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Sample records for east african patients

  1. East- African Medical Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    East African Medical Journal Vol 83 No. 8 August 2006 ... urology, ENT and orthopaedic groups and these ... no significant difference in orthopaedic patients mortality' with standard; we .... applying TRISS analysis to pediatric blunt trauma.

  2. East African institutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordby, Johannes Riber; Jacobsen, Katja

    For the past decade security in East Africa has gained focus internationally. However there is a growing ambition among African states to handle such issues by themselves, sometimes through regional institutions. This has been supported by many Western states but potential risks are often forgotten....

  3. Comparative Analysis of Breast Cancer Phenotypes in African American, White American, and West Versus East African patients: Correlation Between African Ancestry and Triple-Negative Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiagge, Evelyn; Jibril, Aisha Souleiman; Chitale, Dhananjay; Bensenhaver, Jessica M; Awuah, Baffour; Hoenerhoff, Mark; Adjei, Ernest; Bekele, Mahteme; Abebe, Engida; Nathanson, S David; Gyan, Kofi; Salem, Barbara; Oppong, Joseph; Aitpillah, Francis; Kyei, Ishmael; Bonsu, Ernest Osei; Proctor, Erica; Merajver, Sofia D; Wicha, Max; Stark, Azadeh; Newman, Lisa A

    2016-11-01

    Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is more common among African American (AA) and western sub-Saharan African breast cancer (BC) patients compared with White/Caucasian Americans (WA) and Europeans. Little is known about TNBC in east Africa. Invasive BC diagnosed 1998-2014 were evaluated: WA and AA patients from the Henry Ford Health System in Detroit, Michigan; Ghanaian/west Africans from the Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital in Kumasi, Ghana; and Ethiopian/east Africans from the St. Paul's Hospital Millennium Medical College in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Histopathology and immunohistochemistry for estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), and HER2/neu expression was performed in Michigan on formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded samples from all cases. A total of 234 Ghanaian (mean age 49 years), 94 Ethiopian (mean age 43 years), 272 AA (mean age 60 years), and 321 WA (mean age 62 years; p = 0.001) patients were compared. ER-negative and TNBC were more common among Ghanaian and AA compared with WA and Ethiopian cases (frequency ER-negativity 71.1 and 37.1 % vs. 19.8 and 28.6 % respectively, p < 0.0001; frequency TNBC 53.2 and 29.8 % vs. 15.5 and 15.0 %, respectively, p < 0.0001). Among patients younger than 50 years, prevalence of TNBC remained highest among Ghanaians (50.8 %) and AA (34.3 %) compared with WA and Ethiopians (approximately 16 % in each; p = 0.0002). This study confirms an association between TNBC and West African ancestry; TNBC frequency among AA patients is intermediate between WA and Ghanaian/West Africans consistent with genetic admixture following the west Africa-based trans-Atlantic slave trade. TNBC frequency was low among Ethiopians/East Africans; this may reflect less shared ancestry between AA and Ethiopians.

  4. East African ROAD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tekle, Kelali

    2016-10-01

    In the developing world astronomy had been treated as the science of elites. As a result of this overwhelming perception, astronomy compared with other applied sciences has got less attention and its role in development has been insignificant. However, the IAU General Assembly decision in 2009 opened new opportunity for countries and professionals to deeply look into Astronomy and its role in development. Then, the subsequent establishment of regional offices in the developing world is helping countries to integrate astronomy with other earth and space based sciences so as to progressively promote its scientific and development importance. Gradually nations have come to know that space is the frontier of tomorrow and the urgency of preeminence on space frontier starts at primary school and ascends to tertiary education. For this to happen, member nations in east African region have placed STEM education at the center of their education system. For instance, Ethiopian has changed University enrollment strategy to be in favor of science and engineering subjects, i.e. every year seventy percent of new University entrants join science and engineering fields while thirty percent social science and humanities. Such bold actions truly promote astronomy to be conceived as gateway to science and technology. To promote the concept of astronomy for development the East African regional office has actually aligned it activities to be in line with the focus areas identified by the IAU strategy (2010 to 2020).

  5. EAST AFRICAN MEDICAL JOURNAL

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2001-12-01

    Dec 1, 2001 ... DIETARY PATTERNS AND DENTAL CARIES IN NURSERY SCHOOL CHILDREN IN NAIROBI ..... bottle act as a bacterial substrate and especially when the ... children for their co-operation, Colgate Palmolive (East Africa) for.

  6. East African odontopygid millipedes 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Sara B.; Enghoff, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    Five new species of the endemic East African genus Xystopyge are described: X. pelecys, X. frontieri, X. proplicatus, X. biacanthus, and X. zanzibarensis. Three are from the Eastern Arc Mountains, Tanzania, two are from the Usambara Mtns. and one is from the Uluguru Mtns. One further species is f...

  7. EAST AFRICAN MEDICAL JOURNAL

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2004-12-12

    Dec 12, 2004 ... postoperative hospitals stay and mortality results for all patients were obtained. Results: ... co-existing medical illness and providing appropriate nutrition support. INTROD ..... results after simple closure in the elderly. Wurizl.

  8. East African Medical Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    prevention of tuberculosis (TB) among HIV positive patients, and its use is recommended ... in the health centre for at least six months preceding the study. Results: ... According to the World Health Organization .... Factors with P-values less than 0.05 were considered ..... should now embark on qualitative evaluation of the.

  9. East African Medical Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the influence of patient's sex, parental income and parental education have on the MP. Design: A five year ... The current population in Kenya is 32.2 million, the crude birth rate is ..... pattern of congenital heart defects in Tanzanian children.

  10. Minority drug-resistant HIV-1 variants in treatment naive East-African and Caucasian patients detected by allele-specific real-time PCR.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halime Ekici

    Full Text Available To assess the presence of two major non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTI drug resistance mutations (DRMs, Y181C and K103N, in minor viral quasispecies of treatment naïve HIV-1 infected East-African and Swedish patients by allele-specific polymerase chain reaction (AS-PCR.Treatment naïve adults (n=191 with three epidemiological backgrounds were included: 92 Ethiopians living in Ethiopia; 55 East-Africans who had migrated to Sweden; and 44 Caucasians living in Sweden. The pol gene was analysed by standard population sequencing and by AS-PCR for the detection of Y181C and K103N.The Y181C was detected in the minority quasispecies of six Ethiopians (6.5%, in two Caucasians (4.5%, and in one East-African (1.8%. The K103N was detected in one East- African (1.8%, by both methods. The proportion of mutants ranged from 0.25% to 17.5%. Additional DRMs were found in all three treatment naïve patient groups by population sequencing.Major NNRTI mutations can be found by AS-PCR in minor quasispecies of treatment naïve HIV-1 infected Ethiopians living in Ethiopia, in East-African and Caucasian patients living in Sweden in whom population sequencing reveal wild-type virus only. Surveys with standard sequencing are likely to underestimate transmitted drug resistance and the presence of resistant minor quasispecies in treatment naïve patients should be topic for future large scale studies.

  11. East African Journal of Sciences: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aims The East African Journal of Sciences (EAJS) publishes original scientific papers ... Scope The journal publishes peer reviewed original research articles in various disciplines of ... Dr. Solomon Assefa, Ethiopian Institute of Agricultural Research (EIAR), Addis Ababa, Ethiopia ... Tilahun Sahilu, Langston University, USA.

  12. Assessing sanitary mixtures in East African cities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Letema, S.C.

    2012-01-01

    The urbanisation of poverty and informality in East African cities poses a threat to environmental
    health, perpetuates social exclusion and inequalities, and creates service gaps (UN-Habitat, 2008).
    This makes conventional sanitation provision untenable citywide, giving rise to the

  13. Assessing sanitary mixtures in East African cities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Letema, S.C.

    2012-01-01

    The urbanisation of poverty and informality in East African cities poses a threat to environmental
    health, perpetuates social exclusion and inequalities, and creates service gaps (UN-Habitat, 2008).
    This makes conventional sanitation provision untenable citywide, giving rise to the emerg

  14. Assessing sanitary mixtures in East African cities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Letema, S.C.

    2012-01-01

    The urbanisation of poverty and informality in East African cities poses a threat to environmental
    health, perpetuates social exclusion and inequalities, and creates service gaps (UN-Habitat, 2008).
    This makes conventional sanitation provision untenable citywide, giving rise to the emerg

  15. Collaboration with East African security organisations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordby, Johannes Riber; Jacobsen, Katja L.

    2012-01-01

    African Community) and IGAD (Intergovernmental Authority on Development) have broader perceptions of the concept. According to EAC, security also concerns matters such as policy reform, legislation, education and infrastructure. IGAD considers food security and environmental and economic issues as part......When it comes to understanding the concept of security and the way fragile security situations should be solved, the difference is big. While EASF – the East African Standby Force – is a regular military force with a rather traditional, military perception of the concept of security, EAC (East...... of the concept. At the same time the three organisations represent different constellations of member nations and thus different national interests, and locally they have different legitimacy and political strength. Thus, when choosing collaboration partners for a security project it is not simply a question...

  16. Assessing sanitary mixtures in East African cities

    OpenAIRE

    Letema, S.C.

    2012-01-01

    The urbanisation of poverty and informality in East African cities poses a threat to environmental health, perpetuates social exclusion and inequalities, and creates service gaps (UN-Habitat, 2008). This makes conventional sanitation provision untenable citywide, giving rise to the emergence of sanitation mixtures. Sanitation mixtures have different scales, institutional arrangements, user groups, and rationalities for their establishment, location, and management. For assessing the performan...

  17. 568 EAST AFRICAN MEDICAL JOURNAL

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2001-11-02

    Nov 2, 2001 ... Results: Eight (4 %) patients in the survey had clinical and biochemical rickets while 33 (17%) .... Welcome Trust International Working Party criteria based on ... proportion of children with clinically obvious rickets, 2.4% plus.

  18. EAST AFRICAN MEDICAL JOURNAL 93

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2001-02-02

    Feb 2, 2001 ... that multiple sclerosis is a disease of people of Western. European stock and .... disturbances, fatigue). Cranial nerve dysfunction (hearing loss, facial weakness) ... The degree of disability when the patients first presented is ...

  19. Panmixia in East African Populations of Platygyra daedalea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: Platygyra daedalea, reef coral, microsatellite markers, connectivity, western Indian ... was collected from Indian Ocean coral reefs, mainly from the east African coast between ..... of bleaching in the SWIO was considerably less.

  20. East and Central African Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences Vol.13 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    admin

    East and Central African Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences ... demographic characteristics in access to ART; to establish ..... management of people living with ... strategies, Academy for Educational ... growth-oriented women entrepreneur in.

  1. East African runners: their genetics, lifestyle and athletic prowess.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onywera, Vincent O

    2009-01-01

    East African runners have dominated distance running events for over 5 decades. Some explanations have been advanced to explain why such a small population has dominated distance running events over time. Suggested reasons include, among others, a genetic predisposition, diet, living at high altitude as well as sociocultural background. This chapter gives possible insight into the past, present and hopefully future success of East African runners; it mainly explores the foundations of running excellence, talent identification, diet and injury management methods used by East African runners. The chapter also explores means and ways by which East African runners can sustain their running excellence by using their past experiences, to perfect the present and predict the future.

  2. Phytogeography of the tropical north-east African mountains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Friis

    1983-12-01

    Full Text Available The tropical north-east African mountains are tentatively divided into four phytochoria, the formal rank of which is not defined. The division is based on patterns of distribution and endemism in the region. The recognition of a distinct Afromontane phytochorion is now well established (Chapman & White, 1970; Werger, 1978; White, 1978. However, there is still very little information on the phytogeography of the individual mountains or mountain systems. This study hopes to fill a little of the gap by analysing distribution patterns and patterns of endemism in the flora of the tropical north-east African mountains. The north-east African mountain system is the largest in tropical Africa (see e.g. map in White, 1978. At the core of this system is the large Ethiopian massif, around which are located various mountains and mountain chains. These include the Red Sea Hills in the Sudan, the mountain chain in northern Somalia, the south-west Arabian mountains, and the Imatong mountains of south-east Sudan. The latter are often referred to the East African mountain system (White, 1978 but. as I will point out later, they also have a close connection with the south-west highlands of Ethiopia. The paper presents some results of my study of the mountain flora of tropical north-east Africa, particularly the forest species. Where no source is indicated, the data are from my own unpublished studies.

  3. Assessment of conventional oil resources of the East African Rift Province, East Africa, 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brownfield, Michael E.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Klett, Timothy R.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Marra, Kristen R.; Finn, Thomas M.; Le, Phuong A.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.

    2017-03-27

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated undiscovered, technically recoverable mean conventional resources of 13.4 billion barrels of oil and 4.6 trillion cubic feet of gas in the East African Rift Province of east Africa.

  4. Frequency of Agenesis Palmaris Longus through Clinical Examination - An East African Study

    OpenAIRE

    James W M Kigera; Stephen Mukwaya

    2011-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The Palmaris longus, one of the most variable muscles in the body both flexes the wrist and tenses the palmar fascia. It is used by surgeons as a source of tendon graft and racial differences in its variation have been documented. We sought to determine the frequency of the absence of the Palmaris longus in an East African population. METHODS: A prospective study was conducted using ten common clinical tests among patients and students in a large teaching hospital in East Africa...

  5. 500 EAST AFRICAN MEDICAL JOURNAL September2006

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Request for reprints to: Dr. T. Taiwo, University of Alberta, Edmonton, St Albert, ... Objective: To examine prevalence of drug use in adolescent students in a rural South African ... Reported lifetime prevalence of alcohol use was 47.9% (95% CI:.

  6. East and Central African Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences Vol. 7 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    East and Central African Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. Vol. 7(3) 52-55. Adherence ... any for the rest of hislher life is one of the biggest challenges. While much .... Secondly, 2- and 3-times-daily regimens required for HIV are difficult and ...

  7. The black Dutchmen : African soldiers in the Netherlands East Indies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kessel, van W.M.J.; Kessel, van W.M.J.

    2002-01-01

    Between 1831 and 1872 some 3000 African recruits sailed from Elmina (Gold Coast, now Ghana) to Batavia, the capital of the Netherlands East Indies. They had been recruited to serve in the Dutch colonial army, which throughout most of the 19th century experienced a chronic shortage of European manpow

  8. Seismicity of the Earth 1900-2013 East African Rift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Gavin P.; Jones, Eric S.; Stadler, Timothy J.; Barnhart, William D.; McNamara, Daniel E.; Benz, Harley M.; Furlong, Kevin P.; Villaseñor, Antonio; Hayes, Gavin P.; Jones, Eric S.; Stadler, Timothy J.; Barnhart, William D.; McNamara, Daniel E.; Benz, Harley M.; Furlong, Kevin P.; Villaseñor, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    The East African Rift system (EARS) is a 3,000-km-long Cenozoic age continental rift extending from the Afar triple junction, between the horn of Africa and the Middle East, to western Mozambique. Sectors of active extension occur from the Indian Ocean, west to Botswana and the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). It is the only rift system in the world that is active on a continent-wide scale, providing geologists with a view of how continental rifts develop over time into oceanic spreading centers like the Mid-Atlantic Ridge.

  9. Hybridization in East African swarm-raiding army ants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kronauer, Daniel Jc; Peters, Marcell K; Schöning, Caspar

    2011-01-01

    Hybridization can have complex effects on evolutionary dynamics in ants because of the combination of haplodiploid sex-determination and eusociality. While hybrid non-reproductive workers have been found in a range of species, examples of gene-flow via hybrid queens and males are rare. We studied...... hybridization in East African army ants (Dorylus subgenus Anomma) using morphology, mitochondrial DNA sequences, and nuclear microsatellites....

  10. African regional integration and European involvement: external agents in the East African Community

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bachmann, V.; Sidaway, J.D.

    2010-01-01

    The EU's role as a model for regional integration is widely discussed in scholarship and policy circles. The promotion of regional integration is central to the EU's external relations and is frequently expected by the EU's partners. This paper examines European involvement with the East African

  11. September 2002 EAST AFRICAN MEDICAL JOURNAL 457

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2002-09-01

    Sep 1, 2002 ... Results: Ninety six patients with penetrating(68) and bIunt(28) abdominal trauma ... patients were discharged after 24 hours observations without any complications. .... the negative laparotomy rate, currently standing at 26.

  12. East African climate pulses and early human evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslin, Mark A.; Brierley, Chris M.; Milner, Alice M.; Shultz, Susanne; Trauth, Martin H.; Wilson, Katy E.

    2014-10-01

    Current evidence suggests that all of the major events in hominin evolution have occurred in East Africa. Over the last two decades, there has been intensive work undertaken to understand African palaeoclimate and tectonics in order to put together a coherent picture of how the environment of East Africa has varied in the past. The landscape of East Africa has altered dramatically over the last 10 million years. It has changed from a relatively flat, homogenous region covered with mixed tropical forest, to a varied and heterogeneous environment, with mountains over 4 km high and vegetation ranging from desert to cloud forest. The progressive rifting of East Africa has also generated numerous lake basins, which are highly sensitive to changes in the local precipitation-evaporation regime. There is now evidence that the presence of precession-driven, ephemeral deep-water lakes in East Africa were concurrent with major events in hominin evolution. It seems the unusual geology and climate of East Africa created periods of highly variable local climate, which, it has been suggested could have driven hominin speciation, encephalisation and dispersal out of Africa. One example is the significant hominin speciation and brain expansion event at ˜1.8 Ma that seems to have been coeval with the occurrence of highly variable, extensive, deep-water lakes. This complex, climatically very variable setting inspired first the variability selection hypothesis, which was then the basis for the pulsed climate variability hypothesis. The newer of the two suggests that the long-term drying trend in East Africa was punctuated by episodes of short, alternating periods of extreme humidity and aridity. Both hypotheses, together with other key theories of climate-evolution linkages, are discussed in this paper. Though useful the actual evolution mechanisms, which led to early hominins are still unclear and continue to be debated. However, it is clear that an understanding of East African

  13. August 2001 EAST AFRICAN MEDICAL JOURNAL 395

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2001-08-01

    Aug 1, 2001 ... admitted to general surgery wards of the Ga-Rankuwa Hospital. Surgeons ... demographic characteristics and scope to other sub-Saharan ... Stab-neck - carotid ... Bleeding duodenal ulcer ... Postoperatively, mortality was directly related to the HIV .... after abdominal surgery in patients infected with human.

  14. 156 EAST AFRICAN MEDICAL JOURNAL April2007

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2007-04-04

    Apr 4, 2007 ... France, Spain, Israel and Taiwan (14—18) causing a growing therapeutic ... Sample size: This was limited to the 78 patients due to the number of ... Isolates exhibiting resistance to three drug classes or more were defined.

  15. 232 EAST AFRICAN MEDICAL JOURNAL May 2002

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2002-05-05

    May 5, 2002 ... li- minimum sample size of 64 endoscopically examined diabetic steroidal ... Despite the knowledge that a previous H. pylori eradication therapy. Two patients with .... outpatients at KNH (53.3%) in this study is in conformity with other studies .... the older Kenyan age groups (above 60 years) experienced.

  16. June2007 EAST AFRICAN MEDICAL JOURNAL 259

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2007-06-01

    Jun 1, 2007 ... 84 No. 6 Iune 2007. REFRACTIVE ERRORS IN TYPE 2 DIABETIC PATIENTS ... course of diabetic retinopathy, there were 88 eyes. E ' t' ' d' (N .= 190 ) ... diabetic medical clinic and had no prior knowledge of the study, hence ...

  17. Lactase persistence alleles reveal partial East African ancestry of southern African Khoe pastoralists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breton, Gwenna; Schlebusch, Carina M; Lombard, Marlize; Sjödin, Per; Soodyall, Himla; Jakobsson, Mattias

    2014-04-14

    The ability to digest milk into adulthood, lactase persistence (LP), as well as specific genetic variants associated with LP, is heterogeneously distributed in global populations. These variants were most likely targets of selection when some populations converted from hunter-gatherer to pastoralist or farming lifestyles. Specific LP polymorphisms are associated with particular geographic regions and populations; however, they have not been extensively studied in southern Africa. We investigate the LP-regulatory region in 267 individuals from 13 southern African populations (including descendants of hunter-gatherers, pastoralists, and agropastoralists), providing the first comprehensive study of the LP-regulatory region in a large group of southern Africans. The "East African" LP single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) (14010G>C) was found at high frequency (>20%) in a strict pastoralist Khoe population, the Nama of Namibia, suggesting a connection to East Africa, whereas the "European" LP SNP (13910C>T) was found in populations of mixed ancestry. Using genome-wide data from various African populations, we identify admixture (13%) in the Nama, from an Afro-Asiatic group dating to >1,300 years ago, with the remaining fraction of their genomes being from San hunter-gatherers. We also find evidence of selection around the LCT gene among Khoe-speaking groups, and the substantial frequency of the 14010C variant among the Nama is best explained by adaptation to digesting milk. These genome-local and genome-wide results support a model in which an East African group brought pastoralist practices to southern Africa and admixed with local hunter-gatherers to form the ancestors of Khoe people.

  18. Yellow fever, Asia and the East African slave trade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cathey, John T; Marr, John S

    2014-05-01

    Yellow fever is endemic in parts of sub-Saharan Africa and South America, yet its principal vectors--species of mosquito of the genus Aedes--are found throughout tropical and subtropical latitudes. Phylogenetic analyses indicate that yellow fever originated in Africa and that its spread to the New World coincided with the slave trade, but why yellow fever has never appeared in Asia remains a mystery. None of several previously proposed explanations for its absence there is considered satisfactory. We contrast the trans-Atlantic slave trade, and trade across the Sahara and to the Arabian Peninsula and Mesopotamia, with that to Far East and Southeast Asian ports before abolition of the African slave trade, and before the scientific community understood the transmission vector of yellow fever and the viral life cycle, and the need for shipboard mosquito control. We propose that these differences in slave trading had a primary role in the avoidance of yellow fever transmission into Asia in the centuries before the 20(th) century. The relatively small volume of the Black African slave trade between Africa and East and Southeast Asia has heretofore been largely ignored. Although focal epidemics may have occurred, the volume was insufficient to reach the threshold for endemicity.

  19. The biggest fish in the sea? Dynamic Kenyan labour migration in the East African community

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ong'ayo, A.O.O.; Oucho, J.O.; Oucho, L.A.

    2013-01-01

    This study assesses the Kenyan policy and institutional framework concerning South–South labour migration with particular focus on the East African Community (EAC) countries. It focuses mainly on one particular policy instrument, the East African Community Common Market framework. The research furth

  20. Sensitivity of the East African rift lakes to climate variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olaka, L.; Trauth, M. H.

    2009-04-01

    Lakes in the East African Rift have provided excellent proxies to reconstruct past climate changes in the low latitudes. The lakes occupy volcano-tectonic depressions with highly variable climate and hydrological setting, that present a good opportunity to study the climatic and hydrogeological influences on the lake water budget. Previous studies have used lake floor sediments to establish the sensitivity of the East African rift lakes. This study focuses on geomorphology and climate to offer additional or alternative record of lake history that are key to quantifying sensitivity of these lakes as archives to external and internal climatic forcings. By using the published Holocene lake areas and levels, we analyze twelve lakes on the eastern arm of the East African rift; Ziway, Awassa, Turkana, Suguta, Baringo, Nakuru, Elmenteita, Naivasha, Natron, Manyara and compare with Lake Victoria, that occupies the plateau between the east and the western arms of the rift. Using the SRTM data, Hypsometric (area-altitude) analysis has been used to compare the lake basins between latitude 80 North and 30 South. The mean elevation for the lakes, is between 524 and 2262 meters above sea level, the lakes' hypsometric integrals (HI), a measure of landmass volume above the reference plane, vary from 0.31 to 0.76. The aridity index (Ai), defined as Precipitation/ Evapotranspiration, quantifies the water available to a lake, it encompasses land cover and climatic effects. It is lowest (arid) in the basin between the Ethiopian rift and the Kenyan rift and at the southern termination of the Kenyan Rift in the catchments of lake Turkana, Suguta, Baringo and Manyara with values of 0.55, 0.43, 0.43 and 0.5 respectively. And it is highest (wet) in the catchments of, Ziway, Awassa, Nakuru and Naivasha as 1.33,1.03 and 1.2 respectively, which occupy the highest points of the rift. Lake Victoria has an index of 1.42 the highest of these lakes and receives a high precipitation. We use a

  1. East African weathering dynamics controlled by vegetation-climate feedbacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivory, Sarah J.; McGlue, Michael M.; Ellis, Geoffrey S.; Boehlke, Adam; Lézine, Anne-Marie; Vincens, Annie; Cohen, Andrew S.

    2017-01-01

    Tropical weathering has important linkages to global biogeochemistry and landscape evolution in the East African rift. We disentangle the influences of climate and terrestrial vegetation on chemical weathering intensity and erosion at Lake Malawi using a long sediment record. Fossil pollen, microcharcoal, particle size, and mineralogy data affirm that the detrital clays accumulating in deep water within the lake are controlled by feedbacks between climate and hinterland forest composition. Particle-size patterns are also best explained by vegetation, through feedbacks with lake levels, wildfires, and erosion. We develop a new source-to-sink framework that links lacustrine sedimentation to hinterland vegetation in tropical rifts. Our analysis suggests that climate-vegetation interactions and their coupling to weathering/erosion could threaten future food security and has implications for accurately predicting petroleum play elements in continental rift basins.

  2. Determinants of Export Participation in East African Manufacturing Firms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niringiye Aggrey

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study was to analyze the determinants of export participation of manufacturing firms in East Africa. In order for East African manufacturing firms to achieve global competitiveness, they need to have an indication of the factors that influence their export participation. Regression results using probit estimation procedure indicate that capital, foreign ownership, education level of the manager and training in Uganda, capital, training of workers and proportion of unskilled workers in Kenya, and firm size and foreign ownership in Tanzania, positively influences export participation of manufacturing firms. To promote exports, Tanzania should design strategies to grow small firms into large ones using measures such as loan guarantee schemes for small and medium firms, tax holidays for joint ventures and mergers, etc. The Ugandan and Kenyan government should also provide incentives for capital imports such as maintaining the current zero rating of capital imports. Lastly, Ugandan and Tanzanian government should design strategies aimed at attracting foreign direct investment, such as improving economic productivity through the provision of infrastructure and labour force training.

  3. Frequency of agenesis Palmaris longus through clinical examination--an East African study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James W M Kigera

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The Palmaris longus, one of the most variable muscles in the body both flexes the wrist and tenses the palmar fascia. It is used by surgeons as a source of tendon graft and racial differences in its variation have been documented. We sought to determine the frequency of the absence of the Palmaris longus in an East African population. METHODS: A prospective study was conducted using ten common clinical tests among patients and students in a large teaching hospital in East Africa to determine the presence of a Palmaris longus. RESULTS: The overall rate of absence was 4.4% with unilateral absence at 3.3% and bilateral absence at 1.1%. The overall difference between males and females was not statistically significant (p = 0.605. Participants were more likely to have absence in their non dominant hand. DISCUSSION: Our findings though in contrast to many studies worldwide, it concurs with most studies done in the African setting. These differences may be due to the higher levels of manual labour and the more use of the right hand in these activities. The frequency of the absence of Palmaris longus in East Africa has been determined. Surgeons should acquaint themselves with prevalence in their areas of practice.

  4. Frequency of Agenesis Palmaris Longus through Clinical Examination - An East African Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kigera, James W. M.; Mukwaya, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    Introduction The Palmaris longus, one of the most variable muscles in the body both flexes the wrist and tenses the palmar fascia. It is used by surgeons as a source of tendon graft and racial differences in its variation have been documented. We sought to determine the frequency of the absence of the Palmaris longus in an East African population. Methods A prospective study was conducted using ten common clinical tests among patients and students in a large teaching hospital in East Africa to determine the presence of a Palmaris longus. Results The overall rate of absence was 4.4% with unilateral absence at 3.3% and bilateral absence at 1.1%. The overall difference between males and females was not statistically significant (p = 0.605). Participants were more likely to have absence in their non dominant hand. Discussion Our findings though in contrast to many studies worldwide, it concurs with most studies done in the African setting. These differences may be due to the higher levels of manual labour and the more use of the right hand in these activities. The frequency of the absence of Palmaris longus in East Africa has been determined. Surgeons should acquaint themselves with prevalence in their areas of practice. PMID:22174943

  5. Frequency of agenesis Palmaris longus through clinical examination--an East African study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kigera, James W M; Mukwaya, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    The Palmaris longus, one of the most variable muscles in the body both flexes the wrist and tenses the palmar fascia. It is used by surgeons as a source of tendon graft and racial differences in its variation have been documented. We sought to determine the frequency of the absence of the Palmaris longus in an East African population. A prospective study was conducted using ten common clinical tests among patients and students in a large teaching hospital in East Africa to determine the presence of a Palmaris longus. The overall rate of absence was 4.4% with unilateral absence at 3.3% and bilateral absence at 1.1%. The overall difference between males and females was not statistically significant (p = 0.605). Participants were more likely to have absence in their non dominant hand. Our findings though in contrast to many studies worldwide, it concurs with most studies done in the African setting. These differences may be due to the higher levels of manual labour and the more use of the right hand in these activities. The frequency of the absence of Palmaris longus in East Africa has been determined. Surgeons should acquaint themselves with prevalence in their areas of practice.

  6. The genetics of East African populations: a Nilo-Saharan component in the African genetic landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobon, Begoña; Hassan, Hisham Y; Laayouni, Hafid; Luisi, Pierre; Ricaño-Ponce, Isis; Zhernakova, Alexandra; Wijmenga, Cisca; Tahir, Hanan; Comas, David; Netea, Mihai G; Bertranpetit, Jaume

    2015-01-01

    East Africa is a strategic region to study human genetic diversity due to the presence of ethnically, linguistically, and geographically diverse populations. Here, we provide new insight into the genetic history of populations living in the Sudanese region of East Africa by analysing nine ethnic groups belonging to three African linguistic families: Niger-Kordofanian, Nilo-Saharan and Afro-Asiatic. A total of 500 individuals were genotyped for 200,000 single-nucleotide polymorphisms. Principal component analysis, clustering analysis using ADMIXTURE, FST statistics, and the three-population test were used to investigate the underlying genetic structure and ancestry of the different ethno-linguistic groups. Our analyses revealed a genetic component for Sudanese Nilo-Saharan speaking groups (Darfurians and part of Nuba populations) related to Nilotes of South Sudan, but not to other Sudanese populations or other sub-Saharan populations. Populations inhabiting the North of the region showed close genetic affinities with North Africa, with a component that could be remnant of North Africans before the migrations of Arabs from Arabia. In addition, we found very low genetic distances between populations in genes important for anti-malarial and anti-bacterial host defence, suggesting similar selective pressures on these genes and stressing the importance of considering functional pathways to understand the evolutionary history of populations.

  7. East and Central African Journal of Surgery - Vol 12, No 2 (2007)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    East and Central African Journal of Surgery - Vol 12, No 2 (2007) ... Africa: Implication for training · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT ... Breast fine needle aspiration cytology in a Nigerian tertiary hospital · EMAIL FREE FULL ...

  8. East and Central African Journal of Surgery http://www.bioline.org.br ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Patrick

    East and Central African Journal of Surgery ... surgery radiotherapy and chemotherapy are discussed. .... Metastasise from Breast and Melanoma .... Cornea P. Clinical implications of recent developments in gastric cancer; pathology and.

  9. Model, Proxy and Isotopic Perspectives on the East African Humid Period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tierney, Jessica E.; Lewis, Sophie C.; Cook, Benjamin I.; LeGrande, Allegra N.; Schmidt, Gavin A.

    2011-01-01

    Both North and East Africa experienced more humid conditions during the early and mid-Holocene epoch (11,000-5000yr BP; 11-5 ka) relative to today. The North African Humid Period has been a major focus of paleoclimatic study, and represents a response of the hydrological cycle to the increase in boreal summer insolation and associated ocean, atmosphere and land surface feedbacks. Meanwhile, the mechanisms that caused the coeval East African Humid Period are poorly understood. Here, we use results from isotopeenabled coupled climate modeling experiments to investigate the cause of the East African Humid Period. The modeling results are interpreted alongside proxy records of both water balance and the isotopic composition of rainfall. Our simulations show that the orbitally-induced increase in dry season precipitation and the subsequent reduction in precipitation seasonality can explain the East African Humid Period, and this scenario agrees well with regional lake level and pollen paleoclimate data. Changes in zonal moisture flux from both the Atlantic and Indian Ocean account for the simulated increase in precipitation from June through November. Isotopic paleoclimate data and simulated changes in moisture source demonstrate that the western East African Rift Valley in particular experienced more humid conditions due to the influx of Atlantic moisture and enhanced convergence along the Congo Air Boundary. Our study demonstrates that zonal changes in moisture advection are an important determinant of climate variability in the East African region.

  10. Tectonic Evolution of Mozambique Ridge in East African continental margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yong

    2017-04-01

    Tectonic Evolution of Mozambique Ridge in East African continental margin Yong Tang He Li ES.Mahanjane Second Institute of Oceanography,SOA,Hangzhou The East Africa passive continental margin is a depression area, with widely distributed sedimentary wedges from southern Mozambique to northern Somali (>6500km in length, and about 6km in thickness). It was resulted from the separation of East Gondwana, and was developed by three stages: (1) rifting in Early-Middle Jurassic; (2) spreading from Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous; (3) drifting since the Cretaceous period. Tectonic evolution of the Mozambique continental margin is distinguished by two main settings separated by a fossil transform, the Davie Fracture Zone; (i) rifting and transform setting in the northern margin related to opening of the Somali and Rovuma basins, and (ii) rifting and volcanism setting during the opening of the Mozambique basin in the southern margin. 2D reflection seismic investigation of the crustal structure in the Zambezi Delta Depression, provided key piece of evidence for two rifting phases between Africa and Antarctica. The magma-rich Rift I phase evolved from rift-rift-rift style with remarkable emplacement of dyke swarms (between 182 and 170 Ma). Related onshore outcrops are extensively studied, the Karoo volcanics in Mozambique, Zimbabwe and South Africa, all part of the Karoo "triple-junction". These igneous bodies flow and thicken eastwards and are now covered by up to 5 km of Cretaceous and Tertiary sediments and recorded by seismic and oil exploration wells. Geophysical and geological data recorded during oceanographic cruises provide very controversial results regarding the nature of the Mozambique Ridge. Two conflicting opinions remains open, since the early expeditions to the Indian Ocean, postulating that its character is either magmatic (oceanic) or continental origin. We have carried out an China-Mozambique Joint Cruise(CMJC) on southern Mozambique Basin on 1st June to

  11. Ambient noise tomography of the East African Rift in Mozambique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingues, Ana; Silveira, Graça; Ferreira, Ana M. G.; Chang, Sung-Joon; Custódio, Susana; Fonseca, João F. B. D.

    2016-03-01

    Seismic ambient noise tomography is applied to central and southern Mozambique, located in the tip of the East African Rift (EAR). The deployment of MOZART seismic network, with a total of 30 broad-band stations continuously recording for 26 months, allowed us to carry out the first tomographic study of the crust under this region, which until now remained largely unexplored at this scale. From cross-correlations extracted from coherent noise we obtained Rayleigh wave group velocity dispersion curves for the period range 5-40 s. These dispersion relations were inverted to produce group velocity maps, and 1-D shear wave velocity profiles at selected points. High group velocities are observed at all periods on the eastern edge of the Kaapvaal and Zimbabwe cratons, in agreement with the findings of previous studies. Further east, a pronounced slow anomaly is observed in central and southern Mozambique, where the rifting between southern Africa and Antarctica created a passive margin in the Mesozoic, and further rifting is currently happening as a result of the southward propagation of the EAR. In this study, we also addressed the question concerning the nature of the crust (continental versus oceanic) in the Mozambique Coastal Plains (MCP), still in debate. Our data do not support previous suggestions that the MCP are floored by oceanic crust since a shallow Moho could not be detected, and we discuss an alternative explanation for its ocean-like magnetic signature. Our velocity maps suggest that the crystalline basement of the Zimbabwe craton may extend further east well into Mozambique underneath the sediment cover, contrary to what is usually assumed, while further south the Kaapval craton passes into slow rifted crust at the Lebombo monocline as expected. The sharp passage from fast crust to slow crust on the northern part of the study area coincides with the seismically active NNE-SSW Urema rift, while further south the Mazenga graben adopts an N-S direction

  12. Determinants of Export Participation in East African Agricultural Manufacturing Firms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niringiye Aggrey

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study was to analyze the determinants of export participation of agricultural manufacturing firms in East A frica. In order for E ast African agricultural manufacturing firms to achieve global competitiveness, they need to have an indication of the factors that influence their export participation. Regression results using probit estimation procedure indicate that capital, foreign ownership and training in Uganda, average education, location in Nakuru and proportion of unskilled workers in Kenya, and firm size and location in Arusha and Mwanza in Tanzania, positively influences export participation of agricultural manufacturing firms. To promote exports, Tanzania should design strategies to grow small firms into large ones using measures such as loan guarantee schemes for small and medium firms, tax holidays for joint ventures and mergers, etc. The Ugandan government should also provide incentives for capital imports such as maintaining the current zero rating of capital imports. Lastly, Ugandan government should design strategies aimed at attracting foreign direct investment, such as improving economic productivity through the provision of infrastructure and labour force training.

  13. Hydrothermal vents in Lake Tanganyika, East African, Rift system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiercelin, Jean-Jacques; Pflumio, Catherine; Castrec, Maryse; Boulégue, Jacques; Gente, Pascal; Rolet, Joël; Coussement, Christophe; Stetter, Karl O.; Huber, Robert; Buku, Sony; Mifundu, Wafula

    1993-06-01

    Sublacustrine hydrothermal vents with associated massive sulfides were discovered during April 1987 at Pemba and Cape Banza on the Zaire side of the northern basin of Lake Tanganyika, East African Rift system. New investigations by a team of ten scuba divers during the multinational (France, Zaire, Germany, and Burundi) TANGANYDRO expedition (August-October 1991) found hydrothermal vents down to a depth of 46 m along north-trending active faults bounding the Tanganyika rift on the western side. Temperatures from 53 to 103 °C were measured in hydrothermal fluids and sediments. Veins of massive sulfides 1-10 cm thick (pyrite and marcasite banding) were found associated with vents at the Pemba site. At Cape Banza,active vents are characterized by 1-70-cm-high aragonite chimneys, and there are microcrystalline pyrite coatings on the walls of hydrothermal pipes. Hydrothermal fluid end members show distinctive compositions at the two sites. The Pemba end member is a NaHCO3-enriched fluid similar to the NaHCO3 thermal fluids from lakes Magadi and Bogoria in the eastern branch off the rift. The Cape Banza end member is a solution enriched in NaCl. Such brines may have a deep-seated basement origin, as do the Uvinza NaCl brines on the eastern flank of the Tanganyika basin. Geothermometric calculations have yielded temperatures of fluid-rock interaction off 219 and 179 °C in the Pemba and Cape Banza systems, respectively. Abundant white or reddish-brown microbial colonies resembling Beggiatoa mats were found surrounding the active vents. Thermal fluid circulation is permitted by opening of cracks related to 130 °N normal-dextral faults that intersect the north- south major rift trend. The source of heat for such hydrothermal systems may relate to the existence of magmatic bodies under the rift, which is suggested by the isotopic composition of carbon dioxide released at Pemba and Cape Banza.

  14. Crustal thinning between the Ethiopian and East African Plateaus from modeling Rayleigh wave dispersion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benoit, M H; Nyblade, A A; Pasyanos, M E

    2006-01-17

    The East African and Ethiopian Plateaus have long been recognized to be part of a much larger topographic anomaly on the African Plate called the African Superswell. One of the few places within the African Superswell that exhibit elevations of less than 1 km is southeastern Sudan and northern Kenya, an area containing both Mesozoic and Cenozoic rift basins. Crustal structure and uppermost mantle velocities are investigated in this area by modeling Rayleigh wave dispersion. Modeling results indicate an average crustal thickness of 25 {+-} 5 km, some 10-15 km thinner than the crust beneath the adjacent East African and Ethiopian Plateaus. The low elevations can therefore be readily attributed to an isostatic response from crustal thinning. Low Sn velocities of 4.1-4.3 km/s also characterize this region.

  15. Hydrothermal vents is Lake Tanganyika, East African Rift system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiercelin, J.J. [Universite de Bretagne Occidentale, Brest (France); Pflumio, C.; Castrec, M. [Universite Paris VI, Paris (France)] [and others

    1993-06-01

    Sublacustrine hydrothermal vents with associated massive sulfides were discovered during April 1987 at Pemba and Cape Banza on the Zaire side of the northern basin of Lake Tanganyika, East African Rift system. New investigations by a team of ten scuba divers during the multinational (France, Zaire, Germany, and Burundi) TANGANYDRO expedition (August-October 1991) found hydrothermal vents down to a depth of 46 m along north-trending active faults bounding the Tanganyika rift on the western side. Temperatures from 53 to 103 {degrees}C were measured in hydrothermal fluids and sediments. Veins of massive sulfides 1-10 cm thick (pyrite and marcasite banding) were found associated with vents at the Pemba site. At Cape Banza, active vents are characterized by 1-70-cm-high aragonite chimneys, and there are microcrystalline pyrite coatings on the walls of hydrothermal pipes. Hydrothermal fluid end members show distinctive compositions at the two sites. The Pemba end member is a NaHCO{sub 3}-enriched fluid similar to the NaHCO{sub 3} thermal fluids form lakes Magadi and Bogoria in the eastern branch of the rift. The Cape Banza end member is a solution enriched in NaCl. Such brines may have a deep-seated basement origin, as do the Uvinza NaCl brines on the eastern flank of the Tanganyika basin. Geothermometric calculations have yielded temperatures of fluid-rock interaction of 219 and 179 {degrees}C in the Pemba and Cape Banza systems, respectively. Abundant white or reddish-brown microbial colonies resembling Beggiatoa mats were found surrounding the active vents. Thermal fluid circulation is permitted by opening of cracks related to 130{degrees}N normal-dextral faults that intersect the north-south major rift trend. The sources of heat for such hydrothermal systems may relate to the existence of magmatic bodies under the rift, which is suggested by the isotopic composition of carbon dioxide released at Pemba and Cape Banza. 21 refs., 2 figs.

  16. Use of Machine Learning Techniques for Identification of Robust Teleconnections to East African Rainfall Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, J. Brent; Robertson, F. R.; Funk, C.

    2014-01-01

    Hidden Markov models can be used to investigate structure of subseasonal variability. East African short rain variability has connections to large-scale tropical variability. MJO - Intraseasonal variations connected with appearance of "wet" and "dry" states. ENSO/IOZM SST and circulation anomalies are apparent during years of anomalous residence time in the subseasonal "wet" state. Similar results found in previous studies, but we can interpret this with respect to variations of subseasonal wet and dry modes. Reveal underlying connections between MJO/IOZM/ENSO with respect to East African rainfall.

  17. High osteoporosis risk among East Africans linked to lactase persistence genotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilliard, Constance B

    2016-01-01

    This ecological correlation study explores the marked differential in osteoporosis susceptibility between East and West Africans. African tsetse belt populations are lactase non-persistent (lactose intolerant) and possess none of the genetic polymorphisms carried by lactase persistent (lactose tolerant) ethnic populations. What appears paradoxical, however, is the fact that Niger-Kordofanian (NK) West African ethnicities are also at minimal risk of osteoporosis. Although East Africans share a genetic affinity with NK West Africans, they display susceptibility rates of the bone disorder closer to those found in Europe. Similar to Europeans, they also carry alleles conferring the lactase persistence genetic traits. Hip fracture rates of African populations are juxtaposed with a global model to determine whether it is the unique ecology of the tsetse-infested zone or other variables that may be at work. This project uses MINITAB 17 software for regression analyses. The research data are found on AJOL (African Journals Online), PUBMED and JSTOR (Scholarly Journal Archive). Data showing the risk of osteoporosis to be 80 times higher among East Africans with higher levels of lactase persistence than lactase non-persistence West Africans are compared with global statistics. Hip fracture rates in 40 countries exhibit a high Pearson's correlation of r=0.851, with P-value=0.000 in relation to dairy consumption. Lower correlations are seen for hip fracture incidence vis-à-vis lactase persistence, per capita income and animal protein consumption. Ethnic populations who lack lactase persistence single-nucleotide polymorphisms may be at low risk of developing osteoporosis.

  18. Intra-Regional Agricultural Exports in the East African Community

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Kazungu

    African Journal of Economic Review, Volume V, Issue I, January 2017. 14 ... This study investigated the causes of intra-EAC agricultural exports. .... developed a consistent and efficient method of estimating the theoretical gravity equation by.

  19. Signatures of selection for environmental adaptation and zebu × taurine hybrid fitness in East African shorthorn zebu

    Science.gov (United States)

    The East African Shorthorn Zebu (EASZ) cattle are ancient hybrid between Asian zebu × African taurine cattle preferred by local farmers due to their adaptability to the African environment. The genetic controls of these adaptabilities are not clearly understood yet. Here, we genotyped 92 EASZ sample...

  20. The meteorology of the Western Indian Ocean, and the influence of the East African Highlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slingo, Julia; Spencer, Hilary; Hoskins, Brian; Berrisford, Paul; Black, Emily

    2005-01-15

    This paper reviews the meteorology of the Western Indian Ocean and uses a state-of-the-art atmospheric general circulation model to investigate the influence of the East African Highlands on the climate of the Indian Ocean and its surrounding regions. The new 44-year re-analysis produced by the European Centre for Medium range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) has been used to construct a new climatology of the Western Indian Ocean. A brief overview of the seasonal cycle of the Western Indian Ocean is presented which emphasizes the importance of the geography of the Indian Ocean basin for controlling the meteorology of the Western Indian Ocean. The principal modes of inter-annual variability are described, associated with El Nino and the Indian Ocean Dipole or Zonal Mode, and the basic characteristics of the subseasonal weather over the Western Indian Ocean are presented, including new statistics on cyclone tracks derived from the ECMWF re-analyses. Sensitivity experiments, in which the orographic effects of East Africa are removed, have shown that the East African Highlands, although not very high, play a significant role in the climate of Africa, India and Southeast Asia, and in the heat, salinity and momentum forcing of the Western Indian Ocean. The hydrological cycle over Africa is systematically enhanced in all seasons by the presence of the East African Highlands, and during the Asian summer monsoon there is a major redistribution of the rainfall across India and Southeast Asia. The implied impact of the East African Highlands on the ocean is substantial. The East African Highlands systematically freshen the tropical Indian Ocean, and act to focus the monsoon winds along the coast, leading to greater upwelling and cooler sea-surface temperatures.

  1. International Terrorism and East African sub-regionalism

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sulaiman.adebowale

    2006-05-23

    May 23, 2006 ... efforts towards sub-regional integration in Africa in general and East. Africa in particular ... through pursuit of policies advanced by the Bretton Woods institu- ..... vice by UK intelligence that the threat to British interests in Kenya.

  2. The role of households in solid waste management in East African capital cities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Solomon, A.O.

    2011-01-01

    Solid Management is a concern in East African capital cities. The absence of managing solid waste is a serious problem. An ever bigger concern is the growing quantities of waste that are generatedat households level in informal settlements. In most cases proper safeguard measures are largely ineffec

  3. Simulating sanitation and waste flows and their environmental impacts in East African urban centres

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oyoo, R.

    2014-01-01

    Simulating Sanitation and Waste Flows and their Environmental Impacts in East African Urban Centres Abstract If improperly managed, urban waste flows can pose a significant threat to the quality of both the natural environment and public health. Just as many urban a

  4. Detection of east/central/south African genotype of chikungunya virus in Myanmar, 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tun, Mya Myat Ngwe; Thant, Kyaw Zin; Inoue, Shingo; Nabeshima, Takeshi; Aoki, Kotaro; Kyaw, Aung Kyaw; Myint, Tin; Tar, Thi; Maung, Kay Thwe Thwe; Hayasaka, Daisuke; Morita, Kouichi

    2014-08-01

    In 2010, chikungunya virus of the East Central South African genotype was isolated from 4 children in Myanmyar who had dengue-like symptoms. Phylogenetic analysis of the E1 gene revealed that the isolates were closely related to isolates from China, Thailand, and Malaysia that harbor the A226V mutation in this gene.

  5. Characteristics of soils in selected maize growing sites along altitudinal gradients in East African highlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elijah Njuguna

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Maize is the main staple crop in the East African Mountains. Understanding how the edaphic characteristics change along altitudinal gradients is important for maximizing maize production in East African Highlands, which are the key maize production areas in the region. This study evaluated and compared the levels of some macro and micro-elements (Al, Ca, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na and P and other soil parameters (pH, organic carbon content, soil texture [i.e. % Sand, % Clay and % Silt], cation exchange capacity [CEC], electric conductivity [EC], and water holding capacity [HC]. Soil samples were taken from maize plots along three altitudinal gradients in East African highlands (namely Machakos Hills, Taita Hills and Mount Kilimanjaro characterized by graded changes in climatic conditions. For all transects, pH, Ca, K and Mg decreased with the increase in altitude. In contrast, % Silt, organic carbon content, Al and water holding capacity (HC increased with increasing altitude. The research provides information on the status of the physical–chemical characteristics of soils along three altitudinal ranges of East African Highlands and includes data available for further research.

  6. The impact of the geologic history and paleoclimate on the diversification of East african cichlids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danley, Patrick D; Husemann, Martin; Ding, Baoqing; Dipietro, Lyndsay M; Beverly, Emily J; Peppe, Daniel J

    2012-01-01

    The cichlid fishes of the East African Great Lakes are the largest extant vertebrate radiation identified to date. These lakes and their surrounding waters support over 2,000 species of cichlid fish, many of which are descended from a single common ancestor within the past 10 Ma. The extraordinary East African cichlid diversity is intricately linked to the highly variable geologic and paleoclimatic history of this region. Greater than 10 Ma, the western arm of the East African rift system began to separate, thereby creating a series of rift basins that would come to contain several water bodies, including the extremely deep Lakes Tanganyika and Malawi. Uplifting associated with this rifting backponded many rivers and created the extremely large, but shallow Lake Victoria. Since their creation, the size, shape, and existence of these lakes have changed dramatically which has, in turn, significantly influenced the evolutionary history of the lakes' cichlids. This paper reviews the geologic history and paleoclimate of the East African Great Lakes and the impact of these forces on the region's endemic cichlid flocks.

  7. African mutinies in the Netherlands East Indies : a nineteenth-century colonial paradox

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kessel, van W.M.J.; Abbink, J.; Bruijn, de M.E.; Walraven, van K.

    2003-01-01

    Between 1831 and 1872, the Dutch government recruited 3,000 Africans from the Gold Coast and Ashanti (Ghana) for service in the colonial army in the Netherlands East Indies. The majority of them were ex-slaves but were promised that their conditions of service would be the same as those of Europeans

  8. Louse-borne relapsing fever among East African refugees in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antinori, Spinello; Mediannikov, Oleg; Corbellino, Mario; Raoult, Didier

    2016-01-01

    Louse-borne relapsing fever a neglected and forgotten disease by western physicians has recently re-emerged among East African migrants seeking asylum in Europe. We review here the cases observed so far together with a critical reappraisal of several issues regarding clinical presentation, diagnosis and treatment.

  9. Survey of care and evaluation of East African burn unit feasibility: an academic burn center exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Katrina B; Giiti, Geofrey; Gallagher, James J

    2013-01-01

    Weill Cornell Medical College in New York, partnered with Weill Bugando Medical College and Sekou Toure Regional Referral Hospital, in Mwanza, Tanzania, to consider the development of a burn unit there. This institutional partnership provided a unique opportunity to promote sustainable academic exchange and build burn care capacity in the East African region. A Weill Cornell burn surgeon and burn fellow collaborated with the Sekou Toure department of surgery to assess its current burn care capabilities and potential for burn unit development. All aspects of interdisciplinary burn care were reviewed and institutional infrastructure evaluated. Sekou Toure is a 375-bed regional referral center and teaching hospital of Weill Bugando Medical College. In 2010-2011, it admitted 5244 pediatric patients in total; 100 of these patients were burn-injured children (2% of admissions). There was no specific data kept on percentage of body surface burned, degree of burn, length of stay, or complications. No adult, operative, or outpatient burn data were available. There are two operating theaters. Patient's families perform wound care with nursing supervision. Rehabilitation therapists consult as needed. Meals are provided three times daily by a central kitchen. Public health outreach is possible through village-based communication networks. Infrastructure to support the development of a burn care unit exists at Sekou Toure, but needs increased clinical focus, human resource capacity building, and record-keeping to track accurate patient numbers. A multidisciplinary center could improve record-keeping and outcomes, encourage referrals, and facilitate outreach through villages.

  10. Fractional Vegetation Cover of East African Wetlands Observed on Ground and from Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, M.; Amler, E.; Guerschmann, J. P.; Scarth, P.; Behn, K.; Thonfeld, F.

    2016-08-01

    Wetlands are important ecosystems providing numerous ecosystem services. They are of particular importance to communities in East Africa where agriculture is the most important economic sector and where food availability to households critical. During an intensive field campaign in the dry season of 2013 were Fractional Vegetation Cover (FVC) measurements, botanical vegetation cover and vegetation structure estimates acquired in three wetland test sites within the East African region. FVC cover data were collated in three strata: ground layer, midstorey and overstorey (woody vegetation greater than 2 m). Fractional cover estimates for the green and no-green vegetative fraction were calculated for Landsat MODIS imagery. These FVC data products were evaluated a) with FVC field data and b) relative to each other for their usability in the East African region. First results show some promise for further studies.

  11. Global AIDS medicines in East African health institutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Hardon; H. Dilger

    2011-01-01

    In this introduction to the special issue, we follow the journey of global AIDS medicines into diverse health facilities in East Africa, which for decades have been subjected to neoliberal reform processes and increasing fragmentation. The introduction explores the multifaceted and multidirectional

  12. Modern non-pollen palynomorphs from East African Lake sediments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gelorini, V.; Verbeken, A.; van Geel, B.; Cocquyt, C.; Verschuren, D.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents an illustrated guide to the identification of non-pollen palynomorphs (NPPs) preserved in lake-sediment archives from equatorial East Africa. Modern NPPs were recovered from recently deposited surface sediment in 20 small crater lakes in western Uganda, located along environmenta

  13. From the Palaeozoic collapse of the East African-Antarctic Orogen to Gondwana rifting in NE Mozambique

    OpenAIRE

    Jacobs, J; Emmel, B.; Ueda, K.; Thomas, R J; Kosler, J.; Horstwood, M.; Jordan, F.; Kleinhanns, I.; Engvik, A.; B. Bingen; Daudi, E.X.

    2011-01-01

    The East African passive margin resulted from complex reactivation of the ca. 600–500 Ma East African-Antarctic Orogen (EAAO). With the help of a large set of new thermochronological data (U-Pb titanite, Ar-Ar hornblende and biotite, as well as zircon, titanite and apatite fission-track analyses) we have modelled the tectono-thermal history of NE Mozambique from the late (Lower Palaeozoic) stages of the East African-Antarctic Orogeny to its transformation into a passive margin in the Mesozoic.

  14. Outbreak of chikungunya due to virus of Central/East African genotype in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noridah, O; Paranthaman, V; Nayar, S K; Masliza, M; Ranjit, K; Norizah, I; Chem, Y K; Mustafa, B; Kumarasamy, V; Chua, K B

    2007-10-01

    Chikungunya is an acute febrile illness caused by an alphavirus which is transmitted by infective Aedes mosquitoes. Two previous outbreaks of chikungunya in Malaysia were due to chikungunya virus of Asian genotype. The present outbreak involved two adjoining areas in the suburb of Ipoh city within the Kinta district of Perak, a state in the northern part of Peninsular Malaysia. Thirty seven residents in the main outbreak area and two patients in the secondary area were laboratory confirmed to be infected with the virus. The index case was a 44-year Indian man who visited Paramakudi, Tamil Naidu, India on 21st November 2006 and returned home on 30th of November 2006, and subsequently developed high fever and joint pain on the 3rd of December 2006. A number of chikungunya virus isolates were isolated from both patients and Aedes albopictus mosquitoes in the affected areas. Molecular study showed that the chikungunya virus causing the Kinta outbreak was of the Central/East African genotype which occurred for the first time in Malaysia.

  15. The genetics of East African populations: a Nilo-Saharan component in the African genetic landscape

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dobon, B.; Hassan, H.Y.; Laayouni, H.; Luisi, P.; Ricano-Ponce, I.; Zhernakova, A.; Wijmenga, C.; Tahir, H.; Comas, D.; Netea, M.G.; Bertranpetit, J.

    2015-01-01

    East Africa is a strategic region to study human genetic diversity due to the presence of ethnically, linguistically, and geographically diverse populations. Here, we provide new insight into the genetic history of populations living in the Sudanese region of East Africa by analysing nine ethnic gro

  16. Pan-African granulites of central Dronning Maud Land and Mozambique: A comparison within the East-African-Antarctic orogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engvik, A.K.; Elevevold, S.; Jacobs, J.; Tveten, E.; de Azevedo, S.; Njange, F.

    2007-01-01

    Granulite-facies metamorphism is extensively reported in Late Neoproterozoic/Early Palaeozoic time during formation of the East-African-Antarctic orogen (EAAO). Metamorphic data acquired from the Pan-African orogen of central Dronning Maud Land (cDML) are compared with data from northern Mozambique. The metamorphic rocks of cDML are characterised by Opx±Grt-bearing gneisses and Sil+Kfs-bearing metapelites which indicate medium-P granulite-facies metamorphism. Peak conditions, which are estimated to 800-900ºC at pressures up to 1.0 GPa, were followed by near-isothermal decompression during late Pan-African extension and exhumation. Granulite-facies lithologies are widespread in northern Mozambique, and Grt+Cpx-bearing assemblages show that high-P granulite-facies conditions with PT reaching 1.55 GPa and 900ºC were reached during the Pan-African orogeny. Garnet is replaced by symplectites of Pl+Opx+Mag indicating isothermal decompression, and the subsequent formation of Pl+amphibole-coronas suggests cooling into amphibolite facies. It is concluded that high-T metamorphism was pervasive in EAAO in Late Neoproterozoic/Early Paleozoic time, strongly overprinting evidences of earlier metamorphic assemblages.

  17. East African wetland-catchment data base for sustainable wetland management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Leemhuis

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Wetlands cover an area of approx. 18 Mio ha in the East African countries of Kenya, Rwanda, Uganda and Tanzania, with still a relative small share being used for food production. Current upland agricultural use intensification in these countries due to demographic growth, climate change and globalization effects are leading to an over-exploitation of the resource base, followed by an intensification of agricultural wetland use. We aim on translating, transferring and upscaling knowledge on experimental test-site wetland properties, small-scale hydrological processes, and water related ecosystem services under different types of management from local to national scale. This information gained at the experimental wetland/catchment scale will be embedded as reference data within an East African wetland-catchment data base including catchment physical properties and a regional wetland inventory serving as a base for policy advice and the development of sustainable wetland management strategies.

  18. East African wetland-catchment data base for sustainable wetland management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leemhuis, Constanze; Amler, Esther; Diekkrüger, Bernd; Gabiri, Geofrey; Näschen, Kristian

    2016-10-01

    Wetlands cover an area of approx. 18 Mio ha in the East African countries of Kenya, Rwanda, Uganda and Tanzania, with still a relative small share being used for food production. Current upland agricultural use intensification in these countries due to demographic growth, climate change and globalization effects are leading to an over-exploitation of the resource base, followed by an intensification of agricultural wetland use. We aim on translating, transferring and upscaling knowledge on experimental test-site wetland properties, small-scale hydrological processes, and water related ecosystem services under different types of management from local to national scale. This information gained at the experimental wetland/catchment scale will be embedded as reference data within an East African wetland-catchment data base including catchment physical properties and a regional wetland inventory serving as a base for policy advice and the development of sustainable wetland management strategies.

  19. East African lake evidence for Pliocene millennial-scale climate variability

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, Katy E.; Maslin, Mark A.; Leng, Melanie J.; Kingston, John D.; Deino, Alan L.; Edgar, Robert K.; Mackay, Anson W.

    2014-01-01

    Late Cenozoic climate history in Africa was punctuated by episodes of variability, characterized by the appearance and disappearance of large freshwater lakes within the East African Rift Valley. In the Baringo-Bogoria basin, a well-dated sequence of diatomites and fluviolacustrine sediments documents the precessionally forced cycling of an extensive lake system between 2.70 Ma and 2.55 Ma. One diatomite unit was studied, using the oxygen isotope composition of diatom silica combined with X-r...

  20. East African Community (EAC) as Regionalism : The Exclusion and Inclusion of Globalization

    OpenAIRE

    Butanaziba, Yunus Lubega

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to examine and recommend possible prescriptions against problems that regionalism has since occasioned for the last 110 years, and the ones we might face in the short and long term future. It brings forward the East African Community (EAC) as a regional grouping under the ‘exclusive’ and ‘inclusive’ damages of controls by western dominant states, particularly Britain and the United States of America (USA). The problem is that official reasoning and incompetence ...

  1. Governance and Development of the East African Community : The Ethical Sustainability Framework

    OpenAIRE

    Kanakulya, Dickson

    2015-01-01

    The pursuit of sustainability of governance and development has become a major challenge in contemporary times because of increasing realization that: various ecological and social systems are interconnected; and the complexity of our natural and constructed environs requires holistic approaches to avoid catastrophic fissures in the systems on which humans depend. As regional governments such as the East African Community (EAC) become important in Africa (and other regions), they present oppo...

  2. Stable isotope geochemistry of East African waters. [Abstract only

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sayer, M.D.; Cerling, T.E.; Bowman, J.R.

    1983-03-01

    Lakes and Rivers in East Africa have varied stable isotopic compositions. Lakes exhibit enriched delta13-C values (-2 to +5%), while their inflowing rivers show depleted values (-15 to -8%). Hot springs and standing pools of water have intermediate values. Some small lakes are extremely variable in delta18-0 or deltaD (+2 to +8% and +20 to +40%, respectively for Lake Naivasha), whereas larger lakes are relatively constant for long periods of time (+5.6 to 6.1 and +36 to 40, respectively for Lake Turkana). Isotopic values are unrelated to salinity for comparison between lakes. Stable isotopes also reveal the sources of hot spring discharges: the Kapedo hot springs probably originate from Maralel and not from Lake Baringo as local legend has it; the hot springs north of Lake Naivasha are of meteoric origin while those to the south of Lake Naivasha have similar isotopic compositions to Lake Naivasha.

  3. Post-Pan-African tectonic evolution of South Malawi in relation to the Karroo and recent East African rift systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castaing, C.

    1991-05-01

    Structural studies conducted in the Lengwe and Mwabvi Karroo basins and in the basement in South Malawi, using regional maps and published data extended to cover Southeast Africa, serve to propose a series of geodynamic reconstructions which reveal the persistence of an extensional tectonic regime, the minimum stress σ3 of which has varied through time. The period of Karroo rifting and the tholeiitic and alkaline magmatism which terminated it, were controlled by NW-SE extension, which resulted in the creation of roughly NE-SW troughs articulated by the Tanganyika-Malawi and Zambesi pre-transform systems. These were NW-SE sinistral-slip systems with directions of movement dipping slightly to the Southeast, which enabled the Mwanza fault to play an important role in the evolution of the Karroo basins of the Shire Valley. The Cretaceous was a transition period between the Karroo rifting and the formation of the Recent East African Rift System. Extension was NE-SW, with some evidence for a local compressional episode in the Lengwe basin. Beginning in the Cenozoic, the extension once more became NW-SE and controlled the evolution in transtension of the Recent East African Rift System. This history highlights the major role of transverse faults systems dominated by strike-slip motion in the evolution and perpetuation of the continental rift systems. These faults are of a greater geological persistence than the normal faults bounding the grabens, especially when they are located on major basement anisotropies.

  4. Orogen styles in the East African Orogen: A review of the Neoproterozoic to Cambrian tectonic evolution☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, H.; Abdelsalam, M.; Ali, K.A.; Bingen, B.; Collins, A.S.; Fowler, A.R.; Ghebreab, W.; Hauzenberger, C.A.; Johnson, P.R.; Kusky, T.M.; Macey, P.; Muhongo, S.; Stern, R.J.; Viola, G.

    2013-01-01

    The East African Orogen, extending from southern Israel, Sinai and Jordan in the north to Mozambique and Madagascar in the south, is the world́s largest Neoproterozoic to Cambrian orogenic complex. It comprises a collage of individual oceanic domains and continental fragments between the Archean Sahara–Congo–Kalahari Cratons in the west and Neoproterozoic India in the east. Orogen consolidation was achieved during distinct phases of orogeny between ∼850 and 550 Ma. The northern part of the orogen, the Arabian–Nubian Shield, is predominantly juvenile Neoproterozoic crust that formed in and adjacent to the Mozambique Ocean. The ocean closed during a protracted period of island-arc and microcontinent accretion between ∼850 and 620 Ma. To the south of the Arabian Nubian Shield, the Eastern Granulite–Cabo Delgado Nappe Complex of southern Kenya, Tanzania and Mozambique was an extended crust that formed adjacent to theMozambique Ocean and experienced a ∼650–620 Ma granulite-facies metamorphism. Completion of the nappe assembly around 620 Ma is defined as the East African Orogeny and was related to closure of the Mozambique Ocean. Oceans persisted after 620 Ma between East Antarctica, India, southern parts of the Congo–Tanzania–Bangweulu Cratons and the Zimbabwe–Kalahari Craton. They closed during the ∼600–500 Ma Kuungan or Malagasy Orogeny, a tectonothermal event that affected large portions of southern Tanzania, Zambia, Malawi, Mozambique, Madagascar and Antarctica. The East African and Kuungan Orogenies were followed by phases of post-orogenic extension. Early ∼600–550 Ma extension is recorded in the Arabian–Nubian Shield and the Eastern Granulite–Cabo Delgado Nappe Complex. Later ∼550–480 Ma extension affected Mozambique and southern Madagascar. Both extension phases, although diachronous,are interpreted as the result of lithospheric delamination. Along the strike of the East African Orogen, different geodynamic settings

  5. 156 EAST AFRICAN MEDICAL JOURNAL Ma/"ch 2002

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To assess post-surgical management of patients with breast cancer at the Kenyatta. National Hospital. ... although absolute benefit of the effect is somewhat smaller ..... women with breast cancer insensitive to hormones, or those.

  6. East African Medical Journal - Vol 80, No 8 (2003)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Quality of glycaemic control in ambulatory diabetics at the out-patient clinic of Kenyatta ... Pain management in mice using the aqueous and ethanol extracts of four medicinal ... Visceral leishmaniasis with concomitant post kala-asar Dermal ...

  7. Human Rights in the Context of Deepening Integration of East African Community (EAC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard MUKO OCHANDA

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study contributes to the discourse on the process of political integration by studying East African Community (EAC’s integration efforts in the light of Human Rights Based Approach (HBRA. Data used has been assembled from various sources such as media reports, EAC documents and country statistical reports from various institutions such as bureaus of statistics, UNDP, UNAIDS, World Bank, Freedom House and Transparency International. This study has been on-going from 2008 to 2012. The study found that various structures have been created to aid the deepening integration efforts in East Africa. With the exception of human rights, the EAC treaty stipulates eleven areas of collaboration. It was also found that Tanzania scores better than other countries on political and civil liberties, while Human Welfare Indicators were a challenge in the entire EAC. The Gini index scores were high and worsening in some countries over time, indicating the presence of distributive injustices.Other areas of concern comprised media control, gender based challenges, harassment of opposition and poor protection of minorities and vulnerable populations. Four countries of the region are part of the Africa Peer Review Mechanism (APRMprocess. The APRM as a process is meant to promote good governance and presents an opportunity for bettering human rights in the region.The study ends by recommending the mainstreaming of Human Rights Based Approach (HBRA through the formation of East African Human Rights Commission (EAHRC within EAC structures.

