WorldWideScience

Sample records for easily measurable properties

  1. Estimating subsoil resistance to nitrate leaching from easily measurable pedological properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Keiti Nakagawa

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Leaching of nitrate (NO3- can increase the groundwater concentration of this anion and reduce the agronomical effectiveness of nitrogen fertilizers. The main soil property inversely related to NO3- leaching is the anion exchange capacity (AEC, whose determination is however too time-consuming for being carried out in soil testing laboratories. For this reason, this study evaluated if more easily measurable soil properties could be used to estimate the resistance of subsoils to NO3- leaching. Samples from the subsurface layer (20-40 cm of 24 representative soils of São Paulo State were characterized for particle-size distribution and for chemical and electrochemical properties. The subsoil content of adsorbed NO3- was calculated from the difference between the NO3- contents extracted with 1 mol L-1 KCl and with water; furthermore, NO3- leaching was studied in miscible displacement experiments. The results of both adsorption and leaching experiments were consistent with the well-known role exerted by AEC on the nitrate behavior in weathered soils. Multiple regression analysis indicated that in subsoils with (i low values of remaining phosphorus (Prem, (ii low soil pH values measured in water (pH H2O, and (iii high pH values measured in 1 moL L-1 KCl (pH KCl, the amounts of surface positive charges tend to be greater. For this reason, NO3- leaching tends to be slower in these subsoils, even under saturated flow condition.

  2. Predicting thermal conductivity of rocks from the Los Azufres geothermal field, Mexico, from easily measurable properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, Alfonso; Contreras, Enrique; Dominquez, Bernardo A.

    1988-01-01

    A correlation is developed to predict thermal conductivity of drill cores from the Los Azufres geothermal field. Only andesites are included as they are predominant. Thermal conductivity of geothermal rocks is in general scarce and its determination is not simple. Almost all published correlations were developed for sedimentary rocks. Typically, for igneous rocks, chemical or mineral analyses are used for estimating conductivity by using some type of additive rule. This requires specialized analytical techniques and the procedure may not be sufficiently accurate if, for instance, a chemical analysis is to be changed into a mineral analysis. Thus a simple and accurate estimation method would be useful for engineering purposes. The present correlation predicts thermal conductivity from a knowledge of bulk density and total porosity, properties which provide basic rock characterization and are easy to measure. They may be determined from drill cores or cuttings, and the procedures represent a real advantage given the cost and low availability of cores. The multivariate correlation proposed is a quadratic polynomial and represents a useful tool to estimate thermal conductivity of igneous rocks since data on this property is very limited. For porosities between 0% and 25%, thermal conductivity is estimated with a maximum deviation of 22% and a residual mean square deviation of 4.62E-3 n terms of the log{sub 10}(k{rho}{sub b}) variable. The data were determined as part of a project which includes physical, thermal and mechanical properties of drill cores from Los Azufres. For the correlation, sixteen determinations of thermal conductivity, bulk density and total porosity are included. The conductivity data represent the first determinations ever made on these rocks.

  3. An easily installable groundwater lysimeter to determine waterbalance components and hydraulic properties of peat soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Schwaerzel

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple method for the installation of groundwater lysimeters in peat soils was developed which reduces both time and financial effort significantly. The method was applied on several sites in the Rhinluch, a fen peat land 60 km northwest of Berlin, Germany. Over a two-year period, upward capillary flow and evapotranspiration rates under grassland with different groundwater levels were measured. The installation of tensiometers and TDR probes additionally allowed the in situ determination of the soil hydraulic properties (water retention and unsaturated hydraulic conductivity. The results of the measurements of the unsaturated hydraulic conductivity demonstrate that more than one single method has to be applied if the whole range of the conductivity function from saturation to highly unsaturated is to be covered. Measuring the unsaturated conductivity can be done only in the lab for an adequately wide range of soil moisture conditions. Keywords: peat soils, soil hydraulic properties, evapotranspiration, capillary flow, root distribution, unsaturated zone

  4. Evaluation of easily measured risk factors in the prediction of osteoporotic fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brown Jacques P

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fracture represents the single most important clinical event in patients with osteoporosis, yet remains under-predicted. As few premonitory symptoms for fracture exist, it is of critical importance that physicians effectively and efficiently identify individuals at increased fracture risk. Methods Of 3426 postmenopausal women in CANDOO, 40, 158, 99, and 64 women developed a new hip, vertebral, wrist or rib fracture, respectively. Seven easily measured risk factors predictive of fracture in research trials were examined in clinical practice including: age (, 65–69, 70–74, 75–79, 80+ years, rising from a chair with arms (yes, no, weight (≥ 57kg, maternal history of hip facture (yes, no, prior fracture after age 50 (yes, no, hip T-score (>-1, -1 to >-2.5, ≤-2.5, and current smoking status (yes, no. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was conducted. Results The inability to rise from a chair without the use of arms (3.58; 95% CI: 1.17, 10.93 was the most significant risk factor for new hip fracture. Notable risk factors for predicting new vertebral fractures were: low body weight (1.57; 95% CI: 1.04, 2.37, current smoking (1.95; 95% CI: 1.20, 3.18 and age between 75–79 years (1.96; 95% CI: 1.10, 3.51. New wrist fractures were significantly identified by low body weight (1.71, 95% CI: 1.01, 2.90 and prior fracture after 50 years (1.96; 95% CI: 1.19, 3.22. Predictors of new rib fractures include a maternal history of a hip facture (2.89; 95% CI: 1.04, 8.08 and a prior fracture after 50 years (2.16; 95% CI: 1.20, 3.87. Conclusion This study has shown that there exists a variety of predictors of future fracture, besides BMD, that can be easily assessed by a physician. The significance of each variable depends on the site of incident fracture. Of greatest interest is that an inability to rise from a chair is perhaps the most readily identifiable significant risk factor for hip fracture and can be easily incorporated

  5. Advanced Ceramics Property Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salem, Jonathan; Helfinstine, John; Quinn, George; Gonczy, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    Mechanical and physical properties of ceramic bodies can be difficult to measure correctly unless the proper techniques are used. The Advanced Ceramics Committee of ASTM, C-28, has developed dozens of consensus test standards and practices to measure various properties of a ceramic monolith, composite, or coating. The standards give the "what, how, how not, and why" for measurement of many mechanical, physical, thermal, and performance properties. Using these standards will provide accurate, reliable, and complete data for rigorous comparisons with other test results from your test lab, or another. The C-28 Committee has involved academics, producers, and users of ceramics to write and continually update more than 45 standards since the committee's inception in 1986. Included in this poster is a pictogram of the C-28 standards and information on how to obtain individual copies with full details or the complete collection of standards in one volume.

  6. Thermal Properties Measurement Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carmack, Jon [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Braase, Lori [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Papesch, Cynthia [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Hurley, David [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Tonks, Michael [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Zhang, Yongfeng [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Gofryk, Krzysztof [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Harp, Jason [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Fielding, Randy [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Knight, Collin [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Meyer, Mitch [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-08-01

    The Thermal Properties Measurement Report summarizes the research, development, installation, and initial use of significant experimental thermal property characterization capabilities at the INL in FY 2015. These new capabilities were used to characterize a U3Si2 (candidate Accident Tolerant) fuel sample fabricated at the INL. The ability to perform measurements at various length scales is important and provides additional data that is not currently in the literature. However, the real value of the data will be in accomplishing a phenomenological understanding of the thermal conductivity in fuels and the ties to predictive modeling. Thus, the MARMOT advanced modeling and simulation capability was utilized to illustrate how the microstructural data can be modeled and compared with bulk characterization data. A scientific method was established for thermal property measurement capability on irradiated nuclear fuel samples, which will be installed in the Irradiated Material Characterization Laboratory (IMCL).

  7. Two Easily Made Astronomical Telescopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, M.; Jacobs, D. J.

    1991-01-01

    The directions and diagrams for making a reflecting telescope and a refracting telescope are presented. These telescopes can be made by students out of plumbing parts and easily obtainable, inexpensive, optical components. (KR)

  8. Direct measurement of shear properties of microfibers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behlow, H.; Saini, D.; Durham, L.; Simpson, J.; Skove, M. J.; Rao, A. M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, and Clemson Nanomaterials Center, Clemson University, Clemson, South Carolina 29634 (United States); Oliveira, L. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Clemson University, Clemson, South Carolina 29634 (United States); Serkiz, S. M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, and Clemson Nanomaterials Center, Clemson University, Clemson, South Carolina 29634 (United States); Savannah River National Laboratory, Aiken, South Carolina 29808 (United States)

    2014-09-15

    As novel fibers with enhanced mechanical properties continue to be synthesized and developed, the ability to easily and accurately characterize these materials becomes increasingly important. Here we present a design for an inexpensive tabletop instrument to measure shear modulus (G) and other longitudinal shear properties of a micrometer-sized monofilament fiber sample, such as nonlinearities and hysteresis. This automated system applies twist to the sample and measures the resulting torque using a sensitive optical detector that tracks a torsion reference. The accuracy of the instrument was verified by measuring G for high purity copper and tungsten fibers, for which G is well known. Two industrially important fibers, IM7 carbon fiber and Kevlar{sup ®} 119, were also characterized with this system and were found to have G = 16.5 ± 2.1 and 2.42 ± 0.32 GPa, respectively.

  9. Density measures and additive property

    OpenAIRE

    Kunisada, Ryoichi

    2015-01-01

    We deal with finitely additive measures defined on all subsets of natural numbers which extend the asymptotic density (density measures). We consider a class of density measures which are constructed from free ultrafilters on natural numbers and study a certain additivity property of such density measures.

  10. Density measures and additive property

    OpenAIRE

    Kunisada, Ryoichi

    2015-01-01

    We deal with finitely additive measures defined on all subsets of natural numbers which extend the asymptotic density (density measures). We consider a class of density measures which are constructed from free ultrafilters on natural numbers and study a certain additivity property of such density measures.

  11. INVERSE ELECTRON TRANSFER IN PEROXYOXALATE CHEMIEXCITATION USING EASILY REDUCIBLE ACTIVATORS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bartoloni, Fernando Heering; Monteiro Leite Ciscato, Luiz Francisco; Augusto, Felipe Alberto; Baader, Wilhelm Josef

    2010-01-01

    INVERSE ELECTRON TRANSFER IN PEROXYOXALATE CHEMIEXCITATION USING EASILY REDUCIBLE ACTIVATORS. Chemiluminescence properties of the peroxyoxalate reaction in the presence of activators bearing electron withdrawing substituents were studied, to evaluate the possible occurrence of an inverse electron tr

  12. INVERSE ELECTRON TRANSFER IN PEROXYOXALATE CHEMIEXCITATION USING EASILY REDUCIBLE ACTIVATORS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bartoloni, Fernando Heering; Monteiro Leite Ciscato, Luiz Francisco; Augusto, Felipe Alberto; Baader, Wilhelm Josef

    2010-01-01

    INVERSE ELECTRON TRANSFER IN PEROXYOXALATE CHEMIEXCITATION USING EASILY REDUCIBLE ACTIVATORS. Chemiluminescence properties of the peroxyoxalate reaction in the presence of activators bearing electron withdrawing substituents were studied, to evaluate the possible occurrence of an inverse electron tr

  13. INVERSE ELECTRON TRANSFER IN PEROXYOXALATE CHEMIEXCITATION USING EASILY REDUCIBLE ACTIVATORS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bartoloni, Fernando Heering; Monteiro Leite Ciscato, Luiz Francisco; Augusto, Felipe Alberto; Baader, Wilhelm Josef

    2010-01-01

    INVERSE ELECTRON TRANSFER IN PEROXYOXALATE CHEMIEXCITATION USING EASILY REDUCIBLE ACTIVATORS. Chemiluminescence properties of the peroxyoxalate reaction in the presence of activators bearing electron withdrawing substituents were studied, to evaluate the possible occurrence of an inverse electron

  14. Does easily accessible nutritional labelling increase consumption of healthy meals away from home? A field experiment measuring the impact of a point-of-purchase healthy symbol on lunch sales

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thunström, Linda; Nordström, Leif Jonas

    2011-01-01

    nutritional content of meals consumed seems unaffected by the introduction of a healthy-labelled meal on the menu. Even if easily accessible and understood, menu labelling therefore seems inefficient in promoting healthier meal choices. Factors influencing meal consumption are meal ingredients and the order......This paper analyses the effect on meal consumption away from home of a point-of-purchase healthy symbol. We base the analysis on a field experiment in a lunch restaurant. Our results suggest that meal consumption does not increase if the meal is labelled with a healthy symbol. Also, the mean...

  15. Speech distortion measure based on auditory properties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Guo; HU Xiulin; ZHANG Yunyu; ZHU Yaoting

    2000-01-01

    The Perceptual Spectrum Distortion (PSD), based on auditory properties of human being, is presented to measure speech distortion. The PSD measure calculates the speech distortion distance by simulating the auditory properties of human being and converting short-time speech power spectrum to auditory perceptual spectrum. Preliminary simulative experiments in comparison with the Itakura measure have been done. The results show that the PSD measure is a perferable speech distortion measure and more consistent with subjective assessment of speech quality.

  16. Apparatus for measuring particle properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rader, D.J.; Castaneda, J.N.; Grasser, T.W.; Brockmann, J.E.

    1998-08-11

    An apparatus is described for determining particle properties from detected light scattered by the particles. The apparatus uses a light beam with novel intensity characteristics to discriminate between particles that pass through the beam and those that pass through an edge of the beam. The apparatus can also discriminate between light scattered by one particle and light scattered by multiple particles. The particle`s size can be determined from the intensity of the light scattered. The particle`s velocity can be determined from the elapsed time between various intensities of the light scattered. 11 figs.

  17. Easily Retrievable Objects among the NEO Population

    CERN Document Server

    Yárnoz, D García; McInnes, C R

    2013-01-01

    Asteroids and comets are of strategic importance for science in an effort to understand the formation, evolution and composition of the Solar System. Near-Earth Objects (NEOs) are of particular interest because of their accessibility from Earth, but also because of their speculated wealth of material resources. The exploitation of these resources has long been discussed as a means to lower the cost of future space endeavours. In this paper, we consider the currently known NEO population and define a family of so-called Easily Retrievable Objects (EROs), objects that can be transported from accessible heliocentric orbits into the Earth's neighbourhood at affordable costs. The asteroid retrieval transfers are sought from the continuum of low energy transfers enabled by the dynamics of invariant manifolds; specifically, the retrieval transfers target planar, vertical Lyapunov and halo orbit families associated with the collinear equilibrium points of the Sun-Earth Circular Restricted Three Body problem. The judi...

  18. Engineering properties of coal measure rocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thill, R.E.; Jessop, J.A.

    1982-04-01

    Engineering properties of rock are essential in most phases of mining from site reconaissance through mineral processing. Review of the literature indicates, however, that property data is scarce for most coal measure rocks in the United States. The Bureau of Mines has undertaken a wide-ranging testing program to provide more complete property data for coal strata in the U.S. coal basins. The property data are expected to have applications in geophysical exploration, development of premining and hazard detection probes and instrumentation, mine design, engineering and rock mass classification, subsidence engineering, and ground control. This paper describes the comprehensive program encompassing in situ geological, geophysical, and geotechnical properties and laboratory determinations of acoustic, electromagnetic, physical, mechanical, and index properties and discusses results for 500 feet of coal measures at a mine site in the northern Appalachian, eastern coal province.

  19. Top quark property measurements in single top

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00386283; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    A review of the recent results on measurements of top quark properties in single top quark processes, performed at the LHC by ATLAS and CMS is presented. The measurements are in good agreement with predictions and no deviations from Standard Model expectations have been observed.

  20. Top Quark Properties Measurements in CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Yazgan, Efe

    Recent top quark properties measurements made with the CMS detector at the LHC are presented. The measurements summarized include spin correlation of top quark pairs, asymmetries, top quark mass, and the underlying event in top quark pair events. The results are compared to the standard model predictions and new physics models.

  1. Top quark properties measurements in CMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazgan, E.; CMS Collaboration

    2017-07-01

    Recent top quark properties measurements made with the CMS detector at the LHC are presented. The measurements summarized include spin correlation of top quark pairs, asymmetries, top quark mass, and the underlying event in top quark pair events. The results are compared to the standard model predictions and new physics models.

  2. Properties of the scale factor measure

    CERN Document Server

    Bousso, Raphael; Yang, I-Sheng

    2008-01-01

    We show that in expanding regions, the scale factor measure can be reformulated as a local measure: Observations are weighted by integrating their physical density along a geodesic that starts in the longest-lived metastable vacuum. This explains why some of its properties are similar to those of the causal diamond measure. In particular, both measures are free of Boltzmann brains, subject to nearly the same conditions on vacuum stability. However, the scale factor measure assigns a much smaller probability to the observed value of the cosmological constant. The probability decreases further, like the inverse sixth power of the primordial density contrast, if the latter is allowed to vary.

  3. Advanced Ceramics Property and Performance Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Michael; Salem, Jonathan; Helfinstine, John; Quinn, George; Gonczy, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Mechanical and physical properties of ceramic bodies can be difficult to measure correctly unless the proper techniques are used. The Advanced Ceramics Committee of ASTM, C-28, has developed dozens of consensus test standards and practices to measure various properties of a ceramic monolith, composite, or coating. The standards give the what, how, how not, and why for measurement of many mechanical, physical, thermal, and performance properties. Using these standards will provide accurate, reliable, and complete data for rigorous comparisons with other test results from your test lab, or another. The C-28 Committee has involved academics, producers, and users of ceramics to write and continually update more than 45 standards since the committees inception in 1986. Included in this poster is a pictogram of the C-28 standards and information on how to obtain individual copies with full details or the complete collection of all of the standards in one volume.

  4. Noninvasive fluid property measurements using acoustic methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbush, Michael; Chow, Humphrey; Chiao, James; Rose, Andrew

    2007-03-01

    The properties of a fluid are normally determined using invasive methods. These methods may lead to possibly contaminating or consuming the sample. When only very small amounts of a valuable sample exist, noninvasive measurement methods are preferred. The properties of fluids can then be used to deduce additional properties based on known relationships. In one case, the surface tension of a fluid may be used to determine the concentration of a fluid. The authors describe a measurement technique involving excitation of the surface of the fluid and the measurement of its response. An acoustic wave is used to both excite and monitor the surface of the liquid. This technique is used to determine the concentration of DMSO and water in solution, and the result determines the amount of fluid needed to deliver an accurate amount of solute in solution.

  5. Dynamic Properties of Impulse Measuring Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, A.; Lausen, P.

    1971-01-01

    After some basic considerations the dynamic properties of the measuring system are subjected to a general examination based on a number of responses, characteristic of the system. It is demonstrated that an impulse circuit has an internal impedance different from zero, for which reason the intera......After some basic considerations the dynamic properties of the measuring system are subjected to a general examination based on a number of responses, characteristic of the system. It is demonstrated that an impulse circuit has an internal impedance different from zero, for which reason...

  6. Measurement of thermal properties of PCM materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Domanski, R.; Jaworski, M. [Warsaw Univ. of Technology (Poland). Inst. of Heat Engineering

    1994-12-31

    In the article results of measurements of thermal properties of PCM (phase change materials) and their stability are presented. These include specific heat, temperature of phase change, latent heat and enthalpy as a function of temperature. Different kind of materials were considered, especially some waxes, n-alkanes and salt hydrates. Measurements of thermal capacity of materials were performed using two techniques - standard DSC (for small samples and pure materials) and simple thermal analysis based on the measurement of temperature field in relatively big samples (about 20-50 g). Stability of thermal properties in many cycles of melting and solidification for some materials obtained in special set-up (for fast cycling) are presented. On the base of measurements mathematical formulas describing enthalpy vs. temperature for some materials were developed. These are very useful in computer simulation of thermal storage systems with PCM. (orig.)

  7. MEASUREMENTS OF THE PROPERTIES OF BERYLLIUM FOIL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ZHAO,Y.; WANG,H.

    2000-03-31

    The electrical conductivity of beryllium at radio frequency (800 MHz) and liquid nitrogen temperature were investigated and measured. This summary addresses a collection of beryllium properties in the literature, an analysis of the anomalous skin effect, the test model, the experimental setup and improvements, MAFIA simulations, the measurement results and data analyses. The final results show that the conductivity of beryllium is not as good as indicated by the handbook, yet very close to copper at liquid nitrogen temperature.

  8. Using Ultrasound to Measure Mud Rheological Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maa, P. Y. P. Y.; Kwon, J. I.; Park, K. S.

    2015-12-01

    In order to predict the dynamic responses of newly consolidated cohesive sediment beds, a better understanding of the material rheological properties (bulk density, ρ, kinematic viscosity, ν, and shear modulus, G, assuming mud is a simple Voigt viscoelastic model) of these sediment beds is needed. An acoustic approach that uses a commercially available 250 kHz shear wave transducer and tone-burst waves has been developed to measure those properties. This approach uses a 86.3 mm long delay-line (DL) to separate the generated pressure and shear waves, and measures the reflected shear waves as well as the reflected pressure waves caused at the interface between the delay line and the mud to interpret these properties. By using materials (i.e., air, water, olive oil, and honey) with available rheological properties to establish a calibration relationship between the information carried by the measured reflected waves and those given material properties, the mud properties as well as thνe change of these properties during consolidation can be interpreted. Using jelly pudding as a check, a value of G ≈ 12310 N/m2 and ν ≈ 5 x 10-5 m2/s were estimated. For the consolidating kaolinite bed (with zero salinity and initial suspended sediment concentration about 420 g/cm3), the measurements show that the shear modulus developed after about 40 hours and approached a value on the order of 15000 N/m2 after about 100 hours. The initial kinematic viscosity was about 5 x 10-4 m2/s, and it decreased slowly with time and approached a low plateau between 10-6 and 10-7 m2/s after 300 hours. The measured bulk density showed a small increasing rate during the entire consolidation period, except at a short period between 80 and 90 hours after consolidation. Results from this study suggest a promising approach for developing an in-situ instrument to measure mud properties, as well as many other materials in other industries.

  9. Using Micromechanical Resonators to Measure Rheological Properties and Alcohol Content of Model Solutions and Commercial Beverages

    OpenAIRE

    Hoogenboom, Bart W.; Anna Dejardin; Jake Stinson; Rosemary Paxman; McKendry, Rachel A.

    2012-01-01

    Micromechanic resonators provide a small-volume and potentially high-throughput method to determine rheological properties of fluids. Here we explore the accuracy in measuring mass density and viscosity of ethanol-water and glycerol-water model solutions, using a simple and easily implemented model to deduce the hydrodynamic effects on resonating cantilevers of various length-to-width aspect ratios. We next show that these measurements can be extended to determine the alcohol percentage of bo...

  10. Non-destructive measurement of cultural property

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirao, Yoshimitsu [Tokyo National Research Inst. of Cultural Properties, Tokyo (Japan). Dept. of Conservation Science

    1997-02-01

    Non-destructive analytical method is favored for the measurement of samples from the field of cultural properties. Among many scientific methods, X-ray fluorescence spectrometry and X-ray diffraction method are frequently applied in this field. X-ray fluorescence spectrometer is the main method for the measurement of chemical composition of cultural properties when sample is not taken out. It is the most important concept during the measurement, that samples should be kept in the safety condition without any difficulty or defect. Because a sample from the field of cultural properties could not be cut or could not be laid down in some cases, instruments should be improved to admit these samples and conditions. It is one of the solutions for this point to equip a large sample chamber in the instrument. Several new instruments with large sample chamber which was specially designed for the cultural properties were explained. Applications of these instruments were also explained for the real archaeological and historical samples. Even the measurements is not quantitative and qualitative analysis only, the results is evaluated to be valuable for the understanding of the samples. The micro focus X-ray fluorescence spectrometer was also applied in this field. The method gave not only the ordinary chemical composition but also the structure of the samples by mapping. (author)

  11. Non-destructive measurement of cultural property

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirao, Yoshimitsu [Tokyo National Research Inst. of Cultural Properties, Tokyo (Japan). Dept. of Conservation Science

    1997-02-01

    Non-destructive analytical method is favored for the measurement of samples from the field of cultural properties. Among many scientific methods, X-ray fluorescence spectrometry and X-ray diffraction method are frequently applied in this field. X-ray fluorescence spectrometer is the main method for the measurement of chemical composition of cultural properties when sample is not taken out. It is the most important concept during the measurement, that samples should be kept in the safety condition without any difficulty or defect. Because a sample from the field of cultural properties could not be cut or could not be laid down in some cases, instruments should be improved to admit these samples and conditions. It is one of the solutions for this point to equip a large sample chamber in the instrument. Several new instruments with large sample chamber which was specially designed for the cultural properties were explained. Applications of these instruments were also explained for the real archaeological and historical samples. Even the measurements is not quantitative and qualitative analysis only, the results is evaluated to be valuable for the understanding of the samples. The micro focus X-ray fluorescence spectrometer was also applied in this field. The method gave not only the ordinary chemical composition but also the structure of the samples by mapping. (author)

  12. Latest ATLAS measurements on top quark properties

    CERN Document Server

    Derue, Frederic; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The top quark is unique among the known quarks in that it decays before it has an opportunity to form hadronic bound states. This makes measurements of its properties particularly interesting as one can access directly the properties of a bare quark. The latest measurements of these properties with the ATLAS detector at the LHC are presented using 8 TeV and 13 TeV data, excluding results from single top production. Measurements of top quark spin observables in top-antitop events, each sensitive to a different coefficient of the spin density matrix, are presented and compared to the Standard Model predictions. The helicity of the W boson from the top decays and the production angles of the top quark are further discussed. New results on the measurment of color flow effects in $t{\\bar t}$ events are presented. Limits on the rate of flavour changing neutral currents in the production or decay of the top quark are reported. The cross-section measurement of photons produced in association with top-quark pairs is a...

  13. Top properties measurements with the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Neep, Thomas James; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    The top quark is unique among the known quarks in that it decays before it has an opportunity to form hadronic bound states. This makes measurements of its properties particularly interesting as one can access directly the properties of a bare quark. Measurements of the charge asymmetry in $t\\bar{t}$ pair events are presented. The measurements use the 7 TeV ATLAS datasets and probe models of physics beyond the Standard Model. A measurement of the correlation between the direction of the spins of $t\\bar{t}$ pairs is also presented. The measurement agrees with the Standard Model and is used to set limits on the production of the supersymmetric partner of the top quark. In addition, a novel measurement of colour flow in $t\\bar{t}$ pair events is presented. The measurement uses the jets originating from the $W$ boson and demonstrates the ability of the colour flow observable to distinguish between colour octet and colour singlet final states.

  14. Thermoelectric property measurements with computer controlled systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chmielewski, A. B.; Wood, C.

    1984-01-01

    A joint JPL-NASA program to develop an automated system to measure the thermoelectric properties of newly developed materials is described. Consideration is given to the difficulties created by signal drift in measurements of Hall voltage and the Large Delta T Seebeck coefficient. The benefits of a computerized system were examined with respect to error reduction and time savings for human operators. It is shown that the time required to measure Hall voltage can be reduced by a factor of 10 when a computer is used to fit a curve to the ratio of the measured signal and its standard deviation. The accuracy of measurements of the Large Delta T Seebeck coefficient and thermal diffusivity was also enhanced by the use of computers.

  15. Measurement errors in cirrus cloud microphysical properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Larsen

    Full Text Available The limited accuracy of current cloud microphysics sensors used in cirrus cloud studies imposes limitations on the use of the data to examine the cloud's broadband radiative behaviour, an important element of the global energy balance. We review the limitations of the instruments, PMS probes, most widely used for measuring the microphysical structure of cirrus clouds and show the effect of these limitations on descriptions of the cloud radiative properties. The analysis is applied to measurements made as part of the European Cloud and Radiation Experiment (EUCREX to determine mid-latitude cirrus microphysical and radiative properties.

    Key words. Atmospheric composition and structure (cloud physics and chemistry · Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics · Radiative processes · Instruments and techniques

  16. Laboratory measurements of rock thermal properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bording, Thue Sylvester; Balling, N.; Nielsen, S.B.

    The thermal properties of rocks are key elements in understanding and modelling the temperature field of the subsurface. Thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity can be measured in the laboratory if rock samples can be provided. We have introduced improvements to the divided bar and needle...... probe methods to be able to measure both thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity. The improvements we implement include, for both methods, a combination of fast numerical finite element forward modelling and a Markov Chain Monte Carlo inversion scheme for estimating rock thermal parameters...

  17. Measurements of Higgs boson properties in ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Adye, T

    2013-01-01

    Combined measurements of the properties of the Higgs boson using the full pp collision data sample recorded by the ATLAS experiment at the LHC are presented. The combined mass measurement derived from the $H \\rightarrow \\gamma\\gamma$ and $H \\rightarrow ZZ^{(*)} \\rightarrow 4\\ell$ channels is $m_H = 125.5 \\pm 0.2$ (stat) $^{+0.5}_{-0.6}$ (sys) GeV. The signal strength, from the combination of the $H \\rightarrow \\gamma\\gamma$, $H \\rightarrow ZZ^{(*)} \\rightarrow 4\\ell$, and $H \\rightarrow WW^{(*)} \\rightarrow \\ell\

  18. Laboratory measurements of rock thermal properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bording, Thue Sylvester; Balling, N.; Nielsen, S.B.

    The thermal properties of rocks are key elements in understanding and modelling the temperature field of the subsurface. Thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity can be measured in the laboratory if rock samples can be provided. We have introduced improvements to the divided bar and needle...... probe methods to be able to measure both thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity. The improvements we implement include, for both methods, a combination of fast numerical finite element forward modelling and a Markov Chain Monte Carlo inversion scheme for estimating rock thermal parameters...

  19. Property-Based Software Engineering Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briand, Lionel C.; Morasca, Sandro; Basili, Victor R.

    1997-01-01

    Little theory exists in the field of software system measurement. Concepts such as complexity, coupling, cohesion or even size are very often subject to interpretation and appear to have inconsistent definitions in the literature. As a consequence, there is little guidance provided to the analyst attempting to define proper measures for specific problems. Many controversies in the literature are simply misunderstandings and stem from the fact that some people talk about different measurement concepts under the same label (complexity is the most common case). There is a need to define unambiguously the most important measurement concepts used in the measurement of software products. One way of doing so is to define precisely what mathematical properties characterize these concepts, regardless of the specific software artifacts to which these concepts are applied. Such a mathematical framework could generate a consensus in the software engineering community and provide a means for better communication among researchers, better guidelines for analysts, and better evaluation methods for commercial static analyzers for practitioners. In this paper, we propose a mathematical framework which is generic, because it is not specific to any particular software artifact and rigorous, because it is based on precise mathematical concepts. We use this framework to propose definitions of several important measurement concepts (size, length, complexity, cohesion, coupling). It does not intend to be complete or fully objective; other frameworks could have been proposed and different choices could have been made. However, we believe that the formalisms and properties we introduce are convenient and intuitive. This framework contributes constructively to a firmer theoretical ground of software measurement.

