and for seismic hazard analysis. In this study, we have relocated hypocenter earthquakes in Eastern part of Java and surrounding areas from local earthquake data catalog compiled by Meteorological, Climatological, and Geophysical Agency of Indonesia (MCGA) in time period 2009-2012 by using the double-difference method. The results show that after relocation processes, there are significantly changes in position and orientation of earthquake hypocenter which is correlated with the geological setting in this region. We observed indication of double seismic zone at depths of 70-120 km within the subducting slab in south of eastern part of Java region. Our results will provide useful information for advance seismological studies and seismic hazard analysis in this study.

  19. Earthquake hypocenter relocation using double difference method in East Java and surrounding areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C, Aprilia Puspita [Geophysical Engineering Program, Faculty of Mining and Petroleum Engineering, Institute of Technology Bandung (Indonesia); Meteorological, Climatological, and Geophysical Agency (MCGA) of Indonesian, Jakarta (Indonesia); Nugraha, Andri Dian, E-mail: nugraha@gf.itb.ac.id [Geophysical Engineering Program, Faculty of Mining and Petroleum Engineering, Institute of Technology Bandung (Indonesia); Puspito, Nanang T [Global Geophysical Research Group, Faculty of Mining and Petroleum Engineering, Institute of Technology Bandung (Indonesia)

    2015-04-24

    Determination of precise hypocenter location is very important in order to provide information about subsurface fault plane and for seismic hazard analysis. In this study, we have relocated hypocenter earthquakes in Eastern part of Java and surrounding areas from local earthquake data catalog compiled by Meteorological, Climatological, and Geophysical Agency of Indonesia (MCGA) in time period 2009-2012 by using the double-difference method. The results show that after relocation processes, there are significantly changes in position and orientation of earthquake hypocenter which is correlated with the geological setting in this region. We observed indication of double seismic zone at depths of 70-120 km within the subducting slab in south of eastern part of Java region. Our results will provide useful information for advance seismological studies and seismic hazard analysis in this study.

  20. Minerals Yearbook, volume III, Area Reports—International—Africa and the Middle East

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2017-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Minerals Yearbook discusses the performance of the worldwide minerals and materials industries and provides background information to assist in interpreting that performance. Content of the individual Minerals Yearbook volumes follows:Volume I, Metals and Minerals, contains chapters about virtually all metallic and industrial mineral commodities important to the U.S. economy. Chapters on survey methods, summary statistics for domestic nonfuel minerals, and trends in mining and quarrying in the metals and industrial mineral industries in the United States are also included.Volume II, Area Reports: Domestic, contains a chapter on the mineral industry of each of the 50 States and Puerto Rico and the Administered Islands. This volume also has chapters on survey methods and summary statistics of domestic nonfuel minerals.Volume III, Area Reports: International, is published as four separate reports. These regional reports contain the latest available minerals data on more than 180 foreign countries and discuss the importance of minerals to the economies of these nations and the United States. Each report begins with an overview of the region’s mineral industries during the year. It continues with individual country chapters that examine the mining, refining, processing, and use of minerals in each country of the region and how each country’s mineral industry relates to U.S. industry. Most chapters include production tables and industry structure tables, information about Government policies and programs that affect the country’s mineral industry, and an outlook section.The USGS continually strives to improve the value of its publications to users. Constructive comments and suggestions by readers of the Minerals Yearbook are welcomed.

  1. Assessing dengue outbreak areas using vector surveillance in north east district, Penang Island, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Mohiddin

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To understand the efficacy of ovitrap surveillance and its implementation on monitoring reflection upon case occurrence in relation to climate variables. Methods: We used routinely setup ovitrap surveillance to monitor the mosquito populations in previous outbreak areas. Ovitraps were installed weekly at three localities that experienced high number of dengue cases (Flat Hamna, Kampung Sungai Gelugor and Kampung Tanjung Tokong from January 2010 to February 2011. Ovitraps and paddles were brought back to the laboratory and all of the water contents were poured into an enamel pan. Aged tap water was added into the enamel pan and eggs were allowed to hatch. The hatching larvae were counted after 3 days. The hatched larvae were identified at the 3rd instar larval stage. The ovitrap indices and mean number of larvae were analyzed using student t-test and One-way ANOVA. Spearmen’s rank correlation coefficient was used to determine the relation between meteorology variables and dengue fever cases. Results: Aedes albopictus was found as dominant species followed by Aedes aegypti recorded in all three study areas. Aedes aegypti preferred to breed outdoor with larvae collection, which was higher than indoor (72.37%. There was a positive correlation between the ovitrap index with the rainfall and humidity except in Kampung Tanjung Tokong. Our result also showed negative correlation between temperature and ovitrap index in all localities. Conclusions: This study provides useful data to be adapted in dengue vector management. It is very important to understand the fluctuation of vector population according to the seasonal activity, which can help us to improve our control programs. However, other factors might also contribute to the increment of dengue outbreak such as the number of available breeding sites, behavior of the vector against environmental factors and the cleanliness of the environment.

  2. Surficial Geologic Map of the Clinton-Concord-Grafton-Medfield 12-Quadrangle Area in East Central Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Janet R.; Stone, Byron D.

    2006-01-01

    The surficial geologic map shows the distribution of nonlithified earth materials at land surface in an area of twelve 7.5-minute quadrangles (total 660 square miles) in east-central Massachusetts. The geologic map differentiates surficial materials of Quaternary age on the basis of their lithologic characteristics (grain size, sedimentary structures, mineral and rock-particle composition), constructional geomorphic features, stratigraphic relationships, and age. Surficial earth materials significantly affect human use of the land, and an accurate description of their distribution is particularly important for water resources, construction aggregate resources, earth-surface hazards assessments, and land-use decisions. This compilation of surficial geologic materials is an interim product that defines the areas of exposed bedrock, and the boundaries between glacial till, glacial stratified deposits, and overlying postglacial deposits. This work is part of a comprehensive study to produce a statewide digital map of the surficial geology at a 1:24,000-scale level of accuracy. This report includes explanatory text (PDF), a regional map at 1:50,000 scale (PDF), quadrangle maps at 1:24,000 scale (12 PDF files), GIS data layers (ArcGIS shapefiles), scanned topographic base maps (TIF), metadata for the GIS layers, and a readme.txt file.

  3. Emergence of cutaneous leishmaniasis in a border area at south-east of Iran: an epidemiological survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Fazaeli

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL has been recently emerged in new foci, posing a public health problem. Increasing cases of CL have been reported during recent years from a border area between Iran and Pakistan, a previously non-endemic area. The present study was designed for epidemiological and parasitological characterization of the disease for the first time in this area.Methods: A total of 3100 individuals from the city of Mirjaveh and its four rural districts were randomly selected and surveyed from March 2005 to February 2006. Microscopic examination, in vitro culture, mouse inoculations and species-specific kDNA-PCR assay were carried out for Leishmania detection and species identification. Results: CL was endemic in an important rural district of Mirjaveh, presenting active lesions and scars in 6.6 and 9.5%, respectively. The highest rates of both active lesions and scars were found in the age group of 10 years or under with significant differences (p 0.05. The most affected location was upper limb, 39.2% of ulcers and 41.7% of scars. Inoculation of the clinical isolates on Balb/c mice, led to the development of ulcers in the animals, implying that the causative parasite is Leishmania major. The PCR amplification also generated amplicons specific to L. major.Conclusion: It can be concluded that Mirjaveh is an endemic region of cutaneous leishmaniasis as a new focus due to the recent emergence in this border area of south-east of Iran with a major contribution of L. major, as the causative parasite species.

  4. A genetic comparison of West Greenland and Baffin Island (Canada walruses: Management implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liselotte Wesley Andersen

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Until recently Atlantic walruses (Odobenus rosmarus rosmarus have been subject to relatively intense exploitation in West Greenland. Animals in this stock have also been hunted in Nunavut/Canada. However, the demographic identity of these animals and their connection with walruses in neighbouring areas is poorly resolved, hampering the determination of sustainable harvest levels. It has been suggested that walruses in West Greenland are genetically linked with walruses at SE Baffin Island (Canada where they are also hunted for subsistence purposes. To determine the relationship(s between walruses in these areas we conducted a genetic analysis including recent samples from West Greenland, Southeast Baffin Island in western Davis Strait, Hudson Strait in Canada and Northwest Greenland in northern Baffin Bay. Seventeen microsatellite markers were applied to all samples. Walruses in West Greenland and at Southeast Baffin Island did not differ from each other and therefore may be regarded as belonging to the same stock. However, walruses in these two areas differed genetically from both Northwest Greenland and Hudson Strait walruses. These findings support (1 that there are subunits within the range of walruses in the Hudson Strait-Davis Strait-Baffin Bay region and (2 that walruses along E Baffin Island and W Greenland constitute a common population that receive some influx from Hudson Strait. Thus, sustainable catch levels in Southeast Baffin Island (Nunavut and in West Greenland must be set in light of the finding that they belong to the same stock, which is exploited in these two areas. This requires Canadian-Greenlandic co-management of the W Greenland-SE Baffin Island walrus stock.

  5. Genetic Diversity of Plasmodium falciparum Populations in Malaria Declining Areas of Sabah, East Malaysia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Ridzuan Mohd Abd Razak

    Full Text Available Malaysia has a national goal to eliminate malaria by 2020. Understanding the genetic diversity of malaria parasites in residual transmission foci can provide invaluable information which may inform the intervention strategies used to reach elimination targets. This study was conducted to determine the genetic diversity level of P. falciparum isolates in malaria residual foci areas of Sabah. Malaria active case detection was conducted in Kalabakan and Kota Marudu. All individuals in the study sites were screened for malaria infection by rapid diagnostic test. Blood from P. falciparum-infected individuals were collected on filter paper prior to DNA extraction. Genotyping was performed using merozoite surface protein-1 (MSP-1, merozoite surface protein-2 (MSP-2, glutamate rich protein (GLURP and 10 neutral microsatellite loci markers. The size of alleles, multiplicity of infection (MOI, mean number of alleles (Na, expected heterozygosity (He, linkage disequilibrium (LD and genetic differentiation (FST were determined. In Kalabakan, the MSP-1 and MSP-2 alleles were predominantly K1 and FC27 family types, respectively. The GLURP genotype VI (751-800 bp was predominant. The MOI for MSP-1 and MSP-2 were 1.65 and 1.20, respectively. The Na per microsatellite locus was 1.70. The He values for MSP-1, MSP-2, GLURP and neutral microsatellites were 0.17, 0.37, 0.70 and 0.33, respectively. In Kota Marudu, the MSP-1 and MSP-2 alleles were predominantly MAD20 and 3D7 family types, respectively. The GLURP genotype IV (651-700 bp was predominant. The MOI for both MSP-1 and MSP-2 was 1.05. The Na per microsatellite locus was 3.60. The He values for MSP-1, MSP-2, GLURP and neutral microsatellites were 0.24, 0.25, 0.69 and 0.30, respectively. A significant LD was observed in Kalabakan (0.495, p<0.01 and Kota Marudu P. falciparum populations (0.601, p<0.01. High genetic differentiation between Kalabakan and Kota Marudu P. falciparum populations was observed (FST = 0

  6. Genetic Diversity of Plasmodium falciparum Populations in Malaria Declining Areas of Sabah, East Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd Abd Razak, Mohd Ridzuan; Sastu, Umi Rubiah; Norahmad, Nor Azrina; Abdul-Karim, Abass; Muhammad, Amirrudin; Muniandy, Prem Kumar; Jelip, Jenarun; Rundi, Christina; Imwong, Mallika; Mudin, Rose Nani; Abdullah, Noor Rain

    2016-01-01

    Malaysia has a national goal to eliminate malaria by 2020. Understanding the genetic diversity of malaria parasites in residual transmission foci can provide invaluable information which may inform the intervention strategies used to reach elimination targets. This study was conducted to determine the genetic diversity level of P. falciparum isolates in malaria residual foci areas of Sabah. Malaria active case detection was conducted in Kalabakan and Kota Marudu. All individuals in the study sites were screened for malaria infection by rapid diagnostic test. Blood from P. falciparum-infected individuals were collected on filter paper prior to DNA extraction. Genotyping was performed using merozoite surface protein-1 (MSP-1), merozoite surface protein-2 (MSP-2), glutamate rich protein (GLURP) and 10 neutral microsatellite loci markers. The size of alleles, multiplicity of infection (MOI), mean number of alleles (Na), expected heterozygosity (He), linkage disequilibrium (LD) and genetic differentiation (FST) were determined. In Kalabakan, the MSP-1 and MSP-2 alleles were predominantly K1 and FC27 family types, respectively. The GLURP genotype VI (751-800 bp) was predominant. The MOI for MSP-1 and MSP-2 were 1.65 and 1.20, respectively. The Na per microsatellite locus was 1.70. The He values for MSP-1, MSP-2, GLURP and neutral microsatellites were 0.17, 0.37, 0.70 and 0.33, respectively. In Kota Marudu, the MSP-1 and MSP-2 alleles were predominantly MAD20 and 3D7 family types, respectively. The GLURP genotype IV (651-700 bp) was predominant. The MOI for both MSP-1 and MSP-2 was 1.05. The Na per microsatellite locus was 3.60. The He values for MSP-1, MSP-2, GLURP and neutral microsatellites were 0.24, 0.25, 0.69 and 0.30, respectively. A significant LD was observed in Kalabakan (0.495, pdiversity and contrasting genetic pattern of P. falciparum populations in the malaria declining areas of Sabah.

  7. Geophysical, hydrological, and archaeological investigation in the East Bank area of Luxor-southern Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Ahmed Mahmoud Ali

    The rise in level and increase in salinity of groundwater are causing accelerated deterioration of stone foundations of visible temples and monuments at Luxor, southern Egypt. Elevated groundwater is thought to cause a loss of cohesion and breakdown of the stone, while pressure developed within the stone upon salt crystallization and hydration may aid in the stone's disintegration. In addition to the rise in level and increase in salinity of groundwater, the expansion of urbanization and agriculture are jeopardizing buried monuments that have not been discovered and unearthed. The five main objectives were to: (1) characterize the subsurface geologic/hydrologic units; (2) identify sources responsible for the rise in level and increase in salinity of groundwater; (3) evaluate geometry and water quality of the shallow aquifer; (4) map the upper limit of capillary water and variations in soil moisture and (5) map yet undiscovered, buried monuments in the vicinity of the Karnak Temples complex. These five objectives were achieved based on the interpretations and results of the integrated geophysical and hydrologic data. (1) The shallow subsurface (Karnak and Luxor Temples, which may be a paleo-meander of the River Nile. (2) The source of the rise in groundwater level was determined to be due to the flow of groundwater from the central cultivated land towards the area of the temples. The groundwater salinity increased towards the temples, in the direction of groundwater flow, and may account for the increase in groundwater salinity beneath the temples. (3) The Quaternary aquifer in the study area was found to have a thickness and water quality that makes it usable for anthropogenic purposes. (4) The upper limit of capillary water was determined to be at depths of 0.0--2m. Salt accumulation on the monuments' foundations appears to be mainly due to salt transport by capillary water from the saline groundwater or saline paleo-water. (5) Based on the GPR results, numerous

  8. Uncertainty of GIA models across the Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggieri, Gabriella

    2013-04-01

    In the last years various remote sensing techniques have been employed to estimate the current mass balance of the Greenland ice sheet (GIS). In this regards GRACE, laser and radar altimetry observations, employed to constrain the mass balance, consider the glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) a source of noise. Several GIA models have been elaborated for the Greenland but they differ from each other for mantle viscosity profile and for time history of ice melting. In this work we use the well know ICE-5G (VM2) ice model by Peltier (2004) and two others alternative scenarios of ice melting, ANU05 by Lambeck et al. (1998) and the new regional ice model HUY2 by Simpson et al. (2009) in order to asses the amplitude of the uncertainty related to the GIA predictions. In particular we focus on rates of vertical displacement field, sea surface variations and sea-level change at regional scale. The GIA predictions are estimated using an improved version of SELEN code that solve the sea-level equation for a spherical self-gravitating, incompressible and viscoelastic Earth structure. GIA uncertainty shows a highly variable geographic distribution across the Greenland. Considering the spatial pattern of the GIA predictions related to the three ice models, the western sector of the Greenland Ice Sheets (GrIS) between Thule and Upernavik and around the area of Paamiut, show good agreement while the northeast portion of the Greenland is characterized by a large discrepancy of the GIA predictions inferred by the ice models tested in this work. These differences are ultimately the consequence of the different sets of global relative sea level data and modern geodetic observations used by the authors to constrain the model parameters. Finally GPS Network project (GNET), recently installed around the periphery of the GrIS, are used as a tool to discuss the discrepancies among the GIA models. Comparing the geodetic analysis recently available, appears that among the GPS sites the

  9. Development of integrative bioethics in the Mediterranean area of South-East Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukoč, Mislav

    2012-11-01

    With regards to its origin, foundation and development, bioethics is a relatively new discipline, scientific and theoretical field, where different and even contradicting definition models and methodological patterns of its formation and application meet. In some philosophical orientations, bioethics is considered to be a sub-discipline of applied ethics as a traditional philosophical discipline. Yet in biomedical and other sciences, bioethics is designated as a specialist scientific discipline, or a sort of a new medical ethics. The concept of integrative bioethics as an interdisciplinary scholarly and pluriperspectivistic area goes beyond such one-sided determinations, both philosophical and scientistic, and intends to integrate the philosophical approach to bioethics with its particular scientific contents, as well as different cultural dimensions and perspectives. This concept of integrative bioethics has gradually developed at philosophical and interdisciplinary conferences and institutions on the "bioethical islands" of the Croatian Mediterranean. In this paper, the author follows the formation, development and prospects of integrative bioethics in the wider region of the Mediterranean and Southeast Europe.