  8. Domestic Preparedness for Trade in Services Liberalization: Are East African Countries prepared for Further Trade Liberalization?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BAGUMHE, Elias Peter

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Services are the fastest growing sectors in the global economy. Over the past decades East African countries have witnessed even faster growing rates of the share of trade services in their GDPs. The total services export of EAC countries increased from USD 1868 mills in 1995 to USD 5681 mills in 2008 (WDI 2010 which is approximately three times increase compared to 1995. Along with this growth, liberalization of services trade is becoming a critical economic agenda of these economies. EAC countries have also made unilateral liberalizations in a number of services sectors since the mid 1980’s. On top of that EAC countries have also made commitment to liberalize service trade at the multilateral level. Furthermore a significant commitment of their services sectors has been made under the East African Integration Process beginning from first July 2010. This paper argues that although the importance of services as a share of overall GDP, increase with growth on FDI and employment. Its growth can be driven by number of factors, such as final demand factors and basic structural changes in production, linked to development. Weak domestic preparedness before opening up is likely to be associated with unsatisfactory and undesirable outcomes of services trade liberalization. This paper tries to expound issues that are essential on domestic preparedness for service trade liberalization and analyses the associated concerns. The purpose of this paper is not to provide answers but to shed some light on how services Trade liberalization is currently operationalized in the East African countries, in particular, that is, to open up the “black box”, and indicate the operational design elements around which variance is the highest.

  9. TEC variations along an East Euro-African chain during 5th April 2010 geomagnetic storm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimeis, A.; Borries, C.; Amory-Mazaudier, C.; Fleury, R.; Mahrous, A. M.; Hassan, A. F.; Nawar, S.

    2015-05-01

    In this paper, we analyzed the variations of TEC along a latitudinal East Euro-African chain, during the storm of April 5, 2010. We observed a large asymmetry between the two hemispheres. We detected the presence of a TID in the Northern hemisphere on April 5. The propagation time of the TID from high to low latitudes and the speed of the TID was determined. On April 5, 6 and 7, we observed a decrease of the TEC and changes of the NO+ in the Northern hemisphere. This depletion is caused by the large-scale thermospheric wind disturbances due to Joule heating dissipation in the auroral zone.

  10. Interannual modulation of East African early short rains by the winter Arctic Oscillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Dao-Yi; Guo, Dong; Mao, Rui; Yang, Jing; Gao, Yongqi; Kim, Seong-Joong

    2016-08-01

    In the present study, we analyzed the interannual linkage between the boreal winter Arctic Oscillation (AO) and East African early short rains. When the Indian Ocean Dipole and El Niño-Southern Oscillation variance are excluded by linear regression, the boreal winter AO index is significantly correlated with the October East African precipitation over the domain of 5°N-5°S and 35°-45°E for the period 1979-2014, r =+ 0.46. The upper ocean heat content likely acts as a medium that links the AO and East African precipitation. Significant subsurface warming and positive upper ocean heat content anomalies occur over the western Indian Ocean during the autumn following positive AO winters, which enriches the atmospheric moisture, intensifies convection, and enhances precipitation. Oceanic dynamics play a key role in causing this subsurface warming. Winter AO-related atmospheric circulation creates anomalous wind stress, which forces a downwelling oceanic Rossby wave between 60°-75°E and 5°-10°S, where the thermocline significantly deepens. This Rossby wave propagates westward and accompanies significant subsurface warming along the thermocline. The Rossby wave arrives at the western Indian Ocean in the late summer, significantly warming the region to the west of 55°E at a depth of 60-100 m. This warming remains significant through October. Correspondingly, the upper ocean heat content significantly increases by approximately 2-3 × 108 J m-2 in the region west of 60°E between 5° and 10°S. The role of these oceanic dynamics in linking the winter AO, and anomalous subsurface warming was tested by numerical experiments with an oceanic general circulation model. The experiments were performed with the forcing of AO-related wind stress anomalies over the Indian Ocean in the winter. The oceanic Rossby wave generated in the central Indian Ocean during boreal winter, the consequent subsurface warming, and the anomalous upper ocean heat content in October over the

  11. Post-collisional magmatism in the central East African Orogen: The Maevarano Suite of north Madagascar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodenough, K.M.; Thomas, Ronald J.; De Waele, B.; Key, R.M.; Schofield, D.I.; Bauer, W.; Tucker, R.D.; Rafahatelo, J.-M.; Rabarimanana, M.; Ralison, A.V.; Randriamananjara, T.

    2010-01-01

    Late tectonic, post-collisional granite suites are a feature of many parts of the Late Neoproterozoic to Cambrian East African Orogen (EAO), where they are generally attributed to late extensional collapse of the orogen, accompanied by high heat flow and asthenospheric uprise. The Maevarano Suite comprises voluminous plutons which were emplaced in some of the tectonostratigraphic terranes of northern Madagascar, in the central part of the EAO, following collision and assembly during a major orogeny at ca. 550 Ma. The suite comprises three main magmatic phases: a minor early phase of foliated gabbros, quartz diorites, and granodiorites; a main phase of large batholiths of porphyritic granitoids and charnockites; and a late phase of small-scale plutons and sheets of monzonite, syenite, leucogranite and microgranite. The main phase intrusions tend to be massive, but with variably foliated margins. New U-Pb SHRIMP zircon data show that the whole suite was emplaced between ca. 537 and 522 Ma. Geochemically, all the rocks of the suite are enriched in the LILE, especially K, and the LREE, but are relatively depleted in Nb, Ta and the HREE. These characteristics are typical of post-collisional granitoids in the EAO and many other orogenic belts. It is proposed that the Maevarano Suite magmas were derived by melting of sub-continental lithospheric mantle that had been enriched in the LILE during earlier subduction events. The melting occurred during lithospheric delamination, which was associated with extensional collapse of the East African Orogen. ?? 2009 Natural Environment Research Council.

  12. Phylogenetic relationships among East African haplochromine fish as revealed by short interspersed elements (SINEs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terai, Yohey; Takezaki, Naoko; Mayer, Werner E; Tichy, Herbert; Takahata, Naoyuki; Klein, Jan; Okada, Norihiro

    2004-01-01

    Genomic DNA libraries were prepared from two endemic species of Lake Victoria haplochromine (cichlid) fish and used to isolate and characterize a set of short interspersed elements (SINEs). The distribution and sequences of the SINEs were used to infer phylogenetic relationships among East African haplochromines. The SINE-based classification divides the fish into four groups, which, in order of their divergence from a stem lineage, are the endemic Lake Tanganyika flock (group 1); fish of the nonendemic, monotypic, widely distributed genus Astatoreochromis (group 2); the endemic Lake Malawi flock (group 3); and group 4, which contains fish from widely dispersed East African localities including Lakes Victoria, Edward, George, Albert, and Rukwa, as well as many rivers. The group 4 haplochromines are characterized by a subset of polymorphic SINEs, each of which is present in some individuals and absent in others of the same population at a given locality, the same morphologically defined species, and the same mtDNA-defined haplogroup. SINE-defined group 4 contains six of the seven previously described mtDNA haplogroups. One of the polymorphic SINEs appears to be fixed in the endemic Lake Victoria flock; four others display the presence-or-absence polymorphism within the species of this flock. These findings have implications for the origin of Lake Victoria cichlids and for their founding population sizes.

  13. Evarcha culicivora chooses blood-fed Anopheles mosquitoes but other East African jumping spiders do not.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, R R; Nelson, X J

    2012-06-01

    Previous research using computer animation and lures made from dead prey has demonstrated that the East African salticid Evarcha culicivora Wesolowska & Jackson (Araneae: Salticidae) feeds indirectly on vertebrate blood by actively choosing blood-carrying female mosquitoes as prey, and also that it singles out mosquitoes of the genus Anopheles (Diptera: Culicidae) by preference. Here, we demonstrate that E. culicivora's preference is expressed when the species is tested with living prey and that it is unique to E. culicivora. As an alternative hypothesis, we considered the possibility that the preference for blood-fed female anopheline mosquitoes might be widespread in East African salticids. When live-prey choice tests were carried out in 19 additional species, there were no instances in which blood-carrying mosquitoes were chosen significantly more often than other prey. Combined with the findings of previous work, these results suggest that it is possible that specialized predators play a role in the biological control of disease vectors. © 2011 The Authors. Medical and Veterinary Entomology © 2011 The Royal Entomological Society.

  14. Field Plot Techniques for Black Sigatoka Evaluation in East African Highland Bananas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okoro, JU.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Number of plants per experimental unit and number of replications for the efficient and precise assessment of black sigatoka leaf spot disease caused by Mycosphaerella fijiensis in East African Highland bananas were determined. Two representative cultivars were used. Host response to black sigatoka infection was measured by recording the youngest leaf with necrotic spots. The number of plants per experimental unit was determined, using the methods of maximum curvature and comparison of variances, while the number of replications was estimated by Hatheway's method. The optimum experimental plot size was 3 plants (18 m2 for the beer banana cultivar 'Igitsiri', and 30 plants (180 m2 for the cooking banana cultivar 'Igisahira Gisanzwe', using the comparison of variances method. However, the optimum plot size was 15 plants (90 m2 for both cultivars using the method of maximum curvature. The latter statistical method was preferred because of the low precision of the estimates in the former method. Unreplicated trials with plots of 15 plants could be adequate to assess black sigatoka response in East African bananas if uniform disease pressure exists.

  15. East African origins for Madagascan chickens as indicated by mitochondrial DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Michael B.; Thomson, Vicki A.; Wadley, Jessica J.; Piper, Philip J.; Sulandari, Sri; Dharmayanthi, Anik Budhi; Kraitsek, Spiridoula; Gongora, Jaime

    2017-01-01

    The colonization of Madagascar by Austronesian-speaking people during AD 50–500 represents the most westerly point of the greatest diaspora in prehistory. A range of economically important plants and animals may have accompanied the Austronesians. Domestic chickens (Gallus gallus) are found in Madagascar, but it is unclear how they arrived there. Did they accompany the initial Austronesian-speaking populations that reached Madagascar via the Indian Ocean or were they late arrivals with Arabian and African sea-farers? To address this question, we investigated the mitochondrial DNA control region diversity of modern chickens sampled from around the Indian Ocean rim (Southeast Asia, South Asia, the Arabian Peninsula, East Africa and Madagascar). In contrast to the linguistic and human genetic evidence indicating dual African and Southeast Asian ancestry of the Malagasy people, we find that chickens in Madagascar only share a common ancestor with East Africa, which together are genetically closer to South Asian chickens than to those in Southeast Asia. This suggests that the earliest expansion of Austronesian-speaking people across the Indian Ocean did not successfully introduce chickens to Madagascar. Our results further demonstrate the complexity of the translocation history of introduced domesticates in Madagascar.

  16. Determinants of Oral Diseases in the African and Middle East Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chidzonga, M M; Carneiro, L C; Kalyanyama, B M; Kwamin, F; Oginni, F O

    2015-07-01

    Oral health policies must be developed that emphasize the role of social determinants in health and oral diseases. The aim of this report is to review literature on determinants of oral diseases and apply the concepts to promoting oral health in the African countries in the African and Middle East region (AMER). Structural and proximal determinants of oral diseases are common to those affected by other noncommunicable diseases (NCDs). Oral diseases are also heavily affected by issues of politics, poor health behaviors, underdeveloped health systems, and low oral health literacy. Wide-scale poverty exists in populations in the AMER. Oral health promotion and preventive oral health programs should therefore be integrated with those for general health and use the common risk factor approach (CRFA). Attempts should be made to improve the daily living conditions and reduce the incline of the social gradient. Oral health practitioners should use the CRFA when dealing with determinants of oral diseases and in the design of preventive oral health programs. The detrimental effects of the social determinants of health may be ameliorated by involving both the individual and community. Interventions in health promotion programs in the AMER need more research on the epidemiology of oral diseases and the role played by the social determinants of oral diseases, especially with regard to poverty. The high levels of poverty and low gross domestic product in most countries in the African region make it difficult to fund high-quality, affordable, accessible oral health services. © International & American Associations for Dental Research 2015.

  17. Comparisons of coat protein gene sequences show that East African isolates of Sweet potato feathery mottle virus form a genetically distinct group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreuze, J F; Karyeija, R F; Gibson, R W; Valkonen, J P

    2000-01-01

    Sweet potato feathery mottle virus (SPFMV, genus Potyvirus) infects sweet potatoes (Ipomoea batatas) worldwide, but no sequence data on isolates from Africa are available. Coat protein (CP) gene sequences from eight East African isolates from Madagascar and different districts of Uganda (the second biggest sweet potato producer in the world) and two West African isolates from Nigeria and Niger were determined. They were compared by phylogenetic analysis with the previously reported sequences of ten SPFMV isolates from other continents. The East African SPFMV isolates formed a distinct cluster, whereas the other isolates were not clustered according to geographic origin. These data indicate that East African isolates of SPFMV form a genetically unique group.

  18. Gene-centric meta-analysis of lipid traits in African, East Asian and Hispanic populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara C Elbers

    Full Text Available Meta-analyses of European populations has successfully identified genetic variants in over 100 loci associated with lipid levels, but our knowledge in other ethnicities remains limited. To address this, we performed dense genotyping of ∼2,000 candidate genes in 7,657 African Americans, 1,315 Hispanics and 841 East Asians, using the IBC array, a custom ∼50,000 SNP genotyping array. Meta-analyses confirmed 16 lipid loci previously established in European populations at genome-wide significance level, and found multiple independent association signals within these lipid loci. Initial discovery and in silico follow-up in 7,000 additional African American samples, confirmed two novel loci: rs5030359 within ICAM1 is associated with total cholesterol (TC and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C (p = 8.8×10(-7 and p = 1.5×10(-6 respectively and a nonsense mutation rs3211938 within CD36 is associated with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C levels (p = 13.5×10(-12. The rs3211938-G allele, which is nearly absent in European and Asian populations, has been previously found to be associated with CD36 deficiency and shows a signature of selection in Africans and African Americans. Finally, we have evaluated the effect of SNPs established in European populations on lipid levels in multi-ethnic populations and show that most known lipid association signals span across ethnicities. However, differences between populations, especially differences in allele frequency, can be leveraged to identify novel signals, as shown by the discovery of ICAM1 and CD36 in the current report.

  19. Managing the hair and skin of African American pediatric patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, W; Burns, C

    1999-01-01

    In Africa, the ancestral home of most African Americans, hair is viewed as the epitome of beauty. However, when Africans were brought to America as slaves, they were unable to care for their hair and skin adequately and were exposed to the predominant white culture, which valued straight hair and light skin. As a result, many African Americans lost self-esteem because of the characteristics of their hair and skin. In this article we examine the anatomic and physiologic features of African American hair and skin and typical African American hair and skin care practices. Common African American hair and skin disorders and their management are discussed. The goal of this article is to help primary care providers understand the special hair and skin care required for African American children (as well as other dark-skinned patients). With good patient education, understanding one's own hair and skin characteristics can also support positive self-esteem.

  20. Empowerment model for nurse leaders' participation in health policy development: an east African perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shariff, Nilufa Jivraj

    2015-01-01

    Nurses comprise the largest portion of the health care workforce in most countries; they interact closely with patients and communities, they work throughout the day and within all sectors of health care. Their breath of practice gives them a broad understanding of requirements of the health care system, of how factors in the environment affect the health outcomes of clients and communities. Nurses' involvement in health policy development ensures that health services are: safe, effective, available and inexpensive. A Delphi survey was utilized and included the following criteria: expert panelists, three iterative rounds, qualitative and quantitative analysis, and building consensus. The overall aim of the study was to develop "An Empowerment Model for Nurse Leaders' participation in Health Policy Development". The study included purposively selected sample of national nurse leaders from the three East African countries of Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda. The study was conducted in three iterative rounds. Data collection tools were questionnaires. Data analysis was done by examining the data for the most commonly occurring concepts in the first round and descriptive statistics in the second and third rounds. The findings of the study support the development of the "Empowerment Model for Nurse Leaders' Participation in Health Policy Development". Further the study identified that there was a significant gap in and barriers to participation in health policy activity and that an opportunity seems to exist to enable and develop nurse leaders' role and involvement in this respect. There was consensus on factors considered to be facilitators and barriers to nurse leaders' involvement in health policy development. Furthermore, consensus was achieved on essential leadership attributes that enhance nurse leaders' participation in health policy development. The model was validated a small sample of the nurse leaders' who participated in the study. The model provides a framework

  1. East African highland bananas (Musa spp. AAA-EA) 'worry' more about potassium deficiency than drought stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taulya, G.

    2013-01-01

    Drought stress, potassium (K) and nitrogen (N) deficiencies are major constraints to rain-fed East African highland banana (EAHB) production in Uganda. It was hypothesised that the reduction in fresh bunch mass and increase in dry matter (DM) allocation to corms with drought stress, K and N deficien

  2. Mineral fertilizer response and nutrient use efficiencies of East African highland banana (Musa spp., AAA-EAHB, cv. Kisansa)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nyombi, K.; Asten, van P.J.A.; Corbeels, M.; Taulya, G.; Leffelaar, P.A.; Giller, K.E.

    2010-01-01

    Poor yields of East African highland bananas (Musa spp., AAA-EAHB) on smallholder farms have often been attributed to problems of poor soil fertility. We measured the effects of mineral fertilizers on crop performance at two sites over two to three crop cycles; Kawanda in central Uganda and Ntungamo

  3. Norms for multivariate diagnosis of nutrient imbalance in the East African highland bananas (musa spp.aaa)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wairegi, L.; Asten, van P.

    2011-01-01

    Despite low yields and soil fertility problems, fertilizer use in the East African Highland banana (AAA-EA) production is absent. High fertilizer costs increase the need for site-specific fertilizer recommendations that address deficiencies. This study aimed to derive and compare norms for AAA-EA ba

  4. Transitioning from a Theological College to a Christian University in East African Context: A Multi-Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulatu, Semeon

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation analyzed and described transitions from a theological or Bible college to a Christian liberal arts college or university in East African context. The research was specially driven by the desire to find out the reasons for such transitions, the challenges of the transition process and how such transitions affect the mission of the…

  5. The status and relationships of some East African Earless Toads (Anura, Bufonidae) with a description of a new species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grandison, A.G.C.

    1972-01-01

    INTRODUCTION In comparing some small Ethiopian Bufo with the descriptions, types and other examples of numerous forms from East and Central African countries I became very much aware of the confusion that exists in the taxonomy and of the need for a revision of this group of dwarf toads. Most of the

  6. Good Governance and Foreign Direct Investment : A Legal Contribution to a Balanced Economic Development in the East African Community (EAC)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mbembe, Binda

    2015-01-01

    One of the objectives of the East African Community (EAC) is the promotion of a balanced economic development between its Partner States: Burundi, Kenya, Rwanda, Tanzania, and Uganda. And one of the ways to reach this economic development is the attraction of investment, especially Foreign Direct In

  7. Evaluation of the capability of RegCM4.0 in simulating East African climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogwang, Bob Alex; Chen, Haishan; Li, Xing; Gao, Chujie

    2016-04-01

    The International Centre for Theoretical Physics (ICTP) regional climate model RegCM4.0 is used in this study to examine its ability to reproduce the climate of East Africa (EA) in regard to the annual cycle and June-to-August (JJA) seasonal climatology. Two domain sizes [large domain (LD) and small domain (SD)] and two cumulus convection schemes [Grell convection scheme with Fritsch-Chappell closure assumption (GRE scheme) and MIT scheme (EMA scheme)] are used. Simulations were done for the period 1989-2008 at a resolution of 50 km. The experiments were performed with the initial and lateral boundary conditions obtained from ERA-Interim-gridded reanalysis data at a 1.5° resolution. The variables investigated are precipitation, temperature, humidity, diurnal temperature range, and 850-hPa winds. Results show that the model realistically reproduces the East African climate, with a few discrepancies due to the different cumulus convection schemes and the domain sizes used. Grell with Fritsch-Chappell (Grell-FC) scheme captures well the observed climate in regard to the annual cycle and June-to-August seasonal climatology, with a tendency to underestimate rainfall over the JJA rainfall maximum region (RMR). This scheme performs better in LD than in SD. EMA scheme similarly captures well the observed climatology. It tends to overestimate rainfall over RMR. It however performs better in SD than in LD. The ensemble mean of simulations with GRE and EMA schemes (ENSM) tends to offer an improved representation of the observed climate, with a few discrepancies owing to the individual schemes used. In general, therefore, considering the performance of the model in both domains, the East African climate based on this study is better simulated by the Grell-FC scheme over LD. The observed biases in this study signify that the ability of the model in simulating climate over East Africa is still a significant challenge. Thus, future work must focus on improving the performance of

  8. Blood vitamins and trace elements in Northern-East African cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus soemmeringii) in captivity in the Middle East.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckmann, Katie M; O'Donovan, Declan; McKeown, Sean; Wernery, Ulli; Basu, Puja; Bailey, Tom A

    2013-09-01

    There are few published data regarding the endangered Northern-East African cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus soemmeringii), held in captivity in the Middle East and Europe. Studies have demonstrated a high incidence of disease in captive cheetahs, in which vitamin and trace element imbalances have often been implicated. Blood vitamin and trace element reference values in cheetahs merit further investigation. In this study, blood samples were opportunistically collected from apparently healthy A. j. soemmeringii from two collections (A and B) with successful breeding programs in the United Arab Emirates. The cheetahs were fed whole prey of mixed species (and, in Collection B, goat muscle and bone as well) dusted with vitamin and mineral supplements. Mean serum vitamin and trace element values (for cheetahs > 4 mo in age) were as follows: vitamin A (retinol), 2.20 microM/L (n = 27); vitamin B1, 0.0818 microM/L (n = 45); vitamin C, 28.6 microM/L (n=10); vitamin E (alpha-tocopherol), 35.6 microM/L (n = 27); copper (Cu), 12.53 microM/L (n = 27); selenium (Se), 3.10 microM/L (n = 27); and zinc (Zn), 10.87 microM/L (n = 27). Mean values of vitamin A, vitamin E, Cu, and Zn fell within ranges of published cheetah mean values, and mean Se was lower than range values for cheetahs presented in one previous study; blood vitamin B1 and vitamin C values of cheetahs have not previously been published. The values were taken to indicate that the cheetahs' nutritional status was adequate with regard to those nutrients analyzed. Serum vitamin E was particularly high in cheetahs fed fresh whole prey, and on this basis vitamin E supplementation of fresh whole prey appeared to have been unnecessary. There were differences (P < 0.05) between collections in serum vitamin B1, vitamin E, Cu, and 10 other hematologic and biochemical parameters. Nine hematologic and blood biochemical parameters differed among age categories.

  9. Predicting East African spring droughts using Pacific and Indian Ocean sea surface temperature indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funk, Christopher C.; Hoell, Andrew; Shukla, Shraddhanand; Blade, Ileana; Liebmann, Brant; Roberts, Jason B.; Robertson, Franklin R.

    2014-01-01

    In southern Ethiopia, Eastern Kenya, and southern Somalia poor boreal spring rains in 1999, 2000, 2004, 2007, 2008, 2009 and 2011 contributed to severe food insecurity and high levels of malnutrition. Predicting rainfall deficits in this region on seasonal and decadal time frames can help decision makers support disaster risk reduction while guiding climate-smart adaptation and agricultural development. Building on recent research that links more frequent droughts to a stronger Walker Circulation, warming in the Indo-Pacific warm pool, and an increased western Pacific sea surface temperature (SST) gradient, we explore the dominant modes of East African rainfall variability, links between these modes and sea surface temperatures, and a simple index-based monitoring-prediction system suitable for drought early warning.

  10. Incidence of gross reproductive abnormalities in small east African zebu cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assey, R J; Kessy, B M; Matovelo, J A; Minga, U

    1998-12-01

    Reproductive organs from mature Small East African zebu (SEAZ) heifers and cows slaughtered at the Morogoro abattoir were collected twice a month and evaluated over a period of 12 months. Out of the 402 animals from which reproductive organs were taken, 54% were pregnant, 24% were actively cycling and 22% were non-cycling. Various gross abnormalities were observed in the reproductive organs of about 16% of the cattle, and the major reproductive abnormality in both total and the non-cycling animals was various degrees of fibrous adhesion between the ovary and the infundibulum and mesosalpinx. It is concluded that, contrary to common belief, a majority of the female SEAZ cattle that are slaughtered are fertile.

  11. The Omo Mursi Formation: a window into the East African Pliocene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drapeau, Michelle S M; Bobe, René; Wynn, Jonathan G; Campisano, Christopher J; Dumouchel, Laurence; Geraads, Denis

    2014-10-01

    Dating to more than four million years ago (Ma), the Mursi Formation is among the oldest of the Plio-Pleistocene Omo Group deposits in the lower Omo Valley of southwestern Ethiopia. The sedimentary sequence is exposed along a strip ∼35 km by 4 km, but it has received relatively little attention due to the difficult access to this area. Although expeditions to the lower Omo Valley between 1968 and 1973 focused primarily on the Usno and Shungura Formations, survey of the Mursi Formation produced a faunal collection of about 250 specimens deriving exclusively from the Yellow Sands area at the southern extent of the exposures. In 2009, we reinitiated an investigation of the formation by focusing on the most northern exposures, and a new fossil site, Cholo, was identified. Cholo is depositionally similar to the lowermost exposures at the Yellow Sands, although no stratigraphic correlation between the two localities has yet been made. The fossiliferous sediments at Cholo are capped by a prominent vitric tuff that is compositionally distinct from any other known tephra preserved in East African rift basins, including the only known vitric tuff at the Yellow Sands. The faunal assemblage of the Yellow Sands area presents interesting characteristics: the fossils generally show little weathering and include a large proportion of suids (44% of the mammalian fauna) and a small proportion of bovids (14%) compared with other Pliocene African sites. The sample is also unusual in the high frequency of deinotheres (7%). Taxon-specific stable carbon isotopic composition of the Mursi mammals tends to show generally higher proportions of C3 diets compared with other Pliocene sites in East Africa and Chad. This and the particular faunal proportions suggest that the environments represented by the Mursi Formation were more closed than those of other Pliocene sites. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Conceptualizations of heterosexual anal sex and HIV risk in five East African communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duby, Zoe; Colvin, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Heterosexual anal sex is underresearched and little understood, particularly in the African context. Existing prevalence data indicate that heterosexual anal sex is a widespread practice, yet little is known about the way in which it is conceptualized and understood. Describing findings from qualitative research conducted in Kenya, Tanzania, and Uganda, we shed light on conceptualizations of heterosexual anal sex and its relation to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). These findings suggest that penile-anal sex is practiced by men and women in Africa for a range of reasons, including virginity maintenance, contraception, fulfillment of male pleasure, relationship security, menstruation, in the presence of vaginal complications, financial gain, fidelity, and prestige. Despite anal sex being the most efficient way to transmit HIV sexually, there is widespread lack of knowledge about its risks. These findings describe the ways in which anal sex is conceptualized in five East African communities, highlighting how penile-anal intercourse is often not considered "sex" and how the omission of anal sex in safe-sex messaging is interpreted as meaning that anal sex is safe. In light of its frequency and risks, greater attention must be paid to heterosexual anal sex in Africa to ensure a comprehensive approach to HIV prevention.

  13. African 2, a Clonal Complex of Mycobacterium bovis Epidemiologically Important in East Africa▿ †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Stefan; Garcia-Pelayo, M. Carmen; Müller, Borna; Hailu, Elena; Asiimwe, Benon; Kremer, Kristin; Dale, James; Boniotti, M. Beatrice; Rodriguez, Sabrina; Hilty, Markus; Rigouts, Leen; Firdessa, Rebuma; Machado, Adelina; Mucavele, Custodia; Ngandolo, Bongo Nare Richard; Bruchfeld, Judith; Boschiroli, Laura; Müller, Annélle; Sahraoui, Naima; Pacciarini, Maria; Cadmus, Simeon; Joloba, Moses; van Soolingen, Dick; Michel, Anita L.; Djønne, Berit; Aranaz, Alicia; Zinsstag, Jakob; van Helden, Paul; Portaels, Françoise; Kazwala, Rudovick; Källenius, Gunilla; Hewinson, R. Glyn; Aseffa, Abraham; Gordon, Stephen V.; Smith, Noel H.

    2011-01-01

    We have identified a clonal complex of Mycobacterium bovis isolated at high frequency from cattle in Uganda, Burundi, Tanzania, and Ethiopia. We have named this related group of M. bovis strains the African 2 (Af2) clonal complex of M. bovis. Af2 strains are defined by a specific chromosomal deletion (RDAf2) and can be identified by the absence of spacers 3 to 7 in their spoligotype patterns. Deletion analysis of M. bovis isolates from Algeria, Mali, Chad, Nigeria, Cameroon, South Africa, and Mozambique did not identify any strains of the Af2 clonal complex, suggesting that this clonal complex of M. bovis is localized in East Africa. The specific spoligotype pattern of the Af2 clonal complex was rarely identified among isolates from outside Africa, and the few isolates that were found and tested were intact at the RDAf2 locus. We conclude that the Af2 clonal complex is localized to cattle in East Africa. We found that strains of the Af2 clonal complex of M. bovis have, in general, four or more copies of the insertion sequence IS6110, in contrast to the majority of M. bovis strains isolated from cattle, which are thought to carry only one or a few copies. PMID:21097608

  14. African 2, a clonal complex of Mycobacterium bovis epidemiologically important in East Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Stefan; Garcia-Pelayo, M Carmen; Müller, Borna; Hailu, Elena; Asiimwe, Benon; Kremer, Kristin; Dale, James; Boniotti, M Beatrice; Rodriguez, Sabrina; Hilty, Markus; Rigouts, Leen; Firdessa, Rebuma; Machado, Adelina; Mucavele, Custodia; Ngandolo, Bongo Nare Richard; Bruchfeld, Judith; Boschiroli, Laura; Müller, Annélle; Sahraoui, Naima; Pacciarini, Maria; Cadmus, Simeon; Joloba, Moses; van Soolingen, Dick; Michel, Anita L; Djønne, Berit; Aranaz, Alicia; Zinsstag, Jakob; van Helden, Paul; Portaels, Françoise; Kazwala, Rudovick; Källenius, Gunilla; Hewinson, R Glyn; Aseffa, Abraham; Gordon, Stephen V; Smith, Noel H

    2011-02-01

    We have identified a clonal complex of Mycobacterium bovis isolated at high frequency from cattle in Uganda, Burundi, Tanzania, and Ethiopia. We have named this related group of M. bovis strains the African 2 (Af2) clonal complex of M. bovis. Af2 strains are defined by a specific chromosomal deletion (RDAf2) and can be identified by the absence of spacers 3 to 7 in their spoligotype patterns. Deletion analysis of M. bovis isolates from Algeria, Mali, Chad, Nigeria, Cameroon, South Africa, and Mozambique did not identify any strains of the Af2 clonal complex, suggesting that this clonal complex of M. bovis is localized in East Africa. The specific spoligotype pattern of the Af2 clonal complex was rarely identified among isolates from outside Africa, and the few isolates that were found and tested were intact at the RDAf2 locus. We conclude that the Af2 clonal complex is localized to cattle in East Africa. We found that strains of the Af2 clonal complex of M. bovis have, in general, four or more copies of the insertion sequence IS6110, in contrast to the majority of M. bovis strains isolated from cattle, which are thought to carry only one or a few copies.

  15. Bioenergy from agro-industrial residues in the East African region. Summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jungersen, G. [Dansk Teknologisk Inst. (Denmark); Kivaisi, A.; Rubindamayugi, M. [Univ. of Dar es Salaam (Tanzania, United Republic of)

    1998-05-01

    Tanzania has recently developed a comprehensive environmental policy which has put high priority on several specific environmental issues. One of the issues is the quality of waste water. A special priority is given to the pollution from the sisal industry. The East-African agro-industries generate very large quantities of organic residues from production and processing of different crops. These residues form a major contribution to the pollution of air, soil and waterways, but, at the same time they constitute a large potential for production of bioenergy through anaerobic digestion as well as potential substrate for other biological fermentation processes. Generally, these residues are regarded as having no or very little value and the different disposal methods are mainly a matter of getting rid of the waste. The generation of residues are very often concentrated on few large units, which makes the exploitation of these resources feasible in large scale biogas systems. Typically the units will have a potential of a daily methane generation of 1,000-20,000 m{sup 3} CH{sub 4}, equivalent to a potential electricity production of 0.2-3.2 MW. The future utilization of these resources for production of valuable products is described in this report. This report consists of 3 volumes. This summary report including the main objectives and findings from the different project report: Mapping and Quantification of Organic Agro-Industrial Residues in East Africa; Biogas - Bioenergy Potential in East Africa, Seminar Proceedings, Siler Sands, Dar es Salaam 22-23 September 1997; Bioenergy from Sisal residues - Experimental results and Capacity Building Activities. (EG)

  16. Sismotectonics in the western branch of the East African Rift System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delvaux, Damien; Kervyn, François; Mulumba, Jean-Luc; Kipata, Louis; Sebagenzi, Stanislas; Mavonga, Georges; Macheyeki, Athanas; Temu, Elly Bryan

    2013-04-01

    The western branch of the East African rift system is known of its particular seismic activity with larger magnitude (up to Ms 7.3) and more frequent destructive earthquakes than in the eastern branch. As a contribution to the IGCP 601 project Seismotectonic Map of Africa, we compiled the known active faults, thermal springs and historical seismicity in Central Africa. Using the rich archives of the Royal Museum for Central Africa, publications and own field observations, we present a compilation of available data relative to the current seismotectonic activity along the western branch of the East African rift system, in DRC, Rwanda, Burundi and Tanzania. Neotectonic activity related to the western rift branch is in general well expressed and relatively well studied in the eastern flank of this rift branch, in Uganda, Rwanda, Burundi and Tanzania. In contrast, the western flank of this rift branch, largely exposed in the DRC, has attracted less attention. However, data collected during the colonial times show significant sismotectonic activity in East DRC, not only in the western flank of the western rift branch, but extending far westwards up to the margin of the Congo basin. In particular, our predecessors paid a special attention to the mapping and description of thermal springs, noticing that they are often controlled by active faults. In addition, the operators of the relatively dense network of meteorological stations installed in the DRC, Rwanda and Burundi also recorded were with variable level of completeness and detail the earthquakes that they could felt. This provides a rich database that is used to complete the existing knowledge on historical seismicity. An important effort has still to be paid to identify and map potentially active fault due to poor field accessibility, tropical climate weathering and vegetation coverage. The main problem in the compilation of active fault data is that very few of them have been investigated by paleoseismic trenching

  17. Mainstreaming biodiversity and wildlife management into climate change policy frameworks in selected east and southern African countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga L. Kupika

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The Rio+20 outcomes document, the Future We Want, enshrines green economy as one of the platforms to attain sustainable development and calls for measures that seek to address climate change and biodiversity management. This paper audits climate change policies from selected east and southern African countries to determine the extent to which climate change legislation mainstreams biodiversity and wildlife management. A scan of international, continental, regional and national climate change policies was conducted to assess whether they include biodiversity and/or wildlife management issues. The key finding is that many climate change policy–related documents, particularly the National Adaptation Programme of Actions (NAPAs, address threats to biodiversity and wildlife resources. However, international policies like the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and Kyoto Protocol do not address the matter under deliberation. Regional climate change policies such as the East African Community, Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa and African Union address biodiversity and/or wildlife issues whilst the Southern African Development Community region does not have a stand-alone policy for climate change. Progressive countries like Rwanda, Uganda, Tanzania and Zambia have recently put in place detailed NAPAs which are mainstream responsive strategies intended to address climate change adaptation in the wildlife sector.Keywords: mainstreaming, biodiversity, wildlife, climate change policy, east and southern Africa

  18. An interdisciplinary approach for groundwater management in area contaminated by fluoride in East African Rift System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Pelo, Stefania; Melis, M. Teresa; Dessì, Francesco; Pistis, Marco; Funedda, Antonio; Oggiano, Giacomo; Carletti, Alberto; Soler Gil, Albert; Barbieri, Manuela; Pittalis, Daniele; Ghiglieri, Giorgio

    2017-04-01

    Groundwater is the main source of fresh water supply for most of the rural communities in Africa (approximately 75% of Africans has confidence in groundwater as their major source of drinking water). Many African countries has affected by high fluoride concentration in groundwater (up to 90 mg/L), generating the contamination of waters, soils and food, in particular in the eastern part of the continent. It seems that fluoride concentration is linked to geology of the Rift Valley: geogenic occurrence of fluoride is often connected to supergenic enrichment due to the weathering of alkaline volcanic rocks, fumaric gases and presence of thermal waters. The H2020 project FLOWERED (de-FLuoridation technologies for imprOving quality of WatEr and agRo-animal products along the East African Rift Valley in the context of aDaptation to climate change) wish to address environmental and health (human and animal) issues associated to the fluoride contamination in the African Rift Valley, in particular in three case study area located in Ethiopia, Tanzania and Kenya. FLOWERED aims to develop an integrated, sustainable and participative water and agriculture management at a cross-boundary catchment scale through a strong interdisciplinary research approach. It implies knowledge of geology, hydrogeology, mineralogy, geochemistry, agronomy, crop and animal sciences, engineering, technological sciences, data management and software design, economics and communication. The proposed approach is based on a detailed knowledge of the hydrogeological setting, with the identification and mapping of the specific geological conditions of water contamination and its relation with the different land uses. The East African Rift System (EARS) groundwater circulation and storage, today already poorly understood, is characterized by a complex arrangement of aquifers. It depends on the type of porosity and permeability created during and after the rock formation, and is strongly conditioned by the

  19. Spatial patterns of sea surface temperature influences on East African precipitation as revealed by empirical orthogonal teleconnections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim eAppelhans

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available East Africa is characterized by a rather dry annual precipitation climatology with two distinct rainy seasons. In order to investigate sea surface temperature driven precipitation anomalies for the region we use the algorithm of empirical orthogonal teleconnection analysis as a data mining tool. We investigate the entire East African domain as well as 5 smaller sub-regions mainly located in areas of mountainous terrain. In searching for influential sea surface temperature patterns we do not focus any particular season or oceanic region. Furthermore, we investigate different time lags from zero to twelve months. The strongest influence is identified for the immediate (i.e. non-lagged influences of the Indian Ocean in close vicinity to the East African coast. None of the most important modes are located in the tropical Pacific Ocean, though the region is sometimes coupled with the Indian Ocean basin. Furthermore, we identify a region in the southern Indian Ocean around the Kerguelen Plateau which has not yet been reported in the literature with regard to precipitation modulation in East Africa. Finally, it is observed that not all regions in East Africa are equally influenced by the identified patterns.

  20. Mapping the East African Ionosphere Using Ground-based GPS TEC Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mengist, Chalachew Kindie; Kim, Yong Ha; Yeshita, Baylie Damtie; Workayehu, Abyiot Bires

    2016-03-01

    The East African ionosphere (3°S-18°N, 32°E-50°E) was mapped using Total Electron Content (TEC) measurements from ground-based GPS receivers situated at Asmara, Mekelle, Bahir Dar, Robe, Arbaminch, and Nairobi. Assuming a thin shell ionosphere at 350 km altitude, we project the Ionospheric Pierce Point (IPP) of a slant TEC measurement with an elevation angle of >10° to its corresponding location on the map. We then infer the estimated values at any point of interest from the vertical TEC values at the projected locations by means of interpolation. The total number of projected IPPs is in the range of 24-66 at any one time. Since the distribution of the projected IPPs is irregularly spaced, we have used an inverse distance weighted interpolation method to obtain a spatial grid resolution of 1°×1° latitude and longitude, respectively. The TEC maps were generated for the year 2008, with a 2 hr temporal resolution. We note that TEC varies diurnally, with a peak in the late afternoon (at 1700 LT), due to the equatorial ionospheric anomaly. We have observed higher TEC values at low latitudes in both hemispheres compared to the magnetic equatorial region, capturing the ionospheric distribution of the equatorial anomaly. We have also confirmed the equatorial seasonal variation in the ionosphere, characterized by minimum TEC values during the solstices and maximum values during the equinoxes. We evaluate the reliability of the map, demonstrating a mean error (difference between the measured and interpolated values) range of 0.04-0.2 TECU (Total Electron Content Unit). As more measured TEC values become available in this region, the TEC map will be more reliable, thereby allowing us to study in detail the equatorial ionosphere of the African sector, where ionospheric measurements are currently very few.

  1. Malaria in east African highlands during the past 30 years: impact of environmental changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yousif El - Safi Himeidan

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available East African highlands are one of the most populated regions in Africa. The population densities in the highlands ranged between 158 persons/km2 in Ethiopia to 410 persons/km2 in Rwanda. According to the United Nations Population Fund, the region has the world's highest population growth rate. These factors are likely behind the high rates of poverty among the populations. As there were no employment opportunities other than agricultural, this demographic pressure of poor populations have included in an extensive unprecedented land use and land cover changes such as modification of bushland, woodland, and grassland on hillsides to farmland and transformation of papyrus swamps in valley bottoms to dairy pastures and cropland and changing of fallows on hillsides from short or seasonal to longer or perennial. Areas harvested for food crops were therefore increased by more than 100% in most of the highlands. The lost of forest areas, mainly due to subsistence agriculture, between 1990 - 2010 ranged between 8000 ha in Rwanda to 2838000 ha in Ethiopia. These unmitigated environmental changes in the highlands led to rise temperature and optimizing the spread and survival of malaria vectors and development of malaria parasites. Malaria in highlands was initially governed by low ambient temperature, trend of malaria transmission was therefore increased and several epidemics were observed in late 1980s and early 2000s. Although, malaria is decreasing through intensified interventions since mid 2000s onwards, these environmental changes might expose population in the highlands of east Africa to an increase risk of malaria and its epidemic particularly if the current interventions are not sustained.

  2. Development of catchment research, with particular attention to Plynlimon and its forerunner, the East African catchments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Dr J.S.G. McCulloch was deeply involved in the establishment of research catchments in East Africa and subsequently in the UK to investigate the hydrological consequences of changes in land use. Comparison of these studies provides an insight into how influential his inputs and direction have been in the progressive development of the philosophy, the instrumentation and the analytical techniques now employed in catchment research. There were great contrasts in the environments: tropical highland (high radiation, intense rainfall vs. temperate maritime (low radiation and frontal storms, contrasting soils and vegetation types, as well as the differing social and economic pressures in developing and developed nations. Nevertheless, the underlying scientific philosophy was common to both, although techniques had to be modified according to local conditions. As specialised instrumentation and analytical techniques were developed for the UK catchments many were also integrated into the East African studies. Many lessons were learned in the course of these studies and from the experiences of other studies around the world. Overall, a rigorous scientific approach was developed with widespread applicability. Beyond the basics of catchment selection and the quantification of the main components of the catchment water balance, this involved initiating parallel process studies to provide information on specific aspects of catchment behaviour. This information could then form the basis for models capable of extrapolation from the observed time series to other periods/hydrological events and, ultimately, the capability of predicting the consequences of changes in catchment land management to other areas in a range of climates.

  3. Late Miocene to Pliocene carbon isotope record of differential diet change among East African herbivores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uno, Kevin T; Cerling, Thure E; Harris, John M; Kunimatsu, Yutaka; Leakey, Meave G; Nakatsukasa, Masato; Nakaya, Hideo

    2011-04-19

    Stable isotope and molecular data suggest that C(4) grasses first appeared globally in the Oligocene. In East Africa, stable isotope data from pedogenic carbonate and fossil tooth enamel suggest a first appearance between 15-10 Ma and subsequent expansion during the Plio-Pleistocene. The fossil enamel record has the potential to provide detailed information about the rates of dietary adaptation to this new resource among different herbivore lineages. We present carbon isotope data from 452 fossil teeth that record differential rates of diet change from C(3) to mixed C(3)/C(4) or C(4) diets among East African herbivore families at seven different time periods during the Late Miocene to the Pliocene (9.9-3.2 Ma). Significant amounts of C(4) grasses were present in equid diets beginning at 9.9 Ma and in rhinocerotid diets by 9.6 Ma, although there is no isotopic evidence for expansive C(4) grasslands in this part of the Late Miocene. Bovids and hippopotamids followed suit with individuals that had C(4)-dominated (>65%) diets by 7.4 Ma. Suids adopted C(4)-dominated diets between 6.5 and 4.2 Ma. Gomphotheriids and elephantids had mostly C(3)-dominated diets through 9.3 Ma, but became dedicated C(4) grazers by 6.5 Ma. Deinotheriids and giraffids maintained a predominantly C(3) diet throughout the record. The sequence of differential diet change among herbivore lineages provides ecological insight into a key period of hominid evolution and valuable information for future studies that focus on morphological changes associated with diet change.

  4. The episode of genetic drift defining the migration of humans out of Africa is derived from a large east African population size.

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    Nuha Elhassan

    Full Text Available Human genetic variation particularly in Africa is still poorly understood. This is despite a consensus on the large African effective population size compared to populations from other continents. Based on sequencing of the mitochondrial Cytochrome C Oxidase subunit II (MT-CO2, and genome wide microsatellite data we observe evidence suggesting the effective size (Ne of humans to be larger than the current estimates, with a foci of increased genetic diversity in east Africa, and a population size of east Africans being at least 2-6 fold larger than other populations. Both phylogenetic and network analysis indicate that east Africans possess more ancestral lineages in comparison to various continental populations placing them at the root of the human evolutionary tree. Our results also affirm east Africa as the likely spot from which migration towards Asia has taken place. The study reflects the spectacular level of sequence variation within east Africans in comparison to the global sample, and appeals for further studies that may contribute towards filling the existing gaps in the database. The implication of these data to current genomic research, as well as the need to carry out defined studies of human genetic variation that includes more African populations; particularly east Africans is paramount.

  5. Phylogeography of the Afromontane Prunus africana reveals a former migration corridor between East and West African highlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadu, C A C; Schueler, S; Konrad, H; Muluvi, G M M; Eyog-Matig, O; Muchugi, A; Williams, V L; Ramamonjisoa, L; Kapinga, C; Foahom, B; Katsvanga, C; Hafashimana, D; Obama, C; Geburek, T

    2011-01-01

    Scattered populations of the same tree species in montane forests through Africa have led to speculations on the origins of distributions. Here, we inferred the colonization history of the Afromontane tree Prunus africana using seven chloroplast DNA loci to study 582 individuals from 32 populations sampled in a range-wide survey from across Africa, revealing 22 haplotypes. The predominant haplotype, HT1a, occurred in 13 populations of eastern and southern Africa, while a second common haplotype, HT1m, occurred in populations of western Uganda and western Africa. The high differentiation observed between populations in East Africa was unexpected, with stands in western Uganda belonging with the western African lineage. High genetic differentiation among populations revealed using ordered alleles (N(ST) = 0.840) compared with unordered alleles (G(ST) = 0.735), indicated a clear phylogeographic pattern. Bayesian coalescence modelling suggested that 'east' and 'west' African types likely split early during southward migration of the species, while further more recent splitting events occurred among populations in the East of the continent. The high genetic similarity found between western Uganda and west African populations indicates that a former Afromontane migration corridor may have existed through Equatorial Africa.

  6. Giant seismites and megablock uplift in the East African Rift: evidence for Late Pleistocene large magnitude earthquakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilbert-Wolf, Hannah Louise; Roberts, Eric M

    2015-01-01

    In lieu of comprehensive instrumental seismic monitoring, short historical records, and limited fault trench investigations for many seismically active areas, the sedimentary record provides important archives of seismicity in the form of preserved horizons of soft-sediment deformation features, termed seismites. Here we report on extensive seismites in the Late Quaternary-Recent (≤ ~ 28,000 years BP) alluvial and lacustrine strata of the Rukwa Rift Basin, a segment of the Western Branch of the East African Rift System. We document examples of the most highly deformed sediments in shallow, subsurface strata close to the regional capital of Mbeya, Tanzania. This includes a remarkable, clastic 'megablock complex' that preserves remobilized sediment below vertically displaced blocks of intact strata (megablocks), some in excess of 20 m-wide. Documentation of these seismites expands the database of seismogenic sedimentary structures, and attests to large magnitude, Late Pleistocene-Recent earthquakes along the Western Branch of the East African Rift System. Understanding how seismicity deforms near-surface sediments is critical for predicting and preparing for modern seismic hazards, especially along the East African Rift and other tectonically active, developing regions.

  7. Use of Machine Learning Techniques for Iidentification of Robust Teleconnections to East African Rainfall Variability in Observations and Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, J. Brent; Robertson, Franklin R.; Funk, Chris

    2014-01-01

    Providing advance warning of East African rainfall variations is a particular focus of several groups including those participating in the Famine Early Warming Systems Network. Both seasonal and long-term model projections of climate variability are being used to examine the societal impacts of hydrometeorological variability on seasonal to interannual and longer time scales. The NASA / USAID SERVIR project, which leverages satellite and modeling-based resources for environmental decision making in developing nations, is focusing on the evaluation of both seasonal and climate model projections to develop downscaled scenarios for using in impact modeling. The utility of these projections is reliant on the ability of current models to capture the embedded relationships between East African rainfall and evolving forcing within the coupled ocean-atmosphere-land climate system. Previous studies have posited relationships between variations in El Niño, the Walker circulation, Pacific decadal variability (PDV), and anthropogenic forcing. This study applies machine learning methods (e.g. clustering, probabilistic graphical model, nonlinear PCA) to observational datasets in an attempt to expose the importance of local and remote forcing mechanisms of East African rainfall variability. The ability of the NASA Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS5) coupled model to capture the associated relationships will be evaluated using Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) simulations.

  8. Zebrafish bioassay-guided natural product discovery: isolation of angiogenesis inhibitors from East African medicinal plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander D Crawford

    Full Text Available Natural products represent a significant reservoir of unexplored chemical diversity for early-stage drug discovery. The identification of lead compounds of natural origin would benefit from therapeutically relevant bioassays capable of facilitating the isolation of bioactive molecules from multi-constituent extracts. Towards this end, we developed an in vivo bioassay-guided isolation approach for natural product discovery that combines bioactivity screening in zebrafish embryos with rapid fractionation by analytical thin-layer chromatography (TLC and initial structural elucidation by high-resolution electrospray mass spectrometry (HRESIMS. Bioactivity screening of East African medicinal plant extracts using fli-1:EGFP transgenic zebrafish embryos identified Oxygonum sinuatum and Plectranthus barbatus as inhibiting vascular development. Zebrafish bioassay-guided fractionation identified the active components of these plants as emodin, an inhibitor of the protein kinase CK2, and coleon A lactone, a rare abietane diterpenoid with no previously described bioactivity. Both emodin and coleon A lactone inhibited mammalian endothelial cell proliferation, migration, and tube formation in vitro, as well as angiogenesis in the chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM assay. These results suggest that the combination of zebrafish bioassays with analytical chromatography methods is an effective strategy for the rapid identification of bioactive natural products.

  9. Predicting East African spring droughts using Pacific and Indian Ocean sea surface temperature indices

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    C. Funk

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In southern Ethiopia, Eastern Kenya, and southern Somalia, poor boreal spring rains in 1999, 2000, 2004, 2007, 2008, 2009, and 2011 contributed to severe food insecurity and high levels of malnutrition. Predicting rainfall deficits in this region on seasonal and decadal time frames can help decision makers implement disaster risk reduction measures while guiding climate-smart adaptation and agricultural development. Building on recent research that links more frequent droughts in that region to a stronger Walker Circulation, warming in the Indo-Pacific warm pool, and an increased western Pacific sea surface temperature (SST gradient, we show that the two dominant modes of East African boreal spring rainfall variability are tied, respectively, to western-central Pacific and central Indian Ocean SST. Variations in these rainfall modes can be predicted using two previously defined SST indices – the West Pacific Gradient (WPG and Central Indian Ocean index (CIO, with the WPG and CIO being used, respectively, to predict the first and second rainfall modes. These simple indices can be used in concert with more sophisticated coupled modeling systems and land surface data assimilations to help inform early warning and guide climate outlooks.

  10. Spatial vegetation patterns and neighborhood competition among woody plants in an East African savanna.

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    Dohn, Justin; Augustine, David J; Hanan, Niall P; Ratnam, Jayashree; Sankaran, Mahesh

    2017-02-01

    The majority of research on savanna vegetation dynamics has focused on the coexistence of woody and herbaceous vegetation. Interactions among woody plants in savannas are relatively poorly understood. We present data from a 10-yr longitudinal study of spatially explicit growth patterns of woody vegetation in an East African savanna following exclusion of large herbivores and in the absence of fire. We examined plant spatial patterns and quantified the degree of competition among woody individuals. Woody plants in this semiarid savanna exhibit strongly clumped spatial distributions at scales of 1-5 m. However, analysis of woody plant growth rates relative to their conspecific and heterospecific neighbors revealed evidence for strong competitive interactions at neighborhood scales of up to 5 m for most woody plant species. Thus, woody plants were aggregated in clumps despite significantly decreased growth rates in close proximity to neighbors, indicating that the spatial distribution of woody plants in this region depends on dispersal and establishment processes rather than on competitive, density-dependent mortality. However, our documentation of suppressive effects of woody plants on neighbors also suggests a potentially important role for tree-tree competition in controlling vegetation structure and indicates that the balanced-competition hypothesis may contribute to well-known patterns in maximum tree cover across rainfall gradients in Africa. © 2016 by the Ecological Society of America.

  11. Zebrafish Bioassay-Guided Natural Product Discovery: Isolation of Angiogenesis Inhibitors from East African Medicinal Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Alexander D.; Liekens, Sandra; Kamuhabwa, Appolinary R.; Maes, Jan; Munck, Sebastian; Busson, Roger; Rozenski, Jef; Esguerra, Camila V.; de Witte, Peter A. M.

    2011-01-01

    Natural products represent a significant reservoir of unexplored chemical diversity for early-stage drug discovery. The identification of lead compounds of natural origin would benefit from therapeutically relevant bioassays capable of facilitating the isolation of bioactive molecules from multi-constituent extracts. Towards this end, we developed an in vivo bioassay-guided isolation approach for natural product discovery that combines bioactivity screening in zebrafish embryos with rapid fractionation by analytical thin-layer chromatography (TLC) and initial structural elucidation by high-resolution electrospray mass spectrometry (HRESIMS). Bioactivity screening of East African medicinal plant extracts using fli-1:EGFP transgenic zebrafish embryos identified Oxygonum sinuatum and Plectranthus barbatus as inhibiting vascular development. Zebrafish bioassay-guided fractionation identified the active components of these plants as emodin, an inhibitor of the protein kinase CK2, and coleon A lactone, a rare abietane diterpenoid with no previously described bioactivity. Both emodin and coleon A lactone inhibited mammalian endothelial cell proliferation, migration, and tube formation in vitro, as well as angiogenesis in the chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assay. These results suggest that the combination of zebrafish bioassays with analytical chromatography methods is an effective strategy for the rapid identification of bioactive natural products. PMID:21379387

  12. Precessional(?) Variability in East African Aridity During the Past Few Hundred Thousand Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, J.; Brown, E. T.; Johnson, T. C.; Scholz, C. A.; Cohen, A. S.; King, J.

    2007-12-01

    We used scanning X-ray fluorescence to investigate fluctuations in calcium abundance in the upper 200 m of cores MAL05-1B and 1C recovered by the Lake Malawi Drilling Project from a central lake site. Conspicuous variations in calcium concentrations reflect the abundance of endogenic calcite, which accumulates during periods of relatively dry conditions in the Malawi basin. Major calcium peaks occur at fairly regular intervals down core. The power spectrum of calcium on a depth scale reveals a large concentration of variance in the 20-meter- band. More detailed analyses were undertaken on MAL05-1C which has a well-constrained age-depth model built on radiocarbon, paleointensity, inclination, 10Be, and OSL dating [Scholz et al., in press]. We attribute the cycles of calcium fluctuation in MAL05-1C to monsoonal climate driven by variations in local insolation dominated by eccentricity-modulated precession. Scholz, C.A., T.C. Johnson, A.S. Cohen, J.W. King, J.A. Peck, J.T. Overpeck, M.K. Talbot, E.T. Brown, L. Kalindekafe, P.Y.O. Amoako, R.P. Lyons, T.M. Shanahan, I.S. Castaneda, C.W. Heil, S.L. Forman, L.R. McHargue, K. Beuning, J. Gomez, and J. Pierson, East African megadroughts between 135-75 kyr ago and implications for early human history, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, in press.

  13. The Lived Experience of African American Caregivers Caring for Adult African American Patients With Heart Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Heather

    2016-04-01

    Assistance from informal caregivers such as family members, friends, or neighbors is crucial to adequately managing the complex care of heart failure (HF) patients. This study examined the lived experience of African American caregivers caring for African American patients with HF. Purposive sampling was used to recruit 10 participants who were formally interviewed. The interviews, analyzed using Colaizzi's steps, revealed six themes: layers of support, realization of self-neglect, experiencing the "blues," connecting with healthcare providers, unmet financial needs, and perception of nonadherence. The information regarding the experience of African American caregivers of HF patients obtained through this research will inform the delivery of culturally competent support to caregivers, thereby improving quality of life for both the HF patients and their caregivers.

  14. Attitudes, perceptions, and behaviors toward HIV testing among African American and East African immigrant women in Washington, D.C.: Implications for targeted HIV testing promotion and communication strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Jesus, Maria; Carrete, Claudia; Maine, Cathleen; Nalls, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The objective of the study was to examine and compare the HIV testing attitudes, perceptions, and behaviors between African American and East African immigrant women in the Washington, D.C. Metropolitan area. Methods Adopting an inductive, qualitative methodological approach, we conducted a total of 40 in-depth, semi-structured interviews between October 2012 and March 2013. Qualitative thematic analysis was used to analyze the data. Results Overall, African American women held more favorable views toward HIV testing than East African immigrant women. Very few East African immigrant women sought HIV testing intentionally. The majority of East African participants were tested inadvertently, while others tested for immigration- or employment-related purposes. There were many barriers that impede women from seeking an HIV test including: negative assumptions (e.g., ‘Getting an HIV test implies that I am HIV positive’); negative emotions (e.g., ‘Fear of being diagnosed with HIV and what this will mean for me’); and potential negative reactions from partner or others (e.g., ‘Getting an HIV test can signal distrust, disrespect, or infidelity’). There were nuances in how each group articulated some of these barriers and East African women expressed unique concerns that originated from experiences in their home countries. Conclusions The study shed light into the complexity of factors that constrain women from presenting themselves voluntarily for an HIV test and highlighted the nuances between African American and East African perceptions. Implications of findings for effective targeted HIV screening promotion and communication strategies among these groups of women are discussed. PMID:25897146

  15. Relevance of East African Drill Cores to Human Evolution: the Case of the Olorgesailie Drilling Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potts, R.

    2016-12-01

    Drill cores reaching the local basement of the East African Rift were obtained in 2012 south of the Olorgesailie Basin, Kenya, 20 km from excavations that document key benchmarks in the origin of Homo sapiens. Sediments totaling 216 m were obtained from two drilling locations representing the past 1 million years. The cores were acquired to build a detailed environmental record spatially associated with the transition from Acheulean to Middle Stone Age technology and extensive turnover in mammalian species. The project seeks precise tests of how climate dynamics and tectonic events were linked with these transitions. Core lithology (A.K. Behrensmeyer), geochronology (A. Deino), diatoms (R.B. Owen), phytoliths (R. Kinyanjui), geochemistry (N. Rabideaux, D. Deocampo), among other indicators, show evidence of strong environmental variability in agreement with predicted high-eccentricity modulation of climate during the evolutionary transitions. Increase in hominin mobility, elaboration of symbolic behavior, and concurrent turnover in mammalian species indicating heightened adaptability to unpredictable ecosystems, point to a direct link between the evolutionary transitions and the landscape dynamics reflected in the Olorgesailie drill cores. For paleoanthropologists and Earth scientists, any link between evolutionary transitions and environmental dynamics requires robust evolutionary datasets pertinent to how selection, extinction, population divergence, and other evolutionary processes were impacted by the dynamics uncovered in drill core studies. Fossil and archeological data offer a rich source of data and of robust environment-evolution explanations that must be integrated into efforts by Earth scientists who seek to examine high-resolution climate records of human evolution. Paleoanthropological examples will illustrate the opportunities that exist for connecting evolutionary benchmarks to the data obtained from drilled African muds. Project members: R. Potts, A

  16. Hydrological and Vegetation Variability from Mediterranean Leaf Wax Biomarkers Before and After the Rise of East African C4 Grasslands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyers, C.; deMenocal, P. B.; Tierney, J. E.; Polissar, P. J.

    2012-12-01

    Terrestrial and marine paleoclimate records and changes in African fossil mammal taxa indicate that a transition towards more open, C4-dominated grasslands occurred in East Africa near 2 Ma. In contrast, the Mediterranean sapropel record documents pervasive precession-paced wet/dry cycles in the strength of the African monsoon and Nile runoff since at least the late Miocene. This study investigates whether the East African vegetation shift after 2 Ma was accompanied by a change in the monsoonal wet/dry cycle response to orbital precession forcing. We sampled eastern Mediterranean ODP Site 967 at 2-3 ka resolution in two 200 kyr intervals near 3.0 and 1.7 Ma. Nearly identical orbital configurations in these intervals allow us to compare mean conditions and orbital-paced variations before and after the 2 Ma transition. We used leaf wax biomarker concentrations and δD and δ13C compositions as proxies for monsoonal strength and vegetation type, and the δ18O composition of G. ruber as a proxy for Nile River runoff. Leaf wax biomarker concentrations varied over three orders of magnitude, with much higher concentrations in sapropels. During sapropel intervals, large-amplitude negative excursions occur in δDwax, δ13Cwax, and δ18Oruber, corresponding to a strengthened monsoon and less abundant C4 plants. Carbonate-rich intervals have positive isotope excursions indicating a weakened monsoon and more abundant C4 plants. The mean and variance of δDwax and δ13Cwax values are not significantly different between the 3.0 Ma and 1.7 Ma intervals indicating Northern Africa did not experience the vegetation and climate shifts observed in East Africa. While surprising, our finding suggests that the average monsoonal response to precession forcing, and corresponding vegetation variability, did not substantially change across the 2 Ma transition. This implies that North and East Africa exhibited different climate and vegetation behavior since 3 Ma.

  17. The species flocks of East African cichlid fishes: recent advances in molecular phylogenetics and population genetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salzburger, Walter; Meyer, Axel

    With more than 3,000 species, the fish family Cichlidae is one of the most species-rich families of vertebrates. Cichlids occur in southern and central America, Africa, Madagascar, and India. The hotspot of their biodiversity is East Africa, where they form adaptive radiations composed of hundreds of endemic species in several lakes of various sizes and ages. The unparalleled species richness of East African cichlids has been something of a conundrum for evolutionary biologists and ecologists, since it has been in doubt whether these hundreds of species arose by allopatric speciation or whether it is necessary to invoke somewhat less traditional models of speciation, such as micro-allopatric, peripatric, or even sympatric speciation or evolution through sexual selection mediated by female choice. Ernst Mayr's analyses of these evolutionary uniquely diverse species assemblages have contributed to a more direct approach to this problem and have led to a deeper understanding of the patterns and processes that caused the formation of these huge groups of species. We review here recent molecular data on population differentiation and phylogenetics, which have helped to unravel, to some extent, the patterns and processes that led to the formation and ecological maintenance of cichlid species flocks. It is becoming apparent that sexually selected traits do play an important role in speciation in micro-allopatric or even sympatric settings. Species richness seems to be roughly correlated with the surface area, but not the age, of the lakes. We observe that the oldest lineages of a species flock of cichlids are often less species-rich and live in the open water or deepwater habitats. While the species flocks of the Lake Malawai and the Lake Victoria areas were shown to be monophyletic, the cichlid assemblage of Lake Tanganyika seems to consist of several independent species flocks. Cichlids emerge as an evolutionary model system in which many fundamental questions in

  18. Economic values for production and functional traits of Small East African goat using profit functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbuku, Samuel; Kosgey, Isaac; Okeyo, Mwai; Kahi, Alexander

    2014-06-01

    Economic values for production traits (milk yield, MY, g; 12-month live weight, yLW, kg; consumable meat percentage, CM, %) and functional traits (mature doe live weight, DoLW, kg; mature buck live weight, LWb, kg; kidding frequency, KF; pre-weaning survival rate, PrSR, %; post-weaning survival rate, PoSR,%; doe survival rate, DoSR, %; and residual feed intake, RFI, kg) were estimated using profit functions for the Small East African goat. The scenario evaluated was a fixed flock size, and the resultant economic values (Kes per doe per year) were 34.46 (MY), 62.35 (yLW), 40.69 (CM), 0.15 (DoLW), 2.84 (LWb), 8.69 (KF), 17.38 (PrSR), 16.60 (PoSR), 16.69 (DoSR) and -3.00 (RFI). Similarly, the economic values decreased by -14.7 % (MY), -2.7 % (yLW), -23.9 % (CM), -6.6 % (DoLW), -98 % (LWb), -8.6 % (KF), -8.2 % (PrSR), -8.9 % (PoSR), -8.1 % (DoSR) and 0 % (RFI) when they were risk rated. The economic values for production and functional traits, except RFI, were positive, which implies that genetic improvement of these traits would have a positive effect on the profitability in the pastoral production systems. The application of an Arrow-Pratt coefficient of absolute risk aversion (λ) at the level of 0.02 resulted in a decrease on the estimated economic values, implying that livestock keepers who were risk averse were willing to accept lower expected returns. The results indicate that there would be improvement in traits of economic importance, and, therefore, easy-to-manage genetic improvement programmes should be established.

  19. Evolution of the East African rift: Drip magmatism, lithospheric thinning and mafic volcanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furman, Tanya; Nelson, Wendy R.; Elkins-Tanton, Linda T.

    2016-07-01

    The origin of the Ethiopian-Yemeni Oligocene flood basalt province is widely interpreted as representing mafic volcanism associated with the Afar mantle plume head, with minor contributions from the lithospheric mantle. We reinterpret the geochemical compositions of primitive Oligocene basalts and picrites as requiring a far more significant contribution from the metasomatized subcontinental lithospheric mantle than has been recognized previously. This region displays the fingerprints of mantle plume and lithospheric drip magmatism as predicted from numerical models. Metasomatized mantle lithosphere is not dynamically stable, and heating above the upwelling Afar plume caused metasomatized lithosphere with a significant pyroxenite component to drip into the asthenosphere and melt. This process generated the HT2 lavas observed today in restricted portions of Ethiopia and Yemen now separated by the Red Sea, suggesting a fundamental link between drip magmatism and the onset of rifting. Coeval HT1 and LT lavas, in contrast, were not generated by drip melting but instead originated from shallower, dominantly anhydrous peridotite. Looking more broadly across the East African Rift System in time and space, geochemical data support small volume volcanic events in Turkana (N. Kenya), Chyulu Hills (S. Kenya) and the Virunga province (Western Rift) to be derived ultimately from drip melting. The removal of the gravitationally unstable, metasomatized portion of the subcontinental lithospheric mantle via dripping is correlated in each case with periods of rapid uplift. The combined influence of thermo-mechanically thinned lithosphere and the Afar plume together thus controlled the locus of continental rift initiation between Africa and Arabia and provide dynamic support for the Ethiopian plateau.

  20. Trading or coercion? Variation in male mating strategies between two communities of East African chimpanzees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaburu, Stefano S K; Newton-Fisher, Nicholas E

    2015-06-01

    Across taxa, males employ a variety of mating strategies, including sexual coercion and the provision, or trading, of resources. Biological market theory (BMT) predicts that trading of commodities for mating opportunities should exist only when males cannot monopolize access to females and/or obtain mating by force, in situations where power differentials between males are low; both coercion and trading have been reported for chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). Here, we investigate whether the choice of strategy depends on the variation in male power differentials, using data from two wild communities of East African chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii): the structurally despotic Sonso community (Budongo, Uganda) and the structurally egalitarian M-group (Mahale, Tanzania). We found evidence of sexual coercion by male Sonso chimpanzees, and of trading-of grooming for mating-by M-group males; females traded sex for neither meat nor protection from male aggression. Our results suggest that the despotism-egalitarian axis influences strategy choice: male chimpanzees appear to pursue sexual coercion when power differentials are large and trading when power differentials are small and coercion consequently ineffective. Our findings demonstrate that trading and coercive strategies are not restricted to particular chimpanzee subspecies; instead, their occurrence is consistent with BMT predictions. Our study raises interesting, and as yet unanswered, questions regarding female chimpanzees' willingness to trade sex for grooming, if doing so represents a compromise to their fundamentally promiscuous mating strategy. It highlights the importance of within-species cross-group comparisons and the need for further study of the relationship between mating strategy and dominance steepness.