  20. Property-Based Software Engineering Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briand, Lionel C.; Morasca, Sandro; Basili, Victor R.

    1997-01-01

    Little theory exists in the field of software system measurement. Concepts such as complexity, coupling, cohesion or even size are very often subject to interpretation and appear to have inconsistent definitions in the literature. As a consequence, there is little guidance provided to the analyst attempting to define proper measures for specific problems. Many controversies in the literature are simply misunderstandings and stem from the fact that some people talk about different measurement concepts under the same label (complexity is the most common case). There is a need to define unambiguously the most important measurement concepts used in the measurement of software products. One way of doing so is to define precisely what mathematical properties characterize these concepts, regardless of the specific software artifacts to which these concepts are applied. Such a mathematical framework could generate a consensus in the software engineering community and provide a means for better communication among researchers, better guidelines for analysts, and better evaluation methods for commercial static analyzers for practitioners. In this paper, we propose a mathematical framework which is generic, because it is not specific to any particular software artifact and rigorous, because it is based on precise mathematical concepts. We use this framework to propose definitions of several important measurement concepts (size, length, complexity, cohesion, coupling). It does not intend to be complete or fully objective; other frameworks could have been proposed and different choices could have been made. However, we believe that the formalisms and properties we introduce are convenient and intuitive. This framework contributes constructively to a firmer theoretical ground of software measurement.

  1. Measurement of top quark properties at CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Piedra Gomez, Jonatan

    2015-01-01

    Measurements of top quark properties in top quark decays are presented, using data collected by the CMS experiment during the years 2011 and 2012. The polarization of W bosons in top quark decays is measured. The W boson helicity fractions and angular asymmetries are extracted, and limits on anomalous contributions to the Wtb vertex are determined. Furthermore, searches for flavor changing neutral currents in top quark decays are presented. The flavor contents in top quark pair events are measured using the fraction of top quarks decaying into a W boson and a b quark relative to all top quark decays, $R=BR({\\rm t} \\to {\\rm Wb})/BR({\\rm t} \\to {\\rm Wq})$, and the result is used to determine the CKM matrix element $V_{\\rm tb}$ as well as the width of the top quark resonance.

  2. Properties of Measure-based Fuzzy Logic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Measure-based fuzzy logic, which is constructed on the basis of eight axioms, is a seemingly powerful fuzzy logic. It possesses several remarkable properties. (1) It is an extended Boolean logic, satisfying all the properties of Boolean algebra, including the law of excluded middle and the law of contradiction. (2) It is conditional. Conditional membership functions play an important role in this logic. (3) The negation operator is not independently defined with the conjunction and disjunction operators, but on the contrary, it is derived from them. (4) Zadehs fuzzy logic is included in it as a particular case. (5) It gives more hints to the relationship between fuzzy logic and probability logic.

  3. How Do You Measure That Ceramic Property?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salem, Jonathan; Helfinstine, John; Quinn, George; Gonczy, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    By using the dozens of consensus test standards and practices developed by the Advanced Ceramics Committee of ASTM, C-28, the measurement of mechanical, physical, thermal, and performance properties can be properly performed. The what, how, how not, and why are clearly illustrated for beginning as well as experienced testers. Using these standards will provide accurate, reliable, and complete data for rigorous comparisons with other test results. The C-28 Committee has involved academics, and producers, and users of ceramics to write and continually update more than 45 standards since the committee's inception in 1986.

  4. EXPERIMENTAL MEASUREMENT OF NANOFLUIDS THERMAL PROPERTIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adnan M. Hussein

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Solid particles dispersed in a liquid with sizes no larger than 100nm, known as nanofluids, are used to enhance Thermophysical properties compared to the base fluid. Preparations of alumina (Al2O3, titania (TiO2 and silica (SiO2 in water have been experimentally conducted in volume concentrations ranging between 1 and 2.5%. Thermal conductivity is measured by the hot wire method and viscosity with viscometer equipment. The results of thermal conductivity and viscosity showed an enhancement (0.5–20% and 0.5–60% respectively compared with the base fluid. The data measured agreed with experimental data of other researchers with deviation of less than 5%. The study showed that alumina has the highest thermal conductivity, followed silica and titania, on the other hand silica has the highest viscosity followed alumina and titania.

  5. On the partition property of measures on Pℋλ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald H. Pelletier

    1982-01-01

    Full Text Available The partition property for measures on Pℋλ was formulated by analogy with a property which Rowbottom [1] proved was possessed by every normal measure on a measurable cardinal. This property has been studied in [2], [3], and [4]. This note summarizes [5] and [6], which contain results relating the partition property with the extendibility of the measure and with an auxiliary combinatorial property introduced by Menas in [4]. Detailed proofs will appear in [5] and [6].

  6. Correlation measurements of fission-fragment properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberstedt, S.; Belgya, T.; Billnert, R.; Borcea, R.; Cano-Ott, D.; Göök, A.; Hambsch, F.-J.; Karlsson, J.; Kis, Z.; Martinez, T.; Oberstedt, A.; Szentmiklosi, L.; Takác, K.

    2010-10-01

    For the development of future nuclear fission applications and for a responsible handling of nuclear waste the a-priori assessment of the fission-fragments' heat production and toxicity is a fundamental necessity. The success of an indispensable modelling of the fission process strongly depends on a good understanding of the particular mechanism of scission, the mass fragmentation and partition of excitation energy. Experimental observables are fission-fragment properties like mass- and energy-distributions, and the prompt neutron as well as γ-ray multiplicities and emission spectra. The latter quantities should preferably be known as a function of fragment mass and excitation energy. Those data are highly demanded as published by the OECD-NEA in its high priority data request list. With the construction of the double (v, E) spectrometer VERDI we aim at measuring pre- and post-neutron masses directly and simultaneously to avoid prompt neutron corrections. From the simultaneous measurement of pre- and post-neutron fission-fragment data the prompt neutron multiplicity may then be inferred fully correlated with fragment mass yield and total kinetic energy. Using an ultra-fast fission event trigger spectral prompt fission γ-ray measurements may be performed. For that purpose recently developed lanthanum-halide detectors, with excellent timing characteristics, were coupled to the VERDI spectrometer allowing for a very good discrimination of fission γ-rays and prompt neutrons due to their different time-of-flight.

  7. Correlation measurements of fission-fragment properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oberstedt A.

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available For the development of future nuclear fission applications and for a responsible handling of nuclear waste the a-priori assessment of the fission-fragments’ heat production and toxicity is a fundamental necessity. The success of an indispensable modelling of the fission process strongly depends on a good understanding of the particular mechanism of scission, the mass fragmentation and partition of excitation energy. Experimental observables are fission-fragment properties like mass- and energy-distributions, and the prompt neutron as well as γ-ray multiplicities and emission spectra. The latter quantities should preferably be known as a function of fragment mass and excitation energy. Those data are highly demanded as published by the OECD-NEA in its high priority data request list. With the construction of the double (v, E spectrometer VERDI we aim at measuring pre- and post-neutron masses directly and simultaneously to avoid prompt neutron corrections. From the simultaneous measurement of pre- and post-neutron fission-fragment data the prompt neutron multiplicity may then be inferred fully correlated with fragment mass yield and total kinetic energy. Using an ultra-fast fission event trigger spectral prompt fission γ-ray measurements may be performed. For that purpose recently developed lanthanum-halide detectors, with excellent timing characteristics, were coupled to the VERDI spectrometer allowing for a very good discrimination of fission γ-rays and prompt neutrons due to their different time-of-flight.

  8. Using Micromechanical Resonators to Measure Rheological Properties and Alcohol Content of Model Solutions and Commercial Beverages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bart W. Hoogenboom

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Micromechanic resonators provide a small-volume and potentially high-throughput method to determine rheological properties of fluids. Here we explore the accuracy in measuring mass density and viscosity of ethanol-water and glycerol-water model solutions, using a simple and easily implemented model to deduce the hydrodynamic effects on resonating cantilevers of various length-to-width aspect ratios. We next show that these measurements can be extended to determine the alcohol percentage of both model solutions and commercial beverages such as beer, wine and liquor. This demonstrates how micromechanical resonators can be used for quality control of every-day drinks.

  9. Using micromechanical resonators to measure rheological properties and alcohol content of model solutions and commercial beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paxman, Rosemary; Stinson, Jake; Dejardin, Anna; McKendry, Rachel A; Hoogenboom, Bart W

    2012-01-01

    Micromechanic resonators provide a small-volume and potentially high-throughput method to determine rheological properties of fluids. Here we explore the accuracy in measuring mass density and viscosity of ethanol-water and glycerol-water model solutions, using a simple and easily implemented model to deduce the hydrodynamic effects on resonating cantilevers of various length-to-width aspect ratios. We next show that these measurements can be extended to determine the alcohol percentage of both model solutions and commercial beverages such as beer, wine and liquor. This demonstrates how micromechanical resonators can be used for quality control of every-day drinks.

  10. Retrieval of ash properties from IASI measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventress, Lucy J.; McGarragh, Gregory; Carboni, Elisa; Smith, Andrew J.; Grainger, Roy G.

    2016-11-01

    A new optimal estimation algorithm for the retrieval of volcanic ash properties has been developed for use with the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI). The retrieval method uses the wave number range 680-1200 cm-1, which contains window channels, the CO2 ν2 band (used for the height retrieval), and the O3 ν3 band.Assuming a single infinitely (geometrically) thin ash plume and combining this with the output from the radiative transfer model RTTOV, the retrieval algorithm produces the most probable values for the ash optical depth (AOD), particle effective radius, plume top height, and effective radiating temperature. A comprehensive uncertainty budget is obtained for each pixel. Improvements to the algorithm through the use of different measurement error covariance matrices are explored, comparing the results from a sensitivity study of the retrieval process using covariance matrices trained on either clear-sky or cloudy scenes. The result showed that, due to the smaller variance contained within it, the clear-sky covariance matrix is preferable. However, if the retrieval fails to pass the quality control tests, the cloudy covariance matrix is implemented.The retrieval algorithm is applied to scenes from the Eyjafjallajökull eruption in 2010, and the retrieved parameters are compared to ancillary data sources. The ash optical depth gives a root mean square error (RMSE) difference of 0.46 when compared to retrievals from the MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) instrument for all pixels and an improved RMSE of 0.2 for low optical depths (AOD < 0.1). Measurements from the Facility for Airborne Atmospheric Measurements (FAAM) and Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V. (DLR) flight campaigns are used to verify the retrieved particle effective radius, with the retrieved distribution of sizes for the scene showing excellent consistency. Further, the plume top altitudes are compared to derived cloud-top altitudes from the Cloud

  11. On some topological properties of stable measures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Carsten Krabbe

    1996-01-01

    Summary The paper shows that the set of stable probability measures and the set of Rational Beliefs relative to a given stationary measure are closed in the strong topology, but not closed in the topology of weak convergence. However, subsets of the set of stable probability measures which...... system and such that each subset consists of stable measures. The uniformity requirement has a natural interpretation in terms of plausibility of Rational Beliefs...

  12. Surface structure, model and mechanism of an insect integument adapted to be damaged easily

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bouillard Philippe

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several sawfly larvae of the Tenthredinidae (Hymenoptera are called easy bleeders because their whole body integument, except the head capsule, disrupts very easily at a given spot, under a slight mechanical stress at this spot. The exuding haemolymph droplet acts as a feeding deterrent towards invertebrate predators. The present study aimed to describe the cuticle surface, to consider it from a mechanistic point of view, and to discuss potential consequences of the integument surface in the predator-prey relationships. Results The integument surface of sawfly larvae was investigated by light microscopy (LM and scanning electron microscopy (SEM which revealed that the cuticle of easy bleeders was densely covered by what we call "spider-like" microstructures. Such microstructures were not detected in non-easy bleeders. A model by finite elements of the cuticle layer was developed to get an insight into the potential function of the microstructures during easy bleeding. Cuticle parameters (i.e., size of the microstructures and thickness of the epi-versus procuticle were measured on integument sections and used in the model. A shear force applied on the modelled cuticle surface led to higher stress values when microstructures were present, as compared to a plan surface. Furthermore, by measuring the diameter of a water droplet deposited on sawfly larvae, the integument of several sawfly species was determined as hydrophobic (e.g., more than Teflon®, which was related to the sawfly larvae's ability to bleed easily. Conclusion Easy bleeders show spider-like microstructures on their cuticle surface. It is suggested that these microstructures may facilitate integument disruption as well as render the integument hydrophobic. This latter property would allow the exuding haemolymph to be maintained as a droplet at the integument surface.

  13. Determination of atmospheric aerosol properties over land using satellite measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kokhanovsky, A.A.; Leeuw, G. de

    2009-01-01

    Mostly, aerosol properties are poorly understood because the aerosol properties are very sparse. The first workshop on the determination of atmospheric aerosol properties over land using satellite measurements is convened in Bremen, Germany. In this workshop, the topics of discussions included a var

  14. Measurement Properties of Instruments for Measuring of Lymphedema: Systematic Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hidding, J.T.; Viehoff, P.B.; Beurskens, C.H.G.; Laarhoven, H.W. van; Sanden, M.W. van der; Wees, P.J. van der

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Lymphedema is a common complication of cancer treatment, resulting in swelling and subjective symptoms. Reliable and valid measurement of this side effect of medical treatment is important. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to provide best evidence regarding which measurement

  15. A toolkit for analyzing nonlinear dynamic stochastic models easily

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uhlig, H.F.H.V.S.

    1995-01-01

    Often, researchers wish to analyze nonlinear dynamic discrete-time stochastic models. This paper provides a toolkit for solving such models easily, building on log-linearizing the necessary equations characterizing the equilibrium and solving for the recursive equilibrium law of motion with the meth

  16. A toolkit for analyzing nonlinear dynamic stochastic models easily

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uhlig, H.F.H.V.S.

    1995-01-01

    Often, researchers wish to analyze nonlinear dynamic discrete-time stochastic models. This paper provides a toolkit for solving such models easily, building on log-linearizing the necessary equations characterizing the equilibrium and solving for the recursive equilibrium law of motion with the meth

  17. Measured moisture properties for alternative insulation products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ernst Jan De Place; Hansen, Kurt Kielsgaard; Padfield, Tim

    1999-01-01

    During the past few years there has been a growing interest in using alternative insulation products in buildings. Among these products are the organic materials cellulose fibre, flax and sheep's wool as well as the inorganic perlite. The organic materials are regarded with some suspicion, because...... of their hygroscopicity. This paper describes two of the moisture-related properties of these materials: the water sorption and the water vapour transmission. For reference, some mineral fibre products are studied as well....

  18. Measured moisture properties for alternative insulation products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ernst Jan De Place; Hansen, Kurt Kielsgaard; Padfield, Tim

    1999-01-01

    During the past few years there has been a growing interest in using alternative insulation products in buildings. Among these products are the organic materials cellulose fibre, flax and sheep's wool as well as the inorganic perlite. The organic materials are regarded with some suspicion, because...... of their hygroscopicity. This paper describes two of the moisture-related properties of these materials: the water sorption and the water vapour transmission. For reference, some mineral fibre products are studied as well....

  19. Measuring Disturbance Impact on Soil Hydraulic Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinshaw, S.; Mirus, B. B.

    2014-12-01

    Disturbances associated with land cover change such as forest clearing and mono-cropping can have a substantial impact on soil-hydraulic properties, which in turn have a cascading impact on surface and near-surface hydrologic response. Although disturbances and vegetation change can alter soil-water retention and conductivity relations, hydrologic models relying on traditional soil-texture based pedotransfer functions would not be able to capture the disturbance impact on infiltration and soil-moisture storage. Therefore, in-situ estimates of characteristic curves of soil water retention and hydraulic conductivity relations are needed to understand and predict hydrologic impacts of land cover change. We present a method for in-situ estimates of effective characteristic curves that capture hysteretic soil-water retention properties at the plot scale. We apply this method to two different forest treatments and in urban settings to investigate the impact of land-use disturbances on soil-hydraulic properties. We compare our in-situ estimation method to results for simple pedotransfer functions to illustrate how this approach can improve understanding of disturbance impacts on hydrologic processes and function.

  20. Recent Top Properties Measurements at CDF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiarelli, Giorgio [INFN, Pisa

    2014-11-26

    We present the most recent CDF results on the measurements of the decay and production vertex of the top-quark. New results on forward-backward asymmetry in top-antitop events are presented. Also, recent measurements of the branching fractions of top-quark are discussed. Finally, measurements in single top events, where top-quark is produced through electroweak processes, are presented. Despite the much larger number of top events collected at the LHC, due to the symmetric initial state and the better signal-to-background ratio in specific channels, some results will be lasting heritage of the Tevatron.

  1. Measurement of magnetic properties at cryogenic temperatures

    CERN Multimedia

    1977-01-01

    This picture shows part of the low-mu permeameter to measure permeability of stainless steels and other low-mu materials used in superconducting magnets. The sample, a 5 mm diam., 45 mm long rod, is suspended to long leads before being inserted in the test cryostat. For the measurement the sample is surrounded by a flux- measuring coil and placed in the field of a superconducting solenoid. At a given field the sample is removed.During the removal, the voltage induced in the flux-measuring coil is time integrated giving the flux variation. This equipment was developed to select stainless steels and other low-mu materials used in the ISR Prototype Superconducting Qaudrupole. The person is W.Ansorge.

  2. Recent Top quark properties measurements (excluding mass and asymmetrie)

    CERN Document Server

    Homann, Michael; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    In this talk the newest results of top quark properties (excluding mass and asymmetry) measurements from LHC and Tevatron collaborations are presented. Measurement of spin correlation and top polarization give information about the production of top quarks whereas W-Boson helicity measurements and measurements of anomalous couplings give information about the decay mechanisms of top quarks.

  3. Measuring thermoelectric property of nano-heterostructure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lu Hong-Liang; Zhang Chen-Dong; Cai Jin-Ming; Gao Min; Zou Qiang; Guo Hai-Ming; Gao Hong-Jun

    2011-01-01

    A method of measuring the thermoelectric power of nano-heterostructures based on four-probe scanning tunneling microscopy is presented.The process is composed of the in-situ fabrication of a tungsten-indium tip,the precise control of the tip-sample contact and the identification of thermoelectric potential.When the temperature of the substrate is elevated,while that of the tip is kept at room temperature,a thermoelectric potential occurs and can be detected by a current-voltage measurement.As an example of its application,the method is demonstrated to be effective to measure the thermoelectric power in several systems.A Seebeck coefficient of tens of μV/K is obtained in graphene epitaxially grown on Ru (0001) substrate and the thermoelectric potential polarity of this system is found to be the reverse of that of bare Ru (0001) substrate.

  4. Measurement of Optical Properties of Small Particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arakawa, E.T.; Tuminello, P.S. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Khare, B.N. [NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA (United States); Millham, M.E. [USAMCCOM, Edgewood Research, Development, and Engineering Center, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD (United States); Authier, S. [Ecole Superiere d`Optique, Orsay (France); Pierce, J. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1997-12-01

    We have measured the optical constants of montmorillonite and the separated coats and cores of B. subtilis spores over the wavelength interval from 200 nm to 2500 nm. The optical constants of kaolin were obtained over the wavelength interval from 130 nm to 2500 nm. Our results are applicable to the development of systems for detection of airborne biological contaminants. Future work will include measurement of the optical constants of B. cereus spores, B. sub tilts vegetative cells, egg albumin, illite, and a mixture (by weight) of one third kaolin, one third montmorillonite, and one third illite.

  5. Containerless Atomic-Fluorescence Property Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordine, P.; Schiffman, R.; Walker, C.

    1987-01-01

    Report describes studies conducted to establish and verify use of laser-induced fluorescence in monitoring and controlling high-temperature containerless processes. Specimens levitated by gas jets or electromagnetic fields and heated by laser beams or electromagnetic induction while being irradiated and detected by fluorescence technique. Makes quantitative and qualitative comparisons among three new methods of temperature measurement; all rely on laser-induced fluorescence. One method gas-density thermometry with seed gas. Other two methods involve measurements of velocities of evaporating atoms or of population ratios of different electronic states.

  6. Top Quark Properties Measurements with the ATLAS Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Limosani, Antonio; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The top quark is unique among the known quarks in that it decays before it has an opportunity to form hadronic bound states. This makes measurements of its properties particularly interesting as one can access directly the properties of a bare quark. The latest measurements of these properties are presented. Measurements of the charge asymmetry in top quark pair production, which probe models of physics beyond the Standard Model, are presented; these include measurements at high invariant masses of the $t\\bar{t}$ system using boosted top quarks. Limits on the rate of flavour-changing neutral currents in the production or decay of the top quark are discussed

  7. [Easily implemented cognitive behaviour techniques in primary care (part 2)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibáñez-Tarín, C; Manzanera-Escartí, R

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive behavioural therapy has shown to be very effective for treating the vast majority of mental health disorders. In this second part of the article, we continue commenting on those techniques that can be easily used in the Primary Care setting. Copyright © 2011 Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria (SEMERGEN). Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  8. SM Higgs properties measurement at ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Murray, William

    2009-01-01

    The discovery of a new particle in the Higgs searches being prepared for LHC will not guarantee that the Standard Model Higgs boson has been seen. This paper discusses the possibilities for measuring the spin, parity and couplings of the particle, under the assumption that it does in fact behave like the Standard Model Higgs. The key question, which cannot alas be answered, is: if it looks like a dog, and barks like a dog, how much of the DNA must we analyse to be sure that it is a dog?

  9. Acoustic property measurements in a photoacoustic imager

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willemink, René G. H.; Manohar, Srirang; Slump, Cornelis H.; van der Heijden, Ferdi; van Leeuwen, Ton

    2007-07-01

    Photoacoustics is a hybrid imaging technique that combines the contrast available to optical imaging with the resolution that is possessed by ultrasound imaging. The technique is based on generating ultrasound from absorbing structures in tissue using pulsed light. In photoacoustic (PA) computerized tomography (CT) imaging, reconstruction of the optical absorption in a subject, is performed for example by filtered backprojection. The backprojection is performed along circular paths in image space instead of along straight lines as in X-ray CT imaging. To achieve this, the speed-of-sound through the subject is usually assumed constant. An unsuitable speed-of-sound can degrade resolution and contrast. We discuss here a method of actually measuring the speed-of- sound distribution using ultrasound transmission through the subject under photoacoustic investigation. This is achieved in a simple approach that does not require any additional ultrasound transmitter. The method uses a passive element (carbon fiber) that is placed in the imager in the path of the illumination which generates ultrasound by the photoacoustic effect and behaves as an ultrasound source. Measuring the time-of-flight of this ultrasound transient by the same detector used for conventional photoacoustics, allows a speed-of-sound image to be reconstructed. This concept is validated on phantoms.

  10. FIM measurement properties and Rasch model details.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, B D; Linacre, J M; Smith, R M; Heinemann, A W; Granger, C V

    1997-12-01

    To summarize, we take issue with the criticisms of Dickson & Köhler for two main reasons: 1. Rasch analysis provides a model from which to approach the analysis of the FIM, an ordinal scale, as an interval scale. The existence of examples of items or individuals which do not fit the model does not disprove the overall efficacy of the model; and 2. the principal components analysis of FIM motor items as presented by Dickson & Köhler tends to undermine rather than support their argument. Their own analyses produce a single major factor explaining between 58.5 and 67.1% of the variance, depending upon the sample, with secondary factors explaining much less variance. Finally, analysis of item response, or latent trait, is a powerful method for understanding the meaning of a measure. However, it presumes that item scores are accurate. Another concern is that Dickson & Köhler do not address the issue of reliability of scoring the FIM items on which they report, a critical point in comparing results. The Uniform Data System for Medical Rehabilitation (UDSMRSM) expends extensive effort in the training of clinicians of subscribing facilities to score items accurately. This is followed up with a credentialing process. Phase 1 involves the testing of individual clinicians who are submitting data to determine if they have achieved mastery over the use of the FIM instrument. Phase 2 involves examining the data for outlying values. When Dickson & Köhler investigate more carefully the application of the Rasch model to their FIM data, they will discover that the results presented in their paper support rather than contradict their application of the Rasch model! This paper is typical of supposed refutations of Rasch model applications. Dickson & Köhler will find that idiosyncrasies in their data and misunderstandings of the Rasch model are the only basis for a claim to have disproven the relevance of the model to FIM data. The Rasch model is a mathematical theorem (like

  11. A universal property for sequential measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerbaan, Abraham; Westerbaan, Bas

    2016-09-01

    We study the sequential product the operation p ∗ q = √{ p } q √{ p } on the set of effects, [0, 1]𝒜, of a von Neumann algebra 𝒜 that represents sequential measurement of first p and then q. In their work [J. Math. Phys. 49(5), 052106 (2008)], Gudder and Latrémolière give a list of axioms based on physical grounds that completely determines the sequential product on a von Neumann algebra of type I, that is, a von Neumann algebra ℬ(ℋ) of all bounded operators on some Hilbert space ℋ. In this paper we give a list of axioms that completely determines the sequential product on all von Neumann algebras simultaneously (Theorem 4).

  12. Liquid Drop Measuring Device for Analyzing Liquid Properties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Based on the correlation between certain properties of liquid and the properties of the corresponding liquid drop formed under given conditions, a liquid drop measuring device is utilized to monitor the drop formation process of the liquid sample with photoelectric measuring methods. The mechanical and optical characteristic of the liquid is explored with the optical fibers from the internal of the liquid drop during its formation. The drop head capacitor is utilized to monitor the growth process of the liquid drop to gain the drop volume information related to the physical property of liquid. The unique liquid drop trace containing the integrated properties of liquid is generated, and it is proved by experiment that for different liquids their liquid drop traces are different. The analysis on liquid properties and discrimination between different liquids can be proceeded with the liquid drop trace obtained by the liquid drop measuring device.

  13. A method for easily customizable gradient gel electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Andrew J; Roman, Brandon; Norstrom, Eric

    2016-09-15

    Gradient polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis is a powerful tool for the resolution of polypeptides by relative mobility. Here, we present a simplified method for generating polyacrylamide gradient gels for routine analysis without the need for specialized mixing equipment. The method allows for easily customizable gradients which can be optimized for specific polypeptide resolution requirements. Moreover, the method eliminates the possibility of buffer cross contamination in mixing equipment, and the time and resources saved with this method in place of traditional gradient mixing, or the purchase of pre-cast gels, are noteworthy given the frequency with which many labs use gradient gel SDS-PAGE. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. The transient divided bar method for laboratory measurements of thermal properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bording, Thue S.; Nielsen, Søren B.; Balling, Niels

    2016-12-01

    Accurate information on thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity of materials is of central importance in relation to geoscience and engineering problems involving the transfer of heat. Several methods, including the classical divided bar technique, are available for laboratory measurements of thermal conductivity, but much fewer for thermal diffusivity. We have generalized the divided bar technique to the transient case in which thermal conductivity, volumetric heat capacity and thereby also thermal diffusivity are measured simultaneously. As the density of samples is easily determined independently, specific heat capacity can also be determined. The finite element formulation provides a flexible forward solution for heat transfer across the bar, and thermal properties are estimated by inverse Monte Carlo modelling. This methodology enables a proper quantification of experimental uncertainties on measured thermal properties and information on their origin. The developed methodology was applied to various materials, including a standard ceramic material and different rock samples, and measuring results were compared with results applying traditional steady-state divided bar and an independent line-source method. All measurements show highly consistent results and with excellent reproducibility and high accuracy. For conductivity the obtained uncertainty is typically 1-3 per cent, and for diffusivity uncertainty may be reduced to about 3-5 per cent. The main uncertainty originates from the presence of thermal contact resistance associated with the internal interfaces in the bar. These are not resolved during inversion and it is imperative that they are minimized. The proposed procedure is simple and may quite easily be implemented to the many steady-state divided bar systems in operation. A thermally controlled bath, as applied here, may not be needed. Simpler systems, such as applying temperature-controlled water directly from a tap, may also be applied.

  15. Measurement of inherent optical properties in the Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Suresh, T.; Desa, E.; Kurian, J.; Mascarenhas, A.A.M.Q.

    Inherent optical properties, absorption and began attenuation were measured in situ using a reflective tube absorption meter at nint wavelength, 412, 440, 488, 510, 555, 630, 650, 676 and 715 nm, in the Arabian Sea during March. Since inherent...

  16. Measurements of the Higgs boson properties with the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Tomoto, M; The ATLAS collaboration

    2013-01-01

    Slide draft for the Crimea 2013 workshop. The subject of the talk will be measurements of the Higgs boson properties, including the spin, mass, signal strength, and couplings of a new boson discovered in 2012 at the ATLAS experiment.

  17. Highlights of top quark properties measurements at ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Barranco Navarro, Laura; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The top quark is the heaviest known fundamental particle. As it is the only quark that decays before it hadronizes, this gives the unique opportunity to probe the properties of bare quarks. This talk will focus on a few recent precision measurements of top quark properties in production and decay by the ATLAS Collaboration. Measurements of the top quark mass and searches for rare top quark decays are also presented.

  18. Highlights of top quark properties measurements at ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Barranco Navarro, Laura; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The top quark is the heaviest known fundamental particle. As it is the only quark that decays before it hadronizes, this gives the unique opportunity to probe the properties of bare quarks. This talk focuses on a few recent precision measurements of top quark properties in production and decay by the ATLAS Collaboration. Measurements of the top quark mass and searches for rare top quark decays are also presented.

  19. Measurements of the top-quark properties at CMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jafari Abideh

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available We present different measurements of the top quark properties in production and decay. The measurements are performed using the LHC proton-proton (pp collisions at 7 TeV and 8 TeV center-of-mass energies collected by the CMS detector during 2011 and 2012 runs, respectively. The study of production properties consists of charge asymmetry, tt¯$tar t$ spin correlation and the vector boson associated production of tt¯$tar t$. The top quark properties in decay are studied via the measurement of the b-quark content, R = ℬ(t → Wb/ℬ(t → Wq, the top quark charge, the FCNC process of t → Zq and the W-helicity fractions. The results of the last measurement are used to set limits on the tWb anomalous couplings. The W-helicity fractions are measured in the electroweakly produced (single- top quarks, too.

  20. An easily fabricated high performance ionic polymer based sensor network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zicai; Wang, Yanjie; Hu, Xiaopin; Sun, Xiaofei; Chang, Longfei; Lu, Pin

    2016-08-01

    Ionic polymer materials can generate an electrical potential from ion migration under an external force. For traditional ionic polymer metal composite sensors, the output voltage is very small (a few millivolts), and the fabrication process is complex and time-consuming. This letter presents an ionic polymer based network of pressure sensors which is easily and quickly constructed, and which can generate high voltage. A 3 × 3 sensor array was prepared by casting Nafion solution directly over copper wires. Under applied pressure, two different levels of voltage response were observed among the nine nodes in the array. For the group producing the higher level, peak voltages reached as high as 25 mV. Computational stress analysis revealed the physical origin of the different responses. High voltages resulting from the stress concentration and asymmetric structure can be further utilized to modify subsequent designs to improve the performance of similar sensors.