  10. Tidal analysis in the venturi-shaped area between Zhenhai and Shenjiamen in the East China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    L(U) Huaqing; HU Jianjiong

    2009-01-01

    In order to better understand the general tidal features in the venturi-shaped area between Zhenhai and Shenjiamen in the northern coastal region of Zhejiang Province in the East China Sea, the tidal data were obtained from both the three permanent tide stations of Zhenhai, Dinghai and Shenjiamen, and four temporary tide stations of Mamu, Chuanshan, Guoju and Liuheng, along with the current speed being observed at Luotou Waterway. Results from harmonic analysis show that: (1) The area was dominated by shallow water tides with irregular semi-diurnal features, and the smallest tidal range occurred in the area near a crossing line between Zhenhai and Dinghai stations, indicating that a tidal node existed in the southern Hangzhou Bay; (2) Formulae, HS2/HM2 >0.4 and gM2-(gK1+gO1)=270° (where H and g are harmonic constants), could be used as judging criteria for high and low tidal level diurnal inequalities; (3) The duration difference between ebb and flood tides could be roughly assessed by the ratio of HM4 vs. HM2; and the larger the ratio is, the bigger the duration difference is. At the same time, the duration period could be assessed by 2gM2-gM4, the epoch difference between M2 and M4 tidal constituents. If 2gM2-gM4 <180°, then the ebb duration is longer than the flood duration; if 180°< 2gM2-gM4 <360°, the result is reversed; (4) Taking Dinghai station as a center point, the highest tidal levels and the average high tidal levels, as well as the average tidal ranges at all stations became higher and larger both southeastwards and northwestwards, while the lowest tidal levels and the average low tidal levels appeared to be lower both southeastwards and northwestwards; and (5) The tidal patterns were not all in line with the tidal current patterns. As a conclusion, the smallest tidal range occurred in the narrow part of the venturi-shaped area. Along the both sides of the area, the highest tidal level and tidal range became higher and larger, while the lowest

  11. An evaluation of teeth of ringed seals (Phoca hispida) from Greenland as a matrix to monitor spatial and temporal trends of mercury and stable isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aubail, Aurore, E-mail: aaubail@yahoo.fr [National Environmental Research Institute, Aarhus University, Frederiksborgvej 399, P.O. Box 358, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Littoral, Environnement et Societes (LIENSs), UMR 6250, CNRS-Universite de La Rochelle, 2 rue Olympe de Gouges, F-17000 La Rochelle (France); Dietz, Rune; Riget, Frank [National Environmental Research Institute, Aarhus University, Frederiksborgvej 399, P.O. Box 358, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Simon-Bouhet, Benoit; Caurant, Florence [Littoral, Environnement et Societes (LIENSs), UMR 6250, CNRS-Universite de La Rochelle, 2 rue Olympe de Gouges, F-17000 La Rochelle (France)

    2010-10-01

    Total mercury (Hg) concentrations were measured in teeth of ringed seals from Qeqertarsuaq, central West Greenland (1982 to 2006) and Ittoqqortoormiit, central East Greenland (1986 to 2006). Stable isotopic ratios of carbon ({sup 13}C/{sup 12}C) and nitrogen ({sup 15}N/{sup 14}N) were determined as well to provide insights into diet variations between regions or through time. Mercury concentrations decreased the first years of life of the animals suggesting that Hg had been transferred from the mother to the foetus and newborn. The Hg concentrations in teeth were significantly lesser in ringed seals from central West Greenland compared to those from central East Greenland. Carbon and nitrogen stable isotopic values measured in the animals differed also significantly between the two regions. Increasing temporal trends of dental Hg concentrations between 1994 and 2006 were observed in ringed seals from both central West Greenland and central East Greenland. These increases were attributed to global changes in environmental Hg levels since no temporal trends in {delta}{sup 15}N values were found to support the hypothesis of a diet shift over time. Furthermore, a decreasing temporal trend in {delta}{sup 13}C values was observed in the teeth of seals from central East Greenland, and explained by a likely change over time towards more pelagic feeding habits; alternatively, the so-known Seuss effect was thought to be responsible for this decrease. Finally, it was concluded that the tooth of ringed seal was a good monitoring tissue to assess Hg trends.

  12. An evaluation of teeth of ringed seals (Phoca hispida) from Greenland as a matrix to monitor spatial and temporal trends of mercury and stable isotopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubail, Aurore; Dietz, Rune; Rigét, Frank; Simon-Bouhet, Benoît; Caurant, Florence

    2010-10-01

    Total mercury (Hg) concentrations were measured in teeth of ringed seals from Qeqertarsuaq, central West Greenland (1982 to 2006) and Ittoqqortoormiit, central East Greenland (1986 to 2006). Stable isotopic ratios of carbon ((13)C/(12)C) and nitrogen ((15)N/(14)N) were determined as well to provide insights into diet variations between regions or through time. Mercury concentrations decreased the first years of life of the animals suggesting that Hg had been transferred from the mother to the foetus and newborn. The Hg concentrations in teeth were significantly lesser in ringed seals from central West Greenland compared to those from central East Greenland. Carbon and nitrogen stable isotopic values measured in the animals differed also significantly between the two regions. Increasing temporal trends of dental Hg concentrations between 1994 and 2006 were observed in ringed seals from both central West Greenland and central East Greenland. These increases were attributed to global changes in environmental Hg levels since no temporal trends in delta(15)N values were found to support the hypothesis of a diet shift over time. Furthermore, a decreasing temporal trend in delta(13)C values was observed in the teeth of seals from central East Greenland, and explained by a likely change over time towards more pelagic feeding habits; alternatively, the so-known Seuss effect was thought to be responsible for this decrease. Finally, it was concluded that the tooth of ringed seal was a good monitoring tissue to assess Hg trends.

  13. THE "CARTA DELLA NATURA" MAPPING PROJECT IN THE SUPRAMONTE AREA (CENTRAL-EAST SARDINIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. BRUNDU

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Since 1991, the Italian framework law on protected areas, has been calling for the editing of a national Nature Map, an instrument for the assessment of the state of the environment in Italy. The methodology applied in Sardinia is comparable with those applied in the other regions of Italy, with the necessary modifications, generalizations and integrations. Satellite imagery represents the fundamental informative layer to provide a synoptic view of the whole territory. In a second proceeding step, supervised classification is thematically enhanced by using logical niche models of species and habitats derived from assessed relationships between species-habitats known distributions patterns and available predictors, i.e. GIS thematic layers. This has resulted in the production of a habitat map with 24 habitat and land use classes. The environmental assessment procedure delivered four maps, the ecological value, the environmental sensitivity, the anthropic pressure and the land vulnerability (fragility. A reduction from 70 to 24 habitat/land use types, is coherent with the aims of the projects and planned deliverables. These 24 classes have been detected with semi-automatic procedures and with a high level of reliability. It is a reasonable compromise between thematic resolution and the possibility to record a synoptic view of the whole land in an acceptable lap of time. Various stakeholders will benefit from knowing the current condition of habitats distribution. Described deliverables are powerful tools for monitoring at regional level future land-use and habitat changes on a solid quantitative basis, for environmental conservation and habitat management.

  14. Regional and inter annual patterns of heavy metals, organochlorines and stable isotopes in narwhals (Monodon monoceros) from West Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dietz, R.; Riget, F.; Hobson, K.A.

    2004-01-01

    , indicating a temporal decrease of SigmaPCBs. SigmaPCBs, DDTs, HCHs and toxaphenes seem to be at similar levels in West Greenland and Arctic Canada, which can be explained by the close winter distributions of populations as well as large ranges in concentrations, time span, number of analyses and the size....../age composition of the data. PCB and DDT concentrations in West Greenland narwhals were half those found in East Greenland and Svalbard. Stable-carbon isotope ratios in muscle of 150 narwhals showed a decreasing trend in the first year when they gradually reduced their dependency on mother's milk, after which...

  15. Traditions and Customs in Community Development: The Case of Nkanu West and Nkanu East Local Government Areas of Enugu State, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adekola, G.; Egbo, Nwoye Charles

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the influence of traditions and customs on community development in Nkanu West and Nkanu East Local Government Areas of Enugu State. The study was carried out with three objectives and three null hypotheses. The research adopted descriptive survey design with a population of 2,125 members of community Based Organizations in the…

  16. Shrub expansion in SW Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Rasmus Halfdan

    from more southerly habitats are better adapted to climatic conditions in a warmer Greenland compared with local provenances. To answer the first question historical photographs of vegetation in SW Greenland (1898–1974) were compiled. The photos were repeated in 2010 and 2011 and 64 photo pairs were...... cropped into 133 smaller units and classified by aspect, substrate stability, muskoxen grazing and human disturbance. The photo material was evaluated by 22 experts with respect to changes in shrub cover. The results revealed a general shrub cover increase in the whole dataset, but also in a subset...... of firewood collection. A delayed reaction to the ending of the little ice age cannot be excluded, but seems rather unlikely considering other studies from Greenland. Effects of global warming in SW Greenland must be studied over even longer time periods than the 120 years of the current study. To answer...

  17. Multiple Suppression and Imaging of Marine Seismic Data from The Shallow Water Area in Southern East China Sea Shelf Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, J.; Luan, X.; Yang, C.

    2015-12-01

    Neither surface-related multiple elimination(SRME) nor predictive de-convolution method is effective to suppress the multiple of marine seismic data from the shallow water area. The former method needs the accurate reflection of seafloor, which is mixed with the direct wave in the near offset range. The other one could probably lose the primary wave when applied to the shallow water seismic data. We introduced the new method: deterministic water-layer de-multiple method (DWD) which is capable for the poor extrapolate result of near-offset traces. Firstly, the data shifts as downward continuation in tau-p domain with a water-layer period and the multiple model will be obtained. Then, the original seismic subtracts adaptively with the multiple model. Finally, we would get the de-multiple data after inverse tau-p transform. Marine seismic real data is from southern part of East China Sea Shelf Basin. This area has become the potential target for marine hydrocarbon exploration, it is located in the junction of the Eurasian plate pacific plate and Indian plate. Because the average water depth is less than 100 meters, seismic data contains abundant of multiple, especially the surface-related multiple. As a result it is difficult to distinguish the strata structure clearly. We used DWD approach to remove the water-layer multiple, cut off the seafloor reflection events and then suppressed the residual surface-related multiple by the traditional SRME. At last , the radon transform was applied to eliminate the multiple with long period . With these steps, we suppressed the multiple of marine seismic data from this area effectively. After multiple is removed , we acquired more accurate velocity to build the velocity model of migration. With the pre-stack migration technique, reflections from each geological period are shown clearly in the seismic section. This work was supported by the National Science Foundation of China(grant no. 41476053).

  18. Effects of crop growth and development on regional climate: a case study over East Asian monsoon area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Feng [Chinese Academy of Sciences, LASG, Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Beijing (China); Zhejiang Institute of Meteorological Sciences, Hangzhou (China); Xie, Zhenghui [Chinese Academy of Sciences, LASG, Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Beijing (China)

    2012-06-15

    In this study, the CERES phenological growth and development functions were implemented into the regional climate model, RegCM3 to give a model denoted as RegCM3{sub C}ERES. This model was used to represent interactions between regional climate and crop growth processes. The effects of crop growth and development processes on regional climate were then studied based on two 20-year simulations over the East Asian monsoon area conducted using the original regional climate model RegCM3, and the coupled RegCM3{sub C}ERES model. The numerical experiments revealed that incorporating the crop growth and development processes into the regional climate model reduced the root mean squared error of the simulated precipitation by 2.2-10.7% over north China, and the simulated temperature by 5.5-30.9% over the monsoon region in eastern China. Comparison of the simulated results obtained using RegCM3{sub C}ERES and RegCM3 showed that the most significant changes associated with crop modeling were the changes in leaf area index which in turn modify the aspects of surface energy and water partitions and lead to moderate changes in surface temperature and, to some extent, rainfall. Further analysis revealed that a robust representation of seasonal changes in plant growth and developmental processes in the regional climate model changed the surface heat and moisture fluxes by modifying the vegetation characteristics, and that these differences in simulated surface fluxes resulted in different structures of the boundary layer and ultimately affected the convection. The variations in leaf area index and fractional vegetation cover changed the distribution of evapotranspiration and heat fluxes, which could potentially lead to anomalies in geopotential height, and consequently influenced the overlying atmospheric circulation. These changes would result in redistribution of the water and energy through advection. Nevertheless, there are significant uncertainties in modeling how monsoon

  19. Penile density and globally used chemicals in Canadian and Greenland polar bears

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, Christian; Dyck, Markus; Rigét, Frank F

    2015-01-01

    could be in a range that may lead to disruption of normal reproduction and development. It is therefore likely that EDCs directly affect development and bone density in polar bears. Canadian bears had in general the best health and the North East Greenland subpopulation being at the highest risk...

  20. Exploring Greenland: science and technology in Cold War settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heymann, Matthias; Knudsen, Henrik; Lolck, Maiken L; Nielsen, Henry; Nielsen, Kristian H; Ries, Christopher J

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores a vacant spot in the Cold War history of science: the development of research activities in the physical environmental sciences and in nuclear science and technology in Greenland. In the post-war period, scientific exploration of the polar areas became a strategically important element in American and Soviet defence policy. Particularly geophysical fields like meteorology, geology, seismology, oceanography, and others profited greatly from military interest. While Denmark maintained formal sovereignty over Greenland, research activities were strongly dominated by U.S. military interests. This paper sets out to summarize the limited current state of knowledge about activities in the environmental physical sciences in Greenland and their entanglement with military, geopolitical, and colonial interests of both the USA and Denmark. We describe geophysical research in the Cold War in Greenland as a multidimensional colonial endeavour. In a period of decolonization after World War II, Greenland, being a Danish colony, became additionally colonized by the American military. Concurrently, in a period of emerging scientific internationalism, the U.S. military "colonized" geophysical research in the Arctic, which increasingly became subject to military directions, culture, and rules.

  1. A case study of full integration of the arts into core subject area instruction in one East Texas secondary school

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leysath, Maggie

    This exploratory phenomenological case study investigated the influence the full integration of the arts into core subject instruction has on classroom environment, student academic achievement, and student engagement as perceived by administrators, teachers, and students in one East Texas secondary school. Participant interviews were analyzed using Creswell's (2012) six-step method for analyzing phenomenological studies. The researcher implemented three learning activities in which ceramics learning objectives were fully integrated with chemistry learning objectives. The first activity combined clay properties and pottery wheel throwing with significant numbers. The second activity combined glaze formulation with moles. The third combined stoichiometry with the increased glaze formula for students to glaze the bowls they made. Findings suggest the full integration of art in core subject area instruction has numerous positive effects. Participants reported improved academic achievement for all students including reluctant learners. Students, teachers, and the administrator reported greater participation in the art integrated activities. Participants perceived a need for further training for teachers and administrators for greater success.

  2. Analysis of Effects of 2003 and Full-Allocation Withdrawals in Critical Area 1, East-Central New Jersey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spitz, Frederick J.

    2009-01-01

    Critical Area 1 in east-central New Jersey was mandated in the early 1980s to address large drawdowns caused by increases in groundwater withdrawals. The aquifers involved include the Englishtown aquifer system, Wenonah-Mount Laurel aquifer, and the Upper and Middle Potomac-Raritan-Magothy aquifers. Groundwater levels recovered as a result of mandated cutbacks in withdrawals that began in the late 1980s. Subsequent increased demand for water has necessitated an analysis to determine the effects of full-allocation withdrawals, which supplements an optimization analysis done previously. A steady-state regional groundwater flow model is used to evaluate the effects of 2003 withdrawals and full-allocation withdrawals (7.3 million gallons per day greater than for 2003) on simulated water-levels. Simulation results indicate that the range of available withdrawals greater than full-allocation withdrawals is likely between 0 and 12 million gallons per day. The estimated range of available withdrawals is based on: (1) an examination of hydraulic-heads resulting from each of the two simulations, (2) an examination of differences in heads between these two simulations, (3) a comparison of simulated heads from each of the two simulations with the estimated location of salty groundwater, and (4) a comparison of simulated 2003 water levels to observed 2003 water levels. The results of the simulations also indicate that obtaining most of the available water would require varying the distribution of withdrawals and (or) relaxing the mandated hydrologic constraints used to protect the water supply.