  1. Two phases of the Holocene East African Humid Period: Inferred from a high-resolution geochemical record off Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiting; Rendle-Bühring, Rebecca; Kuhlmann, Holger; Li, Anchun

    2017-02-01

    During the Holocene, the most notably climatic change across the African continent is the African Humid Period (AHP), however the pace and primary forcing for this pluvial condition is still ambiguous, particularly in East Africa. We present a high-resolution marine sediment record off Tanzania to provide insights into the climatic conditions of inland East Africa during the Holocene. Major element ratios (i.e., log-ratios of Fe/Ca and Ti/Ca), derived from X-Ray Fluorescence scanning, have been employed to document variations in humidity in East Africa. Our results show that the AHP is represented by two humid phases: an intense humid period from the beginning of the Holocene to 8 ka (AHP I); and a moderate humid period spanning from 8 to 5.5 ka (AHP II). On the basis of our geochemical record and regime detection, the termination of the AHP initiated at 5.5 ka and ceased around 3.5 ka. Combined with other paleoclimatic records around East Africa, we suggest that the humid conditions in this region responded to Northern Hemisphere (NH) summer insolation. The AHP I and II might have been related to an eastward shift of the Congo Air Boundary and warmer conditions in the western Indian Ocean, which resulted in additional moisture being delivered from the Atlantic and Indian Oceans during the NH summer and autumn, respectively. We further note a drought event throughout East Africa north of 10°S around 8.2 ka, which may have been related to the southward migration of the Intertropical Convergence Zone in response to the NH cooling event.

  2. INSIDE THE NUMBERS: USING PRIVATE COMMERCIAL DATA TO ANALYZE EAST AFRICAN IMPORTED SOAP CONSUMPTION, 1870-1914

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laird Jones

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Social historians identify soap as a “new need,” and argue its consumption indicates changing notions of bodily cleanliness, beauty and status. Relying largely on qualitative evidence such as traveler and missionary accounts, print advertising and oral interviews, they contend African soap use was influenced by Christian missions, colonial education and branding in the marketplace. Quantitative evidence – limited customs data – neither confirms nor challenges this position. More detailed commercial records, however, paint a somewhat different picture. The East African correspondence of William O’Swald & Co. indicates that soap marketing predated both Christian missions and colonial influence. Further, general purpose laundry soap was the overwhelming best seller. Personal toilette soaps lagged far behind. Laundering imported cotton textiles appeared the motive for initial soap purchases, and perhaps also the first step toward later personal soap use.

  3. Phylogeographic reconstruction of African yellow fever virus isolates indicates recent simultaneous dispersal into east and west Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Beck

    Full Text Available Yellow fever virus (YFV is a mosquito-borne flavivirus that is a major public health problem in tropical areas of Africa and South America. There have been detailed studies on YFV ecology in West Africa and South America, but current understanding of YFV circulation on the African continent is incomplete. This inadequacy is especially notable for East and Central Africa, for which the unpredictability of human outbreaks is compounded by limitations in both historical and present surveillance efforts. Sparse availability of nucleotide sequence data makes it difficult to investigate the dispersal of YFV in these regions of the continent. To remedy this, we constructed Bayesian phylogenetic and geographic analyses utilizing 49 partial genomic sequences to infer the structure of YFV divergence across the known range of the virus on the African continent. Relaxed clock analysis demonstrated evidence for simultaneous divergence of YFV into east and west lineages, a finding that differs from previous hypotheses of YFV dispersal from reservoirs located on edges of the endemic range. Using discrete and continuous geographic diffusion models, we provide detailed structure of YFV lineage diversity. Significant transition links between extant East and West African lineages are presented, implying connection between areas of known sylvatic cycling. The results of demographic modeling reinforce the existence of a stably maintained population of YFV with spillover events into human populations occurring periodically. Geographically distinct foci of circulation are reconstructed, which have significant implications for studies of YFV ecology and emergence of human disease. We propose further incorporation of Bayesian phylogeography into formal GIS analyses to augment studies of arboviral disease.

  4. Differential decay of the East-African Antarctic Orogen : an integrated examination of Northeastern Mozambique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, K.; Jacobs, J.; Emmel, B.; Thomas, R. J.; Matola, R.

    2009-04-01

    In Northeastern Mozambique, the late Proterozoic - early Paleozoic East African-Antarctic Orogen can be subdivided into two major blocks that exhibit some relevant differences. The line of divide is represented by the Lurio Belt, a kinematically poorly constrained shear zone that also marks the conceptual northern limit of frequent late-tectonic granitoid intrusions. Moreover, far-travelled granulite-facies nappes cover a much larger area north of this belt (Viola et. al, 2008), giving rise to the assumption of different exhumation and present exposure levels. U/Pb data from previous surveys (e.g., Norconsult consortium, 2007) show coeval high-grade metamorphism in the whole region between c. 610 - 550 Ma, while the block south of the Lurio Belt also shows continuing metamorphism until c. 490 Ma that can be related to extension. Geothermobarometry for samples from within the Lurio Belt (Engvik et. al, 2007) indicates rapid exhumation after high-pressure granulite facies metamorphism and is consistant with the assumption of long tectonic activity. A possible model for the outlined pattern is the delamination of the orogenic root only in the southern part, followed by rapid mechanical thinning as well as by isostatic accommodation along the Lurio Belt. A valuable marker was identified in the metasedimentary Mecuburi group that overlies the southern basement. U/Pb analysis of detrital zircons have yielded a maximum deposition age of c. 600 Ma, while metamorphism is recorded until c. 505 Ma. Investigations of the relationship between metasediments and older basement show that the basal contact is a fairly preserved depositional contact, allowing to suppose a conjoint post-depositional evolution. It is notable that the timing of deposition shortly follows the onset of the main, widespread high-grade metamorphism. Relatively high but variable degrees of migmatisation in the Mecuburi Group require a phase of burial from surface to deep levels after 600 Ma, followed by

  5. Plate Kinematic model of the NW Indian Ocean and derived regional stress history of the East African Margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuck-Martin, Amy; Adam, Jürgen; Eagles, Graeme

    2015-04-01

    Starting with the break up of Gondwana, the northwest Indian Ocean and its continental margins in Madagascar, East Africa and western India formed by divergence of the African and Indian plates and were shaped by a complicated sequence of plate boundary relocations, ridge propagation events, and the independent movement of the Seychelles microplate. As a result, attempts to reconcile the different plate-tectonic components and processes into a coherent kinematic model have so far been unsatisfactory. A new high-resolution plate kinematic model has been produced in an attempt to solve these problems, using seafloor spreading data and rotation parameters generated by a mixture of visual fitting of magnetic isochron data and iterative joint inversion of magnetic isochron and fracture zone data. Using plate motion vectors and plate boundary geometries derived from this model, the first-order regional stress pattern was modelled for distinct phases of margin formation. The stress pattern is correlated with the tectono-stratigraphic history of related sedimentary basins. The plate kinematic model identifies three phases of spreading, from the Jurassic to the Paleogene, which resulted in the formation of three main oceanic basins. Prior to these phases, intracontinental 'Karoo' rifting episodes in the late Carboniferous to late Triassic had failed to break up Gondwana, but initiated the formation of sedimentary basins along the East African and West Madagascan margins. At the start of the first phase of spreading (183 to 133 Ma) predominantly NW - SE extension caused continental rifting that separated Madagascar/India/Antarctica from Africa. Maximum horizontal stresses trended perpendicular to the local plate-kinematic vector, and parallel to the rift axes. During and after continental break-up and subsequent spreading, the regional stress regime changed drastically. The extensional stress regime became restricted to the active spreading ridges that in turn adopted trends

  6. Estimated macronutrient and fatty acid intakes from an East African Paleolithic diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuipers, Remko S; Luxwolda, Martine F; Dijck-Brouwer, D A Janneke; Eaton, S Boyd; Crawford, Michael A; Cordain, Loren; Muskiet, Frits A J

    2010-12-01

    Our genome adapts slowly to changing conditions of existence. Many diseases of civilisation result from mismatches between our Paleolithic genome and the rapidly changing environment, including our diet. The objective of the present study was to reconstruct multiple Paleolithic diets to estimate the ranges of nutrient intakes upon which humanity evolved. A database of, predominantly East African, plant and animal foods (meat/fish) was used to model multiple Paleolithic diets, using two pathophysiological constraints (i.e. protein 1.0 en%), at known hunter-gatherer plant/animal food intake ratios (range 70/30-30/70 en%/en%). We investigated selective and non-selective savannah, savannah/aquatic and aquatic hunter-gatherer/scavenger foraging strategies. We found (range of medians in en%) intakes of moderate-to-high protein (25-29), moderate-to-high fat (30-39) and moderate carbohydrates (39-40). The fatty acid composition was SFA (11.4-12.0), MUFA (5.6-18.5) and PUFA (8.6-15.2). The latter was high in α-linolenic acid (ALA) (3.7-4.7 en%), low in LA (2.3-3.6 en%), and high in long-chain PUFA (LCP; 4.75-25.8 g/d), LCP n-3 (2.26-17.0 g/d), LCP n-6 (2.54-8.84 g/d), ALA/LA ratio (1.12-1.64 g/g) and LCP n-3/LCP n-6 ratio (0.84-1.92 g/g). Consistent with the wide range of employed variables, nutrient intakes showed wide ranges. We conclude that compared with Western diets, Paleolithic diets contained consistently higher protein and LCP, and lower LA. These are likely to contribute to the known beneficial effects of Paleolithic-like diets, e.g. through increased satiety/satiation. Disparities between Paleolithic, contemporary and recommended intakes might be important factors underlying the aetiology of common Western diseases. Data on Paleolithic diets and lifestyle, rather than the investigation of single nutrients, might be useful for the rational design of clinical trials.

  7. Geomorphologic proxies for bedrock rivers: A case study from the Rwenzori Mountains, East African Rift system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Liang; Gani, Nahid D.; Abdelsalam, Mohamed G.

    2017-05-01

    Geomorphic proxies yield useful insights into understanding long-term endogenic and exogenic response to erosion and/or rock uplift rates. By evaluating areal proxies (including asymmetry factor (AF), mountain front sinuosity (Smf), hypsometric integral (HI), geophysical relief, and shape factor (Shp), and linear proxies (including normalized steepness index (ksn), length-gradient index (SLk) and Chi gradient (Mχ), the erosion and/or rock uplift rates can be quantified. We carried out morphotectonic analysis in the Rwenzori Mountains, which represents an anomalously uplifted Precambrian horst within the western branch of the East African Rift system (EARS). This study aims to: (1) evaluate the relationship between geomorphic proxies and drainage basin's maturity; (2) evaluate the usefulness of geomorphic proxies as recorders of erosion and/or rock uplift rates; (3) evaluate the sensitivity of each geomorphic proxy to the drainage basin size and geometry, stream order, glaciers extent, and local structures; (4) explore internal correlation within the geomorphic proxies; and (5) contribute to the understanding of morphotectonic evolution of the Rwenzori Mountains. For this, we computed the stream's 'Good of Fitness' (R2, an indicator of the drainage basin's maturity) and geomorphic proxies for the drainage basins and their streams in the Rwenzori Mountains from the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) digital elevation model (DEM). Subsequently, we correlated the areal geomorphic proxies with each other and with R2. Also, we correlated the linear geomorphic proxies with each other and with published erosion rates obtained from cosmogenic 10Be analysis. Our results show that the areal geomorphic proxies (AF, Smf, HI, relief, and Shp) - considering the drainage basin size and geometry, stream order, glacier extent, and local structures - can be applied to locally evaluate the maturity of the drainage basin. We also found that the

  8. Historical volcanism and the state of stress in the East African Rift System

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    Geoffrey Wadge

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Crustal extension at the East African Rift System (EARS should, as a tectonic ideal, involve a stress field in which the direction of minimum horizontal stress is perpendicular to the rift. A volcano in such a setting should produce dykes and fissures parallel to the rift. How closely do the volcanoes of the EARS follow this? We answer this question by studying the 21 volcanoes that have erupted historically (since about 1800 and find that 7 match the (approximate geometrical ideal. At the other 14 volcanoes the orientation of the eruptive fissures/dykes and/or the axes of the host rift segments are oblique to the ideal values. To explain the eruptions at these volcanoes we invoke local (non-plate tectonic variations of the stress field caused by: crustal heterogeneities and anisotropies (dominated by NW structures in the Protoerozoic basement, transfer zone tectonics at the ends of offset rift segments, gravitational loading by the volcanic edifice (typically those with 1-2 km relief and magmatic pressure in central reservoirs. We find that the more oblique volcanoes tend to have large edifices, large eruptive volumes and evolved and mixed magmas capable of explosive behaviour. Nine of the volcanoes have calderas of varying ellipticity, 6 of which are large, reservoir-collapse types mainly elongated across rift (e.g. Kone and 3 are smaller, elongated parallel to the rift and contain active lava lakes (e.g. Erta Ale, suggesting different mechanisms of formation and stress fields. Nyamuragira is the only EARS volcano with enough sufficiently well-documented eruptions to infer its long-term dynamic behaviour. Eruptions within 7 km of the volcano are of relatively short duration (<100 days, but eruptions with more distal fissures tend to have greater obliquity and longer durations, indicating a changing stress field away from the volcano. There were major changes in long-term magma extrusion rates in 1977 (and perhaps in 2002 due to major along

  9. Historical volcanism and the state of stress in the East African Rift System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadge, Geoffrey; Biggs, Juliet; Lloyd, Ryan; Kendall, Michael

    2016-09-01

    Crustal extension at the East African Rift System (EARS) should, as a tectonic ideal, involve a stress field in which the direction of minimum horizontal stress is perpendicular to the rift. A volcano in such a setting should produce dykes and fissures parallel to the rift. How closely do the volcanoes of the EARS follow this? We answer this question by studying the 21 volcanoes that have erupted historically (since about 1800) and find that 7 match the (approximate) geometrical ideal. At the other 14 volcanoes the orientation of the eruptive fissures/dykes and/or the axes of the host rift segments are oblique to the ideal values. To explain the eruptions at these volcanoes we invoke local (non-plate tectonic) variations of the stress field caused by: crustal heterogeneities and anisotropies (dominated by NW structures in the Protoerozoic basement), transfer zone tectonics at the ends of offset rift segments, gravitational loading by the volcanic edifice (typically those with 1-2 km relief) and magmatic pressure in central reservoirs. We find that the more oblique volcanoes tend to have large edifices, large eruptive volumes and evolved and mixed magmas capable of explosive behaviour. Nine of the volcanoes have calderas of varying ellipticity, 6 of which are large, reservoir-collapse types mainly elongated across rift (e.g. Kone) and 3 are smaller, elongated parallel to the rift and contain active lava lakes (e.g. Erta Ale), suggesting different mechanisms of formation and stress fields. Nyamuragira is the only EARS volcano with enough sufficiently well-documented eruptions to infer its long-term dynamic behaviour. Eruptions within 7 km of the volcano are of relatively short duration (<100 days), but eruptions with more distal fissures tend to have greater obliquity and longer durations, indicating a changing stress field away from the volcano. There were major changes in long-term magma extrusion rates in 1977 (and perhaps in 2002) due to major along-rift dyking

  10. Constraints to estimating the prevalence of trypanosome infections in East African zebu cattle

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    Cox Andrew P

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In East Africa, animal trypanosomiasis is caused by many tsetse transmitted protozoan parasites including Trypanosoma vivax, T. congolense and subspecies of T. brucei s.l. (T. b. brucei and zoonotic human infective T. b. rhodesiense that may co-circulate in domestic and wild animals. Accurate species-specific prevalence measurements of these parasites in animal populations are complicated by mixed infections of trypanosomes within individual hosts, low parasite densities and difficulties in conducting field studies. Many Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR based diagnostic tools are available to characterise and quantify infection in animals. These are important for assessing the contribution of infections in animal reservoirs and the risk posed to humans from zoonotic trypanosome species. New matrices for DNA capture have simplified large scale field PCR analyses but few studies have examined the impact of these techniques on prevalence estimations. Results The Whatman FTA matrix has been evaluated using a random sample of 35 village zebu cattle from a population naturally exposed to trypanosome infection. Using a generic trypanosome-specific PCR, prevalence was systematically evaluated. Multiple PCR samples taken from single FTA cards demonstrated that a single punch from an FTA card is not sufficient to confirm the infectivity status of an individual animal as parasite DNA is unevenly distributed across the card. At low parasite densities in the host, this stochastic sampling effect results in underestimation of prevalence based on single punch PCR testing. Repeated testing increased the estimated prevalence of all Trypanosoma spp. from 9.7% to 86%. Using repeat testing, a very high prevalence of pathogenic trypanosomes was detected in these local village cattle: T. brucei (34.3%, T. congolense (42.9% and T. vivax (22.9%. Conclusions These results show that, despite the convenience of Whatman FTA cards and specific PCR based

  11. Kinematics and dynamics of Nubia-Somalia divergence along the East African rift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamps, Dorothy Sarah

    Continental rifting is fundamental to the theory of plate tectonics, yet the force balance driving Earth's largest continental rift system, the East African Rift (EAR), remains debated. The EAR actively diverges the Nubian and Somalian plates spanning ˜5000 km N-S from the Red Sea to the Southwest Indian Ridge and ˜3000 km NW-SE from eastern Congo to eastern Madagascar. Previous studies suggest either lithospheric buoyancy forces or horizontal tractions dominate the force balance acting to rupture East Africa. In this work, we investigate the large-scale dynamics of Nubia-Somalia divergence along the EAR driving present-day kinematics. Because Africa is largely surrounded by spreading ridges, we assume plate-plate interactions are minimal and that the major driving forces are gradients in gravitational potential energy (GPE), which includes the effect of vertical mantle tractions, and horizontal basal tractions arising from viscous coupling to horizontal mantle flow. We quantify a continuous strain rate and velocity field based on kinematic models, an updated GPS velocity solution, and the style of earthquake focal mechanisms, which we use as an observational constraint on surface deformation. We solve the 3D force balance equations and calculate vertically averaged deviatoric stress for a 100 km thick lithosphere constrained by the CRUST2.0 crustal density and thickness model. By comparing vertically integrated deviatoric stress with integrated lithospheric strength we demonstrate forces arising from gradients in gravitational potential energy are insufficient to rupture strong lithosphere, hence weakening mechanisms are required to initiate continental rupture. The next step involves inverting for a stress field boundary condition that is the long-wavelength minimum energy deviatoric stress field required to best-fit the style of our continuous strain rate field in addition to deviatoric stress from gradients in GPE. We infer the stress field boundary condition

  12. Late Quaternary behavior of the East African monsoon and the importance of the Congo Air Boundary

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tierney, J.; Russell, J.M.; Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Huang, Y.S.; Verschuren, D.

    2011-01-01

    Both Atlantic and Indian Ocean climate dynamics exert influence over tropical African hydroclimate, producing complex patterns of convergence and precipitation. To isolate the Indian Ocean influence on African paleohydrology, we analyzed the deuterium/hydrogen ratio of higher plant leaf waxes (delta

  13. Late Quaternary behavior of the East African monsoon and the importance of the Congo Air Boundary

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tierney, J.E.; Russell, J.M.; Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Huang, Y.S.; Verschuren, D.

    2011-01-01

    Both Atlantic and Indian Ocean climate dynamics exert influence over tropical African hydroclimate, producing complex patterns of convergence and precipitation. To isolate the Indian Ocean influence on African paleohydrology, we analyzed the deuterium/hydrogen ratio of higher plant leaf waxes (δDwax

  14. Late Quaternary behavior of the East African monsoon and the importance of the Congo Air Boundary

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tierney, J.; Russell, J.M.; Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Huang, Y.S.; Verschuren, D.

    2011-01-01

    Both Atlantic and Indian Ocean climate dynamics exert influence over tropical African hydroclimate, producing complex patterns of convergence and precipitation. To isolate the Indian Ocean influence on African paleohydrology, we analyzed the deuterium/hydrogen ratio of higher plant leaf waxes (delta

  15. Physicians' cultural competency as perceived by African American patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalopoulou, Georgia; Falzarano, Pamela; Arfken, Cynthia; Rosenberg, David

    2009-09-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the association between African American patients' perceptions of physician cultural competency and patient satisfaction with the visit, independent of other factors, including physician and patient race concordance. African American participants were surveyed at urban clinics. Cultural competency (Perceived Cultural Competency scale) was based on the 3-factor model that includes patients' perception of (1) physicians' cultural knowledge, (2) physicians' cultural awareness, and (3) physicians' cultural skill. The results confirmed that patients' perceptions of physician cultural competency are independently associated with satisfaction with the visit. These results further validate use of the Perceived Cultural Competency scale as a tool to measure patients' perceptions of physicians' cultural competency.

  16. Size variation in Tachyoryctes splendens (East African mole-rat) and its implications for late Quaternary temperature change in equatorial East Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faith, J. Tyler; Patterson, David B.; Blegen, Nick; O'Neill, Chris J.; Marean, Curtis W.; Peppe, Daniel J.; Tryon, Christian A.

    2016-05-01

    This study develops a new proxy for Quaternary temperature change in tropical Africa through analysis of size variation in East African mole-rat (Tachyoryctes splendens). In modern mole-rats, mandibular alveolar length is unrelated to annual precipitation, precipitation seasonality, temperature seasonality, or primary productivity. However, it is inversely correlated with mean annual temperature, in agreement with Bergmann's rule. This relationship is observed at temperatures below ˜17.3 °C, but not at higher temperatures. We apply these observations to late Quaternary mole-rats from Wakondo (˜100 ka) and Kisaaka (˜50 ka) in the Lake Victoria region and Enkapune ya Muto (EYM; ˜7.2-3.2 ka) in Kenya's central rift. The Lake Victoria mole-rats are larger than expected for populations from warm climates typical of the area today, implying cooler temperatures in the past. The magnitude of temperature decline needed to drive the size shift is substantial (˜4-6 °C), similar in magnitude to the degree of change between the Last Glacial Maximum and Holocene, but is consistent with regional temperature records and with scenarios linking equatorial African temperature to northern hemisphere summer insolation. Size changes through time at EYM indicate that rising temperatures during the middle Holocene accompanied and potentially contributed to a decline in Lake Naivasha and expansion of grassland vegetation.

  17. Early Paleozoic (Pan African) thermal event of the Larsemann Hills and its neighbours, Prydz Bay, East Antarctica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵越; 宋彪; 张宗清; 富云莲; 陈廷愚; 王彦斌; 任留东; 姚玉鹏; 李继亮; 刘小汉

    1995-01-01

    The early Paleozoic (Pan African) thermal event of the Larsemann Hills and its adjacent areas, East Antarctica is discussed based upon the isotope ages we obtained. An Sm-Nd internal isochron for a representative mafic granulite yields an age of 540 Ma±75 Ma. Another Sm-Nd internal isochron, which is made up of the assemblage of the peak metamorphism and its whole rock as well, gives an age of 497 Ma ± 7 Ma The isotopic chronological data of single zircon stepwise evaporation dating and 40Ar-39Ar analysis provide further evidence for the early Paleozoic event of high-grade metamorphism in the region. The data from the field geological investigation in the Larsemann Hills also show that there is not only strong regional partial melting but also low-pressure granulite-facies metamorphism accompanied by it in the region. The early Paleozoic (Pan African) thermal event of the region may be related to the final formation of the East Antarctica craton, even of Gondwanaland.

  18. Molecular genome tracking of East, Central and South African genotype of Chikungunya virus in South-east Asia between 2006 and 2009

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kamol Suwannakarn; Apiradee Theamboonlers; Yong Poovorawan

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To understand the epidemiology of the East, Central and South African(ECSA) genotype of Chikungunya virus(CHIKV)in terms of emerging and re-emerging infections, this study has been aimed at investigating the evolutionary parameters, genomic signatures and molecular tracking of theCHIKV ECSA genotype in South-east Asia and coastal areas of the Indian Ocean between 2006 and 2009 by using phylogenetic analysis and the Bayesian Markov Chain Monte Carlo (BMCMC) evolutionary estimation.Methods: Nearly complete genome sequences of53 CHIKV isolates from all genotypes were subjected to phylogenetic analysis and evolutionary parameter estimation. The amino acids of67of ECSA genotype during2006 to2009 were compared for finding molecular signature tracking. The ECSA genotype signatures were visualized to find the possible transmission root was projected onto a geographic map.Results:Phylogenetic analysis showed theECSA genotype was divided into2 groups. The first group comprises viruses from India and Southeast Asian countries. The second group consists of strains typically circulating in Sri Lanka in2008. The evolutionary parameters of these groups depicted the time of the most recent common ancestor at approximately 7.5years ago. The genomic signatures revealed the positions of amino acid variation in each group.Conclusions:The molecular evolution projected onto a geographical map showed the routes ofCHIKVtransmission from 2006 to2009. Molecular tracking will assist in understanding transmission routes, epidemiology and molecular evolution ofCHIKV.

  19. A Comparative Analysis of Institutional Capacities for Implementing Disability Policies in East African Countries: Functions of National Councils for Disability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akiko Yokoyama

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available During the “African Decade of Persons with Disabilities (2000-2009”, East African countries witnessed significant achievements, especially in the development of law, collection of statistics and in funding. However, many persons with disability are still marginalised from opportunities in education, healthcare and employment.Purpose: With the pre-supposition that the lack of institutional capacities for implementing disability policies is the one major stumbling-block which hinders widespread delivery of social services to persons with disabilities in low-income countries, this study makes a comparative analysis of institutional capacities in the disability sectors of Uganda, Kenya and Tanzania.Method: The research methods adopted were a literature survey and a field survey. The framework for analysis consists of: 1 capacities and functions of disability units in central governments, 2 relationships between central and local governments in the disability sector, and 3 relationships between governments and organisations of persons with disability (DPOs. Special attention is paid to the status, roles and functions of national councils for disability (NCDs, the independent statutory bodies recently established in each of the three countries, with clear authority and duties for the implementation of disability policies. The NCDs enable multi-sectoral stakeholders to be involved in the implementation of disability policies; therefore, positive relationships between the governments and DPOs are essential for the smooth functioning of the NCDs.Results: While the result of the field survey in Tanzania reveals several effective approaches for the smooth operation of the NCD, further study is needed to verify whether these approaches would be applicable to other East African countries such as Kenya and Uganda.doi 10.5463/DCID.v23i2.106

  20. Quantification of African cassava mosaic virus (ACMV) and East African cassava mosaic virus (EACMV-UG) in single and mixed infected Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) using quantitative PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naseem, Saadia; Winter, Stephan

    2016-01-01

    The quantity of genomic DNA-A and DNA-B of African cassava mosaic virus (ACMV) and East African cassava mosaic virus Uganda (Uganda variant, EACMV-UG) was analysed using quantitative PCR to assess virus concentrations in plants from susceptible and tolerant cultivars. The concentrations of genome components in absolute and relative quantification experiments in single and mixed viral infections were determined. Virus concentration was much higher in symptomatic leaf tissues compared to non-symptomatic leaves and corresponded with the severity of disease symptoms. In general, higher titres were recorded for EACMV-UG Ca055 compared to ACMV DRC6. The quantitative assessment also showed that the distribution of both viruses in the moderately resistant cassava cv. TMS 30572 was not different from the highly susceptible cv. TME 117. Natural mixed infections with both viruses gave severe disease symptoms. Relative quantification of virus genomes in mixed infections showed higher concentrations of EACMV-UG DNA-A compared to ACMV DNA-A, but a marked reduction of EACMV-UG DNA-B. The higher concentrations of EACMV-UG DNA-B compared to EACMV DNA-A accumulation in single infections were consistent. Since DNA-B is implicated in virus cell-to-cell spread and systemic movement, the abundance of the EACMV-UG DNA-B may be an important factor driving cassava mosaic disease epidemic.

  1. Imprints of a Pan-African transpressional orogen superimposed on an inferred Grenvillian accretionary belt in central East Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraccioli, Fausto; Seddon, Samuel; Finn, Carol; Bell, Robin; Wu, Guochao; Jordan, Tom

    2017-04-01

    The Gamburtsev Subglacial Mountains in interior East Antarctica are underlain by 50-60 km thick crust imaged by gravity and seismic models (Ferraccioli et al., 2011; An et al., 2015). In contrast, the composite Archean to Mesoproterozoic Mawson craton that occupies the Wilkes and Terre Adelie sector of East Antarctica typically features only 40-45 km thick crust (Aitken et al., 2014). Over 200 km thick and seismically fast lithosphere underlies the Gamburtsev Province, as typically observed over Precambrian lithosphere that has not been substantially reworked during Phanerozoic subduction or collision. Satellite and airborne magnetic data indicate that the Gamburtev Province is sandwiched in between distinct Precambrian lithospheric blocks including the Ruker, Princess Elizabeth Land, Vostok, Nimrod (Goodge and Finn, 2010), South Pole and Recovery provinces. Ferraccioli et al., (2011) proposed that a segment of a stalled orogen (i.e. an orogen where widespread orogenic collapse and root delamination has not occurred) is preserved in the Gamburtsev Province and further hypothesised that its origin relates to widespread accretionary and subsequent collisional events at ca 1 Ga, linked to the assembly of the Rodinia supercontinent. However, recent passive seismic interpretations (An et al., 2015) indicate that crustal thickening may relate instead to Pan-African age assembly of Greater India, East Antarctica and Australia within Gondwana (at ca 550 Ma). Here we interpret a set of enhanced magnetic and gravity images, depth to magnetic and gravity sources and preliminary 2D and 3D forward and inverse models to characterise in detail the crustal architecture of the Gamburtsev Province. Enhanced aeromagnetic images reveal a system of subglacial faults that segment the Gamburtsev Province into three distinct geophysical domains, the northern, central and southern domains. Apparent offsets in high-frequency magnetic anomalies within the central domain are interpreted here

  2. Miocene Onset of Extension in the Turkana Depression, Kenya: Implications for the Geodynamic Evolution of the East African Rift System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boone, S.; Gleadow, A. J. W.; Kohn, B. P.; Seiler, C.

    2015-12-01

    The Paleogene-Recent East African Rift System (EARS) is the foremost modern example of continental rifting, providing much of our understanding of the early stages of continental breakup. The EARS traverses two regions of crustal uplift, the Ethiopian and East African Domes, separated by the Turkana Depression. This wide region of subdued topography coincides with the NW-SE trend of the Jurassic-Paleogene Anza Rift. Opinions on the fundamental geodynamic driver for EARS rifting are divided, however, principally between models involving migrating plume(s) and a single elongated 'superplume'. While competing models have similar topographic outcomes, they predict different morphotectonic evolutions for the Turkana Depression. Models inferring southward plume-migration imply that the plume must have passed below the Turkana Depression during the Paleogene, in order to have migrated to the East African Dome by the Miocene. The possible temporal denudational response to such plume activity is testable using low temperature thermochronology. We present apatite fission track (AFT) and (U-Th)/He (AHe), and zircon (U-Th)/He (ZHe) data from the Lapurr Range, an uplifted Precambrian basement block in northern Turkana. Low radiation damage ZHe results displaying an age range of ~70-210 Ma, and combined with stratigraphic evidence, suggest ~4-6 km of Jurassic-Early Cretaceous denudation, probably associated with early Anza Rift tectonism. AFT ages of ~9-15 Ma imply subsequent burial beneath no more than ~4 km of overburden, thus preserving the Jurassic-Cretaceous ZHe ages. Together with AFT results, AHe data (~3-19 Ma) support ~2-4 km of Miocene-Pliocene uplift of the Lapurr Range in the footwall of the E-dipping Lapurr normal fault. Miocene AFT and AHe ages are interpreted to reflect the initiation of the EARS in the Turkana Depression. If extension is associated with plume activity, then upwelling in the Turkana region is unlikely to have started prior to the Miocene, much

  3. Teachers’ Perceptions on the Use of African Languages in the Curriculum: A Case Study of Schools in Kenya, East Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin C. Njoroge

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available In order to revitalize African languages and advocate for their use as media of instruction in Kenyan schools, it is important to investigate and document the teachers’ attitude towards the use of these languages in teaching. The research on which this paper is based set forth to explore teachers’ perceptions on the use of the mother tongue as the language of instruction in Kenya, East Africa. Six schools out of 54 public schools in the Gatundu district were randomly sampled. 32 teachers of Grades 1-3 were interviewed to find out the actual practices in their classrooms, the challenges they faced, and the perceptions they held in relation to the use of the mother tongue in their teaching. The data were qualitatively analyzed and the emergent findings support the claim that the use of learners’ mother tongue is beneficial to learners. In addition, the paper discusses the findings and proposes recommendations for pedagogy.

  4. Types of variation in DNA-A among isolates of East African cassava mosaic virus from Kenya, Malawi and Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, X; Robinson, D J; Harrison, B D

    1998-11-01

    Complete nucleotide sequences of the DNA-A-like molecules of three East African cassava mosaic virus (EACMV) isolates from Kenya (-K, 2801 nt) and Malawi (-MH and -MK, both 2804 nt) were determined. These sequences were compared with that published for a Tanzanian isolate (-T, 2801 nt) and the partial sequence of a third Malawian isolate. Intergenic region sequences of all isolates, and deduced amino acid sequences of their AC1 (Rep) proteins, each formed a tightly related cluster that was distinct from the comparable components of other begomoviruses. Other complementary-sense genes (AC2, AC3, AC4) differed between EACMV isolates in a way consistent with the accumulation of point mutations. In contrast, virus-sense genes (CP, AV2) of isolates -MH and -MK differed (substantially for AV2) from those of other EACMV isolates but somewhat resembled those of tomato yellow leaf curl virus-Israel, suggesting they had been acquired by recombination with an unidentified begomovirus.

  5. The Lake Albert Rift (uganda, East African Rift System): Deformation, Basin and Relief Evolution Since 17 Ma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brendan, Simon; François, Guillocheau; Cécile, Robin; Olivier, Dauteuil; Thierry, Nalpas; Martin, Pickford; Brigitte, Senut; Philippe, Lays; Philippe, Bourges; Martine, Bez

    2016-04-01

    This study is based on a coupled basin infilling study and a landforms analysis of the Lake Albert Rift located at the northern part of the western branch of the East African Rift. The basin infilling study is based on both subsurface data and outcrops analysis. The objective was to (1) obtain an age model based on onshore mammals biozones, (2) to reconstruct the 3D architecture of the rift using sequence stratigraphy correlations and seismic data interpretation, (3) to characterize the deformation and its changes through times and (4) to quantify the accommodation for several time intervals. The infilling essentially consists of isopach fault-bounded units composed of lacustrine deposits wherein were characterized two major unconformities dated at 6.2 Ma (Uppermost Miocene) and 2.7 Ma (Pliocene-Pleistocene boundary), coeval with major subsidence and climatic changes. The landforms analysis is based on the characterization and relative dating (geometrical relationships with volcanism) of Ugandan landforms which consist of stepped planation surfaces (etchplains and peplians) and incised valleys. We here proposed a seven-steps reconstruction of the deformation-erosion-sedimentation relationships of the Lake Albert Basin and its catchments: - 55-45 Ma: formation of laterites corresponding to the African Surface during the very humid period of the Lower-Middle Eocene; - 45-22: stripping of the African Surface in response of the beginning of the East-African Dome uplift and formation of a pediplain which associated base level is the Atlantic Ocean; - 17-2.5 Ma: Initiation of the Lake Albert Basin around 17 Ma and creation of local base levels (Lake Albert, Edward and George) on which three pediplains tend to adapt; - 18 - 16 Ma to 6.2 Ma: "Flexural" stage (subsidence rate: 150-200 m/Ma; sedimentation rate 1.3 km3/Ma between 17 and 12 Ma and 0.6 km3/Ma from 12 to 6 Ma) - depocenters location (southern part of Lake Albert Basin) poorly controlled by fault; - 6.2 Ma to 2

  6. African 2, a clonal complex of Mycobacterium bovis epidemiologically important in East Africa.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, S.; Garcia-Pelayo, M.C.; Muller, B.; Hailu, E.; Asiimwe, B.; Kremer, K.; Dale, J.; Boniotti, M.B.; Rodriguez, S.; Hilty, M.; Rigouts, L.; Firdessa, R.; Machado, A.; Mucavele, C.; Ngandolo, B.N.; Bruchfeld, J.; Boschiroli, L.; Muller, A.; Sahraoui, N.; Pacciarini, M.; Cadmus, S.; Joloba, M.; Soolingen, D. van; Michel, A.L.; Djonne, B.; Aranaz, A.; Zinsstag, J.; Helden, P. van; Portaels, F.; Kazwala, R.; Kallenius, G.; Hewinson, R.G.; Aseffa, A.; Gordon, S.V.; Smith, N.H.

    2011-01-01

    We have identified a clonal complex of Mycobacterium bovis isolated at high frequency from cattle in Uganda, Burundi, Tanzania, and Ethiopia. We have named this related group of M. bovis strains the African 2 (Af2) clonal complex of M. bovis. Af2 strains are defined by a specific chromosomal deletio

  7. East African Medical Iourrzal Vol 83 N0. 2 February 2006

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2006-02-02

    Feb 2, 2006 ... of fluoridated toothpaste as a preventive measure for dental caries. 56.7% of the .... 55-64 8 5.7. 65+ 7 5.0. Total 141 100 .0. Sex. Male 52 36.9. Female 89 63.1 .... high for African countries where the disease is still reported to ...

  8. Gene-Centric Meta-Analysis of Lipid Traits in African, East Asian and Hispanic Populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elbers, Clara C.; Guo, Yiran; Tragante, Vinicius; van Iperen, Erik P. A.; Lanktree, Matthew B.; Castillo, Berta Almoguera; Chen, Fang; Yanek, Lisa R.; Wojczynski, Mary K.; Li, Yun R.; Ferwerda, Bart; Ballantyne, Christie M.; Buxbaum, Sarah G.; Chen, Yii-Der Ida; Chen, Wei-Min; Cupples, L. Adrienne; Cushman, Mary; Duan, Yanan; Duggan, David; Evans, Michele K.; Fernandes, Jyotika K.; Fornage, Myriam; Garcia, Melissa; Garvey, W. Timothy; Glazer, Nicole; Gomez, Felicia; Harris, Tamara B.; Halder, Indrani; Howard, Virginia J.; Keller, Margaux F.; Kamboh, M. Ilyas; Kooperberg, Charles; Kritchevsky, Stephen B.; LaCroix, Andrea; Liu, Kiang; Liu, Yongmei; Musunuru, Kiran; Newman, Anne B.; Onland-Moret, N. Charlotte; Ordovas, Jose; Peter, Inga; Post, Wendy S.; Redline, Susan; Reis, Steven E.; Saxena, Richa; Schreiner, Pamela J.; Volcik, Kelly A.; Wang, Xingbin; Yusuf, Salim; Zonderland, Alan B.; Anand, Sonia S.; Becker, Diane M.; Psaty, Bruce; Rader, Daniel J.; Reiner, Alex P.; Rich, Stephen S.; Rotter, Jerome I.; Sale, Michele M.; Tsai, Michael Y.; Borecki, Ingrid B.; Hegele, Robert A.; Kathiresan, Sekar; Nalls, Michael A.; Taylor, Herman A.; Hakonarson, Hakon; Sivapalaratnam, Suthesh; Asselbergs, Folkert; Drenos, Fotios; Wilson, James G.; Keating, Brendan J.

    2012-01-01

    Meta-analyses of European populations has successfully identified genetic variants in over 100 loci associated with lipid levels, but our knowledge in other ethnicities remains limited. To address this, we performed dense genotyping of similar to 2,000 candidate genes in 7,657 African Americans, 1,3

  9. Annotation of expressed sequence tags for the East African cichlid fish Astatotilapia burtoni and evolutionary analyses of cichlid ORFs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Braasch Ingo

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The cichlid fishes in general, and the exceptionally diverse East African haplochromine cichlids in particular, are famous examples of adaptive radiation and explosive speciation. Here we report the collection and annotation of more than 12,000 expressed sequence tags (ESTs generated from three different cDNA libraries obtained from the East African haplochromine cichlid species Astatotilapia burtoni and Metriaclima zebra. Results We first annotated more than 12,000 newly generated cichlid ESTs using the Gene Ontology classification system. For evolutionary analyses, we combined these ESTs with all available sequence data for haplochromine cichlids, which resulted in a total of more than 45,000 ESTs. The ESTs represent a broad range of molecular functions and biological processes. We compared the haplochromine ESTs to sequence data from those available for other fish model systems such as pufferfish (Takifugu rubripes and Tetraodon nigroviridis, trout, and zebrafish. We characterized genes that show a faster or slower rate of base substitutions in haplochromine cichlids compared to other fish species, as this is indicative of a relaxed or reinforced selection regime. Four of these genes showed the signature of positive selection as revealed by calculating Ka/Ks ratios. Conclusion About 22% of the surveyed ESTs were found to have cichlid specific rate differences suggesting that these genes might play a role in lineage specific characteristics of cichlids. We also conclude that the four genes with a Ka/Ks ratio greater than one appear as good candidate genes for further work on the genetic basis of evolutionary success of haplochromine cichlid fishes.

  10. The East African Rift System and the impact of orographic changes on regional climate and the resulting aridification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommerfeld, Anja; Prömmel, Kerstin; Cubasch, Ulrich

    2016-09-01

    Several proxy data indicate an aridification of the East African climate during the Neogene, which might be influenced by the orographic changes of the East African Rift System (EARS) induced by tectonic forcing during the last 20 million years. To investigate the impact of the orography and especially of the rifts, the regional climate model CCLM is used, covering the EARS with Lake Victoria in the centre of the model domain. CCLM is driven by the ERA-Interim reanalysis and applied with a double-nesting method resulting in a very high spatial resolution of 7 km. The resolution clearly shows the shoulders and rifts of the western and eastern branch of the EARS and the Rwenzoris within the western branch. To analyse the orographic influence on climate, a new technique of modifying the orography is used in this sensitivity study. The shoulders of the branches are lowered and the rifts are elevated, resulting in a smoothed orography structure with less altitude difference between the shoulders and rifts. The changes in 2 m-temperature are very local and associated with the changes in the orography. The vertically integrated moisture transport is characterised by less vortices, and its zonal component is increased over the branches. The resulting amount of precipitation is mainly decreased west of the western branch and increased in the rift of the western branch. In the eastern branch, however, the changes in the amount of precipitation are not significant. The changes in the precipitation and temperature patterns lead to a shift of biomes towards a vegetation coverage characterised by more humid conditions in the northern part of the model domain and more arid conditions in the South. Thus, the aridification found in the proxy data can be attributed to the orographic changes of the rifts only in the northern model domain.

  11. Tephrochronology of the East African Baringo-Tugen Hills Cores: Hominin Sites and Paleolakes Drilling Project (HSPDP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garello, D.; Deino, A. L.; Campisano, C. J.; Kingston, J.; Arrowsmith, R.; Hill, A.

    2015-12-01

    The Baringo/Tugen Hills basin (BTB) in central Kenya is one of five Hominin Sites and Paleolakes Drilling Project (HSPDP) localities targeting lacustrine sediments associated with key fossil hominin sites. The fossiliferous Plio-Pliestocene Chemeron Formation, within the BTB, contains geochemically analyzed outcrop tephras, 8 of which have 40Ar/39Ar dates of 3.2-2.35Ma. Tephras have been crucial in developing chronologies in human evolution, paleontology, archaeology, and rift basin development. The HSPDP paleo-lake cores provide a high resolution and continuous record of sedimentation, as well as additional tephras not found in outcrop. For BTB, approximately 20 vitric tephras have been logged in the cores, including several previously unobserved tephras, providing a more complete record of volcanic activity. Major element geochemical analyses of the BTB tephras collected from the cores are critical for establishing chronostratigraphic links to the outcrop stratigraphy of the Chemeron Formation, as well as correlations outside of BTB. The Chemeron Formation, composed of alternating fluvial and lacustrine sediments, is associated with the onset and intensification of the Cenozoic Northern Hemisphere glaciation and encompasses the period of great hominin diversification of Paranthropus and Homo, as well as the earliest evidence for stone toolmaking. Within the Chemeron stratigraphy, there are sequences of diatomites that record a 23kyr-processional periodicity indicating a dominant climatic forcing. By correlating the BTB tephras, and thereby the BTB climate-forced lacustrine cycles, with other East African rift basins' stratigraphy, we can determine if this climatic wet/dry pattern observed at BTB had occurred in other East African rift basins. This knowledge can help in understanding the influence of climate and tectonics on the evolution of hominins during the Plio-Pleistocene.

  12. Medicines identification for African illiterate patients using near field communication

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the application of Near Field Communication (NFC) to the healthcare sector. Although a number of papers have been written to discuss different NFC applications in the healthcare sector, none of them address the potential challenges facing illiterate patients worldwide. According to UNESCO institute for statistics, the Sub-Saharan African region has the highest percentage of illiterate people compared to other regions in the world. NFC can be used in conjunction with other ...

  13. Minimal Role of Basal Shear Tractions in Driving Nubia-Somalia Divergence Across the East African Rift System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamps, D. S.; Calais, E.; Iaffaldano, G.; Flesch, L. M.

    2012-12-01

    The Nubian and Somalian plates actively diverge along the topographically high, ~5000 km long East African Rift System (EARS). As no major subduction zones bound Africa, one can assume that the forces driving the Nubia-Somalia plate system result primarily from mantle buoyancies and lateral variation in lithospheric gravitational potential energy. Images from seismic tomography and convection models suggest active mantle flow beneath Africa. However, the contribution from large-scale convection to the force balance driving plate divergence across the EARS remains in question. In this work we investigate the impact of mantle shear tractions on the dynamics of Nubia-Somalia divergence across the EARS. We compare surface motions inferred from GPS observations with strain rates and velocities predicted from dynamic models where basal shear stresses are (1) derived from forward mantle circulation models and (2) inferred from stress field boundary conditions that balance buoyancy forces in the African lithosphere. Upper mantle anisotropy derived from seismic observations beneath Africa provide independent constraints for the latter. Preliminary results suggest that basal shear tractions play a minor role in the dynamics of Nubia-Somalia divergence along the EARS. This result implies mantle-lithosphere decoupling, possibly promoted by a low viscosity asthenosphere. We corroborate the robustness of our results with estimates of upper mantle viscosity based on local upper mantle temperature estimates and rheological parameters obtained from laboratory experiments.

  14. A Scoring Tool to Identify East African HIV-1 Serodiscordant Partnerships with a High Likelihood of Pregnancy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renee Heffron

    Full Text Available HIV-1 prevention programs targeting HIV-1 serodiscordant couples need to identify couples that are likely to become pregnant to facilitate discussions about methods to minimize HIV-1 risk during pregnancy attempts (i.e. safer conception or effective contraception when pregnancy is unintended. A clinical prediction tool could be used to identify HIV-1 serodiscordant couples with a high likelihood of pregnancy within one year.Using standardized clinical prediction methods, we developed and validated a tool to identify heterosexual East African HIV-1 serodiscordant couples with an increased likelihood of becoming pregnant in the next year. Datasets were from three prospectively followed cohorts, including nearly 7,000 couples from Kenya and Uganda participating in HIV-1 prevention trials and delivery projects.The final score encompassed the age of the woman, woman's number of children living, partnership duration, having had condomless sex in the past month, and non-use of an effective contraceptive. The area under the curve (AUC for the probability of the score to correctly predict pregnancy was 0.74 (95% CI 0.72-0.76. Scores ≥ 7 predicted a pregnancy incidence of >17% per year and captured 78% of the pregnancies. Internal and external validation confirmed the predictive ability of the score.A pregnancy likelihood score encompassing basic demographic, clinical and behavioral factors defined African HIV-1 serodiscordant couples with high one-year pregnancy incidence rates. This tool could be used to engage African HIV-1 serodiscordant couples in counseling discussions about fertility intentions in order to offer services for safer conception or contraception that align with their reproductive goals.

  15. Pattern of chromosomal aberrations in patients from north East iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazaey, Saeedeh; Mirzaei, Farzaneh; Ahadian, Mitra; Keifi, Fatemeh; Semiramis, Tootian; Abbaszadegan, Mohammad Reza

    2013-01-01

    Chromosomal aberrations are common causes of multiple anomaly syndromes. Recurrent chromosomal aberrations have been identified by conventional cytogenetic methods used widely as one of the most important clinical diagnostic techniques. In this retrospective study, the incidences of chromosomal aberrations were evaluated in a six year period from 2005 to 2011 in Pardis Clinical and Genetics Laboratory on patients referred to from Mashhad and other cities in Khorasan province. Karyotyping was performed on 3728 patients suspected of having chromosomal abnormalities. The frequencies of the different types of chromosomal abnormalities were determined, and the relative frequencies were calculated in each group. Among these patients, 83.3% had normal karyotypes with no aberrations. The overall incidences of chromosomal abnormalities were 16.7% including sex and autosomal chromosomal anomalies. Of those, 75.1 % showed autosomal chromosomal aberrations. Down syndrome (DS) was the most prevalent autosomal aberration in the patients (77.1%). Pericentric inversion of chromosome 9 was seen in 5% of patients. This inversion was prevalent in patients with recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA). Sex chromosomal aberrations were observed in 24.9% of abnormal patients of which 61% had Turner's syndrome and 33.5% had Klinefelter's syndrome. According to the current study, the pattern of chromosomal aberrations in North East of Iran demonstrates the importance of cytogenetic evaluation in patients who show clinical abnormalities. These findings provide a reason for preparing a local cytogenetic data bank to enhance genetic counseling of families who require this service.

  16. East African megadroughts between 135 and 75 thousand years ago and bearing on early-modern human origins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholz, Christopher A; Johnson, Thomas C; Cohen, Andrew S; King, John W; Peck, John A; Overpeck, Jonathan T; Talbot, Michael R; Brown, Erik T; Kalindekafe, Leonard; Amoako, Philip Y O; Lyons, Robert P; Shanahan, Timothy M; Castañeda, Isla S; Heil, Clifford W; Forman, Steven L; McHargue, Lanny R; Beuning, Kristina R; Gomez, Jeanette; Pierson, James

    2007-10-16

    The environmental backdrop to the evolution and spread of early Homo sapiens in East Africa is known mainly from isolated outcrops and distant marine sediment cores. Here we present results from new scientific drill cores from Lake Malawi, the first long and continuous, high-fidelity records of tropical climate change from the continent itself. Our record shows periods of severe aridity between 135 and 75 thousand years (kyr) ago, when the lake's water volume was reduced by at least 95%. Surprisingly, these intervals of pronounced tropical African aridity in the early late-Pleistocene were much more severe than the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), the period previously recognized as one of the most arid of the Quaternary. From these cores and from records from Lakes Tanganyika (East Africa) and Bosumtwi (West Africa), we document a major rise in water levels and a shift to more humid conditions over much of tropical Africa after approximately 70 kyr ago. This transition to wetter, more stable conditions coincides with diminished orbital eccentricity, and a reduction in precession-dominated climatic extremes. The observed climate mode switch to decreased environmental variability is consistent with terrestrial and marine records from in and around tropical Africa, but our records provide evidence for dramatically wetter conditions after 70 kyr ago. Such climate change may have stimulated the expansion and migrations of early modern human populations.

  17. Fire and life in Tarangire : effects of burning and herbivory on an East African savanna system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vijver, van de C.A.D.M.

    1999-01-01

    This thesis investigates the effects of fire on quality and quantity of forage for grazers in the savannas of East Africa where fire has been used as a tool in pasture management for centuries. Hereby the mechanisms that cause the effects, as well as the manner in which the effects are influenced by

  18. Innovations in sanitation for sustainable urban growth; modernized mixtures in an east african context

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Letema, S.; Van Vliet, B.; Van Lier, J.B.

    2012-01-01

    Urbanisation of poverty and informality in East Africa poses a threat to public health and environmental protection, perpetuating social exclusion and inequalities, while it creates service gaps. Neither conventional on-site sanitation nor modern centralised off-site sanitation provisions are

  19. Epidemic malaria and warmer temperatures in recent decades in an East African highland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alonso, David; Bouma, Menno J.; Pascual, Mercedes

    2011-01-01

    Climate change impacts on malaria are typically assessed with scenarios for the long-term future. Here we focus instead on the recent past (1970-2003) to address whether warmer temperatures have already increased the incidence of malaria in a highland region of East Africa. Our analyses rely on a

  20. Innovations in sanitation for sustainable urban growth; modernized mixtures in an east african context

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Letema, S.; Van Vliet, B.; Van Lier, J.B.

    2012-01-01

    Urbanisation of poverty and informality in East Africa poses a threat to public health and environmental protection, perpetuating social exclusion and inequalities, while it creates service gaps. Neither conventional on-site sanitation nor modern centralised off-site sanitation provisions are tenabl

  1. [Thyrotoxic hypokalemic periodic paralysis in patients of African descent].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maia, Morgana Lima e; Trevisam, Paula Grasiele Carvalho; Minicucci, Marcos; Mazeto, Glaucia M F S; Azevedo, Paula S

    2014-10-01

    Thyrotoxic hypokalemic periodic paralysis (THPP) is an endocrine emergency marked by recurrent attacks of muscle weakness associated with hypokalemia and thyrotoxicosis. Asiatic male patients are most often affected. On the other hand, African descents rarely present this disease. The case described shows an afrodescendant patient with hypokalemia and tetraparesis, whose diagnosis of hyperthyroidism was considered during this crisis. The THPP, although rare, is potentially lethal. Therefore, in cases of flaccid paresis crisis this diagnosis should always be considered, especially if associated with hypokalemia. In this situation, if no previous diagnosis of hyperthyroidism, this should also be regarded.

  2. Modelling the role of groundwater hydro-refugia in East African hominin evolution and dispersal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuthbert, M. O.; Gleeson, T.; Reynolds, S. C.; Bennett, M. R.; Newton, A. C.; McCormack, C. J.; Ashley, G. M.

    2017-05-01

    Water is a fundamental resource, yet its spatiotemporal availability in East Africa is poorly understood. This is the area where most hominin first occurrences are located, and consequently the potential role of water in hominin evolution and dispersal remains unresolved. Here, we show that hundreds of springs currently distributed across East Africa could function as persistent groundwater hydro-refugia through orbital-scale climate cycles. Groundwater buffers climate variability according to spatially variable groundwater response times determined by geology and topography. Using an agent-based model, grounded on the present day landscape, we show that groundwater availability would have been critical to supporting isolated networks of hydro-refugia during dry periods when potable surface water was scarce. This may have facilitated unexpected variations in isolation and dispersal of hominin populations in the past. Our results therefore provide a new environmental framework in which to understand how patterns of taxonomic diversity in hominins may have developed.

  3. An Investigation of the Sensitivity of East African Climate Variability to Urbanization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudoshava, Masilin

    The aim of this research was to investigate the impact of urbanization on the climate of East Africa and the subsequent consequences on the energy and agricultural sectors. This was achieved by accomplishing the following objectives (i) Comprehensive customization and evaluation of the performance of the International Center of Theoretical Physics (ICTP) Regional climate model (ii) Investigation of the ability of the ICTP Regional climate model to reproduce the modes of climate variability from observational data. (iii) Investigate the impact of urbanization on the precipitation of East Africa (iv) Investigation of the dominant process between, moisture supply, thermal convergence and frictional convergence, and (v) Impact on agriculture and energy sector. (Abstract shortened by ProQuest.).

  4. Dialogue of China-East African Community Governors and Mayors Held

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhan; Xiushuang

    2014-01-01

    <正>A Chinese local government delegation consisting of Deputy Governors Xia Geng,Bing Zhigang and Wang Lixia of Shandong,Liaoning and Shaanxi provinces,CPAFFC Vice President Feng Zuoku,and local government officials and businessmen from Weifang,Yantai,Benxi,Baoji and Siping cities,visited Uganda and Tanzania from November 20 to 26,2013to attend the Dialogue of China-East

  5. Facility-Level Factors Influencing Retention of Patients in HIV Care in East Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easterbrook, Philippa; Genberg, Becky; Braithwaite, Ronald Scott; Cohen, Craig R.; Bukusi, Elizabeth A.; Kambugu, Andrew; Bwana, Mwebesa Bosco; Somi, Geoffrey R.; Geng, Elvin H.; Musick, Beverly; Yiannoutsos, Constantin T.; Wools-Kaloustian, Kara; Braitstein, Paula

    2016-01-01

    Losses to follow-up (LTFU) remain an important programmatic challenge. While numerous patient-level factors have been associated with LTFU, less is known about facility-level factors. Data from the East African International epidemiologic Databases to Evaluate AIDS (EA-IeDEA) Consortium was used to identify facility-level factors associated with LTFU in Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda. Patients were defined as LTFU if they had no visit within 12 months of the study endpoint for pre-ART patients or 6 months for patients on ART. Adjusting for patient factors, shared frailty proportional hazard models were used to identify the facility-level factors associated with LTFU for the pre- and post-ART periods. Data from 77,362 patients and 29 facilities were analyzed. Median age at enrolment was 36.0 years (Interquartile Range: 30.1, 43.1), 63.9% were women and 58.3% initiated ART. Rates (95% Confidence Interval) of LTFU were 25.1 (24.7–25.6) and 16.7 (16.3–17.2) per 100 person-years in the pre-ART and post-ART periods, respectively. Facility-level factors associated with increased LTFU included secondary-level care, HIV RNA PCR turnaround time >14 days, and no onsite availability of CD4 testing. Increased LTFU was also observed when no nutritional supplements were provided (pre-ART only), when TB patients were treated within the HIV program (pre-ART only), and when the facility was open ≤4 mornings per week (ART only). Our findings suggest that facility-based strategies such as point of care laboratory testing and separate clinic spaces for TB patients may improve retention. PMID:27509182

  6. A distal 140 kyr sediment record of Nile discharge and East African monsoon variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrmann, Werner; Schmiedl, Gerhard; Seidel, Martin; Krüger, Stefan; Schulz, Hartmut

    2016-03-01

    Clay mineral assemblages in a sediment core from the distal Nile discharge plume off Israel have been used to reconstruct the late Quaternary Nile sediment discharge into the eastern Mediterranean Sea (EMS). The record spans the last ca. 140 kyr. Smectite abundances indicate the influence of the Blue Nile and the Atbara River that have their headwaters in the volcanic rocks of the Ethiopian Highlands. Kaolinite abundances indicate the influence of wadis, which contribute periodically to the suspension load of the Nile. Due to the geographical position, the climate and the sedimentary framework of the EMS is controlled by two climate systems. The long-term climate regime was governed by the African monsoon that caused major African humid periods (AHPs) with enhanced sediment discharge at 132 to AHP 5), 116 to 99 (AHP4), and 89 to 77 ka (AHP3). They lasted much longer than the formation of the related sapropel layers S5 (> 2 kyr), S4 (3.5 kyr), and S3 (5 kyr). During the last glacial period (Marine Isotope Stages (MISs) 4-2), the long-term changes in the monsoonal system were superimposed by millennial-scale changes in an intensified midlatitude glacial system. This climate regime caused short but pronounced drought periods in the Nile catchment, which are linked to Heinrich events and alternate with more humid interstadials. The clay mineral record further implies that feedback mechanisms between vegetation cover and sediment discharge of the Nile are detectable but of minor importance for the sedimentary record in the southeastern Mediterranean Sea during the investigated African humid periods.

  7. Pattern of Chromosomal Aberrations in Patients from North East Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeedeh Ghazaey

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Chromosomal aberrations are common causes of multiple anomaly syndromes. Recurrent chromosomal aberrations have been identified by conventional cytogenetic methods used widely as one of the most important clinical diagnostic techniques.Materials and Methods: In this retrospective study, the incidences of chromosomal aberrations were evaluated in a six year period from 2005 to 2011 in Pardis Clinical and Genetics Laboratory on patients referred to from Mashhad and other cities in Khorasan province. Karyotyping was performed on 3728 patients suspected of having chromosomal abnormalities.Results: The frequencies of the different types of chromosomal abnormalities were determined, and the relative frequencies were calculated in each group. Among these patients, 83.3% had normal karyotypes with no aberrations. The overall incidences of chromosomal abnormalities were 16.7% including sex and autosomal chromosomal anomalies. Of those, 75.1 % showed autosomal chromosomal aberrations. Down syndrome (DS was the most prevalent autosomal aberration in the patients (77.1%. Pericentric inversion of chromosome 9 was seen in 5% of patients. This inversion was prevalent in patients with recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA. Sex chromosomal aberrations were observed in 24.9% of abnormal patients of which 61% had Turner’s syndrome and 33.5% had Klinefelter’s syndrome.Conclusion: According to the current study, the pattern of chromosomal aberrations in North East of Iran demonstrates the importance of cytogenetic evaluation in patients who show clinical abnormalities. These findings provide a reason for preparing a local cytogenetic data bank to enhance genetic counseling of families who require this service.

  8. East African climate fluctuations over the last 1400 years recorded in southeastern Mediterranean sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamann, Y.; Dulski, P.; Ehrmann, W.; Schmiedl, G.; Haug, G.

    2008-12-01

    The southeastern Mediterranean Sea sedimentary history of the late Holocene was influenced by distinctive changes in Nile River sediment discharge and Saharan dust influx. We present high-resolution XRF element data of a marine sediment core of the southeastern Levantine Sea (GeoTü SL112, 32° 44.52´ N, 34° 39.02´ E, water depth: 892 m) spanning the last 1400 years. We suggest a strong relationship between humidity changes in east Africa and the corresponding sedimentological response in the Levantine Sea. The Fe record of our Levantine Sea sediment record shows a remarkable similarity with the lake level record of Lake Naivasha (Kenya) (Verschuren et al., Nature, 2000) and the pre-colonial drought history of Lake Malawi (east Africa). Several intervals of enhanced Saharan dust flux as indicated by high Fe values in the Levantine Sea core coincide with well-known droughts in equatorial east Africa and Lake Naivasha lowstands. Frequency analysis suggests that solar variability has been a major influence in these climate fluctuations. The Fe record of our core, which we interpret as Saharan dust influx to the southeast Levantine Sea, is dominated by cyclicities of approximately 90 and 200 years, known as the Gleissberg and Suess cycles. The most pronounced periods of decreased dust accumulation in the southeast Levantine Sea occurred at about 1.1 kyr BP, 0.7 kyr BP, 0.55 kyr BP, 0.3 kyr BP and 0.1 kyr BP, coincident with the solar minima of Oort, Wolf, Spoerer, Maunder and Dalton.

  9. Sm-Nd and U-Pb isotopic constraints for crustal evolution during Late Neoproterozic from rocks of the Schirmacher Oasis, East Antarctica: geodynamic development coeval with the East African Orogeny

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravikant, V.; Laux, J.H.; Pimentel, M.M.

    2007-01-01

    Recent post-750 Ma continental reconstructions constrain models for East African Orogeny formation and also the scattered remnants of ~640 Ma granulites, whose genesis is controversial. One such Neoproterozoic granulite belt is the Schirmacher Oasis in East Antarctica, isolated from the distinctly younger Pan-African orogen to the south in the central Droning Maud Land. To ascertain the duration of granulite-facies events in these remnants, garnet Sm-Nd and monazite and titanite U-Pb IDTIMS geochronology was carried out on a range of metamorphic rocks. Garnet formation ages from a websterite enclave and gabbro were 660±48 Ma and 587±9 Ma respectively, and those from Stype granites were 598±4 Ma and 577±4 Ma. Monazites from metapelite and metaquartzite yielded lower intercept UPb ages of 629±3 Ma and 639±5 Ma, respectively. U-Pb titanite age from calcsilicate gneiss was 580±5 Ma. These indicate peak metamorphism to have occurred between 640 and 630 Ma, followed by near isobaric cooling to ~580 Ma. Though an origin as an exotic terrane from the East African Orogen cannot be discounted, from the present data there is a greater likelihood that Mesoproterozoic microplate collision between Maud orogen and a northerly Lurio-Nampula block resulted in formation of these granulite belt(s).

  10. Neurovirulence comparison of chikungunya virus isolates of the Asian and East/Central/South African genotypes from Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiam, Chun Wei; Chan, Yoke Fun; Ong, Kien Chai; Wong, Kum Thong; Sam, I-Ching

    2015-11-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV), an alphavirus of the family Togaviridae, causes fever, polyarthritis and rash. There are three genotypes: West African, Asian and East/Central/South African (ECSA). The latter two genotypes have caused global outbreaks in recent years. Recent ECSA CHIKV outbreaks have been associated with severe neurological disease, but it is not known if different CHIKV genotypes are associated with different neurovirulence. In this study, the neurovirulence of Asian (MY/06/37348) and ECSA (MY/08/065) strains of CHIKV isolated in Malaysia were compared. Intracerebral inoculation of either virus into suckling mice was followed by virus titration, histopathology and gene expression analysis of the harvested brains. Both strains of CHIKV replicated similarly, yet mice infected with MY/06/37348 showed higher mortality. Histopathology findings showed that both CHIKV strains spread within the brain (where CHIKV antigen was localized to astrocytes and neurons) and beyond to skeletal muscle. In MY/06/37348-infected mice, apoptosis, which is associated with neurovirulence in alphaviruses, was observed earlier in brains. Comparison of gene expression showed that a pro-apoptotic gene (eIF2αK2) was upregulated at higher levels in MY/06/37348-infected mice, while genes involved in anti-apoptosis (BIRC3), antiviral responses and central nervous system protection (including CD40, IL-10RA, MyD88 and PYCARD) were upregulated more highly in MY/08/065-infected mice. In conclusion, the higher mortality observed following MY/06/37348 infection in mice is due not to higher viral replication in the brain, but to differentially expressed genes involved in host immune responses. These findings may help to identify therapeutic strategies and biomarkers for neurological CHIKV infections.

  11. Seismic hazard of the Kivu rift (western branch, East African Rift system): new neotectonic map and seismotectonic zonation model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delvaux, Damien; Mulumba, Jean-Luc; Sebagenzi Mwene Ntabwoba, Stanislas; Fiama Bondo, Silvanos; Kervyn, François; Havenith, Hans-Balder

    2017-04-01

    The first detailed probabilistic seismic hazard assessment has been performed for the Kivu and northern Tanganyika rift region in Central Africa. This region, which forms the central part of the Western Rift Branch, is one of the most seismically active part of the East African rift system. It was already integrated in large scale seismic hazard assessments, but here we defined a finer zonation model with 7 different zones representing the lateral variation of the geological and geophysical setting across the region. In order to build the new zonation model, we compiled homogeneous cross-border geological, neotectonic and sismotectonic maps over the central part of East D.R. Congo, SW Uganda, Rwanda, Burundi and NW Tanzania and defined a new neotectonic sheme. The seismic risk assessment is based on a new earthquake catalogue, compiled on the basis of various local and global earthquake catalogues. The use of macroseismic epicenters determined from felt earthquakes allowed to extend the time-range back to the beginning of the 20th century, spanning 126 years, with 1068 events. The magnitudes have been homogenized to Mw and aftershocks removed. From this initial catalogue, a catalogue of 359 events from 1956 to 2015 and with M > 4.4 has been extracted for the seismic hazard assessment. The seismotectonic zonation includes 7 seismic source areas that have been defined on the basis of the regional geological structure, neotectonic fault systems, basin architecture and distribution of thermal springs and earthquake epicenters. The Gutenberg-Richter seismic hazard parameters were determined using both the least square linear fit and the maximum likelihood method (Kijko & Smit aue program). Seismic hazard maps have been computed with the Crisis 2012 software using 3 different attenuation laws. We obtained higher PGA values (475 years return period) for the Kivu rift region than the previous estimates (Delvaux et al., 2016). They vary laterally in function of the tectonic

  12. Fundamental Flaws in the Architecture of the European Central Bank: The Possible End of the Euro Zone and its Effects to East African Community (EAC Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nothando Moyo

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available European countries embarked on a European integration programme that saw the formation of the Euro, which has emerged as a major currency (Blair, 1999 that was introduced in 1998. With the Euro, came the establishment of the European Central Bank. Thus this study seeks to investigate the flaws in the formation of the European Central Bank that surfaced during the major economic crisis in Europe. The crisis revealing the gaps in the formation and structure of the European central bank have created major challenges for the Economic and Monetary Union (EMU. Through an extant review of literature the study will examine the East African Community Countries, investigating the ties they have to the euro zone to analyse how the crisis has affected them. Furthermore, the study will analyse what would happen to the growth patterns of the East African Countries and the various prospects they may have should the Eurozone come to an end.

  13. Advancing the Structural Use of Earth-based Bricks: Addressing Key Challenges in the East African Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mang Tia

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The research discussed in this paper is a subset of a bigger, NSF funded research project that is directed at investigating the use of sustainable building materials. The deployment context for the research is the hot and humid climate using selected cases from the East African region. The overarching goal for the research is advancing the structural use of earth-based technologies. Significant strides can be made through developing strategies for countering the adverse factors that affect the structural performance of the resulting wall, especially ones related to moisture dynamics. The research was executed in two phases. The first phase was a two-day NSF supported workshop which was held in Tanzania in July 2009. It provided a forum for sharing best practices in earth-based building technologies and developing a research and development roadmap. The priority research areas were broadly classified as optimizing the physio-mechanical properties of earth as a building material and managing socio-cultural impediments. In the second phase of the research, the authors collaborated with researchers from East Africa to conduct experimental work on the optimization of physio-mechanical properties. The specific research issues that have been addressed are: (1 characterizing the chemical reactions that can be linked to deterioration triggered by hygrothermal loads based on the hot and humid context, and; (2 developing a prototype for a simpler, portable, affordable and viable compressed brick production machine. The paper discusses the results from the characterization work that ultimately will be used to design bricks that have specific properties based on an understanding of how different stabilizers affect the hydration process. It also describes a cheaper, portable and more efficient prototype machine that has been developed as part of the follow-up research activities.