  1. Measurements of the top quark properties at decay with CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Castro, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    CMS measurements of top quark properties related to top decays are discussed. The results presented regard the measurement of the W boson helicity, the investigation of anomalous couplings in the Wtb vertex, and the search for very rare decays, such as t- gt Zq and t- gt Hq, which are associated to flavor-changing neutral currents.

  2. Monitoring Coaxial-Probe Contact Force for Dielectric Properties Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    A means is described for measuring and monitoring the contact force applied to a material sample with an open-ended coaxial-line probe for purposes of measuring the dielectric properties of semisolid material samples such as fruit, vegetable and animal tissues. The equipment consists of a stainless...

  3. Psychometric Properties of Measures of Team Diversity with Likert Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Lifang; Marcoulides, George A.; Yuan, Ke-Hai

    2015-01-01

    Certain diversity among team members is beneficial to the growth of an organization. Multiple measures have been proposed to quantify diversity, although little is known about their psychometric properties. This article proposes several methods to evaluate the unidimensionality and reliability of three measures of diversity. To approximate the…

  4. Top quark properties measurement with the $D0$ detector

    CERN Document Server

    Jabeen, Shabnam

    2009-01-01

    One of the main goals of the Tevatron RunII is to look for any hints for new physics. At D0, the range of searches for new physics signals is large and one of the places we look for hints for new physics is by measuring the top quark properties. A few of these measurements are discussed in this paper.

  5. Measurement of top quark properties in single top production

    CERN Document Server

    Jafari, Abideh

    2016-01-01

    Single top topologies are exploited for studies of top quark properties. This includes the first measurement of single top polarization in the t-channel production mode in pp collisions, which directly confirms the V-A nature of the tWb production vertex. W-helicity fractions are measured in the phase space sampled by a selection optimized for t-channel single top production, orthogonal to the ttbar final states used in traditional measurements of these properties. Anomalous couplings of the top quark are also searched in t-channel single top production with a NN-based analysis.

  6. Optical and thermodynamic property measurements of liquid metals and alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, J. K. Richard; Krishnan, Shankar; Schiffman, Robert A.; Nordine, Paul C.

    Optical properties and spectral emissivities of liquid silicon, titanium, niobium, and zirconium were investigated by HeNe laser polarimetry at λ = 632.8 nm. The metals were of a high purity and, except for zirconium, clean. The more demanding environmental requirements for eliminating oxide or nitride phases from zirconium were not met. Containerless conditions were achieved by electromagnetic levitation and heating. CO2 laser beam heating was also used to extend the temperature range for stable levitation and to heat solid silicon to form the metallic liquid phase. Corrections to previously reported calorimetric measurements of the heat capacity of liquid niobium were derived from the measured temperature dependence of its spectral emissivity. Property measurements were obtained for supercooled liquid silicon and supercooling of liquid zirconium was accomplished. The purification of liquid metals and the extension of this work on liquids to the measurement of thermodynamic properties and phase equilibria are discussed.

  7. The uncertainties of magnetic properties measurements of electrical sheet steel

    CERN Document Server

    Ahlers, H

    2000-01-01

    In this work, uncertainties in measurements of magnetic properties of Epstein- and single-sheet samples have been determined according to the 'Guide To The Expression Of Uncertainty In Measurement', [International Organization for Standardization (1993)]. They were calculated for the results at predicted values of parameters taking into account the non-linear dependences. The measurement results and the uncertainties are calculated simultaneously by a computer program.

  8. Measurement of local creep properties in stainless steel welds

    OpenAIRE

    Sakanashi, Y.; Gungor, S; Bouchard, J.

    2012-01-01

    A high temperature measurement system for creep deformation based on the digital image correlation (DIC) technique is described. The new system is applied to study the behaviour of a multi-pass welded joint in a high temperature tensile test and a load controlled creep test at 545°C. Spatially resolved tensile properties and time dependent creep deformation properties across a thick section type 316 stainless steel multi-pass welded joint are presented and discussed. Significantly lower creep...

  9. The microphysical properties of small ice particles measured during MACPEX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, C. G.; Schnaiter, M.; Heymsfield, A.; Bansemer, A.; Hirst, E.

    2012-12-01

    During the Mid-latitude Airborne Cirrus Properties Experiment (MACPEX) field campaign, the Small Ice Detector version 3 (SID-3) and the NCAR Video Ice Particle Sampler (VIPS) probes were operated onboard the NASA WB-57 aircraft to measure the microphysical properties of small ice particles in midlatitude cirrus clouds. The VIPS was optimized to measure the particle size distribution and projected area properties of ice particles between 20 and 200 microns and measurements agreed well with other microphysical probes. SID-3 measures the forward light scattering pattern from ice particles in the 1 to 100 micron size range. Forward scattering patterns can be used to characterize ice particle shape as well as surface roughness. Scattering patterns appear to be 'speckled' when particles have surface roughness and/or are polycrystalline. Scattering patterns can be used to identify quasi-spherical ice particles as well as particles which are sublimating. Sublimating crystals, spherical ice particles, and particles with surface roughness were all observed by SID-3 during MACPEX. Observed particle properties will be correlated to concurrent atmospheric observations. Measurements from the controlled environment of the Aerosol Interaction and Dynamics in the Atmosphere (AIDA) cloud chamber will be related to atmospheric particle measurements.

  10. Frequency Dependence of Measured Massive MIMO Channel Properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oliveras Martínez, Àlex; Carvalho, Elisabeth De; Nielsen, Jesper Ødum;

    2016-01-01

    A multi-user massive MIMO measurement campaign is conducted to study the channel propagation characteristics (e.g. user correlation, sum of eigenvalues and condition number), focusing on the stability over frequencies and the impact of the array aperture. We use 3 arrays with 64 antennas (6m linear...... array, 2m linear array and 25cm by 28cm squared 2D array) serving 8 users holding a handset with 2 antennas. The study of the measurements shows that the propagation characteristics of the channel are stable for all the measured frequencies. We also observe that user proximity and user handgrip...... stabilize the studied properties of the channel across the frequencies, and in such case the larger the aperture of the array the more stable the properties. The number of base station antennas improves the propagation characteristics of the channel and stabilizes the properties in the frequency domain....

  11. Top Quark Properties Measurements with the ATLAS Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murillo Quijada, J. A.

    2016-10-01

    Results on recent measurements of top quark properties with the ATLAS experiment at the European Laboratory, CERN, are shown. The measurements are performed using the full data set recorded during the LHC Run-I. The full data set consists of a collected integrated luminosities ∫Tdt of 4.6 fb-1 recorded at a proton-proton collision energy of √s = 7 TeV and 20.3 fb-1 collected at 8 TeV. The mentioned top quark properties include: spin correlation, charge asymmetry, W-boson polarization, color flow, top mass and top width in events with a top and anti-top quark pair (tt). An introduction to the LHC and the ATLAS detector is included and latest main results from this experiment. The contents include the current world benchmark results for the different properties and plans for future measurements during the ongoing LHC Run-II.

  12. Measurements of the top quark properties at production with CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Savitskyi, Mykola

    2017-01-01

    Several measurements of top quark properties are presented using data collected by the CMS experiment at the centre-of-mass-energy of 8 TeV. The properties are mostly probed in production of the top quarks. The charge asymmetry is measured inclusively and differentially probing anomalous couplings to the gluons at production mode. These measurements are extended searching for asymmetries in CP-odd operators in production and decay. The measurement of the spin density matrix in different final states (lepton+jets and dileptons) is discussed as well as the measurement of the top quark polarization in ttbar events. The results are compared to the state-of-the-art predictions, when available, and re-interpreted as searches for new physics inducing deviations from the standard model predictions.

  13. Measurements and Characterizations of Mechanical Properties of Human Skins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Han Wook; Park, Yon Kyu

    A skin is an indispensible organ for humans because it contributes to metabolism using its own biochemical functions and protects the human body from external stimuli. Recently, mechanical properties such as a thickness, a friction and an elastic coefficient have been used as a decision index in the skin physiology and in the skin care market due to the increased awareness of wellbeing issues. In addition, the use of mechanical properties is known to have good discrimination ability in the classification of human constitutions, which are used in the field of an alternative medicine. In this study, a system that measures mechanical properties such as a friction and an elastic coefficient is designed. The equipment consists of a load cell type (manufactured by the authors) for the measurements of a friction coefficient, a decompression tube for the measurement of an elastic coefficient. Using the proposed system, the mechanical properties of human skins from different constitutions were compared, and the relative repeatability error for measurements of mechanical properties was determined to be less than 2%. Combining the inspection results of medical doctors in the field of an alternative medicine, we could conclude that the proposed system might be applicable to a quantitative constitutional diagnosis between human constitutions within an acceptable level of uncertainty.

  14. Top quark properties and mass measurements with the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Moreno Llacer, Maria; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    ID# 104 Top quark properties and mass measurements with the ATLAS detector The top quark is unique among the known quarks in that it decays before it has an opportunity to form hadronic bound states. This makes measurements of its properties particularly interesting as one can access directly the properties of a bare quark. The latest measurements of these properties with the ATLAS detector at the LHC are presented using 8 TeV and 13 TeV data. Measurements of top quark spin observables in top-antitop events, each sensitive to a different coefficient of the spin density matrix, are presented and compared to the Standard Model predictions. The helicity of the W boson from the top decays and the production angles of the top quark are further discussed. Limits on the rate of flavour changing neutral currents in the production or decay of the top quark are reported. The production of top-quark pairs in association with W and Z bosons is also presented. The measurement probes the coupling between the top quark and ...

  15. Some Properties of a Measure of Information Discrepancy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FANG Shun-lan; FANG Wei-wu

    2002-01-01

    Based on a group of axioms, a measure of information discrepancyamong multiple information sources has been introduced in [7,8, 10] and it possesses some peculiar properties compared with other measures of information discrepancy, so it can be used in some areas, where the traditional measures are not valid or not efficient, for example, in the study of DNA sequence comparison, prediction of protein structure class, evidence analysis, questionnaire analysis, and so on. In this paper, using the optimization techniques,we prove that it is a distance function and show that it is also an approximation of x2 function. These two properties will stimulate further applications of the measure to information processing and system analysis.

  16. Prospects for Higgs CP property measurements at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Xin; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    This document is prepared for the LCWS2016 conference. It reviews the current results on the Higgs CP property measurements from both ATLAS and CMS experiemnts in the Higgs to diboson decays, and in the Vector Boson Fusion production of Higgs via the ditau decay channel. The projected sensitivity of the ditau signal in HL-LHC is breifly discussed. Finally, it gives prospects for the CP measurement in the Higgs to ditau decay with tau substructure developments at both collaborations.

  17. Top quark properties and mass measurements with the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Negrini, Matteo; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Highlights on recent measurements of top quark properties in ATLAS, using pp collision data at \\sqrt{s}= 8 TeV and 13 TeV, are presented. The measurements of the top quark polarization and spin correlation coefficients, the W boson helicity fractions, the structure of the Wtb vertex, the associated production of a t anti-t pair with a vector boson or a photon, and the top quark mass are all in agreement with the Standard Model expectations.

  18. DESIRABLE PROPERTIES OF AN IDEAL RISK MEASURE IN PORTFOLIO THEORY

    OpenAIRE

    SVETLOZAR RACHEV; SERGIO ORTOBELLI; STOYAN STOYANOV; Fabozzi, Frank J.; ALMIRA BIGLOVA

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the properties that a risk measure should satisfy in order to characterize an investor's preferences. In particular, we propose some intuitive and realistic examples that describe several desirable features of an ideal risk measure. This analysis is the first step in understanding how to classify an investor's risk. Risk is an asymmetric, relative, heteroskedastic, multidimensional concept that has to take into account asymptotic behavior of returns, inter-temporal depende...

  19. Atom lasers: Production, properties and prospects for precision inertial measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robins, N.P., E-mail: nick.robins@anu.edu.au; Altin, P.A.; Debs, J.E.; Close, J.D.

    2013-08-20

    We review experimental progress on atom lasers out-coupled from Bose–Einstein condensates, and consider the properties of such beams in the context of precision inertial sensing. The atom laser is the matter-wave analogue of the optical laser. Both devices rely on Bose-enhanced scattering to produce a macroscopically populated trapped mode that is output-coupled to produce an intense beam. In both cases, the beams often display highly desirable properties such as low divergence, high spectral flux and a simple spatial mode that make them useful in practical applications, as well as the potential to perform measurements at or below the quantum projection noise limit. Both devices display similar second-order correlations that differ from thermal sources. Because of these properties, atom lasers are a promising source for application to precision inertial measurements.

  20. Measurement of fracture properties of concrete at high strain rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey-De-Pedraza, V.; Cendón, D. A.; Sánchez-Gálvez, V.; Gálvez, F.

    2017-01-01

    An analysis of the spalling technique of concrete bars using the modified Hopkinson bar was carried out. A new experimental configuration is proposed adding some variations to previous works. An increased length for concrete specimens was chosen and finite-element analysis was used for designing a conic projectile to obtain a suitable triangular impulse wave. The aim of this initial work is to establish an experimental framework which allows a simple and direct analysis of concrete subjected to high strain rates. The efforts and configuration of these primary tests, as well as the selected geometry and dimensions for the different elements, have been focused to achieve a simple way of identifying the fracture position and so the tensile strength of tested specimens. This dynamic tensile strength can be easily compared with previous values published in literature giving an idea of the accuracy of the method and technique proposed and the possibility to extend it in a near future to obtain other mechanical properties such as the fracture energy. The tests were instrumented with strain gauges, accelerometers and high-speed camera in order to validate the results by different ways. Results of the dynamic tensile strength of the tested concrete are presented. This article is part of the themed issue 'Experimental testing and modelling of brittle materials at high strain rates'.

  1. Measurement of fracture properties of concrete at high strain rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey-De-Pedraza, V; Cendón, D A; Sánchez-Gálvez, V; Gálvez, F

    2017-01-28

    An analysis of the spalling technique of concrete bars using the modified Hopkinson bar was carried out. A new experimental configuration is proposed adding some variations to previous works. An increased length for concrete specimens was chosen and finite-element analysis was used for designing a conic projectile to obtain a suitable triangular impulse wave. The aim of this initial work is to establish an experimental framework which allows a simple and direct analysis of concrete subjected to high strain rates. The efforts and configuration of these primary tests, as well as the selected geometry and dimensions for the different elements, have been focused to achieve a simple way of identifying the fracture position and so the tensile strength of tested specimens. This dynamic tensile strength can be easily compared with previous values published in literature giving an idea of the accuracy of the method and technique proposed and the possibility to extend it in a near future to obtain other mechanical properties such as the fracture energy. The tests were instrumented with strain gauges, accelerometers and high-speed camera in order to validate the results by different ways. Results of the dynamic tensile strength of the tested concrete are presented.This article is part of the themed issue 'Experimental testing and modelling of brittle materials at high strain rates'.

  2. Single top cross section and properties measurements in CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Komm, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    Single top quarks can be produced via the t, tW, and s channel. Studying these processes provides a test of the theory of electroweak interactions involving heavy quarks. Recent results on cross section and property measurements in pp collisions by the CMS collaboration at center-of-mass energies of 7, 8, and 13 TeV are reviewed.

  3. Measuring Institutions: Indicators of Political and Property Rights in Malawi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedderke, Johannes; Garlick, Julia

    2012-01-01

    This paper constructs a new set of institutional indicators for Malawi. We develop indicators of political rights, of freehold, traditional (communitarian) and intellectual property rights, based on the Malawian legislative framework. In exploring the association between our rights measures and a range of indicators of socio-economic development,…

  4. Direct measurement of thermodynamic properties of colloidal hard spheres

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dullens, R.P.A.; Kegel, W.K.; Aarts, D.G.A.L.

    2008-01-01

    Recently, we have shown how to measure thermodynamic properties of colloidal hard sphere suspensions by microscopy [Dullens et al. (2006) PNAS 103, 529]. Here, we give full experimental details on how to acquire three dimensional snapshots of a colloidal hard sphere suspension over a wide range of d

  5. Augmentation of the In Vivo Elastic Properties Measurement System to Include Bulk Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-30

    estimates based on measured displacement magnitudes. APPROACH The bulk properties measurement methods are intended to run concurrently with the...to better understand biomechanics of sound reception and production in cetaceans, and 2) to understand and hopefully mitigate any harmful effects of

  6. Cirrus Microphysical Properties from Stellar Aureole Measurements, Phase I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeVore, J. G.; Kristl, J. A.; Rappaport, S. A.

    2012-04-20

    While knowledge of the impact of aerosols on climate change has improved significantly due to the routine, ground-based, sun photometer measurements of aerosols made at AERONET sites world-wide, the impact of cirrus clouds remains much less certain because they occur high in the atmosphere and are more difficult to measure. This report documents work performed on a Phase I SBIR project to retrieve microphysical properties of cirrus ice crystals from stellar aureole imagery. The Phase I work demonstrates that (1) we have clearly measured stellar aureole profiles; (2) we can follow the aureole profiles out to ~1/4 degree from stars (~1/2 degree from Jupiter); (3) the stellar aureoles from cirrus have very distinctive profiles, being flat out to a critical angle, followed by a steep power-law decline with a slope of ~-3; (4) the profiles are well modeled using exponential size distributions; and (5) the critical angle in the profiles is ~0.12 degrees, (6) indicating that the corresponding critical size ranges from ~150 to ~200 microns. The stage has been set for a Phase II project (1) to proceed to validating the use of stellar aureole measurements for retrieving cirrus particle size distributions using comparisons with optical property retrievals from other, ground-based instruments and (2) to develop an instrument for the routine, automatic measurement of thin cirrus microphysical properties.

  7. Top quark properties and mass measurements with the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Dado, Tomas; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The top quark is unique among the known quarks in that it decays before it has an opportunity to form hadronic bound states. This makes measurements of its properties particularly interesting as one can access directly the properties of a bare quark. The latest measurements of these properties with the ATLAS detector at the LHC are presented. Measurements of top quark spin observables in top-antitop events, each sensitive to a different coefficient of the spin density matrix, are presented and compared to the Standard Model predictions. The helicity of the W boson from the top decays and the production angles of the top quark are further discussed. Limits on the rate of flavour changing neutral currents in the production or decay of the top quark are reported. The production of top-quark pairs in association with W and Z bosons is also presented. The measurement probes the coupling between the top quark and the Z boson. The cross-section measurement of photons produced in association with top-quark pairs is a...

  8. Measurements of top quark production and properties at the Tevatron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartos, P. [Comenius U.

    2014-09-15

    In this letter, we summarize the latest results of the top-quark production and properties at the Tevatron. We do not include results of the top-quark mass and single top-quark production as they were presented in separate talks. The results of the measurements are mostly consistent with the standard-model predictions. However, by looking at the production asymmetry measured by CDF, one can see a discrepancy in both, $t\\bar{t}$ inclusive and lepton-based measurements. D\\O\\ results of production asymmetry are compatible with the standard-model predictions as well as with the CDF results.

  9. Measurement properties of patient-reported outcome measures (PROMS) in Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Andrew; Liles, Clive; Rushton, Alison; Kyte, Derek G

    2014-12-01

    This systematic review investigated the measurement properties of disease-specific patient-reported outcome measures used in Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome. Two independent reviewers conducted a systematic search of key databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, AMED, CINHAL+ and the Cochrane Library from inception to August 2013) to identify relevant studies. A third reviewer mediated in the event of disagreement. Methodological quality was evaluated using the validated COSMIN (Consensus-based Standards for the Selection of Health Measurement Instruments) tool. Data synthesis across studies determined the level of evidence for each patient-reported outcome measure. The search strategy returned 2177 citations. Following the eligibility review phase, seven studies, evaluating twelve different patient-reported outcome measures, met inclusion criteria. A 'moderate' level of evidence supported the structural validity of several measures: the Flandry Questionnaire, Anterior Knee Pain Scale, Functional Index Questionnaire, Eng and Pierrynowski Questionnaire and Visual Analogue Scales for 'usual' and 'worst' pain. In addition, there was a 'Limited' level of evidence supporting the test-retest reliability and validity (cross-cultural, hypothesis testing) of the Persian version of the Anterior Knee Pain Scale. Other measurement properties were evaluated with poor methodological quality, and many properties were not evaluated in any of the included papers. Current disease-specific outcome measures for Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome require further investigation. Future studies should evaluate all important measurement properties, utilising an appropriate framework such as COSMIN to guide study design, to facilitate optimal methodological quality.

  10. Measurement properties of questionnaires measuring continuity of care: a systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annemarie A Uijen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Continuity of care is widely acknowledged as a core value in family medicine. In this systematic review, we aimed to identify the instruments measuring continuity of care and to assess the quality of their measurement properties. METHODS: We did a systematic review using the PubMed, Embase and PsycINFO databases, with an extensive search strategy including 'continuity of care', 'coordination of care', 'integration of care', 'patient centered care', 'case management' and its linguistic variations. We searched from 1995 to October 2011 and included articles describing the development and/or evaluation of the measurement properties of instruments measuring one or more dimensions of continuity of care (1 care from the same provider who knows and follows the patient (personal continuity, (2 communication and cooperation between care providers in one care setting (team continuity, and (3 communication and cooperation between care providers in different care settings (cross-boundary continuity. We assessed the methodological quality of the measurement properties of each instrument using the COSMIN checklist. RESULTS: We included 24 articles describing the development and/or evaluation of 21 instruments. Ten instruments measured all three dimensions of continuity of care. Instruments were developed for different groups of patients or providers. For most instruments, three or four of the six measurement properties were assessed (mostly internal consistency, content validity, structural validity and construct validity. Six instruments scored positive on the quality of at least three of six measurement properties. CONCLUSIONS: Most included instruments have problems with either the number or quality of its assessed measurement properties or the ability to measure all three dimensions of continuity of care. Based on the results of this review, we recommend the use of one of the four most promising instruments, depending on the target population

  11. Measurement Properties of Questionnaires Measuring Continuity of Care: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uijen, Annemarie A.; Heinst, Claire W.; Schellevis, Francois G.; van den Bosch, Wil J.H.M.; van de Laar, Floris A.; Terwee, Caroline B.; Schers, Henk J.

    2012-01-01

    Background Continuity of care is widely acknowledged as a core value in family medicine. In this systematic review, we aimed to identify the instruments measuring continuity of care and to assess the quality of their measurement properties. Methods We did a systematic review using the PubMed, Embase and PsycINFO databases, with an extensive search strategy including ‘continuity of care’, ‘coordination of care’, ‘integration of care’, ‘patient centered care’, ‘case management’ and its linguistic variations. We searched from 1995 to October 2011 and included articles describing the development and/or evaluation of the measurement properties of instruments measuring one or more dimensions of continuity of care (1) care from the same provider who knows and follows the patient (personal continuity), (2) communication and cooperation between care providers in one care setting (team continuity), and (3) communication and cooperation between care providers in different care settings (cross-boundary continuity). We assessed the methodological quality of the measurement properties of each instrument using the COSMIN checklist. Results We included 24 articles describing the development and/or evaluation of 21 instruments. Ten instruments measured all three dimensions of continuity of care. Instruments were developed for different groups of patients or providers. For most instruments, three or four of the six measurement properties were assessed (mostly internal consistency, content validity, structural validity and construct validity). Six instruments scored positive on the quality of at least three of six measurement properties. Conclusions Most included instruments have problems with either the number or quality of its assessed measurement properties or the ability to measure all three dimensions of continuity of care. Based on the results of this review, we recommend the use of one of the four most promising instruments, depending on the target

  12. Dielectric Property Measurements to Support Interpretation of Cassini Radar Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamieson, Corey; Barmatz, M.

    2012-10-01

    Radar observations are useful for constraining surface and near-surface compositions and illuminating geologic processes on Solar System bodies. The interpretation of Cassini radiometric and radar data at 13.78 GHz (2.2 cm) of Titan and other Saturnian icy satellites is aided by laboratory measurements of the dielectric properties of relevant materials. However, existing dielectric measurements of candidate surface materials at microwave frequencies and low temperatures is sparse. We have set up a microwave cavity and cryogenic system to measure the complex dielectric properties of liquid hydrocarbons relevant to Titan, specifically methane, ethane and their mixtures to support the interpretation of spacecraft instrument and telescope radar observations. To perform these measurements, we excite and detect the TM020 mode in a custom-built cavity with small metal loop antennas powered by a Vector Network Analyzer. The hydrocarbon samples are condensed into a cylindrical quartz tube that is axially oriented in the cavity. Frequency sweeps through a resonance are performed with an empty cavity, an empty quartz tube inserted into the cavity, and with a sample-filled quartz tube in the cavity. These sweeps are fit by a Lorentzian line shape, from which we obtain the resonant frequency, f, and quality factor, Q, for each experimental arrangement. We then derive dielectric constants and loss tangents for our samples near 13.78 GHz using a new technique ideally suited for measuring liquid samples. We will present temperature-dependent, dielectric property measurements for liquid methane and ethane. The full interpretation of the radar and radiometry observations of Saturn’s icy satellites depends critically on understanding the dielectric properties of potential surface materials. By investigating relevant liquids and solids we will improve constrains on lake depths, volumes and compositions, which are important to understand Titan’s carbon/organic cycle and inevitably

  13. In-medium hadron properties measured with HADES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietraszko J.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Many QCD based and phenomenological models predict changes of hadron properties in a strongly interacting environment. The results of these models differ significantly and the experimental determination of hadron properties in nuclear matter is essential. In this paper we present a review of selected physics results obtained at GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH by HADES (High-Acceptance Di-Electron Spectrometer. The e+e− pair emission measured for proton and heavy-ion induced collisions is reported together with results on strangeness production. The future HADES activities at the planned FAIR facility are also discussed.

  14. In-medium hadron properties measured with HADES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietraszko, J.; Agakishiev, G.; Behnke, C.; Belver, D.; Belyaev, A.; Berger-Chen, J. C.; Blanco, A.; Blume, C.; Böhmer, M.; Cabanelas, P.; Chernenko, S.; Dritsa, C.; Dybczak, A.; Epple, E.; Fabbietti, L.; Fateev, O.; Fonte, P.; Friese, J.; Fröhlich, I.; Galatyuk, T.; Garzón, J. A.; Gill, K.; Golubeva, M.; González-Díaz, D.; Guber, F.; Gumberidze, M.; Harabasz, S.; Hennino, T.; Höhne, C.; Holzmann, R.; Huck, P.; Ierusalimov, A.; Ivashkin, A.; Jurkovic, M.; Kämpfer, B.; Karavicheva, T.; Koenig, I.; Koenig, W.; Kolb, B. W.; Korcyl, G.; Kornakov, G.; Kotte, R.; Krása, A.; Krebs, E.; Krizek, F.; Kuc, H.; Kugler, A.; Kurepin, A.; Kurilkin, A.; Kurilkin, P.; Ladygin, V.; Lalik, R.; Lang, S.; Lapidus, K.; Lebedev, A.; Lopes, L.; Lorenz, M.; Maier, L.; Mangiarotti, A.; Markert, J.; Metag, V.; Michel, J.; Müntz, C.; Münzer, R.; Naumann, L.; Palka, M.; Parpottas, Y.; Pechenov, V.; Pechenova, O.; Przygoda, W.; Ramstein, B.; Rehnisch, L.; Reshetin, A.; Rustamov, A.; Sadovsky, A.; Salabura, P.; Scheib, T.; Schuldes, H.; Siebenson, J.; Sobolev, Yu. G.; Spataro, S.; Ströbele, H.; Stroth, J.; Strzempek, P.; Sturm, C.; Svoboda, O.; Tarantola, A.; Teilab, K.; Tlusty, P.; Traxler, M.; Tsertos, H.; Vasiliev, T.; Wagner, V.; Weber, M.; Wendisch, C.; Wüstenfeld, J.; Yurevich, S.; Zanevsky, Y.

    2014-03-01

    Many QCD based and phenomenological models predict changes of hadron properties in a strongly interacting environment. The results of these models differ significantly and the experimental determination of hadron properties in nuclear matter is essential. In this paper we present a review of selected physics results obtained at GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH by HADES (High-Acceptance Di-Electron Spectrometer). The e+e- pair emission measured for proton and heavy-ion induced collisions is reported together with results on strangeness production. The future HADES activities at the planned FAIR facility are also discussed.

  15. An easily regenerable enzyme reactor prepared from polymerized high internal phase emulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, Guihua; Wu, Zhenwei; Huang, Yipeng; Wei, Meiping; Su, Rihui; Du, Fuyou

    2016-04-22

    A large-scale high-efficient enzyme reactor based on polymerized high internal phase emulsion monolith (polyHIPE) was prepared. First, a porous cross-linked polyHIPE monolith was prepared by in-situ thermal polymerization of a high internal phase emulsion containing styrene, divinylbenzene and polyglutaraldehyde. The enzyme of TPCK-Trypsin was then immobilized on the monolithic polyHIPE. The performance of the resultant enzyme reactor was assessed according to the conversion ability of Nα-benzoyl-l-arginine ethyl ester to Nα-benzoyl-l-arginine, and the protein digestibility of bovine serum albumin (BSA) and cytochrome (Cyt-C). The results showed that the prepared enzyme reactor exhibited high enzyme immobilization efficiency and fast and easy-control protein digestibility. BSA and Cyt-C could be digested in 10 min with sequence coverage of 59% and 78%, respectively. The peptides and residual protein could be easily rinsed out from reactor and the reactor could be regenerated easily with 4 M HCl without any structure destruction. Properties of multiple interconnected chambers with good permeability, fast digestion facility and easily reproducibility indicated that the polyHIPE enzyme reactor was a good selector potentially applied in proteomics and catalysis areas.

  16. Measurement properties of performance-based measures to assess physical function in hip and knee osteoarthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dobson, F; Hinman, R S; Hall, M

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To systematically review the measurement properties of performance-based measures to assess physical function in people with hip and/or knee osteoarthritis (OA). METHODS: Electronic searches were performed in MEDLINE, CINAHL, Embase, and PsycINFO up to the end of June 2012. Two...

  17. Top quark properties measurements with the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Span\\`o, Francesco; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Precise measurements of the properties of the top quark test the Standard Model (SM) and can be used to constrain new physics models. As it may be significantly enhanced by the presence of new physics, the $t\\overline{t}$ production charge asymmetry is measured inclusively and differentially using the 8 TeV ATLAS dataset using both the lepton+jets and dilepton channels, including a dedicated measurement for highly boosted top quarks. In the SM the top quark is predicted to decay almost exclusively into W boson and a $b$-quark. Measurements of the W-helicity and spin correlations in $t\\overline{t}$ production are presented as well as new measurements of CP asymmetries in $b$-hadron decays using top-quark events.