  3. Seasonal and inter-annual variability of sea surface temperature at the east coast fishing area off Peninsular Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurul Ridani, S.; Mustapha, M. A.; Lihan, T.; Ku Kassim, K. Y.; Raja Bidin, R. H.

    2015-09-01

    Empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analysis was used to study a time-series of the aqua MODIS data imageries in the exclusive economic zone of east coast off Peninsular Malaysia. Temporal and spatial characteristics were examined to determine the dominant pattern of sea surface temperature (SST) variability from January 2003 to December 2011.The data were analysed from daily Level 1A (1km spatial resolution) to monthly composites Level 3 data using SeaDAS and ERDAS imagine software. Four modes was obtained from the analysis with the highest variance (7.9%) represented by mode 1 which explained the seasonal cycle. Mode 2 (5.11 % of total variance) showed positive and negative peak signal during March and April and in October and November with variability near the Kelantan and Pahang waters that indicated the inter monsoon. Mode 3 (3.8 % of variance) shows variability near the Terengganu, Kelantan and Johor waters to the open sea during July and August and in May and June representing the Southwest monsoon. Mode 4 (3.36 %) showed positive signal during November and December with strong signal near Pahang and Kelantan waters while weak signal was detected near Terengganu and Kelantan's open sea representing the Northeast monsoon. The SST variability was influenced by the monsoonal system which originated by the wind forcing condition that influences circulation in the study area.

  4. Cadmium, mercury, zinc and selenium in ringed seals (Phoca hispida from Greenland and Svalbard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Run Dietz

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available Muscle, liver, and kidney tissue from 456 ringed seals (Phoca hispida from eight areas in Greenland were analysed for cadmium, mercury, zinc and selenium. In general, cadmium concentrations were high in liver and kidney tissue, with geometric means of 7.79 and 33.5 μg/g (all data on wet weight basis, respectively. Muscle levels were considerably lower, at 0.067 μg/g. The concentration of mercury was relatively high in liver tissue with a geometric mean of 2.59 μg/g. Muscle and kidney mercury levels were somewhat lower, with geometric means of 0.210 and 0.956 μg/g, respectively. Cadmium and mercury levels were strongly dependent upon age and sampling area, as well as the interaction combinations, indicating that the accumulation of cadmium and mercury varies with age and area. Mercury accumulated in all three tissues throughout life, whereas cadmium in liver and kidneys peaked in the age group 5-10 years old where after it dropped significantly. Cadmium levels showed a tendency towards higher concentrations in the northern municipalities, which may be due to the higher cadmium levels in certain prey items in the northern areas. Mercury levels were higher in seals from East Greenland compared to West Greenland. Variations in feeding habits probably explain some of the differences in levels of cadmium and mercury in ringed seals from different geographical areas. Cadmium concentrations were correlated (both pairwise and partial in the three organs. This was true for mercury as well, whereas only half of the combinations were significant for zinc and selenium. Cadmium was strongly correlated to mercury in all three tissues and zinc only in liver and kidneys. Mercury was only correlated to selenium in liver and not to zinc. High concentrations of cadmium were found in the bile from 58 ringed seals, and were about 10-fold higher than in muscle. The concentration of mercury in bile was relatively low, being only one third of the

  5. Mid-Holocene Climate Variations Recorded by Palaeolake in Marginal Area of East Asian Monsoon: A Multi-proxy Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Traditionally, the mid-Holocene in most parts of China was thought to be warmer with higher precipitation,resulting from a strong Asian summer monsoon. However, some recent researches have proposed a mid-Holocene drought interval of millennial-scale in East Asian monsoon margin areas. Thus whether mid-Holocene was dry or humid remains an open issue. Here, Zhuyeze palaeolake, the terminal lake of the Shiyang River Drainage lying in Asian monsoon marginal areas, was selected for reconstructing the details of climate variations during the Holocene, especially mid-Holocene,on the basis ora sedimentological analysis. Qingtu Lake (QTL) section of 6.92m depth was taken from Zhuyeze palaeolake. Multi-proxy analysis of QTL section, including grain size, carbonate, TOC, C/N and δ13C of organic matter, was used to document regional climatic changes during 9-3 cal ka B.P. The record shows a major environmental change at 9.0-7.8 cal ka B.P., attributed to a climate trend towards warmth and humidity. This event was followed by a typical regional drought event which occurred during 7.8-7.5 cal ka B.P. And a warm and humid climate prevailed from 7.5 to 5.0 cal ka B.P., attributed to the warm/humid Holocene Optimum in this region. After that, the climate gradually became drier.Moreover, comparison of the climate record from this paper with the summer insolation at 30°N indicates that the climate pattern reflecting the Asian monsoon changes was caused by insolation change.

  6. Water quality assessment in the Bétaré-Oya gold mining area (East-Cameroon): Multivariate Statistical Analysis approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakotondrabe, Felaniaina; Ndam Ngoupayou, Jules Remy; Mfonka, Zakari; Rasolomanana, Eddy Harilala; Nyangono Abolo, Alexis Jacob; Ako Ako, Andrew

    2018-01-01

    The influence of gold mining activities on the water quality in the Mari catchment in Bétaré-Oya (East Cameroon) was assessed in this study. Sampling was performed within the period of one hydrological year (2015 to 2016), with 22 sampling sites consisting of groundwater (06) and surface water (16). In addition to measuring the physicochemical parameters, such as pH, electrical conductivity, alkalinity, turbidity, suspended solids and CN(-), eleven major elements (Na(+), K(+), Ca(2+), Mg(2+), NH4(+), Cl(-), NO3(-), HCO3(-), SO4(2-), PO4(3-) and F(-)) and eight heavy metals (Pb, Zn, Cd, Fe, Cu, As, Mn and Cr) were also analyzed using conventional hydrochemical methods, Multivariate Statistical Analysis and the Heavy metal Pollution Index (HPI). The results showed that the water from Mari catchment and Lom River was acidic to basic (5.40water quality, except for nitrates in some wells, which was found at a concentration >50mg NO3(-)/L. This water was found as two main types: calcium magnesium bicarbonate (CaMg-HCO3), which was the most represented, and sodium bicarbonate potassium (NaK-HCO3). As for trace elements in surface water, the contents of Pb, Cd, Mn, Cr and Fe were higher than recommended by the WHO guidelines, and therefore, the surface water was unsuitable for human consumption. Three phenomena were responsible for controlling the quality of the water in the study area: hydrolysis of silicate minerals of plutono-metamorphic rocks, which constitute the geological basement of this area; vegetation and soil leaching; and mining activities. The high concentrations of TSS and trace elements found in this basin were mainly due to gold mining activities (exploration and exploitation) as well as digging of rivers beds, excavation and gold amalgamation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Climate variability in West Greenland during the past 1500 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    dos Santos Ribeiro, Sofia Isabel; Moros, Matthias; Ellegaard, Marianne;

    2012-01-01

    document late-Holocene climate variability in West Greenland as inferred from a marine sediment record from the outer Disko Bay. Organic-walled dinoflagellate cysts and other palynomorphs were used to reconstruct environmental changes in the area through the last c. 1500 years at 30–40 years resolution....... Sea ice cover and primary productivity were identified as the two main factors driving dinoflagellate cyst community changes through time. Our data provide evidence for an opposite climate trend in West Greenland relative to the NE Atlantic region from c. AD 500 to 1050. For the same period, sea......Ribeiro, S., Moros, M., Ellegaard, M. & Kuijpers, A. 2012 (January): Climate variability in West Greenland during the past 1500 years: evidence from a high-resolution marine palynological record from Disko Bay. Boreas, Vol. 41, pp. 68–83. 10.1111/j.1502-3885.2011.00216.x. ISSN 0300-9483. Here we...

  8. In-situ glacier monitoring in Zackenberg (NE Greenland): Freya Glacier and A.P. Olsen Ice Cap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hynek, Bernhard; Hillerup Larsen, Signe; Binder, Daniel; Weyss, Gernot; Citterio, Michele; Schöner, Wolfgang; Ahlstrøm, Andreas Peter

    2015-04-01

    Due to the scarceness of glacier mass balance measurements from glaciers and local ice caps in East Greenland and the strong impact that local glaciers and ice caps outside the Ice Sheet are expected to exert on sea level rise in the present century, in 2007 and 2008 two glaciological monitoring programmes of peripheral Greenlandic glaciers started to operate near the Zackenberg Research Station in NE Greenland (74° N, 21° W). Freya (Fröya) Glacier is a 6 km long valley glacier situated on Clavering Island 10 km southeast of the Zackenberg research station with a surface area of 5.3 km2 (2013), reaching from 1305 m to 273 m a.s.l. The glacier is mainly oriented to NW and surrounded by high mountain ridges on both sides. A.P. Olsen Ice Cap is a 295 km2 peripheral ice cap located 35 km northeast of Zackenberg. The mass balance monitoring network is situated on the SE outlet glacier reaching from 1425 m to 525 m which drains into the hydrological basin of Zackenberg. This outlet glacier dams a lake which caused several glacial outburst floods within the period of investigation. The two studied glaciers are very close to each other (35 km), but they are complementary in many ways. Apart from the difference in size, which requires different monitoring strategies, Freya Glacier is nearer to the coast and therefore exposed to a more maritime climate with higher winter accumulation. The different area-altitude distribution of both glaciers is one of the main reason for the significantly more positive mean specific mass balance of A.P. Olsen Ice Cap compared to Freya Glacier. In this talk we present the glaciological monitoring on both glaciers and the main results of the first seven years of data.

  9. Greenland Halibut in Upernavik: a preliminary study of the importance of the stock for the fishing populace

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Delaney, Alyne E.; Becker Jakobsen, Rikke; Hendriksen, Kåre

    such as through kødgaver (gifting of meat), a practice which remains both culturally and economically important in the smaller settlements. Currently, the government of Greenland is proposing changes to the management of Greenland halibut for the coastal fishers, including the closing the fishery to new entrants......This report presents research undertaken with the belief that a need exists for better understanding of the social and cultural importance of the Greenland Halibut (Reinhardtius hippoglossoides) fishery to Greenlanders. It was decided the research would focus on one of three coastal Greenland...... Halibut fishery districts: Upernavik. Upernavik was chosen mgiven the critical importance of Greenland halibut for local fishers and area residents. The best method for presenting a combination of social and fishery data takes the form of a fishery profile. Additionally, given that the government...

  10. Local point sources that affect ground-water quality in the East Meadow area, Long Island, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heisig, Paul M.

    1994-01-01

    The extent and chemical characteristics of ground water affected by three local point sources--a stormwater basin, uncovered road-salt-storage piles, and an abandoned sewage-treatment plant--were delineated during a 3-year study of the chemical characteristics and migration of a body of reclaimed wastewater that was applied to the watertable aquifer during recharge experiments from October 1982 through January 1984 in East Meadow. The timing, magnitude, and chemical quality of recharge from these point sources is highly variable, and all sources have the potential to skew determinations of the quality of ambient ground-water and of the reclaimed-wastewater plume if they are not taken into account. Ground water affected by recharge from the stormwater basin is characterized by low concentrations of nitrate + nitrite (less than 5 mg/L [milligrams per liter] as N) and sulfate (less than 40 mg/L) and is almost entirely within the upper glacial aquifer. The plume derived from road-salt piles is narrow, has high concentrations of chloride (greater than 50 mg/L) and sodium (greater than 75 mg/L), and also is limited to the upper glacial aquifer. The sodium, in high concentrations, could react with aquifer material and exchange for sorbed cations such as calcium, potassium, and magnesium. Water affected by secondary-treated sewage from the abandoned treatment plant extends 152 feet below land surface into the upper part of the Magothy aquifer and longitudinally beyond the southern edge of the study area, 7,750 feet south of the recharge site. Ground water affected by secondary-treated sewage within the study area typically contains elevated concentrations of reactive chemical constituents, such as potassium and ammonium, and low concentrations of dissolved oxygen. Conservative or minimally reactive constituents such as chloride and sodium have been transported out of the study area in the upper glacial aquifer and the intermediate (transitional) zone but remain in the less

  11. Geothermal potential and origin of natural thermal fluids in the northern Lake Abaya area, Main Ethiopian Rift, East Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minissale, A.; Corti, G.; Tassi, F.; Darrah, T. H.; Vaselli, O.; Montanari, D.; Montegrossi, G.; Yirgu, G.; Selmo, E.; Teclu, A.

    2017-04-01

    In this study, the occurrence, chemical composition, origin and geothermal significance of thermal springs and fumaroles naturally discharging in the area located north of the Lake Abaya (western margin of the Main Ethiopian Rift, East Africa) are reviewed in relation with recent tectonics. All thermal springs showed a dominantly Na-HCO3 composition, consistent with observations dating from at least 1972, and most of them displayed a narrow range of δD and δ18O isotopic compositions for water similar to regional meteoric origins. These observations suggest that water-rock interaction processes occur in all aquifers and dominate the contributions of water that actively circulate within thermal fluids, and also suggest a similar elevation of groundwater recharge throughout the study area. Most of the thermal springs are dominated by a CO2-rich gas phase and discharge along the active faults bordering the western edge of the Main Ethiopian Rift valley. The δ13C values of CO2 and the 3He/4He isotopic ratios are consistent with the presence of mantle-derived fluids similar to what is observed in many other areas along the kinematically active African Rift, especially within Ethiopia. The application of geothermometric techniques in the liquid and the gas phases suggests the presence of a deep reservoir in which the fluids equilibrated at a maximum temperature of approximately 180 °C. Additionally, the presence of fumaroles at boiling temperatures and water/mud boiling pools in several places suggests that the geothermal reservoir is positioned at a relatively shallow depth and likely located in the western side of the study area. The analysis of data collected throughout time reveals that the waters of Lake Abaya have experienced an increase in salinity of 20% paralleled contemporaneously with a decrease in pH and δ18O and δD of water in the last 40 years; these changes do not appear to be related to climate change-induced increases in temperature or evaporation

  12. Tributyltin accumulation and effects in marine molluscs from West Greenland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strand, J.; Asmund, G

    2003-05-01

    Tributyltin is accumulated in marine molluscs living in Greenland, with the highest levels found in harbour areas. - The levels of the antifouling agent tributyltin (TBT) and its breakdown products in bivalves were investigated in 1999-2000 at six areas along the west coast of Greenland with focus on locations inside and outside harbours. In addition female gastropods were examined for the development of TBT-induced masculine characteristics in form of imposex or intersex. The highest TBT concentration, 254 ng g{sup -1} ww, was found in the bivalve Mytilus edulis sampled inside Nuuk harbour, but significant TBT concentrations were also present in bivalves from the other harbour areas. Only low levels of TBT were detected in bivalves sampled outside the harbours and in several of the samples the TBT level was below the detection limit. The examination of neogastropods like Buccinum revealed that imposex development occurred in all the harbours. In contrast, imposex was not found in any neogastropods sampled outside the harbour areas. However, the value of marine neogastropods as indicators of TBT contamination in West Greenland seems limited, because of large species diversity and the difficulties in sampling enough specimens at least with the current sampling strategy. No effects, which could be related to TBT contamination, were found in the most abundant tidal gastropod in West Greenland, Littorina saxatilis.

  13. Supraglacial bacterial community structures vary across the Greenland ice sheet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cameron, Karen A.; Stibal, Marek; Zarsky, Jakub D.;

    2016-01-01

    The composition and spatial variability of microbial communities that reside within the extensive (>200 000 km(2)) biologically active area encompassing the Greenland ice sheet (GrIS) is hypothesized to be variable. We examined bacterial communities from cryoconite debris and surface ice across...

  14. Report on a Magnetotelluric Study in Kangerlussuaq, West Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kother, Livia Kathleen; Junge, A.; Löwer, A.

    2011-01-01

    Despite a well-mapped, interesting surface geology, deep sounding geophysical studies like seismics or magnetotellurics have been used very rarely in Greenland. The aim of this article is to present the preliminary results of a magnetotelluric study performed in the area of Kangerlussuaq, West...

