WorldWideScience

Sample records for east african region

  1. East African Regional Outlook for 2011

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Alphonce; Shiundu

    2011-01-01

    IT’S difficult to talk about Southern Sudan in 2011 without bringing up the historic referendum that will determine whether the south of Africa’s largest country will secede from the rest of the country. "The referendum in Southern Sudan is the most important event in the calendar of Africa after the(2010) World Cup(held in South Africa),because it has the consequence of introducing a new member state in Africa,and also has the consequence of returning this region back to war."

  2. African regional integration and European involvement: external agents in the East African Community

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bachmann, V.; Sidaway, J.D.

    2010-01-01

    The EU's role as a model for regional integration is widely discussed in scholarship and policy circles. The promotion of regional integration is central to the EU's external relations and is frequently expected by the EU's partners. This paper examines European involvement with the East African

  3. International Terrorism and East African sub-regionalism

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sulaiman.adebowale

    2006-05-23

    May 23, 2006 ... efforts towards sub-regional integration in Africa in general and East. Africa in particular ... through pursuit of policies advanced by the Bretton Woods institu- ..... vice by UK intelligence that the threat to British interests in Kenya.

  4. East African institutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordby, Johannes Riber; Jacobsen, Katja

    For the past decade security in East Africa has gained focus internationally. However there is a growing ambition among African states to handle such issues by themselves, sometimes through regional institutions. This has been supported by many Western states but potential risks are often forgotten....

  5. Intra-Regional Agricultural Exports in the East African Community

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Kazungu

    African Journal of Economic Review, Volume V, Issue I, January 2017. 14 ... This study investigated the causes of intra-EAC agricultural exports. .... developed a consistent and efficient method of estimating the theoretical gravity equation by.

  6. East African Community (EAC) as Regionalism : The Exclusion and Inclusion of Globalization

    OpenAIRE

    Butanaziba, Yunus Lubega

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to examine and recommend possible prescriptions against problems that regionalism has since occasioned for the last 110 years, and the ones we might face in the short and long term future. It brings forward the East African Community (EAC) as a regional grouping under the ‘exclusive’ and ‘inclusive’ damages of controls by western dominant states, particularly Britain and the United States of America (USA). The problem is that official reasoning and incompetence ...

  7. East African ROAD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tekle, Kelali

    2016-10-01

    In the developing world astronomy had been treated as the science of elites. As a result of this overwhelming perception, astronomy compared with other applied sciences has got less attention and its role in development has been insignificant. However, the IAU General Assembly decision in 2009 opened new opportunity for countries and professionals to deeply look into Astronomy and its role in development. Then, the subsequent establishment of regional offices in the developing world is helping countries to integrate astronomy with other earth and space based sciences so as to progressively promote its scientific and development importance. Gradually nations have come to know that space is the frontier of tomorrow and the urgency of preeminence on space frontier starts at primary school and ascends to tertiary education. For this to happen, member nations in east African region have placed STEM education at the center of their education system. For instance, Ethiopian has changed University enrollment strategy to be in favor of science and engineering subjects, i.e. every year seventy percent of new University entrants join science and engineering fields while thirty percent social science and humanities. Such bold actions truly promote astronomy to be conceived as gateway to science and technology. To promote the concept of astronomy for development the East African regional office has actually aligned it activities to be in line with the focus areas identified by the IAU strategy (2010 to 2020).

  8. East- African Medical Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    East African Medical Journal Vol 83 No. 8 August 2006 ... urology, ENT and orthopaedic groups and these ... no significant difference in orthopaedic patients mortality' with standard; we .... applying TRISS analysis to pediatric blunt trauma.

  9. Determinants of Oral Diseases in the African and Middle East Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chidzonga, M M; Carneiro, L C; Kalyanyama, B M; Kwamin, F; Oginni, F O

    2015-07-01

    Oral health policies must be developed that emphasize the role of social determinants in health and oral diseases. The aim of this report is to review literature on determinants of oral diseases and apply the concepts to promoting oral health in the African countries in the African and Middle East region (AMER). Structural and proximal determinants of oral diseases are common to those affected by other noncommunicable diseases (NCDs). Oral diseases are also heavily affected by issues of politics, poor health behaviors, underdeveloped health systems, and low oral health literacy. Wide-scale poverty exists in populations in the AMER. Oral health promotion and preventive oral health programs should therefore be integrated with those for general health and use the common risk factor approach (CRFA). Attempts should be made to improve the daily living conditions and reduce the incline of the social gradient. Oral health practitioners should use the CRFA when dealing with determinants of oral diseases and in the design of preventive oral health programs. The detrimental effects of the social determinants of health may be ameliorated by involving both the individual and community. Interventions in health promotion programs in the AMER need more research on the epidemiology of oral diseases and the role played by the social determinants of oral diseases, especially with regard to poverty. The high levels of poverty and low gross domestic product in most countries in the African region make it difficult to fund high-quality, affordable, accessible oral health services. © International & American Associations for Dental Research 2015.

  10. Bioenergy from agro-industrial residues in the East African region. Summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jungersen, G. [Dansk Teknologisk Inst. (Denmark); Kivaisi, A.; Rubindamayugi, M. [Univ. of Dar es Salaam (Tanzania, United Republic of)

    1998-05-01

    Tanzania has recently developed a comprehensive environmental policy which has put high priority on several specific environmental issues. One of the issues is the quality of waste water. A special priority is given to the pollution from the sisal industry. The East-African agro-industries generate very large quantities of organic residues from production and processing of different crops. These residues form a major contribution to the pollution of air, soil and waterways, but, at the same time they constitute a large potential for production of bioenergy through anaerobic digestion as well as potential substrate for other biological fermentation processes. Generally, these residues are regarded as having no or very little value and the different disposal methods are mainly a matter of getting rid of the waste. The generation of residues are very often concentrated on few large units, which makes the exploitation of these resources feasible in large scale biogas systems. Typically the units will have a potential of a daily methane generation of 1,000-20,000 m{sup 3} CH{sub 4}, equivalent to a potential electricity production of 0.2-3.2 MW. The future utilization of these resources for production of valuable products is described in this report. This report consists of 3 volumes. This summary report including the main objectives and findings from the different project report: Mapping and Quantification of Organic Agro-Industrial Residues in East Africa; Biogas - Bioenergy Potential in East Africa, Seminar Proceedings, Siler Sands, Dar es Salaam 22-23 September 1997; Bioenergy from Sisal residues - Experimental results and Capacity Building Activities. (EG)

  11. Plate Kinematic model of the NW Indian Ocean and derived regional stress history of the East African Margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuck-Martin, Amy; Adam, Jürgen; Eagles, Graeme

    2015-04-01

    Starting with the break up of Gondwana, the northwest Indian Ocean and its continental margins in Madagascar, East Africa and western India formed by divergence of the African and Indian plates and were shaped by a complicated sequence of plate boundary relocations, ridge propagation events, and the independent movement of the Seychelles microplate. As a result, attempts to reconcile the different plate-tectonic components and processes into a coherent kinematic model have so far been unsatisfactory. A new high-resolution plate kinematic model has been produced in an attempt to solve these problems, using seafloor spreading data and rotation parameters generated by a mixture of visual fitting of magnetic isochron data and iterative joint inversion of magnetic isochron and fracture zone data. Using plate motion vectors and plate boundary geometries derived from this model, the first-order regional stress pattern was modelled for distinct phases of margin formation. The stress pattern is correlated with the tectono-stratigraphic history of related sedimentary basins. The plate kinematic model identifies three phases of spreading, from the Jurassic to the Paleogene, which resulted in the formation of three main oceanic basins. Prior to these phases, intracontinental 'Karoo' rifting episodes in the late Carboniferous to late Triassic had failed to break up Gondwana, but initiated the formation of sedimentary basins along the East African and West Madagascan margins. At the start of the first phase of spreading (183 to 133 Ma) predominantly NW - SE extension caused continental rifting that separated Madagascar/India/Antarctica from Africa. Maximum horizontal stresses trended perpendicular to the local plate-kinematic vector, and parallel to the rift axes. During and after continental break-up and subsequent spreading, the regional stress regime changed drastically. The extensional stress regime became restricted to the active spreading ridges that in turn adopted trends

  12. Regional differences in seasonal timing of rainfall discriminate between genetically distinct East African giraffe taxa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henri A Thomassen

    Full Text Available Masai (Giraffa tippelskirchi, Reticulated (G. reticulata and Rothschild's (G. camelopardalis giraffe lineages in East Africa are morphologically and genetically distinct, yet in Kenya their ranges abut. This raises the question of how divergence is maintained among populations of a large mammal capable of long-distance travel, and which readily hybridize in zoos. Here we test four hypotheses concerning the maintenance of the phylogeographic boundaries among the three taxa: 1 isolation-by-distance; 2 physical barriers to dispersal; 3 general habitat differences resulting in habitat segregation; or 4 regional differences in the seasonal timing of rainfall, and resultant timing of browse availability. We used satellite remotely sensed and climate data to characterize the environment at the locations of genotyped giraffes. Canonical variate analysis, random forest algorithms, and generalized dissimilarity modelling were employed in a landscape genetics framework to identify the predictor variables that best explained giraffes' genetic divergence. We found that regional differences in the timing of precipitation, and resulting green-up associated with the abundance of browse, effectively discriminate between taxa. Local habitat conditions, topographic and human-induced barriers, and geographic distance did not aid in discriminating among lineages. Our results suggest that selection associated with regional timing of events in the annual climatic cycle may help maintain genetic and phenotypic divergence in giraffes. We discuss potential mechanisms of maintaining divergence, and suggest that synchronization of reproduction with seasonal rainfall cycles that are geographically distinct may contribute to reproductive isolation. Coordination of weaning with green-up cycles could minimize the costs of lactation and predation on the young. Our findings are consistent with theory and empirical results demonstrating the efficacy of seasonal or phenologically

  13. Regional differences in seasonal timing of rainfall discriminate between genetically distinct East African giraffe taxa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomassen, Henri A; Freedman, Adam H; Brown, David M; Buermann, Wolfgang; Jacobs, David K

    2013-01-01

    Masai (Giraffa tippelskirchi), Reticulated (G. reticulata) and Rothschild's (G. camelopardalis) giraffe lineages in East Africa are morphologically and genetically distinct, yet in Kenya their ranges abut. This raises the question of how divergence is maintained among populations of a large mammal capable of long-distance travel, and which readily hybridize in zoos. Here we test four hypotheses concerning the maintenance of the phylogeographic boundaries among the three taxa: 1) isolation-by-distance; 2) physical barriers to dispersal; 3) general habitat differences resulting in habitat segregation; or 4) regional differences in the seasonal timing of rainfall, and resultant timing of browse availability. We used satellite remotely sensed and climate data to characterize the environment at the locations of genotyped giraffes. Canonical variate analysis, random forest algorithms, and generalized dissimilarity modelling were employed in a landscape genetics framework to identify the predictor variables that best explained giraffes' genetic divergence. We found that regional differences in the timing of precipitation, and resulting green-up associated with the abundance of browse, effectively discriminate between taxa. Local habitat conditions, topographic and human-induced barriers, and geographic distance did not aid in discriminating among lineages. Our results suggest that selection associated with regional timing of events in the annual climatic cycle may help maintain genetic and phenotypic divergence in giraffes. We discuss potential mechanisms of maintaining divergence, and suggest that synchronization of reproduction with seasonal rainfall cycles that are geographically distinct may contribute to reproductive isolation. Coordination of weaning with green-up cycles could minimize the costs of lactation and predation on the young. Our findings are consistent with theory and empirical results demonstrating the efficacy of seasonal or phenologically dictated

  14. The East African Rift System and the impact of orographic changes on regional climate and the resulting aridification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommerfeld, Anja; Prömmel, Kerstin; Cubasch, Ulrich

    2016-09-01

    Several proxy data indicate an aridification of the East African climate during the Neogene, which might be influenced by the orographic changes of the East African Rift System (EARS) induced by tectonic forcing during the last 20 million years. To investigate the impact of the orography and especially of the rifts, the regional climate model CCLM is used, covering the EARS with Lake Victoria in the centre of the model domain. CCLM is driven by the ERA-Interim reanalysis and applied with a double-nesting method resulting in a very high spatial resolution of 7 km. The resolution clearly shows the shoulders and rifts of the western and eastern branch of the EARS and the Rwenzoris within the western branch. To analyse the orographic influence on climate, a new technique of modifying the orography is used in this sensitivity study. The shoulders of the branches are lowered and the rifts are elevated, resulting in a smoothed orography structure with less altitude difference between the shoulders and rifts. The changes in 2 m-temperature are very local and associated with the changes in the orography. The vertically integrated moisture transport is characterised by less vortices, and its zonal component is increased over the branches. The resulting amount of precipitation is mainly decreased west of the western branch and increased in the rift of the western branch. In the eastern branch, however, the changes in the amount of precipitation are not significant. The changes in the precipitation and temperature patterns lead to a shift of biomes towards a vegetation coverage characterised by more humid conditions in the northern part of the model domain and more arid conditions in the South. Thus, the aridification found in the proxy data can be attributed to the orographic changes of the rifts only in the northern model domain.

  15. EAST AFRICAN MEDICAL JOURNAL

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2001-12-01

    Dec 1, 2001 ... DIETARY PATTERNS AND DENTAL CARIES IN NURSERY SCHOOL CHILDREN IN NAIROBI ..... bottle act as a bacterial substrate and especially when the ... children for their co-operation, Colgate Palmolive (East Africa) for.

  16. East African odontopygid millipedes 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Sara B.; Enghoff, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    Five new species of the endemic East African genus Xystopyge are described: X. pelecys, X. frontieri, X. proplicatus, X. biacanthus, and X. zanzibarensis. Three are from the Eastern Arc Mountains, Tanzania, two are from the Usambara Mtns. and one is from the Uluguru Mtns. One further species is f...

  17. Virtual industrial water usage and wastewater generation in the Middle East/North African region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. R. Sakhel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study deals with the quantification of volumes of water usage, wastewater generation, virtual water export, and wastewater generation from export for eight export relevant industries present in the Middle East/North Africa (MENA. It shows that about 3400 million m3 of water is used per annum while around 793 million m3 of wastewater is generated from products that are meant for domestic consumption and export. The difference between volumes of water usage and wastewater generation is due to water evaporation or injecting underground (oil wells pressure maintenance. The wastewater volume generated from production represents a population equivalent of 15.5 million in terms of wastewater quantity and 30.4 million in terms of BOD. About 409 million m3 of virtual water flows from MENA to EU27 (resulting from export of eight commodities which is equivalent to 12.1% of the water usage of those industries and Libya is the largest virtual water exporter (about 87 million m3. Crude oil and refined petroleum products represent about 89% of the total virtual water flow, fertilizers represent around 10% and 1% remaining industries. EU27 poses the greatest indirect pressure on the Kuwaiti hydrological system where the virtual water export represents about 96% of the actual renewable water resources in this country. The Kuwaiti crude oil water use in relation to domestic water withdrawal is about 89% which is highest among MENA countries. Pollution of water bodies, in terms of BOD, due to production is very relevant for crude oil, slaughterhouses, refineries, olive oil, and tanneries while pollution due to export to EU27 is most relevant for crude oil industry and olive oil mills.

  18. Regions. [Africa, Middle East].

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-03-01

    This discussion of population focuses on the regions of Africa and the Middle East. In South Africa more white women are working but fewer black women work. The overall result is that the percentage of women who work is declining. Marita de Beer, research liaison executive at the South African Advertising Research Foundation, reports that the female population grew by 31% in the past 10 years while the number of working women has grown by only 11%. Among blacks the female population rose by 36%, but the number of workers among them declined by about 1%. Married women are among the fastest growing groups of working women in South Africa. The most recent estimate of the population of Nigeria is 92 million. According to Professor Vremudia Diejomaoh, Nigeria's population will probably reach 155 million by 2000 with 33% living in urban areas. In Saudi Arabia the Pan Arab Research Center recently completed a census of retail outlets in 3 metropolitan areas: Jeddah, Riyadh, and Dammam. The types of outlets surveyed include large supermarkets, small supermarkets, groceries with and without deep freeze, tobacco shops, meat shop/delis, small cafeterias, large restaurants/hotels, cosmetics shops or perfumeries, camera stores, toy shops, pharmacies, watch and gift shop, newsstands, department store, and appliance outlets. Using the Census of Retail Outlets as a base, Pan Arab Research Center also has a new distribution audit system that will cover 500 outlets. By plotting Arab countries according to their population policies and their current growth rates, it is possible to project where the middle class will grow fastest in the Arab world. The countries that have declining growth rates and strong population programs designed to encourage lower fertility rates among women are Egypt, Tunisia, Morocco, Algeria, and Lebanon. The countries most likely to have a better per capita distribution of resources within this decade are those where governments encourage reductions in

  19. Mainstreaming road safety in the regional integration of the East ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: Road safety, road traffic injuries, regional integration, East African ... regions having the lowest rates of the registered motorised vehicles which were ..... passengers are found to be the most vulnerable groups at risk of RTIs in the ...

  20. Phytogeography of the tropical north-east African mountains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Friis

    1983-12-01

    Full Text Available The tropical north-east African mountains are tentatively divided into four phytochoria, the formal rank of which is not defined. The division is based on patterns of distribution and endemism in the region. The recognition of a distinct Afromontane phytochorion is now well established (Chapman & White, 1970; Werger, 1978; White, 1978. However, there is still very little information on the phytogeography of the individual mountains or mountain systems. This study hopes to fill a little of the gap by analysing distribution patterns and patterns of endemism in the flora of the tropical north-east African mountains. The north-east African mountain system is the largest in tropical Africa (see e.g. map in White, 1978. At the core of this system is the large Ethiopian massif, around which are located various mountains and mountain chains. These include the Red Sea Hills in the Sudan, the mountain chain in northern Somalia, the south-west Arabian mountains, and the Imatong mountains of south-east Sudan. The latter are often referred to the East African mountain system (White, 1978 but. as I will point out later, they also have a close connection with the south-west highlands of Ethiopia. The paper presents some results of my study of the mountain flora of tropical north-east Africa, particularly the forest species. Where no source is indicated, the data are from my own unpublished studies.

  1. East African Journal of Sciences: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aims The East African Journal of Sciences (EAJS) publishes original scientific papers ... Scope The journal publishes peer reviewed original research articles in various disciplines of ... Dr. Solomon Assefa, Ethiopian Institute of Agricultural Research (EIAR), Addis Ababa, Ethiopia ... Tilahun Sahilu, Langston University, USA.

  2. Assessing sanitary mixtures in East African cities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Letema, S.C.

    2012-01-01

    The urbanisation of poverty and informality in East African cities poses a threat to environmental
    health, perpetuates social exclusion and inequalities, and creates service gaps (UN-Habitat, 2008).
    This makes conventional sanitation provision untenable citywide, giving rise to the

  3. Assessing sanitary mixtures in East African cities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Letema, S.C.

    2012-01-01

    The urbanisation of poverty and informality in East African cities poses a threat to environmental
    health, perpetuates social exclusion and inequalities, and creates service gaps (UN-Habitat, 2008).
    This makes conventional sanitation provision untenable citywide, giving rise to the emerg

  4. Assessing sanitary mixtures in East African cities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Letema, S.C.

    2012-01-01

    The urbanisation of poverty and informality in East African cities poses a threat to environmental
    health, perpetuates social exclusion and inequalities, and creates service gaps (UN-Habitat, 2008).
    This makes conventional sanitation provision untenable citywide, giving rise to the emerg

  5. Collaboration with East African security organisations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordby, Johannes Riber; Jacobsen, Katja L.

    2012-01-01

    African Community) and IGAD (Intergovernmental Authority on Development) have broader perceptions of the concept. According to EAC, security also concerns matters such as policy reform, legislation, education and infrastructure. IGAD considers food security and environmental and economic issues as part......When it comes to understanding the concept of security and the way fragile security situations should be solved, the difference is big. While EASF – the East African Standby Force – is a regular military force with a rather traditional, military perception of the concept of security, EAC (East...... of the concept. At the same time the three organisations represent different constellations of member nations and thus different national interests, and locally they have different legitimacy and political strength. Thus, when choosing collaboration partners for a security project it is not simply a question...

  6. Assessing sanitary mixtures in East African cities

    OpenAIRE

    Letema, S.C.

    2012-01-01

    The urbanisation of poverty and informality in East African cities poses a threat to environmental health, perpetuates social exclusion and inequalities, and creates service gaps (UN-Habitat, 2008). This makes conventional sanitation provision untenable citywide, giving rise to the emergence of sanitation mixtures. Sanitation mixtures have different scales, institutional arrangements, user groups, and rationalities for their establishment, location, and management. For assessing the performan...

  7. Institution Building for African Regionalism

    OpenAIRE

    Khadiagala, Gilbert M.

    2011-01-01

    Since the 1960s, African states have embraced regional integration as a vital mechanism for political cooperation and for pooling resources to overcome problems of small and fragmented economies. In building meaningful institutions for regionalism, however, Africans have faced the challenges of reconciling the diversities of culture, geography, and politics. As a result, African regional institutions are characterized by multiple and competing mandates and weak institutionalization. This stud...

  8. Reshaping Economic Geography of East Africa : From Regional to Global Integration, Volume 2. Technical Annexes

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2012-01-01

    Five East African countries Burundi, Kenya, Rwanda, Tanzania, and Uganda have made solid progress on integrating regionally in the East African Community (EAC) since 1999. Such advances are crucial, as integration in East Africa has the potential for higher than usual benefits: Burundi, Rwanda, and Uganda are landlocked, with very high costs to their economies. Successful integration will ...

  9. Reshaping Economic Geography of East Africa : From Regional to Global Integration (Vol. 1 of 2)

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2012-01-01

    Five East African countries Burundi, Kenya, Rwanda, Tanzania, and Uganda have made solid progress on integrating regionally in the East African Community (EAC) since 1999. Such advances are crucial, as integration in East Africa has the potential for higher than usual benefits: Burundi, Rwanda, and Uganda are landlocked, with very high costs to their economies. Successful integration will ...

  10. Lactase persistence alleles reveal partial East African ancestry of southern African Khoe pastoralists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breton, Gwenna; Schlebusch, Carina M; Lombard, Marlize; Sjödin, Per; Soodyall, Himla; Jakobsson, Mattias

    2014-04-14

    The ability to digest milk into adulthood, lactase persistence (LP), as well as specific genetic variants associated with LP, is heterogeneously distributed in global populations. These variants were most likely targets of selection when some populations converted from hunter-gatherer to pastoralist or farming lifestyles. Specific LP polymorphisms are associated with particular geographic regions and populations; however, they have not been extensively studied in southern Africa. We investigate the LP-regulatory region in 267 individuals from 13 southern African populations (including descendants of hunter-gatherers, pastoralists, and agropastoralists), providing the first comprehensive study of the LP-regulatory region in a large group of southern Africans. The "East African" LP single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) (14010G>C) was found at high frequency (>20%) in a strict pastoralist Khoe population, the Nama of Namibia, suggesting a connection to East Africa, whereas the "European" LP SNP (13910C>T) was found in populations of mixed ancestry. Using genome-wide data from various African populations, we identify admixture (13%) in the Nama, from an Afro-Asiatic group dating to >1,300 years ago, with the remaining fraction of their genomes being from San hunter-gatherers. We also find evidence of selection around the LCT gene among Khoe-speaking groups, and the substantial frequency of the 14010C variant among the Nama is best explained by adaptation to digesting milk. These genome-local and genome-wide results support a model in which an East African group brought pastoralist practices to southern Africa and admixed with local hunter-gatherers to form the ancestors of Khoe people.

  11. East African climate pulses and early human evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslin, Mark A.; Brierley, Chris M.; Milner, Alice M.; Shultz, Susanne; Trauth, Martin H.; Wilson, Katy E.

    2014-10-01

    Current evidence suggests that all of the major events in hominin evolution have occurred in East Africa. Over the last two decades, there has been intensive work undertaken to understand African palaeoclimate and tectonics in order to put together a coherent picture of how the environment of East Africa has varied in the past. The landscape of East Africa has altered dramatically over the last 10 million years. It has changed from a relatively flat, homogenous region covered with mixed tropical forest, to a varied and heterogeneous environment, with mountains over 4 km high and vegetation ranging from desert to cloud forest. The progressive rifting of East Africa has also generated numerous lake basins, which are highly sensitive to changes in the local precipitation-evaporation regime. There is now evidence that the presence of precession-driven, ephemeral deep-water lakes in East Africa were concurrent with major events in hominin evolution. It seems the unusual geology and climate of East Africa created periods of highly variable local climate, which, it has been suggested could have driven hominin speciation, encephalisation and dispersal out of Africa. One example is the significant hominin speciation and brain expansion event at ˜1.8 Ma that seems to have been coeval with the occurrence of highly variable, extensive, deep-water lakes. This complex, climatically very variable setting inspired first the variability selection hypothesis, which was then the basis for the pulsed climate variability hypothesis. The newer of the two suggests that the long-term drying trend in East Africa was punctuated by episodes of short, alternating periods of extreme humidity and aridity. Both hypotheses, together with other key theories of climate-evolution linkages, are discussed in this paper. Though useful the actual evolution mechanisms, which led to early hominins are still unclear and continue to be debated. However, it is clear that an understanding of East African

  12. Model, Proxy and Isotopic Perspectives on the East African Humid Period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tierney, Jessica E.; Lewis, Sophie C.; Cook, Benjamin I.; LeGrande, Allegra N.; Schmidt, Gavin A.

    2011-01-01

    Both North and East Africa experienced more humid conditions during the early and mid-Holocene epoch (11,000-5000yr BP; 11-5 ka) relative to today. The North African Humid Period has been a major focus of paleoclimatic study, and represents a response of the hydrological cycle to the increase in boreal summer insolation and associated ocean, atmosphere and land surface feedbacks. Meanwhile, the mechanisms that caused the coeval East African Humid Period are poorly understood. Here, we use results from isotopeenabled coupled climate modeling experiments to investigate the cause of the East African Humid Period. The modeling results are interpreted alongside proxy records of both water balance and the isotopic composition of rainfall. Our simulations show that the orbitally-induced increase in dry season precipitation and the subsequent reduction in precipitation seasonality can explain the East African Humid Period, and this scenario agrees well with regional lake level and pollen paleoclimate data. Changes in zonal moisture flux from both the Atlantic and Indian Ocean account for the simulated increase in precipitation from June through November. Isotopic paleoclimate data and simulated changes in moisture source demonstrate that the western East African Rift Valley in particular experienced more humid conditions due to the influx of Atlantic moisture and enhanced convergence along the Congo Air Boundary. Our study demonstrates that zonal changes in moisture advection are an important determinant of climate variability in the East African region.

  13. Panmixia in East African Populations of Platygyra daedalea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: Platygyra daedalea, reef coral, microsatellite markers, connectivity, western Indian ... was collected from Indian Ocean coral reefs, mainly from the east African coast between ..... of bleaching in the SWIO was considerably less.

  14. East and Central African Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences Vol.13 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    admin

    East and Central African Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences ... demographic characteristics in access to ART; to establish ..... management of people living with ... strategies, Academy for Educational ... growth-oriented women entrepreneur in.

  15. East African runners: their genetics, lifestyle and athletic prowess.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onywera, Vincent O

    2009-01-01

    East African runners have dominated distance running events for over 5 decades. Some explanations have been advanced to explain why such a small population has dominated distance running events over time. Suggested reasons include, among others, a genetic predisposition, diet, living at high altitude as well as sociocultural background. This chapter gives possible insight into the past, present and hopefully future success of East African runners; it mainly explores the foundations of running excellence, talent identification, diet and injury management methods used by East African runners. The chapter also explores means and ways by which East African runners can sustain their running excellence by using their past experiences, to perfect the present and predict the future.

  16. Crustal thinning between the Ethiopian and East African Plateaus from modeling Rayleigh wave dispersion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benoit, M H; Nyblade, A A; Pasyanos, M E

    2006-01-17

    The East African and Ethiopian Plateaus have long been recognized to be part of a much larger topographic anomaly on the African Plate called the African Superswell. One of the few places within the African Superswell that exhibit elevations of less than 1 km is southeastern Sudan and northern Kenya, an area containing both Mesozoic and Cenozoic rift basins. Crustal structure and uppermost mantle velocities are investigated in this area by modeling Rayleigh wave dispersion. Modeling results indicate an average crustal thickness of 25 {+-} 5 km, some 10-15 km thinner than the crust beneath the adjacent East African and Ethiopian Plateaus. The low elevations can therefore be readily attributed to an isostatic response from crustal thinning. Low Sn velocities of 4.1-4.3 km/s also characterize this region.

  17. The genetics of East African populations: a Nilo-Saharan component in the African genetic landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobon, Begoña; Hassan, Hisham Y; Laayouni, Hafid; Luisi, Pierre; Ricaño-Ponce, Isis; Zhernakova, Alexandra; Wijmenga, Cisca; Tahir, Hanan; Comas, David; Netea, Mihai G; Bertranpetit, Jaume

    2015-01-01

    East Africa is a strategic region to study human genetic diversity due to the presence of ethnically, linguistically, and geographically diverse populations. Here, we provide new insight into the genetic history of populations living in the Sudanese region of East Africa by analysing nine ethnic groups belonging to three African linguistic families: Niger-Kordofanian, Nilo-Saharan and Afro-Asiatic. A total of 500 individuals were genotyped for 200,000 single-nucleotide polymorphisms. Principal component analysis, clustering analysis using ADMIXTURE, FST statistics, and the three-population test were used to investigate the underlying genetic structure and ancestry of the different ethno-linguistic groups. Our analyses revealed a genetic component for Sudanese Nilo-Saharan speaking groups (Darfurians and part of Nuba populations) related to Nilotes of South Sudan, but not to other Sudanese populations or other sub-Saharan populations. Populations inhabiting the North of the region showed close genetic affinities with North Africa, with a component that could be remnant of North Africans before the migrations of Arabs from Arabia. In addition, we found very low genetic distances between populations in genes important for anti-malarial and anti-bacterial host defence, suggesting similar selective pressures on these genes and stressing the importance of considering functional pathways to understand the evolutionary history of populations.

  18. Assessment of conventional oil resources of the East African Rift Province, East Africa, 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brownfield, Michael E.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Klett, Timothy R.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Marra, Kristen R.; Finn, Thomas M.; Le, Phuong A.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.

    2017-03-27

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated undiscovered, technically recoverable mean conventional resources of 13.4 billion barrels of oil and 4.6 trillion cubic feet of gas in the East African Rift Province of east Africa.

  19. 500 EAST AFRICAN MEDICAL JOURNAL September2006

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Request for reprints to: Dr. T. Taiwo, University of Alberta, Edmonton, St Albert, ... Objective: To examine prevalence of drug use in adolescent students in a rural South African ... Reported lifetime prevalence of alcohol use was 47.9% (95% CI:.

  20. African Regional Integration: Implications for Food Security

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, van M.

    2011-01-01

    This report looks at the African regional trade, regional integration agreements (RIAs) and the implications for food security. An overview is presented on the present state of African regional integration and the determinants of regional trade in agriculture and food commodities. In particular the

  1. Fractional Vegetation Cover of East African Wetlands Observed on Ground and from Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, M.; Amler, E.; Guerschmann, J. P.; Scarth, P.; Behn, K.; Thonfeld, F.

    2016-08-01

    Wetlands are important ecosystems providing numerous ecosystem services. They are of particular importance to communities in East Africa where agriculture is the most important economic sector and where food availability to households critical. During an intensive field campaign in the dry season of 2013 were Fractional Vegetation Cover (FVC) measurements, botanical vegetation cover and vegetation structure estimates acquired in three wetland test sites within the East African region. FVC cover data were collated in three strata: ground layer, midstorey and overstorey (woody vegetation greater than 2 m). Fractional cover estimates for the green and no-green vegetative fraction were calculated for Landsat MODIS imagery. These FVC data products were evaluated a) with FVC field data and b) relative to each other for their usability in the East African region. First results show some promise for further studies.

  2. East and Central African Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences Vol. 7 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    East and Central African Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. Vol. 7(3) 52-55. Adherence ... any for the rest of hislher life is one of the biggest challenges. While much .... Secondly, 2- and 3-times-daily regimens required for HIV are difficult and ...

  3. The black Dutchmen : African soldiers in the Netherlands East Indies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kessel, van W.M.J.; Kessel, van W.M.J.

    2002-01-01

    Between 1831 and 1872 some 3000 African recruits sailed from Elmina (Gold Coast, now Ghana) to Batavia, the capital of the Netherlands East Indies. They had been recruited to serve in the Dutch colonial army, which throughout most of the 19th century experienced a chronic shortage of European manpow

  4. The impact of the geologic history and paleoclimate on the diversification of East african cichlids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danley, Patrick D; Husemann, Martin; Ding, Baoqing; Dipietro, Lyndsay M; Beverly, Emily J; Peppe, Daniel J

    2012-01-01

    The cichlid fishes of the East African Great Lakes are the largest extant vertebrate radiation identified to date. These lakes and their surrounding waters support over 2,000 species of cichlid fish, many of which are descended from a single common ancestor within the past 10 Ma. The extraordinary East African cichlid diversity is intricately linked to the highly variable geologic and paleoclimatic history of this region. Greater than 10 Ma, the western arm of the East African rift system began to separate, thereby creating a series of rift basins that would come to contain several water bodies, including the extremely deep Lakes Tanganyika and Malawi. Uplifting associated with this rifting backponded many rivers and created the extremely large, but shallow Lake Victoria. Since their creation, the size, shape, and existence of these lakes have changed dramatically which has, in turn, significantly influenced the evolutionary history of the lakes' cichlids. This paper reviews the geologic history and paleoclimate of the East African Great Lakes and the impact of these forces on the region's endemic cichlid flocks.

  5. Governance and Development of the East African Community : The Ethical Sustainability Framework

    OpenAIRE

    Kanakulya, Dickson

    2015-01-01

    The pursuit of sustainability of governance and development has become a major challenge in contemporary times because of increasing realization that: various ecological and social systems are interconnected; and the complexity of our natural and constructed environs requires holistic approaches to avoid catastrophic fissures in the systems on which humans depend. As regional governments such as the East African Community (EAC) become important in Africa (and other regions), they present oppo...

  6. The meteorology of the Western Indian Ocean, and the influence of the East African Highlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slingo, Julia; Spencer, Hilary; Hoskins, Brian; Berrisford, Paul; Black, Emily

    2005-01-15

    This paper reviews the meteorology of the Western Indian Ocean and uses a state-of-the-art atmospheric general circulation model to investigate the influence of the East African Highlands on the climate of the Indian Ocean and its surrounding regions. The new 44-year re-analysis produced by the European Centre for Medium range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) has been used to construct a new climatology of the Western Indian Ocean. A brief overview of the seasonal cycle of the Western Indian Ocean is presented which emphasizes the importance of the geography of the Indian Ocean basin for controlling the meteorology of the Western Indian Ocean. The principal modes of inter-annual variability are described, associated with El Nino and the Indian Ocean Dipole or Zonal Mode, and the basic characteristics of the subseasonal weather over the Western Indian Ocean are presented, including new statistics on cyclone tracks derived from the ECMWF re-analyses. Sensitivity experiments, in which the orographic effects of East Africa are removed, have shown that the East African Highlands, although not very high, play a significant role in the climate of Africa, India and Southeast Asia, and in the heat, salinity and momentum forcing of the Western Indian Ocean. The hydrological cycle over Africa is systematically enhanced in all seasons by the presence of the East African Highlands, and during the Asian summer monsoon there is a major redistribution of the rainfall across India and Southeast Asia. The implied impact of the East African Highlands on the ocean is substantial. The East African Highlands systematically freshen the tropical Indian Ocean, and act to focus the monsoon winds along the coast, leading to greater upwelling and cooler sea-surface temperatures.

  7. Characteristics of soils in selected maize growing sites along altitudinal gradients in East African highlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elijah Njuguna

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Maize is the main staple crop in the East African Mountains. Understanding how the edaphic characteristics change along altitudinal gradients is important for maximizing maize production in East African Highlands, which are the key maize production areas in the region. This study evaluated and compared the levels of some macro and micro-elements (Al, Ca, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na and P and other soil parameters (pH, organic carbon content, soil texture [i.e. % Sand, % Clay and % Silt], cation exchange capacity [CEC], electric conductivity [EC], and water holding capacity [HC]. Soil samples were taken from maize plots along three altitudinal gradients in East African highlands (namely Machakos Hills, Taita Hills and Mount Kilimanjaro characterized by graded changes in climatic conditions. For all transects, pH, Ca, K and Mg decreased with the increase in altitude. In contrast, % Silt, organic carbon content, Al and water holding capacity (HC increased with increasing altitude. The research provides information on the status of the physical–chemical characteristics of soils along three altitudinal ranges of East African Highlands and includes data available for further research.

  8. Seismicity of the Earth 1900-2013 East African Rift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Gavin P.; Jones, Eric S.; Stadler, Timothy J.; Barnhart, William D.; McNamara, Daniel E.; Benz, Harley M.; Furlong, Kevin P.; Villaseñor, Antonio; Hayes, Gavin P.; Jones, Eric S.; Stadler, Timothy J.; Barnhart, William D.; McNamara, Daniel E.; Benz, Harley M.; Furlong, Kevin P.; Villaseñor, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    The East African Rift system (EARS) is a 3,000-km-long Cenozoic age continental rift extending from the Afar triple junction, between the horn of Africa and the Middle East, to western Mozambique. Sectors of active extension occur from the Indian Ocean, west to Botswana and the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). It is the only rift system in the world that is active on a continent-wide scale, providing geologists with a view of how continental rifts develop over time into oceanic spreading centers like the Mid-Atlantic Ridge.

  9. WEST AND EAST REGIONS OF GHANA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    mobilisation and saving as well as records keeping in PMCS in the Upper West and. East Regions. 1. ..... money to meet the maintenance of pump facilities including pump site .... are given some incentives as motivation, the data show that the.

  10. Hybridization in East African swarm-raiding army ants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kronauer, Daniel Jc; Peters, Marcell K; Schöning, Caspar

    2011-01-01

    Hybridization can have complex effects on evolutionary dynamics in ants because of the combination of haplodiploid sex-determination and eusociality. While hybrid non-reproductive workers have been found in a range of species, examples of gene-flow via hybrid queens and males are rare. We studied...... hybridization in East African army ants (Dorylus subgenus Anomma) using morphology, mitochondrial DNA sequences, and nuclear microsatellites....

  11. Ambient noise tomography of the East African Rift in Mozambique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingues, Ana; Silveira, Graça; Ferreira, Ana M. G.; Chang, Sung-Joon; Custódio, Susana; Fonseca, João F. B. D.

    2016-03-01

    Seismic ambient noise tomography is applied to central and southern Mozambique, located in the tip of the East African Rift (EAR). The deployment of MOZART seismic network, with a total of 30 broad-band stations continuously recording for 26 months, allowed us to carry out the first tomographic study of the crust under this region, which until now remained largely unexplored at this scale. From cross-correlations extracted from coherent noise we obtained Rayleigh wave group velocity dispersion curves for the period range 5-40 s. These dispersion relations were inverted to produce group velocity maps, and 1-D shear wave velocity profiles at selected points. High group velocities are observed at all periods on the eastern edge of the Kaapvaal and Zimbabwe cratons, in agreement with the findings of previous studies. Further east, a pronounced slow anomaly is observed in central and southern Mozambique, where the rifting between southern Africa and Antarctica created a passive margin in the Mesozoic, and further rifting is currently happening as a result of the southward propagation of the EAR. In this study, we also addressed the question concerning the nature of the crust (continental versus oceanic) in the Mozambique Coastal Plains (MCP), still in debate. Our data do not support previous suggestions that the MCP are floored by oceanic crust since a shallow Moho could not be detected, and we discuss an alternative explanation for its ocean-like magnetic signature. Our velocity maps suggest that the crystalline basement of the Zimbabwe craton may extend further east well into Mozambique underneath the sediment cover, contrary to what is usually assumed, while further south the Kaapval craton passes into slow rifted crust at the Lebombo monocline as expected. The sharp passage from fast crust to slow crust on the northern part of the study area coincides with the seismically active NNE-SSW Urema rift, while further south the Mazenga graben adopts an N-S direction

  12. Danish Interests in Regional Security Institutions in East Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordby, Johannes Riber; Jacobsen, Katja

    2013-01-01

    through capacity building projects anchored in different regional security institutions. The report illuminates some of the risks that such capacity building projects might confront. Furthermore the report points out some of the challenges that exist in the cooperation between the Ministry of Foreign......For the past decade, peace and security in East Africa have gained increasing focus internationally. The region has experienced armed conflicts, civil wars, rebellion, drought and famine. Yet, at the same time, there is an emerging ambition among a number of African states to handle security issues...... on the continent independently. Such ambitions have fostered a variety of military capacity building programmes supported by external donors. The present report explores how up until now Denmark has sought to contribute to strengthening political and military security in East Africa. This has mainly been done...

  13. 162. EAST AFRICAN MEDICAL IOURNAL April2008

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2008-04-04

    Apr 4, 2008 ... Main outcome measures: We compared personal factors, influence from other people, barriers and supports ..... a wider scale, these results tend to emphasize that men need to be .... Infant-feeding The third factor besides attitude and subjective norm practices of ... tools in the Kilimanjaro Region, Tanzania.

  14. The African Standby Force and Regional Security Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mandrup, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    the challenges facing the region? The regional enmities between the states seem to be widespread, deep-rooted and of a nearly chronic nature. In June 2015 the African Union and its member-states announced that they expected the five regionally based standby brigades to be fully operational by December 2015....... The readiness is to be tested at a continental field exercise, Amani Africa 11 to take place in South Africa October 2015. (Defence Web, 2015) The article will start by mapping out the security dynamics and architecture in East Africa, including its membership circles and priorities. The article...

  15. The genetics of East African populations: a Nilo-Saharan component in the African genetic landscape

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dobon, B.; Hassan, H.Y.; Laayouni, H.; Luisi, P.; Ricano-Ponce, I.; Zhernakova, A.; Wijmenga, C.; Tahir, H.; Comas, D.; Netea, M.G.; Bertranpetit, J.

    2015-01-01

    East Africa is a strategic region to study human genetic diversity due to the presence of ethnically, linguistically, and geographically diverse populations. Here, we provide new insight into the genetic history of populations living in the Sudanese region of East Africa by analysing nine ethnic gro

  16. East African wetland-catchment data base for sustainable wetland management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Leemhuis

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Wetlands cover an area of approx. 18 Mio ha in the East African countries of Kenya, Rwanda, Uganda and Tanzania, with still a relative small share being used for food production. Current upland agricultural use intensification in these countries due to demographic growth, climate change and globalization effects are leading to an over-exploitation of the resource base, followed by an intensification of agricultural wetland use. We aim on translating, transferring and upscaling knowledge on experimental test-site wetland properties, small-scale hydrological processes, and water related ecosystem services under different types of management from local to national scale. This information gained at the experimental wetland/catchment scale will be embedded as reference data within an East African wetland-catchment data base including catchment physical properties and a regional wetland inventory serving as a base for policy advice and the development of sustainable wetland management strategies.

  17. East African wetland-catchment data base for sustainable wetland management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leemhuis, Constanze; Amler, Esther; Diekkrüger, Bernd; Gabiri, Geofrey; Näschen, Kristian

    2016-10-01

    Wetlands cover an area of approx. 18 Mio ha in the East African countries of Kenya, Rwanda, Uganda and Tanzania, with still a relative small share being used for food production. Current upland agricultural use intensification in these countries due to demographic growth, climate change and globalization effects are leading to an over-exploitation of the resource base, followed by an intensification of agricultural wetland use. We aim on translating, transferring and upscaling knowledge on experimental test-site wetland properties, small-scale hydrological processes, and water related ecosystem services under different types of management from local to national scale. This information gained at the experimental wetland/catchment scale will be embedded as reference data within an East African wetland-catchment data base including catchment physical properties and a regional wetland inventory serving as a base for policy advice and the development of sustainable wetland management strategies.

  18. Regional Initiatives in Support of Surveillance in East Africa: The East Africa Integrated Disease Surveillance Network (EAIDSNet Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurice Ope

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The East African Integrated Disease Surveillance Network (EAIDSNet was formed in response to a growing frequency of cross-border malaria outbreaks in the 1990s and a growing recognition that fragmented disease interventions, coupled with weak laboratory capacity, were making it difficult to respond in a timely manner to the outbreaks of malaria and other infectious diseases. The East Africa Community (EAC partner states, with financial support from the Rockefeller Foundation, established EAIDSNet in 2000 to develop and strengthen the communication channels necessary for integrated cross-border disease surveillance and control efforts. The objective of this paper is to review the regional EAIDSNet initiative and highlight achievements and challenges in its implementation. Major accomplishments of EAIDSNet include influencing the establishment of a Department of Health within the EAC Secretariat to support a regional health agenda; successfully completing a regional field simulation exercise in pandemic influenza preparedness; and piloting a web-based portal for linking animal and human health disease surveillance. The strategic direction of EAIDSNet was shaped, in part, by lessons learned following a visit to the more established Mekong Basin Disease Surveillance (MBDS regional network. Looking to the future, EAIDSNet is collaborating with the East, Central and Southern Africa Health Community (ECSA-HC, EAC partner states, and the World Health Organization to implement the World Bank-funded East Africa Public Health Laboratory Networking Project (EAPHLNP. The network has also begun lobbying East African countries for funding to support EAIDSNet activities.

  19. Yellow fever, Asia and the East African slave trade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cathey, John T; Marr, John S

    2014-05-01

    Yellow fever is endemic in parts of sub-Saharan Africa and South America, yet its principal vectors--species of mosquito of the genus Aedes--are found throughout tropical and subtropical latitudes. Phylogenetic analyses indicate that yellow fever originated in Africa and that its spread to the New World coincided with the slave trade, but why yellow fever has never appeared in Asia remains a mystery. None of several previously proposed explanations for its absence there is considered satisfactory. We contrast the trans-Atlantic slave trade, and trade across the Sahara and to the Arabian Peninsula and Mesopotamia, with that to Far East and Southeast Asian ports before abolition of the African slave trade, and before the scientific community understood the transmission vector of yellow fever and the viral life cycle, and the need for shipboard mosquito control. We propose that these differences in slave trading had a primary role in the avoidance of yellow fever transmission into Asia in the centuries before the 20(th) century. The relatively small volume of the Black African slave trade between Africa and East and Southeast Asia has heretofore been largely ignored. Although focal epidemics may have occurred, the volume was insufficient to reach the threshold for endemicity.

  20. The biggest fish in the sea? Dynamic Kenyan labour migration in the East African community

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ong'ayo, A.O.O.; Oucho, J.O.; Oucho, L.A.

    2013-01-01

    This study assesses the Kenyan policy and institutional framework concerning South–South labour migration with particular focus on the East African Community (EAC) countries. It focuses mainly on one particular policy instrument, the East African Community Common Market framework. The research furth

  1. Sensitivity of the East African rift lakes to climate variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olaka, L.; Trauth, M. H.

    2009-04-01

    Lakes in the East African Rift have provided excellent proxies to reconstruct past climate changes in the low latitudes. The lakes occupy volcano-tectonic depressions with highly variable climate and hydrological setting, that present a good opportunity to study the climatic and hydrogeological influences on the lake water budget. Previous studies have used lake floor sediments to establish the sensitivity of the East African rift lakes. This study focuses on geomorphology and climate to offer additional or alternative record of lake history that are key to quantifying sensitivity of these lakes as archives to external and internal climatic forcings. By using the published Holocene lake areas and levels, we analyze twelve lakes on the eastern arm of the East African rift; Ziway, Awassa, Turkana, Suguta, Baringo, Nakuru, Elmenteita, Naivasha, Natron, Manyara and compare with Lake Victoria, that occupies the plateau between the east and the western arms of the rift. Using the SRTM data, Hypsometric (area-altitude) analysis has been used to compare the lake basins between latitude 80 North and 30 South. The mean elevation for the lakes, is between 524 and 2262 meters above sea level, the lakes' hypsometric integrals (HI), a measure of landmass volume above the reference plane, vary from 0.31 to 0.76. The aridity index (Ai), defined as Precipitation/ Evapotranspiration, quantifies the water available to a lake, it encompasses land cover and climatic effects. It is lowest (arid) in the basin between the Ethiopian rift and the Kenyan rift and at the southern termination of the Kenyan Rift in the catchments of lake Turkana, Suguta, Baringo and Manyara with values of 0.55, 0.43, 0.43 and 0.5 respectively. And it is highest (wet) in the catchments of, Ziway, Awassa, Nakuru and Naivasha as 1.33,1.03 and 1.2 respectively, which occupy the highest points of the rift. Lake Victoria has an index of 1.42 the highest of these lakes and receives a high precipitation. We use a

  2. Human Rights in the Context of Deepening Integration of East African Community (EAC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard MUKO OCHANDA

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study contributes to the discourse on the process of political integration by studying East African Community (EAC’s integration efforts in the light of Human Rights Based Approach (HBRA. Data used has been assembled from various sources such as media reports, EAC documents and country statistical reports from various institutions such as bureaus of statistics, UNDP, UNAIDS, World Bank, Freedom House and Transparency International. This study has been on-going from 2008 to 2012. The study found that various structures have been created to aid the deepening integration efforts in East Africa. With the exception of human rights, the EAC treaty stipulates eleven areas of collaboration. It was also found that Tanzania scores better than other countries on political and civil liberties, while Human Welfare Indicators were a challenge in the entire EAC. The Gini index scores were high and worsening in some countries over time, indicating the presence of distributive injustices.Other areas of concern comprised media control, gender based challenges, harassment of opposition and poor protection of minorities and vulnerable populations. Four countries of the region are part of the Africa Peer Review Mechanism (APRMprocess. The APRM as a process is meant to promote good governance and presents an opportunity for bettering human rights in the region.The study ends by recommending the mainstreaming of Human Rights Based Approach (HBRA through the formation of East African Human Rights Commission (EAHRC within EAC structures.

  3. Orogen styles in the East African Orogen: A review of the Neoproterozoic to Cambrian tectonic evolution☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, H.; Abdelsalam, M.; Ali, K.A.; Bingen, B.; Collins, A.S.; Fowler, A.R.; Ghebreab, W.; Hauzenberger, C.A.; Johnson, P.R.; Kusky, T.M.; Macey, P.; Muhongo, S.; Stern, R.J.; Viola, G.

    2013-01-01

    The East African Orogen, extending from southern Israel, Sinai and Jordan in the north to Mozambique and Madagascar in the south, is the world́s largest Neoproterozoic to Cambrian orogenic complex. It comprises a collage of individual oceanic domains and continental fragments between the Archean Sahara–Congo–Kalahari Cratons in the west and Neoproterozoic India in the east. Orogen consolidation was achieved during distinct phases of orogeny between ∼850 and 550 Ma. The northern part of the orogen, the Arabian–Nubian Shield, is predominantly juvenile Neoproterozoic crust that formed in and adjacent to the Mozambique Ocean. The ocean closed during a protracted period of island-arc and microcontinent accretion between ∼850 and 620 Ma. To the south of the Arabian Nubian Shield, the Eastern Granulite–Cabo Delgado Nappe Complex of southern Kenya, Tanzania and Mozambique was an extended crust that formed adjacent to theMozambique Ocean and experienced a ∼650–620 Ma granulite-facies metamorphism. Completion of the nappe assembly around 620 Ma is defined as the East African Orogeny and was related to closure of the Mozambique Ocean. Oceans persisted after 620 Ma between East Antarctica, India, southern parts of the Congo–Tanzania–Bangweulu Cratons and the Zimbabwe–Kalahari Craton. They closed during the ∼600–500 Ma Kuungan or Malagasy Orogeny, a tectonothermal event that affected large portions of southern Tanzania, Zambia, Malawi, Mozambique, Madagascar and Antarctica. The East African and Kuungan Orogenies were followed by phases of post-orogenic extension. Early ∼600–550 Ma extension is recorded in the Arabian–Nubian Shield and the Eastern Granulite–Cabo Delgado Nappe Complex. Later ∼550–480 Ma extension affected Mozambique and southern Madagascar. Both extension phases, although diachronous,are interpreted as the result of lithospheric delamination. Along the strike of the East African Orogen, different geodynamic settings

  4. Post-Pan-African tectonic evolution of South Malawi in relation to the Karroo and recent East African rift systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castaing, C.

    1991-05-01

    Structural studies conducted in the Lengwe and Mwabvi Karroo basins and in the basement in South Malawi, using regional maps and published data extended to cover Southeast Africa, serve to propose a series of geodynamic reconstructions which reveal the persistence of an extensional tectonic regime, the minimum stress σ3 of which has varied through time. The period of Karroo rifting and the tholeiitic and alkaline magmatism which terminated it, were controlled by NW-SE extension, which resulted in the creation of roughly NE-SW troughs articulated by the Tanganyika-Malawi and Zambesi pre-transform systems. These were NW-SE sinistral-slip systems with directions of movement dipping slightly to the Southeast, which enabled the Mwanza fault to play an important role in the evolution of the Karroo basins of the Shire Valley. The Cretaceous was a transition period between the Karroo rifting and the formation of the Recent East African Rift System. Extension was NE-SW, with some evidence for a local compressional episode in the Lengwe basin. Beginning in the Cenozoic, the extension once more became NW-SE and controlled the evolution in transtension of the Recent East African Rift System. This history highlights the major role of transverse faults systems dominated by strike-slip motion in the evolution and perpetuation of the continental rift systems. These faults are of a greater geological persistence than the normal faults bounding the grabens, especially when they are located on major basement anisotropies.

  5. Spatial patterns of sea surface temperature influences on East African precipitation as revealed by empirical orthogonal teleconnections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim eAppelhans

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available East Africa is characterized by a rather dry annual precipitation climatology with two distinct rainy seasons. In order to investigate sea surface temperature driven precipitation anomalies for the region we use the algorithm of empirical orthogonal teleconnection analysis as a data mining tool. We investigate the entire East African domain as well as 5 smaller sub-regions mainly located in areas of mountainous terrain. In searching for influential sea surface temperature patterns we do not focus any particular season or oceanic region. Furthermore, we investigate different time lags from zero to twelve months. The strongest influence is identified for the immediate (i.e. non-lagged influences of the Indian Ocean in close vicinity to the East African coast. None of the most important modes are located in the tropical Pacific Ocean, though the region is sometimes coupled with the Indian Ocean basin. Furthermore, we identify a region in the southern Indian Ocean around the Kerguelen Plateau which has not yet been reported in the literature with regard to precipitation modulation in East Africa. Finally, it is observed that not all regions in East Africa are equally influenced by the identified patterns.

  6. East African weathering dynamics controlled by vegetation-climate feedbacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivory, Sarah J.; McGlue, Michael M.; Ellis, Geoffrey S.; Boehlke, Adam; Lézine, Anne-Marie; Vincens, Annie; Cohen, Andrew S.

    2017-01-01

    Tropical weathering has important linkages to global biogeochemistry and landscape evolution in the East African rift. We disentangle the influences of climate and terrestrial vegetation on chemical weathering intensity and erosion at Lake Malawi using a long sediment record. Fossil pollen, microcharcoal, particle size, and mineralogy data affirm that the detrital clays accumulating in deep water within the lake are controlled by feedbacks between climate and hinterland forest composition. Particle-size patterns are also best explained by vegetation, through feedbacks with lake levels, wildfires, and erosion. We develop a new source-to-sink framework that links lacustrine sedimentation to hinterland vegetation in tropical rifts. Our analysis suggests that climate-vegetation interactions and their coupling to weathering/erosion could threaten future food security and has implications for accurately predicting petroleum play elements in continental rift basins.

  7. Determinants of Export Participation in East African Manufacturing Firms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niringiye Aggrey

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study was to analyze the determinants of export participation of manufacturing firms in East Africa. In order for East African manufacturing firms to achieve global competitiveness, they need to have an indication of the factors that influence their export participation. Regression results using probit estimation procedure indicate that capital, foreign ownership, education level of the manager and training in Uganda, capital, training of workers and proportion of unskilled workers in Kenya, and firm size and foreign ownership in Tanzania, positively influences export participation of manufacturing firms. To promote exports, Tanzania should design strategies to grow small firms into large ones using measures such as loan guarantee schemes for small and medium firms, tax holidays for joint ventures and mergers, etc. The Ugandan and Kenyan government should also provide incentives for capital imports such as maintaining the current zero rating of capital imports. Lastly, Ugandan and Tanzanian government should design strategies aimed at attracting foreign direct investment, such as improving economic productivity through the provision of infrastructure and labour force training.

  8. Mainstreaming biodiversity and wildlife management into climate change policy frameworks in selected east and southern African countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga L. Kupika

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The Rio+20 outcomes document, the Future We Want, enshrines green economy as one of the platforms to attain sustainable development and calls for measures that seek to address climate change and biodiversity management. This paper audits climate change policies from selected east and southern African countries to determine the extent to which climate change legislation mainstreams biodiversity and wildlife management. A scan of international, continental, regional and national climate change policies was conducted to assess whether they include biodiversity and/or wildlife management issues. The key finding is that many climate change policy–related documents, particularly the National Adaptation Programme of Actions (NAPAs, address threats to biodiversity and wildlife resources. However, international policies like the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and Kyoto Protocol do not address the matter under deliberation. Regional climate change policies such as the East African Community, Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa and African Union address biodiversity and/or wildlife issues whilst the Southern African Development Community region does not have a stand-alone policy for climate change. Progressive countries like Rwanda, Uganda, Tanzania and Zambia have recently put in place detailed NAPAs which are mainstream responsive strategies intended to address climate change adaptation in the wildlife sector.Keywords: mainstreaming, biodiversity, wildlife, climate change policy, east and southern Africa

  9. Interannual modulation of East African early short rains by the winter Arctic Oscillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Dao-Yi; Guo, Dong; Mao, Rui; Yang, Jing; Gao, Yongqi; Kim, Seong-Joong

    2016-08-01

    In the present study, we analyzed the interannual linkage between the boreal winter Arctic Oscillation (AO) and East African early short rains. When the Indian Ocean Dipole and El Niño-Southern Oscillation variance are excluded by linear regression, the boreal winter AO index is significantly correlated with the October East African precipitation over the domain of 5°N-5°S and 35°-45°E for the period 1979-2014, r =+ 0.46. The upper ocean heat content likely acts as a medium that links the AO and East African precipitation. Significant subsurface warming and positive upper ocean heat content anomalies occur over the western Indian Ocean during the autumn following positive AO winters, which enriches the atmospheric moisture, intensifies convection, and enhances precipitation. Oceanic dynamics play a key role in causing this subsurface warming. Winter AO-related atmospheric circulation creates anomalous wind stress, which forces a downwelling oceanic Rossby wave between 60°-75°E and 5°-10°S, where the thermocline significantly deepens. This Rossby wave propagates westward and accompanies significant subsurface warming along the thermocline. The Rossby wave arrives at the western Indian Ocean in the late summer, significantly warming the region to the west of 55°E at a depth of 60-100 m. This warming remains significant through October. Correspondingly, the upper ocean heat content significantly increases by approximately 2-3 × 108 J m-2 in the region west of 60°E between 5° and 10°S. The role of these oceanic dynamics in linking the winter AO, and anomalous subsurface warming was tested by numerical experiments with an oceanic general circulation model. The experiments were performed with the forcing of AO-related wind stress anomalies over the Indian Ocean in the winter. The oceanic Rossby wave generated in the central Indian Ocean during boreal winter, the consequent subsurface warming, and the anomalous upper ocean heat content in October over the

  10. East and Central African Journal of Surgery - Vol 12, No 2 (2007)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    East and Central African Journal of Surgery - Vol 12, No 2 (2007) ... Africa: Implication for training · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT ... Breast fine needle aspiration cytology in a Nigerian tertiary hospital · EMAIL FREE FULL ...

  11. East and Central African Journal of Surgery http://www.bioline.org.br ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Patrick

    East and Central African Journal of Surgery ... surgery radiotherapy and chemotherapy are discussed. .... Metastasise from Breast and Melanoma .... Cornea P. Clinical implications of recent developments in gastric cancer; pathology and.

  12. Tectonic Evolution of Mozambique Ridge in East African continental margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yong

    2017-04-01

    Tectonic Evolution of Mozambique Ridge in East African continental margin Yong Tang He Li ES.Mahanjane Second Institute of Oceanography,SOA,Hangzhou The East Africa passive continental margin is a depression area, with widely distributed sedimentary wedges from southern Mozambique to northern Somali (>6500km in length, and about 6km in thickness). It was resulted from the separation of East Gondwana, and was developed by three stages: (1) rifting in Early-Middle Jurassic; (2) spreading from Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous; (3) drifting since the Cretaceous period. Tectonic evolution of the Mozambique continental margin is distinguished by two main settings separated by a fossil transform, the Davie Fracture Zone; (i) rifting and transform setting in the northern margin related to opening of the Somali and Rovuma basins, and (ii) rifting and volcanism setting during the opening of the Mozambique basin in the southern margin. 2D reflection seismic investigation of the crustal structure in the Zambezi Delta Depression, provided key piece of evidence for two rifting phases between Africa and Antarctica. The magma-rich Rift I phase evolved from rift-rift-rift style with remarkable emplacement of dyke swarms (between 182 and 170 Ma). Related onshore outcrops are extensively studied, the Karoo volcanics in Mozambique, Zimbabwe and South Africa, all part of the Karoo "triple-junction". These igneous bodies flow and thicken eastwards and are now covered by up to 5 km of Cretaceous and Tertiary sediments and recorded by seismic and oil exploration wells. Geophysical and geological data recorded during oceanographic cruises provide very controversial results regarding the nature of the Mozambique Ridge. Two conflicting opinions remains open, since the early expeditions to the Indian Ocean, postulating that its character is either magmatic (oceanic) or continental origin. We have carried out an China-Mozambique Joint Cruise(CMJC) on southern Mozambique Basin on 1st June to

  13. Determinants of Export Participation in East African Agricultural Manufacturing Firms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niringiye Aggrey

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study was to analyze the determinants of export participation of agricultural manufacturing firms in East A frica. In order for E ast African agricultural manufacturing firms to achieve global competitiveness, they need to have an indication of the factors that influence their export participation. Regression results using probit estimation procedure indicate that capital, foreign ownership and training in Uganda, average education, location in Nakuru and proportion of unskilled workers in Kenya, and firm size and location in Arusha and Mwanza in Tanzania, positively influences export participation of agricultural manufacturing firms. To promote exports, Tanzania should design strategies to grow small firms into large ones using measures such as loan guarantee schemes for small and medium firms, tax holidays for joint ventures and mergers, etc. The Ugandan government should also provide incentives for capital imports such as maintaining the current zero rating of capital imports. Lastly, Ugandan government should design strategies aimed at attracting foreign direct investment, such as improving economic productivity through the provision of infrastructure and labour force training.

  14. East Java Maritime Connectivity and Its Regional Development Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purboyo, H.; Ibad, M. Z.

    2017-07-01

    The study presents an evolution of maritime connectivity index of East Java which is associated with accessibility and mobility index of regions in East Java. The findings show that East Java increased connectivity more than three times from 1996 to 2011. Initially, the East Java is importer but then become exporter to national territory. For accessibility, the inland regions of East Java in general is higher than the coastal areas. And for mobility, inland regions initially have a small index, but in subsequent years its index is greater than the coastal areas.

  15. East African origins for Madagascan chickens as indicated by mitochondrial DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Michael B.; Thomson, Vicki A.; Wadley, Jessica J.; Piper, Philip J.; Sulandari, Sri; Dharmayanthi, Anik Budhi; Kraitsek, Spiridoula; Gongora, Jaime

    2017-01-01

    The colonization of Madagascar by Austronesian-speaking people during AD 50–500 represents the most westerly point of the greatest diaspora in prehistory. A range of economically important plants and animals may have accompanied the Austronesians. Domestic chickens (Gallus gallus) are found in Madagascar, but it is unclear how they arrived there. Did they accompany the initial Austronesian-speaking populations that reached Madagascar via the Indian Ocean or were they late arrivals with Arabian and African sea-farers? To address this question, we investigated the mitochondrial DNA control region diversity of modern chickens sampled from around the Indian Ocean rim (Southeast Asia, South Asia, the Arabian Peninsula, East Africa and Madagascar). In contrast to the linguistic and human genetic evidence indicating dual African and Southeast Asian ancestry of the Malagasy people, we find that chickens in Madagascar only share a common ancestor with East Africa, which together are genetically closer to South Asian chickens than to those in Southeast Asia. This suggests that the earliest expansion of Austronesian-speaking people across the Indian Ocean did not successfully introduce chickens to Madagascar. Our results further demonstrate the complexity of the translocation history of introduced domesticates in Madagascar.

  16. Hydrothermal vents in Lake Tanganyika, East African, Rift system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiercelin, Jean-Jacques; Pflumio, Catherine; Castrec, Maryse; Boulégue, Jacques; Gente, Pascal; Rolet, Joël; Coussement, Christophe; Stetter, Karl O.; Huber, Robert; Buku, Sony; Mifundu, Wafula

    1993-06-01

    Sublacustrine hydrothermal vents with associated massive sulfides were discovered during April 1987 at Pemba and Cape Banza on the Zaire side of the northern basin of Lake Tanganyika, East African Rift system. New investigations by a team of ten scuba divers during the multinational (France, Zaire, Germany, and Burundi) TANGANYDRO expedition (August-October 1991) found hydrothermal vents down to a depth of 46 m along north-trending active faults bounding the Tanganyika rift on the western side. Temperatures from 53 to 103 °C were measured in hydrothermal fluids and sediments. Veins of massive sulfides 1-10 cm thick (pyrite and marcasite banding) were found associated with vents at the Pemba site. At Cape Banza,active vents are characterized by 1-70-cm-high aragonite chimneys, and there are microcrystalline pyrite coatings on the walls of hydrothermal pipes. Hydrothermal fluid end members show distinctive compositions at the two sites. The Pemba end member is a NaHCO3-enriched fluid similar to the NaHCO3 thermal fluids from lakes Magadi and Bogoria in the eastern branch off the rift. The Cape Banza end member is a solution enriched in NaCl. Such brines may have a deep-seated basement origin, as do the Uvinza NaCl brines on the eastern flank of the Tanganyika basin. Geothermometric calculations have yielded temperatures of fluid-rock interaction off 219 and 179 °C in the Pemba and Cape Banza systems, respectively. Abundant white or reddish-brown microbial colonies resembling Beggiatoa mats were found surrounding the active vents. Thermal fluid circulation is permitted by opening of cracks related to 130 °N normal-dextral faults that intersect the north- south major rift trend. The source of heat for such hydrothermal systems may relate to the existence of magmatic bodies under the rift, which is suggested by the isotopic composition of carbon dioxide released at Pemba and Cape Banza.

  17. Giant seismites and megablock uplift in the East African Rift: evidence for Late Pleistocene large magnitude earthquakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilbert-Wolf, Hannah Louise; Roberts, Eric M

    2015-01-01

    In lieu of comprehensive instrumental seismic monitoring, short historical records, and limited fault trench investigations for many seismically active areas, the sedimentary record provides important archives of seismicity in the form of preserved horizons of soft-sediment deformation features, termed seismites. Here we report on extensive seismites in the Late Quaternary-Recent (≤ ~ 28,000 years BP) alluvial and lacustrine strata of the Rukwa Rift Basin, a segment of the Western Branch of the East African Rift System. We document examples of the most highly deformed sediments in shallow, subsurface strata close to the regional capital of Mbeya, Tanzania. This includes a remarkable, clastic 'megablock complex' that preserves remobilized sediment below vertically displaced blocks of intact strata (megablocks), some in excess of 20 m-wide. Documentation of these seismites expands the database of seismogenic sedimentary structures, and attests to large magnitude, Late Pleistocene-Recent earthquakes along the Western Branch of the East African Rift System. Understanding how seismicity deforms near-surface sediments is critical for predicting and preparing for modern seismic hazards, especially along the East African Rift and other tectonically active, developing regions.