  18. Top quark properties measurements with the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Spano, Francesco; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Precise measurements of the properties of the top quark test the Standard Model (SM) and can be used to constrain new physics models. As it may be significantly enhanced by the presence of new physics, the ttbar production charge asymmetry is measured inclusively and differentially using the 8 TeV ATLAS dataset using both the lepton+jets and dilepton channels, including a dedicated measurement for highly boosted top-quarks. In the SM the top-quark is predicted to decay almost exclusively into a W boson and a b-quark. Measurements of the W-helicity and spin correlations in ttbar production are presented as well as new measurements of CP asymmetries in b-hadron decays using top-quark events.

  19. A method for measuring the inertia properties of rigid bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobbi, M.; Mastinu, G.; Previati, G.

    2011-01-01

    A method for the measurement of the inertia properties of rigid bodies is presented. Given a rigid body and its mass, the method allows to measure (identify) the centre of gravity location and the inertia tensor during a single test. The proposed technique is based on the analysis of the free motion of a multi-cable pendulum to which the body under consideration is connected. The motion of the pendulum and the forces acting on the system are recorded and the inertia properties are identified by means of a proper mathematical procedure based on a least square estimation. After the body is positioned on the test rig, the full identification procedure takes less than 10 min. The natural frequencies of the pendulum and the accelerations involved are quite low, making this method suitable for many practical applications. In this paper, the proposed method is described and two test rigs are presented: the first is developed for bodies up to 3500 kg and the second for bodies up to 400 kg. A validation of the measurement method is performed with satisfactory results. The test rig holds a third part quality certificate according to an ISO 9001 standard and could be scaled up to measure the inertia properties of huge bodies, such as trucks, airplanes or even ships.

  20. Quantitative measurement of nanomechanical properties in composite materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wei

    In this work, quantitative Atomic force acoustic microscopy (AFAM) was used to measure nanomechanical properties and to determine microstructural morphology in fiber reinforced composites and hard calcified tissue. In carbon fiber reinforced composites, the fiber-matrix interphase is of interest as it affects the primary load-transfer process and thereby bulk mechanical properties of reinforced composites. The study of properties in the interphase region is important for an understanding of the bulk mechanical properties, which have been shown affected by moisture-based environmental degradation. Single point AFAM testing has been used to quantitatively determine elastic properties at the fiber-matrix interphase by taking advantage of the high spatial scanning resolution capable of measuring interphase dimensions. Carbon-fiber epoxy composite samples were degraded in laboratory conditions by exposure to a accelerated hydrothermal degradation environment in deionized water and salt water. Composite degradation has been characterized by the change in the epoxy matrix contact stiffness and the interphase properties. A decrease in matrix stiffness was found to coincide with the environmental exposure and moisture absorption of the samples. Interphase stiffness measurements indicate a constant interphase thickness as a function of environmental exposure. Chemical analysis of the epoxy using FTIR and Raman spectroscopy indicate hydrolysis of the C-O-C and Epoxide bonds which contribute to the decrease in epoxy mechanical properties. Accelerated degradation by salt water and deionized water both resulted in degradation of the epoxy, though the presence of sodium chloride showed less degradation. From SEM, debonding of the fiber-matrix interface was observed to be more severe when exposed to a salt water environment. In performing quantitative AFAM measurements, the effects of tip shape on the contact mechanics at the epoxy interface were found to influence the reported

  1. Integrated three-dimensional shape and reflection properties measurement system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krzesłowski, Jakub; Sitnik, Robert; Maczkowski, Grzegorz

    2011-02-01

    Creating accurate three-dimensional (3D) digitalized models of cultural heritage objects requires that information about surface geometry be integrated with measurements of other material properties like color and reflectance. Up until now, these measurements have been performed in laboratories using manually integrated (subjective) data analyses. We describe an out-of-laboratory bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) and 3D shape measurement system that implements shape and BRDF measurement in a single setup with BRDF uncertainty evaluation. The setup aligns spatial data with the angular reflectance distribution, yielding a better estimation of the surface's reflective properties by integrating these two modality measurements into one setup using a single detector. This approach provides a better picture of an object's intrinsic material features, which in turn produces a higher-quality digitalized model reconstruction. Furthermore, this system simplifies the data processing by combining structured light projection and photometric stereo. The results of our method of data analysis describe the diffusive and specular attributes corresponding to every measured geometric point and can be used to render intricate 3D models in an arbitrarily illuminated scene.

  2. Can difficult intubation be easily and rapidly predicted?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritscherova, Sarka; Adamus, Milan; Dostalova, Katerina; Koutna, Jirina; Hrabalek, Lumir; Zapletalova, Jana; Uvizl, Radovan; Janout, Vladimir

    2011-06-01

    Failed endotracheal intubation and inadequate ventilation with subsequent insufficient oxygenation can result in serious complications potentially leading to permanent health damage. Difficult intubation may occur not only in patients with apparent pathologies in the orofacial region but also, unexpectedly, in those without abnormalities. This study aimed at finding anthropometric parameters that are easy to examine and that would aid in predicting difficult intubation. A case-control study was undertaken. Based on defined criteria, 15 parameters were examined in patients with unanticipated difficult intubation. The parameters included a previous history of difficult intubation, pathologies associated with difficult intubation, clinical symptoms of airway pathology, the Mallampati score, upper lip bite test, receding mandible, and cervical spine and temporomandibular joint movement. Thyromental, hyomental and sternomental distances and inter-incisor gap were measured. The methods were precisely defined and the measurements were carried out by a trained anesthesiologist. Statistical analysis was performed on data from 74 patients with difficult intubation and 74 control patients with easy intubation. Significant predictors of difficult intubation were inter-incisor gap (IIG), thyromental distance (TMD) and class 3 limited movement of the temporomandibular joint. The IIG and TMD cut-offs were set at 42 mm and 93 mm, respectively. The results will be used to confirm these predictors in an anesthesiology clinic along with the aid of the laryngoscopic findings to improve the prediction of unanticipated difficult intubation.

  3. Theory and measurement of emittance properties for radiation thermometry applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewitt, D. P.; Hernicz, R. S.

    1972-01-01

    Some basic concepts of radiation physics are briefly reviewed to provide an introduction to the radiative properties - including emittance, reflectance, absorptance, and transmittance - their definitions, interrelations, theory and methods of measurement. Analyzed data showing typical characteristics of temperature and wavelength dependence, surface effects and environmental influences on the radiation properties of selected classes of materials are presented. Emphasis is placed on those emittance properties of particular interest to conventional radiation thermometry applications, but sufficient generality on all properties is presented to be useful for new or unusual techniques where a more detailed understanding of the behavior of materials is desirable. Data sources are identified to assist the reader in locating property information. It is the intention of the paper to give the reader a background to become more fully aware of the pitfalls, limitations, but of course, advantages in the use of data from the literature. The paper is written in the form of an abbreviated review fully documenting the more important topics and concepts which can only be treated briefly.

  4. Thermal properties measurements in biodiesel oils using photothermal techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, M. P. P.; Andrade, A. A.; Franco, R. W. A.; Miranda, P. C. M. L.; Sthel, M.; Vargas, H.; Constantino, R.; Baesso, M. L.

    2005-08-01

    In this Letter, thermal lens and open cell photoacoustic techniques are used to measure the thermal properties of biodiesel oils. The absolute values of the thermal effusivity, thermal diffusivity, thermal conductivity and the temperature coefficient of the refractive index were determined for samples obtained from soy, castor bean, sunflower and turnip. The results suggest that the employed techniques may be useful as complementary methods for biodiesel certification.

  5. Measurement of electric properties of the single supersaturated aerosol droplet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE KeJuan; CHENG Hua; ZHU YanYing; WANG LiangYu; ZHANG YunHong

    2008-01-01

    A system for measuring the electric properties of single aerosol droplet is designed and applied to the NaCIO4 aerosol droplet in different relative humidity (RH). The conductance and capacitance are obtained within the whole RH range, especially in the supersaturated state which cannot be acquired from the bulk solution. These results reflect the situation of ions in the droplet macroscopically and supply useful information for other relative study fields, such as crystallogeny and aerography.

  6. Properties of small cirrus ice crystals from commercial aircraft measurements and implications for flight operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Beswick

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Measurements of cloud ice crystal size distributions have been made by a backscatter cloud probe (BCP mounted on five commercial airliners flying international routes that cross five continents. Bulk cloud parameters were also derived from the size distributions. As of 31 December 2014, a total of 4399 flights had accumulated data from 665 hours in more than 19 000 cirrus clouds larger than 5 km in length. The BCP measures the equivalent optical diameter (EOD of individual crystals in the 5–90 µm range from which size distributions are derived and recorded every 4 seconds. The cirrus cloud property database, an ongoing development stemming from these measurements, registers the total crystal number and mass concentration, effective and median volume diameters and extinction coefficients derived from the size distribution. This information is accompanied by the environmental temperature, pressure, aircraft position, date and time of each sample. The seasonal variations of the cirrus cloud properties measured from 2012 to 2014 are determined for six geographic regions in the tropics and extratropics. Number concentrations range from a few per litre for thin cirrus to several hundreds of thousands for heavy cirrus. Temperatures range from 205 to 250 K and effective radii from 12 to 20 µm. A comparison of the regional and seasonal number and mass size distributions, and the bulk microphysical properties derived from them, demonstrates that cirrus properties cannot be easily parameterised by temperature or by latitude. The seasonal changes in the size distributions from the extratropical Atlantic and Eurasian air routes are distinctly different, showing shifts from mono-modal to bi-modal spectra out of phase with one another. This phase difference may be linked to the timing of deep convection and cold fronts that lead to the cirrus formation. Likewise, the size spectra of cirrus over the tropical Atlantic and Eastern Brazil differ from each

  7. Comparison of Thermal Properties Measured by Different Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sundberg, Jan [Geo Innova AB, Linkoeping (Sweden); Kukkonen, Ilmo [Geological Survey of Finland, Helsinki (Finland); Haelldahl, Lars [Hot Disk AB, Uppsala (Sweden)

    2003-04-01

    A strategy for a thermal site descriptive model of bedrock is under development at SKB. In the model different kinds of uncertainties exist. Some of these uncertainties are related to the potential errors in the methods used for determining thermal properties of rock. In two earlier investigations thermal properties of rock samples were analysed according to the TPS method (transient plane source). Thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity were determined using the TPS method. For a comparison, the same samples have been measured at the Geological Survey of Finland (GSF), using different laboratory methods. In this later investigation, the thermal conductivity was determined using the divided-bar method and the specific heat capacity using a calorimetric method. The mean differences between the results of different methods are relatively low but the results of individual samples show large variations. The thermal conductivity measured by the divided bar method gives for most samples slightly higher values, in average about 3%, than the TPS method. The specific heat capacity measured by the calorimetric method gives lower values, in average about 2%, than the TPS method. Consequently, the thermal diffusivity calculated from thermal conductivity and specific heat capacity gives higher values, in average about 6%, than the TPS method. Reasons for the differences are estimated mainly to be dependent on differences between the samples, errors in the temperature dependence of specific heat and in the transformation from volumetric to specific heat. The TPS measurements are performed using two pieces (sub-samples) of rock. Only one of these two sub-samples was measured using the divided bar method and the calorimetric method. Further, sample preparation involved changes in the size of some of the samples. The mean differences between the results of different methods are within the margins of error reported by the measuring laboratories. However, systematic errors in

  8. Prospects for Higgs CP property measurements at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Xin; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    This document is prepared for the LCWS2016 conference proceedings. It reviews the current results on the Higgs CP property measurements from both ATLAS and CMS experiments in the Higgs to diboson decays, and in the Vector Boson Fusion production of Higgs via the ditau decay channel. The projected sensitivity of the ditau signal in HL-LHC is briefly discussed. Finally, it gives the prospects for the CP measurement in the Higgs to ditau decay with the tau substructure developments at both collaborations.

  9. An Easily Designed and Constructed Optical Polarimeter for Small Telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topasna, G. A.; Topasna, D. M.; Popko, G. B.

    2013-09-01

    We have designed, constructed, and tested an optical polarimeter for use with the Virginia Military Institute (VMI) 0.5 m, f/13.5 Cassegrain telescope. Our instrument is based on the common dual-beam design that utilizes a rotatable half-wave plate and Wollaston prism to image starlight onto a CCD detector after it has passed through a broadband filter. The usable field of view is lsim10'' and the operational range of the instrument is 400-700 nm. Measurements of unpolarized stars demonstrate that the instrumental polarization is lsim0.05%. Observations of seven standard stars were in agreement with their accepted values by an order of Δp(%) lsim 0.23 for the degree of polarization and Δθ(°) lsim 0.94 for the position angle.

  10. Measurement of thermophysical properties by a pulse-heating technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peng Xiao; Jingmin Dai; Qingwei Wang

    2007-01-01

    A technique is described for the dynamic measurement of selected thermophysical properties of electrically conducting solids in the temperature range from 1100 K to the melting point. Based on rapid resistive self-heating of the specimen from room temperature to any desired high temperature in several seconds by the passage of an electical current pulse through it, this technique measures the pertinent quantities such as current, voltage, randiance temperature, with sub-millisecond time resolution. The pulse-heating technique is applied to strip specimens. The radiance temperature is measured by high-speed pyrometry,normal spectral emissivity of the strips is measured by integrating sphere reflectometry. The normal spectral emissivity results are used to compute the true temperature of the specimens. The heat capacity,electrical resistivity, total hemispherical emissivity are evaluated in the temperature range from 1100 K to the melting point.

  11. Measurement of thermophysical properties of ceramics by the flash method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudio S. C. Pinto

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The flash method, proposed by Parker, Butler, Jenkins and Abbott from the U.S. Navy Radiological Defense Laboratory in 1961, is the most popular method for measuring the thermal diffusivity of solids. In this method, the front surface of a small sample is subjected to a very short burst of radiant thermal energy. The resulting temperature rise on the opposite surface of the sample is measured and the thermal diffusivity is computed from the temperature rise versus time data. Also, the specific heat can be computed from the measured data, thus allowing for the calculation of the thermal conductivity. Several theoretical models are available for the flash method, which include adiabatic boundary conditions, heat losses, surface coating effects, among other aspects. In this paper, tests were made for the identification of thermo-physical properties of a Ceramic block. The Netzsch Nanoflash LFA 447/1 of LTTC/COPPE/UFRJ was used for the measurements.

  12. Mechanical Properties of a Primary Cilium Measured by Resonant Oscillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resnick, Andrew

    Primary cilia are ubiquitous mammalian cellular substructures implicated in an ever-increasing number of regulatory pathways. The well-established `ciliary hypothesis' states that physical bending of the cilium (for example, due to fluid flow) initiates signaling cascades, yet the mechanical properties of the cilium remain incompletely measured, resulting in confusion regarding the biological significance of flow-induced ciliary mechanotransduction. In this work we measure the mechanical properties of a primary cilium by using an optical trap to induce resonant oscillation of the structure. Our data indicate 1), the primary cilium is not a simple cantilevered beam, 2), the base of the cilium may be modeled as a nonlinear rotatory spring, the linear spring constant `k' of the cilium base calculated to be (4.6 +/- 0.62)*10-12 N/rad and nonlinear spring constant ` α' to be (-1 +/- 0.34) *10-10 N/rad2 , and 3) the ciliary base may be an essential regulator of mechanotransduction signalling. Our method is also particularly suited to measure mechanical properties of nodal cilia, stereocilia, and motile cilia, anatomically similar structures with very different physiological functions.

  13. An easily regenerable enzyme reactor prepared from polymerized high internal phase emulsions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruan, Guihua, E-mail: guihuaruan@hotmail.com [Guangxi Key Laboratory of Electrochemical and Magnetochemical Functional Materials, College of Chemistry and Bioengineering, Guilin University of Technology, Guangxi 541004 (China); Guangxi Collaborative Innovation Center for Water Pollution Control and Water Safety in Karst Area, Guilin University of Technology, Guilin 541004 (China); Wu, Zhenwei; Huang, Yipeng; Wei, Meiping; Su, Rihui [Guangxi Key Laboratory of Electrochemical and Magnetochemical Functional Materials, College of Chemistry and Bioengineering, Guilin University of Technology, Guangxi 541004 (China); Du, Fuyou, E-mail: dufu2005@126.com [Guangxi Key Laboratory of Electrochemical and Magnetochemical Functional Materials, College of Chemistry and Bioengineering, Guilin University of Technology, Guangxi 541004 (China); Guangxi Collaborative Innovation Center for Water Pollution Control and Water Safety in Karst Area, Guilin University of Technology, Guilin 541004 (China)

    2016-04-22

    A large-scale high-efficient enzyme reactor based on polymerized high internal phase emulsion monolith (polyHIPE) was prepared. First, a porous cross-linked polyHIPE monolith was prepared by in-situ thermal polymerization of a high internal phase emulsion containing styrene, divinylbenzene and polyglutaraldehyde. The enzyme of TPCK-Trypsin was then immobilized on the monolithic polyHIPE. The performance of the resultant enzyme reactor was assessed according to the conversion ability of N{sub α}-benzoyl-L-arginine ethyl ester to N{sub α}-benzoyl-L-arginine, and the protein digestibility of bovine serum albumin (BSA) and cytochrome (Cyt-C). The results showed that the prepared enzyme reactor exhibited high enzyme immobilization efficiency and fast and easy-control protein digestibility. BSA and Cyt-C could be digested in 10 min with sequence coverage of 59% and 78%, respectively. The peptides and residual protein could be easily rinsed out from reactor and the reactor could be regenerated easily with 4 M HCl without any structure destruction. Properties of multiple interconnected chambers with good permeability, fast digestion facility and easily reproducibility indicated that the polyHIPE enzyme reactor was a good selector potentially applied in proteomics and catalysis areas. - Graphical abstract: Schematic illustration of preparation of hypercrosslinking polyHIPE immobilized enzyme reactor for on-column protein digestion. - Highlights: • A reactor was prepared and used for enzyme immobilization and continuous on-column protein digestion. • The new polyHIPE IMER was quite suit for protein digestion with good properties. • On-column digestion revealed that the IMER was easy regenerated by HCl without any structure destruction.

  14. Measurement of Mechanical Properties of Cantilever Shaped Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Thundat

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Microcantilevers were first introduced as imaging probes in Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM due to their extremely high sensitivity in measuring surface forces. The versatility of these probes, however, allows the sensing and measurement of a host of mechanical properties of various materials. Sensor parameters such as resonance frequency, quality factor, amplitude of vibration and bending due to a differential stress can all be simultaneously determined for a cantilever. When measuring the mechanical properties of materials, identifying and discerning the most influential parameters responsible for the observed changes in the cantilever response are important. We will, therefore, discuss the effects of various force fields such as those induced by mass loading, residual stress, internal friction of the material, and other changes in the mechanical properties of the microcantilevers. Methods to measure variations in temperature, pressure, or molecular adsorption of water molecules are also discussed. Often these effects occur simultaneously, increasing the number of parameters that need to be concurrently measured to ensure the reliability of the sensors. We therefore systematically investigate the geometric and environmental effects on cantilever measurements including the chemical nature of the underlying interactions. To address the geometric effects we have considered cantilevers with a rectangular or circular cross section. The chemical nature is addressed by using cantilevers fabricated with metals and/or dielectrics. Selective chemical etching, swelling or changes in Young’s modulus of the surface were investigated by means of polymeric and inorganic coatings. Finally to address the effect of the environment in which the cantilever operates, the Knudsen number was determined to characterize the molecule-cantilever collisions. Also bimaterial cantilevers with high thermal sensitivity were used to discern the effect of temperature

  15. Measuring (bio)physical tree properties using accelerometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Emmerik, Tim; Steele-Dunne, Susan; Hut, Rolf; Gentine, Pierre; Selker, John; van de Giesen, Nick

    2017-04-01

    Trees play a crucial role in the water, carbon and nitrogen cycle on local, regional and global scales. Understanding the exchange of heat, water, and CO2 between trees and the atmosphere is important to assess the impact of drought, deforestation and climate change. Unfortunately, ground measurements of tree dynamics are often expensive, or difficult due to challenging environments. We demonstrate the potential of measuring (bio)physical properties of trees using robust and affordable acceleration sensors. Tree sway is dependent on e.g. mass and wind energy absorption of the tree. By measuring tree acceleration we can relate the tree motion to external loads (e.g. precipitation), and tree (bio)physical properties (e.g. mass). Using five months of acceleration data of 19 trees in the Brazilian Amazon, we show that the frequency spectrum of tree sway is related to mass, precipitation, and canopy drag. This presentation aims to show the concept of using accelerometers to measure tree dynamics, and we acknowledge that the presented example applications is not an exhaustive list. Further analyses are the scope of current research, and we hope to inspire others to explore additional applications.

  16. Measurement and model on thermal properties of sintered diamond composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moussa, Tala, E-mail: Tala.moussa@univ-nantes.fr [Laboratoire de Thermocinetique UMR CNRS 6607, Polytech, Universite de nantes, BP 50609, rue Christian Pauc, 44306 Nantes (France); Garnier, Bertrand; Peerhossaini, Hassan [Laboratoire de Thermocinetique UMR CNRS 6607, Polytech, Universite de nantes, BP 50609, rue Christian Pauc, 44306 Nantes (France)

    2013-02-25

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Thermal properties of sintered diamond used for grinding is studied. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Flash method with infrared temperature measurement is used to investigate. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Thermal conductivity increases with the amount of diamond. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer It is very sensitive to binder conductivity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Results agree with models assuming imperfect contact between matrix and particles. - Abstract: A prelude to the thermal management of grinding processes is measurement of the thermal properties of working materials. Indeed, tool materials must be chosen not only for their mechanical properties (abrasion performance, lifetime Horizontal-Ellipsis ) but also for thermal concerns (thermal conductivity) for efficient cooling that avoids excessive temperatures in the tool and workpiece. Sintered diamond is currently used for grinding tools since it yields higher performances and longer lifetimes than conventional materials (mineral or silicon carbide abrasives), but its thermal properties are not yet well known. Here the thermal conductivity, heat capacity and density of sintered diamond are measured as functions of the diamond content in composites and for two types of metallic binders: hard tungsten-based and soft cobalt-based binders. The measurement technique for thermal conductivity is derived from the flash method. After pulse heating, the temperature of the rear of the sample is measured with a noncontact method (infrared camera). A parameter estimation method associated with a three-layer nonstationary thermal model is used to obtain sample thermal conductivity, heat transfer coefficient and absorbed energy. With the hard metallic binder, the thermal conductivity of sintered diamond increased by up to 64% for a diamond content increasing from 0 to 25%. The increase is much less for the soft binder: 35% for diamond volumes up to 25%. In addition, experimental data

  17. Measurement of the Mechanical Properties of Intact Collagen Fibrils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercedes, H.; Heim, A.; Matthews, W. G.; Koob, T.

    2006-03-01

    Motivated by the genetic disorder Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS), in which proper collagen synthesis is interrupted, we are investigating the structural and mechanical properties of collagen fibrils. The fibrous glycoprotein collagen is the most abundant protein found in the human body and plays a key role in the extracellular matrix of the connective tissue, the properties of which are altered in EDS. We have selected as our model system the collagen fibrils of the sea cucumber dermis, a naturally mutable tissue. This system allows us to work with native fibrils which have their proteoglycan complement intact, something that is not possible with reconstituted mammalian collagen fibrils. Using atomic force microscopy, we measure, as a function of the concentration of divalent cations, the fibril diameter, its response to force loading, and the changes in its rigidity. Through these experiments, we will shed light on the mechanisms which control the properties of the sea cucumber dermis and hope to help explain the altered connective tissue extracellular matrix properties associated with EDS.

  18. Microwave measurement and modeling of the dielectric properties of vegetation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Bijay Lal

    Some of the important applications of microwaves in the industrial, scientific and medical sectors include processing and treatment of various materials, and determining their physical properties. The dielectric properties of the materials of interest are paramount irrespective of the applications, hence, a wide range of materials covering food products, building materials, ores and fuels, and biological materials have been investigated for their dielectric properties. However, very few studies have been conducted towards the measurement of dielectric properties of green vegetations, including commercially important plant crops such as alfalfa. Because of its high nutritional value, there is a huge demand for this plant and its processed products in national and international markets, and an investigation into the possibility of applying microwaves to improve both the net yield and quality of the crop can be beneficial. Therefore, a dielectric measurement system based upon the probe reflection technique has been set up to measure dielectric properties of green plants over a frequency range from 300 MHz to 18 GHz, moisture contents from 12%, wet basis to 79%, wet basis, and temperatures from -15°C to 30°C. Dielectric properties of chopped alfalfa were measured with this system over frequency range of 300 MHz to 18 GHz, moisture content from 11.5%, wet basis, to 73%, wet basis, and density over the range from 139 kg m-3 to 716 kg m-3 at 23°C. The system accuracy was found to be +/-6% and +/-10% in measuring the dielectric constant and loss factor respectively. Empirical, semi empirical and theoretical models that require only moisture content and operating frequency were determined to represent the dielectric properties of both leaves and stems of alfalfa at 22°C. The empirical models fitted the measured dielectric data extremely well. The root mean square error (RMSE) and the coefficient of determination (r2) for dielectric constant and loss factor of leaves

  19. High sensitivity measurements of thermal properties of textile fabrics

    CERN Document Server

    Romeli, D; Esposito, S; Rosace, G; Salesi, G

    2013-01-01

    A new testing apparatus is proposed to measure the thermal properties of fabrics made from polymeric materials. The calibration of the apparatus and the data acquisition procedure are considered in detail in order to measure thermal conductivity, resistance, absorption and diffusivity constants of the tested fabric samples. Differences between dry and wet fabrics have been carefully detected and analyzed. We have developed a new measurement protocol, the "ThermoTex" protocol, which agrees with the UNI EN 31092 standard and entails an accurate quantification of the experimental errors according to a standard statistical analysis, thus allowing a rigorous investigation of the physical behavior of the phenomena involved. As a consequence, our machinery exhibits great potentialities for optimizing the thermal comfort of fabrics, according to the market demand, thanks to the possible development of a predictive phenomenological theory of the effects involved.

  20. Characterizing Fracture Property Using Resistivity Measured at Different Frequencies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horne, Roland N. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States); Li, Kewen [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)

    2014-09-30

    The objective was to develop geophysical approaches to detecting and evaluating the fractures created or existing in EGS and other geothermal reservoirs by measuring the resistivity at different frequencies. This project has been divided into two phases: Phase I (first year): Proof of Concept – develop the resistivity approach and verify the effect of frequency on the resistivity in rocks with artificial or natural fractures over a wide range of frequencies. Phase II: Prototyping Part 1 (second year): measure the resistivity in rocks with fractures of different apertures, different length, and different configurations at different frequencies. Part 2 (third year): develop mathematical models and the resistivity method; infer the fracture properties using the measured resistivity data.

  1. Petrophysical properties of greensand as predicted from NMR measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hossain, Zakir; Grattoni, Carlos A.; Solymar, Mikael

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is a useful tool in reservoir evaluation. The objective of this study is to predict petrophysical properties from NMR T2 distributions. A series of laboratory experiments including core analysis, capillary pressure measurements, NMR T2 measurements...... and image analysis were carried out on sixteen greensand samples from two formations in the Nini field of the North Sea. Hermod Formation is weakly cemented, whereas Ty Formation is characterized by microcrystalline quartz cement. The surface area measured by the BET method and the NMR derived surface...... with macro-pores. Permeability may be predicted from NMR by using Kozeny's equation when surface relaxivity is known. Capillary pressure drainage curves may be predicted from NMR T2 distribution when pore size distribution within a sample is homogeneous....

  2. Characterisation of advanced windows. Determination of thermal properties by measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duer, K.

    2001-04-01

    identified and (to a certain extend) solved. Procedures for performing the measurements in the METSET have been developed. As the measurements are carried out under conditions different from the defined reference conditions a number of corrections of the measured results must be applied. Procedures for these corrections have been developed and demonstrated. Especially the corrections for differences between the solar simulator spectrum and the reference spectrum draw attention and for some special types of speciments these corrections are still object for further development. For less special types the procedures outlined in this report are considered sufficiently accurate. The g-value as function of incidence angle for three different glazings have been measured in the METSET. The glazings had very different optical properties ranging from almost no spectral selectivity to significant spectral selectivity. However all glazings were clear and their g-values could be calculated using detailed calculation models. This enabled a comparison between measured and calculated g-values assuming that the uncertainty in the calculated values is {+-}5%. An error analysis of the g-value measurements showed that the expected uncertainty for the measured g-value is about 4-10% for the investigated samples. The measured g-values were ranging from 0.29 to 0.75 and the difference between measured and calculated values were all within the expected uncertainties (max difference 7%). This gives good reason to increase the confidence in the method used to obtain the measured/corrected g-values and shows that the calorimetric measurements - when properly corrected - give meaningful results. Broadband transmittance values corresponding to solar simulator spectrum and to 'real' solar spectrum are in some cases useful data for the correction of g-values measured indoor in the METSET. This is specially true if the sample cannot be characterised by an optical calculation model (e.g. many

  3. A surface wave elastography technique for measuring tissue viscoelastic properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoming

    2017-04-01

    A surface wave elastography method is proposed to study the viscoelastic properties of skin by measuring the surface wave speed and attenuation on the skin. Experiments were carried out on porcine skin tissues. The surface wave speed is measured by the change of phase with distance. The wave attenuation is measured by the decay of wave amplitude with distance. The change of viscoelastic properties with temperature was studied at room and body temperatures. The wave speed was 1.83m/s at 22°C but reduced to 1.52m/s at 33°C. The viscoelastic ratio was almost constant from 22°C to 33°C. Fresh and decayed tissues were studied. The wave speed of the decayed tissue increased from 1.83m/s of fresh state to 2.73m/s. The viscoelastic ratio was 0.412/mm at the decayed state compared to 0.215/mm at the fresh state. More tissue samples are needed to study these viscoelastic parameters according to specific applications.