  14. The seismotectonics of Southeastern Tanzania: Implications for the propagation of the eastern branch of the East African Rift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulibo, Gabriel D.; Nyblade, Andrew A.

    2016-04-01

    Seismicity patterns and focal mechanisms in southeastern Tanzania, determined from data recorded on temporary and permanent AfricaArray seismic stations, have been used to investigate the propagation direction of the Eastern branch of the East African Rift System southward from the Northern Tanzania Divergence Zone (NTDZ). Within the NTDZ, the rift zone is defined by three segments, the Eyasi segment to the west, the Manyara segment in the middle, and the Pangani segment to the east. Results show that most of the seismicity (~ 75%) extends to the south of the Manyara segment along the eastern margin of the Tanzania Craton, and at ~ 6-7° S latitude trends to the SE along the northern boundary of the Ruvuma microplate, connecting with a N-S zone of seismicity offshore southern Tanzania and Mozambique. A lesser amount of seismicity (~ 25%) is found extending from the SE corner of the Tanzania Craton at ~ 6-7° S latitude southwards towards Lake Nyasa. This finding supports a model of rift propagation via the Manyara segment to the southeast of the Tanzania Craton along the northern boundary of the Ruvuma microplate. However, given the limited duration of the seismic recordings used in this study, the possibility of another zone of extension developing to the south towards Lake Nyasa (Malawi) cannot be ruled out. Focal mechanisms along the boundary between the Victoria and the Ruvuma microplates and offshore southeastern Tanzania show a combination of normal and strike slip faulting indicating mainly extension with some sinistral motion, consistent with the mapped geologic faults and a clockwise rotation of the Ruvuma microplate.

  15. Epidemiological analysis of burn patients in east Bulgaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zayakova, Yolanda; Vajarov, Ivailo; Stanev, Anton; Nenkova, Natalia; Hristov, Hristo

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of the study was to identify the basic epidemiological characteristics of burn patients in East Bulgaria, as well as to analyze trends in burns in the region over the last decade. Retrospective data of burn patients treated at Military Hospital-Varna, in the period January 2002-December 2011, was reviewed and statistically interpreted in terms of patients and burn demographics; etiology; place of incidents; hospital stay and mortality. Trends were observed for the entire period and comparative analyses of patients' data were made between two periods: first - 2002-2006 and second 2007-2011. A total of 2627 burn patients, median age 41 years (IQR 9-61) were admitted to our burn unit. For the entire period the most affected age groups were ≤ 4 years (21.6%) and ≥ 65 years (21.1%). Hospitalized patients increased in the second period (n = 1701) compared to the first one (n = 926), while the size of total burn surface area decreased (first period - 9.8% vs. second period - 10.6%). Scald (51%) and flame (23.8%) were the most frequent aetiological agents for both periods. Work related burns reduced in the second period (9.4% vs. 4.9%), while home burns (90.6 vs. 95.1%) increased. Hospital stay declined from 17 days (2002-2006) to 7 days (2007-2011), whereas mortality rate slightly increased (first period - 2.3% vs. second period - 3.6%). Burns remain a significant health problem in Bulgaria. The future preventive actions should take into account the observed changes in burn demographics and target the most vulnerable groups. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  16. North African dust deposition and hydroclimate over the last 60 ka: A combined view from the east and west of the continent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinsley, C. W.; McGee, D.; Bradtmiller, L. I.; Tierney, J. E.; Winckler, G.; Stuut, J. B. W.; deMenocal, P. B.

    2014-12-01

    Past changes in atmospheric circulation and hydroclimate over North Africa can be explored by reconstructing eolian dust accumulation in both East and West African margin sediments. Recent high-resolution reconstructions of dust deposition from West Africa (1) indicate dramatic changes in North African dust emissions over the last 20 ka, with comparable results to those found in the terrigenous accumulation rates at nearby ODP Hole 658C (2). A high-resolution record of aridity from East Africa using δDwax indicates dramatic changes in hydroclimate over the past 40 ka (3). The records show similar trends with arid conditions/high dust emissions seen during the Last Glacial Maximum, the Younger Dryas and Heinrich Event 1 (H1), and the wettest conditions of the past 40,000 years with accompanying low dust emissions during the African Humid Period. This study has two goals: 1) Extend the dust flux and terrigeneous accumulation records from West Africa back to 35 ka and 60 ka respectively, to provide quantitative estimates of the magnitude of eolian deposition changes associated with previous Heinrich Stadials (H2 to H6) and summer insolation minima/maxima; 2) Construct a high-resolution record of eolian dust accumulation rates off the East African margin over the past 20 ka using the same sample material as (3) allowing quantitative estimates of the magnitude of dust flux changes associated with abrupt changes in hydroclimate and provide a direct comparison of dust flux and δDwax. The combination of these study areas from both sides of the African continent, and comparison of the dust and leaf wax proxies promises to provide a more complete picture of hydroclimate changes accompanying orbital- and millennial-scale climate changes in North Africa over the last 60,000 years. 1. EPSL 371-372, 163-176. 2. Paleoceanography 21, PA4203. 3. Science 342, 843-846.

  17. Contribution to the Investigation of Structure and Origin of the East African Graben by Gravimetry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tondozi Keto; LIU Tianyou

    2005-01-01

    For our investigation we have 235 measurements done in the east part of Democratic Republic of Congo by P. Herrinck during a magnetic survey including the graben region from the parallel joining Goma city and Mahagi city, the region between Albert and Aka lakes, and the route from Aba to Kinsagani. During the surveys the density of recording points has been selected according to the importance of anomalies. In this way, the offset was 1 km where the disturbance was high in Goma city and 20 km have been sufficient along the route from Aba to Kinsagani. For the topographic and isostatic reductions only one cartographic document has been chosen that was the international map of the scale 1/1 000 000 which presents a certain characteristic of homogeneity.

  18. Variability of East African rainfall based on multi-year RegCM3 simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anyah, R.; Semazzi, F.

    2009-04-01

    The International Center for Theoretical Physics(ICTP) regional climate model version 3(ICTP-RegCM3) multi-year simulations of East Africa rainfall during the October-December, short rains season are evaluated. Two parallel runs; based on NCEP reanalysis and NASA FvGCM lateral boundary conditions are performed. The simulated monthly and seasonal rainfall climatology as well as the inter-annual variability are found to be fairly consistent with observations. The model climatology over specific homogeneous climate sub-regions, except central Kenya highlands, also reasonably agree with the observed. The latitude-time evolution(intra-seasonal variability) of the simulated seasonal rainfall exhibits two distinct modes of behavior. The first is a quasi-stationary mode associated with high rainfall throughout the season within the equatorial belt between; 1oS and 2oN. The second mode is associated with the ITCZ-driven southward migration of regions of rainfall maxima as the season progresses, which is also consistent with the observed. Furthermore, observed rainfall variability over distinct homogeneous climate sub-regions is also fairly reproduced by the model, except over central Kenya Highlands and northeastern parts of Kenya. The spatial correlation between simulated seasonal rainfall and some of the global teleconnections(DMI and Nino3.4 indices) show that the regional model conserves some of the observed regional ‘hot spots' where rainfall-ENSO/DMI association are strong. At the same, unlike observations, the model reveals that along the East Africa Rift Valley and over western parts of Lake Victoria Basin, the association is weak, perhaps an indication that non-linear interactions between local forcing (captured by the model) and large scale systems either suppresses or obscures the dominant influence of the teleconnections on rainfall over certain parts.

  19. PROPOSAL FOR REVIEW OF RESTRICTIONS AND LOGISTIC OPPORTUNITIES IN AN EAST AFRICAN PORT: FROM A TECHNICAL MISSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robson Quinello

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The logistics went over the century, as noted by Gonçalves (2007, from  a fragmented and diluted within and value of organizations profile to a critical role in the strategy of the networks and chains of international business. For the twenty-first century, as will be seen in this article, logistics goes beyond these functions going to represent a social and political role in international relations between countries. The installation of a port located in East Africa near the Red Sea, the critical incident will be reviewed during a technical mission undertaken by a researcher in 2009. This research field, in the form of checklist, appoint the main barriers in infrastructure, information, rules and norms. The results indicate critical constraints of infrastructure and institutional opportunities that impact the implementation of new developments there. We will show that the progressive development of organizational arrangement to a complex undertaking, such as ports, can be key role in reversing the condition of misery and poverty in African countries.

  20. Field Studies Show That In Situ Greenhouse Gas Emission Factors for East African Agriculture Are Less Than IPCC Values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelster, D.; Butterbach-Bahl, K.; Rufino, M.; Rosenstock, T. S.; Wanyama, G.

    2015-12-01

    Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from African agricultural systems are thought to comprise a large portion of total emissions from the continent, however these estimates have been calculated using emission factors (EF) from other regions due to the lack of field studies in Africa, which results in large uncertainties for these estimates. Field measurements from western Kenya calculating emissions over a year in 59 different sites found that GHG emissions from typical smallholder farms ranged from 2.8 to 15.0 Mg CO2-C ha-1, -6.0 to 2.4 kg CH4-C ha-1 and -0.1 to 1.8 kg N2O-N ha-1, and were not affected by management intensity. The lack of a response in N2O emissions to N fertilization suggests that the EF currently used in national inventories overestimates N2O emissions from typical smallholder agriculture. Another study measuring N2O and CH4 emissions from manure deposited by grazing cattle found that the N2O EF ranged from 0.1 to 0.2%, while the CH4 EF ranged from 0.04 to 0.14 Kg CH4-C per 173 kg animal. These suggest that the current IPCC EF overestimate agricultural soil and manure GHG emissions for Kenya, and likely for much of East Africa.

  1. Trophic redundancy among fishes in an East African nearshore seagrass community inferred from stable-isotope analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matich, P; Kiszka, J J; Gastrich, K R; Heithaus, M R

    2017-08-01

    Stable-isotope analysis supplemented with stomach contents data from published sources was used to quantify the trophic niches, trophic niche overlaps and potential trophic redundancy for the most commonly caught fish species from an East African nearshore seagrass community. This assessment is an important first step in quantifying food-web structure in a region subject to intense fishing activities. Nearshore food webs were driven by at least two isotopically distinct trophic pathways, algal and seagrass, with a greater proportion of the sampled species feeding within the seagrass food web (57%) compared with the algal food web (33%). There was considerable isotopic niche overlap among species (92% of species overlapped with at least one other species). Narrow isotopic niche widths of most (83%) species sampled, low isotopic similarity (only 23% of species exhibited no differences in δ(13) C and δ(15) N) and low predicted trophic redundancy among fishes most commonly caught by fishermen (15%), however, suggest that adjustments to resource management concerning harvesting and gear selectivity may be needed for the persistence of artisanal fishing in northern Tanzania. More detailed trophic studies paired with information on spatio-temporal variation in fish abundance, especially for heavily targeted species, will assist in the development and implementation of management strategies to maintain coastal food-web integrity. © 2017 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  2. 105 East and Central African Journal of Surgery Volume 12 Number ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Josephine Nakato

    with an average cost of treatment of Ksh.28, 916 (US $ 596). Conclusion: ... study population consisted of all patients whose operative ... tie n ts. Figure 1. Age Distribution In Patients Undergoing Laparotomy Due To Intestinal Obstruction.

  3. Selecting renal replacement therapies: what do African American and non-African American patients and their families think others should know? A mixed methods study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DePasquale Nicole

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known regarding the types of information African American and non-African American patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD and their families need to inform renal replacement therapy (RRT decisions. Methods In 20 structured group interviews, we elicited views of African American and non-African American patients with CKD and their families about factors that should be addressed in educational materials informing patients’ RRT selection decisions. We asked participants to select factors from a list and obtained their open-ended feedback. Results Ten groups of patients (5 African American, 5 non-African American; total 68 individuals and ten groups of family members (5 African American, 5 non-African American; total 62 individuals participated. Patients and families had a range (none to extensive of experiences with various RRTs. Patients identified morbidity or mortality, autonomy, treatment delivery, and symptoms as important factors to address. Family members identified similar factors but also cited the effects of RRT decisions on patients’ psychological well-being and finances. Views of African American and non-African American participants were largely similar. Conclusions Educational resources addressing the influence of RRT selection on patients’ morbidity and mortality, autonomy, treatment delivery, and symptoms could help patients and their families select RRT options closely aligned with their values. Including information about the influence of RRT selection on patients’ personal relationships and finances could enhance resources’ cultural relevance for African Americans.

  4. Planation surfaces as a record of medium to large wavelength deformation: the example of the Lake Albert Rift (Uganda) on the East African Dome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brendan, Simon; François, Guillocheau; Cécile, Robin; Jean, Braun; Olivier, Dauteuil; Massimo, Dall'Asta

    2016-04-01

    African relief is characterized by planation surfaces, some of them of continental scale. These surfaces are slightly deformed according to different wavelengths (x10 km; x100 km, x1000 km) which record both mantle dynamics (very long wavelength, x 1000 km) and lithosphere deformation (long wavelength deformation, x 100 km). Different types of these planation surfaces are recognized: - Etchplains capped by iron-duricrust which correspond to erosional nearly flat weathered surfaces resulting from the growth of laterites under warm and humid conditions. - Pediments which define mechanical erosional surfaces with concave or rectilinear profiles delimited by upslope scarps connected upstream with the upper landforms. We here focused on the Lake Albert Rift at the northern termination of the western branch of the East African Rift System of which the two branches are surimposed on the East-African Dome. Different wavelengths of deformation were characterized based on the 3D mapping of stepped planation surfaces: (1) very long wavelength deformations resulting from the uplift of the East African Dome; (2) long wavelength deformations resulting from the opening of the eastern branch and (3) medium wavelength deformations represented by the uplift of rift shoulders like the Rwenzori Mountains. The paleo-landscape reconstruction of Uganda shows the existence of four generations of landforms dated according to their geometrical relationships with volcanic rocks. A four stepped evolution of the Ugandan landforms is proposed: • 70 - 22 Ma: generation of two weathered planation surfaces (etchplain Uw and Iw). The upper one (Uw) records a very humid period culminating at time of the Early Eocene Climatic Optimum (70-45 Ma). It corresponds to the African Surface. A first uplift of the East African Dome generates a second lower planation surface (Iw) connected to the Atlantic Ocean base level; • 17-2.7 Ma: planation of large pediplains connected to the local base level induced

  5. Extent of East-African Nurse Leaders’ Participation in Health Policy Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Shariff

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports part of a bigger study whose aim was to develop an empowerment model that could be used to enhance nurse leaders’ participation in health policy development. A Delphi survey was applied which included the following criteria: expert panelists, iterative rounds, statistical analysis, and consensus building. The expert panelists were purposively selected and included national nurse leaders in leadership positions at the nursing professional associations, nursing regulatory bodies, ministries of health, and universities in East Africa. The study was conducted in three iterative rounds. The results reported here were gathered as part of the first round of the study and that examined the extent of nurse leaders’ participation in health policy development. Seventy-eight (78 expert panelists were invited to participate in the study, and the response rate was 47%. Data collection was done with the use of a self-report questionnaire. Data analysis was done by use of SPSS and descriptive statistics were examined. The findings indicated that nurse leaders participate in health policy development though participation is limited and not consistent across all the stages of health policy development. The recommendations from the findings are that health policy development process needs to be pluralistic and inclusive of all nurse leaders practicing in positions related to policy development and the process must be open to their ideas and suggestions.

  6. Otoliths of five extant species of the annual killifish Nothobranchius from the East African savannah.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bettina Reichenbacher

    Full Text Available This study presents, for the first time, a comprehensive dataset that documents the range of inter- and intraspecific otolith variation in aplocheiloid killifish, based on a total of 86 individuals representing five extant species of Nothobranchius PETERS, 1868, from East Africa: the sympatric pairs N. rubripinnis SEEGERS, 1986 and N. ruudwildekampi COSTA, 2009 (Eastern Tanzania, and N. orthonotus (PETERS, 1844 and N. furzeri JUBB, 1971 (Southern Mozambique, and two isolated populations of N. korthausae MEINKEN, 1973 (Eastern Tanzania. Otolith characters were analysed based on SEM images, and otolith morphometry was conducted using uni- and multivariate statistics. Two ancient clades of probably Early to Middle Miocene age in eastern Tanzania and southern Mozambique can be recognized based on otolith morphologies, which is consistent with previous work based on molecular data. The distinctive sulcus morphologies in the otoliths of sympatric species may be linked to species-specific hearing capabilities, perhaps constituting a case of character displacement in an area of secondary sympatry. The otoliths of the studied species of Nothobranchius are diagnostic at the species level, even in the case of closely related species diagnosable otherwise only by minor differences in coloration. The two populations of N. korthausae also displayed some differences in their otolith characters. The new data may facilitate future recognition of fossil species of Nothobranchius. As no fossil remains of extant aplocheiloid killifishes have yet been described, the discovery of fossil otoliths of Nothobranchius would significantly advance understanding of the evolutionary history of this interesting group of fishes.

  7. Socioeconomic Differences in Dietary Patterns in an East African Country: Evidence from the Republic of Seychelles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayén, Ana-Lucia; Bovet, Pascal; Marti-Soler, Helena; Viswanathan, Bharathi; Gedeon, Jude; Paccaud, Fred; Marques-Vidal, Pedro; Stringhini, Silvia

    2016-01-01

    Background In high income countries, low socioeconomic status (SES) is related to unhealthier dietary patterns, while evidence on the social patterning of diet in low and middle income countries is scarce. Objective In this study, we assess dietary patterns in the general population of a middle income country in the African region, the Republic of Seychelles, and examine their distribution according to educational level and income. Methods Data was drawn from two independent national surveys conducted in the Seychelles among adults aged 25–64 years in 2004 (n = 1236) and 2013 (n = 1240). Dietary patterns were assessed by principal component analysis (PCA). Educational level and income were used as SES indicators. Data from both surveys were combined as no interaction was found between SES and year. Results Three dietary patterns were identified: “snacks and drinks”, “fruit and vegetables” and “fish and rice”. No significant associations were found between SES and the “snacks and drinks” pattern. Low vs. high SES individuals had lower adherence to the “fruit and vegetables” pattern [prevalence ratio (95% CI) 0.71 (0.60–0.83)] but a higher adherence to the traditional “fish and rice” pattern [1.58 (1.32–1.88)]. Income modified the association between education and the “fish and rice” pattern (p = 0.02), whereby low income individuals had a higher adherence to this pattern in both educational groups. Conclusion Low SES individuals have a lower consumption of fruit and vegetables, but a higher consumption of traditional foods like fish and rice. The Seychelles may be at a degenerative diseases stage of the nutrition transition. PMID:27214139

  8. Standardizing visual control devices for tsetse flies: east African Species Glossina fuscipes fuscipes and Glossina tachinoides.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francis Oloo

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Riverine species of tsetse are responsible for most human African trypanosomiasis (HAT transmission and are also important vectors of animal trypanosomiasis. This study concerns the development of visual control devices for two such species, Glossina fuscipes fuscipes and Glossina tachinoides, at the eastern limits of their continental range. The goal was to determine the most long-lasting, practical and cost-effective visually attractive device that induces the strongest landing responses in these species for use as insecticide-impregnated tools in vector population suppression.Field trials were conducted in different seasons on G. f. fuscipes in Kenya, Ethiopia and the Sudan and on G. tachinoides in Ethiopia to measure the performance of traps and 2D targets of different sizes and colours, with and without chemical baits, at different population densities and under different environmental conditions. Adhesive film was used to enumerate flies at these remote locations to compare trapping efficiencies. The findings show that targets made from black and blue fabrics (either phthalogen or turquoise covered with adhesive film render them equal to or more efficient than traps at capturing G. f. fuscipes and G. tachinoides. Biconical trap efficiency varied between 25% and 33% for the two species. Smaller 0.25 m×0.25 m phthalogen blue-black targets proved more efficient than the regular 1 m2 target for both species, by over six times for Glossina f. fuscipes and two times for G. tachinoides based on catches per m2. Overall, targets with a higher edge/surface area ratio were more efficient at capturing flies.Taking into account practical considerations and fly preferences for edges and colours, we propose a 0.5×0.75 m blue-black target as a simple cost-effective device for management of G. f. fuscipes and G. tachinoides, impregnated with insecticide for control and covered with adhesive film for population sampling.

  9. East and Central African Journal of Surgery - Vol 21, No 1 (2016)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Critical care in Africa: A surgical intensivist perspective · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT ... in Primary Open Angle Glaucoma patients in Nigeria · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT ... Analgesia in patients with or without single-shot lamina thoracic paravertebral ... OTHER RESOURCES.

  10. The Eastern Arc Mountains and coastal forests of East Africa-an archive to understand large-scale biogeographical patterns: Pseudotomias, a new genus of African Pseudophyllinae (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemp, Claudia

    2016-06-21

    A new genus of Pseudophyllinae restricted to East Africa is described. Data on the ecology, and the habitat are provided. The biogeographical pattern and morphology suggests an old radiation since Tomias from Central and West Africa is the closest relative to Pseudotomias. The old forests of East Africa could hereby be the source of representatives of this old radiation since venation is less reduced in East African taxa of Phyllomimini.

  11. Virtual industrial water usage and wastewater generation in the Middle East/North African region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. R. Sakhel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study deals with the quantification of volumes of water usage, wastewater generation, virtual water export, and wastewater generation from export for eight export relevant industries present in the Middle East/North Africa (MENA. It shows that about 3400 million m3 of water is used per annum while around 793 million m3 of wastewater is generated from products that are meant for domestic consumption and export. The difference between volumes of water usage and wastewater generation is due to water evaporation or injecting underground (oil wells pressure maintenance. The wastewater volume generated from production represents a population equivalent of 15.5 million in terms of wastewater quantity and 30.4 million in terms of BOD. About 409 million m3 of virtual water flows from MENA to EU27 (resulting from export of eight commodities which is equivalent to 12.1% of the water usage of those industries and Libya is the largest virtual water exporter (about 87 million m3. Crude oil and refined petroleum products represent about 89% of the total virtual water flow, fertilizers represent around 10% and 1% remaining industries. EU27 poses the greatest indirect pressure on the Kuwaiti hydrological system where the virtual water export represents about 96% of the actual renewable water resources in this country. The Kuwaiti crude oil water use in relation to domestic water withdrawal is about 89% which is highest among MENA countries. Pollution of water bodies, in terms of BOD, due to production is very relevant for crude oil, slaughterhouses, refineries, olive oil, and tanneries while pollution due to export to EU27 is most relevant for crude oil industry and olive oil mills.

  12. Millennial-scale cyclicity in the Pliocene: Evidence from the East African Rift Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, K. E.; Leng, M. J.; Edgar, R. K.; Deino, A. L.; Kingston, J. D.; Maslin, M. A.; Mackay, A. W.

    2010-12-01

    Superimposed on the long-term trend of aridification in East Africa were a series of humid episodes, coincident with major transitions in global climate during the Plio-Pleistocene. The period of climatic variability between 2.7 and 2.5 Ma is coeval with the amplification of ice sheet growth and cooling in the Northern Hemisphere, however climate change in the low latitudes remains poorly understood. In the Tugen Hills, a well-dated package of fluviolacustrine sediments, characterised by five diatomite units, records the precessionally-driven cycling of a major freshwater lake system in the Baringo-Bogoria basin within the Central Kenyan Rift between 2.68 and 2.55 Ma. We use stable oxygen isotope measurements of diatom silica (δ18Odiatom), combined with the analysis of whole-sample geochemistry by x-ray fluorescence, to investigate potential palaeoenvironmental signals recorded in the best dated of these diatomite deposits spanning the period between 2.606 Ma and 2.617 Ma (40Ar/39Ar chronology normalised to Astronomical Polarity Time Scale). Geochemical results were modelled using multivariate statistics, and mass-balance calculations were applied to the isotope values to correct for the effects of residual contamination within the purified diatom samples. The modelled δ18Odiatom values, coupled with diatom assemblage counts, reveal a series of millennial-scale climate oscillations throughout the period of diatomite deposition. Six negative excursions in the δ18Odiatom signal of up to 5 per mil represent periods of enhanced precipitation and indicate that wet-dry cycles occur, on average, every 1,400 years. Such high-resolution cycles are rarely found in records from this time, thus giving a valuable insight to the nature of short-term fluctuations in Pliocene climate.

  13. Not just academics: Supporting international graduate students at an East African private university

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janice Rasmussen

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The number of students enrolled in higher education outside their countries of originincreased from 0.8 million in 1975, to 2.1 million in 2000, and to 3.7 million in 2009(Ryan, 2012. This growing trend of student mobility leads to increased universitycompetition for students around the globe. However, little is known about the experiencesof international students in Africa. This lack of understanding could leave the continentat a disadvantage for attracting and retaining international students, while other partsof the world continue to benefit. To begin to address this gap, I conducted a qualitativephenomenological study at one private university in East Africa that attracts about 20% ofits population as international students.As International Student Coordinator at this university, I interviewed 13 graduatestudents from various countries and conducted participant observations on campus forthree years. I aimed to understand students’ perceptions of their learning experiences.This article focuses on students’ non-academic learning. Students’ positive and negativeexperiences highlighted the difference that student affairs and administrative staff can makein the quality of students’ educational experiences. A needs model shed light on students’non-academic experiences. Student affairs and administrative staff were essential in1 providing pre-arrival information, 2 meeting students’ initial basic needs, 3 connectingthem with others, keeping immigration documents current, and 5 understanding the newacademic system. Ecologically, students were required to make a variety of connections intheir adjustment process on campus and beyond.If the university could adequately addressinternational students’ non-academic issues, then students would be better able to focuson their main purpose: their academics. It is recommended that the university revisit itsprocedures and develop more holistic international-student-friendly policies. Then, it

  14. Regional differences in seasonal timing of rainfall discriminate between genetically distinct East African giraffe taxa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henri A Thomassen

    Full Text Available Masai (Giraffa tippelskirchi, Reticulated (G. reticulata and Rothschild's (G. camelopardalis giraffe lineages in East Africa are morphologically and genetically distinct, yet in Kenya their ranges abut. This raises the question of how divergence is maintained among populations of a large mammal capable of long-distance travel, and which readily hybridize in zoos. Here we test four hypotheses concerning the maintenance of the phylogeographic boundaries among the three taxa: 1 isolation-by-distance; 2 physical barriers to dispersal; 3 general habitat differences resulting in habitat segregation; or 4 regional differences in the seasonal timing of rainfall, and resultant timing of browse availability. We used satellite remotely sensed and climate data to characterize the environment at the locations of genotyped giraffes. Canonical variate analysis, random forest algorithms, and generalized dissimilarity modelling were employed in a landscape genetics framework to identify the predictor variables that best explained giraffes' genetic divergence. We found that regional differences in the timing of precipitation, and resulting green-up associated with the abundance of browse, effectively discriminate between taxa. Local habitat conditions, topographic and human-induced barriers, and geographic distance did not aid in discriminating among lineages. Our results suggest that selection associated with regional timing of events in the annual climatic cycle may help maintain genetic and phenotypic divergence in giraffes. We discuss potential mechanisms of maintaining divergence, and suggest that synchronization of reproduction with seasonal rainfall cycles that are geographically distinct may contribute to reproductive isolation. Coordination of weaning with green-up cycles could minimize the costs of lactation and predation on the young. Our findings are consistent with theory and empirical results demonstrating the efficacy of seasonal or phenologically

  15. Regional differences in seasonal timing of rainfall discriminate between genetically distinct East African giraffe taxa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomassen, Henri A; Freedman, Adam H; Brown, David M; Buermann, Wolfgang; Jacobs, David K

    2013-01-01

    Masai (Giraffa tippelskirchi), Reticulated (G. reticulata) and Rothschild's (G. camelopardalis) giraffe lineages in East Africa are morphologically and genetically distinct, yet in Kenya their ranges abut. This raises the question of how divergence is maintained among populations of a large mammal capable of long-distance travel, and which readily hybridize in zoos. Here we test four hypotheses concerning the maintenance of the phylogeographic boundaries among the three taxa: 1) isolation-by-distance; 2) physical barriers to dispersal; 3) general habitat differences resulting in habitat segregation; or 4) regional differences in the seasonal timing of rainfall, and resultant timing of browse availability. We used satellite remotely sensed and climate data to characterize the environment at the locations of genotyped giraffes. Canonical variate analysis, random forest algorithms, and generalized dissimilarity modelling were employed in a landscape genetics framework to identify the predictor variables that best explained giraffes' genetic divergence. We found that regional differences in the timing of precipitation, and resulting green-up associated with the abundance of browse, effectively discriminate between taxa. Local habitat conditions, topographic and human-induced barriers, and geographic distance did not aid in discriminating among lineages. Our results suggest that selection associated with regional timing of events in the annual climatic cycle may help maintain genetic and phenotypic divergence in giraffes. We discuss potential mechanisms of maintaining divergence, and suggest that synchronization of reproduction with seasonal rainfall cycles that are geographically distinct may contribute to reproductive isolation. Coordination of weaning with green-up cycles could minimize the costs of lactation and predation on the young. Our findings are consistent with theory and empirical results demonstrating the efficacy of seasonal or phenologically dictated

  16. Filaria dance sign and subclinical hydrocoele in two east African communities with bancroftian filariasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonsen, Paul E; Bernhard, Peter; Jaoko, Walter G; Meyrowitsch, Dan W; Malecela-Lazaro, Mwele N; Magnussen, Pascal; Michael, Edwin

    2002-01-01

    During population-wide cross-sectional surveys for Wuchereria bancrofti microfilaremia, circulating antigenaemia, and clinical disease in a high and a low endemicity community in East Africa in 1998, a portable ultrasound scanner was used simultaneously to examine the scrotal tissue of the male populations (n = 422 and 328, respectively) for signs of adult worms. The overall microfilaria (mf) and circulating filarial antigen (CFA) prevalences in the scanned males were 30.8% and 53.6% in the high and 4.3% and 19.8% in the low endemicity community, respectively. During ultrasound examination, the filaria dance sign (FDS)--indicating the presence of live adult W. bancrofti worms--was observed in 16.1% and 6.7% of the males in these communities, respectively. This examination also revealed that subclinical hydrocoele (fluid accumulation in the scrotal sac, not detected during physical examination for clinical hydrocoele) was very common, affecting 25.3% and 15.5% of the examined males in the high and low endemicity community, respectively. Both of these ultrasonographic signs started to appear around the age of puberty and were most common in adults. In the high endemicity community, the prevalence and mean intensity of mf and CFA were considerably higher in FDS-positive than in FDS-negative adult males, whereas no obvious difference in these parameters was noted between adult males with and without subclinical or the combination of clinical and subclinical hydrocoele. Associations were less clear in the low endemicity community, probably because of the low number of infected individuals. The application of ultrasonography as a tool in bancroftian filariasis epidemiological field studies thus indicated that scrotal pathology may be much more common in endemic areas than hitherto reported.

  17. 99 East and Central African Journal of Surgery Volume 12 Number 2 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Josephine Nakato

    lymphoma in immunocompromised patient is reported with literature review. ... of fever. He had been admitted twice at District. Hospital and twice in Medical Department at. Muhimbili National ... unknown origin and dysphagia16,19,20. Rare.

  18. East and Central African Journal of Surgery Volume 15 Number 2 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DELL

    Background: Most studies on thyroid dysfunction have been on patients refereed for ... accurate, widely available safe and relatively inexpensive diagnostic test for all ... Iodized salt intake achieves a 150-250µg/d intake, which is adequate.

  19. Clinical and molecular characteristics of East Asian patients with von Hippel-Lindau syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Meihua Wong; YingHsia Chu; Hwei Ling Tan; Hideharu Bessho; Joanne Ngeow; Tiffany Tang; MinHan Tan

    2016-01-01

    Background: Von Hippel–Lindau (VHL) syndrome is a dominantly inherited multisystem cancer syndrome caused by a heterozygous mutation in the VHL tumor suppressor gene. Previous studies suggested that similar populations of Caucasian and Japanese patients have similar genotype or phenotype characteristics. In this comprehensive study of East Asian patients, we investigated the genetic and clinical characteristics of patients with VHL syndrome. Methods: To create a registry of clinical characteristics and mutations reported in East Asian patients with VHL syndrome, we conducted a comprehensive review of English language and non‑English language articles identi‑fied through a literature search. Publications in Japanese or Chinese language were read by native speakers of the language, who then performed the data extraction. Results: Of 237 East Asian patients with VHL syndrome, 154 unique kindreds were identified for analysis. Analyzed by kindred, missense mutations were the most common (40.9%, 63/154), followed by large/complete deletions (32.5%, 50/154) and nonsense mutations (11.7%, 18/154). Compared with a previously reported study of both East Asian and non‑East Asian patients, we found several key differences. First, missense and frameshift mutations in the VHL gene occurred less commonly in our population of East Asian patients (40.9% vs. 52.0%; P = 0.012 and 8.4% vs.13.0%; P < 0.001, respectively). Second, large/complete deletions were more common in our population of East Asian patients (32.5% vs. 10.5%; P < 0.001). Third, phenotypically, we observed that, in our population of East Asian patients with VHL syndrome, the incidence of retinal capillary hemangioblastoma was lower, whereas the incidence of renal cell carcinoma was higher. Conclusions: Evidence suggests that the genotypic and phenotypic characteristics of East Asian patients with VHL syndrome differ from other populations. This should be considered when making screening recommendations for

  20. Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWS NET) Contributions to Strengthening Resilience and Sustainability for the East African Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budde, M. E.; Galu, G.; Funk, C. C.; Verdin, J. P.; Rowland, J.

    2014-12-01

    The Planning for Resilience in East Africa through Policy, Adaptation, Research, and Economic Development (PREPARED) is a multi-organizational project aimed at mainstreaming climate-resilient development planning and program implementation into the East African Community (EAC). The Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWS NET) has partnered with the PREPARED project to address three key development challenges for the EAC; 1) increasing resiliency to climate change, 2) managing trans-boundary freshwater biodiversity and conservation and 3) improving access to drinking water supply and sanitation services. USGS FEWS NET has been instrumental in the development of gridded climate data sets that are the fundamental building blocks for climate change adaptation studies in the region. Tools such as the Geospatial Climate Tool (GeoCLIM) have been developed to interpolate time-series grids of precipitation and temperature values from station observations and associated satellite imagery, elevation data, and other spatially continuous fields. The GeoCLIM tool also allows the identification of anomalies and assessments of both their frequency of occurrence and directional trends. A major effort has been put forth to build the capacities of local and regional institutions to use GeoCLIM to integrate their station data (which is not typically available to the public) into improved national and regional gridded climate data sets. In addition to the improvements and capacity building activities related to geospatial analysis tools, FEWS NET will assist in two other areas; 1) downscaling of climate change scenarios and 2) vulnerability impact assessments. FEWS NET will provide expertise in statistical downscaling of Global Climate Model output fields and work with regional institutions to assess results of other downscaling methods. Completion of a vulnerability impact assessment (VIA) involves the examination of sectoral consequences in identified climate "hot spots". FEWS NET

  1. Quantifying the morphometric variability of monogenetic cones in volcanic fields: the Virunga Volcanic Province, East African Rift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poppe, Sam; Grosse, Pablo; Barette, Florian; Smets, Benoît; Albino, Fabien; Kervyn, François; Kervyn, Matthieu

    2016-04-01

    Volcanic cone fields are generally made up of tens to hundreds of monogenetic cones, sometimes related to larger polygenetic edifices, which can exhibit a wide range of morphologies and degrees of preservation. The Virunga Volcanic Province (VVP) developed itself in a transfer zone which separates two rift segments (i.e. Edward and Kivu rift) within the western branch of the East-African Rift. As the result of volcanic activity related to this tectonic regime of continental extension, the VVP hosts eight large polygenetic volcanoes, surrounded by over 500 monogenetic cones and eruptive fissures, scattered over the vast VVP lava flow fields. Some cones lack any obvious geo-structural link to a specific Virunga volcano. Using recent high-resolution satellite images (SPOT, Pléiades) and a newly created 5-m-resolution digital elevation model (TanDEM-X), we have mapped and classified all monogenetic cones and eruptive fissures of the VVP. We analysed the orientation of all mapped eruptive fissures and, using the MORVOLC program, we calculated a set of morphometric parameters to highlight systematic spatial variations in size or morphometric ratios of the cones. Based upon morphological indicators, we classified the satellite cones into 4 categories: 1. Simple cones with one closed-rim crater; 2. Breached cones with one open-rim crater; 3. Complex cones with two or more interconnected craters and overlapping cones; 4. Other edifices without a distinguishable crater or cone shape (e.g. spatter mounds and levees along eruptive fissures). The results show that cones are distributed in clusters and along alignments, in some cases parallel with the regional tectonic orientations. Contrasts in the volumes of cones positioned on the rift shoulders compared to those located on the rift valley floor can possibly be attributed to contrasts in continental crust thickness. Furthermore, higher average cone slopes in the East-VVP (Bufumbira zone) and central-VVP cone clusters suggest

  2. Tradeoffs in regulating ecosystem services in East African Papyrus Wetlands: Denitrification as a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gettel, G. M.; Tshering, K.; Nakitende, H.; van Dam, A.

    2012-12-01

    Papyrus wetlands are important to the livelihoods of millions of people in East Africa, partly because they converted to grazing and agricultural lands during during dry seasons. At the same time, papyrus wetlands fringe important water bodies - e.g. Lake Victoria - and may help protect these ecosystems from the impacts of increased nutrient inputs. Denitrification -- the production of gaseous nitrogen (N) from the microbial reduction of nitrate (NO3) in anaerobic environments -- is likely an important mechanism for nitrogen retention in these systems. However, few measurements have been made, and the effect of wetland exploitation on denitrification has not yet been determined. In particular, we were interested in whether the hydrologic status (wet vs dry) is as important as agricultural activities in controlling denitrification potential. Using acetylene block technique to measure potential denitrification (denitrification enzyme assay), we measured potential denitrification rates in natural papyrus vegetation and in grazing, rice, maize, and sugarcane fields in the Nyando and Mara wetlands in Kenya and Tanzania (respectively) in November - December 2010. We also determined whether denitrification was limited by soil organic carbon or by NO3 in different patch types, and further assessed controls using multivariate analysis relating soil characteristics to potential denitrification rates. Potential denitrification in papyrus vegetation was the highest of all measured sites (price fields (2.3 - 303 ug N20 g soil dry weight-1 hour-1), and intermediate in maize and sugarcane (6.5 - 75 ug N20 g soil dry weight-1 hour-1 and 5 - 30 ug N20 g soil dry weight-1 hour-1 respectively). Controls of denitrification in different land uses were similar in the Nyando and Mara sites, and showed that NO3 limited denitrification in papyrus vegetation, whereas organic carbon was limiting in all agricultural sites. Multivariate analysis showed that this pattern also corresponded

  3. East African Soil Erosion Recorded in a 300 Year old Coral Colony From Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunbar, R. B.; Fleitmann, D.; McCulloch, M.; Mudelsee, M.; Vuille, M.; McClanahan, T.; Cole, J.; Eggins, S.

    2006-12-01

    Soil erosion threatens the food security of 2.6 billion people worldwide. The situation is particularly dire in East and Sub-Saharan Africa where per capita food production has declined over the past 45 years. Erosion and the resultant loss of fertile soil is a key socio-economic and ecological problem in Kenya, affecting all sectors of its economy and damaging marine and terrestrial ecosystems. The temporal pattern of soil erosion is almost unknown and currently only sparse and rather anecdotal information exists. To aid in filling this gap of knowledge, we present a 300-year long Barium record from two Kenyan coral colonies (Porites sp., 3°15'S, 40°9' E; Malindi Marine National Park) that documents a dynamic history of soil erosion in the Sabaki river drainage basin. To reconstruct Sabaki River sediment flux to the Malindi coral reef Ba/Ca ratios were measured in the skeleton of two Porites colonies (Mal 96-1 and Mal 95-3). Well-developed annual bands allow us to develop annually precise chronologies. Ba/Ca ratios were measured in core Mal 96-1 at continuous 40 μm intervals (~400 to 500 samples yr-1) using laser-ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA- ICP-MS). To test for reproducibility and accuracy of the Mal 96-1 Ba/Ca profile, coral core Mal 95-3 was analyzed at lower resolution (1 to 12 samples yr-1) using discrete micro-drill sampling and isotope dilution ICP-MS. The close similarity between both coral Ba/Ca profiles, in absolute values as well as general pattern, underscores the accuracy of the LA-ICP-MS technique and adds confidence to our interpretation of the 300 year long Mal 96-1 Ba/Ca profile. The Ba/Ca coral proxy record shows that while the sediment flux from the Sabaki River is nearly constant between 1700 and 1900, a continuous rise in sediment flux is observed since 1900, reflecting steadily increasing demographic pressure on land use. The peak in suspended sediment load and hence soil erosion recorded at the Malindi reef

  4. Sexual learning among East African adolescents in the context of generalized HIV epidemics: A systematic qualitative meta-synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knopf, Amelia S; McNealy, Kim R; Al-Khattab, Halima; Carter-Harris, Lisa; Oruche, Ukamaka Marian; Naanyu, Violet; Draucker, Claire Burke

    2017-01-01

    AIDS-related illness is the leading cause of mortality for adolescents in sub-Saharan Africa. Together, Kenya, Tanzania, and Uganda account for 21% of HIV-infected adolescents in sub-Saharan Africa. The United Nations framework for addressing the epidemic among adolescents calls for comprehensive sexual and reproductive health education. These HIV prevention efforts could be informed by a synthesis of existing research about the formal and informal sexual education of adolescents in countries experiencing generalized epidemics. The purpose of this study was to describe the process of sexual learning among East African adolescents living in the context of generalized HIV epidemics. Qualitative metasynthesis, a systematic procedure for integrating the results of multiple qualitative studies addressing a similar phenomenon, was used. Thirty-two research reports met study inclusion criteria. The reports were assessed in a four-step analytic process: appraisal, classification of findings, synthesis of findings, and construction of a framework depicting the process of sexual learning in this population. The framework includes three phases of sexual learning: 1) being primed for sex, 2) making sense of sex, and 3) having sexual experiences. Adolescents were primed for sex through gender norms, cultural practices, and economic structures as well as through conversations and formal instruction. They made sense of sex by acquiring information about sexual intercourse, reproduction and pregnancy, sexually transmitted infections, and relationships and by developing a variety of beliefs and attitudes about these topics. Some adolescents described having sexual experiences that met wants or needs, but many experienced sex that was coerced or violent. Whether sex was wanted, coerced, or violent, adolescents experienced worry about sexually transmitted infections or premarital pregnancy. The three phases of sexual learning interact to shape adolescents' sexual lives and their risk

  5. First Report of the East-Central South African Genotype of Chikungunya Virus in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Thiara Manuele Alves; Azeredo, Elzinandes Leal; Badolato-Corrêa, Jessica; Damasco, Paulo Vieira; Santos, Carla; Petitinga-Paiva, Fabienne; Nunes, Priscila Conrado Guerra; Barbosa, Luciana Santos; Cipitelli, Márcio Costa; Chouin-Carneiro, Thais; Faria, Nieli Rodrigues Costa; Nogueira, Rita Maria Ribeiro; de Bruycker-Nogueira, Fernanda; dos Santos, Flavia Barreto

    2017-01-01

    Background: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an arbovirus that causes an acute febrile syndrome with a severe and debilitating arthralgia. In Brazil, the Asian and East-Central South African (ECSA) genotypes are circulating in the north and northeast of the country, respectively. In 2015, the first autochthonous cases in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil were reported but until now the circulating strains have not been characterized. Therefore, we aimed here to perform the molecular characterization and phylogenetic analysis of CHIKV strains circulating in the 2016 outbreak occurred in the municipality of Rio de Janeiro. Methods: The cases analyzed in this study were collected at a private Hospital, from April 2016 to May 2016, during the chikungunya outbreak in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. All cases were submitted to the Real Time RT-PCR for CHIKV genome detection and to anti-CHIKV IgM ELISA. Chikungunya infection was laboratorially confirmed by at least one diagnostic method and, randomly selected positive cases (n=10), were partially sequenced (CHIKV E1 gene) and analyzed. Results: The results showed that all the samples grouped in ECSA genotype branch and the molecular characterization of the fragment did not reveal the A226V mutation in the Rio de Janeiro strains analyzed, but a K211T amino acid substitution was observed for the first time in all samples and a V156A substitution in two of ten samples. Conclusions: Phylogenetic analysis and molecular characterization reveals the circulation of the ECSA genotype of CHIKV in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil and two amino acids substitutions (K211T and V156A) exclusive to the CHIKV strains obtained during the 2016 epidemic, were reported. PMID:28286701

  6. Sexual learning among East African adolescents in the context of generalized HIV epidemics: A systematic qualitative meta-synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNealy, Kim R.; Al-Khattab, Halima; Carter-Harris, Lisa; Oruche, Ukamaka Marian; Naanyu, Violet; Draucker, Claire Burke

    2017-01-01

    Background AIDS-related illness is the leading cause of mortality for adolescents in sub-Saharan Africa. Together, Kenya, Tanzania, and Uganda account for 21% of HIV-infected adolescents in sub-Saharan Africa. The United Nations framework for addressing the epidemic among adolescents calls for comprehensive sexual and reproductive health education. These HIV prevention efforts could be informed by a synthesis of existing research about the formal and informal sexual education of adolescents in countries experiencing generalized epidemics. The purpose of this study was to describe the process of sexual learning among East African adolescents living in the context of generalized HIV epidemics. Methods Qualitative metasynthesis, a systematic procedure for integrating the results of multiple qualitative studies addressing a similar phenomenon, was used. Thirty-two research reports met study inclusion criteria. The reports were assessed in a four-step analytic process: appraisal, classification of findings, synthesis of findings, and construction of a framework depicting the process of sexual learning in this population. Results The framework includes three phases of sexual learning: 1) being primed for sex, 2) making sense of sex, and 3) having sexual experiences. Adolescents were primed for sex through gender norms, cultural practices, and economic structures as well as through conversations and formal instruction. They made sense of sex by acquiring information about sexual intercourse, reproduction and pregnancy, sexually transmitted infections, and relationships and by developing a variety of beliefs and attitudes about these topics. Some adolescents described having sexual experiences that met wants or needs, but many experienced sex that was coerced or violent. Whether sex was wanted, coerced, or violent, adolescents experienced worry about sexually transmitted infections or premarital pregnancy. Conclusions The three phases of sexual learning interact to shape

  7. Meat Quality Characteristics of Small East African Goats and Norwegian Crosses Finished under Small Scale Farming Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hozza, W A; Mtenga, L A; Kifaro, G C; Shija, D S N; Mushi, D E; Safari, J G; Shirima, E J M

    2014-12-01

    The aim of the experiment was to study the effect of feeding system on meat quality characteristics of Small East African (SEA) goats and their crosses with Norwegian (SEA×N) goats finished under small scale farming conditions. Twenty four castrated goats at the age of 18 months with live body weight of 16.7±0.54 kg from each breed (SEA and SEA×N) were distributed in a completely randomized design in a 2×3 factorial arrangement (two breed, and three dietary treatments). The dietary treatments were; no access to concentrate (T0), 66% access to ad libitum concentrate allowance (T66) and 100% access to ad libitum concentrate allowance with 20% refusal (T100) and the experimental period was for 84 days. In addition, all goats were allowed to graze for 2 hours daily and later fed grass hay on ad libitum basis. Daily feed intakes were recorded for all 84-days of experiment after which the animals were slaughtered. Feed intake of T100 animals was 536 g/d, which was 183 g/d higher than that of T66 group. Supplemented goats had significantly (p0.05) for dressing percentage and carcass conformation among supplemented goats except fatness score, total fat depots and carcass fat which increased (pdiet. Increasing level of concentrate on offer increased meat dry matter with subsequent increase of fat in the meat. Muscle pH of goats fed concentrate declined rapidly and reached below 6 at 6 h post-mortem but temperature remained at 28°C. Cooking loss and meat tenderness improved (pgoats and their crosses with Norwegian breeds finished under small scale farming conditions in rural areas. Therefore, concentrate supplementation of goats of both breeds improves meat quality attributes.

  8. Holocene phreatomagmatic eruptions alongside the densely populated northern shoreline of Lake Kivu, East African Rift: timing and hazard implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poppe, Sam; Smets, Benoît; Fontijn, Karen; Rukeza, Montfort Bagalwa; De Marie Fikiri Migabo, Antoine; Milungu, Albert Kyambikwa; Namogo, Didier Birimwiragi; Kervyn, François; Kervyn, Matthieu

    2016-11-01

    The Virunga Volcanic Province (VVP) represents the most active zone of volcanism in the western branch of the East African Rift System. While the VVP's two historically active volcanoes, Nyamulagira and Nyiragongo, have built scoria cones and lava flows in the adjacent lava fields, several small phreatomagmatic eruptive centers lie along Lake Kivu's northern shoreline, highlighting the potential for explosive magma-water interaction. Their presence in the densely urbanized Sake-Goma-Gisenyi area necessitates an assessment of their eruptive mechanisms and chronology. Some of these eruptive centers possess multiple vents, and depositional contacts suggest distinct eruptive phases within a single structure. Depositional facies range from polymict tuff breccia to tuff and loose lapilli, often impacted by blocks and volcanic bombs. Along with the presence of dilute pyroclastic density current (PDC) deposits, indicators of magma-water interaction include the presence of fine palagonitized ash, ash aggregates, cross-bedding, and ballistic impact sags. We estimate that at least 15 phreatomagmatic eruptions occurred in the Holocene, during which Lake Kivu rose to its current water level. Radiocarbon dates of five paleosols in the top of volcanic tuff deposits range between ˜2500 and ˜150 cal. year bp and suggest centennial- to millennial-scale recurrence of phreatomagmatic activity. A vast part of the currently urbanized zone on the northern shoreline of Lake Kivu was most likely impacted by products from phreatomagmatic activity, including PDC events, during the Late Holocene, highlighting the need to consider explosive magma-water interaction as a potential scenario in future risk assessments.

  9. 126 East and Central African Journal of Surgery Volume 12 Number ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Josephine Nakato

    Method: All patients seen in the breast clinic with lump were sent to the pathology department for FNAC from ... late with the very advanced stages of the disease8. .... Measure of Perormance. Results ... The implication of the high false negative rate ... funding of the laboratories in the country may .... Y. Standardization of fine.

  10. Healthcare utilization of patients accessing an African national treatment program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wood Robin

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The roll-out of antiretroviral therapy (ART in Africa will have significant resource implications arising from its impact on demand for healthcare services. Existing studies of healthcare utilization on HAART have been conducted in the developed world, where HAART is commenced when HIV illness is less advanced. Methods This paper describes healthcare utilization from program entry by treatment-naïve patients in a peri-urban settlement in South Africa. Treatment criteria included a CD4 cell count Results 212 patients were followed for a median of 490 days. Outpatient visits per 100 patient years of observation (PYO, excluding scheduled primary-care follow-up, fell from 596 immediately prior to ART to 334 in the first 48 weeks on therapy and 245 thereafter. Total inpatient time fell from 2,549 days per 100 PYO pre-ART to 476 in the first 48 weeks on therapy and 73 thereafter. This fall in healthcare utilization occurred at every level of care. The greatest causes of utilization were tuberculosis, cryptococcal meningitis, HIV-related neoplasms and adverse reactions to stavudine. After 48 weeks on ART demand reverted to primarily non-HIV-related causes. Conclusion Utilization of both inpatient and outpatient hospital services fell significantly after commencement of ART for South African patients in the public sector, with inpatient demand falling fastest. Earlier initiation might reduce early on-ART utilization rates.

  11. The development of the East African Rift system in north-central Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackman, B. D.; Charsley, T. J.; Key, R. M.; Wilkinson, A. F.

    1990-11-01

    Between 1980 and 1986 geological surveying to produce maps on a scale of 1:250,000 was completed over an area of over 100,000 km 2 in north-central Kenya, bounded by the Equator, the Ethiopian border and longitudes 36° and 38 °E. The Gregory Rift, much of which has the structure of an asymmetric half-graben, is the most prominent component of the Cenozoic multiple rift system which extends up to 200 km to the east and for about 100 km to the west, forming the Kenya dome. On the eastern shoulder and fringes two en echelon arrays of late Tertiary to Quaternary multicentre shields can be recognized: to the south is the Aberdares-Mount Kenya-Nyambeni Range chain and, to the north the clusters of Mount Kulal, Asie, Huri Hills and Marsabit, with plateau lavas and fissure vents south of Marsabit in the Laisamis area. The Gregory Rift terminates at the southern end of Lake Turkana. Further north the rift system splays: the arcuate Kinu Sogo fault zone forms an offset link with the central Ethiopian Rift system. In the rifts of north-central Kenya volcanism, sedimentation and extensional tectonics commenced and have been continuous since the late Oligocene. Throughout this period the Elgeyo Fault acted as a major bounding fault. A comparative study of the northern and eastern fringes of the Kenya dome with the axial graben reinforces the impression of regional E-W asymmetry. Deviations from the essential N-trend of the Gregory Rift reflect structural weaknesses in the underlying Proterozoic basement, the Mozambique Orogenic Belt: thus south of Lake Baringo the swing to the southeast parallels the axes of the ca. 620 Ma phase folds. Secondary faults associated with this flexure have created a "shark tooth" array, an expression of en echelon offsets of the eastern margin of the Gregory Rift in a transtensional stress regime: hinge zones where major faults intersect on the eastern shoulder feature intense box faulting and ramp structures which have counterparts in the rift

  12. From Lake Malawi Drilling: East African Climate May Have Caused Major Evolutionary Turnover in Mammalian Species During MIS 14

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Thomas; Werne, Josef

    2016-04-01

    interglacial periods alternating with relatively cool, dry glacial periods. One of the coldest, and most prolonged dry periods of the last million years in the Malawi basin occurred around 540 ka (MIS 14). This perturbation in the climate may have been a factor in the substantial mammalian extinctions and increased cranial capacity of Homo that occurred during this time. As more long-term, high-resolution histories of climate are recovered from the other great lakes of East Africa, we will be able to address key questions raised by the Malawi record, e.g., the extent of the rift valley that shifted to wetter conditions over the past million years, and whether MIS 14 was an unusually cold ice age throughout the region. Future drilling campaigns on the East African Great Lakes will offer unique opportunities to understand the changing landscape where our ancestors evolved, migrated, and advanced their cultures.

  13. Irritable Bowel Syndrome in a Population of African Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvester Chuks Nwokediuko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Functional dyspepsia is the prototype functional gastrointestinal disorder. This study was designed to determine its prevalence, subtypes, and risk factors associated with the subtypes. Method. Patients with upper gastrointestinal symptoms who presented for endoscopy were administered a questionnaire containing the functional dyspepsia and irritable bowel syndrome modules of the Rome III diagnostic criteria. Results. Of 192 patients who had functional dyspepsia, epigastric pain syndrome, postprandial distress syndrome, and combination of the two subtypes accounted for 79.2%, 62.5%, and 50%, respectively. Multivariate analysis of the risk factors showed that independent predictors of postprandial distress syndrome were alcohol and irritable bowel syndrome while irritable bowel syndrome was independent predictor of epigastric pain syndrome. Alcohol, smoking, and use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs were independent predictors of cooccurrence of postprandial distress syndrome and epigastric pain syndrome. Conclusion. Functional dyspepsia accounts for 62.5% of dyspepsia in a population of black African patients. Regarding symptomatology, epigastric pain syndrome, postprandial distress syndrome, and combination of the two subtypes account for 79.2%, 62.5%, and 50%, respectively. Risk factors for functional dyspepsia are irritable bowel syndrome, alcohol, smoking, and use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.

  14. The African Lupus Genetics Network (ALUGEN) registry: standardized, prospective follow-up studies in African patients with systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodkinson, B; Mapiye, D; Jayne, D; Kalla, A; Tiffin, N; Okpechi, I

    2016-03-01

    The prevalence and severity of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) differs between ethnic groups and geographical regions. Although initially reported as rare, there is growing evidence that SLE is prevalent and runs a severe course in Africa. There is a paucity of prospective studies on African SLE patients. The African Lupus Genetics Network (ALUGEN) is a multicentred framework seeking to prospectively assess outcomes in SLE patients in Africa. Outcomes measured will be death, hospital admission, disease activity flares, and SLE-related damage. We will explore predictors for these outcomes including clinical, serological, socio-demographic, therapeutic and genetic factors. Further, we will investigate comorbidities and health-related quality of life amongst these patients. Data of patients recently (≤ 5 yrs) diagnosed with SLE will be collected at baseline and annual follow-up visits, and captured electronically. The ALUGEN project will facilitate standardized data capture for SLE cases in Africa, allowing participating centres to develop their own SLE registries, and enabling collaboration to enrich our understanding of inter-ethnic and regional variations in disease expression. Comprehensive, high-quality multi-ethnic data on African SLE patients will expand knowledge of the disease and inform clinical practice, in addition to augmenting research capacity and networking links and providing a platform for future biomarker and interventional studies. © The Author(s) 2015.

  15. Investigating the effect of geomagnetic storm and equatorial electrojet on equatorial ionospheric irregularity over East African sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seba, Ephrem Beshir; Nigussie, Melessew

    2016-11-01

    The variability of the equatorial ionosphere is still a big challenge for ionospheric dependent radio wave technology users. To mitigate the effect of equatorial ionospheric irregularity on trans-ionospheric radio waves considerable efforts are being done to understand and model the equatorial electrodynamics and its connection to the creation of ionospheric irregularity. However, the effect of the East-African ionospheric electrodynamics on ionospheric irregularity is not yet well studied due to lack of multiple ground based instruments. But, as a result of International Heliophysical Year (IHY) initiative, which was launched in 2007, some facilities are being deployed in Africa since then. Therefore, recently deployed instruments, in the Ethiopian sector, such as SCINDA-GPS receiver (2.64°N dip angle) for TEC and amplitude scintillation index (S4) data and two magnetometers, which are deployed on and off the magnetic equator, data collected in the March equinoctial months of the years 2011, 2012, and 2015 have been used for this study in conjunction with geomagnetic storm data obtained from high resolution OMNI WEB data center. We have investigated the triggering and inhibition mechanisms for ionospheric irregularities using, scintillation index (S4), equatorial electrojet (EEJ), interplanetary electric field (IEFy), symH index, AE index and interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) Bz on five selected storm and two storm free days. We have found that when the eastward EEJ fluctuates in magnitude due to storm time induced electric fields at around noontime, the post-sunset scintillation is inhibited. All observed post-sunset scintillations in equinox season are resulted when the daytime EEJ is non fluctuating. The strength of noontime EEJ magnitude has shown direct relation with the strength of the post-sunset scintillations. This indicates that non-fluctuating EEJ stronger than 20 nT, can be precursor for the occurrence of the evening time ionospheric irregularities

  16. Fluid components in accessory minerals of Pan-African granitoids in the S(o)r Rondane Mountains, East Antarctica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Zi-long; CHEN Han-lin; YANG Shu-feng; TAINOSHO Yoshiaki; SHIRAISHI Kazuyuki; OWADA Masaaki

    2007-01-01

    Fluids (fluorine, chlorine, and OH) in accessory minerals (apatite, titanite and allanite) of Pan-African granitoids(Group-Ⅰ granitoids, Group-Ⅱ granitoids and Mefjell Plutonic Complex) from the Sor Rondane Mountains, East Antarctica were precisely measured by an electronic microprobe analyzer in this study. Apatites in the granites have commonly high fluorine contents. However, fluorine contents from the Group-Ⅰ, Group-Ⅱ granitoids and Mefjell Plutonic Complex (MPC) are of important variation, which F contents (3.21~7.20 wt%) in apatite from the Group-Ⅱ granitoids are much higher than those from the Group-Ⅰ granitoids (1.22~3.60 wt%) and the MPC (3.21~4.11 wt%). Titanite in the MPC has a low fluorine content (0.23~0.50 wt%), being less than those in the Group-Ⅰ granitoids (2.28 wt%) and Group-Ⅱ granitoids (1.85~2.78 wt%). Fluorine in allanite in the Group-Ⅱ granitoids seems to have much lower contents than those from the Group-Ⅰ granitoids and the MPC. Higher fluorine contents in the titanite from the Group-Ⅱ granitoids may be mainly controlled by late-magmatic fluid-rock interaction processes associated with melt, but may not be indicative of original magma contents based on its petrographic feature. Due to very lower chlorine contents from all of accessory minerals, the authors suggest that titanite and apatite with higher fluorine contents in the Group-Ⅱ granitoids have much lower H2O (OH) contents compared with those in the Group-Ⅰ granitoids according to the partition among (F, Cl, OH).Fluorine contents in whole-rock samples show a variation from the higher in the Group-Ⅰ granitoids to the lower in the Group-Ⅱ granitoids and the MPC, which are consistent with the changes of those from the biotite and hornblende as well as fluorite occurred in the Group-Ⅰ granitoids reported previously. Based on the above study of fluorine in accessory minerals and combined with the previous fluorine contents from biotites and

  17. Antigenic Variation of East/Central/South African and Asian Chikungunya Virus Genotypes in Neutralization by Immune Sera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chua, Chong-Long; Sam, I-Ching; Merits, Andres; Chan, Yoke-Fun

    2016-01-01

    Background Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a re-emerging mosquito-borne virus which causes epidemics of fever, severe joint pain and rash. Between 2005 and 2010, the East/Central/South African (ECSA) genotype was responsible for global explosive outbreaks across India, the Indian Ocean and Southeast Asia. From late 2013, Asian genotype CHIKV has caused outbreaks in the Americas. The characteristics of cross-antibody efficacy and epitopes are poorly understood. Methodology/Principal Findings We characterized human immune sera collected during two independent outbreaks in Malaysia of the Asian genotype in 2006 and the ECSA genotype in 2008–2010. Neutralizing capacity was analyzed against representative clinical isolates as well as viruses rescued from infectious clones of ECSA and Asian CHIKV. Using whole virus antigen and recombinant E1 and E2 envelope glycoproteins, we further investigated antibody binding sites, epitopes, and antibody titers. Both ECSA and Asian sera demonstrated stronger neutralizing capacity against the ECSA genotype, which corresponded to strong epitope-antibody interaction. ECSA serum targeted conformational epitope sites in the E1-E2 glycoprotein, and E1-E211K, E2-I2T, E2-H5N, E2-G118S and E2-S194G are key amino acids that enhance cross-neutralizing efficacy. As for Asian serum, the antibodies targeting E2 glycoprotein correlated with neutralizing efficacy, and I2T, H5N, G118S and S194G altered and improved the neutralization profile. Rabbit polyclonal antibody against the N-terminal linear neutralizing epitope from the ECSA sequence has reduced binding capacity and neutralization efficacy against Asian CHIKV. These findings imply that the choice of vaccine strain may impact cross-protection against different genotypes. Conclusion/Significance Immune serum from humans infected with CHIKV of either ECSA or Asian genotypes showed differences in binding and neutralization characteristics. These findings have implications for the continued

  18. East African Medical Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    collected data on household water, sanitation and hygiene with reported childhood diarrhoea cases of all community units in Machakos County, Kenya. Design: Descriptive ecological ... making to improve service delivery (4, 9). We therefore ...

  19. East African Medical Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2006-08-08

    Aug 8, 2006 ... incidence of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) seropositivity in Uganda had ... irradiation was administered using a cobalt-60 beam by two equally ..... body of uterus, ovary, vagina, vulva, gestational trophoblastic tumours ...

  20. East African Medical Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2007-09-09

    Sep 9, 2007 ... are very few publications and no reliable data on the prevalence of the various ..... polyarticular in nature, affecting both small and big joints as reported by .... Genève: Organisation Mondiale de la santé 1977. 6. Oyoo G.O. ...

  1. East African Medical Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mental health illnesses (MHI) contribute to approximately ... fundamental for evidence-based decision-making and improved ... and 400 nurses with additional psychiatric training to provide ... other social pressures are documented risk factors.

  2. EAST AFRICAN MEDICAL JOURNAL

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2002-08-01

    Aug 1, 2002 ... 79 No 8 August 2002 ... Data sources: Literature search on compact disk-read only memory ... The problem of nosocomial infections is very old and ... described his antiseptic techniques in the year 1867, ... The wealthy had their children at home until .... be 1 to 4 days for urinary tract infections, 7 to 8 days.

  3. East African Medical Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2007-05-05

    May 5, 2007 ... use of herbs by traditional healers were seen at the surgical unit of Olabisi Onabanjo University. Teaching .... of diabetes and hypertension by traditional healers ... nephropathy caused by Chinese herbal tea, which was.

  4. EAST AFRICAN MEDICAL TOURNAI.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2001-08-01

    Aug 1, 2001 ... Objective: To evaluate the clinical performance of atraumatic restorative ... Design : Longitudinal study of the ART fillings in permanent teeth of primary ..... survival of one-surface ART restorations and glass ionomer sealants in.

  5. EAST AFRICAN MEDICAL JOURNAL

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2004-10-10

    Oct 10, 2004 ... recurrence after surgery and a potential to metastasize. It is rare especially in adolescence. ... giant metastasis to the lung(9), and metastasis to the groin(lO). A giant malignant ... osteosarcoma can occur(12). The characteristic ...

  6. EAST AFRICAN MEDICAL JOURNAL

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2002-12-01

    Dec 1, 2002 ... or using laboratory, radiological or histological methods). The clinical ... interactive image overlay system run by the Prodit morphometry ..... Subscription to the online version may be made by completing the Registration.

  7. East African Medical Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2006-08-01

    Aug 1, 2006 ... persistent pulmonary hypertension (PPH), persistent foetal ... The pathophysiologic processes of intrauterine meconium release, mechanisms of foetal effects and dilemmas in management are discussed. ... The foetal heart.

  8. EAST AFRICAN MEDICAL JOURNAL

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2001-03-03

    Mar 3, 2001 ... although their plasmid profiles and sensitivity to antimicrobials varied. Conclusion: There ... brought to light the fact that V. parahaemolyticus is a ... Eye infections ... stained by Coomasie brilliant blue dye (Sigma Chemicals, St.

  9. EAST AFRICAN MEDICAL JOURNAL

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2001-12-12

    Dec 12, 2001 ... Objective: To determine the health problems of street children in Eldoret. Design: A .... were used to identify the setting and record all activities that took place within the .... Sciences) program. .... None of the children was overweight (obese). .... due to physical abuse by the public, government officials,.

  10. EAST AFRICAN MEDICAL JOURNAL

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2002-01-01

    Jan 1, 2002 ... or in combination with tobacco smoking, coffee drinking and alcohol intake of over one year. ... consumption, tobacco smoking and coffee drinking may ...... Zein A.Z. Polydrug abuse among Ethiopian University students,.

  11. EAST AFRICAN MEDICAL JOURNAL

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2003-05-01

    May 1, 2003 ... Vitamins are present at nutritionally significant levels averaging 28mg/100g of vitamin С and 160 ... family contain. 40% by weight of high quality oil that is of equal value ... was expressed in terms of retinol equivalent (RE).

  12. EAST AFRICAN MEDICAL JOURNAL

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2001-08-08

    Aug 8, 2001 ... injury and all were operated on within forty eight hours; percutaneous ... wire removal, children were started on physiotherapy applying only active ..... Flynn J.C, Richards J.F. Jr. and Saltzman R.I. Prevention and treatment of ...

  13. EAST AFRICAN MEDICAL JOURNAL

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2004-10-10

    Oct 10, 2004 ... Immediately after birth he was noticed to be distressed and cyanosed. He was resuscitated and improved on oxygen, but other episodes of cyanosis and distress ... Blood and urine tests were normal ... spleen and stomach) were found in the pleural cavity. ... pleural cavity was cleaned and chest wall closed.

  14. EAST AFRICAN MEDICAL JOURNAL

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2004-08-08

    Aug 8, 2004 ... and a case of metastatic osteosarcoma in a child. Conclusion: Majority of the ... rehabilitation can lead to critical survival pr0blems(2). Despite the fact that most of .... 1988; 75:ll93-1195. 10. Satin, 5., Shami, 5., Shields, D.A..

  15. EAST AFRICAN MEDICAL JOURNAL

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2001-12-04

    Dec 4, 2001 ... gastroenteritis in children and the immunocompromised individuals(13,l4) is of ... Taxonomic considerations. host species, diagnosis, therapy and geographical ... Timers Mirror College Publishers. Toronto ~ 732-749, I984.