  15. [Specific Features of Radioactive Pollution of Soils of Catchment Areas of Lake Shablish (Distant Zone of the East Ural Radioactive Trace)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deryagin, V V; Levina, S G; Sutyagin, A A; Parfilova, N S

    2015-01-01

    Specific features of 90Sr and 137Cs distribution and accumulation in soil cuts of superaqueous and eluvial positions of catchment areas of Lake Shablish located in a distant zone of the East Ural radioactive trace are considered. Some physical and chemical characteristics of the soils were defined. It is established that the signs typical for the lake ecosystems of distant East-Ural radioactive trace zone which underwent impact of technogenic influence are common for soils of catchment areas of Lake Shablish. The distinctions in some characteristic features of the specific activity of long-living radionuclides for the soils of superaqueous and eluvial positions of catchment areas connected with the character of the water regime of soils are shown.

  16. Post-colonial identity in Greenland?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gad, Ulrik Pram

    2009-01-01

    could be furthered by bringing politics back in. Based on a discourse analysis of the Greenlandic debate on language, this paper makes three claims: First, the identity projects promoted in Greenland are based on an essentialist conception of identity. Secondly, Greenlandic identity discourse combines......In the gradual unravelling of Greenland’s colonial relationship to Denmark, an essentialist conceptualization of Greenlandic identity has played a significant role. However, both our scholarly understanding of post-colonial Greenlandic identity and the process towards independence for Greenland...... elements of traditional Inuit culture and elements of colonial modernity. Thirdly, monolingual Greenlanders are those with the most to gain from abandoning the dichotomy of essentialist identities. Strategically, the paper suggests a post-post-colonial Greenlandic identity as a means of avoiding...

  17. Problems concerning musk oxen in Greenland

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the range of muskox in Greenland. The predominant habitat of the muskox is in northern and northeastern Greenland; however, it has appeared...

  18. Post-colonial identity in Greenland?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gad, Ulrik Pram

    2009-01-01

    In the gradual unravelling of Greenland’s colonial relationship to Denmark, an essentialist conceptualization of Greenlandic identity has played a significant role. However, both our scholarly understanding of post-colonial Greenlandic identity and the process towards independence for Greenland...... could be furthered by bringing politics back in. Based on a discourse analysis of the Greenlandic debate on language, this paper makes three claims: First, the identity projects promoted in Greenland are based on an essentialist conception of identity. Secondly, Greenlandic identity discourse combines...... elements of traditional Inuit culture and elements of colonial modernity. Thirdly, monolingual Greenlanders are those with the most to gain from abandoning the dichotomy of essentialist identities. Strategically, the paper suggests a post-post-colonial Greenlandic identity as a means of avoiding...

  19. Longpath DOAS observations of surface BrO at Summit, Greenland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Stutz

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Reactive halogens, and in particular bromine oxide (BrO, have frequently been observed in regions with large halide reservoirs, for example during bromine catalyzed coastal polar ozone depletion events. Much less is known about the presence and impact of reactive halogens in areas without obvious halide reservoirs, such as the polar ice sheets or continental snow.

    We report the first LP-DOAS measurements of BrO at Summit research station in the center of the Greenland ice sheet at an altitude of 3200 m. BrO mixing ratios in May 2007 and June 2008 were typically between 1–3 pmol mol−1, with maxima of up to 5 pmol mol−1. These measurements unequivocally show that halogen chemistry is occurring in the remote Arctic, far from known bromine reservoirs, such as the ocean. During periods when FLEXPART retroplumes show that airmasses resided on the Greenland ice sheet for 3 or more days, BrO exhibits a clear diurnal variation, with peak mixing ratios of up to 3 pmol mol−1 in the morning and at night. The diurnal cycle of BrO can be explained by a changing boundary layer height combined with photochemical formation of reactive bromine driven by solar radiation at the snow surface. The shallow stable boundary layer in the morning and night leads to an accumulation of BrO at the surface, leading to elevated BrO despite the expected smaller release from the snowpack during these times of low solar radiation. During the day when photolytic formation of reactive bromine is expected to be highest, efficient mixing into a deeper neutral boundary layer leads to lower BrO mixing ratios than during mornings and nights.

    The extended period of contact with the Greenland snowpack combined with the diurnal profile of BrO, modulated by boundary layer height, suggests that photochemistry in the snow is a significant source of BrO measured at Summit during the 2008 experiment. In addition, a rapid transport event

  20. Inuit dietary patterns in modern Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Peter; Jeppesen, Charlotte

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to apply two different approaches of dietary pattern definition to data from Greenland and to analyse the contemporary dietary patterns of the Inuit in Greenland in relation to urbanization and socio-economic positions.......The purpose of the study was to apply two different approaches of dietary pattern definition to data from Greenland and to analyse the contemporary dietary patterns of the Inuit in Greenland in relation to urbanization and socio-economic positions....

  1. Sustainable Mobile Tourist Hut for Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qu, Jing; Villumsen, O.; Villumsen, Arne

    Greenland is experiencing growing tourism in recent years, which increases demand for tourists’ accommodation. Small huts are a traditional way for overnight stays in Greenland due to scattered population and lack of infrastructure. However, the existing huts in Greenland cannot provide satisfact...

  2. Design of the health examination survey on early childhood physical growth in the Great East Japan Earthquake affected areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsubara, Hiroko; Ishikuro, Mami; Kikuya, Masahiro; Chida, Shoichi; Hosoya, Mitsuaki; Ono, Atsushi; Kato, Noriko; Yokoya, Susumu; Tanaka, Toshiaki; Isojima, Tsuyoshi; Yamagata, Zentaro; Tanaka, Soichiro; Kuriyama, Shinichi; Kure, Shigeo

    2017-03-01

    To investigate the impact of the Great East Japan Earthquake on preschool children's physical growth in the disaster-affected areas, the three medical universities in Iwate, Miyagi, and Fukushima Prefectures conducted a health examination survey on early childhood physical growth. The survey was conducted over a 3-year period to acquire data on children who were born in different years. Our targets were as follows: 1) children who were born between March 1, 2007 and August 31, 2007 and experienced the disaster at 43-48 months of age, 2) children who were born between March 1, 2009 and August 31, 2009 and experienced the disaster at 19-24 months of age, and 3) children who were born between June 1, 2010 and April 30, 2011 and were under 10 months of age or not born yet when the disaster occurred. We collected their health examination data from local governments in Iwate, Miyagi, and Fukushima Prefectures. We also collected data from Aomori, Akita, and Yamagata Prefectures to use as a control group. The survey items included birth information, anthropometric measurements, and methods of nutrition during infancy. Eighty municipalities from Iwate, Miyagi, and Fukushima Prefectures and 21 from the control prefectures participated in the survey. As a result, we established three retrospective cohorts consisting of 13,886, 15,474, and 32,202 preschool children. The large datasets acquired for the present survey will provide valuable epidemiological evidence that should shed light on preschool children's physical growth in relation to the disaster. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Gravity gradient for Greenland and its tectonic interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grushinsky, Andrew N.

    2013-04-01

    Gravity gradient is the indicator of the stress conditions in the lithosphere. The axis of gradient signs changing indicates the boundary of blocks exposed to different tensions. The lines of maxima and minima of gravity gradient correspondingly marked the boundary of zones of compression and expansion. Four various types of the gravity anomalies was calculated: in free air, Bouguer's, Glennie's and isostatic. And then was calculated their gradients. The preliminary analysis of gradients shows, that its qualitative behavior for all types of gravity anomalies is very closely and, therefore, conclusions about the stress conditions in the lithosphere of the considering region are definite. Range of the changing for gradients of gravity in free air anomalies - from -96.1 to 135.8 eötvös, and for gradients of gravity Bouguer's anomalies - from -122.6 to 141.9 eötvös. Range of the changing for gradients of gravity Glennie's and isostatic anomalies are substantially smaller, for gradients of gravity Glennie's anomalies - from -27.6 to 25.5 eötvös, and for gradients of gravity isostatic anomalies - from -19.2 to 21.2 eötvös. This difference in the gradient values, evidently, connects with the difference in the thoroughness and the degree of averaging of the anomalies. Analysis of gravity gradient shown the following: 1. In the western part of the researching region are distinguished three linear structures (two maxima and one minimum), which marked rift zone of the Baffin Bay and Davis Strait. This disappeared rift characterized by depressed zone, lengthened from Nares strait along the west sea coast of Greenland. In the south part of this zone localized deep fault, which northward become lesser expressed. To the north and north-east from the Nares strait lengthened to the North Pole zone of compression, blocked up existing previously rift, by which the rotation of the Greenland part of Canadian shield from its cardinal part happened. Center of this rotation

  4. Children in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kløvgaard, Marius; Nielsen, Nina Odgaard; Sørensen, Thomas Lund

    2016-01-01

    for respiratory tuberculosis accounted 6.2:1,000, primary care non-disease (Z-diagnosis) 2,081:1,000 annually. Complete adherence to the child vaccination programme was seen in 40%, while 5% did not receive any vaccinations. CONCLUSIONS: In this first study of its kind, the health care contact pattern...... cohorts. METHODS AND DESIGN: In a retrospective, descriptive follow-up of the Ivaaq (The Greenland Child Cohort) and the CLEAR (climate changes, environmental contaminants and reproductive health) birth cohorts (total n=1,000), we reviewed medical records of children aged 6-10 in 2012 with residence...... contacts was 12,471 equalling 4.6 contacts per child per year. The annual incidence rate of hospital admissions was 1:10 children (total n=266, 1,220 days, 4.6 days/admission), outpatient contacts 2:10 children and primary care 3.6 per child. Contacts were overall more frequent in boys compared with girls...

  5. Insect-Based Holocene (and Last Interglacial?) Paleothermometry from the E and NW Greenland Ice Sheet Margins: A Fly's-Eye View of Warmth on Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axford, Y.; Bigl, M.; Carrio, C.; Corbett, L. B.; Francis, D. R.; Hall, B. L.; Kelly, M. A.; Levy, L.; Lowell, T. V.; Osterberg, E. C.; Richter, N.; Roy, E.; Schellinger, G. C.

    2013-12-01

    Here we present new paleotemperature reconstructions based upon insect (Chironomidae) assemblages and other proxies from lake sediment cores recovered in east Greenland at ~71° N near Scoresby Sund and in northwest Greenland at ~77° N near Thule/Qaanaaq. In east Greenland, Last Chance Lake (informal name) is a small, non-glacial lake situated ~90 km east of the Greenland Ice Sheet margin. The lake preserves a sedimentary record of the entire Holocene (Levy et al. 2013). Chironomids from Last Chance Lake record cold summer temperatures (and establishment of a cold-climate fauna including abundant Oliveridia and Pseudodiamesa) during the late Holocene, preceded by summer temperatures estimated to have been 3 to 6°C warmer during the first half of the Holocene (when summer insolation forcing was greater than today). In northwest Greenland, Delta Sø and Wax Lips Lake (informal name) both preserve Holocene sediments. Here we discuss the late Holocene chironomid record from Delta Sø, whereas from Wax Lips Lake (a small, non-glacial lake situated ~2 km west of the ice sheet margin) we present a longer sedimentary and biostratigraphic record. The deeper portions of cores from Wax Lips Lake yield pre-Holocene and nonfinite radiocarbon ages, suggesting that this lake preserves sediments predating the Last Glacial Maximum. Abundant chironomids in the pre-glacial sediments appear to record interglacial conditions, and we infer that these sediments may date to the Last Interglacial (Eemian). The preservation of in situ Last Interglacial lacustrine sediments so close to the modern ice sheet margin suggests a minimally erosive glacierization style throughout the last glacial period, like that inferred for other Arctic locales such as on Baffin Island (Briner et al. 2007), ~750 km southwest of our study site. Our study sites are situated nearby key ice core sites (including NEEM, Camp Century, Agassiz and Renland) and very close to the ice sheet margin. These chironomid

  6. Enhancement of volcanism and geothermal heat flux by ice-age cycling: A stress modeling study of Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Nathan T.; Parizek, Byron R.; Alley, Richard B.

    2016-08-01

    Ice-age cycling of the Greenland ice sheet likely contributed to locally elevated subglacial geothermal heat fluxes (GHFs), based on recent thermal modeling. Borehole and geophysical data indicate higher GHF in some areas than suggested by current knowledge of underlying geology, particularly at the head of the Northeast Greenland Ice Stream. Changes in lithospheric loading during ice-sheet growth and decay cycles produce large and geologically rapid changes in the effective stress state beneath and near the ice sheet. Oscillations in melt fraction from cyclic loading through multiple ice-age cycles will enhance upward magma migration through the nonlinear increase of melt migration velocity with melt fraction. We simulate periodic ice-sheet loading scenarios along an east-west transect across central Greenland on an Elastic Lithosphere, Relaxed Asthenosphere Earth model. Under likely parameter ranges, deviatoric stresses in the elastic lithosphere across widespread regions are sufficiently high to meaningfully enhance dike emplacement and also allow vug-wave propagation in some scenarios. Stress patterns migrate laterally in response to ice-sheet dynamics, favoring multistage magma ascent. If melt occurs at depth, our modeling suggests that ice-age cycling could help it migrate upward to shallow depth or erupt, contributing to the high observed GHF. Furthermore, shallow magma emplacement might feed hydrothermal systems exploiting enhanced faulting or fracturing from ice-age cycling, adding to elevated GHF. The preglacial passage of the Iceland-Jan Mayen hot spot could have sourced such magmas. Direct observations of these lithospheric processes needed to further constrain our models are limited, highlighting the value of more targeted geophysical studies informing future modeling.

  7. Temperature, conductivity, and water currents data collected by CTDs and current meters on moored buoys in the Sermilik Fjord, Greenland from 2011-08-20 to 2012-09-16 (NODC Accession 0126772)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The data included in this dataset were collected in the Sermilik Fjord, located in East Greenland in the Ammassalik district close to the town of Tasiilaq. Data...

  8. Water Temperature, conductivity, and currents data collected by CTDs and current meters on moored buoys in the Sermilik Fjord, Greenland from 2012-09-18 to 2013-08-20 (NCEI Accession 0127325)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The data included in this dataset were collected in the Sermilik Fjord, located in East Greenland in the Ammassalik district close to the town of Tasiilaq. Data...

  9. Temperature and conductivity, and water currents data collected by CTDs and current meters on moored buoys in the Sermilik Fjord, Greenland from 2010-08 to 2011-08 (NODC Accession 0123282)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The data included in this dataset were collected in Sermilik Fjord, located in East Greenland in the Ammassalik district close to the town of Tasiilaq. Data...

  10. THE APPLICATION OF REMOTE SENSING AND AERO-GEOPHYSICS DATA FUSION ON METALLOGENIC PROGNOSIS IN QIMANTAGE OF EAST KUNLUN MONTAIN AREA

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Based on west of Qimantage of East Kunlun mountain area, takes advantage of ASTER data, according to the altered mineral spectral characteristics, remote sensing alteration information is extracted. Incorporation the anomaly extraction results with high-precision aero geophysical data processing results, a multiple resource information fusion model is proposed. The fusion model of two totally different type of data which is a special attention in geospatial academia now, which can im...

  11. A STUDY ON THE CONCENTRATION OF HEAVY METALS IN THE DRINKING WATER OF SELECTED AREAS OF IMPHAL EAST DISTRICT, MANIPUR (INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joychandra

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study attempts to evaluate the quality of the drinking water (tap particularly heavy metal concentrations (Fe, Zn, Pb, Cu and Cd in selected areas of Imphal east district, Manipur. Findings were compared with the Indian Standard (ISI and Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR for drinking water specification. Concentrations of metals such as iron, cadmium and lead are alarming. They crossed the maximum permissible limit for drinking water standards set by ISI and ICMR

  12. Caribou, individual-based modeling and mega-industry in central West Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raundrup, Katrine; Nymand, Josephine; Nabe-Nielsen, Jacob

    Spatial distribution of caribou (Rangifer tarandus groenlandicus) in West Greenland is a result of both short and long term changes in the Arctic landscape. To understand present distribution 40 satellite collars were deployed on 40 female caribou in the Akia-Maniitsoq herd, central West Greenland...... in an area. Further, enhanced or lowered hunting pressure, and changed weather conditions can be studied using IBM. Thus, both short and long term changes in the landscape will be studied and provide insights in how the specific spatial changes impact caribou in West Greenland....

  13. Is rainfall erosivity influenced by climate change?. A case study in a Mediterranean Climate area of North East Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Maria C.