  4. Rectangular waveguide material characterization: anisotropic property extraction and measurement validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowgey, Benjamin Reid

    for characterization of a sample filling the cross-section of a waveguide. Due to the rectangular nature of the waveguide, typically three different samples are manufactured from the same material in order to characterize the six complex material parameters. The second technique for measuring the electromagnetic properties of a biaxially anisotropic material sample uses a reduced-aperture waveguide sample holder designed to accommodate a cubical sample. All the tensor material parameters can then be determined by measuring the reflection and transmission coefficients of a single sample placed into several orientations. The parameters are obtained using a root-searching algorithm by comparing theoretically computed and measured reflection and transmission coefficients. The theoretical coefficients are determined using a mode matching technique. The first technique for characterizing the electromagnetic properties of gyromagnetic materials considers requires filling the cross-section of a waveguide. The material parameters are extracted from the measured reflection and transmission coefficients. Since the cross-sectional dimensions of waveguides become prohibitively large at low frequencies, and it is at these frequencies that the gyromagnetic properties are most pronounced, sufficiently large samples may not be available. Therefore, the second technique uses a reduced-aperture sample holder that does not require the sample to fill the entire cross section of the guide. The theoretical reflection and transmission coefficients for both methods are determined using a mode matching technique. A nonlinear least squares method is employed to extract the gyromagnetic material parameters. Finally, this dissertation introduces a waveguide standard that acts as a surrogate material with both electric and magnetic properties and is useful for verifying systems designed to characterize engineered materials using the NRW technique. A genetic algorithm is used to optimize the all

  5. Physical Properties of Liquid Terbium Measured by Levitation Techniques

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    To understand the nature and behavior of rare earth metals in their liquid phases, accurate values of their physical properties are essential.However, to measure their physical properties, the samples should be maintained in liquid phases for prolonged time, and this raises a formidable challenge.This is mainly explained by their high melting temperatures (e.g., 1629 K for Tb), high vapor pressure, and the risk of melt contamination with a crucible or support.An electrostatic levitation furnace alleviated these difficulties and allowed the determination of density, surface tension, and viscosity of several metals above their melting temperature.Here, first, the levitation furnace facility and the noncontact diagnostic procedures were briefly discussed, followed by the explanation of their thermophysical property measurements over wide temperature ranges.The density was obtained using an ultraviolet-based imaging technique that allowed excellent illumination, even at elevated temperatures.Over the 1615 to 1880 K temperature span, the density measurements could be expressed as ρ(T)=7.84×103-0.47 (T-Tm) (kg·m-3) with Tm=1629 K, yielding a volume expansion coefficient α(T) =6.0×10-5 (K-1).In addition, the surface tension and the viscosity could be determined by inducing a drop oscillation to a molten sample.Using this technique, the surface tension data could be expressed as σ(T)=8.93×102-0.10 (T-Tm)(mN·m-1) and those for viscosity as η(T) =0.583 exp [4.1×104/(RT)] (MPa·s) over the 1690 to 1980 K temperature range.

  6. Optical properties of soot particles: measurement - model comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forestieri, S.; Lambe, A. T.; Lack, D.; Massoli, P.; Cross, E. S.; Dubey, M.; Mazzoleni, C.; Olfert, J.; Freedman, A.; Davidovits, P.; Onasch, T. B.; Cappa, C. D.

    2013-12-01

    Soot, a product of incomplete combustion, plays an important role in the earth's climate system through the absorption and scattering of solar radiation. In order to accurately model the direct radiative impact of black carbon (BC), the refractive index and shape dependent scattering and absorption characteristics must be known. At present, the assumed shape remains highly uncertain because BC particles are fractal-like, being agglomerates of smaller (20-40 nm) spherules, yet traditional optical models such as Mie theory typically assume a spherical particle morphology. To investigate the ability of various optical models to reproduce observed BC optical properties, we measured light absorption and extinction coefficients of methane and ethylene flame soot particles. Optical properties were measured by multiple instruments: absorption by a dual cavity ringdown photoacoustic spectrometer (CRD-PAS), absorption and scattering by a 3-wavelength photoacoustic/nephelometer spectrometer (PASS-3) and extinction and scattering by a cavity attenuated phase shift spectrometer (CAPS). Soot particle mass was quantified using a centrifugal particle mass analyzer (CPMA) and mobility size was measured with a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS). Measurements were made for nascent soot particles and for collapsed soot particles following coating with dioctyl sebacate or sulfuric acid and thermal denuding to remove the coating. Wavelength-dependent refractive indices for the sampled particles were derived by fitting the observed absorption and extinction cross-sections to spherical particle Mie theory and Rayleigh-Debye-Gans theory. The Rayleigh-Debye-Gans approximation assumes that the absorption properties of soot are dictated by the individual spherules and neglects interaction between them. In general, Mie theory reproduces the observed absorption and extinction cross-sections for particles with volume equivalent diameters (VED) VED > ~160 nm. The discrepancy is most

  7. Measurement of Thermal Properties of Biosourced Building Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierre, Thomas; Colinart, Thibaut; Glouannec, Patrick

    2014-10-01

    This paper presents both experimental and theoretical works concerning the evaluation of the thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity of hemp concrete. Experimental measurements of thermal properties are performed using a hot-strip technique for temperatures ranging from 3 to 30 and relative humidities ranging from 0 % to 95 %, thus creating a large database for this material. These experimental thermal conductivities are then compared with the results from the Krischer theoretical predictive model. The comparison shows good agreement, and a predictive analytical relation between the hemp concrete thermal conductivity, temperature, and relative humidity is determined.

  8. Dust optical properties retrieved from ground-based polarimetric measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhengqiang; Goloub, Philippe; Blarel, Luc; Damiri, Bahaiddin; Podvin, Thierry; Jankowiak, Isabelle

    2007-03-20

    We have systematically processed one year of sunphotometer measurements (recorded at five AERONET/PHOTONS sites in Africa) in order to assess mineral dust optical properties with the use of a new polarimetry-based algorithm. We consider the Cimel CE318 polarized sunphotometer version to obtain single-scattering albedo, scattering phase matrix elements F(11) and F(12) for dust aerosols selected with Angström exponents ranging from -0.05 to 0.25. Retrieved F(11) and F(12) differ significantly from those of spherical particles. The degree of linear polarization -F(12)/F(11) for single scattering of atmospheric total column dust aerosols in the case of unpolarized incident light is systematically retrieved for the first time to our knowledge from sunphotometer measurements and shows consistency with previous laboratory characterizations of nonspherical particles.

  9. Beam Property Measurements on the KU-FEL Linac

    CERN Document Server

    Masuda, Kai; Kii, Toshiteru; Murakami, Shio; Ohgaki, Hideaki; Yamazaki, Tetsuo; Yoshikawa, Kiyoshi; Zen, Heishun

    2004-01-01

    An infrared FEL facility is under construction for advanced energy researches [1]. Electron beams of around 30 MeV have been obtained by an S-band 4.5-cell rf gun with a thermionic cathode, and a recently installed 3-m accelerating tube. A 180 degree arc consisting of three bending magnets have been also set up for bunch compression, and beam property measurements are under way. Transverse phase space distributions and resultant emittances have been obtained through the tomographic technique [2] by use of a quadrupole magnet, an alumina phosphor screen and a CCD camera. An OTR screen is being prepared for a higher spatial resolution as well as for longitudinal bunch shape measurements by use of a streak camera of 0.2 psec resolution. Comparison with the start-to-end simulation results [3] will be also presented.

  10. A Free-Space Measurement Technique of Terahertz Dielectric Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiansheng; Chang, Tianying; Cui, Hong-Liang; Sun, Zhonglin; Yang, Chuanfa; Yang, Xiuwei; Liu, Lingyu; Fan, Wei

    2017-03-01

    The free-space method for material dielectric characterization in the microwave band is extended to terahertz frequencies. By analyzing the advantages and disadvantages of the relative permittivity of the transmission/reflection method for non-magnetic materials, a fast calculation method using a transmission-only method is proposed. Based on the convergence analysis of the algorithm, a method to estimate the initial value is also proposed. Finally, through measurements of the permittivity of high-density polyethylene, polystyrene, polypropylene, and polymethyl methacrylate in the 325-500 GHz band, we verify the rationality of the algorithm and demonstrate its applicability. Through the combination of the two methods, the terahertz dielectric properties of a majority of flat non-conducting solid materials and non-polar liquid materials can be measured.

  11. Technique for Performing Dielectric Property Measurements at Microwave Frequencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barmatz, Martin B.; Jackson, Henry W.

    2010-01-01

    A paper discusses the need to perform accurate dielectric property measurements on larger sized samples, particularly liquids at microwave frequencies. These types of measurements cannot be obtained using conventional cavity perturbation methods, particularly for liquids or powdered or granulated solids that require a surrounding container. To solve this problem, a model has been developed for the resonant frequency and quality factor of a cylindrical microwave cavity containing concentric cylindrical samples. This model can then be inverted to obtain the real and imaginary dielectric constants of the material of interest. This approach is based on using exact solutions to Maxwell s equations for the resonant properties of a cylindrical microwave cavity and also using the effective electrical conductivity of the cavity walls that is estimated from the measured empty cavity quality factor. This new approach calculates the complex resonant frequency and associated electromagnetic fields for a cylindrical microwave cavity with lossy walls that is loaded with concentric, axially aligned, lossy dielectric cylindrical samples. In this approach, the calculated complex resonant frequency, consisting of real and imaginary parts, is related to the experimentally measured quantities. Because this approach uses Maxwell's equations to determine the perturbed electromagnetic fields in the cavity with the material(s) inserted, one can calculate the expected wall losses using the fields for the loaded cavity rather than just depending on the value of the fields obtained from the empty cavity quality factor. These additional calculations provide a more accurate determination of the complex dielectric constant of the material being studied. The improved approach will be particularly important when working with larger samples or samples with larger dielectric constants that will further perturb the cavity electromagnetic fields. Also, this approach enables the ability to have a

  12. Measurements of optical polarization properties in dental tissues and biomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Oliveras, Alicia; Pecho, Oscar E.; Rubiño, Manuel; Pérez, María M.

    2011-05-01

    Since biological tissues can have the intrinsic property of altering the polarization of incident light, optical polarization studies are important for a complete characterization. We have measured the polarized light scattered off of different dental tissues and biomaterials for a comparative study of their optical polarization property. The experimental setup was composed by a He-Ne laser, two linear polarizers and a detection system based on a photodiode. The laser beam was passed through one linear polarizer placed in front of the sample, beyond which the second linear polarizer (analyzer) and the photodiode detector were placed. First, the maximum laser-light intensity (reference condition) was attained without the sample in the laser path. Then, the sample was placed between the two polarizers and the polarization shift of the scattered laser light was determined by rotating the analyzer until the reference condition was reached. Two dental-resin composites (nanocomposite and hybrid) and two human dental tissues (enamel and dentine) were analyzed under repeatability conditions at three different locations on the sample: 20 measurements of the shift were taken and the average value and the uncertainty associated were calculated. For the human dentine the average value of the polarization shift found was 7 degrees, with an associated uncertainty of 2 degrees. For the human enamel and both dental-resin composites the average shift values were found to be similar to their corresponding uncertainties (2 degrees). The results suggest that although human dentine has notable polarization properties, dental-resin composites and human enamel do not show significant polarization shifts.

  13. Higgs properties measurements using the four lepton decay channel

    CERN Document Server

    Kiani, Muhammad Bilal

    2017-01-01

    The measurements of the properties of the Higgs boson are presented in the H$\\rightarrow$ZZ$\\rightarrow$4$\\ell$ ($\\ell$=e,$\\mu$) decay channel using a data sample corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 35.9 fb$^{-1}$ of proton-proton collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 13 TeV recorded by the CMS detector at the LHC. The signal-strength modifier $\\mu$, defined as the production cross section of the Higgs boson times its branching fraction to four leptons relative to the standard model expectation, is measured to be $\\mu=1.05^{+0.19}_{-0.17}$ at $m_{\\mathrm{H}}=125.09~\\mathrm{GeV}$. Constraints are set on the strength modifiers for the main Higgs boson production modes. The mass is measured to be $m_{\\mathrm{H}}=125.26 \\pm 0.21~\\mathrm{GeV}$ and the width is constrained using on-shell production to be $\\Gamma_{\\mathrm{H}}<1.10~\\mathrm{GeV}$, at $95\\%$ CL. The fiducial cross section is measured to be $2.90^{+0.48}_{-0.44}({\\rm stat.})^{+0.27}_{-0.22}({\\rm sys.})~{\\mathrm{fb}}$, which is compatible ...

  14. Properties of Swedish posttraumatic stress measures after a disaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnberg, Filip K; Michel, Per-Olof; Johannesson, Kerstin Bergh

    2014-05-01

    This study evaluated the properties of Swedish versions of self-report measures of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), with emphasis on the Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R). Survey data from adult survivors 1, 3, and 6 years after the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami (n=1506) included the IES-R (from which the IES-6 was derived) and the 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12). The PTSD Checklist (PCL) was included in one survey. A structured clinical interview was performed after 6 years (n=142). Factor analyses of the IES-R and PCL indicated that a dysphoric-arousal model provided good fit invariant across assessments. Both measures were accurate in excluding PTSD while all measures provided poorer positive predictive values. The IES-R, but not the IES-6 and GHQ-12, evidenced stability across assessments. In conclusion, the Swedish IES-R and PCL are sound measures of chronic PTSD, and the findings illustrate important temporal aspects of PTSD assessment.

  15. Measurement of the particle production properties in ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Bruni, Alessia; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Measurements of the particle production properties with the ATLAS detector A correct modelling of the underlying event in proton-proton collisions is important for the proper simulation of kinematic distributions of high-energy collisions. The ATLAS collaboration extended previous studies at 7 TeV with a leading track or jet or Z boson by a new study at 13 TeV, measuring the number and transverse-momentum sum of charged particles as a function of pseudorapidity and azimuthal angle in dependence of the reconstructed leading track. These measurements are sensitive to the underlying-event as well as the onset of hard emissions. The results are compared to predictions of several MC generators. A similar comparison between measurements and MC generator predictions will be shown for the strange meson content in topquark pair events. Studies of particle correlations in high-energy collisions can provide valuable insights into the detailed understanding of the space-time geometry of the hadronization region. The ATLA...

  16. Thermal property measurement of thin fibers by complementary methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munro, Troy Robert

    To improve measurement reliability and repeatability and resolve the orders of magnitude discrepancy between the two different measurements (via reduced model transient electrothermal and lock-in IR thermography), this dissertation details the development of three complementary methods to accurately measure the thermal properties of the natural and synthetic Nephila (N.) clavipes spider dragline fibers. The thermal conductivity and diffusivity of the dragline silk of the (N.) clavipes spider has been characterized by one research group to be 151-416 W m-1 K-1 and 6.4-12.3 x 10-5 m2 s -1, respectively, for samples with low to high strains (zero to 19.7%). Thermal diffusivity of the dragline silk of a different spider species, Araneus diadematus, has been determined by another research group as 2 x 10-7 m2 s-1 for un-stretched silk. This dissertation seeks to resolve this discrepancy by three complementary methods. The methods detailed are the transient electrothermal technique (in both reduced and full model versions), the 3o method (for both current and voltage sources), and the non-contact, photothermal, quantum-dot spectral shape-based fluorescence thermometry method. These methods were also validated with electrically conductive and non-conductive fibers. The resulting thermal conductivity of the dragline silk is 1.2 W m-1 K-1, the thermal diffusivity is 6 x 10-7 m2 s -1 and the volumetric heat capacity is 2000 kJ m-3 K-1, with an uncertainty of about 12% for each property.

  17. Easily processable multimodal spectral converters based on metal oxide/organic-inorganic hybrid nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julián-López, Beatriz; Gonell, Francisco; Lima, Patricia P; Freitas, Vânia T; André, Paulo S; Carlos, Luis D; Ferreira, Rute A S

    2015-10-09

    This manuscript reports the synthesis and characterization of the first organic-inorganic hybrid material exhibiting efficient multimodal spectral converting properties. The nanocomposite, made of Er(3+), Yb(3+) codoped zirconia nanoparticles (NPs) entrapped in a di-ureasil d-U(600) hybrid matrix, is prepared by an easy two-step sol-gel synthesis leading to homogeneous and transparent materials that can be very easily processed as monolith or film. Extensive structural characterization reveals that zirconia nanocrystals of 10-20 nm in size are efficiently dispersed into the hybrid matrix and that the local structure of the di-ureasil is not affected by the presence of the NPs. A significant enhancement in the refractive index of the di-ureasil matrix with the incorporation of the ZrO2 nanocrystals is observed. The optical study demonstrates that luminescent properties of both constituents are perfectly preserved in the final hybrid. Thus, the material displays a white-light photoluminescence from the di-ureasil component upon excitation at UV/visible radiation and also intense green and red emissions from the Er(3+)- and Yb(3+)-doped NPs after NIR excitation. The dynamics of the optical processes were also studied as a function of the lanthanide content and the thickness of the films. Our results indicate that these luminescent hybrids represent a low-cost, environmentally friendly, size-controlled, easily processed and chemically stable alternative material to be used in light harvesting devices such as luminescent solar concentrators, optical fibres and sensors. Furthermore, this synthetic approach can be extended to a wide variety of luminescent NPs entrapped in hybrid matrices, thus leading to multifunctional and versatile materials for efficient tuneable nonlinear optical nanodevices.

  18. Easily processable multimodal spectral converters based on metal oxide/organic—inorganic hybrid nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julián-López, Beatriz; Gonell, Francisco; Lima, Patricia P.; Freitas, Vânia T.; André, Paulo S.; Carlos, Luis D.; Ferreira, Rute A. S.

    2015-10-01

    This manuscript reports the synthesis and characterization of the first organic-inorganic hybrid material exhibiting efficient multimodal spectral converting properties. The nanocomposite, made of Er3+, Yb3+ codoped zirconia nanoparticles (NPs) entrapped in a di-ureasil d-U(600) hybrid matrix, is prepared by an easy two-step sol-gel synthesis leading to homogeneous and transparent materials that can be very easily processed as monolith or film. Extensive structural characterization reveals that zirconia nanocrystals of 10-20 nm in size are efficiently dispersed into the hybrid matrix and that the local structure of the di-ureasil is not affected by the presence of the NPs. A significant enhancement in the refractive index of the di-ureasil matrix with the incorporation of the ZrO2 nanocrystals is observed. The optical study demonstrates that luminescent properties of both constituents are perfectly preserved in the final hybrid. Thus, the material displays a white-light photoluminescence from the di-ureasil component upon excitation at UV/visible radiation and also intense green and red emissions from the Er3+- and Yb3+-doped NPs after NIR excitation. The dynamics of the optical processes were also studied as a function of the lanthanide content and the thickness of the films. Our results indicate that these luminescent hybrids represent a low-cost, environmentally friendly, size-controlled, easily processed and chemically stable alternative material to be used in light harvesting devices such as luminescent solar concentrators, optical fibres and sensors. Furthermore, this synthetic approach can be extended to a wide variety of luminescent NPs entrapped in hybrid matrices, thus leading to multifunctional and versatile materials for efficient tuneable nonlinear optical nanodevices.

  19. Psychometric properties of Spanish-language adult dental fear measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heaton Lisa J

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It would be useful to have psychometrically-sound measures of dental fear for Hispanics, who comprise the largest ethnic minority in the United States. We report on the psychometric properties of Spanish-language versions of two common adult measures of dental fear (Modified Dental Anxiety Scale, MDAS; Dental Fear Survey, DFS, as well as a measure of fear of dental injections (Needle Survey, NS. Methods Spanish versions of the measures were administered to 213 adults attending Hispanic cultural festivals, 31 students (who took the questionnaire twice, for test-retest reliability, and 100 patients at a dental clinic. We also administered the questionnaire to 136 English-speaking adults at the Hispanic festivals and 58 English-speaking students at the same college where we recruited the Spanish-speaking students, to compare the performance of the English and Spanish measures in the same populations. Results The internal reliabilities of the Spanish MDAS ranged from 0.80 to 0.85. Values for the DFS ranged from 0.92 to 0.96, and values for the NS ranged from 0.92 to 0.94. The test-retest reliabilities (intra-class correlations for the three measures were 0.69, 0.86, and 0.94 for the MDAS, DFS, and NS, respectively. The three measures showed moderate correlations with one another in all three samples, providing evidence for construct validity. Patients with higher scores on the measures were rated as being more anxious during dental procedures. Similar internal reliabilities and correlations were found in the English-version analyses. The test-retest values were also similar in the English students for the DFS and NS; however, the English test-retest value for the MDAS was better than that found in the Spanish students. Conclusion We found evidence for the internal reliability, construct validity, and criterion validity for the Spanish versions of the three measures, and evidence for the test-retest reliability of the Spanish

  20. Aggregation Operators Review - Mathematical Properties and Behavioral Measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David L. La Red Martínez

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A problem that humans must face very often is that of having to add, melt or synthesize information, that is, combine together a series of data from various sources to reach a certain conclusion or make a certain decision. This involves the use of one or more aggregation operators capable to provide a collective preference relation. These operators must be chosen according to specific criteria taking into account the characteristic properties of each operator. Some conditions to be taken into account to identify them are the following: axiomatic strength, empirical setting, adaptability, numerical efficiency, compensation and compensation range, added behavior and scale level required of the membership functions. It is possible to establish a general list of possible mathematical properties whose verification might be desirable in certain cases: boundary conditions, continuity, not decreasing monotony, symmetry, idempotence, associativity, bisymmetry, self-distributivity, compensation, homogeneity, translativity, stability, ϕ-comparability, sensitivity and locally internal functions. For analyze the attitudinal character of the aggregation operator the following measures are studied: disjunction degree (orness, dispersion, balance and divergence. In this paper, a review of these issues is presented.

  1. Multipartite distribution property of one way discord beyond measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Si-Yuan; Zhang, Yu-Ran; Yang, Wen-Li; Fan, Heng

    2015-03-01

    We investigate the distribution property of one way discord in the multipartite system by introducing the concept of polygamy deficit for one way discord. The difference between one way discord and quantum discord is analogue to the one between entanglement of assistance and entanglement of formation. For tripartite pure states, two kinds of polygamy deficits are presented with the equivalent expressions and physical interpretations regardless of measurement. For four-partite pure states, we provide a condition which makes one way discord polygamy satisfied. In addition, we generalize these results to the case for N-partite pure states. Those results can be applicable to multipartite quantum systems and are complementary to our understanding of the shareability of quantum correlations.

  2. Photothermally excited force modulation microscopy for broadband nanomechanical property measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, Ryan, E-mail: ryan.wagner@nist.gov; Killgore, Jason P. [Material Measurement Laboratory, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, Colorado 80305 (United States)

    2015-11-16

    We demonstrate photothermally excited force modulation microscopy (PTE FMM) for mechanical property characterization across a broad frequency range with an atomic force microscope (AFM). Photothermal excitation allows for an AFM cantilever driving force that varies smoothly as a function of drive frequency, thus avoiding the problem of spurious resonant vibrations that hinder piezoelectric excitation schemes. A complication of PTE FMM is that the sub-resonance cantilever vibration shape is fundamentally different compared to piezoelectric excitation. By directly measuring the vibrational shape of the cantilever, we show that PTE FMM is an accurate nanomechanical characterization method. PTE FMM is a pathway towards the characterization of frequency sensitive specimens such as polymers and biomaterials with frequency range limited only by the resonance frequency of the cantilever and the low frequency limit of the AFM.

  3. Containerless high temperature property measurements by atomic fluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordine, P. C.; Schiffman, R. A.

    1982-01-01

    Laser induced fluorescence techniques were developed for the containerless study of high temperature processes, material properties, levitation, and heating techniques for containerless earth-based experimentation. Experiments were performed in which fluorescence of atomic aluminum, mercury, or tungsten were studied. These experiments include measurements of: (1) Al atom evaporation from CW CO2 laser heated and aerodynamically levitated sapphire and alumina spheres, and self-supported sapphire filaments, (2) Al atom reaction with ambient oxygen in the wake of a levitated specimen, (3) Hg atom concentrations in the wake of levitated alumina and sapphire spheres, relative to the ambient Hg atom concentration, (4) Hg atom concentrations in supersonic levitation jets, and (5) metastable, electronically excited W atom concentrations produced by evaporation of an electrically heated tungsten filament.

  4. Property measurements on spray formed Si-Al alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI Yan-guang; XIONG Bai-qing; ZHANG Yong-an; LIU Hong-wei; WANG Feng; ZHU Bao-hong

    2007-01-01

    A novel Si-Al alloy was prepared by spray forming process for electronic packaging. Property measurements on spray-formed Si-Al alloys after hot pressing were carried out. The results indicate that the alloys (Si-(30%-40%)Al) have advantageous physical and mechanical characteristics, including low coefficient of thermal expansion (6.9×10-6-8.7×10-6/K), high thermal conductivity (118-127 W/(m·K)), low density (2.421×103-2.465×103 kg/m3), high ultimate flexural strength (180-220 MPa) and Brinell hardness (162-261). The alloys are easy to machine to tight tolerances using standard machine tools and they can be electroplated with gold finishes and soldered with Sn-Pb alloy without any difficulty.

  5. Nondestructive measurements of the properties of healing burn scars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, B M; Brody, G

    1975-01-01

    A testing protocol and the requisite instrumentation have been developed to nondestructively monitor the temporal and mechanical properties of maturing scar. The maturing scar can become progressively and unpredictably adherent or contractured, producing varying degrees of functional impairment. By plotting these mechanical changes as a temporal function of limb motion history, more accurate prediction and control of the ultimate scarring may result. These same techniques could also be used to study normal skin aging. Extrapolation could be made to connective tissue scars in tendons, ligaments, and other structural elements. Scar contractures may develop slowly along lines of tension or areas of maximum skin defect in large maturing scars once the patient has recovered sufficiently to exercise the underlying joints. Since the present endeavor to monitor potential contractures requires measurement of the "in-plane" stresses and strains, we have chosen to utilize an in situ strip biaxial test configuration.

  6. Health Literacy Measure for Adolescents (HELMA: Development and Psychometric Properties.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahla Ghanbari

    Full Text Available Health literacy refers to personal competencies for the access to, understanding of, appraisal of and application of health information in order to make sound decisions in everyday life. The aim of this study was to develop and evaluate the psychometric properties of an instrument for the measurement of health literacy among adolescents (the Health Literacy Measure for Adolescents-HELMA.This study was made up of two phases, qualitative and quantitative, which were carried out in 2012-2014 in Tehran, Iran. In the qualitative part of the study, in-depth interviews with 67 adolescents aged 15-18 were carried out in 4 high schools to generate the initial item pool for the survey. The content validity of the items was then assessed by an expert panel review (n = 13 and face validity was assessed by interviewing adolescents (n = 16. In the quantitative part of the study, in order to describe the psychometric properties of the scale, validity, reliability (internal consistency and test-retest and factor analysis were assessed.An item pool made up of 104 items was generated at the qualitative stage. After content validity was considered, this decreased to 47 items. In the quantitative stage, 582 adolescents aged 15-18 participated in the study with a mean age of 16.2 years. 51.2% of participants were females. In principal component factor analysis, 8 factors were loaded, which accounted for 53.37% of the variance observed. Reliability has been approved by α = 0.93 and the test-retest of the scale at two-week intervals indicated an appropriate stability for the scale (ICC = 0.93. The final questionnaire was approved with 44 items split into eight sections. The sections were titled: gain access to, reading, understanding, appraise, use, communication, self-efficacy and numeracy.The Health Literacy Measure for Adolescents (HELMA is a valid and reliable tool for the measurement of the health literacy of adolescents aged 15-18 and can be used to evaluate

  7. Measuring snow and glacier ice properties from satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    KöNig, Max; Winther, Jan-Gunnar; Isaksson, Elisabeth

    2001-02-01

    Satellite remote sensing is a convenient tool for studying snow and glacier ice, allowing us to conduct research over large and otherwise inaccessible areas. This paper reviews various methods for measuring snow and glacier ice properties with satellite remote sensing. These methods have been improving with the use of new satellite sensors, like the synthetic aperture radar (SAR) during the last decade, leading to the development of new and powerful methods, such as SAR interferometry for glacier velocity, digital elevation model generation of ice sheets, or snow cover mapping. Some methods still try to overcome the limitations of present sensors, but future satellites will have much increased capability, for example, the ability to measure the whole optical spectrum or SAR sensors with multiple polarization or frequencies. Among the methods presented are the satellite-derived determination of surface albedo, snow extent, snow volume, snow grain size, surface temperature, glacier facies, glacier velocities, glacier extent, and ice sheet topography. In this review, emphasis is put on the principles and theory of each satellite remote sensing method. An extensive list of references, with an emphasis on studies from the 1990s, allows the reader to delve into specific topics.

  8. Evaluation of Aerosol Properties in GCMs using Satellite Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y.; Jiang, J. H.; Su, H.; Zhang, H.

    2015-12-01

    Atmospheric aerosols from natural or anthropogenic sources have profound impacts on the regional and global climate. Currently the radiative forcing of aerosols predicted by global climate models remains highly uncertain, representing the largest uncertainty in climate predictions. The uncertainty mainly arises from the complicated aerosol chemical and physical properties, coarse emission inventories for pre-cursor gases as well as unrealistic representations of aerosol activation and cloud processing in global climate models. In this study, we will utilize multiple satellite measurements including MODIS, MISR and CALIPSO to quantitatively evaluate aerosol simulations from climate models. Our analyses show that the global means in AOD climatology from NCAR CAM5 and GFDL AM3 simulations are comparable with satellite measurements. However, the overall correlation coefficient between the AOD spatial patterns from CAM5 and satellite is only 0.4. Moreover, at finer scales, the magnitude of AOD in CAM5 is much lower than satellite measurements for most of the non-dust regions, especially over East Asia. GFDL AM3 shows better AOD simulations over East Asia. The underestimated AOD over remote maritime areas in CAM5 was attributed to the unrealistic wet removal processes in convective clouds of CAM5. Over continents, biases on AOD could stem from underestimations in the emissions inventory and unresolved sub-grid variations of relative humidity due to the model's coarse resolution. Uncertainty from emission inventory over developing countries in East Asia will be assessed using the newly updated Regional Emission inventory in Asia (REAS) and Multi-resolution Emission Inventory in China (MEIC) in the model simulations.

  9. Optical-mechanical properties of diseased cells measured by interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaked, Natan T.; Bishitz, Y.; Gabai, H.; Girshovitz, P.

    2013-04-01

    Interferometric phase microscopy (IPM) enables to obtain quantitative optical thickness profiles of transparent samples, including live cells in-vitro, and track them in time with sub-nanometer accuracy without any external labeling, contact or force application on the sample. The optical thickness measured by IPM is a multiplication between the cell integral refractive index differences and its physical thickness. Based on the time-dependent optical thickness profile, one can generate the optical thickness fluctuation map. For biological cells that are adhered to the surface, the variance of the physical thickness fluctuations in time is inversely proportional to the spring factor indicating on cell stiffness, where softer cells are expected fluctuating more than more rigid cells. For homogenous refractive index cells, such as red blood cells, we can calculate a map indicating on the cell stiffness per each spatial point on the cell. Therefore, it is possible to obtain novel diagnosis and monitoring tools for diseases changing the morphology and the mechanical properties of these cells such as malaria, certain types of anaemia and thalassemia. For cells with a complex refractive-index structure, such as cancer cells, decoupling refractive index and physical thickness is not possible in single-exposure mode. In these cases, we measure a closely related parameter, under the assumption that the refractive index does not change much within less than a second of measurement. Using these techniques, we lately found that cancer cells fluctuate significantly more than healthy cells, and that metastatic cancer cells fluctuate significantly more than primary cancer cells.

  10. A family for miniature, easily reconfigurable particle sensors for space plasma measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieser, M.; Barabash, S.