  16. East African Medical Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2006-04-04

    Apr 4, 2006 ... proportion (90.8%) of parents attach equal importance for both ... 29.1% of the respondents reported not to be satisfied with the ... teeth throughout your life? M: F: p> .... oral health services among adolescents and adults in.

  17. EAST AFRICAN MEDICAL JOURNAL

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2002-05-01

    May 1, 2002 ... was defined as the distance from glabella to maximal occipital point, while maximal .... with age might be due to the development of muscles attached to the ... show variations in the shapes of skulls. Ithas been reported.

  18. EAST AFRICAN MEDICAL JOURNAL

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2002-07-01

    Jul 1, 2002 ... PREVALENCE OF VITAMIN A DEFICIENCY AMONG PRESCHOOL AND SCHOOL-AGED CHILDREN IN ARSSI ZONE. ETHIOPIA ... MATERIALS AND METHODS. Study design: In this cross sectional study a total of 402.

  19. EAST AFRICAN MEDICAL JOURNAL

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2002-12-01

    Dec 1, 2002 ... PATTERN OF USE OF SKIN CARE PRODUCTS IN CHILDREN WITH AND WITHOUT ECZEMATOUS ... contain perfumes whose chemical composition is often .... obtain information regarding the demographic parameters,.

  20. EAST AFRICAN MEDICAL JOURNAL

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    OCCUPATIONAL RISK OF INFECTION BY HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY AND ... Department of Medicine, University ofCalabar Teaching Hospital, P.M.B. 1278 Calabar, Cross ... would become less important making nosocomial exposure.

  1. EAST AFRICAN MEDICAL JOURNAL

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2002-03-03

    Mar 3, 2002 ... EVALUATION OF A PROPOSED CLINICAL CASE DEFINITION OF PAEDIATRIC ACQUIRED ... when they already have symptomatic disease or AIDS. The ..... with HIV-1 infection: natural history and risk of transmission.

  2. EAST AFRICAN MEDICAL JOURNAL

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2002-06-01

    Jun 1, 2002 ... Results: Ninety one (72%) carers of the elderly mentally infirm participated in the ... that the carers' social life is most affected(l-2), while others suggest emotional difficulties (anger, depression, ... The quality of carer dependant.

  3. East African Medical Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2007-06-06

    Jun 6, 2007 ... These include lipid fractions, disease states, genetics and environmental ... myocardial energy metabolism, intracellular calcium ... and beam balance scale. ..... Systemic hypertension, obesity and hyperlipidaemia are.

  4. East African odontopygid millipedes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Sara B.

    2013-01-01

    Chaleponcus parensis n. sp., found in the North Pare Mountains, Tanzania, is described. The find is remarkable due to its geographically disjunct location, being at least 1500 km as the crow flies to the nearest valid record in Zimbabwe of a Chaleponcus.......Chaleponcus parensis n. sp., found in the North Pare Mountains, Tanzania, is described. The find is remarkable due to its geographically disjunct location, being at least 1500 km as the crow flies to the nearest valid record in Zimbabwe of a Chaleponcus....

  5. EAST AFRICAN MEDICAL JOURNAL

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2002-05-05

    May 5, 2002 ... Objective: To assess the prevalence and risk factors of cigarette smoking and ... Most of the instructors (82.1 %) knew that cigarette smoking is a risk factor for lung ..... Risk of squamo us cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma.

  6. EAST AFRICAN MEDICAL JOURNAL

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2002-01-01

    Jan 1, 2002 ... have found widespread use, at sub-therapeutic levels, in ... study, overall all staphylococci isolates were susceptible ..... reporting a 28.0% resistance rate to this drug. Given the ... Bacteriophage type 80/81 staphylococcal infection inhuman beings ... Eighth Information Supplement, Pennsylvania, USA.

  7. Zircon U-Pb Ages from an Ultra-High Temperature Metapelite, Rauer Group, East Antarctica: Implications for Overprints by Grenvillian and Pan-African Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanbin; Tong, Laixi; Liu, Dunyi

    2007-01-01

    SHRIMP U-Pb dating of zircon from an ultra-high temperature (UHT, ~1000 °C) granulite-facies metapelite from the Rauer Group, Mather Peninsula, east Antarctica, has yielded evidence for two episodes of metamorphic zircon growth, at ~1.00 Ga and ~530 Ma, and two episodes of magmatism in the source region for the protolith sediment, at ~2.53 and ~2.65 Ga, were identified from the zircon cores. Successive zircon growth at ~1.00 Ga and ~530 Ma records a sequence of distinct, widely spaced high-temperature metamorphic and/or anatectic events related to Grenvillian and Pan-African orogenesis. This study presents the first robust geochronological evidence for the timing of UHT metamorphism of the Rauer Group, supporting arguments that the peak UHT metamorphic event occurred at ~1.00 Ga and was overprinted by a separate high-grade event at ~530 Ma. The new age data indicate that the UHT granulites of the Rauer Group experienced a complex, multi-stage tectonothermal history, which cannot simply be explained via a single Pan-African (~500 Ma) high-grade tectonic event. This is critical in understanding the role of the eastern Prydz Bay region during the assembly of the east Gondwana supercontinent, and the newly recognized inherited Archaean ages (~2.53 and ~2.65 Ga) suggest a close tectonic relationship between the Rauer Group and the adjacent Archaean of the Vestfold Hills

  8. Feeding activity of the East African millipede Omopyge sudanica Kraus on different crop products in laboratory experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ebregt, E.; Struik, P.C.; Abidin, P.E.; Odongo, B.

    2007-01-01

    Millipedes can cause considerable damage in the production of sweet potato and some other crops in East Africa. Quantitative information on intake of crop diets by and body weight gain of millipedes was collected in short-term no-choice feeding activity laboratory experiments conducted in north-east

  9. Feeding activity of the East African millipede Omopyge sudanica Kraus on different crop products in laboratory experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ebregt, E.; Struik, P.C.; Abidin, P.E.; Odongo, B.

    2007-01-01

    Millipedes can cause considerable damage in the production of sweet potato and some other crops in East Africa. Quantitative information on intake of crop diets by and body weight gain of millipedes was collected in short-term no-choice feeding activity laboratory experiments conducted in north-east

  10. Transpression and tectonic exhumation in the Heimefrontfjella, western orogenic front of the East African/Antarctic Orogen, revealed by quartz textures of high strain domains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilfried Bauer

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The metamorphic basement of the Heimefrontfjella in western Dronning Maud Land (Antarctica forms the western margin of the major ca. 500 million year old East African/East Antarctic Orogen that resulted from the collision of East Antarctica and greater India with the African cratons. The boundary between the tectonothermally overprinted part of the orogen and its north-western foreland is marked by the subvertical Heimefront Shear Zone. North-west of the Heimefront Shear Zone, numerous low-angle dipping ductile thrust zones cut through the Mesoproterozoic basement. Petrographic studies, optical quartz c-axis analyses and x-ray texture goniometry of quartz-rich mylonites were used to reveal the conditions that prevailed during the deformation. Mineral assemblages in thrust mylonites show that they were formed under greenschist-facies conditions. Quartz microstructures are characteristic of the subgrain rotation regime and oblique quartz lattice preferred orientations are typical of simple shear-dominated deformation. In contrast, in the Heimefront Shear Zone, quartz textures indicate mainly flattening strain with a minor dextral rotational component. These quartz microstructures and lattice preferred orientations show signs of post-tectonic annealing following the tectonic exhumation. The spatial relation between the sub-vertical Heimefront Shear Zone and the low-angle thrusts can be explained as being the result of strain partitioning during transpressive deformation. The pure-shear component with a weak dextral strike-slip was accommodated by the Heimefront Shear Zone, whereas the north–north-west directed thrusts accommodate the simple shear component with a tectonic transport towards the foreland of the orogen.

  11. Pitfalls in communication with Hispanic and African-American patients: do translators help or harm?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, T R

    1992-11-01

    The Martin Luther King County General Hospital, Los Angeles, California, provides services for an equal number of Hispanics (most are recent immigrants from Mexico) and African Americans who have lived in the community since before the Watts riot in 1965. The hospital is staffed by a large percentage of foreign-trained doctors and other personnel who speak some English, but suffer from a lack of understanding of the Hispanic as well as the African-American patients. Very few trained interpreters are provided for the Spanish-speaking population, and no interpreters are provided for African Americans. A 100-question survey on common African-American expressions was conducted in the Department of Family Medicine, as well as an opinion poll to determine if adequate understanding existed between patients and providers. The data revealed that native African-American providers understood significantly more African-American expressions than foreign, white, and Hispanic providers. The opinion poll also revealed inadequate translation of medical complaints from patients through interpreters. In addition, the poll found that diagnoses and instructions were not adequately related to the patients. Furthermore, it was felt that trained interpreters should be provided for all patients who presented communication problems.

  12. The assessment of risk factors for the Central/East African Genotype of chikungunya virus infections in the state of Kelantan: a case control study in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusoff, Ahmad Faudzi; Mustafa, Amal Nasir; Husaain, Hani Mat; Hamzah, Wan Mansor; Yusof, Apandi Mohd; Harun, Rozilawati; Abdullah, Faezah Noor

    2013-05-08

    , only 7.5% needed hospitalization. The CHIKV infection was attributable to central/east African genotype CHIKV. In this study, cross border activity was not a significant risk factor although Thailand and Malaysia shared the same CHIKV genotype during the episode of infections.

  13. Nonblack patients with sickle cell disease have African. beta. sup s gene cluster haplotypes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, Z.R.; Powars, D.R.; Williams, W.D. (Univ. of Southern California School of Medicine, Los Angeles (USA)); Kinney, T.R. (Duke Univ., Durham, NC (USA)); Schroeder, W.A. (California Institute of Technology, Pasadena (USA))

    1989-05-26

    Of 18 nonblack patients with sickle cell disease, 14 had sickle cell anemia, 2 had hemoglobin SC disease, and 2 had hemoglobin S-{beta}{sup o}-thalassemia. The {beta}{sup s} gene cluster haplotypes that were determined in 7 patients were of African origin and were identified as Central African Republic, Central African Republic minor II, Benin, and Senegal. The haplotype Central African Republic minor II was present on the {beta}{sup o}-thalassemia chromosome in 2 patients. None of 10 patients whose {alpha}-gene status was determined had {alpha}-thalassemia-2. These data strongly support the concept that the {beta}{sup s} gene on chromosome 11 of these individuals is of African origin and that the {alpha}-gene locus on chromosome 16 is of white or native American origin. The clinical severity of the disease in these nonblack patients is appropriate to their haplotype without {alpha}-thalassemia-2 and is comparable with that of black patients. All persons with congenital hemolytic anemia should be examined for the presence of sickle cell disease regardless of physical appearance or ethnic background.

  14. South-East Asia study alliance guidelines on the management of acne vulgaris in South-East Asian patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Chee Leok; Abad-Casintahan, Flordeliz; Aw, Derrick Chen Wee; Baba, Roshidah; Chan, Lee Chin; Hung, Nguyen Thanh; Kulthanan, Kanokvalai; Leong, Hoe Nam; Medina-Oblepias, Marie Socouer; Noppakun, Nopadon; Sitohang, Irma Bernadette; Sugito, Titi Lestari; Wong, Su-Ni

    2015-10-01

    The management of acne in South-East Asia is unique, as Asian skin and local variables require a clinical approach unlike that utilized in other parts of the world. There are different treatment guidelines per country in the region, and a group of leading dermatologists from these countries convened to review these guidelines, discuss current practices and recent advances, and formulate consensus guidelines to harmonize the management of acne vulgaris in the region. Emphasis has been placed on formulating recommendations to impede the development of antibiotic resistance in Propionibacterium acnes. The group adopted the Acne Consensus Conference system for grading acne severity. The group recommends that patients may be treated with topical medications including retinoids, benzoyl peroxide (BPO), salicylic acid, a combination of retinoid and BPO, or a combination of retinoids and BPO with or without antibiotics for mild acne; topical retinoid with topical BPO and a oral antibiotic for moderate acne; and oral isotretinoin if the patient fails first-line treatment (a 6- or 8-week trial of combined oral antibiotics and topical retinoids with BPO) for severe acne. Maintenance acne treatment using topical retinoids with or without BPO is recommended. To prevent the development of antibiotic resistance, topical antibiotics should not be used as monotherapy or used simultaneously with oral antibiotics. Skin care, comprised of cleansing, moisturizing and sun protection, is likewise recommended. Patient education and good communication is recommended to improve adherence, and advice should be given about the characteristics of the skin care products patients should use.

  15. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D in a West African population of tuberculosis patients and unmatched healthy controls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wejse, Christian; Olesen, Rikke; Rabna, Paulo;

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Little is known regarding vitamin D deficiency (VDD) in African populations and in tuberculosis (TB) patients. VDD has been shown to be associated with TB. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to compare the degree of vitamin D insufficiency (VDI) and VDD in TB patients and healthy adult controls in a...... in a West African population. DESIGN: An unmatched case-control study was performed at a Demographic Surveillance Site in Guinea-Bissau. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D(3) [25(OH)D(3)] concentrations were measured in 362 TB patients and in 494 controls. RESULTS: Hypovitaminosis D [25(OH)D(3)...

  16. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D in a West African population of tuberculosis patients and unmatched healthy controls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wejse, Christian; Olesen, Rikke; Rabna, Paulo

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Little is known regarding vitamin D deficiency (VDD) in African populations and in tuberculosis (TB) patients. VDD has been shown to be associated with TB. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to compare the degree of vitamin D insufficiency (VDI) and VDD in TB patients and healthy adult controls...... in a West African population. DESIGN: An unmatched case-control study was performed at a Demographic Surveillance Site in Guinea-Bissau. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D(3) [25(OH)D(3)] concentrations were measured in 362 TB patients and in 494 controls. RESULTS: Hypovitaminosis D [25(OH)D(3) Udgivelsesdato: 2007...

  17. ISSN 2073 ISSN 2073-9990 East Cent. Afr. J. surg. (Online) 9990 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DELL

    COSECSA/ASEA Publication East and Central African Journal of Surgery. East and Central ... Case Report: A 48 year-old male patient presented to us two days after a stab neck. He was ... features may be absent. Introduction ... Full blood count, differential white cell count, inflammatory markers, urea and electrolytes were ...

  18. Determinants of Adherence to Treatment in Hypertensive Patients of African Descent and the Role of Culturally Appropriate Education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meinema, Jennita G.; van Dijk, Nynke; Beune, Erik J. A. J.; Jaarsma, Debbie A. D. C.; van Weert, Henk C. P. M.; Haafkens, Joke A.

    2015-01-01

    Background In Western countries, better knowledge about patient-related determinants of treatment adherence (medication and lifestyle) is needed to improve treatment adherence and outcomes among hypertensive ethnic minority patients of African descent. Objective To identify patient-related determina

  19. Junctophilin 3 (JPH3) expansion mutations causing Huntington disease like 2 (HDL2) are common in South African patients with African ancestry and a Huntington disease phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Amanda; Mitchell, Claire; Essop, Fahmida; Tager, Susan; Temlett, James; Stevanin, Giovanni; Ross, Christopher; Rudnicki, Dobrila; Margolis, Russell

    2015-10-01

    Huntington disease (HD) is a progressive autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disorder, characterized by abnormal movements, cognitive decline, and psychiatric symptoms, caused by a CAG repeat expansion in the huntingtin (HTT) gene on chromosome 4p. A CAG/CTG repeat expansion in the junctophilin-3 (JPH3) gene on chromosome 16q24.2 causes a Huntington disease-like phenotype (HDL2). All patients to date with HDL2 have some African ancestry. The present study aimed to characterize the genetic basis of the Huntington disease phenotype in South Africans and to investigate the possible origin of the JPH3 mutation. In a sample of unrelated South African individuals referred for diagnostic HD testing, 62% (106/171) of white patients compared to only 36% (47/130) of black patients had an expansion in HTT. However, 15% (20/130) of black South African patients and no white patients (0/171) had an expansion in JPH3, confirming the diagnosis of Huntington disease like 2 (HDL2). Individuals with HDL2 share many clinical features with individuals with HD and are clinically indistinguishable in many cases, although the average age of onset and diagnosis in HDL2 is 5 years later than HD and individual clinical features may be more prominent. HDL2 mutations contribute significantly to the HD phenotype in South Africans with African ancestry. JPH3 haplotype studies in 31 families, mainly from South Africa and North America, provide evidence for a founder mutation and support a common African origin for all HDL2 patients. Molecular testing in individuals with an HD phenotype and African ancestry should include testing routinely for JPH3 mutations.

  20. Conducting Graduate Tracer Studies for Quality Assurance in East African Universities: A Focus on Graduate Students Voices on Quality Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badiru, Egesah Omar; Wahome, Mary

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to propose a guide for graduate trace studies (GTS) to be adopted by universities and other higher education institutions (HEIs) in East Africa. Their essential role notwithstanding, graduate tracer studies present viable opportunities through which quality assurance (QA) can be institutionalized and mainstreamed in…

  1. Breast cancer patients in Libya: Comparison with European and central African patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    BODER, JAMELA MOSTAFA E.; ELMABROUK ABDALLA, FATHI B.; ELFAGEIH, MOHAMED AHMED; ABUSAA, ABUAGELA; BUHMEIDA, ABDELBASET; COLLAN, YRJÖ

    2011-01-01

    The present study evaluated the incidence of breast cancer in Libya and described the clinicopathological and demographic features. These features were then compared with corresponding data from patients from sub-Saharan Africa (Nigeria) and Europe (Finland). The study consisted of 234 patients with breast carcinoma, admitted to the African Oncology Institute in Sabratha, Libya, during the years 2002–2006. The pathological features were collected from pathology reports, patient histories from hospital files and the Sabratha Cancer Registry. The demographic differences between the Libyan, Nigerian and Finnish populations were prominent. The mean age of breast cancer patients in Libya was 46 years which was almost identical to that of Nigeria, but much lower than that of Finland. The Libyan breast cancer incidence was evaluated as 18.8 per 100,000 female individuals. This incidence was markedly higher in Finland, but was also high in Nigeria. Libyan and Nigerian breast cancer is predominantly of premenopausal type and exhibits unfavorable characteristics such as high histological grade and stage, large tumor size and frequent lymph node metastases. However, the histological types and histopathological risk features show similar importance regarding survival as European breast cancer cases. Survival in Libya ranks between the rates of survival in Nigeria (lowest) and Finland (highest). In conclusion, in Libya and other African countries, premenopausal breast cancer is more common than postmenopausal breast cancer. However, the opposite is true for Europe. Population differences may be involved, as suggested by the known variation, in the distribution of genetic markers in these populations. Different types of environmental impacts, however, cannot be excluded. PMID:22866085

  2. Breast cancer patients in Libya: Comparison with European and central African patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boder, Jamela Mostafa E; Elmabrouk Abdalla, Fathi B; Elfageih, Mohamed Ahmed; Abusaa, Abuagela; Buhmeida, Abdelbaset; Collan, Yrjö

    2011-03-01

    The present study evaluated the incidence of breast cancer in Libya and described the clinicopathological and demographic features. These features were then compared with corresponding data from patients from sub-Saharan Africa (Nigeria) and Europe (Finland). The study consisted of 234 patients with breast carcinoma, admitted to the African Oncology Institute in Sabratha, Libya, during the years 2002-2006. The pathological features were collected from pathology reports, patient histories from hospital files and the Sabratha Cancer Registry. The demographic differences between the Libyan, Nigerian and Finnish populations were prominent. The mean age of breast cancer patients in Libya was 46 years which was almost identical to that of Nigeria, but much lower than that of Finland. The Libyan breast cancer incidence was evaluated as 18.8 per 100,000 female individuals. This incidence was markedly higher in Finland, but was also high in Nigeria. Libyan and Nigerian breast cancer is predominantly of premenopausal type and exhibits unfavorable characteristics such as high histological grade and stage, large tumor size and frequent lymph node metastases. However, the histological types and histopathological risk features show similar importance regarding survival as European breast cancer cases. Survival in Libya ranks between the rates of survival in Nigeria (lowest) and Finland (highest). In conclusion, in Libya and other African countries, premenopausal breast cancer is more common than postmenopausal breast cancer. However, the opposite is true for Europe. Population differences may be involved, as suggested by the known variation, in the distribution of genetic markers in these populations. Different types of environmental impacts, however, cannot be excluded.

  3. 'A detective look' at hair biopsies from African-American patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miteva, M; Tosti, A

    2012-06-01

    A patient's ethnicity can be an important clue in the diagnosis of scarring alopecia as some disorders such as traction alopecia (TA) and central centrifugal cicatricial alopecia (CCCA) are more prevalent in or exclusive to African-Americans. To perform a retrospective review of 60 scalp biopsies from African-American patients including 25 cases of CCCA, 22 cases of TA, five cases of frontal fibrosing alopecia, three cases of discoid lupus erythematosus, three cases of hair breakage and two cases of alopecia areata. Serial horizontal and vertical sections were examined. Features characteristic of the African-American scalp include: golf club-shaped bulb, elliptical shape of the hair shaft, asymmetrical outer root sheath and paired grouping of hair follicles. Clues to the diagnosis of CCCA include: premature desquamation of the inner root sheath, goggles and naked hair shafts in fibrous streamers. Diagnosis of TA is suggested by preserved sebaceous glands along with follicular miniaturization and drop-out. The clues reported here aim to help the dermatopathologists to: recognize at a glance that they are dealing with a scalp biopsy from an African-American patient; make the most probable diagnosis by connecting the clues (even if only vertical sections are present); and understand the morphological basis for the susceptibility of the African hair to damage. © 2012 The Authors. BJD © 2012 British Association of Dermatologists.

  4. African migrant patients' trust in Chinese physicians: a social ecological approach to understanding patient-physician trust.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan M McLaughlin

    Full Text Available Patient trust in physicians is a critical determinant of health seeking behaviors, medication adherence, and health outcomes. A crisis of interpersonal trust exists in China, extending throughout multiple social spheres, including the healthcare system. At the same time, with increased migration from Africa to China in the last two decades, Chinese physicians must establish mutual trust with an increasingly diverse patient population. We undertook a qualitative study to identify factors affecting African migrants' trust in Chinese physicians and to identify potential mechanisms for promoting trust.We conducted semi-structured, in-depth interviews with 40 African migrants in Guangzhou, China. A modified version of the social ecological model was used as a theoretical framework. At the patient-physician level, interpersonal treatment, technical competence, perceived commitment and motive, and language concordance were associated with enhanced trust. At the health system level, two primary factors influenced African migrants' trust in their physicians: the fee-for-service payment system and lack of continuity with any one physician. Patients' social networks and the broader socio-cultural context of interactions between African migrants and Chinese locals also influenced patients' trust of their physicians.These findings demonstrate the importance of factors beyond the immediate patient-physician interaction and suggest opportunities to promote trust through health system interventions.

  5. Patient Characteristics and Treatment Outcomes for African American, Hispanic, and White Adolescents in DATOS-A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rounds-Bryant, Jennifer L.; Staab, Jennifer

    2001-01-01

    Compared background, pre-treatment characteristics, and post-treatment outcomes of African American, Hispanic, and white adolescent substance abusers participating in the Drug Abuse Treatment Outcome Studies for Adolescents (DATOS-A). Found that patients were similar with respect to basic pre-treatment demographics. Compared to white adolescents,…

  6. staff/bed and staff/patient ratios in south african public sector mental ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    service levels; numbers of psychiatric beds; and numbers of patients who attend ... staff at all levels of public sector health care in South Africa. The information ..... distribution,''3 have been a cause of concern in recent South. African mental ...

  7. Cardiovascular Disease Risk amongst African Black Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis: The Need for Population Specific Stratification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Solomon

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Rheumatoid arthritis (RA enhances the risk of cardiovascular disease to a similar extent as diabetes. Whereas atherogenesis remains poorly elucidated in RA, traditional and nontraditional risk factors associate similarly and additively with CVD in RA. Current recommendations on CVD risk stratification reportedly have important limitations. Further, reported data on CVD and its risk factors derive mostly from data obtained in the developed world. An earlier epidemiological health transition is intrinsic to persons living in rural areas and those undergoing urbanization. It is therefore conceivable that optimal CVD risk stratification differs amongst patients with RA from developing populations compared to those from developed populations. Herein, we briefly describe current CVD and its risk factor profiles in the African black population at large. Against this background, we review reported data on CVD risk and its potential stratification amongst African black compared to white patients with RA. Routinely assessed traditional and nontraditional CVD risk factors were consistently and independently related to atherosclerosis in African white but not black patients with RA. Circulating concentrations of novel CVD risk biomarkers including interleukin-6 and interleukin-5 adipokines were mostly similarly associated with both endothelial activation and atherosclerosis amongst African black and white RA patients.

  8. Examining Patient Conceptions: A Case of Metastatic Breast Cancer in an African American Male to Female Transgender Patient

    OpenAIRE

    Dhand, Amar; Dhaliwal, Gurpreet

    2010-01-01

    An African American male to female transgender patient treated with estrogen detected a breast lump that was confirmed by her primary care provider. The patient refused mammography and 14 months later she was diagnosed with metastatic breast cancer with spinal cord compression. We used ethnographic interviews and observations to elicit the patient’s conceptions of her illness and actions. The patient identified herself as biologically male and socially female; she thought that the former prot...

  9. Land - Ocean Climate Linkages and the Human Evolution - New ICDP and IODP Drilling Initiatives in the East African Rift Valley and SW Indian Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahn, R.; Feibel, C.; Co-Pis, Icdp/Iodp

    2009-04-01

    The past 5 Ma were marked by systematic shifts towards colder climates and concomitant reorganizations in ocean circulation and marine heat transports. Some of the changes involved plate-tectonic shifts such as the closure of the Panamanian Isthmus and restructuring of the Indonesian archipelago that affected inter-ocean communications and altered the world ocean circulation. These changes induced ocean-atmosphere feedbacks with consequences for climates globally and locally. Two new ICDP and IODP drilling initiatives target these developments from the perspectives of marine and terrestrial palaeoclimatology and the human evolution. The ICDP drilling initiative HSPDP ("Hominid Sites and Paleolakes Drilling Project"; ICDP ref. no. 10/07) targets lacustrine depocentres in Ethiopia (Hadar) and Kenya (West Turkana, Olorgesailie, Magadi) to retrieve sedimentary sequences close to the places and times where various species of hominins lived over currently available outcrop records. The records will provide a spatially resolved record of the East African environmental history in conjunction with climate variability at orbital (Milankovitch) and sub-orbital (ENSO decadal) time scales. HSPDP specifically aims at (1) compiling master chronologies for outcrops around each of the depocentres; (2) assessing which aspects of the paleoenvironmental records are a function of local origin (hydrology, hydrogeology) and which are linked with regional or larger-scale signals; (3) correlating broad-scale patterns of hominin phylogeny with the global beat of climate variability and (4) correlating regional shifts in the hominin fossil and archaeological record with more local patterns of paleoenvironmental change. Ultimately the aim is to test hypotheses that link physical and cultural adaptations in the course of the hominin evolution to local environmental change and variability. The IODP initiative SAFARI ("Southern African Climates, Agulhas Warm Water Transports and Retroflection

  10. A new fossil cichlid from the Middle Miocene in the East African Rift Valley (Tugen Hills, Central Kenya: First record of a putative Ectodini

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie Altner

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Identification of fossil cichlids is difficult, because the currently used diagnostic morphological characters for living cichlids are mostly soft tissue based and such characters are hardly preserved in fossils. During our recent fieldwork in the Central Kenya Rift (E-Africa, we discovered several exceptionally well-preserved fossil cichlids, which can be assigned to different lineages among the African Pseudocrenilabrinae. Here we present one of those new specimens. Its most conspicuous character is a lateral line divided into three segments. This specimen was found in the lacustrine sediments of the Middle Miocene site Waril, Tugen Hills, Kenya. The site represents the deposits of an ancient freshwater lake ca. 9-10 million years ago. Previous work on fossil leaves from the same site allow for the reconstruction of open vegetation surrounding the lake and pronounced dry seasons. Among the main further characteristics of the new fossil cichlid is a lachrimal with six lateral line canals, big cycloid scales and a low number of dorsal fin spines (XIII. The latter two characters are traceable in several members of tribes within the Pseudocrenilabrinae. However, a lachrimal with six lateral line canals is exclusively found in certain tribes of the EAR (East African Radiation within the Pseudocrenilabrinae. Moreover, the unique lateral line pattern is solely present in two genera of the EAR tribe Ectodini. However, the fossil shows cycloid scales, while modern Ectodini have ctenoid scales. Taken all evidence together, this fossil may perhaps represent an ancient lineage related to the Ectodini. Up to date, there is no definite fossil record of the members of the EAR. Our fossil may represent the first reliable calibration point for this group, which would be consistent with the previously reconstructed diversification time of the H-lineage (EAR tribes, except Boulengerochromini, Bathybatini, Trematocarini and Lamprologini and the Lamprologini ca

  11. Early-stage rifting in the southwest East African Rift: Insights from new reflection seismic data from Lakes Tanganyika and Malawi (Nyasa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholz, C. A.; Wood, D. A.; Shillington, D. J.; McCartney, T.; Accardo, N. J.

    2015-12-01

    The western branch of the East African Rift is characterized by modest amounts of mainly amagmatic extension; deeply-subsided, fault-controlled basins; and large-magnitude, deep seismicity. Lakes Tanganyika and Malawi are two of the world's largest lakes, with maximum water depths of 1450 and 700 m respectively. Newly acquired seismic reflection data, along with newly reprocessed legacy data reveal thick sedimentary sections, in excess of 5 km in some localities. The 1980's vintage legacy data from Project PROBE have been reprocessed through pre-stack depth migration in Lake Tanganyika, and similar reprocessing of legacy data from Lake Malawi is forthcoming. New high-fold and large-source commercial and academic data have recently been collected in southern Lake Tanganyika, and in the northern and central basins of Lake Malawi as part of the 2015 SEGMeNT project. In the case of Lake Tanganyika, new data indicate the presence of older sediment packages that underlie previously identified "pre-rift" basement (the "Nyanja Event"). These episodes of sedimentation and extension may substantially predate the modern lake. These deep stratal reflections are absent in many localites, possibly on account of attenuation of the acoustic signal. However in one area of southern Lake Tanganyika, the newly-observed deep strata extend axially for ~70 km, likely representing deposits from a discrete paleolake. The high-amplitude Nyanja Event is interpreted as the onset of late-Cenozoic rifting, and the changing character of the overlying depositional sequences reflects increasing relief in the rift valley, as well as the variability of fluvial inputs, and the intermittent connectivity of upstream lake catchments. Earlier Tanganyika sequences are dominated by shallow lake and fluvial-lacustrine facies, whereas later sequences are characterized by extensive gravity flow deposition in deep water, and pronounced erosion and incision in shallow water depths and on littoral platforms. The

  12. Detection of the East and West African kdr mutation in Anopheles gambiae and Anopheles arabiensis from Uganda using a new assay based on FRET/Melt Curve analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Backeljau Thierry

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Appropriate monitoring of vector resistance to insecticides is an integral component of planning and evaluation of insecticide use in malaria control programmes. The malaria vectors Anopheles gambiae s.s. and Anopheles arabiensis have developed resistance to pyrethroid insecticides as a result of a mechanism conferring reduced nervous system sensitivity, better known as knockdown resistance (kdr. In An. gambiae s.s. and An. arabiensis, two different substitutions in the para-type sodium channel, a L1014F substitution common in West Africa and a L1014S replacement found in Kenya, are linked with kdr. Two different allele-specific polymerase chain reactions (AS-PCR are needed to detect these known kdr mutations. However, these AS-PCR assays rely on a single nucleotide polymorphism mismatch, which can result in unreliable results. Methods Here, a new assay for the detection of knockdown resistance in An. gambiae s.s. and An. arabiensis based on Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer/Melt Curve analysis (FRET/MCA is presented and compared with the existing assays. Results The new FRET/MCA method has the important advantage of detecting both kdr alleles in one assay. Moreover, results show that the FRET/MCA is more reliable and more sensitive than the existing AS-PCR assays and is able to detect new genotypes. By using this technique, the presence of the East African kdr mutation (L1014S is shown for the first time in An. arabiensis specimens from Uganda. In addition, a new kdr genotype is reported in An. gambiae s.s. from Uganda, where four An. gambiae s.s. mosquitoes possess both, the West (L1014F and East (L1014S African kdr allele, simultaneously. Conclusion The presence of both kdr mutations in the same geographical region shows the necessity of a reliable assay that enables to detect both mutations in one single assay. Hence, this new assay based on FRET/MCA will improve the screening of the kdr frequencies in An. gambiae s

  13. A Review of New and Anticipated High-Resolution Paleoclimate Records from the East African Rift System and Their Implications for Hominin Evolution and Demography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, A. S.

    2014-12-01

    Our understanding of Late Tertiary/Quaternary climate and environmental history in East Africa has, to date, largely been based on outcrop and marine drill core records. Although these records have proven extremely valuable both in reconstructing environmental change and placing human evolution in an environmental context, their quality is limited by resolution, continuity, uncertainties about superposition and outcrop weathering. To address this problem, long drill core records from extant ancient lakes and lake beds are being collected by several research groups. Long cores (up to 100s of m.) from basin depocenters in both the western and eastern rifts are now available spanning nearly the entire latitudinal range of the East Africa Rift. This network of core records, especially when coupled with outcrop data, is providing an opportunity to compare the nature of important global climate transitions (especially glacial/interglacial events and precessional cycles) across the continent, thereby documenting regional heterogeneity in African climate history. Understanding this heterogeneity is critical for realistically evaluating competing hypotheses of environmental forcing of human evolution, and especially ideas about the dispersal of anatomically modern humans out of Africa in the early Late Pleistocene. In particular, understanding the hydrological and paleoecological history of biogeographic corridors linking eastern Africa, the Nile River Valley and the Levant is likely to be vastly improved through comparative analysis of these new drill cores over the next few years. Because we do not a priori know the primary forcing factors affecting this environmental history, it will essential to develop the best possible age models, employing multiple and novel geochronometric tools to make these comparisons.

  14. Foraging ecology of an endemic shorebird, the African Black Oystercatcher ( Haematopus moquini) on the south-east coast of South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Sophie; Bonnevie, Bo; McQuaid, Christopher; Jaquemet, Sébastien

    2009-09-01

    We investigated small-medium (1-300 km) scale variation in the foraging ecology of the African Black Oystercatcher during its breeding season, using traditional diet analysis coupled with carbon and nitrogen stable isotope analysis. Fieldwork was conducted between January and March 2006 and 2007, on rocky shores on the south-east coast of South Africa at East London, Kenton and Port Elizabeth. Middens of shelled prey left by adults feeding their chicks were collected from five territories and the abundances of the collected prey on the foraging areas were estimated using quadrats. Blood samples from 45 birds (16 females, 10 males and 19 chicks) and tissues from the predominant prey species on the territory of each breeding pair were collected for isotope analysis. The Manly-Chesson selectivity index revealed that adults feed their chicks preferentially with the limpet Scutellastra cochlear and the Mediterranean mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis, if available. A slight enrichment in the 15N stable-carbon isotope signature was observed towards the west in both prey and oystercatchers. Differences in isotope signatures between males and females from the same breeding pair indicate sex-related differences in the diet. Both had signatures indicating a mixed diet, but with males exhibiting a signature closer to that of limpets and females closer to that of mussels. In the single case where mussels were rare on the feeding territory, the two members of a pair showed carbon signatures which were identical and very similar to that of limpets. These results indicate dietary partitioning between genders in breeding pairs.

  15. Water balance modelling in a semi-arid environment with limited in-situ data: remote sensing coupled with satellite gravimetry, Lake Manyara, East African Rift, Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Deus

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Accurate and up to date information on the status and trends of water balance is needed to develop strategies for conservation and the sustainable management of water resources. The purpose of this research is to estimate water balance in a semi-arid environment with limited in-situ data by using a remote sensing approach. We focus on the Lake Manyara catchment, located within the East African Rift of northern Tanzania. We use remote sensing and a semi-distributed hydrological model to study the spatial and temporal variability of water balance parameters within Manyara catchment. Satellite gravimetry GRACE data is used to verify the trend of the water balance result. The results show high spatial and temporal variations and characteristics of a semi-arid climate with high evaporation and low rainfall. We observe that the Lake Manyara water balance and GRACE equivalent water depth show comparable trends a decrease after 2002 followed by a sharp increase in 2006–2007. Despite the small size of Lake Manyara, GRACE data are useful and show great potential for hydrological research on smaller un-gauged lakes and catchments in semi-arid environments. Our modelling confirms the importance of the 2006–2007 Indian Ocean Dipole fluctuation in replenishing the groundwater reservoirs of East Africa. The water balance information can be used for further analysis of lake variations in relation to soil erosion, climate and land cover/land use change as well as different lake management and conservation scenarios. We demonstrate that water balance modelling can be performed accurately using remote sensing data even in complex climatic settings.

  16. [Rheumatologic patient management and research in Berlin at the intersection between East and West].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sieper, J

    1995-01-01

    After the fall of the Berlin Wall in November 1989, there was an immediate need for collaboration between rheumatologists from East- and West-Berlin from the very beginning, which could be taken as an example for the rest of Germany. This was achieved through different activities in patient care and research. The "Regionales Rheumazentrum Berlin" which was started at about that time played a special role in making this enterprise a success.

  17. Study of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex genotypic diversity in Malaysia reveals a predominance of ancestral East-African-Indian lineage with a Malaysia-specific signature.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fazli Ismail

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis (TB still constitutes a major public health problem in Malaysia. The identification and genotyping based characterization of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC isolates causing the disease is important to determine the effectiveness of the control and surveillance programs.This study intended a first assessment of spoligotyping-based MTBC genotypic diversity in Malaysia followed by a comparison of strains with those prevailing in neighboring countries by comparison with an international MTBC genotyping database.Spoligotyping was performed on a total of 220 M. tuberculosis clinical isolates collected in Kelantan and Kuala Lumpur. The results were compared with the SITVIT2 international database of the Pasteur Institute of Guadeloupe.Spoligotyping revealed 77 different patterns: 22 corresponded to orphan patterns while 55 patterns containing 198 isolates were assigned a Spoligo International Type (SIT designation in the database (the latter included 6 newly created SITs. The eight most common SITs grouped 141 isolates (5 to 56 strains per cluster as follows: SIT1/Beijing, n = 56, 25.5%; SIT745/EAI1-SOM, n = 33, 15.0%; SIT591/EAI6-BGD1, n = 13, 5.9%; SIT256/EAI5, n = 12, 5.5%; SIT236/EAI5, n = 10, 4.6%; SIT19/EAI2-Manila, n = 9, 4.1%; SIT89/EAI2-Nonthaburi, n = 5, 2.3%; and SIT50/H3, n = 3, 1.4%. The association between city of isolation and lineages was statistically significant; Haarlem and T lineages being higher in Kuala Lumpur (p<0.01. However, no statistically significant differences were noted when comparing drug resistance vs. major lineages, nor between gender and clades.The ancestral East-African-Indian (EAI lineage was most predominant followed by the Beijing lineage. A comparison of strains with those prevailing in neighboring countries in South Asia, East Asia and South East Asia underlined the phylogeographical specificity of SIT745 for Malaysia, and its probable ongoing evolution

  18. Design and descriptive epidemiology of the Infectious Diseases of East African Livestock (IDEAL) project, a longitudinal calf cohort study in western Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Clare Bronsvoort, Barend Mark; Thumbi, Samuel Mwangi; Poole, Elizabeth Jane; Kiara, Henry; Auguet, Olga Tosas; Handel, Ian Graham; Jennings, Amy; Conradie, Ilana; Mbole-Kariuki, Mary Ndila; Toye, Philip G; Hanotte, Olivier; Coetzer, J A W; Woolhouse, Mark E J

    2013-08-30

    There is a widely recognised lack of baseline epidemiological data on the dynamics and impacts of infectious cattle diseases in east Africa. The Infectious Diseases of East African Livestock (IDEAL) project is an epidemiological study of cattle health in western Kenya with the aim of providing baseline epidemiological data, investigating the impact of different infections on key responses such as growth, mortality and morbidity, the additive and/or multiplicative effects of co-infections, and the influence of management and genetic factors.A longitudinal cohort study of newborn calves was conducted in western Kenya between 2007-2009. Calves were randomly selected from all those reported in a 2 stage clustered sampling strategy. Calves were recruited between 3 and 7 days old. A team of veterinarians and animal health assistants carried out 5-weekly, clinical and postmortem visits. Blood and tissue samples were collected in association with all visits and screened using a range of laboratory based diagnostic methods for over 100 different pathogens or infectious exposures. The study followed the 548 calves over the first 51 weeks of life or until death and when they were reported clinically ill. The cohort experienced a high all cause mortality rate of 16% with at least 13% of these due to infectious diseases. Only 307 (6%) of routine visits were classified as clinical episodes, with a further 216 reported by farmers. 54% of calves reached one year without a reported clinical episode. Mortality was mainly to east coast fever, haemonchosis, and heartwater. Over 50 pathogens were detected in this population with exposure to a further 6 viruses and bacteria. The IDEAL study has demonstrated that it is possible to mount population based longitudinal animal studies. The results quantify for the first time in an animal population the high diversity of pathogens a population may have to deal with and the levels of co-infections with key pathogens such as Theileria parva

  19. Is the Okavango Delta the terminus of the East African Rift System? Towards a new geodynamic model: Geodetic study and geophysical review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastier, Anne-Morwenn; Dauteuil, Olivier; Murray-Hudson, Michael; Moreau, Frédérique; Walpersdorf, Andrea; Makati, Kaelo

    2017-08-01

    The Okavango Graben (OG) has been considered as the terminus of the southwestern branch of the East African Rift System (EARS) since the 1970s based on fault morphology and early seismic and geophysical data. Thus it has been assumed to be an incipient rifting zone, analogous to the early stage of mature rifts in the EARS. Recent geodetic data and geophysical studies in the area bring new insights into the local crust and lithosphere, mantle activity and fault activity. In this study, we computed the velocities for three permanent GPS stations surrounding the graben and undertook a review of the new geophysical data available for the area. The northern and southern blocks of the graben show an exclusively low strike-slip displacement rate of about 1mm/year, revealing the transtensional nature of this basin. The seismic record of central and southern Africa was found to be instrumentally biased for the events recorded before 2004 and the OG may not represent the most seismically active area in Botswana anymore. Moreover, no significant lithosphere and crustal thinning is found in the tectonic structure nor any strong negative Bouguer anomaly and surface heat flux. Thus the OG does not match the classical model for a rifting zone. We propose a new geodynamic model for the deformation observed west of the EARS based on accommodation of far-field deformation due to the differential extension rates of the EARS and the displacement of the Kalahari craton relative to the Nubian plate.

  20. "The Higher the Satellite, the Lower the Culture"? African American Studies in East-Central and Southeastern Europe: The Case of Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Antoszek

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the current position of African American studies in Poland, with Poland serving as an exemplar of similar changes taking place in other countries of East-Central and Southeastern Europe. In doing so, the paper highlights the nature of cultural representations or appropriations of blackness outside the United States, which, removed from their roots, start living their own independent lives. The omnipresence of hip-hop, basketball, and, to a lesser extent, black movies and literature has a direct influence on many cultures in which blackness is assigned a superior status. The foundations of this elevated position are often sustained by popular culture's hunger for the new and flashy, which grants the new forms a very peculiar and simulacral character. However, the paper recognizes that the far-reaching appeal of many black voices would likely be impossible without the aid of global channels of communication. The paper also examines a number of examples of black culture translated into and appropriated by various indigenous productions. It does so not only to show the somewhat naïve and even humorous aspects of many such "trans-nations" but also to demonstrate black culture's inspiring role for various local voices.

  1. "The Higher the Satellite, the Lower the Culture"? African American Studies in East-Central and Southeastern Europe: The Case of Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Antoszek

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available

    This paper examines the current position of African American studies in Poland, with Poland serving as an exemplar of similar changes taking place in other countries of East-Central and Southeastern Europe. In doing so, the paper highlights the nature of cultural representations or appropriations of blackness outside the United States, which, removed from their roots, start living their own independent lives. The omnipresence of hip-hop, basketball, and, to a lesser extent, black movies and literature has a direct influence on many cultures in which blackness is assigned a superior status. The foundations of this elevated position are often sustained by popular culture's hunger for the new and flashy, which grants the new forms a very peculiar and simulacral character. However, the paper recognizes that the far-reaching appeal of many black voices would likely be impossible without the aid of global channels of communication. The paper also examines a number of examples of black culture translated into and appropriated by various indigenous productions. It does so not only to show the somewhat naïve and even humorous aspects of many such "trans-nations" but also to demonstrate black culture's inspiring role for various local voices.

  2. The role of inherited crustal structures and magmatism in the development of rift segments: Insights from the Kivu basin, western branch of the East African Rift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smets, Benoît; Delvaux, Damien; Ross, Kelly Ann; Poppe, Sam; Kervyn, Matthieu; d'Oreye, Nicolas; Kervyn, François

    2016-06-01

    The study of rift basin's morphology can provide good insights into geological features influencing the development of rift valleys and the distribution of volcanism. The Kivu rift segment represents the central section of the western branch of the East African Rift and displays morphological characteristics contrasting with other rift segments. Differences and contradictions between several structural maps of the Kivu rift make it difficult to interpret the local geodynamic setting. In the present work, we use topographic and bathymetric data to map active fault networks and study the geomorphology of the Kivu basin. This relief-based fault lineament mapping appears as a good complement for field mapping or mapping using seismic reflection profiles. Results suggest that rifting reactivated NE-SW oriented structures probably related to the Precambrian basement, creating transfer zones and influencing the location and distribution of volcanism. Both volcanic provinces, north and south of the Kivu basin, extend into Lake Kivu and are connected to each other with a series of eruptive vents along the western rift escarpment. The complex morphology of this rift basin, characterized by a double synthetic half-graben structure, might result from the combined action of normal faulting, magmatic underplating, volcanism and erosion processes.

  3. 3D object-oriented image analysis in 3D geophysical modelling: Analysing the central part of the East African Rift System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadel, I.; van der Meijde, M.; Kerle, N.; Lauritsen, N.

    2015-03-01

    Non-uniqueness of satellite gravity interpretation has traditionally been reduced by using a priori information from seismic tomography models. This reduction in the non-uniqueness has been based on velocity-density conversion formulas or user interpretation of the 3D subsurface structures (objects) based on the seismic tomography models and then forward modelling these objects. However, this form of object-based approach has been done without a standardized methodology on how to extract the subsurface structures from the 3D models. In this research, a 3D object-oriented image analysis (3D OOA) approach was implemented to extract the 3D subsurface structures from geophysical data. The approach was applied on a 3D shear wave seismic tomography model of the central part of the East African Rift System. Subsequently, the extracted 3D objects from the tomography model were reconstructed in the 3D interactive modelling environment IGMAS+, and their density contrast values were calculated using an object-based inversion technique to calculate the forward signal of the objects and compare it with the measured satellite gravity. Thus, a new object-based approach was implemented to interpret and extract the 3D subsurface objects from 3D geophysical data. We also introduce a new approach to constrain the interpretation of the satellite gravity measurements that can be applied using any 3D geophysical model.

  4. Analysis of mutations causing familial hypercholesterolaemia in black South African patients of different ancestry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U K Ibe

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background. Familial hypercholesterolaemia (FH is usually caused by mutations in three genes (LDLR, APOB and PCSK9. Objective. To identify the spectrum of FH-causing mutations in black South African (SA patients. Methods. DNA samples of 16 unrelated South African FH patients with elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, tendon xanthomas and corneal arcus (3 clinically homozygous FH and 13 heterozygous FH of ethnic African origin were screened for mutations in the LDLR (coding region, promoter and intron/exon boundaries, APOB (part of exon 26 and PCSK9 genes (exon 7, using high-resolution melting. Results. Eight LDLR mutations were identified, for an overall detection rate of 8/19 predicted FH-causing alleles (42.1%. The previously reported six base pair deletion p.(D47_G48del was found in two patients, and two novel variants (c.1187-25T>C and c.1664T>G p.(L555R were found, both predicted to be pathogenic using in silico web-based predictive algorithms. No pathogenic variants in APOB or PCSK9 were found. Conclusions. These findings contribute to the knowledge of allelic heterogeneity in the spectrum of FH-causing mutations in black SA patients, signifying their ancestral diversity. The relatively low overall detection rate may reflect locus heterogeneity of the FH phenotype in black SA FH patients.

  5. The Integrated Genomic Architecture and Evolution of Dental Divergence in East African Cichlid Fishes (Haplochromis chilotes x H. nyererei).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulsey, C Darrin; Machado-Schiaffino, Gonzalo; Keicher, Lara; Ellis-Soto, Diego; Henning, Frederico; Meyer, Axel

    2017-09-07

    The independent evolution of the two toothed jaws of cichlid fishes is thought to have promoted their unparalleled ecological divergence and species richness. However, dental divergence in cichlids could exhibit substantial genetic covariance and this could dictate how traits like tooth numbers evolve in different African Lakes and on their two jaws. To test this hypothesis, we used a hybrid mapping cross of two trophically divergent Lake Victoria species (Haplochromis chilotes × Haplochromis nyererei) to examine genomic regions associated with cichlid tooth diversity. Surprisingly, a similar genomic region was found to be associated with oral jaw tooth numbers in cichlids from both Lake Malawi and Lake Victoria. Likewise, this same genomic location was associated with variation in pharyngeal jaw tooth numbers. Similar relationships between tooth numbers on the two jaws in both our Victoria hybrid population and across the phylogenetic diversity of Malawi cichlids additionally suggests that tooth numbers on the two jaws of haplochromine cichlids might generally coevolve owing to shared genetic underpinnings. Integrated, rather than independent, genomic architectures could be key to the incomparable evolutionary divergence and convergence in cichlid tooth numbers. Copyright © 2017 Hulsey et al.

  6. The Integrated Genomic Architecture and Evolution of Dental Divergence in East African Cichlid Fishes (Haplochromis chilotes x H. nyererei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Darrin Hulsey

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The independent evolution of the two toothed jaws of cichlid fishes is thought to have promoted their unparalleled ecological divergence and species richness. However, dental divergence in cichlids could exhibit substantial genetic covariance and this could dictate how traits like tooth numbers evolve in different African Lakes and on their two jaws. To test this hypothesis, we used a hybrid mapping cross of two trophically divergent Lake Victoria species (Haplochromis chilotes × Haplochromis nyererei to examine genomic regions associated with cichlid tooth diversity. Surprisingly, a similar genomic region was found to be associated with oral jaw tooth numbers in cichlids from both Lake Malawi and Lake Victoria. Likewise, this same genomic location was associated with variation in pharyngeal jaw tooth numbers. Similar relationships between tooth numbers on the two jaws in both our Victoria hybrid population and across the phylogenetic diversity of Malawi cichlids additionally suggests that tooth numbers on the two jaws of haplochromine cichlids might generally coevolve owing to shared genetic underpinnings. Integrated, rather than independent, genomic architectures could be key to the incomparable evolutionary divergence and convergence in cichlid tooth numbers.

  7. Colorimetric measurements of iris colour and their significance in East Asian patients with skin cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J W; Seo, S H; Kye, Y C; Ahn, H H

    2010-10-01

    A light-coloured iris is considered a risk factor for skin cancer in general. However, iris colour cannot be considered a plausible risk factor for skin cancer in East Asian populations because of the relative homogeneity of iris colours. Furthermore, subjective classifications of iris colour cannot distinguish between different East Asian individuals as to their likelihood of developing cancer. To measure human iris colours quantitatively and to assess the significances of iris colours with respect to skin cancer in Korean patients. Reference Commission Internationale d'Eclairage (CIE) L*a*b* coordinates on a ColorCheck chart were recorded using a reflectance spectrophotometer and compared with computed CIE L*a*b* coordinates from digital images to determine equations to calibrate CIE L*a*b* values. We then took iris images and measured iris colours and the colours of sun-exposed and sun-protected skin in 42 Korean patients with various cutaneous malignancies and nonmalignant dermatological diseases. Results were statistically analysed with regard to iris and skin colours in CIE L*a*b* coordinates. Patients with skin cancer had significantly lighter irises or higher L* values than dermatological patients without a malignancy (P = 0.02). Colour differences (ΔE*ab) between sun-exposed skin and sun-protected skin were greater in men (P skin cancer (P skins decreased with age (r = -0.32, P colour appears to be a possible skin cancer risk factor in East Asian populations. The larger colour differences seen between sun-protected and sun-exposed skin in men and in patients with skin cancer may have been due to chronic or excessive sun exposure. © 2009 The Author(s). Journal compilation © 2009 British Association of Dermatologists.

  8. Factor VIII gene variants and inhibitor risk in African American hemophilia A patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunasekera, Devi; Ettinger, Ruth A; Nakaya Fletcher, Shelley; James, Eddie A; Liu, Maochang; Barrett, John C; Withycombe, Janice; Matthews, Dana C; Epstein, Melinda S; Hughes, Richard J; Pratt, Kathleen P

    2015-08-13

    African American hemophilia A (HA) patients experience a higher incidence of neutralizing anti-factor VIII (FVIII) antibodies ("inhibitors") vis-à-vis white patients. Nonsynonymous single-nucleotide polymorphisms (ns-SNPs) in the F8 gene encoding FVIII-H484, FVIII-E1241, and FVIII-V2238 are more prevalent in African Americans. This study tested the hypothesis that immune responses to these sites provoke inhibitors. Blood samples were obtained from 174 African American and 198 white HA subjects and their F8 gene sequences determined. Major histocompatibility complex class II binding and T-cell recognition of polymorphic sequences were evaluated using quantitative binding assays and HLA-DRB1 tetramers. Peptides corresponding to 4 common ns-SNPs showed limited binding to 11 HLA-DRB1 proteins. CD4 T cells from 22 subjects treated with FVIII products having sequences at residues FVIII-484, 1241, and 2238 differing from those of putative proteins encoded by their F8 genes did not show high-avidity tetramer binding, whereas positive-control staining of tetanus-specific CD4 T cells was routinely successful. African Americans with an intron-22 inversion mutation showed a 2-3 times-higher inhibitor incidence than whites with the same mutation (odds ratio = 2.3 [1.1-5.0, P = .04]), but this did not correlate with any of the ns-SNPs. We conclude that immune responses to "sequence-mismatched" FVIII products are unlikely to contribute appreciably to the inhibitor incidence in African Americans.

  9. Comparison of the reorganisations of BP and Shell and possible opportunities for Middle East and North African Oil companies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenkins, Gilbert

    1999-07-01

    A critical analysis is provided of the recent reorganisations of the downstream and petrochemical activities of BP and Shell. BP (or BP Amoco including Arco) and Shell are preparing for the next decade anticipating the environment and changing the companies to maximise their profitability in that environment. For the oil producing countries of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA), there are lessons to be learned both from the forecasts which BP Amoco and Shell are making and from the way these companies intend to operate. BP Amoco's view of oil refining is that the surplus capacity is endemic; Shell's view is that it is transient. BP Amoco will market oil products selectively across the world; Shell is still intent on a global approach. Both BP Amoco and Shell will minimise their wholesaling activities in the retail market and expand their merchandising with ever better quality sites. In the petrochemicals sector, the companies are taking similar actions, ie concentrating on positions of strength and selling business activities with low market shares or poor profitability. Petrochemical sites will be favoured when they have access to company produced hydrocarbon feedstocks. From the analysis, it is suggested that MENA oil companies will need to consider carefully the timing of any new refinery building. The reorganisation of the major OECD-based oil companies should offer opportunities for MENA companies to secure outlets for LPG and condensates, to form marketing alliances in OECD markets and to become involved in OECD-based petrochemical businesses.

  10. Positive and negative effects of grass, cattle, and wild herbivores on Acacia saplings in an East African savanna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riginos, Corinna; Young, Truman P

    2007-10-01

    Plant-plant interactions can be a complex mixture of positive and negative interactions, with the net outcome depending on abiotic and community contexts. In savanna systems, the effects of large herbivores on tree-grass interactions have rarely been studied experimentally, though these herbivores are major players in these systems. In African savannas, trees often become more abundant under heavy cattle grazing but less abundant in wildlife preserves. Woody encroachment where cattle have replaced wild herbivores may be caused by a shift in the competitive balance between trees and grasses. Here we report the results of an experiment designed to quantify the positive, negative, and net effects of grasses, wild herbivores, and cattle on Acacia saplings in a Kenyan savanna. Acacia drepanolobium saplings under four long-term herbivore regimes (wild herbivores, cattle, cattle + wild herbivores, and no large herbivores) were cleared of surrounding grass or left with the surrounding grass intact. After two years, grass-removal saplings exhibited 86% more browse damage than control saplings, suggesting that grass benefited saplings by protecting them from herbivory. However, the negative effect of grass on saplings was far greater; grass-removal trees accrued more than twice the total stem length of control trees. Where wild herbivores were present, saplings were browsed more and produced more new stem growth. Thus, the net effect of wild herbivores was positive, possibly due to the indirect effects of lower competitor tree density in areas accessible to elephants. Additionally, colonization of saplings by symbiotic ants tracked growth patterns, and colonized saplings experienced lower rates of browse damage. These results suggest that savanna tree growth and woody encroachment cannot be predicted by grass cover or herbivore type alone. Rather, tree growth appears to depend on a variety of factors that may be acting together or antagonistically at different stages of the

  11. Renal dysfunction in African patients with acute heart failure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sani, Mahmoud U.; Davison, Beth A.; Cotter, Gad; Sliwa, Karen; Edwards, Christopher; Liu, Licette; Damasceno, Albertino; Mayosi, Bongani M.; Ogah, Okechukwu S.; Mondo, Charles; Dzudie, Anastase; Ojji, Dike B.; Voors, Adrian A.

    2014-01-01

    Aims In Western countries with typically elderly ischaemic acute heart failure patients, predictors and clinical outcome of renal dysfunction and worsening renal function are well described. However, the prevalence, predictors and clinical outcome of renal dysfunction in younger, mainly hypertensive

  12. Blood pressure changes in African American patients receiving chiropractic care in a teaching clinic: a preliminary study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McMasters, Kim L; Wang, Joe; York, Jennifer; Hart, John; Neely, Cheneir; Delain, Rochelle J

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this preliminary study was to determine if a course of chiropractic care would change blood pressure measurements in African American patients and to determine if a study was feasible...

  13. Two extended haplotype blocks are associated with adaptation to high altitude habitats in East African honey bees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schöning, Caspar

    2017-01-01

    Understanding the genetic basis of adaption is a central task in biology. Populations of the honey bee Apis mellifera that inhabit the mountain forests of East Africa differ in behavior and morphology from those inhabiting the surrounding lowland savannahs, which likely reflects adaptation to these habitats. We performed whole genome sequencing on 39 samples of highland and lowland bees from two pairs of populations to determine their evolutionary affinities and identify the genetic basis of these putative adaptations. We find that in general, levels of genetic differentiation between highland and lowland populations are very low, consistent with them being a single panmictic population. However, we identify two loci on chromosomes 7 and 9, each several hundred kilobases in length, which exhibit near fixation for different haplotypes between highland and lowland populations. The highland haplotypes at these loci are extremely rare in samples from the rest of the world. Patterns of segregation of genetic variants suggest that recombination between haplotypes at each locus is suppressed, indicating that they comprise independent structural variants. The haplotype on chromosome 7 harbors nearly all octopamine receptor genes in the honey bee genome. These have a role in learning and foraging behavior in honey bees and are strong candidates for adaptation to highland habitats. Molecular analysis of a putative breakpoint indicates that it may disrupt the coding sequence of one of these genes. Divergence between the highland and lowland haplotypes at both loci is extremely high suggesting that they are ancient balanced polymorphisms that greatly predate divergence between the extant honey bee subspecies. PMID:28542163

  14. Immunoepidemiology of Wuchereria bancrofti infection: parasite transmission intensity, filaria-specific antibodies, and host immunity in two East African communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaoko, Walter G; Michael, Edwin; Meyrowitsch, Dan W; Estambale, Benson B A; Malecela, Mwele N; Simonsen, Paul E

    2007-12-01

    We compared the age profiles of infection and specific antibody intensities in two communities with different transmission levels in East Africa to examine the contribution of humoral responses to human immunity to the vector-borne helminth Wuchereria bancrofti. The worm intensities were higher and exhibited a nonlinear age pattern in a high-transmission community, Masaika, in contrast to the low but linearly increasing age infection profile observed for a low-transmission community, Kingwede. The mean levels of specific immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1), IgG2, IgG4, and IgE were also higher in Masaika, but intriguingly, the IgG3 response was higher in Kingwede. The age-antibody patterns differed in the two communities but in a manner apparently contrary to a role in acquired immunity when the data were assessed using simple correlation methods. By contrast, multivariate analyses showed that the antibody response to infection may be classified into three types and that two of these types, a IgG3-type response and a response measuring a trade-off in host production of IgG4 and IgG3 versus production of IgG1, IgG2, and IgE, had a negative effect on Wuchereria circulating antigen levels in a manner that supported a role for these responses in the generation of acquired immunity to infection. Mathematical modeling supported the conclusions drawn from empirical data analyses that variations in both transmission and worm intensity can explain community differences in the age profiles and impacts of these antibody response types. This study showed that parasite-specific antibody responses may be associated with the generation of acquired immunity to human filarial infection but in a form which is dependent on worm transmission intensity and interactions between immune components.

  15. Selection, phenotyping and identification of acid and hydrogen peroxide producing bacteria from vaginal samples of Canadian and East African women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John J Schellenberg

    Full Text Available The common but poorly understood condition known as bacterial vaginosis (BV increases vulnerability to HIV infection and is associated with the absence of H(2O(2-producing Lactobacillus. Vaginal lactic acid bacteria (LAB produce anti-HIV factors such as organic acids and hydrogen peroxide (H(2O(2, and may bind and inactivate HIV particles during scavenging of mannose. These factors define potential criteria for initial selection of candidate probiotics to block heterosexual transmission of HIV. Therefore, the primary goal of this study was to characterize acid production on mannose and H(2O(2 production in vaginal isolates from Canadian adolescents (192 isolates, 16 individuals and commercial sex workers in Nairobi, Kenya (576 isolates, 96 individuals. Selection of isolates from H(2O(2-detecting media suggested an idiosyncratic individual-level profile and extensive phenotypic diversity, including the identification of a subset of "double-strong" acid- and H(2O(2-producers with phenotypes similar to well-characterized probiotic strains. Molecular fingerprinting of all isolates by capillary electrophoresis of 16S-23S rRNA interspacer amplicons was coupled with chaperonin-60 universal target (cpn60 UT sequencing in a subset, tentatively identifying 96% of isolates although only 19% were sequenced. Most isolates belonged to Lactobacillus, Streptococcus, Bifidobacterium or Gardnerella, with a total of 37 species in 15 genera, as well as 5 potentially novel organisms, identified in this study. This sensitivity was likely enhanced by phenotype-based selection on two chromogenic media formulations. Identification of double-strong isolates may provide a rational basis for selection and further characterization of vaginal probiotics, with potential application as part of HIV prevention initiatives in western Canada and East Africa.

  16. Continuous 1.3-million-year record of East African hydroclimate, and implications for patterns of evolution and biodiversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Robert P.; Scholz, Christopher A.; Cohen, Andrew S.; King, John W.; Brown, Erik T.; Ivory, Sarah J.; Johnson, Thomas C.; Deino, Alan L.; Reinthal, Peter N.; McGlue, Michael M.; Blome, Margaret W.

    2015-12-01

    The transport of moisture in the tropics is a critical process for the global energy budget and on geologic timescales, has markedly influenced continental landscapes, migratory pathways, and biological evolution. Here we present a continuous, first-of-its-kind 1.3-My record of continental hydroclimate and lake-level variability derived from drill core data from Lake Malawi, East Africa (9-15° S). Over the Quaternary, we observe dramatic shifts in effective moisture, resulting in large-scale changes in one of the world's largest lakes and most diverse freshwater ecosystems. Results show evidence for 24 lake level drops of more than 200 m during the Late Quaternary, including 15 lowstands when water levels were more than 400 m lower than modern. A dramatic shift is observed at the Mid-Pleistocene Transition (MPT), consistent with far-field climate forcing, which separates vastly different hydroclimate regimes before and after ∼800,000 years ago. Before 800 ka, lake levels were lower, indicating a climate drier than today, and water levels changed frequently. Following the MPT high-amplitude lake level variations dominate the record. From 800 to 100 ka, a deep, often overfilled lake occupied the basin, indicating a wetter climate, but these highstands were interrupted by prolonged intervals of extreme drought. Periods of high lake level are observed during times of high eccentricity. The extreme hydroclimate variability exerted a profound influence on the Lake Malawi endemic cichlid fish species flock; the geographically extensive habitat reconfiguration provided novel ecological opportunities, enabling new populations to differentiate rapidly to distinct species.

  17. ‘Getting tested is almost like going to the Salem witch trials’: Discordant discourses between western public health messages and sociocultural expectations surrounding HIV testing among East African immigrant women

    Science.gov (United States)

    DE JESUS, Maria; CARRETE, Claudia; MAINE, Cathleen; NALLS, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    Washington, DC has the highest AIDS diagnosis rate in the United States and Black women are disproportionately affected. Although HIV testing is the first entryway into vital treatment services, evidence reveals that foreign-born blacks have a lower rate of recent HIV testing than U.S.-born blacks. To date, however, there are no studies that examine the culture-specific perceptions of HIV testing among East African immigrant women (who comprise a large share of Black Africans in DC) to better understand their potential barriers to testing. Adopting the PEN-3 cultural model as our theoretical framework, the main objective of this study was to examine East African women’s HIV testing perceptions and partner communication norms. Between October 2012 and March 2013, trained interviewers conducted a total of 25 interviews with East African women in the Washington DC Metropolitan area. For triangulation purposes, data collection consisted of both in-depth, semi-structured interviews and cognitive interviews, in which participants were administered a quantitative survey and assessed on how they interpreted items. Qualitative thematic analysis revealed a systematic pattern of discordant responses across participants. While they were aware of messages related to western public health discourse surrounding HIV testing (e.g., Everyone should get tested for HIV; One should talk to one’s spouse about HIV testing), divergent sociocultural expectations rooted in cultural and religious beliefs prevailed (e.g., Getting an HIV test brings shame to the person who got tested and to one’s family; it implies one is engaging in immoral behavior; One should not talk with one’s spouse about HIV testing; doing so breaks cultural norms). Implications of using a culture-centered model to examine the role of sociocultural expectations in HIV prevention research and to develop culturally responsive prevention strategies are discussed. PMID:25616443

  18. "Getting tested is almost like going to the Salem witch trials": discordant discourses between Western public health messages and sociocultural expectations surrounding HIV testing among East African immigrant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Jesus, Maria; Carrete, Claudia; Maine, Cathleen; Nalls, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    Washington, DC, has the highest AIDS diagnosis rate in the USA, and Black women are disproportionately affected. Although HIV testing is the first entryway into vital treatment services, evidence reveals that foreign-born blacks have a lower rate of recent HIV testing than US-born blacks. To date, however, there are no studies that examine the culture-specific perceptions of HIV testing among East African immigrant women (who comprise a large share of Black Africans in DC) to better understand their potential barriers to testing. Adopting the PEN-3 cultural model as our theoretical framework, the main objective of this study was to examine East African women's HIV testing perceptions and partner communication norms. Between October 2012 and March 2013, trained interviewers conducted a total of 25 interviews with East African women in the Washington, DC, metropolitan area. For triangulation purposes, data collection consisted of both in-depth, semi-structured interviews and cognitive interviews, in which participants were administered a quantitative survey and assessed on how they interpreted items. Qualitative thematic analysis revealed a systematic pattern of discordant responses across participants. While they were aware of messages related to Western public health discourse surrounding HIV testing (e.g., Everyone should get tested for HIV; One should talk to one's spouse about HIV testing), divergent sociocultural expectations rooted in cultural and religious beliefs prevailed (e.g., Getting an HIV test brings shame to the person who got tested and to one's family; it implies one is engaging in immoral behavior; One should not talk with one's spouse about HIV testing; doing so breaks cultural norms). Implications of using a culture-centered model to examine the role of sociocultural expectations in HIV prevention research and to develop culturally responsive prevention strategies are discussed.