    2014-05-01

    One of the main characteristics of the Mediterranean climate is the high intensity rainfall events usually recorded in autumn and spring. Those events usually concentrate a high percentage of annual rainfall. Different studies carried out in the Mediterranean countries suggest that notable changes in seasonal precipitation regimes have occurred during the second half of the 20th century. In addition, precipitation extremes seem to increase in association with global warming, which may favour erosion processes. Under this hypothesis one question arise: is the rainfall erosivity increasing influenced by climate change? In this work rainfall erosivity and its variability in the last two decades was analysed in an area located NE Spain, where erosion processes of high magnitude are recorded. The main land use in that area is grape vines, which due to the scarce soil cover is usually associated with the highest erosion rates. The study area was located in the Penedès depression (North East Spain). Hourly data from four observatories Els Hostalets de Pierola (UTM X: 400664, Y: 4598608m, elv: 326m ), La Granada ( X:393758; Y:4580393), Sant Martí Sarroca (X: 385556; Y:4581486, elv: 257m) and Font_Rubi (X: 385118, Y:4587935. elev: 415 m ) belonging to the period 1997-2013 were used in the analysis together with a tipping bucket rainfall series recorded at one minute intervals (10 years within the period 1996-2012). Rainfall erosivity was quantified by the index rainfall kinetic energy multiplied by the maximum intensity in 30minute periods (E*Imax30). The Imax30 was estimated from the relationship between hourly and 30 minute data obtained for the tipping bucket series using the Marquard algoritme. In order to analsye changes in rainfall erosivity, the annual and monthly number of erosive events were analysed for each observatory and in each year, the events were classified into intervals according to their erosivity. The intervals used were: 0-100; 100-200; 200-300; 300

  14. Crustal structure beneath Eastern Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reiche, Sönke; Thybo, H.; Kaip, G.

    2011-01-01

    is recorded by 350 Reftek Texan receivers for 10 equidistant shot points along the profile. We use forward ray tracing modelling to construct a two-dimensional velocity model from the observed travel times. These results show the first images of the subsurface velocity structure beneath the Greenland ice...... these mountain belts is needed for assessing the isostatic balance of the crust and to gain insight into possible links between crustal composition, rifting history and present-day topography of the North Atlantic Region. However, the acquisition of geophysical data onshore Greenland is logistically complicated...

  15. Hepatitis B prevalence and incidence in Greenland: a population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Børresen, Malene Landbo; Andersson, Mikael; Wohlfahrt, Jan; Melbye, Mads; Biggar, Robert J; Ladefoged, Karin; Panum, Inge; Koch, Anders

    2015-03-15

    Greenland remains a highly endemic area for hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. This is in sharp contrast to other modern societies, such as Denmark. To address this discrepancy, we investigated the natural history of HBV infection in Greenland by estimating the age-specific incidence of HBV infection, the proportion of chronic carriers, and the rates of hepatitis B surface antigen seroclearance. In total, 8,879 Greenlanders (16% of the population) from population-based surveys conducted in 1987 and 1998 were followed through March 2010. Data on HBV status were supplemented by HBV test results from all available HBV registries in Greenland to determine changes in HBV status over time. Incidence rates of HBV infection and hepatitis B surface antigen seroclearance were estimated after taking into account interval censoring. The incidence of HBV infection in 5-14-year-old subjects was less than 1 per 100 person-years and peaked at 5 per 100 person-years in persons 15-24 years of age. Overall, 17.5% of persons infected in adulthood were estimated to become chronic carriers. HBV is primarily transmitted in adolescence and adulthood in Greenland. In contrast to what is observed in most other populations, HBV-infected adults in Greenland have a high risk of progressing to chronic HBV carriage. This phenomenon might explain how the high rate of infection is maintained in Greenland.

  16. Structural development of the Jan Mayen microcontinent (JMMC): An update of its role during the rift transition from the Ægir Ridge to the Kolbeinsey Ridge, and effects on the formation of the Greenland-Iceland-Faroe ridge complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blischke, Anett; Gaina, Carmen; Hopper, John R.; Peron-Pinvidic, Gwenn; Brandsdóttir, Bryndis; Guarnieri, Pierpaolo; Erlendsson, Ögmundur

    2016-04-01

    This study presents results of an ongoing PhD research project and proposes a revision of the Jan Mayen microcontinent's Cenozoic evolution with a special emphasis on the structural relationship to the Greenland-Iceland Faroe ridge complex. Recently acquired and publicly available geophysical and borehole data collected offshore Iceland since the early 1970s, facilitate a thorough review of Tertiary rift systems and their association with the Jan Mayen microcontinent, updating recent kinematic modelling that details the timing of the North Atlantic opening along the Jan Mayen transfer systems, and the Iceland-Faroe-Greenland transfer system bordering the Greenland-Iceland Faroe ridge complex, which covers a large area of thick crust that stretches across the North Atlantic Ocean between the central East Greenland and the North-West European margins. The established regional reflection seismic dataset interpretations and plate tectonic reconstructions indicate that the microcontinent may represent the southern extension of the East Greenland Jameson Land basin, suggesting a similar structural trend as the Faroe-Shetland basin. The Cenozoic structural evolution of the Jan Mayen microcontinent and surrounding oceanic crust includes six main phases that correlate to several major unconformities and related structures. Important events include the pre-break-up unconformity, the break-up to drift phase, a drifting phase and establishment of the Ægir Ridge seafloor spreading during the early Eocene, oblique seafloor spreading direction east of JMMC during mid-Eocene caused the formation of transform systems and uplift along the southern flank Jan Mayen microcontinent forming the Iceland Plateau Rift (Brandsdóttir et al. 2015), accompanied by igneous activity along the northeastern margin of the Blosseville Kyst (Larsen et al. 2014), ridge relocation via a southeast to northwest en-echelon ridge system transition from the southern extent of the microcontinent during the

  17. Miocene uplift of the NE Greenland margin linked to plate tectonics: Seismic evidence from the Greenland Fracture Zone, NE Atlantic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Døssing Andreasen, Arne; Japsen, Peter; Watts, Anthony B.

    2016-01-01

    Tectonic models predict that, following breakup, rift margins undergo only decaying thermal subsidence during their post-rift evolution. However, post-breakup stratigraphy beneath the NE Atlantic shelves shows evidence of regional-scale unconformities, commonly cited as outer margin responses to ...... by plate tectonic forces, induced perhaps by a change in the Iceland plume (a hot pulse) and/or by changes in intra-plate stresses related to global tectonics.......Tectonic models predict that, following breakup, rift margins undergo only decaying thermal subsidence during their post-rift evolution. However, post-breakup stratigraphy beneath the NE Atlantic shelves shows evidence of regional-scale unconformities, commonly cited as outer margin responses...... to inner margin episodic uplift, including the formation of coastal mountains. The origin of these events remains enigmatic. We present a seismic reflection study from the Greenland Fracture Zone – East Greenland Ridge (GFZ-EGR) and the NE Greenland shelf. We document a regional intra-Miocene seismic...

  18. Geologic map of the Alligator Ridge area, including the Buck Mountain East and Mooney Basin Summit quadrangles and parts of the Sunshine Well NE and Long Valley Slough quadrangles, White Pine County, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutt, Constance J.

    2000-01-01

    Data set describes the geology of Paleozoic through Quaternary units in the Alligator Ridge area, which hosts disseminated gold deposits. These digital files were used to create the 1:24,000-scale geologic map of the Buck Mountain East and Mooney Basin Summit Quadrangles and parts of the Sunshine Well NE and Long Valley Slough Quadrangles, White Pine County, east-central Nevada.

  19. Gestational diabetes mellitus in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Michael Lynge; Olesen, Jesper; Jørgensen, M. E.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Within the last 20 years, the prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) has been reported to be increasing worldwide in correlation with ethnic and geographic variations. The actual prevalence of GDM throughout all of Greenland remains unknown. Objective. The aim of this study...

  20. The Braconidae (Hymenoptera) of Greenland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Achterberg, van C.

    2006-01-01

    Thirty species belonging to 16 genera of the family Braconidae (Hymenoptera) are reported from Greenland. Seven are new species described and illustrated below: Dacnusa groenlandica spec. nov.; Aphidius tarsalis spec. nov.; Praon brevistigma spec. nov.; Blacus (B.) groenlandicus spec. nov.; Cotesia

  1. The Pedagogical Situation in Greenland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunther, Bent

    The history of Greenland's educational activities began in 1721 with the work of a missionary who encouraged the people to learn to read and write. A century later, higher education became available. In 1905, legislation was enacted that served as a milestone of progress for the growth of education. Separation from Denmark, which was leading…

  2. Crustal structure beneath Eastern Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reiche, Sönke; Thybo, H.; Kaip, G.

    2011-01-01

    these mountain belts is needed for assessing the isostatic balance of the crust and to gain insight into possible links between crustal composition, rifting history and present-day topography of the North Atlantic Region. However, the acquisition of geophysical data onshore Greenland is logistically complicated...

  3. Gestational diabetes mellitus in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Michael Lynge; Olesen, Jesper; Jørgensen, Marit Eika

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Within the last 20 years, the prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) has been reported to be increasing worldwide in correlation with ethnic and geographic variations. The actual prevalence of GDM throughout all of Greenland remains unknown. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study...

  4. Temporal Trends and Future Predictions of Mercury Concentrations in Northwest Greenland Polar Bear (Ursus maritimus) Hair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dietz, Rune; Born, E.W.; Riget, Frank Farsø

    2011-01-01

    Hair samples from 117 Northwest Greenland polar bears (Ursus maritimus) were taken during 1892-2008 and analyzed for total mercury (hereafterHg). The sample represented 28 independent years and the aim of the study was to analyze for temporal Hg trends. Mercury concentrations showed yearly...... significant increases of 1.6-1.7% (p bear......-2008 concentrations ofHg in Northwest Greenland polar bear hair exceeded the general guideline values of 20-30 μg/g dry weight for terrestrial wildlife, whereas the neurochemical effect level of 5.4 μg Hg/g dry weight proposed for East Greenland polar bears was exceeded in 93.5% of the cases. These results call...

  5. Rapid response of Helheim Glacier in Greenland to climate variability over the past century

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andresen, Camilla Snowman; Straneo, Fiammetta; Ribergaard, Mads Hvid;

    2012-01-01

    During the early 2000s the Greenland Ice Sheet experienced the largest ice-mass loss of the instrumental record(1), largely as a result of the acceleration, thinning and retreat of large outlet glaciers in West and southeast Greenland(2-5). The quasi-simultaneous change in the glaciers suggests...... a common climate forcing. Increasing air(6) and ocean(7,8) temperatures have been indicated as potential triggers. Here, we present a record of calving activity of Helheim Glacier, East Greenland, that extends back to about AD 1890, based on an analysis of sedimentary deposits from Sermilik Fjord, where...... Helheim Glacier terminates. Specifically, we use the annual deposition of sand grains as a proxy for iceberg discharge. Our record reveals large fluctuations in calving rates, but the present high rate was reproduced only in the 1930s. A comparison with climate indices indicates that high calving activity...

  6. The first glacier inventory for entire Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastner, P.; Bolch, T.; Mölg, N.; Le Bris, R.; Paul, F.

    2012-04-01

    Detailed glacier data is becoming more and more important in the last decades to solve several research issues. One of the most prominent questions in this regard is the potential contribution of glaciers and icecaps (GIC) to global sea-level rise. Primarily, estimates are uncertain due to the globally still incomplete information about glacier location and size, as well as large uncertainties in future climate scenarios. Recent studies that calculate global sea-level rise from GIC have developed simplified approaches using information from glacier inventories or gridded data sets and a range of different global climate models and emission scenarios. However, for several strongly glacierized regions very rough assumptions about the ice distribution have to be made and an urgent demand for a globally complete glacier inventory is expressed. The GIC on Greenland are one of the regions with lacking information. Within the EU FP7 project ice2sea we mapped the GIC on Greenland using Landsat TM/ETM+ imagery acquired around the year 2000, along with an additional dataset in the North (DCW - Digital Chart of the World). A digital elevation model (DEM) with 90 m resolution (GIMP DEM) was used to derive drainage divides and henceforth topographic parameters for each entity. A major challenge in this regard is the application of a consistent strategy to separate the local GIC from the ice sheet. For this purpose we have defined different levels of connectivity (CL) of the local GIC with the ice sheet: CL0: Not connected. CL1: Connected but separable (either with drainage divides in the accumulation region or in touch only - and thus separable - in the ablation region). CL2: Connected but non-separable (the local GIC contribute to the flow of an ice sheet outlet in the ablation area). Up to now close to 12'000 GIC (only CL0 and CL1) with a total area of about 129'000 km2 have been mapped considering only entities larger than 0.1 km2. The area of the ice sheet itself is

  7. A high-resolution record of Greenland mass balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillan, Malcolm; Leeson, Amber; Shepherd, Andrew; Briggs, Kate; Armitage, Thomas W. K.; Hogg, Anna; Kuipers Munneke, Peter; Broeke, Michiel; Noël, Brice; Berg, Willem Jan; Ligtenberg, Stefan; Horwath, Martin; Groh, Andreas; Muir, Alan; Gilbert, Lin

    2016-07-01

    We map recent Greenland Ice Sheet elevation change at high spatial (5 km) and temporal (monthly) resolution using CryoSat-2 altimetry. After correcting for the impact of changing snowpack properties associated with unprecedented surface melting in 2012, we find good agreement (3 cm/yr bias) with airborne measurements. With the aid of regional climate and firn modeling, we compute high spatial and temporal resolution records of Greenland mass evolution, which correlate (R = 0.96) with monthly satellite gravimetry and reveal glacier dynamic imbalance. During 2011-2014, Greenland mass loss averaged 269 ± 51 Gt/yr. Atmospherically driven losses were widespread, with surface melt variability driving large fluctuations in the annual mass deficit. Terminus regions of five dynamically thinning glaciers, which constitute less than 1% of Greenland's area, contributed more than 12% of the net ice loss. This high-resolution record demonstrates that mass deficits extending over small spatial and temporal scales have made a relatively large contribution to recent ice sheet imbalance.

  8. Surface-atmosphere decoupling limits accumulation at Summit, Greenland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkelhammer, Max; Noone, David C; Steen-Larsen, Hans Christian; Bailey, Adriana; Cox, Christopher J; O'Neill, Michael S; Schneider, David; Steffen, Konrad; White, James W C

    2016-04-01

    Despite rapid melting in the coastal regions of the Greenland Ice Sheet, a significant area (~40%) of the ice sheet rarely experiences surface melting. In these regions, the controls on annual accumulation are poorly constrained owing to surface conditions (for example, surface clouds, blowing snow, and surface inversions), which render moisture flux estimates from myriad approaches (that is, eddy covariance, remote sensing, and direct observations) highly uncertain. Accumulation is partially determined by the temperature dependence of saturation vapor pressure, which influences the maximum humidity of air parcels reaching the ice sheet interior. However, independent proxies for surface temperature and accumulation from ice cores show that the response of accumulation to temperature is variable and not generally consistent with a purely thermodynamic control. Using three years of stable water vapor isotope profiles from a high altitude site on the Greenland Ice Sheet, we show that as the boundary layer becomes increasingly stable, a decoupling between the ice sheet and atmosphere occurs. The limited interaction between the ice sheet surface and free tropospheric air reduces the capacity for surface condensation to achieve the rate set by the humidity of the air parcels reaching interior Greenland. The isolation of the surface also acts to recycle sublimated moisture by recondensing it onto fog particles, which returns the moisture back to the surface through gravitational settling. The observations highlight a unique mechanism by which ice sheet mass is conserved, which has implications for understanding both past and future changes in accumulation rate and the isotopic signal in ice cores from Greenland.

  9. Microplastic pollution in the Greenland Sea: Background levels and selective contamination of planktivorous diving seabirds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amélineau, F; Bonnet, D; Heitz, O; Mortreux, V; Harding, A M A; Karnovsky, N; Walkusz, W; Fort, J; Grémillet, D

    2016-12-01

    Microplastics have been reported everywhere around the globe. With very limited human activities, the Arctic is distant from major sources of microplastics. However, microplastic ingestions have been found in several Arctic marine predators, confirming their presence in this region. Nonetheless, existing information for this area remains scarce, thus there is an urgent need to quantify the contamination of Arctic marine waters. In this context, we studied microplastic abundance and composition within the zooplankton community off East Greenland. For the same area, we concurrently evaluated microplastic contamination of little auks (Alle alle), an Arctic seabird feeding on zooplankton while diving between 0 and 50 m. The study took place off East Greenland in July 2005 and 2014, under strongly contrasted sea-ice conditions. Among all samples, 97.2% of the debris found were filaments. Despite the remoteness of our study area, microplastic abundances were comparable to those of other oceans, with 0.99 ± 0.62 m(-3) in the presence of sea-ice (2005), and 2.38 ± 1.11 m(-3) in the nearby absence of sea-ice (2014). Microplastic rise between 2005 and 2014 might be linked to an increase in plastic production worldwide or to lower sea-ice extents in 2014, as sea-ice can represent a sink for microplastic particles, which are subsequently released to the water column upon melting. Crucially, all birds had eaten plastic filaments, and they collected high levels of microplastics compared to background levels with 9.99 and 8.99 pieces per chick meal in 2005 and 2014, respectively. Importantly, we also demonstrated that little auks took more often light colored microplastics, rather than darker ones, strongly suggesting an active contamination with birds mistaking microplastics for their natural prey. Overall, our study stresses the great vulnerability of Arctic marine species to microplastic pollution in a warming Arctic, where sea-ice melting is expected to release vast

  10. An evaluation of teeth of ringed seals (Phoca hispida) from Greenland as a matrix to monitor spatial and temporal trends of mercury and stable isotopes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aubail, Aurore; Dietz, Rune; Riget, Frank Farsø;

    2010-01-01

    central West Greenland and central East Greenland. These increases were attributed to global changes in environmental Hg levels since no temporal trends in δ15N values were found to support the hypothesis of a diet shift over time. Furthermore, a decreasing temporal trend in δ13C values was observed...... in the teeth of seals from central East Greenland, and explained by a likely change over time towards more pelagic feeding habits; alternatively, the so-known Seuss effect was thought to be responsible for this decrease. Finally, it was concluded that the tooth of ringed seal was a good monitoring tissue...