    2016-12-01

    Over the last 15 years the Swedish Institute of Space Physics developed a line of miniaturized ion mass analyzers for space plasma studies with masses of 400-600 g and highly compact and dense design to minimize the volume. The sensors cover an energy range from few eV up to 15 keV and reach an angular coverage up to hemispherical and mass resolution up to 7, depending on application. The experience with this line of sensors demonstrates that a sensor mass of 400-600 g is a limit in the trade-off between scientifically valuable performance and the sensor mass. The Solar Wind Monitor (SWIM), part of the Sub-keV Atom Reflecting Analyzer (SARA) on board of the Indian Chandrayaan-1 mission to the Moon, was the first sensor in the line. A number of instruments derived from SWIM were built, each using the same basic architecture but adapted for the needs of the corresponding mission: the Miniature Ion Precipitation Analyzer (MIPA) on the European Space Agency's BepiColombo mission to Mercury, the Detector for Ions at Mars (DIM) for the Russian Phobos-Grunt mission and the Yinghuo Plasma Package Ion sensor (YPPi) for the Chinese Yinghuo-1 spacecraft (both to Mars), the Prisma Ion Mass Analyzer (PRIMA) for the Swedish PRISMA spacecraft to Earth orbit, the eXtra Small Analyzer of Neutrals (XASN) for the Russian Luna-Glob lander, and the Laboratory Ion Scattering Analyzer (LISA) used for laboratory studies. We review architecture, design, performance, and fields of application of the instruments in this family and give and outlook in future developments.

  11. Factor analysis in predominantly severe COPD : Identification of disease heterogeneity by easily measurable characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postma, Dirkje S.; Anzueto, Antonio R.; Jenkins, Christine; Make, Barry J.; Similowski, Thomas; Ostlund, Ollie; Eriksson, Goran S.; Calverley, Peter M.

    2013-01-01

    Background: The clinical and demographic variables defining the heterogeneity of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are unclear. A post-hoc analysis of five randomised studies in patients with a history of previous exacerbations examined the clinical and demographic characteristics describ

  12. PHYSICAL PROPERTY MEASUREMENTS OF LABORATORY PREPARED SALTSTONE GROUT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, E.; Cozzi, A.; Edwards, T.

    2014-05-05

    The Saltstone Production Facility (SPF) built two new Saltstone Disposal Units (SDU), SDU 3 and SDU 5, in 2013. The variable frequency drive (VFD) for the grout transfer hose pump tripped due to high current demand by the motor during the initial radioactive saltstone transfer to SDU 5B on 12/5/2013. This was not observed during clean cap processing on July 5, 2013 to SDU 3A, which is a slightly longer distance from the SPF than is SDU 5B. Saltstone Design Authority (SDA) is evaluating the grout pump performance and capabilities to transfer the grout processed in SPF to SDU 3/5. To assist in this evaluation, grout physical properties are required. At this time, there are no rheological data from the actual SPF so the properties of laboratory prepared samples using simulated salt solution or Tank 50 salt solution will be measured. The physical properties of grout prepared in the laboratory with de-ionized water (DI) and salt solutions were obtained at 0.60 and 0.59 water to premix (W/P) ratios, respectively. The yield stress of the DI grout was greater than any salt grout. The plastic viscosity of the DI grout was lower than all of the salt grouts (including salt grout with admixture). When these physical data were used to determine the pressure drop and fluid horsepower for steady state conditions, the salt grouts without admixture addition required a higher pressure drop and higher fluid horsepower to transport. When 0.00076 g Daratard 17/g premix was added, both the pressure drop and fluid horsepower were below that of the DI grout. Higher concentrations of Daratard 17 further reduced the pressure drop and fluid horsepower. The uncertainty in the single point Bingham Plastic parameters is + 4% of the reported values and is the bounding uncertainty. Two different mechanical agitator mixing protocols were followed for the simulant salt grout, one having a total mixing time of three minutes and the other having a time of 10 minutes. The Bingham Plastic parameters

  13. Measuring the Mechanical Properties of Plant Cell Walls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannes Vogler

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The size, shape and stability of a plant depend on the flexibility and integrity of its cell walls, which, at the same time, need to allow cell expansion for growth, while maintaining mechanical stability. Biomechanical studies largely vanished from the focus of plant science with the rapid progress of genetics and molecular biology since the mid-twentieth century. However, the development of more sensitive measurement tools renewed the interest in plant biomechanics in recent years, not only to understand the fundamental concepts of growth and morphogenesis, but also with regard to economically important areas in agriculture, forestry and the paper industry. Recent advances have clearly demonstrated that mechanical forces play a crucial role in cell and organ morphogenesis, which ultimately define plant morphology. In this article, we will briefly review the available methods to determine the mechanical properties of cell walls, such as atomic force microscopy (AFM and microindentation assays, and discuss their advantages and disadvantages. But we will focus on a novel methodological approach, called cellular force microscopy (CFM, and its automated successor, real-time CFM (RT-CFM.

  14. Rheological properties of cells measured by optical tweezers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayala, Yareni A; Pontes, Bruno; Ether, Diney S; Pires, Luis B; Araujo, Glauber R; Frases, Susana; Romão, Luciana F; Farina, Marcos; Moura-Neto, Vivaldo; Viana, Nathan B; Nussenzveig, H Moysés

    2016-01-01

    The viscoelastic properties of cells have been investigated by a variety of techniques. However, the experimental data reported in literature for viscoelastic moduli differ by up to three orders of magnitude. This has been attributed to differences in techniques and models for cell response as well as to the natural variability of cells. In this work we develop and apply a new methodology based on optical tweezers to investigate the rheological behavior of fibroblasts, neurons and astrocytes in the frequency range from 1Hz to 35Hz, determining the storage and loss moduli of their membrane-cortex complex. To avoid distortions associated with cell probing techniques, we use a previously developed method that takes into account the influence of under bead cell thickness and bead immersion. These two parameters were carefully measured for the three cell types used. Employing the soft glass rheology model, we obtain the scaling exponent and the Young's modulus for each cell type. The obtained viscoelastic moduli are in the order of Pa. Among the three cell types, astrocytes have the lowest elastic modulus, while neurons and fibroblasts exhibit a more solid-like behavior. Although some discrepancies with previous results remain and may be inevitable in view of natural variability, the methodology developed in this work allows us to explore the viscoelastic behavior of the membrane-cortex complex of different cell types as well as to compare their viscous and elastic moduli, obtained under identical and well-defined experimental conditions, relating them to the cell functions.

  15. Cassini CAPS Measurements of Thermal Ion Properties: An Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, R. J.; Bagenal, F.; Delamere, P. A.

    2010-12-01

    Since the Wilson et al. [2008] paper on thermal ion properties in Saturn's inner equatorial magnetosphere there have been several advances in forward model techniques and instrument knowledge. These include: a) Improved CAPS (SNG) calibration values since 2008. While the previous fits to data are still valid, this efficiency adjustment has the effect of reducing the density values calculated from that fit. Compared to the previous calibration values, nOH+ and nH+ are ≈30% and ≈9% lower respectively. b) Robust error analysis on the forward model process to produce standard deviations for the fitted parameters. This also shows the expected dependences between various fitted parameters, such as Vφ and OH+ T⊥, inherent in the model. c) Utilization of real magnetic field data to forward model T⊥ and T\\par. Previously assumed magnetic field was in the -z direction. In addition, these improvements allow us to remove the constraint that Vz = 0, and the use of real magnetic field data allows us to analyze data farther from the equator. References Wilson, R. J., R. L. Tokar, M. G. Henderson, T. W. Hill, M. F. Thomsen, and D. H. Pontius (2008), Cassini plasma spectrometer thermal ion measurements in Saturn's inner magnetosphere,

  16. 40 CFR 201.25 - Measurement location and weather conditions for measurement on receiving property of the noise of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... conditions for measurement on receiving property of the noise of retarders, car coupling, locomotive load... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) NOISE ABATEMENT PROGRAMS NOISE EMISSION STANDARDS FOR TRANSPORTATION... conditions for measurement on receiving property of the noise of retarders, car coupling, locomotive...

  17. UAV measurements of aerosol properties at the Cyprus institute

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neitola, Kimmo; Sciare, Jean; Keleshis, Christos; Pikridas, Michael; Argyrides, Marios; Vouterakos, Panagiotis; Antoniou, Panyiota; Apostolou, Apostolos; Savvides, Constantinos; Vrekoussis, Mihalis; Mihalopoulos, Nikos; Biskos, George; Gao, Ru-Shan; Murphy, Daniel; Schrod, Jann; Weber, Daniel; Bingemer, Heinz; Mocnik, Grisa

    2017-04-01

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) provide a cost-effective and easy-to-use method to document the vertical profiles of aerosol particles and their physical and optical properties, within and above the boundary layer. These observations combined with satellite and ground data together can provide important information and model constrains regarding the impact of aerosols on the air quality and regional climate. Cyprus is a unique place to observe long-range transported pollution and dust originating from different areas (Europe, Africa, Turkey, and Middle East) and perform such aerosol profiling. The USRL team at the Cyprus Institute has recently started weekly routine flights with a newly developed UAV fleet to build a unique dataset of vertical profile observations. Instrumentation on the UAVs includes miniature Scanning Aerosol Sun Photometer (miniSASP, Murphy et al., 2015), Printed Optical Particle Spectrometer (POPS, Gao et al., 2016), Ice nuclei sampler (IN) and Dual Wavelength absorption Prototype (DWP) together with the measured meteorological parameters (P, T and RH). The UAV fleet is still expanding, as well as the instrumentation, and preliminary test flights have led to very promising results. The UAV ascend up to approximately the middle of the boundary layer, defined by LIDAR measurements at Limassol, where the UAV will fly on one altitude for several minutes ensuring stable data collection. After flying on one altitude, the UAV will continue ascending above the boundary layer, where another level flight will take place for data gathering, before descending for safe landing. The miniSASP measures the sun irradiance and sky radiance at four wavelengths (460, 550, 670 and 680nm) by doing continuous almucantar scans every 30 s. The instrument installation compensates for the pitch and roll of the UAV with 4 Hz frequency. For this reason, the flights are designed to maintain level flight conditions, to ensure proper data acquisition, and to obtain data from

  18. Assessing the Current State of Cognitive Frailty: Measurement Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargent, L; Brown, R

    2017-01-01

    associations inculded slow gait and executive function (β -0.20, p < 0.008 ), attention (β -0.25 p < 0.008), processing speed (β -0.16, p < 0.008), word recall (β - 0.18, p = 0.02), and logical memory (β = 0.04, p =0.04). Weak grip was predictive for changes in executive function (β - 0.16, p =0.008). Physical activity was associated with changes in executive function (β = -0.18, p= 0.02) and word recall (β = 0.17, p= 0.02), individual components of frailty and global cognitive function were found in several studies which included grip strength (r = - 0.51, p < 0.001), gait speed (r = - 0.067, p < 0.001), and exhaustion (β - 0.18, p < 0.008). This paper presents the first-known review of the measurement properties for the cognitive frailty construct since the published results from the International Consensus Group (I.A.N.A/I.A.G.G). Evidence presented in this review continues to support the link between physical frailty and cognition with developing validity to support distinct relationships between components of physical frailty and cognitive decline. Results call attention to inconsistencies in reporting of reliability, validity, and heterogeneity in the measurements and operational definition for cognitive frailty. Further research is needed to establish an operational definition and develop psychometrically appropriate clinical measures to construct an understanding of the relationship between physical frailty and cognitive decline.

  19. The measurement of collaboration within healthcare settings: a systematic review of measurement properties of instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Stephen John; Stern, Cindy; Robertson-Malt, Suzanne

    2016-04-01

    There is a growing call by consumers and governments for healthcare to adopt systems and approaches to care to improve patient safety. Collaboration within healthcare settings is an important factor for improving systems of care. By using validated measurement instruments a standardized approach to assessing collaboration is possible, otherwise it is only an assumption that collaboration is occurring in any healthcare setting. The objective of this review was to evaluate and compare measurement properties of instruments that measure collaboration within healthcare settings, specifically those which have been psychometrically tested and validated. Participants could be healthcare professionals, the patient or any non-professional who contributes to a patient's care, for example, family members, chaplains or orderlies. The term participant type means the designation of any one participant; for example 'nurse', 'social worker' or 'administrator'. More than two participant types was mandatory. The focus of this review was the validity of tools used to measure collaboration within healthcare settings. The types of studies considered for inclusion were validation studies, but quantitative study designs such as randomized controlled trials, controlled trials and case studies were also eligible for inclusion. Studies that focused on Interprofessional Education, were published as an abstract only, contained patient self-reporting only or were not about care delivery were excluded. The outcome of interest was validation and interpretability of the instrument being assessed and included content validity, construct validity and reliability. Interpretability is characterized by statistics such as mean and standard deviation which can be translated to a qualitative meaning. The search strategy aimed to find both published and unpublished studies. A three-step search strategy was utilized in this review. The databases searched included PubMed, CINAHL, Embase, Cochrane Central

  20. Method and apparatus for measuring properties of particle beams using thermo-resistive material properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degtiarenko, Pavel V.; Dotson, Danny Wayne

    2007-10-09

    A beam position detector for measuring the properties of a charged particle beam, including the beam's position, size, shape, and intensity. One or more absorbers are constructed of thermo-resistive material and positioned to intercept and absorb a portion of the incoming beam power, thereby causing local heating of each absorber. The local temperature increase distribution across the absorber, or the distribution between different absorbers, will depend on the intensity, size, and position of the beam. The absorbers are constructed of a material having a strong dependence of electrical resistivity on temperature. The beam position detector has no moving parts in the vicinity of the beam and is especially suited to beam areas having high ionizing radiation dose rates or poor beam quality, including beams dispersed in the transverse direction and in their time radio frequency structure.

  1. Easily separated silver nanoparticle-decorated magnetic graphene oxide: Synthesis and high antibacterial activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huai-Zhi; Zhang, Chang; Zeng, Guang-Ming; Gong, Ji-Lai; Ou, Xiao-Ming; Huan, Shuang-Yan

    2016-06-01

    Silver nanoparticle-decorated magnetic graphene oxide (MGO-Ag) was synthesized by doping silver and Fe3O4 nanoparticles on the surface of GO, which was used as an antibacterial agent. MGO-Ag was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Energy dispersive X-ray (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy and magnetic property tests. It can be found that magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles and nano-Ag was well dispersed on graphene oxide; and MGO-Ag exhibited excellent antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. Several factors were investigated to study the antibacterial effect of MGO-Ag, such as temperature, time, pH and bacterial concentration. We also found that MGO-Ag maintained high inactivation rates after use six times and can be separated easily after antibacterial process. Moreover, the antibacterial mechanism is discussed and the synergistic effect of GO, Fe3O4 nanoparticles and nano-Ag accounted for high inactivation of MGO-Ag.

  2. The cost of travel time variability: three measures with properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engelson, Leonid; Fosgerau, Mogens

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores the relationships between three types of measures of the cost of travel time variability: measures based on scheduling preferences and implicit departure time choice, Bernoulli type measures based on a univariate function of travel time, and mean-dispersion measures. We...... result on the utility rates in an additive scheduling measure. These insights are useful for selecting cost measures to use in applications....

  3. Structure and properties of loaded silica contacts during pressure solution: impedance spectroscopy measurements under hydrothermal conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noort, R. van; Spiers, C.J.; Peach, C.J.

    2011-01-01

    In order to investigate directly the structure and properties of grain boundaries in silicatematerials undergoing pressure solution, in situmeasurements of these properties are required. We report electrical impedance spectroscopy measurements, performed, under hydrothermal conditions,

  4. China Takes Strict Measures on Intellectual Property Right

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ The Supreme People's Court and Supreme People's Procuratorate of the People's Republic of China have issued "Judicial Explanations on Handling the Criminal Cases of Infringing the Intellectual Property Right", which entered into force on December 22,2004.

  5. Employee participation in developing performance measures and job performance: on the role of measurement properties and incentives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groen, B.; Wouters, M.; Wilderom, C.

    2013-01-01

    Involving employees in the development of performance measures often results in better employee job performance. Yet not all prior studies find such a direct effect. This study explains these inconsistent findings. It focuses on the measurement properties of performance measures and using them for

  6. Measurements of photon and jet production properties with ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Meyer, Chris

    2016-01-01

    Summary of recent ATLAS measurements of jet and photon production using proton-proton (pp) collisions from the Large Hadron Collider. The charged-particle multiplicity in jets, and jet charge measurements are presented using 8 TeV pp collisions. Differential measurements of jet and photon cross-sections are shown for 7, 8 and 13 TeV pp collisions.

  7. Measurements of photon and jet production properties with ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00237016; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    Summary of recent ATLAS measurements of jet and photon production using proton–proton (pp) collisions from the Large Hadron Collider. The charged-particle multiplicity in jets, and jet charge measurements are presented using 8 TeV pp collisions. Differential measurements of jet and photon cross-sections are shown for 7, 8 and 13 TeV pp collisions.

  8. Measuring the optical properties of IceCube drill holes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rongen Martin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The IceCube Neutrino Observatory consists of 5160 digital optical modules (DOMs in a cubic kilometer of deep ice below the South Pole. The DOMs record the Cherenkov light from charged particles interacting in the ice. A good understanding of the optical properties of the ice is crucial to the quality of the event reconstruction. While the optical properties of the undisturbed ice are well understood, the properties of the refrozen drill holes still pose a challenge. A new data-acquisition and analysis approach using light originating from LEDs within one DOM detected by the photomultiplier of the same DOM will be described. This method allows us to explore the scattering length in the immediate vicinity of the considered DOMs.

  9. Psychometric Properties of a Translated Korean Adult Attachment Measure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seong-Hyeon; Sherry, Alissa R.; Lee, Young-Sun; Kim, Chang-Dai

    2011-01-01

    In this study, psychometric properties of a Korean-adapted version of the Experiences in Close Relationships--Revised scale were investigated using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) in conjunction with item response theory. In CFA, neither the supposed two-factor model of Anxiety and Avoidance nor two single-factor models for each factor showed a…

  10. In vitro measurements of optical properties of porcine brain using a novel compact device

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Yavari, N

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available describes measurements of the optical properties of porcine brain tissue using novel instrumentation for simultaneous absorption and scattering characterisation of small turbid samples. Integrating sphere measurements are widely used as a reference method...

  11. Munition Mass Properties Measurement Procedures Using a Spin Balance Machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-09

    alignment fixtures, and the calibration tools (fixtures, laser alignment/pointing device, mechanical dial indicator, etc). There should be a crane hoist ...the measured quantity which consistently causes the output of the measuring machine to change. It is largely a function of friction in mechanical

  12. Relative Entropy and Variational Properties of Generalized Gibbsian Measures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Külske, Christof; Ny, Arnaud Le; Redig, Frank

    2004-01-01

    We study the relative entropy density for generalized Gibbs measures. We first show its existence and obtain a familiar expression in terms of entropy and relative energy for a class of “almost Gibbsian measures” (almost sure continuity of conditional probabilities). For quasilocal measures, we obta

  13. Measurements of photon and jet production properties with CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Flouris, Giannis

    2016-01-01

    The measurements of the jet charge, the Z+jet and gamma+jet, the dijet azimuthal decorrelations, and the inclusive jet cross sections are presented. The measurements use the samples of proton-proton collisions collected with the CMS detector at the LHC at a center-of-mass energy of 8 and 13 TeV.

  14. Good Evaluation Measures: More than Their Psychometric Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weitzman, Beth C.; Silver, Diana

    2013-01-01

    In this commentary, we examine Braverman's insights into the trade-offs between feasibility and rigor in evaluation measures and reject his assessment of the trade-off as a zero-sum game. We, argue that feasibility and policy salience are, like reliability and validity, intrinsic to the definition of a good measure. To reduce the tension between…

  15. Finite amplitude effects on drop levitation for material properties measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari Hosseinzadeh, Vahideh; Holt, R. Glynn

    2017-05-01

    The method of exciting shape oscillation of drops to extract material properties has a long history, which is most often coupled with the technique of acoustic levitation to achieve non-contact manipulation of the drop sample. We revisit this method with application to the inference of bulk shear viscosity and surface tension. The literature is replete with references to a "10% oscillation amplitude" as a sufficient condition for the application of Lamb's analytical expressions for the shape oscillations of viscous liquids. Our results show that even a 10% oscillation amplitude leads to dynamic effects which render Lamb's results inapplicable. By comparison with samples of known viscosity and surface tension, we illustrate the complicating finite-amplitude effects (mode-splitting and excess dissipation associated with vorticity) that can occur and then show that sufficiently small oscillations allow us to recover the correct material properties using Lamb's formula.

  16. Dynamic properties of bacterial pili measured by optical tweezers

    CERN Document Server

    Fallman, Erik; Schedin, Staffan; Jass, Jana; Uhlin, Bernt Eric; Axner, Ove

    2014-01-01

    The ability of uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) to cause urinary tract infections is dependent on their ability to colonize the uroepithelium. Infecting bacteria ascend the urethra to the bladder and then kidneys by attaching to the uroepithelial cells via the differential expression of adhesins. P pili are associated with pyelonephritis, the more severe infection of the kidneys. In order to find means to treat pyelonephritis, it is therefore of interest to investigate the properties P pili. The mechanical behavior of individual P pili of uropathogenic Escherichia coli has recently been investigated using optical tweezers. P pili, whose main part constitutes the PapA rod, composed of ~1000 PapA subunits in a helical arrangement, are distributed over the bacterial surface and mediate adhesion to host cells. We have earlier studied P pili regarding its stretching/elongation properties where we have found and characterized three different elongation regions, of which one constitute an unfolding of the quate...

  17. Properties and relative measure for quantifying quantum synchronization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenlin; Zhang, Wenzhao; Li, Chong; Song, Heshan

    2017-07-01

    Although quantum synchronization phenomena and corresponding measures have been widely discussed recently, it is still an open question how to characterize directly the influence of nonlocal correlation, which is the key distinction for identifying classical and quantum synchronizations. In this paper, we present basic postulates for quantifying quantum synchronization based on the related theory in Mari's work [Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 103605 (2013), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.111.103605], and we give a general formula of a quantum synchronization measure with clear physical interpretations. By introducing Pearson's parameter, we show that the obvious characteristics of our measure are the relativity and monotonicity. As an example, the measure is applied to describe synchronization among quantum optomechanical systems under a Markovian bath. We also show the potential by quantifying generalized synchronization and discrete variable synchronization with this measure.

  18. Nondestructive measurement of esophageal biaxial mechanical properties utilizing sonometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aho, Johnathon M.; Qiang, Bo; Wigle, Dennis A.; Tschumperlin, Daniel J.; Urban, Matthew W.

    2016-07-01

    Malignant esophageal pathology typically requires resection of the esophagus and reconstruction to restore foregut continuity. Reconstruction options are limited and morbid. The esophagus represents a useful target for tissue engineering strategies based on relative simplicity in comparison to other organs. The ideal tissue engineered conduit would have sufficient and ideally matched mechanical tolerances to native esophageal tissue. Current methods for mechanical testing of esophageal tissues both in vivo and ex vivo are typically destructive, alter tissue conformation, ignore anisotropy, or are not able to be performed in fluid media. The aim of this study was to investigate biomechanical properties of swine esophageal tissues through nondestructive testing utilizing sonometry ex vivo. This method allows for biomechanical determination of tissue properties, particularly longitudinal and circumferential moduli and strain energy functions. The relative contribution of mucosal-submucosal layers and muscular layers are compared to composite esophagi. Swine thoracic esophageal tissues (n  =  15) were tested by pressure loading using a continuous pressure pump system to generate stress. Preconditioning of tissue was performed by pressure loading with the pump system and pre-straining the tissue to in vivo length before data was recorded. Sonometry using piezocrystals was utilized to determine longitudinal and circumferential strain on five composite esophagi. Similarly, five mucosa-submucosal and five muscular layers from thoracic esophagi were tested independently. This work on esophageal tissues is consistent with reported uniaxial and biaxial mechanical testing and reported results using strain energy theory and also provides high resolution displacements, preserves native architectural structure and allows assessment of biomechanical properties in fluid media. This method may be of use to characterize mechanical properties of tissue engineered esophageal

  19. Dynamic properties of bacterial pili measured by optical tweezers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallman, Erik G.; Andersson, Magnus J.; Schedin, Staffan S.; Jass, Jana; Uhlin, Bernt Eric; Axner, Ove

    2004-10-01

    The ability of uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) to cause urinary tract infections is dependent on their ability to colonize the uroepithelium. Infecting bacteria ascend the urethra to the bladder and then kidneys by attaching to the uroepithelial cells via the differential expression of adhesins. P pili are associated with pyelonephritis, the more severe infection of the kidneys. In order to find means to treat pyelonephritis, it is therefore of interest to investigate the properties P pili. The mechanical behavior of individual P pili of uropathogenic Escherichia coli has recently been investigated using optical tweezers. P pili, whose main part constitutes the PapA rod, composed of ~1000 PapA subunits in a helical arrangement, are distributed over the bacterial surface and mediate adhesion to host cells. We have earlier studied P pili regarding its stretching/elongation properties where we have found and characterized three different elongation regions, of which one constitute an unfolding of the quaternary (helical) structure of the PapA rod. It was shown that this unfolding takes place at an elongation independent force of 27 +/- 2 pN. We have also recently performed studies on its folding properties and shown that the unfolding/folding of the PapA rod is completely reversible. Here we present a study of the dynamical properties of the PapA rod. We show, among other things, that the unfolding force increases and that the folding force decreases with the speed of unfolding and folding respectively. Moreover, the PapA rod can be folded-unfolded a significant number of times without loosing its characteristics, a phenomenon that is believed to be important for the bacterium to keep close contact to the host tissue and consequently helps the bacterium to colonize the host tissue.

  20. Measurement of soil properties in-situ. Present methods: their applicability and potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, J.K.; Guzikowski, F.; Villet, W.C.B.

    1978-03-01

    The measurement of soil properties in-situ offers the advantages of minimal disturbance, retention of the in-situ state of stress, temperature, chemical, and biological environments, and cost effectiveness relative to many types of laboratory tests for evaluation of undisturbed soil properties. This report is concerned with techniques for in-situ measurement of permeability, strength, stress-deformation properties, and volume change properties; property classes which are of interest in most geotechnical engineering problems. Emphasis is on test concepts, data analysis and interpretation, and advantages and limitations of methods, as opposed to details of apparatus and procedure.

  1. An overview of the measurements of thermophysical properties and some results on molten superalloys and semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, R. E.

    1993-01-01

    This presentation consists of two parts: comments on the results of measurements on thermophysical properties based on the paper, 'Things Mother Never Taught Me (About Thermophysical Properties of Solids)' and results of thermophysical property measurements on selected solid and molten semiconductors and a proprietary superalloy. The first part may be considered as a tutorial for those involved in using or procuring thermophysical property data. The second part is presented as illustrations of what has been accomplished on molten materials at the Thermophysical Properties Research Laboratory (TPRL). The materials include Ge, PbTe, PbSnTe, HgCdTe and a superalloy.

  2. Human tissue optical properties measurements and light propagation modelling

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dam, JS

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available measurements and light propagation modelling J. S. Dam , A. Singh , and A. E. Karsten Biophotonics Group, National Laser Centre, CSIR, Pretoria. www.csir.co.za/biophotonics SAIP 2006 Slide 2 © CSIR 2006 www... and µ’s S a m p l e S a m p l e S a m p l e Integrating Sphere measurementsMeasurements of the total transmittance and reflectance of a thin slab-shaped multiple scattering sample can yield the absorption- and the reduced...

  3. Measurements of thermophysical properties by a stepwise heating method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araki, N.

    1984-03-01

    An outline of the stepwise heating method for measuring thermal diffusivity and specific heat capacity of samples in both solid and liquid phases is described. The method is based on the measurement of temperature response at the surface of a solid sample when the other surface is heated in step-function. By making the best use of the characteristic points of this method, applications to samples in the liquid state, especially to high temperature melts such as molten salts, have been tried. As examples of measurement results, the thermal diffusivity, specific heat capacity, and thermal conductivity of zirconia brick and the thermal diffusivity of molten salts are shown in graphic form.

  4. A Framework for Measuring Security as a System Property in Cyberphysical Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janusz Zalewski

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the challenge of measuring security, understood as a system property, of cyberphysical systems, in the category of similar properties, such as safety and reliability. First, it attempts to define precisely what security, as a system property, really is. Then, an application context is presented, in terms of an attack surface in cyberphysical systems. Contemporary approaches related to the principles of measuring software properties are also discussed, with emphasis on building models. These concepts are illustrated in several case studies, based on previous work of the authors, to conduct experimental security measurements.

  5. Measurements of TYVEK reflective properties for the Pierre Auger Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gichaba, Justus Ogwoka; /Mississippi U.

    1998-08-01

    The authors have measured the spectrum and diffuse reflection of various samples of Tyvek, a material to be used to line the inner walls of the Pierre Auger Observatory water crenkov tanks. These measurements were carried out with a Lambda 18 UV/VIS spectrometer over a wavelength range from 200 nm to 700 nm. The angular dependence of this scattering was a gaussian. They have also carried the measurements with the PASCO OS-8020 to find the reflectivity of Tyvek samples versus Incident and Reflected angles. The reflected angles range from -90{sup o} to -90{sup o}. Finally, information from these measurements was used to simulate Cosmic rays events in a Water Cerenkov detector.

  6. Measurement properties of disease-specific questionnaires in patients with neck pain: a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.M. Schellingerhout (Jasper Mattijs); A.P. Verhagen (Arianne); M.W. Heymans (Martijn); B.W. Koes (Bart); H.C.W. de Vet (Henrica); C.B. Terwee (Caroline)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractPurpose: To critically appraise and compare the measurement properties of the original versions of neck-specific questionnaires. Methods: Bibliographic databases were searched for articles concerning the development or evaluation of the measurement properties of an original version of a

  7. Transient Infrared Measurement of Laser Absorption Properties of Porous Materials

    OpenAIRE

    Marynowicz Andrzej

    2016-01-01

    The infrared thermography measurements of porous building materials have become more frequent in recent years. Many accompanying techniques for the thermal field generation have been developed, including one based on laser radiation. This work presents a simple optimization technique for estimation of the laser beam absorption for selected porous building materials, namely clinker brick and cement mortar. The transient temperature measurements were performed with the use of infrared camera du...

  8. Integrated On-line Instrumentation System of Magnetic Properties Measurement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    A portable microcomputer-controlled inspection system has been developed for detection of mag netic properties of soft magnetic materials. It incorporates custom designed software for control of the magnetic field during operation such as demagnetization, field sweeping, and for data logging and analysis. Results are recorded using a 12-bit analog to digital converter and are then stored on disk. The magnetic hysteresis loop and Barkhausen noise data can be converted into important magnetic parameters:, coecivity, remanence, and hysteresis loss, Barkhausen ampli tude, and Barkhausen noise energy. This system incorporated with the magnetostriction, and magnetoacoustic emission, is then related with the nondestructive detection of material degra dation.