  18. Evaluation of the capability of RegCM4.0 in simulating East African climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogwang, Bob Alex; Chen, Haishan; Li, Xing; Gao, Chujie

    2016-04-01

    The International Centre for Theoretical Physics (ICTP) regional climate model RegCM4.0 is used in this study to examine its ability to reproduce the climate of East Africa (EA) in regard to the annual cycle and June-to-August (JJA) seasonal climatology. Two domain sizes [large domain (LD) and small domain (SD)] and two cumulus convection schemes [Grell convection scheme with Fritsch-Chappell closure assumption (GRE scheme) and MIT scheme (EMA scheme)] are used. Simulations were done for the period 1989-2008 at a resolution of 50 km. The experiments were performed with the initial and lateral boundary conditions obtained from ERA-Interim-gridded reanalysis data at a 1.5° resolution. The variables investigated are precipitation, temperature, humidity, diurnal temperature range, and 850-hPa winds. Results show that the model realistically reproduces the East African climate, with a few discrepancies due to the different cumulus convection schemes and the domain sizes used. Grell with Fritsch-Chappell (Grell-FC) scheme captures well the observed climate in regard to the annual cycle and June-to-August seasonal climatology, with a tendency to underestimate rainfall over the JJA rainfall maximum region (RMR). This scheme performs better in LD than in SD. EMA scheme similarly captures well the observed climatology. It tends to overestimate rainfall over RMR. It however performs better in SD than in LD. The ensemble mean of simulations with GRE and EMA schemes (ENSM) tends to offer an improved representation of the observed climate, with a few discrepancies owing to the individual schemes used. In general, therefore, considering the performance of the model in both domains, the East African climate based on this study is better simulated by the Grell-FC scheme over LD. The observed biases in this study signify that the ability of the model in simulating climate over East Africa is still a significant challenge. Thus, future work must focus on improving the performance of

  19. Predicting East African spring droughts using Pacific and Indian Ocean sea surface temperature indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funk, Christopher C.; Hoell, Andrew; Shukla, Shraddhanand; Blade, Ileana; Liebmann, Brant; Roberts, Jason B.; Robertson, Franklin R.

    2014-01-01

    In southern Ethiopia, Eastern Kenya, and southern Somalia poor boreal spring rains in 1999, 2000, 2004, 2007, 2008, 2009 and 2011 contributed to severe food insecurity and high levels of malnutrition. Predicting rainfall deficits in this region on seasonal and decadal time frames can help decision makers support disaster risk reduction while guiding climate-smart adaptation and agricultural development. Building on recent research that links more frequent droughts to a stronger Walker Circulation, warming in the Indo-Pacific warm pool, and an increased western Pacific sea surface temperature (SST) gradient, we explore the dominant modes of East African rainfall variability, links between these modes and sea surface temperatures, and a simple index-based monitoring-prediction system suitable for drought early warning.

  20. Hydrothermal vents is Lake Tanganyika, East African Rift system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiercelin, J.J. [Universite de Bretagne Occidentale, Brest (France); Pflumio, C.; Castrec, M. [Universite Paris VI, Paris (France)] [and others

    1993-06-01

    Sublacustrine hydrothermal vents with associated massive sulfides were discovered during April 1987 at Pemba and Cape Banza on the Zaire side of the northern basin of Lake Tanganyika, East African Rift system. New investigations by a team of ten scuba divers during the multinational (France, Zaire, Germany, and Burundi) TANGANYDRO expedition (August-October 1991) found hydrothermal vents down to a depth of 46 m along north-trending active faults bounding the Tanganyika rift on the western side. Temperatures from 53 to 103 {degrees}C were measured in hydrothermal fluids and sediments. Veins of massive sulfides 1-10 cm thick (pyrite and marcasite banding) were found associated with vents at the Pemba site. At Cape Banza, active vents are characterized by 1-70-cm-high aragonite chimneys, and there are microcrystalline pyrite coatings on the walls of hydrothermal pipes. Hydrothermal fluid end members show distinctive compositions at the two sites. The Pemba end member is a NaHCO{sub 3}-enriched fluid similar to the NaHCO{sub 3} thermal fluids form lakes Magadi and Bogoria in the eastern branch of the rift. The Cape Banza end member is a solution enriched in NaCl. Such brines may have a deep-seated basement origin, as do the Uvinza NaCl brines on the eastern flank of the Tanganyika basin. Geothermometric calculations have yielded temperatures of fluid-rock interaction of 219 and 179 {degrees}C in the Pemba and Cape Banza systems, respectively. Abundant white or reddish-brown microbial colonies resembling Beggiatoa mats were found surrounding the active vents. Thermal fluid circulation is permitted by opening of cracks related to 130{degrees}N normal-dextral faults that intersect the north-south major rift trend. The sources of heat for such hydrothermal systems may relate to the existence of magmatic bodies under the rift, which is suggested by the isotopic composition of carbon dioxide released at Pemba and Cape Banza. 21 refs., 2 figs.

  1. Use of Machine Learning Techniques for Identification of Robust Teleconnections to East African Rainfall Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, J. Brent; Robertson, F. R.; Funk, C.

    2014-01-01

    Hidden Markov models can be used to investigate structure of subseasonal variability. East African short rain variability has connections to large-scale tropical variability. MJO - Intraseasonal variations connected with appearance of "wet" and "dry" states. ENSO/IOZM SST and circulation anomalies are apparent during years of anomalous residence time in the subseasonal "wet" state. Similar results found in previous studies, but we can interpret this with respect to variations of subseasonal wet and dry modes. Reveal underlying connections between MJO/IOZM/ENSO with respect to East African rainfall.

  2. Frequency of Agenesis Palmaris Longus through Clinical Examination - An East African Study

    OpenAIRE

    James W M Kigera; Stephen Mukwaya

    2011-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The Palmaris longus, one of the most variable muscles in the body both flexes the wrist and tenses the palmar fascia. It is used by surgeons as a source of tendon graft and racial differences in its variation have been documented. We sought to determine the frequency of the absence of the Palmaris longus in an East African population. METHODS: A prospective study was conducted using ten common clinical tests among patients and students in a large teaching hospital in East Africa...

  3. High osteoporosis risk among East Africans linked to lactase persistence genotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilliard, Constance B

    2016-01-01

    This ecological correlation study explores the marked differential in osteoporosis susceptibility between East and West Africans. African tsetse belt populations are lactase non-persistent (lactose intolerant) and possess none of the genetic polymorphisms carried by lactase persistent (lactose tolerant) ethnic populations. What appears paradoxical, however, is the fact that Niger-Kordofanian (NK) West African ethnicities are also at minimal risk of osteoporosis. Although East Africans share a genetic affinity with NK West Africans, they display susceptibility rates of the bone disorder closer to those found in Europe. Similar to Europeans, they also carry alleles conferring the lactase persistence genetic traits. Hip fracture rates of African populations are juxtaposed with a global model to determine whether it is the unique ecology of the tsetse-infested zone or other variables that may be at work. This project uses MINITAB 17 software for regression analyses. The research data are found on AJOL (African Journals Online), PUBMED and JSTOR (Scholarly Journal Archive). Data showing the risk of osteoporosis to be 80 times higher among East Africans with higher levels of lactase persistence than lactase non-persistence West Africans are compared with global statistics. Hip fracture rates in 40 countries exhibit a high Pearson's correlation of r=0.851, with P-value=0.000 in relation to dairy consumption. Lower correlations are seen for hip fracture incidence vis-à-vis lactase persistence, per capita income and animal protein consumption. Ethnic populations who lack lactase persistence single-nucleotide polymorphisms may be at low risk of developing osteoporosis.

  4. Compilation of the GSHAP regional seismic hazard for Europe, Africa and the Middle East

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Mayer-Rosa

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available The seismic hazard map of the larger Europe-Africa-Middle East region has been generated as part of the global GSHAP hazard map. The hazard, expressing Peak Ground Acceleration (PGA expected at 10% probability of exceedance in 50 years, is obtained by combining the results of 16 independent regional and national projects; among these is the hazard assessment for Libya and for the wide sub-Saharan Western African region, specifically produced for this regional compilation and here discussed to some length. Features of enhanced seismic hazard are observed along the African rift zone and in the Alpine-Himalayan belt, where there is a general eastward increase in hazard with peak levels in Greece, Turkey, Caucasus and Iran.

  5. Signatures of selection for environmental adaptation and zebu × taurine hybrid fitness in East African shorthorn zebu

    Science.gov (United States)

    The East African Shorthorn Zebu (EASZ) cattle are ancient hybrid between Asian zebu × African taurine cattle preferred by local farmers due to their adaptability to the African environment. The genetic controls of these adaptabilities are not clearly understood yet. Here, we genotyped 92 EASZ sample...

  6. The role of households in solid waste management in East African capital cities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Solomon, A.O.

    2011-01-01

    Solid Management is a concern in East African capital cities. The absence of managing solid waste is a serious problem. An ever bigger concern is the growing quantities of waste that are generatedat households level in informal settlements. In most cases proper safeguard measures are largely ineffec

  7. Simulating sanitation and waste flows and their environmental impacts in East African urban centres

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oyoo, R.

    2014-01-01

    Simulating Sanitation and Waste Flows and their Environmental Impacts in East African Urban Centres Abstract If improperly managed, urban waste flows can pose a significant threat to the quality of both the natural environment and public health. Just as many urban a

  8. Detection of east/central/south African genotype of chikungunya virus in Myanmar, 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tun, Mya Myat Ngwe; Thant, Kyaw Zin; Inoue, Shingo; Nabeshima, Takeshi; Aoki, Kotaro; Kyaw, Aung Kyaw; Myint, Tin; Tar, Thi; Maung, Kay Thwe Thwe; Hayasaka, Daisuke; Morita, Kouichi

    2014-08-01

    In 2010, chikungunya virus of the East Central South African genotype was isolated from 4 children in Myanmyar who had dengue-like symptoms. Phylogenetic analysis of the E1 gene revealed that the isolates were closely related to isolates from China, Thailand, and Malaysia that harbor the A226V mutation in this gene.

  9. African mutinies in the Netherlands East Indies : a nineteenth-century colonial paradox

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kessel, van W.M.J.; Abbink, J.; Bruijn, de M.E.; Walraven, van K.

    2003-01-01

    Between 1831 and 1872, the Dutch government recruited 3,000 Africans from the Gold Coast and Ashanti (Ghana) for service in the colonial army in the Netherlands East Indies. The majority of them were ex-slaves but were promised that their conditions of service would be the same as those of Europeans

  10. Louse-borne relapsing fever among East African refugees in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antinori, Spinello; Mediannikov, Oleg; Corbellino, Mario; Raoult, Didier

    2016-01-01

    Louse-borne relapsing fever a neglected and forgotten disease by western physicians has recently re-emerged among East African migrants seeking asylum in Europe. We review here the cases observed so far together with a critical reappraisal of several issues regarding clinical presentation, diagnosis and treatment.

  11. Survey of care and evaluation of East African burn unit feasibility: an academic burn center exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Katrina B; Giiti, Geofrey; Gallagher, James J

    2013-01-01

    Weill Cornell Medical College in New York, partnered with Weill Bugando Medical College and Sekou Toure Regional Referral Hospital, in Mwanza, Tanzania, to consider the development of a burn unit there. This institutional partnership provided a unique opportunity to promote sustainable academic exchange and build burn care capacity in the East African region. A Weill Cornell burn surgeon and burn fellow collaborated with the Sekou Toure department of surgery to assess its current burn care capabilities and potential for burn unit development. All aspects of interdisciplinary burn care were reviewed and institutional infrastructure evaluated. Sekou Toure is a 375-bed regional referral center and teaching hospital of Weill Bugando Medical College. In 2010-2011, it admitted 5244 pediatric patients in total; 100 of these patients were burn-injured children (2% of admissions). There was no specific data kept on percentage of body surface burned, degree of burn, length of stay, or complications. No adult, operative, or outpatient burn data were available. There are two operating theaters. Patient's families perform wound care with nursing supervision. Rehabilitation therapists consult as needed. Meals are provided three times daily by a central kitchen. Public health outreach is possible through village-based communication networks. Infrastructure to support the development of a burn care unit exists at Sekou Toure, but needs increased clinical focus, human resource capacity building, and record-keeping to track accurate patient numbers. A multidisciplinary center could improve record-keeping and outcomes, encourage referrals, and facilitate outreach through villages.

  12. Sismotectonics in the western branch of the East African Rift System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delvaux, Damien; Kervyn, François; Mulumba, Jean-Luc; Kipata, Louis; Sebagenzi, Stanislas; Mavonga, Georges; Macheyeki, Athanas; Temu, Elly Bryan

    2013-04-01

    The western branch of the East African rift system is known of its particular seismic activity with larger magnitude (up to Ms 7.3) and more frequent destructive earthquakes than in the eastern branch. As a contribution to the IGCP 601 project Seismotectonic Map of Africa, we compiled the known active faults, thermal springs and historical seismicity in Central Africa. Using the rich archives of the Royal Museum for Central Africa, publications and own field observations, we present a compilation of available data relative to the current seismotectonic activity along the western branch of the East African rift system, in DRC, Rwanda, Burundi and Tanzania. Neotectonic activity related to the western rift branch is in general well expressed and relatively well studied in the eastern flank of this rift branch, in Uganda, Rwanda, Burundi and Tanzania. In contrast, the western flank of this rift branch, largely exposed in the DRC, has attracted less attention. However, data collected during the colonial times show significant sismotectonic activity in East DRC, not only in the western flank of the western rift branch, but extending far westwards up to the margin of the Congo basin. In particular, our predecessors paid a special attention to the mapping and description of thermal springs, noticing that they are often controlled by active faults. In addition, the operators of the relatively dense network of meteorological stations installed in the DRC, Rwanda and Burundi also recorded were with variable level of completeness and detail the earthquakes that they could felt. This provides a rich database that is used to complete the existing knowledge on historical seismicity. An important effort has still to be paid to identify and map potentially active fault due to poor field accessibility, tropical climate weathering and vegetation coverage. The main problem in the compilation of active fault data is that very few of them have been investigated by paleoseismic trenching

  13. Early Paleozoic (Pan African) thermal event of the Larsemann Hills and its neighbours, Prydz Bay, East Antarctica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵越; 宋彪; 张宗清; 富云莲; 陈廷愚; 王彦斌; 任留东; 姚玉鹏; 李继亮; 刘小汉

    1995-01-01

    The early Paleozoic (Pan African) thermal event of the Larsemann Hills and its adjacent areas, East Antarctica is discussed based upon the isotope ages we obtained. An Sm-Nd internal isochron for a representative mafic granulite yields an age of 540 Ma±75 Ma. Another Sm-Nd internal isochron, which is made up of the assemblage of the peak metamorphism and its whole rock as well, gives an age of 497 Ma ± 7 Ma The isotopic chronological data of single zircon stepwise evaporation dating and 40Ar-39Ar analysis provide further evidence for the early Paleozoic event of high-grade metamorphism in the region. The data from the field geological investigation in the Larsemann Hills also show that there is not only strong regional partial melting but also low-pressure granulite-facies metamorphism accompanied by it in the region. The early Paleozoic (Pan African) thermal event of the region may be related to the final formation of the East Antarctica craton, even of Gondwanaland.

  14. Mapping the East African Ionosphere Using Ground-based GPS TEC Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mengist, Chalachew Kindie; Kim, Yong Ha; Yeshita, Baylie Damtie; Workayehu, Abyiot Bires

    2016-03-01

    The East African ionosphere (3°S-18°N, 32°E-50°E) was mapped using Total Electron Content (TEC) measurements from ground-based GPS receivers situated at Asmara, Mekelle, Bahir Dar, Robe, Arbaminch, and Nairobi. Assuming a thin shell ionosphere at 350 km altitude, we project the Ionospheric Pierce Point (IPP) of a slant TEC measurement with an elevation angle of >10° to its corresponding location on the map. We then infer the estimated values at any point of interest from the vertical TEC values at the projected locations by means of interpolation. The total number of projected IPPs is in the range of 24-66 at any one time. Since the distribution of the projected IPPs is irregularly spaced, we have used an inverse distance weighted interpolation method to obtain a spatial grid resolution of 1°×1° latitude and longitude, respectively. The TEC maps were generated for the year 2008, with a 2 hr temporal resolution. We note that TEC varies diurnally, with a peak in the late afternoon (at 1700 LT), due to the equatorial ionospheric anomaly. We have observed higher TEC values at low latitudes in both hemispheres compared to the magnetic equatorial region, capturing the ionospheric distribution of the equatorial anomaly. We have also confirmed the equatorial seasonal variation in the ionosphere, characterized by minimum TEC values during the solstices and maximum values during the equinoxes. We evaluate the reliability of the map, demonstrating a mean error (difference between the measured and interpolated values) range of 0.04-0.2 TECU (Total Electron Content Unit). As more measured TEC values become available in this region, the TEC map will be more reliable, thereby allowing us to study in detail the equatorial ionosphere of the African sector, where ionospheric measurements are currently very few.

  15. Malaria in east African highlands during the past 30 years: impact of environmental changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yousif El - Safi Himeidan

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available East African highlands are one of the most populated regions in Africa. The population densities in the highlands ranged between 158 persons/km2 in Ethiopia to 410 persons/km2 in Rwanda. According to the United Nations Population Fund, the region has the world's highest population growth rate. These factors are likely behind the high rates of poverty among the populations. As there were no employment opportunities other than agricultural, this demographic pressure of poor populations have included in an extensive unprecedented land use and land cover changes such as modification of bushland, woodland, and grassland on hillsides to farmland and transformation of papyrus swamps in valley bottoms to dairy pastures and cropland and changing of fallows on hillsides from short or seasonal to longer or perennial. Areas harvested for food crops were therefore increased by more than 100% in most of the highlands. The lost of forest areas, mainly due to subsistence agriculture, between 1990 - 2010 ranged between 8000 ha in Rwanda to 2838000 ha in Ethiopia. These unmitigated environmental changes in the highlands led to rise temperature and optimizing the spread and survival of malaria vectors and development of malaria parasites. Malaria in highlands was initially governed by low ambient temperature, trend of malaria transmission was therefore increased and several epidemics were observed in late 1980s and early 2000s. Although, malaria is decreasing through intensified interventions since mid 2000s onwards, these environmental changes might expose population in the highlands of east Africa to an increase risk of malaria and its epidemic particularly if the current interventions are not sustained.

  16. Global AIDS medicines in East African health institutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Hardon; H. Dilger

    2011-01-01

    In this introduction to the special issue, we follow the journey of global AIDS medicines into diverse health facilities in East Africa, which for decades have been subjected to neoliberal reform processes and increasing fragmentation. The introduction explores the multifaceted and multidirectional

  17. Modern non-pollen palynomorphs from East African Lake sediments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gelorini, V.; Verbeken, A.; van Geel, B.; Cocquyt, C.; Verschuren, D.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents an illustrated guide to the identification of non-pollen palynomorphs (NPPs) preserved in lake-sediment archives from equatorial East Africa. Modern NPPs were recovered from recently deposited surface sediment in 20 small crater lakes in western Uganda, located along environmenta

  18. Two phases of the Holocene East African Humid Period: Inferred from a high-resolution geochemical record off Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiting; Rendle-Bühring, Rebecca; Kuhlmann, Holger; Li, Anchun

    2017-02-01

    During the Holocene, the most notably climatic change across the African continent is the African Humid Period (AHP), however the pace and primary forcing for this pluvial condition is still ambiguous, particularly in East Africa. We present a high-resolution marine sediment record off Tanzania to provide insights into the climatic conditions of inland East Africa during the Holocene. Major element ratios (i.e., log-ratios of Fe/Ca and Ti/Ca), derived from X-Ray Fluorescence scanning, have been employed to document variations in humidity in East Africa. Our results show that the AHP is represented by two humid phases: an intense humid period from the beginning of the Holocene to 8 ka (AHP I); and a moderate humid period spanning from 8 to 5.5 ka (AHP II). On the basis of our geochemical record and regime detection, the termination of the AHP initiated at 5.5 ka and ceased around 3.5 ka. Combined with other paleoclimatic records around East Africa, we suggest that the humid conditions in this region responded to Northern Hemisphere (NH) summer insolation. The AHP I and II might have been related to an eastward shift of the Congo Air Boundary and warmer conditions in the western Indian Ocean, which resulted in additional moisture being delivered from the Atlantic and Indian Oceans during the NH summer and autumn, respectively. We further note a drought event throughout East Africa north of 10°S around 8.2 ka, which may have been related to the southward migration of the Intertropical Convergence Zone in response to the NH cooling event.

  19. Predicting East African spring droughts using Pacific and Indian Ocean sea surface temperature indices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Funk

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In southern Ethiopia, Eastern Kenya, and southern Somalia, poor boreal spring rains in 1999, 2000, 2004, 2007, 2008, 2009, and 2011 contributed to severe food insecurity and high levels of malnutrition. Predicting rainfall deficits in this region on seasonal and decadal time frames can help decision makers implement disaster risk reduction measures while guiding climate-smart adaptation and agricultural development. Building on recent research that links more frequent droughts in that region to a stronger Walker Circulation, warming in the Indo-Pacific warm pool, and an increased western Pacific sea surface temperature (SST gradient, we show that the two dominant modes of East African boreal spring rainfall variability are tied, respectively, to western-central Pacific and central Indian Ocean SST. Variations in these rainfall modes can be predicted using two previously defined SST indices – the West Pacific Gradient (WPG and Central Indian Ocean index (CIO, with the WPG and CIO being used, respectively, to predict the first and second rainfall modes. These simple indices can be used in concert with more sophisticated coupled modeling systems and land surface data assimilations to help inform early warning and guide climate outlooks.

  20. From the Palaeozoic collapse of the East African-Antarctic Orogen to Gondwana rifting in NE Mozambique

    OpenAIRE

    Jacobs, J; Emmel, B.; Ueda, K.; Thomas, R J; Kosler, J.; Horstwood, M.; Jordan, F.; Kleinhanns, I.; Engvik, A.; B. Bingen; Daudi, E.X.

    2011-01-01

    The East African passive margin resulted from complex reactivation of the ca. 600–500 Ma East African-Antarctic Orogen (EAAO). With the help of a large set of new thermochronological data (U-Pb titanite, Ar-Ar hornblende and biotite, as well as zircon, titanite and apatite fission-track analyses) we have modelled the tectono-thermal history of NE Mozambique from the late (Lower Palaeozoic) stages of the East African-Antarctic Orogeny to its transformation into a passive margin in the Mesozoic.

  1. Regional view of a Trans-African Drainage System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Abdelkareem

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Despite the arid to hyperarid climate of the Great Sahara of North Africa, pluvial climates dominated the region. Radar data shed some light on the postulated Trans-African Drainage System and its relationship to active and inactive tributaries of the Nile basin. Interpretations of recent elevation data confirm a source of the river water from the Red Sea highlands did not connect the Atlantic Ocean across Tushka basin, highlands of Uwinate and Darfur, and Chad basin, but northward to the ancestral Nile Delta. Elements of topography and climate were considered. They show that the former segments of the Nile closely mirror present-day tributaries of the Nile basin in drainage geometry, landscape, and climate. A rainfall data interpolation scenario revealed that this basin received concurrent runoff from both flanks such as Gabgaba-Allaqi to the east and Tushka basin to the west, similar to present-day Sobat and White Nile tributaries, respectively. Overall the western tributaries such as those of Tushka basin and Howar lead to the Nile, which was (and still is the biggest river system in Africa.

  2. Pan-African granulites of central Dronning Maud Land and Mozambique: A comparison within the East-African-Antarctic orogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engvik, A.K.; Elevevold, S.; Jacobs, J.; Tveten, E.; de Azevedo, S.; Njange, F.

    2007-01-01

    Granulite-facies metamorphism is extensively reported in Late Neoproterozoic/Early Palaeozoic time during formation of the East-African-Antarctic orogen (EAAO). Metamorphic data acquired from the Pan-African orogen of central Dronning Maud Land (cDML) are compared with data from northern Mozambique. The metamorphic rocks of cDML are characterised by Opx±Grt-bearing gneisses and Sil+Kfs-bearing metapelites which indicate medium-P granulite-facies metamorphism. Peak conditions, which are estimated to 800-900ºC at pressures up to 1.0 GPa, were followed by near-isothermal decompression during late Pan-African extension and exhumation. Granulite-facies lithologies are widespread in northern Mozambique, and Grt+Cpx-bearing assemblages show that high-P granulite-facies conditions with PT reaching 1.55 GPa and 900ºC were reached during the Pan-African orogeny. Garnet is replaced by symplectites of Pl+Opx+Mag indicating isothermal decompression, and the subsequent formation of Pl+amphibole-coronas suggests cooling into amphibolite facies. It is concluded that high-T metamorphism was pervasive in EAAO in Late Neoproterozoic/Early Paleozoic time, strongly overprinting evidences of earlier metamorphic assemblages.

  3. Phylogeographic reconstruction of African yellow fever virus isolates indicates recent simultaneous dispersal into east and west Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Beck

    Full Text Available Yellow fever virus (YFV is a mosquito-borne flavivirus that is a major public health problem in tropical areas of Africa and South America. There have been detailed studies on YFV ecology in West Africa and South America, but current understanding of YFV circulation on the African continent is incomplete. This inadequacy is especially notable for East and Central Africa, for which the unpredictability of human outbreaks is compounded by limitations in both historical and present surveillance efforts. Sparse availability of nucleotide sequence data makes it difficult to investigate the dispersal of YFV in these regions of the continent. To remedy this, we constructed Bayesian phylogenetic and geographic analyses utilizing 49 partial genomic sequences to infer the structure of YFV divergence across the known range of the virus on the African continent. Relaxed clock analysis demonstrated evidence for simultaneous divergence of YFV into east and west lineages, a finding that differs from previous hypotheses of YFV dispersal from reservoirs located on edges of the endemic range. Using discrete and continuous geographic diffusion models, we provide detailed structure of YFV lineage diversity. Significant transition links between extant East and West African lineages are presented, implying connection between areas of known sylvatic cycling. The results of demographic modeling reinforce the existence of a stably maintained population of YFV with spillover events into human populations occurring periodically. Geographically distinct foci of circulation are reconstructed, which have significant implications for studies of YFV ecology and emergence of human disease. We propose further incorporation of Bayesian phylogeography into formal GIS analyses to augment studies of arboviral disease.

  4. Regional conflict formations: is the Middle East next?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leenders, R.

    2007-01-01

    As Iraq is plunging into civil war, politics and violence in the Middle East are increasingly perceived to be highly interconnected and entwined. This article offers an attempt to understand the nature and scope of this regional interconnectedness involving three of the region's states—Iraq, Syria

  5. Spatial vegetation patterns and neighborhood competition among woody plants in an East African savanna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dohn, Justin; Augustine, David J; Hanan, Niall P; Ratnam, Jayashree; Sankaran, Mahesh

    2017-02-01

    The majority of research on savanna vegetation dynamics has focused on the coexistence of woody and herbaceous vegetation. Interactions among woody plants in savannas are relatively poorly understood. We present data from a 10-yr longitudinal study of spatially explicit growth patterns of woody vegetation in an East African savanna following exclusion of large herbivores and in the absence of fire. We examined plant spatial patterns and quantified the degree of competition among woody individuals. Woody plants in this semiarid savanna exhibit strongly clumped spatial distributions at scales of 1-5 m. However, analysis of woody plant growth rates relative to their conspecific and heterospecific neighbors revealed evidence for strong competitive interactions at neighborhood scales of up to 5 m for most woody plant species. Thus, woody plants were aggregated in clumps despite significantly decreased growth rates in close proximity to neighbors, indicating that the spatial distribution of woody plants in this region depends on dispersal and establishment processes rather than on competitive, density-dependent mortality. However, our documentation of suppressive effects of woody plants on neighbors also suggests a potentially important role for tree-tree competition in controlling vegetation structure and indicates that the balanced-competition hypothesis may contribute to well-known patterns in maximum tree cover across rainfall gradients in Africa. © 2016 by the Ecological Society of America.

  6. South-East Iowa Groundwater Vulnerability Regions

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — The regions on this map represent areas with similar hydro- geologic characteristics thought to represent similar potentials for contamination of groundwater and/or...

  7. North-East Iowa Groundwater Vulnerability Regions

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — The regions on this map represent areas with similar hydro-geologic characteristics thought to represent similar potentials for contamination of groundwater and/or...

  8. The East Asian Regional Office of Astronomy for Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Grijs, Richard; Zhang, Ziping; He, Jinhua

    2016-10-01

    At the 2012 General Assembly of the International Astronomical Union (IAU), the Office of Astronomy for Development announced a number of exciting new partnerships to assist with the IAU's decadal strategic plan (2010-2020). These landmark decisions included establishing a new coordinating centre that aims at using astronomy as a tool for development in East Asia. The agreement covers two important functions. One is known as a Regional Node, which entails the coordination of astronomy-for-development activities in countries within the general geographical region of East Asia. The other is known as a Language Expertise Centre which deals with all aspects relating to (mainly) the Chinese language and culture. The impact of the latter may obviously spread well beyond the geographical region to other parts of the world. Here we provide an update of the achievements and aims of the East Asian Office of Astronomy for Development.

  9. East African lake evidence for Pliocene millennial-scale climate variability

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, Katy E.; Maslin, Mark A.; Leng, Melanie J.; Kingston, John D.; Deino, Alan L.; Edgar, Robert K.; Mackay, Anson W.

    2014-01-01

    Late Cenozoic climate history in Africa was punctuated by episodes of variability, characterized by the appearance and disappearance of large freshwater lakes within the East African Rift Valley. In the Baringo-Bogoria basin, a well-dated sequence of diatomites and fluviolacustrine sediments documents the precessionally forced cycling of an extensive lake system between 2.70 Ma and 2.55 Ma. One diatomite unit was studied, using the oxygen isotope composition of diatom silica combined with X-r...

  10. Comparative Analysis of Breast Cancer Phenotypes in African American, White American, and West Versus East African patients: Correlation Between African Ancestry and Triple-Negative Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiagge, Evelyn; Jibril, Aisha Souleiman; Chitale, Dhananjay; Bensenhaver, Jessica M; Awuah, Baffour; Hoenerhoff, Mark; Adjei, Ernest; Bekele, Mahteme; Abebe, Engida; Nathanson, S David; Gyan, Kofi; Salem, Barbara; Oppong, Joseph; Aitpillah, Francis; Kyei, Ishmael; Bonsu, Ernest Osei; Proctor, Erica; Merajver, Sofia D; Wicha, Max; Stark, Azadeh; Newman, Lisa A

    2016-11-01

    Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is more common among African American (AA) and western sub-Saharan African breast cancer (BC) patients compared with White/Caucasian Americans (WA) and Europeans. Little is known about TNBC in east Africa. Invasive BC diagnosed 1998-2014 were evaluated: WA and AA patients from the Henry Ford Health System in Detroit, Michigan; Ghanaian/west Africans from the Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital in Kumasi, Ghana; and Ethiopian/east Africans from the St. Paul's Hospital Millennium Medical College in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Histopathology and immunohistochemistry for estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), and HER2/neu expression was performed in Michigan on formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded samples from all cases. A total of 234 Ghanaian (mean age 49 years), 94 Ethiopian (mean age 43 years), 272 AA (mean age 60 years), and 321 WA (mean age 62 years; p = 0.001) patients were compared. ER-negative and TNBC were more common among Ghanaian and AA compared with WA and Ethiopian cases (frequency ER-negativity 71.1 and 37.1 % vs. 19.8 and 28.6 % respectively, p < 0.0001; frequency TNBC 53.2 and 29.8 % vs. 15.5 and 15.0 %, respectively, p < 0.0001). Among patients younger than 50 years, prevalence of TNBC remained highest among Ghanaians (50.8 %) and AA (34.3 %) compared with WA and Ethiopians (approximately 16 % in each; p = 0.0002). This study confirms an association between TNBC and West African ancestry; TNBC frequency among AA patients is intermediate between WA and Ghanaian/West Africans consistent with genetic admixture following the west Africa-based trans-Atlantic slave trade. TNBC frequency was low among Ethiopians/East Africans; this may reflect less shared ancestry between AA and Ethiopians.

  11. Stable isotope geochemistry of East African waters. [Abstract only

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sayer, M.D.; Cerling, T.E.; Bowman, J.R.

    1983-03-01

    Lakes and Rivers in East Africa have varied stable isotopic compositions. Lakes exhibit enriched delta13-C values (-2 to +5%), while their inflowing rivers show depleted values (-15 to -8%). Hot springs and standing pools of water have intermediate values. Some small lakes are extremely variable in delta18-0 or deltaD (+2 to +8% and +20 to +40%, respectively for Lake Naivasha), whereas larger lakes are relatively constant for long periods of time (+5.6 to 6.1 and +36 to 40, respectively for Lake Turkana). Isotopic values are unrelated to salinity for comparison between lakes. Stable isotopes also reveal the sources of hot spring discharges: the Kapedo hot springs probably originate from Maralel and not from Lake Baringo as local legend has it; the hot springs north of Lake Naivasha are of meteoric origin while those to the south of Lake Naivasha have similar isotopic compositions to Lake Naivasha.

  12. Size variation in Tachyoryctes splendens (East African mole-rat) and its implications for late Quaternary temperature change in equatorial East Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faith, J. Tyler; Patterson, David B.; Blegen, Nick; O'Neill, Chris J.; Marean, Curtis W.; Peppe, Daniel J.; Tryon, Christian A.

    2016-05-01

    This study develops a new proxy for Quaternary temperature change in tropical Africa through analysis of size variation in East African mole-rat (Tachyoryctes splendens). In modern mole-rats, mandibular alveolar length is unrelated to annual precipitation, precipitation seasonality, temperature seasonality, or primary productivity. However, it is inversely correlated with mean annual temperature, in agreement with Bergmann's rule. This relationship is observed at temperatures below ˜17.3 °C, but not at higher temperatures. We apply these observations to late Quaternary mole-rats from Wakondo (˜100 ka) and Kisaaka (˜50 ka) in the Lake Victoria region and Enkapune ya Muto (EYM; ˜7.2-3.2 ka) in Kenya's central rift. The Lake Victoria mole-rats are larger than expected for populations from warm climates typical of the area today, implying cooler temperatures in the past. The magnitude of temperature decline needed to drive the size shift is substantial (˜4-6 °C), similar in magnitude to the degree of change between the Last Glacial Maximum and Holocene, but is consistent with regional temperature records and with scenarios linking equatorial African temperature to northern hemisphere summer insolation. Size changes through time at EYM indicate that rising temperatures during the middle Holocene accompanied and potentially contributed to a decline in Lake Naivasha and expansion of grassland vegetation.

  13. Trends of ionospheric irregularities over African low latitude region during quiet geomagnetic conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mungufeni, Patrick; Habarulema, John Bosco; Jurua, Edward

    2016-02-01

    The occurrence patterns of ionospheric irregularities during quiet geomagnetic conditions over the African low latitude region were analysed. GNSS-derived Total Electron Content of the ionosphere data during the period 2001-2012 were used. The data were obtained from Libreville, Gabon (0.35°N, 9.68°E, geographic, 8.05°S, magnetic), Mbarara, Uganda (0.60°S, 30.74°E, geographic, 10.22°S, magnetic), and Malindi, Kenya (2.99°S, 40.19°E, geographic, 12.42°S, magnetic). The rate of change of total electron content index greater than 0.5 TECU/Min were considered as severe ionospheric irregularities. For most of the time, the strength of ionospheric irregularities in March equinox were greater than those during September equinox over East Africa and an opposite observation was made over West Africa. These asymmetries might be due to the direction of the meridional winds during equinoxes over the different stations. Severity of ionospheric irregularity reduced from west towards the east. This might have been related to the decreasing geomagnetic field strength from east towards the west. This is the first study that reveals the equinoctial asymmetry is different in the West and East African sectors. Moreover, the importance of this study lies in the fact that it has used extensive data to examine the isolated and un-explained earlier observations of equinoctial asymmetry and longitudinal variation of ionospheric irregularities over the African low latitude region.

  14. Agricultural Trade and Economic Growth in East African Community

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Kazungu

    International Financial Statistics and World Development Indicators for the period 2000 – ..... included UNCOMTRADE online database, International Financial Statistics (IFS) CD-ROM, ..... Regional Trade Agreements and U.S. Agriculture.

  15. Present Condition, Problems and Prospects of East Asian Regional Cooperation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    AnYuejun; SongZhengben

    2004-01-01

    In recent years, with the speeding-up of economic globalization and regional integration, countries in East Asia, taking into consideration economic returns and national security, have actively conducted multilateral dialogue and cooperation in such areas as politics, economy and security in a pragmatic manner.

  16. Miocene Onset of Extension in the Turkana Depression, Kenya: Implications for the Geodynamic Evolution of the East African Rift System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boone, S.; Gleadow, A. J. W.; Kohn, B. P.; Seiler, C.

    2015-12-01

    The Paleogene-Recent East African Rift System (EARS) is the foremost modern example of continental rifting, providing much of our understanding of the early stages of continental breakup. The EARS traverses two regions of crustal uplift, the Ethiopian and East African Domes, separated by the Turkana Depression. This wide region of subdued topography coincides with the NW-SE trend of the Jurassic-Paleogene Anza Rift. Opinions on the fundamental geodynamic driver for EARS rifting are divided, however, principally between models involving migrating plume(s) and a single elongated 'superplume'. While competing models have similar topographic outcomes, they predict different morphotectonic evolutions for the Turkana Depression. Models inferring southward plume-migration imply that the plume must have passed below the Turkana Depression during the Paleogene, in order to have migrated to the East African Dome by the Miocene. The possible temporal denudational response to such plume activity is testable using low temperature thermochronology. We present apatite fission track (AFT) and (U-Th)/He (AHe), and zircon (U-Th)/He (ZHe) data from the Lapurr Range, an uplifted Precambrian basement block in northern Turkana. Low radiation damage ZHe results displaying an age range of ~70-210 Ma, and combined with stratigraphic evidence, suggest ~4-6 km of Jurassic-Early Cretaceous denudation, probably associated with early Anza Rift tectonism. AFT ages of ~9-15 Ma imply subsequent burial beneath no more than ~4 km of overburden, thus preserving the Jurassic-Cretaceous ZHe ages. Together with AFT results, AHe data (~3-19 Ma) support ~2-4 km of Miocene-Pliocene uplift of the Lapurr Range in the footwall of the E-dipping Lapurr normal fault. Miocene AFT and AHe ages are interpreted to reflect the initiation of the EARS in the Turkana Depression. If extension is associated with plume activity, then upwelling in the Turkana region is unlikely to have started prior to the Miocene, much

  17. East Asian Studies of Tropospheric Aerosols and their Impact on Regional Climate (EAST -AIRC): An overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhangqing, Li; Li, C.; Chen, H.; Tsay, S.-C.; Holben, B.; Huang, J.; Li, B.; Maring, H.; Qian, Y.; Shi, G.; Xia, X.; Yin, Y.; Zheng, Y.; Zhuang, G.

    2011-01-01

    As the most populated region of the world, Asia is a major source of aerosols with potential large impact over vast downstream areas, Papers published in this special section describe the variety of aerosols observed in China and their effects and interactions with the regional climate as part of the East Asian Study of Tropospheric Aerosols and their Impact on Regional Climate (EAST-AIRC), The majority of the papers are based on analyses of observations made under three field projects, namely, the Atmospheric Radiation Measurements (ARM) Mobile Facility mission in China (AMF-China), the East Asian Study of Tropospheric Aerosols: An International Regional Experiment (EAST-AIRE), and the Atmospheric Aerosols of China and their Climate Effects (AACCE), The former two are U,S,-China collaborative projects, and the latter is a part of the China's National Basic Research program (or often referred to as "973 project"), Routine meteorological data of China are also employed in some studies, The wealth of general and speCIalized measurements lead to extensive and close-up investigations of the optical, physical, and chemical properties of anthropogenic, natural, and mixed aerosols; their sources, formation, and transport mechanisms; horizontal, vertical, and temporal variations; direct and indirect effects; and interactions with the East Asian monsoon system, Particular efforts are made to advance our understanding of the mixing and interaction between dust and anthropogenic pollutants during transport. Several modeling studies were carried out to simulate aerosol impact on radiation budget, temperature, precipitation, wind and atmospheric circulation, fog, etc, In addition, impacts of the Asian monsoon system on aerosol loading are also simulated.

  18. Bioinformatics analysis of bacterial pathogens from East African camels

    OpenAIRE

    Zubair, Saima

    2015-01-01

    The camel is the most valuable livestock species in arid and semi-arid regions in the Greater Horn of Africa. Streptococcus agalactiae and Staphylococcus aureus are important pathogens for a wide range of hosts including camels, cattle and humans. Streptococcus agalactiae has been reported to cause infections of the skin, the respiratory tract, the mammary gland and the vaginal tract in camels. Staphylococcus aureus has been isolated from the nasal cavity, wound infections and mastitis from c...

  19. Frequency of agenesis Palmaris longus through clinical examination--an East African study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James W M Kigera

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The Palmaris longus, one of the most variable muscles in the body both flexes the wrist and tenses the palmar fascia. It is used by surgeons as a source of tendon graft and racial differences in its variation have been documented. We sought to determine the frequency of the absence of the Palmaris longus in an East African population. METHODS: A prospective study was conducted using ten common clinical tests among patients and students in a large teaching hospital in East Africa to determine the presence of a Palmaris longus. RESULTS: The overall rate of absence was 4.4% with unilateral absence at 3.3% and bilateral absence at 1.1%. The overall difference between males and females was not statistically significant (p = 0.605. Participants were more likely to have absence in their non dominant hand. DISCUSSION: Our findings though in contrast to many studies worldwide, it concurs with most studies done in the African setting. These differences may be due to the higher levels of manual labour and the more use of the right hand in these activities. The frequency of the absence of Palmaris longus in East Africa has been determined. Surgeons should acquaint themselves with prevalence in their areas of practice.

  20. Frequency of Agenesis Palmaris Longus through Clinical Examination - An East African Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kigera, James W. M.; Mukwaya, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    Introduction The Palmaris longus, one of the most variable muscles in the body both flexes the wrist and tenses the palmar fascia. It is used by surgeons as a source of tendon graft and racial differences in its variation have been documented. We sought to determine the frequency of the absence of the Palmaris longus in an East African population. Methods A prospective study was conducted using ten common clinical tests among patients and students in a large teaching hospital in East Africa to determine the presence of a Palmaris longus. Results The overall rate of absence was 4.4% with unilateral absence at 3.3% and bilateral absence at 1.1%. The overall difference between males and females was not statistically significant (p = 0.605). Participants were more likely to have absence in their non dominant hand. Discussion Our findings though in contrast to many studies worldwide, it concurs with most studies done in the African setting. These differences may be due to the higher levels of manual labour and the more use of the right hand in these activities. The frequency of the absence of Palmaris longus in East Africa has been determined. Surgeons should acquaint themselves with prevalence in their areas of practice. PMID:22174943

  1. Frequency of agenesis Palmaris longus through clinical examination--an East African study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kigera, James W M; Mukwaya, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    The Palmaris longus, one of the most variable muscles in the body both flexes the wrist and tenses the palmar fascia. It is used by surgeons as a source of tendon graft and racial differences in its variation have been documented. We sought to determine the frequency of the absence of the Palmaris longus in an East African population. A prospective study was conducted using ten common clinical tests among patients and students in a large teaching hospital in East Africa to determine the presence of a Palmaris longus. The overall rate of absence was 4.4% with unilateral absence at 3.3% and bilateral absence at 1.1%. The overall difference between males and females was not statistically significant (p = 0.605). Participants were more likely to have absence in their non dominant hand. Our findings though in contrast to many studies worldwide, it concurs with most studies done in the African setting. These differences may be due to the higher levels of manual labour and the more use of the right hand in these activities. The frequency of the absence of Palmaris longus in East Africa has been determined. Surgeons should acquaint themselves with prevalence in their areas of practice.

  2. Evolution of the East African rift: Drip magmatism, lithospheric thinning and mafic volcanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furman, Tanya; Nelson, Wendy R.; Elkins-Tanton, Linda T.

    2016-07-01

    The origin of the Ethiopian-Yemeni Oligocene flood basalt province is widely interpreted as representing mafic volcanism associated with the Afar mantle plume head, with minor contributions from the lithospheric mantle. We reinterpret the geochemical compositions of primitive Oligocene basalts and picrites as requiring a far more significant contribution from the metasomatized subcontinental lithospheric mantle than has been recognized previously. This region displays the fingerprints of mantle plume and lithospheric drip magmatism as predicted from numerical models. Metasomatized mantle lithosphere is not dynamically stable, and heating above the upwelling Afar plume caused metasomatized lithosphere with a significant pyroxenite component to drip into the asthenosphere and melt. This process generated the HT2 lavas observed today in restricted portions of Ethiopia and Yemen now separated by the Red Sea, suggesting a fundamental link between drip magmatism and the onset of rifting. Coeval HT1 and LT lavas, in contrast, were not generated by drip melting but instead originated from shallower, dominantly anhydrous peridotite. Looking more broadly across the East African Rift System in time and space, geochemical data support small volume volcanic events in Turkana (N. Kenya), Chyulu Hills (S. Kenya) and the Virunga province (Western Rift) to be derived ultimately from drip melting. The removal of the gravitationally unstable, metasomatized portion of the subcontinental lithospheric mantle via dripping is correlated in each case with periods of rapid uplift. The combined influence of thermo-mechanically thinned lithosphere and the Afar plume together thus controlled the locus of continental rift initiation between Africa and Arabia and provide dynamic support for the Ethiopian plateau.

  3. Regionalism in East Asia: The Role of North East Asian Nations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fithra F. Hastiadi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: For the past few years, regionalism has been progressing in East Asia with the likes of China, Japan and Korea (CJK as the most prominent actors. Unfortunately, with the absence of trade arrangement amongst the CJK, the present regional trade scheme is not sufficient to reach sustainability. Thus, the study aims to give the solution to the problem. This study found the inefficient trade scheme through Engle-Granger Cointegration and Error Correction Mechanism. Two Stage Least Squares in a static panel fixed effect model were also employed to proof the spill-over effect. Conclusion/Recommendations: The study underlines the importance of triangular trade agreement for accelerating the phase of growth in CJK which eventually created a spillover effect to East Asia as a whole. Moreover, the study argued that the spillover effect would function as an impetus for creating region-wide FTA. Furthermore, the study also identified a number of economic and political factors that can support the formation of East Asian Regionalism.

  4. Mapping Irrigation Potential in the Upper East Region of Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akomeah, E.; Odai, S. N.; Annor, F. O.; Adjei, K. A.; Barry, B.

    2009-04-01

    The Upper East Region together with the other two regions in Northern Ghana (Upper West and Northern Region) is seen as the locus of perennial food deficit (GPRS, 2003). Despite, the provision of over 200 small scale dams and various mechanisms aimed at poverty alleviation, the region is still plagued with poverty and yearly food shortages. To achieve food security and alleviate poverty in the region however, modernization of agriculture through irrigation is deemed inevitable. While it is true that considerable potential still exists for future expansion of irrigation, it cannot be refuted that water is becoming scarcer in the regions where the need for irrigation is most important, hence mapping the irrigation potential of the region will be the first step toward ensuring sound planning and sustainability of the irrigation developments. In this study, an attempt has been made to map out the irrigation potential of the Upper East Region. The river basin approach was used in assessing the irrigation potential. The catchments drained by The White Volta river, Red volta river, River Sissili and River Kulpawn were considered in the assessment. The irrigation potential for the sub basins was computed by combining information on gross irrigation water requirements for the selected cash crops, area of soil suitable for irrigation and available water resources. The capacity of 80%, 70%, 60% and 50% time of exceedance flow of the available surface water resources in the respective sub basins was estimated. The area that can be irrigated with this flow was computed with selected cropping pattern. Combining the results of the potential irrigable areas and the land use map of the respective sub basins, an irrigation potential map has been generated showing potential sites in the upper east region that can be brought under irrigation. Keywords: Irrigation potential, irrigation water requirement, land evaluation, dependable flow

  5. Regional economic integration in Great East Asia: determinants and barriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volodymyr Korol

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The article studies both general trends and peculiar characteristics of processes of economic integration in the Great East Asia, which plays the role of one of the major centers of contemporary global development. The basic determinants and barriers for implementation of regional strategies by China, Japan, ASEAN that will influence the geo-economic policy of Ukraine not only in East Asian, but also European and Eurasian areas. Attention is focused on the basic principles of realized and potential future integration models in the "ASEAN+" format with variable composition of member states that correspond to different extents to strategic objectives of both specified key actors in the region and extra-regional states that have global and transnational interests. Extrapolation of dominant trends in the nature and dynamics of transformation processes of East Asian economic regionalization allowed forming a forecast for the longterm conservation of importance of free trade agreements in the absence of preconditions to create customs unions. At the same time it was stressed out that proper assurance of national interests of international economic relations will be based on contractual instruments at the international level, without creating institutional and legal superstructure similar to the European Union or the Eurasian Economic Union as supranational law and supranational bodies.

  6. Domestic Preparedness for Trade in Services Liberalization: Are East African Countries prepared for Further Trade Liberalization?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BAGUMHE, Elias Peter

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Services are the fastest growing sectors in the global economy. Over the past decades East African countries have witnessed even faster growing rates of the share of trade services in their GDPs. The total services export of EAC countries increased from USD 1868 mills in 1995 to USD 5681 mills in 2008 (WDI 2010 which is approximately three times increase compared to 1995. Along with this growth, liberalization of services trade is becoming a critical economic agenda of these economies. EAC countries have also made unilateral liberalizations in a number of services sectors since the mid 1980’s. On top of that EAC countries have also made commitment to liberalize service trade at the multilateral level. Furthermore a significant commitment of their services sectors has been made under the East African Integration Process beginning from first July 2010. This paper argues that although the importance of services as a share of overall GDP, increase with growth on FDI and employment. Its growth can be driven by number of factors, such as final demand factors and basic structural changes in production, linked to development. Weak domestic preparedness before opening up is likely to be associated with unsatisfactory and undesirable outcomes of services trade liberalization. This paper tries to expound issues that are essential on domestic preparedness for service trade liberalization and analyses the associated concerns. The purpose of this paper is not to provide answers but to shed some light on how services Trade liberalization is currently operationalized in the East African countries, in particular, that is, to open up the “black box”, and indicate the operational design elements around which variance is the highest.

  7. Mosaic maternal ancestry in the Great Lakes region of East Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Verónica; Pala, Maria; Salas, Antonio; Álvarez-Iglesias, Vanesa; Amorim, António; Gómez-Carballa, Alberto; Carracedo, Ángel; Clarke, Douglas J; Hill, Catherine; Mormina, Maru; Shaw, Marie-Anne; Dunne, David W; Pereira, Rui; Pereira, Vânia; Prata, Maria João; Sánchez-Diz, Paula; Rito, Teresa; Soares, Pedro; Gusmão, Leonor; Richards, Martin B

    2015-09-01

    The Great Lakes lie within a region of East Africa with very high human genetic diversity, home of many ethno-linguistic groups usually assumed to be the product of a small number of major dispersals. However, our knowledge of these dispersals relies primarily on the inferences of historical, linguistics and oral traditions, with attempts to match up the archaeological evidence where possible. This is an obvious area to which archaeogenetics can contribute, yet Uganda, at the heart of these developments, has not been studied for mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variation. Here, we compare mtDNA lineages at this putative genetic crossroads across 409 representatives of the major language groups: Bantu speakers and Eastern and Western Nilotic speakers. We show that Uganda harbours one of the highest mtDNA diversities within and between linguistic groups, with the various groups significantly differentiated from each other. Despite an inferred linguistic origin in South Sudan, the data from the two Nilotic-speaking groups point to a much more complex history, involving not only possible dispersals from Sudan and the Horn but also large-scale assimilation of autochthonous lineages within East Africa and even Uganda itself. The Eastern Nilotic group also carries signals characteristic of West-Central Africa, primarily due to Bantu influence, whereas a much stronger signal in the Western Nilotic group suggests direct West-Central African ancestry. Bantu speakers share lineages with both Nilotic groups, and also harbour East African lineages not found in Western Nilotic speakers, likely due to assimilating indigenous populations since arriving in the region ~3000 years ago.

  8. Types of variation in DNA-A among isolates of East African cassava mosaic virus from Kenya, Malawi and Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, X; Robinson, D J; Harrison, B D

    1998-11-01

    Complete nucleotide sequences of the DNA-A-like molecules of three East African cassava mosaic virus (EACMV) isolates from Kenya (-K, 2801 nt) and Malawi (-MH and -MK, both 2804 nt) were determined. These sequences were compared with that published for a Tanzanian isolate (-T, 2801 nt) and the partial sequence of a third Malawian isolate. Intergenic region sequences of all isolates, and deduced amino acid sequences of their AC1 (Rep) proteins, each formed a tightly related cluster that was distinct from the comparable components of other begomoviruses. Other complementary-sense genes (AC2, AC3, AC4) differed between EACMV isolates in a way consistent with the accumulation of point mutations. In contrast, virus-sense genes (CP, AV2) of isolates -MH and -MK differed (substantially for AV2) from those of other EACMV isolates but somewhat resembled those of tomato yellow leaf curl virus-Israel, suggesting they had been acquired by recombination with an unidentified begomovirus.

  9. TEC variations along an East Euro-African chain during 5th April 2010 geomagnetic storm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimeis, A.; Borries, C.; Amory-Mazaudier, C.; Fleury, R.; Mahrous, A. M.; Hassan, A. F.; Nawar, S.

    2015-05-01

    In this paper, we analyzed the variations of TEC along a latitudinal East Euro-African chain, during the storm of April 5, 2010. We observed a large asymmetry between the two hemispheres. We detected the presence of a TID in the Northern hemisphere on April 5. The propagation time of the TID from high to low latitudes and the speed of the TID was determined. On April 5, 6 and 7, we observed a decrease of the TEC and changes of the NO+ in the Northern hemisphere. This depletion is caused by the large-scale thermospheric wind disturbances due to Joule heating dissipation in the auroral zone.

  10. The influence of African air pollution on regional and global tropospheric ozone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Aghedo

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the influence of African biomass burning, biogenic, lightning and anthropogenic emissions on the tropospheric ozone over Africa and globally using a coupled global chemistry climate model. Our model studies indicate that surface ozone concentration may rise by up to 50 ppbv in the burning region during the biomass burning seasons. Biogenic emissions yield between 5–30 ppbv increase in the near surface ozone concentration over tropical Africa. The impact of lightning on surface ozone is negligible, while anthropogenic emissions yield a maximum of 7 ppbv increase in the annual-mean surface ozone concentration over Nigeria, South Africa and Egypt. Our results show that biogenic emissions are the most important African emission source affecting total tropospheric ozone. The influence of each of the African emissions on the global tropospheric ozone burden (TOB of 384 Tg yields about 9.5 Tg, 19.6 Tg, 9.0 Tg and 4.7 Tg for biomass burning, biogenic, lightning and anthropogenic emissions emitted in Africa respectively. The impact of each of these emission categories on African TOB of 33 Tg is 2.5 Tg, 4.1 Tg, 1.75 Tg and 0.89 Tg respectively, which together represents about 28% of the total TOB calculated over Africa. Our model calculations also suggest that more than 70% of the tropospheric ozone produced by each of the African emissions is found outside the continent, thus exerting a noticeable influence on a large part of the tropical troposphere. Apart from the Atlantic and Indian Ocean, Latin America experiences the largest impact of African emissions, followed by Oceania, the Middle East, Southeast and south-central Asia, northern North America (i.e. the United States and Canada, Europe and north-central Asia, for all the emission categories.

  11. Regional health governance: A suggested agenda for Southern African health diplomacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penfold, Erica Dale; Fourie, Pieter

    2015-12-01

    Regional organisations can effectively promote regional health diplomacy and governance through engagement with regional social policy. Regional bodies make decisions about health challenges in the region, for example, the Union of South American Nations (UNASUR) and the World Health Organisation South East Asia Regional Office (WHO-SEARO). The Southern African Development Community (SADC) has a limited health presence as a regional organisation and diplomatic partner in health governance. This article identifies how SADC facilitates and coordinates health policy, arguing that SADC has the potential to promote regional health diplomacy and governance through engagement with regional social policy. The article identifies the role of global health diplomacy and niche diplomacy in health governance. The role of SADC as a regional organisation and the way it functions is then explained, focusing on how SADC engages with health issues in the region. Recommendations are made as to how SADC can play a more decisive role as a regional organisation to implement South-South management of the regional social policy, health governance and health diplomacy agenda.

  12. Post-collisional magmatism in the central East African Orogen: The Maevarano Suite of north Madagascar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodenough, K.M.; Thomas, Ronald J.; De Waele, B.; Key, R.M.; Schofield, D.I.; Bauer, W.; Tucker, R.D.; Rafahatelo, J.-M.; Rabarimanana, M.; Ralison, A.V.; Randriamananjara, T.

    2010-01-01

    Late tectonic, post-collisional granite suites are a feature of many parts of the Late Neoproterozoic to Cambrian East African Orogen (EAO), where they are generally attributed to late extensional collapse of the orogen, accompanied by high heat flow and asthenospheric uprise. The Maevarano Suite comprises voluminous plutons which were emplaced in some of the tectonostratigraphic terranes of northern Madagascar, in the central part of the EAO, following collision and assembly during a major orogeny at ca. 550 Ma. The suite comprises three main magmatic phases: a minor early phase of foliated gabbros, quartz diorites, and granodiorites; a main phase of large batholiths of porphyritic granitoids and charnockites; and a late phase of small-scale plutons and sheets of monzonite, syenite, leucogranite and microgranite. The main phase intrusions tend to be massive, but with variably foliated margins. New U-Pb SHRIMP zircon data show that the whole suite was emplaced between ca. 537 and 522 Ma. Geochemically, all the rocks of the suite are enriched in the LILE, especially K, and the LREE, but are relatively depleted in Nb, Ta and the HREE. These characteristics are typical of post-collisional granitoids in the EAO and many other orogenic belts. It is proposed that the Maevarano Suite magmas were derived by melting of sub-continental lithospheric mantle that had been enriched in the LILE during earlier subduction events. The melting occurred during lithospheric delamination, which was associated with extensional collapse of the East African Orogen. ?? 2009 Natural Environment Research Council.

  13. Phylogenetic relationships among East African haplochromine fish as revealed by short interspersed elements (SINEs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terai, Yohey; Takezaki, Naoko; Mayer, Werner E; Tichy, Herbert; Takahata, Naoyuki; Klein, Jan; Okada, Norihiro

    2004-01-01

    Genomic DNA libraries were prepared from two endemic species of Lake Victoria haplochromine (cichlid) fish and used to isolate and characterize a set of short interspersed elements (SINEs). The distribution and sequences of the SINEs were used to infer phylogenetic relationships among East African haplochromines. The SINE-based classification divides the fish into four groups, which, in order of their divergence from a stem lineage, are the endemic Lake Tanganyika flock (group 1); fish of the nonendemic, monotypic, widely distributed genus Astatoreochromis (group 2); the endemic Lake Malawi flock (group 3); and group 4, which contains fish from widely dispersed East African localities including Lakes Victoria, Edward, George, Albert, and Rukwa, as well as many rivers. The group 4 haplochromines are characterized by a subset of polymorphic SINEs, each of which is present in some individuals and absent in others of the same population at a given locality, the same morphologically defined species, and the same mtDNA-defined haplogroup. SINE-defined group 4 contains six of the seven previously described mtDNA haplogroups. One of the polymorphic SINEs appears to be fixed in the endemic Lake Victoria flock; four others display the presence-or-absence polymorphism within the species of this flock. These findings have implications for the origin of Lake Victoria cichlids and for their founding population sizes.

  14. Evarcha culicivora chooses blood-fed Anopheles mosquitoes but other East African jumping spiders do not.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, R R; Nelson, X J

    2012-06-01

    Previous research using computer animation and lures made from dead prey has demonstrated that the East African salticid Evarcha culicivora Wesolowska & Jackson (Araneae: Salticidae) feeds indirectly on vertebrate blood by actively choosing blood-carrying female mosquitoes as prey, and also that it singles out mosquitoes of the genus Anopheles (Diptera: Culicidae) by preference. Here, we demonstrate that E. culicivora's preference is expressed when the species is tested with living prey and that it is unique to E. culicivora. As an alternative hypothesis, we considered the possibility that the preference for blood-fed female anopheline mosquitoes might be widespread in East African salticids. When live-prey choice tests were carried out in 19 additional species, there were no instances in which blood-carrying mosquitoes were chosen significantly more often than other prey. Combined with the findings of previous work, these results suggest that it is possible that specialized predators play a role in the biological control of disease vectors. © 2011 The Authors. Medical and Veterinary Entomology © 2011 The Royal Entomological Society.

  15. Field Plot Techniques for Black Sigatoka Evaluation in East African Highland Bananas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okoro, JU.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Number of plants per experimental unit and number of replications for the efficient and precise assessment of black sigatoka leaf spot disease caused by Mycosphaerella fijiensis in East African Highland bananas were determined. Two representative cultivars were used. Host response to black sigatoka infection was measured by recording the youngest leaf with necrotic spots. The number of plants per experimental unit was determined, using the methods of maximum curvature and comparison of variances, while the number of replications was estimated by Hatheway's method. The optimum experimental plot size was 3 plants (18 m2 for the beer banana cultivar 'Igitsiri', and 30 plants (180 m2 for the cooking banana cultivar 'Igisahira Gisanzwe', using the comparison of variances method. However, the optimum plot size was 15 plants (90 m2 for both cultivars using the method of maximum curvature. The latter statistical method was preferred because of the low precision of the estimates in the former method. Unreplicated trials with plots of 15 plants could be adequate to assess black sigatoka response in East African bananas if uniform disease pressure exists.

  16. Seismic hazard of the Kivu rift (western branch, East African Rift system): new neotectonic map and seismotectonic zonation model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delvaux, Damien; Mulumba, Jean-Luc; Sebagenzi Mwene Ntabwoba, Stanislas; Fiama Bondo, Silvanos; Kervyn, François; Havenith, Hans-Balder

    2017-04-01

    The first detailed probabilistic seismic hazard assessment has been performed for the Kivu and northern Tanganyika rift region in Central Africa. This region, which forms the central part of the Western Rift Branch, is one of the most seismically active part of the East African rift system. It was already integrated in large scale seismic hazard assessments, but here we defined a finer zonation model with 7 different zones representing the lateral variation of the geological and geophysical setting across the region. In order to build the new zonation model, we compiled homogeneous cross-border geological, neotectonic and sismotectonic maps over the central part of East D.R. Congo, SW Uganda, Rwanda, Burundi and NW Tanzania and defined a new neotectonic sheme. The seismic risk assessment is based on a new earthquake catalogue, compiled on the basis of various local and global earthquake catalogues. The use of macroseismic epicenters determined from felt earthquakes allowed to extend the time-range back to the beginning of the 20th century, spanning 126 years, with 1068 events. The magnitudes have been homogenized to Mw and aftershocks removed. From this initial catalogue, a catalogue of 359 events from 1956 to 2015 and with M > 4.4 has been extracted for the seismic hazard assessment. The seismotectonic zonation includes 7 seismic source areas that have been defined on the basis of the regional geological structure, neotectonic fault systems, basin architecture and distribution of thermal springs and earthquake epicenters. The Gutenberg-Richter seismic hazard parameters were determined using both the least square linear fit and the maximum likelihood method (Kijko & Smit aue program). Seismic hazard maps have been computed with the Crisis 2012 software using 3 different attenuation laws. We obtained higher PGA values (475 years return period) for the Kivu rift region than the previous estimates (Delvaux et al., 2016). They vary laterally in function of the tectonic

  17. Comparisons of coat protein gene sequences show that East African isolates of Sweet potato feathery mottle virus form a genetically distinct group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreuze, J F; Karyeija, R F; Gibson, R W; Valkonen, J P

    2000-01-01

    Sweet potato feathery mottle virus (SPFMV, genus Potyvirus) infects sweet potatoes (Ipomoea batatas) worldwide, but no sequence data on isolates from Africa are available. Coat protein (CP) gene sequences from eight East African isolates from Madagascar and different districts of Uganda (the second biggest sweet potato producer in the world) and two West African isolates from Nigeria and Niger were determined. They were compared by phylogenetic analysis with the previously reported sequences of ten SPFMV isolates from other continents. The East African SPFMV isolates formed a distinct cluster, whereas the other isolates were not clustered according to geographic origin. These data indicate that East African isolates of SPFMV form a genetically unique group.

  18. Gene-centric meta-analysis of lipid traits in African, East Asian and Hispanic populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara C Elbers

    Full Text Available Meta-analyses of European populations has successfully identified genetic variants in over 100 loci associated with lipid levels, but our knowledge in other ethnicities remains limited. To address this, we performed dense genotyping of ∼2,000 candidate genes in 7,657 African Americans, 1,315 Hispanics and 841 East Asians, using the IBC array, a custom ∼50,000 SNP genotyping array. Meta-analyses confirmed 16 lipid loci previously established in European populations at genome-wide significance level, and found multiple independent association signals within these lipid loci. Initial discovery and in silico follow-up in 7,000 additional African American samples, confirmed two novel loci: rs5030359 within ICAM1 is associated with total cholesterol (TC and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C (p = 8.8×10(-7 and p = 1.5×10(-6 respectively and a nonsense mutation rs3211938 within CD36 is associated with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C levels (p = 13.5×10(-12. The rs3211938-G allele, which is nearly absent in European and Asian populations, has been previously found to be associated with CD36 deficiency and shows a signature of selection in Africans and African Americans. Finally, we have evaluated the effect of SNPs established in European populations on lipid levels in multi-ethnic populations and show that most known lipid association signals span across ethnicities. However, differences between populations, especially differences in allele frequency, can be leveraged to identify novel signals, as shown by the discovery of ICAM1 and CD36 in the current report.

  19. Epidemic malaria and warmer temperatures in recent decades in an East African highland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alonso, David; Bouma, Menno J.; Pascual, Mercedes

    2011-01-01

    Climate change impacts on malaria are typically assessed with scenarios for the long-term future. Here we focus instead on the recent past (1970-2003) to address whether warmer temperatures have already increased the incidence of malaria in a highland region of East Africa. Our analyses rely on a

  20. Chemical characterisation of african dust transported to Canary Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelado, M. D.; López, P.; Prieto, S.; Collado, C.; Hernández, J. J.

    2009-04-01

    African dust pulses have important effects on the climate conditions and the marine biogeochemistry in the Canary Region. Aerosol samples have been collected at three stations on Gran Canaria Island (Taliarte at sea level, Tafira 269 m a.s.l. and Pico de la Gorra 1930 m a.s.l.) during 2000-2008. Elemental characterisation of the collected mineral aerosol and back trajectories of the air masses are used to distinguish regional African sources of dust. Dust aerosol samples from North Sahara (Morocco, North Algeria and Tunisia), West and Central Sahara (20°-30°N, 18°W-50°E) and Sahel (0°-20°N, 18°W-50°E) have shown different Ca/Ti, Al/Ti and Fe/Al ratios. Ti appears as a better tracer element of specific source of dust than Fe, probably due to a less mineral alteration during the atmospheric transport.

  1. Differential decay of the East-African Antarctic Orogen : an integrated examination of Northeastern Mozambique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, K.; Jacobs, J.; Emmel, B.; Thomas, R. J.; Matola, R.