  11. Significance of the late Archaean granulite facies terrain boundaries, Southern West Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friend, C. R. L.; Nutman, A. P.; Mcgregor, V. R.

    1988-01-01

    Three distinct episodes and occurrences of granulite metamorphism in West Greenland are described: (1) the oldest fragmentary granulites occur within the 3.6-Ga Amitsoq gneisses and appear to have formed 200 Ma after the continental crust in which they lie (Spatially associated rapakivi granites have zircon cores as old as 3.8 Ga, but Rb-Sr, whole-rock Pb-Pb, and all other systems give 3.6 Ga, so these granulites apparently represent a later metamorphic event); (2) 3.0-Ga granulites of the Nordlandet Peninsula NW of Godthaab, developed immediately after crustal formation in hot, dry conditions, are carbonate-free, associated with voluminous tonalite, and formed at peak metamorphic conditions of 800 C and 7 to 8 kbar (Synmetamorphic trondhjemite abounds and the activity of H2O has been indicated by Pilar to have varied greatly); and (3) 2.8-Ga granulites south of Godthaab, lie to the south of retrogressed amphibolite terranes. Prograde amphibolite-granulite transitions are clearly preserved only locally at the southern end of this block, near Bjornesund, south of Fiskenaesset. Progressively deeper parts of the crust are exposed from south to north as a major thrust fault is approached. Characteristic big hornblende pegmatites, which outcrop close to the thrust in the east, have been formed by replacement of orthopyroxene. Comparable features were not seen in South Indian granulites. It was concluded that no one mechanism accounts for the origin of all granulites in West Greenland. Various processes have interacted in different ways, and what happened in individual areas must be worked out by considering all possible processes.

  12. Time trend by region of suicides and suicidal thoughts among Greenland Inuit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjerregaard, Peter; Larsen, Christina Viskum Lytken

    2015-01-01

    Suicides remain a major public health problem in Greenland. Their increase coincides with the modernization since 1950. Serious suicidal thoughts are reported by a significant proportion of participants in countrywide surveys. To analyze the time trend by region of suicides and suicidal thoughts among the Inuit in Greenland. Data included the Greenland registry of causes of death for 1970-2011 and 2 cross-sectional health surveys carried out in 1993-1994 and 2005-2010 with 1,580 and 3,102 Inuit participants, respectively. Suicide rates were higher among men than women while the prevalence of suicidal thoughts was higher among women. Suicide rates for men and women together increased from 1960 to 1980 and have remained around 100 per 100,000 person-years since then. The regional pattern of time trend for suicide rates varied with an early peak in the capital, a continued increase to very high rates in remote East and North Greenland and a slow increase in villages relative to towns on the West Coast. Suicidal thoughts followed the regional pattern for completed suicides. Especially for women there was a noticeable increasing trend in the villages. The relative risk for suicide was highest among those who reported suicidal thoughts, but most suicides happened outside this high-risk group. Suicide rates and the prevalence of suicidal thoughts remain high in Greenland but different regional trends point towards an increased marginalization between towns on the central West Coast, villages and East and North Greenland. Different temporal patterns call for different regional strategies of prevention.

  13. An evaluation of teeth of ringed seals (Phoca hispida) from Greenland as a matrix to monitor spatial and temporal trends of mercury and stable isotopes.

    OpenAIRE

    Aubail, Aurore; Dietz, Rune; Rigét, Frank; Simon-Bouhet, Benoit; Caurant, Florence

    2010-01-01

    International audience; Total mercury (Hg) concentrations were measured in teeth of ringed seals from Qeqertarsuaq, central West Greenland (1982 to 2006) and Ittoqqortoormiit, central East Greenland (1986 to 2006). Stable isotopic ratios of carbon (13C/12C) and nitrogen (15N/14N) were determined as well to provide insights into diet variations between regions or through time. Mercury concentrations decreased the first years of life of the animals suggesting that Hg had been transferred from t...

  14. A Fragment of Ophiolite Assemblage of Kasargi Lake Area: East-Urals Megazone, Northern Part of the Southern Urals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. E. Saveliev

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The results of study of rocks of ophiolite assemblage exposed on the east coast of Kasargi Lake are presented. The ophiolite assemblage is formed with the serpentinised ultramafic rocks of dunite-harzburgite association, which are residual and the shlirenbanded gabbros with a number of later dikes of diabases and porphiritic gabbros. The chemical content of mafic and ultramafic rocks of Kasargi massif shows that they are likely the equivalent rocks encountered within the backarc spreading ridges.

  15. Water-quality and ground-water-level trends, 1990-99, and data collected from 1995 through 1999, East Mountain area, Bernalillo County, central New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rankin, D.R.

    2000-01-01

    Bernalillo County officials recognize the importance of monitoring water quality and ground-water levels in rapidly developing areas. For this reason, water-quality and ground-water- level data were collected from 87 wells, 3 springs, and the Ojo Grande Acequia in the east mountain area of Bernalillo County between January 1990 and June 1999. The water samples were analyzed for selected nutrient species; total organic carbon; major dissolved constituents; methylene blue active substances; and dissolved arsenic. Analytical results were used to compute hardness, sodium adsorption ratio, and dissolved solids. Specific conductance, pH, air and water temperature, alkalinity, and dissolved oxygen were measured in the field at the time of sample collection. Ground-water levels were measured at the time of sample collection. From January 1990 through June 1993, water-quality and ground- water-level data were collected monthly from an initial set of 20 wells; these data were published in a 1995 report. During 1995, water samples and ground-water-level data were collected and analyzed from the initial set of 20 wells and from an additional 31 wells, 2 springs, and the Ojo Grande Acequia; these data were published in a 1996 report. Additional water-quality and ground-water-level data have been collected from sites in the east mountain area: 34 wells and the acequia during 1997, 14 wells and 1 spring during 1998, and 6 wells during 1999. Water-quality and ground- water-level data collected in the east mountain area during 1995 through 1999 are presented in tables. In addition, temporal trends for ground-water levels, concentrations of total and dissolved nitrite plus nitrate, concentrations of dissolved chloride, and specific conductance are presented for 20 selected wells in water-quality and water- level hydrographs.

  16. Remedial investigation work plan for the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek characterization area, Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    The Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, located within the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR), is owned by the US Department of Energy (DOE) and managed by Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc. The entire ORR was placed on the National Priorities List (NPL) of CERCLA sites in November 1989. Following CERCLA guidelines, sites under investigation require a remedial investigation (RI) to define the nature and extent of contamination, evaluate the risks to public health and the environment, and determine the goals for a feasibility study (FS) of potential remedial actions. The need to complete RIs in a timely manner resulted in the establishment of the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek (UEFPC) Characterization Area (CA) and the Bear Creek CA. The CA approach considers the entire watershed and examines all appropriate media within it. The UEFPC CA, which includes the main Y-12 Plant area, is an operationally and hydrogeologically complex area that contains numerous contaminants and containment sources, as well as ongoing industrial and defense-related activities. The UEFPC CA also is the suspected point of origin for off-site groundwater and surface-water contamination. The UEFPC CA RI also will address a carbon-tetrachloride/chloroform-dominated groundwater plume that extends east of the DOE property line into Union Valley, which appears to be connected with springs in the valley. In addition, surface water in UEFPC to the Lower East Fork Poplar Creek CA boundary will be addressed. Through investigation of the entire watershed as one ``site,`` data gaps and contaminated areas will be identified and prioritized more efficiently than through separate investigations of many discrete units.

  17. Remedial investigation work plan for the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek characterization area, Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    The Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, located within the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR), is owned by the US Department of Energy (DOE) and managed by Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc. The entire ORR was placed on the National Priorities List (NPL) of CERCLA sites in November 1989. Following CERCLA guidelines, sites under investigation require a remedial investigation (RI) to define the nature and extent of contamination, evaluate the risks to public health and the environment, and determine the goals for a feasibility study (FS) of potential remedial actions. The need to complete RIs in a timely manner resulted in the establishment of the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek (UEFPC) Characterization Area (CA) and the Bear Creek CA. The CA approach considers the entire watershed and examines all appropriate media within it. The UEFPC CA, which includes the main Y-12 Plant area, is an operationally and hydrogeologically complex area that contains numerous contaminants and containment sources, as well as ongoing industrial and defense-related activities. The UEFPC CA also is the suspected point of origin for off-site groundwater and surface-water contamination. The UEFPC CA RI also will address a carbon-tetrachloride/chloroform-dominated groundwater plume that extends east of the DOE property line into Union Valley, which appears to be connected with springs in the valley. In addition, surface water in UEFPC to the Lower East Fork Poplar Creek CA boundary will be addressed. Through investigation of the entire watershed as one ``site,`` data gaps and contaminated areas will be identified and prioritized more efficiently than through separate investigations of many discrete units.

  18. Influence of the modified global ocean tide model with local tides of East and South China Seas on load gravity in China and its neighbor area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Jiang-cun; SUN He-ping

    2005-01-01

    By using 11 global ocean tide models and tidal gauge data obtained in the East China Sea and South China Sea, the influence of the ocean loading on gravity field in China and its neighbor area is calculated in this paper. Furthermore, the differences between the results from original global models and modified models with local tides are discussed based on above calculation. The comparison shows that the differences at the position near the sea are so large that the local tides must be taken into account in the calculation. When the global ocean tide models of CSR4.0, FES02, GOT00, NAO99 and ORI96 are chosen, the local effect for M2 is less than 0.10×10-8 m·s-2 over the area far away from sea. And the local effect for O1 is less than 0.05 ×10-8 m·s-2 over that area when choosing AG95 or CSR3.0 models. This numerical result demonstrates that the choice of model is a complex problem because of the inconsistent accuracy of the models over the areas of East and South China Seas.

  19. 谈东干渠地区山洪风险图的编制%Compilation of Flash Flood Risk Map in Area around East Trunk Canal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭梁

    2012-01-01

    山洪灾害一直以来是山区最严重的自然灾害,治理山洪灾害是山区防灾的重点.山洪风险图是以图表的形式反映一定频率洪水的分布、淹没范围、水深、流量大小的专题风险图,编制山洪风险图能够为山区制定防洪规划提供科学依据.本文以宁夏河东灌区的东干渠地区为例,论述了在该地区编制山洪风险图的具体步骤以及分析了在编制中存在的难点.%Flash flood has been a most serious natural disasters in mountain areas, governance is the focus of mountain disaster prevention. Flash flood risk maps reflect the distribution, flooded area, water depth, flow size of the flood with certain frequency in the form of charts. Compiling flash flood risk maps can provide the scientific basis for the development of flood control planning in mountain areas.Taking the east trunk canal area in Ningxia east irrigation district for example, this paper discusses the specific steps for preparing flash flood risk maps and analyses the difficulties.

  20. Higher blood pressure among Inuit migrants in Denmark than among the Inuit in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, P; Jørgensen, M E; Lumholt, P

    2002-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE: Previous studies of blood pressure among the Inuit have given inconsistent results and studies comparing Inuit migrants with those living in traditional Inuit areas are absent. The purpose of the study was to compare the blood pressure of the Inuit in Greenland with that of Inuit...... adjusted blood pressures were 117/72 mm Hg in Greenland and 127/81 mm Hg among the migrants (pblood pressure increased with age and body mass index, and was higher among men and non-smokers. In Greenland, blood pressure increased with the level of school education...... blood pressure of the two populations while the difference for diastolic blood pressure was much less than for those with less education. CONCLUSIONS: Blood pressure was lower among the Inuit in Greenland than among the Inuit migrants in Denmark but the difference was absent (systolic pressure...

  1. The prevalence of seasonal affective disorder (SAD) in Greenland is related to latitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kegel, Mogens; Dam, Henrik; Ali, Fatuma; Bjerregaard, Peter

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of seasonal affective disorder (SAD) in Greenlanders and Danes living at four different latitudes in Greenland. A Seasonal Pattern Assessment Questionnaire (SPAQ) was mailed to 6021 men and women between the ages of 18 and 59 years living in four different municipalities in Greenland. The recipients were randomly selected from the National Population Register. Approximately 9% of the respondents met the criteria for SAD, and the incidence of SAD varied between a southern municipality and three northern municipalities. The prevalence of SAD was particularly high in northern municipalities. No significant difference was found in the prevalence of SAD between Greenlanders and Danes. The results are comparable with other population studies that have reported a high prevalence of SAD in arctic areas. The clinical implications of our findings and the possibilities for introducing light therapy should be assessed in future studies.

  2. Urbanization, migration and alcohol use in a population of Greenland inuit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Marie Henriette; Grønbæk, Morten; Bjerregaard, Peter

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To analyse the effects of migration and urbanisation on alcohol intake among a population of Greenland Inuit. STUDY DESIGN: Population-based cross-sectional study of 4,139 Inuit randomly selected from Denmark and four areas of western Greenland. Data collection was based on interviews...... and self-administered questionnaires. METHODS: The association between different aspects of alcohol intake (quantity of intake, occasional heavy drinking, and the modified CAGE questionnaire) and place of living were analysed using a chi-square test and logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: The population...... of positive results on the modified CAGE test, measuring alcohol dependence, were also seen in large communities in Greenland. We found no statistically significant differences in alcohol intake between Inuit living in large and small communities in Greenland. When comparing Inuit living in Denmark according...

  3. Environmental monitoring at the Nalunaq Gold Mine, South Greenland, 2004

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glahder, C. M.; Asmund, G.

    Monitoring was performed in the Nalunaq Gold Mine area, Nanortalik mu-nicipality, South Greenland during 20-26 August 2004. This was eight months after the first shipment of ore. Samples were collected at four marine stations in the Kirkespir Bay, Arctic char were sampled in the Kirkespir River......, and li-chens were collected at 20 stations in the Kirkespir Valley. Samples were analysed for 10 elements with an ICP-MS. Concentrations of Zn, Cu, Cr, As and Co were elevated 3-9 times compared to background concentrations found prior to mine start. The increased level of contamination in the local area...... is moderate compared to contaminations found around closed mines in Greenland, i.e. Maarmorilik, Ivittuut and Mestersvig....

  4. Preliminary fundamental aspects on the thyroid volume and function in the population of long term heavily polluted area in East Slovakia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langer, P. [Institute of Experimental Endocrinology, SAS, Bratislava (Slovakia); Tajtakova, M. [Safarik Univ., Kosice (Slovakia). First Clinic of Internal Medicine; Kocan, A. [Slovak Health Univ. - IPCM, Bratislava (SK). Research Base] (and others)

    2004-09-15

    Our previous examinations of employees of chemical factory formerly producing polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) repeatedly showed increased thyroid volume as measured by ultrasound as well as increased frequency of thyroperoxidase, thyroglobulin and thyrotropin (TSH) receptor autoantibodies. At the same time a considerable PCB pollution of soil, waters and food chain in large area surrounding that chemical factory was found. The aim of present preliminary evaluation of data obtained within the EC project PCBRISK was to search for further interrelations between long-term organochlorine pollution and fundamental markers of thyroid volume and function in large cohorts of population from three districts of East Slovakia.

  5. Lessons learned from the Great East Japan Earthquake: The need for disaster preparedness in the area of disaster mental health for children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozu, Shuei; Homma, Hiroaki

    2014-01-01

    The Great East Japan Earthquake on March 11, 2011 brought unprecedented challenges to individuals, families, and communities of the Tohoku region in Japan. Children are especially vulnerable to the postdisaster risk factors that impact their ability to heal. The destruction of the infrastructure by the disasters made it more challenging to reach out to children in an area where the stigma against mental illness is persistent. The authors share their experiences, what they heard from patients, and their reflections on lessons learned. The authors recommend the development of a coordinated mental health response system in preparation for the next disaster.

  6. Issues and Challenges Facing Rice Production and Food Security in the Granary Areas in the East Coast Economic Region (ECER), Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Chamhuri Siwar; Nor Diana Mohd Idris; Muhammad Yasar; Golam Morshed

    2014-01-01

    This study is an effort to explore and investigate the issues and challenging are facing rice production and food security in Malaysia. It is also to identify the contribution of the granary areas in East Coast Economic Region (ECER) to the national food security. The important of rice as a staple food crop of Malaysia and is grown on 673,745 ha of land, producing annually 2.6 million tons of paddy grain valued at RM 2 billion, which is contribute with average growth rate of 3.7% of year, in ...