  19. Typhoid fever in a South African in-patient population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khan, Mohammad Enayet Hossain

    2004-01-01

    In conclusion, the data presented herein show that no single clinical or paraclinical parameter is reliable in arriving at a correct clinical diagnosis of typhoid fever and that bacteriologic confirmation is necessary for the diagnosis of typhoid fever. Patients ’ age and sex influence the clinical

  20. Typhoid fever in a South African in-patient population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khan, Mohammad Enayet Hossain

    2004-01-01

    In conclusion, the data presented herein show that no single clinical or paraclinical parameter is reliable in arriving at a correct clinical diagnosis of typhoid fever and that bacteriologic confirmation is necessary for the diagnosis of typhoid fever. Patients ’ age and sex influence the clinical

  1. The barriers preventing effective treatment of South African patients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adele

    Diagnoses included unipolar depression (30%), bipolar mood disorder (40%) and schizophrenia / schizo- affective ..... The length of the self-completion questionnaire demanded at .... balanced diet, with even less (27%) doing regular exercise, or .... patients with mental health problems both in the state and private sectors.

  2. Cardiovascular risk factors in patients with Addison's disease: a comparative study of South African and Swedish patients.

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    Ian Louis Ross

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Patients with Addison's disease (AD in Scandinavia have an increased risk for premature death due to cardiovascular disease (CVD. Serum lipids are important risk factors for CVD and vascular mortality. Replacement doses of hydrocortisone have historically been higher in Sweden than South Africa. The primary aim was to study the lipid profiles in a large group of patients with AD with the hypothesis that the lipid profile in patients in Sweden would be worse than in South Africa. METHODS: In a cross-sectional study, 110 patients with AD (55 from South Africa, 55 from Sweden matched for age, gender, ethnicity and BMI were studied. Anthropometric measures, blood pressure, lipids, highly sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP and adiponectin were studied. RESULTS: All patients were Caucasian and the majority were women N = 36 (65.5%. Mean (standard deviation; SD ages of the Swedish and South African patients were 52.9 (13.0 and 52.6 (14.4 years and BMI 25.3 (3.2 and 25.8 (4.1 kg/m2, respectively. The mean total daily hydrocortisone dose was greater in the Swedish patients than the South African patients, [33.0 (8.1 versus 24.3 (8.0 mg; p<0.0001]. South African patients had higher median (interquartilerange; IQR triglycerides (TG [1.59 (1.1-2.46 versus 0.96 (0.74-1.6 mmol/l; p<0.001], total cholesterol (TC [6.02(1.50 versus 5.13 (0.87 mmol/l; p<0.001], LDL-C [4.43 (1.44 versus 2.75 (0.80 mmol/l; p<0.001] and median hs-CRP [2.15 (0.93-5.45 versus 0.99 (0.57-2.10 mg/L; p<0.003] and lower HDL-C [0.80 (0.40 versus 1.86 (0.46 mmol/l; p<0.001] than the Swedish patients. Approximately 20% of the patients in both cohorts had hypertension and diabetes mellitus. CONCLUSIONS: South African patients with AD have worse lipid profiles and higher hs-CRP compared to their matched Swedish patients, despite lower doses of hydrocortisone. It is uncertain at this time whether these are due to genetic or environmental factors.

  3. Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Patients with Addison's Disease: A Comparative Study of South African and Swedish Patients

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    Ross, Ian Louis; Bergthorsdottir, Ragnhildur; Levitt, Naomi; Dave, Joel Alex; Schatz, Desmond; Marais, David; Johannsson, Gudmundur

    2014-01-01

    Background Patients with Addison's disease (AD) in Scandinavia have an increased risk for premature death due to cardiovascular disease (CVD). Serum lipids are important risk factors for CVD and vascular mortality. Replacement doses of hydrocortisone have historically been higher in Sweden than South Africa. The primary aim was to study the lipid profiles in a large group of patients with AD with the hypothesis that the lipid profile in patients in Sweden would be worse than in South Africa. Methods In a cross-sectional study, 110 patients with AD (55 from South Africa, 55 from Sweden) matched for age, gender, ethnicity and BMI were studied. Anthropometric measures, blood pressure, lipids, highly sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and adiponectin were studied. Results All patients were Caucasian and the majority were women N = 36 (65.5%). Mean (standard deviation; SD) ages of the Swedish and South African patients were 52.9 (13.0) and 52.6 (14.4) years and BMI 25.3 (3.2) and 25.8 (4.1) kg/m2, respectively. The mean total daily hydrocortisone dose was greater in the Swedish patients than the South African patients, [33.0 (8.1) versus 24.3 (8.0) mg; p<0.0001]. South African patients had higher median (interquartilerange; IQR) triglycerides (TG) [1.59 (1.1–2.46) versus 0.96 (0.74–1.6) mmol/l; p<0.001], total cholesterol (TC) [6.02(1.50) versus 5.13 (0.87) mmol/l; p<0.001], LDL-C [4.43 (1.44) versus 2.75 (0.80) mmol/l; p<0.001] and median hs-CRP [2.15 (0.93–5.45) versus 0.99 (0.57–2.10) mg/L; p<0.003] and lower HDL-C [0.80 (0.40) versus 1.86 (0.46) mmol/l; p<0.001] than the Swedish patients. Approximately 20% of the patients in both cohorts had hypertension and diabetes mellitus. Conclusions South African patients with AD have worse lipid profiles and higher hs-CRP compared to their matched Swedish patients, despite lower doses of hydrocortisone. It is uncertain at this time whether these are due to genetic or environmental factors. PMID:24603607

  4. Predicting the Impact of Temperature Change on the Future Distribution of Maize Stem Borers and Their Natural Enemies along East African Mountain Gradients Using Phenology Models.

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    Sizah Mwalusepo

    Full Text Available Lepidopteran stem borers are among the most important pests of maize in East Africa. The objective of the present study was to predict the impact of temperature change on the distribution and abundance of the crambid Chilo partellus, the noctuid Busseola fusca, and their larval parasitoids Cotesia flavipes and Cotesia sesamiae at local scale along Kilimanjaro and Taita Hills gradients in Tanzania and Kenya, respectively. Temperature-dependent phenology models of pests and parasitoids were used in a geographic information system for mapping. The three risk indices namely establishment, generation, and activity indices were computed using current temperature data record from local weather stations and future (i.e., 2055 climatic condition based on downscaled climate change data from the AFRICLIM database. The calculations were carried out using index interpolator, a sub-module of the Insect Life Cycle Modeling (ILCYM software. Thin plate algorithm was used for interpolation of the indices. Our study confirmed that temperature was a key factor explaining the distribution of stem borers and their natural enemies but other climatic factors and factors related to the top-down regulation of pests by parasitoids (host-parasitoid synchrony also played a role. Results based on temperature only indicated a worsening of stem borer impact on maize production along the two East African mountain gradients studied. This was attributed to three main changes occurring simultaneously: (1 range expansion of the lowland species C. partellus in areas above 1200 m.a.s.l.; (2 increase of the number of pest generations across all altitudes, thus by 2055 damage by both pests will increase in the most productive maize zones of both transects; (3 disruption of the geographical distribution of pests and their larval parasitoids will cause an improvement of biological control at altitude below 1200 m.a.s.l. and a deterioration above 1200 m.a.s.l. The predicted increase in

  5. Predicting the Impact of Temperature Change on the Future Distribution of Maize Stem Borers and Their Natural Enemies along East African Mountain Gradients Using Phenology Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwalusepo, Sizah; Tonnang, Henri E Z; Massawe, Estomih S; Okuku, Gerphas O; Khadioli, Nancy; Johansson, Tino; Calatayud, Paul-André; Le Ru, Bruno Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Lepidopteran stem borers are among the most important pests of maize in East Africa. The objective of the present study was to predict the impact of temperature change on the distribution and abundance of the crambid Chilo partellus, the noctuid Busseola fusca, and their larval parasitoids Cotesia flavipes and Cotesia sesamiae at local scale along Kilimanjaro and Taita Hills gradients in Tanzania and Kenya, respectively. Temperature-dependent phenology models of pests and parasitoids were used in a geographic information system for mapping. The three risk indices namely establishment, generation, and activity indices were computed using current temperature data record from local weather stations and future (i.e., 2055) climatic condition based on downscaled climate change data from the AFRICLIM database. The calculations were carried out using index interpolator, a sub-module of the Insect Life Cycle Modeling (ILCYM) software. Thin plate algorithm was used for interpolation of the indices. Our study confirmed that temperature was a key factor explaining the distribution of stem borers and their natural enemies but other climatic factors and factors related to the top-down regulation of pests by parasitoids (host-parasitoid synchrony) also played a role. Results based on temperature only indicated a worsening of stem borer impact on maize production along the two East African mountain gradients studied. This was attributed to three main changes occurring simultaneously: (1) range expansion of the lowland species C. partellus in areas above 1200 m.a.s.l.; (2) increase of the number of pest generations across all altitudes, thus by 2055 damage by both pests will increase in the most productive maize zones of both transects; (3) disruption of the geographical distribution of pests and their larval parasitoids will cause an improvement of biological control at altitude below 1200 m.a.s.l. and a deterioration above 1200 m.a.s.l. The predicted increase in pest activity

  6. Transition from a localized to wide deformation along Eastern branch of Central East African Rift: Insights from 3D numerical models

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    Leroy, S. D.; Koptev, A.; Burov, E. B.; Calais, E.; Gerya, T.

    2015-12-01

    The Central East African Rift (CEAR) bifurcates in two branches (eastern, magma-rich and western, magma-poor) surrounding strong Tanzanian craton. Intensive magmatism and continental flood basalts are largely present in many of the eastern rift segments, but other segments, first of all the western branch, exhibit very small volcanic activity. The Eastern rift is characterized by southward progression of the onset of volcanism, the extensional features and topographic expression of the rift vary significantly north-southward: in northern Kenya the deformation is very wide (some 150-250 km in E-W direction), to the south the rift narrows to 60-70 km, yet further to the south the deformation widens again in the so-called Tanzania divergence zone. Widening of the Eastern branch within its southern part is associated with the impingement of the southward-propagating rift on the strong Masai block situated to east of the Tanzanian craton. To understand the mechanisms behind this complex deformation distribution, we implemented a 3Dl ultra-high resolution visco-plastic thermo-mechanical numerical model accounting for thermo-rheological structure of the lithosphere and hence captures essential features of the CEAR. The preferred model has a plume seeded slightly to the northeast of the craton center, consistent with seismic tomography, and produces surface strain distribution that is in good agreement with observed variation of deformation zone width along eastern side of Tanzanian craton: localized above bulk of mantle material deflected by cratonic keel narrow high strain zone (Kenia Rift) is replaced by wide distributed deformations within areas situated to north (northern Kenya, Turkana Rift) and to south (Tanzania divergence, Masai block) of it. These results demonstrate significant differences in the impact of the rheological profile on rifting style in case of dominant active rifting compared to dominant passive rifting. Narrow rifting, conventionally attributed to

  7. Rationale and design of the Newer Versus Older Antihypertensive Agents in African Hypertensive Patients (NOAAH) trial.

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    Odili, Augustine N; Richart, Tom; Thijs, Lutgarde; Kingue, Samuel; Boombhi, Hilaire J; Lemogoum, Daniel; Kaptue, Joseph; Kamdem, Marius K; Mipinda, Jean-Bruno; Omotoso, Babatunde A; Kolo, Philip M; Aderibigbe, Ademola; Ulasi, Ifeoma I; Anisiuba, Benedict C; Ijoma, Chinwuba K; Ba, Serigne A; Ndiaye, Mouhamadou B; Staessen, Jan A; M'buyamba-Kabangu, Jean-René

    2011-10-01

    Sub-Saharan Africa experiences an epidemic surge in hypertension. Studies in African Americans led to the recommendation to initiate antihypertensive treatment in Blacks with a diuretic or a low-dose fixed combination including a diuretic. We mounted the Newer versus Older Antihypertensive Agents in African Hypertensive Patients (NOAAH) trial to compare in native African patients a fixed combination of newer drugs, not involving a diuretic, with a combination of older drugs including a diuretic. Patients aged 30-69 years with uncomplicated hypertension (140-179/90-109 mmHg) and two or fewer associated risk factors are eligible. After a 4-week run-in period off treatment, 180 patients will be randomized to once daily bisoprolol/hydrochlorothiazide 5/6.25 mg or amlodipine/valsartan 5/160 mg. To attain and maintain blood pressure below 140/90 mmHg during 6 months of follow-up, the doses of bisoprolol and amlodipine in the combination tablets will be increased to 10 mg/day with the possible addition of α-methyldopa or hydralazine. NOAAH is powered to demonstrate a 5-mmHg between-group difference in sitting systolic pressure with a two-sided p-value of 0.01 and 90% power. NOAAH is investigator-led and complies with the Helsinki declaration. Six centers in four sub-Saharan countries started patient recruitment on September 1, 2010. On December 1, 195 patients were screened, 171 were enrolled, and 51 were randomized and followed up. The trial will be completed in the third quarter of 2011. NOAAH (NCT01030458) is the first randomized multicenter trial of antihypertensive medications in hypertensive patients born and living in sub-Saharan Africa.

  8. Gastric cancers of Western European and African patients show different patterns of genomic instability

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    Mulder Chris JJ

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infection with H. pylori is important in the etiology of gastric cancer. Gastric cancer is infrequent in Africa, despite high frequencies of H. pylori infection, referred to as the African enigma. Variation in environmental and host factors influencing gastric cancer risk between different populations have been reported but little is known about the biological differences between gastric cancers from different geographic locations. We aim to study genomic instability patterns of gastric cancers obtained from patients from United Kingdom (UK and South Africa (SA, in an attempt to support the African enigma hypothesis at the biological level. Methods DNA was isolated from 67 gastric adenocarcinomas, 33 UK patients, 9 Caucasian SA patients and 25 native SA patients. Microsatellite instability and chromosomal instability were analyzed by PCR and microarray comparative genomic hybridization, respectively. Data was analyzed by supervised univariate and multivariate analyses as well as unsupervised hierarchical cluster analysis. Results Tumors from Caucasian and native SA patients showed significantly more microsatellite instable tumors (p Conclusions Gastric cancers from SA and UK patients show differences in genetic instability patterns, indicating possible different biological mechanisms in patients from different geographical origin. This is of future clinical relevance for stratification of gastric cancer therapy.

  9. LRRK2 G2019S mutation: frequency and haplotype data in South African Parkinson's disease patients.

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    Bardien, Soraya; Marsberg, Angelica; Keyser, Rowena; Lombard, Debbie; Lesage, Suzanne; Brice, Alexis; Carr, Jonathan

    2010-07-01

    Mutations in the leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 gene (LRRK2) are the most significant genetic cause of Parkinson's disease (PD). The exact function of LRRK2 is currently unknown but the presence of multiple protein interaction domains including WD40 and ankyrin indicates that it may act a scaffold for assembly of a multi-protein signaling complex. The G2019S mutation in LRRK2 represents the most clinically relevant PD-causing mutation and has been found in both familial and sporadic forms of the disorder. This mutation is situated in the highly conserved kinase MAPKKK domain, and has been found in up to 40% of PD patients from North African Arabic, 30% of Ashkenazi Jewish and approximately 10% of Portuguese and Spanish populations. Although extensively investigated in numerous European and North American populations, studies on the frequency of G2019S in African countries have been rare. The present study is the first on the South African population. High-resolution melt analysis was used to identify the G2019S mutation and it was found in 2% (4/205) of the patients studied. G2019S was not found in any of the Black PD patients screened. In all four G2019S-positive probands the mutation was shown to be present on the common haplotype referred to as haplotype 1. This reveals that the four South African G2019S-positive probands (three Caucasian and one of mixed ancestry) share a common ancestor with the other haplotype 1-associated families reported worldwide.

  10. The Olorgesailie Drilling Project (ODP): a high-resolution drill core record from a hominin site in the East African Rift Valley

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    Dommain, R.; Potts, R.; Behrensmeyer, A. K.; Deino, A. L.

    2014-12-01

    The East African rift valley contains an outstanding record of hominin fossils that document human evolution over the Plio-Pleistocene when the global and regional climate and the rift valley itself changed markedly. The sediments of fossil localities typically provide, however, only short time windows into past climatic and environmental conditions. Continuous, long-term terrestrial records are now becoming available through core drilling to help elucidate the paleoenvironmental context of human evolution. Here we present a 500,000 year long high-resolution drill core record obtained from a key fossil and archeological site - the Olorgesailie Basin in the southern Kenya Rift Valley, well known for its sequence of archeological and faunal sites for the past 1.2 million years. In 2012 two drill cores (54 and 166 m long) were collected in the Koora Plain just south of Mt. Olorgesailie as part of the Olorgesailie Drilling Project (ODP) to establish a detailed climate and ecological record associated with the last evidence of Homo erectus in Africa, the oldest transition of Acheulean to Middle Stone Age technology, and large mammal species turnover, all of which are documented in the Olorgesailie excavations. The cores were sampled at the National Lacustrine Core Facility. More than 140 samples of tephra and trachytic basement lavas have led to high-precision 40Ar/39Ar dating. The cores are being analyzed for a suite of paleoclimatic and paleoecological proxies such as diatoms, pollen, fungal spores, phytoliths, ostracodes, carbonate isotopes, leaf wax biomarkers, charcoal, and clay mineralogy. Sedimentological analyses, including lithological descriptions, microscopic smear slide analysis (242 samples), and grain-size analysis, reveal a highly variable sedimentary sequence of deep lake phases with laminated sediments, diatomites, shallow lake and near shore phases, fluvial deposits, paleosols, interspersed carbonate layers, and abundant volcanic ash deposits. Magnetic

  11. Seismic hazard assessment of the Kivu rift segment based on a new seismotectonic zonation model (western branch, East African Rift system)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delvaux, Damien; Mulumba, Jean-Luc; Sebagenzi, Mwene Ntabwoba Stanislas; Bondo, Silvanos Fiama; Kervyn, François; Havenith, Hans-Balder

    2017-10-01

    In the frame of the Belgian GeoRisCA multi-risk assessment project focusing on the Kivu and northern Tanganyika rift region in Central Africa, a new probabilistic seismic hazard assessment has been performed for the Kivu rift segment in the central part of the western branch of the East African rift system. As the geological and tectonic setting of this region is incompletely known, especially the part lying in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, we compiled homogeneous cross-border tectonic and neotectonic maps. The seismic risk assessment is based on a new earthquake catalogue based on the ISC reviewed earthquake catalogue and supplemented by other local catalogues and new macroseismic epicenter data spanning 126 years, with 1068 events. The magnitudes have been homogenized to Mw and aftershocks removed. The final catalogue used for the seismic hazard assessment spans 60 years, from 1955 to 2015, with 359 events and a magnitude of completeness of 4.4. The seismotectonic zonation into 7 seismic source areas was done on the basis of the regional geological structure, neotectonic fault systems, basin architecture and distribution of thermal springs and earthquake epicenters. The Gutenberg-Richter seismic hazard parameters were determined by the least square linear fit and the maximum likelihood method. Seismic hazard maps have been computed using existing attenuation laws with the Crisis 2012 software. We obtained higher PGA values (475 years return period) for the Kivu rift region than the previous estimates. They also vary laterally in function of the tectonic setting, with the lowest value in the volcanically active Virunga - Rutshuru zone, highest in the currently non-volcanic parts of Lake Kivu, Rusizi valley and North Tanganyika rift zone, and intermediate in the regions flanking the axial rift zone.

  12. Mitochondrial sequence variation in African-American primary open-angle glaucoma patients.

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    David W Collins

    Full Text Available Primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG is a major cause of blindness and results from irreversible retinal ganglion cell damage and optic nerve degeneration. In the United States, POAG is most prevalent in African-Americans. Mitochondrial genetics and dysfunction have been implicated in POAG, and potentially pathogenic sequence variations, in particular novel transversional base substitutions, are reportedly common in mitochondrial genomes (mtDNA from POAG patient blood. The purpose of this study was to ascertain the spectrum of sequence variation in mtDNA from African-American POAG patients and determine whether novel nonsynonymous, transversional or other potentially pathogenic sequence variations are observed more commonly in POAG cases than controls. mtDNA from African-American POAG cases (n = 22 and age-matched controls (n = 22 was analyzed by deep sequencing of a single 16,487 base pair PCR amplicon by Ion Torrent, and candidate novel variants were validated by Sanger sequencing. Sequence variants were classified and interpreted using the MITOMAP compendium of polymorphisms. 99.8% of the observed variations had been previously reported. The ratio of novel variants to POAG cases was 7-fold lower than a prior estimate. Novel mtDNA variants were present in 3 of 22 cases, novel nonsynonymous changes in 1 of 22 cases and novel transversions in 0 of 22 cases; these proportions are significantly lower (p<.0005, p<.0004, p<.0001 than estimated previously for POAG, and did not differ significantly from controls. Although it is possible that mitochondrial genetics play a role in African-Americans' high susceptibility to POAG, it is unlikely that any mitochondrial respiratory dysfunction is due to an abnormally high incidence of novel mutations that can be detected in mtDNA from peripheral blood.

  13. A delayed presentation of ameloblastic fibrosarcoma in an African patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauke, Nkhensani Yvonne; Sofianos, Chrysis; Liakos, Dimitri; Ndobe, Elias

    2017-08-01

    A 24-year-old womanpresented with ameloblastic fibrosarcoma arising from ameloblastic fibroma. The delayed presentation accounted for the extensive destruction of the mandible and complete occlusion of her oral cavity. This resulted in an inability to eat and maintain oral hygiene. A multidisciplinary team management approach involved nutritional optimisation, segmental mandibulectomy, reconstruction with a reconstructive plate and a free anterolateral thigh flap to line the the floor of mouth. Functional and aesthetic outcome was acceptable, and the patient is planned for secondary free fibular flap bony reconstruction. © BMJ Publishing Group Ltd (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  14. Prevalence of parasites in patients with gastroenteritis at East of Mazandaran Province, Northern Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vahedi, Mohammad; Gohardehi, Shaban; Sharif, Mehdi; Daryani, Ahmad

    2012-12-01

    Parasitic gastrointestinal infections are one of the most important health problems in the developing countries, which lead to the onset of intestinal disease particularly diarrhoea. Due to the particular geographic situation in the Mazandaran province, individuals are infected with various intestinal parasites. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence rate of enteropathogenic parasites in the patients with gastroenteritis living at the east of Mazandaran province (Sari, Nekah and Joybar cities), northern Iran. This descriptive study was carried out from September 2009 to March 2010. Faecal samples were collected by randomized cluster method from 962 patients with gastroenteritis who were refered to the Health Service Centers of Sari, Neka and Joybar cities. All data about the patients were recorded in questionnaire. Stool specimens were examined by direct wet mounting, formolether concentration, and Ziehl-Neelsen acid fast stain and Auramin Phenol fluorescence (APF) method for the investigation of Cryptosporidium and Isospora. Prevalence of intestinal parasites and their relationship with gender, age, and season were investigated, and the obtained data were analyzed with χ² test using the SPSS software (16.0). Out of 962 patients with gastroenteritis, overall infection was 9.1%; Giardia lamblia (4.1%) with the highest and Enterobius vermicularis (0.2%) with the lowest prevalence rate. Prevalence rate of other parasites were as follow: Cryptosporidium, 0.1%; Entamoeba histolytica, 0.1%; Chilomastix mesnili, 0.1%; Entamoeba coli, 1.2%; Blastocytis hominis, 1.8%; Trichostrongylus spp., 0.4% and Hymenolepis nana, 0.9%. Findings showed that Giardia is the most common cause of intestinal infection at the east of Mazandaran province, and could be defined as the most important parasitic agent of gastroenteritis. On the other hand, infection with enteropathogenic parasites as compared with the previous reports showed significant decline, which reveals the

  15. Medication compliance in renal transplant patients during the Great East Japan Earthquake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadowaki, M; Saito, M; Amada, N; Haga, I; Nakamura, A; Tokodai, K

    2014-01-01

    Oral immunosuppressant suspension induces renal graft dysfunction in renal transplant patients. After the Great East Japan Earthquake, not only were drugs lost in the tsunami, but visiting hospitals became difficult owing to information and transportation network disruption. We investigated medication compliance in renal transplant patients and actions taken immediately after the earthquake. We included 315 patients who were visiting our outpatient department as of March 11, 2011, from June to August 2011. Information was collected from questionnaires, medical records, and outpatient diaries. The questionnaire collection rate was 93%, with valid replies from 296 patients. One hundred eighty-five patients (62%) had stockpiled oral medications before the earthquake; of these, 131 (44%) always carried medications with them. Forty-five patients (16%) had difficulties with continuing oral immunosuppressants after the earthquake (supply delay, 29 patients; drugs lost in tsunami, 9; others, 10). Of these 48, oral medication was suspended in 18 for 3 days at maximum. As to outpatient prescriptions, out-of-hospital prescriptions were sent by fax to 17 patients, prescription drugs were sent from our hospital by mail or home delivery services to 11, and prescriptions were given to 13 who visited other hospitals. Because of the difficulty in requesting prescriptions from disaster base hospitals, drugs prescribed at our hospital were delivered to 3 severely damaged institutions for patients living in surrounding areas. After the earthquake, our usual self-management guidance proved effective. Further examination of the infrastructure for communicating with patients and supplying drugs is needed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Development of a Conceptual Framework for Understanding Shared Decision making Among African-American LGBT Patients and their Clinicians.

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    Peek, Monica E; Lopez, Fanny Y; Williams, H Sharif; Xu, Lucy J; McNulty, Moira C; Acree, M Ellen; Schneider, John A

    2016-06-01

    Enhancing patient-centered care and shared decision making (SDM) has become a national priority as a means of engaging patients in their care, improving treatment adherence, and enhancing health outcomes. Relatively little is known about the healthcare experiences or shared decision making among racial/ethnic minorities who also identify as being LGBT. The purpose of this paper is to understand how race, sexual orientation and gender identity can simultaneously influence SDM among African-American LGBT persons, and to propose a model of SDM between such patients and their healthcare providers. We reviewed key constructs necessary for understanding SDM among African-American LGBT persons, which guided our systematic literature review. Eligible studies for the review included English-language studies of adults (≥ 19 y/o) in North America, with a focus on LGBT persons who were African-American/black (i.e., > 50 % of the study population) or included sub-analyses by sexual orientation/gender identity and race. We searched PubMed, CINAHL, ProQuest Dissertations & Theses, PsycINFO, and Scopus databases using MESH terms and keywords related to shared decision making, communication quality (e.g., trust, bias), African-Americans, and LGBT persons. Additional references were identified by manual reviews of peer-reviewed journals' tables of contents and key papers' references. We identified 2298 abstracts, three of which met the inclusion criteria. Of the included studies, one was cross-sectional and two were qualitative; one study involved transgender women (91 % minorities, 65 % of whom were African-Americans), and two involved African-American men who have sex with men (MSM). All of the studies focused on HIV infection. Sexual orientation and gender identity were patient-reported factors that negatively impacted patient/provider relationships and SDM. Engaging in SDM helped some patients overcome normative beliefs about clinical encounters. In this paper, we present a

  17. Genetic factors influencing inhibitor development in a cohort of South African haemophilia A patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lochan, A; Macaulay, S; Chen, W C; Mahlangu, J N; Krause, A

    2014-09-01

    A critical complication of factor VIII (FVIII) replacement therapy in Haemophilia A (HA) treatment is inhibitor development. Known genetic factors predisposing to inhibitor development include FVIII (F8) gene mutations, ethnicity, a family history of inhibitors and FVIII haplotype mismatch. The aim of this study was to characterize and correlate these genetic factors in a cohort of South African HA patients. This was a retrospective study that included 229 patients and involved the analysis of patient files, HA molecular and clinical databases and molecular analysis of the F8 gene haplotype. Of the 229 patients, 51% were of black ethnicity, 49% were white, 5% had mild HA, 4% were moderate and 91% were severe, 36% were int22 positive and 13% were inhibitor positive. Of the inhibitor positive patients, 72% were black patients. Inhibitors were reported in 27% of black int22 positive patients, 13% of black int22 negative patients, 9% of white int22 positive patients and 7% of white int22 negative. The H1 haplotype was more common in whites (75%) and H2 was more common in blacks (74%). H3 and H5 were only found in black patients and had a higher frequency of inhibitor development than H1 and H2. In this small HA cohort, black patients had a significantly higher frequency of inhibitor development and the results were indicative of an association between inhibitor development, ethnicity and haplotype. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Investigation of Caucasian rheumatoid arthritis susceptibility loci in African patients with the same disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The largest genetic risk to develop rheumatoid arthritis (RA) arises from a group of alleles of the HLA DRB1 locus ('shared epitope', SE). Over 30 non-HLA single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) predisposing to disease have been identified in Caucasians, but they have never been investigated in West/Central Africa. We previously reported a lower prevalence of the SE in RA patients in Cameroon compared to European patients and aimed in the present study to investigate the contribution of Caucasian non-HLA RA SNPs to disease susceptibility in Black Africans. Methods RA cases and controls from Cameroon were genotyped for Caucasian RA susceptibility SNPs using Sequenom MassArray technology. Genotype data were also available for 5024 UK cases and 4281 UK controls and for 119 Yoruba individuals in Ibadan, Nigeria (YRI, HapMap). A Caucasian aggregate genetic-risk score (GRS) was calculated as the sum of the weighted risk-allele counts. Results After genotyping quality control procedures were performed, data on 28 Caucasian non-HLA susceptibility SNPs were available in 43 Cameroonian RA cases and 44 controls. The minor allele frequencies (MAF) were tightly correlated between Cameroonian controls and YRI individuals (correlation coefficient 93.8%, p = 1.7E-13), and they were pooled together. There was no correlation between MAF of UK and African controls; 13 markers differed by more than 20%. The MAF for markers at PTPN22, IL2RA, FCGR2A and IL2/IL21 was below 2% in Africans. The GRS showed a strong association with RA in the UK. However, the GRS did not predict RA in Africans (OR = 0.71, 95% CI 0.29 - 1.74, p = 0.456). Random sampling from the UK cohort showed that this difference in association is unlikely to be explained by small sample size or chance, but is statistically significant with p<0.001. Conclusions The MAFs of non-HLA Caucasian RA susceptibility SNPs are different between Caucasians and Africans, and several polymorphisms are barely detectable in

  19. Home blood pressure control after the great East Japan earthquake in patients on chronic hemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Kenichi; Nakayama, Masaaki; Kanno, Makoto; Kimura, Hiroshi; Watanabe, Kimio; Tani, Yoshihiro; Hayashi, Yoshimitsu; Asahi, Koichi; Suzuki, Kazuhiro; Watanabe, Tsuyoshi

    2014-04-01

    At 14:46 on 11 March 2011, northeastern Japan was struck by a major earthquake measuring 9.0 on the Richter scale (the Great East Japan Earthquake). Several reports have suggested a transient blood pressure (BP) increase after a major earthquake, but its impact on BP in chronic dialysis patients has not been reported. In a retrospective review of 25 hemodialysis patients who were residents of Koriyama City, changes in the morning home BP after the earthquake were investigated. Home systolic and diastolic BPs were significantly elevated 1 week after the earthquake (158 ± 16 mm Hg vs. 151 ± 13 mm Hg, P earthquake was unchanged from baseline in patients treated with sympatholytics and/or renin-angiotensin system (RAS) inhibitors. BP values returned to baseline by 4 weeks after the earthquake, but percent changes in mean BP were significantly greater even 2 weeks, 4 weeks, and 6 weeks after the earthquake in patients not treated with RAS inhibitors than in those treated with RAS inhibitors (2 weeks 7.0% ± 4.5% vs. 0.2% ± 5.0%, P earthquake. Home BP was significantly increased after a major earthquake in patients on chronic hemodialysis. Prolonged deterioration of BP control after the earthquake was associated with non-use of RAS inhibitors. © 2013 The Authors. Therapeutic Apheresis and Dialysis © 2013 International Society for Apheresis.

  20. Oxidative Stress Indicators in Patients with Prostate Disorders in Enugu, South-East Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romanda Duru

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Depletion of cellular antioxidants can result from free radical formation due to normal endogenous reactions and the ingestion of exogenous substances and environmental factors. The levels of reactive oxygen species-(ROS- scavenging enzymes such as SOD and glutathione peroxidase have been shown to be significantly altered in malignant cells and in primary cancer tissues. The aim of this study was to determine the antioxidant status of patients with prostate disorders in South-East Nigeria to ascertain the possible role of depletion of antioxidants in prostatic degeneration. 104 subjects made up of 40 PCa patients, 32 with BPH, and 32 controls participated in this study. The levels of superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, vitamin C, and vitamin E were estimated using standard procedures. The results show that both the BPH and PCa patients had a significant decrease (P<0.05 in GPX, SOD, vitamin C, and vitamin E levels compared to the control subjects. However, there was also a significant decrease (P<0.05 in SOD and vitamin C levels in PCa patients when compared with the BPH group. This indicates that patients with BPH and prostate cancer have decreased antioxidant status and may benefit from micronutrient supplementation.

  1. High Serum Alkaline Phosphatase, Hypercalcaemia, Race, and Mortality in South African Maintenance Haemodialysis Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Raquel; Naicker, Saraladevi

    2017-01-01

    Objective. To determine the association between serum total alkaline phosphatase (TAP) and mortality in African maintenance haemodialysis patients (MHD). Patients and Methods. The study enrolled a total of 213 patients on MHD from two dialysis centers in Johannesburg between January 2009 and March 2016. Patients were categorized into a low TAP group (≤112 U/L) versus a high TAP group (>112 U/L) based on a median TAP of 112 U/L. Results. During the follow-up period of 7 years, there were 55 (25.8%) deaths. After adjusting for cofounders such as age, other markers of bone disorder, and comorbidity (diabetes mellitus), patients in the high TAP group had significantly higher risk of death compared to patients in the low TAP group (hazard ratio, 2.50; 95% CI 1.24–5.01, P = 0.01). Similarly, serum calcium >2.75 mmol/L was associated with increased risk of death compared to patients within levels of 2.10–2.37 mmol/L (HR 6.34, 95% CI 1.40–28.76; P = 0.02). The HR for death in white patients compared to black patients was 6.88; 95% CI 1.82–25.88; P = 0.004. Conclusion. High levels of serum alkaline phosphatase, hypercalcaemia, and white race are associated with increased risk of death in MHD patients. PMID:28168054

  2. APOL1 risk variants and death among African American hemodialysis patients: survival of the fittest?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Teresa K; Estrella, Michelle M

    2016-08-01

    Recent studies have focused on associations of the APOL1 risk variants with outcomes beyond kidney disease, including cardiovascular disease and mortality. Ma and colleagues now expand on this growing but contradicting body of work. Their analysis of a prevalent cohort of African American hemodialysis patients shows that the risk variants are associated with a survival benefit among nondiabetics. Whether this simply reflects a healthier status at hemodialysis initiation among those carrying 2 risk variants or whether these variants truly confer a survival advantage is unclear.

  3. Evolution of the western East African Rift System reflected in provenance changes of Miocene to Pleistocene synrift sediments (Albertine Rift, Uganda)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Sandra; Hornung, Jens; Hinderer, Matthias

    2016-08-01

    Miocene to Pleistocene synrift sediments in the Albertine Graben reflect the complex geodynamic evolution in the Western branch of the East African Rift System. In this study we focus on the provenance of these siliciclastic deposits to identify sediment sources and supply paths with the ultimate goal to reconstruct the exhumation history of different tectonic blocks during prolonged rifting, with specific focus on the uplift of the Rwenzori Mountains in Uganda. We present framework and heavy mineral petrographic data combined with varietal studies of detrital garnet and rutile, based on logged sediment sections on the Ugandan side of Lake Albert (Kisegi-Nyabusosi area). The analyzed sedimentary units have a feldspatho-quartzose composition and distinct variations in heavy mineral assemblages and mineral chemical composition indicating two provenance changes. The Miocene part of the stratigraphy is dominated by garnet, zircon, tourmaline and rutile, whereas Pliocene to Pleistocene sediment yields high amounts of less stable amphibole and epidote. An abrupt switch in heavy mineral assemblages occurs during the early Pliocene (~ 5.5-5.0 Ma) and clearly postdates the formation of Palaeolake Obweruka at ~ 8 Ma. Provenance signatures point to major sediment supply from the northeast and subsequently from the southeast. We interpret this first shift as transition from the pre-rift to the syn-rift stage. In this scenario, formation of Palaeolake Obweruka is due to higher humidity in the upper Miocene, rather than forced rifting. A second change of sediment composition is documented by mineral geochemistry and coincides with fragmentation of Palaeolake Obweruka starting at ~ 2.5 Ma. Detrital garnet in sediment of Miocene to Pliocene age is rich in pyrope and almandine and calculated Zr-in-rutile temperatures range between ~ 550 and 950 °C. In contrast, garnet occurring in Pleistocene sediment (Nyabusosi Formation) has a higher spessartine component and rutile thermometry

  4. Stable isotope-based Plio-Pleistocene ecosystem reconstruction of some of the earliest hominid fossil sites in the East African Rift System (Chiwondo Beds, N Malawi)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lüdecke, Tina; Thiemeyer, Heinrich; Schrenk, Friedemann; Mulch, Andreas

    2014-05-01

    The isotope geochemistry of pedogenic carbonate and fossil herbivore enamel is a powerful tool to reconstruct paleoenvironmental conditions in particular when climate change plays a key role in the evolution of ecosystems. Here, we present the first Plio-Pleistocene long-term carbon (δ13C), oxygen (δ18O) and clumped isotope (Δ47) records from pedogenic carbonate and herbivore teeth in the Malawi Rift. These data represent an important southern hemisphere record in the East African Rift System (EARS), a key region for reconstructing vegetation patterns in today's Zambezian Savanna and correlation with data on the evolution and migration of early hominids across the Inter-Tropical Convergence Zone. As our study site is situated between the well-known hominid-bearing sites of eastern and southern Africa in the Somali-Masai Endemic Zone and Highveld Grassland it fills an important geographical gap for early hominid research. 5.0 to 0.6 Ma fluviatile and lacustrine deposits of the Chiwondo Beds (NE shore of Lake Malawi) comprise abundant pedogenic carbonate and remains of a diverse fauna dominated by large terrestrial mammals. These sediments are also home to two hominid fossil remains, a mandible of Homo rudolfensis and a maxillary fragment of Paranthropus boisei, both dated around 2.4 Ma. The Chiwondo Beds therefore document early co-existence of these two species. We evaluate δ13C data from fossil enamel of different suid, bovid, and equid species and contrast these with δ13C and δ18O values of pedogenic carbonate. We complement the latter with clumped isotope soil temperature data. Results of almost 800 pedogenic carbonate samples from over 20 sections consistently average δ13C = -8.5 ‰ over the past 5 Ma with no significant short-term δ13C excursions or long-term trends. The data from molar tooth enamel of nine individual suids of the genera Metridiochoerus, Notochoerus and Nyanzachoerus support these findings with average δ13C = -10.0 ‰. The absence

  5. Age, tectonic evolution and origin of the Aswa Shear Zone in Uganda: Activation of an oblique ramp during convergence in the East African Orogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saalmann, K.; Mänttäri, I.; Nyakecho, C.; Isabirye, E.

    2016-05-01

    Shear Zone activation is linked to underthrusting of the Congo Craton and coeval high-grade metamorphism and intense deformation in the orogen interior. During E-W convergence between ca. 690 and 650 Ma, the NE-dipping ASZ was activated as an oblique ramp leading to deflection of the transport direction and concentration of non-coaxial strain and sinistral shear along the shear zone system. During progressive convergence, between ca. 645 and 620 Ma, sinistral shearing along ASZ changed to ductile-brittle deformation mechanisms, while thrusting took place in Pan-African belts in eastern and western Uganda. Late-orogenic brittle sinistral reactivation of the ASZ can be regarded as the result of continent collision and closure of the Mozambique ocean further to the east, that potentially caused lateral escape manifested in NW-SE striking sinistral shear zones in Kenya and the southern Arabina-Nubian Shield between 620 and 570 Ma.

  6. Spontaneous intracranial hemorrhage in a patient with Middle East respiratory syndrome corona virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hameed, Fahad M.

    2017-01-01

    The Middle East respiratory syndrome corona virus (MERS-CoV) is a novel positive sense singlestranded ribonucleic acid virus of the genus Beta corona virus. This virus was first isolated from a patient who died from severe respiratory illness in June 2012 in Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. We describe an unusual case of a 42 year old healthcare worker who was admitted to our Intensive Care Unit (ICU) King Abdul-Aziz Medical City, with MERS-CoV and severe acute respiratory distress Syndrome and developed a sudden-onset diabetes insipidus and spontaneous massive intracranial hemorrhage with intra-ventricular extension and tonsillar herniation. Computed angiogram of the brain did not reveal any aneurysm or structural defects. She never had uncontrolled hypertension, or coagulopathy, nor she received antiplatelets. We are reporting a rare case of structural neurological damage associated with MERS-CoV infection. PMID:28133694

  7. Use of oral anticoagulants in African-American and Caucasian patients with atrial fibrillation: is there a treatment disparity?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akinboboye O

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Olakunle AkinboboyeQueens Heart Institute, Rosedale, NY, USAAbstract: Atrial fibrillation (AF is a very common cardiac arrhythmia, and its prevalence is increasing along with aging in the developed world. This review discusses racial differences in the epidemiology and treatment of AF between African-American and Caucasian patients. Additionally, the effect of race on warfarin and novel oral anticoagulant use is discussed, as well as the role that physicians and patients play in achieving optimal treatment outcomes. Despite having a lower prevalence of AF compared with Caucasians, African-Americans suffer disproportionately from stroke and its sequelae. The possible reasons for this paradox include poorer access to health care, lower health literacy, and a higher prevalence of other stroke-risk factors among African-Americans. Consequently, it is important for providers to evaluate the effects of race, health literacy, access to health care, and cultural barriers on the use of anticoagulation in the management of AF. Warfarin-dose requirements vary across racial groups, with African-American patients requiring a higher dose than Caucasians to maintain a therapeutic international normalized ratio; the novel oral anticoagulants (dabigatran, rivaroxaban, and apixaban seem to differ in this regard, although data are currently limited. Minority racial groups are not proportionally represented in either real-world studies or clinical trials, but as more information becomes available and other social issues are addressed, the treatment disparities between African-American and Caucasian patients should decrease.Keywords: antithrombotic, atrial fibrillation, stroke, warfarin, race

  8. East African odontopygid millipedes 4

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Sara B.; Enghoff, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    Based mainly on morphology of the solenomere, a restricted redefinition of the millipede genus Rhamphidarpoides Kraus, 1960, is given. R. aberdarei (Brolemann, 1920), R. aloysiisabaudiae (Silvestri, 1907), R. alticolus (Brolemann, 1920), R. austrosudanicus n.sp., (South Sudan), R. collinus n.sp.,...

  9. EAST AFRICAN MEDICAL JOURNAL 411

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2006-08-01

    Aug 1, 2006 ... protein product of the c-erbB-2 oncogene is an independent indicator of ... WHO international classification of breast tumours. (6). Tumour grades were ..... chromosome 17, family history and prognosis. Br. [. Cancer. 1990; 62: ...

  10. EAST AFRICAN MEDICAL JOURNAL 581

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2001-11-03

    Nov 3, 2001 ... Data source: Articles published in English language since 1987 were looked through ... There is a need to develop simple, cheap and reliable laboratory ..... of preterrndelivery with BV, administration of metronidazole.

  11. EAST AFRICAN MEDICAL JOURNAL 9

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2001-01-01

    Jan 1, 2001 ... lower risk of mother-to-child transmission of HIV-1 than mixed feeding(1 1). .... caused by sickness of the mother, pregnancy and hot sun. The consequences .... feeds of water and herbal concoctions are often introduced. (29). .... Victora, C.G. Infection and diseases:Theimpact of earlyweaning. Food and Nutr ...

  12. 56 EAST AFRICAN MEDICAL JOURNAL

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2008-02-02

    Feb 2, 2008 ... The teenagers were associated with less risk of developing ruptured ...... cheaper to procure, and at times, it is obtained free without any monetary ...... the 1920's and has since continued to play a pivotal ..... computer games).

  13. East African Journal of Sciences

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... resources, education, natural sciences, human and animal health sciences. ... Grain Yield and Economic Benefit of Intercropping Barley and Faba Bean in the ... Growth of Botrytis fabae and Manage Chocolate Spot Severity on Faba Bean ...

  14. EAST AFRICAN MEDICAL JOURNAL 39

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2008-01-01

    Jan 1, 2008 ... Subjects: Children aged upto 15 years with eye injuries hospitalised between Ianuary. 1“, 2000 ... and measure as children are not at an economically productive ... Ukambani area in Eastern Province (Machakos,. Makueni ...

  15. EAST AFRICAN MEDICAL JOURNAL 103

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2002-02-02

    Feb 2, 2002 ... The fact that different brands of alcoholic drinks contain varying ... and parental support as mediators of link between stress and metabolic control in ... Edelstcin J . and Linn M. W. The influence of family on control of diabetes.

  16. 226 EAST AFRICAN MEDICAL JOURNAL

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2002-05-05

    May 5, 2002 ... Nairobi, A. Nyong'o,* MSc (Micro) MD, Associate Professor (Formerly, ... College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 19676, Nairobi, Kenya ..... HSV to scattered large patches of ulcerations involving the entire ...

  17. EAST AFRICAN MEDICAL JOURNAL 641

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2001-12-01

    Dec 1, 2001 ... while total social support predicted self-esteem. Conclusion: The .... Each item was rated on a 4-point scale of: strongly disagree (score of l ) ..... Rosenberg M. Psychosocial selectivity in self-esteem formation. In: Sheriff C.W. ...

  18. EAST AFRICAN MEDICAL JOURNAL 293

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    at Moi Teaching and Referrall-lospital, J. Kosgei, Medical student (5th year), A. J. Rerimoi Medical ... by increasing awareness and strengthening recognition skills of myocardial infarction .... crushing or squeezing; often there is radiation down.

  19. 308 EAST AFRICAN MEDICAL JOURNAL

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2001-06-06

    Jun 6, 2001 ... mental and behavioural disorders in developing countries. (1-4). In Ethiopia, very ... Maize and Enset (false banana) are the main crops. ... exporting diagnosis. Statistical .... Reports from various studies worldwide indicate that.

  20. EAST AFRICAN MEDICAL JOURNAL 299

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2002-06-01

    Jun 1, 2002 ... Obatemi Awolowo University. lle-Ife, Nigeria. Request for reprints to: ... students in rural and urban communities in south western Nigeria. Design: A survey of ... from the reports of these studies include alcohol, hypnosedatives ...

  1. EAST AFRICAN MEDICAL JOURNAL 493

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2001-09-09

    Sep 9, 2001 ... control group who had no history of attempted suicide. Setting: Department of ... Various risk factors have been associated with suicide .... by the clinician as an overt anger or aggression manifestation, or even a manipulative.

  2. East African Medical Journal: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The EAMJ peer review process: All the manuscripts submitted to the EAMJ are peer reviewed. ... uniform requirements for manuscripts submitted to biomedical journals (1). ... Material accepted for publication will be edited including the title.

  3. Patient satisfaction, preventive services, and emergency room use among African-Americans with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gary, Tiffany L; Maiese, Eric M; Batts-Turner, Marian; Wang, Nae-Yuh; Brancati, Fredrick L

    2005-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between patient satisfaction and diabetes- related preventive health care and emergency room (ER) use. We studied 542 urban African-Americans with type 2 diabetes aged > or =25 years who were enrolled in a primary carebased intervention trial to improve diabetes control and reduce adverse health events; 73% female, mean age 58 years, 35% had yearly household incomes of Consumer Assessment of Health Plans Survey (CAHPS) and use of diabetes-related preventive health care and ER were assessed by self-report. We then followed participants for 12 months to determine ER use prospectively. In general, participants gave favorable ratings of their care; over 70% reported that they had no problem getting care, over 60% reported the highest ratings on the communication and courtesy domains, and mean ratings (0-10 scale) for personal doctor and overall health care were high (8.8 and 8.4, respectively). Using poisson regression models adjusted for age, education, and self-reported rating of health, several aspects of patient satisfaction were associated with subsequent ER use. Participants who reported that medical staff were usually helpful or that doctors and nurses usually spent enough time were 0.49 and 0.37 times, respectively, less likely to use the ER (all p < 0.05). However, few aspects of patient satisfaction were associated with better preventive services. These data suggest that greater patient satisfaction was associated with lower ER use in urban African-Americans. Whether measures to improve patient satisfaction would reduce ER use requires further prospective study.

  4. The Great East Japan Earthquake affected the laboratory findings of hemodialysis patients in Fukushima.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haga, Nobuhiro; Hata, Junya; Yabe, Michihiro; Ishibashi, Kei; Takahashi, Norio; Kumagai, Ken; Ogawa, Souichiro; Kataoka, Masao; Akaihata, Hidenori; Kojima, Yoshiyuki

    2013-10-30

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the impact of the Great East Japan Earthquake on laboratory findings in chronic hemodialysis (HD) patients in Fukushima. Changes in laboratory findings and cardiothoracic ratio (CTR) between before and after the earthquake were retrospectively analyzed in 90 adult HD patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Two hospitals located within 80 km from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant, where American government recommended to evacuate from the area, participated in the study. HD duration was shortened by 0.5-1 hour for 1 month after the earthquake. Multivariate analyses were performed to identify the factors contributing to change of measurement values. Blood urea nitrogen (BUN) value was significantly transiently decreased for 1-2 weeks after the earthquake (P=0.002). In multivariate analysis, age showed a tendency to be related to the decrease of BUN level (P=0.05). Hematocrit value was significantly elevated after two months compared with that at baseline (P=0.02), although the elevation was small. The other measured values and CTR were not significantly changed compared with those before the earthquake. Laboratory findings and CTR did not worsen despite the shortening of HD duration. Hence, in this disaster, as far as chronic HD patients with ESRD were concerned, it was possible for the duration of HD treatment to be safely decreased.

  5. Incidence of spinal perineurial (Tarlov) cysts among East-European patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdan, Franciszek; Mocarska, Agnieszka; Janczarek, Marzena; Klepacz, Robert; Łosicki, Marek; Patyra, Krzysztof; Brodzik, Agnieszka; Kiszka, Joanna; Chruścicka, Aneta; Żelzowska-Cieślińska, Iwonna; Starosławska, Elżbieta

    2013-01-01

    The spinal perineurial cyst (Tarlov) is a dilatation between the perineurium and endoneurium of spinal nerve roots, located at level of the spinal ganglion and filled with cerebrospinal fluid but without communication with the perineurial subarachnoid space. The aim of the study was to evaluate it incidence among East-European patients. The retrospective data collected during various magnetic resonance spinal examinations and stored on the picture archiving and communication system was analyzed for an incidence of perineurial cysts. From among 842 patients that underwent examination, 75 cases perineurial cysts were revealed. In 22 cases single anomalies were found. In remaining 53 cases, multiple uni- or less frequently bilateral changes were noted. The most common position was the sacral canal, particularly the level of S2 and S3. Occasionally, cysts were also visible on the cervical, thoracic and lumbar level. Incidence of sacral perineurial cysts was significantly higher in females than in males. Similar data was found for single and multiple changes despite of their localization. Insignificant changes were seen for patient age and cyst size. Perineurial spinal cysts were the most frequently observed on the sacral level and such changes were more common in females.

  6. Incidence of spinal perineurial (Tarlov cysts among East-European patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franciszek Burdan

    Full Text Available The spinal perineurial cyst (Tarlov is a dilatation between the perineurium and endoneurium of spinal nerve roots, located at level of the spinal ganglion and filled with cerebrospinal fluid but without communication with the perineurial subarachnoid space. The aim of the study was to evaluate it incidence among East-European patients. The retrospective data collected during various magnetic resonance spinal examinations and stored on the picture archiving and communication system was analyzed for an incidence of perineurial cysts. From among 842 patients that underwent examination, 75 cases perineurial cysts were revealed. In 22 cases single anomalies were found. In remaining 53 cases, multiple uni- or less frequently bilateral changes were noted. The most common position was the sacral canal, particularly the level of S2 and S3. Occasionally, cysts were also visible on the cervical, thoracic and lumbar level. Incidence of sacral perineurial cysts was significantly higher in females than in males. Similar data was found for single and multiple changes despite of their localization. Insignificant changes were seen for patient age and cyst size. Perineurial spinal cysts were the most frequently observed on the sacral level and such changes were more common in females.

  7. [Questionnaire about care for patients with disturbed consciousness in the Great East Japan Earthquake].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimamura, Norihito; Munakata, Akira; Ohkuma, Hiroki

    2012-09-01

    All people in Japan have been affected significantly by the great earthquake in east Japan. We surveyed the care for patients with disturbed consciousness during the disaster, and report the results and lessons learned to prepare for the future. We sent questionnaires about the management strategy for the patients to 17 centers that had reported at the Japan Coma Society meeting in July 2011. Fifteen centers (88%) replied to the questionnaire. Collective results include the following: (1)Disaster strategy manuals exist in 87% of the institutions. (2)Forty-six percent of the manuals have been made during the last 5 years. (3)Manuals, which had been helpful during previous disasters, were effectively used in training for behavioral assessment. (4)Doctors, nurses and facilities management participated in the creation of the manual. (5)There was no tendency for stocking consumable goods. (6)A system for providing needed electricity and fuel during a disaster situation was consistently present. (7)Self-generating electrical power could be continuously provided within 24 hours in 29% of institutions. (8)Provision of batteries to home-care patients was available only in 13% of the institutions. Many institutions had disaster strategy manuals that had been created before the earthquake and these were effectively utilized. Stock control and self-generating emergency power need to be planned for future disaster response. Disaster response for those needing home care is difficult to provide over a long period.

  8. Certified causes of death in patients with mesothelioma in South East England

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peto Julian

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mesothelioma is a highly fatal cancer that is caused by exposure to asbestos fibres. In many populations, the occurrence of mesothelioma is monitored with the use of mortality data from death certification. We examine certified causes of death of patients who have been diagnosed with mesothelioma, and assess the validity of death certification data as a proxy for mesothelioma incidence. Methods We extracted mesothelioma registrations in the South East of England area between 2000 and 2004 from the Thames Cancer Registry database. We retained for analysis 2200 patients who had died at the time of analysis, after having excluded seven dead cases where the causes of death were not known to the cancer registry. The 2200 deaths were classified hierarchically to identify (1 mesothelioma deaths, (2 deaths certified as lung cancer deaths or (3 deaths from unspecified cancer, and (4 deaths from other causes. Results 87% of the patients had mesothelioma mentioned on the death certificate. 6% had no mention of mesothelioma but included lung cancer as a cause of death. Another 6% had no mention of mesothelioma or lung cancer, but included an unspecified cancer as a cause of death. Lastly, 2% had other causes of death specified on the death certificate. Conclusion This analysis suggests that official mortality data may underestimate the true occurrence of mesothelioma by around 10%.

  9. An observational study of acarbose treatment in patients with type 2 diabetes from the Middle East and Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shihabi AR

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Abdul R Shihabi,1 Essam M Moussa,2 Hania Sobierajska,3 Birgit Schmidt4 1Al Ain Centre, Dubai, United Arab Emirates; 2New Jeddah Hospital, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia; 3Etihad Airways Medical Centre, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates; 4Bayer Schering Pharma AG, Leverkusen, Germany Background: The prevalence of type 2 diabetes is increasing dramatically in the Middle East and North Africa region. However, there are few trials that have determined the effect of antidiabetic treatment in an observational setting in these countries. Methods: This was a noninterventional study performed in Morocco in 2006–2007 and in the Middle East in 2005–2006 to observe the efficacy and safety of acarbose in patients with pretreated or untreated type 2 diabetes. Glycemic parameters (fasting blood glucose, one-hour postprandial blood glucose, and HbA1c were recorded within a 3-month period. The observation period included an initial visit at the start of acarbose therapy and up to three follow-ups. Results: Acarbose was effective in reducing glycemic parameters in patients from Morocco (n = 1082 and the Middle East (n = 1737. The mean one-hour postprandial blood glucose decreased by 35.5% to 165.4 ± 47.9 mg/dL in the Middle East and by 35.5% to 179.0 ± 49.9 mg/dL in Morocco. Mean fasting blood glucose decreased by 30.8% to 126.6 ± 34.2 mg/dL (Middle East and by 34.5% to 150.6 ± 47.1 mg/dL (Morocco. The absolute reduction in HbA1c was 1.3% in the Middle East (final value 7.4% and 1.0% in Morocco (final value 7.5%. Overall, 107 patients (Middle East and 26 patients (Morocco experienced minor drug-related adverse events, which were mainly gastrointestinal. The tolerability of acarbose was rated as very good/good by 80.8% in the Middle East and by 68.6% in Morocco. Conclusion: This study illustrates the efficacy and safety of acarbose in the treatment of type 2 diabetic patients in an observational setting. Keywords: type 2 diabetes, acarbose, Glucobay®, Glucor

  10. Mitochondrial impairment observed in fibroblasts from South African Parkinson's disease patients with parkin mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Merwe, Celia; Loos, Ben; Swart, Chrisna; Kinnear, Craig; Henning, Franclo; van der Merwe, Lize; Pillay, Komala; Muller, Nolan; Zaharie, Dan; Engelbrecht, Lize; Carr, Jonathan; Bardien, Soraya

    2014-05-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD), defined as a neurodegenerative disorder, is characterized by the loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra in the midbrain. Loss-of-function mutations in the parkin gene are a major cause of autosomal recessive, early-onset PD. Parkin has been implicated in the maintenance of healthy mitochondria, although previous studies show conflicting findings regarding mitochondrial abnormalities in fibroblasts from patients harboring parkin-null mutations. The aim of the present study was to determine whether South African PD patients with parkin mutations exhibit evidence for mitochondrial dysfunction. Fibroblasts were cultured from skin biopsies obtained from three patients with homozygous parkin-null mutations, two heterozygous mutation carriers and two wild-type controls. Muscle biopsies were obtained from two of the patients. The muscle fibers showed subtle abnormalities such as slightly swollen mitochondria in focal areas of the fibers and some folding of the sarcolemma. Although no differences in the degree of mitochondrial network branching were found in the fibroblasts, ultrastructural abnormalities were observed including the presence of electron-dense vacuoles. Moreover, decreased ATP levels which are consistent with mitochondrial dysfunction were observed in the patients' fibroblasts compared to controls. Remarkably, these defects did not manifest in one patient, which may be due to possible compensatory mechanisms. These results suggest that parkin-null patients exhibit features of mitochondrial dysfunction. Involvement of mitochondria as a key role player in PD pathogenesis will have important implications for the design of new and more effective therapies.

  11. Long-term prognosis of breast cancer: An analysis of 462 patients in a general hospital in south east Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.W. Nab (Henk); N. Kluck (Nadine); E.J.T. Rutgers (Emiel); J.W.W. Coebergh (Jan Willem); W.C.J. Hop (Wim)

    1995-01-01

    textabstractIn this study the long-term prognosis was analysed of all 462 consecutive female breast cancer patients who were diagnosed and carefully staged between 1970 and 1980 in a 600-bed community hospital in Eindhoven, south east Netherlands. Follow-up of recurrence and causes of death was obta

  12. The Relationship of Patient-Provider Communication on Quality of Life among African-American and White Cancer Survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chien-Ching; Matthews, Alicia K; Dossaji, Mazahir; Fullam, Francis

    2017-07-01

    Prior research has demonstrated poorer patient-provider communication ratings among African American compared to White patients. The quality of patient-provider communication has been shown to impact treatment outcomes among cancer patients. A secondary data analysis design was used to determine the relationship of six patient-provider communication variables on the physical health quality of life (PHQOL) and mental health quality of life (MHQOL) of African American and White cancer patients (N = 479). We also examined whether the relationship between communication patterns and QOL differed based on race/ethnicity. Mean physical and mental health QOL scores for the sample were 69.8 and 77.6, respectively. After controlling for significant sociodemographic, clinical, and hospital variables, results showed that patients who experienced fewer interpersonal communication barriers who were more satisfied with the information given by providers had higher PHQOL and MHQOL scores. Additionally, patients who felt more comfort in asking questions or had fewer unmet information needs had higher MHQOL. A stratified analysis showed that the relationship of overall satisfaction with information on MHQOL was stronger among African American patients than White patients. Future research should focus on the development of interventions to improve patient-provider communication as a means for enhancing QOL outcomes among cancer survivors.

  13. Metabolic Syndrome in South African Patients with Severe Mental Illness: Prevalence and Associated Risk Factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shamima Saloojee

    Full Text Available There is a surge of cardiovascular disease (CVD in Africa. CVD is the leading cause of mortality among patients with severe mental illness (SMI in developed countries, with little evidence from the African context.To determine the prevalence and risk factors for MetS among South African patients with SMI.In a cross sectional study, individuals with SMI treated with antipsychotics and a control group without a mental illness, matched for age, gender and ethnicity were evaluated for MetS using the 2009 Joint Interim statement (JIS criteria.Of the 276 study group subjects, 65.9% were male, 84.1% black African, 9.1% white, 5.4% of Indian descent and 1.5% coloured (mixed race with a mean age of 34.7 years (±12.5. Schizophrenia was the most common diagnosis (73.2% and 40% were taking first generation antipsychotics. The prevalence of MetS was 23.2% (M: 15.4%, F: 38.3% in the study group and 19.9% (M: 11.9%, F: 36.3% in the control group (p = 0.4. MetS prevalence was significantly higher in study subjects over 55 years compared to controls (p = 0.03. Increased waist circumference (p< 0.001 and low high density lipoprotein (HDL cholesterol (p = 0.003 were significantly more prevalent in study subjects compared to controls. In study subjects, risk factors associated with MetS included age (OR: 1.09, 95% CI 1.06-1.12, p < 0.001, female gender (OR: 2.19, 95% CI 1.06-4.55, p = 0.035 and Indian descent (OR: 5.84, 95% CI 1.66-20.52, p = 0.006 but not class of antipsychotic (p = 0.26.The overall MetS prevalence was not increased in patients with SMI compared to controls; however, the higher prevalence of the individual components (HDL cholesterol and waist circumference suggests an increased risk for CVD, especially in patients over 55 years.

  14. Clinical Characteristics, Response to Therapy, and Survival of African American Patients Diagnosed With Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falchi, Lorenzo; Keating, Michael J.; Wang, Xuemei; Coombs, Catherine C.; Lanasa, Mark C.; Strom, Sara; Wierda, William G.; Ferrajoli, Alessandra

    2015-01-01

    Background Little is known regarding racial disparities in characteristics and outcomes among patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Methods The characteristics and outcomes of untreated African American (AA) patients with CLL (n=84) were analyzed and compared with a reference nonblack (NB) patient population (n=1571). Results At the time of presentation, AA patients had lower median hemoglobin levels (12.9 g/dL vs 13.7 g/dL), higher β2 microglobulin levels (2.7 mg/dL vs 2.4 mg/dL), greater frequency of constitutional symptoms (27% vs 10%), unmutated immunoglobulin heavy-chain variable region (IGHV) mutation status (65% vs 47%), ζ-chain-associated protein kinase 70 (ZAP70) expression (58% vs 32%), and deletion of chromosome 17p or chromosome 11q (28% vs 17%; P ≤ 02 for each comparison). Fifty-one percent of AA patients and 39% of NB patients required first-line therapy and 91% and 88%, respectively, received chemoimmunotherapy. Overall response rates to treatment were 85% for AA patients and 94% for NB patients (P=.06); and the complete response rates were 56% and 58%, respectively (P=.87). The median survival of AA patients was shorter compared with that of NB patients (event-free survival: 36 months vs 61 months; P=.007; overall survival: 152 months vs not reached; P=.0001). AA race was an independent predictor of shorter event-free and overall survival in multivariable regression models. Conclusions The current results indicated that AA patients with CLL have more unfavorable prognostic characteristics and shorter survival compared with their NB counterparts. PMID:24022787

  15. Costs of revascularization over eight years in the randomized and eligible patients in the Emory Angioplasty versus Surgery Trial (EAST).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weintraub, W S; Becker, E R; Mauldin, P D; Culler, S; Kosinski, A S; King, S B

    2000-10-01

    The Emory Angioplasty versus Surgery Trial (EAST) was a randomized trial that compared, by intention to treat, the clinical outcome and costs of percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) and coronary bypass grafting (CABG) for multivessel coronary artery disease. We present the findings of the economic analysis of EAST through 8 years of follow-up and compare the cost and outcomes of patients randomized in EAST versus patients eligible but not randomized (registry patients). Charges were assessed from hospital UB82 and UB92 bills and professional charges from the Emory Clinic. Hospital charges were reduced to cost through step-down accounting methods. All costs and charges were inflated to 1997 dollars. Costs were assessed for initial hospitalization and for cumulative costs of the initial hospitalization and additional revascularization procedures up to 8 years. Total 8-year costs were $46,548 for CABG and $44,491 for PTCA (p = 0.37). Cost of CABG in the eligible registry group showed a pattern similar to that for randomized patients, but total cost of PTCA was lower for registry patients than for randomized patients. Thus, the primary procedural costs of CABG are more than those for PTCA; this cost advantage, given the limits of measurement, is largely or even completely lost for randomized patients over the course of 8 years because of additional procedures after a first revascularization by PTCA.

  16. Macro- and micronutrients in patients with congestive heart failure, particularly African-Americans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin P Newman

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Kevin P Newman1, Syamal K Bhattacharya1,2, Ahmad Munir1, Richard C Davis1, Judith E Soberman1, Kodangudi B Ramanathan11Division of Cardiovascular Diseases, Department of Medicine, University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis, Tennessee, USA 2Department of Surgery, University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis, Tennessee, USAAbstract: Not all patients with heart failure, defined as a reduced ejection fraction, will have an activation of the RAAS, salt and water retention, or the congestive heart failure (CHF syndrome. Beyond this cardiorenal perspective, CHF is accompanied by a systemic illness that includes oxidative stress, a proinflammatory phenotype, and a wasting of soft tissues and bone. A dyshomeostasis of calcium, magnesium, zinc, selenium, and vitamin D contribute to the appearance of oxidative stress and to compromised endogenous defenses that combat it. A propensity for hypovitaminosis D, given that melanin is a natural sunscreen, and for secondary hyperparathyroidism in African-Americans make them more susceptible to these systemic manifestations of CHF—a situation which is further threatened by the calcium and magnesium wasting that accompanies the secondary aldosteronism of CHF and the use of loop diuretics.Keywords: African-Americans, heart failure, calcium, magnesium, zinc, selenium

  17. The Changing Epidemiology of Human African Trypanosomiasis among Patients from Nonendemic Countries –1902–2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuberger, Ami; Meltzer, Eyal; Leshem, Eyal; Dickstein, Yaakov; Stienlauf, Shmuel; Schwartz, Eli

    2014-01-01

    Background Although human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) is uncommon among patients from non-endemic countries (NEC), there has been an increase in the number of cases reported in recent years. Methods A systematic review of the literature was performed. The number of incoming tourists to HAT endemic countries was obtained from the United Nations World Tourism Organization. All HAT cases diagnosed in patients from NEC were included. Immigrants and refugees were excluded. We compared patients during and after the colonial period, and analyzed the relationship between the number of incoming travellers and the number of HAT cases. Results Between 1902 and 2012, HAT was reported in 244 patients. Most HAT cases were reported before 1920, and after the year 2000. In the colonial era the average age of patients was lower (32.5±7.8 vs. 43.0±16.1 years, P<0.001), the proportion of females was lower (10.0% vs. 23.9%, P<0.01], most cases were diagnosed in expatriates, missionaries and soldiers (74.3%), and Gambian trypanosomiasis accounted for 86/110, (78%) of cases. In the post-colonial era most patients 91/125 (72.8%) were short-term tourists to game parks in Eastern and South-Eastern Africa (mainly in Tanzania); Rhodesian trypanosomiasis accounted for 94/123 (76.4%) of cases. Between 1995 and 2010 there has been a constant linear increase in the number of incoming tourists to Tanzania, and HAT cases occurred in small outbreaks rather than following a similar linear pattern. Conclusions In recent decades HAT patients from NEC are older, and more likely to be tourists who acquired the disease while visiting game-parks in Eastern and South-Eastern Africa. While Rhodesian trypanosomiasis is relatively uncommon among Africans, it now accounts for most cases reported among patients from NEC. Returning febrile travellers without an alternative diagnosis should be evaluated for HAT. Cases among travellers may serve as sentinels for Rhodesian trypanosomiasis “hot spots” in

  18. The changing epidemiology of human African trypanosomiasis among patients from nonendemic countries--1902-2012.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ami Neuberger

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although human African trypanosomiasis (HAT is uncommon among patients from non-endemic countries (NEC, there has been an increase in the number of cases reported in recent years. METHODS: A systematic review of the literature was performed. The number of incoming tourists to HAT endemic countries was obtained from the United Nations World Tourism Organization. All HAT cases diagnosed in patients from NEC were included. Immigrants and refugees were excluded. We compared patients during and after the colonial period, and analyzed the relationship between the number of incoming travellers and the number of HAT cases. RESULTS: Between 1902 and 2012, HAT was reported in 244 patients. Most HAT cases were reported before 1920, and after the year 2000. In the colonial era the average age of patients was lower (32.5±7.8 vs. 43.0±16.1 years, P<0.001, the proportion of females was lower (10.0% vs. 23.9%, P<0.01], most cases were diagnosed in expatriates, missionaries and soldiers (74.3%, and Gambian trypanosomiasis accounted for 86/110, (78% of cases. In the post-colonial era most patients 91/125 (72.8% were short-term tourists to game parks in Eastern and South-Eastern Africa (mainly in Tanzania; Rhodesian trypanosomiasis accounted for 94/123 (76.4% of cases. Between 1995 and 2010 there has been a constant linear increase in the number of incoming tourists to Tanzania, and HAT cases occurred in small outbreaks rather than following a similar linear pattern. CONCLUSIONS: In recent decades HAT patients from NEC are older, and more likely to be tourists who acquired the disease while visiting game-parks in Eastern and South-Eastern Africa. While Rhodesian trypanosomiasis is relatively uncommon among Africans, it now accounts for most cases reported among patients from NEC. Returning febrile travellers without an alternative diagnosis should be evaluated for HAT. Cases among travellers may serve as sentinels for Rhodesian trypanosomiasis "hot

  19. The changing epidemiology of human African trypanosomiasis among patients from nonendemic countries--1902-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuberger, Ami; Meltzer, Eyal; Leshem, Eyal; Dickstein, Yaakov; Stienlauf, Shmuel; Schwartz, Eli

    2014-01-01

    Although human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) is uncommon among patients from non-endemic countries (NEC), there has been an increase in the number of cases reported in recent years. A systematic review of the literature was performed. The number of incoming tourists to HAT endemic countries was obtained from the United Nations World Tourism Organization. All HAT cases diagnosed in patients from NEC were included. Immigrants and refugees were excluded. We compared patients during and after the colonial period, and analyzed the relationship between the number of incoming travellers and the number of HAT cases. Between 1902 and 2012, HAT was reported in 244 patients. Most HAT cases were reported before 1920, and after the year 2000. In the colonial era the average age of patients was lower (32.5±7.8 vs. 43.0±16.1 years, P<0.001), the proportion of females was lower (10.0% vs. 23.9%, P<0.01], most cases were diagnosed in expatriates, missionaries and soldiers (74.3%), and Gambian trypanosomiasis accounted for 86/110, (78%) of cases. In the post-colonial era most patients 91/125 (72.8%) were short-term tourists to game parks in Eastern and South-Eastern Africa (mainly in Tanzania); Rhodesian trypanosomiasis accounted for 94/123 (76.4%) of cases. Between 1995 and 2010 there has been a constant linear increase in the number of incoming tourists to Tanzania, and HAT cases occurred in small outbreaks rather than following a similar linear pattern. In recent decades HAT patients from NEC are older, and more likely to be tourists who acquired the disease while visiting game-parks in Eastern and South-Eastern Africa. While Rhodesian trypanosomiasis is relatively uncommon among Africans, it now accounts for most cases reported among patients from NEC. Returning febrile travellers without an alternative diagnosis should be evaluated for HAT. Cases among travellers may serve as sentinels for Rhodesian trypanosomiasis "hot spots" in Africa.