    2009-04-01

    In Northeastern Mozambique, the late Proterozoic - early Paleozoic East African-Antarctic Orogen can be subdivided into two major blocks that exhibit some relevant differences. The line of divide is represented by the Lurio Belt, a kinematically poorly constrained shear zone that also marks the conceptual northern limit of frequent late-tectonic granitoid intrusions. Moreover, far-travelled granulite-facies nappes cover a much larger area north of this belt (Viola et. al, 2008), giving rise to the assumption of different exhumation and present exposure levels. U/Pb data from previous surveys (e.g., Norconsult consortium, 2007) show coeval high-grade metamorphism in the whole region between c. 610 - 550 Ma, while the block south of the Lurio Belt also shows continuing metamorphism until c. 490 Ma that can be related to extension. Geothermobarometry for samples from within the Lurio Belt (Engvik et. al, 2007) indicates rapid exhumation after high-pressure granulite facies metamorphism and is consistant with the assumption of long tectonic activity. A possible model for the outlined pattern is the delamination of the orogenic root only in the southern part, followed by rapid mechanical thinning as well as by isostatic accommodation along the Lurio Belt. A valuable marker was identified in the metasedimentary Mecuburi group that overlies the southern basement. U/Pb analysis of detrital zircons have yielded a maximum deposition age of c. 600 Ma, while metamorphism is recorded until c. 505 Ma. Investigations of the relationship between metasediments and older basement show that the basal contact is a fairly preserved depositional contact, allowing to suppose a conjoint post-depositional evolution. It is notable that the timing of deposition shortly follows the onset of the main, widespread high-grade metamorphism. Relatively high but variable degrees of migmatisation in the Mecuburi Group require a phase of burial from surface to deep levels after 600 Ma, followed by

  2. Trade policy and regionalism in the Central African Republic

    OpenAIRE

    Walkenhorst, Peter

    2006-01-01

    This paper reviews the trade policy situation in the Central African Republic (CAR) and identifies a number of key issues and challenges for the country. The focus of the study is thereby on how trade taxes and quantitative restrictions affect the goods sector. The analysis falls into three parts. First, the state of domestic trade policy is described, with particular emphasis on the structure and economic effects of border policies. Then, CAR’s regional integration efforts are examined, ...

  3. Regional view of a Trans-African Drainage System

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamed Abdelkareem; Farouk El-Baz

    2014-01-01

    Despite the arid to hyperarid climate of the Great Sahara of North Africa, pluvial climates dominated the region. Radar data shed some light on the postulated Trans-African Drainage System and its relationship to active and inactive tributaries of the Nile basin. Interpretations of recent elevation data confirm a source of the river water from the Red Sea highlands did not connect the Atlantic Ocean across Tushka basin, highlands of Uwinate and Darfur, and Chad basin, but northward to the anc...

  4. Multiple origins and regional dispersal of resistant dhps in African Plasmodium falciparum malaria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard J Pearce

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Although the molecular basis of resistance to a number of common antimalarial drugs is well known, a geographic description of the emergence and dispersal of resistance mutations across Africa has not been attempted. To that end we have characterised the evolutionary origins of antifolate resistance mutations in the dihydropteroate synthase (dhps gene and mapped their contemporary distribution.We used microsatellite polymorphism flanking the dhps gene to determine which resistance alleles shared common ancestry and found five major lineages each of which had a unique geographical distribution. The extent to which allelic lineages were shared among 20 African Plasmodium falciparum populations revealed five major geographical groupings. Resistance lineages were common to all sites within these regions. The most marked differentiation was between east and west African P. falciparum, in which resistance alleles were not only of different ancestry but also carried different resistance mutations.Resistant dhps has emerged independently in multiple sites in Africa during the past 10-20 years. Our data show the molecular basis of resistance differs between east and west Africa, which is likely to translate into differing antifolate sensitivity. We have also demonstrated that the dispersal patterns of resistance lineages give unique insights into recent parasite migration patterns.

  5. Kinematics and dynamics of Nubia-Somalia divergence along the East African rift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamps, Dorothy Sarah

    Continental rifting is fundamental to the theory of plate tectonics, yet the force balance driving Earth's largest continental rift system, the East African Rift (EAR), remains debated. The EAR actively diverges the Nubian and Somalian plates spanning ˜5000 km N-S from the Red Sea to the Southwest Indian Ridge and ˜3000 km NW-SE from eastern Congo to eastern Madagascar. Previous studies suggest either lithospheric buoyancy forces or horizontal tractions dominate the force balance acting to rupture East Africa. In this work, we investigate the large-scale dynamics of Nubia-Somalia divergence along the EAR driving present-day kinematics. Because Africa is largely surrounded by spreading ridges, we assume plate-plate interactions are minimal and that the major driving forces are gradients in gravitational potential energy (GPE), which includes the effect of vertical mantle tractions, and horizontal basal tractions arising from viscous coupling to horizontal mantle flow. We quantify a continuous strain rate and velocity field based on kinematic models, an updated GPS velocity solution, and the style of earthquake focal mechanisms, which we use as an observational constraint on surface deformation. We solve the 3D force balance equations and calculate vertically averaged deviatoric stress for a 100 km thick lithosphere constrained by the CRUST2.0 crustal density and thickness model. By comparing vertically integrated deviatoric stress with integrated lithospheric strength we demonstrate forces arising from gradients in gravitational potential energy are insufficient to rupture strong lithosphere, hence weakening mechanisms are required to initiate continental rupture. The next step involves inverting for a stress field boundary condition that is the long-wavelength minimum energy deviatoric stress field required to best-fit the style of our continuous strain rate field in addition to deviatoric stress from gradients in GPE. We infer the stress field boundary condition

  6. East African highland bananas (Musa spp. AAA-EA) 'worry' more about potassium deficiency than drought stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taulya, G.

    2013-01-01

    Drought stress, potassium (K) and nitrogen (N) deficiencies are major constraints to rain-fed East African highland banana (EAHB) production in Uganda. It was hypothesised that the reduction in fresh bunch mass and increase in dry matter (DM) allocation to corms with drought stress, K and N deficien

  7. Mineral fertilizer response and nutrient use efficiencies of East African highland banana (Musa spp., AAA-EAHB, cv. Kisansa)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nyombi, K.; Asten, van P.J.A.; Corbeels, M.; Taulya, G.; Leffelaar, P.A.; Giller, K.E.

    2010-01-01

    Poor yields of East African highland bananas (Musa spp., AAA-EAHB) on smallholder farms have often been attributed to problems of poor soil fertility. We measured the effects of mineral fertilizers on crop performance at two sites over two to three crop cycles; Kawanda in central Uganda and Ntungamo

  8. Norms for multivariate diagnosis of nutrient imbalance in the East African highland bananas (musa spp.aaa)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wairegi, L.; Asten, van P.

    2011-01-01

    Despite low yields and soil fertility problems, fertilizer use in the East African Highland banana (AAA-EA) production is absent. High fertilizer costs increase the need for site-specific fertilizer recommendations that address deficiencies. This study aimed to derive and compare norms for AAA-EA ba

  9. Transitioning from a Theological College to a Christian University in East African Context: A Multi-Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulatu, Semeon

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation analyzed and described transitions from a theological or Bible college to a Christian liberal arts college or university in East African context. The research was specially driven by the desire to find out the reasons for such transitions, the challenges of the transition process and how such transitions affect the mission of the…

  10. The status and relationships of some East African Earless Toads (Anura, Bufonidae) with a description of a new species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grandison, A.G.C.

    1972-01-01

    INTRODUCTION In comparing some small Ethiopian Bufo with the descriptions, types and other examples of numerous forms from East and Central African countries I became very much aware of the confusion that exists in the taxonomy and of the need for a revision of this group of dwarf toads. Most of the

  11. Good Governance and Foreign Direct Investment : A Legal Contribution to a Balanced Economic Development in the East African Community (EAC)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mbembe, Binda

    2015-01-01

    One of the objectives of the East African Community (EAC) is the promotion of a balanced economic development between its Partner States: Burundi, Kenya, Rwanda, Tanzania, and Uganda. And one of the ways to reach this economic development is the attraction of investment, especially Foreign Direct In

  12. Blood vitamins and trace elements in Northern-East African cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus soemmeringii) in captivity in the Middle East.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckmann, Katie M; O'Donovan, Declan; McKeown, Sean; Wernery, Ulli; Basu, Puja; Bailey, Tom A

    2013-09-01

    There are few published data regarding the endangered Northern-East African cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus soemmeringii), held in captivity in the Middle East and Europe. Studies have demonstrated a high incidence of disease in captive cheetahs, in which vitamin and trace element imbalances have often been implicated. Blood vitamin and trace element reference values in cheetahs merit further investigation. In this study, blood samples were opportunistically collected from apparently healthy A. j. soemmeringii from two collections (A and B) with successful breeding programs in the United Arab Emirates. The cheetahs were fed whole prey of mixed species (and, in Collection B, goat muscle and bone as well) dusted with vitamin and mineral supplements. Mean serum vitamin and trace element values (for cheetahs > 4 mo in age) were as follows: vitamin A (retinol), 2.20 microM/L (n = 27); vitamin B1, 0.0818 microM/L (n = 45); vitamin C, 28.6 microM/L (n=10); vitamin E (alpha-tocopherol), 35.6 microM/L (n = 27); copper (Cu), 12.53 microM/L (n = 27); selenium (Se), 3.10 microM/L (n = 27); and zinc (Zn), 10.87 microM/L (n = 27). Mean values of vitamin A, vitamin E, Cu, and Zn fell within ranges of published cheetah mean values, and mean Se was lower than range values for cheetahs presented in one previous study; blood vitamin B1 and vitamin C values of cheetahs have not previously been published. The values were taken to indicate that the cheetahs' nutritional status was adequate with regard to those nutrients analyzed. Serum vitamin E was particularly high in cheetahs fed fresh whole prey, and on this basis vitamin E supplementation of fresh whole prey appeared to have been unnecessary. There were differences (P < 0.05) between collections in serum vitamin B1, vitamin E, Cu, and 10 other hematologic and biochemical parameters. Nine hematologic and blood biochemical parameters differed among age categories.

  13. Incidence of gross reproductive abnormalities in small east African zebu cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assey, R J; Kessy, B M; Matovelo, J A; Minga, U

    1998-12-01

    Reproductive organs from mature Small East African zebu (SEAZ) heifers and cows slaughtered at the Morogoro abattoir were collected twice a month and evaluated over a period of 12 months. Out of the 402 animals from which reproductive organs were taken, 54% were pregnant, 24% were actively cycling and 22% were non-cycling. Various gross abnormalities were observed in the reproductive organs of about 16% of the cattle, and the major reproductive abnormality in both total and the non-cycling animals was various degrees of fibrous adhesion between the ovary and the infundibulum and mesosalpinx. It is concluded that, contrary to common belief, a majority of the female SEAZ cattle that are slaughtered are fertile.

  14. The Omo Mursi Formation: a window into the East African Pliocene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drapeau, Michelle S M; Bobe, René; Wynn, Jonathan G; Campisano, Christopher J; Dumouchel, Laurence; Geraads, Denis

    2014-10-01

    Dating to more than four million years ago (Ma), the Mursi Formation is among the oldest of the Plio-Pleistocene Omo Group deposits in the lower Omo Valley of southwestern Ethiopia. The sedimentary sequence is exposed along a strip ∼35 km by 4 km, but it has received relatively little attention due to the difficult access to this area. Although expeditions to the lower Omo Valley between 1968 and 1973 focused primarily on the Usno and Shungura Formations, survey of the Mursi Formation produced a faunal collection of about 250 specimens deriving exclusively from the Yellow Sands area at the southern extent of the exposures. In 2009, we reinitiated an investigation of the formation by focusing on the most northern exposures, and a new fossil site, Cholo, was identified. Cholo is depositionally similar to the lowermost exposures at the Yellow Sands, although no stratigraphic correlation between the two localities has yet been made. The fossiliferous sediments at Cholo are capped by a prominent vitric tuff that is compositionally distinct from any other known tephra preserved in East African rift basins, including the only known vitric tuff at the Yellow Sands. The faunal assemblage of the Yellow Sands area presents interesting characteristics: the fossils generally show little weathering and include a large proportion of suids (44% of the mammalian fauna) and a small proportion of bovids (14%) compared with other Pliocene African sites. The sample is also unusual in the high frequency of deinotheres (7%). Taxon-specific stable carbon isotopic composition of the Mursi mammals tends to show generally higher proportions of C3 diets compared with other Pliocene sites in East Africa and Chad. This and the particular faunal proportions suggest that the environments represented by the Mursi Formation were more closed than those of other Pliocene sites. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Conceptualizations of heterosexual anal sex and HIV risk in five East African communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duby, Zoe; Colvin, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Heterosexual anal sex is underresearched and little understood, particularly in the African context. Existing prevalence data indicate that heterosexual anal sex is a widespread practice, yet little is known about the way in which it is conceptualized and understood. Describing findings from qualitative research conducted in Kenya, Tanzania, and Uganda, we shed light on conceptualizations of heterosexual anal sex and its relation to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). These findings suggest that penile-anal sex is practiced by men and women in Africa for a range of reasons, including virginity maintenance, contraception, fulfillment of male pleasure, relationship security, menstruation, in the presence of vaginal complications, financial gain, fidelity, and prestige. Despite anal sex being the most efficient way to transmit HIV sexually, there is widespread lack of knowledge about its risks. These findings describe the ways in which anal sex is conceptualized in five East African communities, highlighting how penile-anal intercourse is often not considered "sex" and how the omission of anal sex in safe-sex messaging is interpreted as meaning that anal sex is safe. In light of its frequency and risks, greater attention must be paid to heterosexual anal sex in Africa to ensure a comprehensive approach to HIV prevention.

  16. African 2, a Clonal Complex of Mycobacterium bovis Epidemiologically Important in East Africa▿ †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Stefan; Garcia-Pelayo, M. Carmen; Müller, Borna; Hailu, Elena; Asiimwe, Benon; Kremer, Kristin; Dale, James; Boniotti, M. Beatrice; Rodriguez, Sabrina; Hilty, Markus; Rigouts, Leen; Firdessa, Rebuma; Machado, Adelina; Mucavele, Custodia; Ngandolo, Bongo Nare Richard; Bruchfeld, Judith; Boschiroli, Laura; Müller, Annélle; Sahraoui, Naima; Pacciarini, Maria; Cadmus, Simeon; Joloba, Moses; van Soolingen, Dick; Michel, Anita L.; Djønne, Berit; Aranaz, Alicia; Zinsstag, Jakob; van Helden, Paul; Portaels, Françoise; Kazwala, Rudovick; Källenius, Gunilla; Hewinson, R. Glyn; Aseffa, Abraham; Gordon, Stephen V.; Smith, Noel H.

    2011-01-01

    We have identified a clonal complex of Mycobacterium bovis isolated at high frequency from cattle in Uganda, Burundi, Tanzania, and Ethiopia. We have named this related group of M. bovis strains the African 2 (Af2) clonal complex of M. bovis. Af2 strains are defined by a specific chromosomal deletion (RDAf2) and can be identified by the absence of spacers 3 to 7 in their spoligotype patterns. Deletion analysis of M. bovis isolates from Algeria, Mali, Chad, Nigeria, Cameroon, South Africa, and Mozambique did not identify any strains of the Af2 clonal complex, suggesting that this clonal complex of M. bovis is localized in East Africa. The specific spoligotype pattern of the Af2 clonal complex was rarely identified among isolates from outside Africa, and the few isolates that were found and tested were intact at the RDAf2 locus. We conclude that the Af2 clonal complex is localized to cattle in East Africa. We found that strains of the Af2 clonal complex of M. bovis have, in general, four or more copies of the insertion sequence IS6110, in contrast to the majority of M. bovis strains isolated from cattle, which are thought to carry only one or a few copies. PMID:21097608

  17. African 2, a clonal complex of Mycobacterium bovis epidemiologically important in East Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Stefan; Garcia-Pelayo, M Carmen; Müller, Borna; Hailu, Elena; Asiimwe, Benon; Kremer, Kristin; Dale, James; Boniotti, M Beatrice; Rodriguez, Sabrina; Hilty, Markus; Rigouts, Leen; Firdessa, Rebuma; Machado, Adelina; Mucavele, Custodia; Ngandolo, Bongo Nare Richard; Bruchfeld, Judith; Boschiroli, Laura; Müller, Annélle; Sahraoui, Naima; Pacciarini, Maria; Cadmus, Simeon; Joloba, Moses; van Soolingen, Dick; Michel, Anita L; Djønne, Berit; Aranaz, Alicia; Zinsstag, Jakob; van Helden, Paul; Portaels, Françoise; Kazwala, Rudovick; Källenius, Gunilla; Hewinson, R Glyn; Aseffa, Abraham; Gordon, Stephen V; Smith, Noel H

    2011-02-01

    We have identified a clonal complex of Mycobacterium bovis isolated at high frequency from cattle in Uganda, Burundi, Tanzania, and Ethiopia. We have named this related group of M. bovis strains the African 2 (Af2) clonal complex of M. bovis. Af2 strains are defined by a specific chromosomal deletion (RDAf2) and can be identified by the absence of spacers 3 to 7 in their spoligotype patterns. Deletion analysis of M. bovis isolates from Algeria, Mali, Chad, Nigeria, Cameroon, South Africa, and Mozambique did not identify any strains of the Af2 clonal complex, suggesting that this clonal complex of M. bovis is localized in East Africa. The specific spoligotype pattern of the Af2 clonal complex was rarely identified among isolates from outside Africa, and the few isolates that were found and tested were intact at the RDAf2 locus. We conclude that the Af2 clonal complex is localized to cattle in East Africa. We found that strains of the Af2 clonal complex of M. bovis have, in general, four or more copies of the insertion sequence IS6110, in contrast to the majority of M. bovis strains isolated from cattle, which are thought to carry only one or a few copies.

  18. East and central farming and forest region and Atlantic basin diversified farming region: LRRs N and S

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brad D. Lee; John M. Kabrick

    2017-01-01

    The central, unglaciated US east of the Great Plains to the Atlantic coast corresponds to the area covered by LRR N (East and Central Farming and Forest Region) and S (Atlantic Basin Diversified Farming Region). These regions roughly correspond to the Interior Highlands, Interior Plains, Appalachian Highlands, and the Northern Coastal Plains.

  19. Pliocene Basaltic Volcanism in The East Anatolia Region (EAR), Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyan, Vural; Özdemir, Yavuz; Keskin, Mehmet

    2016-04-01

    East Anatolia Region (EAR) is one of the high Plateau which is occurred with north-south compressional regime formed depending on continent-continent collision between Eurasia and Arabia plates (Şengör and Kidd, 1979). Recent studies have revealed that last oceanic lithosphere in the EAR have completely depleted to 20 million years ago based on fission track ages (Okay et al. 2010). Our initial studies suggest that extensively volcanic activity in the EAR peaked in the Pliocene and continued in the same productivity throughout Quaternary. Voluminous basaltic lava plateaus and basaltic lavas from local eruption centers occurred as a result of high production level of volcanism during the Pliocene time interval. In order to better understand the spatial and temporal variations in Pliocene basaltic volcanism and to reveal isotopic composition, age and petrologic evolution of the basaltic volcanism, we have started to study basaltic volcanism in the East Anatolia within the framework of a TUBITAK project (project number:113Y406). Petrologic and geochemical studies carried out on the Pliocene basaltic lavas indicate the presence of subduction component in the mantle source, changing the character of basaltic volcanism from alkaline to subalkaline and increasing the amount of spinel peridotitic melts (contributions of lithospheric mantle?) in the mantle source between 5.5-3.5 Ma. FC, AFC and EC-AFC modelings reveal that the while basaltic lavas were no or slightly influenced by crustal contamination and fractional crystallization, to more evolved lavas such as bazaltictrachyandesite, basalticandesite, trachybasalt might have been important processes. Results of our melting models and isotopic analysis data (Sr, Nd, Pb, Hf, 18O) indicate that the Pliocene basaltic rocks were derived from both shallow and deep mantle sources with different melting degrees ranging between 0.1 - 4 %. The percentage of spinel seems to have increased in the mantle source of the basaltic

  20. An Investigation of the Sensitivity of East African Climate Variability to Urbanization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudoshava, Masilin

    The aim of this research was to investigate the impact of urbanization on the climate of East Africa and the subsequent consequences on the energy and agricultural sectors. This was achieved by accomplishing the following objectives (i) Comprehensive customization and evaluation of the performance of the International Center of Theoretical Physics (ICTP) Regional climate model (ii) Investigation of the ability of the ICTP Regional climate model to reproduce the modes of climate variability from observational data. (iii) Investigate the impact of urbanization on the precipitation of East Africa (iv) Investigation of the dominant process between, moisture supply, thermal convergence and frictional convergence, and (v) Impact on agriculture and energy sector. (Abstract shortened by ProQuest.).

  1. Preliminary definition of geophysical regions for the Middle East and North Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sweeney, J J; Walter, B

    1998-12-01

    The ability to calibrate seismic stations to improve the monitoring of the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty is partially limited by the availability of seismic events with known locations and source properties. To confidently extrapolate from these events to aseismic regions, and to properly account for discontinuities in seismic properties requires accurate geophysical models. This paper lays out a preliminary, first-order, regionalization of the Middle East and North African (MENA) region. The model specifies boundaries and velocity structures based on the geology and tectonics of the region, previously published studies, and empirical data observations by the LLNL group. This model is a starting point and is expected to be improved and refined by comparisons with ongoing tomography efforts and the collection of new data. We anticipate that this model and its successors will prove useful as a background model in the process of forming station calibration maps based on intelligent interpolation techniques such as kriging. We also hope the model, as it improves and demonstrates some predictive power, will provide a reference model for broader CTBT research efforts in detection, location and discrimination as well as other aspects of earth science.

  2. Department of Geography and Regional Planning, Olabisi

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2015-08-21

    Aug 21, 2015 ... interaction and integration of the various regions and ... the West African sub region and borders. Niger Republic in the North, Chad in the. North East, Cameroun in East and Benin. Republic in the .... Europe and Central Asia.

  3. An interdisciplinary approach for groundwater management in area contaminated by fluoride in East African Rift System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Pelo, Stefania; Melis, M. Teresa; Dessì, Francesco; Pistis, Marco; Funedda, Antonio; Oggiano, Giacomo; Carletti, Alberto; Soler Gil, Albert; Barbieri, Manuela; Pittalis, Daniele; Ghiglieri, Giorgio

    2017-04-01

    Groundwater is the main source of fresh water supply for most of the rural communities in Africa (approximately 75% of Africans has confidence in groundwater as their major source of drinking water). Many African countries has affected by high fluoride concentration in groundwater (up to 90 mg/L), generating the contamination of waters, soils and food, in particular in the eastern part of the continent. It seems that fluoride concentration is linked to geology of the Rift Valley: geogenic occurrence of fluoride is often connected to supergenic enrichment due to the weathering of alkaline volcanic rocks, fumaric gases and presence of thermal waters. The H2020 project FLOWERED (de-FLuoridation technologies for imprOving quality of WatEr and agRo-animal products along the East African Rift Valley in the context of aDaptation to climate change) wish to address environmental and health (human and animal) issues associated to the fluoride contamination in the African Rift Valley, in particular in three case study area located in Ethiopia, Tanzania and Kenya. FLOWERED aims to develop an integrated, sustainable and participative water and agriculture management at a cross-boundary catchment scale through a strong interdisciplinary research approach. It implies knowledge of geology, hydrogeology, mineralogy, geochemistry, agronomy, crop and animal sciences, engineering, technological sciences, data management and software design, economics and communication. The proposed approach is based on a detailed knowledge of the hydrogeological setting, with the identification and mapping of the specific geological conditions of water contamination and its relation with the different land uses. The East African Rift System (EARS) groundwater circulation and storage, today already poorly understood, is characterized by a complex arrangement of aquifers. It depends on the type of porosity and permeability created during and after the rock formation, and is strongly conditioned by the

  4. AFRICAN JOURNAL OF ECONOMIC REVIEW

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Kazungu

    Regional Trade Agreement and Agricultural Trade in East African Community. ... World Development Indicators for the period 2000 – 2012 on the five EAC members and ... the domestic market, leading to low returns to local producers and ...

  5. 76 FR 23708 - Safety Zone; Pierce County Department of Emergency Management Regional Water Exercise, East...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-28

    ... Management Regional Water Exercise, East Passage, Tacoma, WA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary... of Emergency Management is sponsoring a Regional Water Rescue Exercise in the waters of East Passage..., Washington for a Regional Water Rescue Exercise near Browns Point. A safety zone is necessary to ensure...

  6. The negative impacts of human activities in the eastern African region: an international waters perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payet, Rolph; Obura, David

    2004-02-01

    The complex interactions between human activities and the environment at the interface of land and water is analyzed with a focus on the Somali Current (East Africa), and Indian Ocean Island States, subregions of the Global International Waters Assessment (GIWA). These 2 subregions contain some of the world's richest ecosystems, including the high biodiversity forests of Madagascar and the diverse coastal habitats of the eastern African coast. These ecosystems support local communities and national and regional economies. Current and future degradation of these systems, from water basins to continental shelves, affects the livelihoods and sustainability of the countries in the region, and long-term efforts to reduce poverty. The assessments determined that pollution and climate change are the primary environmental and social concerns in the Islands of the Indian Ocean, while freshwater shortage and unsustainable exploitation of fisheries and other living resources are the primary environmental and social concerns in East Africa. The GIWA approach, through assessing root causes of environmental concerns, enables the development of policy approaches for mitigating environmental degradation. This paper explores policy frameworks for mitigating the impacts, and reducing the drivers, of 3 environmental concerns--freshwater shortage; solid waste pollution; and climate change--addressing social and institutional causes and effects, and linking the subregions to broad international frameworks. The common theme in all 3 case studies is the need to develop integrated ecosystem and international waters policies, and mechanisms to manage conflicting interests and to limit threats to natural processes.

  7. Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWS NET) Contributions to Strengthening Resilience and Sustainability for the East African Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budde, M. E.; Galu, G.; Funk, C. C.; Verdin, J. P.; Rowland, J.

    2014-12-01

    The Planning for Resilience in East Africa through Policy, Adaptation, Research, and Economic Development (PREPARED) is a multi-organizational project aimed at mainstreaming climate-resilient development planning and program implementation into the East African Community (EAC). The Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWS NET) has partnered with the PREPARED project to address three key development challenges for the EAC; 1) increasing resiliency to climate change, 2) managing trans-boundary freshwater biodiversity and conservation and 3) improving access to drinking water supply and sanitation services. USGS FEWS NET has been instrumental in the development of gridded climate data sets that are the fundamental building blocks for climate change adaptation studies in the region. Tools such as the Geospatial Climate Tool (GeoCLIM) have been developed to interpolate time-series grids of precipitation and temperature values from station observations and associated satellite imagery, elevation data, and other spatially continuous fields. The GeoCLIM tool also allows the identification of anomalies and assessments of both their frequency of occurrence and directional trends. A major effort has been put forth to build the capacities of local and regional institutions to use GeoCLIM to integrate their station data (which is not typically available to the public) into improved national and regional gridded climate data sets. In addition to the improvements and capacity building activities related to geospatial analysis tools, FEWS NET will assist in two other areas; 1) downscaling of climate change scenarios and 2) vulnerability impact assessments. FEWS NET will provide expertise in statistical downscaling of Global Climate Model output fields and work with regional institutions to assess results of other downscaling methods. Completion of a vulnerability impact assessment (VIA) involves the examination of sectoral consequences in identified climate "hot spots". FEWS NET

  8. Advancing the Structural Use of Earth-based Bricks: Addressing Key Challenges in the East African Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mang Tia

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The research discussed in this paper is a subset of a bigger, NSF funded research project that is directed at investigating the use of sustainable building materials. The deployment context for the research is the hot and humid climate using selected cases from the East African region. The overarching goal for the research is advancing the structural use of earth-based technologies. Significant strides can be made through developing strategies for countering the adverse factors that affect the structural performance of the resulting wall, especially ones related to moisture dynamics. The research was executed in two phases. The first phase was a two-day NSF supported workshop which was held in Tanzania in July 2009. It provided a forum for sharing best practices in earth-based building technologies and developing a research and development roadmap. The priority research areas were broadly classified as optimizing the physio-mechanical properties of earth as a building material and managing socio-cultural impediments. In the second phase of the research, the authors collaborated with researchers from East Africa to conduct experimental work on the optimization of physio-mechanical properties. The specific research issues that have been addressed are: (1 characterizing the chemical reactions that can be linked to deterioration triggered by hygrothermal loads based on the hot and humid context, and; (2 developing a prototype for a simpler, portable, affordable and viable compressed brick production machine. The paper discusses the results from the characterization work that ultimately will be used to design bricks that have specific properties based on an understanding of how different stabilizers affect the hydration process. It also describes a cheaper, portable and more efficient prototype machine that has been developed as part of the follow-up research activities.

  9. Sensitivity of the regional climate in the Middle East and North Africa to volcanic perturbations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogar, Muhammad Mubashar; Stenchikov, Georgiy; Osipov, Sergey; Wyman, Bruce; Zhao, Ming

    2017-08-01

    The Middle East and North Africa (MENA) regional climate appears to be extremely sensitive to volcanic eruptions. Winter cooling after the 1991 Pinatubo eruption far exceeded the mean hemispheric temperature anomaly, even causing snowfall in Israel. To better understand MENA climate variability, the climate responses to the El Chichón and Pinatubo volcanic eruptions are analyzed using observations, NOAA/National Centers for Environmental Prediction Climate Forecast System Reanalysis, and output from the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory's High-Resolution Atmospheric Model. A multiple regression analysis both for the observations and the model output is performed on seasonal summer and winter composites to separate out the contributions from climate trends, El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO), North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), Indian summer monsoon, and volcanic aerosols. Strong regional temperature and precipitation responses over the MENA region are found in both winter and summer. The model and the observations both show that a positive NAO amplifies the MENA volcanic winter cooling. In boreal summer, the patterns of changing temperature and precipitation suggest a weakening and southward shift of the Intertropical Convergence Zone, caused by volcanic surface cooling and weakening of the Indian and West African monsoons. The model captures the main features of the climate response; however, it underestimates the total cooling, especially in winter, and exhibits a different spatial pattern of the NAO climate response in MENA compared to the observations. The conducted analysis sheds light on the internal mechanisms of MENA climate variability and helps to selectively diagnose the model deficiencies.

  10. Zircon U-Pb Ages from an Ultra-High Temperature Metapelite, Rauer Group, East Antarctica: Implications for Overprints by Grenvillian and Pan-African Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanbin; Tong, Laixi; Liu, Dunyi

    2007-01-01

    SHRIMP U-Pb dating of zircon from an ultra-high temperature (UHT, ~1000 °C) granulite-facies metapelite from the Rauer Group, Mather Peninsula, east Antarctica, has yielded evidence for two episodes of metamorphic zircon growth, at ~1.00 Ga and ~530 Ma, and two episodes of magmatism in the source region for the protolith sediment, at ~2.53 and ~2.65 Ga, were identified from the zircon cores. Successive zircon growth at ~1.00 Ga and ~530 Ma records a sequence of distinct, widely spaced high-temperature metamorphic and/or anatectic events related to Grenvillian and Pan-African orogenesis. This study presents the first robust geochronological evidence for the timing of UHT metamorphism of the Rauer Group, supporting arguments that the peak UHT metamorphic event occurred at ~1.00 Ga and was overprinted by a separate high-grade event at ~530 Ma. The new age data indicate that the UHT granulites of the Rauer Group experienced a complex, multi-stage tectonothermal history, which cannot simply be explained via a single Pan-African (~500 Ma) high-grade tectonic event. This is critical in understanding the role of the eastern Prydz Bay region during the assembly of the east Gondwana supercontinent, and the newly recognized inherited Archaean ages (~2.53 and ~2.65 Ga) suggest a close tectonic relationship between the Rauer Group and the adjacent Archaean of the Vestfold Hills

  11. Winter climate changes over East Asian region under RCP scenarios using East Asian winter monsoon indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Ja-Young; Ahn, Joong-Bae; Jhun, Jong-Ghap

    2017-01-01

    The changes in the winter climatology and variability of the East Asian winter monsoon (EAWM) for the late 21st century (2070-2099) under the Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 4.5 and 8.5 scenarios are projected in terms of EAWM indices (EAWMIs). Firstly, the capability of the climate models participating in the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5 (CMIP5) in simulating the boreal winter climatology and the interannual variability of the EAWM for the late 20th century (1971-2000) is examined. Nine of twenty-three climate models are selected based on the pattern correlations with observation and a multi-model ensemble is applied to the nine model data. Three of twelve EAWMIs that show the most significant temporal correlations between the observation and CMIP5 surface air temperatures are utilized. The ensemble CMIP5 is capable of reproducing the overall features of the EAWM in spite of some biases in the region. The negative correlations between the EAWMIs and boreal winter temperature are well reproduced and 3-5 years of the major interannual variation observed in this region are also well simulated according to power spectral analyses of the simulated indices. The fields regressed onto the indices that resemble the composite strong winter monsoon pattern are simulated more or less weakly in CMIP5 compared to the observation. However, the regressed fields of sea level pressure, surface air temperature, 500-hPa geopotential height, and 300-hPa zonal wind are well established with pattern correlations above 0.83 between CMIP5 and observation data. The differences between RCPs and Historical indicate strong warming, which increases with latitude, ranging from 1 to 5 °C under RCP4.5 and from 3 to 7 °C under RCP8.5 in the East Asian region. The anomalous southerly winds generally become stronger, implying weaker EAWMs in both scenarios. These features are also identified with fields regressed onto the indices in RCPs. The future projections reveal

  12. Winter climate changes over East Asian region under RCP scenarios using East Asian winter monsoon indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Ja-Young; Ahn, Joong-Bae; Jhun, Jong-Ghap

    2016-03-01

    The changes in the winter climatology and variability of the East Asian winter monsoon (EAWM) for the late 21st century (2070-2099) under the Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 4.5 and 8.5 scenarios are projected in terms of EAWM indices (EAWMIs). Firstly, the capability of the climate models participating in the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5 (CMIP5) in simulating the boreal winter climatology and the interannual variability of the EAWM for the late 20th century (1971-2000) is examined. Nine of twenty-three climate models are selected based on the pattern correlations with observation and a multi-model ensemble is applied to the nine model data. Three of twelve EAWMIs that show the most significant temporal correlations between the observation and CMIP5 surface air temperatures are utilized. The ensemble CMIP5 is capable of reproducing the overall features of the EAWM in spite of some biases in the region. The negative correlations between the EAWMIs and boreal winter temperature are well reproduced and 3-5 years of the major interannual variation observed in this region are also well simulated according to power spectral analyses of the simulated indices. The fields regressed onto the indices that resemble the composite strong winter monsoon pattern are simulated more or less weakly in CMIP5 compared to the observation. However, the regressed fields of sea level pressure, surface air temperature, 500-hPa geopotential height, and 300-hPa zonal wind are well established with pattern correlations above 0.83 between CMIP5 and observation data. The differences between RCPs and Historical indicate strong warming, which increases with latitude, ranging from 1 to 5 °C under RCP4.5 and from 3 to 7 °C under RCP8.5 in the East Asian region. The anomalous southerly winds generally become stronger, implying weaker EAWMs in both scenarios. These features are also identified with fields regressed onto the indices in RCPs. The future projections reveal

  13. Outbreaks-of Ebola virus disease in the West African sub-region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osungbade, K O; Oni, A A

    2014-06-01

    Five West African countries, including Nigeria are currently experiencing the largest, most severe, most complex outbreak of Ebola virus disease in history. This paper provided a chronology of outbreaks of Ebola virus disease in the West African sub-region and provided an update on efforts at containing the present outbreak. Literature from Pubmed (MEDLINE), AJOL, Google Scholar and Cochrane database were reviewed. Outbreaks of Ebola, virus disease had frequently occurred mainly in Central and East African countries. Occasional outbreaks reported from outside of Africa were due to laboratory contamination and imported monkeys in quarantine facilities. The ongoing outbreak in West Africa is the largest and first in the sub-region; the number of suspected cases and deaths from this single current outbreak is already about three times the total of all cases and deaths from previous known outbreaks in 40 years. Prevention and control efforts are hindered not only by lack of a known vaccine and virus-specific treatment, but also by weak health systems, poor sanitation, poor personal hygiene and cultural beliefs and practices, including myths and misconceptions about Ebola virus disease--all of which are prevalent in affected countries. Constrained by this situation, the World Health Organisation departed from the global standard and recommended the use of not yet proven treatments to treat or prevent the disease in humans on ethical and evidential grounds. The large number of people affected by the present outbreak in West Africa and the high case-fatality rate calls for accelerated evaluation and development of the investigational medical interventions for life saving and curbing the epidemic. Meanwhile, existing interventions such as early detection and isolation, contact tracing and monitoring, and adherence to rigorous procedures of infection prevention and control should be intensified.

  14. Field Studies Show That In Situ Greenhouse Gas Emission Factors for East African Agriculture Are Less Than IPCC Values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelster, D.; Butterbach-Bahl, K.; Rufino, M.; Rosenstock, T. S.; Wanyama, G.

    2015-12-01

    Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from African agricultural systems are thought to comprise a large portion of total emissions from the continent, however these estimates have been calculated using emission factors (EF) from other regions due to the lack of field studies in Africa, which results in large uncertainties for these estimates. Field measurements from western Kenya calculating emissions over a year in 59 different sites found that GHG emissions from typical smallholder farms ranged from 2.8 to 15.0 Mg CO2-C ha-1, -6.0 to 2.4 kg CH4-C ha-1 and -0.1 to 1.8 kg N2O-N ha-1, and were not affected by management intensity. The lack of a response in N2O emissions to N fertilization suggests that the EF currently used in national inventories overestimates N2O emissions from typical smallholder agriculture. Another study measuring N2O and CH4 emissions from manure deposited by grazing cattle found that the N2O EF ranged from 0.1 to 0.2%, while the CH4 EF ranged from 0.04 to 0.14 Kg CH4-C per 173 kg animal. These suggest that the current IPCC EF overestimate agricultural soil and manure GHG emissions for Kenya, and likely for much of East Africa.

  15. Trophic redundancy among fishes in an East African nearshore seagrass community inferred from stable-isotope analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matich, P; Kiszka, J J; Gastrich, K R; Heithaus, M R

    2017-08-01

    Stable-isotope analysis supplemented with stomach contents data from published sources was used to quantify the trophic niches, trophic niche overlaps and potential trophic redundancy for the most commonly caught fish species from an East African nearshore seagrass community. This assessment is an important first step in quantifying food-web structure in a region subject to intense fishing activities. Nearshore food webs were driven by at least two isotopically distinct trophic pathways, algal and seagrass, with a greater proportion of the sampled species feeding within the seagrass food web (57%) compared with the algal food web (33%). There was considerable isotopic niche overlap among species (92% of species overlapped with at least one other species). Narrow isotopic niche widths of most (83%) species sampled, low isotopic similarity (only 23% of species exhibited no differences in δ(13) C and δ(15) N) and low predicted trophic redundancy among fishes most commonly caught by fishermen (15%), however, suggest that adjustments to resource management concerning harvesting and gear selectivity may be needed for the persistence of artisanal fishing in northern Tanzania. More detailed trophic studies paired with information on spatio-temporal variation in fish abundance, especially for heavily targeted species, will assist in the development and implementation of management strategies to maintain coastal food-web integrity. © 2017 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  16. Monitoring diseases across borders: African regional integrative information systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simbini, Tungamirirai; Foster, Rosemary; Nesara, Paul; Hullin Lucay Cossio, Carola

    2010-01-01

    In African countries, communicable diseases remain the chief cause of a heavy disease burden. Regional economic, political and social integration bring new challenges in the management of these diseases, many of which are treatable. Information Communication Technology (ICT) applied through electronic health systems has the potential to strengthen healthcare service delivery and disease surveillance within these countries. This paper discusses the importance of well-defined e-Health strategies within countries and, in addition, proposes that countries within regions collaborate in planning for health information exchange across borders. It is suggested that particular attention be paid to technical and data standards enabling interoperability, and also to issues of security, patient privacy and governance.

  17. Development of catchment research, with particular attention to Plynlimon and its forerunner, the East African catchments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Dr J.S.G. McCulloch was deeply involved in the establishment of research catchments in East Africa and subsequently in the UK to investigate the hydrological consequences of changes in land use. Comparison of these studies provides an insight into how influential his inputs and direction have been in the progressive development of the philosophy, the instrumentation and the analytical techniques now employed in catchment research. There were great contrasts in the environments: tropical highland (high radiation, intense rainfall vs. temperate maritime (low radiation and frontal storms, contrasting soils and vegetation types, as well as the differing social and economic pressures in developing and developed nations. Nevertheless, the underlying scientific philosophy was common to both, although techniques had to be modified according to local conditions. As specialised instrumentation and analytical techniques were developed for the UK catchments many were also integrated into the East African studies. Many lessons were learned in the course of these studies and from the experiences of other studies around the world. Overall, a rigorous scientific approach was developed with widespread applicability. Beyond the basics of catchment selection and the quantification of the main components of the catchment water balance, this involved initiating parallel process studies to provide information on specific aspects of catchment behaviour. This information could then form the basis for models capable of extrapolation from the observed time series to other periods/hydrological events and, ultimately, the capability of predicting the consequences of changes in catchment land management to other areas in a range of climates.

  18. Late Miocene to Pliocene carbon isotope record of differential diet change among East African herbivores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uno, Kevin T; Cerling, Thure E; Harris, John M; Kunimatsu, Yutaka; Leakey, Meave G; Nakatsukasa, Masato; Nakaya, Hideo

    2011-04-19

    Stable isotope and molecular data suggest that C(4) grasses first appeared globally in the Oligocene. In East Africa, stable isotope data from pedogenic carbonate and fossil tooth enamel suggest a first appearance between 15-10 Ma and subsequent expansion during the Plio-Pleistocene. The fossil enamel record has the potential to provide detailed information about the rates of dietary adaptation to this new resource among different herbivore lineages. We present carbon isotope data from 452 fossil teeth that record differential rates of diet change from C(3) to mixed C(3)/C(4) or C(4) diets among East African herbivore families at seven different time periods during the Late Miocene to the Pliocene (9.9-3.2 Ma). Significant amounts of C(4) grasses were present in equid diets beginning at 9.9 Ma and in rhinocerotid diets by 9.6 Ma, although there is no isotopic evidence for expansive C(4) grasslands in this part of the Late Miocene. Bovids and hippopotamids followed suit with individuals that had C(4)-dominated (>65%) diets by 7.4 Ma. Suids adopted C(4)-dominated diets between 6.5 and 4.2 Ma. Gomphotheriids and elephantids had mostly C(3)-dominated diets through 9.3 Ma, but became dedicated C(4) grazers by 6.5 Ma. Deinotheriids and giraffids maintained a predominantly C(3) diet throughout the record. The sequence of differential diet change among herbivore lineages provides ecological insight into a key period of hominid evolution and valuable information for future studies that focus on morphological changes associated with diet change.

  19. The episode of genetic drift defining the migration of humans out of Africa is derived from a large east African population size.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuha Elhassan

    Full Text Available Human genetic variation particularly in Africa is still poorly understood. This is despite a consensus on the large African effective population size compared to populations from other continents. Based on sequencing of the mitochondrial Cytochrome C Oxidase subunit II (MT-CO2, and genome wide microsatellite data we observe evidence suggesting the effective size (Ne of humans to be larger than the current estimates, with a foci of increased genetic diversity in east Africa, and a population size of east Africans being at least 2-6 fold larger than other populations. Both phylogenetic and network analysis indicate that east Africans possess more ancestral lineages in comparison to various continental populations placing them at the root of the human evolutionary tree. Our results also affirm east Africa as the likely spot from which migration towards Asia has taken place. The study reflects the spectacular level of sequence variation within east Africans in comparison to the global sample, and appeals for further studies that may contribute towards filling the existing gaps in the database. The implication of these data to current genomic research, as well as the need to carry out defined studies of human genetic variation that includes more African populations; particularly east Africans is paramount.

  20. Phylogeography of the Afromontane Prunus africana reveals a former migration corridor between East and West African highlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadu, C A C; Schueler, S; Konrad, H; Muluvi, G M M; Eyog-Matig, O; Muchugi, A; Williams, V L; Ramamonjisoa, L; Kapinga, C; Foahom, B; Katsvanga, C; Hafashimana, D; Obama, C; Geburek, T

    2011-01-01

    Scattered populations of the same tree species in montane forests through Africa have led to speculations on the origins of distributions. Here, we inferred the colonization history of the Afromontane tree Prunus africana using seven chloroplast DNA loci to study 582 individuals from 32 populations sampled in a range-wide survey from across Africa, revealing 22 haplotypes. The predominant haplotype, HT1a, occurred in 13 populations of eastern and southern Africa, while a second common haplotype, HT1m, occurred in populations of western Uganda and western Africa. The high differentiation observed between populations in East Africa was unexpected, with stands in western Uganda belonging with the western African lineage. High genetic differentiation among populations revealed using ordered alleles (N(ST) = 0.840) compared with unordered alleles (G(ST) = 0.735), indicated a clear phylogeographic pattern. Bayesian coalescence modelling suggested that 'east' and 'west' African types likely split early during southward migration of the species, while further more recent splitting events occurred among populations in the East of the continent. The high genetic similarity found between western Uganda and west African populations indicates that a former Afromontane migration corridor may have existed through Equatorial Africa.

  1. Use of Machine Learning Techniques for Iidentification of Robust Teleconnections to East African Rainfall Variability in Observations and Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, J. Brent; Robertson, Franklin R.; Funk, Chris

    2014-01-01

    Providing advance warning of East African rainfall variations is a particular focus of several groups including those participating in the Famine Early Warming Systems Network. Both seasonal and long-term model projections of climate variability are being used to examine the societal impacts of hydrometeorological variability on seasonal to interannual and longer time scales. The NASA / USAID SERVIR project, which leverages satellite and modeling-based resources for environmental decision making in developing nations, is focusing on the evaluation of both seasonal and climate model projections to develop downscaled scenarios for using in impact modeling. The utility of these projections is reliant on the ability of current models to capture the embedded relationships between East African rainfall and evolving forcing within the coupled ocean-atmosphere-land climate system. Previous studies have posited relationships between variations in El Niño, the Walker circulation, Pacific decadal variability (PDV), and anthropogenic forcing. This study applies machine learning methods (e.g. clustering, probabilistic graphical model, nonlinear PCA) to observational datasets in an attempt to expose the importance of local and remote forcing mechanisms of East African rainfall variability. The ability of the NASA Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS5) coupled model to capture the associated relationships will be evaluated using Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) simulations.

  2. Zebrafish bioassay-guided natural product discovery: isolation of angiogenesis inhibitors from East African medicinal plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander D Crawford

    Full Text Available Natural products represent a significant reservoir of unexplored chemical diversity for early-stage drug discovery. The identification of lead compounds of natural origin would benefit from therapeutically relevant bioassays capable of facilitating the isolation of bioactive molecules from multi-constituent extracts. Towards this end, we developed an in vivo bioassay-guided isolation approach for natural product discovery that combines bioactivity screening in zebrafish embryos with rapid fractionation by analytical thin-layer chromatography (TLC and initial structural elucidation by high-resolution electrospray mass spectrometry (HRESIMS. Bioactivity screening of East African medicinal plant extracts using fli-1:EGFP transgenic zebrafish embryos identified Oxygonum sinuatum and Plectranthus barbatus as inhibiting vascular development. Zebrafish bioassay-guided fractionation identified the active components of these plants as emodin, an inhibitor of the protein kinase CK2, and coleon A lactone, a rare abietane diterpenoid with no previously described bioactivity. Both emodin and coleon A lactone inhibited mammalian endothelial cell proliferation, migration, and tube formation in vitro, as well as angiogenesis in the chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM assay. These results suggest that the combination of zebrafish bioassays with analytical chromatography methods is an effective strategy for the rapid identification of bioactive natural products.

  3. Outbreak of chikungunya due to virus of Central/East African genotype in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noridah, O; Paranthaman, V; Nayar, S K; Masliza, M; Ranjit, K; Norizah, I; Chem, Y K; Mustafa, B; Kumarasamy, V; Chua, K B

    2007-10-01

    Chikungunya is an acute febrile illness caused by an alphavirus which is transmitted by infective Aedes mosquitoes. Two previous outbreaks of chikungunya in Malaysia were due to chikungunya virus of Asian genotype. The present outbreak involved two adjoining areas in the suburb of Ipoh city within the Kinta district of Perak, a state in the northern part of Peninsular Malaysia. Thirty seven residents in the main outbreak area and two patients in the secondary area were laboratory confirmed to be infected with the virus. The index case was a 44-year Indian man who visited Paramakudi, Tamil Naidu, India on 21st November 2006 and returned home on 30th of November 2006, and subsequently developed high fever and joint pain on the 3rd of December 2006. A number of chikungunya virus isolates were isolated from both patients and Aedes albopictus mosquitoes in the affected areas. Molecular study showed that the chikungunya virus causing the Kinta outbreak was of the Central/East African genotype which occurred for the first time in Malaysia.

  4. Zebrafish Bioassay-Guided Natural Product Discovery: Isolation of Angiogenesis Inhibitors from East African Medicinal Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Alexander D.; Liekens, Sandra; Kamuhabwa, Appolinary R.; Maes, Jan; Munck, Sebastian; Busson, Roger; Rozenski, Jef; Esguerra, Camila V.; de Witte, Peter A. M.

    2011-01-01

    Natural products represent a significant reservoir of unexplored chemical diversity for early-stage drug discovery. The identification of lead compounds of natural origin would benefit from therapeutically relevant bioassays capable of facilitating the isolation of bioactive molecules from multi-constituent extracts. Towards this end, we developed an in vivo bioassay-guided isolation approach for natural product discovery that combines bioactivity screening in zebrafish embryos with rapid fractionation by analytical thin-layer chromatography (TLC) and initial structural elucidation by high-resolution electrospray mass spectrometry (HRESIMS). Bioactivity screening of East African medicinal plant extracts using fli-1:EGFP transgenic zebrafish embryos identified Oxygonum sinuatum and Plectranthus barbatus as inhibiting vascular development. Zebrafish bioassay-guided fractionation identified the active components of these plants as emodin, an inhibitor of the protein kinase CK2, and coleon A lactone, a rare abietane diterpenoid with no previously described bioactivity. Both emodin and coleon A lactone inhibited mammalian endothelial cell proliferation, migration, and tube formation in vitro, as well as angiogenesis in the chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assay. These results suggest that the combination of zebrafish bioassays with analytical chromatography methods is an effective strategy for the rapid identification of bioactive natural products. PMID:21379387

  5. Precessional(?) Variability in East African Aridity During the Past Few Hundred Thousand Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, J.; Brown, E. T.; Johnson, T. C.; Scholz, C. A.; Cohen, A. S.; King, J.

    2007-12-01

    We used scanning X-ray fluorescence to investigate fluctuations in calcium abundance in the upper 200 m of cores MAL05-1B and 1C recovered by the Lake Malawi Drilling Project from a central lake site. Conspicuous variations in calcium concentrations reflect the abundance of endogenic calcite, which accumulates during periods of relatively dry conditions in the Malawi basin. Major calcium peaks occur at fairly regular intervals down core. The power spectrum of calcium on a depth scale reveals a large concentration of variance in the 20-meter- band. More detailed analyses were undertaken on MAL05-1C which has a well-constrained age-depth model built on radiocarbon, paleointensity, inclination, 10Be, and OSL dating [Scholz et al., in press]. We attribute the cycles of calcium fluctuation in MAL05-1C to monsoonal climate driven by variations in local insolation dominated by eccentricity-modulated precession. Scholz, C.A., T.C. Johnson, A.S. Cohen, J.W. King, J.A. Peck, J.T. Overpeck, M.K. Talbot, E.T. Brown, L. Kalindekafe, P.Y.O. Amoako, R.P. Lyons, T.M. Shanahan, I.S. Castaneda, C.W. Heil, S.L. Forman, L.R. McHargue, K. Beuning, J. Gomez, and J. Pierson, East African megadroughts between 135-75 kyr ago and implications for early human history, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, in press.

  6. Geochemistry of Crystalline Rocks from the East of the Upper East Region of Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.B. Pelig-Ba

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Selected rock samples were collected from outcrops from the eastern part of the Upper East Region with the aim of determining their chemical composition and classification. Samples were obtained from granitoids and the Birrimian formation located in Bongo, Talensi-Nabdam, Bawku West and Garu-Tempane Districts. Rocks were identified mineralogically using hand lenses. The composition of the samples was determined using X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF after which several quantitative and qualitative techniques were employed to analyse the data. Some of these techniques included physical examination, Chemical Alteration Index (CIA, scatter plots, discrimination diagrams and Aluminium Saturation Index (ASI. The mineralogical analysis showed that the rocks generally contained K-feldspar, plagioclase, muscovite, hornblende, quartz and biotite as major minerals. Physical examination revealed that samples had undergone some alteration that was not evident at the time of sampling and this was confirmed by calculations using the Chemical Index of Alteration (CIA. The CIA values of the fresh rocks ranged from 70 to 125 suggesting that the samples had undergone intensive alteration. Scatter plots and discrimination diagrams suggested that the samples were not of basaltic origin but were thoeleiitic in character. The Aluminium Saturation Index (ASI revealed that most samples were metaluminus and that the majority of samples were sub-alkaline and therefore basic in character.

  7. Variability of East African rainfall based on multi-year RegCM3 simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anyah, R.; Semazzi, F.

    2009-04-01

    The International Center for Theoretical Physics(ICTP) regional climate model version 3(ICTP-RegCM3) multi-year simulations of East Africa rainfall during the October-December, short rains season are evaluated. Two parallel runs; based on NCEP reanalysis and NASA FvGCM lateral boundary conditions are performed. The simulated monthly and seasonal rainfall climatology as well as the inter-annual variability are found to be fairly consistent with observations. The model climatology over specific homogeneous climate sub-regions, except central Kenya highlands, also reasonably agree with the observed. The latitude-time evolution(intra-seasonal variability) of the simulated seasonal rainfall exhibits two distinct modes of behavior. The first is a quasi-stationary mode associated with high rainfall throughout the season within the equatorial belt between; 1oS and 2oN. The second mode is associated with the ITCZ-driven southward migration of regions of rainfall maxima as the season progresses, which is also consistent with the observed. Furthermore, observed rainfall variability over distinct homogeneous climate sub-regions is also fairly reproduced by the model, except over central Kenya Highlands and northeastern parts of Kenya. The spatial correlation between simulated seasonal rainfall and some of the global teleconnections(DMI and Nino3.4 indices) show that the regional model conserves some of the observed regional ‘hot spots' where rainfall-ENSO/DMI association are strong. At the same, unlike observations, the model reveals that along the East Africa Rift Valley and over western parts of Lake Victoria Basin, the association is weak, perhaps an indication that non-linear interactions between local forcing (captured by the model) and large scale systems either suppresses or obscures the dominant influence of the teleconnections on rainfall over certain parts.

  8. Attitudes, perceptions, and behaviors toward HIV testing among African American and East African immigrant women in Washington, D.C.: Implications for targeted HIV testing promotion and communication strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Jesus, Maria; Carrete, Claudia; Maine, Cathleen; Nalls, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The objective of the study was to examine and compare the HIV testing attitudes, perceptions, and behaviors between African American and East African immigrant women in the Washington, D.C. Metropolitan area. Methods Adopting an inductive, qualitative methodological approach, we conducted a total of 40 in-depth, semi-structured interviews between October 2012 and March 2013. Qualitative thematic analysis was used to analyze the data. Results Overall, African American women held more favorable views toward HIV testing than East African immigrant women. Very few East African immigrant women sought HIV testing intentionally. The majority of East African participants were tested inadvertently, while others tested for immigration- or employment-related purposes. There were many barriers that impede women from seeking an HIV test including: negative assumptions (e.g., ‘Getting an HIV test implies that I am HIV positive’); negative emotions (e.g., ‘Fear of being diagnosed with HIV and what this will mean for me’); and potential negative reactions from partner or others (e.g., ‘Getting an HIV test can signal distrust, disrespect, or infidelity’). There were nuances in how each group articulated some of these barriers and East African women expressed unique concerns that originated from experiences in their home countries. Conclusions The study shed light into the complexity of factors that constrain women from presenting themselves voluntarily for an HIV test and highlighted the nuances between African American and East African perceptions. Implications of findings for effective targeted HIV screening promotion and communication strategies among these groups of women are discussed. PMID:25897146

  9. Contribution to the Investigation of Structure and Origin of the East African Graben by Gravimetry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tondozi Keto; LIU Tianyou

    2005-01-01

    For our investigation we have 235 measurements done in the east part of Democratic Republic of Congo by P. Herrinck during a magnetic survey including the graben region from the parallel joining Goma city and Mahagi city, the region between Albert and Aka lakes, and the route from Aba to Kinsagani. During the surveys the density of recording points has been selected according to the importance of anomalies. In this way, the offset was 1 km where the disturbance was high in Goma city and 20 km have been sufficient along the route from Aba to Kinsagani. For the topographic and isostatic reductions only one cartographic document has been chosen that was the international map of the scale 1/1 000 000 which presents a certain characteristic of homogeneity.

  10. Relevance of East African Drill Cores to Human Evolution: the Case of the Olorgesailie Drilling Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potts, R.

    2016-12-01

    Drill cores reaching the local basement of the East African Rift were obtained in 2012 south of the Olorgesailie Basin, Kenya, 20 km from excavations that document key benchmarks in the origin of Homo sapiens. Sediments totaling 216 m were obtained from two drilling locations representing the past 1 million years. The cores were acquired to build a detailed environmental record spatially associated with the transition from Acheulean to Middle Stone Age technology and extensive turnover in mammalian species. The project seeks precise tests of how climate dynamics and tectonic events were linked with these transitions. Core lithology (A.K. Behrensmeyer), geochronology (A. Deino), diatoms (R.B. Owen), phytoliths (R. Kinyanjui), geochemistry (N. Rabideaux, D. Deocampo), among other indicators, show evidence of strong environmental variability in agreement with predicted high-eccentricity modulation of climate during the evolutionary transitions. Increase in hominin mobility, elaboration of symbolic behavior, and concurrent turnover in mammalian species indicating heightened adaptability to unpredictable ecosystems, point to a direct link between the evolutionary transitions and the landscape dynamics reflected in the Olorgesailie drill cores. For paleoanthropologists and Earth scientists, any link between evolutionary transitions and environmental dynamics requires robust evolutionary datasets pertinent to how selection, extinction, population divergence, and other evolutionary processes were impacted by the dynamics uncovered in drill core studies. Fossil and archeological data offer a rich source of data and of robust environment-evolution explanations that must be integrated into efforts by Earth scientists who seek to examine high-resolution climate records of human evolution. Paleoanthropological examples will illustrate the opportunities that exist for connecting evolutionary benchmarks to the data obtained from drilled African muds. Project members: R. Potts, A

  11. Hydrological and Vegetation Variability from Mediterranean Leaf Wax Biomarkers Before and After the Rise of East African C4 Grasslands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyers, C.; deMenocal, P. B.; Tierney, J. E.; Polissar, P. J.

    2012-12-01

    Terrestrial and marine paleoclimate records and changes in African fossil mammal taxa indicate that a transition towards more open, C4-dominated grasslands occurred in East Africa near 2 Ma. In contrast, the Mediterranean sapropel record documents pervasive precession-paced wet/dry cycles in the strength of the African monsoon and Nile runoff since at least the late Miocene. This study investigates whether the East African vegetation shift after 2 Ma was accompanied by a change in the monsoonal wet/dry cycle response to orbital precession forcing. We sampled eastern Mediterranean ODP Site 967 at 2-3 ka resolution in two 200 kyr intervals near 3.0 and 1.7 Ma. Nearly identical orbital configurations in these intervals allow us to compare mean conditions and orbital-paced variations before and after the 2 Ma transition. We used leaf wax biomarker concentrations and δD and δ13C compositions as proxies for monsoonal strength and vegetation type, and the δ18O composition of G. ruber as a proxy for Nile River runoff. Leaf wax biomarker concentrations varied over three orders of magnitude, with much higher concentrations in sapropels. During sapropel intervals, large-amplitude negative excursions occur in δDwax, δ13Cwax, and δ18Oruber, corresponding to a strengthened monsoon and less abundant C4 plants. Carbonate-rich intervals have positive isotope excursions indicating a weakened monsoon and more abundant C4 plants. The mean and variance of δDwax and δ13Cwax values are not significantly different between the 3.0 Ma and 1.7 Ma intervals indicating Northern Africa did not experience the vegetation and climate shifts observed in East Africa. While surprising, our finding suggests that the average monsoonal response to precession forcing, and corresponding vegetation variability, did not substantially change across the 2 Ma transition. This implies that North and East Africa exhibited different climate and vegetation behavior since 3 Ma.

  12. The species flocks of East African cichlid fishes: recent advances in molecular phylogenetics and population genetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salzburger, Walter; Meyer, Axel

    With more than 3,000 species, the fish family Cichlidae is one of the most species-rich families of vertebrates. Cichlids occur in southern and central America, Africa, Madagascar, and India. The hotspot of their biodiversity is East Africa, where they form adaptive radiations composed of hundreds of endemic species in several lakes of various sizes and ages. The unparalleled species richness of East African cichlids has been something of a conundrum for evolutionary biologists and ecologists, since it has been in doubt whether these hundreds of species arose by allopatric speciation or whether it is necessary to invoke somewhat less traditional models of speciation, such as micro-allopatric, peripatric, or even sympatric speciation or evolution through sexual selection mediated by female choice. Ernst Mayr's analyses of these evolutionary uniquely diverse species assemblages have contributed to a more direct approach to this problem and have led to a deeper understanding of the patterns and processes that caused the formation of these huge groups of species. We review here recent molecular data on population differentiation and phylogenetics, which have helped to unravel, to some extent, the patterns and processes that led to the formation and ecological maintenance of cichlid species flocks. It is becoming apparent that sexually selected traits do play an important role in speciation in micro-allopatric or even sympatric settings. Species richness seems to be roughly correlated with the surface area, but not the age, of the lakes. We observe that the oldest lineages of a species flock of cichlids are often less species-rich and live in the open water or deepwater habitats. While the species flocks of the Lake Malawai and the Lake Victoria areas were shown to be monophyletic, the cichlid assemblage of Lake Tanganyika seems to consist of several independent species flocks. Cichlids emerge as an evolutionary model system in which many fundamental questions in

  13. Modern Piracy and Regional Security Cooperation in the Maritime Domain: The Middle East and Southeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    Lotfian, “A Regional Security System in the Persian Gulf,” 111–125. 70 Risa Brooks, “Civil Military Relations in the Middle East,” in The Future Security...resources on assuring internal stability. 262 Risa Brooks, “Civil Military Relations in the Middle...December 2004): 480–505. Brooks, Risa . “Civil Military Relations in the Middle East.” In The Future Security Environment in the Middle East: Conflict

  14. Economic values for production and functional traits of Small East African goat using profit functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbuku, Samuel; Kosgey, Isaac; Okeyo, Mwai; Kahi, Alexander

    2014-06-01

    Economic values for production traits (milk yield, MY, g; 12-month live weight, yLW, kg; consumable meat percentage, CM, %) and functional traits (mature doe live weight, DoLW, kg; mature buck live weight, LWb, kg; kidding frequency, KF; pre-weaning survival rate, PrSR, %; post-weaning survival rate, PoSR,%; doe survival rate, DoSR, %; and residual feed intake, RFI, kg) were estimated using profit functions for the Small East African goat. The scenario evaluated was a fixed flock size, and the resultant economic values (Kes per doe per year) were 34.46 (MY), 62.35 (yLW), 40.69 (CM), 0.15 (DoLW), 2.84 (LWb), 8.69 (KF), 17.38 (PrSR), 16.60 (PoSR), 16.69 (DoSR) and -3.00 (RFI). Similarly, the economic values decreased by -14.7 % (MY), -2.7 % (yLW), -23.9 % (CM), -6.6 % (DoLW), -98 % (LWb), -8.6 % (KF), -8.2 % (PrSR), -8.9 % (PoSR), -8.1 % (DoSR) and 0 % (RFI) when they were risk rated. The economic values for production and functional traits, except RFI, were positive, which implies that genetic improvement of these traits would have a positive effect on the profitability in the pastoral production systems. The application of an Arrow-Pratt coefficient of absolute risk aversion (λ) at the level of 0.02 resulted in a decrease on the estimated economic values, implying that livestock keepers who were risk averse were willing to accept lower expected returns. The results indicate that there would be improvement in traits of economic importance, and, therefore, easy-to-manage genetic improvement programmes should be established.

  15. Trading or coercion? Variation in male mating strategies between two communities of East African chimpanzees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaburu, Stefano S K; Newton-Fisher, Nicholas E

    2015-06-01

    Across taxa, males employ a variety of mating strategies, including sexual coercion and the provision, or trading, of resources. Biological market theory (BMT) predicts that trading of commodities for mating opportunities should exist only when males cannot monopolize access to females and/or obtain mating by force, in situations where power differentials between males are low; both coercion and trading have been reported for chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). Here, we investigate whether the choice of strategy depends on the variation in male power differentials, using data from two wild communities of East African chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii): the structurally despotic Sonso community (Budongo, Uganda) and the structurally egalitarian M-group (Mahale, Tanzania). We found evidence of sexual coercion by male Sonso chimpanzees, and of trading-of grooming for mating-by M-group males; females traded sex for neither meat nor protection from male aggression. Our results suggest that the despotism-egalitarian axis influences strategy choice: male chimpanzees appear to pursue sexual coercion when power differentials are large and trading when power differentials are small and coercion consequently ineffective. Our findings demonstrate that trading and coercive strategies are not restricted to particular chimpanzee subspecies; instead, their occurrence is consistent with BMT predictions. Our study raises interesting, and as yet unanswered, questions regarding female chimpanzees' willingness to trade sex for grooming, if doing so represents a compromise to their fundamentally promiscuous mating strategy. It highlights the importance of within-species cross-group comparisons and the need for further study of the relationship between mating strategy and dominance steepness.

  16. Variations in the power dissipation index in the East Asia region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kin Sik; Chan, Johnny C. L.

    2017-03-01

    This study examines the variability of the power dissipation index (PDI) for different regions of the East Asia region during the period 1960-2013. The annual PDI (APDI) in the region is calculated as the sum of the PDI, defined as the cube of the maximum sustained wind speed at landfall of each tropical cyclone (TC) making landfall at that region. Upward and downward trends in APDI are found in the northern and southern parts of East Asia respectively, suggesting a possible northward shift in TC landfall locations. Interdecadal variations of the APDI can also be found in some regions. The APDI in various regions show a close relation with the PDI distribution over the western North Pacific (WNP) with three characteristic patterns. The ENSO and basin-wide mode represents the PDI patterns associated with ENSO events and the overall PDI over the WNP. The east-west dipole mode and the north-south dipole mode denote the east-west and north-south shifts of PDI respectively. Based on the steering flow (average winds within the 850-300 hPa layer) near the East Asian coast, a three-cell model for TC landfall in East Asia is proposed, which corresponds to three major modes of the atmospheric circulation in the WNP. Each of these modes shows an anomalous circulation located east of Taiwan, east of Japan and the South China Sea, respectively and each of which has a significant impact on the APDI in some regions along the coast of East Asia. A northward shift in the APDI along the East Asian coast is identified in the period 1997-2013 as a result of the change in steering flow pattern, northward shift in TC genesis location and weaker vertical wind shear over the ocean near the coastal areas.