  7. A Galerkin, finite-element analysis of steady-state flow and heat transport in the shallow hydrothermal system in the East Mesa area, Imperial Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, R.E.

    1977-01-01

    A steady-state simulation model was applied to the shallow hydrothermal system in the East Mesa area of Imperial Valley, Calif. The steady-state equations of flow and heat transport were solved by use of a Galerkin, finite-element method. A solution was obtained by iterating between the temperature and pressure equations, using updated densities and viscosities. Temperature and pressure were obtained for each node, and corresponding head values were calculated. The simulated temperature and pressure patterns correlated well with the observed patterns. Additional data, mainly from test drilling, would be required for construction of a similar model of the deep hydrothermal system.

  8. Holocene environmental changes and climate development in Greenland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engels, Stefan; Helmens, Karin (Dept. of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology, Stockholm Univ., Stockholm (Sweden))

    2010-12-15

    The primary aim of this report is to give an overview of the Holocene environmental and climatic changes in Greenland and to describe the development of the periglacial environment during the Holocene. Special emphasis is given to the influence of the ice sheet on its surroundings, both in terms of time (with respect to the response of the biosphere to deglaciation or ice sheet proximity) and in space (through the influence of the ice sheet on the regional climate, more specifically on temperature and aridity). Published records are reviewed, and regional trends are summarized. A range of different natural archives is available for such studies, including ice-core data, marine records, and continental sources of information, including peat profiles and lacustrine records. Because of the high number of lakes in all ice-free areas of Greenland, the lacustrine records offer the opportunity to get a spatial overview of past changes in environment and climate as well. This report focuses on (palaeo-) ecological studies, as it is intended to assemble basic information for future studies on adaptation of the biosphere to changes in climate. There is a bias towards pollen- and macro-remain-based reconstructions of past changes, as these dominate performed palaeoecological studies in Greenland; unfortunately, only a limited number of studies exist that include more modern proxies such as diatoms or chironomids (climate-indicators), but where available in the literature, these have been included. The report starts with an introduction where the current climatic and biological zonation of Greenland is discussed together with an overview of the geology of Greenland (on the full geological timescale) in order to put the following sections in perspective. Chapter 2 discusses the ice sheet history of Greenland from the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) onward where special emphasis is given to the spatial variability of deglaciation at the onset of the Holocene. To enhance the

  9. Permafrost degradation in West Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foged, Niels Nielsen; Ingeman-Nielsen, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Important aspects of civil engineering in West Greenland relate to the presence of permafrost and mapping of the annual and future changes in the active layer due to the ongoing climatically changes in the Arctic. The Arctic Technology Centre (ARTEK) has worked more than 10 years on this topic......, Kangerlussuaq, Sisimiut and Nuuk. They are situated in continuous, discontinuous and sporadic permafrost zones. We will show examples of detoriation of permafrost related to present local scale climate observations and large scale climate and permafrost simulations modeled numerically with the GIPL model driven...... by HIRHAM climate projections for Greenland up to 2075. The engineering modelling is based on a risk assessment methodology based on a flow diagram which classify the risk of permafrost degradation causing settlement and stability problems for buildings and infrastructures based on relatively simple...

  10. Walrus Movements in Smith Sound: A Canada–Greenland Shared Stock

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heide-Jørgensen, Mads Peter; Flora, Janne; Andersen, Astrid Oberborbeck

    2017-01-01

    western Jones Sound and four entered the Penny Strait-Lancaster Sound area, crossing two putative stock boundaries. Since these 13 tracks were made by 12 animals, one walrus entered both areas. It is possible that some of the tracked walruses used terrestrial haul-out sites in the largely ice-free areas...... moving between Greenland and Canada also used offshore areas in Smith Sound. This study demonstrates that the walrus population that winters along the northwestern coast of Greenland is shared more widely in Canada than previously thought and should be managed accordingly....

  11. Climate Change and Baleen Whale Trophic Cascades in Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-19

    approach by combining observations of movements, foraging ecology and phenology collected by satellite and archival telemetry with intensive and localized... phenology of the use of the focal areas. These data were related to long-term physical and biological monitoring program in Nuuk Fjord and on the coast...of West Greenland, where long-term fishery data are collected to quantify seasonal and inter-annual variations in the biological and geophysical

  12. [Landscape structure and greenland spatial pattern in workshop district of Wuhan Iron and Steel Company].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Z; Shao, T; Zhou, X; He, J

    2001-04-01

    The landscape structure and greenland spatial pattern in the workshop district of Wuhan Iron and Steel Company were investigated and analyzed on the basis of landscape ecological theory. The results showed that the main parts of the landscape structure were the artificial landscape elements such as building and concrete covering patches, highway and railway bed corridors, and industrial reservations. All of these artificial landscape elements accounted for 74.37% of patch area and 57.70% of patch dominance. In the landscape, the building and concrete covering land had the maximum percentage of patch area (56.43%) and the maximum dominance (35.59%). The special purpose greenlands had the highest fragmentation index (5.0591 ind.hm-2) and the wide-ranging distribution. The corridor density (13.78 km.km-2) was high, and the highway had more effects on landscape than the railway. All the results reflected not only the essential landscape features of industrial region, but also the rational trend of landscape structure in the workshop district of Wuhan Iron and Steel Company. In the greenland, the road greenbelts had the maximum patch number, area percentage (66.07%), and dominance (75.31%), the shelter forests being mainly composed of tree species had high patch average area (8454.45 m2) and environmental benefit, and the ornamental greenlands had abundant plant species and varied scenery. The greenland system was initially formed by four afforestation districts, using shelter forests and ornamental greenlands in large patch as a center connected by road greenbelts. It should be attached importance to the relatively high dominance of wild grasslands, the low area percentage of shelter forests and the imperfect road greenbelts to develop the uncovered lands and to improve the quality of the greenland system.

  13. Investigation of T-Wave Propagation in the Offshore Area East of Taiwan from Early Analog Seismic Network Observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bor-Shouh Huang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Extant paper records of the early analog seismic network of Taiwan represent a large resource for earthquake studies in several disciplines. In this study, we report on T waves generated from offshore earthquakes, based on analog observations. The T phases were identified from their stable apparent velocity of about 1.5 km s-1 and other observations using data recorded by stations in eastern Taiwan and on two nearby islands. The observed T phases are recorded for the first time from Taiwan, and in particular are observed by the network in the distal range of local earthquakes. Most of the T waves are observed at island stations at epicentral distances greater than 100 km. For earthquakes that occurred a great distance east of Taiwan, the T phases are always the most dominant phases observed at island stations east of Taiwan, and are also seen at some inland stations with smaller amplitudes. No T phases from inland events were observed by stations on Taiwan or on nearby islands. The observations indicate that the amplitude of the T phase is highly attenuated on its land path and that the propagation direction of the T phase is affected by water depth.

  14. Antibiotic susceptibility profile of bacteria isolated from natural sources of water from rural areas of East Sikkim

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shubra Poonia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Contamination of water, food, and environment with antibiotic-resistant bacteria poses a serious public health issue. Objective: The objective was to study the bacterial pollution of the natural sources of water in east Sikkim and to determine the antimicrobial profile of the bacterial isolates. Materials and Methods: A total of 225 samples, 75 each during winter, summer, and monsoon season were collected from the same source in every season for bacteriological analysis by membrane filtration method. Antibiotic susceptibility test was performed using standard disc diffusion method. Results: A total of 19 bacterial species of the genera Escherichia, Klebsiella, Proteus, Salmonella, Shigella, Enterobacter, Citrobacter, Morganella, Pseudomonas, Acinetobacter, Flavobacterium, and Serratia were isolated and their antimicrobial sensitivity tested. Generally, most bacterial isolates except Salmonella and Shigella species were found resistant to commonly used antibiotics such as ampicillin (57.5%, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxaole (39.1%, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (37.4%, cefixime (34.5%, tetracycline (29.1%, ceftazidime (26.3%, ofloxacin (25.9%, amikacin (8.7%, and gentamicin (2.7% but sensitive to imipenem and piperacillin/tazobactam. Conclusion: Natural sources of water in east Sikkim are grossly contaminated with bacteria including enteropathogens. The consumption of untreated water from these sources might pose health risk to consumers.

  15. Integrated model of the shallow and deep hydrothermal systems in the East Mesa area, Imperial Valley, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riney, T.D.; Pritchett, J.W.; Rice, L.F.

    1982-01-01

    Geological, geophysical, thermal, petrophysical and hydrological data available for the East Mesa hydrothermal system that are pertinent to the construction of a computer model of the natural flow of heat and fluid mass within the system are assembled and correlated. A conceptual model of the full system is developed and a subregion selected for quantitative modeling. By invoking the Boussinesq approximation, valid for describing the natural flow of heat and mass in a liquid hydrothermal system, it is found practical to carry computer simulations far enough in time to ensure that steady-state conditions are obtained. Initial calculations for an axisymmetric model approximating the system demonstrate that the vertical formation permeability of the deep East Mesa system must be very low (k/sub v/ approx. 0.25 to 0.5 md). Since subsurface temperature and surface heat flow data exhibit major deviations from the axisymmetric approximation, exploratory three-dimensional calculations are performed to assess the effects of various mechanisms which might operate to produce such observed asymmetries. A three-dimensional model evolves from this iterative data synthesis and computer analysis which includes a hot fluid convective source distributed along a leaky fault radiating northward from the center of the hot spot and realistic variations in the reservoir formation properties.

  16. The influence of winter and summer atmospheric circulation on the variability of temperature and sea ice around Greenland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masayo Ogi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Most peripheral seas of the Arctic Ocean have seen a pronounced rise in sea surface temperatures in the past century, and this signature of Arctic amplification in proximity to the land suggests that the observed marine and terrestrial changes might be connected to each other. Using in situ observations of temperature from nine coastal meteorological stations around Greenland (GrSTs and remotely sensed fields of sea ice extent (SIE, we examine the interannual variations of surface air temperature (T2m and sea level pressure (SLP anomalies associated with the GrSTs and SIEs surrounding Greenland, specifically within Baffin Bay, the Greenland Sea and Kara-Barents Seas. During winter, the interannual variation in T2m and SLP of the west and south coasts of GrSTs and the Baffin Bay SIE are different from that of the east coast of GrSTs and the SIEs in the Greenland Sea and Kara-Barents Seas. The GrSTs on the west and south coasts of Greenland and the Baffin Bay SIE are associated with the T2m anomalies over Baffin Bay and Davis Strait. The winter SLP patterns associated with these GrSTs and SIEs show positive anomalies over the Arctic and negative anomalies over the North Atlantic with a large-scale atmospheric circulation such as the winter NAO. On the contrary, the east coast of GrSTs and the SIEs in the Greenland Sea and Kara-Barents Seas are correlated with the T2m anomalies over the Greenland Sea and Barents Sea. The surface wind pattern associated with the SIEs in the Greenland Sea and Kara-Barents Seas has a cyclonic circulation in the Greenland Sea and Barents Sea. At the local scale the cyclonic circulation could induce negative SIE anomalies and contribute to increasing open water in the Greenland Sea and Barents Sea. The effect of the loss of sea ice and the heat from the open ocean warming to the atmosphere may influence the GrSTs in the east coast of Greenland. As a result, the T2m pattern associated with the GrSTs in the east coast of

  17. Survey of preventable disaster death at medical institutions in areas affected by the Great East Japan Earthquake: a retrospective preliminary investigation of medical institutions in Miyagi Prefecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamanouchi, Satoshi; Sasaki, Hiroyuki; Tsuruwa, Miho; Ueki, Yuzuru; Kohayagawa, Yoshitaka; Kondo, Hisayoshi; Otomo, Yasuhiro; Koido, Yuichi; Kushimoto, Shigeki

    2015-04-01

    The 2011, magnitude (M) 9, Great East Japan Earthquake and massive tsunami caused widespread devastation and left approximately 18,500 people dead or missing. The incidence of preventable disaster death (PDD) during the Great East Japan Earthquake remains to be clarified; the present study investigated PDD at medical institutions in areas affected by the Great East Japan Earthquake in order to improve disaster medical systems. A total of 25 hospitals in Miyagi Prefecture (Japan) that were disaster base hospitals (DBHs), or had at least 20 patient deaths between March 11, 2011 and April 1, 2011, were selected to participate based on the results of a previous study. A database was created using the medical records of all patient deaths (n=868), and PDD was determined from discussion with 10 disaster health care professionals. A total of 102 cases of PDD were identified at the participating hospitals. The rate of PDD was higher at coastal hospitals compared to inland hospitals (62/327, 19.0% vs 40/541, 7.4%; Pcause of PDD, the PDD rate was higher at GHs compared to DBHs (24/316, 7.6% vs 21/552, 3.8%; Pcauses of PDD were: insufficient medical resources, delayed medical intervention, disrupted lifelines, deteriorated environmental conditions in homes and emergency shelters at coastal hospitals, and delayed medical intervention at inland hospitals. Meanwhile, investigation of PDD causes based on type of medical institution demonstrated that, while delayed medical intervention and deteriorated environmental conditions in homes and emergency shelters were the most common causes at DBHs, insufficient medical resources and disrupted lifelines were prevalent causes at GHs. Preventable disaster death at medical institutions in areas affected by the Great East Japan Earthquake occurred mainly at coastal hospitals. Insufficient resources (at GHs), environmental factors (at coastal hospitals), and delayed medical intervention (at all hospitals) constituted the major potential

  18. The Middle East.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blouin, Virginia; And Others

    This sixth grade resource unit focuses on Middle East culture as seen through five areas of the social sciences: anthropology-sociology, geography, history, economics, and political science. Among objectives that the student is expected to achieve are the following: 1) given general information on the Middle East through the use of film, visuals,…

  19. Ethno-Demographic Processes in the North-East Black Sea Area in the 19th – Early 21th Centuries (through the Example of Greater Sochi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandr A. Cherkasov

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This article examines ethno-demographic processes in the north-east Black Sea area, more specifically the territory of Greater Sochi, in the 19th – early 21th centuries. In writing the article, the authors have relied on archive materials from the archives department of the administration of the city of Novorossiysk and the archives department of the administration of the city of Sochi. The authors have consulted reference pre-revolution literature, Soviet-era and present-day population censuses, as well as the findings of present-day research studies. The methodological basis of this study are the principles of historicism, objectivity, and systemicity, which helps to get an insight into the general patterns and regional peculiarities in the demographic development of the major ethnicities in the north-east Black Sea area in the 19th-20th centuries. The authors touch upon the process of colonization of the territory and its ethnic composition. In the end, the authors come to the conclusion that the ethno-demographic picture of Greater Sochi had been forming in a complicated fashion. As a consequence, in the second half of the 19th century, following the Caucasian War, the territory had to be repopulated. Resettlement flows from different locations in the Russian Empire and overseas had formed by 1917 an ethno-picture that featured Russians and Armenians as two principal ethnicities. The authors note that this picture has not changed in a major way to this day.

  20. The Yenshanian—type Twin Granite Belts in Intracontinental Compression—subduction Environments in the Northern Part of East Qinlin Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡志宏; 胡受奚; 等

    1990-01-01

    Calc-alkaline granites (excluding A-and M-type) could be divided into two petrogenic series,I,e,the syntexis series and the transformation series according to their genetic mechanisms.In the light of this classification we found that granites of these two series often aligne in paired zones parallel to contemporaneous B-type or intracontinental compression-subduction zones within ascended slabs,re-sulting in a regular zonal pattern together with subduction zones.Thus,they are defined as twin granite belts.According to the spatial relations between the granite belts and the subduction zones,the twin granite belts could be classified as A, AB and B-type .The zonation of granites of the two series in the northern part of the East Qinlin area could be cited as a typical example of A-type twin granite belts related to the Yenshanian intracontinenta compression-subduction movement in the area.In this paper the tectonic settings and petrogenic features of the twin granites belts in East Qinlin are systematically described,and a tectonic model for granitic magma genesis in intracontinental compression-subduction environments has been proposed.In this model the forma-tion of A-type twin granite belts is closely connected with tectonic movements in terms of the prince-ple,rule and dynamics of material differentiation in the lithosphere.

  1. Upper mantle and crustal structure of the East Greenland Caledonides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiffer, Christian; Balling, N.; Jacobsen, B. H.;

    of the North Atlantic passive margins, including the gravitational collapse, extension, rifting and a possible influence by volcanism related to the Iceland hot spot. The landscape and topography were finally shaped by extensive erosion, finding its peak in the quaternary glaciations. Seismological data were...