  20. Volcanic activities in the Southern part of East African rift initiation: Melilitites and nephelinites from the Manyara Basin (North Tanzania rift axis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baudouin, Celine; Parat, Fleurice; Tiberi, Christel; Gautier, Stéphanie; Peyrat, Sophie

    2016-04-01

    The East African Rift exposes different stages of plate boundary extension, from the initiation of the rift (North (N) Tanzania) to oceanic accretion (Afar). The N Tanzania rift-axis (north-south (S) trend) is divided into 2 different volcanic and seismic activities: (1) the Natron basin (N) with shallow seismicity and intense volcanism and (2) the Manyara basin (S) with deep crustal earthquakes and sparse volcanism. The Natron basin is characterized by extinct volcanoes (2 Ma-0.75 Ma) and active volcano (Oldoinyo Lengai) and a link between seismicity and volcanism has been observed during the Oldoinyo Lengai crisis in 2007. In the S part of the N Tanzanian rift, volcanoes erupted in the Manyara basin between 0.4 and 0.9 Ma. In this study, we used geochemical signature of magmas and deep fluids that percolate into the lithosphere beneath Manyara basin, to define the compositions of magmas and fluids at depth beneath the S part of the N Tanzania rift, compare to the Natron basin and place constrain on the volcanic and seismic activities. The Manyara basin has distinct volcanic activities with mafic magmas as melilitites (Labait) and Mg-nephelinites (carbonatite, Kwaraha), and more differentiated magmas as Mg-poor nephelinites (Hanang). Melilitites and Mg-nephelinites are primary magmas with olivine, clinopyroxene (cpx), and phlogopite recording high-pressure crystallization environment, (melilitites >4 GPa and Mg-nephelinites>1 GPa) with high volatile contents (whole rock: 0.7-4.6 wt% CO2, 0.1-0.3 wt% F and 0.1 wt% Cl). FTIR analyses of olivine constrained the water content of Labait and Kwaraha magmas at 0.1 and 0.4 wt% H2O, respectively. Geochemical modelling suggests that mafic magmas result from a low degree of partial melting (1-2%) of a peridotitic source with garnet and phlogopite (high Tb/Yb (>0.6) and Rb/Sr (0.03-0.12) ratio). Mg-poor nephelinites from Hanang volcano crystallized cpx, Ti-garnet, and nepheline as phenocrysts. Magmas result from fractional

  1. AFRICAN JOURNAL OF ECONOMIC REVIEW

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Kazungu

    Regional Trade Agreement and Agricultural Trade in East African Community. ... World Development Indicators for the period 2000 – 2012 on the five EAC members and ... the domestic market, leading to low returns to local producers and ...

  2. Long-acting nifedipine for hypertensive patients in the Middle East and Morocco: observations on efficacy and tolerability of monotherapy or combination therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghoneim RA

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Raafat AL Ghoneim,1 Abdalla Kamal Omar,2 VJ Sebastian,3 Roland Kassab,4 George Akijian,5 Meryem Hafiz,6 Birgit Schmidt7 1Department of Nephrology, Dr Bakhsh Hospital, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia; 2Open Specialist Clinics, Dallah Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 3Department of Cardiology, International Modern Hospital, Dubai, United Arab Emirates; 4Department of Cardiology, St Joseph University School of Medicine, Beirut, Lebanon; 5Internal Medicine (private clinic, Marka, Amman, Jordan; 6Medical Department, Bayer SA, Casablanca, Morocco; 7Global NIS, Bayer Vital GmbH, Leverkusen, Germany Background: The Middle Eastern and North African region of developing countries is associated with poor rates of blood pressure (BP control and antihypertensive prescribing patterns. This post hoc analysis of data from an international observational study aimed to investigate the efficacy and tolerability of long-acting nifedipine (30 mg or 60 mg; monotherapy or in combination in the Middle Eastern and Moroccan populations defined as having high cardiovascular risk. Methods: This was a prospective, noninterventional, multicenter observational study. Observations from patients (aged ≥ 18 years with treated or untreated hypertension from the Middle East (Jordan, Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Lebanon, Qatar, United Arab Emirates, and Yemen and Morocco are presented. Hypertension grade and cardiovascular risk were defined at baseline, and systolic/diastolic BP change was defined at post-baseline visits (≤3. Adverse events and ratings of therapy efficacy and patient/physician satisfaction were recorded. Results: The study included 1466 patients from the Middle East and 524 from Morocco. Characteristics of the populations differed, with a more severe hypertension profile in Moroccan patients. Despite these differences, nifedipine reduced BP to a similar extent in each group, with efficacy dependent on cardiovascular risk factors such as hypertension grade and age. Few adverse

  3. Differences in ocular blood flow in glaucoma between patients of African and European descent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siesky, Brent; Harris, Alon; Racette, Lyne; Abassi, Rania; Chandrasekhar, Kaarthik; Tobe, Leslie A; Behzadi, Jennifer; Eckert, George; Amireskandari, Annahita; Muchnik, Michael

    2015-02-01

    To investigate differences in ocular blood flow in individuals of African descent (AD) and European descent (ED) with open angle glaucoma (OAG). A retrospective data analysis was performed on OAG patients of AD and ED who were previously examined for ocular blood flow within the Department of Ophthalmology at Indiana University School of Medicine. Data analysis included blood pressure, heart rate, visual fields, intraocular pressure, ocular perfusion pressure, and color Doppler imaging of retrobulbar vessels. Color Doppler imaging measurements were performed on ophthalmic, central retinal, and nasal and temporal short posterior ciliary arteries, with peak systolic (PSV) and end diastolic velocities (EDV) as well as the Pourcelot vascular resistive index calculated for each vessel. Two-sample t tests of unequal variance were performed with P values <0.05 considered statistically significant. OAG patients of AD had statistically significant lower retrobulbar blood flow values than patients of ED including lower ophthalmic artery PSV (P=0.0001), ophthalmic artery EDV (P=0.0008), central retinal artery PSV (P=0.01), temporal short posterior ciliary artery PSV (P=0.0037), and nasal short posterior ciliary artery PSV (P<0.0001). No significant differences were found in terms of intraocular pressure or visual field parameters. Significantly lower blood flow values were identified in all retrobulbar blood vessels in AD compared with ED OAG patients. These findings suggest that the contribution of ocular blood flow to the disease process may be different in AD compared with ED OAG patients.

  4. Mitochondrial impairment observed in fibroblasts from South African Parkinson’s disease patients with parkin mutations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merwe, Celia van der, E-mail: celiavdm@sun.ac.za [Division of Molecular Biology and Human Genetics, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University, Cape Town (South Africa); Loos, Ben [Department of Physiological Sciences, Faculty of Science, Stellenbosch University, Stellenbosch (South Africa); Swart, Chrisna [Division of Molecular Biology and Human Genetics, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University, Cape Town (South Africa); Kinnear, Craig [Division of Molecular Biology and Human Genetics, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University, Cape Town (South Africa); MRC Centre for Molecular and Cellular Biology and the DST/NRF Centre of Excellence for Biomedical TB Research, Stellenbosch University, Cape Town (South Africa); Henning, Franclo [Division of Neurology, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University, Cape Town (South Africa); Merwe, Lize van der [Division of Molecular Biology and Human Genetics, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University, Cape Town (South Africa); Department of Statistics, University of the Western Cape, Cape Town (South Africa); Pillay, Komala [National Health Laboratory Services (NHLS) Histopathology Laboratory, Red Cross Children’s Hospital, Cape Town (South Africa); Muller, Nolan [Division of Anatomical Pathology, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University, Cape Town (South Africa); Zaharie, Dan [Neuropathology Unit, Division of Anatomical Pathology, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University, Cape Town (South Africa); Engelbrecht, Lize [Cell Imaging Unit, Central Analytical Facility, Stellenbosch University, Cape Town (South Africa); Carr, Jonathan [Division of Neurology, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University, Cape Town (South Africa); and others

    2014-05-02

    Highlights: • Mitochondrial dysfunction observed in patients with parkin-null mutations. • Mitochondrial ATP levels were decreased. • Electron-dense vacuoles were observed in the patients. • Mitochondria from muscle biopsies appeared within normal limits. • One patient did not show these defects possibly due to compensatory mechanisms. - Abstract: Parkinson’s disease (PD), defined as a neurodegenerative disorder, is characterized by the loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra in the midbrain. Loss-of-function mutations in the parkin gene are a major cause of autosomal recessive, early-onset PD. Parkin has been implicated in the maintenance of healthy mitochondria, although previous studies show conflicting findings regarding mitochondrial abnormalities in fibroblasts from patients harboring parkin-null mutations. The aim of the present study was to determine whether South African PD patients with parkin mutations exhibit evidence for mitochondrial dysfunction. Fibroblasts were cultured from skin biopsies obtained from three patients with homozygous parkin-null mutations, two heterozygous mutation carriers and two wild-type controls. Muscle biopsies were obtained from two of the patients. The muscle fibers showed subtle abnormalities such as slightly swollen mitochondria in focal areas of the fibers and some folding of the sarcolemma. Although no differences in the degree of mitochondrial network branching were found in the fibroblasts, ultrastructural abnormalities were observed including the presence of electron-dense vacuoles. Moreover, decreased ATP levels which are consistent with mitochondrial dysfunction were observed in the patients’ fibroblasts compared to controls. Remarkably, these defects did not manifest in one patient, which may be due to possible compensatory mechanisms. These results suggest that parkin-null patients exhibit features of mitochondrial dysfunction. Involvement of mitochondria as a key role player in PD

  5. How Ghanaian, African-Surinamese and Dutch patients perceive and manage antihypertensive drug treatment: a qualitative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beune, E.J.A.J.; Haafkens, J.A.; Agyemang, C.; Schuster, J.S.; Willems, D.L.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To explore and compare how Ghanaian, African-Surinamese (Surinamese), and White-Dutch patients perceive and manage antihypertensive drug treatment in Amsterdam, the Netherlands. METHODS: Qualitative study was conducted using detailed interviews with a purposive sample of 46 hypertensive

  6. Clinically relevant RHD-CE genotypes in patients with sickle cell disease and in African Brazilian donors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaspardi, Ane C.; Sippert, Emília A.; de Macedo, Mayra Dorigan; Pellegrino, Jordão; Costa, Fernando F.; Castilho, Lilian

    2016-01-01

    Background As a consequence of the homology and opposite orientation of RHD and RHCE, numerous gene rearrangements have occurred in Africans and resulted in altered RH alleles that predict partial antigens, contributing to the high rate of Rh alloimmunisation among patients with sickle cell disease (SCD). In this study, we characterised variant RH alleles encoding partial antigens and/or lacking high prevalence antigens in patients with SCD and in African Brazilian donors, in order to support antigen-matched blood for transfusion. Material and methods RH genotypes were determined in 168 DNA samples from SCD patients and 280 DNA samples from African Brazilian donors. Laboratory developed tests, RHD BeadChipTM, RHCE BeadChipTM, cloning and sequencing were used to determine RHD-CE genotypes among patients and African Brazilian blood donors. Results The distributions of RHD and RHCE alleles in donors and patients were similar. We found RHCE variant alleles inherited with altered RHD alleles in 25 out of 168 patients (15%) and in 22 out of 280 (7.8%) African Brazilian donors. The RHD and RHCE allele combinations found in the population studied were: RHD*DAR with RHCE*ceAR; RHD*weak D type 4.2.2 with RHCE*ceAR, RHD*weak D type 4.0 with RHCE*ceVS.01 and RHCE*ceVS.02; RHD*DIIIa with RHCE*ceVS.02. Thirteen patients and six donors had RHD-CE genotypes with homozygous or compound heterozygous alleles predicting partial antigens and/or lacking high prevalence antigens. Eleven patients were alloimmunised to Rh antigens. For six patients with RHD-CE genotypes predicting partial antigens, no donors with similar genotypes were found. Discussion Knowledge of the distribution and prevalence of RH alleles in patients with SCD and donors of African origin may be important for implementing a programme for RH genotype matching in SCD patients with RH variant alleles and clinically significant Rh antibodies. PMID:27177398

  7. Measuring perceived racism and psychosis in African-Caribbean patients in the United Kingdom: the modified perceived racism scale

    OpenAIRE

    Leavey Gerard; McKenzie Kwame; Chakraborty Apu T; King Michael

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Aim The increased rate of psychosis and poorer service-related outcomes in UK African-Caribbeans may in part be related to racism; racism as an aetiological factor remains comparatively under-investigated. We wanted to develop a measure of perceived racism in UK African-Caribbean patients with psychosis Methods We modified the Perceived Racism Scale (PRS) by substituting a mental-health-services' racism domain for the employment-racism domain and administered it to a sample of 150 in...

  8. [Helicobacter pylori infection in Uruguayan patients of African origin: clinical, endoscopic and genetic characteristics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Nicolás; Fernández, Lucía; Pérez Pérez, Guillermo; Saona, Gustavo; Raisler, Katherine; Eugenia Torres, María; Olivares, Asalia; Stein, Silvana; Cohen, Henry

    2010-09-01

    Prevalence of H pylori varies in different regions around the world and its associated clinical manifestations are more severe in certain ethnic groups. Prevalence of H pylori in different groups is scarcely known in Uruguay. To determine the prevalence, clinical and endoscopic characteristics of H pylori infection in Uruguayan patients of African origin. Fifty Afro-descendant patients attending the Clinics of Gastroenterology at Hospital de Clínicas in Montevideo, were studied. They were all examined by upper endoscopy and H pylori infection was determined by histology, urease test and culture. Presence of cagA was ascertained by PCR. The prevalence of H pylori infection determined by histology and urease test in Afro-descendants was 70%. No relationship was found between symptoms that led to consultation and the presence of infection. It was not possible either to establish a relationship between H pylori and endoscopic findings. CagA gene was detected in 62% of cases, but there was no relationship between its presence and the endoscopic findings. The prevalence of H pylori infection in Afro-descendant Uruguayan patients is high, comparable with that found in other developing regions. However, an association of the presence of infection with symptoms or endoscopic findings was not found. CagA did not result in a risk factor for the presence of more severe gastroduodenal lesions in this group of patients.

  9. Implementing Ask Me 3 to improve African American patient satisfaction and perceptions of physician cultural competency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalopoulou, Georgia; Falzarano, Pamela; Arfken, Cynthia; Rosenberg, David

    2010-01-01

    Improve African American patient satisfaction and perceptions of physician cultural competency through the implementation of Ask Me 3 pamphlet which encourages patients to ask questions of physicians. Intervention participants received the pamphlet prior to their visit with the physician. Analysis evaluated differences in patient satisfaction and perceptions of physician cultural competency between intervention participants and controls. Intervention participants who saw their regular physician reported higher satisfaction. All found the questions to be helpful and reported knowing more about their medical condition or illness after the visit. The Ask Me 3 pamphlet is a low cost and logistically feasible tool that could be readily implemented in medical settings to facilitate physician-patient interaction. Improved satisfaction with the visit was found when the pamphlet was implemented during visits with a regular physician. Thus, our research findings suggest implementation of the Ask Me 3 pamphlet has the potential to improve health care behaviors and health outcomes and may ultimately lead to a reduction in health care disparities.

  10. Molecular phenotypes in triple negative breast cancer from African American patients suggest targets for therapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Lindner

    Full Text Available Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC is characterized by high proliferation, poor differentiation and a poor prognosis due to high rates of recurrence. Despite lower overall incidence African American (AA patients suffer from higher breast cancer mortality in part due to the higher proportion of TNBC cases among AA patients compared to European Americans (EA. It was recently shown that the clinical heterogeneity of TNBC is reflected by distinct transcriptional programs with distinct drug response profiles in preclinical models. In this study, gene expression profiling and immunohistochemistry were used to elucidate potential differences between TNBC tumors of EA and AA patients on a molecular level. In a retrospective cohort of 136 TNBC patients, a major transcriptional signature of proliferation was found to be significantly upregulated in samples of AA ethnicity. Furthermore, transcriptional profiles of AA tumors showed differential activation of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1 and a signature of BRCA1 deficiency in this cohort. Using signatures derived from the meta-analysis of TNBC gene expression carried out by Lehmann et al., tumors from AA patients were more likely of basal-like subtypes whereas transcriptional features of many EA samples corresponded to mesenchymal-like or luminal androgen receptor driven subtypes. These results were validated in The Cancer Genome Atlas mRNA and protein expression data, again showing enrichment of a basal-like phenotype in AA tumors and mesenchymal subtypes in EA tumors. In addition, increased expression of VEGF-activated genes together with elevated microvessel area determined by the AQUA method suggest that AA patients exhibit higher tumor vascularization. This study confirms the existence of distinct transcriptional programs in triple negative breast cancer in two separate cohorts and that these programs differ by racial group. Differences in TNBC subtypes and levels of tumor angiogenesis in AA

  11. Blood pressure changes in African American patients receiving chiropractic care in a teaching clinic: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMasters, Kim L; Wang, Joe; York, Jennifer; Hart, John; Neely, Cheneir; Delain, Rochelle J

    2013-06-01

    The purpose of this preliminary study was to determine if a course of chiropractic care would change blood pressure measurements in African American patients and to determine if a study was feasible in a chiropractic teaching clinic. Twenty-four African American patients received chiropractic care in a chiropractic teaching clinic over a study period that spanned 23 visits for each patient. Inclusion criteria consisted of patients having a diagnosis of prehypertension (120-139/80-89) or hypertension stage 1 (140-159/90-99). The mean values of 3 baseline blood pressure readings were compared with the mean values of blood pressure readings taken on visits 21, 22, and 23. For the entire sample, reductions for both systolic and diastolic blood pressures were not statistically significant (P > .07). When 4 patients having body mass index values that were considered as outliers were excluded, a statistically significant decrease in diastolic blood pressure was observed (P = .004). By group, a statistically significant reduction occurred in the hypertension stage 1 group for systolic and diastolic blood pressures. This study showed that research of this nature may be feasible in chiropractic teaching clinics. The preliminary findings of this study showed that, for a subgroup of African American patients receiving chiropractic care, blood pressure decreased for (a) hypertension stage 1 patients and (b) the sample when those with excessive body mass index were excluded.

  12. [Clinical analysis of the first patient with imported Middle East respiratory syndrome in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Yun; Qu, Rong; Luo, Yufeng

    2015-08-01

    To report the treatment of the first imported Middle East respiratory syndrome ( MERS ) in China, and to investigate the clinical features and treatment of the patient. On May 28th, 2015, the first patient of imported MERS to China was admitted to Department of Critical Care Medicine of Huizhou Municipal Central Hospital. The clinical features and treatments of this patient were analyzed. (1) A 43 years old male of South Korean nationality was admitted with the complaint of back ache for 7 days and fever 2 days with the following characteristics: back ache 7 days ago, without fever or cough or expectoration. He had been suspected to suffer from infection of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus ( MERS-CoV ) by the Disease Control Department of South Korea, but no specific treatment was given. He had fever for 2 days with maximum body temperature of 39.7 centigrade. He had no chills, cough, expectoration, short of breath, abdominal pain, diarrhea, frequent micturition, or urgency or pain of urination, and no sore throat. The patient had a history of exposure to MERS-CoV patient. He was considered to be a patient of the second batch of South Korean epidemic. (2) Auxiliary examination: 3 copies of throat swab specimens for virus nucleic acid detection were performed by the Disease Prevention Control Center of China ( China CDC ), and they were positive on May 29th, 2015, and also for serum, sputum and stool. Based on the results of whole genome sequence analysis, the virus strains were implicated to be derived from Riyahh and Jeddah regions of Saudi Arabia. On admission, the patient's blood test showed that the white blood cell count was low ( 3.22×10(9)/L ), the proportion of the neutrophils was high ( 0.73 ), and that of the platelet was low ( 81×10(9)/L ). On admission, the patient's chest X-ray showed that a small amount of infiltration in the lung. (3) TREATMENT: a high-flow nasal cannula ( HFNC ) with oxygen concentration of 0.50-0.80 was given, with a

  13. Sickle cell disease patients in eastern province of Saudi Arabia suffer less severe acute chest syndrome than patients with African haplotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alabdulaali M

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives : Genetic studies suggest that the sickle cell mutation has arisen on at least four separate occasions in Africa and as a fifth independent mutation in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia or India. The pathophysiology of sickle cell disease (SCD is essentially similar in these different areas although the frequency and severity of complications may vary between areas. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and outcome of acute chest syndrome (ACS in SCD patients from Eastern province of Saudi Arabia in comparison with patients with African haplotypes. Materials and Methods : This was a retrospective study involving 317 SCD patients who were two years or older, admitted to King Fahad Hospital Hofuf between January-May 2003 for different etiologies. Twenty six patients presented with different causes of ACS; 11 patients presented with different pathologies other than ACS, but had past history of ACS; 280 patients presented with different pathologies and never presented with ACS. Clinical features, CBC, Hb-electrophoresis, G6PD activity, cultures, chest X-ray, arterial oxygen saturation, blood transfusion rates and outcome were studied. Univariate and multiple regression analysis were carried out to evaluate influence on ACS. Comparison between SCD patients with ACS from this study and from Eastern province of Saudi Arabia to patients with African haplotypes were carried out, using data reported in the literature. Results : During the period of this study, 37 patients with new or previous episodes of ACS were studied (accounting for 11.67% of admitted SCD patients. Most of the patients with ACS had only one episode, but five patients (13.51% had had episodes or more. One patient died giving an in-hospital mortality rate of 1/26 (3.85%. Comparison of recurrence of ACS and mortality between SCD patients in Eastern province of Saudi Arabia to that of patients with African haplotype showed that recurrence is

  14. Solute clearance measurement in the assessment of dialysis adequacy among African continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliyu Abdu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Solute clearance measurement is an objective means of quantifying the dose of peritoneal dialysis (PD. Despite continued debate on the interpretation and precise prognostic value of small solute clearance in PD patients, guidelines based on solute clearance values are common in clinical practice. There is limited information on the solute clearance indices and PD adequacy parameters among this predominantly low socioeconomic status PD population. We investigated the solute clearance among continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD patients at the Charlotte Maxeke Johannesburg Academic Hospital and its relationship with other parameters of PD adequacy. Seventy patients on CAPD were studied in this cross-sectional study. Solute clearance was assessed using urea clearance (Kt/V. Linear regression analysis was used to determine factors associated with solute clearance, while analysis of variance was used to test the influence of weekly Kt/V on blood pressure (BP, hemoglobin (Hb and other biochemical parameters. The mean age of the study population was 37.9 ± 12.4 years, 43% were females and 86% were black Africans. The mean duration on CAPD was 19.7 ± 20.8 months. Mean systolic and diastolic BP were 144 ± 28 and 92 ± 17 mm Hg, respectively. The mean Hb was 11.1 ± 2.2 g/dL and the mean weekly Kt/V was 1.7 ± 0.3. Factors like systolic BP, Hb level, serum levels of cholesterol, calcium, phosphate, parathyroid hormone and albumin were not significantly associated with the weekly Kt/V. We conclude that the dose of PD received by the majority of our patients in terms of the weekly Kt/V is within the recommended values and that this finding is significant considering the low socioeconomic background of our patients. There is no significant association between Kt/V and other indices of dialysis adequacy.

  15. Diabetes in urban African Americans: assessment of diabetes-specific locus of control in patients with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, R P; Bernard, A M; Slocum, W; el-Kebbi, I; Ziemer, D; Gallina, D; Phillips, L S

    2000-01-01

    This study was conducted to examine the applicability and relationship to glycemic control of the Diabetes Locus of Control (DLC) Scales in a low-literacy, economically deprived, African American population with type 2 diabetes. The DLC Scales were administered orally to African American patients with type 2 diabetes who had been referred to the diabetes unit of a large urban public hospital. Reliability, interscale correlations, and associations with patient characteristics were compared with those originally obtained for a better educated, predominately Caucasian population. The structure and correlates of the DLC Scales in the African American population were more similar than different from those originally obtained from a primarily well-educated, Caucasian population. However, comprehension of some items was difficult for up to 10% of the low-literacy population. A significant relationship was found between belief in chance and both glycemic control at the 6-month follow-up and the change in glycemic control over time. Although the DLC Scales operate similarly in an urban African American population with limited education, further modification is needed to enhance the prediction of glycemic control and provide direction for developing targeted interventions.

  16. Nutrient intake and nutritional status of newly diagnosed patients with cancer from the East Coast of Peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, Kavitha; Razak, Shariza Abdul; Ismail, Karami A; Krishna, Bhavaraju Venkata Murali

    2014-09-30

    Cancer therapy in Malaysia primarily focuses on the clinical management of patients with cancer and malnutrition continues to be one of the major causes of death in these patients. There is a dearth of information on the nutrient intake and status of newly diagnosed patients with cancer prior to the initiation of treatment. The present study aims to assess the nutrient intake and status of newly diagnosed patients with cancer from the East Coast of Peninsular Malaysia. A cross-sectional study was conducted using a convenient sample of newly diagnosed adult patients with cancer (n = 70) attending the Oncology clinic, Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia in the East Coast of Peninsular Malaysia. Information on socio-demographic characteristics, clinical status, anthropometry, dietary intake and biochemical data including blood samples was obtained. The mean (SD) age, triceps skin fold (TSF), mid upper arm circumference (MUAC) and body mass index (BMI) of participants was 21.1(3.9) years, 17.6(7.9) mm, 24.1(5.5) cm, and 21.1(3.9) Kg/m(2), respectively; 39% participants had BMI Malaysia were underweight and undernourished. The majority of patients with cancer had poor micronutrient intakes; the older women had a poor macro and micronutrient intakes. Before the initiation of rigorous clinical management of patients with cancer, screening for nutritional status, subsequent nutrition counseling, and interventions are essential to improve their nutritional status; consequently, response to cancer therapy, survival and quality of life.

  17. Genetic Risk Factors for Type 2 Diabetes with Pharmacologic Intervention in African-American Patients with Schizophrenia or Schizoaffective Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    MR, Irvin; HW, Wiener; RP, Perry; RM, Savage; CP, Go R

    2009-01-01

    An increased prevalence of type 2 diabetes (T2D) in schizophrenia (SCZ) patients has been observed. Exposure to antipsychotics (APs) has been shown to induce metabolic dysregulation in some patients but not all treated patients. We hypothesized important candidate genes for T2D may increase risk for T2D in African-American patients with SCZ or schizoaffective disorder. The PAARTNERS study comprises African-American families with at least one proband with SCZ or schizoaffective disorder. The current study of PAARTNERS SCZ and schizoaffective disorder cases (N=820) examined single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within select T2D candidate genes including transcription factor like 7 (TCF7L2), calpain 10 (CAPN10), and ectoenzyme nucleotide pyrophosphate phosphodiesterase 1 (ENNP1) for association with prevalent T2D. We report association of TCF7L2 (rs7903146) with T2D under both an additive and recessive model for the risk allele T. Specifically, the odds ratio (OR) for having T2D was 1.4 (p=0.03) under an additive model and 2.4 (p=0.004) under a recessive model. We also report a marginally significant TCF7L2 by AP treatment interaction that should be investigated in future studies. CAPN10 (rs3792267) was marginally associated with T2D with OR=1.5 (p=0.08) when considering the model GG vs. AG/AA with risk allele G. ENPP1 (rs1044498) was not associated with T2D. We conclude TCF7L2, a risk factor for T2D in the general population, is also a risk factor for T2D in African-American patients with SCZ or schizoaffective disorder. Research is needed to determine if T2D associated polymorphisms are of interest in the pharmacogenetics and future treatment choices of antipsychotics in African-American patients. PMID:19643578

  18. Serum Lipoprotein (a) Levels in Black South African Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Jim; Ganjifrockwala, Farzana; George, Grace

    2016-01-01

    Lipoprotein (a) (Lp(a)) which is a low-density lipoprotein-like particle containing apo(a) is considered as an emergent cardiovascular risk factor. Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is associated with a two- to threefold increase in the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). The aim of this study was to investigate the levels of Lp(a) in Black South African T2DM patients and its association with other metabolic factors. 67 T2DM patients and 48 healthy control participants were recruited for the cross-sectional study. The Lp(a) level was determined by ELISA and the result was analyzed using SPSS. The Lp(a) level in diabetics was found to be significantly increased (P = 0.001) when compared to the normal healthy group. In the diabetic group, the Lp(a) levels correlated significantly with the duration of diabetes (P = 0.008) and oxidized LDL (ox-LDL) levels (P = 0.03) and decreased total antioxidant capacity (P = 0.001). The third tertile of Lp(a) was significantly correlated with increased ox-LDL, C-reactive protein, and triglycerides and decreased total antioxidant capacity.

  19. An entertainment-education colorectal cancer screening decision aid for African American patients: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Aubri S; Lowenstein, Lisa M; Kamath, Geetanjali R; Housten, Ashley J; Leal, Viola B; Linder, Suzanne K; Jibaja-Weiss, Maria L; Raju, Gottumukkala S; Volk, Robert J

    2017-04-15

    Colorectal cancer screening rates for African American patients remain suboptimal. Patient decision aids designed with an entertainment-education approach have been shown to improve saliency and foster informed decision making. The purpose of this study was to assess whether an entertainment-education decision aid tailored for African American patients improved patients' decision making, attitudes, intentions, or colorectal cancer screening behavior. Eighty-nine participants were randomized to view 1) a patient decision aid video containing culturally tailored information about colorectal cancer screening options and theory-based support in decision making presented in an entertainment-education format or 2) an attention control video about hypertension that contained similarly detailed information. Participants met with their clinician and then completed follow-up questionnaires assessing their knowledge, decisional conflict, self-advocacy, attitudes, perceived social norms, and intentions. At 3 months, completion of screening was assessed by chart review. Viewing the culturally tailored decision aid significantly increased African American patients' knowledge of colorectal cancer screening recommendations and options. It also significantly reduced their decisional conflict and improved their self-advocacy. No significant differences were observed in participants' attitudes, norms, or intentions. At three months, 23% of all patients had completed a colonoscopy. Designing targeted, engaging patient decision aids for groups that receive suboptimal screening holds promise for improving patient decision making and self-advocacy. Additional research is warranted to investigate the effectiveness of such aids in clinical practices with suboptimal screening rates and on downstream behaviors (such as repeat testing). Cancer 2017;123:1401-1408. © 2016 American Cancer Society. © 2016 American Cancer Society.

  20. Surgical outcomes of the Ex-PRESS glaucoma filtration device in African American and white glaucoma patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salim S

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Sarwat Salim, Haiming Du, Sumalee Boonyaleephan, Jim WanUniversity of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis, TN, USAPurpose: To compare the surgical outcomes of the Ex-PRESS glaucoma filtration device in African American and white glaucoma patients.Design: Retrospective comparative case series.Methods: This was a comparative case series of 36 eyes of 36 African Americans and 43 eyes of 43 whites that underwent placement of the Ex-PRESS glaucoma filtration device under a partial-thickness scleral flap for uncontrolled glaucoma. All eyes received intraoperative mitomycin C. The primary outcome measures were intraocular pressure (IOP, number of postoperative glaucoma medications, and surgical success. Surgical success was defined as IOP between 5 and 18 mm Hg, with or without glaucoma medications, without further glaucoma surgery, or loss of light perception vision. Results: Average follow-up was 31.9 ± 9.8 (range, 14.6–47 months for African Americans and 30.7 ± 8.6 (range, 14.3–47 months for whites. At 33 months, surgical success was 80.0% in the African American group and 83.3% in the white group (P = 1.00. Reasons for surgical failure included increased IOP (3 eyes, 3.8%, persistent hypotony with maculopathy (1 eye, 1.3%, and further surgery (4 eyes, 5.06%. Compared with preoperative values, the mean postoperative IOP and number of glaucoma medications were significantly reduced in both groups, and no statistical difference was observed between the two groups at 33 months. Postoperative complications were similar in the two groups.Conclusions: Similar surgical outcomes were observed in African American and white glaucoma patients after implantation of the Ex-PRESS glaucoma filtration device. This latest modification of glaucoma filtration surgery may be a better surgical option for African Americans given its potential advantages of no tissue removal, predictable outcomes related to consistent lumen size and controlled flow, fewer

  1. Patient-Nominated, Community-Based HIV Treatment Supporters: Patient Perspectives, Feasibility, Challenges, and Factors for Success in HIV-Infected South African Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Duwell, Monique M.; Knowlton, Amy R.; Nachega, Jean B.; Efron, Anne; Goliath, Rene; MORRONI, Chelsea; Maartens, Gary; Chaisson, Richard E

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to characterize the experience of having a treatment supporter among HIV-infected South African patients enrolled in a randomized controlled trial that compared the efficacy of patient-nominated treatment supporters administering partial directly observed antiretroviral therapy (DOT-ART) versus self-administered ART (Self-ART). Results of the parent study showed no virologic or sustained immunologic differences between groups, but revealed a significant survival benefit among...

  2. ISSN 2073 East Cent. Afr. j. surg.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DELL

    East and Central African Journal of Surgery Volume 16 Number 1 ... sarcomas of the shoulder girdle particularly osteosarcomas of the proximal humerus and ... suggestive of an osteosarcoma which was confirmed histologically (Figure 7).

  3. Outcomes of HIV-positive patients lost to follow-up in African treatment programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zürcher, Kathrin; Mooser, Anne; Anderegg, Nanina; Tymejczyk, Olga; Couvillon, Margaret J; Nash, Denis; Egger, Matthias

    2017-04-01

    The retention of patients on antiretroviral therapy (ART) is key to achieving global targets in response to the HIV epidemic. Loss to follow-up (LTFU) can be substantial, with unknown outcomes for patients lost to ART programmes. We examined changes in outcomes of patients LTFU over calendar time, assessed associations with other study and programme characteristics and investigated the relative success of different tracing methods. We performed a systematic review and logistic random-effects meta-regression analysis of studies that traced adults or children who started ART and were LTFU in sub-Saharan African treatment programmes. The primary outcome was mortality, and secondary outcomes were undocumented transfer to another programme, treatment interruption and the success of tracing attempts. We included 32 eligible studies from 12 countries in sub-Saharan Africa: 20 365 patients LTFU were traced, and 15 708 patients (77.1%) were found. Compared to telephone calls, tracing that included home visits increased the probability of success: the adjusted odds ratio (aOR) was 9.35 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.85-47.31). The risk of death declined over calendar time (aOR per 1-year increase 0.86, 95% CI 0.78-0.95), whereas undocumented transfers (aOR 1.13, 95% CI 0.96-1.34) and treatment interruptions (aOR 1.31, 95% CI 1.18-1.45) tended to increase. Mortality was lower in urban than in rural areas (aOR 0.59, 95% CI 0.36-0.98), but there was no difference in mortality between adults and children. The CD4 cell count at the start of ART increased over time. Mortality among HIV-positive patients who started ART in sub-Saharan Africa, were lost to programmes and were successfully traced has declined substantially during the scale-up of ART, probably driven by less severe immunodeficiency at the start of therapy. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Global distribution of Y-chromosome haplogroup C reveals the prehistoric migration routes of African exodus and early settlement in East Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Hua; Shi, Hong; Qi, Xue-Bin; Xiao, Chun-Jie; Jin, Li; Ma, Runlin Z; Su, Bing

    2010-07-01

    The regional distribution of an ancient Y-chromosome haplogroup C-M130 (Hg C) in Asia provides an ideal tool of dissecting prehistoric migration events. We identified 465 Hg C individuals out of 4284 males from 140 East and Southeast Asian populations. We genotyped these Hg C individuals using 12 Y-chromosome biallelic markers and 8 commonly used Y-short tandem repeats (Y-STRs), and performed phylogeographic analysis in combination with the published data. The results show that most of the Hg C subhaplogroups have distinct geographical distribution and have undergone long-time isolation, although Hg C individuals are distributed widely across Eurasia. Furthermore, a general south-to-north and east-to-west cline of Y-STR diversity is observed with the highest diversity in Southeast Asia. The phylogeographic distribution pattern of Hg C supports a single coastal 'Out-of-Africa' route by way of the Indian subcontinent, which eventually led to the early settlement of modern humans in mainland Southeast Asia. The northward expansion of Hg C in East Asia started approximately 40 thousand of years ago (KYA) along the coastline of mainland China and reached Siberia approximately 15 KYA and finally made its way to the Americas.

  5. A Case Report of Primary Nasal Natural Killer (NK)/T-Cell Lymphoma in an African American Patient Presenting with Hemophagocytic Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Bowei; Abdelmalek, Cherif; O’Donnell, James E.; Toltaku, Thomas; Chaudhry, Rashid; Wang, Jen C.; Gotlieb, Vladimir

    2017-01-01

    Patient: Male, 55 Final Diagnosis: Primary NK-T cell lymphoma • nasal type Symptoms: Fever • nasal bleeding • nasal mass • weight loss Medication: — Clinical Procedure: Chemotherapy×2 cycles • radiation therap Specialty: Oncology Objective: Rare disease Background: Extranodal natural killer/T-cell lymphoma, nasal type (ENKTCL) is generally an aggressive and rare non-Hodgkin lymphoma. It is most common in East Asians, Native Americans, and South Americans, but is rarely reported in blacks. Case Report: A 55-year-old African American male born in Grenada presented with a left nostril mass with facial swelling and biopsy subsequently confirmed a diagnosis of extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma, nasal type (ENKTCL). Immunochemistry was positive for CD2, cytoplasmic CD3, CD7, CD 43, CD 56, granzyme B, and TIA-1. In situ hybridization was positive for Epstein-Barr virus encoded ribonucleic acid (EBERs). Bone marrow aspiration did not show lymphoma involvement. The patient had progressive neutropenia upon presentation, with further investigations showing hepatomegaly, hyperferritinemia, and hemophagocytosis in the bone marrow. We reached a diagnosis of hemophagocytic syndrome. He was treated with a high-dose combination chemotherapy and radiation therapy; the neutropenia improved significantly with steroids as treatment for immune activation in the setting of hemophagocytic syndrome. Conclusions: To the best of our knowledge, this is the only second report of extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma, nasal type in a black patient, and it raises the awareness of early recognition of rare manifestations of NK/T-cell lymphoma such as hemophagocytic syndrome. PMID:28193996

  6. A prospective survey of blood products transferred with patients during inter-hospital transfers in the East of England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamber, J H; O'Brien, J; Foukaneli, D; Dhesi, A

    2015-10-01

    A prospective survey was undertaken of blood products transferred with patients during inter-hospital transfers by ambulance in the East of England (population six million) There is little published information on the number and fate of blood products transferred with patients during inter-hospital transfers, although there are concerns about quality assurance and traceability of these blood products. Recent national guidance has been issued, but adherence to this guidance is uncertain. A 6-month survey was undertaken of all inter-hospital transfers of blood products with patients within the East of England using routine data captured by established transfer of blood documentation. There were 45 transfer episodes of which 44 involved the transfer of red blood cells. In total, 148 units of red blood cells were transferred, of which 6% were transfused en route, 3% transfused at the destination hospital, 35% were wasted and for 18% the fate could not be established. The remainder were transferred into the blood stock of the destination hospital. The small proportion of blood products that were transfused raises questions about the necessity of the transfer of blood products with some patients particularly considering the higher percentage of wasted or untraced products. When transfers occur, there should be better communication between hospital transfusion laboratories assisted by adherence to national and regionally agreed policies. © 2015 British Blood Transfusion Society.

  7. Provision of inpatient rehabilitation and challenges experienced with participation post discharge: quantitative and qualitative inquiry of African stroke patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhoda, Anthea; Cunningham, Natalie; Azaria, Simon; Urimubenshi, Gerard

    2015-09-28

    The provision of rehabilitation differs between developed and developing countries, this could impact on the outcomes of post stroke rehabilitation. The aim of this paper is to present provision of in-patient stroke rehabilitation. In addition the challenges experienced by the individuals with participation post discharge are also presented. Qualitative and quantitative research methods were used to collect data. The quantitative data was collected using a retrospective survey of stroke patients admitted to hospitals over a three- to five-year period. Quantitative data was captured on a validated data capture sheet and analysed descriptively. The qualitative data was collected using interviews from a purposively and conveniently selected sample, audio-taped and analysed thematically. The qualitative data was presented within the participation model. A total of 168 medical folders were reviewed for a South African sample, 139 for a Rwandan sample and 145 for a Tanzanian sample. The mean age ranged from 62.6 (13.78) years in the South African sample to 56.0 (17.4) in the Rwandan sample. While a total of 98 % of South African stroke patients received physiotherapy, only 39.4 % of Rwandan patients received physiotherapy. From the qualitative interviews, it became clear that the stroke patients had participation restrictions. When conceptualised within the Participation Model participation restrictions experienced by the stroke patients were a lack of accomplishment, inability to engage in previous roles and a perception of having health problems. With the exception of Rwanda, stroke patients in the countries studied are admitted to settings early post stroke allowing for implementation of effective acute interventions. The participants were experiencing challenges which included a lack of transport and the physical geographic surroundings in the rural settings not being conducive to wheelchair use. Stroke patients admitted to hospitals in certain African countries

  8. X-Linked Agammagobulinemia in a Large Series of North African Patients: Frequency, Clinical Features and Novel BTK Mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aadam, Zahra; Kechout, Nadia; Barakat, Abdelhamid; Chan, Koon-Wing; Ben-Ali, Meriem; Ben-Mustapha, Imen; Zidi, Fethi; Ailal, Fatima; Attal, Nabila; Doudou, Fatouma; Abbadi, Mohamed-Cherif; Kaddache, Chawki; Smati, Leila; Touri, Nabila; Chemli, Jalel; Gargah, Tahar; Brini, Ines; Bakhchane, Amina; Charoute, Hicham; Jeddane, Leila; El Atiqi, Sara; El Hafidi, Naïma; Hida, Mustapha; Saile, Rachid; Alj, Hanane Salih; Boukari, Rachida; Bejaoui, Mohamed; Najib, Jilali; Barbouche, Mohamed-Ridha; Lau, Yu-Lung; Mellouli, Fethi; Bousfiha, Ahmed Aziz

    2016-04-01

    X-linked agammagobulinemia (XLA) is a primary immunodeficiency caused by Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK) gene defect. XLA patients have absent or reduced number of peripheral B cells and a profound deficiency in all immunoglobulin isotypes. This multicenter study reports the clinical, immunological and molecular features of Bruton's disease in 40 North African male patients. Fifty male out of 63 (male and female) patients diagnosed with serum agammaglobulinemia and non detectable to less than 2% peripheral B cells were enrolled. The search for BTK gene mutations was performed for all of them by genomic DNA amplification and Sanger sequencing. We identified 33 different mutations in the BTK gene in 40 patients including 12 missense mutations, 6 nonsense mutations, 6 splice-site mutations, 5 frameshift, 2 large deletions, one complex mutation and one in-frame deletion. Seventeen of these mutations are novel. This large series shows a lower frequency of XLA among male patients from North Africa with agammaglobulinemia and absent to low B cells compared with other international studies (63.5% vs. 85%). No strong evidence for genotype-phenotype correlation was observed. This study adds to other reports from highly consanguineous North African populations, showing lower frequency of X-linked forms as compared to AR forms of the same primary immunodeficiency. Furthermore, a large number of novel BTK mutations were identified and could further help identify carriers for genetic counseling.

  9. Tectonic inheritance in the development of the Kivu - north Tanganyika rift segment of the East African Rift System: role of pre-existing structures of Precambrian to early Palaeozoic origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delvaux, Damien; Fiama Bondo, Silvanos; Ganza Bamulezi, Gloire

    2017-04-01

    The present architecture of the junction between the Kivu rift basin and the north Tanganyika rift basin is that of a typical accommodation zone trough the Ruzizi depression. However, this structure appeared only late in the development of the Western branch of the East African Rift System and is the result of a strong control by pre-existing structures of Precambrian to early Palaeozoic origin. In the frame of a seismic hazard assessment of the Kivu rift region, we (Delvaux et al., 2016) constructed homogeneous geological, structural and neotectonic maps cross the five countries of this region, mapped the pre-rift, early rift and Late Quaternary faults and compiled the existing knowledge on thermal springs (assumed to be diagnostic of current tectonic activity along faults). We also produced also a new catalogue of historical and instrumental seismicity and defined the seismotectonic characteristics (stress field, depth of faulting) using published focal mechanism data. Rifting in this region started at about 11 Ma by initial doming and extensive fissural basaltic volcanism along normal faults sub-parallel to the axis of the future rift valley, as a consequence of the divergence between the Nubia and the Victoria plate. In a later stage, starting around 8-7 Ma, extension localized along a series of major border faults individualizing the subsiding tectonic basins from the uplifting rift shoulders, while lava evolved towards alkali basaltic composition until 2.6 Ma. During this stage, initial Kivu rift valley was extending linearly in a SSW direction, much further than its the actual termination at Bukavu, into the Mwenga-Kamituga graben, up to Namoya. The SW extremity of this graben was linked via a long oblique transfer zone to the central part of Lake Tanganyika, itself reactivating an older ductile-brittle shear zone. In the late Quaternary-early Holocene, volcanism migrated towards the center of the basin, with the development of the Virunga volcanic massif

  10. Microalbuminuria among Type 1 and Type 2 diabetic patients of African origin in Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thordarson Hrafnkell

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalences and risk factors of microalbuminuria are not full described among black African diabetic patients. This study aimed at determining the prevalence of microalbuminuria among African diabetes patients in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, and relate to socio-demographic features as well as clinical parameters. Methods Cross sectional study on 91 Type 1 and 153 Type 2 diabetic patients. Two overnight urine samples per patient were analysed. Albumin concentration was measured by an automated immunoturbidity assay. Average albumin excretion rate (AER was used and were categorised as normalbuminuria (AER 200 ug/min. Information obtained also included age, diabetes duration, sex, body mass index, blood pressure, serum total cholesterol, high-density and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, serum creatinine, and glycated hemoglobin A1c. Results Overall prevalence of microalbuminuria was 10.7% and macroalbuminuria 4.9%. In Type 1 patients microalbuminuria was 12% and macroalbuminuria 1%. Among Type 2 patients, 9.8% had microalbuminuria, and 7.2% had macroalbuminuria. Type 2 patients with abnormal albumin excretion rate had significantly longer diabetes duration 7.5 (0.2–24 yrs than those with normal albumin excretion rate 3 (0–25 yrs, p No significant differences in body mass index, glycaemic control, and cholesterol levels was found among patients with normal compared with those with elevated albumin excretion rate either in Type 1 or Type 2 patients. A stepwise multiple linear regression analysis among Type 2 patients, revealed AER (natural log AER as the dependent variable to be predicted by [odds ratio (95% confidence interval] diabetes duration 0.090 (0.049, 0.131, p Conclusion The prevalence of micro and macroalbuminuria is higher among African Type 1 patients with relatively short diabetes duration compared with prevalences among Caucasians. In Type 2 patients, the prevalence is in accordance with

  11. Reshaping Economic Geography of East Africa : From Regional to Global Integration, Volume 2. Technical Annexes

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2012-01-01

    Five East African countries Burundi, Kenya, Rwanda, Tanzania, and Uganda have made solid progress on integrating regionally in the East African Community (EAC) since 1999. Such advances are crucial, as integration in East Africa has the potential for higher than usual benefits: Burundi, Rwanda, and Uganda are landlocked, with very high costs to their economies. Successful integration will ...

  12. Reshaping Economic Geography of East Africa : From Regional to Global Integration (Vol. 1 of 2)

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2012-01-01

    Five East African countries Burundi, Kenya, Rwanda, Tanzania, and Uganda have made solid progress on integrating regionally in the East African Community (EAC) since 1999. Such advances are crucial, as integration in East Africa has the potential for higher than usual benefits: Burundi, Rwanda, and Uganda are landlocked, with very high costs to their economies. Successful integration will ...

  13. Exonic rearrangements in the known Parkinson's disease-causing genes are a rare cause of the disease in South African patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Merwe, Celia; Carr, Jonathan; Glanzmann, Brigitte; Bardien, Soraya

    2016-04-21

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative movement disorder characterized by the loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra of the midbrain. To date, a number of PD-causing genes have been found, including SNCA, LRRK2, VPS35, PARK2, PINK1, DJ-1, ATP13A2, and most recently CHCHD2. Mutations in these genes range from point mutations to larger exonic rearrangements including deletions and duplications. This study aimed to detect possible copy number variation (CNV) in the known PD-causing genes in a cohort of South African patients with PD. Multiplex Ligation-dependent Probe Amplification (MLPA) analysis was performed on a total of 210 South African PD patients, and possible CNVs were verified using quantitative real time PCR. No homozygous or compound heterozygous exon rearrangements in the genes analysed were found in the patient group. A heterozygous PARK2 exon 4 deletion was found in a sporadic patient with an age at onset of 51 years. Sanger sequencing did not reveal any additional mutations in PARK2 in this patient. Combining our results with that of previous studies in a South African cohort, the frequency of exonic rearrangements in the known PD-causing genes is only 1.8% (8/439 patients). In conclusion, CNV in the known PD-causing genes are a rare cause of PD in a South African cohort, and there may be as yet unknown genetic causes of PD that are specific to patients of African ethnicity.

  14. ISSN 2073 ISSN 2073 9990 East Cent. Afr. J. s 9990 East Cent. Afr ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hp 630 Dual Core

    blication -East & Central African Journal of Surgery. March/April ... Professor of Orthopedic Surgery, Addis Ababa University Medical Faculty, 3Consultant .... have accounted road traffic accidents to be the major cause of pediatric fractures9 11.

  15. Pitfalls in the assessment of smoking status detected in a cohort of South African RA patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govind, Nimmisha; Ally, Mahmood M T M; Tikly, Mohammed; Anderson, Ronald; Hodkinson, Bridget; Meyer, Pieter W A

    2016-10-01

    This study was conceived in an attempt to explain the unexpectedly high frequency of elevated levels of serum cotinine measured retrospectively in a cohort of predominantly black South African females with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), findings that were inconsistent with the smoking histories derived from health questionnaires. The discrepant findings suggested either a greater tendency towards underreporting of smoking status in the study cohort, or possible confounding effects of the use of smokeless tobacco products. In addition to the cohort of RA patients (n = 138, of whom 115 (83 %) were female), blood samples were also taken from a second cohort consisting of 29 declared smokers, 18 (62 %) of whom where females, 29 smokeless tobacco (SLT) users (all female), and 22 non-users of any tobacco products, 18 (82 %) of whom were females. Serum cotinine levels were determined using an ELISA procedure. Cotinine levels of >10.0 ng/ml were detected in serum specimens from 43 (31 %), RA patients of whom 35 (81 %) were female, with a median value of 50.1 ng/ml and interquartile range (iqr) of 68.6. Only 18 of the 35 females indicated that they smoked. The groups of declared smokers and SLT users had equivalent median serum cotinine levels of 88.0 ng/ml (iqr = 10.8 ng/ml) and 87.0 ng/ml (iqr = 15.6 ng/ml), respectively, while cotinine was undetectable in specimens from non-tobacco product users (<0.2 ng/ml). Users of SLT products in South Africa are predominantly female and have serum cotinine levels which are comparable with those of current smokers, raising concerns about the validity of measurement of cotinine as the sole objective marker of smoking status in populations with high usage of SLTs. This situation can be rectified by ensuring that usage of SLT products is accurately recorded in health questionnaires, while inclusion of measurement of one or more additional, objective biomarkers of smoking in combination with cotinine may enable reliable

  16. Measuring perceived racism and psychosis in African-Caribbean patients in the United Kingdom: the modified perceived racism scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leavey Gerard

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aim The increased rate of psychosis and poorer service-related outcomes in UK African-Caribbeans may in part be related to racism; racism as an aetiological factor remains comparatively under-investigated. We wanted to develop a measure of perceived racism in UK African-Caribbean patients with psychosis Methods We modified the Perceived Racism Scale (PRS by substituting a mental-health-services' racism domain for the employment-racism domain and administered it to a sample of 150 individuals. Results 110 people completed the PRS with a total mean perceived racism score of 54.2 for the previous year and 71.3 for the lifetime. The modified instrument had good internal consistency, and both a similar factor-analytic structure and sampling adequacy to the original instrument. Clinical Implications The modified PRS was acceptable to the sample, withstands statistical scrutiny and produced similar totals to those in previously-tested populations. Subjective measurement of perceived racism may improve understanding of psychosis in African-Caribbeans, improve engagement and, hopefully, outcome.

  17. Measuring perceived racism and psychosis in African-Caribbean patients in the United Kingdom: the modified perceived racism scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Apu T; McKenzie, Kwame; Leavey, Gerard; King, Michael

    2009-05-20

    The increased rate of psychosis and poorer service-related outcomes in UK African-Caribbeans may in part be related to racism; racism as an aetiological factor remains comparatively under-investigated. We wanted to develop a measure of perceived racism in UK African-Caribbean patients with psychosis We modified the Perceived Racism Scale (PRS) by substituting a mental-health-services' racism domain for the employment-racism domain and administered it to a sample of 150 individuals. 110 people completed the PRS with a total mean perceived racism score of 54.2 for the previous year and 71.3 for the lifetime. The modified instrument had good internal consistency, and both a similar factor-analytic structure and sampling adequacy to the original instrument. The modified PRS was acceptable to the sample, withstands statistical scrutiny and produced similar totals to those in previously-tested populations. Subjective measurement of perceived racism may improve understanding of psychosis in African-Caribbeans, improve engagement and, hopefully, outcome.

  18. PXR and CAR single nucleotide polymorphisms influence plasma efavirenz levels in South African HIV/AIDS patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swart Marelize

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study investigated variation in NR1I2 and NR1I3 and its effect on plasma efavirenz levels in HIV/AIDS patients. Variability in plasma drug levels has largely led research on identifying causative variants in drug metabolising enzyme (DME genes, with little focus on the nuclear receptor genes NR1I2 and NR1I3, coding for PXR and CAR, respectively, that are involved in regulating DMEs. Methods 464 Bantu-speaking South Africans comprising of HIV/AIDS patients on efavirenz-based treatment (n=301 and 163 healthy subjects were genotyped for 6 SNPs in NR1I2 and NR1I3. 32 of the 301 patients had their DNA binding domains (DBDs in NR1I2 and NR1I3 sequenced. Results Significantly decreased efavirenz plasma concentrations were observed in patients carrying the NR1I3 rs3003596C/C and T/C genotypes (P=0.015 and P=0.010, respectively. Sequencing resulted in the discovery of a further 13 SNPs, 3 of which are novel variants in the DBD of NR1I2. There were significant differences in the distribution of NR1I2 and NR1I3 SNPs between South Africans when compared to Caucasian, Asian and Yoruba population groups. Conclusion For the realisation of personalised medicine, PXR and CAR genetic variation should be taken into consideration because of their involvement in the regulation of DMEs.

  19. An East-Asian-type cagA Helicobacter pylori Infected Patient with Clinical Manifestation Gastric Ulcer

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    Yudith Annisa Ayu Rezkitha

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available We reported a male, 72 yo, Chinese ethnic with chief complaint black mushy defecation. Physical examination revealed pale on conjunctival palpebra which confirmed as anemia on complete blood count. Gastroduodenoscopy revealed a 3 mm ulcer at the antrum (Forrest stage III. H. pylori infection was positive based on five different test methods (urinary antibody tests, rapid urease test, culture, histology ad immunohistochemistry. Used polymerase chain reaction-based sequencing, we found the patient infected by CagA producing, East-Asian-type cagA and vacA s1m1-strain. Further analysis using 7 housekeeping genes confirmed that the strain categorized in to hspEAsia group. The patient was given continuous intravenous infusions of proton pump inhibitor and standard triple therapy regimens eradication of H. pylori.

  20. The Obesity-Mortality Paradox in Patients With Heart Failure in Taiwan and a Collaborative Meta-Analysis for East Asian Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Gen-Min; Li, Yi-Hwei; Yin, Wei-Hsian; Wu, Yen-Wen; Chu, Pao-Hsien; Wu, Chih-Cheng; Hsu, Chih-Hsin; Wen, Ming-Shien; Voon, Wen-Chol; Wang, Chun-Chieh; Yeh, San-Jou; Lin, Wei-Shiang

    2016-10-01

    A global heart failure (HF) registry suggested that the inverse association between body mass index (BMI) and all-cause mortality differed by race, particularly stronger in Japanese patients at 1-year follow-up. Whether this finding was consistent across all East Asian populations was unknown. In a multicenter prospective study in Taiwan, we enrolled 1,301 patients hospitalized for systolic HF from 2013 to 2014 and followed up the mortality after their discharge for a median of 1-year period. Cox proportional hazard regression analyses were used to assess the association of BMI with all-cause mortality. The results showed that BMI was inversely associated with all-cause mortality (hazard ratio and 95% CI per 5-kg/m(2) increase: 0.75 [0.62 to 0.91]) after adjusting for demographics, traditional risk factors, HF severity, and medications at discharge. Subsequently, we sought previous studies regarding the BMI association with mortality for East Asian patients with HF from Medline, and a random-effect meta-analysis was performed by the inverse variance method. The meta-analysis including 7 previous eligible studies (3 for the Chinese and 4 for the Japanese cohorts) and the present one showed similar results that BMI was inversely associated with all-cause mortality (hazard ratio 0.65 [0.58 to 0.73], I(2) = 37%). In conclusion, our study in Taiwan and a collaborative meta-analysis confirmed a strong inverse BMI-mortality association consistently among East Asian patients with HF.

  1. Clinical profile and mortality of ST-Segment elevation myocardial- infarction patients receiving thrombolytic -Therapy in the Middle East

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashanth Panduranga

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Little is known about thrombolytic therapy patterns in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI in the Middle East. The objective of this study was to evaluate the clinical profile and mortality of STEMI patients who arrived in hospital within 12 hours from pain onset and received thrombolytic therapy. Patients and Methods: This was a prospective, multinational, multi-centre, observational survey of consecutive acute coronary syndrome patients admitted to 65 hospitals in six Middle Eastern countries during the period between October 2008 and June 2009, as part of Gulf RACE-II (Registry of Acute Coronary Events. Analyses were performed using univariate statistics. Results: Out of 2,465 STEMI patients, 66% (n = 1,586 were thrombolysed with namely: streptokinase (43%, reteplase (44%, tenecteplase (10%, and alteplase (3%. 22.7% received no reperfusion. Median age of the study cohort was 50 (45-59 years with majority being males (91%. The overall median symptom onset-to-presentation and door-to-needle times were 165 (95- 272 minutes and 38 (24-60 minutes, respectively. Generally, patients presenting with higher GRACE risk scores were treated with newer thrombolytic agents (reteplase and tenecteplase (P < 0.001. The use of newer thrombolytic agents was associated with a significantly lower mortality at both 1-month (0.8% vs. 1.7% vs. 4.2%; P = 0.014 and 1-year (0% vs. 1.7% vs. 3.4%; P = 0.044 compared to streptokinase use. Conclusions: Majority of STEMI patients from the Middle East were thrombolysed with streptokinase and reteplase in equal numbers. Nearly one-fifth of patients did not receive any reperfusion therapy. There was inappropriately long symptom-onset to hospital presentation as well as door-to-needle times. Use of newer thrombolytic agents in high risk patients was appropriate. Newer thrombolytic agents were associated with significantly lower mortality at 1-month and 1-year compared to the older agent

  2. Mobile communication tools for a South African deaf patient in a pharmacy context

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chininthorn, P.; Glaser, M.; Freudenthal, A.; Tucker, W.D.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a case of iterative community-based co-design to facilitate the emergence of an innovative mobile system to address a potentially life-threatening scenario for Deaf people in South Africa. For Deaf people who communicate in South African Sign Language, miscommunication due to lan

  3. Mobile communication tools for a South African deaf patient in a pharmacy context

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chininthorn, P.; Glaser, M.; Freudenthal, A.; Tucker, W.D.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a case of iterative community-based co-design to facilitate the emergence of an innovative mobile system to address a potentially life-threatening scenario for Deaf people in South Africa. For Deaf people who communicate in South African Sign Language, miscommunication due to lan

  4. 'Under pressure': how Ghanaian, African-Surinamese and Dutch patients explain hypertension

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beune, E.J.A.J.; Haafkens, J.; Schuster, J.S.; Bindels, P.J.E.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore and compare explanatory models (EMs) of hypertension in native-Dutch, first-generation Ghanaian and African-Surinamese (Surinamese) hypertensives in Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Through semi-structured interviews, we elicited accounts of the nature, causes and

  5. 'Under pressure': how Ghanaian, African-Surinamese and Dutch patients explain hypertension

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.J.A.J. Beune; J. Haafkens; J.S. Schuster; P.J.E. Bindels

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore and compare explanatory models (EMs) of hypertension in native-Dutch, first-generation Ghanaian and African-Surinamese (Surinamese) hypertensives in Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Through semi-structured interviews, we elicited accounts of the nature, causes and con

  6. Multidimensional patient-reported problems within two weeks of HIV diagnosis in East Africa: a multicentre observational study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria Simms

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: We aimed to determine for the first time the prevalence and severity of multidimensional problems in a population newly diagnosed with HIV at outpatient clinics in Africa. METHODS: Recently diagnosed patients (within previous 14 days were consecutively recruited at 11 HIV clinics in Kenya and Uganda. Participants completed a validated questionnaire, the African Palliative Outcome Scale (POS, with three underpinning factors. Ordinal logistic regression was used to evaluate risk factors for prevalence and severity of physical, psychological, interpersonal and existential problems. RESULTS: There were 438 participants (62% female, 30% with restricted physical function. The most prevalent problems were lack of help and advice (47% reported none in the previous 3 days and difficulty sharing feelings. Patients with limited physical function reported more physical/psychological (OR = 3.22 and existential problems (OR = 1.54 but fewer interpersonal problems (OR = 0.50. All outcomes were independent of CD4 count or ART eligibility. CONCLUSIONS: Patients at all disease stages report widespread and burdensome multidimensional problems at HIV diagnosis. Newly diagnosed patients should receive assessment and care for these problems. Effective management of problems at diagnosis may help to remove barriers to retention in care.

  7. Patient-Provider Engagement and Chronic Pain in Drug-Using, Primarily African American Persons Living with HIV/AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Mary M; Nguyen, Trang Q; Maragh-Bass, Allysha C; Isenberg, Sarina R; Beach, Mary Catherine; Knowlton, Amy R

    2016-10-27

    Among disadvantaged persons living with HIV/AIDS (PLHIV), patient-provider engagement, which has been defined as patient-provider relationships that promote the use of health care services and are characterized by active listening and supportive decision making, has been associated with antiretroviral therapy (ART) maintenance and viral suppression. However, chronic pain, depression, and substance use, all of which are prevalent in this population, can reduce the quality of patient-provider engagement. We hypothesized a model in which chronic pain, depression, and substance use would be associated with poorer patient-provider engagement, which would be positively associated with adherence, with the latter associated positively with viral suppression. We analyzed data from the BEACON study, which included surveys from 383 PLHIV who were primarily African American, on ART, and had histories of drug use. Due to six missing cases on the chronic pain variable, we used data from 377 respondents in a structural equation model. Chronic pain and depressive symptoms were significantly associated with poorer patient-provider engagement, while substance use was associated with better engagement. Patient-provider engagement in turn was associated with better ART adherence, which was associated with higher viral suppression. Results suggest the role of chronic pain in poor patient-physician engagement in this population, which has potential implications for quality of HIV patient care and health outcomes. Findings suggest the need for attention to patient-provider engagement in PLHIV.

  8. Evaluation of Mental Health and Related Factors Among Patients with Beta-Thalassemia Major in South East of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morteza Ashrafi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Beta-thalassemia major (β-TM is a chronic, genetic and hematological disorder. Children and teenagers with chronic physical illnesses exemplified by thalassemia are vulnerable to emotional and behavioral problems. The aim of this study was to evaluate mental health and its related factors among young patients with beta-thalassemia major. Methods: In this cross-sectional observational descriptive-analytic study, we studied 164 patients suffering from Beta-thalassemia major with age range of 15-24 years who referred for treatment to Ali Ebn-e Abitaleb (AS University Hospital in Zahedan, a city in South East of Iran, during 2009- 2010. The demographic data and pattern of mental health were collected by standard general health questionnaire (GHQ-28.Data was analyzed using statistical software SPSS (version 17.0; Student t test and Chi-square (χ2 were used. Results: In this study, 96 (58.5% patients were male; the mean age of all patients was 18.78 ±2.28. Based on data analysis, 83 patients (50.8% suspected to have psychiatric disorders (58.8% of girls, 44.8% of boys. In addition, frequency of somatic symptoms, depression disorder, anxiety disorder and social dysfunction in all patients were 7.3%, 11.6%, 8.5% and 4.3% respectively. In illiterate patients, 70.4% suspected to have psychiatric disorder. Except for somatic disorder, other mental disorders were more frequent in girls. No significant association was found between mental state and gender, marital and literacy status and occupation. Conclusion : In this study, due to high prevalence of psychological disorders in young patients with Beta-thalassemia major, especially in girls, we suggest implementing further educational psychological programs to decrease the frequency of disorders. Moreover, conducting more quantitative and comprehensive researches is suggested to evaluate specific effective factors in psycho-social health.