  17. Sensitivity of the Regional Climate in the Middle East and North Africa to Volcanic Perturbations

    KAUST Repository

    Dogar, Muhammad Mubashar

    2017-07-27

    The Middle East and North Africa (MENA) regional climate appears to be extremely sensitive to volcanic eruptions. Winter cooling after the 1991 Pinatubo eruption far exceeded the mean hemispheric temperature anomaly, even causing snowfall in Israel. To better understand MENA climate variability, the climate responses to the El Chichón and Pinatubo volcanic eruptions are analyzed using observations, NOAA/NCEP Climate Forecast System Reanalysis, and output from the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory\\'s High-Resolution Atmospheric Model (HiRAM). A multiple regression analysis both for the observations and the model output is performed on seasonal summer and winter composites to separate out the contributions from climate trends, El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO), North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), Indian summer monsoon and volcanic aerosols. Strong regional temperature and precipitation responses over the MENA region are found in both winter and summer. The model and the observations both show that a positive NAO amplifies the MENA volcanic winter cooling. In boreal summer, the patterns of changing temperature and precipitation suggest a weakening and southward shift of the Intertropical Convergence Zone, caused by volcanic surface cooling and weakening of the Indian and West African monsoons. The model captures the main features of the climate response; however, it underestimates the total cooling, especially in winter, and exhibits a different spatial pattern of the NAO climate response in MENA compared to the observations. The conducted analysis sheds light on the internal mechanisms of MENA climate variability and helps to selectively diagnose the model deficiencies.

  18. Quantifying the morphometric variability of monogenetic cones in volcanic fields: the Virunga Volcanic Province, East African Rift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poppe, Sam; Grosse, Pablo; Barette, Florian; Smets, Benoît; Albino, Fabien; Kervyn, François; Kervyn, Matthieu

    2016-04-01

    Volcanic cone fields are generally made up of tens to hundreds of monogenetic cones, sometimes related to larger polygenetic edifices, which can exhibit a wide range of morphologies and degrees of preservation. The Virunga Volcanic Province (VVP) developed itself in a transfer zone which separates two rift segments (i.e. Edward and Kivu rift) within the western branch of the East-African Rift. As the result of volcanic activity related to this tectonic regime of continental extension, the VVP hosts eight large polygenetic volcanoes, surrounded by over 500 monogenetic cones and eruptive fissures, scattered over the vast VVP lava flow fields. Some cones lack any obvious geo-structural link to a specific Virunga volcano. Using recent high-resolution satellite images (SPOT, Pléiades) and a newly created 5-m-resolution digital elevation model (TanDEM-X), we have mapped and classified all monogenetic cones and eruptive fissures of the VVP. We analysed the orientation of all mapped eruptive fissures and, using the MORVOLC program, we calculated a set of morphometric parameters to highlight systematic spatial variations in size or morphometric ratios of the cones. Based upon morphological indicators, we classified the satellite cones into 4 categories: 1. Simple cones with one closed-rim crater; 2. Breached cones with one open-rim crater; 3. Complex cones with two or more interconnected craters and overlapping cones; 4. Other edifices without a distinguishable crater or cone shape (e.g. spatter mounds and levees along eruptive fissures). The results show that cones are distributed in clusters and along alignments, in some cases parallel with the regional tectonic orientations. Contrasts in the volumes of cones positioned on the rift shoulders compared to those located on the rift valley floor can possibly be attributed to contrasts in continental crust thickness. Furthermore, higher average cone slopes in the East-VVP (Bufumbira zone) and central-VVP cone clusters suggest

  19. Update on polio eradication in the World Health Organization South-East Asia Region, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Patrick Michael; Allison, Robert; Thapa, Arun; Bahl, Sunil; Chunsuittiwat, Supamit; Hasan, Mainul; Khan, Zainul; Sedai, Tika

    2014-11-01

    There has been a tremendous amount of progress toward polio eradication in the World Health Organization South-East Asia Region particularly over the past 4 years. In 1988, there were >25,000 reported cases of wild poliovirus infection in the South-East Asia Region, and because of substantial underreporting the estimated polio burden was probably 10-fold higher. Following the initiation of mass polio immunization campaigns in the mid-1990s and years of intense effort, the 11 countries of the South-East Asia Region reported no cases of wild poliovirus infection in 2012. With India reporting the last wild poliovirus case in the region, on 13 January 2011, and its subsequent removal from the list of polio-endemic countries, in February 2012, the South-East Asia Region is firmly on track for polio-free certification in early 2014.

  20. Progress Toward Measles Elimination - African Region, 2013-2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masresha, Balcha G; Dixon, Meredith G; Kriss, Jennifer L; Katsande, Reggis; Shibeshi, Messeret E; Luce, Richard; Fall, Amadou; Dosseh, Annick R G A; Byabamazima, Charles R; Dabbagh, Alya J; Goodson, James L; Mihigo, Richard

    2017-05-05

    In 2011, the 46 World Health Organization (WHO) African Region (AFR) member states established a goal of measles elimination* by 2020, by achieving 1) ≥95% coverage of their target populations with the first dose of measles-containing vaccine (MCV1) at national and district levels; 2) ≥95% coverage with measles-containing vaccine (MCV) per district during supplemental immunization activities (SIAs); and 3) confirmed measles incidence of measles case in ≥80% of districts annually (2). This report updates the previous report (3) and describes progress toward measles elimination in AFR during 2013-2016. Estimated regional MCV1 coverage(†) increased from 71% in 2013 to 74% in 2015.(§) Seven (15%) countries achieved ≥95% MCV1 coverage in 2015.(¶) The number of countries providing a routine second MCV dose (MCV2) increased from 11 (24%) in 2013 to 23 (49%) in 2015. Forty-one (79%) of 52 SIAs** during 2013-2016 reported ≥95% coverage. Both surveillance targets were met in 19 (40%) countries in 2016. Confirmed measles incidence in AFR decreased from 76.3 per 1 million population to 27.9 during 2013-2016. To eliminate measles by 2020, AFR countries and partners need to 1) achieve ≥95% 2-dose MCV coverage through improved immunization services, including second dose (MCV2) introduction; 2) improve SIA quality by preparing 12-15 months in advance, and using readiness, intra-SIA, and post-SIA assessment tools; 3) fully implement elimination-standard surveillance(††); 4) conduct annual district-level risk assessments; and 5) establish national committees and a regional commission for the verification of measles elimination.

  1. Progress toward measles preelimination--African Region, 2011-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masresha, Balcha G; Kaiser, Reinhard; Eshetu, Messeret; Katsande, Reggis; Luce, Richard; Fall, Amadou; Dosseh, Annick R G A; Naouri, Boubker; Byabamazima, Charles R; Perry, Robert; Dabbagh, Alya J; Strebel, Peter; Kretsinger, Katrina; Goodson, James L; Nshimirimana, Deo

    2014-04-04

    In 2008, the 46 member states of the World Health Organization (WHO) African Region (AFR) adopted a measles preelimination goal to reach by the end of 2012 with the following targets: 1) >98% reduction in estimated regional measles mortality compared with 2000, 2) annual measles incidence of fewer than five reported cases per million population nationally, 3) >90% national first dose of measles-containing vaccine (MCV1) coverage and >80% MCV1 coverage in all districts, and 4) >95% MCV coverage in all districts by supplementary immunization activities (SIAs). Surveillance performance objectives were to report two or more cases of nonmeasles febrile rash illness per 100,000 population, one or more suspected measles cases investigated with blood specimens in ≥80% of districts, and 100% completeness of surveillance reporting from all districts. This report updates previous reports and describes progress toward the measles preelimination goal during 2011-2012. In 2012, 13 (28%) member states had >90% MCV1 coverage, and three (7%) reported >90% MCV1 coverage nationally and >80% coverage in all districts. During 2011-2012, four (15%) of 27 SIAs with available information met the target of >95% coverage in all districts. In 2012, 16 of 43 (37%) member states met the incidence target of fewer than five cases per million, and 19 of 43 (44%) met both surveillance performance targets. In 2011, the WHO Regional Committee for AFR established a goal to achieve measles elimination by 2020. To achieve this goal, intensified efforts to identify and close population immunity gaps and improve surveillance quality are needed, as well as committed leadership and ownership of the measles elimination activities and mobilization of adequate resources to complement funding from global partners.

  2. Satellite Gravity Transforms Unmask Tectonic Pattern of Arabian-African Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eppelbaum, Lev; Katz, Youri

    2017-04-01

    tectonic structures: (1) stable zones of continental and oceanic crust, and (2) mobile geotectonic belts. First type is characterized by homogeneous character of gravity field pattern (for instance, East Arabian Craton), whereas second type is characterized by mosaic and variable behavior of gravity field (especially, active rift zones). It should be noted that 'youngest' mobile structure (Alpine-Himalayan orogenic belt and active rift systems of the Red Sea - East Africa) significantly differs in the gravity field pattern from the Mesozoic terrane belt and Neoproterozoic belt. In this investigation six satellite gravity transforms (SGT) are described: multidimensional statistical analysis (MSA) by the use of sliding window, low-pass filtering, informational approach, gradient operator, entropy processing by sliding window of adaptive form, and 3D inverse methods. Application of the MSA enabled not only to delineate geodynamical parameters of the studied region (collision zone at the boundary between the Arabian and Eurasian Plates, and active rift zones between the Arabian, Nubian and Somalian Plates, etc.), but also to estimate generalized properties of the Earth's crust. Results of MSA employment clearly show zone of development of the oceanic crust of the Easternmost Mediterranean and zone of oceanic crust of the Gulf of Aden and eastern (oceanic) part of the Somalian Plate. Besides this, in this map the Arabian and East African active rift zones and collision zone between the Arabian and Eurasian Plates are visibly traced. Applied low-pass gravity field filtering enabled to recognize the most contrast crust-mantle structures. For example, the Afar triangle zone is clearly detected. Zones of the Neotethys closing Eastern Mediterranean, Persian Gulf, Zagros Fault Zone and South Caspian Basin can be easily identified. Subduction zones associated with the plate boundaries are reflected by elongated gradient pattern. These nonstable zones are conjugated with large mobile

  3. INSIDE THE NUMBERS: USING PRIVATE COMMERCIAL DATA TO ANALYZE EAST AFRICAN IMPORTED SOAP CONSUMPTION, 1870-1914

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laird Jones

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Social historians identify soap as a “new need,” and argue its consumption indicates changing notions of bodily cleanliness, beauty and status. Relying largely on qualitative evidence such as traveler and missionary accounts, print advertising and oral interviews, they contend African soap use was influenced by Christian missions, colonial education and branding in the marketplace. Quantitative evidence – limited customs data – neither confirms nor challenges this position. More detailed commercial records, however, paint a somewhat different picture. The East African correspondence of William O’Swald & Co. indicates that soap marketing predated both Christian missions and colonial influence. Further, general purpose laundry soap was the overwhelming best seller. Personal toilette soaps lagged far behind. Laundering imported cotton textiles appeared the motive for initial soap purchases, and perhaps also the first step toward later personal soap use.

  4. Regional Disease Vector Ecology Profile: The Middle East

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-10-01

    venomous snakes are represented in the Middle East; these are the Atractaspididae, Viperidae, Crotalidae, Colubridae, Elapidae , and Hydrophiidae... Elapidae contains one species of krait (the blue krait, Bungarus caeruleus) and six species of cobras. The venom of snakes of this family is...COLUBRIDAE Malpolon monspessulanus + + + + + + + CROTALIDAE Agkistrodon spp. + ELAPIDAE

  5. Lassa fever in West African sub-region: an overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Ogbu

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Lassa fever is an acute viral zoonotic illness caused by Lassa virus, an arenavirus known to beresponsible for a severe haemorrhagic fever characterised by fever, muscle aches, sore throat, nausea,vomiting and, chest and abdominal pain. The virus exhibits persistent, asymptomatic infection withprofuse urinary virus excretion in the ubiquitous rodent vector, Mastomys natalensis. Lassa fever isendemic in West Africa and has been reported from Sierra Leone, Guinea, Liberia, and Nigeria. Somestudies indicate that 300,000 to 500,000 cases of Lassa fever and 5000 deaths occur yearly across WestAfrica. Studies reported in English, that investigated Lassa fever with reference to West Africa wereidentified using the Medline Entrez-PubMed search and were used for this review. The scarcity ofresources available for health care delivery system and the political instability that characterise theWest African countries would continue to impede efforts for the control of Lassa fever in the sub-region.There is need for adequate training of health care workers regarding diagnostics, intensive care ofpatients under isolation, contact tracing, adequate precautionary measures in handling infectiouslaboratory specimens, control of the vector as well as care and disposal of infectious waste.

  6. Lassa fever in West African sub-region: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogbu, O; Ajuluchukwu, E; Uneke, C J

    2007-03-01

    Lassa fever is an acute viral zoonotic illness caused by Lassa virus, an arenavirus known to be responsible for a severe haemorrhagic fever characterised by fever, muscle aches, sore throat, nausea, vomiting and, chest and abdominal pain. The virus exhibits persistent, asymptomatic infection with profuse urinary virus excretion in the ubiquitous rodent vector, Mastomys natalensis. Lassa fever is endemic in West Africa and has been reported from Sierra Leone, Guinea, Liberia, and Nigeria. Some studies indicate that 300,000 to 500,000 cases of Lassa fever and 5000 deaths occur yearly across West Africa. Studies reported in English, that investigated Lassa fever with reference to West Africa were identified using the Medline Entrez-PubMed search and were used for this review. The scarcity of resources available for health care delivery system and the political instability that characterise the West African countries would continue to impede efforts for the control of Lassa fever in the sub-region. There is need for adequate training of health care workers regarding diagnostics, intensive care of patients under isolation, contact tracing, adequate precautionary measures in handling infectious laboratory specimens, control of the vector as well as care and disposal of infectious waste.

  7. Educational Tourism in Protected Natural Areas in South-East of the Baikal Region

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Vera Chizhova; Sergey Kirillov; Mikchail Slipenchuk

    2016-01-01

    The paper presents the implementation of the strategy of development of tourism in the south-east of the Baikal region on the territory of the Baikal Biosphere reserve and its subordinate federal sanctuaries...

  8. East Asian Seas Regional Climatology Version 2.0 from 1804 to 2014 (NODC Accession 0123300)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The East Asian Seas Regional Climatology Version 2.0 is an update to the preliminary version released in May 2012. This update includes new temperature and salinity...

  9. International trade, regional integration and food security in the Middle East:

    OpenAIRE

    1995-01-01

    Against the background of increasing interest in closer economic relations in the Middle East, the contribution that greater integration of markets might make to improving food security in the region is investigated, using a quantitative framework for gauging the reduction in instability of market supplies for cereal, meat, and dairy commodities under regional cooperation schemes versus more general policies to increase the integration of Middle East markets with markets in Western Europe and...

  10. POTENTIAL AND LIMITS OF RENEWABLE ENERGY IN THE CENTRAL AND SOUTH-EAST EUROPE REGION

    OpenAIRE

    CIRLEA Filip; Iancu, Iulian

    2012-01-01

    Renewable energy sources (solar power, wind power, hydroenergy, biomass, biofuels) with energy efficiency contribute to increasing security of electricity supply, competitiveness and sustainable development. The countries of the Central and South-East Europe region must to develop a focus on alternative energy sources and on energy efficiency and energy saving. Developing the renewable energy sector in a sustainable manner in the Central and South-East Europe region would enhance security of ...

  11. Estimated macronutrient and fatty acid intakes from an East African Paleolithic diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuipers, Remko S; Luxwolda, Martine F; Dijck-Brouwer, D A Janneke; Eaton, S Boyd; Crawford, Michael A; Cordain, Loren; Muskiet, Frits A J

    2010-12-01

    Our genome adapts slowly to changing conditions of existence. Many diseases of civilisation result from mismatches between our Paleolithic genome and the rapidly changing environment, including our diet. The objective of the present study was to reconstruct multiple Paleolithic diets to estimate the ranges of nutrient intakes upon which humanity evolved. A database of, predominantly East African, plant and animal foods (meat/fish) was used to model multiple Paleolithic diets, using two pathophysiological constraints (i.e. protein 1.0 en%), at known hunter-gatherer plant/animal food intake ratios (range 70/30-30/70 en%/en%). We investigated selective and non-selective savannah, savannah/aquatic and aquatic hunter-gatherer/scavenger foraging strategies. We found (range of medians in en%) intakes of moderate-to-high protein (25-29), moderate-to-high fat (30-39) and moderate carbohydrates (39-40). The fatty acid composition was SFA (11.4-12.0), MUFA (5.6-18.5) and PUFA (8.6-15.2). The latter was high in α-linolenic acid (ALA) (3.7-4.7 en%), low in LA (2.3-3.6 en%), and high in long-chain PUFA (LCP; 4.75-25.8 g/d), LCP n-3 (2.26-17.0 g/d), LCP n-6 (2.54-8.84 g/d), ALA/LA ratio (1.12-1.64 g/g) and LCP n-3/LCP n-6 ratio (0.84-1.92 g/g). Consistent with the wide range of employed variables, nutrient intakes showed wide ranges. We conclude that compared with Western diets, Paleolithic diets contained consistently higher protein and LCP, and lower LA. These are likely to contribute to the known beneficial effects of Paleolithic-like diets, e.g. through increased satiety/satiation. Disparities between Paleolithic, contemporary and recommended intakes might be important factors underlying the aetiology of common Western diseases. Data on Paleolithic diets and lifestyle, rather than the investigation of single nutrients, might be useful for the rational design of clinical trials.

  12. Geomorphologic proxies for bedrock rivers: A case study from the Rwenzori Mountains, East African Rift system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Liang; Gani, Nahid D.; Abdelsalam, Mohamed G.

    2017-05-01

    Geomorphic proxies yield useful insights into understanding long-term endogenic and exogenic response to erosion and/or rock uplift rates. By evaluating areal proxies (including asymmetry factor (AF), mountain front sinuosity (Smf), hypsometric integral (HI), geophysical relief, and shape factor (Shp), and linear proxies (including normalized steepness index (ksn), length-gradient index (SLk) and Chi gradient (Mχ), the erosion and/or rock uplift rates can be quantified. We carried out morphotectonic analysis in the Rwenzori Mountains, which represents an anomalously uplifted Precambrian horst within the western branch of the East African Rift system (EARS). This study aims to: (1) evaluate the relationship between geomorphic proxies and drainage basin's maturity; (2) evaluate the usefulness of geomorphic proxies as recorders of erosion and/or rock uplift rates; (3) evaluate the sensitivity of each geomorphic proxy to the drainage basin size and geometry, stream order, glaciers extent, and local structures; (4) explore internal correlation within the geomorphic proxies; and (5) contribute to the understanding of morphotectonic evolution of the Rwenzori Mountains. For this, we computed the stream's 'Good of Fitness' (R2, an indicator of the drainage basin's maturity) and geomorphic proxies for the drainage basins and their streams in the Rwenzori Mountains from the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) digital elevation model (DEM). Subsequently, we correlated the areal geomorphic proxies with each other and with R2. Also, we correlated the linear geomorphic proxies with each other and with published erosion rates obtained from cosmogenic 10Be analysis. Our results show that the areal geomorphic proxies (AF, Smf, HI, relief, and Shp) - considering the drainage basin size and geometry, stream order, glacier extent, and local structures - can be applied to locally evaluate the maturity of the drainage basin. We also found that the

  13. Historical volcanism and the state of stress in the East African Rift System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoffrey Wadge

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Crustal extension at the East African Rift System (EARS should, as a tectonic ideal, involve a stress field in which the direction of minimum horizontal stress is perpendicular to the rift. A volcano in such a setting should produce dykes and fissures parallel to the rift. How closely do the volcanoes of the EARS follow this? We answer this question by studying the 21 volcanoes that have erupted historically (since about 1800 and find that 7 match the (approximate geometrical ideal. At the other 14 volcanoes the orientation of the eruptive fissures/dykes and/or the axes of the host rift segments are oblique to the ideal values. To explain the eruptions at these volcanoes we invoke local (non-plate tectonic variations of the stress field caused by: crustal heterogeneities and anisotropies (dominated by NW structures in the Protoerozoic basement, transfer zone tectonics at the ends of offset rift segments, gravitational loading by the volcanic edifice (typically those with 1-2 km relief and magmatic pressure in central reservoirs. We find that the more oblique volcanoes tend to have large edifices, large eruptive volumes and evolved and mixed magmas capable of explosive behaviour. Nine of the volcanoes have calderas of varying ellipticity, 6 of which are large, reservoir-collapse types mainly elongated across rift (e.g. Kone and 3 are smaller, elongated parallel to the rift and contain active lava lakes (e.g. Erta Ale, suggesting different mechanisms of formation and stress fields. Nyamuragira is the only EARS volcano with enough sufficiently well-documented eruptions to infer its long-term dynamic behaviour. Eruptions within 7 km of the volcano are of relatively short duration (<100 days, but eruptions with more distal fissures tend to have greater obliquity and longer durations, indicating a changing stress field away from the volcano. There were major changes in long-term magma extrusion rates in 1977 (and perhaps in 2002 due to major along

  14. Historical volcanism and the state of stress in the East African Rift System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadge, Geoffrey; Biggs, Juliet; Lloyd, Ryan; Kendall, Michael

    2016-09-01

    Crustal extension at the East African Rift System (EARS) should, as a tectonic ideal, involve a stress field in which the direction of minimum horizontal stress is perpendicular to the rift. A volcano in such a setting should produce dykes and fissures parallel to the rift. How closely do the volcanoes of the EARS follow this? We answer this question by studying the 21 volcanoes that have erupted historically (since about 1800) and find that 7 match the (approximate) geometrical ideal. At the other 14 volcanoes the orientation of the eruptive fissures/dykes and/or the axes of the host rift segments are oblique to the ideal values. To explain the eruptions at these volcanoes we invoke local (non-plate tectonic) variations of the stress field caused by: crustal heterogeneities and anisotropies (dominated by NW structures in the Protoerozoic basement), transfer zone tectonics at the ends of offset rift segments, gravitational loading by the volcanic edifice (typically those with 1-2 km relief) and magmatic pressure in central reservoirs. We find that the more oblique volcanoes tend to have large edifices, large eruptive volumes and evolved and mixed magmas capable of explosive behaviour. Nine of the volcanoes have calderas of varying ellipticity, 6 of which are large, reservoir-collapse types mainly elongated across rift (e.g. Kone) and 3 are smaller, elongated parallel to the rift and contain active lava lakes (e.g. Erta Ale), suggesting different mechanisms of formation and stress fields. Nyamuragira is the only EARS volcano with enough sufficiently well-documented eruptions to infer its long-term dynamic behaviour. Eruptions within 7 km of the volcano are of relatively short duration (<100 days), but eruptions with more distal fissures tend to have greater obliquity and longer durations, indicating a changing stress field away from the volcano. There were major changes in long-term magma extrusion rates in 1977 (and perhaps in 2002) due to major along-rift dyking

  15. Constraints to estimating the prevalence of trypanosome infections in East African zebu cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cox Andrew P

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In East Africa, animal trypanosomiasis is caused by many tsetse transmitted protozoan parasites including Trypanosoma vivax, T. congolense and subspecies of T. brucei s.l. (T. b. brucei and zoonotic human infective T. b. rhodesiense that may co-circulate in domestic and wild animals. Accurate species-specific prevalence measurements of these parasites in animal populations are complicated by mixed infections of trypanosomes within individual hosts, low parasite densities and difficulties in conducting field studies. Many Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR based diagnostic tools are available to characterise and quantify infection in animals. These are important for assessing the contribution of infections in animal reservoirs and the risk posed to humans from zoonotic trypanosome species. New matrices for DNA capture have simplified large scale field PCR analyses but few studies have examined the impact of these techniques on prevalence estimations. Results The Whatman FTA matrix has been evaluated using a random sample of 35 village zebu cattle from a population naturally exposed to trypanosome infection. Using a generic trypanosome-specific PCR, prevalence was systematically evaluated. Multiple PCR samples taken from single FTA cards demonstrated that a single punch from an FTA card is not sufficient to confirm the infectivity status of an individual animal as parasite DNA is unevenly distributed across the card. At low parasite densities in the host, this stochastic sampling effect results in underestimation of prevalence based on single punch PCR testing. Repeated testing increased the estimated prevalence of all Trypanosoma spp. from 9.7% to 86%. Using repeat testing, a very high prevalence of pathogenic trypanosomes was detected in these local village cattle: T. brucei (34.3%, T. congolense (42.9% and T. vivax (22.9%. Conclusions These results show that, despite the convenience of Whatman FTA cards and specific PCR based

  16. Empowerment model for nurse leaders' participation in health policy development: an east African perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shariff, Nilufa Jivraj

    2015-01-01

    Nurses comprise the largest portion of the health care workforce in most countries; they interact closely with patients and communities, they work throughout the day and within all sectors of health care. Their breath of practice gives them a broad understanding of requirements of the health care system, of how factors in the environment affect the health outcomes of clients and communities. Nurses' involvement in health policy development ensures that health services are: safe, effective, available and inexpensive. A Delphi survey was utilized and included the following criteria: expert panelists, three iterative rounds, qualitative and quantitative analysis, and building consensus. The overall aim of the study was to develop "An Empowerment Model for Nurse Leaders' participation in Health Policy Development". The study included purposively selected sample of national nurse leaders from the three East African countries of Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda. The study was conducted in three iterative rounds. Data collection tools were questionnaires. Data analysis was done by examining the data for the most commonly occurring concepts in the first round and descriptive statistics in the second and third rounds. The findings of the study support the development of the "Empowerment Model for Nurse Leaders' Participation in Health Policy Development". Further the study identified that there was a significant gap in and barriers to participation in health policy activity and that an opportunity seems to exist to enable and develop nurse leaders' role and involvement in this respect. There was consensus on factors considered to be facilitators and barriers to nurse leaders' involvement in health policy development. Furthermore, consensus was achieved on essential leadership attributes that enhance nurse leaders' participation in health policy development. The model was validated a small sample of the nurse leaders' who participated in the study. The model provides a framework

  17. Late Quaternary behavior of the East African monsoon and the importance of the Congo Air Boundary

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tierney, J.; Russell, J.M.; Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Huang, Y.S.; Verschuren, D.

    2011-01-01

    Both Atlantic and Indian Ocean climate dynamics exert influence over tropical African hydroclimate, producing complex patterns of convergence and precipitation. To isolate the Indian Ocean influence on African paleohydrology, we analyzed the deuterium/hydrogen ratio of higher plant leaf waxes (delta

  18. Late Quaternary behavior of the East African monsoon and the importance of the Congo Air Boundary

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tierney, J.E.; Russell, J.M.; Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Huang, Y.S.; Verschuren, D.

    2011-01-01

    Both Atlantic and Indian Ocean climate dynamics exert influence over tropical African hydroclimate, producing complex patterns of convergence and precipitation. To isolate the Indian Ocean influence on African paleohydrology, we analyzed the deuterium/hydrogen ratio of higher plant leaf waxes (δDwax

  19. Late Quaternary behavior of the East African monsoon and the importance of the Congo Air Boundary

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tierney, J.; Russell, J.M.; Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Huang, Y.S.; Verschuren, D.

    2011-01-01

    Both Atlantic and Indian Ocean climate dynamics exert influence over tropical African hydroclimate, producing complex patterns of convergence and precipitation. To isolate the Indian Ocean influence on African paleohydrology, we analyzed the deuterium/hydrogen ratio of higher plant leaf waxes (delta

  20. From Lake Malawi Drilling: East African Climate May Have Caused Major Evolutionary Turnover in Mammalian Species During MIS 14

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Thomas; Werne, Josef

    2016-04-01

    interglacial periods alternating with relatively cool, dry glacial periods. One of the coldest, and most prolonged dry periods of the last million years in the Malawi basin occurred around 540 ka (MIS 14). This perturbation in the climate may have been a factor in the substantial mammalian extinctions and increased cranial capacity of Homo that occurred during this time. As more long-term, high-resolution histories of climate are recovered from the other great lakes of East Africa, we will be able to address key questions raised by the Malawi record, e.g., the extent of the rift valley that shifted to wetter conditions over the past million years, and whether MIS 14 was an unusually cold ice age throughout the region. Future drilling campaigns on the East African Great Lakes will offer unique opportunities to understand the changing landscape where our ancestors evolved, migrated, and advanced their cultures.

  1. The African Standby Force and Regional Security Integration on the Horn of Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mandrup, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    African Standby Force is one of five regional structures that are intended to provide robust tools to the continental conflict management regime. In the book The Future of African Peace Operations from 2016, de Coning et al. shows the changing nature and role of African Peace Operations (Coning , Gelot......, & Karlsrud, 2016). They also ask the key question about the future of the African Standby Force, and end by asking an open and important question: how should the future force be structured and equipped to enable it to deal effectively with the hybrid threats that confront African states, which have...... announced that they expected the five regionally based standby brigades to be fully operational by December 2015. Their readiness was tested in the continental field exercise, Amani Africa II, that took place in South Africa in October-November 2015 (Defence Web, 2015) The exercise successfully tested both...

  2. Statistical Confrontation of the Evolution of Tourism in the North East Region in Comparison with the other Regions of Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Arionesei

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is the analysis of the tourist activity in the North East region, compared to the other development regions of Romania, throughout the period 1990-2014.. The research was performed through a system of tourism indicators applied in the Romanian regions, obtained from the National Institute of Statistics. This comparative analysis was carried out using the statistical method called ANOVA and the Post Hoc – Games-Howell test. In order to achieve the objective, our study implied the analysis of several relevant indicators for tourism: the accommodation capacity, the number of arrivals, the number of overnight stays, the length of stay and the net use of accommodation capacity index. Processing the data related to a period of twenty-five years, the analysis allowed to draw conclusions about the existence of differences between the values of indicators across regions. The comparative analysis of the available data reflected a number of differences between the North East region and the other regions of Romania, the North East region recording lower values for the analyzed indicators, while South East and Central regions hold significantly higher values than the other regions, for the majority of indicators.

  3. Molecular genome tracking of East, Central and South African genotype of Chikungunya virus in South-east Asia between 2006 and 2009

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kamol Suwannakarn; Apiradee Theamboonlers; Yong Poovorawan

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To understand the epidemiology of the East, Central and South African(ECSA) genotype of Chikungunya virus(CHIKV)in terms of emerging and re-emerging infections, this study has been aimed at investigating the evolutionary parameters, genomic signatures and molecular tracking of theCHIKV ECSA genotype in South-east Asia and coastal areas of the Indian Ocean between 2006 and 2009 by using phylogenetic analysis and the Bayesian Markov Chain Monte Carlo (BMCMC) evolutionary estimation.Methods: Nearly complete genome sequences of53 CHIKV isolates from all genotypes were subjected to phylogenetic analysis and evolutionary parameter estimation. The amino acids of67of ECSA genotype during2006 to2009 were compared for finding molecular signature tracking. The ECSA genotype signatures were visualized to find the possible transmission root was projected onto a geographic map.Results:Phylogenetic analysis showed theECSA genotype was divided into2 groups. The first group comprises viruses from India and Southeast Asian countries. The second group consists of strains typically circulating in Sri Lanka in2008. The evolutionary parameters of these groups depicted the time of the most recent common ancestor at approximately 7.5years ago. The genomic signatures revealed the positions of amino acid variation in each group.Conclusions:The molecular evolution projected onto a geographical map showed the routes ofCHIKVtransmission from 2006 to2009. Molecular tracking will assist in understanding transmission routes, epidemiology and molecular evolution ofCHIKV.

  4. A Comparative Analysis of Institutional Capacities for Implementing Disability Policies in East African Countries: Functions of National Councils for Disability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akiko Yokoyama

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available During the “African Decade of Persons with Disabilities (2000-2009”, East African countries witnessed significant achievements, especially in the development of law, collection of statistics and in funding. However, many persons with disability are still marginalised from opportunities in education, healthcare and employment.Purpose: With the pre-supposition that the lack of institutional capacities for implementing disability policies is the one major stumbling-block which hinders widespread delivery of social services to persons with disabilities in low-income countries, this study makes a comparative analysis of institutional capacities in the disability sectors of Uganda, Kenya and Tanzania.Method: The research methods adopted were a literature survey and a field survey. The framework for analysis consists of: 1 capacities and functions of disability units in central governments, 2 relationships between central and local governments in the disability sector, and 3 relationships between governments and organisations of persons with disability (DPOs. Special attention is paid to the status, roles and functions of national councils for disability (NCDs, the independent statutory bodies recently established in each of the three countries, with clear authority and duties for the implementation of disability policies. The NCDs enable multi-sectoral stakeholders to be involved in the implementation of disability policies; therefore, positive relationships between the governments and DPOs are essential for the smooth functioning of the NCDs.Results: While the result of the field survey in Tanzania reveals several effective approaches for the smooth operation of the NCD, further study is needed to verify whether these approaches would be applicable to other East African countries such as Kenya and Uganda.doi 10.5463/DCID.v23i2.106

  5. [Gene geography of Chile: regional distribution of American, European and African genetic contributions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes, Macarena; Pulgar, Iván; Gallo, Carla; Bortolini, María-Cátira; Canizales-Quinteros, Samuel; Bedoya, Gabriel; González-José, Rolando; Ruiz-Linares, Andrés; Rothhammer, Francisco

    2014-03-01

    The geographical distribution of genes plays a key role in genetic epidemiology. The Chilean population has three major stem groups (Native American, European and African). To estimate the regional rate of American, European and African admixture of the Chilean population. Forty single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP´s) which exhibit substantially different frequencies between Amerindian populations (ancestry-informative markers or AIM´s), were genotyped in a sample of 923 Chilean participants to estimate individual genetic ancestry. The American, European and African individual average admixture estimates for the 15 Chilean Regions were relatively homogeneous and not statistically different. However, higher American components were found in northern and southern Chile and higher European components were found in central Chile. A negative correlation between African admixture and latitude was observed. On the average, American and European genetic contributions were similar and significantly higher than the African contribution. Weighted mean American, European and African genetic contributions of 44.34% ± 3 9%, 51.85% ± 5.44% and 3.81% ± 0.45%, were estimated. Fifty two percent of subjects harbor African genes. Individuals with Aymara and Mapuche surnames have an American admixture of 58.64% and 68.33%, respectively. Half of the Chilean population harbors African genes. Participants with Aymara and Mapuche surnames had a higher American genetic contribution than the general Chilean population. These results confirm the usefulness of surnames as a first approximation to determine genetic ancestry.

  6. Regional Modeling of Dust Mass Balance and Radiative Forcing over East Asia using WRF-Chem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Siyu; Zhao, Chun; Qian, Yun; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Huang, J.; Huang, Zhongwei; Bi, Jianrong; Zhang, Wu; Shi, Jinsen; Yang, Lei; Li, Deshuai; Li, Jinxin

    2014-12-01

    The Weather Research and Forecasting model with Chemistry (WRF-Chem) is used to investigate the seasonal and annual variations of mineral dust over East Asia during 2007-2011, with a focus on the dust mass balance and radiative forcing. A variety of measurements from in-stu and satellite observations have been used to evaluate simulation results. Generally, WRF-Chem reproduces not only the column variability but also the vertical profile and size distribution of mineral dust over and near the dust source regions of East Asia. We investigate the dust lifecycle and the factors that control the seasonal and spatial variations of dust mass balance and radiative forcing over the seven sub-regions of East Asia, i.e. source regions, the Tibetan Plateau, Northern China, Southern China, the ocean outflow region, and Korea-Japan regions. Results show that, over the source regions, transport and dry deposition are the two dominant sinks. Transport contributes to ~30% of the dust sink over the source regions. Dust results in a surface cooling of up to -14 and -10 W m-2, atmospheric warming of up to 20 and 15 W m-2, and TOA cooling of -5 and -8 W m-2 over the two major dust source regions of East Asia, respectively. Over the Tibetan Plateau, transport is the dominant source with a peak in summer. Over identified outflow regions, maximum dust mass loading in spring is contributed by the transport. Dry and wet depositions are the comparably dominant sinks, but wet deposition is larger than dry deposition over the Korea-Japan region, particularly in spring (70% versus 30%). The WRF-Chem simulations can generally capture the measured features of dust aerosols and its radaitve properties and dust mass balance over East Asia, which provides confidence for use in further investigation of dust impact on climate over East Asia.

  7. Quantification of African cassava mosaic virus (ACMV) and East African cassava mosaic virus (EACMV-UG) in single and mixed infected Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) using quantitative PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naseem, Saadia; Winter, Stephan

    2016-01-01

    The quantity of genomic DNA-A and DNA-B of African cassava mosaic virus (ACMV) and East African cassava mosaic virus Uganda (Uganda variant, EACMV-UG) was analysed using quantitative PCR to assess virus concentrations in plants from susceptible and tolerant cultivars. The concentrations of genome components in absolute and relative quantification experiments in single and mixed viral infections were determined. Virus concentration was much higher in symptomatic leaf tissues compared to non-symptomatic leaves and corresponded with the severity of disease symptoms. In general, higher titres were recorded for EACMV-UG Ca055 compared to ACMV DRC6. The quantitative assessment also showed that the distribution of both viruses in the moderately resistant cassava cv. TMS 30572 was not different from the highly susceptible cv. TME 117. Natural mixed infections with both viruses gave severe disease symptoms. Relative quantification of virus genomes in mixed infections showed higher concentrations of EACMV-UG DNA-A compared to ACMV DNA-A, but a marked reduction of EACMV-UG DNA-B. The higher concentrations of EACMV-UG DNA-B compared to EACMV DNA-A accumulation in single infections were consistent. Since DNA-B is implicated in virus cell-to-cell spread and systemic movement, the abundance of the EACMV-UG DNA-B may be an important factor driving cassava mosaic disease epidemic.

  8. Intravenous drug abuse and tricuspid valve endocarditis: Growing trends in the Middle East Gulf region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panduranga, Prashanth; Al-Abri, Seif; Al-Lawati, Jawad

    2013-11-26

    Traditionally, tricuspid valve endocarditis is uncommon in the Middle East region. However, recent global data indicate growing trends in the use of illicit drug abuse, specifically injectable heroin, in the Middle East Gulf region. The presence of many transit port services in the Middle East Gulf States has led to smuggling of substance abuse drugs in the region. The Middle East Gulf States, currently a transit market, are also becoming a growing consumer market in view of the increased substance abuse in the youth. However, there is a paucity of data with respect to the prevalence or incidence of tricuspid valve endocarditis in the region, probably due to underdiagnosis or underreporting. A high index of suspicion of tricuspid valve endocarditis is essential in patients with a history of intravenous drug abuse. This article reviews the epidemiology of illicit drug abuse in the Middle East Gulf region, as well as the diagnosis and treatment of tricuspid valve endocarditis, and calls for all physicians in the region to be vigilant while dealing with intravenous drug abuse.

  9. Socioeconomic Differences in Dietary Patterns in an East African Country: Evidence from the Republic of Seychelles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayén, Ana-Lucia; Bovet, Pascal; Marti-Soler, Helena; Viswanathan, Bharathi; Gedeon, Jude; Paccaud, Fred; Marques-Vidal, Pedro; Stringhini, Silvia

    2016-01-01

    Background In high income countries, low socioeconomic status (SES) is related to unhealthier dietary patterns, while evidence on the social patterning of diet in low and middle income countries is scarce. Objective In this study, we assess dietary patterns in the general population of a middle income country in the African region, the Republic of Seychelles, and examine their distribution according to educational level and income. Methods Data was drawn from two independent national surveys conducted in the Seychelles among adults aged 25–64 years in 2004 (n = 1236) and 2013 (n = 1240). Dietary patterns were assessed by principal component analysis (PCA). Educational level and income were used as SES indicators. Data from both surveys were combined as no interaction was found between SES and year. Results Three dietary patterns were identified: “snacks and drinks”, “fruit and vegetables” and “fish and rice”. No significant associations were found between SES and the “snacks and drinks” pattern. Low vs. high SES individuals had lower adherence to the “fruit and vegetables” pattern [prevalence ratio (95% CI) 0.71 (0.60–0.83)] but a higher adherence to the traditional “fish and rice” pattern [1.58 (1.32–1.88)]. Income modified the association between education and the “fish and rice” pattern (p = 0.02), whereby low income individuals had a higher adherence to this pattern in both educational groups. Conclusion Low SES individuals have a lower consumption of fruit and vegetables, but a higher consumption of traditional foods like fish and rice. The Seychelles may be at a degenerative diseases stage of the nutrition transition. PMID:27214139

  10. East Asian Regionalisms and Korea in the 1940’s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byong Kwon Song

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper seeks to consider the various types of regionalisms in East Asia during the 1940’s, and Korea’s position in the United States’ “Great China Policy” and demilitarization and democratization plans for Japan. After World War II, although aspects of regionalism were formed by the Cold War in East Asia, the regional structure of Northeast Asia was originally formed from the ‘turn of the century’ through the Asian Pacific War. From the beginning of the 1940’s, Japan promoted the idea of a “Greater East Asia Co-prosperity Sphere” in order to justify its hegemonic position in the East Asian regional order. In addition, the United States and Japan’s readjustment plans appeared to be related to strategies regarding the regional order of East Asia. During World War II, the victorious U.S. had already become one of the world’s superpowers and by principle, collaboration between the superpowers (United States, Great Britain, China, and the Soviet Union revealed an initiative for a four country police state. Japan devised a survival strategy in the case of its defeat. During the war in the early 1940’s, these policies and plans were used to recognize Großraum around the East Asian region. This paper points out the significance of the 1940’s and the continuity between the awareness of the wartime situation and the prospective situation during the postwar period. During the 1940’s, three forms of regionalism in East Asia appeared. The first was Japan’s regional hegemony over the East Asian regional order. In order to preserve regional hegemony, Imperial Japan gave specific meaning to Korea as an extension of its own economy. The second is based on the United States as an offshore hegemonic power, which chose China as a subordinate partner within East Asia and used the division of labor through sub-horizontal industry based on an initiative to suppress Japan. In order to weaken the economic dominance of Japanese Empire

  11. Electrifying Integration: Electricity Production And The South-East Europe Regional Energy Market

    OpenAIRE

    Hooper, E; Medvedev, A.

    2008-01-01

    The paper provides an overview of the generation of electricity in 10 countries in South East Europe during 1995-2004. Using the latest available statistics the potential of the nascent integration of the electricity markets in South East Europe is explored. We conduct a cross-country analysis of electricity production based on different types of fuel used. The region has a low level of gasification combined with few nuclear power generation facilities, while some countries heavily rely on hy...

  12. Imprints of a Pan-African transpressional orogen superimposed on an inferred Grenvillian accretionary belt in central East Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraccioli, Fausto; Seddon, Samuel; Finn, Carol; Bell, Robin; Wu, Guochao; Jordan, Tom

    2017-04-01

    The Gamburtsev Subglacial Mountains in interior East Antarctica are underlain by 50-60 km thick crust imaged by gravity and seismic models (Ferraccioli et al., 2011; An et al., 2015). In contrast, the composite Archean to Mesoproterozoic Mawson craton that occupies the Wilkes and Terre Adelie sector of East Antarctica typically features only 40-45 km thick crust (Aitken et al., 2014). Over 200 km thick and seismically fast lithosphere underlies the Gamburtsev Province, as typically observed over Precambrian lithosphere that has not been substantially reworked during Phanerozoic subduction or collision. Satellite and airborne magnetic data indicate that the Gamburtev Province is sandwiched in between distinct Precambrian lithospheric blocks including the Ruker, Princess Elizabeth Land, Vostok, Nimrod (Goodge and Finn, 2010), South Pole and Recovery provinces. Ferraccioli et al., (2011) proposed that a segment of a stalled orogen (i.e. an orogen where widespread orogenic collapse and root delamination has not occurred) is preserved in the Gamburtsev Province and further hypothesised that its origin relates to widespread accretionary and subsequent collisional events at ca 1 Ga, linked to the assembly of the Rodinia supercontinent. However, recent passive seismic interpretations (An et al., 2015) indicate that crustal thickening may relate instead to Pan-African age assembly of Greater India, East Antarctica and Australia within Gondwana (at ca 550 Ma). Here we interpret a set of enhanced magnetic and gravity images, depth to magnetic and gravity sources and preliminary 2D and 3D forward and inverse models to characterise in detail the crustal architecture of the Gamburtsev Province. Enhanced aeromagnetic images reveal a system of subglacial faults that segment the Gamburtsev Province into three distinct geophysical domains, the northern, central and southern domains. Apparent offsets in high-frequency magnetic anomalies within the central domain are interpreted here

  13. Applying regional planning schemes in East Jutland, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunfelder, Julien; Fertner, Christian

    2010-01-01

    landscapes. A common regional planning scheme is discussed for a while, but nothing is agreed on yet. Our objective is to apply three interesting spatial schemes to our case study region. The three planning schemes are well known for their simple and clear approach: The Fingerplan of Copenhagen urban region......In the eastern part of Jutland, Denmark, a polycentric urban region is emerging. Besides Århus, the second biggest city of Denmark, several medium-sized cities are located in the area. The region is expected to experience further urbanisation which might result in urban sprawl and threaten valuable...... a development aligned along mass-transport corridors. In the Montpellier case, the planning scheme has the particularity of having a “sight inversion”. Thus, the landscape is presented as an integrated part of the reflection on regional development. In other words, it protects natural and agricultural areas...

  14. Measuring the inward FDI potential of South African regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Krugell

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to construct an index that captures the factors expected to affect a local economy's attractiveness to foreign investors. Problem statement: Following South Africa's reintegration into the world economy in 1994, foreign direct investment has been seen as a potential driver of growth and development. Concerns about the low investment rate in South Africa raise the possibility of augmenting domestic with foreign investment expenditure. The potential of technology spillovers and skills transfer from foreign direct investment have also been emphasised. As a result, Trade and Investment South Africa is involved in identifying, packaging and promoting investment opportunities. However, investments tend to be place-specific and this has lead to the decentralisation of foreign direct investment promotion. Currently the nine provincial development agencies are competing to attract investors and the larger local governments are also getting involved in the fray. This paper argues that some places have better potential to attract foreign investment than others. A first step to use scarce investment promotion resources more efficiently would be to measure the inward FDI potential of South African regions. Approach: This paper uses principal components analysis to construct an index that captures the factors expected to affect a local economy's attractiveness to foreign investors. This approach draws on UNCTAD's Inward FDI Potential Index and applies it to 354 magisterial districts in South Africa for the periods 1996, 2001 and 2006. The index creates a summary measure of FDI potential.Findings: The results show that different places present differential potential in urbanization and localization economies and market size. The high-potential locations are typically found in or around the major agglomerations, but there are a few smaller places on the periphery that offer FDI potential. Contribution: The index should aid

  15. The determinants of Foreign Direct Investment in the Middle East North Africa region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rogmans, T.J.; Ebbers, H.A.

    2006-01-01

    Although, there has been increasing interest in the determinants of Foreign Direct Investment in emerging markets, FDI into the Middle East North Africa (MENA) region has so far received little attention among academics. The MENA region provides a useful ground for the testing of traditional

  16. Wind energy resource atlas. Volume 5: the East Central Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brode, R.; Stoner, R.; Elliott, D.L.; Barchet, W.R.; George, R.L.

    1980-01-01

    This atlas of the wind energy resource is composed of introductory and background information, a regional summary of the wind resource, and assessments of the wind resource in each state of the region. Background is presented on how the wind resource is assessed and on how the results of the assessment should be interpreted. A description of the wind resource on a regional scale is then given. The results of the wind energy assessments for each state are assembled into an overview and summary of the various features of the regional wind energy resource. Assessments for individual states are presented as separate chapters. The state wind energy resources are described in greater detail than is the regional wind energy resource, and features of selected stations are discussed. This preface outlines the use and interpretation of the information found in the state chapters. States include Delaware, Maryland, Kentucky, North Carolina, Tennessee, Virginia, and West Virginia.

  17. Teachers’ Perceptions on the Use of African Languages in the Curriculum: A Case Study of Schools in Kenya, East Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin C. Njoroge

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available In order to revitalize African languages and advocate for their use as media of instruction in Kenyan schools, it is important to investigate and document the teachers’ attitude towards the use of these languages in teaching. The research on which this paper is based set forth to explore teachers’ perceptions on the use of the mother tongue as the language of instruction in Kenya, East Africa. Six schools out of 54 public schools in the Gatundu district were randomly sampled. 32 teachers of Grades 1-3 were interviewed to find out the actual practices in their classrooms, the challenges they faced, and the perceptions they held in relation to the use of the mother tongue in their teaching. The data were qualitatively analyzed and the emergent findings support the claim that the use of learners’ mother tongue is beneficial to learners. In addition, the paper discusses the findings and proposes recommendations for pedagogy.

  18. Regionalism and African agency: negotiating an Economic Partnership Agreement between the European Union and SADC- Minus

    OpenAIRE

    Murray-Evans, Peg

    2015-01-01

    This article investigates the regional dynamics of African agency in the case of negotiations for an Economic Partnership Agreement (EPA) between the EU and a group of Southern African countries, known as SADC-Minus. I argue that these negotiations were shaped by a pattern of differentiated responses to the choice set on offer under the EPAs by SADC-Minus policymakers and by a series of strategic interactions and power plays between them. I offer two contributions to an emerging literature on...

  19. The Lake Albert Rift (uganda, East African Rift System): Deformation, Basin and Relief Evolution Since 17 Ma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brendan, Simon; François, Guillocheau; Cécile, Robin; Olivier, Dauteuil; Thierry, Nalpas; Martin, Pickford; Brigitte, Senut; Philippe, Lays; Philippe, Bourges; Martine, Bez

    2016-04-01

    This study is based on a coupled basin infilling study and a landforms analysis of the Lake Albert Rift located at the northern part of the western branch of the East African Rift. The basin infilling study is based on both subsurface data and outcrops analysis. The objective was to (1) obtain an age model based on onshore mammals biozones, (2) to reconstruct the 3D architecture of the rift using sequence stratigraphy correlations and seismic data interpretation, (3) to characterize the deformation and its changes through times and (4) to quantify the accommodation for several time intervals. The infilling essentially consists of isopach fault-bounded units composed of lacustrine deposits wherein were characterized two major unconformities dated at 6.2 Ma (Uppermost Miocene) and 2.7 Ma (Pliocene-Pleistocene boundary), coeval with major subsidence and climatic changes. The landforms analysis is based on the characterization and relative dating (geometrical relationships with volcanism) of Ugandan landforms which consist of stepped planation surfaces (etchplains and peplians) and incised valleys. We here proposed a seven-steps reconstruction of the deformation-erosion-sedimentation relationships of the Lake Albert Basin and its catchments: - 55-45 Ma: formation of laterites corresponding to the African Surface during the very humid period of the Lower-Middle Eocene; - 45-22: stripping of the African Surface in response of the beginning of the East-African Dome uplift and formation of a pediplain which associated base level is the Atlantic Ocean; - 17-2.5 Ma: Initiation of the Lake Albert Basin around 17 Ma and creation of local base levels (Lake Albert, Edward and George) on which three pediplains tend to adapt; - 18 - 16 Ma to 6.2 Ma: "Flexural" stage (subsidence rate: 150-200 m/Ma; sedimentation rate 1.3 km3/Ma between 17 and 12 Ma and 0.6 km3/Ma from 12 to 6 Ma) - depocenters location (southern part of Lake Albert Basin) poorly controlled by fault; - 6.2 Ma to 2

  20. Minority drug-resistant HIV-1 variants in treatment naive East-African and Caucasian patients detected by allele-specific real-time PCR.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halime Ekici

    Full Text Available To assess the presence of two major non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTI drug resistance mutations (DRMs, Y181C and K103N, in minor viral quasispecies of treatment naïve HIV-1 infected East-African and Swedish patients by allele-specific polymerase chain reaction (AS-PCR.Treatment naïve adults (n=191 with three epidemiological backgrounds were included: 92 Ethiopians living in Ethiopia; 55 East-Africans who had migrated to Sweden; and 44 Caucasians living in Sweden. The pol gene was analysed by standard population sequencing and by AS-PCR for the detection of Y181C and K103N.The Y181C was detected in the minority quasispecies of six Ethiopians (6.5%, in two Caucasians (4.5%, and in one East-African (1.8%. The K103N was detected in one East- African (1.8%, by both methods. The proportion of mutants ranged from 0.25% to 17.5%. Additional DRMs were found in all three treatment naïve patient groups by population sequencing.Major NNRTI mutations can be found by AS-PCR in minor quasispecies of treatment naïve HIV-1 infected Ethiopians living in Ethiopia, in East-African and Caucasian patients living in Sweden in whom population sequencing reveal wild-type virus only. Surveys with standard sequencing are likely to underestimate transmitted drug resistance and the presence of resistant minor quasispecies in treatment naïve patients should be topic for future large scale studies.

  1. African 2, a clonal complex of Mycobacterium bovis epidemiologically important in East Africa.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, S.; Garcia-Pelayo, M.C.; Muller, B.; Hailu, E.; Asiimwe, B.; Kremer, K.; Dale, J.; Boniotti, M.B.; Rodriguez, S.; Hilty, M.; Rigouts, L.; Firdessa, R.; Machado, A.; Mucavele, C.; Ngandolo, B.N.; Bruchfeld, J.; Boschiroli, L.; Muller, A.; Sahraoui, N.; Pacciarini, M.; Cadmus, S.; Joloba, M.; Soolingen, D. van; Michel, A.L.; Djonne, B.; Aranaz, A.; Zinsstag, J.; Helden, P. van; Portaels, F.; Kazwala, R.; Kallenius, G.; Hewinson, R.G.; Aseffa, A.; Gordon, S.V.; Smith, N.H.

    2011-01-01

    We have identified a clonal complex of Mycobacterium bovis isolated at high frequency from cattle in Uganda, Burundi, Tanzania, and Ethiopia. We have named this related group of M. bovis strains the African 2 (Af2) clonal complex of M. bovis. Af2 strains are defined by a specific chromosomal deletio

  2. East African Medical Iourrzal Vol 83 N0. 2 February 2006

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2006-02-02

    Feb 2, 2006 ... of fluoridated toothpaste as a preventive measure for dental caries. 56.7% of the .... 55-64 8 5.7. 65+ 7 5.0. Total 141 100 .0. Sex. Male 52 36.9. Female 89 63.1 .... high for African countries where the disease is still reported to ...

  3. Gene-Centric Meta-Analysis of Lipid Traits in African, East Asian and Hispanic Populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elbers, Clara C.; Guo, Yiran; Tragante, Vinicius; van Iperen, Erik P. A.; Lanktree, Matthew B.; Castillo, Berta Almoguera; Chen, Fang; Yanek, Lisa R.; Wojczynski, Mary K.; Li, Yun R.; Ferwerda, Bart; Ballantyne, Christie M.; Buxbaum, Sarah G.; Chen, Yii-Der Ida; Chen, Wei-Min; Cupples, L. Adrienne; Cushman, Mary; Duan, Yanan; Duggan, David; Evans, Michele K.; Fernandes, Jyotika K.; Fornage, Myriam; Garcia, Melissa; Garvey, W. Timothy; Glazer, Nicole; Gomez, Felicia; Harris, Tamara B.; Halder, Indrani; Howard, Virginia J.; Keller, Margaux F.; Kamboh, M. Ilyas; Kooperberg, Charles; Kritchevsky, Stephen B.; LaCroix, Andrea; Liu, Kiang; Liu, Yongmei; Musunuru, Kiran; Newman, Anne B.; Onland-Moret, N. Charlotte; Ordovas, Jose; Peter, Inga; Post, Wendy S.; Redline, Susan; Reis, Steven E.; Saxena, Richa; Schreiner, Pamela J.; Volcik, Kelly A.; Wang, Xingbin; Yusuf, Salim; Zonderland, Alan B.; Anand, Sonia S.; Becker, Diane M.; Psaty, Bruce; Rader, Daniel J.; Reiner, Alex P.; Rich, Stephen S.; Rotter, Jerome I.; Sale, Michele M.; Tsai, Michael Y.; Borecki, Ingrid B.; Hegele, Robert A.; Kathiresan, Sekar; Nalls, Michael A.; Taylor, Herman A.; Hakonarson, Hakon; Sivapalaratnam, Suthesh; Asselbergs, Folkert; Drenos, Fotios; Wilson, James G.; Keating, Brendan J.

    2012-01-01

    Meta-analyses of European populations has successfully identified genetic variants in over 100 loci associated with lipid levels, but our knowledge in other ethnicities remains limited. To address this, we performed dense genotyping of similar to 2,000 candidate genes in 7,657 African Americans, 1,3

  4. Annotation of expressed sequence tags for the East African cichlid fish Astatotilapia burtoni and evolutionary analyses of cichlid ORFs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Braasch Ingo

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The cichlid fishes in general, and the exceptionally diverse East African haplochromine cichlids in particular, are famous examples of adaptive radiation and explosive speciation. Here we report the collection and annotation of more than 12,000 expressed sequence tags (ESTs generated from three different cDNA libraries obtained from the East African haplochromine cichlid species Astatotilapia burtoni and Metriaclima zebra. Results We first annotated more than 12,000 newly generated cichlid ESTs using the Gene Ontology classification system. For evolutionary analyses, we combined these ESTs with all available sequence data for haplochromine cichlids, which resulted in a total of more than 45,000 ESTs. The ESTs represent a broad range of molecular functions and biological processes. We compared the haplochromine ESTs to sequence data from those available for other fish model systems such as pufferfish (Takifugu rubripes and Tetraodon nigroviridis, trout, and zebrafish. We characterized genes that show a faster or slower rate of base substitutions in haplochromine cichlids compared to other fish species, as this is indicative of a relaxed or reinforced selection regime. Four of these genes showed the signature of positive selection as revealed by calculating Ka/Ks ratios. Conclusion About 22% of the surveyed ESTs were found to have cichlid specific rate differences suggesting that these genes might play a role in lineage specific characteristics of cichlids. We also conclude that the four genes with a Ka/Ks ratio greater than one appear as good candidate genes for further work on the genetic basis of evolutionary success of haplochromine cichlid fishes.

  5. Tephrochronology of the East African Baringo-Tugen Hills Cores: Hominin Sites and Paleolakes Drilling Project (HSPDP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garello, D.; Deino, A. L.; Campisano, C. J.; Kingston, J.; Arrowsmith, R.; Hill, A.

    2015-12-01

    The Baringo/Tugen Hills basin (BTB) in central Kenya is one of five Hominin Sites and Paleolakes Drilling Project (HSPDP) localities targeting lacustrine sediments associated with key fossil hominin sites. The fossiliferous Plio-Pliestocene Chemeron Formation, within the BTB, contains geochemically analyzed outcrop tephras, 8 of which have 40Ar/39Ar dates of 3.2-2.35Ma. Tephras have been crucial in developing chronologies in human evolution, paleontology, archaeology, and rift basin development. The HSPDP paleo-lake cores provide a high resolution and continuous record of sedimentation, as well as additional tephras not found in outcrop. For BTB, approximately 20 vitric tephras have been logged in the cores, including several previously unobserved tephras, providing a more complete record of volcanic activity. Major element geochemical analyses of the BTB tephras collected from the cores are critical for establishing chronostratigraphic links to the outcrop stratigraphy of the Chemeron Formation, as well as correlations outside of BTB. The Chemeron Formation, composed of alternating fluvial and lacustrine sediments, is associated with the onset and intensification of the Cenozoic Northern Hemisphere glaciation and encompasses the period of great hominin diversification of Paranthropus and Homo, as well as the earliest evidence for stone toolmaking. Within the Chemeron stratigraphy, there are sequences of diatomites that record a 23kyr-processional periodicity indicating a dominant climatic forcing. By correlating the BTB tephras, and thereby the BTB climate-forced lacustrine cycles, with other East African rift basins' stratigraphy, we can determine if this climatic wet/dry pattern observed at BTB had occurred in other East African rift basins. This knowledge can help in understanding the influence of climate and tectonics on the evolution of hominins during the Plio-Pleistocene.

  6. Applying regional planning schemes in East Jutland, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunfelder, Julien; Fertner, Christian

    2010-01-01

    a development aligned along mass-transport corridors. In the Montpellier case, the planning scheme has the particularity of having a “sight inversion”. Thus, the landscape is presented as an integrated part of the reflection on regional development. In other words, it protects natural and agricultural areas......In the eastern part of Jutland, Denmark, a polycentric urban region is emerging. Besides Århus, the second biggest city of Denmark, several medium-sized cities are located in the area. The region is expected to experience further urbanisation which might result in urban sprawl and threaten valuable...... 2000 and 2006, documented by CORINE. The Fingerplan was elaborated in 1947 but became first in 2007 a legal planning document. However, its simple principles of development along the commuter rail lines and the protection of green wedges in between them guided spatial development in Copenhagen since...

  7. South-East Region in Bulgaria: Economic Performance and Key Sectors Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Golemanova, Antoaneta

    2008-01-01

    The present paper attempts to provide insight into the economic performance of the South-east region (SER) of Bulgaria by presenting quantitative relationships between sectors in the regional economy. Methodologically it is based on the construction of the regional Input–Output model. It was carried out trough applying the non-servey GRIT technique, based on Flegg & Webber location quotient (2000). The dirived Rasmussen & Hirschman backward linkages and Mattas & Shrestha input-output elastici...

  8. East Asia’s energy needs: The impact on security and guidelines for regional governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Pareja Alcaraz

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The last three decades have witnessed a spectacular (and not easily sustainable increase in the global demand for energy. This trend has a particular significance in East Asia owing to its heavy industrialisation, which is promoting intense regional growth, on top of the already delicate balance of security in the region and the traditional refusal by the region’s states to delegate power and management to supranational bodies. The aim of this article is to analyse the impact of East Asia’s energy needs on security and on the instruments of order and governance that have been developed in the region up until the present time. Thus, the article is divided into two parts; the first analyses East Asia’s energy programme and its most significant features: 1 a high dependence on oil imports from other regions, especially the Middle East; 2 a persistence of high dependency on pollutant fossil fuels; and 3 a high degree of energy insecurity. Meanwhile, the second part assesses the impact of energy on regional relations in different areas of security and guidelines for regional government: 1 the securitisation of energy and of the environment; 2 the reactivation of certain maritime conflicts; 3 the transformation of certain threats, and conventional and non-conventional challenges to regional security; 4 the rise of non-state actors (mainly environmental businesses and NGOs in East Asia’s international relations; 5 the maintaining of bilateralism and the promotion of multilateral initiatives; and 6 the emergence of new extra-regional geopolitical links and balances.

  9. Minimal Role of Basal Shear Tractions in Driving Nubia-Somalia Divergence Across the East African Rift System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamps, D. S.; Calais, E.; Iaffaldano, G.; Flesch, L. M.

    2012-12-01

    The Nubian and Somalian plates actively diverge along the topographically high, ~5000 km long East African Rift System (EARS). As no major subduction zones bound Africa, one can assume that the forces driving the Nubia-Somalia plate system result primarily from mantle buoyancies and lateral variation in lithospheric gravitational potential energy. Images from seismic tomography and convection models suggest active mantle flow beneath Africa. However, the contribution from large-scale convection to the force balance driving plate divergence across the EARS remains in question. In this work we investigate the impact of mantle shear tractions on the dynamics of Nubia-Somalia divergence across the EARS. We compare surface motions inferred from GPS observations with strain rates and velocities predicted from dynamic models where basal shear stresses are (1) derived from forward mantle circulation models and (2) inferred from stress field boundary conditions that balance buoyancy forces in the African lithosphere. Upper mantle anisotropy derived from seismic observations beneath Africa provide independent constraints for the latter. Preliminary results suggest that basal shear tractions play a minor role in the dynamics of Nubia-Somalia divergence along the EARS. This result implies mantle-lithosphere decoupling, possibly promoted by a low viscosity asthenosphere. We corroborate the robustness of our results with estimates of upper mantle viscosity based on local upper mantle temperature estimates and rheological parameters obtained from laboratory experiments.

  10. A Scoring Tool to Identify East African HIV-1 Serodiscordant Partnerships with a High Likelihood of Pregnancy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renee Heffron

    Full Text Available HIV-1 prevention programs targeting HIV-1 serodiscordant couples need to identify couples that are likely to become pregnant to facilitate discussions about methods to minimize HIV-1 risk during pregnancy attempts (i.e. safer conception or effective contraception when pregnancy is unintended. A clinical prediction tool could be used to identify HIV-1 serodiscordant couples with a high likelihood of pregnancy within one year.Using standardized clinical prediction methods, we developed and validated a tool to identify heterosexual East African HIV-1 serodiscordant couples with an increased likelihood of becoming pregnant in the next year. Datasets were from three prospectively followed cohorts, including nearly 7,000 couples from Kenya and Uganda participating in HIV-1 prevention trials and delivery projects.The final score encompassed the age of the woman, woman's number of children living, partnership duration, having had condomless sex in the past month, and non-use of an effective contraceptive. The area under the curve (AUC for the probability of the score to correctly predict pregnancy was 0.74 (95% CI 0.72-0.76. Scores ≥ 7 predicted a pregnancy incidence of >17% per year and captured 78% of the pregnancies. Internal and external validation confirmed the predictive ability of the score.A pregnancy likelihood score encompassing basic demographic, clinical and behavioral factors defined African HIV-1 serodiscordant couples with high one-year pregnancy incidence rates. This tool could be used to engage African HIV-1 serodiscordant couples in counseling discussions about fertility intentions in order to offer services for safer conception or contraception that align with their reproductive goals.

  11. Ground Truth, Magnitude Calibration and Regional Phase Propagation and Detection in the Middle East and Horn of Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nyblade, A; Brazier, R; Adams, A; Park, Y; Rodgers, A; Al-Amri, A

    2007-07-08

    In this project, we are exploiting several seismic data sets to improve U.S. operational capabilities to monitor for low yield nuclear tests across the Middle East (including the Iranian Plateau, Zagros Mountains, Arabian Peninsula, Turkish Plateau, Gulf of Aqaba, Dead Sea Rift) and the Horn of Africa (including the northern part of the East African Rift, Afar Depression, southern Red Sea and Gulf of Aden). The data sets are being used to perform three related tasks. (1) We are determining moment tensors, moment magnitudes and source depths for regional events in the magnitude 3.0 to 6.0 range. (2) These events are being used to characterize high-frequency (0.5-16 Hz) regional phase attenuation and detection thresholds, especially from events in Iran recorded at stations across the Arabian Peninsula. (3) We are collecting location ground truth at GT5 (local) and GT20 (regional) levels for seismic events with M > 2.5, including source geometry information and source depths. Towards meeting these objectives, seismograms from earthquakes in the Zagros Mountains recorded at regional distances have been inverted for moment tensors, which have then been used to create synthetic seismograms to determine the source depths of the earthquakes via waveform matching. The source depths have been confirmed by modeling teleseismic depth phases recorded on GSN and IMS stations. Early studies of the distribution of seismicity in the Zagros region found evidence for earthquakes in the upper mantle. But subsequent relocations of teleseismic earthquakes suggest that source depths are generally much shallower, lying mainly within the upper crust. All of the regional events studied so far nucleated within the upper crust, and most of the events have thrust mechanisms. The source mechanisms for these events are being used to characterize high-frequency (0.5-16 Hz) regional phase attenuation and detection thresholds for broadband seismic stations in the Arabian Peninsula, including IMS

  12. East African megadroughts between 135 and 75 thousand years ago and bearing on early-modern human origins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholz, Christopher A; Johnson, Thomas C; Cohen, Andrew S; King, John W; Peck, John A; Overpeck, Jonathan T; Talbot, Michael R; Brown, Erik T; Kalindekafe, Leonard; Amoako, Philip Y O; Lyons, Robert P; Shanahan, Timothy M; Castañeda, Isla S; Heil, Clifford W; Forman, Steven L; McHargue, Lanny R; Beuning, Kristina R; Gomez, Jeanette; Pierson, James

    2007-10-16

    The environmental backdrop to the evolution and spread of early Homo sapiens in East Africa is known mainly from isolated outcrops and distant marine sediment cores. Here we present results from new scientific drill cores from Lake Malawi, the first long and continuous, high-fidelity records of tropical climate change from the continent itself. Our record shows periods of severe aridity between 135 and 75 thousand years (kyr) ago, when the lake's water volume was reduced by at least 95%. Surprisingly, these intervals of pronounced tropical African aridity in the early late-Pleistocene were much more severe than the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), the period previously recognized as one of the most arid of the Quaternary. From these cores and from records from Lakes Tanganyika (East Africa) and Bosumtwi (West Africa), we document a major rise in water levels and a shift to more humid conditions over much of tropical Africa after approximately 70 kyr ago. This transition to wetter, more stable conditions coincides with diminished orbital eccentricity, and a reduction in precession-dominated climatic extremes. The observed climate mode switch to decreased environmental variability is consistent with terrestrial and marine records from in and around tropical Africa, but our records provide evidence for dramatically wetter conditions after 70 kyr ago. Such climate change may have stimulated the expansion and migrations of early modern human populations.