  9. Ultrathin magnetic structures II measurement techniques and novel magnetic properties

    CERN Document Server

    Heinrich, Bretislav

    2006-01-01

    The ability to understand and control the unique properties of interfaces has created an entirely new field of magnetism, with profound impact in technology and serving as the basis for a revolution in electronics. Our understanding of the physics of magnetic nanostructures has also advanced significantly. This rapid development has generated a need for a comprehensive treatment that can serve as an introduction to the field for those entering it from diverse fields, but which will also serve as a timely overview for those already working in this area. The four-volume work Ultra-Thin Magnetic

  10. Torsional Elastic Property Measurements of Selected Orthodontic Archwires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    Research and Professional Development AFIT/NR 19. KEY WORDS (Continue on reverse side if necessary and Identify by block number) 20. ABSTRACT (Continue...ftf ,.V J .T P. :.// ff~ ’ ftS t .% t ftp~’ U P-. 51 1. Burstone CJ: Variable-modulus Orthodontics. Am J Orthod 80:1-16, 1981. 2. Kusy RP, Stevens LE...Triple-Stranded Stainless Steel Wires - Evaluation of Mechanical Properties and Comparison with Titanium Alloy Alternatives. Angle Orthod 57:18-32

  11. An electrodeless system for measurement of liquid sample dielectric properties in radio frequency band.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartwig, V; Giovannetti, G; Vanello, N; Costantino, M; Landini, L; Benassi, A

    2006-01-01

    An electrodeless measurement system based on a resonant circuit is proposed for the measurement of dielectric properties of liquid samples at RF (radio frequency). Generally, properties as dielectric constant, loss factor and conductivity are measured by parallel plate capacitor cells: this method has several limitations in the case of particular liquid samples and in the range of radiofrequencies. Our method is based on the measurements of resonance frequency and quality factor of a LC resonant circuit in different measuring conditions, without and with the liquid sample placed inside a test tube around which the home made coil is wrapped. The measurement is performed using a network analyzer and a dual loop probe, inductively coupled with the resonant circuit. One of the advantages of this method is the contactless between the liquid sample and the measurement electrodes. In this paper the measurement system is described and test measurements of conventional liquids dielectric properties are reported.

  12. SOME ASYMPTOTIC PROPERTIES OF THE CONVOLUTION TRANSFORMS OF FRACTAL MEASURES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cao Li

    2012-01-01

    We study the asymptotic behavior near the boundary of u(x,y) =Ky * μ (x),defined on the half-space R+ × RN by the convolution of an approximate identity Ky (.) (y >0) and a measure μ on RN.The Poisson and the heat kernel are unified as special cases in our setting.We are mainly interested in the relationship between the rate of growth at boundary of u and the s-density of a singular measure μ.Then a boundary limit theorem of Fatou's type for singular measures is proved.Meanwhile,the asymptotic behavior of a quotient of Kμ and Kv is also studied,then the corresponding Fatou-Doob's boundary relative limit is obtained.In particular,some results about the singular boundary behavior of harmonic and heat functions can be deduced simultaneously from ours.At the end,an application in fractal geometry is given.

  13. Algorithm to optimize transient hot-wire thermal property measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bran-Anleu, Gabriela; Lavine, Adrienne S; Wirz, Richard E; Kavehpour, H Pirouz

    2014-04-01

    The transient hot-wire method has been widely used to measure the thermal conductivity of fluids. The ideal working equation is based on the solution of the transient heat conduction equation for an infinite linear heat source assuming no natural convection or thermal end effects. In practice, the assumptions inherent in the model are only valid for a portion of the measurement time. In this study, an algorithm was developed to automatically select the proper data range from a transient hot-wire experiment. Numerical simulations of the experiment were used in order to validate the algorithm. The experimental results show that the developed algorithm can be used to improve the accuracy of thermal conductivity measurements.

  14. Algorithm to optimize transient hot-wire thermal property measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bran-Anleu, Gabriela; Lavine, Adrienne S.; Wirz, Richard E.; Kavehpour, H. Pirouz

    2014-04-01

    The transient hot-wire method has been widely used to measure the thermal conductivity of fluids. The ideal working equation is based on the solution of the transient heat conduction equation for an infinite linear heat source assuming no natural convection or thermal end effects. In practice, the assumptions inherent in the model are only valid for a portion of the measurement time. In this study, an algorithm was developed to automatically select the proper data range from a transient hot-wire experiment. Numerical simulations of the experiment were used in order to validate the algorithm. The experimental results show that the developed algorithm can be used to improve the accuracy of thermal conductivity measurements.

  15. Transient Infrared Measurement of Laser Absorption Properties of Porous Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marynowicz Andrzej

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The infrared thermography measurements of porous building materials have become more frequent in recent years. Many accompanying techniques for the thermal field generation have been developed, including one based on laser radiation. This work presents a simple optimization technique for estimation of the laser beam absorption for selected porous building materials, namely clinker brick and cement mortar. The transient temperature measurements were performed with the use of infrared camera during laser-induced heating-up of the samples’ surfaces. As the results, the absorbed fractions of the incident laser beam together with its shape parameter are reported.

  16. Transient Infrared Measurement of Laser Absorption Properties of Porous Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marynowicz, Andrzej

    2016-06-01

    The infrared thermography measurements of porous building materials have become more frequent in recent years. Many accompanying techniques for the thermal field generation have been developed, including one based on laser radiation. This work presents a simple optimization technique for estimation of the laser beam absorption for selected porous building materials, namely clinker brick and cement mortar. The transient temperature measurements were performed with the use of infrared camera during laser-induced heating-up of the samples' surfaces. As the results, the absorbed fractions of the incident laser beam together with its shape parameter are reported.

  17. Special Properties of Coherence Scanning Interferometers for large Measurement Volumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, W.

    2011-08-01

    In contrast to many other optical methods the uncertainty of Coherence Scanning Interferometer (CSI) in vertical direction is independent from the field of view. Therefore CSIs are ideal instruments for measuring 3D-profiles of larger areas (36×28mm2, e.g.) with high precision. This is of advantage for the determination of form parameters like flatness, parallelism and steps heights within a short time. In addition, using a telecentric beam path allows measurements of deep lying surfaces (automotive suppliers or from the steel industry.

  18. Measurements of top quark properties with the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Unverdorben, C

    2015-01-01

    A selection of recent top quark measurements performed with the ATLAS detector is presented here, with data taken in 2011 and 2012 at a centre-of-mass energy of 7 TeV and 8 TeV, respectively. The analyses cover the determination of the top pole mass by a cross-section measurement, the top/anti-top quark mass differences, the spin correlation and the charge asymmetry. No hints for physics beyond the Standard Model have been found but a great reduction of uncertainties compared to former results was achieved.

  19. Measurements of top quark properties with the ATLAS detector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Unverdorben Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A selection of recent top quark measurements performed with the ATLAS detector is presented here, with data taken in 2011 and 2012 at centre-of-mass energies of 7 TeV and 8 TeV, respectively. The analyses cover the determination of the top pole mass by a cross-section measurement, the top/anti-top quark mass difference, the spin correlation and the charge asymmetry. No hints for physics beyond the Standard Model have been found but a great reduction of uncertainties compared to former results was achieved.

  20. Dielectric properties measurement system at cryogenic temperatures and microwave frequencies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molla, J.; Ibarra, A.; Margineda, J.; Zamarro, J. M.; Hernandez, A.

    1994-07-01

    A system based on the resonant cavity method has been developed to measure the permittivity and loss tangent at 12-18 GHz over the temperature range 80 K to 300 K. Changes of permittivity as low as 0.01 % in the range 1 to 30, and 3 x 10{sup 6} for loss tangent values below 10{sup 2}, can be obtained without requiring temperature stability. The thermal expansion coefficient and resistivity factor of copper have been measured between 80 K and 300 K. Permittivity of sapphire and loss tangent of alumina of 99.9 % purity in the same temperature range are presented. (Author) 23 refs.

  1. Systematic Review of the Measurement Properties of Tools Used to Measure Behaviour Problems in Young Children with Autism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Hanratty

    Full Text Available Behaviour problems are common in young children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD. There are many different tools used to measure behavior problems but little is known about their validity for the population.To evaluate the measurement properties of behaviour problems tools used in evaluation of intervention or observational research studies with children with ASD up to the age of six years.Behaviour measurement tools were identified as part of a larger, two stage, systematic review. First, sixteen major electronic databases, as well as grey literature and research registers were searched, and tools used listed and categorized. Second, using methodological filters, we searched for articles examining the measurement properties of the tools in use with young children with ASD in ERIC, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, and PsycINFO. The quality of these papers was then evaluated using the COSMIN checklist.We identified twelve tools which had been used to measure behaviour problems in young children with ASD, and fifteen studies which investigated the measurement properties of six of these tools. There was no evidence available for the remaining six tools. Two questionnaires were found to be the most robust in their measurement properties, the Child Behavior Checklist and the Home Situations Questionnaire-Pervasive Developmental Disorders version.We found patchy evidence on reliability and validity, for only a few of the tools used to measure behaviour problems in young children with ASD. More systematic research is required on measurement properties of tools for use in this population, in particular to establish responsiveness to change which is essential in measurement of outcomes of intervention.CRD42012002223.

  2. Top properties measurements with the CMS detector at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Tsai, Jui-fa

    2016-01-01

    products and the results are used to set constrains on new physics. Measurements of the associate production of top quark pairs with vector bosons (W and Z) are also presented. The results are compared with standard model predictions. The CP violation, helicity of W boson and studies of flavor-changing neutral currents are included in this report.

  3. Top properties measurements with the CMS detector at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Tsai, Jui-fa

    2016-01-01

    products and the results are used to set constrains on new physics. Measurements of the associate production of top quark pairs with vector bosons (W and Z) are also presented. The results are compared with standard model predictions. The CP violation, helicity of W boson and studies of flavor-changing neutral currents are included in this report.

  4. Property Analysis and Suppression Method of Real Measured Sea Spikes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Yong

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In case of high-resolution, low grazing angle, high sea state, and horizontal transmitting, horizontal receiving polarization, the radar returns are strengthened, resulting in sea spikes. The sea spikes have the characteristics of high amplitudes, nonstationary, and non-Gaussian, which have a strong impact on the radar detection of weak marine moving targets. This study proposes a method for sea clutter suppression. Firstly, based on the sea spikes identification and selection method, the amplitude, temporal correlation, Doppler spectrum, and fractional power spectrum properties of sea spikes are analyzed. Secondly, the data to be detected are chosen by selecting the background clutter with minimum mean power, which can also eliminate the sea spikes. Correspondingly, sea clutter is suppressed with improved Signal-to-Clutter Ratio (SCR. Finally, the results of experiment with real radar data verify the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  5. Systematic content evaluation and review of measurement properties of questionnaires for measuring self-reported fatigue among older people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egerton, Thorlene; Riphagen, Ingrid I; Nygård, Arnhild J; Thingstad, Pernille; Helbostad, Jorunn L

    2015-09-01

    The assessment of fatigue in older people requires simple and user-friendly questionnaires that capture the phenomenon, yet are free from items indistinguishable from other disorders and experiences. This study aimed to evaluate the content, and systematically review and rate the measurement properties of self-report questionnaires for measuring fatigue, in order to identify the most suitable questionnaires for older people. This study firstly involved identification of questionnaires that purport to measure self-reported fatigue, and evaluation of the content using a rating scale developed for the purpose from contemporary understanding of the construct. Secondly, for the questionnaires that had acceptable content, we identified studies reporting measurement properties and rated the methodological quality of those studies according to the COSMIN system. Finally, we extracted and synthesised the results of the studies to give an overall rating for each questionnaire for each measurement property. The protocol was registered with PROSPERO (CRD42013005589). Of the 77 identified questionnaires, twelve were selected for review after content evaluation. Methodological quality varied, and there was a lack of information on measurement error and responsiveness. The PROMIS-Fatigue item bank and short forms perform the best. The FACIT-Fatigue scale, Parkinsons Fatigue Scale, Perform Questionnaire, and Uni-dimensional Fatigue Impact Scale also perform well and can be recommended. Minor modifications to improve performance are suggested. Further evaluation of unresolved measurement properties, particularly with samples including older people, is needed for all the recommended questionnaires.

  6. Measurement of Top Mass and Properties with the ATLAS Detector

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2013-01-01

    The extraordinary success of the LHC in delivering proton-proton collisions with large integrated luminosity allows the study of top-quark-enriched data samples with unprecedented statistics. This opens new possibilities for the assessment and further refinements of detector performance, and of data analysis tools. At the same time, different aspects of top-quark event modeling, as implemented in Monte Carlo simulations, can be tested and confronted with data with impressive precision. As an example, the description of the extra QCD radiation accompanying the top-anti-top system can be refined based on measurements. In this context, the experimental challenges and recent results on precision top-quark physics measurements within the ATLAS experiment are summarized and reviewed. In particular, the recent ATLAS top-quark mass result, obtained using a three dimensional template method, which allows the simultaneous determination of the top-quark mass together with a global jet energy scale factor (JSF), and a ...

  7. Properties of the Lambda(1405) Measured at CLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Moriya, Kei

    2011-01-01

    The nature of the Lambda(1405), and its place in the baryon spectrum has remained uncertain for decades. Theoretical studies have shown that it may possess strong dynamical components which are not seen in other well-known baryons. Using the CLAS detector system in Hall B at Jefferson Lab, we have measured the photoproduction reaction gamma+p->K+ Lambda(1405) with high statistics and over different Sigma pi decay channels. The reconstructed invariant mass distribution (lineshape) has been measured, as well as the differential cross sections for the Lambda(1405), Sigma(1385), and Lambda(1520). Our analysis method is discussed and our near-final results for the Lambda(1405) lineshape and differential cross section are presented.

  8. Hanford Sludge Simulant Selection for Soil Mechanics Property Measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wells, Beric E.; Russell, Renee L.; Mahoney, Lenna A.; Brown, Garrett N.; Rinehart, Donald E.; Buchmiller, William C.; Golovich, Elizabeth C.; Crum, Jarrod V.

    2010-03-23

    The current System Plan for the Hanford Tank Farms uses relaxed buoyant displacement gas release event (BDGRE) controls for deep sludge (i.e., high level waste [HLW]) tanks, which allows the tank farms to use more storage space, i.e., increase the sediment depth, in some of the double-shell tanks (DSTs). The relaxed BDGRE controls are based on preliminary analysis of a gas release model from van Kessel and van Kesteren. Application of the van Kessel and van Kesteren model requires parametric information for the sediment, including the lateral earth pressure at rest and shear modulus. No lateral earth pressure at rest and shear modulus in situ measurements for Hanford sludge are currently available. The two chemical sludge simulants will be used in follow-on work to experimentally measure the van Kessel and van Kesteren model parameters, lateral earth pressure at rest, and shear modulus.

  9. A non-destructive method to measure the thermal properties of frozen soils during phase transition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bin Zhang; Chanjuan Han; Xiong Bill Yu

    2015-01-01

    Frozen soils cover about 40%of the land surface on the earth and are responsible for the global energy balances affecting the climate. Measurement of the thermal properties of frozen soils during phase transition is important for analyzing the thermal transport process. Due to the involvement of phase transition, the thermal properties of frozen soils are rather complex. This paper introduces the uses of a multifunctional instrument that integrates time domain reflectometry (TDR) sensor and thermal pulse technology (TPT) to measure the thermal properties of soil during phase transition. With this method, the extent of phase transition (freezing/thawing) was measured with the TDR module; and the corre-sponding thermal properties were measured with the TPT module. Therefore, the variation of thermal properties with the extent of freezing/thawing can be obtained. Wet soils were used to demonstrate the performance of this measurement method. The performance of individual modules was first validated with designed experiments. The new sensor was then used to monitor the properties of soils during freezingethawing process, from which the freezing/thawing degree and thermal properties were simultaneously measured. The results are consistent with documented trends of thermal properties variations.

  10. A non-destructive method to measure the thermal properties of frozen soils during phase transition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Zhang

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Frozen soils cover about 40% of the land surface on the earth and are responsible for the global energy balances affecting the climate. Measurement of the thermal properties of frozen soils during phase transition is important for analyzing the thermal transport process. Due to the involvement of phase transition, the thermal properties of frozen soils are rather complex. This paper introduces the uses of a multifunctional instrument that integrates time domain reflectometry (TDR sensor and thermal pulse technology (TPT to measure the thermal properties of soil during phase transition. With this method, the extent of phase transition (freezing/thawing was measured with the TDR module; and the corresponding thermal properties were measured with the TPT module. Therefore, the variation of thermal properties with the extent of freezing/thawing can be obtained. Wet soils were used to demonstrate the performance of this measurement method. The performance of individual modules was first validated with designed experiments. The new sensor was then used to monitor the properties of soils during freezing–thawing process, from which the freezing/thawing degree and thermal properties were simultaneously measured. The results are consistent with documented trends of thermal properties variations.

  11. Special Properties of Coherence Scanning Interferometers for large Measurement Volumes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, W, E-mail: W.bauer@polytec.de [Polytec GmbH, Polytec Platz 1-7, 76337 Waldbronn (Germany)

    2011-08-19

    In contrast to many other optical methods the uncertainty of Coherence Scanning Interferometer (CSI) in vertical direction is independent from the field of view. Therefore CSIs are ideal instruments for measuring 3D-profiles of larger areas (36x28mm{sup 2}, e.g.) with high precision. This is of advantage for the determination of form parameters like flatness, parallelism and steps heights within a short time. In addition, using a telecentric beam path allows measurements of deep lying surfaces (<70mm) and the determination of form parameters with large step-heights. The lateral and spatial resolution, however, are reduced. In this presentation different metrological characteristics together with their potential errors are analyzed for large-scale measuring CSIs. Therefore these instruments are ideal tools in quality control for good/bad selections, e.g. The consequences for the practical use in industry and for standardization are discussed by examples of workpieces of automotive suppliers or from the steel industry.

  12. Composition and property measurements for PHA Phase 4 glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, T.B.

    2000-01-25

    The results presented in this report are for nine Precipitate Hydrolysis Aqueous (PHA) Phase 4 glasses. Three of the glasses contained HM sludge at 22, 26, and 30 wt% respectively, 10 wt% PHA and 1.25 wt% monosodium titanate (MST), all on an oxide basis. The remaining six glasses were selected from the Phase 1 and Phase 2 studies (Purex sludge) but with an increased amount of MST. The high-end target for MST of 2.5 wt% oxide was missed in Phases 1 and 2 due to {approximately}30 wt% water content of the MST. A goal of this Phase 4 study was to determine whether this increase in titanium concentration from the MST had any impact on glass quality or processibility. Two of the glasses, pha14c and pha15c, were rebatched and melted due to apparent batching errors with pha14 and pha15. The models currently in the Defense Waste Processing Facility's (DWPF) Product Composition Control System (PCCS) were used to predict durability, homogeneity, liquidus, and viscosity for these nine glasses. All of the HM glasses and half of the Purex glasses were predicted to be phase separated, and consequently prediction of glass durability is precluded with the cument models for those glasses that failed the homogeneity constraint. If one may ignore the homogeneity constraint, the measured durabilities were within the 95% prediction limits of the model. Further efforts will be required to resolve this issue on phase separation (inhomogeneity). The liquidus model predicted unacceptable liquidus temperatures for four of the nine glasses. The approximate, bounding liquidus temperatures measured for all had upper limits of 1,000 C or less. Given the fact that liquidus temperatures were only approximated, the 30 wt% loading of Purex may be near or at the edge of acceptability for liquidus. The measured viscosities were close to the predictions of the model. For the Purex glasses, pha12c and pha15c, the measured viscosities of 28 and 23 poise, respectively, indicate that DWPF processing

  13. Top loading cryogen-free apparatus for low temperature thermophysical properties measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huiming; Gong, Linghui; Xu, Dong; Huang, Chuanjun; Zhang, Meimei; Xu, Peng; Li, Laifeng

    2014-07-01

    The thermophysical properties of matter, especially properties at low temperature, are extremely important for engineering and materials science. Traditional liquid helium based cryostats are in many cases no longer affordable to operate due to the high liquid helium cost. This paper describes the design and test results of a cryogen-free cryostat, based on a GM cryocooler, with 50 mm diameter top loading sample facilities for thermophysical properties measurement at low temperature. The sample temperature range is tuned between 2.6 K and 300 K and it can be continuously controlled with a high resolution. Moreover, the modular sample holder can be adapted to multiple properties measurement.

  14. Fracture Toughness Properties of Three Different Biomaterials Measured by Nanoindentation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ji-yu Sun; Jin Tong

    2007-01-01

    The fracture toughness of hard biomaterials,such as nacre,bovine hoof wall and beetle cuticle,is associated with fibrous or lamellar structures that deflect or stop growing cracks.Their hardness and reduced modulus were measured by using a nanoindenter in this paper.Micro/nanoscale cracks were generated by nanoindentation using a Berkovich tip.Nanoindentation of nacre and bovine hoof wall resulted in pile-up around the indent.It was found that the fracture toughness(Kc)of bovine hoof wall is the maximum,the second is nacre,and the elytra cuticle of dung beetle is the least one.

  15. Laboratory measurements of the optical properties of sea salt aerosol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Irshad

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The extinction spectra of laboratory generated sea salt aerosols have been measured from 1 μm to 20 μm using a Bruker 66v/S FTIR spectrometer. Concomitant measurements include temperature, pressure, relative humidity and the aerosol size distribution. The refractive indices of the sea salt aerosol have been determined using a simple harmonic oscillator band model (Thomas et al., 2004 for aerosol with relative humidities at eight different values between 0.4% to 86%. The resulting refractive index spectra show significant discrepancies when compared to existing sea salt refractive indices calculated using volume mixing rules (Shettle and Fenn, 1979. Specifically, an additional band is found in the refractive indices of dry sea salt aerosol and the new data shows increased values of refractive index at almost all wavelengths. This implies that the volume mixing rules, currently used to calculate the refractive indices of wet sea salt aerosols, are inadequate. Furthermore, the existing data for the real and imaginary parts of the refractive indices of dry sea salt aerosol are found not to display the Kramers-Kronig relationship. This implies that the original data used for the volume mixing calculations is also inaccurate.

  16. Measurement of aerosol optical properties by cw cavity enhanced spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jie, Guo; Ye, Shan-Shan; Yang, Xiao; Han, Ye-Xing; Tang, Huai-Wu; Yu, Zhi-Wei

    2016-10-01

    The CAPS (Cavity Attenuated Phase shift Spectroscopy) system, which detects the extinction coefficients within a 10 nm bandpass centered at 532 nm, comprises a green LED with center wavelength in 532nm, a resonant optical cavity (36 cm length), a Photo Multiplier Tube detector, and a lock in amplifier. The square wave modulated light from the LED passes through the optical cavity and is detected as a distorted waveform which is characterized by a phase shift with respect to the initial modulation. Extinction coefficients are determined from changes in the phase shift of the distorted waveform of the square wave modulated LED light that is transmitted through the optical cavity. The performance of the CAPS system was evaluated by using measurements of the stability and response of the system. The minima ( 0.1 Mm-1) in the Allan plots show the optimum average time ( 100s) for optimum detection performance of the CAPS system. In the paper, it illustrates that extinction coefficient was correlated with PM2.5 mass (0.91). These figures indicate that this method has the potential to become one of the most sensitive on-line analytical techniques for extinction coefficient detection. This work aims to provide an initial validation of the CAPS extinction monitor in laboratory and field environments. Our initial results presented in this paper show that the CAPS extinction monitor is capable of providing state-of-the-art performance while dramatically reducing the complexity of optical instrumentation for directly measuring the extinction coefficients.

  17. Measurements of underlying-event properties with the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00220498; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    A correct modelling of the underlying event in proton-proton collisions is important for the proper simulation of kinematic distributions of high-energy collisions. The ATLAS collaboration extended previous studies at 7~TeV with a leading track or jet or Z boson by a new study of Drell-Yan events in 1.1 /fb of data collected at a center-of-mass energy of 7~TeV. In this new study the distributions of several topological event-shape variables based on charged particles are measured, both integrated and differential in the transverse momentum of the Drell-Yan lepton pair. These measurements are sensitive to the underlying-event as well as the onset of hard emissions. The results have been compared with the predictions of several state-of-the-art MC generators. The collaboration has also performed a first study of the number and transverse-momentum sum of charged particles as a function of pseudorapidity and azimuthal angle in a special data set taken with low beam currents at a center-of-mass energy of 13~TeV. T...

  18. Experimental investigation and performance analysis of inertia properties measurement for heavy truck cab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianjun Zhu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available An experimental investigation and performance analysis of inertia properties measurement for heavy truck cab is presented. This method is specifically intended for measuring the inertia properties of irregular rigid bodies, and it has the potential to be applied to the measurement of the inertia properties of vehicle bodies, such as the cab, engine, and gearbox. This article, based on CATARC moment of inertia measurement system test rig, develops an accurate measuring method to identify inertia parameters of heavy truck cab. First, corresponding tests are carried out, and the lever principle and moments of inertia parallel theorem are employed to calculate and analyse the test results, which leads to the accurate value of inertia parameters. Second, the performance analysis of the proposed method is verified through the measurement error analysis. As a result, the proposed method shows high accuracy, which provides an experimental basis for accurate inertia parameter measurement of heavy truck cab.

  19. Measurement of imaging properties of scintillating fiber optic plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zentai, George; Ganguly, Arundhuti; Star-Lack, Josh; Virshup, Gary; Hirsh, Hayley; Shedlock, Daniel; Humber, David

    2014-03-01

    Scintillating Fiber Optic Plates (SFOP) or Fiber Optic Scintillator (FOS) made with scintillating fiber-glass, were investigated for x-ray imaging. Two different samples (T x W x L = 2cm x 5cm x 5cm) were used; Sample A: 10μm fibers, Sample B: 50μm fibers both with statistically randomized light absorbing fibers placed in the matrix. A customized holder was used to place the samples in close contact with photodiodes in an amorphous silicon flat panel detector (AS1000, Varian), typically used for portal imaging. The detector has a 392μm pixel pitch and in the standard configuration uses a gadolinium oxy-sulphide (GOS) screen behind a copper plate. X-ray measurements were performed at 120kV (RQA 9 spectrum), 1MeV (5mm Al filtration) and 6MeV (Flattening Filter Free) for Sample A and the latter 2 spectra for Sample B. A machined edge was used for MTF measurements. The measurements showed the MTF degraded with increased X-ray energies because of the increase in Compton scattering. However, at the Nyquist frequency of 1.3lp/mm, the MTF is still high (FOS value vs. Cu+GOS): (a) 37% and 21% at 120kVp for the 10μm FOS and the Cu+GOS arrays, (b) 31%, 20% and 20% at 1MeV and (c) 17%, 11% and 14% at 6MeV for the 10μm FOS, 50μm FOS and the Cu+GOS arrays. The DQE(0) value comparison were (a) at 120kV ~24% and ~13 % for the 10μm FOS and the Cu+GOS arrays (b) at 1MV 10%, 10% and 7% and (c) at 6MV 12%, ~19% and 1.6% for the 10μm FOS , 50μm FOS and Cu+GOS arrays.

  20. Qualitative attributes and measurement properties of physical activity questionnaires: a checklist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terwee, Caroline B; Mokkink, Lidwine B; van Poppel, Mireille N M; Chinapaw, Mai J M; van Mechelen, Willem; de Vet, Henrica C W

    2010-07-01

    The large number of available physical activity (PA) questionnaires makes it difficult to select the most appropriate questionnaire for a certain purpose. This choice is further hampered by incomplete reporting and unsatisfactory evaluation of the content and measurement properties of the questionnaires. We provide a checklist for appraising the qualitative attributes and measurement properties of PA questionnaires, as a tool for selecting the most appropriate PA questionnaire for a certain target population and purpose. The checklist is called the Quality Assessment of Physical Activity Questionnaire (QAPAQ). This review is one of a group of four reviews in this issue of Sports Medicine on the content and measurement properties of physical activity questionnaires. Part 1 of the checklist can be used to appraise the qualitative attributes of PA questionnaires, i.e. the construct to be measured by the questionnaire, the purpose and target population for which it was developed, the format, interpretability and ease of use. Part 2 of the checklist can be used to appraise the measurement properties of a PA questionnaire, i.e. reliability (parameters of measurement error and reliability coefficients), validity (face and content validity, criterion validity and construct validity) and responsiveness. The QAPAQ can be used to select the most appropriate PA questionnaire for a certain purpose, but it can also be used to design or report a study on measurement properties of PA questionnaires. Using such a checklist will contribute to improving the assessment, reporting and appraisal of the content and measurement properties of PA questionnaires.

  1. Measurement properties of questionnaires assessing participation in children and adolescents with a disability: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rainey, Linda; van Nispen, Ruth; van der Zee, Carlijn; van Rens, Ger

    2014-12-01

    To critically appraise the measurement properties of questionnaires measuring participation in children and adolescents (0-18 years) with a disability. Bibliographic databases were searched for studies evaluating the measurement properties of self-report or parent-report questionnaires measuring participation in children and adolescents (0-18 years) with a disability. The methodological quality of the included studies and the results of the measurement properties were evaluated using a checklist developed on consensus-based standards. The search strategy identified 3,977 unique publications, of which 22 were selected; these articles evaluated the development and measurement properties of eight different questionnaires. The Child and Adolescent Scale of Participation was evaluated most extensively, generally showing moderate positive results on content validity, internal consistency, reliability and construct validity. The remaining questionnaires also demonstrated positive results. However, at least 50 % of the measurement properties per questionnaire were not (or only poorly) assessed. Studies of high methodological quality, using modern statistical methods, are needed to accurately assess the measurement properties of currently available questionnaires. Moreover, consensus is required on the definition of the construct 'participation' to determine content validity and to enable meaningful interpretation of outcomes.

  2. Changes in sport and physical activity behavior after participation in easily accessible sporting programs.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ooms, L.; Veenhof, C.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The Dutch government stimulates sport and physical activity opportunities in the neighborhood to make it easier for people to adopt a physically active lifestyle. Seven National Sports Federations (NSFs) were funded to develop easily accessible sporting programs, targeted at groups

  3. Magnetic properties of cobalt microwires measured by piezoresistive cantilever magnetometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tosolini G.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available We present the magnetic characterization of cobalt wires grown by focused electron beam-induced deposition (FEBID and studied using static piezoresistive cantilever magnetometry. We have used previously developed high force sensitive submicron-thick silicon piezoresistive cantilevers. High quality polycrystalline cobalt microwires have been grown by FEBID onto the free end of the cantilevers using dual beam equipment. In the presence of an external magnetic field, the magnetic cobalt wires become magnetized, which leads to the magnetic field dependent static deflection of the cantilevers. We show that the piezoresistive signal from the cantilevers, corresponding to a maximum force of about 1 nN, can be measured as a function of the applied magnetic field with a good signal to noise ratio at room temperature. The results highlight the flexibility of the FEBID technique for the growth of magnetic structures on specific substrates, in this case piezoresistive cantilevers.