  9. Field Level RNAi-Mediated Resistance to Cassava Brown Streak Disease across Multiple Cropping Cycles and Diverse East African Agro-Ecological Locations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagaba, Henry; Beyene, Getu; Aleu, Jude; Odipio, John; Okao-Okuja, Geoffrey; Chauhan, Raj Deepika; Munga, Theresia; Obiero, Hannington; Halsey, Mark E.; Ilyas, Muhammad; Raymond, Peter; Bua, Anton; Taylor, Nigel J.; Miano, Douglas; Alicai, Titus

    2017-01-01

    Cassava brown streak disease (CBSD) presents a serious threat to cassava production in East and Central Africa. Currently, no cultivars with high levels of resistance to CBSD are available to farmers. Transgenic RNAi technology was employed to combat CBSD by fusing coat protein (CP) sequences from Ugandan cassava brown streak virus (UCBSV) and Cassava brown streak virus (CBSV) to create an inverted repeat construct (p5001) driven by the constitutive Cassava vein mosaic virus promoter. Twenty-five plant lines of cultivar TME 204 expressing varying levels of small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) were established in confined field trials (CFTs) in Uganda and Kenya. Within an initial CFT at Namulonge, Uganda, non-transgenic TME 204 plants developed foliar and storage root CBSD incidences at 96–100% by 12 months after planting. In contrast, 16 of the 25 p5001 transgenic lines showed no foliar symptoms and had less than 8% of their storage roots symptomatic for CBSD. A direct positive correlation was seen between levels of resistance to CBSD and expression of transgenic CP-derived siRNAs. A subsequent CFT was established at Namulonge using stem cuttings from the initial trial. All transgenic lines established remained asymptomatic for CBSD, while 98% of the non-transgenic TME 204 stake-derived plants developed storage roots symptomatic for CBSD. Similarly, very high levels of resistance to CBSD were demonstrated by TME 204 p5001 RNAi lines grown within a CFT over a full cropping cycle at Mtwapa, coastal Kenya. Sequence analysis of CBSD causal viruses present at the trial sites showed that the transgenic lines were exposed to both CBSV and UCBSV, and that the sequenced isolates shared >90% CP identity with transgenic CP sequences expressed by the p5001 inverted repeat expression cassette. These results demonstrate very high levels of field resistance to CBSD conferred by the p5001 RNAi construct at diverse agro-ecological locations, and across the vegetative cropping cycle

  10. Causes of unrest at silicic calderas in the East African Rift: New constraints from InSAR and soil-gas chemistry at Aluto volcano, Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchison, William; Biggs, Juliet; Mather, Tamsin A.; Pyle, David M.; Lewi, Elias; Yirgu, Gezahegn; Caliro, Stefano; Chiodini, Giovanni; Clor, Laura E.; Fischer, Tobias P.

    2016-08-01

    Restless silicic calderas present major geological hazards, and yet many also host significant untapped geothermal resources. In East Africa, this poses a major challenge, although the calderas are largely unmonitored their geothermal resources could provide substantial economic benefits to the region. Understanding what causes unrest at these volcanoes is vital for weighing up the opportunities against the potential risks. Here we bring together new field and remote sensing observations to evaluate causes of ground deformation at Aluto, a restless silicic volcano located in the Main Ethiopian Rift (MER). Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) data reveal the temporal and spatial characteristics of a ground deformation episode that took place between 2008 and 2010. Deformation time series reveal pulses of accelerating uplift that transition to gradual long-term subsidence, and analytical models support inflation source depths of ˜5 km. Gases escaping along the major fault zone of Aluto show high CO2 flux, and a clear magmatic carbon signature (CO2-δ13C of -4.2‰ to -4.5‰). This provides compelling evidence that the magmatic and hydrothermal reservoirs of the complex are physically connected. We suggest that a coupled magmatic-hydrothermal system can explain the uplift-subsidence signals. We hypothesize that magmatic fluid injection and/or intrusion in the cap of the magmatic reservoir drives edifice-wide inflation while subsequent deflation is related to magmatic degassing and depressurization of the hydrothermal system. These new constraints on the plumbing of Aluto yield important insights into the behavior of rift volcanic systems and will be crucial for interpreting future patterns of unrest.

  11. Incarceration and Unstable Housing Interact to Predict Sexual Risk Behaviors among African American STD Clinic Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widman, Laura; Noar, Seth M.; Golin, Carol E.; Willoughby, Jessica Fitts; Crosby, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Given dramatic racial disparities in rates of HIV/STDs among African Americans, understanding broader structural factors that increase the risk for HIV/STDs is crucial. This study investigated incarceration history and unstable housing as two structural predictors of HIV risk behavior among 293 African Americans (159 men/134 women, Mage=27). Participants were recruited from an urban STD clinic in the southeastern U.S. Approximately half the sample had been incarcerated in their lifetime (54%), and 43% had been unstably housed in the past 6 months. Incarceration was independently associated with number of sex partners and the frequency of unprotected sex. Unstable housing was independently associated with the frequency of unprotected sex. However, these main effects were qualified by significant interactions: individuals with a history of incarceration and more unstable housing had more sex partners and more unprotected sex in the past three months than individuals without these structural barriers. Implications for structural-level interventions are discussed. PMID:24060677

  12. B lymphocyte stimulator levels in systemic lupus erythematosus: higher circulating levels in African American patients and increased production after influenza vaccination in patients with low baseline levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritterhouse, Lauren L; Crowe, Sherry R; Niewold, Timothy B; Merrill, Joan T; Roberts, Virginia C; Dedeke, Amy B; Neas, Barbara R; Thompson, Linda F; Guthridge, Joel M; James, Judith A

    2011-12-01

    To examine the relationship between circulating B lymphocyte stimulator (BLyS) levels and humoral responses to influenza vaccination in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients, as well as the effect of vaccination on BLyS levels, and to investigate clinical and serologic features of SLE that are associated with elevated BLyS levels. Clinical history, disease activity measurements, and blood specimens were collected from 60 SLE patients at baseline and after influenza vaccination. Sera were tested for BLyS levels, lupus-associated autoantibodies, serum interferon-α (IFNα) activity, 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D), and humoral responses to influenza vaccination. Thirty percent of the SLE patients had elevated BLyS levels, with African American patients having higher BLyS levels than white patients (P = 0.006). Baseline BLyS levels in patients were not correlated with humoral responses to influenza vaccination (P = 0.863), and BLyS levels increased postvaccination only in the subset of patients with BLyS levels in the lowest quartile (P = 0.0003). Elevated BLyS levels were associated with increased disease activity, as measured by the SLE Disease Activity Index, physician's global assessment, and Systemic Lupus Activity Measure in white patients (P = 0.035, P = 0.016, and P = 0.018, respectively), but not in African Americans. Elevated BLyS levels were also associated with anti-nuclear RNP (P = 0.0003) and decreased 25(OH)D (P = 0.018). Serum IFNα activity was a significant predictor of elevated BLyS in a multivariate analysis (P = 0.002). Our findings indicate that African American patients with SLE have higher BLyS levels regardless of disease activity. Humoral response to influenza vaccination is not correlated with baseline BLyS levels in SLE patients, and only those patients with low baseline BLyS levels demonstrate an increased BLyS response after vaccination. Copyright © 2011 by the American College of Rheumatology.

  13. An observational study of patient characteristics associated with the mode of admission to acute stroke services in North East, England.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher I Price

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Effective provision of urgent stroke care relies upon admission to hospital by emergency ambulance and may involve pre-hospital redirection. The proportion and characteristics of patients who do not arrive by emergency ambulance and their impact on service efficiency is unclear. To assist in the planning of regional stroke services we examined the volume, characteristics and prognosis of patients according to the mode of presentation to local services. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: A prospective regional database of consecutive acute stroke admissions was conducted in North East, England between 01/09/10-30/09/11. Case ascertainment and transport mode were checked against hospital coding and ambulance dispatch databases. RESULTS: Twelve acute stroke units contributed data for a mean of 10.7 months. 2792/3131 (89% patients received a diagnosis of stroke within 24 hours of admission: 2002 arrivals by emergency ambulance; 538 by private transport or non-emergency ambulance; 252 unknown mode. Emergency ambulance patients were older (76 vs 69 years, more likely to be from institutional care (10% vs 1% and experiencing total anterior circulation symptoms (27% vs 6%. Thrombolysis treatment was commoner following emergency admission (11% vs 4%. However patients attending without emergency ambulance had lower inpatient mortality (2% vs 18%, a lower rate of institutionalisation (1% vs 6% and less need for daily carers (7% vs 16%. 149/155 (96% of highly dependent patients were admitted by emergency ambulance, but none received thrombolysis. CONCLUSION: Presentations of new stroke without emergency ambulance involvement were not unusual but were associated with a better outcome due to younger age, milder neurological impairment and lower levels of pre-stroke dependency. Most patients with a high level of pre-stroke dependency arrived by emergency ambulance but did not receive thrombolysis. It is important to be aware of easily identifiable

  14. TDRS satellite over African Rift Valley, Kenya, Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    This post deploy view of a TDRS satellite shows a segment of the African Rift Valley near Lake Baringo, Kenya, Africa (3.0S, 36.0E). The African Rift Valley system is a geologic fault having its origins in southern Turkey, through the near east forming the bed of the Jordan River, Gulf of Aqaba, the Red Sea and down through east Africa. The line of lakes and valleys of east Africa are the result of the faulting activity.

  15. Child-Pugh-Turcott versus Meld score for predicting survival in a retrospective cohort of black African cirrhotic patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KA Attia; KC Ackoundou-N'guessan; AT N'dri-yoman; AK Mahassadi; E Messou; YF Bathaix; YH Kissi

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To compare the performance of the Child-Pugh-Turcott (CPT) score to that of the model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) score in predicting survival of a retrospective cohort of 172 Black African patients with cirrhosis on a short and mid-term basis.METHODS: Univariate and multivariate (Cox model)analyses were used to identify factors related to mortality. Relationship between the two scores was appreciated by calculating the correlation coefficient.The Kaplan Meier method and the log rank test were used to elaborate and compare survival respectively.The Areas Under the Curves were used to compare the performance between scores at 3, 6 and 12 mo.RESULTS: The study population comprised 172 patients, of which 68.9% were male. The mean age of the patient was 47.5 ± 13 years. Hepatitis B virus infection was the cause of cirrhosis in 70% of the cases.The overall mortality was 31.4% over 11 years of follow up. Independent factors significantly associated with mortality were: CPT score (HR = 3.3, 95% CI [1.7-6.2])(P 1.5 mg/dL versus serum creatine 21 vs MELD < 21). The area under the curves (AUC)that predict survival was 0.72 and 0.75 at 3 mo (P = 0.68),0.64 and 0.62 at 6 mo (P = 0.67), 0.69 and 0.64 at 12 mo (P = 0.38) respectively for the CPT score and the MELD score.CONCLUSION: The CPT score displays the same prognostic significance as does the MELD score in black African patients with cirrhosis. Moreover, its handling appears less cumbersome in clinical practice as compared to the latter.

  16. Frequency of epidermal growth factor receptor mutations in Jordanian lung adenocarcinoma patients at diagnosis

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    Natheir Obeidat

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: The present study revealed that the EGFR mutations rate in Jordanian patients with adenocarcinoma of the lung was higher than in African-American, and some white Caucasian patients, and was lower than in patients in East Asia, and other countries of South Asia.

  17. Delays in seeking treatment for symptomatic tuberculosis in Sabah, East Malaysia: factors for patient delay.

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    Rundi, C; Fielding, K; Godfrey-Faussett, P; Rodrigues, L C; Mangtani, P

    2011-09-01

    The state of Sabah contributes one third of the tuberculosis (TB) cases in Malaysia. To collect information on factors that affect the time period from the onset of symptoms to first contact with health care providers, whether private or government. A cross-sectional study using a pre-tested questionnaire was conducted among 296 newly registered smear-positive TB patients in 10 districts in Sabah. Univariable and multivariable analyses were used to determine which risk factors were associated with patient delay (>30 days) and 'extreme' patient delay (>90 days). The percentage of patients who sought treatment after 30 and 90 days was respectively 51.8% (95%CI 45.7-57.9) and 23.5% (95%CI 18.6-29.0). The strongest factors associated with patient delay and 'extreme' patient delay was when the first choice for treatment was a non-government health facility and in 30-39-year-olds. 'Extreme' patient delay was also weakly associated, among other factors, with comorbidity and livestock ownership. Delay and extreme delay in seeking treatment were more common when the usual first treatment choice was a non-government health facility. Continuous health education on TB aimed at raising awareness and correcting misconceptions is needed, particularly among those who use non-government facilities.

  18. Medical students' experiences of professional lapses and patient rights abuses in a South African health sciences faculty.

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    Vivian, Lauraine M H; Naidu, Claudia S; Keikelame, Mpoe J; Irlam, James

    2011-10-01

    To elicit South African medical students' experiences of witnessing patient rights abuses and professional lapses during their clinical training in order to inform an appropriate and effective response. During June and July 2009 at the University of Cape Town Faculty of Health Sciences, the authors surveyed 223 fourth-, fifth-, and sixth-year medical students in selected clinical rotations concerning abuses they had observed. Volunteers were later interviewed individually. The authors coded interview transcripts for key themes using a constant-comparative grounded theory approach. Of 223 students surveyed, 183 (82%) responded, 130 (71%) of whom reported witnessing patient rights abuses and professional lapses, including physical abuse (38%), verbal abuse (37%), disrespect for patients' dignity (25%), and inadequately informing patients about their treatment (25%). Students attributed abuse to stressed health workers, overburdened facilities, and disempowered patients. Most students who witnessed abuse (59%) did not actively respond, and 64% of survey respondents felt unprepared or uncertain about challenging abuses in the future. Interviews with 28 students yielded detailed accounts of the abuses witnessed and of students' emotional reactions, coping strategies, and responses. Most students did not report abuses; they feared reprisal or doubted it would make a difference. This study demonstrates the disjunction between what these students were taught about human rights and ethics and what they witnessed in clinical settings. The high prevalence of patient rights abuses experienced by these students highlights the need to align medical ethics and human rights with medico-legal protocols in theory and clinical practice.

  19. Functioning in patients with major depression treated with duloxetine or a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor in East Asia

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    Novick D

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Diego Novick,1 William Montgomery,2 Josep Maria Haro,3 Maria Victoria Moneta,3 Gang Zhu,4 Li Yue,5 Jihyung Hong,6 Héctor Dueñas,7 Roberto Brugnoli8 1Eli Lilly and Company, Windlesham, Surrey, UK; 2Eli Lilly Australia Pty Ltd, West Ryde, NSW, Australia; 3Parc Sanitari Sant Joan de Déu, Fundació Sant Joan de Déu, CIBERSAM, Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain; 4Department of Psychiatry, The First Affiliated Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang, 5Lilly Suzhou Pharmaceutical Company, Ltd, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China; 6Department of Healthcare Management, Gachon University, Seongnam, South Korea; 7Eli Lilly de Mexico, Mexico City, Mexico; 8School of Medicine, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, ItalyPurpose: To assess and compare the levels of functioning in patients with major depressive disorder treated with either duloxetine with a daily dose of ≤60 mg or a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI as monotherapy for up to 6 months in a naturalistic setting in East Asia. In addition, this study examined the impact of painful physical symptoms (PPS on the effects of these treatments.Patients and methods: Data for this post hoc analysis were taken from a 6-month prospective observational study involving 1,549 patients with major depressive disorder without sexual dysfunction. The present analysis focused on a subgroup of patients from East Asia (n=587. Functioning was measured using the Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS. Depression severity was assessed using the 16-item Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology-Self Report. PPS were rated using the modified Somatic Symptom Inventory. A mixed model with repeated measures was fitted to compare the levels of functioning between duloxetine-treated (n=227 and SSRI-treated (n=225 patients, adjusting for baseline patient characteristics.Results: The mean SDS total score was similar between the two treatment cohorts (15.46 [standard deviation =6.11] in the duloxetine

  20. Molecular Epidemiology of HIV Type 1 CRF02_AG in Cameroon and African Patients Living in Italy

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    Véras, Nazle Mendonca Collaço; Santoro, Maria Mercedes; Gray, Rebecca R.; Tatem, Andrew J.; Presti, Alessandra Lo; Olearo, Flaminia; Cappelli, Giulia; Colizzi, Vittorio; Takou, Desiré; Torimiro, Judith; Russo, Gianluca; Callegaro, Annapaola; Salpini, Romina; D'Arrigo, Roberta; Perno, Carlo-Federico; Goodenow, Maureen M.; Ciccozzi, Massimo

    2011-01-01

    Abstract HIV-1 CRF02_AG accounts for >50% of infected individuals in Cameroon. CRF02_AG prevalence has been increasing both in Africa and Europe, particularly in Italy because of migrations from the sub-Saharan region. This study investigated the molecular epidemiology of CRF02_AG in Cameroon by employing Bayesian phylodynamics and analyzed the relationship between HIV-1 CRF02_AG isolates circulating in Italy and those prevalent in Africa to understand the link between the two epidemics. Among 291 Cameroonian reverse transcriptase sequences analyzed, about 70% clustered within three distinct clades, two of which shared a most recent common ancestor, all related to sequences from Western Africa. The major Cameroonian clades emerged during the mid-1970s and slowly spread during the next 30 years. Little or no geographic structure was detected within these clades. One of the major driving forces of the epidemic was likely the high accessibility between locations in Southern Cameroon contributing to the mobility of the population. The remaining Cameroonian sequences and the new strains isolated from Italian patients were interspersed mainly within West and Central African sequences in the tree, indicating a continuous exchange of CRF02_AG viral strains between Cameroon and other African countries, as well as multiple independent introductions in the Italian population. The evaluation of the spread of CRF02_AG may provide significant insight about the future dynamics of the Italian and European epidemic. PMID:21453131

  1. Prevalence of HTLV-1 Antibody among Major Thalassemic Patients in Gorgan (South East of Caspian Sea)

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    Moradi, A.; Mansurian, A. R.; Ahmadi, A. R.; Ghaemi, E.; Kalavi, K. H.; Marjani, A.; Sanei Moghaddam, E.

    In this study, the prevalence of HTLV-1 infection among the thalassemic patients was investigated. 181 thalassemic patients whom referred to Talghani hospital during, Oct. 2004-Sep. 2005 were participated in this study. HTLV antibody was determined using ELISA technique. In this procedure (Diapron laboratory kit) HTLV, positive samples tested by HTLV-1 western blot (kit, 2.4) to confirm, ELISA positive samples and also to detect the HTLV types. From 181 thalassemic patients, 93 (51.4%) were males. The age rate of these ranged 1-25 years, (mean of 14.11±6.5). Of these subjects 169 patients (93.4%) were received packet cell at least one unite per month. 28(14.9%) of subjects were HTLV positive, while only 4.4% of them were confirmed by western blot and also for contamination with type-1 virus infection. Contamination with this virus increased, as the patients were getting older. The findings derived from this study indicated that among the thalassemic patients in Gorgan there were cases with HTLV-1, infection that was correlated with the other part of the country. It is therefore concluded; that further comprehensive studies are required to identify infected blood donations by blood donors in Gorgan.

  2. Determinants of the accuracy of rapid diagnostic tests in malaria case management: evidence from low and moderate transmission settings in the East African highlands

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    Rapuoda Beth

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The accuracy of malaria diagnosis has received renewed interest in recent years due to changes in treatment policies in favour of relatively high-cost artemisinin-based combination therapies. The use of rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs based on histidine-rich protein 2 (HRP2 synthesized by Plasmodium falciparum has been widely advocated to save costs and to minimize inappropriate treatment of non-malarial febrile illnesses. HRP2-based RDTs are highly sensitive and stable; however, their specificity is a cause for concern, particularly in areas of intense malaria transmission due to persistence of HRP2 antigens from previous infections. Methods In this study, 78,454 clinically diagnosed malaria patients were tested using HRP2-based RDTs over a period of approximately four years in four highland sites in Kenya and Uganda representing hypoendemic to mesoendemic settings. In addition, the utility of the tests was evaluated in comparison with expert microscopy for disease management in 2,241 subjects in two sites with different endemicity levels over four months. Results RDT positivity rates varied by season and year, indicating temporal changes in accuracy of clinical diagnosis. Compared to expert microscopy, the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of the RDTs in a hypoendemic site were 90.0%, 99.9%, 90.0% and 99.9%, respectively. Corresponding measures at a mesoendemic site were 91.0%, 65.0%, 71.6% and 88.1%. Although sensitivities at the two sites were broadly comparable, levels of specificity varied considerably between the sites as well as according to month of test, age of patient, and presence or absence of fever during consultation. Specificity was relatively high in older age groups and increased towards the end of the transmission season, indicating the role played by anti-HRP2 antibodies. Patients with high parasite densities were more likely to test positive with RDTs than

  3. East Mediterranean region sickle cell disease mortality trial: retrospective multicenter cohort analysis of 735 patients.

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    Karacaoglu, Pelin Kardaş; Asma, Suheyl; Korur, Aslı; Solmaz, Soner; Buyukkurt, Nurhilal Turgut; Gereklioglu, Cigdem; Kasar, Mutlu; Ozbalcı, Demircan; Unal, Selma; Kaya, Hasan; Gurkan, Emel; Yeral, Mahmut; Sariturk, Çagla; Boga, Can; Ozdogu, Hakan

    2016-05-01

    Sickle cell disease (SCD), one of the most common genetic disorders worldwide, is characterized by hemolytic anemia and tissue damage from the rigid red blood cells. Although hydroxyurea and transfusion therapy are administered to treat the accompanying tissue injury, whether either one prolongs the lifespan of patients with SCD is unknown. SCD-related mortality data are available, but there are few studies on mortality-related factors based on evaluations of surviving patients. In addition, ethnic variability in patient registries has complicated detailed analyses. The aim of this study was to investigate mortality and mortality-related factors among an ethnically homogeneous population of patients with SCD. The 735 patients (102 children and 633 adults) included in this retrospective cohort study were of Eti-Turk origin and selected from 1367 patients seen at 5 regional hospitals. A central population management system was used to control for records of patient mortality. Data reliability was checked by a data supervision group. Mortality-related factors and predictors were identified in univariate and multivariate analyses using a Cox regression model with stepwise forward selection. The study group included patients with homozygous hemoglobin S (Hgb S) disease (67 %), Hb S-β(0) thalassemia (17 %), Hgb S-β(+) thalassemia (15 %), and Hb S-α thalassemia (1 %). They were followed for a median of 66 ± 44 (3-148) months. Overall mortality at 5 years was 6.1 %. Of the 45 patients who died, 44 (6 %) were adults and 1 (0.1 %) was a child. The mean age at death was 34.1 ± 10 (18-54) years for males, 40.1 ± 15 (17-64) years for females, and 36.6 ± 13 (17-64) years overall. Hydroxyurea was found to have a notable positive effect on mortality (p = 0.009). Mortality was also significantly related to hypertension and renal damage in a univariate analysis (p = 0.015 and p = 0.000, respectively). Acute chest syndrome

  4. Incidence and Risk Factors for Delirium among Mechanically Ventilated Patients in an African Intensive Care Setting: An Observational Multicenter Study

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    Arthur Kwizera

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Delirium is common among mechanically ventilated patients in the intensive care unit (ICU. There are little data regarding delirium among mechanically ventilated patients in Africa. We sought to determine the burden of delirium and associated factors in Uganda. Methods. We conducted a multicenter prospective study among mechanically ventilated patients in Uganda. Eligible patients were screened daily for delirium using the confusional assessment method (CAM-ICU. Comparisons were made using t-test, chi-squares, and Fisher’s exact test. Predictors were assessed using logistic regression. The level of statistical significance was set at P<0.05. Results. Of 160 patients, 81 (51% had delirium. Median time to onset of delirium was 3.7 days. At bivariate analysis, history of mental illness, sedation, multiorgan dysfunction, neurosurgery, tachypnea, low mean arterial pressure, oliguria, fevers, metabolic acidosis, respiratory acidosis, anaemia, physical restraints, marital status, and endotracheal tube use were significant predictors. At multivariable analysis, having a history of mental illness, sedation, respiratory acidosis, higher PEEP, endotracheal tubes, and anaemia predicted delirium. Conclusion. The prevalence of delirium in a young African population is lower than expected considering the high mortality. A history of mental illness, anaemia, sedation, endotracheal tube use, and respiratory acidosis were factors associated with delirium.

  5. Anti-Fibrillarin Antibody in African American Patients with Systemic Sclerosis: Immunogenetics, Clinical Features, and Survival Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharif, Roozbeh; Fritzler, Marvin J.; Mayes, Maureen D.; Gonzalez, Emilio B.; McNearney, Terry A.; Draeger, Hilda; Baron, Murray; Furst, Daniel E.; Khanna, Dinesh; del Junco, Deborah J.; Molitor, Jerry A.; Schiopu, Elena; Phillips, Kristine; Seibold, James R.; Silver, Richard M.; Simms, Robert; Perry, Marilyn; Rojo, Carlos; Charles, Julio; Zhou, Xiaodong; Agarwal, Sandeep K.; Reveille, John D.; Assassi, Shervin; Arnett, Frank C.

    2011-01-01

    Background Anti-U3-RNP or anti-fibrillarin antibodies (AFA) are detected more frequently among African American (AA) patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc) compared to other ethnic groups and are associated with distinct clinical features. The current study examines the immunogenetic, clinical, and survival correlates of AFA in a large group of AA patients with SSc. Methods Overall, 278 AA SSc patients and 328 unaffected AA controls were enrolled from three North American cohorts. Clinical features, autoantibody profile, and HLA-class-II genotyping were captured. To compare the clinical manifestations, relevant clinical features were adjusted for disease duration. The Cox proportional hazards regression was used to determine the effect of AFA on survival. Results Fifty (18.5%) AA patients had AFA. After Bonferroni correction, HLA-DRB1*08:04 was associated with AFA, compared to unaffected AA controls (OR=11.5, pdisease onset, higher frequency of digital ulcers, diarrhea, pericarditis, higher Medsger Perivascular and lower Lung Severity Indices (p=0.004, p=0.014, p=0.019, p=0.092, p=0.006, and p=0.016, respectively). After adjustment for age at enrollment, AFA positive patients did not have different survival compared with patients without AFA (p=0.493). Conclusion These findings demonstrate strong association between AFA and HLA-DRB1*08:04 allele in AA patients with SSc. Moreover, AA SSc patients with AFA had younger age of onset, higher frequency of digital ulcers, pericarditis, and severe lower gastrointestinal involvement, but less severe lung involvement compared to AA patients without AFA. However, presence of AFA did not change survival. PMID:21572159

  6. Oral manifestations and related factors of HIV positive patients in south-east of Iran

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    Shirin Saravani

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Oral manifestations can be the first signs of human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS and a useful marker for the progression of this disease. The present study aimed to determine the prevalence of oral manifestations and examine their relationship with socio-demographic factors in HIV-positive patients in the health centers affiliated to Zahedan University of Medical Sciences (Southeast Iran. Methods: In this cross-sectional study in addition to determining oral manifestations based on the classification of EC-clearing house (European Commission clearing house, information such as age, gender, marital status, residence, education, occupation, habits, oral hygiene, loss of weight in the last six months. Body Mass Index (BMI, mode of HIV transmission, stage of disease, anti-retroviral therapy (ART, and duration of HIV were gathered through direct question from the patients or the information contained in their records. Then the relationship between various factors and oral manifestations was analyzed using Chi-square, Fisher’s Exact Test, Student T Test, Mann- Whitney tests and logistic regression. Results: Oral examination was performed on 119 HIV-positive patients who were 69.7% male and 30.3% female and had a mean age of 35.4±12.7 years. Oral manifestations were found in 57.1% of the patients. Pseudomembranous candidiasis (34.1% and linear gingival erythema (33% were the most common lesions in these patients. The probability of oral manifestations occurrence increased with age and duration of smoking in smokers with HIV (P=0.036 and P=0.012, respectively. Conclusion: Most oral manifestations were those strongly associated with HIV infection (91%. Timely diagnosis and treatment of oral manifestations in HIV patients should be considered in conjunction with other treatments.

  7. Outcome of patients with carbon monoxide poisoning at a far-east poison center.

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    Chung-Hsuan Ku

    Full Text Available Many cases of carbon monoxide poisoning in Taiwan are due to burning charcoal. Nevertheless, few reports have analyzed the mortality rate of these patients who survive to reach a hospital and die despite intensive treatment. Therefore, this study examined the clinical features, physiological markers, and outcomes after carbon monoxide poisoning and the associations between these findings.We analyzed the records of 261 patients who were referred for management of carbon monoxide intoxication between 2000 and 2010. Patients were grouped according to status at discharge as alive (survivor, n = 242 or dead (non-survivor, n = 19. Demographic, clinical, laboratory, and mortality data were obtained for analysis.Approximately half of the cases (49.4% attempted suicide by burning charcoal. Most of the patients were middle-aged adults (33±19 years, and were referred to our hospital in a relatively short period of time (6±10 hours. Carbon monoxide produced many serious complications after exposure: fever (26.1%, hypothermia (9.6%, respiratory failure (34.1%, shock (8.4%, myocardial infarction (8.0%, gastrointestinal upset (34.9%, hepatitis (18.4%, renal failure (25.3%, coma (18.0% and rhabdomyolysis (21.8%. Furthermore, the non-survivors suffered greater incidences of hypothermia (P<0.001, respiratory failure (P<0.001, shock (P<0.001, hepatitis ((P=0.016, renal failure (P=0.003, coma (P<0.001 than survivors. All patients were treated with high concentration of oxygen therapy using non-rebreather mask. However, hyperbaric oxygen therapy was only used in 18.8% of the patients. In a multivariate-Cox-regression model, it was revealed that shock status was a significant predictor for mortality after carbon monoxide poisoning (OR 8.696, 95% CI 2.053-37.370, P=0.003. Finally, Kaplan-Meier analysis confirmed that patients with shock suffered greater cumulative mortality than without shock (Log-rank test, Chi-square 147.404, P<0.001.The mortality rate for

  8. Factors associated with negative direct sputum examination in Asian and African HIV-infected patients with tuberculosis (ANRS 1260.

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    Loïc Chartier

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To identify factors associated with negative direct sputum examination among African and Cambodian patients co-infected by Mycobacterium tuberculosis and HIV. DESIGN: Prospective multicenter study (ANRS1260 conducted in Cambodia, Senegal and Central African Republic. METHODS: Univariate and multivariate analyses (logistic regression were used to identify clinical and radiological features associated with negative direct sputum examination in HIV-infected patients with positive M. tuberculosis culture on Lowenstein-Jensen medium. RESULTS: Between September 2002 and December 2005, 175 co-infected patients were hospitalized with at least one respiratory symptom and pulmonary radiographic anomaly. Acid-fast bacillus (AFB examination was positive in sputum samples from 110 subjects (63% and negative in 65 patients (37%. Most patients were at an advanced stage of HIV disease (92% at stage III or IV of the WHO classification with a median CD4 cell count of 36/mm³. In this context, we found that sputum AFB negativity was more frequent in co-infected subjects with associated respiratory tract infections (OR = 2.8 [95%CI:1.1-7.0], dyspnea (OR = 2.5 [95%CI:1.1-5.6], and localized interstitial opacities (OR = 3.1 [95%CI:1.3-7.6], but was less frequent with CD4 ≤ 50/mm³ (OR = 0.4 [95%CI:0.2-0.90, adenopathies (OR = 0.4 [95%CI:0.2-0.93] and cavitation (OR = 0.1 [95%CI:0.03-0.6]. CONCLUSIONS: One novel finding of this study is the association between concomitant respiratory tract infection and negative sputum AFB, particularly in Cambodia. This finding suggests that repeating AFB testing in AFB-negative patients should be conducted when broad spectrum antibiotic treatment does not lead to complete recovery from respiratory symptoms. In HIV-infected patients with a CD4 cell count below 50/mm3 without an identified cause of pneumonia, systematic AFB direct sputum examination is justified because of atypical clinical

  9. Factors associated with negative direct sputum examination in Asian and African HIV-infected patients with tuberculosis (ANRS 1260).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chartier, Loïc; Leng, Chanthy; Sire, Jean-Marie; Le Minor, Odile; Saman, Manil; Bercion, Raymond; Rahalison, Lila; Fontanet, Arnaud; Germany, Yves; L'her, Pierre; Mayaud, Charles; Vray, Muriel

    2011-01-01

    To identify factors associated with negative direct sputum examination among African and Cambodian patients co-infected by Mycobacterium tuberculosis and HIV. Prospective multicenter study (ANRS1260) conducted in Cambodia, Senegal and Central African Republic. Univariate and multivariate analyses (logistic regression) were used to identify clinical and radiological features associated with negative direct sputum examination in HIV-infected patients with positive M. tuberculosis culture on Lowenstein-Jensen medium. Between September 2002 and December 2005, 175 co-infected patients were hospitalized with at least one respiratory symptom and pulmonary radiographic anomaly. Acid-fast bacillus (AFB) examination was positive in sputum samples from 110 subjects (63%) and negative in 65 patients (37%). Most patients were at an advanced stage of HIV disease (92% at stage III or IV of the WHO classification) with a median CD4 cell count of 36/mm³. In this context, we found that sputum AFB negativity was more frequent in co-infected subjects with associated respiratory tract infections (OR = 2.8 [95%CI:1.1-7.0]), dyspnea (OR = 2.5 [95%CI:1.1-5.6]), and localized interstitial opacities (OR = 3.1 [95%CI:1.3-7.6]), but was less frequent with CD4 ≤ 50/mm³ (OR = 0.4 [95%CI:0.2-0.90), adenopathies (OR = 0.4 [95%CI:0.2-0.93]) and cavitation (OR = 0.1 [95%CI:0.03-0.6]). One novel finding of this study is the association between concomitant respiratory tract infection and negative sputum AFB, particularly in Cambodia. This finding suggests that repeating AFB testing in AFB-negative patients should be conducted when broad spectrum antibiotic treatment does not lead to complete recovery from respiratory symptoms. In HIV-infected patients with a CD4 cell count below 50/mm3 without an identified cause of pneumonia, systematic AFB direct sputum examination is justified because of atypical clinical features (without cavitation) and high pulmonary mycobacterial

  10. Low-income status is an important risk factor in North East Mexican patients with cystic fibrosis.

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    Sánchez-Domínguez, Celia Nohemí; Reyes-López, Miguel Angel; Bustamante, Adriana; Treviño, Víctor; Martínez-Rodríguez, Herminia Guadalupe; Rojas-Martínez, Augusto; Barrera-Saldaña, Hugo Alberto; Ortiz-López, Rocío

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND. Factors such as environment, income status, as well as access to proper healthcare influence the survival and quality of life of people affected by chronic diseases including cystic fibrosis (CF). Survival factors in Mexican patients with CF have not been reported before, even when it has been estimated that this disease could not be negligible in the Mexican population. OBJECTIVE. To compare the influence of the mutant allele ΔF508 and environmental factors on the survival of Mexican CF patients. MATERIAL AND METHODS. We collected epidemiological data of 40 patients molecularly tested between 1987 and 2008 in the Clínica de Fibrosis Quística from the Hospital Universitario of the Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León in Northeastern México. Kaplan-Meier plots and survival statistics were estimated and compared. RESULTS. Survival analysis revealed statistical significance for low-income status (p = 3.13 x 10-6), cor pulmonale (p = 0.00169), severe pulmonary disease (p = 0.00136), and BMI ≤15 kg/m2 (p = 0.00678). Statistical significance was not observed for the predominant allele ΔF508 considering two (p = 0.992), one (p = 0.503) or no (p = 0.403) mutant allele. CONCLUSIONS. Low income status was the most detrimental factor; followed by cor pulmonale, severe pulmonary disease and BMI ≤ 15 kg/m2 for the survival in North East Mexican patients with CF. Carrying the ΔF508 allele did not influence survival.

  11. Child neurology practice and neurological disorders in East Africa.

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    Idro, Richard; Newton, Charles; Kiguli, Sarah; Kakooza-Mwesige, Angelina

    2010-04-01

    Neurological disorders, including neurodevelopmental disorders, have been identified by the World Health Organization (WHO) as one of the greatest threats to global public health. It is generally believed that these conditions are more prevalent in the developing than the developed world because of multiple known risk factors such as infections, malnutrition, and limited resources for obstetric and neonatal management. In East Africa, few investigations have been conducted to obtain data on the magnitude and description of neurological disorders among children, and the practice of child neurology is faced with challenges cutting across areas of health personnel, patient diagnosis, management, and rehabilitation. This article reviews the burden, types, and causes of neurological disorders in the East African region. The challenges and successes in the practice of child neurology and recommendations for the future are discussed.

  12. The great East Japan earthquake: blood pressure control in patients with chronic kidney disease.

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    Tanaka, Kenichi; Nakayama, Masaaki; Tani, Yoshihiro; Watanabe, Kimio; Asai, Jun; Hayashi, Yoshimitsu; Asahi, Koichi; Watanabe, Tsuyoshi

    2012-09-01

    At 1446 on 11 March 2011, northeastern Japan was struck by a major earthquake measuring 9.0 on the Richter scale. There have been several reports of transient blood pressure increases after a major earthquake, but the impact of a major earthquake on blood pressure in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients has not been fully investigated. Changes in clinic blood pressure following the earthquake were investigated in 132 hypertensive patients with stage 3 and 4 CKD who were residents of Fukushima City. Both systolic and diastolic blood pressures were significantly elevated 1-3 weeks after the earthquake compared with before the earthquake (134 ± 19 mm Hg vs. 138 ± 20 mm Hg, P = 0.02 for systolic; 76 ± 13 mm Hg vs. 79 ± 12 mm Hg, P = 0.01 for diastolic), and these values returned to baseline by 5-7 weeks after the earthquake. Multiple logistic regression analysis identified male sex (odds ratio (OR), 0.35; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.14-0.86; P = 0.02), mean blood pressure at baseline (OR, 0.92; 95% CI, 0.86-0.96; P earthquake in CKD patients. Blood pressure was significantly increased after a major earthquake in hypertensive patients with stage 3 and 4 CKD. During the first 3 weeks after the earthquake, blood pressure control was associated with the use of sympatholytic medications.

  13. Analysis of COCH and TNFA Variants in East Indian Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma Patients

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    Subhadip Chakraborty

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Glaucoma represents a heterogeneous group of optic neuropathies with a complex genetic basis. It is the second-largest cause of blindness in the world that reduces vision without warning and often without symptoms. Among 3 major subtypes of glaucoma, primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG is the most common form. The focus of this study is to understand the molecular basis of the disease among Indian patients with respect to two genes, Cochlin (COCH and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFA, selected based on reports of possible association with POAG. The genes were screened in patients and controls by PCR and direct sequencing. Although two novel changes (–450 C/T and –79 G/G were identified in the 5′upstream region of COCH, no causal variant could be identified in either gene. –450 C/T was detected in 3 patients and 2 controls and –79 G/C in a single patient. Further, we did not observe significant association with the promoter SNPs of TNFA that had been previously reported to be associated with POAG pathogenesis. Thus, our study suggests lack of association of both COCH and TNFA with POAG pathogenesis.

  14. Self-Care Management among Patients with Type 2 Diabetes in East Jerusalem

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    Daoud, Nihaya; Osman, Amira; Hart, Trevor A.; Berry, Elliott M.; Adler, Bella

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Little research exists on diabetes self-care management (DSCM) in Arab populations. We examined the contribution of health belief constructs, socioeconomic position (SEP) and clinical factors (glycated haemoglobin [HbA1C] level, type of diabetes treatments, and receiving professional guidance) to DSCM among Arab patients in East…

  15. Self-Care Management among Patients with Type 2 Diabetes in East Jerusalem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daoud, Nihaya; Osman, Amira; Hart, Trevor A.; Berry, Elliott M.; Adler, Bella

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Little research exists on diabetes self-care management (DSCM) in Arab populations. We examined the contribution of health belief constructs, socioeconomic position (SEP) and clinical factors (glycated haemoglobin [HbA1C] level, type of diabetes treatments, and receiving professional guidance) to DSCM among Arab patients in East…

  16. Random blood glucose may be used to assess long-term glycaemic control among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus in a rural African clinical setting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jon B; Nordin, Lovisa S; Rasmussen, Niclas S

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate the diagnostic accuracy of random blood glucose (RBG) on good glycaemic control among patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) in a rural African setting. METHODS: Cross-sectional study at St. Francis' Hospital in eastern Zambia. RBG and HbA1c were measured during one...

  17. An exceptional case of historical outbreeding in African sable antelope populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pitra, C.; Hansen, Anders J.; Lieckfeldt, D.

    2002-01-01

    West Tanzanian, Kenya/East Tanzanian and Southern Africa locations. Nested clade analysis revealed that past allopatric fragmentation, caused probably by habitat discontinuities associated with the East African Rift Valley system, together with intermediary episodic long-distance colonization...

  18. Nocturnal haemoglobin oxygen desaturation in urban and rural East African paediatric cohorts with and without sickle cell anaemia: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    L'Esperance, V S; Ekong, T; Cox, S E; Makani, J; Newton, C R; Soka, D; Komba, A; Kirkham, F J; Hill, C M

    2016-04-01

    Low haemoglobin oxygen saturation (SpO2) predicts complications in children with sickle cell anaemia (SCA) in the North but there are few data from Africa, where the majority of the patients reside. We measured daytime and overnight SpO2 in children with SCA in routine follow-up clinic, and controls without symptoms of SCA, comparing rural (Kilifi, Kenya) and urban (Dar-es-Salaam, Tanzania) cohorts. Daytime SpO2 was lower in 65 Tanzanian children with SCA (TS; median 97 (IQR 94-100)%); pasthma, alterations in the oxyhaemoglobin desaturation curve or cardiovascular compromise, for example, to shunting at atrial or pulmonary level secondary to increased pulmonary artery pressure. The fact that non-SCA siblings in the urban area are also affected suggests that environmental exposures, for example, air pollution, nutrition or physical exercise, may play a role. Further studies should determine aetiology and clinical relevance for the SCA phenotype in children resident in Africa. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  19. Facilitators and barriers to hypertension self-management in urban African Americans: perspectives of patients and family members

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flynn SJ

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Sarah J Flynn,1,2 Jessica M Ameling,1,2 Felicia Hill-Briggs,1–3 Jennifer L Wolff,4,5 Lee R Bone,1,3 David M Levine,1,4 Debra L Roter,3 LaPricia Lewis-Boyer,1,2 Annette R Fisher,6 Leon Purnell,6 Patti L Ephraim,2,7 Jeffrey Barbers,1,2 Stephanie L Fitzpatrick,1,2 Michael C Albert,1,8 Lisa A Cooper,1,2 Peter J Fagan,9,10 Destiny Martin,1 Hema C Ramamurthi,1,2 L Ebony Boulware1,2,7 1Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA; 2Welch Center for Prevention, Epidemiology, and Clinical Research, Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, MD, USA; 3Department of Health, Behavior, and Society, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD, USA; 4Department of Health Policy and Management, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD, USA; 5Division of Geriatric Medicine and Gerontology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA; 6Community and Provider Advisory Board, Johns Hopkins Center to Eliminate Cardiovascular Health Disparities, Baltimore, MD, USA; 7Department of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD, USA; 8Johns Hopkins Community Physicians, Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, MD, USA; 9Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA; 10Johns Hopkins HealthCare LLC, Glen Burnie, MD, USA Introduction: We aimed to inform the design of behavioral interventions by identifying patients’ and their family members’ perceived facilitators and barriers to hypertension self-management. Materials and methods: We conducted focus groups of African American patients with hypertension and their family members to elicit their views about factors influencing patients’ hypertension self-management. We recruited African American patients with hypertension (n = 18 and their family members (n = 12 from an urban, community-based clinical

  20. Exposure-response relationship of ramucirumab in East Asian patients from RAINBOW: a randomized clinical trial in second-line treatment of gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae You; Yen, Chia-Jui; Al-Batran, Salah-Eddin; Ferry, David; Gao, Ling; Hsu, Yanzhi; Cheng, Rebecca; Orlando, Mauro; Ohtsu, Atsushi

    2017-06-20

    Ramucirumab is a recombinant human IgG1 neutralizing monoclonal antibody specific for vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2. Second-line ramucirumab, in conjunction with paclitaxel (ramucirumab 8 mg/kg or placebo in combination with 80 mg/m(2) paclitaxel), has been shown to be effective and safe in patients with advanced gastric or gastroesophageal junction (GEJ) adenocarcinoma in RAINBOW, a global phase III randomized clinical trial. We conducted an exploratory exposure-response analysis of efficacy and safety of ramucirumab in East Asian patients from the RAINBOW trial. Using sparse pharmacokinetic samples collected in the RAINBOW trial, a population pharmacokinetic analysis was conducted to predict ramucirumab minimum trough concentration at steady state (C min,ss) using a nonlinear mixed-effect modeling approach. Kaplan-Meier and Cox proportional hazards analyses were conducted to evaluate ramucirumab exposure (C min,ss) and efficacy relationship by overall survival and progression-free survival. Exposure-safety relationships were assessed descriptively. Two hundred and twenty-two East Asian patients were included in this exposure-response analysis. Higher ramucirumab C min,ss was associated with longer overall survival (p = 0.0115) and progression-free survival (p = 0.0179) in this patient cohort. Patients with higher ramucirumab C min,ss (≥56.87 ng/ml median) had higher incidences of grade ≥3 leukopenia and neutropenia, but not febrile neutropenia or hypertension. This exploratory analysis suggests a positive relationship between efficacy and ramucirumab exposure with manageable toxicities in East Asian patients from RAINBOW, consistent with the overall exposure-response analysis from this trial. A regimen with a higher dosage of ramucirumab warrants further consideration for East Asian patients with gastric/GEJ cancer.

  1. African Literature

    OpenAIRE

    Recek, Denis

    2011-01-01

    The topic of this diploma is the formation and shaping of African literature. The first chapter is about the beginning of African literature. It describes oral literature and its transmission into written literature. Written African literature had great problems in becoming a part of world literature because of its diversity of languages and dialects. Christianity and Islam are mentioned as two religions which had a great impact on African literature. Colonialism is broadly described as an es...

  2. Blood pressure elevation in hemodialysis patients after the Great East Japan Earthquake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tani, Yoshihiro; Nakayama, Masaaki; Tanaka, Kenichi; Hayashi, Yoshimitsu; Asahi, Koichi; Kamata, Tatsuhiko; Ogihara, Masahiko; Sato, Keiji; Matsushima, Masato; Watanabe, Tsuyoshi

    2014-02-01

    A major earthquake measuring 9.0 on the Richter scale struck northeastern Japan at 2:46 pm on 11 March 2011. Several reports have described transient increases in blood pressure after major earthquakes, but the impact of such increases on hemodialysis patients has not been reported. We retrospectively investigated changes in blood pressure and influencing factors in 205 patients (mean age 66.6±13.0 years; male 51.7%; median dialysis vintage 6.0 (2.0-11.0) years) on chronic dialysis at three dialysis centers in the affected area (Fukushima City) for 8 weeks after the earthquake. Pre-dialysis blood pressure was significantly elevated at 1 week after the earthquake compared with baseline (systolic vs. diastolic blood pressure: 153.1±20.2/80.1±13.5 vs. 148.6±20.0/77.5±12.8 mm Hg, Pearthquake comprised baseline blood pressure and α-blockers. The earthquake induced a significant elevation in blood pressure among patients on chronic dialysis, and activation of the sympathetic nervous system might at least in part be associated with the mechanism underlying this increase.

  3. The Senegal DNA haplotype is associated with the amelioration of anemia in African-American sickle cell anemia patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagel, R L; Erlingsson, S; Fabry, M E; Croizat, H; Susuka, S M; Lachman, H; Sutton, M; Driscoll, C; Bouhassira, E; Billett, H H

    1991-03-15

    We have previously determined that in African sickle cell anemia (SS) patients three different beta-like globin gene cluster haplotypes are associated with different percent G gamma (one of the two types of non-alpha chains comprising hemoglobin F [HbF]), mean percent HbF, and percent dense cells. We report now that in adult New York SS patients, the presence of at least one chromosome with the Senegal haplotype is associated with higher Hb levels (1.2 g/dL higher) than is found for any other non-Senegal haplotype (P less than .004). The percent reticulocytes and the serum bilirubin levels were lower in these patients. When the effect of alpha-gene number was analyzed by examining a sample of SS patients with concomitant alpha-thalassemia, the same results were obtained. Because the HbF level is significantly higher among the Senegal haplotype carriers in this sample, the inhibitory effect on sickling of this Hb variant may be one of the reasons for the haplotype effect. We conclude that the Senegal beta-like globin gene cluster haplotype is associated with an amelioration of the hemolytic anemia that characterizes sickle cell disease.

  4. Helicobacter pylori seropositivity in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus in south-east of Iran.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdollah Jafarzadeh

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available It has been also reported that that H. pylori infection may be responsible for some endocrine disorders, such as autoimmune thyroid diseases, diabetes mellitus and primary hyperparathyroidism. H. pylori which express cytotoxin-associated gene A (CagA may be more virulent than those that do not. The aim was to evaluate the seroprevalence of anti-H. pylori IgG and anti-CagA  antibodies in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (type 2 DM and healthy individuals from Rafsanjan city (Iran. A total of 100 patients with type 2 diabetes and 100 age-matched healthy individuals were enrolled to study. A blood sample was collected from each participant. The type 2 DM established according to the fasting blood glucose level of 126 mg/dl. The sera were tested for the presence of anti-H. pylori IgG antibodies and antibody to CagA by use of enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. The seroprevalence of anti-H. pylori antibodies in diabetic  patients (76% was similar to that observed in healthy subjects (75%. The mean titer of anti-H. pylori IgG in healthy control group (131.63±11.68 U/ml was significantly higher than diabetic group (54.43±4.50 U/ml; P<0.0001. The prevalence of serum anti-CagA IgG antibodies was 78.9% in infected diabetic patients and 77.3% in healthy control group with mean titer of 75.02±4.54 U/ml and 84.34±5.85 U/ml, respectively. No significant differences were observed between diabetic and healthy control groups regarding the prevalence and the mean titer of anti-CagA IgG antibodies. In the diabetic group, the seropositive rate of anti-H. pylori IgG was higher in women as compared to men, but the difference was not statistically significant. These results show that H. pylori seropositivity rate was similar in type 2 DM patients and non-diabetics control group. No association was also found between CagA-positive strains of H. pylori and type 2 DM.

  5. Benefiting Africans

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Along with thriving Sino-African economic and trade ties,Chinese companies have attached greater importance to their social responsibility to Africans.More than 2,000 sweaters woven by Chinese mothers were sent to orphans and disabled children in Kenya and four other African countries in September. This activity was launched by Hengyuanxiang,aleading Chinese wool manufacturer.

  6. Benefiting Africans

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG ZHIPING

    2011-01-01

    Along with thriving Sino-African economic and trade ties,Chinese companies have attached greater importance to their social responsibility to Africans.More than 2,000 sweaters woven by Chinese mothers were sent to orphans and disabled children in Kenya and four other African countries in September.This activity was launched by Hengyuanxiang,a leading Chinese wool manufacturer.

  7. AFRICAN TEXTILES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    West African textiles form an important aspect of African art. Their uniqueness in ... more improvised, fluid effect that plays with de- ... on the off-beat in African music, notions of re- ... also named after perceived visual similarities .... of palm leaf serves as a brush and the resist paint .... has begun to be seriously investigated.

  8. Features of isolated sleep paralysis among Nigerians | Ohaeri | East ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    East African Medical Journal ... Objectives: To explore the relationship of variables for ISP sufferers, and clarify ... cited supernatural causes, 35.5% cited physiological/psychosocial causes; and 44.5% described a hallucinatory experience.

  9. interpretation of reflection seismic data from the usangu basin, east

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Basin parameters to those estimated from outcrop, gravity and ... the East African Rift System (EARS) in Tanzania. .... In the north, the Usangu Basin is flanked .... the isostatic response of the eastern bounding fault of the Malawi rift and the.

  10. Mainstreaming road safety in the regional integration of the East ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: Road safety, road traffic injuries, regional integration, East African ... regions having the lowest rates of the registered motorised vehicles which were ..... passengers are found to be the most vulnerable groups at risk of RTIs in the ...

  11. Human African trypanosomiasis in endemic populations and travellers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, J A; Neumayr, A L; Hatz, C F

    2012-06-01

    Human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) or sleeping sickness is caused by the protozoan parasites Trypanosoma brucei (T.b.) gambiense (West African form) and T.b. rhodesiense (East African form) that are transmitted by the bite of the tsetse fly, Glossina spp.. Whereas most patients in endemic populations are infected with T.b. gambiense, most tourists are infected with T.b. rhodesiense. In endemic populations, T.b. gambiense HAT is characterized by chronic and intermittent fever, headache, pruritus, and lymphadenopathy in the first stage and by sleep disturbances and neuro-psychiatric disorders in the second stage. Recent descriptions of the clinical presentation of T.b. rhodesiense in endemic populations show a high variability in different foci. The symptomatology of travellers is markedly different from the usual textbook descriptions of African HAT patients. The onset of both infections is almost invariably an acute and febrile disease. Diagnosis and treatment are difficult and rely mostly on old methods and drugs. However, new molecular diagnostic technologies are under development. A promising new drug combination is currently evaluated in a phase 3 b study and further new drugs are under evaluation.

  12. Late Cryogenian-Ediacaran history of the Arabian-Nubian Shield: A review of depositional, plutonic, structural, and tectonic events in the closing stages of the northern East African Orogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, P. R.; Andresen, A.; Collins, A. S.; Fowler, A. R.; Fritz, H.; Ghebreab, W.; Kusky, T.; Stern, R. J.

    2011-10-01

    During the late Cryogenian-Ediacaran (650-542 Ma), the Arabian-Nubian Shield (ANS) underwent final assembly and accretion to the Saharan Metacraton concurrent with the assembly of eastern and western Gondwana. At the end of the Precambrian it lay at one end of the East African Orogen, with its northern margin (present coordinates) forming a low-relief stable shelf facing an open ocean; to the south the ANS transitioned into the Mozambique Belt. The geologic history of the ANS during this period provides insight into the closing developmental stages of one of the world's largest accretionary orogens. Following a 680-640 Ma orogenic event reflecting amalgamation of a core grouping of island-arc terranes (the proto-Arabian-Nubian Shield; pANS), the region underwent extensive exhumation, erosion, and subsidence. Depositional basins formed in the northern and eastern pANS, with those in the east below sea level and connected to an ocean. Periodic basin closure and formation of new basins in other parts of the ANS followed. Many basins were filled by terrestrial, molasse-type sediments interfingering with subordinate to predominant amounts of volcanic rocks. Magmatism was extensive throughout the period, initially characterized by tonalite-trondhjemite-granodiorite (TTG) and granite (monzogranite, syenogranite), but also characterized, from ˜610 Ma on, by increasing amounts of alkali-feldspar granite and alkali granite. The plutons are largely undeformed, except where cut by brittle-ductile shear zones. The magma sources of the late Cryogenian-Ediacaran granitoids were dominated by juvenile crust and(or) depleted mantle and magmas mostly originated in anorogenic, post-collisional, commonly extensional, settings. They were derived by melting and fractionation of anhydrous high-grade metamorphosed lower crust, mafic- to intermediate calc-alkaline crust, and(or) subduction-modified mantle wedges associated with slab break-off or delamination. By ˜630 Ma, the region was

  13. Quality of life in South East Asian patients who consult for dyspepsia: Validation of the short form Nepean Dyspepsia Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goh Khean-Lee

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Treatment objectives for dyspepsia include improvements in both symptoms and health-related quality of life (HRQoL. There is a lack of disease-specific instruments measuring HRQoL in South East Asian dyspeptics. Objectives To validate English and locally translated version of the Short-Form Nepean Dyspepsia Index (SF-NDI in Malaysian patients who consult for dyspepsia. Methods The English version of the SF-NDI was culturally adapted locally and a Malay translation was developed using standard procedures. English and Malay versions of the SF-NDI were assessed against the SF-36 and the Leeds Dyspepsia Questionnaire (LDQ, examining internal consistency, test-retest reliability and construct validity. Results Pilot testing of the translated Malay and original English versions of the SF-NDI in twenty subjects did not identify any cross-cultural adaptation problems. 143 patients (86 English-speaking and 57 Malay speaking with dyspepsia were interviewed and the overall response rate was 100% with nil missing data. The median total SF-NDI score for both languages were 72.5 and 60.0 respectively. Test-retest reliability was good with intraclass correlation coefficients of 0.90 (English and 0.83 (Malay, while internal consistency of SF-NDI subscales revealed α values ranging from 0.83 – 0.88 (English and 0.83 – 0.90 (Malay. In both languages, SF-NDI sub-scales and total score demonstrated lower values in patients with more severe symptoms and in patients with functional vs organic dyspepsia (known groups validity, although these were less marked in the Malay language version. There was moderate to good correlation (r = 0.3 – 0.6 between all SF-NDI sub-scales and various domains of the SF-36 (convergent validity. Conclusion This study demonstrates that both English and Malay versions of the SF-NDI are reliable and probably valid instruments for measuring HRQoL in Malaysian patients with dyspepsia.

  14. Cross-cultural adaptation and validation of the South African Pain Catastrophizing Scale (SA-PCS among patients with fibromyalgia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morris Linzette D

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pain catastrophization has recently been recognized as a barrier to the healthy development of physical functioning among chronic pain patients. Levels of pain catastrophization in chronic pain patients are commonly measured using the Pain Catastrophizing Scale (PCS. Objective To cross-culturally adapt and validate the South African PCS (SA-PCS among English-, Afrikaans- and Xhosa-speaking patients with fibromyalgia living in the Cape Metropole area, Western Cape, South Africa. Methods The original PCS was cross-culturally adapted in accordance with international standards to develop an English, Afrikaans and Xhosa version of the SA-PCS using a repeated measures study design. Psychometric testing included face/content validity, internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha-α, test-retest reliability (intraclass coefficient correlations-ICC, sensitivity-to-change and cross-sectional convergent validity (by comparing the adapted SA-PCS to related constructs. Results The cross-culturally adapted English, Afrikaans and Xhosa SA-PCS showed good face and content validity, excellent internal consistency (with Chronbach’s α = 0.98, 0.98 and 0.97 for the English, Afrikaans and Xhosa SA-PCS, as a whole, respectively, excellent test-retest reliability (with ICC’s of 0.90, 0.91 and 0.89 for the English, Afrikaans and Xhosa SA-PCS, respectively; as well as satisfactory sensitivity-to-change (with a minimum detectable change of 8.8, 9.0 and 9.3 for the English, Afrikaans and Xhosa SA-PCS, respectively and cross-sectional convergent validity (when compared to pain severity as well as South African versions of the Tampa scale for Kinesiophobia and the revised Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire. Conclusion The SA-PCS can therefore be recommended as simple, efficient, valid and reliable tool which shows satisfactory sensitivity-to-change and cross-sectional convergent validity, for use among English, Afrikaans and Xhosa-speaking patients with

  15. December 2004 EAST AFRICAN MEDICAL JOURNAL 641

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2004-12-01

    Dec 1, 2004 ... to pay are required in rural poor population, such studies may be valuable inputs to government policy on .... A contingent valuation (CV) technique was used to ..... elicitation method in rural Nigeria: the binary question with.

  16. 162. EAST AFRICAN MEDICAL IOURNAL April2008

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2008-04-04

    Apr 4, 2008 ... Main outcome measures: We compared personal factors, influence from other people, barriers and supports ..... a wider scale, these results tend to emphasize that men need to be .... Infant-feeding The third factor besides attitude and subjective norm practices of ... tools in the Kilimanjaro Region, Tanzania.

  17. April2006 EAST AFRICAN MEDICAL JOURNAL 85

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    F Onyango, Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, School of Dental Sciences,. College of Health .... breathing. Table 2. Risk habits associated with head and neck cancer. Risk ' N0. (' 0) ... Difficulty in swallowing 1 2. Hoarse voice 10 ...

  18. December 2002 EAST AFRICAN MEDICAL JOURNAL 633

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2002-12-12

    Dec 12, 2002 ... with malaria. The specimens were cultured and antibiotic sensitivity done using standard ..... this figure of 50% is taken as the upper limit of isolation of NTS, it .... Elliot, E.J., Sharma, A., Price, B11 and Walker-Smith, J.A..

  19. African Muslim Youth and the Middle East

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ihle, Annette Haaber

    , marked by economic decline and political instability. In Africa a weak or even failed state often means that young people have in reality no access to political, educational or economic positions and resources. In some countries like Nigeria, Ghana and the Ivory Coast the marginalisation of the youth......  Streams of global information create a call for foreign places, same as new ideas of the world tend to enhance people's wish to move across borders to new continents. Such is also the case with young people in an Africa, which has over the last thirty years been going through a development...... is also connected to their religious identity, as Muslims primarily occupy the poor North, whereas Christians live in the resourceful South. In Muslim Africa an Islamic lifestyle and a good reputation have traditionally been followed by high esteem in the local community. Hence, young Muslims often...

  20. 368 EAST AFRICAN MEDICAL JOURNAL July 2002

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2002-07-07

    Jul 7, 2002 ... Conclusion: Surgery is the mainstay of treatment of insulinoma. Enucleation should be ... are reported to be malignant(4). Medical therapy the disease (Table 1). ..... octreotide receptors. Use of isotope-labelled somatostatin.

  1. 24 East African Medical Journal January2007

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2007-01-01

    Jan 1, 2007 ... decreased self-esteem and self-projection in life occurred in 30.9% and 36.2% respectively. On ... On global QOL, 53% and 47% respectively reported high level disruption ..... physical health and overall QOL — measured.

  2. September2006(Supplement) EAST AFRICAN MEDICAL JOURNAL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2006-09-09

    Sep 9, 2006 ... as a percentage of total expenditure on health; general government expenditure on health as a percentage of .... were obtained from the World Health Report 2005. (22). ...... _ office of the auditor-general to enhance audit. (s).

  3. August2007 EAST AFRICAN MEDICAL JOURNAL 367

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2007-08-01

    Aug 1, 2007 ... centre in western Kenya, and identify the associated risk factors. Design: A ... context-specific injury prevention interventions in the community. .... Employment (ICSE) and the International Labour ... promotion activities. Studies ...

  4. 328 EAST AFRICAN MEDICAL JOURNAL June 2002

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    School of Assistant Dental Officers, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania and AN. Astmm, Centre ... sources, risk awareness, oral health beliefs and behaviours among male and female students ... and MCH aids have identified gaps in knowledge about.

  5. East African Regional Outlook for 2011

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Alphonce; Shiundu

    2011-01-01

    IT’S difficult to talk about Southern Sudan in 2011 without bringing up the historic referendum that will determine whether the south of Africa’s largest country will secede from the rest of the country. "The referendum in Southern Sudan is the most important event in the calendar of Africa after the(2010) World Cup(held in South Africa),because it has the consequence of introducing a new member state in Africa,and also has the consequence of returning this region back to war."

  6. June 2003 EAST AFRICAN MEDICAL JOURNAL 303

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2003-06-01

    Jun 1, 2003 ... Paediatrics and Child Health, College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi PO. Box 19676 ... Implementation of case management protocols requires participation of the ... and requires active participation of parents or care givers. .... women (80%) described it as fever with no respiratory association ...

  7. 468 EAST AFRICAN MEDICAL JOURNAL September 2004

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    University of Science and Technology, P. O. Box l4lO. Mbarara, Uganda ... relationship between tobacco smoking, drinking alcoholic beverages and the khat chewing habit was ..... Unfortunately, academic performance does not appear to be improved ... youths and young adults and this may pose some health risk in the ...

  8. EAST AFRICAN MEDICAL JOURNAL 46l

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2002-09-01

    Sep 1, 2002 ... Objectives: To estimate the prevalence of anaemia among non-pregnant parous women, and to investigate the ..... life threatening obstetric complications, which is often ... in the perinatal period has recently been co-ordinated.

  9. 524 EAST AFRICAN MEDICAL JOURNAL October 2002

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2002-10-10

    Oct 10, 2002 ... weaning patterns, routine maternal activities performed, activities perceived as ... were engaged as seasonal workers in industries around the study area where they operated in shifts. Most of the heads of households (75.2%) were employed in the .... have said that women on average work more hours in.

  10. Obsidian dating and East african archeology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michels, J W; Tsong, I S; Nelson, C M

    1983-01-28

    New experimental procedures have made it possible to establish specific hydration rates for the numerous compositional types of obsidian to be found at archeological sites in Kenya. Two rates are applied to artifacts from the Prospect Farm site, revealing a history of occupation extending back 120,000 years.

  11. EAST AFRICAN MEDICAIQ JOURNAL April Z'(

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    micro-organisms causing chronic suppurative otitis. media (CSOM) in-our environment. . I. Design: A ... The antibiotic susceptibility pattern of pathogenic isolates is different from ..... Also, the Eustachian tube is relatively shorter, wider, and ...

  12. 178 EAST AFRICAN MEDICAL IOURNAL April2008

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2008-04-04

    Apr 4, 2008 ... M.D. ]oshi, MBChB, MMed, MPH, FACC, Senior Lecturer and Director, Clinical Epidemiology Unit, ]. ... Request for reprints to: Dr. M.D. Ioshi, Department of Medicine, .... were significantly more obese (mean BMI in females.

  13. 156 EAST AFRICAN MEDICAL JOURNAL April2007

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Setting: Maternal Child Health Clinic (MCH) at Moi Teaching and Referral Hospital (MTRH) in ... Recommendation: Similar studies should be conducted in other parts of Kenya in order to .... For the assessment of overcrowding three family size.

  14. April2007 EAST AFRICAN MEDICAL JOURNAL 151

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2007-04-01

    Apr 1, 2007 ... disorder, most of whom had antisocial and impulsive personality ... with both Axis I and II (p = 0.02 and p = 0.0003 respectively) and pre-occupation with thoughts .... offending behaviours while others do not find such an.

  15. 402 EAST AFRICAN MEDICAL JOURNAL August 2004

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2004-08-08

    Aug 8, 2004 ... College of Agriculture and Veterinary Sciences, Department of Food Technology and Nutrition, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 442, ... practices and improving the nutritional status of children .... Student's t-test showed that the.

  16. 312 EAST AFRICAN MEDICAL JOURNAL June 2001

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2001-06-06

    Jun 6, 2001 ... Professor and Head, Department of Mental Health, College of Health Sciences, Obafcmi ... are used in the assessment of the nutritional status of a performance .... measured by a research assistant (final year medical student).

  17. 16 EAST AFRICAN MEDICAI. JOURNAL January2007

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABSTRACT. Objective: To assess the quality of recording critical events in the intrapartum period in Kakamega ... It would be wortliwhile to assess the sustainability of ... active management of labour at Moi Teaching and ..... A practical guide.

  18. 318 East African Medical Journal My2007

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    morbidity and mortality, knowledge of risk factors and degree of adoption of lifestyle modification ... significant difference was found between the senior/better educated and the junior/less ..... M.M.W.R. Cigarette smoking among adults in United.

  19. Visit to Three East African Countries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    <正>In early December 2008, CPAFFC President Chen Haosu led a delegation to visit Rwanda, a "country of thousands of hills", Burundi, a "countryof drum dance"and Tanzania with ever changing scenery. In a friendly and

  20. Double-blind study of ivermectin and diethylcarbamazine in African onchocerciasis patients with ocular involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lariviere, M; Vingtain, P; Aziz, M; Beauvais, B; Weimann, D; Derouin, F; Ginoux, J; Schulz-Key, H; Gaxotte, P; Basset, D

    1985-07-27

    In a randomised double-blind study, ivermectin was compared with diethylcarbamazine (DEC) and placebo in the treatment of onchocerciasis in 30 male patients from Mali with moderate to heavy Onchocerca volvulus infections and ocular involvement. 10 patients received a single oral dose of ivermectin, 12 mg, 10 received DEC daily for eight days (total dose 1.3 g), and 10 received matching placebo. Patients were examined periodically for twelve months. Punctate keratitis disappeared in 6 of 7 ivermectin patients but increased in DEC patients. Numbers of O volvulus microfilariae (mf) in the anterior chamber decreased slowly and eventually disappeared in most ivermectin patients during the six months following treatment; anterior chamber mf disappeared more rapidly in some patients after DEC, but reappeared within six months of stopping treatment. Both ivermectin and DEC caused a prompt decrease in mean skin mf density; density then increased in both groups over the twelve month observation period, reaching 9% of pretreatment values in ivermectin patients and 45% in the DEC group. Analysis of adult O volvulus from nodules excised at three and twelve months post treatment showed no effect of either drug on viability; however, there was evidence of degeneration of intra-uterine developing mf in the ivermectin group. Side-effects were less frequent and less severe in ivermectin patients than in DEC patients. Ivermectin as a single oral dose appears to be a more effective microfilaricidal drug than DEC in onchocerciasis.