  13. Fire and life in Tarangire : effects of burning and herbivory on an East African savanna system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vijver, van de C.A.D.M.

    1999-01-01

    This thesis investigates the effects of fire on quality and quantity of forage for grazers in the savannas of East Africa where fire has been used as a tool in pasture management for centuries. Hereby the mechanisms that cause the effects, as well as the manner in which the effects are influenced by

  14. Innovations in sanitation for sustainable urban growth; modernized mixtures in an east african context

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Letema, S.; Van Vliet, B.; Van Lier, J.B.

    2012-01-01

    Urbanisation of poverty and informality in East Africa poses a threat to public health and environmental protection, perpetuating social exclusion and inequalities, while it creates service gaps. Neither conventional on-site sanitation nor modern centralised off-site sanitation provisions are

  15. Innovations in sanitation for sustainable urban growth; modernized mixtures in an east african context

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Letema, S.; Van Vliet, B.; Van Lier, J.B.

    2012-01-01

    Urbanisation of poverty and informality in East Africa poses a threat to public health and environmental protection, perpetuating social exclusion and inequalities, while it creates service gaps. Neither conventional on-site sanitation nor modern centralised off-site sanitation provisions are tenabl

  16. Features of Salt—Affected Soils and Salinization Hazard in East Asia and Its Neighboring Regions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANGJING-SONG; MATSUMOTO; 等

    1995-01-01

    Asia is the largest distribution area of salt-affected soils in the world,Very few countries in Asia could escape from hazard of salinization.This paper deals with various salt-affected soils spreading in East Asia and its neighboring regions (including China,Japan,Kampuchea,Democratic Peolpe's Republic of Kores,Republic of Korea,Laos,Mongolia,Burma,Thailand and Vietnam),Principles of occurrence of salinization,and features of salt-affected soils in these regions have been studied in the present paper,Based on studies on types,features and distribution patterns of salt-affected soils.a salt-affected soil map of East Asia and its neighboring regions has been complied.Mechanism and manifestation of the salinization hazard on the regional agriculture and ecological environment,measures of preventing salinization hazard and exploiting salt-affected soils in these regions are also discussed.

  17. Regional precipitation variability in East Asia related to climate and environmental factors during 1979-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yinyin; Gao, Tao; Gao, Huiwang; Yao, Xiaohong; Xie, Lian

    2014-07-01

    This paper studies the inter-annual precipitation variations in different regions of East Asia from oceans to interior areas in China during 1979 - 2012. The results computed by Empirical Orthogonal Functions (EOF) demonstrate that the annual precipitation changes are mainly related to the El Niño-Southern Oscillation, East Asian summer monsoon and aerosols. We also found that the increased Sea surface temperature (SST) could explain the precipitation changes over the Northwest Pacific in the dry season (Oct. - May) and the East China Sea and the South China Sea in the rainy season (Jun. - Sep.). The precipitation changes over the ocean unexplained by SST were likely due to the water vapor transport dominated by dynamic factors. With the increased SST, the moisture transported from oceans to interior land was likely redistributed and caused the complicated regional variability of precipitation. Moreover, the impacts of aerosols on cloud and precipitation varied with different pollution levels and different seasons.

  18. Regional precipitation variability in East Asia related to climate and environmental factors during 1979-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yinyin; Gao, Tao; Gao, Huiwang; Yao, Xiaohong; Xie, Lian

    2014-07-17

    This paper studies the inter-annual precipitation variations in different regions of East Asia from oceans to interior areas in China during 1979 - 2012. The results computed by Empirical Orthogonal Functions (EOF) demonstrate that the annual precipitation changes are mainly related to the El Niño-Southern Oscillation, East Asian summer monsoon and aerosols. We also found that the increased Sea surface temperature (SST) could explain the precipitation changes over the Northwest Pacific in the dry season (Oct. - May) and the East China Sea and the South China Sea in the rainy season (Jun. - Sep.). The precipitation changes over the ocean unexplained by SST were likely due to the water vapor transport dominated by dynamic factors. With the increased SST, the moisture transported from oceans to interior land was likely redistributed and caused the complicated regional variability of precipitation. Moreover, the impacts of aerosols on cloud and precipitation varied with different pollution levels and different seasons.

  19. The development of the East African Rift system in north-central Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackman, B. D.; Charsley, T. J.; Key, R. M.; Wilkinson, A. F.

    1990-11-01

    Between 1980 and 1986 geological surveying to produce maps on a scale of 1:250,000 was completed over an area of over 100,000 km 2 in north-central Kenya, bounded by the Equator, the Ethiopian border and longitudes 36° and 38 °E. The Gregory Rift, much of which has the structure of an asymmetric half-graben, is the most prominent component of the Cenozoic multiple rift system which extends up to 200 km to the east and for about 100 km to the west, forming the Kenya dome. On the eastern shoulder and fringes two en echelon arrays of late Tertiary to Quaternary multicentre shields can be recognized: to the south is the Aberdares-Mount Kenya-Nyambeni Range chain and, to the north the clusters of Mount Kulal, Asie, Huri Hills and Marsabit, with plateau lavas and fissure vents south of Marsabit in the Laisamis area. The Gregory Rift terminates at the southern end of Lake Turkana. Further north the rift system splays: the arcuate Kinu Sogo fault zone forms an offset link with the central Ethiopian Rift system. In the rifts of north-central Kenya volcanism, sedimentation and extensional tectonics commenced and have been continuous since the late Oligocene. Throughout this period the Elgeyo Fault acted as a major bounding fault. A comparative study of the northern and eastern fringes of the Kenya dome with the axial graben reinforces the impression of regional E-W asymmetry. Deviations from the essential N-trend of the Gregory Rift reflect structural weaknesses in the underlying Proterozoic basement, the Mozambique Orogenic Belt: thus south of Lake Baringo the swing to the southeast parallels the axes of the ca. 620 Ma phase folds. Secondary faults associated with this flexure have created a "shark tooth" array, an expression of en echelon offsets of the eastern margin of the Gregory Rift in a transtensional stress regime: hinge zones where major faults intersect on the eastern shoulder feature intense box faulting and ramp structures which have counterparts in the rift

  20. The Roots and Implications of East Asian Regionalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-09-01

    world in the 1940s and 1950s. In the case of Asia, the new regional scheme was in some ways a repackaging of the old, just purged of its Eurocentric... egoism , and contentiousness.10 Critics found it easy to poke holes in Asian Values.11 Some pointed to the implausibility of dichotomiz- ing Asia and...dynastic management, even if these dynas- ties were non-Chinese as in the case of the Manchus. Southeast Asia was less isolated and more open to outside

  1. The Greek evil eye, African witchcraft, and Western ethnocentrism

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    p1243322

    between African witchcraft and the Greek evil eye from a sociology of religion .... psychology to explain human behaviour. .... Near East and Mediterranean regions. ..... preventative measure as well as a reversal of witchcraft (see Manala.

  2. Current situation, genetic relationship and control measures of infectious bronchitis virus variants circulating in African regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khadija Khataby

    2016-08-01

    Three S1 gene hypervariable regions were studied and compared to the reference genotypes/serotypes that found emerging in African regions. This comparison was based on phylogenetic trees, nucleotide and amino-acid sequence analysis. It clearly appears that IBV variants reported in Africa, display a low genetic relationship between them and with the majority of the reference strains emerging in neighboring countries, except the case of variants from Libya and Egypt that show a high relatedness. Also the Massachusetts serotypes were the most prevalent co-circulating with both serotypes, Italy02 type in Morocco and Qx-like genotype in South part of the African continent. In order to control the IBV variants in African regions, an efficient vaccination strategy program should be implemented.

  3. Distance Education Regulatory Frameworks: Readiness for Openness in Southwest Pacific/South East Asia Region Nations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tynan, Belinda; James, Rosalind

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports in brief the pilot study, Distance Education Regulatory Frameworks, undertaken by the International Council for Open and Distance Education (ICDE) in 2010-2012 and the implications for openness for higher education in Southwest Pacific/South East Asia region nations. The project developed a methodological approach to…

  4. Enhancing Services for Students with Mild Disabilities in the Middle East Gulf Region: A Kuwait Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hilawani, Yasser A.; Koch, Kourtland R.; Braaten, Sheldon R.

    2008-01-01

    At a conference, titled: "Childhood Disabilities: Assessment and Early Intervention" held between March 20-22, 2006, at Kuwait University, a range of discussion topics were considered that would enhance and design specific best practices in special education for the Middle East Arab Gulf region. Governmental representatives,…

  5. Seismic hazard assessment of the Kivu rift segment based on a new seismotectonic zonation model (western branch, East African Rift system)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delvaux, Damien; Mulumba, Jean-Luc; Sebagenzi, Mwene Ntabwoba Stanislas; Bondo, Silvanos Fiama; Kervyn, François; Havenith, Hans-Balder

    2017-10-01

    In the frame of the Belgian GeoRisCA multi-risk assessment project focusing on the Kivu and northern Tanganyika rift region in Central Africa, a new probabilistic seismic hazard assessment has been performed for the Kivu rift segment in the central part of the western branch of the East African rift system. As the geological and tectonic setting of this region is incompletely known, especially the part lying in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, we compiled homogeneous cross-border tectonic and neotectonic maps. The seismic risk assessment is based on a new earthquake catalogue based on the ISC reviewed earthquake catalogue and supplemented by other local catalogues and new macroseismic epicenter data spanning 126 years, with 1068 events. The magnitudes have been homogenized to Mw and aftershocks removed. The final catalogue used for the seismic hazard assessment spans 60 years, from 1955 to 2015, with 359 events and a magnitude of completeness of 4.4. The seismotectonic zonation into 7 seismic source areas was done on the basis of the regional geological structure, neotectonic fault systems, basin architecture and distribution of thermal springs and earthquake epicenters. The Gutenberg-Richter seismic hazard parameters were determined by the least square linear fit and the maximum likelihood method. Seismic hazard maps have been computed using existing attenuation laws with the Crisis 2012 software. We obtained higher PGA values (475 years return period) for the Kivu rift region than the previous estimates. They also vary laterally in function of the tectonic setting, with the lowest value in the volcanically active Virunga - Rutshuru zone, highest in the currently non-volcanic parts of Lake Kivu, Rusizi valley and North Tanganyika rift zone, and intermediate in the regions flanking the axial rift zone.

  6. Land - Ocean Climate Linkages and the Human Evolution - New ICDP and IODP Drilling Initiatives in the East African Rift Valley and SW Indian Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahn, R.; Feibel, C.; Co-Pis, Icdp/Iodp

    2009-04-01

    The past 5 Ma were marked by systematic shifts towards colder climates and concomitant reorganizations in ocean circulation and marine heat transports. Some of the changes involved plate-tectonic shifts such as the closure of the Panamanian Isthmus and restructuring of the Indonesian archipelago that affected inter-ocean communications and altered the world ocean circulation. These changes induced ocean-atmosphere feedbacks with consequences for climates globally and locally. Two new ICDP and IODP drilling initiatives target these developments from the perspectives of marine and terrestrial palaeoclimatology and the human evolution. The ICDP drilling initiative HSPDP ("Hominid Sites and Paleolakes Drilling Project"; ICDP ref. no. 10/07) targets lacustrine depocentres in Ethiopia (Hadar) and Kenya (West Turkana, Olorgesailie, Magadi) to retrieve sedimentary sequences close to the places and times where various species of hominins lived over currently available outcrop records. The records will provide a spatially resolved record of the East African environmental history in conjunction with climate variability at orbital (Milankovitch) and sub-orbital (ENSO decadal) time scales. HSPDP specifically aims at (1) compiling master chronologies for outcrops around each of the depocentres; (2) assessing which aspects of the paleoenvironmental records are a function of local origin (hydrology, hydrogeology) and which are linked with regional or larger-scale signals; (3) correlating broad-scale patterns of hominin phylogeny with the global beat of climate variability and (4) correlating regional shifts in the hominin fossil and archaeological record with more local patterns of paleoenvironmental change. Ultimately the aim is to test hypotheses that link physical and cultural adaptations in the course of the hominin evolution to local environmental change and variability. The IODP initiative SAFARI ("Southern African Climates, Agulhas Warm Water Transports and Retroflection

  7. Modelling the role of groundwater hydro-refugia in East African hominin evolution and dispersal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuthbert, M. O.; Gleeson, T.; Reynolds, S. C.; Bennett, M. R.; Newton, A. C.; McCormack, C. J.; Ashley, G. M.

    2017-05-01

    Water is a fundamental resource, yet its spatiotemporal availability in East Africa is poorly understood. This is the area where most hominin first occurrences are located, and consequently the potential role of water in hominin evolution and dispersal remains unresolved. Here, we show that hundreds of springs currently distributed across East Africa could function as persistent groundwater hydro-refugia through orbital-scale climate cycles. Groundwater buffers climate variability according to spatially variable groundwater response times determined by geology and topography. Using an agent-based model, grounded on the present day landscape, we show that groundwater availability would have been critical to supporting isolated networks of hydro-refugia during dry periods when potable surface water was scarce. This may have facilitated unexpected variations in isolation and dispersal of hominin populations in the past. Our results therefore provide a new environmental framework in which to understand how patterns of taxonomic diversity in hominins may have developed.

  8. Dialogue of China-East African Community Governors and Mayors Held

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhan; Xiushuang

    2014-01-01

    <正>A Chinese local government delegation consisting of Deputy Governors Xia Geng,Bing Zhigang and Wang Lixia of Shandong,Liaoning and Shaanxi provinces,CPAFFC Vice President Feng Zuoku,and local government officials and businessmen from Weifang,Yantai,Benxi,Baoji and Siping cities,visited Uganda and Tanzania from November 20 to 26,2013to attend the Dialogue of China-East

  9. Evaluating tourism development of South East Macedonia: a micro region perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Petrevska, Biljana; Trajkov, Nikola

    2015-01-01

    The paper evaluates the current level of tourism development in a micro region consisted of the municipalities of Gevgelija, Bogdanci and Dojran, as part of the South East planning region of Macedonia. It analyses the tourism sector dynamics by evaluating the market, the core value chain as well as the enabling environment for tourism development. Moreover, it elaborates the supporting functions, services, rules and regulations that facilitate tourism growth. For that purpose, the paper under...

  10. Regional initiatives to promote economic development in North-east Asia.

    OpenAIRE

    Nijkamp, P.; Wiegmans, B.W.

    1996-01-01

    This paper addresses the economic development potential of the Asian Pacific Rim, with a particular view on north East Asia. It is argued that growth triangles are likely to be a proper way of organizing regional development forces. Next, the attention is focused on the Tumen River Area Development Programme as a potentially interesting region for joint transnational development initiatives. The opportunities and threats of this area are explored by means of scenario analysis. It is conc1uded...

  11. Food Security - Global Trends and Region Perspective with Reference to East Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Ching-Cheng; Hsu, Shih-Hsun

    2011-01-01

    The sharp increase in global food prices during 2007‐2008 has triggered the awareness of food insecurity problems and their impacts on the low income, food‐deficit countries many of which are located in the East Asian countries. The food‐security situation was good in relative terms given that the percentage of carbohydrates consumed is slightly lower than the world average while proteins and fats consumption are higher than that of other regions. The food security in East Asia is largely dri...

  12. A distal 140 kyr sediment record of Nile discharge and East African monsoon variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrmann, Werner; Schmiedl, Gerhard; Seidel, Martin; Krüger, Stefan; Schulz, Hartmut

    2016-03-01

    Clay mineral assemblages in a sediment core from the distal Nile discharge plume off Israel have been used to reconstruct the late Quaternary Nile sediment discharge into the eastern Mediterranean Sea (EMS). The record spans the last ca. 140 kyr. Smectite abundances indicate the influence of the Blue Nile and the Atbara River that have their headwaters in the volcanic rocks of the Ethiopian Highlands. Kaolinite abundances indicate the influence of wadis, which contribute periodically to the suspension load of the Nile. Due to the geographical position, the climate and the sedimentary framework of the EMS is controlled by two climate systems. The long-term climate regime was governed by the African monsoon that caused major African humid periods (AHPs) with enhanced sediment discharge at 132 to AHP 5), 116 to 99 (AHP4), and 89 to 77 ka (AHP3). They lasted much longer than the formation of the related sapropel layers S5 (> 2 kyr), S4 (3.5 kyr), and S3 (5 kyr). During the last glacial period (Marine Isotope Stages (MISs) 4-2), the long-term changes in the monsoonal system were superimposed by millennial-scale changes in an intensified midlatitude glacial system. This climate regime caused short but pronounced drought periods in the Nile catchment, which are linked to Heinrich events and alternate with more humid interstadials. The clay mineral record further implies that feedback mechanisms between vegetation cover and sediment discharge of the Nile are detectable but of minor importance for the sedimentary record in the southeastern Mediterranean Sea during the investigated African humid periods.

  13. Catastrophic drought in East Asian monsoon region during Heinrich event 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xin; Sun, Liguang; Chu, Yangxi; Xia, Zehui; Zhou, Xinying; Li, Xiangzhong; Chu, Zhuding; Liu, Xiangjun; Shao, Da; Wang, Yuhong

    2016-06-01

    Heinrich event 1 (H1) is an important millennial climate event during the last deglaciation. The substantial decreasing of monsoon strength in the East Asian monsoon region during the H1, as shown by stalagmite δ18O records, has been attributed to the southward shift of the intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ), which is caused by the slowdown/collapse of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC). However, records from different Asian monsoon regions show various trends in precipitation changes during the H1, and these trends cannot be solely interpreted by the southward shift of the ITCZ. In the present study, we reconstructed time-series of East Asian monsoon precipitation between 25,000 and 10,000 a BP from floodplain sediments in the Huai River Basin. A white sediment layer, distinct from other layers in the profile, contains significantly low TOC, tree pollen and fern spore contents, and more positive δ13Corg, and it is deposited during the H1 event. The determined TOC, pollen and δ13Corg time-series, together with previously reported stalagmite δ18O, indicate a catastrophic (severe) drought in Jianghuai Region, one of the East Asian monsoon regions, during the H1. The La Niña condition in tropical Pacific likely also contributes to the catastrophic drought in Jianghuai Region and the precipitation variations in the Asian monsoon region during the H1.

  14. A Review of New and Anticipated High-Resolution Paleoclimate Records from the East African Rift System and Their Implications for Hominin Evolution and Demography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, A. S.

    2014-12-01

    Our understanding of Late Tertiary/Quaternary climate and environmental history in East Africa has, to date, largely been based on outcrop and marine drill core records. Although these records have proven extremely valuable both in reconstructing environmental change and placing human evolution in an environmental context, their quality is limited by resolution, continuity, uncertainties about superposition and outcrop weathering. To address this problem, long drill core records from extant ancient lakes and lake beds are being collected by several research groups. Long cores (up to 100s of m.) from basin depocenters in both the western and eastern rifts are now available spanning nearly the entire latitudinal range of the East Africa Rift. This network of core records, especially when coupled with outcrop data, is providing an opportunity to compare the nature of important global climate transitions (especially glacial/interglacial events and precessional cycles) across the continent, thereby documenting regional heterogeneity in African climate history. Understanding this heterogeneity is critical for realistically evaluating competing hypotheses of environmental forcing of human evolution, and especially ideas about the dispersal of anatomically modern humans out of Africa in the early Late Pleistocene. In particular, understanding the hydrological and paleoecological history of biogeographic corridors linking eastern Africa, the Nile River Valley and the Levant is likely to be vastly improved through comparative analysis of these new drill cores over the next few years. Because we do not a priori know the primary forcing factors affecting this environmental history, it will essential to develop the best possible age models, employing multiple and novel geochronometric tools to make these comparisons.

  15. Regional trade and the nutrition transition: opportunities to strengthen NCD prevention policy in the Southern African Development Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Marie Thow

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Addressing diet-related non-communicable diseases (NCDs will require a multisectoral policy approach that includes the food supply and trade, but implementing effective policies has proved challenging. The Southern African Development Community (SADC has experienced significant trade and economic liberalization over the past decade; at the same time, the nutrition transition has progressed rapidly in the region. This analysis considers the relationship between regional trade liberalization and changes in the food environment associated with poor diets and NCDs, with the aim of identifying feasible and proactive policy responses to support healthy diets. Design: Changes in trade and investment policy for the SADC were documented and compared with time-series graphs of import data for soft drinks and snack foods to assess changes in imports and source country in relation to trade and investment liberalization. Our analysis focuses on regional trade flows. Results: Diets and the burden of disease in the SADC have changed since the 1990s in parallel with trade and investment liberalization. Imports of soft drinks increased by 76% into SADC countries between 1995 and 2010, and processed snack foods by 83%. South Africa acts as a regional trade and investment hub; it is the major source of imports and investment related to these products into other SADC countries. At the same time, imports of processed foods and soft drinks from outside the region – largely from Asia and the Middle East – are increasing at a dramatic rate with soft drink imports growing by almost 1,200% and processed snack foods by 750%. Conclusions: There is significant intra-regional trade in products associated with the nutrition transition; however, growing extra-regional trade means that countries face new pressures in implementing strong policies to prevent the increasing burden of diet-related NCDs. Implementation of a regional nutrition policy framework could

  16. Increase in African dust flux at the onset of commercial agriculture in the Sahel region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulitza, Stefan; Heslop, David; Pittauerova, Daniela; Fischer, Helmut W; Meyer, Inka; Stuut, Jan-Berend; Zabel, Matthias; Mollenhauer, Gesine; Collins, James A; Kuhnert, Henning; Schulz, Michael

    2010-07-01

    The Sahara Desert is the largest source of mineral dust in the world. Emissions of African dust increased sharply in the early 1970s (ref. 2), a change that has been attributed mainly to drought in the Sahara/Sahel region caused by changes in the global distribution of sea surface temperature. The human contribution to land degradation and dust mobilization in this region remains poorly understood, owing to the paucity of data that would allow the identification of long-term trends in desertification. Direct measurements of airborne African dust concentrations only became available in the mid-1960s from a station on Barbados and subsequently from satellite imagery since the late 1970s: they do not cover the onset of commercial agriculture in the Sahel region approximately 170 years ago. Here we construct a 3,200-year record of dust deposition off northwest Africa by investigating the chemistry and grain-size distribution of terrigenous sediments deposited at a marine site located directly under the West African dust plume. With the help of our dust record and a proxy record for West African precipitation we find that, on the century scale, dust deposition is related to precipitation in tropical West Africa until the seventeenth century. At the beginning of the nineteenth century, a sharp increase in dust deposition parallels the advent of commercial agriculture in the Sahel region. Our findings suggest that human-induced dust emissions from the Sahel region have contributed to the atmospheric dust load for about 200 years.

  17. SIMULATION OF PRESENT CLIMATE OVER EAST ASIA BY A REGIONAL CLIMATE MODEL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Dong-feng; GAO Xue-jie; OUYANG Li-cheng; DONG Wen-jie

    2008-01-01

    A 15-year simulation of climate over East Asia is conducted with the latest version of a regional climate model RegCM3 nested in one-way mode to the ERA40 Re-analysis data. The performance of themodel in simulating present climate over East Asia and China is investigated. Results show that RegCM3 can reproduce well the atmospheric circulation over East Asia. The simulation of the main distribution patterns of surface air temperature and precipitation over China and their seasonal cycle/evolution, are basically agree with that of the observation. Meanwhile a general cold bias is found in the simulation. AS for the precipitation, the model tends to overestimate the precipitation in northern China while underestimate it in southern China, particularly in winter. In general, the model has better performance in simulating temperature than precipitation.

  18. Early-stage rifting in the southwest East African Rift: Insights from new reflection seismic data from Lakes Tanganyika and Malawi (Nyasa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholz, C. A.; Wood, D. A.; Shillington, D. J.; McCartney, T.; Accardo, N. J.

    2015-12-01

    age and provenance of the sub-Nyanja Event sequences is unknown, but may correlate to Miocene, Cretaceous or Karroo-age sedimentary packages documented elsewhere in the southwestern part of the East African Rift, including in the region around Lakes Rukwa and Malawi.

  19. Detection of the East and West African kdr mutation in Anopheles gambiae and Anopheles arabiensis from Uganda using a new assay based on FRET/Melt Curve analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Backeljau Thierry

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Appropriate monitoring of vector resistance to insecticides is an integral component of planning and evaluation of insecticide use in malaria control programmes. The malaria vectors Anopheles gambiae s.s. and Anopheles arabiensis have developed resistance to pyrethroid insecticides as a result of a mechanism conferring reduced nervous system sensitivity, better known as knockdown resistance (kdr. In An. gambiae s.s. and An. arabiensis, two different substitutions in the para-type sodium channel, a L1014F substitution common in West Africa and a L1014S replacement found in Kenya, are linked with kdr. Two different allele-specific polymerase chain reactions (AS-PCR are needed to detect these known kdr mutations. However, these AS-PCR assays rely on a single nucleotide polymorphism mismatch, which can result in unreliable results. Methods Here, a new assay for the detection of knockdown resistance in An. gambiae s.s. and An. arabiensis based on Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer/Melt Curve analysis (FRET/MCA is presented and compared with the existing assays. Results The new FRET/MCA method has the important advantage of detecting both kdr alleles in one assay. Moreover, results show that the FRET/MCA is more reliable and more sensitive than the existing AS-PCR assays and is able to detect new genotypes. By using this technique, the presence of the East African kdr mutation (L1014S is shown for the first time in An. arabiensis specimens from Uganda. In addition, a new kdr genotype is reported in An. gambiae s.s. from Uganda, where four An. gambiae s.s. mosquitoes possess both, the West (L1014F and East (L1014S African kdr allele, simultaneously. Conclusion The presence of both kdr mutations in the same geographical region shows the necessity of a reliable assay that enables to detect both mutations in one single assay. Hence, this new assay based on FRET/MCA will improve the screening of the kdr frequencies in An. gambiae s

  20. GROUND TRUTH, MAGNITUDE CALIBRATION AND REGIONAL PHASE PROPAGATION AND DETECTION IN THE MIDDLE EAST AND HORN OF AFRICA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nyblade, A; Adams, A; Brazier, R; Park, Y; Rodgers, A

    2006-07-10

    In this project, we are exploiting unique and open source seismic data sets to improve seismic monitoring across the Middle East (including the Iranian Plateau, Zagros Mountains, Arabian Peninsula, Turkish Plateau, Gulf of Aqaba, Dead Sea Rift) and the Horn of Africa (including the northern part of the East African Rift, Afar Depression, southern Red Sea and Gulf of Aden). The data sets are being used to perform three related tasks. (1) We are determining moment tensors, moment magnitudes and source depths for regional events in the magnitude 3.0 to 6.0 range. (2) These events are being used to characterize high-frequency (0.5-16 Hz) regional phase attenuation and detection thresholds, especially from events in Iran recorded at stations across the Arabian Peninsula. (3) We are collecting location ground truth at GT5 (local) and GT20 (regional) levels for seismic events with M > 2.5, including source geometry information and source depths. In the first phase of this project, seismograms from earthquakes in the Zagros Mountains recorded at regional distances have been inverted for moment tensors, and source depths for the earthquakes have been determined via waveform matching. Early studies of the distribution of seismicity in the Zagros region found evidence for earthquakes in the upper mantle. But subsequent relocations of teleseismic earthquakes suggest that source depths are generally much shallower, lying mainly within the upper crust. Nine events with magnitudes between 5 and 6 have been studied so far. Source depths for six of the events are within the upper crust, and three are located within the lower crust. The uncertainty in the source depths of the lower crustal events allows for the possibility that some of them may have even nucleated within the upper mantle. Eight events have thrust mechanisms and one has a strike-slip mechanism. We also report estimates of three-dimensional P- and S-wave velocity structure of the upper mantle beneath the Arabian

  1. East African climate fluctuations over the last 1400 years recorded in southeastern Mediterranean sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamann, Y.; Dulski, P.; Ehrmann, W.; Schmiedl, G.; Haug, G.

    2008-12-01

    The southeastern Mediterranean Sea sedimentary history of the late Holocene was influenced by distinctive changes in Nile River sediment discharge and Saharan dust influx. We present high-resolution XRF element data of a marine sediment core of the southeastern Levantine Sea (GeoTü SL112, 32° 44.52´ N, 34° 39.02´ E, water depth: 892 m) spanning the last 1400 years. We suggest a strong relationship between humidity changes in east Africa and the corresponding sedimentological response in the Levantine Sea. The Fe record of our Levantine Sea sediment record shows a remarkable similarity with the lake level record of Lake Naivasha (Kenya) (Verschuren et al., Nature, 2000) and the pre-colonial drought history of Lake Malawi (east Africa). Several intervals of enhanced Saharan dust flux as indicated by high Fe values in the Levantine Sea core coincide with well-known droughts in equatorial east Africa and Lake Naivasha lowstands. Frequency analysis suggests that solar variability has been a major influence in these climate fluctuations. The Fe record of our core, which we interpret as Saharan dust influx to the southeast Levantine Sea, is dominated by cyclicities of approximately 90 and 200 years, known as the Gleissberg and Suess cycles. The most pronounced periods of decreased dust accumulation in the southeast Levantine Sea occurred at about 1.1 kyr BP, 0.7 kyr BP, 0.55 kyr BP, 0.3 kyr BP and 0.1 kyr BP, coincident with the solar minima of Oort, Wolf, Spoerer, Maunder and Dalton.

  2. Validation of the TEC2F2 model over the African equatorial region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ssessanga, Nicholas

    2016-06-01

    In this paper a statistical method, TEC2F2, of estimating critical F2 layer frequency (foF2) from Global Positioning System (GPS) Vertical Total Electron content (VTEC) is extended from Africa's mid-latitudes to the equatorial region, and the results validated. The equatorial region is one of the most dynamic yet under-represented over Africa in ionospheric studies. The TEC2F2 method was first considered for the South African region (mid-latitudes). This region is covered by a network of ionosondes that provided a validation platform for the TEC2F2 method before being applied to other parts of Africa. The results show that over the African equatorial region, the TEC2F2 method is a potential candidate in more accurately estimating the foF2 parameter than the most recent version of the International Reference Ionosphere (IRI-2012) model.

  3. Spatial analysis of future East Asian seasonal temperature using two regional climate model simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yura; Jun, Mikyoung; Min, Seung-Ki; Suh, Myoung-Seok; Kang, Hyun-Suk

    2016-05-01

    CORDEX-East Asia, a branch of the coordinated regional climate downscaling experiment (CORDEX) initiative, provides high-resolution climate simulations for the domain covering East Asia. This study analyzes temperature data from regional climate models (RCMs) participating in the CORDEX - East Asia region, accounting for the spatial dependence structure of the data. In particular, we assess similarities and dissimilarities of the outputs from two RCMs, HadGEM3-RA and RegCM4, over the region and over time. A Bayesian functional analysis of variance (ANOVA) approach is used to simultaneously model the temperature patterns from the two RCMs for the current and future climate. We exploit nonstationary spatial models to handle the spatial dependence structure of the temperature variable, which depends heavily on latitude and altitude. For a seasonal comparison, we examine changes in the winter temperature in addition to the summer temperature data. We find that the temperature increase projected by RegCM4 tends to be smaller than the projection of HadGEM3-RA for summers, and that the future warming projected by HadGEM3-RA tends to be weaker for winters. Also, the results show that there will be a warming of 1-3°C over the region in 45 years. More specifically, the warming pattern clearly depends on the latitude, with greater temperature increases in higher latitude areas, which implies that warming may be more severe in the northern part of the domain.

  4. TRENDS AND ACTUAL ISSUES CONCERNING SUSTAINABLE REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN ROMANIA, STUDY CASE: THE NORTH EAST REGION OF DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silviu BECIU

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The European Union Regions of Development are characterized by substantial social, economic, and territorial disparities. There also recorded large economic disparities between rural and urban areas. The Romanian rural areas includes: 2860 communes, 12,956 villages, representing around 90% of the Romanian territory and 45 % of its population. It has the main agricultural and forestry resources and over 9.6 million inhabitants. Of these, 506 communes and 2414 villages are located in the 6 counties of The North East Region of Development, one of the poorest regions of development within European Union. This paper is focused on the regional development issues in the rural areas of this region and is aimed to evaluate the resources that haven’t been enough capitalized in this region and to indentify solutions to improve the socio- economic situation in the next years, through a balanced development strategy.

  5. Sm-Nd and U-Pb isotopic constraints for crustal evolution during Late Neoproterozic from rocks of the Schirmacher Oasis, East Antarctica: geodynamic development coeval with the East African Orogeny

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravikant, V.; Laux, J.H.; Pimentel, M.M.

    2007-01-01

    Recent post-750 Ma continental reconstructions constrain models for East African Orogeny formation and also the scattered remnants of ~640 Ma granulites, whose genesis is controversial. One such Neoproterozoic granulite belt is the Schirmacher Oasis in East Antarctica, isolated from the distinctly younger Pan-African orogen to the south in the central Droning Maud Land. To ascertain the duration of granulite-facies events in these remnants, garnet Sm-Nd and monazite and titanite U-Pb IDTIMS geochronology was carried out on a range of metamorphic rocks. Garnet formation ages from a websterite enclave and gabbro were 660±48 Ma and 587±9 Ma respectively, and those from Stype granites were 598±4 Ma and 577±4 Ma. Monazites from metapelite and metaquartzite yielded lower intercept UPb ages of 629±3 Ma and 639±5 Ma, respectively. U-Pb titanite age from calcsilicate gneiss was 580±5 Ma. These indicate peak metamorphism to have occurred between 640 and 630 Ma, followed by near isobaric cooling to ~580 Ma. Though an origin as an exotic terrane from the East African Orogen cannot be discounted, from the present data there is a greater likelihood that Mesoproterozoic microplate collision between Maud orogen and a northerly Lurio-Nampula block resulted in formation of these granulite belt(s).

  6. Neurovirulence comparison of chikungunya virus isolates of the Asian and East/Central/South African genotypes from Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiam, Chun Wei; Chan, Yoke Fun; Ong, Kien Chai; Wong, Kum Thong; Sam, I-Ching

    2015-11-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV), an alphavirus of the family Togaviridae, causes fever, polyarthritis and rash. There are three genotypes: West African, Asian and East/Central/South African (ECSA). The latter two genotypes have caused global outbreaks in recent years. Recent ECSA CHIKV outbreaks have been associated with severe neurological disease, but it is not known if different CHIKV genotypes are associated with different neurovirulence. In this study, the neurovirulence of Asian (MY/06/37348) and ECSA (MY/08/065) strains of CHIKV isolated in Malaysia were compared. Intracerebral inoculation of either virus into suckling mice was followed by virus titration, histopathology and gene expression analysis of the harvested brains. Both strains of CHIKV replicated similarly, yet mice infected with MY/06/37348 showed higher mortality. Histopathology findings showed that both CHIKV strains spread within the brain (where CHIKV antigen was localized to astrocytes and neurons) and beyond to skeletal muscle. In MY/06/37348-infected mice, apoptosis, which is associated with neurovirulence in alphaviruses, was observed earlier in brains. Comparison of gene expression showed that a pro-apoptotic gene (eIF2αK2) was upregulated at higher levels in MY/06/37348-infected mice, while genes involved in anti-apoptosis (BIRC3), antiviral responses and central nervous system protection (including CD40, IL-10RA, MyD88 and PYCARD) were upregulated more highly in MY/08/065-infected mice. In conclusion, the higher mortality observed following MY/06/37348 infection in mice is due not to higher viral replication in the brain, but to differentially expressed genes involved in host immune responses. These findings may help to identify therapeutic strategies and biomarkers for neurological CHIKV infections.

  7. Impact of East Asian summer monsoon circulation on the regional aerosol distribution in observations and models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongli; Xie, Xiaoning; Yan, Libin; Liu, Xiaodong

    2017-06-01

    The East Asian summer monsoon (EASM) can change the spatio-temporal distribution of aerosols by influencing the aerosol horizontal and vertical transports and the wet deposition of aerosols over East Asia. In this paper, we examined the aerosol optical depth (AOD) during summer together with the intensity of the EASM based on moderate-resolution imaging spectroradiometer products on board the Terra satellite and the modeling results from the NCAR Community Atmospheric Model 5.1 in the mid-latitude monsoonal East Asia (20-45° N, 105-130° E). Our results from both observations and simulations show positive correlations of AOD with the monsoon intensity over the Northeast Asia sub-region (32.5-45° N, 105-130° E), and negative correlations with that over the southeast Asia sub-region (20-32.5° N, 105-130° E). The observed and simulated AODs were much larger over the northern sub-region and much smaller over the southern sub-region in the strongest monsoon years compared with those in the weakest monsoon years. The model results suggest that the mechanism responsible for the north-south difference in the aerosol distribution was mainly caused by lower-tropospheric meridional wind anomalies related to EASM. Compared with the weakest monsoon years, the strongest monsoon years experienced southerly wind anomalies, which enabled more aerosols to be transported northward and resulted in a convergence of aerosols over the northern sub-region. In addition, the wet deposition of aerosols reduced (enhanced) the aerosol concentrations in the northern (southern) sub-region during the strongest monsoon years compared with the weakest monsoon years, which partly offset the impact of the lower southerly winds on the aerosol distribution over East Asia.

  8. Reconsidering the origins of the Southern African regionalism thirty years later: towards a constructivist approach to the origins of SADC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Abel Moma

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The creation of SADCC has generated a debate over the real origins of the southern African model of regionalism. This paper develops the idea that the origins of SADC are both internal and external. Thus, southern African regionalism is understood as a constructivist articulation of internal and external inputs, which determined the creation of SADCC and its transformation into SADC.

  9. Reconsidering the origins of the Southern African regionalism thirty years later: towards a constructivist approach to the origins of SADC

    OpenAIRE

    José Abel Moma

    2012-01-01

    The creation of SADCC has generated a debate over the real origins of the southern African model of regionalism. This paper develops the idea that the origins of SADC are both internal and external. Thus, southern African regionalism is understood as a constructivist articulation of internal and external inputs, which determined the creation of SADCC and its transformation into SADC.

  10. Fundamental Flaws in the Architecture of the European Central Bank: The Possible End of the Euro Zone and its Effects to East African Community (EAC Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nothando Moyo

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available European countries embarked on a European integration programme that saw the formation of the Euro, which has emerged as a major currency (Blair, 1999 that was introduced in 1998. With the Euro, came the establishment of the European Central Bank. Thus this study seeks to investigate the flaws in the formation of the European Central Bank that surfaced during the major economic crisis in Europe. The crisis revealing the gaps in the formation and structure of the European central bank have created major challenges for the Economic and Monetary Union (EMU. Through an extant review of literature the study will examine the East African Community Countries, investigating the ties they have to the euro zone to analyse how the crisis has affected them. Furthermore, the study will analyse what would happen to the growth patterns of the East African Countries and the various prospects they may have should the Eurozone come to an end.

  11. The seismotectonics of Southeastern Tanzania: Implications for the propagation of the eastern branch of the East African Rift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulibo, Gabriel D.; Nyblade, Andrew A.

    2016-04-01

    Seismicity patterns and focal mechanisms in southeastern Tanzania, determined from data recorded on temporary and permanent AfricaArray seismic stations, have been used to investigate the propagation direction of the Eastern branch of the East African Rift System southward from the Northern Tanzania Divergence Zone (NTDZ). Within the NTDZ, the rift zone is defined by three segments, the Eyasi segment to the west, the Manyara segment in the middle, and the Pangani segment to the east. Results show that most of the seismicity (~ 75%) extends to the south of the Manyara segment along the eastern margin of the Tanzania Craton, and at ~ 6-7° S latitude trends to the SE along the northern boundary of the Ruvuma microplate, connecting with a N-S zone of seismicity offshore southern Tanzania and Mozambique. A lesser amount of seismicity (~ 25%) is found extending from the SE corner of the Tanzania Craton at ~ 6-7° S latitude southwards towards Lake Nyasa. This finding supports a model of rift propagation via the Manyara segment to the southeast of the Tanzania Craton along the northern boundary of the Ruvuma microplate. However, given the limited duration of the seismic recordings used in this study, the possibility of another zone of extension developing to the south towards Lake Nyasa (Malawi) cannot be ruled out. Focal mechanisms along the boundary between the Victoria and the Ruvuma microplates and offshore southeastern Tanzania show a combination of normal and strike slip faulting indicating mainly extension with some sinistral motion, consistent with the mapped geologic faults and a clockwise rotation of the Ruvuma microplate.

  12. Preface to special section on East Asian Studies of Tropospheric Aerosols: An International Regional Experiment (EAST-AIRE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhanqing; Chen, H.; Cribb, M.; Dickerson, R.; Holben, B.; Li, C.; Lu, D.; Luo, Y.; Maring, H.; Shi, G.; Tsay, S.-C.; Wang, P.; Wang, Y.; Xia, X.; Zheng, Y.; Yuan, T.; Zhao, F.

    2007-11-01

    Papers published in this special section report findings from the East Asian Study of Tropospheric Aerosols: An International Regional Experiment (EAST-AIRE). They are concerned with (1) the temporal and spatial distributions of aerosol loading and precursor gases, (2) aerosol single scattering albedo (SSA), (3) aerosol direct radiative effects, (4) validation of satellite products, (5) transport mechanisms, and (6) the effects of air pollution on ecosystems. Aerosol loading is heaviest in mideastern China with a mean aerosol optical depth (AOD) of 0.5 and increasing to 0.7 around major cities that reduced daily mean surface solar radiation by ˜30-40 W m-2, but barely changed solar reflection at the top of the atmosphere. Aerosol loading, particle size and composition vary considerably with location and season. The MODIS AOD data from Collection 5 (C5) agree much better with ground data than earlier releases, but considerable discrepancies still exist because of treatments of aerosol SSA and surface albedo. Four methods are proposed/adopted to derive the SSA by means of remote sensing and in situ observation, which varies drastically with time and space. The nationwide means of AOD, Ångström exponent, and SSA (0.5 μm) in China are 0.69 ± 0.17, 1.06 ± 0.26, and 0.89 ± 0.04, respectively. Measurements of trace gases reveal substantial uncertainties in emission inventories. An analysis of aircraft measurements revealed that dry convection is an important mechanism uplifting pollutants over northern China. Model simulations of nitrogen deposition and impact of ozone pollution on net primary productivity indicate an increasing threat of air pollution on the ecosystem.

  13. DNS Lame delegations: A case-study of public reverse DNS records in the African Region

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Phokeer, A

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available . By analysing this data set, it gives us an idea of how well reverse delegations are configured in the African region. 3 An authoritative name server holds the actual records (A, AAAA, CNAME, PTR, etc) of the zones, as opposed to a recursive server or resolver...

  14. [African wild cat (Felis lybica Forster, 1780) in the Saratov Transvolga Region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oparin, M L; Oparina, O S; Kondratenkov, I A; Usov, A S

    2005-01-01

    Analysis of the area limits where African wild cat was found as well as of published data on its distribution in the Saratov Transvolga Region demonstrated that the local range of this species extended and its northwestern limit advanced almost 1000 km to the Volga zoogeographical boundary.

  15. Study of Distinctive Regional Features of Surface Solar Radiation in North and East China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    关福来; 郑有飞; 蔡子颖; 于长文; 张楠

    2011-01-01

    Solar radiation is an important energy source for plants on the earth and also a major component of the global energy balance.Variations in solar radiation incident at the earth's surface profoundly affect the human and terrestrial environment,including the climate change.To provide useful information for predicting the future climate change in China,distinctive regional features in spatial and temporal variations of the surface solar radiation (SSR) and corresponding attributions (such as cloud and aerosol) are analyzed based on SSR observations and other meteorological measurements in North and East China from 1961 to 2007.Multiple models,such as the plane-parallel radiative transfer model,empirical and statistical models,and corrclation and regrcssion analysis methods are used in the study.The results are given as follows.(1) During 1961-2007,the total SSR in North China went through a process from quickly “dimming” to slowly “dimming”,while in East China,a significant transition from “dimming” to “brightening” occurred.Although there are some differences between thc two regional variation trends,long-term variations in SSR in the two regions are basically consistent with the observation worldwide.(2) Between the 1960s and 1980s,in both North and East China,aerosols played a critical rolc in the radiation dimming.However,after 1989,different variation trends of SSR occurred in North and East China,indicating that aerosols were not the dominant factor.(3) Cloud cover contributed less to the variation of SSR in North China,but was thc major attribution in East China and played a promoting role in the reversal of SSR from dimming to brightening,especially in the “remarkable brightening” period,with its contribution as high as 70%.

  16. Does economic growth has an impact on east java regional revenue?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faishal Fadli

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The implementation of regional autonomy resulted in each region to be able to manage their finances independently. This is one way the central government to remove the dependency of local governments to the central government. Thus requiring local governments to explore the sources of local revenue in order to finance regional development. In an effort to increase local revenues derived from the PAD is determined by economic factors or economic potential which has the prospect to be developed for each area. While the economic progress of a region heavily dependent on the development efforts undertaken by the government in providing public facilities to support economic activity. so it needs to be studied further economic growth in East Java, which increased from year to year, is also accompanied by an increase in revenue (PAD as one source of income in financing regional development. The result indicates the role of the revenue (PAD in the Regional Budget (APBD of East Java Province indicates that there is still very small, with an average of 15.47% of the total revenue budget. This means that the level of dependence of local governments on the central government is still high. Although the results of regional revenue projections indicate that component has been great in their contribution of the reception area, which amounted to 69.52%. Using the ordinary least squre method, the result of regression correlation are insignificant. This means that the regional gross domestic product does not have an effect on revenue of East Java Province. If an increase or decrease in regional gross domestic product will not increase or decrease revenue amount. This means that there is no significant relationship between economic growths towards the reception of the revenue.

  17. The relative importance of various source regions on East Asian surface ozone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Nagashima

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The Source-Receptor (S-R relationship for surface O3 in East Asia is estimated for recent years in this study utilizing the tagged tracer method with a global chemical transport model. The estimation shows the importance of intra-continental transport of O3 inside East Asia as well as the transport of O3 from distant source regions. The model well simulated the absolute concentration and seasonal variation of surface O3 in the East Asian region, and demonstrated significant seasonal difference in the origin of surface O3. More than half of surface O3 is attributable to the O3 transported from distant sources outside of East Asia in the cold season (October to March. In the warm season (April to September, most of the surface O3 is attributed to O3 created within East Asia in most areas of East Asia. The contribution of domestically-created O3 accounts for 20% of surface O3 in Japan and the Korean Peninsula, 40% in North China Plain and around 50% in the southern part of China in spring, which increase greatly in summer. The contribution of China and the Korean Peninsula to Japan are estimated at about 10% and 5%, respectively. A large contribution (20% of China to the Korean Peninsula is also demonstrated. In the northern and southern part of China, large contribution of over 10% from East Siberia and the Indochina Peninsula are identified, respectively. The contribution of intercontinental transport increases with latitude; it is 21% in Northeast China and 13% in Japan and the Korean Peninsula in spring. As for one-hourly mean surface O3, domestically-created O3 is the main contributor in most areas of East Asia, except for the low O3 class (<30 ppbv, and accounts for more than 50% in very high O3 class (>90 ppbv. The mean relative contribution of China to central Japan was about 10

  18. Simulation of West African air pollution during the DACCIWA experiment with the GEOS-Chem West African regional model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Eleanor; Evans, Mathew

    2017-04-01

    Pollutant emissions from West African cities are forecast to increase rapidly in future years because of extensive economic and population growth, together with poorly regulated industrialisation and urbanisation. Observational constraints in this region are few, leading to poor understanding of present-day air pollution in this region. To increase our understanding of the processes controlling air pollutants over the region, airborne observations were made from three research aircraft based out of Lomé, Togo during the DACCIWA field campaign in June-July 2016. A new 0.25x0.3125 degree West Africa regional version of the GEOS-Chem offline chemical transport model has also been developed to explore the processes controlling pollutants over the region. We evaluate the model using the aircraft data and focus on primary (CO, SO2, NOx, VOCs) and secondary pollutants (O3, aerosol). We find significant differences between the model and the measurements for certain primary compounds which is indicative of significant uncertainties in the base (EDGAR) emissions. For CO (a general tracer of pollution) we evaluate the role of different emissions sources (transport, low temperature combustion, power generation) in determining its concentration in the region. We conclude that the leading cause of uncertainty in our simulation is associated with the emissions datasets and explore the impact of using differing datasets.

  19. North African dust deposition and hydroclimate over the last 60 ka: A combined view from the east and west of the continent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinsley, C. W.; McGee, D.; Bradtmiller, L. I.; Tierney, J. E.; Winckler, G.; Stuut, J. B. W.; deMenocal, P. B.

    2014-12-01

    Past changes in atmospheric circulation and hydroclimate over North Africa can be explored by reconstructing eolian dust accumulation in both East and West African margin sediments. Recent high-resolution reconstructions of dust deposition from West Africa (1) indicate dramatic changes in North African dust emissions over the last 20 ka, with comparable results to those found in the terrigenous accumulation rates at nearby ODP Hole 658C (2). A high-resolution record of aridity from East Africa using δDwax indicates dramatic changes in hydroclimate over the past 40 ka (3). The records show similar trends with arid conditions/high dust emissions seen during the Last Glacial Maximum, the Younger Dryas and Heinrich Event 1 (H1), and the wettest conditions of the past 40,000 years with accompanying low dust emissions during the African Humid Period. This study has two goals: 1) Extend the dust flux and terrigeneous accumulation records from West Africa back to 35 ka and 60 ka respectively, to provide quantitative estimates of the magnitude of eolian deposition changes associated with previous Heinrich Stadials (H2 to H6) and summer insolation minima/maxima; 2) Construct a high-resolution record of eolian dust accumulation rates off the East African margin over the past 20 ka using the same sample material as (3) allowing quantitative estimates of the magnitude of dust flux changes associated with abrupt changes in hydroclimate and provide a direct comparison of dust flux and δDwax. The combination of these study areas from both sides of the African continent, and comparison of the dust and leaf wax proxies promises to provide a more complete picture of hydroclimate changes accompanying orbital- and millennial-scale climate changes in North Africa over the last 60,000 years. 1. EPSL 371-372, 163-176. 2. Paleoceanography 21, PA4203. 3. Science 342, 843-846.

  20. ORIGINAL ARTICLE Oral Health in the African Region: Progress ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ogunbodede

    Objectives: According to The World Oral Health Report 2003, oral diseases remain a major public health ... institutional resources needed to implement, monitor and evaluate the Regional Strategy. ... among children (50%) and adults (75%).

  1. PROPOSAL FOR REVIEW OF RESTRICTIONS AND LOGISTIC OPPORTUNITIES IN AN EAST AFRICAN PORT: FROM A TECHNICAL MISSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robson Quinello

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The logistics went over the century, as noted by Gonçalves (2007, from  a fragmented and diluted within and value of organizations profile to a critical role in the strategy of the networks and chains of international business. For the twenty-first century, as will be seen in this article, logistics goes beyond these functions going to represent a social and political role in international relations between countries. The installation of a port located in East Africa near the Red Sea, the critical incident will be reviewed during a technical mission undertaken by a researcher in 2009. This research field, in the form of checklist, appoint the main barriers in infrastructure, information, rules and norms. The results indicate critical constraints of infrastructure and institutional opportunities that impact the implementation of new developments there. We will show that the progressive development of organizational arrangement to a complex undertaking, such as ports, can be key role in reversing the condition of misery and poverty in African countries.

  2. Distribution of albatross remains in the Far East regions during the Holocene, based on zooarchaeological remains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eda, Masaki; Higuchi, Hiroyoshi

    2004-07-01

    Many albatross remains have been found in the Japanese Islands and the surrounding areas, such as Sakhalin and South Korea. These remains are interesting for two reasons: numerous sites from which albatross remains have been found are located in coastal regions of the Far East where no albatrosses have been distributed recently, and there are some sites in which albatross remains represent a large portion of avian remains, although albatrosses are not easily preyed upon by human beings. We collected data on albatross remains from archaeological sites in the Far East regions during the Holocene and arranged the remains geographically, temporally and in terms of quantity. Based on these results, we showed that coastal areas along the Seas of Okhotsk and Japan have rarely been used by albatrosses in Modern times, though formerly there were many albatrosses. We proposed two explanations for the shrinkage of their distributional range: excessive hunting in the breeding areas, and distributional changes of prey for albatrosses.

  3. MPOWER and the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control implementation in the South-East Asia region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P K Singh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The 11 member states of WHO′s South-East Asia Region share common factors of high prevalence of tobacco use, practice of several forms of tobacco use, increasing prevalence of tobacco use among the youth and women, link of tobacco use with poverty, and influence of tobacco advertisements in propagating the use of tobacco, especially among young girls and women. The effects of tobacco use are many-fold, leading to high morbidity and mortality rates as well as loss of gross domestic product (GDP to respective countries. The WHO Regional Office for South-East Asia has been actively involved in curbing this menace essentially by way of assisting member states in implementing the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC. This paper gives an overview of these activities and discusses the opportunities and challenges in implementing the FCTC and possible practical solutions.

  4. Tracing the origin of the east-west population admixture in the Altai region (Central Asia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercedes González-Ruiz

    Full Text Available A recent discovery of Iron Age burials (Pazyryk culture in the Altai Mountains of Mongolia may shed light on the mode and tempo of the generation of the current genetic east-west population admixture in Central Asia. Studies on ancient mitochondrial DNA of this region suggest that the Altai Mountains played the role of a geographical barrier between West and East Eurasian lineages until the beginning of the Iron Age. After the 7th century BC, coinciding with Scythian expansion across the Eurasian steppes, a gradual influx of East Eurasian sequences in Western steppes is detected. However, the underlying events behind the genetic admixture in Altai during the Iron Age are still unresolved: 1 whether it was a result of migratory events (eastward firstly, westward secondly, or 2 whether it was a result of a local demographic expansion in a 'contact zone' between European and East Asian people. In the present work, we analyzed the mitochondrial DNA lineages in human remains from Bronze and Iron Age burials of Mongolian Altai. Here we present support to the hypothesis that the gene pool of Iron Age inhabitants of Mongolian Altai was similar to that of western Iron Age Altaians (Russia and Kazakhstan. Thus, this people not only shared the same culture (Pazyryk, but also shared the same genetic east-west population admixture. In turn, Pazyryks appear to have a similar gene pool that current Altaians. Our results further show that Iron Age Altaians displayed mitochondrial lineages already present around Altai region before the Iron Age. This would provide support for a demographic expansion of local people of Altai instead of westward or eastward migratory events, as the demographic event behind the high population genetic admixture and diversity in Central Asia.

  5. Are South East Europe stock markets integrated with regional and global stock markets?

    OpenAIRE

    Guidi, Francesco; Ugur, Mehmet

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyses whether stock markets of South East Europe (SEE) have become more integrated with regional and global stock markets during 2000s. Using a variety of co integration methodologies we show that SEE stock markets have no long-run relationship with their mature counterparts. This means that SEE markets might be immunized to external shocks. We also model time varying correlations among these markets by using Multivariate Generalised Autoregressive Conditional Heteroschedastic (...

  6. Turkey and the Arab Revolutions: Boundaries of Regional Power Influence in a Turbulent Middle East

    OpenAIRE

    Öniş, Ziya

    2014-01-01

    The recent Turkish involvement in the Middle East constitutes an important test case for establishing the boundaries of regional power influence in a changing global context. The AKP government in Turkey has become a major supporter of political change and democratization in the era of the Arab revolutions. Accumulating empirical evidence suggests, however, that the highly assertive and pro-active foreign policy of the AKP government in recent years has not been effective in terms of facilita...

  7. Territorial Factors of Strategic Development of the Regions of the Far East

    OpenAIRE

    Olga Anatolyevna Kozlova; Tatyana Valeryevna Terentyeva; Mariya Nikitichna Makarova; Do Huong Lan

    2016-01-01

    The article examines the issues of the territorial organization of social and economic space in the context of the development strategies implementation on the example of the Far East regions. This problem is associated with the growing unevenness of economic development under the conditions of the outflow of population. This leads to the growing shortage of labour, deteriorating age and educational structure of population. The population outflow results in the destruction of the existing pat...

  8. Diet, Genetics, and Disease: A Focus on the Middle East and North Africa Region

    OpenAIRE

    Fahed, Akl C.; El-Hage-Sleiman, Abdul-Karim M.; Farhat, Theresa I.; Georges M. Nemer

    2012-01-01

    The Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region suffers a drastic change from a traditional diet to an industrialized diet. This has led to an unparalleled increase in the prevalence of chronic diseases. This review discusses the role of nutritional genomics, or the dietary signature, in these dietary and disease changes in the MENA. The diet-genetics-disease relation is discussed in detail. Selected disease categories in the MENA are discussed starting with a review of their epidemiology in t...

  9. Regional nitrogen oxides emission trends in East Asia observed from space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Mijling

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Due to changing economic activity, emissions of air pollutants in East Asia change rapidly in space and time. Monthly emission estimates of nitrogen oxides derived from satellite observations provide valuable insight in the evolution of anthropogenic activity on a regional scale. We present the first results of a new emission estimation algorithm, specifically designed to use daily satellite observations of column concentrations for fast updates of emissions of short-lived atmospheric constituents on a~mesoscopic scale (~ 0.25° × 0.25°. The algorithm is used to construct a monthly NOx emission time series for 2007–2011 from tropospheric NO2 observations of GOME-2 for East Chinese provinces and surrounding countries. The new emission estimates correspond well with the bottom-up inventory of EDGAR v4.2, but are smaller than the inventories of INTEX-B and MEIC. They reveal a strong positive trend during 2007–2011 for almost all Chinese provinces, related to the country's economic development. We find a 41% increment of NOx emissions in East China during this period, which shows the need to update emission inventories in this region on a regular basis. Negative emission trends are found in Japan and South Korea, which can be attributed to a combined effect of local environmental policy and global economic crises. Analysis of seasonal variation distinguishes between regions with dominant anthropogenic or biogenic emissions. For regions with a mixed anthropogenic and biogenic signature, the opposite seasonality can be used for an estimation of the separate emission contributions. Finally, the non-local concentration/emission relationships calculated by the algorithm are used to quantify the direct effect of regional NOx emissions on tropospheric NO2 concentrations outside the region. For regions such as North Korea and Beijing province, a substantial part of the tropospheric NO2 originates from emissions elsewhere.

  10. Regional nitrogen oxides emission trends in East Asia observed from space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mijling, B.; van der A, R. J.; Zhang, Q.

    2013-12-01

    Due to changing economic activity, emissions of air pollutants in East Asia are changing rapidly in space and time. Monthly emission estimates of nitrogen oxides derived from satellite observations provide valuable insight into the evolution of anthropogenic activity on a regional scale. We present the first results of a new emission estimation algorithm, specifically designed to use daily satellite observations of column concentrations for fast updates of emissions of short-lived atmospheric constituents on a mesoscopic scale (~ 0.25° × 0.25°). The algorithm is used to construct a monthly NOx emission time series for the period 2007-2011 from tropospheric NO2 observations of GOME-2 for East Chinese provinces and surrounding countries. The new emission estimates correspond well with the bottom-up inventory of EDGAR v4.2, but are smaller than the inventories of INTEX-B and MEIC. They reveal a strong positive trend during 2007-2011 for almost all Chinese provinces, related to the country's economic development. We find a 41% increment of NOx emissions in East China during this period, which shows the need to update emission inventories in this region on a regular basis. Negative emission trends are found in Japan and South Korea, which can be attributed to a combined effect of local environmental policy and global economic crises. Analysis of seasonal variation distinguishes between regions with dominant anthropogenic or biogenic emissions. For regions with a mixed anthropogenic and biogenic signature, the opposite seasonality can be used for an estimation of the separate emission contributions. Finally, the non-local concentration/emission relationships calculated by the algorithm are used to quantify the direct effect of regional NOx emissions on tropospheric NO2 concentrations outside the region. For regions such as North Korea and the Beijing municipality, a substantial part of the tropospheric NO2 originates from emissions elsewhere.

  11. Combining farm and regional level modelling for Integrated Resource Management in East and South-east Asia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roetter, R.P.; Berg, van den M.M.; Laborte, A.G.; Hengsdijk, H.; Wolf, J.; Ittersum, van M.K.; Keulen, van H.; Agustin, E.O.; Son, T.T.; Lai, N.X.; Guanghuo, W.

    2007-01-01

    Currently, in many of the highly productive lowland areas of East and South-east Asia a trend to further intensification and diversification of agricultural land use can be observed. Growing economies and urbanization also increase the claims on land and water by non-agricultural uses. As a result,

  12. Planation surfaces as a record of medium to large wavelength deformation: the example of the Lake Albert Rift (Uganda) on the East African Dome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brendan, Simon; François, Guillocheau; Cécile, Robin; Jean, Braun; Olivier, Dauteuil; Massimo, Dall'Asta

    2016-04-01

    African relief is characterized by planation surfaces, some of them of continental scale. These surfaces are slightly deformed according to different wavelengths (x10 km; x100 km, x1000 km) which record both mantle dynamics (very long wavelength, x 1000 km) and lithosphere deformation (long wavelength deformation, x 100 km). Different types of these planation surfaces are recognized: - Etchplains capped by iron-duricrust which correspond to erosional nearly flat weathered surfaces resulting from the growth of laterites under warm and humid conditions. - Pediments which define mechanical erosional surfaces with concave or rectilinear profiles delimited by upslope scarps connected upstream with the upper landforms. We here focused on the Lake Albert Rift at the northern termination of the western branch of the East African Rift System of which the two branches are surimposed on the East-African Dome. Different wavelengths of deformation were characterized based on the 3D mapping of stepped planation surfaces: (1) very long wavelength deformations resulting from the uplift of the East African Dome; (2) long wavelength deformations resulting from the opening of the eastern branch and (3) medium wavelength deformations represented by the uplift of rift shoulders like the Rwenzori Mountains. The paleo-landscape reconstruction of Uganda shows the existence of four generations of landforms dated according to their geometrical relationships with volcanic rocks. A four stepped evolution of the Ugandan landforms is proposed: • 70 - 22 Ma: generation of two weathered planation surfaces (etchplain Uw and Iw). The upper one (Uw) records a very humid period culminating at time of the Early Eocene Climatic Optimum (70-45 Ma). It corresponds to the African Surface. A first uplift of the East African Dome generates a second lower planation surface (Iw) connected to the Atlantic Ocean base level; • 17-2.7 Ma: planation of large pediplains connected to the local base level induced

  13. Crustal model for the Middle East and North Africa region: implications for the isostatic compensation mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seber, Dogan; Sandvol, Eric; Sandvol, Christine; Brindisi, Carrie; Barazangi, Muawia

    2001-12-01

    We present a new 3-D crustal model for the Middle East and North Africa region that includes detailed topography, sediment thickness, and Moho depth values. The model is obtained by collecting, integrating, and interpolating reliable, published sedimentary rock thickness and Moho depth measurements in the Middle East and North Africa region. To evaluate the accuracy of the model, the 3-D gravity response of the model is calculated and compared with available observed Bouguer gravity anomalies in the region. The gravity modelling shows that the new crustal model predicts large portions of the observed Bouguer anomalies. However, in some regions, such as the Red Sea and Caspian Sea regions, where crustal structure is relatively well-determined, the residual anomalies are of the order of a few hundred milligals. Since the new crustal model results in large residual anomalies in regions where reasonably good constraints exist for the model, these large residuals cannot simply be explained by inaccuracies in the model. To analyse the cause of these residuals further we developed an isostatically compensated (Airy-type) Moho-depth model and calculated its gravity response. Isostatic gravity anomalies are in nearly perfect agreement with the observed gravity values. However, the isostatic model differs significantly from the new (3-D) crustal model. If isostasy is to be maintained, crustal and/or upper mantle lateral density variations are needed to explain the large observed gravity residuals.

  14. Extent of East-African Nurse Leaders’ Participation in Health Policy Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Shariff

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports part of a bigger study whose aim was to develop an empowerment model that could be used to enhance nurse leaders’ participation in health policy development. A Delphi survey was applied which included the following criteria: expert panelists, iterative rounds, statistical analysis, and consensus building. The expert panelists were purposively selected and included national nurse leaders in leadership positions at the nursing professional associations, nursing regulatory bodies, ministries of health, and universities in East Africa. The study was conducted in three iterative rounds. The results reported here were gathered as part of the first round of the study and that examined the extent of nurse leaders’ participation in health policy development. Seventy-eight (78 expert panelists were invited to participate in the study, and the response rate was 47%. Data collection was done with the use of a self-report questionnaire. Data analysis was done by use of SPSS and descriptive statistics were examined. The findings indicated that nurse leaders participate in health policy development though participation is limited and not consistent across all the stages of health policy development. The recommendations from the findings are that health policy development process needs to be pluralistic and inclusive of all nurse leaders practicing in positions related to policy development and the process must be open to their ideas and suggestions.

  15. Otoliths of five extant species of the annual killifish Nothobranchius from the East African savannah.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bettina Reichenbacher

    Full Text Available This study presents, for the first time, a comprehensive dataset that documents the range of inter- and intraspecific otolith variation in aplocheiloid killifish, based on a total of 86 individuals representing five extant species of Nothobranchius PETERS, 1868, from East Africa: the sympatric pairs N. rubripinnis SEEGERS, 1986 and N. ruudwildekampi COSTA, 2009 (Eastern Tanzania, and N. orthonotus (PETERS, 1844 and N. furzeri JUBB, 1971 (Southern Mozambique, and two isolated populations of N. korthausae MEINKEN, 1973 (Eastern Tanzania. Otolith characters were analysed based on SEM images, and otolith morphometry was conducted using uni- and multivariate statistics. Two ancient clades of probably Early to Middle Miocene age in eastern Tanzania and southern Mozambique can be recognized based on otolith morphologies, which is consistent with previous work based on molecular data. The distinctive sulcus morphologies in the otoliths of sympatric species may be linked to species-specific hearing capabilities, perhaps constituting a case of character displacement in an area of secondary sympatry. The otoliths of the studied species of Nothobranchius are diagnostic at the species level, even in the case of closely related species diagnosable otherwise only by minor differences in coloration. The two populations of N. korthausae also displayed some differences in their otolith characters. The new data may facilitate future recognition of fossil species of Nothobranchius. As no fossil remains of extant aplocheiloid killifishes have yet been described, the discovery of fossil otoliths of Nothobranchius would significantly advance understanding of the evolutionary history of this interesting group of fishes.