  2. Homicide in Greenland 1985-2010

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Martin R; Thomsen, Asser Hedegård; Høyer, Christian Bjerre;

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: Homicide in Greenland has not often been investigated. The latest published study documented a dramatic rise in the homicide rate from around 1/100,000 inhabitants to more than 23/100,000 inhabitants from 1946 to 1984. The aim of our study was to characterize homicides in Greenland from ...

  3. Lead sources in human diet in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Peter; Johansen, Poul; Mulvad, Gert

    2004-01-01

    Although blood lead levels have declined in Greenland, they are still elevated despite the fact that lead levels in the Greenland environment are very low. Fragments of lead shot in game birds have been suggested as an important source of dietary exposure, and meals of sea birds, particularly eid...

  4. Record Summer Melt in Greenland in 2010

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tedesco, M.; Fettweis, X.; van den Broeke, M.R.; van de Wal, R.S.W.; Smeets, C.J.P.P.; van de Berg, W.J.; Serreze, M.C.; Box, J.E.

    2011-01-01

    As Arctic temperatures increase, there is growing concern about the melting of the Greenland ice sheet, which reached a new record during the summer of 2010. Understanding the changing surface mass balance of the Greenland ice sheet requires appreciation of the close links among changes in surface a

  5. Clouds enhance Greenland ice sheet meltwater runoff

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Tricht, K.; Lhermitte, S.; Lenaerts, J. T M|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/314850163; Gorodetskaya, I. V.; L'Ecuyer, T. S.; Noël, B.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/370612345; Van Den Broeke, M. R.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/073765643; Turner, D. D.; Van Lipzig, N. P M

    2016-01-01

    The Greenland ice sheet has become one of the main contributors to global sea level rise, predominantly through increased meltwater runoff. The main drivers of Greenland ice sheet runoff, however, remain poorly understood. Here we show that clouds enhance meltwater runoff by about one-third relative

  6. Balance velocities of the Greenland ice sheet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joughin, I.; Fahnestock, M.; Ekholm, Simon;

    1997-01-01

    We present a map of balance velocities for the Greenland ice sheet. The resolution of the underlying DEM, which was derived primarily from radar altimetery data, yields far greater detail than earlier balance velocity estimates for Greenland. The velocity contours reveal in striking detail......, the balance map is useful for ice-sheet modelling, mass balance studies, and field planning....

  7. Clouds enhance Greenland ice sheet meltwater runoff

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Tricht, K.; Lhermitte, S.; Lenaerts, J. T M|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/314850163; Gorodetskaya, I. V.; L'Ecuyer, T. S.; Noël, B.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/370612345; Van Den Broeke, M. R.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/073765643; Turner, D. D.; Van Lipzig, N. P M

    2016-01-01

    The Greenland ice sheet has become one of the main contributors to global sea level rise, predominantly through increased meltwater runoff. The main drivers of Greenland ice sheet runoff, however, remain poorly understood. Here we show that clouds enhance meltwater runoff by about one-third relative

  8. Exploring glacial change - flying in the tailwind of the early 20th century Greenland explorers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjork, A. A.; Kjaer, K. H.; Kjeldsen, K. K.

    In the early 1930s Greenlandic explorers and scientists began using airplanes as an effective mean of surveying and mapping the hitherto unknown and inaccessible lands. By replacing the dogsled and the drawing board with the seaplane and camera, huge areas could now be covered. Here in the 21st...... that vividly captures both the raw beauty of the land and the ongoing often dramatic glacial changes. As the historic flights covered nearly half the Greenlandic coast line, we capture both areas of massive retreat and areas of still stand and even advance....

  9. Neoglacial and historical glacier changes around Kangersuneq fjord in southern West Greenland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weidick, Anker

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The Nuup Kangerlua region in southern West Greenland became eglaciated in the early Holocene and by the mid-Holocene, the margin of the Inland Ice was located east of its present position. Discussion of late Holocene changes in the frontal positions of outlets relies on descriptions, paintings, photographs, maps, data from investigations of Norse ruins, aerial photographs and satellite images.The Kangiata Nunaata Sermia glacier system has receded over 20 km during the last two centuries, indicating a marked response to climatic fluctuations during and since the Little Ice Age (LIA. A large advance between 1700 and 1800 was followed by rapid recession in the first half of the 1800s. Limited data from c. 1850–1920 indicate that although the long-term position of the glacier front remained c. 10–12 km behind the LIA maximum, the late 1800s and the early 1900s may have seen a recession followed by an advance that resulted in a pronounced moraine system. The ice-dammed lake Isvand formed during the LIA maximum when meltwater from the western side of Kangiata Nunaata Sermia drained to the Ameralla fjord in the west. This is in contrast to the drainage pattern before the 1700s, when water probably drained to Kangersuneq in the north. Thinning of Kangiata Nunaata Sermia resulted in total drainage of Isvand between 2000 and 2010 and the discharge of water through Austmannadalen has now returned to the same level as that in medieval times.Other outlets in the region, such as Akullersuup Sermia and Qamanaarsuup Sermia have varied in phase with Kangiata Nunaata Sermia, but with amplitudes of only a few kilometres. In contrast, Narsap Sermia has been nearly stationary and Kangilinnguata Sermia may have advanced until the middle of the 1900s.Lowland marine outlets in south-western Greenland were characterised by large amplitude changes during the Neoglacial. Extreme examples, in addition to Kangiata Nunaata Sermia, are Eqalorutsit Killiit Sermiat at the

  10. Freshwater flux to Sermilik Fjord, SE Greenland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. H. Mernild

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Fluctuations in terrestrial surface freshwater flux to Sermilik Fjord, SE Greenland, were simulated and analyzed. SnowModel, a state-of-the-art snow-evolution, snow and ice melt, and runoff modeling system, was used to simulate the temporal and spatial terrestrial runoff distribution to the fjord based on observed meteorological data (1999–2008 from stations located on and around the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS. Simulated runoff was compared and verified against independent glacier catchment runoff observations (1999–2005. Modeled runoff to Sermilik Fjord was highly variable, ranging from 2.9×109 m3 y−1 in 1999 to 5.9×109 m3 y−1 in 2005. The uneven spatial runoff distribution produced an areally-averaged annual maximum runoff at the Helheim glacier terminus of more than 3.8 m w.eq. The sub-catchment runoff of the Helheim glacier region accounted for 25% of the total runoff to Sermilik Fjord. The runoff distribution from the different sub-catchments suggested a strong influence from the spatial variation in glacier coverage. To assess the Sermilik Fjord freshwater flux, simulated terrestrial runoff and net precipitation (precipitation minus evaporation and sublimation for the fjord area were combined with satellite-derived ice discharge and subglacial geothermal and frictional melting due to basal ice motion. A terrestrial freshwater flux of ~40.4×109 m3 y−1 was found for Sermilik Fjord, with an 11% contribution originated from surface runoff. For the Helheim glacier sub-catchment only 4% of the flux originated from terrestrial surface runoff.

  11. Audit report from Greenland on nurses’ tasks and perceived competency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nexøe, Jørgen; Skifte, Ella; Niclasen, Birgit

    2012-01-01

    , diagnostic procedures, treatments and need for a physician’s assistance, as well as the nurses’ self-perceived competency, were also analysed. Methods: A total of 42 nurses registered all patient encounters for 10 days in late autumn 2006 in 14 out of 16 healthcare districts in Greenland. Results: Nurses......Introduction: Despite all efforts, recruitment of healthcare personnel has become increasingly difficult in Greenland as in other remote areas. The aim of this observational study was to describe the extent of health care delivered by nurses in Greenland’s healthcare system. Reasons for encounter...... treated 1117 encounters (60%) singlehandedly. The nurses felt competent in what they were doing in 1415 encounters (76%). In 525 encounters (31%), a physician’s advice was sought. Either the physician was asked to come or the physician’s advice was obtained by telephone. In four cases the nurses did...

  12. Measured and modelled absolute gravity changes in Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, J. Emil; Forsberg, Rene; Strykowski, Gabriel

    2014-01-01

    In glaciated areas, the Earth is responding to the ongoing changes of the ice sheets, a response known as glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA). GIA can be investigated through observations of gravity change. For the ongoing assessment of the ice sheets mass balance, where satellite data are used, the study of GIA is important since it acts as an error source. GIA consists of three signals as seen by a gravimeter on the surface of the Earth. These signals are investigated in this study. The ICE-5G ice history and recently developed ice models of present day changes are used to model the gravity change in Greenland. The result is compared with the initial measurements of absolute gravity (AG) change at selected Greenland Network (GNET) sites.

  13. Potential Climatic Effects on the Greenland Ice Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bindschadler, R. A.

    1984-01-01

    The Greenland Ice Sheet covers an area of 1,720,000 sq. km and contains approximately 2,600,000 cu km of ice. Most of the ice sheet receives an excess of snow accumulation over the amount of ice lost to wind, meltwater run-off or other ablative processes. The majority of mass loss occurs at the margin of the ice sheet as either surface melt, which flows into the sea or calving of icebergs from the tongues of outlet glaciers. Many estimates of these processes were published. An average of five published estimates is summarized. If these estimates are correct, then the Greenland Ice Sheet is in approximate equilibrium and contributes 490 cu km/a of fresh water to the North Atlantic and Arctic Oceans. Climate effects, ice sheet flow, and application of remote sensing to tracking of the ice sheet are discussed.

  14. Environmental monitoring at the Nalunaq Gold Mine, South Greenland, 2010

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glahder, Christian Martin; Søndergaard, Jens; Asmund, Gert

    This seventh monitoring study was performed in the Nalunaq Gold Mine area, Nanortalik, South Greenland during 25-31 August 2010. No ore had been shipped to foreign gold production since the monitoring study in August 2009. Most work has dealt with the excavation of a production chamber...... an uncontaminated area. Samples were analysed for 11 elements with ICP-MS. In lichens, elevated concentrations (2-9 times of background levels) of copper (Cu), chromium (Cr), arsenic (As) and cobalt (Co) were found at the waste rock stockpile and in the mine area. A non-linear temporal trend with decreasing...

  15. Three-dimensional surface velocities of Storstrømmen glacier, Greenland, derived from radar interferometry and ice-sounding radar measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reeh, Niels; Mohr, Johan Jacob; Madsen, Søren Nørvang

    2003-01-01

    Non-steady-state vertical velocities of up to 5 m a(-1) exceed the vertical surface-parallel flow (SPF) components over much of the ablation area of Storstrommen, a large outlet glacier from the East Greenland ice sheet. Neglecting a contribution to the vertical velocity of this magnitude results......) or more. This indicates that the SPF assumption may be problematic also for glaciers in steady state. Here we derive the three-dimensional surface velocity distribution of Storstrommen by using the principle of mass conservation (MC) to combine InSAR measurements from ascending and descending satellite...... tracks with airborne ice-sounding radar measurement of ice thickness. The results are compared to InSAR velocities previously derived by using the SPF assumption, and to velocities obtained by in situ global positioning system (GPS) measurements. The velocities derived by using the MC principle...

  16. Comparison of Surface Elevation Changes of the Greenland and Antarctic Ice Sheets from Radar and Laser Altimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwally, H. Jay; Brenner, Anita C.; Barbieri, Kristine; DiMarzio, John P.; Li, Jun; Robbins, John; Saba, Jack L.; Yi, Donghui

    2012-01-01

    A primary purpose of satellite altimeter measurements is determination of the mass balances of the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets and changes with time by measurement of changes in the surface elevations. Since the early 1990's, important measurements for this purpose have been made by radar altimeters on ERS-l and 2, Envisat, and CryoSat and a laser altimeter on ICESat. One principal factor limiting direct comparisons between radar and laser measurements is the variable penetration depth of the radar signal and the corresponding location of the effective depth of the radar-measured elevation beneath the surface, in contrast to the laser-measured surface elevation. Although the radar penetration depth varies significantly both spatially and temporally, empirical corrections have been developed to account for this effect. Another limiting factor in direct comparisons is caused by differences in the size of the laser and radar footprints and their respective horizontal locations on the surface. Nevertheless, derived changes in elevation, dHldt, and time-series of elevation, H(t), have been shown to be comparable. For comparisons at different times, corrections for elevation changes caused by variations in the rate offrrn compaction have also been developed. Comparisons between the H(t) and the average dH/dt at some specific locations, such as the Vostok region of East Antarctic, show good agreement among results from ERS-l and 2, Envisat, and ICESat. However, Greenland maps of dHidt from Envisat and ICESat for the same time periods (2003-2008) show some areas of significant differences as well as areas of good agreement. Possible causes of residual differences are investigated and described.

  17. Environmental Inventory Report. East St. Louis and Vicinity, Cahokia Canal Drainage Area, Madison and St. Clair Counties, Illinois. Volume 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-05-01

    coal in the present drainage area was found in 1807 by Trappist monks, who were then living at the Cahokia Mounds. They mined enough for their own...and Clark begin journey from Wood River 1807 Coal discovered in area by Trappist Monks 1809 Territory of Illinois established 1811 National Road begun

  18. Greenland temperature response to climate forcing during the last deglaciation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buizert, C.; Gkinis, V.; Severinghaus, J. P.; He, F.; Lecavalier, B.; Kindler, P.; Leuenberger, M.; Carlson, A. E.; Vinther, B.; White, J. W.; Liu, Z.; Otto-Bliesner, B. L.; Brook, E.

    2013-12-01

    Much of the regional and global climate variability during the last glacial termination (19-11 ka BP) can be explained as the superposition of two distinct modes (1, 2); a spatially uniform increase in global temperature correlated with greenhouse gas forcing, and a redistribution of heat associated with variability in the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) strength. The latter mode is expressed most clearly in the abrupt climate shifts recorded in the precipitation isotopic composition (δ18O) of Greenland ice cores, which are now widely used as a template for abrupt change in the northern hemisphere. Greenland δ18O is influenced by many factors, including source temperature, moisture transport and origin, and precipitation seasonality, complicating reconstruction of past temperatures. Here we use three non-δ18O temperature reconstructions from three ice cores and a general circulation model (GCM) to elucidate the (often abrupt) Greenland surface temperature response to external (insolation) and internal (CO2, AMOC, ice topography) climate forcings during the last termination. Our reconstructions are based on δ15N (NEEM, GISP2) and water isotope diffusion (NGRIP), both of which depend on physical processes in the firn column. The GCM and our reconstructions show excellent agreement on several key features. First, we find that the Younger Dryas (YD) period was 4-6oC warmer than the Oldest Dryas (OD) period in response to increased summer insolation and CO2 forcing. By contrast, δ18O-based reconstrucions from Greenland summit suggest the YD to be the colder of the two periods. Our finding is consistent with non-ice core NH proxy reconstructions, as well as with East Greenland deglacial moraine sequences that suggest only a modest glacial re-advance during the YD. Second, the YD-OD temperature difference shows a polar amplification signal, with warming being greatest at the northernmost NEEM site. By isolating different forcings in the GCM, we

  19. Chapter 43: Assessment of NE Greenland: Prototype for development of Circum-ArcticResource Appraisal methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautier, D.L.; Stemmerik, L.; Christiansen, F.G.; Sorensen, K.; Bidstrup, T.; Bojesen-Koefoed, J. A.; Bird, K.J.; Charpentier, R.R.; Houseknecht, D.W.; Klett, T.R.; Schenk, C.J.; Tennyson, M.E.

    2011-01-01

    Geological features of NE Greenland suggest large petroleum potential, as well as high uncertainty and risk. The area was the prototype for development of methodology used in the US Geological Survey (USGS) Circum-Arctic Resource Appraisal (CARA), and was the first area evaluated. In collaboration with the Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS), eight "assessment units" (AU) were defined, six of which were probabilistically assessed. The most prospective areas are offshore in the Danmarkshavn Basin. This study supersedes a previous USGS assessment, from which it differs in several important respects: oil estimates are reduced and natural gas estimates are increased to reflect revised understanding of offshore geology. Despite the reduced estimates, the CARA indicates that NE Greenland may be an important future petroleum province. ?? 2011 The Geological Society of London.

  20. Effective Factors on the Area Collaboration in Public-Private Partnerships of Infrastructure in Middle East with Emphasis on Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maysam Musai

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Infrastructures are necessary for economical growth of countries and the slow economic growth of these countries is because of their poor infrastructure. It usually needs huge capital, advanced technology and knowledge of management which developing countries with low income can’t afford them; so they need cooperation of foreign countries. In this paper, we try to find a solution for that and find how the existing collaborations and partnerships of other countries are on basis of infrastructure in Iran and what are the improving and strengthening of this cooperation? We use the analytical and qualified description statics of other countries experiences in field of direct investment (FDI in infrastructures. The results show that Iran has an average position in attraction of foreign investment in comparison of other countries in Middle East; it means Iran is more successful of some countries and is less successful of another countries. We conclude that liberalization, privatization and the restructuring of infrastructure sectors are considered as the majority solutions for promotion of Iranian contribution in FDI attraction for infrastructures.