  16. Income convergence in a rural, majority African American region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buddhi Gyawali; Rory Fraser; James Bukenya; John Schelhas

    2008-01-01

    This paper revisits the issue of income convergence by examining the question of whether poorer Census Block Groups have been catching up with wealthier Census Block Groups over the 1980-2000 period. The dataset consists of 161 Census Block Groups in Alabama’s west-central Black Belt region. Estimates of a spatial lag model provide support for the conditional...

  17. Cattle, identity and genocide in the African Great Lakes region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Reid

    2000-11-01

    Full Text Available Archaeological research into the origins of the cattle-keeping people of southwestern Uganda has overturned long-held beliefs about the separate origins of the pastoral and agricultural populations of the region. Study of indigenous political development and nineteenth-century colonialism shows that the present-day ethnic identities, which fuelled the genocide in Rwanda in 1994, are recent constructions.

  18. Standardizing visual control devices for tsetse flies: east African Species Glossina fuscipes fuscipes and Glossina tachinoides.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francis Oloo

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Riverine species of tsetse are responsible for most human African trypanosomiasis (HAT transmission and are also important vectors of animal trypanosomiasis. This study concerns the development of visual control devices for two such species, Glossina fuscipes fuscipes and Glossina tachinoides, at the eastern limits of their continental range. The goal was to determine the most long-lasting, practical and cost-effective visually attractive device that induces the strongest landing responses in these species for use as insecticide-impregnated tools in vector population suppression.Field trials were conducted in different seasons on G. f. fuscipes in Kenya, Ethiopia and the Sudan and on G. tachinoides in Ethiopia to measure the performance of traps and 2D targets of different sizes and colours, with and without chemical baits, at different population densities and under different environmental conditions. Adhesive film was used to enumerate flies at these remote locations to compare trapping efficiencies. The findings show that targets made from black and blue fabrics (either phthalogen or turquoise covered with adhesive film render them equal to or more efficient than traps at capturing G. f. fuscipes and G. tachinoides. Biconical trap efficiency varied between 25% and 33% for the two species. Smaller 0.25 m×0.25 m phthalogen blue-black targets proved more efficient than the regular 1 m2 target for both species, by over six times for Glossina f. fuscipes and two times for G. tachinoides based on catches per m2. Overall, targets with a higher edge/surface area ratio were more efficient at capturing flies.Taking into account practical considerations and fly preferences for edges and colours, we propose a 0.5×0.75 m blue-black target as a simple cost-effective device for management of G. f. fuscipes and G. tachinoides, impregnated with insecticide for control and covered with adhesive film for population sampling.

  19. South-East Region in Bulgaria: Economic Performance and Key Sectors Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoaneta GOLEMANOVA

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper attempts to provide insight into the economicperformance of the South-east region (SER of Bulgaria by presenting quantitativerelationships between sectors in the regional economy. Methodologically it is basedon the construction of the regional Input–Output model. It was carried out troughapplying the non-servey GRIT technique, based on Flegg & Webber locationquotient (2000. The dirived Rasmussen & Hirschman backward linkages andMattas & Shrestha input-output elasticities from the model enable to identify thekey economic sectors within the region. This could be considered as a starting pointfor the future impact assesment of different EU policies, as well as designing ofbetter regional development strategies, assuring better economic performance.

  20. Testing the ability of RIEMS2.0 (Regional Integrated Environment Modeling System) on regional climate simulation in East Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, D.; Fu, C.; Yan, X.

    2010-12-01

    RIEMS1.0 (Regional Integrated Environmental Modeling System version 1.0) was developed by researchers from the START (Global change System for Analysis, Research, and Training) Regional Center for Temperate East Asia, IAP/CAS in 1998. The model was built on the thermodynamic frame of PSU/NCAR MM5V2, into which a land surface scheme (BATS1e) and radiative transfer scheme (the revised CCM3) are integrated. The model has been widely used in regional climate studies in the East Asia monsoon system and expresses excellent performance from RMIP (Regional Climate Model Inter-comparison Project). RIEMS2.0 is now being developed starting from RIEMS1.0 by the Key Laboratory of Regional Climate Environment Research for Temperate East Asia, IAP/CAS, and Nanjing University. The new version is built on the thermodynamic framework of nonhydrostatic approximation from MM5V3 with the same land surface model and radiation scheme as RIEMS1.0. To make it an integrated modeling system, the Princeton ocean mode (POM), Atmosphere-Vegetation interaction model (AVIM) and a chemical model are now being integrated. In order to test RIEMS2.0’s ability to simulate short-term climate, we perform ensemble simulations with different physics process schemes. The model will be used to perform ensemble simulations on two continuous extreme climate events, which is serve drought with high temperature in north China in the summer (June, July and August) of 1997 and serve flood in the Yangtze River valley in the summer of 1998. The results show that RIEMS2.0 can reproduce the spatial distribution of the precipitation and SAT from two continuous extreme climate events in the summer of 1997/1998, and disclose sub-regional characteristics. Though difference can be found among ensemble members, ensembles can decrease the model’s uncertainty and improve the simulation decision in a certain degree. In order to test RIEMS2.0’s ability to simulate long-term climate and climate change, we compare

  1. The Eastern Arc Mountains and coastal forests of East Africa-an archive to understand large-scale biogeographical patterns: Pseudotomias, a new genus of African Pseudophyllinae (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemp, Claudia

    2016-06-21

    A new genus of Pseudophyllinae restricted to East Africa is described. Data on the ecology, and the habitat are provided. The biogeographical pattern and morphology suggests an old radiation since Tomias from Central and West Africa is the closest relative to Pseudotomias. The old forests of East Africa could hereby be the source of representatives of this old radiation since venation is less reduced in East African taxa of Phyllomimini.

  2. Millennial-scale cyclicity in the Pliocene: Evidence from the East African Rift Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, K. E.; Leng, M. J.; Edgar, R. K.; Deino, A. L.; Kingston, J. D.; Maslin, M. A.; Mackay, A. W.

    2010-12-01

    Superimposed on the long-term trend of aridification in East Africa were a series of humid episodes, coincident with major transitions in global climate during the Plio-Pleistocene. The period of climatic variability between 2.7 and 2.5 Ma is coeval with the amplification of ice sheet growth and cooling in the Northern Hemisphere, however climate change in the low latitudes remains poorly understood. In the Tugen Hills, a well-dated package of fluviolacustrine sediments, characterised by five diatomite units, records the precessionally-driven cycling of a major freshwater lake system in the Baringo-Bogoria basin within the Central Kenyan Rift between 2.68 and 2.55 Ma. We use stable oxygen isotope measurements of diatom silica (δ18Odiatom), combined with the analysis of whole-sample geochemistry by x-ray fluorescence, to investigate potential palaeoenvironmental signals recorded in the best dated of these diatomite deposits spanning the period between 2.606 Ma and 2.617 Ma (40Ar/39Ar chronology normalised to Astronomical Polarity Time Scale). Geochemical results were modelled using multivariate statistics, and mass-balance calculations were applied to the isotope values to correct for the effects of residual contamination within the purified diatom samples. The modelled δ18Odiatom values, coupled with diatom assemblage counts, reveal a series of millennial-scale climate oscillations throughout the period of diatomite deposition. Six negative excursions in the δ18Odiatom signal of up to 5 per mil represent periods of enhanced precipitation and indicate that wet-dry cycles occur, on average, every 1,400 years. Such high-resolution cycles are rarely found in records from this time, thus giving a valuable insight to the nature of short-term fluctuations in Pliocene climate.

  3. Not just academics: Supporting international graduate students at an East African private university

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janice Rasmussen

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The number of students enrolled in higher education outside their countries of originincreased from 0.8 million in 1975, to 2.1 million in 2000, and to 3.7 million in 2009(Ryan, 2012. This growing trend of student mobility leads to increased universitycompetition for students around the globe. However, little is known about the experiencesof international students in Africa. This lack of understanding could leave the continentat a disadvantage for attracting and retaining international students, while other partsof the world continue to benefit. To begin to address this gap, I conducted a qualitativephenomenological study at one private university in East Africa that attracts about 20% ofits population as international students.As International Student Coordinator at this university, I interviewed 13 graduatestudents from various countries and conducted participant observations on campus forthree years. I aimed to understand students’ perceptions of their learning experiences.This article focuses on students’ non-academic learning. Students’ positive and negativeexperiences highlighted the difference that student affairs and administrative staff can makein the quality of students’ educational experiences. A needs model shed light on students’non-academic experiences. Student affairs and administrative staff were essential in1 providing pre-arrival information, 2 meeting students’ initial basic needs, 3 connectingthem with others, keeping immigration documents current, and 5 understanding the newacademic system. Ecologically, students were required to make a variety of connections intheir adjustment process on campus and beyond.If the university could adequately addressinternational students’ non-academic issues, then students would be better able to focuson their main purpose: their academics. It is recommended that the university revisit itsprocedures and develop more holistic international-student-friendly policies. Then, it

  4. Filaria dance sign and subclinical hydrocoele in two east African communities with bancroftian filariasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonsen, Paul E; Bernhard, Peter; Jaoko, Walter G; Meyrowitsch, Dan W; Malecela-Lazaro, Mwele N; Magnussen, Pascal; Michael, Edwin

    2002-01-01

    During population-wide cross-sectional surveys for Wuchereria bancrofti microfilaremia, circulating antigenaemia, and clinical disease in a high and a low endemicity community in East Africa in 1998, a portable ultrasound scanner was used simultaneously to examine the scrotal tissue of the male populations (n = 422 and 328, respectively) for signs of adult worms. The overall microfilaria (mf) and circulating filarial antigen (CFA) prevalences in the scanned males were 30.8% and 53.6% in the high and 4.3% and 19.8% in the low endemicity community, respectively. During ultrasound examination, the filaria dance sign (FDS)--indicating the presence of live adult W. bancrofti worms--was observed in 16.1% and 6.7% of the males in these communities, respectively. This examination also revealed that subclinical hydrocoele (fluid accumulation in the scrotal sac, not detected during physical examination for clinical hydrocoele) was very common, affecting 25.3% and 15.5% of the examined males in the high and low endemicity community, respectively. Both of these ultrasonographic signs started to appear around the age of puberty and were most common in adults. In the high endemicity community, the prevalence and mean intensity of mf and CFA were considerably higher in FDS-positive than in FDS-negative adult males, whereas no obvious difference in these parameters was noted between adult males with and without subclinical or the combination of clinical and subclinical hydrocoele. Associations were less clear in the low endemicity community, probably because of the low number of infected individuals. The application of ultrasonography as a tool in bancroftian filariasis epidemiological field studies thus indicated that scrotal pathology may be much more common in endemic areas than hitherto reported.

  5. Epidemiology of burn injuries in the East Mediterranean Region: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kendrick Denise

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Burn injuries remain one of the leading causes of injury morbidity and mortality in the World Health Organization's East Mediterranean Region. To provide an overview on the epidemiology of burn injuries in this region, a systematic review was undertaken. Methods Medline, Embase and CINAHL were searched for publications on burns in this region published between 01/01/1997 and 16/4/2007. Data were extracted to a standard spreadsheet and synthesised using a narrative synthesis. No attempt has been made to quantitatively synthesise the data due to the large degree of clinical heterogeneity between study populations. Results Seventy one studies were included in the review, from 12 countries. Burn injuries were found to be one of the leading causes of injury morbidity and mortality. The reported incidence of burns ranged from 112 to 518 per 100,000 per year. Burn victims were more frequently young and approximately one third of the victims were children aged 0-5 years. Hospital mortality ranged from 5 to 37%, but was commonly above 20%. Intentional self-harm burns particularly involving women were common in some countries of the region and were associated with a very high mortality of up to 79%. Conclusion Burn injuries remain an important public health issue in the East Mediterranean Region therefore further research is required to investigate the problem and assess the effectiveness of intervention programmes.

  6. Progress Toward Measles Elimination - South-East Asia Region, 2003-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thapa, Arun; Khanal, Sudhir; Sharapov, Umid; Swezy, Virginia; Sedai, Tika; Dabbagh, Alya; Rota, Paul; Goodson, James L; McFarland, Jeffrey

    2015-06-12

    In 2013, the 66th session of the Regional Committee of the World Health Organization (WHO) South-East Asia Region adopted the goal of measles elimination and rubella and congenital rubella syndrome control by 2020 after rigorous prior consultations. The recommended strategies include 1) achieving and maintaining ≥95% coverage with 2 doses of measles- and rubella-containing vaccine in every district through routine or supplementary immunization activities (SIAs); 2) developing and sustaining a sensitive and timely case-based measles surveillance system that meets recommended performance indicators; 3) developing and maintaining an accredited measles laboratory network; and 4) achieving timely identification, investigation, and response to measles outbreaks. This report updates previous reports and summarizes progress toward measles elimination in the South-East Asia Region during 2003-2013. Within the region, coverage with the first dose of a measles-containing vaccine (MCV1) increased from 67% to 78%; an estimated 286 million children (95% of the target population) were vaccinated in SIAs; measles incidence decreased 73%, from 59 to 16 cases per million population; and estimated measles deaths decreased 63%. To achieve measles elimination in the region, additional efforts are needed in countries with measles case-based surveillance and laboratory diagnosis of measles.

  7. Zoonoses in South-East Asia: a regional burden, a global threat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordier, Marion; Roger, François

    2013-06-01

    Zoonoses are an issue of growing interest in South-East Asia, where environmental factors and socio-economic context favor the endemization of well-known diseases and the emergence of new pathogens at the human-wildlife interface. However, the health status of the region with respect to many zoonotic diseases remains poorly defined, despite the high overall burden of zoonoses on the countries of the area, and the global risk of new biological threats in the region. The first objective of this paper was to provide an update of data on the zoonoses commonly described by the scientific community and reported by governmental institutions and international organizations in continental South-East Asia. The analysis of the available data led to the identification of some trends in the evolution of the diseases, as well as some gaps in knowledge and in the current surveillance and control networks. In light of these findings, we discuss measures for effectively addressing zoonotic disease issues in South-East Asia, such as the allocation of funds for research and for surveillance and control programs, and a multi-sectoral and multi-disciplinary approach at various levels.

  8. Health risks of climate change in the World Health Organization South-East Asia Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Kathryn J; Ebi, Kristie L

    2017-09-01

    Countries in the World Health Organization (WHO) South-East Asia Region are particularly vulnerable to a changing climate. Changes in extreme weather events, undernutrition and the spread of infectious diseases are projected to increase the number of deaths due to climate change by 2030, indicating the need to strengthen activities for adaptation and mitigation. With support from the WHO Regional Office for South-East Asia and others, countries have started to include climate change as a key consideration in their national public health policies. Further efforts are needed to develop evidence-based responses; garner the necessary support from partner ministries; and access funding for activities related to health and climate change. National action plans for climate change generally identify health as one of their priorities; however, limited information is available on implementation processes, including which ministries and departments would be involved; the time frame; stakeholder responsibilities; and how the projects would be financed. While progress is being made, efforts are needed to increase the capacity of health systems to manage the health risks of climate change in South-East Asia, if population health is to be protected and strengthened while addressing changing weather and climate patterns. Enhancing the resilience of health systems is key to ensuring a sustainable path to improved planetary and population health.

  9. GRB follow-up observations in the East-Asian region

    CERN Document Server

    Urata, Y; Ip, W H; Qiu, Y; Hu, J Y; Zhou, X; Tamagawa, T; Onda, K; Makishima, K; Zhou, Xn.

    2005-01-01

    In 2004, we established a Japan-Taiwan-China collaboration for GRB study in the East-Asian region. This serves as a valuable addition to the world-wide optical and infrared follow-up network, because the East-Asia region would otherwise be blank. We have been carrying out imaging and spectroscopic follow-up observations at Lulin (Taiwan), Kiso (Japan), WIDGET (Japan) and Xinglong (China). From Xinglong and Kiso, we can locate candidates and obtain early time spectra for afterglows. While WIDGET provides early time observations before the burst, the high-time resolution for multi-band light curves can be obtained at Lulin. With the data from these sites, we can obtain detailed information about the light curve and redshift of GRBs, which are important to understand the mechanism of the afterglows. Up to March 2005, ten follow-up observations have been provided by this East-Asia cooperation. Two optical afterglows were detected, GRB 040924 and GRB 041006. The results of the two detected afterglows are reported ...

  10. Impact of disaster-related mortality on gross domestic product in the WHO African Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldis William

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Disaster-related mortality is a growing public health concern in the African Region. These deaths are hypothesized to have a significantly negative effect on per capita gross domestic product (GDP. The objective of this study was to estimate the loss in GDP attributable to natural and technological disaster-related mortality in the WHO African Region. Methods The impact of disaster-related mortality on GDP was estimated using double-log econometric model and cross-sectional data on various Member States in the WHO African Region. The analysis was based on 45 of the 46 countries in the Region. The data was obtained from various UNDP and World Bank publications. Results The coefficients for capital (K, educational enrolment (EN, life expectancy (LE and exports (X had a positive sign; while imports (M and disaster mortality (DS were found to impact negatively on GDP. The above-mentioned explanatory variables were found to have a statistically significant effect on GDP at 5% level in a t-distribution test. Disaster mortality of a single person was found to reduce GDP by US$0.01828. Conclusions We have demonstrated that disaster-related mortality has a significant negative effect on GDP. Thus, as policy-makers strive to increase GDP through capital investment, export promotion and increased educational enrolment, they should always keep in mind that investments made in the strengthening of national capacity to mitigate the effects of national disasters expeditiously and effectively will yield significant economic returns.

  11. Variance component estimations and allocation of resources for breeding sweetpotato under East African conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grüneberg, W.J.; Abidin, P.E.; Ndolo, P.; Pereira, C.A.; Hermann, M.

    2004-01-01

    In Africa, average sweetpotato storage root yields are low and breeding is considered to be an important factor in increasing production. The objectives of this study were to obtain variance component estimations for sweetpotato in this region of the world and then use these to determine the efficie

  12. Tectonic stability of the Farakka dam and its adjoining regions in east India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, C. L.; Singh, V. P.

    1989-11-01

    The results of gravity, magnetic and seismic surveys carried out in the neighbourhood of the Farakka dam in east India are presented. A major deep-seated fault, extending from Kishanganj to south of Malda, has been inferred from gravity data. This fault runs ˜ 20 km east of the Farakka dam, with a north-south trend. Magnetic anomalies over this region are strong and show tight closures. This could indicate the presence of basaltic lava at shallow depths. P-wave velocities vary from 4.6 to 5.6 km s -1 at depths from 35 to 250 m. Borehole data support these findings. Magnetic and seismic observations do not support the fault inferred from gravity data.

  13. Tradeoffs in regulating ecosystem services in East African Papyrus Wetlands: Denitrification as a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gettel, G. M.; Tshering, K.; Nakitende, H.; van Dam, A.

    2012-12-01

    Papyrus wetlands are important to the livelihoods of millions of people in East Africa, partly because they converted to grazing and agricultural lands during during dry seasons. At the same time, papyrus wetlands fringe important water bodies - e.g. Lake Victoria - and may help protect these ecosystems from the impacts of increased nutrient inputs. Denitrification -- the production of gaseous nitrogen (N) from the microbial reduction of nitrate (NO3) in anaerobic environments -- is likely an important mechanism for nitrogen retention in these systems. However, few measurements have been made, and the effect of wetland exploitation on denitrification has not yet been determined. In particular, we were interested in whether the hydrologic status (wet vs dry) is as important as agricultural activities in controlling denitrification potential. Using acetylene block technique to measure potential denitrification (denitrification enzyme assay), we measured potential denitrification rates in natural papyrus vegetation and in grazing, rice, maize, and sugarcane fields in the Nyando and Mara wetlands in Kenya and Tanzania (respectively) in November - December 2010. We also determined whether denitrification was limited by soil organic carbon or by NO3 in different patch types, and further assessed controls using multivariate analysis relating soil characteristics to potential denitrification rates. Potential denitrification in papyrus vegetation was the highest of all measured sites (price fields (2.3 - 303 ug N20 g soil dry weight-1 hour-1), and intermediate in maize and sugarcane (6.5 - 75 ug N20 g soil dry weight-1 hour-1 and 5 - 30 ug N20 g soil dry weight-1 hour-1 respectively). Controls of denitrification in different land uses were similar in the Nyando and Mara sites, and showed that NO3 limited denitrification in papyrus vegetation, whereas organic carbon was limiting in all agricultural sites. Multivariate analysis showed that this pattern also corresponded

  14. East African Soil Erosion Recorded in a 300 Year old Coral Colony From Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunbar, R. B.; Fleitmann, D.; McCulloch, M.; Mudelsee, M.; Vuille, M.; McClanahan, T.; Cole, J.; Eggins, S.

    2006-12-01

    Soil erosion threatens the food security of 2.6 billion people worldwide. The situation is particularly dire in East and Sub-Saharan Africa where per capita food production has declined over the past 45 years. Erosion and the resultant loss of fertile soil is a key socio-economic and ecological problem in Kenya, affecting all sectors of its economy and damaging marine and terrestrial ecosystems. The temporal pattern of soil erosion is almost unknown and currently only sparse and rather anecdotal information exists. To aid in filling this gap of knowledge, we present a 300-year long Barium record from two Kenyan coral colonies (Porites sp., 3°15'S, 40°9' E; Malindi Marine National Park) that documents a dynamic history of soil erosion in the Sabaki river drainage basin. To reconstruct Sabaki River sediment flux to the Malindi coral reef Ba/Ca ratios were measured in the skeleton of two Porites colonies (Mal 96-1 and Mal 95-3). Well-developed annual bands allow us to develop annually precise chronologies. Ba/Ca ratios were measured in core Mal 96-1 at continuous 40 μm intervals (~400 to 500 samples yr-1) using laser-ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA- ICP-MS). To test for reproducibility and accuracy of the Mal 96-1 Ba/Ca profile, coral core Mal 95-3 was analyzed at lower resolution (1 to 12 samples yr-1) using discrete micro-drill sampling and isotope dilution ICP-MS. The close similarity between both coral Ba/Ca profiles, in absolute values as well as general pattern, underscores the accuracy of the LA-ICP-MS technique and adds confidence to our interpretation of the 300 year long Mal 96-1 Ba/Ca profile. The Ba/Ca coral proxy record shows that while the sediment flux from the Sabaki River is nearly constant between 1700 and 1900, a continuous rise in sediment flux is observed since 1900, reflecting steadily increasing demographic pressure on land use. The peak in suspended sediment load and hence soil erosion recorded at the Malindi reef

  15. Feasibility Analysis of Establishing Multilateral Nuclear Approaches (MNAs in the Asian Region and the Middle East

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makiko Tazaki

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available To establish frameworks for multilateral nuclear approaches (MNAs, we identified challenges and their possible solutions through case studies proposing to establish three different MNAs, comprising existing states in the Asian region and the Middle East, in accordance with twelve features deemed necessary for establishing MNAs. In all case studies, political instability of MNA member states and the region, as well as political conflicts between MNA member states and other states were seen as challenges hindering the establishment of MNAs. There are no simple measures to overcome such challenges, but additional case-by-case measures, including the direct involvement of international organizations, supplier states and nuclear weapon states, in MNAs, as well as the application of regional safeguards and regional systems of accounting for and control of nuclear material (RSAC within MNAs, may contribute toward mitigating the political challenges.

  16. The relative importance of various source regions on East Asian surface ozone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Nagashima

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available We estimated the source-receptor relationship for surface O3 in East Asia during the early 2000s using a method that tags O3 tracers according to their region of chemical production (tagged tracer method with a global chemical transport model. The estimation demonstrated the importance of intracontinental transport of O3 inside East Asia as well as of the transport of O3 from distant source regions. The model well simulated the absolute concentration and seasonal variation of surface O3 in East Asia and demonstrated significant seasonal differences in the origin of surface O3. In the cold season (October to March, more than half of surface O3 in East Asia is attributable to the O3 transported from distant sources outside of East Asia. In the warm season (April to September, most of the surface O3 is attributable to O3 created within East Asia in most areas of East Asia. In spring the contribution of domestically created O3 accounted for 20% of the surface O3 in Japan and the Korean Peninsula, 40% in the North China Plain, and around 50% in the southern part of China, and the domestic contribution increased greatly in summer. The contributions of O3 created in China and the Korean Peninsula to O3 in Japan were estimated at about 10% and 5%, respectively. We also demonstrated a large contribution (20% from China to the Korean Peninsula. In the northern and southern parts of China, large contributions of over 10% from East Siberia and the Indochina Peninsula, respectively, were identified. The contribution from intercontinental transport increased with latitude; it was 21% in Northeast China and 13% in Japan and the Korean Peninsula in spring. As for the hourly mean of surface O3, domestically created O3 was the main contributor in most areas of East Asia, except for the low

  17. Investigation of TEC variations over the magnetic equatorial and equatorial anomaly regions of the African sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oryema, B.; Jurua, E.; D'ujanga, F. M.; Ssebiyonga, N.

    2015-11-01

    This paper presents the annual, seasonal and diurnal variations in ionospheric TEC along the African equatorial region. The study also investigated the effects of a geomagnetic storm on ionospheric TEC values. Dual-frequency GPS derived TEC data obtained from four stations within the African equatorial region for the high solar activity year 2012 were used in this study. Annual variations showed TEC having two peaks in the equinoctial months, while minima values were observed in the summer and winter solstices. The diurnal pattern showed a pre-dawn minimum, a steady increase from about sunrise to an afternoon maximum and then a gradual fall after sunset to attain a minimum just before sunrise. Nighttime enhancements of TEC were observed mostly in the equinoctial months. There was comparably higher percentage TEC variability during nighttime than daytime and highest during equinoxes, moderate in winter and least during summer solstice. TEC was observed to exhibit a good correlation with geomagnetic storm indices.

  18. Iran's Relations to the East: Nonproliferation and Regional Security in a Changing Southwest Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tehsin, Muhammad [Quaid-I-Azam Univ., Islamabad (Pakistan)

    2014-11-01

    This study attempts to answer the following questions: would a successful JPOA result in nuclear nonproliferation and regional security in Southwest Asia; and could the Middle East and South Asia work together to contain the threat of Salafi jihadism?

  19. The burden of child maltreatment in the East Asia and Pacific region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Xiangming; Fry, Deborah A; Brown, Derek S; Mercy, James A; Dunne, Michael P; Butchart, Alexander R; Corso, Phaedra S; Maynzyuk, Kateryna; Dzhygyr, Yuriy; Chen, Yu; McCoy, Amalee; Swales, Diane M

    2015-04-01

    This study estimated the health and economic burden of child maltreatment in the East Asia and Pacific region, addressing a significant gap in the current evidence base. Systematic reviews and meta-analyses were conducted to estimate the prevalence of child physical abuse, sexual abuse, emotional abuse, neglect, and witnessing parental violence. Population Attributable Fractions were calculated and Disability-Adjusted Life Years (DALYs) lost from physical and mental health outcomes and health risk behaviors attributable to child maltreatment were estimated using the most recent comparable Global Burden of Disease data. DALY losses were converted into monetary value by assuming that one DALY is equal to the sub-region's per capita GDP. The estimated economic value of DALYs lost to violence against children as a percentage of GDP ranged from 1.24% to 3.46% across sub-regions defined by the World Health Organization. The estimated economic value of DALYs (in constant 2000 US$) lost to child maltreatment in the EAP region totaled US $151 billion, accounting for 1.88% of the region's GDP. Updated to 2012 dollars, the estimated economic burden totaled US $194 billion. In sensitivity analysis, the aggregate costs as a percentage of GDP range from 1.36% to 2.52%. The economic burden of child maltreatment in the East Asia and Pacific region is substantial, indicating the importance of preventing and responding to child maltreatment in this region. More comprehensive research into the impact of multiple types of childhood adversity on a wider range of putative health outcomes is needed to guide policy and programs for child protection in the region, and globally. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Sexual learning among East African adolescents in the context of generalized HIV epidemics: A systematic qualitative meta-synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knopf, Amelia S; McNealy, Kim R; Al-Khattab, Halima; Carter-Harris, Lisa; Oruche, Ukamaka Marian; Naanyu, Violet; Draucker, Claire Burke

    2017-01-01

    AIDS-related illness is the leading cause of mortality for adolescents in sub-Saharan Africa. Together, Kenya, Tanzania, and Uganda account for 21% of HIV-infected adolescents in sub-Saharan Africa. The United Nations framework for addressing the epidemic among adolescents calls for comprehensive sexual and reproductive health education. These HIV prevention efforts could be informed by a synthesis of existing research about the formal and informal sexual education of adolescents in countries experiencing generalized epidemics. The purpose of this study was to describe the process of sexual learning among East African adolescents living in the context of generalized HIV epidemics. Qualitative metasynthesis, a systematic procedure for integrating the results of multiple qualitative studies addressing a similar phenomenon, was used. Thirty-two research reports met study inclusion criteria. The reports were assessed in a four-step analytic process: appraisal, classification of findings, synthesis of findings, and construction of a framework depicting the process of sexual learning in this population. The framework includes three phases of sexual learning: 1) being primed for sex, 2) making sense of sex, and 3) having sexual experiences. Adolescents were primed for sex through gender norms, cultural practices, and economic structures as well as through conversations and formal instruction. They made sense of sex by acquiring information about sexual intercourse, reproduction and pregnancy, sexually transmitted infections, and relationships and by developing a variety of beliefs and attitudes about these topics. Some adolescents described having sexual experiences that met wants or needs, but many experienced sex that was coerced or violent. Whether sex was wanted, coerced, or violent, adolescents experienced worry about sexually transmitted infections or premarital pregnancy. The three phases of sexual learning interact to shape adolescents' sexual lives and their risk

  1. First Report of the East-Central South African Genotype of Chikungunya Virus in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Thiara Manuele Alves; Azeredo, Elzinandes Leal; Badolato-Corrêa, Jessica; Damasco, Paulo Vieira; Santos, Carla; Petitinga-Paiva, Fabienne; Nunes, Priscila Conrado Guerra; Barbosa, Luciana Santos; Cipitelli, Márcio Costa; Chouin-Carneiro, Thais; Faria, Nieli Rodrigues Costa; Nogueira, Rita Maria Ribeiro; de Bruycker-Nogueira, Fernanda; dos Santos, Flavia Barreto

    2017-01-01

    Background: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an arbovirus that causes an acute febrile syndrome with a severe and debilitating arthralgia. In Brazil, the Asian and East-Central South African (ECSA) genotypes are circulating in the north and northeast of the country, respectively. In 2015, the first autochthonous cases in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil were reported but until now the circulating strains have not been characterized. Therefore, we aimed here to perform the molecular characterization and phylogenetic analysis of CHIKV strains circulating in the 2016 outbreak occurred in the municipality of Rio de Janeiro. Methods: The cases analyzed in this study were collected at a private Hospital, from April 2016 to May 2016, during the chikungunya outbreak in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. All cases were submitted to the Real Time RT-PCR for CHIKV genome detection and to anti-CHIKV IgM ELISA. Chikungunya infection was laboratorially confirmed by at least one diagnostic method and, randomly selected positive cases (n=10), were partially sequenced (CHIKV E1 gene) and analyzed. Results: The results showed that all the samples grouped in ECSA genotype branch and the molecular characterization of the fragment did not reveal the A226V mutation in the Rio de Janeiro strains analyzed, but a K211T amino acid substitution was observed for the first time in all samples and a V156A substitution in two of ten samples. Conclusions: Phylogenetic analysis and molecular characterization reveals the circulation of the ECSA genotype of CHIKV in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil and two amino acids substitutions (K211T and V156A) exclusive to the CHIKV strains obtained during the 2016 epidemic, were reported. PMID:28286701

  2. Sexual learning among East African adolescents in the context of generalized HIV epidemics: A systematic qualitative meta-synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNealy, Kim R.; Al-Khattab, Halima; Carter-Harris, Lisa; Oruche, Ukamaka Marian; Naanyu, Violet; Draucker, Claire Burke

    2017-01-01

    Background AIDS-related illness is the leading cause of mortality for adolescents in sub-Saharan Africa. Together, Kenya, Tanzania, and Uganda account for 21% of HIV-infected adolescents in sub-Saharan Africa. The United Nations framework for addressing the epidemic among adolescents calls for comprehensive sexual and reproductive health education. These HIV prevention efforts could be informed by a synthesis of existing research about the formal and informal sexual education of adolescents in countries experiencing generalized epidemics. The purpose of this study was to describe the process of sexual learning among East African adolescents living in the context of generalized HIV epidemics. Methods Qualitative metasynthesis, a systematic procedure for integrating the results of multiple qualitative studies addressing a similar phenomenon, was used. Thirty-two research reports met study inclusion criteria. The reports were assessed in a four-step analytic process: appraisal, classification of findings, synthesis of findings, and construction of a framework depicting the process of sexual learning in this population. Results The framework includes three phases of sexual learning: 1) being primed for sex, 2) making sense of sex, and 3) having sexual experiences. Adolescents were primed for sex through gender norms, cultural practices, and economic structures as well as through conversations and formal instruction. They made sense of sex by acquiring information about sexual intercourse, reproduction and pregnancy, sexually transmitted infections, and relationships and by developing a variety of beliefs and attitudes about these topics. Some adolescents described having sexual experiences that met wants or needs, but many experienced sex that was coerced or violent. Whether sex was wanted, coerced, or violent, adolescents experienced worry about sexually transmitted infections or premarital pregnancy. Conclusions The three phases of sexual learning interact to shape

  3. Meat Quality Characteristics of Small East African Goats and Norwegian Crosses Finished under Small Scale Farming Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hozza, W A; Mtenga, L A; Kifaro, G C; Shija, D S N; Mushi, D E; Safari, J G; Shirima, E J M

    2014-12-01

    The aim of the experiment was to study the effect of feeding system on meat quality characteristics of Small East African (SEA) goats and their crosses with Norwegian (SEA×N) goats finished under small scale farming conditions. Twenty four castrated goats at the age of 18 months with live body weight of 16.7±0.54 kg from each breed (SEA and SEA×N) were distributed in a completely randomized design in a 2×3 factorial arrangement (two breed, and three dietary treatments). The dietary treatments were; no access to concentrate (T0), 66% access to ad libitum concentrate allowance (T66) and 100% access to ad libitum concentrate allowance with 20% refusal (T100) and the experimental period was for 84 days. In addition, all goats were allowed to graze for 2 hours daily and later fed grass hay on ad libitum basis. Daily feed intakes were recorded for all 84-days of experiment after which the animals were slaughtered. Feed intake of T100 animals was 536 g/d, which was 183 g/d higher than that of T66 group. Supplemented goats had significantly (p0.05) for dressing percentage and carcass conformation among supplemented goats except fatness score, total fat depots and carcass fat which increased (pdiet. Increasing level of concentrate on offer increased meat dry matter with subsequent increase of fat in the meat. Muscle pH of goats fed concentrate declined rapidly and reached below 6 at 6 h post-mortem but temperature remained at 28°C. Cooking loss and meat tenderness improved (pgoats and their crosses with Norwegian breeds finished under small scale farming conditions in rural areas. Therefore, concentrate supplementation of goats of both breeds improves meat quality attributes.

  4. Holocene phreatomagmatic eruptions alongside the densely populated northern shoreline of Lake Kivu, East African Rift: timing and hazard implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poppe, Sam; Smets, Benoît; Fontijn, Karen; Rukeza, Montfort Bagalwa; De Marie Fikiri Migabo, Antoine; Milungu, Albert Kyambikwa; Namogo, Didier Birimwiragi; Kervyn, François; Kervyn, Matthieu

    2016-11-01

    The Virunga Volcanic Province (VVP) represents the most active zone of volcanism in the western branch of the East African Rift System. While the VVP's two historically active volcanoes, Nyamulagira and Nyiragongo, have built scoria cones and lava flows in the adjacent lava fields, several small phreatomagmatic eruptive centers lie along Lake Kivu's northern shoreline, highlighting the potential for explosive magma-water interaction. Their presence in the densely urbanized Sake-Goma-Gisenyi area necessitates an assessment of their eruptive mechanisms and chronology. Some of these eruptive centers possess multiple vents, and depositional contacts suggest distinct eruptive phases within a single structure. Depositional facies range from polymict tuff breccia to tuff and loose lapilli, often impacted by blocks and volcanic bombs. Along with the presence of dilute pyroclastic density current (PDC) deposits, indicators of magma-water interaction include the presence of fine palagonitized ash, ash aggregates, cross-bedding, and ballistic impact sags. We estimate that at least 15 phreatomagmatic eruptions occurred in the Holocene, during which Lake Kivu rose to its current water level. Radiocarbon dates of five paleosols in the top of volcanic tuff deposits range between ˜2500 and ˜150 cal. year bp and suggest centennial- to millennial-scale recurrence of phreatomagmatic activity. A vast part of the currently urbanized zone on the northern shoreline of Lake Kivu was most likely impacted by products from phreatomagmatic activity, including PDC events, during the Late Holocene, highlighting the need to consider explosive magma-water interaction as a potential scenario in future risk assessments.

  5. [Human Resource Development for Tohoku Region after Great East Japan Earthquake: Remarks of the Chairperson].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimura, Hiroki

    2016-01-01

    In order to promote further advances of medical systems in the Tohoku region where the Great East Japan Earthquake and the subsequent accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant occurred, the requirement of human resources in clinical laboratory medicine has increased. Therefore, the symposium entitled "Human resource development for Tohoku region after Great East Japan Earthquake" was held in The 47th Tohoku Regional Congress of Japanese Society of Laboratory Medicine. In Fukushima Prefecture, the Thyroid Ultrasound Examination program has been conducted since Oct. 2011. Educational courses and certification programs for thyroid ultrasound examiners were established for medical doctors and technologists in Fukushima. The need for certified sonographers has also increased because deep venous thrombosis is also one of the health problems in the earthquake-hit area. Human resource development of sonographers was discussed in this symposium. In addition, further advances in clinical laboratory medicine are dependent on the development of specified medical technologists and certified physicians. Projects of human resource development currently performed in the Tohoku region were introduced and future actions were discussed.

  6. The Tourism Development Strategy of the North-East Region of Romania. Myth or Reality?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GEORGE GAMAN

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Tourism development strategies play an increasingly important role, representing parts of those documents that aim to socio-economic development, undertaken at local, zonal, county, regional or national level. Frequently, tourism is viewed as one the best solutions for economic recovery, but without a detalied and realistic analysis of what territory offers from this point of view, this new trend for resolving the economic dysfunctions remains at a mirage level. The North-East Region of Romania, the fifth less developed region of the European Union, with a GDP per capita (in purchasing power standard that amounted to only 34% of the EU-28 average in 2013, rushes to come with a development strategy for tourism, relying on “relief and environmental factors, diversity and beauty of landscape, cultural heritage”, strengthening the specific offers relying especially on mountain, cultural, and religious tourism. The present study uses multiple research methods (quantitative and qualitative analysis, graphical and cartographical representation of data, comparison in order to establish the reliability of the concerned document and to provide solid arguments for the type of tourism that has the largest premises of affirmation in each county of the North-East Region of Romania.

  7. Polio infrastructure strengthened disease outbreak preparedness and response in the WHO African Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouadio, Koffi; Okeibunor, Joseph; Nsubuga, Peter; Mihigo, Richard; Mkanda, Pascal

    2016-10-10

    The continuous deployments of polio resources, infrastructures and systems for responding to other disease outbreaks in many African countries has led to a number of lessons considered as best practice that need to be documented for strengthening preparedness and response activities in future outbreaks. We reviewed and documented the influence of polio best practices in outbreak preparedness and response in Angola, Nigeria and Ethiopia. Data from relevant programmes of the WHO African Region were also analyzed to demonstrate clearly the relative contributions of PEI resources and infrastructure to effective disease outbreak preparedness and response. Polio resources including, human, financial, and logistic, tool and strategies have tremendously contributed to responding to diseases outbreaks across the African region. In Angola, Nigeria and Ethiopia, many disease epidemics including Marburg Hemorrhagic fever, Dengue fever, Ebola Virus Diseases (EVD), Measles, Anthrax and Shigella have been controlled using existing polio Eradication Initiatives resources. Polio staffs are usually deployed in occasions to supports outbreak response activities (coordination, surveillance, contact tracing, case investigation, finance, data management, etc.). Polio logistics such vehicles, laboratories were also used in the response activities to other infectious diseases. Many polio tools including micro planning, dashboard, guidelines, SOPs on preparedness and response have also benefited to other epidemic-prone diseases. The Countries' preparedness and response plan to WPV importation as well as the Polio Emergency Operation Center models were successfully used to develop, strengthen and respond to many other diseases outbreak with the implication of partners and the strong leadership and ownership of governments. This review has important implications for WHO/AFRO initiative to strengthening and improving disease outbreak preparedness and responses in the African Region in respect

  8. A strategy to improve skills in pharmaceutical supply management in East Africa: the regional technical resource collaboration for pharmaceutical management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matowe, Lloyd; Waako, Paul; Adome, Richard Odoi; Kibwage, Isaac; Minzi, Omary; Bienvenu, Emile

    2008-12-23

    International initiatives such as the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria, the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief and the President's Malaria Initiative have significantly increased availability and access to medicines in some parts of the developing world. Despite this, however, skills remain limited on quantifying needs for medications and ordering, receiving and storing medications appropriately; recording medications inventories accurately; distributing medications for use appropriately; and advising patients on how to use medications appropriately. The Regional Technical Resource Collaboration for Pharmaceutical Management (RTRC) has been established to help address the problem of skills shortage in pharmaceutical management in East Africa. The initiative brings together academic institutions from four East African countries to participate in skills-building activities in pharmaceutical supply management. The initiative targeted the institutions' ability to conduct assessments of pharmaceutical supply management systems and to develop and implement effective skills-building programmes for pharmaceutical supply chain management. Over a two-year period, the RTRC succeeded in conducting assessments of pharmaceutical supply management systems and practices in Kenya, Rwanda, Tanzania and Uganda. In 2006, the RTRC participated in a materials-development workshop in Kampala, Uganda, and contributed to the development of comprehensive HIV/AIDS pharmaceutical management training materials; these materials are now widely available in all four countries. In Tanzania and Uganda the RTRC has been involved with the training of health care workers in HIV/AIDS pharmaceutical management. In Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda the RTRC has been conducting operations research to find solutions to their countries' skills-shortage problems. Some of the interventions tested include applying and evaluating the effectiveness of a novel skills-building approach for

  9. A strategy to improve skills in pharmaceutical supply management in East Africa: the regional technical resource collaboration for pharmaceutical management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minzi Omary

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background International initiatives such as the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria, the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief and the President's Malaria Initiative have significantly increased availability and access to medicines in some parts of the developing world. Despite this, however, skills remain limited on quantifying needs for medications and ordering, receiving and storing medications appropriately; recording medications inventories accurately; distributing medications for use appropriately; and advising patients on how to use medications appropriately. The Regional Technical Resource Collaboration for Pharmaceutical Management (RTRC has been established to help address the problem of skills shortage in pharmaceutical management in East Africa. Methods The initiative brings together academic institutions from four East African countries to participate in skills-building activities in pharmaceutical supply management. The initiative targeted the institutions' ability to conduct assessments of pharmaceutical supply management systems and to develop and implement effective skills-building programmes for pharmaceutical supply chain management. Results Over a two-year period, the RTRC succeeded in conducting assessments of pharmaceutical supply management systems and practices in Kenya, Rwanda, Tanzania and Uganda. In 2006, the RTRC participated in a materials-development workshop in Kampala, Uganda, and contributed to the development of comprehensive HIV/AIDS pharmaceutical management training materials; these materials are now widely available in all four countries. In Tanzania and Uganda the RTRC has been involved with the training of health care workers in HIV/AIDS pharmaceutical management. In Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda the RTRC has been conducting operations research to find solutions to their countries' skills-shortage problems. Some of the interventions tested include applying and evaluating the

  10. Mesoscale Modeling of Smoke Particles Distribution and Their Radiative Feedback over Northern Sub-Saharan African Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Y.; Wang, J.; Ichoku, C. M.; Ellison, L.

    2015-12-01

    Stretching from southern boundary of Sahara to the equator and expanding west to east from Atlantic Ocean coasts to the India Ocean coasts, the northern sub-Saharan African (NSSA) region has been subject to intense biomass burning. Comprised of savanna, shrub, tropical forest and a number of agricultural crops, the extensive fires burn belt covers central and south of NSSA during dry season (from October to March) contributes to one of the highest biomass burning rate per km2 in the world. Due to smoke particles' absorption effects of solar radiation, they can modify the surface and atmosphere temperature and thus change atmospheric stability, height of the boundary layer, regional atmospheric circulation, evaporation rate, cloud formation, and precipitation. Hence, smoke particles emitted from biomass burning over NSSA region has a significant influence to the air quality, weather and climate variability. In this study, the first version of this Fire Energetics and Emissions Research (FEER.v1) emissions of several smoke constituents including light-absorbing organic carbon (OC) and black carbon (BC) are applied to a state-of-science meteorology-chemistry model as NOAA Weather Research and Forecasting Model with Chemistry (WRF-Chem). We analyzed WRF-Chem simulations of surface and vertical distribution of various pollutants and their direct radiative effects in conjunction with satellite observation data from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and Cloud-Aerosol Lidar data with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIPSO) to strengthen the importance of combining space measured emission products like FEER.v1 emission inventory with mesoscale model over intense biomass burning region, especially in area where ground-based air-quality and radiation-related observations are limited or absent.

  11. MENA 1.1 - An Updated Geophysical Regionalization of the Middle East and North Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walters, B.; Pasyanos, M.E.; Bhattacharyya, J.; O' Boyle, J.

    2000-03-01

    This short report provides an update to the earlier LLNL paper entitled ''Preliminary Definition of Geophysical Regions for the Middle East and North Africa'' (Sweeney and Walter, 1998). This report is designed to be used in combination with that earlier paper. The reader is referred to Sweeney and Walter (1998) for all details, including definitions, references, uses, shortcomings, etc., of the regionalization process. In this report we will discuss only those regions in which we have changed the boundaries or velocity structure from that given by the original paper. The paper by Sweeney and Walter (1998) drew on a variety of sources to estimate a preliminary, first-order regionalization of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA), providing regional boundaries and velocity models within each region. The model attempts to properly account for major structural discontinuities and significant crustal thickness and velocity variations on a gross scale. The model can be used to extrapolate sparse calibration data within a distinct geophysical region. This model can also serve as a background model in the process of forming station calibration maps using intelligent interpolation techniques such as kriging, extending the calibration into aseismic areas. Such station maps can greatly improve the ability to locate and identify seismic events, which in turn improves the ability to seismically monitor for underground nuclear testing. The original model from Sweeney and Walter (1998) was digitized to a 1{sup o} resolution, for simplicity we will hereafter refer to this model as MENA 1.0. The new model described here has also been digitized to a 1{sup o} resolution and will be referred to as MENA1.1 throughout this report.

  12. The Olorgesailie Drilling Project (ODP): a high-resolution drill core record from a hominin site in the East African Rift Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dommain, R.; Potts, R.; Behrensmeyer, A. K.; Deino, A. L.

    2014-12-01

    The East African rift valley contains an outstanding record of hominin fossils that document human evolution over the Plio-Pleistocene when the global and regional climate and the rift valley itself changed markedly. The sediments of fossil localities typically provide, however, only short time windows into past climatic and environmental conditions. Continuous, long-term terrestrial records are now becoming available through core drilling to help elucidate the paleoenvironmental context of human evolution. Here we present a 500,000 year long high-resolution drill core record obtained from a key fossil and archeological site - the Olorgesailie Basin in the southern Kenya Rift Valley, well known for its sequence of archeological and faunal sites for the past 1.2 million years. In 2012 two drill cores (54 and 166 m long) were collected in the Koora Plain just south of Mt. Olorgesailie as part of the Olorgesailie Drilling Project (ODP) to establish a detailed climate and ecological record associated with the last evidence of Homo erectus in Africa, the oldest transition of Acheulean to Middle Stone Age technology, and large mammal species turnover, all of which are documented in the Olorgesailie excavations. The cores were sampled at the National Lacustrine Core Facility. More than 140 samples of tephra and trachytic basement lavas have led to high-precision 40Ar/39Ar dating. The cores are being analyzed for a suite of paleoclimatic and paleoecological proxies such as diatoms, pollen, fungal spores, phytoliths, ostracodes, carbonate isotopes, leaf wax biomarkers, charcoal, and clay mineralogy. Sedimentological analyses, including lithological descriptions, microscopic smear slide analysis (242 samples), and grain-size analysis, reveal a highly variable sedimentary sequence of deep lake phases with laminated sediments, diatomites, shallow lake and near shore phases, fluvial deposits, paleosols, interspersed carbonate layers, and abundant volcanic ash deposits. Magnetic

  13. COAL MINING OPERATIONS AND ITS IMPACT ON SECTORAL AND REGIONAL AREA: EVIDENCE OF EAST KALIMANTAN, INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rian Hilmawan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Mining sector plays important roles for Indonesian economic performance, especially in East Kalimantan. This study investigates: (a whether economic linkages of the mining sector related with other economic sectors in East Kalimantan, (b who gets benefit from such mining activities; (c how is the impact of mining sector for rural and urban households; and (d what happens if coal mining, oil and gas productions are completely depleted. The quantitative analysis framework using Input-Output and Social Accounting Matrix Tables in period 2009-2010 has been implemented as main data set. The result shows that mining sector was underdeveloped sector in East Kalimantan, including Kutai Kartanegara district. Activities from mining sector tended to give benefit for the owners of capital, which is larger than that benefit for workers employed. Structural Path Analysis (SPA shows that urban households gain the greatest advantages from the activities of this sector. The result also shows that the total output decreased by 65.12% when the mining, oil and gas dissapeared. A drastic reducing income after mining and oil and gas era will have an impact on the decline in the purchasing power in the region. However, the interesting finding of this research shows that the loss of mining and oil or gas sectors actually increases the strength of employment multiplier by 19%.

  14. Region-Specific Indicators for Assessing the Sustainability of Biomass Utilisation in East Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuki Kudoh

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the findings of an expert working group of researchers from East Asian countries. The group was tasked with developing a theoretically sound and practically implementable methodology for assessing the sustainability of biomass utilisation in East Asian countries based on the needs and potential of biomass resources in this region. Building on six years of research conducted between 2007 and 2013, the working group formulated a set of main and secondary indicators for biomass utilisation under three pillars of sustainability. For the environmental pillar, the main indicator was life cycle greenhouse gas emissions and secondary indicators were water consumption and soil quality. For the economic pillar, the main indicator was total value added and secondary indicators were net profit, productivity, and net energy balance. For the social pillar, the main indicators were employment generation and access to modern energy, and the secondary indicator was the human development index. The application of the working group methodology and indicators in sustainability assessments of biomass utilisation will enable decision makers in East Asian countries to compare the sustainability of biomass utilisation options and to make decisions on whether or not to launch or sustain biomass utilisation initiatives.

  15. Unexpected East-West effect in mesopause region SABER temperatures over El Leoncito

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reisin, Esteban R.; Scheer, Jürgen

    2017-05-01

    We find that mesopause region temperatures determined by the SABER instrument on the TIMED satellite during nocturnal overpasses at El Leoncito (31.8°S, 69.3°W) are several kelvins higher when SABER observes from the East than when it observes from the West. We distinguish between altitudes corresponding to the nominal emission heights of the OH and O2 airglow layers. The East-West temperature differences of 4.5 K obtained for OH-equivalent height, and of 3.5 K for O2-equivalent height are surprising, because an effect of the South Atlantic Anomaly on SABER temperature is unexpected. However, the ground-based data obtained with our airglow spectrometer at El Leoncito show that such a SABER artifact can be ruled out. Rather, the phenomenon is explained as a consequence of the temporal sampling of the nocturnal variation, which is mostly due to the semidiurnal tide. The monthly mean tide is strongest from April to September with a mean amplitude of 6.9 K for OH, and of 10.5 K for O2 rotational temperature, but the contribution to the East-West effect varies strongly from month to month because of differences in the temporal sampling. This mechanism should be active at other sites, as well.

  16. Genomic islands of speciation separate cichlid ecomorphs in an East African crater lake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinsky, Milan; Challis, Richard J; Tyers, Alexandra M; Schiffels, Stephan; Terai, Yohey; Ngatunga, Benjamin P; Miska, Eric A; Durbin, Richard; Genner, Martin J; Turner, George F

    2015-12-18

    The genomic causes and effects of divergent ecological selection during speciation are still poorly understood. Here we report the discovery and detailed characterization of early-stage adaptive divergence of two cichlid fish ecomorphs in a small (700 meters in diameter) isolated crater lake in Tanzania. The ecomorphs differ in depth preference, male breeding color, body shape, diet, and trophic morphology. With whole-genome sequences of 146 fish, we identified 98 clearly demarcated genomic "islands" of high differentiation and demonstrated the association of genotypes across these islands with divergent mate preferences. The islands contain candidate adaptive genes enriched for functions in sensory perception (including rhodopsin and other twilight-vision-associated genes), hormone signaling, and morphogenesis. Our study suggests mechanisms and genomic regions that may play a role in the closely related mega-radiation of Lake Malawi.

  17. ENTREPRENEURIAL CONSULTING AND DEVELOPMENT FOR YOUTH WITHIN RURAL AREAS - A CASE STUDY FOR DEVELOPING NORTH EAST, CENTRAL AND SOUTH EAST REGIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marin BURCEA

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available We propose to show the connection between consulting and entrepreneurial approach, emphasizing the normality of including assistance within the entrepreneurs’ activity. The theoretical component deals with the elements that define the consulting activity in business and the specific approach to initiate and develop business by young rural entrepreneurs. The applicative component is represented by the presentation of the specific consulting needs for business initiating and development in the rural areas within developing regions of North East, Central and South East. The undertaken sociological research is representative for the study group and was held within the SOP HRD strategic project “Rural Manager”.

  18. Calculations of the Ion Orbit Loss Region at the Plasma Edge of EAST

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴国将; 张晓东

    2012-01-01

    In divertor tokamak plasma, the energetic ion losses of edge plasma are considered to be responsible for the negative radial electric field. In the present paper, a guiding center approximation orbit equation is found by assuming the conservation of three integrals of motion, i.e. the total ion energy E, the magnetic moment # and toroidal angular momentum Pc, and it is used to calculate expediently the ion orbit loss region. The direct ion orbit losses in the initial velocity space near the plasma edge of EAST with SN (single null) divertor configuration are analyzed systematically. The ion loss regions are obtained by solving the guiding center approximation orbit equation of critical ions with the effect of the radial electric field taken into account. Under the influence of plasma current Ip, the type of ions, the toroidal field Bt and the changes of the loss regions are analyzed and calculated accordingly.

  19. Science and Technology to Advance Regional Security in the Middle East and Central Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tompson, A F B; Richardson, J H; Ragaini, R C; Knapp, R B; Rosenberg, N D; Smith, D K; Ball, D Y

    2002-10-09

    This paper is concerned with the promotion and advancement of regional security in the Middle East and Central Asia through the development of bilateral and multilateral cooperation on targeted scientific and technical projects. It is widely recognized that increasing tensions and instability in many parts of the world emphasize--or reemphasize--a need to seek and promote regional security in these areas. At the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), a national security research facility operated for the US Department of Energy, we are pursuing an effort to use science and technology as a ''low risk'' means of engagement in regions of strategic importance to the United States. In particular, we are developing collaborations and cooperative projects among (and between) national laboratory scientists in the US and our various counterparts in the countries of interest.

  20. Exposure to Air Pollution and Pregnancy Outcomes in the East Mediterranean Region: a Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yousef Khader

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The East Mediterranean region suffers from high levels of air pollution which has a negative impact on pregnancy outcomes. This work systematically reviews the epidemiological evidence on maternal exposure to air pollution and adverse pregnancy outcomes in the region. Relevant papers and reports published between 2000 and 2014 were searched. Combinations of search terms including countries, exposures, and pregnancy outcomes were used to search for the relevant literature. Twelve articles from 6 countries met the inclusion criteria. There was a pattern of an association between outdoor air pollution and preterm birth and spontaneous abortion; indoor wood fuel smoke and birth weight; and second-hand smoke and birth weight, preterm birth, and spontaneous abortion.The quality of evidence on the impact of air pollution on pregnancy outcomes in the EMR is inadequate to form a base for future adaptation strategies and action plans. Therefore, more quality research is needed to portrait the actual situation in the region

  1. Characteristics of Anthropogenic Sulfate and Carbonaceous Aerosols over East Asia: Regional Modeling and Observation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan HUANG; William L. CHAMEIDES; Qian TAN; Robert E. DICKINSON

    2008-01-01

    The authors present spatial and temporal characteristics of anthropogenic sulfate and carbonaceous aerosols over East Asia using a 3-D coupled regional climate-chemistry-aerosol model, and compare the simulation with the limited aerosol observations over the region. The aerosol module consists of SO2, SO42-, hydrophobic and hydrophilic black carbon (BC) and organic carbon compounds (OC), including emission, advections, dry and wet deposition, and chemical production and conversion. The simulated patterns of SO2 are closely tied to its emission rate, with sharp gradients between the highly polluted regions and more rural areas. Chemical conversion (especially in the aqueous phase) and dry deposition remove 60% and 30% of the total SO2 emission, respectively. The SO42- shows less horizontal gradient and seasonality than SO2, with wet deposition (60%) and export (27%) being two major sinks. Carbonaceous aerosols are spatially smoother than sulfur species. The aging process transforms more than 80% of hydrophobic BC and OC to hydrophilic components, which are removed by wet deposition (60%) and export (30%). The simulated spatial and seasonal SO42-, BC and OC aerosol concentrations and total aerosol optical depth are generally consistent with the observations in rural areas over East Asia, with lower bias in simulated OC aerosols, likely due to the underestimation of anthropogenic OC emissions and missing treatment of secondary organic carbon. The results suggest that our model is a useful tool for characterizing the anthropogenic aerosol cycle and for assessing its potential climatic and environmental effects in future studies.

  2. NORM in the East Midlands' oil and gas producing region of the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garner, Joel; Cairns, James; Read, David

    2015-12-01

    Naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) is a common feature in North Sea oil and gas production offshore but, to date, has been reported from only one production site onshore in the United Kingdom. The latter, Wytch Farm on the Dorset coast, revealed high activity concentrations of (210)Pb in metallic form but little evidence of radium accumulation. NORM has now been discovered at two further onshore sites in the East Midlands region of the UK. The material has been characterized in terms of its mineralogy, bulk composition and disequilibrium in the natural uranium and thorium series decay chains. In contrast to Wytch Farm, scale and sludge samples from the East Midlands were found to contain elevated levels of radium and radioactive progeny associated with crystalline strontiobarite. The highest (226)Ra and (228)Ra activity concentrations found in scale samples were 132 and 60 Bq/g, with mean values of 86 and 40 Bq/g respectively; somewhat higher than the mean for the North Sea and well above national exemption levels for landfill disposal. The two East Midlands sites exhibited similar levels of radioactivity. Scanning electron microscope imaging shows the presence of tabular, idiomorphic and acicular strontiobarite crystals with elemental mapping confirming that barium and strontium are co-located throughout the scale. Bulk compositional data show a corresponding correlation between barium-strontium concentrations and radium activity. Scales and sludge were dated using the (226)Ra/(210)Pb method giving mean ages of 2.2 and 3.7 years, respectively. The results demonstrate clearly that these NORM deposits, with significant radium activity, can form over a very short period of time. Although the production sites studied here are involved in conventional oil recovery, the findings have direct relevance should hydraulic fracturing for shale gas be pursued in the East Midlands oilfield.

  3. The World Health Organization African region laboratory accreditation process: improving the quality of laboratory systems in the African region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gershy-Damet, Guy-Michel; Rotz, Philip; Cross, David; Belabbes, El Hadj; Cham, Fatim; Ndihokubwayo, Jean-Bosco; Fine, Glen; Zeh, Clement; Njukeng, Patrick A; Mboup, Souleymane; Sesse, Daniel E; Messele, Tsehaynesh; Birx, Deborah L; Nkengasong, John N

    2010-09-01

    Few developing countries have established laboratory quality standards that are affordable and easy to implement and monitor. To address this challenge, the World Health Organization Regional Office for Africa (WHO AFRO) established a stepwise approach, using a 0- to 5-star scale, to the recognition of evolving fulfillment of the ISO 15189 standard rather than pass-fail grading. Laboratories that fail to achieve an assessment score of at least 55% will not be awarded a star ranking. Laboratories that achieve 95% or more will receive a 5-star rating. This stepwise approach acknowledges to laboratories where they stand, supports them with a series of evaluations to use to demonstrate improvement, and recognizes and rewards their progress. WHO AFRO's accreditation process is not intended to replace established ISO 15189 accreditation schemes, but rather to provide an interim pathway to the realization of international laboratory standards. Laboratories that demonstrate outstanding performance in the WHO-AFRO process will be strongly encouraged to enroll in an established ISO 15189 accreditation scheme. We believe that the WHO-AFRO approach for laboratory accreditation is affordable, sustainable, effective, and scalable.

  4. GIS for the industrial park Kechnec in the East Slovak Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria Pukačová

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents GIS (Geographical Information Systems task. Tasks of theory also practical properties of GIS in generalibus and their advantages and realisation practices are analyzed. Systems engineering of GIS for the industrial park Kechnec at Košice in the East Slovak Region are a contribution of the paper. Presented GIS for the industrial park Kechnec are created by means of using software ArcView GIS and serve for the local self-government in village Kechnec as an easy usable information system for process control of building-up in the industrial park Kechnec.

  5. Enhanced Surveillance for Detection and Management of Infectious Diseases: Regional Collaboration in the Middle East

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Leventhal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Formed before international negotiations of the revised International Health Regulations (IHR, the Middle East Consortium for Infectious Disease Surveillance (MECIDS is a regional collaboration aimed at facilitating implementation of the revised IHR and, more broadly, improving the detection and control of infectious disease outbreaks among neighboring countries in an area of continuous dispute. Initially focused on enhancing foodborne disease surveillance, MECIDS has expanded the scope of its work to also include avian and pandemic influenza and other emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases. Here, we describe the history and governance of MECIDS, highlighting key achievements over the consortium's seven-year history, and discuss the future of MECIDS.

  6. Flea diversity as an element for persistence of plague bacteria in an East African plague focus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca J Eisen

    Full Text Available Plague is a flea-borne rodent-associated zoonotic disease that is caused by Yersinia pestis and characterized by long quiescent periods punctuated by rapidly spreading epidemics and epizootics. How plague bacteria persist during inter-epizootic periods is poorly understood, yet is important for predicting when and where epizootics are likely to occur and for designing interventions aimed at local elimination of the pathogen. Existing hypotheses of how Y. pestis is maintained within plague foci typically center on host abundance or diversity, but little attention has been paid to the importance of flea diversity in enzootic maintenance. Our study compares host and flea abundance and diversity along an elevation gradient that spans from low elevation sites outside of a plague focus in the West Nile region of Uganda (~725-1160 m to higher elevation sites within the focus (~1380-1630 m. Based on a year of sampling, we showed that host abundance and diversity, as well as total flea abundance on hosts was similar between sites inside compared with outside the plague focus. By contrast, flea diversity was significantly higher inside the focus than outside. Our study highlights the importance of considering flea diversity in models of Y. pestis persistence.

  7. Source regions and transport pathways of PM2.5 at a regional background site in East China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanru; Zhang, Hongliang; Deng, Junjun; Du, Wenjiao; Hong, Youwei; Xu, Lingling; Qiu, Yuqing; Hong, Zhenyu; Wu, Xin; Ma, Qianli; Yao, Jie; Chen, Jinsheng

    2017-10-01

    PM2.5 samples were collected daily at the Lin'an regional background station (LA) in Zhejiang, China during 2014-2015 and the major chemical components including organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC) and water-soluble inorganic ions (WSII) were determined. Backward trajectory clustering and potential source contribution function (PSCF) were adopted for identifying the transport pathways and potential source regions of PM2.5 at LA. The annual mean concentration was 68.9 ± 28.3 μg m-3, indicating severe pollution in East China. Obvious seasonal variations were found, with highest level in winter and lowest in summer. Carbonaceous aerosols and WSII were the predominant compositions, accounting for 30.7% and 53.5% of PM2.5, respectively. Secondary inorganic ions (SO42-, NO3-, and NH4+) made a total contribution of 45.2% to PM2.5. Heterogeneous formation played a dominant role in SO42- formation and NH4+ formation promoted NO3- formation. Stationary sources played a more important role than mobile sources based on NO3-/SO42- ratio of 0.53. Aerosol environment at LA was ammonium-poor and SO42- was only neutralized sufficiently by NH4+ with the predominant production of (NH4)2SO4 in winter. Four major transport pathways of air masses at LA were found based on trajectory clustering. Air masses from the northwest Gobi areas passing over the heavily polluted regions in North and Central China had the highest levels of PM2.5, followed by the air masses from Central China. PSCF results suggested that surrounding areas in the Yangtze River Delta region were major regional origins of PM2.5 and its major components. Northern region was an important origin for carbonaceous components, and southwestern region was significant for secondary inorganic ions. This study helps understand PM2.5 characteristics, identify potential source regions and effectively control PM2.5 in East China.

  8. THE ACCESSIBILITY ASSESSMENT OF REGIONAL TRANSPORT NETWORK IN THE SOUTH EAST EUROPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Šimecki

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Development of transport infrastructure and establishment of effective transport systems is a prerequisite for the achievement of broad based economic growth which is one of the European and Southeast European major development goals. Due to the lack of intraregional connectivity within the South East Europe (SEE, certain parts of the region have limited access to regional, European and global markets. Mentioned imbalance of accessibility to services, markets and opportunities for further social and economic progress is an obstacle for overall development of the SEE region. The research is thematically oriented on the assessment of road, rail and air passenger transport accessibility in the SEE with the aim of providing scientific overview of current regional transport network connectivity serving as basis for further identification of potential improvement measures. The research is conducted on the SEETO Comprehensive Network that was established as a main output of joint cooperation between seven Regional Participants and the European Commission as a result of signing of the Memorandum of Understanding for the Development of the Core Regional Transport Network (MoU in 2004. The multimodal Core Regional Transport Network defined under the MoU represents a commonly agreed main and ancillary transport infrastructure in the SEE, which is the base for the implementation of transport related investments programmes.

  9. Dusty cloud radiative forcing derived from satellite data for middle latitude regions of East Asia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Jianping; WANG Yujie; WANG Tianhe; YI Yuhong

    2006-01-01

    The dusty cloud radiative forcing over the middle latitude regions of East Asia was estimated by using the 2-year (July 2002-June 2004) data of collocated clouds and the Earth's radiant energy system (CERES) scanner and moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MOD1S) from Aqua Edition 1B SSF (single scanner footprint). The dusty cloud is defined as the cloud in dust storm environment or dust contaminated clouds. For clouds growing in the presence of dust, the instantaneous short-wave (SW) forcing at the top of the atmosphere (TOA) is about - 275.7 W/m2 for cloud over dust (COD) region. The clouds developing in no-dust cloud (CLD) regions yield the most negative short-wave (SW) forcing ( - 311.0 W/m2), which is about 12.8 % stronger than those in COD regions.For long-wave (LW) radiative forcing, the no-dust cloud (CLD) is around 102.8 W/m2, which is 20% less than the LW forcing from COD regions. The instantaneous TOA net radiative forcing for the CLD region is about - 208.2 W/m2, which is 42.1% larger than the values of COD regions. The existence of dust aerosols under clouds significantly reduces the cooling effect of clouds.

  10. Power, slavery, and spirit possession in East Africa: A few reflections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatrice Nicolini

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Spirit possession and its relationship with power aims to offer here a better understanding not only of East African societies, but, most of all, of their historical role in numerous political and military conflicts and also within peace-building processes that represent a continuation of a topic of longstanding concern in East African history. The relationships between religions, local cultures and institutional powers throughout contemporary East African history will be re-read through regional and transnational, as well as international dynamics.

  11. The Integrated Genomic Architecture and Evolution of Dental Divergence in East African Cichlid Fishes (Haplochromis chilotes x H. nyererei).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulsey, C Darrin; Machado-Schiaffino, Gonzalo; Keicher, Lara; Ellis-Soto, Diego; Henning, Frederico; Meyer, Axel

    2017-09-07

    The independent evolution of the two toothed jaws of cichlid fishes is thought to have promoted their unparalleled ecological divergence and species richness. However, dental divergence in cichlids could exhibit substantial genetic covariance and this could dictate how traits like tooth numbers evolve in different African Lakes and on their two jaws. To test this hypothesis, we used a hybrid mapping cross of two trophically divergent Lake Victoria species (Haplochromis chilotes × Haplochromis nyererei) to examine genomic regions associated with cichlid tooth diversity. Surprisingly, a similar genomic region was found to be associated with oral jaw tooth numbers in cichlids from both Lake Malawi and Lake Victoria. Likewise, this same genomic location was associated with variation in pharyngeal jaw tooth numbers. Similar relationships between tooth numbers on the two jaws in both our Victoria hybrid population and across the phylogenetic diversity of Malawi cichlids additionally suggests that tooth numbers on the two jaws of haplochromine cichlids might generally coevolve owing to shared genetic underpinnings. Integrated, rather than independent, genomic architectures could be key to the incomparable evolutionary divergence and convergence in cichlid tooth numbers. Copyright © 2017 Hulsey et al.

  12. The Integrated Genomic Architecture and Evolution of Dental Divergence in East African Cichlid Fishes (Haplochromis chilotes x H. nyererei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Darrin Hulsey

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The independent evolution of the two toothed jaws of cichlid fishes is thought to have promoted their unparalleled ecological divergence and species richness. However, dental divergence in cichlids could exhibit substantial genetic covariance and this could dictate how traits like tooth numbers evolve in different African Lakes and on their two jaws. To test this hypothesis, we used a hybrid mapping cross of two trophically divergent Lake Victoria species (Haplochromis chilotes × Haplochromis nyererei to examine genomic regions associated with cichlid tooth diversity. Surprisingly, a similar genomic region was found to be associated with oral jaw tooth numbers in cichlids from both Lake Malawi and Lake Victoria. Likewise, this same genomic location was associated with variation in pharyngeal jaw tooth numbers. Similar relationships between tooth numbers on the two jaws in both our Victoria hybrid population and across the phylogenetic diversity of Malawi cichlids additionally suggests that tooth numbers on the two jaws of haplochromine cichlids might generally coevolve owing to shared genetic underpinnings. Integrated, rather than independent, genomic architectures could be key to the incomparable evolutionary divergence and convergence in cichlid tooth numbers.

  13. Social, economic and legal dimensions of tobacco and its control in South-East Asia region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyaing, Nyo Nyo; Islam, Md Ashadul; Sinha, Dhirendra N; Rinchen, Sonam

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the social, cultural, economic and legal dimensions of tobacco control in the South-East Asia Region in a holistic view through the review of findings from various studies on prevalence, tobacco economics, poverty alleviation, women and tobacco and tobacco control laws and regulations. Methods were Literature review of peer reviewed publications, country reports, WHO publications, and reports of national and international meetings on tobacco and findings from national level surveys and studies. Tobacco use has been a social and cultural part of the people of South-East Asia Region. Survey findings show that 30% to 60% of men and 1.8% to 15.6% of women in the Region use one or the other forms of tobacco products. The complex nature of tobacco use with both smoking and smokeless forms is a major challenge for implementing tobacco control measures. Prevalence of tobacco use is high among the poor and the illiterate. It is higher among males than females but studies show a rising trend among girls and women due to intensive marketing of tobacco products by the tobacco industry. Tobacco users spend a huge percent of their income on tobacco which deprives them and their families of proper nutrition, good education and health care. Some studies of the Region show that cost of treatment of diseases attributable to tobacco use was more than double the revenue that governments received from tobacco taxation. Another challenge the Region faces is the application of uniform tax to all forms of tobacco, which will reduce not only the availability of tobacco products in the market but also control people switching over to cheaper tobacco products. Ten out of eleven countries are Parties to the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control and nine countries have tobacco control legislation. Enforcement of control measures is weak, particularly in areas such as smoke-free environments, advertisement at the point of sale and sale of tobacco to minors. Socio

  14. Social, economic and legal dimensions of tobacco and its control in South-East Asia region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nyo Nyo Kyaing

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the social, cultural, economic and legal dimensions of tobacco control in the South-East Asia Region in a holistic view through the review of findings from various studies on prevalence, tobacco economics, poverty alleviation, women and tobacco and tobacco control laws and regulations. Methods were Literature review of peer reviewed publications, country reports, WHO publications, and reports of national and international meetings on tobacco and findings from national level surveys and studies. Tobacco use has been a social and cultural part of the people of South-East Asia Region. Survey findings show that 30% to 60% of men and 1.8% to 15.6% of women in the Region use one or the other forms of tobacco products. The complex nature of tobacco use with both smoking and smokeless forms is a major challenge for implementing tobacco control measures. Prevalence of tobacco use is high among the poor and the illiterate. It is higher among males than females but studies show a rising trend among girls and women due to intensive marketing of tobacco products by the tobacco industry. Tobacco users spend a huge percent of their income on tobacco which deprives them and their families of proper nutrition, good education and health care. Some studies of the Region show that cost of treatment of diseases attributable to tobacco use was more than double the revenue that governments received from tobacco taxation. Another challenge the Region faces is the application of uniform tax to all forms of tobacco, which will reduce not only the availability of tobacco products in the market but also control people switching over to cheaper tobacco products. Ten out of eleven countries are Parties to the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control and nine countries have tobacco control legislation. Enforcement of control measures is weak, particularly in areas such as smoke-free environments, advertisement at the point of sale and sale of tobacco to

  15. Water Quality Assessment of Streams and Wetlands in a Fast Growing East African City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niels De Troyer

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The combination of rapid urbanization, industrialization, population growth, and low environmental awareness poses a major threat to worldwide valuable freshwater resources, which provide important ecosystem services to humans. There is an urgent need to monitor and assess these resources, as this information is indispensable for sustainable decision-making and management. In this context, we analyzed the chemical and ecological water quality of the riverine environment of a fast growing city in Southwest Ethiopia for which we proposed possible remediation options that were evaluated with an empirical model. The chemical and ecological water quality was assessed at 53 sampling locations using the oxygen Prati index and the ETHbios, which is a biotic index based on macroinvertebrates. In addition, a microbiological analysis was performed to estimate the degree of fecal contamination. Finally, we analyzed the relationship between the oxygen content and the organic pollution to simulate the effect of organics removal from waste streams on the chemical water quality. Our results showed that the average values for dissolved oxygen (4.2 mg DO·L−1 and nutrients (0.9 mg oPO43−·L−1 and 12.8 mg TAN·L−1 exceeded international standards. Moreover, high turbidity levels revealed that land erosion is a severe problem in the region. Along the rivers, a significant increase in oxygen consumption and in nutrient concentrations was observed, indicating organic pollution originating from different diffuse and point sources of pollution. The lack of proper sanitation also led to exceedingly high abundances of fecal coliforms in the surface water (>320 MPN·mL−1. However, fecal contamination was strongly reduced (>92% after the polluted river water passed Boye wetland, indicating the purification potential of natural wetlands and the importance of conserving and protecting those ecosystems. The simulation results of the model showed that water quality

  16. A DECADE OF AFRICAN UNION AND EUROPEAN UNION TRANS-REGIONAL SECURITY RELATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glen Segell

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The first decade of the new millennium saw the European Union deploy ninesecurity missions to the African continent, quoting the European Security andDefence Policy. Unlike the numerous United Nations security missions thatEuropean states had previously contributed to, these were part of a grand strategydesigned to link the African Union and the European Union in a process of transregionalismdefined as a unique organisational infrastructure (joint secretariat forresearch, policy planning, preparation and coordination of meetings andimplementation of decisions. The rationale being that security and its associatedpeace and stability are the basis for sustainable development in other areas. Thisarticle follows the development of the trans-regionalism detailing the securitymissions.

  17. Tobacco use: A major risk factor for non communicable diseases in South-East Asia region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J S Thakur

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Tobacco use is a serious public health problem in the South East Asia Region where use of both smoking and smokeless form of tobacco is widely prevalent. The region has almost one quarter of the global population and about one quarter of all smokers in the world. Smoking among men is high in the Region and women usually take to chewing tobacco. The prevalence across countries varies significantly with smoking among adult men ranges from 24.3% (India to 63.1% (Indonesia and among adult women from 0.4% (Sri Lanka to 15% (Myanmar and Nepal. The prevalence of smokeless tobacco use among men varies from 1.3% (Thailand to 31.8% (Myanmar, while for women it is from 4.6% (Nepal to 27.9% (Bangladesh. About 55% of total deaths are due to Non communicable diseases (NCDs with 53.4% among females with highest in Maldives (79.4% and low in Timor-Leste (34.4%. Premature mortality due to NCDs in young age is high in the region with 60.7% deaths in Timor Leste and 60.6% deaths in Bangladesh occurring below the age of 70 years. Age standardized death rate per 100,000 populations due to NCDs ranges from 793 (Bhutan and 612 (Maldives among males and 654 (Bhutan and 461 (Sri Lanka among females respectively. Out of 5.1 millions tobacco attributable deaths in the world, more than 1 million are in South East Asia Region (SEAR countries. Reducing tobacco use is one of the best buys along with harmful use of alcohol, salt reduction and promotion of physical activity for preventing NCDs. Integrating tobacco control with broader population services in the health system framework is crucial to achieve control of NCDs and sustain development in SEAR countries.

  18. Molecular analysis of HBV genotypes and subgenotypes in the Central-East region of Tunisia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gharbi Jawhar

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Tunisia, country of intermediate endemicity for Hepatitis B virus (HBV infection, most molecular studies on the virus have been carried out in the North of the country and little is known about other regions. The aim of this study was to determine HBV genotype and subgenotypes in Central-East Tunisia. A total of 217 HBs antigen positive patients were enrolled and determination of genotype was investigated in 130 patients with detectable HBV DNA. HBV genotyping methods were: PCR-RFLP on the pre-S region, a PCR using type-specific primers in the S region (TSP-PCR and partial sequencing in the pre-S region. Results Three genotypes (D, B and A were detected by the PCR-RFLP method and two (D and A with the TSP-PCR method, the concordance between the two methods was 93%. Sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of 32 strains, retrieved the same genotype (D and A for samples with concordant results and genotype D for samples with discordant results. The sequences of discordant genotypes had a restriction site in the pre-S gene which led to erroneous result by the PCR-RFLP method. Thus, prevalence of genotype D and A was 96% and 4%, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis showed the predominance of two subgenotypes D1 (55% and D7 (41%. Only one strain clustered with D3 subgenotype (3%. Conclusions Predominance of subgenotype D7 appears to occur in northern regions of Africa with transition to subgenotype D1 in the East of the continent. HBV genetic variability may lead to wrong results in rapid genotyping methods and sequence analysis is needed to clarify atypical results.

  19. Developing High-resolution Soil Database for Regional Crop Modeling in East Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, E.; Ines, A. V. M.

    2014-12-01

    The most readily available soil data for regional crop modeling in Africa is the World Inventory of Soil Emission potentials (WISE) dataset, which has 1125 soil profiles for the world, but does not extensively cover countries Ethiopia, Kenya, Uganda and Tanzania in East Africa. Another dataset available is the HC27 (Harvest Choice by IFPRI) in a gridded format (10km) but composed of generic soil profiles based on only three criteria (texture, rooting depth, and organic carbon content). In this paper, we present a development and application of a high-resolution (1km), gridded soil database for regional crop modeling in East Africa. Basic soil information is extracted from Africa Soil Information Service (AfSIS), which provides essential soil properties (bulk density, soil organic carbon, soil PH and percentages of sand, silt and clay) for 6 different standardized soil layers (5, 15, 30, 60, 100 and 200 cm) in 1km resolution. Soil hydraulic properties (e.g., field capacity and wilting point) are derived from the AfSIS soil dataset using well-proven pedo-transfer functions and are customized for DSSAT-CSM soil data requirements. The crop model is used to evaluate crop yield forecasts using the new high resolution soil database and compared with WISE and HC27. In this paper we will present also the results of DSSAT loosely coupled with a hydrologic model (VIC) to assimilate root-zone soil moisture. Creating a grid-based soil database, which provides a consistent soil input for two different models (DSSAT and VIC) is a critical part of this work. The created soil database is expected to contribute to future applications of DSSAT crop simulation in East Africa where food security is highly vulnerable.

  20. Non-communicable diseases in the South-East Asia region: burden, strategies and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narain, Jai P; Garg, Renu; Fric, Anton

    2011-01-01

    Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are a global health and developmental emergency, as they cause premature deaths,exacerbate poverty and threaten national economies. In 2008, they were the top killers in the South-East Asia region, causing 7.9 million deaths; the number of deaths is expected to increase by 21% over the next decade. One-third of the 7.9 million deaths (34%) occurred in those strategies for the prevention and control of NCDs include (i) reducing exposure to risk factors through health promotion and primary prevention, (ii) early diagnosis and management of people with NCDs, and (iii) surveillance to monitor trends in risk factors and diseases. Tackling NCDs calls for a paradigm shift: from addressing each NCD separately to collectively addressing a cluster of diseases in an integrated manner, and from using a biomedical approach to a public health approach guided by the principles of universal access and social justice. High levels of commitment and multisectoral actions are needed to reverse the growing burden of NCDs in the South-East Asia region.

  1. Regional integrated environmental model system and its simulation of East Asia summer monsoon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIONG Zhe; FU CongBin; YAN XiaoDong

    2009-01-01

    A continuous 22-year simulation in Asia for the period of 1 January 1979 to 31 December 2000 was conducted using the Regional Integrated Environmental Model System (RIEMS 2.0) with NCEP Reanalysis Ⅱ data as the driving fields.The model processes include surface physics state package (BATS le),a Grell cumulus parameterization,and a modified radiation package (CCM3) with the focus on the ability of the model to simulate the summer monsoon over East Asia.The analysis results show that (1)RIEMS reproduces well the spatial pattern and the seasonal cycle of surface temperature.When regionally averaged,the summer mean temperature biases are within 1-2℃.(2) For precipitation,the model reproduces well the spatial pattern,and temporal evolution of the East Asia summer monsoon rain belt,with steady phases separated by more rapid transitions,is reproduced.The rain belt simulated by RIEMS 2.0 is closer to observation than by RIEMS 1.0.(3) RIEMS 2.0 can reasonably reproduce the large-scale circulation.

  2. Trace Metal Levels in Lichen Samples From Roadsides in East Black Sea Region, Turkey

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    OZGUR DOGAN ULUOZLU; KADIR KINALIOGLU; MUSTAFA TUZEN; MUSTAFA SOYLAK

    2007-01-01

    Objective To determine the metal contents of lichen species from East Black Sea region of Turkey for investigation of trace metal pollution sourced traffic.Methods The levels of copper,cadmium,lead,zinc,manganese,iron,chromium,nickel,cobalt,palladium in lichen samples collected from East Black Sea region of Turkey were determined by flame and graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry after microwave digestion method.The accuracy of the method was corrected by standard reference material(NIST SRM IAEA-336 Lichen). Results The contents of investigated trace metals in lichen samples were 7.19-22.4 μg/g for copper,0.10-0.64 μg/g for cadmium,4.03-44.6 μg/g for lead,14.5-41.8 1.μg/g for zinc,25.8-208 μg/g for manganese,331-436 μg/g for iron,1.20-3.01 μg/g for chromium,1.48-3.90 μg/g for nickel,0.20-3.55 μg/g for cobalt.0.11-0.64 μg/g for palladium.The results were compared with the literature values.Conclusion Some lichen species such as Xanthoparmelia conspersa,Xanthoria calcicola,Peltigera membranacea,and Physcia adscendens are accumulated trace metals at a high ratio.

  3. [A multicenter trial of regional medical cooperation for cancer chemotherapy after the great East Japan earthquake].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akiyama, Shoko; Seya, Yukiko; Murayama, Motoko; Ogasawara, Kimiyo; Kisara, Shigeki; Ishii, Tadashi; Sugawara, Michie; Chida, Yasunori; Kanbe, Mariko; Kakudo, Yuichi; Mano, Nariyasu; Ishioka, Chikashi

    2013-03-01

    The Great East Japan Earthquake was the first disaster we experienced after the administration of oncology care had mostly shifted from hospitals to outpatient departments in Japan. Disaster medical assistance teams(DMATs)were deployed immediately after the disaster, and actively assisted during the acute phase of the catastrophe. After experiencing the earthquake, we realized the necessity of medical support teams, even for chronic disease. Here we report a multicenter trial of regional medical cooperation for cancer chemotherapy. First, soon after the earthquake, representatives from the regional hospitals discussed the proper roles for each institution. As agreed to in the discussion, cancer patients were redistributed from a disaster base hospital to a local general hospital, and oncologists supported the other regional hospitals on a regular basis. This broad regional network functioned well and patients resumed their treatment as soon as the situation allowed. Second, we performed a survey of the patients and found that the most important problem was patients' lack of understanding of their own illnesses. Third, we conducted an opinion survey of medical professionals on regional medical cooperation. Based on the trial, we found it important in disasters to establish regional cooperation and solid communication systems, and to promote patient education.

  4. A quantitative assessment of groundwater resources in the Middle East and North Africa region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lezzaik, Khalil; Milewski, Adam

    2017-08-01

    The Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region is the world's most water-stressed region, with its countries constituting 12 of the 15 most water-stressed countries globally. Because of data paucity, comprehensive regional-scale assessments of groundwater resources in the MENA region have been lacking. The presented study addresses this issue by using a distributed ArcGIS model, parametrized with gridded data sets, to estimate groundwater storage reserves in the region based on generated aquifer saturated thickness and effective porosity estimates. Furthermore, monthly gravimetric datasets (GRACE) and land surface parameters (GLDAS) were used to quantify changes in groundwater storage between 2003 and 2014. Total groundwater reserves in the region were estimated at 1.28 × 106 cubic kilometers (km3) with an uncertainty range between 816,000 and 1.93 × 106 km3. Most of the reserves are located within large sedimentary basins in North Africa and the Arabian Peninsula, with Algeria, Libya, Egypt, and Saudi Arabia accounting for approximately 75% of the region's total freshwater reserves. Alternatively, small groundwater reserves were found in fractured Precambrian basement exposures. As for groundwater changes between 2003 and 2014, all MENA countries except for Morocco exhibited declines in groundwater storage. However, given the region's large groundwater reserves, groundwater changes between 2003 and 2014 are minimal and represent no immediate short-term threat to the MENA region, with some exceptions. Notwithstanding this, the study recommends the development of sustainable and efficient groundwater management policies to optimally utilize the region's groundwater resources, especially in the face of climate change, demographic expansion, and socio-economic development.

  5. Comparative SWOT analysis of strategic environmental assessment systems in the Middle East and North Africa region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachid, G; El Fadel, M

    2013-08-15

    This paper presents a SWOT analysis of SEA systems in the Middle East North Africa region through a comparative examination of the status, application and structure of existing systems based on country-specific legal, institutional and procedural frameworks. The analysis is coupled with the multi-attribute decision making method (MADM) within an analytical framework that involves both performance analysis based on predefined evaluation criteria and countries' self-assessment of their SEA system through open-ended surveys. The results show heterogenous status with a general delayed progress characterized by varied levels of weaknesses embedded in the legal and administrative frameworks and poor integration with the decision making process. Capitalizing on available opportunities, the paper highlights measures to enhance the development and enactment of SEA in the region.

  6. Modeling concentrations and fluxes of atmospheric CO2 in the North East Atlantic region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geels, C.; Christensen, J.H.; Hansen, A.W.

    2001-01-01

    As part of the Danish NEAREX project a three-dimensional Eulerian hemispheric air pollution model is used to study the transport and concentrations of atmospheric CO2 in the North East Atlantic region. The model domain covers the major part of the Northern Hemisphere and currently the model...... source types. Here the model setup and the used parameterizations will be described. The model is validated by comparing the results with atmospheric measurements from four monitoring stations in or close to the northern part of the North Atlantic. Some preliminary model results will be shown and shortly...... includes simple parameterizations of the main sinks and sources for atmospheric CO2. One of the objectives of the project is to study and maybe quantify the relative importance of the various sinks and source types and areas for this region. In order to do so the model has been run with differentiated...

  7. Best practices in tobacco control in the South-East Asia Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B C Zolty

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The tobacco epidemic is an increasing threat to public health with the tobacco burden particularly high in WHO′s South-East Asia Region (SEAR. The Region has many obstacles to tobacco control, but despite these challenges, significant progress has been made in many countries. Although much work still needs to be done, SEAR countries have nevertheless implemented strong and often innovative tobacco control measures that can be classified as "best practices," with some setting global precedents. The best practice measures implemented in SEAR include bans on gutka, reducing tobacco imagery in movies, and warning about the dangers of tobacco. In a time of scarce resources, countries in SEAR and elsewhere must ensure that the most effective and cost-efficient measures are implemented. It is hoped that countries can learn from these examples and as appropriate, adapt these measures to their own specific cultural, social and political realities.

  8. Investigating the effect of geomagnetic storm and equatorial electrojet on equatorial ionospheric irregularity over East African sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seba, Ephrem Beshir; Nigussie, Melessew

    2016-11-01

    The variability of the equatorial ionosphere is still a big challenge for ionospheric dependent radio wave technology users. To mitigate the effect of equatorial ionospheric irregularity on trans-ionospheric radio waves considerable efforts are being done to understand and model the equatorial electrodynamics and its connection to the creation of ionospheric irregularity. However, the effect of the East-African ionospheric electrodynamics on ionospheric irregularity is not yet well studied due to lack of multiple ground based instruments. But, as a result of International Heliophysical Year (IHY) initiative, which was launched in 2007, some facilities are being deployed in Africa since then. Therefore, recently deployed instruments, in the Ethiopian sector, such as SCINDA-GPS receiver (2.64°N dip angle) for TEC and amplitude scintillation index (S4) data and two magnetometers, which are deployed on and off the magnetic equator, data collected in the March equinoctial months of the years 2011, 2012, and 2015 have been used for this study in conjunction with geomagnetic storm data obtained from high resolution OMNI WEB data center. We have investigated the triggering and inhibition mechanisms for ionospheric irregularities using, scintillation index (S4), equatorial electrojet (EEJ), interplanetary electric field (IEFy), symH index, AE index and interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) Bz on five selected storm and two storm free days. We have found that when the eastward EEJ fluctuates in magnitude due to storm time induced electric fields at around noontime, the post-sunset scintillation is inhibited. All observed post-sunset scintillations in equinox season are resulted when the daytime EEJ is non fluctuating. The strength of noontime EEJ magnitude has shown direct relation with the strength of the post-sunset scintillations. This indicates that non-fluctuating EEJ stronger than 20 nT, can be precursor for the occurrence of the evening time ionospheric irregularities

  9. Fluid components in accessory minerals of Pan-African granitoids in the S(o)r Rondane Mountains, East Antarctica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Zi-long; CHEN Han-lin; YANG Shu-feng; TAINOSHO Yoshiaki; SHIRAISHI Kazuyuki; OWADA Masaaki

    2007-01-01

    Fluids (fluorine, chlorine, and OH) in accessory minerals (apatite, titanite and allanite) of Pan-African granitoids(Group-Ⅰ granitoids, Group-Ⅱ granitoids and Mefjell Plutonic Complex) from the Sor Rondane Mountains, East Antarctica were precisely measured by an electronic microprobe analyzer in this study. Apatites in the granites have commonly high fluorine contents. However, fluorine contents from the Group-Ⅰ, Group-Ⅱ granitoids and Mefjell Plutonic Complex (MPC) are of important variation, which F contents (3.21~7.20 wt%) in apatite from the Group-Ⅱ granitoids are much higher than those from the Group-Ⅰ granitoids (1.22~3.60 wt%) and the MPC (3.21~4.11 wt%). Titanite in the MPC has a low fluorine content (0.23~0.50 wt%), being less than those in the Group-Ⅰ granitoids (2.28 wt%) and Group-Ⅱ granitoids (1.85~2.78 wt%). Fluorine in allanite in the Group-Ⅱ granitoids seems to have much lower contents than those from the Group-Ⅰ granitoids and the MPC. Higher fluorine contents in the titanite from the Group-Ⅱ granitoids may be mainly controlled by late-magmatic fluid-rock interaction processes associated with melt, but may not be indicative of original magma contents based on its petrographic feature. Due to very lower chlorine contents from all of accessory minerals, the authors suggest that titanite and apatite with higher fluorine contents in the Group-Ⅱ granitoids have much lower H2O (OH) contents compared with those in the Group-Ⅰ granitoids according to the partition among (F, Cl, OH).Fluorine contents in whole-rock samples show a variation from the higher in the Group-Ⅰ granitoids to the lower in the Group-Ⅱ granitoids and the MPC, which are consistent with the changes of those from the biotite and hornblende as well as fluorite occurred in the Group-Ⅰ granitoids reported previously. Based on the above study of fluorine in accessory minerals and combined with the previous fluorine contents from biotites and

  10. Antigenic Variation of East/Central/South African and Asian Chikungunya Virus Genotypes in Neutralization by Immune Sera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chua, Chong-Long; Sam, I-Ching; Merits, Andres; Chan, Yoke-Fun

    2016-01-01

    Background Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a re-emerging mosquito-borne virus which causes epidemics of fever, severe joint pain and rash. Between 2005 and 2010, the East/Central/South African (ECSA) genotype was responsible for global explosive outbreaks across India, the Indian Ocean and Southeast Asia. From late 2013, Asian genotype CHIKV has caused outbreaks in the Americas. The characteristics of cross-antibody efficacy and epitopes are poorly understood. Methodology/Principal Findings We characterized human immune sera collected during two independent outbreaks in Malaysia of the Asian genotype in 2006 and the ECSA genotype in 2008–2010. Neutralizing capacity was analyzed against representative clinical isolates as well as viruses rescued from infectious clones of ECSA and Asian CHIKV. Using whole virus antigen and recombinant E1 and E2 envelope glycoproteins, we further investigated antibody binding sites, epitopes, and antibody titers. Both ECSA and Asian sera demonstrated stronger neutralizing capacity against the ECSA genotype, which corresponded to strong epitope-antibody interaction. ECSA serum targeted conformational epitope sites in the E1-E2 glycoprotein, and E1-E211K, E2-I2T, E2-H5N, E2-G118S and E2-S194G are key amino acids that enhance cross-neutralizing efficacy. As for Asian serum, the antibodies targeting E2 glycoprotein correlated with neutralizing efficacy, and I2T, H5N, G118S and S194G altered and improved the neutralization profile. Rabbit polyclonal antibody against the N-terminal linear neutralizing epitope from the ECSA sequence has reduced binding capacity and neutralization efficacy against Asian CHIKV. These findings imply that the choice of vaccine strain may impact cross-protection against different genotypes. Conclusion/Significance Immune serum from humans infected with CHIKV of either ECSA or Asian genotypes showed differences in binding and neutralization characteristics. These findings have implications for the continued

  11. Ethnobotanical knowledge on botanical repellents employed in the African region against mosquito vectors - A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavela, Roman; Benelli, Giovanni

    2016-08-01

    Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) represent a huge threat for millions of humans and animals worldwide, since they act as vectors for important parasites and pathogens, including malaria, filariasis and important arboviruses, such as dengue, West Nile and Zika virus. No vaccines or other specific treatments are available against the arboviruses transmitted by mosquitoes, and avoidance of mosquito bites remains the best strategy. African regions are usually hit most whose inhabitants are poor, and the use of repellent plants is the only efficient protection against vectors they have. Ethnobotanical knowledge of such plants and their use is usually passed on orally from one generation to another. However, it is also important to preserve this information in a written form, as well. Ethnobotanical research projects carried out in the regions of today's Ethiopia, South Africa, Nigeria, Kenya, and Tanzania indicate that the native inhabitants of the African study regions traditionally use 64 plant species, belonging to 30 families. Aromatic plants (i.e., Citrus spp., Eucalyptus spp., Lantana camara, Ocimum spp. and Lippia javanica) the most commonly used in all the study regions. Native people know three major methods of using repellent plants: (i) production of repellent smoke from burning plants, (ii) hanging plants inside the house or sprinkling leaves on the floor, (iii) the use of plant oils, juices from crushed fresh parts of the plants, or various prepared extracts applied on uncovered body parts. Overall, this review covers studies conducted only in a limited part of the African continent, highlighting the importance to undertake further research efforts to preserve the unique knowledge and traditions of the native tribes.

  12. Internal Migration, Regional Labour Market Dynamics and Implications for German East-West Disparities – Results from a Panel VAR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alecke, Björn; Mitze, Timo; Untiedt, Gerhard

    :That is, along with a second wave of East-West movements around 2001 net flows out of East Germany were much higher than expected after controlling for its weak labour market and macroeconomic performance. Since this second wave is also accompanied by a gradual fading out of economic distortions......This paper analyses the causal linkages between regional labour market variables and internal migration flows among German states between 1991–2006. We adopt a Panel VAR approach to identify the feedback effects among the variables and analyse the dynamic properties of the system through...... impulseresponse functions.We also use the model to track the evolution of the particular East-West migration since re-unification aiming to shed more light on the East German “empirical puzzle”, characterized by lower migration responses than expected from the regional labour market position relative to the West...

  13. Future Indonesia-East Timor Relations: An Analysis of the Regional Security Practices in the Cold War and After

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-06-01

    Indonesia In the fourteenth century, long before the arrival of Dutch and Portuguese colonizers, the era of Majapahit rule the old Javanese Hindu...NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL Monterey, California THESIS Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. FUTURE INDONESIA -EAST TIMOR...from... to) ("DD MON YYYY") Title and Subtitle FUTURE INDONESIA -EAST TIMOR RELATIONS: AN ANALYSIS OF THE REGIONAL SECURITY PRACTICES IN THE COLD WAR

  14. African high-level regional meeting on energy and sustainable development. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wamukonya, N. (ed.) [UNEP Collaborating Centre on Energy and Environment (Denmark)

    2001-07-01

    The United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) jointly with the Government of Kenya and the UN Department for Economic and Social Affairs (DESA) organised the 'African High-Level Regional Meeting on Energy and Sustainable Development' in Januar 2001 at UNEP headquarters in Nairobi, Kenya. The purpose was to support the preparations for CSD 9 and enable African countries to discuss key issues related to energy for sustainable development in their regional context. This report presents the technical statements and papers prepared for the technical workshop. As the reader will quickly notice, the papers reflect the views of the range of experts who participated. Speakers and participants came from ministries or agencies dealing with energy issues, rural development and finance institutions, utilities, private enterprises, NGOs, and research institutions. The papers follow the thermes identified for the CSD 9 session but provide an Africa-specific perspective. In the region, increased access to energy is clearly still a major development issue and has strong links to another key theme - rural energy. A number of papers address these issues from the woodfuel or biomass side, as the majority of the rural population in African countries relies on this energy source and will continue to do so for the foreseeable future. At the same time, improved access to commercial energy forms, particularly through rural electrification programmes, received much attention and several papers present new approaches and experience gained in this area. On the commercial energy supply side the major challenge facing most African countries is the need to reform institutional structures, especially in the power sector. These reforms are generally part of larger economic reform packages promoted by the World Bank, International Monetary Fund, and other financial institutions. In the energy sector the reform process offers an opportunity to introduce more efficiency and competition

  15. Regional Geothermal Characterisation of East Anatolia from Aeromagnetic, Heat Flow and Gravity Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bektaş, Özcan; Ravat, Dhananjay; Büyüksaraç, Aydin; Bilim, Funda; Ateş, Abdullah

    2007-05-01

    East Anatolia is a region of high topography made up of a 2-km high plateau and Neogene and Quaternary volcanics overlying the subduction-accretion complex formed by the process of collision. The aeromagnetic and gravity data surveyed by the Mineral Research and Exploration (MTA) of Turkey have been used to interpret qualitatively the characteristics of the near-surface geology of the region. The residual aeromagnetic data were low-pass filtered and analyzed to produce the estimates of magnetic bottom using the centroid method and by forward modelling of spectra to evaluate the uncertainties in such estimates. The magnetic bottom estimates can be indicative of temperatures in the crust because magnetic minerals lose their spontaneous magnetization at the Curie temperature of the dominant magnetic minerals in the rocks and, thus, also are called Curie point depths (CPDs). The Curie point depths over the region of Eastern Anatolia vary from 12.9 to 22.6 km. Depths computed from forward modelling of spectra with 200 600 km window sizes suggest that the bottom depths from East Anatolia from the magnetic data may have errors exceeding 5 km; however, most of the obtained depths appear to lie in the above range and indicate that the lower crust is either demagnetized or non-magnetic. In the interpretation of the magnetic map, we also used reduction-to-pole (RTP) and amplitude of total gradient of high-pass filtered anomalies, which reduced dipolar orientation effects of induced aeromagnetic anomalies. However, the features of the RTP and the total gradient of the high-pass filtered aeromagnetic anomalies are not highly correlated to the hot spring water locations. On the other hand, many high-amplitude features seen on the total gradient map can be correlated with the ophiolitic rocks observed on the surface. This interpretation is supported by Bouguer gravity data. In this paper, we recommend that the sources of the widespread thermal activity seen in East Anatolia must

  16. Regional Differences in Pathogen Prevalence and Defensive Reactions to the “Swine Flu” Outbreak among East Asians and Westerners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeshi Hamamura

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Research has found that contagion-minimizing behavioral tendencies are amplified in pathogen-prevalent regions. We investigated whether reactions to the “swine flu” outbreak of 2009 were stronger among East Asians than Westerners, populations residing in regions that now enjoy comparable advances in healthcare but that are characterized by relatively high and low historical pathogen prevalence, respectively. In a survey, East Asians reported greater concerns about infection, especially from foreigners. Analyses of international air travel data around the time of the outbreak provided corroborating evidence: Immediately following the outbreak, airports in the Asia-Pacific region lost more international traffic relative to their Western counterparts, and East Asian airlines reported greater declines in international traffic compared to Western airlines. These differences are unlikely to reflect objective threat posed by swine flu (whose casualties were concentrated in the Americas; rather, they appear to reflect culturally adapted behavioral patterns forged and sustained by regionally variable levels of pathogen prevalence.

  17. United States security strategy for the East Asia-Pacific region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-31

    The three years since release of the last East Asia Strategy Report (EASR) have produced important development in the security environment of the Asia-Pacific region. The 1998 EASR outlines a multifaceted regional security strategy, including: maintenance of comprehensive US engagement, including not only the presence of approximately 100,000 US military personnel in Asia but also a variety of other public and private interaction with the region; continued enhancement of the alliance relationships with Japan, Korea, Australia, Thailand and the Philippines; comprehensive engagement with China to build the foundation for a long-term relationship based on cooperation and mutual interest; broadening of cooperation with the nations of Southeast Asia on security and confidence building; expansion of regional cooperation with Russia; support for the development of security pluralism, including expansion of multilateral, minilateral and bilateral dialogue in the region; promotion of democracy; stemming and countering proliferation of weapons of mass destruction (WMD): and increased attention to terrorism, environmental degradation, emerging infectious diseases, drug trafficking and other transnational challenges as critical elements of `comprehensive security.`

  18. East African Medical Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    collected data on household water, sanitation and hygiene with reported childhood diarrhoea cases of all community units in Machakos County, Kenya. Design: Descriptive ecological ... making to improve service delivery (4, 9). We therefore ...

  19. East African Medical Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2006-08-08

    Aug 8, 2006 ... incidence of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) seropositivity in Uganda had ... irradiation was administered using a cobalt-60 beam by two equally ..... body of uterus, ovary, vagina, vulva, gestational trophoblastic tumours ...

  20. East African Medical Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2007-09-09

    Sep 9, 2007 ... are very few publications and no reliable data on the prevalence of the various ..... polyarticular in nature, affecting both small and big joints as reported by .... Genève: Organisation Mondiale de la santé 1977. 6. Oyoo G.O. ...

  1. East African Medical Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    prevention of tuberculosis (TB) among HIV positive patients, and its use is recommended ... in the health centre for at least six months preceding the study. Results: ... According to the World Health Organization .... Factors with P-values less than 0.05 were considered ..... should now embark on qualitative evaluation of the.

  2. East African Medical Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mental health illnesses (MHI) contribute to approximately ... fundamental for evidence-based decision-making and improved ... and 400 nurses with additional psychiatric training to provide ... other social pressures are documented risk factors.

  3. EAST AFRICAN MEDICAL JOURNAL

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2002-08-01

    Aug 1, 2002 ... 79 No 8 August 2002 ... Data sources: Literature search on compact disk-read only memory ... The problem of nosocomial infections is very old and ... described his antiseptic techniques in the year 1867, ... The wealthy had their children at home until .... be 1 to 4 days for urinary tract infections, 7 to 8 days.

  4. East African Medical Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2007-05-05

    May 5, 2007 ... use of herbs by traditional healers were seen at the surgical unit of Olabisi Onabanjo University. Teaching .... of diabetes and hypertension by traditional healers ... nephropathy caused by Chinese herbal tea, which was.

  5. EAST AFRICAN MEDICAL TOURNAI.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2001-08-01

    Aug 1, 2001 ... Objective: To evaluate the clinical performance of atraumatic restorative ... Design : Longitudinal study of the ART fillings in permanent teeth of primary ..... survival of one-surface ART restorations and glass ionomer sealants in.

  6. EAST AFRICAN MEDICAL JOURNAL

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2004-10-10

    Oct 10, 2004 ... recurrence after surgery and a potential to metastasize. It is rare especially in adolescence. ... giant metastasis to the lung(9), and metastasis to the groin(lO). A giant malignant ... osteosarcoma can occur(12). The characteristic ...

  7. EAST AFRICAN MEDICAL JOURNAL

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2002-12-01

    Dec 1, 2002 ... or using laboratory, radiological or histological methods). The clinical ... interactive image overlay system run by the Prodit morphometry ..... Subscription to the online version may be made by completing the Registration.

  8. East African Medical Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2006-08-01

    Aug 1, 2006 ... persistent pulmonary hypertension (PPH), persistent foetal ... The pathophysiologic processes of intrauterine meconium release, mechanisms of foetal effects and dilemmas in management are discussed. ... The foetal heart.

  9. East African Medical Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the influence of patient's sex, parental income and parental education have on the MP. Design: A five year ... The current population in Kenya is 32.2 million, the crude birth rate is ..... pattern of congenital heart defects in Tanzanian children.

  10. EAST AFRICAN MEDICAL JOURNAL

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2001-03-03

    Mar 3, 2001 ... although their plasmid profiles and sensitivity to antimicrobials varied. Conclusion: There ... brought to light the fact that V. parahaemolyticus is a ... Eye infections ... stained by Coomasie brilliant blue dye (Sigma Chemicals, St.

  11. EAST AFRICAN MEDICAL JOURNAL

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2001-12-12

    Dec 12, 2001 ... Objective: To determine the health problems of street children in Eldoret. Design: A .... were used to identify the setting and record all activities that took place within the .... Sciences) program. .... None of the children was overweight (obese). .... due to physical abuse by the public, government officials,.

  12. EAST AFRICAN MEDICAL JOURNAL

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2002-01-01

    Jan 1, 2002 ... or in combination with tobacco smoking, coffee drinking and alcohol intake of over one year. ... consumption, tobacco smoking and coffee drinking may ...... Zein A.Z. Polydrug abuse among Ethiopian University students,.

  13. EAST AFRICAN MEDICAL JOURNAL

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2003-05-01

    May 1, 2003 ... Vitamins are present at nutritionally significant levels averaging 28mg/100g of vitamin С and 160 ... family contain. 40% by weight of high quality oil that is of equal value ... was expressed in terms of retinol equivalent (RE).

  14. EAST AFRICAN MEDICAL JOURNAL

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2001-08-08

    Aug 8, 2001 ... injury and all were operated on within forty eight hours; percutaneous ... wire removal, children were started on physiotherapy applying only active ..... Flynn J.C, Richards J.F. Jr. and Saltzman R.I. Prevention and treatment of ...

  15. EAST AFRICAN MEDICAL JOURNAL

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2004-10-10

    Oct 10, 2004 ... Immediately after birth he was noticed to be distressed and cyanosed. He was resuscitated and improved on oxygen, but other episodes of cyanosis and distress ... Blood and urine tests were normal ... spleen and stomach) were found in the pleural cavity. ... pleural cavity was cleaned and chest wall closed.

  16. EAST AFRICAN MEDICAL JOURNAL

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2004-08-08

    Aug 8, 2004 ... and a case of metastatic osteosarcoma in a child. Conclusion: Majority of the ... rehabilitation can lead to critical survival pr0blems(2). Despite the fact that most of .... 1988; 75:ll93-1195. 10. Satin, 5., Shami, 5., Shields, D.A..

  17. EAST AFRICAN MEDICAL JOURNAL

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2001-12-04

    Dec 4, 2001 ... gastroenteritis in children and the immunocompromised individuals(13,l4) is of ... Taxonomic considerations. host species, diagnosis, therapy and geographical ... Timers Mirror College Publishers. Toronto ~ 732-749, I984.

  18. East African Medical Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2006-04-04

    Apr 4, 2006 ... proportion (90.8%) of parents attach equal importance for both ... 29.1% of the respondents reported not to be satisfied with the ... teeth throughout your life? M: F: p> .... oral health services among adolescents and adults in.

  19. EAST AFRICAN MEDICAL JOURNAL

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2002-05-01

    May 1, 2002 ... was defined as the distance from glabella to maximal occipital point, while maximal .... with age might be due to the development of muscles attached to the ... show variations in the shapes of skulls. Ithas been reported.

  20. EAST AFRICAN MEDICAL JOURNAL

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2002-07-01

    Jul 1, 2002 ... PREVALENCE OF VITAMIN A DEFICIENCY AMONG PRESCHOOL AND SCHOOL-AGED CHILDREN IN ARSSI ZONE. ETHIOPIA ... MATERIALS AND METHODS. Study design: In this cross sectional study a total of 402.

  1. EAST AFRICAN MEDICAL JOURNAL

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2002-12-01

    Dec 1, 2002 ... PATTERN OF USE OF SKIN CARE PRODUCTS IN CHILDREN WITH AND WITHOUT ECZEMATOUS ... contain perfumes whose chemical composition is often .... obtain information regarding the demographic parameters,.

  2. EAST AFRICAN MEDICAL JOURNAL

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    OCCUPATIONAL RISK OF INFECTION BY HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY AND ... Department of Medicine, University ofCalabar Teaching Hospital, P.M.B. 1278 Calabar, Cross ... would become less important making nosocomial exposure.

  3. EAST AFRICAN MEDICAL JOURNAL

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2002-03-03

    Mar 3, 2002 ... EVALUATION OF A PROPOSED CLINICAL CASE DEFINITION OF PAEDIATRIC ACQUIRED ... when they already have symptomatic disease or AIDS. The ..... with HIV-1 infection: natural history and risk of transmission.

  4. EAST AFRICAN MEDICAL JOURNAL

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2004-12-12

    Dec 12, 2004 ... postoperative hospitals stay and mortality results for all patients were obtained. Results: ... co-existing medical illness and providing appropriate nutrition support. INTROD ..... results after simple closure in the elderly. Wurizl.

  5. EAST AFRICAN MEDICAL JOURNAL

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2002-06-01

    Jun 1, 2002 ... Results: Ninety one (72%) carers of the elderly mentally infirm participated in the ... that the carers' social life is most affected(l-2), while others suggest emotional difficulties (anger, depression, ... The quality of carer dependant.

  6. East African Medical Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2007-06-06

    Jun 6, 2007 ... These include lipid fractions, disease states, genetics and environmental ... myocardial energy metabolism, intracellular calcium ... and beam balance scale. ..... Systemic hypertension, obesity and hyperlipidaemia are.

  7. East African odontopygid millipedes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Sara B.

    2013-01-01

    Chaleponcus parensis n. sp., found in the North Pare Mountains, Tanzania, is described. The find is remarkable due to its geographically disjunct location, being at least 1500 km as the crow flies to the nearest valid record in Zimbabwe of a Chaleponcus.......Chaleponcus parensis n. sp., found in the North Pare Mountains, Tanzania, is described. The find is remarkable due to its geographically disjunct location, being at least 1500 km as the crow flies to the nearest valid record in Zimbabwe of a Chaleponcus....

  8. EAST AFRICAN MEDICAL JOURNAL

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2002-05-05

    May 5, 2002 ... Objective: To assess the prevalence and risk factors of cigarette smoking and ... Most of the instructors (82.1 %) knew that cigarette smoking is a risk factor for lung ..... Risk of squamo us cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma.

  9. EAST AFRICAN MEDICAL JOURNAL

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2002-01-01

    Jan 1, 2002 ... have found widespread use, at sub-therapeutic levels, in ... study, overall all staphylococci isolates were susceptible ..... reporting a 28.0% resistance rate to this drug. Given the ... Bacteriophage type 80/81 staphylococcal infection inhuman beings ... Eighth Information Supplement, Pennsylvania, USA.

  10. Stable isotope-based Plio-Pleistocene ecosystem reconstruction of some of the earliest hominid fossil sites in the East African Rift System (Chiwondo Beds, N Malawi)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lüdecke, Tina; Thiemeyer, Heinrich; Schrenk, Friedemann; Mulch, Andreas

    2014-05-01

    The isotope geochemistry of pedogenic carbonate and fossil herbivore enamel is a powerful tool to reconstruct paleoenvironmental conditions in particular when climate change plays a key role in the evolution of ecosystems. Here, we present the first Plio-Pleistocene long-term carbon (δ13C), oxygen (δ18O) and clumped isotope (Δ47) records from pedogenic carbonate and herbivore teeth in the Malawi Rift. These data represent an important southern hemisphere record in the East African Rift System (EARS), a key region for reconstructing vegetation patterns in today's Zambezian Savanna and correlation with data on the evolution and migration of early hominids across the Inter-Tropical Convergence Zone. As our study site is situated between the well-known hominid-bearing sites of eastern and southern Africa in the Somali-Masai Endemic Zone and Highveld Grassland it fills an important geographical gap for early hominid research. 5.0 to 0.6 Ma fluviatile and lacustrine deposits of the Chiwondo Beds (NE shore of Lake Malawi) comprise abundant pedogenic carbonate and remains of a diverse fauna dominated by large terrestrial mammals. These sediments are also home to two hominid fossil remains, a mandible of Homo rudolfensis and a maxillary fragment of Paranthropus boisei, both dated around 2.4 Ma. The Chiwondo Beds therefore document early co-existence of these two species. We evaluate δ13C data from fossil enamel of different suid, bovid, and equid species and contrast these with δ13C and δ18O values of pedogenic carbonate. We complement the latter with clumped isotope soil temperature data. Results of almost 800 pedogenic carbonate samples from over 20 sections consistently average δ13C = -8.5 ‰ over the past 5 Ma with no significant short-term δ13C excursions or long-term trends. The data from molar tooth enamel of nine individual suids of the genera Metridiochoerus, Notochoerus and Nyanzachoerus support these findings with average δ13C = -10.0 ‰. The absence

  11. Land desertification and restoration in Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hassan M.El Shaer

    2015-01-01

    The Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region is characterized by high population growth, degraded and fragile nat-ural ecosystems, and a limited amount of arable lands. It is one of the most water-scarce regions in the world. The region is heterogeneous in terms of the countries' economies, but because it includes some of the richest and some of the poorest countries in the world, regional average economic performance statistics are misleading. The region is mostly semi-arid and arid, with significant areas of extreme aridity. These areas are further challenged by extreme temperatures, frequent drought, land degradation, and desertification. Recent changes in climate patterns, such as prolonged droughts, record temperatures, and increased rainfall irregularity, intensity and distribution, have all further negatively impacted the natural and agro-ecosystems in the region. Such changes have led to increased vulnerability of the people dependent on such re-sources for their livelihood. This article focuses on the impact of land desertification due to climate changes on the pre-vailing natural resources, and discusses several approaches for mitigating or alleviating desertification. It is clear that water shortage is a problem in many countries of this predominantly arid region, and is unlikely to be reduced and may be exacerbated by climate change. Proposed adaptation strategies might include more efficient organization of water supplies, treatment, and delivery systems, and increased use of groundwater. It is necessary to develop alternative production and management systems appropriate to the socioeconomic and environmental conditions in order to prevent further degradation of the prevailing agro-ecosystems and sustain the livelihoods of farmers living in marginal conditions. Grasslands, livestock, and water resources are likely to be most vulnerable to climate change in the region because they are located mostly in marginal areas. Changes in cropping practices

  12. Internationalization "vs" Regionalization of Higher Education in East Africa and the Challenges of Quality Assurance and Knowledge Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogachi, Oanda

    2009-01-01

    Internationalization of higher education in East Africa raises various questions related to its magnitude and intensity, its capacity to address issues of access, equity and regional research and developmental needs. Internationalization and regionalization as processes in higher education can synergize each other but can also limit the success of…

  13. A seasonal agricultural drought forecast system for food-insecure regions of East Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Shraddhanand; McNally, Amy; Husak, Gregory; Funk, Christopher C.

    2014-01-01

     The increasing food and water demands of East Africa's growing population are stressing the region's inconsistent water resources and rain-fed agriculture. More accurate seasonal agricultural drought forecasts for this region can inform better water and agricultural management decisions, support optimal allocation of the region's water resources, and mitigate socio-economic losses incurred by droughts and floods. Here we describe the development and implementation of a seasonal agricultural drought forecast system for East Africa (EA) that provides decision support for the Famine Early Warning Systems Network's science team. We evaluate this forecast system for a region of equatorial EA (2° S to 8° N, and 36° to 46° E) for the March-April-May growing season. This domain encompasses one of the most food insecure, climatically variable and socio-economically vulnerable regions in EA, and potentially the world: this region has experienced famine as recently as 2011. To assess the agricultural outlook for the upcoming season our forecast system simulates soil moisture (SM) scenarios using the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) hydrologic model forced with climate scenarios for the upcoming season. First, to show that the VIC model is appropriate for this application we forced the model with high quality atmospheric observations and found that the resulting SM values were consistent with the Food and Agriculture Organization's (FAO's) Water Requirement Satisfaction Index (WRSI), an index used by FEWS NET to estimate crop yields. Next we tested our forecasting system with hindcast runs (1993–2012). We found that initializing SM forecasts with start-of-season (5 March) SM conditions resulted in useful SM forecast skill (> 0.5 correlation) at 1-month, and in some cases at 3 month lead times. Similarly, when the forecast was initialized with mid-season (i.e. 5 April) SM conditions the skill until the end-of-season improved. This shows that early-season rainfall

  14. A seasonal agricultural drought forecast system for food-insecure regions of East Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, S.; McNally, A.; Husak, G.; Funk, C.

    2014-03-01

    The increasing food and water demands of East Africa's growing population are stressing the region's inconsistent water resources and rain-fed agriculture. More accurate seasonal agricultural drought forecasts for this region can inform better water and agricultural management decisions, support optimal allocation of the region's water resources, and mitigate socio-economic losses incurred by droughts and floods. Here we describe the development and implementation of a seasonal agricultural drought forecast system for East Africa (EA) that provides decision support for the Famine Early Warning Systems Network's science team. We evaluate this forecast system for a region of equatorial EA (2° S to 8° N, and 36° to 46° E) for the March-April-May growing season. This domain encompasses one of the most food insecure, climatically variable and socio-economically vulnerable regions in EA, and potentially the world: this region has experienced famine as recently as 2011. To assess the agricultural outlook for the upcoming season our forecast system simulates soil moisture (SM) scenarios using the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) hydrologic model forced with climate scenarios for the upcoming season. First, to show that the VIC model is appropriate for this application we forced the model with high quality atmospheric observations and found that the resulting SM values were consistent with the Food and Agriculture Organization's (FAO's) Water Requirement Satisfaction Index (WRSI), an index used by FEWS NET to estimate crop yields. Next we tested our forecasting system with hindcast runs (1993-2012). We found that initializing SM forecasts with start-of-season (5 March) SM conditions resulted in useful SM forecast skill (> 0.5 correlation) at 1-month, and in some cases at 3 month lead times. Similarly, when the forecast was initialized with mid-season (i.e. 5 April) SM conditions the skill until the end-of-season improved. This shows that early-season rainfall is

  15. A seasonal agricultural drought forecast system for food-insecure regions of East Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Shukla

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The increasing food and water demands of East Africa's growing population are stressing the region's inconsistent water resources and rain-fed agriculture. More accurate seasonal agricultural drought forecasts for this region can inform better water and agricultural management decisions, support optimal allocation of the region's water resources, and mitigate socio-economic losses incurred by droughts and floods. Here we describe the development and implementation of a seasonal agricultural drought forecast system for East Africa (EA that provides decision support for the Famine Early Warning Systems Network's science team. We evaluate this forecast system for a region of equatorial EA (2° S to 8° N, and 36° to 46° E for the March-April-May growing season. This domain encompasses one of the most food insecure, climatically variable and socio-economically vulnerable regions in EA, and potentially the world: this region has experienced famine as recently as 2011. To assess the agricultural outlook for the upcoming season our forecast system simulates soil moisture (SM scenarios using the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC hydrologic model forced with climate scenarios for the upcoming season. First, to show that the VIC model is appropriate for this application we forced the model with high quality atmospheric observations and found that the resulting SM values were consistent with the Food and Agriculture Organization's (FAO's Water Requirement Satisfaction Index (WRSI, an index used by FEWS NET to estimate crop yields. Next we tested our forecasting system with hindcast runs (1993–2012. We found that initializing SM forecasts with start-of-season (5 March SM conditions resulted in useful SM forecast skill (> 0.5 correlation at 1-month, and in some cases at 3 month lead times. Similarly, when the forecast was initialized with mid-season (i.e. 5 April SM conditions the skill until the end-of-season improved. This shows that early

  16. Guidelines for acute management of hyperammonemia in the Middle East region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfadhel, Majid; Mutairi, Fuad Al; Makhseed, Nawal; Jasmi, Fatma Al; Al-Thihli, Khalid; Al-Jishi, Emtithal; AlSayed, Moeenaldeen; Al-Hassnan, Zuhair N; Al-Murshedi, Fathiya; Häberle, Johannes; Ben-Omran, Tawfeg

    2016-01-01

    Background Hyperammonemia is a life-threatening event that can occur at any age. If treated, the early symptoms in all age groups could be reversible. If untreated, hyperammonemia could be toxic and cause irreversible brain damage to the developing brain. Objective There are major challenges that worsen the outcome of hyperammonemic individuals in the Middle East. These include: lack of awareness among emergency department physicians about proper management of hyperammonemia, strained communication between physicians at primary, secondary, and tertiary hospitals, and shortage of the medications used in the acute management of hyperammonemia. Therefore, the urge to develop regional guidelines is extremely obvious. Method We searched PubMed and Embase databases to include published materials from 2011 to 2014 that were not covered by the European guidelines, which was published in 2012. We followed the process of a Delphi conference and involved one preliminary meeting and two follow-up meetings with email exchanges between the Middle East Hyperammonemia and Urea Cycle Disorders Scientific Group regarding each draft of the manuscript. Results and discussion We have developed consensus guidelines based on the highest available level of evidence. The aim of these guidelines is to homogenize and harmonize the treatment protocols used for patients with acute hyperammonemia, and to provide a resource to not only metabolic physicians, but also physicians who may come in contact with individuals with acute hyperammonemia. Conclusion These suggested guidelines aim to ease the challenges faced by physicians dealing with acute hyperammonemia in the region. In addition, guidelines have demonstrated useful collaboration between experts in the region, and provides information that will hopefully improve the outcomes of patients with acute hyperammonemia. PMID:27099506

  17. Regional Modelling of the Southern African Geomagnetic Field using Harmonic Splines

    CERN Document Server

    Geese, Anne; Lesur, Vincent; Mandea, Mioara

    2010-01-01

    Over the southern African region the geomagnetic field is weak and changes rapidly. For this area series of geomagnetic field measurements exist since the 1950s. We take advantage of the existing repeat station surveys and observatory annual means, and clean these data sets by eliminating jumps and minimising external field contributions in the original time series. This unique data set allows us to obtain a detailed view of the geomagnetic field behaviour in space and time by computing a regional model. For this, we use a system of representation similar to harmonic splines. Initially, the technique is systematically tested on synthetic data. After systematically testing the method on synthetic data, we derive a model for 1961 to 2001 that gives a detailed view of the fast changes of the geomagnetic field in this region.

  18. Impact of the Great East Japan Earthquake on Regional Obstetrical Care in Miyagi Prefecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugawara, Junichi; Hoshiai, Tetsuro; Sato, Kazuyo; Tokunaga, Hideki; Nishigori, Hidekazu; Arai, Takanari; Okamura, Kunihiro; Yaegashi, Nobuo

    2016-06-01

    The authors report the results of surveys on the emergency transport or evacuation status of obstetric patients conducted in Miyagi prefecture, one of the major disaster areas of the Great East Japan Earthquake and tsunami. The surveys examined the damages to maternity institutions, evacuation status and transport of pregnant women, and prehospital childbirths and were conducted in 50 maternity institutions and 12 fire departments in Miyagi. Two coastal institutions were destroyed completely, and four institutions were destroyed partially by the tsunami, forcing them to stop medical services. In the two-month period after the disaster, 217 pregnant women received hospital transport or gave birth after evacuation. Satisfactory perinatal outcomes were maintained. Emergency obstetric transport increased to approximately 1.4 fold the number before the disaster. Twenty-three women had prehospital childbirths, indicating a marked increase to approximately three times the number of the previous year. In the acute phase of the tsunami disaster, maternity institutions were damaged severely and perinatal transport was not possible; as a result, pregnant women inevitably gave birth in unplanned institutions, and the number of prehospital births was increased extremely. To obtain satisfactory obstetric outcomes, it is necessary to construct a future disaster management system and to re-recognize pregnant women as people with special needs in disaster situations. Sugawara J , Hoshiai T , Sato K , Tokunaga H , Nishigori H , Arai T , Okamura K , Yaegashi N . Impact of the Great East Japan Earthquake on regional obstetrical care in Miyagi Prefecture. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2016;31(3):255- 258.

  19. Simulations of LGM climate of East Asia by regional climate model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑益群; 于革; 王苏民; 薛滨; 刘华强; 曾新民

    2003-01-01

    Climate conditions in the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) were remarkably different from the present ones. Adopting a regional climate model (RCM) which has included a detailed land surface scheme, LGM climate of East Asia has been simulated. The effects of vegetation changes on LGM climate have been diagnosed by adding forces of LGM paleovegetation reconstructed from the geological records. The results of the simulations by RCM indicate that large decreases in whole year temperature of East Asia continent caused strongly enhanced winter monsoon and weakened summer monsoon. The strengthening and westward-stretching of the Subtropical High of West-Pacific are the key reasons of decreases of LGM summer precipitation in eastern China. Precipitation and effective precipitation were increased in the Tibetan Plateau and Middle-Asia, while the humid condition in the Tibetan Plateau was mainly caused by increase of precipitation. Accumulated snow of LGM was also increased in the Tibetan Plateau, which was helpful to developing glacier and permafrost. This experiment has simulated that the frozen soil areas extend southward to 30°N. In LGM climate simulation, climate effects caused by external forces were amplified by added paleovegetation, therefore, decreases of temperature, changes of precipitation and snowfall, and other climatic parameters were further strengthened, making the simulation results more approach to geological evidences.

  20. Regional scale hydrodynamic modelling of offshore wind farm development areas off the east coast of Scotland

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hara Murray, Rory; Gallego, Alejandro

    2013-04-01

    There is considerable interest in Scotland, supported by the Scottish Government, in the expansion of renewable energy production. In particular, significant offshore wind energy developments are already planned in coastal waters to the east of the Forth and Tay estuaries. It is important to understand the local and cumulative environmental impact of such developments within this region, to aid licensing decisions but also to inform marine spatial planning in general. Substantial wind farm developments may affect physical processes within the region, such as tidal-, wind-, and wave-driven circulation, as well as coastal sediment transport and more complex estuarine dynamics. Such physical impacts could have ecological and, ultimately, socio-economic consequences. The Firth of Forth and Tay areas both exhibit complex estuarine characteristics due to fresh water input, complex bathymetry and coastline, and tidal mixing. Our goal is to construct an unstructured grid hydrodynamic model of the wider Firth of Forth and Tay region using the Finite-Volume Coastal Ocean Model (FVCOM), resolving the complex estuarine hydrography of the area and representing offshore wind developments. Hydrodynamic modelling will provide an accurate baseline of the hydrography in this region but also allow the assessment of the effect on the physical environment of multiple wind farm development scenarios.

  1. Feeding activity of the East African millipede Omopyge sudanica Kraus on different crop products in laboratory experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ebregt, E.; Struik, P.C.; Abidin, P.E.; Odongo, B.

    2007-01-01

    Millipedes can cause considerable damage in the production of sweet potato and some other crops in East Africa. Quantitative information on intake of crop diets by and body weight gain of millipedes was collected in short-term no-choice feeding activity laboratory experiments conducted in north-east

  2. Feeding activity of the East African millipede Omopyge sudanica Kraus on different crop products in laboratory experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ebregt, E.; Struik, P.C.; Abidin, P.E.; Odongo, B.

    2007-01-01

    Millipedes can cause considerable damage in the production of sweet potato and some other crops in East Africa. Quantitative information on intake of crop diets by and body weight gain of millipedes was collected in short-term no-choice feeding activity laboratory experiments conducted in north-east

  3. Simulating Dust Regional Impact on the Middle East Climate and the Red Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osipov, Sergey; Stenchikov, Georgiy

    2017-04-01

    Dust is one of the most abundant aerosols, however, currently only a few regional climate downscalings account for dust. This study focuses on the Middle East and the Red Sea regional climate response to the dust aerosol radiative forcing. The Red Sea is located between North Africa and Arabian Peninsula, which are first and third largest source regions of dust, respectively. MODIS and SEVIRI satellite observations show extremely high dust optical depths in the region, especially over the southern Red Sea during the summer season. The significant north-to-south gradient of the dust optical depth over the Red Sea persists throughout the entire year. Modeled atmospheric radiative forcing at the surface, top of the atmosphere and absorption in the atmospheric column indicate that dust significantly perturbs radiative balance. Top of the atmosphere modeled forcing is validated against independently derived GERB satellite product. Due to strong radiative forcing at the sea surface (daily mean forcing during summer reaches -32 Wm-2 and 10 Wm-2 in SW and LW, respectively), using uncoupled ocean model with prescribed atmospheric boundary conditions would result in an unrealistic ocean response. Therefore, here we employ the Regional Ocean Modeling system (ROMS) fully coupled with the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model to study the impact of dust on the Red Sea thermal regime and circulation. The WRF was modified to interactively account for the radiative effect of dust. Daily spectral optical properties of dust are computed using Mie, T-matrix, and geometric optics approaches, and are based on the SEVIRI climatological optical depth. The WRF model parent and nested domains are configured over the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region and over the Red Sea with 30 and 10 km resolution, respectively. The ROMS model over the Red Sea has 2 km grid spacing. The simulations show that, in the equilibrium response, dust causes 0.3-0.5 K cooling of the Red Sea surface

  4. Assessing Computer Knowledge in Senior High School: A Case Study of the Upper East Region in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.K. Oladejo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: This study contracted with assessing the knowledge of computer in Senior High Schools of the Upper East Region in Ghana. Approach: Data collected by means of administration of questionnaire brings out the level of computer knowledge expected from a student completing a Senior High School in the Upper East Region in Ghana. 140 sample students from 8 districts were selected for the study. Results: Hypotheses were tested at α = 0.05 while the analyses of data were presented through SAS and SPSS. General Linear Model (GLM, post ANOVA and Least Significant Difference (LSD were also used. Conclusion: The study revealed that an average student in Senior High School of the Upper East Region can not pass in computer subject. The research further revealed that gender has no influence on the level of computer knowledge of a student. This indicates that the level of computer knowledge of males and females is not significantly different.

  5. [Emerging viral infections in South East Asia and the Pacific region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barboza, P; Tarantola, A; Lassel, L; Mollet, T; Quatresous, I; Paquet, C

    2008-10-01

    The epidemiology of several viral diseases underwent profound changes in South-East Asia and Oceania over the past decades. This was due to several factors, including the geographical distribution of vectors and the viruses they transmit; increasing traveling and trade; increasing ecological and demographic pressure. We reviewed the current state of knowledge based on published sources and available epidemiological data. The review was limited to potentially emerging viruses in Southeast Asia and the Pacific reported in human cases. Dengue, Chikungunya, and Japanese Encephalitis viruses have recurred on a yearly basis with a steady increase in these regions. Ross River and Barmah viruses now appear regularly in Australia, in an increasing number of cases. Nipah virus strikes regularly with limited but deadly epidemics in Southeast Asia. Finally, infections by lyssaviruses, Kunjin, Murray Valley, or Zika viruses were also reviewed.

  6. MODELING OF WEATHER DATA FOR THE EAST ANATOLIA REGION OF TURKEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Akpinar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Monthly average daily data of climatic conditions over the period 1994-2003 of cities in the east Anatolia region of Turkey is presented. Regression methods are used to fit polynomial and trigonometric functions to the monthly averages for nine parameters. The parameters namely temperature, maximum-minimum temperature, relative humidity, pressure, wind speed, rainfall, solar radiation and sunshine duration are useful for renewable energy applications. The functions presented for the parameters should enable determination of specific parameter values and prediction of missing values. They also provide some insight into the variation of these parameters. The models developed can be used in any study related to climatic and its effect on the environment and energy.

  7. South Primorye, Far East Russia—A key region for global Permian correlation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotlyar, Galina V.; Belyansky, Gennady C.; Burago, Valentina I.; Nikitina, Antonina P.; Zakharov, Yuri D.; Zhuravlev, Andrey V.

    2006-03-01

    Significant differences between faunal and floral associations existing in different paleogeographic realms in the Kungurian-Late Permian interval make it difficult to correlate the Permian deposits of the world. Resolving this problem is one of the main tasks of Permian stratigraphy. The global significance of Permian strata of the Primorye region of Far East Russia is enhanced by the specific Middle Permian mixed Tethyan, Boreal and Gondwanan-type brachiopod fauna, mixed Angara-Euromerican-Cathaysian flora, and their close spatial and stratigraphical association with fusulinids, bryozoans, ammonoids, conodonts. These facts permit tracing of global correlational levels of some Permian sequences within the different paleobiogeographical realms: for example, the Monodiexodina sutschanica- Metadoliolina dutkevichi fusulinid zone of the Wordian age and Parafusulina stricta fusulinid zone of the Capitanian age. The Late Permian fauna of the Primorye is mainly Tethyan in origin and provides correlation with similar aged sequences from South China.

  8. Diet, Genetics, and Disease: A Focus on the Middle East and North Africa Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akl C. Fahed

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Middle East and North Africa (MENA region suffers a drastic change from a traditional diet to an industrialized diet. This has led to an unparalleled increase in the prevalence of chronic diseases. This review discusses the role of nutritional genomics, or the dietary signature, in these dietary and disease changes in the MENA. The diet-genetics-disease relation is discussed in detail. Selected disease categories in the MENA are discussed starting with a review of their epidemiology in the different MENA countries, followed by an examination of the known genetic factors that have been reported in the disease discussed, whether inside or outside the MENA. Several diet-genetics-disease relationships in the MENA may be contributing to the increased prevalence of civilization disorders of metabolism and micronutrient deficiencies. Future research in the field of nutritional genomics in the MENA is needed to better define these relationships.

  9. THE TOURISTIC ACTIVITY OF THE NORT-EAST REGION IN THE PERIOD 1990-2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenia HARJA

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The fallowing analysis has started from our location from a geographical point of view in the North-East Region. In the first part I have made a brief presentation of the tourism potential, after which I have analyzed the main statistic indicators for the period 1990-2007. Many results have been presented through suggestive statistical diagrams, leaving the possibility for the readers to draw other conclusions than the ones found in the text. The analysis was detailed for all the counties that have registered tourists in 2007. At the end it was applied the study of touristy activity concentration with the help of the Onicescu concentration indicators, and have been drawn the main conclusions.

  10. Regional Confl icts in East Asia – a Role for China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.F. Gregg

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Rise of China occurs in an adaptive and reactive regional system, giving impetus to the development of inclusive and expansive security architecture. This attempts to offset the statistical likelihood of confl ict with the rise of a major power as capability outweighs confl ict costs. China, in an effort to be a central player within this forming security architecture, contributes to its formation and participates in strategic narrative framing to defer from open confl ict and sabre rattling, while maintaining an increase in capabilities. This functionalist system of “open regionalism” incorporates external powers, furthering integrating the security concerns of the East Asian system with the security concerns of the world.

  11. Outbreak of scrub typhus in the North East Himalayan region-Sikkim: An emerging threat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Gurung

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Scrub typhus is an acute febrile illness that is known to be endemic in the South East Asian countries and the Western Pacific region. We here report an outbreak in the tiny Himalayan state of Sikkim. Patients with pyrexia of unknown origin were evaluated. They were screened by Weil-Felix test and the rapid immunochromatographic method. Samples that were positive by either Weil-Felix agglutination test or by rapid immunochromatography were confirmed by IgM enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. A total 204 samples were screened. Sixty-three patients were confirmed positive among which 42 were male and 21 were female. Effective management and early administration of antibiotics will help prevent the complications and mortality associated with scrub typhus.

  12. Transpression and tectonic exhumation in the Heimefrontfjella, western orogenic front of the East African/Antarctic Orogen, revealed by quartz textures of high strain domains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilfried Bauer

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The metamorphic basement of the Heimefrontfjella in western Dronning Maud Land (Antarctica forms the western margin of the major ca. 500 million year old East African/East Antarctic Orogen that resulted from the collision of East Antarctica and greater India with the African cratons. The boundary between the tectonothermally overprinted part of the orogen and its north-western foreland is marked by the subvertical Heimefront Shear Zone. North-west of the Heimefront Shear Zone, numerous low-angle dipping ductile thrust zones cut through the Mesoproterozoic basement. Petrographic studies, optical quartz c-axis analyses and x-ray texture goniometry of quartz-rich mylonites were used to reveal the conditions that prevailed during the deformation. Mineral assemblages in thrust mylonites show that they were formed under greenschist-facies conditions. Quartz microstructures are characteristic of the subgrain rotation regime and oblique quartz lattice preferred orientations are typical of simple shear-dominated deformation. In contrast, in the Heimefront Shear Zone, quartz textures indicate mainly flattening strain with a minor dextral rotational component. These quartz microstructures and lattice preferred orientations show signs of post-tectonic annealing following the tectonic exhumation. The spatial relation between the sub-vertical Heimefront Shear Zone and the low-angle thrusts can be explained as being the result of strain partitioning during transpressive deformation. The pure-shear component with a weak dextral strike-slip was accommodated by the Heimefront Shear Zone, whereas the north–north-west directed thrusts accommodate the simple shear component with a tectonic transport towards the foreland of the orogen.

  13. Actual and predicted prevalence of alcohol consumption during pregnancy in the WHO African Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popova, Svetlana; Lange, Shannon; Probst, Charlotte; Shield, Kevin; Kraicer-Melamed, Hannah; Ferreira-Borges, Carina; Rehm, Jürgen

    2016-10-01

    To estimate the prevalence of alcohol consumption and binge drinking during pregnancy among the general population in the World Health Organization (WHO) African Region, by country. First, a comprehensive systematic literature search was performed to identify all published and unpublished studies. Then, several meta-analyses, assuming a random-effects model, were conducted to estimate the prevalence of alcohol consumption and binge drinking during pregnancy among the general population for countries in the WHO African Region with two or more studies available. Lastly, for countries with less than two studies or no known data predictions were obtained using regression modelling. The estimated prevalence of alcohol consumption during pregnancy among the general population ranged from 2.2% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.6-2.8%; Equatorial Guinea) to 12.6% (95% CI: 9.9-15.4%; Cameroon) in Central Africa, 3.4% (95% CI: 2.6-4.3%; Seychelles) to 20.5% (95% CI: 16.4-24.7%; Uganda) in Eastern Africa, 5.7% (95% CI: 4.4-7.1%; Botswana) to 14.2% (95% CI: 11.1-17.3%; Namibia) in Southern Africa, 6.6% (95% CI: 5.0-8.3%; Mauritania) to 14.8% (95% CI: 11.6-17.9%; Sierra Leone) in Western Africa, and 4.3% (95% CI: 3.2-5.3%; Algeria) in Northern Africa. The high prevalence of alcohol consumption and binge drinking during pregnancy in some African countries calls for educational campaigns, screening and targeted interventions for women of childbearing age. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Readiness of ethics review systems for a changing public health landscape in the WHO African Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motari, Marion; Ota, Martin Okechukwu; Kirigia, Joses Muthuri

    2015-12-02

    The increasing emphasis on research, development and innovation for health in providing solutions to the high burden of diseases in the African Region has warranted a proliferation of studies including clinical trials. This changing public health landscape requires that countries develop adequate ethics review capacities to protect and minimize risks to study participants. Therefore, this study assessed the readiness of national ethics committees to respond to challenges posed by a globalized biomedical research system which is constantly challenged by new public health threats, rapid scientific and technological advancements affecting biomedical research and development, delivery and manufacture of vaccines and therapies, and health technology transfer. This is a descriptive study, which used a questionnaire structured to elicit information on the existence of relevant national legal frameworks, mechanisms for ethical review; as well as capacity requirements for national ethics committees. The questionnaire was available in English and French and was sent to 41 of the then 46 Member States of the WHO African Region, excluding the five Lusophone Member States. Information was gathered from senior officials in ministries of health, who by virtue of their offices were considered to have expert knowledge of research ethics review systems in their respective countries. Thirty three of the 41 countries (80.5 %) responded. Thirty (90.9 %) of respondent countries had a national ethics review committee (NEC); 79 % of which were established by law. Twenty-five (83.3 %) NECs had secretarial and administrative support. Over 50 % of countries with NECs indicated a need for capacity strengthening through periodic training on international guidelines for health research (including clinical trials) ethics; and allocation of funds for administrative and secretariat support. Despite the existing training initiatives, the Region still experiences a shortage of professionals

  15. Status of national health research systems in ten countries of the WHO African Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirigia Joses M

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The World Health Organization (WHO Regional Committee for Africa, in 1998, passed a resolution (AFR/RC48/R4 which urged its Member States in the Region to develop national research policies and strategies and to build national health research capacities, particularly through resource allocation, training of senior officials, strengthening of research institutions and establishment of coordination mechanisms. The purpose of this study was to take stock of some aspects of national resources for health research in the countries of the Region; identify current constraints facing national health research systems; and propose the way forward. Methods A questionnaire was prepared and sent by pouch to all the 46 Member States in the WHO African Region through the WHO Country Representatives for facilitation and follow up. The health research focal person in each of the countries Ministry of Health (in consultation with other relevant health research bodies in the country bore the responsibility for completing the questionnaire. The data were entered and analysed in Excel spreadsheet. Results The key findings were as follows: the response rate was 21.7% (10/46; three countries had a health research policy; one country reported that it had a law relating to health research; two countries had a strategic health research plan; three countries reported that they had a functional national health research system (NHRS; two countries confirmed the existence of a functional national health research management forum (NHRMF; six countries had a functional ethical review committee (ERC; five countries had a scientific review committee (SRC; five countries reported the existence of health institutions with institutional review committees (IRC; two countries had a health research programme; and three countries had a national health research institute (NHRI and a faculty of health sciences in the national university that conducted health research

  16. R and D and maintenance on graphite tile of divertor region at EAST

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ji, X., E-mail: jixiang@ipp.ac.cn [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. BOX 1126, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China); Song, Y.T.; Wu, S.T.; Hao, J.; Du, S.; Peng, Y.; Cao, L.; Wang, S. [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. BOX 1126, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China)

    2012-08-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Find out the reason of damage of graphite tile. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Simulation the halo current. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Stress analysis of graphite tile by ANSYS. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Do the experiments to test the strength of graphite tile. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Do the optimization and maintenance of graphite tile. - Abstract: EAST, with full superconducting magnetic coils, had been designed and constructed to address the scientific and engineering issues under steady state operation. The in-vessel components are full graphite tiles as first wall had been operated successfully. In the experiment campaign of 2010, the H mode operation and 1 MA operation have been gotten on EAST. However, in some case, some of the graphite tiles of divertor region are damaged with the plasma parameter enhanced. As most of the damaged graphite tiles are in the divertor region, they are probably damaged by the electro-magnetic force of the halo current when the VDEs occur. The force of the halo current is re-estimated. The structure analysis has been done by the ANSYS software. From the analysis result. It can be obtained that the stress is larger than the allowable stress when the halo current on the graphite tile is larger than 2.7 kA. The tensile testing of the graphite also has been done. As the result, the graphite tiles are damaged when the forces are up to 2400 N. To deal with the problem, two proposes are accepted. In the one hand, the new type graphite material is used, whose tensile strength is up to 45 MPa. In the other hand, the structure of the graphite tiles is optimized.

  17. The Influence of Regional SSTs on the Interdecadal Shift of the East Asian Summer Monsoon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FU Jianjian; LI Shuanglin

    2013-01-01

    East Asia has experienced a significant interdecadal climate shift since the late 1970s.This shift was accompanied by a decadal change of global SST.Previous studies have suggested that the decadal shift of global SST background status played a substantial role in such a climatic shift.However,the individual roles of different regional SSTs remain unclear.In this study,we investigated these roles using ensemble experiments of an atmospheric general circulation model,GFDL (Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory) AM2.Two kinds of ensembles were performed.The first was a control ensemble in which the model was driven with the observed climatological SSTs.The second was an experimental ensemble in which the model was driven with the observed climatological SSTs plus interdecadal SST background shifts in separate ocean regions.The results suggest that the SST shift in the tropics exerted more important influence than those in the extratropics,although the latter contribute to the shift modestly.The variations of summer monsoonal circulation systems,including the South Asian High,the West Pacific Subtropical High,and the lower-level air flow,were analyzed.The results show that,in comparison with those induced by extratropical SSTs,the shifts induced by tropical SSTs bear more similarity to the observations and to the simulations with global SSTs prescribed.In particular,the observed SST shift in the tropical Pacific Ocean,rather than the Indian Ocean,contributed significantly to the shift of East Asian summer monsoon since the 1970s.

  18. Internal Migration, Regional Labour Market Dynamics and Implications for German East-West Disparities – Results from a Panel VAR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alecke, Björn; Mitze, Timo; Untiedt, Gerhard

    This paper analyses the causal linkages between regional labour market variables and internal migration flows among German states between 1991–2006. We adopt a Panel VAR approach to identify the feedback effects among the variables and analyse the dynamic properties of the system through...... impulseresponse functions.We also use the model to track the evolution of the particular East-West migration since re-unification aiming to shed more light on the East German “empirical puzzle”, characterized by lower migration responses than expected from the regional labour market position relative to the West......, this supports the view of “repressed” migration flows for that period....

  19. Stray animal populations and public health in the South Mediterranean and the Middle East regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seimenis, Aristarhos; Tabbaa, Darem

    2014-01-01

    Uncontrolled urban growth in South Mediterranean and the Middle East regions involves city dwellers and stray animals (mainly dogs and cats) creating a dense and downgraded environment, in which irregular street garbage collection disposes sufficient food for survival and proliferation of stray animals. Under such conditions serious public health hazards are expected due to the increase of animal bites, the multiplication of insects and rodents vectors of different viral, bacterial, fungal and parasitic agents to which humans are exposed. Traditional national stray animal eradication programs and occasional small animals' humane elimination campaigns are insufficient to avert human and veterinary health risks when not coupled with modern technologies. In such environments, multiple foci of emerging and re-emerging zoonoses easily spread, i.e. rabies, hydatidosis, leishmaniasis and toxoplasmosis. Upgrading urban and peri-urban situations requires integrated/coordinated management programmes, in which public and animal health services as well as municipalities have a crucial role. Control and upgrading programmes should be flexible and able to adapt to the specific conditions of the given country/region. In this context, intersectoral/interprofessional collaborations and community participation are crucial for any national and regional development strategies. In this respect, a global approach considering both public health and socio-economic problems shows to be extremely adequate and effective.

  20. Stray animal populations and public health in the South Mediterranean and the Middle East regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aristarhos Seimenis

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Uncontrolled urban growth in South Mediterranean and the Middle East regions involves city dwellers and stray animals (mainly dogs and cats creating a dense and downgraded environment, in which irregular street garbage collection disposes sufficient food for survival and proliferation of stray animals. Under such conditions serious public health hazards are expected due to the increase of animal bites, the multiplication of insects and rodents vectors of different viral, bacterial, fungal and parasitic agents to which humans are exposed. Traditional national stray animal eradication programs and occasional small animals' humane elimination campaigns are insufficient to avert human and veterinary health risks when not coupled with modern technologies. In such environments, multiple foci of emerging and re‑emerging zoonoses easily spread, i.e. rabies, hydatidosis, leishmaniasis and toxoplasmosis. Upgrading urban and peri-urban situations requires integrated/coordinated management programmes, in which public and animal health services as well as municipalities have a crucial role. Control and upgrading programmes should be flexible and able to adapt to the specific conditions of the given country/region. In this context, intersectoral/interprofessional collaborations and community participation are crucial for any national and regional development strategies. In this respect, a global approach considering both public health and socio-economic problems shows to be extremely adequate and effective.

  1. Challenges of transfrontier conservation areas: Natural resources nationalism, security and regionalism in the southern African development community region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oswell Rusinga

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Transfrontier Conservation Areas (TFCAs initiatives in the Southern African Development Community (SADC region offer hope for providing a mechanism for resolving political tensions and conflicts which are not only related to environmental issues but to security concerns as well. The geopolitical implications of TFCAs in the SADC region cannot be overemphasised with regard to international relations and regional integration. The SADS region is characterised by histories of contested military balance of power and geopolitical rivalries which have a potential to degenerate into military confrontation. Although there is a strong belief in multilateral co-operation among SADC member countries, most of them often engage the international community at the bilateral level. Moreover, there is disharmony in constitutional applications of the rule of law, respect of human rights and good governance. However, TFCAs initiatives in Southern Africa have been seen as offering an opportunity to heal the wounds of pre- and post-independence wars of destabilisation through the encouragement of inter-state collaboration and co-operation by giving governments an opportunity for mutual action on issues of common interest.

  2. Guidelines for acute management of hyperammonemia in the Middle East region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfadhel M

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Majid Alfadhel,1,2 Fuad Al Mutairi,1,2 Nawal Makhseed,3 Fatma Al Jasmi,4 Khalid Al-Thihli,5 Emtithal Al-Jishi,6 Moeenaldeen AlSayed,7 Zuhair N Al-Hassnan,7,8 Fathiya Al-Murshedi,5 Johannes Häberle,9 Tawfeg Ben-Omran10 Middle East Hyperammonemia and Urea Cycle Disorders Scientific Group (MHUSG 1Department of Pediatrics, Division of Genetics, 2King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, King Abdulaziz Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 3Department of Pediatrics, Jahra Hospital, Ministry of Health, Jahra City, Kuwait; 4Department of Pediatric, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, United Arab Emirates University, Al-Ain, United Arab Emirates; 5Genetic and Developmental Medicine Clinic, Sultan Qaboos University Hospital, Muscat, Sultanate of Oman; 6Salmaniya Medical Complex, Arabian Gulf University, Manama, Bahrain; 7Department of Medical Genetics, King Faisal Specialist Hospital & Research Center, 8The National Newborn Screening Program, Ministry of Health, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 9Department of Pediatrics, Division of Metabolism and Children’s Research Center, University Children’s Hospital Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland; 10Division of Clinical and Metabolic Genetics, Department of Pediatrics, Hamad Medical Corporation, Doha, Qatar Background: Hyperammonemia is a life-threatening event that can occur at any age. If treated, the early symptoms in all age groups could be reversible. If untreated, hyperammonemia could be toxic and cause irreversible brain damage to the developing brain.Objective: There are major challenges that worsen the outcome of hyperammonemic individuals in the Middle East. These include: lack of awareness among emergency department physicians about proper management of hyperammonemia, strained communication between physicians at primary, secondary, and tertiary hospitals, and shortage of the medications used in the acute management of hyperammonemia. Therefore, the urge to develop regional guidelines is

  3. Home Stay Accommodation for Tourism Development in East Coast Economic Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Anowar Hossain Bhuiyan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Home stay program provided tourists multi ethnic life condition with cultural experiences and economic well beings for the local people. Malaysian home stay program differed from the other commercial home stay in the world. Home stay accommodation can create a scope to the local communities for active participation in tourism activities. Home stay accommodation might be a potential economic activity in the East Coast Economic Region (ECER. The study examined the potentialities of home stay accommodation for tourism development in ECER. The aim of the study was to analyze the overall situations of home stay accommodation in ECER from the perception of operators. Approach: The data of this study perceived from both the primary and secondary sources. A structured questionnaire had been used for data collection. In 2006, home stay accommodation was remaining 31 villages and in the year 2008 it spreads in 38 villages of ECER. Within this period, there were 482 and 648 home stay operators in this region. The necessary requirements for home stay operations are located; basic facilities; hygiene; safety and security. Results: There were some potentialities are remaining in ECER for establishing home stay in this region. These were low charging, hospitality, motivation for young generation, women entrepreneurship, profitable investment, easy access and satisfactory income. Some initiatives such as government support, capacity building, develop facilities, appropriate act, Community involvement, loan facilities and infrastructure development might be taken for the home stay accommodations in ECER. Conclusion: Research initiatives, various services for customer satisfaction, sustainable marketing and proper policy in management had been considered for home stay development in ECER. Home stay accommodations would be ensured the economic advancement in this region as well as sustainable regional development.

  4. On the atmospheric dynamical responses to land-use change in East Asian monsoon region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huqiang; Gao, Xuejie

    2009-08-01

    This study aims at (1) exploring dominant atmospheric dynamical processes which are responsible for climate model-simulated land-use impacts on Asian monsoon; and (2) assessing uncertainty in such model simulations due to their skills in simulating detailed monsoon circulations in the region. Firstly, results from a series of the Australian Bureau of Meteorology Research Centre (BMRC) global model simulations of land-use vegetation changes (LUC) in China are analysed. The model showed consistent signals of changes in atmospheric low-level vertical profile and regional circulations responding to LUC. In northern winter, the model-simulated rainfall reduction and surface cooling are associated with an enhanced southward penetration of dry and cold air mass, which impedes warm and humid air reaching the region for generating cold-front rainfall. In its summer, an enhanced cyclonic circulation responding to LUC further blocks the northeast penetration of southwestly summer monsoon flow into the region and results in rainfall decreases and a surface warming. Secondly, we have explored uncertainties in the proposed mechanism operating in the global model. By comparing its results with a set of high-resolution regional model simulations using the same vegetation datasets, it reveals similar changes in winter rainfall but opposite features in summer rainfall responses. In the global model, there is a cyclonic low-level circulation pattern over the South China Sea and adjacent region, an unsatisfactory feature commonly seen in other global climate models. With the reduction in surface roughness following LUC, such a deficiency becomes more prominent which further results in a weakened south/southwestly summer monsoon flow and rainfall reduction. In contrast, in the regional model, its southwestly summer monsoon flow is further enhanced due to the same process as reduced surface roughness. The enhanced monsoon flow further pushes the East Asian monsoon rainfall belt more

  5. Age, tectonic evolution and origin of the Aswa Shear Zone in Uganda: Activation of an oblique ramp during convergence in the East African Orogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saalmann, K.; Mänttäri, I.; Nyakecho, C.; Isabirye, E.

    2016-05-01

    The Aswa Shear Zone (ASZ) is a major NW-SE trending structure of over 1000 km length in East Africa. In Uganda, the ASZ is a steeply NE-dipping, up to 11 km wide mylonitic shear zone that shows multiple stage brittle reactivation. On outcrop-scale, the fabric in the ASZ is characterized by a well-developed NW-SE striking and subvertical or steeply NE or SW dipping mylonitic foliation and a subhorizontal to moderately NW- or SE-plunging stretching lineation. Sinistral kinematics and fabric are very consistent along strike. The strain is heterogeneously distributed and partitioned into lens-shaped lower strain zones dominated by folding and characterized by pure shear, which are surrounded by high strain zones, some of them thick ultramylonites, with intense simple shear combined with flattening and strong transposition of pre-existing fabrics. Ductile shearing occurred during bulk E-W shortening, commenced at amphibolite facies conditions and continued with similar kinematics at greenschist and even lower grade conditions. A number of (sub-)parallel shear zones occur to the NE and SW of the main zone at a distance of up to 20-45 km. They show similar fabrics and kinematics and are thus related to activity along ASZ reflecting strain partitioning into simple shear and pure shear domains on a regional scale. Samples of mylonitic gneisses from the shear zone have been analyzed with U-Pb LA-MC-ICPMS and show Neoarchaean crystallisation ages between 2.66 and 2.61 Ga. Timing of ductile sinistral shearing is poorly constrained by lower intercept ages of 686 ± 62 and 640 ± 44 Ma. The fabric and structural relationship of the ca. 660 Ma Adjumani Granite exposed in the northern segment of ASZ suggest that the age of shear activity can be further limited to ca. 685 and 655 Ma. The Aswa Shear Zone is interpreted as an intra-cratonic, crustal-scale structure close to the northeastern margin of the Congo Craton, possibly inherited from previous continental extension. Early Aswa

  6. Climate risk management information, sources and responses in a pastoral region in East Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Egeru

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Pastoralists in East Africa face a range of stressors, climate variability and change being one of them. Effective climate risk management involves managing the full range of variability and balancing hazard management with efforts to capitalise on opportunity; climate risk management information is central in this process. In this study, pastoralists’ perceptions of climate change, climate risk management information types, sources and attendant responses in a pastoral region in East Africa are examined. Through a multi-stage sampling process, a total of 198 heads of households in three districts were selected and interviewed using a semi-structured questionnaire. In addition, 29 focus group discussions and 10 key informant interviews were conducted to generate qualitative information to supplement survey data. Descriptive and thematic analysis were utilised in summarizing the data. Ninety-nine percent of the pastoralists noted that the climate had changed evidenced by high but erratic rainfall, occurrence of floods and variation in rainfall onset and cessation among other indicators. This change in climate had led to emergence of ‘new’ livestock and crop diseases, crop failure and low yields leading to frequent food shortages, water shortages, poor market access, and variation in pasture availability among other effects. Climate risk management information was received from multiple sources including; radio, diviners, community meetings, shrine elders, humanitarian agencies, and Uganda People’s defence forces (UPDF. Community meetings were however perceived as most accessible, reliable and dependable sources of information. Shifting livestock to dry season grazing and watering areas, selling firewood and charcoal, seeking for military escorts to grazing areas, purchasing veterinary drugs, shifting livestock to disease ‘free’ areas, and performing rituals (depending on the perceived risk constituted a set of responses undertaken in

  7. Study of East Kazakh explosions and propagation in Central Asia using regional Chinese seismograms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patton, H.J.; Mills, J.M. Jr.

    1984-03-01

    Seismograms recorded at the Urumchi Station in northwestern China from eleven Asian events including seven presumed East Kazakh nuclear explosions were analyzed. Group velocity dispersion curves of Rayleigh waves were measured at short periods on paths through basin and fold belt terrains. At 10 sec period, the velocities on paths over sedimentary basins are 25% slower than velocities on paths over fold belts. We interpret those differences in velocities to be due to the great thicknesses of sedimentary deposits in basin terrains. Epicentral locations were estimated using differential travel times between P/sub n/ and L/sub g/ and particle motions of Rayleigh waves measured on a single three-component record. For a 1000 km path, the location errors (one standad deviation) are about +-125 km in azimuth and +-30 km in distance. In addition, systematic errors due to structural effects on surface-wave paths and on velocities of regional phases are shown to seriously bias location estimates of several events. We applied a differential phase method to Rayleigh waves from the East Kazakh explosions and found that signals of all events are in-phase with signals from the reference event on 10/12/80. Thus, there is no evidence for phase reversals or shifts at the Urumchi station in the frequency band where signal to noise ratio is good and where assumptions of the method are valid. Seismic moments of explosions were estimated using models of explosion sources with associated tectonic release. Observed amplitude spectra of Rayleigh waves were richer in high frequencies than predicted by the model. This could be a source effect related to source medium excitation (i.e., Green's functions) or a path effect caused by energy focussing and/or amplifications. We discuss the potential bias in the estimates of moment due to assumptions/limitations. 24 references, 16 figures, 6 tables.

  8. The effect of regional changes in anthropogenic aerosols on rainfall of the East Asian Summer Monsoon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Guo

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The response of East Asian Summer Monsoon (EASM precipitation to long term changes in regional anthropogenic aerosols (sulphate and black carbon is explored in an atmospheric general circulation model, the atmospheric component of the UK High-Resolution Global Environment Model v1.2 (HiGAM. Separately, sulphur dioxide (SO2 and black carbon (BC emissions in 1950 and 2000 over East Asia are used to drive model simulations, while emissions are kept constant at year 2000 level outside this region. The response of the EASM is examined by comparing simulations driven by aerosol emissions representative of 1950 and 2000. The aerosol radiative effects are also determined using an off-line radiative transfer model. During June, July and August, the EASM was not significantly changed as either SO2 or BC emissions increased from 1950 to 2000 levels. However, in September, precipitation is significantly decreased by 26.4% for sulphate aerosol and 14.6% for black carbon when emissions are at the 2000 level. Over 80% of the decrease is attributed to changes in convective precipitation. The cooler land surface temperature over China in September (0.8 °C for sulphate and 0.5 °C for black carbon due to increased aerosols reduces the surface thermal contrast that supports the EASM circulation. However, mechanisms causing the surface temperature decrease in September are different between sulphate and BC experiments. In the sulphate experiment, the sulphate direct and the 1st indirect radiative effects contribute to the surface cooling. In the BC experiment, the BC direct effect is the main driver of the surface cooling, however, a decrease in low cloud cover due to the increased heating by BC absorption partially counteracts the direct effect. This results in a weaker land surface temperature response to BC changes than to sulphate changes. The resulting precipitation response is also weaker, and the responses of the monsoon circulation

  9. Massive Star Formation of the SGR a East H (sub II) Regions Near the Galactic Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusef-Zadeh, F.; Lacy, J. H.; Wardle, M.; Whitney, B.; Bushouse, H.; Roberts, D. A.; Arendt, R. G.

    2010-01-01

    A group of four compact H II regions associated with the well-known 50 km/s molecular cloud is the closest site of on-going star formation to the dynamical center of the Galaxy, at a projected distance of approximately 6 pc. We present a study of ionized gas based on the [Ne II] (12.8 micron) line, as well as multi-frequency radio continuum, Hubble Space Telescope Pa alpha, and Spitzer Infrared Array Camera observations of the most compact member of the H II group, Sgr A East H II D. The radio continuum image at 6 cm shows that this source breaks up into two equally bright ionized features, D1 and D2. The spectral energy distribution of the D source is consistent with it being due to a 25 =/- 3 solar mass star with a luminosity of 8 +/- 3 x 10(exp 4) Solar luminosity . The inferred mass, effective temperature of the UV source, and the ionization rate are compatible with a young O9-B0 star. The ionized features D1 and D2 are considered to be ionized by UV radiation collimated by an accretion disk. We consider that the central massive star photoevaporates its circumstellar disk on a timescale of 3x (exp 4) years giving a mass flux approximately 3 x 10(exp -5) Solar Mass / year and producing the ionized material in D1 and D2 expanding in an inhomogeneous medium. The ionized gas kinematics, as traced by the [Ne II] emission, is difficult to interpret, but it could be explained by the interaction of a bipolar jet with surrounding gas along with what appears to be a conical wall of lower velocity gas. The other H II regions, Sgr A East A-C, have morphologies and kinematics that more closely resemble cometary flows seen in other compact H II regions, where gas moves along a paraboloidal surface formed by the interaction of a stellar wind with a molecular cloud.

  10. The West African Monsoon simulated by global and regional climate models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikulin, Grigory; Jones, Colin; Kjellström, Erik; Gbobaniyi, Emiola

    2013-04-01

    We present results from two ensembles of global and regional climate simulations with a focus on the West African Monsoon (WAM). The first ensemble includes eight coupled atmosphere ocean general circulation models (AOGCMs) from the CMIP5 project, namely: CanESM2, CNRM-CM5, HadGEM2-ES, NorESM1-M, EC-EARTH, MIROC5, GFDL-ESM2M and MPI-ESM-LR. The second ensemble consists of corresponding downscaling of all 8 AOGCMs by a regional climate model - RCA4 produced at the Rossby Centre (SMHI) in the Africa-CORDEX activities. Spatial resolution varies from about 1° to 3° in the AOGCM ensemble while all regional simulations are at the same 0.44° resolution. To see what added value higher resolution can provide ability of the eight AOGCMs and the downscaled RCA4(AOGCMs) to simulate the key characteristics of the WAM rainy season are evaluated and then inter-compared between the global and regional ensembles. The main focus in our analysis is on the WAM rainy season onset, cessation, length, total precipitation, its mean intensity and intraseasonal variability. Future climate projections under the RCP45 and RCP85 scenarios are analyzed and again inter-compared for both ensembles in order to assess uncertainties in the future projections of the WAM rainy season from the global and regional ensembles.

  11. Hepatitis A virus in the Middle East and North Africa region: a new challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melhem, N M; Talhouk, R; Rachidi, H; Ramia, S

    2014-01-01

    During the past three decades, a gradual shift in the age of infection with hepatitis A virus (HAV) from early childhood to adulthood has been observed. There is a general lack of updated data on HAV burden of disease, incidence and age-specific seroprevalence in countries of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region. The aim of this article is to review the published data on anti-HAV seroprevalence, an important tool to monitor infections rates, in countries of the MENA region and associated risk factors including water and socioeconomic data when available. Data on anti-HAV seroprevalence were found for 12 of 25 MENA countries. We show that MENA countries, similar to other areas in the world, have a clear shift in HAV incidence with a decline among young age groups and an increase among adults and older individuals. This would likely be associated with increased morbidity and increased risks of outbreaks among younger age groups. Consequently, the continuous surveillance of hepatitis A cases and the inclusion of hepatitis A vaccine in the expanded immunization programmes are needed in countries of the MENA.

  12. Earthquake sequence in East Vrancea crustal region (Romania): source characteristics and seismotectonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popescu, Emilia; Borleanu, Felix; Otilia Placinta, Anica; Popa, Mihaela; Radulian, Mircea; Moldovan, Iren Adelina

    2016-04-01

    The goal of the paper is to investigate the crustal earthquake sequence generated in the East Vrancea crustal zone at the end of 2014 (22 November 2014). The main shock, occurred on 22 November 2014, 19:14 (45.860N, 27.160E, h = 39 km, ML = 5.7), is the greatest instrumentally recorded earthquake produced in this region. The aftershocks are unusually small for the sequences characterizing the Vrancea foredeep area (around 200 events with magnitude below 2). The largest aftershocks were recorded on 7 December 2015 (ML = 4.4) and 19 January 2015 (ML = 3.8). We apply cross-correlation analysis together with empirical Green's function (EGF) deconvolution and spectral ratios techniques to optimise the source parameters determination. At the same time we applied inversion techniques to retrieve the moment tensor solution for the largest shocks. For EGF and spectral ratios applications, we associated to the main event many co-located aftershocks (2.0 ≤ ML ≤ 4.4), selected according to the requirements for empirical Green's functions. The source parameters are estimated as mean values for all the available earthquake pairs. Source scaling properties and focal mechanism are investigated and discussed in terms of the regional seismotectonics and comparatively with the source scaling relationships for the Vrancea intermediate-depth earthquakes.

  13. Tracking WHO MPOWER in South East Asian region: An opportunity to promote global tobacco control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ritu Gupta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Tobacco use is a major public health challenge worldwide and to counter the global tobacco epidemic, the World Health Organization (WHO developed the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (WHO FCTC to provide new legal dimensions for international health cooperation. Further WHO introduced the MPOWER package to monitor the tobacco control programs among the countries to accomplish the FCTC objective. Aim: The aim is to quantify the implementation of MPOWER tobacco control policies in South East Asia Region (SEAR from the year 2008 to 2015. Materials and Methods: Information was collected from the WHO report on the Global Tobacco epidemic program SEAR from 2008 to 2015 using MPOWER. This assessment was based on the checklist which was designed previously by Iranian and International tobacco control specialists in their study on tobacco control. Results: Various countries of SEAR were ranked by scores and these scores were obtained from each indicator for each activity. Among SEAR region, Thailand got the highest scores and significant positive change was seen from a score of 8 in 2008 to 32 in 2015 where certain countries like Korea and Timore-Leste showed no significant positive change. Conclusion: Tobacco control policies have reduced the tobacco consumption, but still multisectoral efforts are needed toward effective enforcement of the law to bring about a significant decline in the prevalence of tobacco use.

  14. Women Entrepreneurship in Romania: the Case of North East Development Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Ion CEPTUREANU

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Women entrepreneurship benefit from a process of expansion all over the world. Business established and developed by women are an important source of wealth and improved living standards in many countries. Even though women represent 46% of Europe's working population, which means in theory that trend of this type entrepreneurship can only go upward, however entrepreneurship is still considered an activity for men. Entrepreneurship has an active role in employment, economic development and quality of life, constituting a dynamic part of any developed economy. Supporting women in their involvement in setting up new start-ups and small business and unlock their potential is an important part of government actions to foster entrepreneurial activities. Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM study found out that economies of Eastern European countries are in poor condition in terms of women's participation in entrepreneurial activity. Romania is no exception. This paper analyze women entrepreneurship in the poorest region of Romania, North East region, through an empirical survey but provide also some insights on overall Romanian situation based on National Trade Register Office data.

  15. Regional fat distribution changes with aging in Caucasian, African-American and Asian women

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Ai-jun; Dympna Gallagher; Richard N. Pierson Jr

    2007-01-01

    Background: A central pattern of fat distribution in postmenopausal women is regarded as a contributor to the increased risk of developing cardiovascular disease.Both ethnicity and occurrence of menopause appear to influence regional fat distribution.However the influence of ethnicity has been under-investigated.Objective: The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that centralized fat distribution is influenced by ethnic origin.Furthermore, we hypothesize that the menopause-related changes in central adiposity in Caucasian,African-American and Asian women occur at different rates.Method: Total and regional body fat ratios were measured by whole body dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in a cross-sectional study using a general linear regression model.After adjustment for age, weight, height,and total body fat, the android and gynoid fat compartments, and the ratio of trunk/leg fat, were analyzed.Results: Four hundred and forty-four women (227 Caucasian (Ca), 128 African-American (AA) and 89 Asian (As)) aged 18-94 y were recruited.Race was significantly (P<0.0001) related to the dependent variables: android and gynoid fat, and ratio of trunk/leg adiposity, in all subjects, adjusted by age, weight, height and total body fat.The interaction of race * menopause was also found to be significant (P=0.028).In each group, regional and total body fat levels, and especially android adiposity, were higher in postmenopausal than in premenopausal women.Interestingly, the postmenopausal difference in android fat in Ca was found significant (P<0.05), whereas such differences had no impact in AA and As subjects (NS).Conclusions: The differences in fat mass and its distribution were racially dependent.The impact of menopause was only significant in Ca group.

  16. North African petroleum geology: regional structure and stratigraphic overview of a hydrocarbon-rich cratonic area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Connor, T.E.; Kanes, W.H.

    1985-02-01

    North Africa, including Sinai, contains some of the most important hydrocarbon-producing basins in the world. The North African Symposium is devoted to examining the exploration potential of the North African margin in light of the most recent and promising exploration discoveries. The geologic variety of the region is extraordinary and can challenge any exploration philosophy. Of primary interest are the Sirte basin of Libya, which has produced several billion barrels of oil, and the Gulf of Suez, a narrow, evaporite-capped trough with five fields that will produce more than 5 billion bbl. Both are extensional basins with minimal lateral movement and with good source rocks in direct proximity to reservoirs. Structural models of these basins give firm leads for future exploration. More difficult to evaluate are the Tethyan realm basins of the northern Sinai, and the Western Desert of Egypt, the Cyrenaican Platform of Libya, and the Tunisia-Sicily shelf area, where there are only limited subsurface data. These basins are extensional in origin also, but have been influenced by lateral tectonics. Favorable reservoirs exist, but source rocks have been a problem locally. Structural models with strong stratigraphic response offer several favorable play concepts. The Paleozoic Ghadames basin in Libya, Tunisia, and Algeria has the least complex structural history, and production appears to be limited to small structures. A series of stratigraphic models indicates additional areas with exploration potential. The Paleozoic megabasin of Morocco, with its downfaulted Triassic grabens, remains an untested but attractive area.

  17. Africanized honey bees (Apis mellifera) have low infestation levels of the mite Varroa destructor in different ecological regions in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina-Flores, C A; Guzmán-Novoa, E; Hamiduzzaman, M M; Aréchiga-Flores, C F; López-Carlos, M A

    2014-02-21

    Honey bee (Apis mellifera) colonies of African and European descent were compared for levels of Varroa destructor infestation in 3 different ecological regions in Mexico. The 300 colonies that were studied were located in subtropical, temperate sub-humid, and temperate dry climates. The morphotype and mitotype of adult bees as well as their rates of infestation by varroa mites were determined. Additionally, the number of combs with brood and covered with bees was recorded for each colony. The highest frequency of colonies that were classified as African-derived was found in the subtropical environment, whereas the lowest occurred in the temperate dry region. Overall, the colonies of African genotype had significantly lower mite infestation rates (3.5±0.34%) than the colonies of European genotype (4.7±0.49%) regardless of the region sampled. Significant effects of genotype and region on Varroa infestation rates were evident, and there were no differences in bee population or capped brood between genotypes. Mite infestation levels were significantly lower in the colonies of the temperate dry region than in the colonies of the other 2 regions. These results are discussed within the context of results from studies that were previously conducted in Brazil. This is the first study that demonstrates the effects of Africanization and ecological environment on V. destructor infestation rates in honey bee colonies in North America.

  18. Strategies to Improve Teacher Retention in American Overseas Schools in the Near East South Asia Region: A Qualitative Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancuso, Steven V.; Roberts, Laura; White, George P.; Yoshida, Roland K.; Weston, David

    2011-01-01

    Using a qualitative analysis and drawing from sociological theory, this study examined reasons for teacher turnover and retention from a representative sample of 248 teachers in American overseas schools in the Near East South Asia region. Results suggested that the most important reasons to stay or move pertained to supportive leadership,…

  19. Securing Security Governance in Post-conflict Situation : A Framework of Conflict Prevention through ECOWARN in West African Region

    OpenAIRE

    Yamane, Tatsuo

    2013-01-01

    This article focuses on an analytical approach of “security governance” in light of post-conflict situation and aims to examine a system of conflict prevention in the West African region from a viewpoint of the approach. The security governance initially developed security studies of International Relations especially for the regional governance in the field of European security. On that basis of making and developing the new perspective for the region, it currently goes to expand the subject...

  20. Documentation of polio eradication initiative best practices: Experience from WHO African Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okeibunor, Joseph; Nshimirimana, Deo; Nsubuga, Peter; Mutabaruka, Evariste; Tapsoba, Leonard; Ghali, Emmanuel; Kabir, Shaikh Humayun; Gassasira, Alex; Mihigo, Richard; Mkanda, Pascal

    2016-10-10

    The African Region is set to achieving polio eradication. During the years of operations, the Polio Eradication Initiative [PEI] in the Region mobilized and trained tremendous amount of manpower with specializations in surveillance, social mobilization, supplementary immunization activities [SIAs], data management and laboratory staff. Systems were put in place to accelerate the eradication of polio in the Region. Standardized, real-time surveillance and response capacity were established. Many innovations were developed and applied to reaching people in difficult and security challenged terrains. All of these resulted in accumulation of lessons and best practices, which can be used in other priority public health intervention if documented. The World Health Organization Regional Office for Africa [WHO/AFRO] developed a process for the documentation of these best practices, which was pretested in Uganda. The process entailed assessment of three critical elements [effectiveness, efficiency and relevance] five aspects [ethical soundness, sustainability, involvement of partners, community involvement, and political commitment] of best practices. A scored card which graded the elements and aspects on a scale of 0-10 was developed and a true best practice should score >50 points. Independent public health experts documented polio best practices in eight countries in the Region, using this process. The documentation adopted the cross-sectional design in the generation of data, which combined three analytical designs, namely surveys, qualitative inquiry and case studies. For the selection of countries, country responses to earlier questionnaire on best practices were screened for potential best practices. Another criterion used was the level of PEI investment in the countries. A total of 82 best practices grouped into ten thematic areas were documented. There was a correlation between the health system performances with DPT3 as proxy, level of PEI investment in countries

  1. The Role of Home Stay for Ecotourism Development in East Coast Economic Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Anowar H. Bhuiyan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: This study provided a brief discussion of home stay for ecotourism development in ECER. Home stay is a potential economic activity in tourism sector. The East Coast Economic Region (ECER has numerous ecotourism resources including hills, mountains, lakes, waterways, state and national parks, recreational forest parks and forest reserves. Home stay should emphasize on the cultural practices as well as to create a genuine interest and commitment among the local people in the region. This study focused the potentialities of home stay for ecotourism development in ECER. The study also discussed the short comings and necessary actions for developing home stay activities in this region. Approach: The data for analysis was perceived from the secondary sources. The significant manipulations for acquired data were home stay accommodation on ECER. Results: There are some potential factors were remaining in the ECER for establishing home stays-ecotourism resources and biodiversity, infrastructure development, integrated approach, present the cultural performance, limited environmental and social impact, commercial interest and investment and opportunities for local entrepreneurs. Weaknesses also remain in ECER for home stays development, these are low standard of accommodation, unacceptable bathroom and toilet facilities, identity for each Home stay, lack of hospitality experience, marketing problem and lack of campaign. There are some challenges such as brand image issues, meeting international standards, training facilities, marketing and promotion, poverty alleviation must be consider for home stay development in ECER. Conclusion: The study revealed that home stays operation could be create alternative accommodation opportunities in ECER. With proper planning and implementation, operational regulation and management, appropriate development and financial allocation in home stay operation would be ensuring sustainable ecotourism

  2. Rainfall and temperature changes and variability in the Upper East Region of Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issahaku, Abdul-Rahaman; Campion, Benjamin Betey; Edziyie, Regina

    2016-08-01

    The aim of the research was to assess the current trend and variation in rainfall and temperature in the Upper East Region, Ghana, using time series moving average analysis and decomposition methods. Meteorological data obtained from the Ghana Meteorological Agency in Accra, Ghana, from 1954 to 2014 were used in the models. The additive decomposition model was used to analyze the rainfall because the seasonal variation was relatively constant over time, while the multiplicative model was used for both the daytime and nighttime temperatures because their seasonal variations increase over time. The monthly maximum and the minimum values for the entire period were as follows: rainfall 455.50 and 0.00 mm, nighttime temperature 29.10°C and 13.25°C and daytime temperature 41.10°C and 26.10°C, respectively. Also, while rainfall was decreasing, nighttime and daytime temperatures were increasing in decadal times. Since both the daytime and nighttime temperatures were increasing and rainfall was decreasing, climate extreme events such as droughts could result and affect agriculture in the region, which is predominantly rain fed. Also, rivers, dams, and dugouts are likely to dry up in the region. It was also observed that there was much variation in rainfall making prediction difficult. Day temperatures were generally high with the months of March and April have been the highest. The months of December recorded the lowest night temperature. Inhabitants are therefore advised to sleep in well-ventilated rooms during the warmest months and wear protective clothing during the cold months to avoid contracting climate-related diseases.

  3. Intercomparison of Precipitation Simulated by Regional Climate Models over East Asia in 1997 and 1998

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dong-Kyou LEE; William J. GUTOWSKI, Jr.; Hyun-Suk KANG; Chun-Ji KIM

    2007-01-01

    Regional climate simulations in Asia from May 1997 to August 1998 were performed using the Seoul National University regional climate model (SNURCM) and Iowa State University regional climate model (ALT.MM5/LSM), which were developed by coupling the NCAR/Land Surface Model (LSM) and the Mesoscale Model (MM5). However, for physical processes of precipitation, the SNURCM used the Grell scheme for the convective parameterization scheme (CPS) and the simple ice scheme for the explicit moisture scheme (EMS), while the ALT.MM5/LSM used the Betts-Miller scheme for CPS and the mixed phase scheme for EMS.The simulated precipitation patterns and amounts over East Asia for the extreme climatic summer in 1997 (relative drought conditions) and 1998 (relative flood conditions) were especially focused upon. The ALT.MM5/LSM simulated more precipitation than was observed in 1997 due to more moisture and cloud water in the lower levels, despite weak upward motion. In the SNURCM, strong upward motion resulted in more precipitation than that was observed in 1998, with more moisture and cloud water in the middle levels. In the ALT.MM5/LSM, weak upward motion, unchanged moisture in the lower troposphere, and the decrease in latent heat flux at the surface increased convective precipitation only by 3% for the 1998 summer event. In the SNURCM, strong upward motion, the increase in moisture in the lower troposphere, and the increase in latent heat flux at the surface increased convective precipitation by 48% for the summer of 1998. The main differences between both simulations were moisture availability and horizontal momentum transport in the lower troposphere, which were also strongly influenced by large-scale forcing.

  4. [Composition of 359 kidney stones from the East region of Algeria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouslama, S; Boutefnouchet, A; Hannache, B; Djemil, T; Kadi, A; Dahdouh, A; Saka, S; Daudon, M

    2016-01-01

    Determine stones composition of the upper urinary tract in the eastern region of Algeria. Our study focuses on a set of 359 stones of the upper urinary tract collected between January 2007 and December 2012 at hospitals in the eastern region of Algeria and analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The male/female ratio was only 1.32. Calcium oxalate prevailed in 68.5% of stones and 49.3% of nuclei, mainly as whewellite (51.8% of stones and 37.9% of nuclei vs 16.7% and 11.4% respectively for weddellite). Carbapatite prevailed in 15% of stones and 29.8% of nuclei. The struvite, identified in 11.1% of calculi, prevailed in 3.9% of stones and 3.1% of nuclei. Among purines, uric acid prevailed with frequencies quite close to 8.9% and 7% respectively in the stone and in the nucleus while the ammonium urate prevailed in only 0.3% of stones and 3.3% of nuclei. The cystine frequency was 3.6% in both stone and nucleus. The frequency of stone with umbilication was 26.2%. Whewellite was the main component of umbilicated stones with Randall's plaque. Our results suggest that stones of the urinary tract in the Algerian east region resemble those observed in industrialized countries. Some features such as stones location, the whewellite prevalence, the frequencies of main components in both the stone and the nucleus as well as the formation of stones on renal papilla confirm this trend. 4. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Regional Oceanic Impact on Circulation and Direct Radiative Effect of Aerosol over East Asia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIONG Zhe; HAN Zhi-Wei

    2011-01-01

    The Regional Integrated Environmental Model System (RIEMS 2.0) coupled with a chemistry-aerosol model and the Princeton Ocean Model (POM) is employed to simulate regional oceanic impact on atmospheric circulation and the direct radiative effect (DRE) of aerosol over East Asia. The aerosols considered in this study include both major anthropogenic aerosols (e.g., sulfate, black carbon, and organic carbon) and natural aerosols (e.g., soil dust and sea salt). The RIEMS 2.0 is driven by NCEP/NCAR reanalysis II, and the simulated period is from 1 January to 31 December 2006. The results show the following: (1) The simulated annual mean sea-level pressure by RIEMS 2.0 with POM is lower than without POM over the mainland and higher without POM over the ocean. (2) In summer, the subtropical high simulated by RIEMS 2.0 with POM is stronger and extends further westward, and the continental low is stronger than without POM in summer. (3) The aerosol optical depth (AOD) simulated by RIEMS 2.0 with POM is larger in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River than without POM. (4) The direct radiative effect with POM is stronger than that without POM in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River and parts of southern China. Therefore, the authors should take account of the impact of the regional ocean model on studying the direct climate effect &aerosols in long term simulation.

  6. An Overview of African Wetlands

    OpenAIRE

    Kabii, T.

    1996-01-01

    The African region as described in this overview includes the mainland continent and the island states of Cape Verde, Comoros, Madagascar, Mauritius, Sao Tome & Principe, and Seychelles, making up a total of 53 States, 23 of which are Contracting Parties to the Ramsar Convention. Africa's size and diversity of landscape are striking: bordered by the Mediterranean Sea to the north, the Indian and Atlantic oceans to the east and west respectively, and the Antarctic in the south, it covers 70º o...

  7. African financial systems: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franklin Allen

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available We start by providing an overview of financial systems in the African continent. We then consider the regions of Arab North Africa, West Africa, East and Central Africa, and Southern Africa in more detail. The paper covers, among other things, central banks, deposit-taking banks, non-bank institutions, such as the stock markets, fixed income markets, insurance markets, and microfinance institutions.

  8. Polio eradication in the African Region on course despite public health emergencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okeibunor, Joseph C; Ota, Martin C; Akanmori, Bartholomew D; Gumede, Nicksy; Shaba, Keith; Kouadio, Koffi I; Poy, Alain; Mihigo, Richard; Salla, Mbaye; Moeti, Matshidiso R

    2017-03-01

    The World Health Organization, African Region is heading toward eradication of the three types of wild polio virus, from the Region. Cases of wild poliovirus (WPV) types 2 and 3 (WPV2 and WPV3) were last reported in 1998 and 2012, respectively, and WPV1 reported in Nigeria since July 2014 has been the last in the entire Region. This scenario in Nigeria, the only endemic country, marks a remarkable progress. This significant progress is as a result of commitment of key partners in providing the much needed resources, better implementation of strategies, accountability, and innovative approaches. This is taking place in the face of public emergencies and challenges, which overburden health systems of countries and threaten sustainability of health programmes. Outbreak of Ebola and other diseases, insecurity, civil strife and political instability led to displacement of populations and severely affected health service delivery. The goal of eradication is now within reach more than ever before and countries of the region should not relent in their efforts on polio eradication. WHO and partners will redouble their efforts and introduce better approaches to sustain the current momentum and to complete the job. The carefully planned withdrawal of oral polio vaccine type II (OPV2) with an earlier introduction of one dose of inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV), in routine immunization, will boost immunity of populations and stop cVDPVs. Environmental surveillance for polio viruses will supplement surveillance for AFP and improve sensitivity of detection of polio viruses.

  9. Metabolic syndrome according to different definitions in a rapidly developing country of the African region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paccaud Fred

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aims We examined, in a country of the African region, i the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome (MetS according to three definitions (ATP, WHO and IDF; ii the distribution of the MetS criteria; iii the level of agreement between these three definitions and iv we also examined these issues upon exclusion of people with diabetes. Methods We conducted an examination survey on a sample representative of the general population aged 25–64 years in the Seychelles (Indian Ocean, African region, attended by 1255 participants (participation rate of 80.3%. Results The prevalence of MetS increased markedly with age. According to the ATP, WHO and IDF definitions, the prevalence of MetS was, respectively, 24.0%, 25.0%, 25.1% in men and 32.2%, 24.6%, 35.4% in women. Approximately 80% of participants with diabetes also had MetS and the prevalence of MetS was approximately 7% lower upon exclusion of diabetic individuals. High blood pressure and adiposity were the criteria found most frequently among MetS holders irrespective of the MetS definitions. Among people with MetS based on any of the three definitions, 78% met both ATP and IDF criteria, 67% both WHO and IDF criteria, 54% both WHO and ATP criteria and only 37% met all three definitions. Conclusion We identified a high prevalence of MetS in this population in epidemiological transition. The prevalence of MetS decreased by approximately 32% upon exclusion of persons with diabetes. Because of limited agreement between the MetS definitions, the fairly similar proportions of MetS based on any of the three MetS definitions classified, to a substantial extent, different subjects as having MetS.

  10. Strategic siting and regional grid interconnections key to low-carbon futures in African countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshmukh, Ranjit; Ndhlukula, Kudakwashe; Radojicic, Tijana; Reilly-Moman, Jessica; Phadke, Amol; Kammen, Daniel M.; Callaway, Duncan S.

    2017-01-01

    Recent forecasts suggest that African countries must triple their current electricity generation by 2030. Our multicriteria assessment of wind and solar potential for large regions of Africa shows how economically competitive and low-environmental–impact renewable resources can significantly contribute to meeting this demand. We created the Multicriteria Analysis for Planning Renewable Energy (MapRE) framework to map and characterize solar and wind energy zones in 21 countries in the Southern African Power Pool (SAPP) and the Eastern Africa Power Pool (EAPP) and find that potential is several times greater than demand in many countries. Significant fractions of demand can be quickly served with “no-regrets” options—or zones that are low-cost, low-environmental impact, and highly accessible. Because no-regrets options are spatially heterogeneous, international interconnections are necessary to help achieve low-carbon development for the region as a whole, and interconnections that support the best renewable options may differ from those planned for hydropower expansion. Additionally, interconnections and selecting wind sites to match demand reduce the need for SAPP-wide conventional generation capacity by 9.5% in a high-wind scenario, resulting in a 6–20% cost savings, depending on the avoided conventional technology. Strategic selection of low-impact and accessible zones is more cost effective with interconnections compared with solutions without interconnections. Overall results are robust to multiple load growth scenarios. Together, results show that multicriteria site selection and deliberate planning of interconnections may significantly increase the economic and environmental competitiveness of renewable alternatives relative to conventional generation. PMID:28348209

  11. A comparative analysis between the relation of income distribution and economic regional integration in East Asia and Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángela Jeaneth Ospina Enciso

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the relationship between inequality and de facto regional economic integration during the last two decades in Latin America and East Asia Pacific regions, focusing on intra-regional exports. Globalization has been considered as a driving of inequality, although export-led growth models are associated with high economic growth rates. Export-led growth models have been more dynamic in East Asia than in Latin America, through the development of supply chain networks of intermediate and final goods. Research questions explore the relation between inequality and patterns of de facto intra-regional trade. Empirical analysis uses a fixed effects panel data with Heteroskedasticity and Autocorrelation Consistent (HAC covariance matrix. Results showed that increments in regional intra-trade are associated with reductions of inequality, more in East Asia Pacific than in Latin America. The contribution of this paper is the introduction of intra-regional trade as a new factor that is negatively associated with inequality.

  12. Regional modelling of future African climate north of 15S including greenhouse warming and land degradation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paeth, H. [Geographical Institute, University of Wuerzburg, Am Hubland, 97074 Wuerzburg (Germany); Thamm, H.P. [Geographical Institute, University of Bonn, Bonn (Germany)

    2007-08-15

    Previous studies have highlighted the crucial role of land degradation in tropical African climate. This effect urgently has to be taken into account when predicting future African climate under enhanced greenhouse conditions. Here, we present time slice experiments of African climate until 2025, using a high-resolution regional climate model. A supposable scenario of future land use changes, involving vegetation loss and soil degradation, is prescribed simultaneously with increasing greenhouse-gas concentrations in order to detect, where the different forcings counterbalance or reinforce each other. This proceeding allows us to define the regions of highest vulnerability with respect to future freshwater availability and food security in tropical and subtropical Africa and may provide a decision basis for political measures. The model simulates a considerable reduction in precipitation amount until 2025 over most of tropical Africa, amounting to partly more than 500 mm (20-40% of the annual sum), particularly in the Congo Basin and the Sahel Zone. The change is strongest in boreal summer and basically reflects the pattern of maximum vegetation cover during the seasonal cycle. The related change in the surface energy fluxes induces a substantial near-surface warming by up to 7C. According to the modified temperature gradients over tropical Africa, the summer monsoon circulation intensifies and transports more humid air masses into the southern part of West Africa. This humidifying effect is overcompensated by a remarkable decrease in surface evaporation, leading to the overall drying tendency over most of Africa. Extreme daily rainfall events become stronger in autumn but less intense in spring. Summer and autumn appear to be characterized by more severe heat waves over Subsaharan West Africa. In addition, the Tropical Easterly Jet is weakening, leading to enhanced drought conditions in the Sahel Zone. All these results suggest that the local impact of land

  13. Quantifying pollution inflow and outflow over East Asia through coupling regional and global models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, M.; Holloway, T.; Carmichael, G. R.; Fiore, A. M.

    2010-01-01

    Understanding the exchange processes between the atmospheric boundary layer and the free troposphere is crucial for estimating hemispheric transport of air pollution. Most studies of hemispheric air pollution transport have taken a large-scale perspective: using global chemical transport models and focusing on synoptic-scale export events. These global models have fairly coarse spatial and temporal resolutions, and thus have a limited ability to represent boundary layer processes and urban photochemistry. In support of United Nations Task Force on Hemispheric Transport of Air Pollution (TF HTAP; http://www.htap.org), this study employs two high-resolution atmospheric chemistry models (WRF-Chem and CMAQ; 36×36 km) coupled with a global model (MOZART; 1.9×1.9°) to examine the importance of fine-scale transport and chemistry processes in controlling pollution export and import over the Asian continent. We find that the vertical lifting and outflow of Asian pollution is enhanced in the regional models throughout the study period (March 2001) as contrast to the global model. Episodic outflow of CO, PAN, and O3 to the upper troposphere during cold frontal passages is twice as great in the WRF-Chem model as compared with the MOZART model. The TRACE-P aircraft measurements indicate that the pollution plumes in MOZART are too weak and too low in the altitude, which we attribute to the global model's inability to capture rapid deep convection that develops along the leading edge of the convergence band during frontal events. In contrast to pollution export from Asia, we find little difference in the regional vs. global model transport of European (EU) pollution into surface air over East Asia (EA). Instead, the local surface characteristics - sensitivity - strongly influence surface O3 responses. For instance, the O3 response to 20% decreases in EU emissions imported into our regional model domain is strongest (0.4-0.6 ppbv) over mountainous regions and weakest (0

  14. Tectonic inheritance in the development of the Kivu - north Tanganyika rift segment of the East African Rift System: role of pre-existing structures of Precambrian to early Palaeozoic origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delvaux, Damien; Fiama Bondo, Silvanos; Ganza Bamulezi, Gloire

    2017-04-01

    The present architecture of the junction between the Kivu rift basin and the north Tanganyika rift basin is that of a typical accommodation zone trough the Ruzizi depression. However, this structure appeared only late in the development of the Western branch of the East African Rift System and is the result of a strong control by pre-existing structures of Precambrian to early Palaeozoic origin. In the frame of a seismic hazard assessment of the Kivu rift region, we (Delvaux et al., 2016) constructed homogeneous geological, structural and neotectonic maps cross the five countries of this region, mapped the pre-rift, early rift and Late Quaternary faults and compiled the existing knowledge on thermal springs (assumed to be diagnostic of current tectonic activity along faults). We also produced also a new catalogue of historical and instrumental seismicity and defined the seismotectonic characteristics (stress field, depth of faulting) using published focal mechanism data. Rifting in this region started at about 11 Ma by initial doming and extensive fissural basaltic volcanism along normal faults sub-parallel to the axis of the future rift valley, as a consequence of the divergence between the Nubia and the Victoria plate. In a later stage, starting around 8-7 Ma, extension localized along a series of major border faults individualizing the subsiding tectonic basins from the uplifting rift shoulders, while lava evolved towards alkali basaltic composition until 2.6 Ma. During this stage, initial Kivu rift valley was extending linearly in a SSW direction, much further than its the actual termination at Bukavu, into the Mwenga-Kamituga graben, up to Namoya. The SW extremity of this graben was linked via a long oblique transfer zone to the central part of Lake Tanganyika, itself reactivating an older ductile-brittle shear zone. In the late Quaternary-early Holocene, volcanism migrated towards the center of the basin, with the development of the Virunga volcanic massif

  15. Morphological Characterization of Cherry Rootstock Candidates Selected from Central and East Black Sea Regions in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aysen Koc

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of rootstocks particularly for sweet cherry cultivars is of great importance for successful and sustainable production. Choosing the right cherry rootstocks is just as important as choosing the right cultivar. In this study, 110 sweet cherry, 30 sour cherry, and 41 mahaleb types displaying rootstock potential for sweet cherry cultivars were selected from Central and East Black Sea Regions in Turkey. The morphologic characteristics of the studied genotypes were compared with the standard clonal rootstocks PHL-A, MaxMa 14, Montmorency, Weiroot 158, Gisela 5, Gisela 6, and SL 64. A total of 42 morphological UPOV characteristics were evaluated in the selected genotypes and clonal rootstocks. The obtained data were analyzed by using principal component analysis and it revealed that eigenvalues of the first 3 components were able to represent 36.43% of total variance. The most significant positive correlations of the plant vigor were determined with leaf blade length and petiole thickness. According to the diversity analysis of coefficients, the 05 C 002 and 08 C 039 genotypes were identified as being similar (6.66, while the 05 C 002 and 55 S 012 genotypes were determined as the most distant genotypes (325.84 in terms of morphology.

  16. Revolutionising engineering education in the Middle East region to promote earthquake-disaster mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baytiyeh, Hoda; Naja, Mohamad K.

    2014-09-01

    Due to the high market demands for professional engineers in the Arab oil-producing countries, the appetite of Middle Eastern students for high-paying jobs and challenging careers in engineering has sharply increased. As a result, engineering programmes are providing opportunities for more students to enrol on engineering courses through lenient admission policies that do not compromise academic standards. This strategy has generated an influx of students who must be carefully educated to enhance their professional knowledge and social capital to assist in future earthquake-disaster risk-reduction efforts. However, the majority of Middle Eastern engineering students are unaware of the valuable acquired engineering skills and knowledge in building the resilience of their communities to earthquake disasters. As the majority of the countries in the Middle East are exposed to seismic hazards and are vulnerable to destructive earthquakes, engineers have become indispensable assets and the first line of defence against earthquake threats. This article highlights the contributions of some of the engineering innovations in advancing technologies and techniques for effective disaster mitigation and it calls for the incorporation of earthquake-disaster-mitigation education into academic engineering programmes in the Eastern Mediterranean region.

  17. Spatial analysis of rainfall trends in the region of Valencia (east Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Luís, M.; Raventós, J.; González-Hidalgo, J. C.; Sánchez, J. R.; Cortina, J.

    2000-10-01

    This paper examines the spatial and temporal rainfall characteristics of the region of Valencia, Western Mediterranean Basin (east Spain), during the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) normal period 1961-1990. The study used a dense and homogeneous daily precipitation database comprising 97 rain-gauge stations. Total and monthly rainfall concentrations have been studied in the context of their mean values, interannual variability and spatial diversification. Trends have been analysed using both parametric and non-parametric tests. In order to establish the spatial distribution of rainfall patterns and to detect homogeneous areas with similar rainfall evolution, a statistic based on the Cramér-von Mises test is proposed. The kriging interpolation methods for characterizing the magnitude of observed changes is used.Areas with contrasting rainfall evolution are identified. In more humid areas, a significant decrease in annual rainfall associated with significant increases in interannual rainfall variability is observed. In inland zones, decreases in total annual rainfall and increases in interannual variability are less clear, but there are indications of an increase in monthly rainfall concentration. In these inland zones, where more forest and woodland areas are located and forest fires are frequent, the observed trends could greatly affect desertification through changes in the disturbance regime. In more arid areas, local variability in rainfall evolution is higher and no significant changes can be defined.

  18. Ticks and Fleas Infestation on East Hedgehogs (Erinaceus concolor in Van Province, Eastern Region of Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaşar Goz

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ixodid ticks (Acari: İxodidae and fleas (Siphonaptera are the major vectors of pathogens threatening animals and human healths. The aim of our study was to detect the infestation rates of East Hedgehogs (Erinaceus concolor with ticks and fleas in Van Province, eastern region of Turkey.Methods: We examined fleas and ticks infestation patterns in 21 hedgehogs, collected from three suburbs with the greater of number gardens. In order to estimate flea and tick infestation of hedgehogs, we immobilized the ectoparasites by treatment the body with a insecticide trichlorphon (Neguvon®-Bayer.Results: On the hedgehogs, 60 ixodid ticks and 125 fleas were detected. All of the ixodid ticks were Rhipicephalus turanicus and all of the fleas were Archaeopsylla erinacei. Infestation rate for ticks and fleas was detected 66.66 % and 100 %, respectively.Conclusion: We detected ticks (R. turanicus and fleas (A. erinacei in hedgehogs at fairly high rates. Since many ticks and fleas species may harbor on hedgehogs and transmit some tick-borne and flea-borne patogens, this results are the important in terms of veterinary and public health. 

  19. Regional nitrogen budget of the Lake Victoria Basin, East Africa: syntheses, uncertainties and perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Minghua; Brandt, Patric; Pelster, David; Rufino, Mariana C.; Robinson, Timothy; Butterbach-Bahl, Klaus

    2014-10-01

    Using the net anthropogenic nitrogen input (NANI) approach we estimated the N budget for the Lake Victoria Basin in East Africa. The NANI of the basin ranged from 887 to 3008 kg N km-2 yr-1 (mean: 1827 kg N km-2 yr-1) for the period 1995-2000. The net nitrogen release at basin level is due primarily to livestock and human consumption of feed and foods, contributing between 69% and 85%. Atmospheric oxidized N deposition contributed approximately 14% to the NANI of the Lake Victoria Basin, while either synthetic N fertilizer imports or biological N fixations only contributed less than 6% to the regional NANI. Due to the low N imports of feed and food products (export to Lake Victoria accounted for 16%, which is much lower than for watersheds located in Europe and USA (25%). A significant reduction of the uncertainty of our N budget estimate for Lake Victoria Basin would be possible if better data on livestock systems and riverine N export were available. Our study indicates that at present soil N mining is the main source of nitrogen in the Lake Victoria Basin. Thus, sustainable N management requires increasing agricultural N inputs to guarantee food security and rehabilitation and protection of soils to minimize environmental costs. Moreover, to reduce N pollution of the lake, improving management of human and animal wastes needs to be carefully considered in future.

  20. Regional-Scale Ozone Deposition to North-East Atlantic Waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Coleman

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A regional climate model is used to evaluate dry deposition of ozone over the North East Atlantic. Results are presented for a deposition scheme accounting for turbulent and chemical enhancement of oceanic ozone deposition and a second non-chemical, parameterised gaseous dry deposition scheme. The first deposition scheme was constrained to account for sea-surface ozone-iodide reactions and the sensitivity of modelled ozone concentrations to oceanic iodide concentration was investigated. Simulations were also performed using nominal reaction rate derived from in-situ ozone deposition measurements and using a preliminary representation of organic chemistry. Results show insensitivity of ambient ozone concentrations modelled by the chemical-enhanced scheme to oceanic iodide concentrations, and iodide reactions alone cannot account for observed deposition velocities. Consequently, we suggest a missing chemical sink due to reactions of ozone with organic matter at the air-sea interface. Ozone loss rates are estimated to be in the range of 0.5–6 ppb per day. A potentially significant ozone-driven flux of iodine to the atmosphere is estimated to be in the range of 2.5–500 M molec cm−2  s−1, leading to a mixing-layer enhancement of organo-iodine concentrations of 0.1–22.0 ppt, with an average increase in the N.E. Atlantic of around 4 ppt per day.