  4. Measurement of jet properties with the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00034698; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The average charge and the multiplicity of charged hadrons within a jet provide new insights into the modeling of strong interactions. The jet charge can also be used to tag hadronically decaying gauge bosons and the number of charged particles within a jet provides a powerful means to distinguish gluon-initiated from quark-initiated jets. The ATLAS collaboration has used a selection of di-jet events in 20.3 fb-1 of data collected at a center-of-mass energy of 8 TeV to measure the average charged-particle multiplicity and the transverse-momentum weighted average charge of the hadrons within the jets, separately for the more central and the more forward jet and as a function of the jet transverse momentum. The results have been compared with calculations at NLO in pQCD and with predictions of MC generators interfaced with various parton distribution functions and underlying-event tunes.

  5. High statistics measurement of Ke4 decay properties

    CERN Document Server

    Pislak, S; Atoyan, G S; Bassalleck, B; Bergman, D R; Cheung, N; Dhawan, S; Do, H; Egger, J; Eilerts, S W; Fischer, H; Herold, W D; Issakov, V V; Kaspar, H; Kraus, D E; Lazarus, D M; Lichard, P; Lowe, J; Lozano-Bahilo, J; Ma, H; Majid, W A; Poblaguev, A A; Rehak, P; Sher, A E; Thompson, J A; Truöl, P; Zeller, M E; Sher, Aleksey

    2003-01-01

    We report experimental details and results of a new measurement of the decay K+ -> pi+pi-e+nue (Ke4}. A sample of more than 400,000 Ke4 events with low background has been collected by Experiment 865 at the Brookhaven Alternate Gradient Synchrotron. From these data, the branching ratio (4.11+-0.01+-0.11)*10**(-5) and the pi-pi invariant mass dependence of the form factors F, G, and H of the weak hadronic current as well as the phase shift difference delta00-delta11 for pi-pi-scattering were extracted. Using constraints based on analyticity and chiral symmetry, a new value with considerably improved accuracy for the s-wave pi-pi-scattering length a00 has been obtained also: a00=0.216+-0.013 (stat.)+-0.002(syst.)+-0.002(theor.).

  6. A systematic review evaluating the psychometric properties of measures of social inclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordier, Reinie; Milbourn, Ben; Martin, Robyn; Buchanan, Angus; Chung, Donna; Speyer, Renée

    2017-01-01

    Improving social inclusion opportunities for population health has been identified as a priority area for international policy. There is a need to comprehensively examine and evaluate the quality of psychometric properties of measures of social inclusion that are used to guide social policy and outcomes. To conduct a systematic review of the literature on all current measures of social inclusion for any population group, to evaluate the quality of the psychometric properties of identified measures, and to evaluate if they capture the construct of social inclusion. A systematic search was performed using five electronic databases: CINAHL, PsycINFO, Embase, ERIC and Pubmed and grey literature were sourced to identify measures of social inclusion. The psychometric properties of the social inclusion measures were evaluated against the COSMIN taxonomy of measurement properties using pre-set psychometric criteria. Of the 109 measures identified, twenty-five measures, involving twenty-five studies and one manual met the inclusion criteria. The overall quality of the reviewed measures was variable, with the Social and Community Opportunities Profile-Short, Social Connectedness Scale and the Social Inclusion Scale demonstrating the strongest evidence for sound psychometric quality. The most common domain included in the measures was connectedness (21), followed by participation (19); the domain of citizenship was covered by the least number of measures (10). No single instrument measured all aspects within the three domains of social inclusion. Of the measures with sound psychometric evidence, the Social and Community Opportunities Profile-Short captured the construct of social inclusion best. The overall quality of the psychometric properties demonstrate that the current suite of available instruments for the measurement of social inclusion are promising but need further refinement. There is a need for a universal working definition of social inclusion as an overarching

  7. A systematic review evaluating the psychometric properties of measures of social inclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milbourn, Ben; Martin, Robyn; Buchanan, Angus; Chung, Donna; Speyer, Renée

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Improving social inclusion opportunities for population health has been identified as a priority area for international policy. There is a need to comprehensively examine and evaluate the quality of psychometric properties of measures of social inclusion that are used to guide social policy and outcomes. Objective To conduct a systematic review of the literature on all current measures of social inclusion for any population group, to evaluate the quality of the psychometric properties of identified measures, and to evaluate if they capture the construct of social inclusion. Methods A systematic search was performed using five electronic databases: CINAHL, PsycINFO, Embase, ERIC and Pubmed and grey literature were sourced to identify measures of social inclusion. The psychometric properties of the social inclusion measures were evaluated against the COSMIN taxonomy of measurement properties using pre-set psychometric criteria. Results Of the 109 measures identified, twenty-five measures, involving twenty-five studies and one manual met the inclusion criteria. The overall quality of the reviewed measures was variable, with the Social and Community Opportunities Profile-Short, Social Connectedness Scale and the Social Inclusion Scale demonstrating the strongest evidence for sound psychometric quality. The most common domain included in the measures was connectedness (21), followed by participation (19); the domain of citizenship was covered by the least number of measures (10). No single instrument measured all aspects within the three domains of social inclusion. Of the measures with sound psychometric evidence, the Social and Community Opportunities Profile-Short captured the construct of social inclusion best. Conclusions The overall quality of the psychometric properties demonstrate that the current suite of available instruments for the measurement of social inclusion are promising but need further refinement. There is a need for a universal working

  8. LIDAR Measurements of the Vertical Distribution of Aerosol Optical and Physical Properties over Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    The vertical structure of aerosol optical and physical properties was measured by Lidar in Eastern Kyrgyzstan, Central Asia, from June 2008 to May 2009. Lidar measurements were supplemented with surface-based measurements of PM2.5 and PM10 mass and chemical ...

  9. LIDAR Measurements of the Vertical Distribution of Aerosol Optical and Physical Properties over Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    The vertical structure of aerosol optical and physical properties was measured by Lidar in Eastern Kyrgyzstan, Central Asia, from June 2008 to May 2009. Lidar measurements were supplemented with surface-based measurements of PM2.5 and PM10 mass and chemical ...

  10. Augmentation of the In Vivo Elastic Properties Measurement System to Include Bulk Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    vivo shear and bulk properties of cetacean soft tissues, including jaw fats and brain. The ultimate goal is to field a prototype system for...pattern. A second ultrasonic transducer monitors the tissue displacement along the ultrasound beam axis, and supports an enhanced embodiment of an...Figure 1. CFE concept. Color contour plots illustrate soft tissue displacements parallel to the transducer beam axes. (A) The annular force generation

  11. Measuring of Electrical Properties of MWNT-Reinforced PAN Nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sliman Almuhamed

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Nano-web sheets of polyacrylonitrile (PAN reinforced by carbon nanotubes (CNT were prepared by electrospinning process. Multi wall nanotubes (MWNT were dispersed mechanically by high shear mixing using a homogenizer device. It has been found that the spinning solution presented an electrical percolation threshold less than 0.5 wt.% of MWNT. Electrical volume and surface conductivity of the obtained nano-webs was studied by measuring the electrical volume resistance and surface resistance thanks to home-made plate electrodes. Scanning electron microscope (SEM has been used to characterize the nano-web sheets produced. The average filament diameters range from 320 to 750 nm depending on the concentration of CNT and of PAN. From an electrical point of view, it has been observed that the electrical volume conductivity increases by about six orders of magnitude from 2×10−12 S/m for pristine PAN to 4×10−6 S/m for PAN charged by MWNT. Increasing the pressure on the specimen induces an exponential decrease of the volume resistivity while surface resistivity shows no significant changes, neither between pristine PAN and reinforced nano-webs, nor among reinforced nano-web in relation to MWNT concentration (in the limit of the study. This observed behavior is very interesting in the context of sensor developments.

  12. The Health Utilities Index (HUI®: concepts, measurement properties and applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horsman John

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This is a review of the Health Utilities Index (HUI® multi-attribute health-status classification systems, and single- and multi-attribute utility scoring systems. HUI refers to both HUI Mark 2 (HUI2 and HUI Mark 3 (HUI3 instruments. The classification systems provide compact but comprehensive frameworks within which to describe health status. The multi-attribute utility functions provide all the information required to calculate single-summary scores of health-related quality of life (HRQL for each health state defined by the classification systems. The use of HUI in clinical studies for a wide variety of conditions in a large number of countries is illustrated. HUI provides comprehensive, reliable, responsive and valid measures of health status and HRQL for subjects in clinical studies. Utility scores of overall HRQL for patients are also used in cost-utility and cost-effectiveness analyses. Population norm data are available from numerous large general population surveys. The widespread use of HUI facilitates the interpretation of results and permits comparisons of disease and treatment outcomes, and comparisons of long-term sequelae at the local, national and international levels.

  13. Prediction of Wine Sensorial Quality by Routinely Measured Chemical Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bednárová Adriána

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The determination of the sensorial quality of wines is of great interest for wine consumers and producers since it declares the quality in most of the cases. The sensorial assays carried out by a group of experts are time-consuming and expensive especially when dealing with large batches of wines. Therefore, an attempt was made to assess the possibility of estimating the wine sensorial quality with using routinely measured chemical descriptors as predictors. For this purpose, 131 Slovenian red wine samples of different varieties and years of production were analysed and correlation and principal component analysis were applied to find inter-relations between the studied oenological descriptors. The method of artificial neural networks (ANNs was utilised as the prediction tool for estimating overall sensorial quality of red wines. Each model was rigorously validated and sensitivity analysis was applied as a method for selecting the most important predictors. Consequently, acceptable results were obtained, when data representing only one year of production were included in the analysis. In this case, the coefficient of determination (R2 associated with training data was 0.95 and that for validation data was 0.90. When estimating sensorial quality in categorical form, 94 % and 85 % of correctly classified samples were achieved for training and validation subset, respectively.

  14. Measurement properties of painDETECT by average pain severity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cappelleri JC

    2014-11-01

    -wise comparisons of scores between pain-severity groups showed sizable and statistically significant differences (P<0.0001. Cumulative distribution functions showed distinct separation between severity (P<0.0001. Cronbach's alphas were 0.76 and 0.80 for the nine- and seven-item scales, respectively. Conclusion: This study provides strong psychometric evidence on the validity and reliability of painDETECT for distinguishing average pain severity in patients with NeP. Keywords: neuropathic pain, painDETECT, pain severity, psychometric properties

  15. Systematic review of the psychometric properties of balance measures for cerebellar ataxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winser, Stanley J; Smith, Catherine M; Hale, Leigh A; Claydon, Leica S; Whitney, Susan L; Mehta, Poonam

    2015-01-01

    To review systematically the psychometric properties of balance measures for use in people with cerebellar ataxia. Medline, AMED, CINAHL, Web of Science and EMBASE were searched between 1946 and April 2014. Two reviewers independently searched data sources. Cerebellar-specific and generic measures of balance were considered. Included studies tested psychometric properties of balance measures in people with cerebellar ataxia of any cause. Quality of reported studies was rated using the Consensus Based Standards for the selection of health status Measurement INstruments (COSMIN) checklist. Twenty-one articles across which 16 measures had been tested were included for review. Using the COSMIN, quality of methodology in studies investigating psychometric properties of generic balance measures (n=10) was rated predominantly as 'poor'. Furthermore, responsiveness has not been tested for any generic measures in this population. The quality of studies investigating psychometric properties of balance sub-components of the cerebellar-specific measures (n=6) ranged from 'poor' to 'excellent'; however, Minimally Clinically Important Difference has not been determined for these cerebellar-specific measures. The Posture and Gait (PG) sub-component of the International Cooperative Ataxia Rating Scale (ICARS) demonstrates the most robust psychometric properties with acceptable clinical utility. © The Author(s) 2014.

  16. Exact Pointer Properties for Quantum System Projector Measurements with Application to Weak Measurements and Their Accuracy

    CERN Document Server

    Parks, A D

    2010-01-01

    Exact pointer states are obtained for projection operator measurements performed upon pre-selected (PS) and upon pre- and post-selected (PPS) quantum systems. These states are used to provide simple exact expressions for both the pointer spatial probability distribution profiles and the mean values of arbitrary pointer observables associated with PS and PPS projection operator measurements that are valid for any strength of the interaction which couples a measurement pointer to the quantum system. These profiles and mean values are compared in order to identify the effects of post-selection upon projector measurement pointers. As a special case, these mean value results are applied to the weak measurement regime - yielding PS and PPS mean value expressions which are valid for any operator (projector or non-projector). Measurement sensitivities which are useful for estimating weak measurement accuracies for PS and PPS systems are also obtained and discussed.

  17. Measurement of Thermal Dependencies of PBG Fiber Properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laouar, Rachik

    2011-07-06

    Photonic crystal fibers (PCFs) represent a class of optical fibers which have a wide spectrum of applications in the telecom and sensing industries. Currently, the Advanced Accelerator Research Department at SLAC is developing photonic bandgap particle accelerators, which are photonic crystal structures with a central defect used to accelerate electrons and achieve high longitudinal electric fields. Extremely compact and less costly than the traditional accelerators, these structures can support higher accelerating gradients and will open a new era in high energy physics as well as other fields of science. Based on direct laser acceleration in dielectric materials, the so called photonic band gap accelerators will benefit from mature laser and semiconductor industries. One of the key elements to direct laser acceleration in hollow core PCFs, is maintaining thermal and structural stability. Previous simulations demonstrate that accelerating modes are sensitive to the geometry of the defect region and the variations in the effective index. Unlike the telecom modes (for which over 95% of the energy propagates in the hollow core) most of the power of these modes is located in the glass at the periphery of the central hole which has a higher thermal constant than air ({gamma}{sub SiO{sub 2}} = 1.19 x 10{sup -6} 1/K, {gamma}{sub air} = -9 x 10{sup -7} 1/K with {gamma} = dn/dT). To fully control laser driven acceleration, we need to evaluate the thermal and structural consequences of such modes on the PCFs. We are conducting series of interferometric tests to quantify the dependencies of the HC-633-02 (NKT Photonics) propagation constant (k{sub z}) on temperature, vibration amplitude, stress and electric field strength. In this paper we will present the theoretical principles characterizing the thermal behavior of a PCF, the measurements realized for the fundamental telecom mode (TE{sub 00}), and the experimental demonstration of TM-like mode propagation in the HC-633

  18. Measuring Static and Dynamic Properties of Frozen Silty Soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furnish, M.D.

    1998-09-30

    A mechanical characterization of frozen silty soils has been conducted to support computer modeling of penetrators. The soils were obtained from the Eilson AFB (Alaska) vicinity. Quasi-static testing with a multiaxial system in a cold room and intermediate strain rate testing with a split Hopkinson pressure bar were conducted. Maximum stresses achieved were slightly above 1 GPa, apparently limiting the observed behavior primarily to elastic compression and pore crushing phenomena. Lower temperatures seem to increase the strength of the material markedly, although not by a simple factor. Lower temperatures and higher strain rates increase the apparent Young's and bulk moduli as well (an increase of {approximately} a factor of two is observed for strain rate increasing from 0.001 s{sup {minus}1} to 800 s{sup {minus}1}). The strength also depends strongly on strain rate. Increasing the strain rate from 0.001 {sup {minus}1} to 0.07 {sup {minus}1} increases the strength by a factor of five to ten (to values of order 1 GPa). However,only a small increase in strength is seen as strain rate is increased to {approximately} 10{sup 2}--10{sup 3} s{sup {minus}1}. The reliability of the strength measurements at strain rates< 1 s{sup {minus}1} is decreased due to details of the experimental geometry, although general trends are observable. A recipe is provided for a simulant soil based on bentonite, sand, clay-rich soil and water to fit the {approximately} 6% air-filled porosity, density and water content of the Alaska soils, based on benchtop mixing and jacketed compression testing of candidate mixes.

  19. Integrating sphere-based setup as an accurate system for optical properties measurements

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Abdalmonem, S

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Determination of the optical properties of solid and liquid samples has great importance. Since the integrating sphere-based setup is used to measure the amount of reflected and transmitted light by the examined samples, optical properties could...

  20. Measurement system of alternating magnetic properties under DC-biased field

    CERN Document Server

    Enokizono, M

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents magnetic properties under DC-biased magnetization of a grain-oriented silicon steel sheet 30Z. We have practised the measurement of DC-biased flux density by using flux meter directly. The DC-biased magnetic properties have been made clear in this experimental approach.

  1. Properties of the Measurement Phase Operator in Dual-Mode Entangle Coherent States

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HOU Shen-Yong; YANG Kuo

    2011-01-01

    @@ A class of measurement phase operators of dual-mode is defined and their properties in a class of entangle coherent states are investigated.Numerical results indicate that the entangle coherent states display some non-classical squeezed effects.%A class of measurement phase operators of dual-mode is defined and their properties in a class of entangle coherent states are investigated. Numerical results indicate that the entangle coherent states display some non-classical squeezed effects.

  2. An apparatus for measuring mechanical properties of microstructures in tensile mode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU; Hao; MENG; Yonggang; SU; Caijun; WEN; Shizhu

    2004-01-01

    An apparatus for measuring mechanical properties of microstructures in tensile mode is described. The apparatus consists of 4 functional parts: piezoelectric actuator, capacitive displacement sensor, specimen gripping mechanism and optical microscope. The configurations and specifications of these parts are elucidated in detail.Specimens used for the tensile mechanical testing are fabricated with the photolithography process. By using this apparatus, the fatigue property of polysilicon films has been measured successfully.

  3. Super quantum measures on effect algebras with the Riesz decomposition properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, Yongjian, E-mail: yjxie@snnu.edu.cn; Ren, Fang [College of Mathematics and Information Science, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi’an 710062 (China); Yang, Aili [College of Science, Xi’an University of Science and Technology, Xi’an 710054 (China)

    2015-10-15

    We give one basis of the space of super quantum measures on finite effect algebras with the Riesz decomposition properties (RDP for short). Then we prove that the super quantum measures and quantum interference functions on finite effect algebras with the RDP are determined each other. At last, we investigate the relationships between the super quantum measures and the diagonally positive signed measures on finite effect algebras with the RDP in detail.

  4. Measurement of electromagnetic properties of powder and solid metal materials for additive manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todorov, Evgueni Iordanov

    2017-04-01

    The lack of validated nondestructive evaluation (NDE) techniques for examination during and after additive manufacturing (AM) component fabrication is one of the obstacles in the way of broadening use of AM for critical applications. Knowledge of electromagnetic properties of powder (e.g. feedstock) and solid AM metal components is necessary to evaluate and deploy electromagnetic NDE modalities for examination of AM components. The objective of this research study was to develop and implement techniques for measurement of powder and solid metal electromagnetic properties. Three materials were selected - Inconel 625, duplex stainless steel 2205, and carbon steel 4140. The powder properties were measured with alternate current (AC) model based eddy current technique and direct current (DC) resistivity measurements. The solid metal properties were measured with DC resistivity measurements, DC magnetic techniques, and AC model based eddy current technique. Initial magnetic permeability and electrical conductivity were acquired for both powder and solid metal. Additional magnetic properties such as maximum permeability, coercivity, retentivity, and others were acquired for 2205 and 4140. Two groups of specimens were tested along the build length and width respectively to investigate for possible anisotropy. There was no significant difference or anisotropy when comparing measurements acquired along build length to those along the width. A trend in AC measurements might be associated with build geometry. Powder electrical conductivity was very low and difficult to estimate reliably with techniques used in the study. The agreement between various techniques was very good where adequate comparison was possible.

  5. Measurement properties of translated versions of neck-specific questionnaires: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Vet Henrica C

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several disease-specific questionnaires to measure pain and disability in patients with neck pain have been translated. However, a simple translation of the original version doesn't guarantee similar measurement properties. The objective of this study is to critically appraise the quality of the translation process, cross-cultural validation and the measurement properties of translated versions of neck-specific questionnaires. Methods Bibliographic databases were searched for articles concerning the translation or evaluation of the measurement properties of a translated version of a neck-specific questionnaire. The methodological quality of the selected studies and the results of the measurement properties were critically appraised and rated using the COSMIN checklist and criteria for measurement properties. Results The search strategy resulted in a total of 3641 unique hits, of which 27 articles, evaluating 6 different questionnaires in 15 different languages, were included in this study. Generally the methodological quality of the translation process is poor and none of the included studies performed a cross-cultural adaptation. A substantial amount of information regarding the measurement properties of translated versions of the different neck-specific questionnaires is lacking. Moreover, the evidence for the quality of measurement properties of the translated versions is mostly limited or assessed in studies of poor methodological quality. Conclusions Until results from high quality studies are available, we advise to use the Catalan, Dutch, English, Iranian, Korean, Spanish and Turkish version of the NDI, the Chinese version of the NPQ, and the Finnish, German and Italian version of the NPDS. The Greek NDI needs cross-cultural validation and there is no methodologically sound information for the Swedish NDI. For all other languages we advise to translate the original version of the NDI.

  6. Controlling software development of CW terahertz target scattering properties measurements based on LabVIEW

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Chang-Kun; Li, Qi; Zhou, Yi; Zhao, Yong-Peng; Chen, De-Ying

    2016-10-01

    With the development of terahertz technology and increasing studies on terahertz target scattering properties, research on terahertz target scattering properties measurements attracts more and more attention. In this paper, to solve problems in the detection process, we design a controlling software for Continuous-Wave (CW) terahertz target scattering properties measurements. The software is designed and programmed based on LabVIEW. The software controls the whole system, involving the switch between the target and the calibration target, the rotation of target, collection, display and storage of the initial data and display, storage of the data after the calibration process. The experimental results show that the software can accomplish the expected requirement, enhance the speed of scattering properties measurements and reduce operation errors.

  7. Synthesis, Characterization, to application of water soluble and easily removable cationic pressure sensitive adhesives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Institute of Paper Science Technology

    2004-01-30

    In recent years, the world has expressed an increasing interest in the recycling of waste paper to supplement the use of virgin fiber as a way to protect the environment. Statistics show that major countries are increasing their use of recycled paper. For example, in 1991 to 1996, the U.S. increased its recovered paper utilization rate from 31% to 39%, Germany went from 50% to 60%, the UK went from 60% to 70%, France increased from 46% to 49%, and China went from 32% to 35% [1]. As recycled fiber levels and water system closures both increase, recycled product quality will need to improve in order for recycled products to compete with products made from virgin fiber [2]. The use of recycled fiber has introduced an increasing level of metal, plastic, and adhesive contamination into the papermaking process which has added to the complexity of the already overwhelming task of providing a uniform and clean recycle furnish. The most harmful of these contaminates is a mixture of adhesives and polymeric substances that are commonly known as stickies. Stickies, which enter the mill with the pulp furnish, are not easily removed from the repulper and become more difficult the further down the system they get. This can be detrimental to the final product quality. Stickies are hydrophobic, tacky, polymeric materials that are introduced into the papermaking system from a mixture of recycled fiber sources. Properties of stickies are very similar to the fibers used in papermaking, viz. size, density, hydrophobicity, and electrokinetic charge. This reduces the probability of their removal by conventional separation processes, such as screening and cleaning, which are based on such properties. Also, their physical and chemical structure allows for them to extrude through screens, attach to fibers, process equipment, wires and felts. Stickies can break down and then reagglomerate and appear at seemingly any place in the mill. When subjected to a number of factors including changes

  8. Rating the methodological quality in systematic reviews of studies on measurement properties: a scoring system for the COSMIN checklist

    OpenAIRE

    Terwee, C. B.; Mokkink, L.B.; Knol, D L; Ostelo, R. W. J. G.; Bouter, L. M.; Vet, de, E.

    2011-01-01

    Background The COSMIN checklist is a standardized tool for assessing the methodological quality of studies on measurement properties. It contains 9 boxes, each dealing with one measurement property, with 5–18 items per box about design aspects and statistical methods. Our aim was to develop a scoring system for the COSMIN checklist to calculate quality scores per measurement property when using the checklist in systematic reviews of measurement properties. Methods The scoring system was devel...

  9. Measurement Properties of the Brazilian-Portuguese Version of the Lumbar Spine Instability Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araujo, Amanda Costa; da Cunha Menezes Costa, Lucíola; de Oliveira, Crystian Bittencourt Soares; Morelhão, Priscila Kalil; de Faria Negrão Filho, Rúben; Pinto, Rafael Zambelli; Costa, Leonardo Oliveira Pena

    2017-07-01

    Cross-cultural adaptation and analysis of measurement properties. To translate and cross-culturally adapt the Lumbar Spine Instability Questionnaire (LSIQ) into Brazilian-Portuguese and to test its measurement properties in Brazilian patients with low back pain. The selection of subgroup of patients that respond better to specific interventions is the top research priority in the field of back pain. The LSIQ is a tool able to stratify patients with low back pain who responds better to motor control exercises. There is no Brazilian-Portuguese version of the LSIQ available. The original version of the LSIQ was translated and cross-culturally adapted. We collected data from 100 patients with low back pain. In addition to LSIQ, we also collected information about physical activity levels (measured by the International Physical Activity Questionnaire short version), disability (measured by the Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire), pain intensity (measured by the Pain numerical Rating Scale), kinesiophobia (measured by the Tampa Scale of Kinesiophobia), and depression (measured by the Beck Depression Inventory). The measurement properties tested were internal consistency, reproducibility (reliability and agreement), construct validity, and ceiling and floor effects. The Brazilian-Portuguese version of the LSIQ showed good measurement properties with a Cronbach alpha of 0.79, an intraclass correlation coefficient of 0.75, a standard error of measurement of 1.65 points, and a minimal detectable change of 3.54 points. We did not detect ceiling and floor effects. The construct validity analysis was observed a moderate correlation between the LSIQ and Pain Numerical Rating Scale r = 0.46, Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire r = 0.66, Tampa Scale of Kinesiophobia r = 0.49, and Beck Depression Inventory r = 0.44. The Brazilian-Portuguese version of LIQ has adequate measurement properties and can be used in clinical practice and research. NA.

  10. Measurement properties of maximal cardiopulmonary exercise tests protocols in persons after stroke: a systematic review.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wittink, H.; Verschuren, O.; Terwee, C.; Groot, J. de; Kwakkel, G.; Port, I. van de

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To systematically review and critically appraise the literature on measurement properties of cardiopulmonary exercise test protocols for measuring aerobic capacity, VO2max, in persons after stroke. Data sources: PubMed, Embase and Cinahl were searched from inception up to 15 June 2016. A

  11. Fibre-optical techniques for measuring various properties of shock waves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prinse, W.C.; Esveld, R.J. van; Oostdam, R. van; Rooijen, M. van; Bouma, R.H.B.

    1999-01-01

    For the past years we have developed several optical techniques to measure properties of shock waves. The fibre optic probe (FOP) is developed to measure the shock-wave velocity and/or the detonation velocity inside an explosive. The space resolution can be as small as 0.5 mm. Single fibres are used

  12. Measuring the Youth Bullying Experience: A Systematic Review of the Psychometric Properties of Available Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vessey, Judith; Strout, Tania D.; DiFazio, Rachel L.; Walker, Allison

    2014-01-01

    Background: Bullying is a significant problem in schools and measuring this concept remains problematic. The purposes of this study were to (1) identify the published self-report measures developed to assess youth bullying; (2) evaluate their psychometric properties and instrument characteristics; and (3) evaluate the quality of identified…

  13. Coaxial-probe contact-force monitoring for dielectric properties measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    A means is described for measuring and monitoring the contact force applied to a material sample with an open-ended coaxial-line probe for purposes of measuring the dielectric properties of semisolid material samples such as fruit, vegetable and animal tissues. The equipment consists of a stainless...

  14. Some but not all dyadic measures in shared decision making research have satisfactory psychometric properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Legare, F.; Turcotte, S.; Robitaille, H.; Stewart, M.; Frosch, D.; Grimshaw, J.; Labrecque, M.; Ouimet, M.; Rousseau, M.; Stacey, D.; Weijden, T. van der; Elwyn, G.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the psychometric properties of dyadic measures for shared decision making (SDM) research. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: We conducted an observational cross-sectional study in 17 primary care clinics with physician-patient dyads. We used seven subscales to measure six elements of SDM

  15. Investigating the Measurement Properties of the Social Responsiveness Scale in Preschool Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duku, Eric; Vaillancourt, Tracy; Szatmari, Peter; Georgiades, Stelios; Zwaigenbaum, Lonnie; Smith, Isabel M.; Bryson, Susan; Fombonne, Eric; Mirenda, Pat; Roberts, Wendy; Volden, Joanne; Waddell, Charlotte; Thompson, Ann; Bennett, Teresa

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the measurement properties of the Social Responsiveness Scale in an accelerated longitudinal sample of 4-year-old preschool children with the complementary approaches of categorical confirmatory factor analysis and Rasch analysis. Measurement models based on the literature and other hypothesized measurement…

  16. An examination of the parametric properties of four noise sensitivity measures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Kamp, Irene; Ellermeier, Wolfgang; Lopez-Barrio, Isabel

    2006-01-01

    Noise sensitivity (NS) is a personality trait with a strong influence on reactions to noise. Studies of reaction should include a standard measure of NS that is founded on a theoretically justified definition of NS, and examination of existing NS measures' parametric properties (internal consiste...

  17. Dynamic Modeling Accuracy Dependence on Errors in Sensor Measurements, Mass Properties, and Aircraft Geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grauer, Jared A.; Morelli, Eugene A.

    2013-01-01

    A nonlinear simulation of the NASA Generic Transport Model was used to investigate the effects of errors in sensor measurements, mass properties, and aircraft geometry on the accuracy of dynamic models identified from flight data. Measurements from a typical system identification maneuver were systematically and progressively deteriorated and then used to estimate stability and control derivatives within a Monte Carlo analysis. Based on the results, recommendations were provided for maximum allowable errors in sensor measurements, mass properties, and aircraft geometry to achieve desired levels of dynamic modeling accuracy. Results using other flight conditions, parameter estimation methods, and a full-scale F-16 nonlinear aircraft simulation were compared with these recommendations.

  18. Regularity and other properties of absolutely continuous invariant measures for the quadratic family

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rychlik, Marek; Sorets, Eugene

    1992-11-01

    In the current paper we study in more detail some properties of the absolutely continuous invariant measures constructed in the course of the proof of Jakobson's Theorem. In particular, we show that the density of the invariant measure is continuous at Misiurewicz points. From this we deduce that the Lyapunov exponent is also continuous at these points (our considerations apply just to the parameters constructed in the proof of Jakobson's Theorem). Other properties, like the positivity of the Lyapunov exponent, uniqueness of the absolutely continuous invariant measure and exactness of the corresponding dynamical system, are also proved.

  19. The effect of easily ionized elements Na and K on the performance of pulsed plasma thruster using water propellant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    In view of the low thrust power ratio caused by the high resistance of pulsed plasma thruster using water propellant,the paper argues that the easily ionized elements Na and K with low ionic potentials are added in the water propellant to improve its performance. The measurement of the discharging current and plasma emission spectrographic analysis prove the improvement. The experiments show that the elements Na and K have certain effect on the improvement of the performance of pulsed plasma thruster: In comparison with water propellant,the NaCl and KCl water propellant has a lower total resistance and a higher ratio of thruster power and specific impulse,and the NaCl water propellant has a slightly stronger effect on pulsed plasma thruster than the KCl. The plasma emission spectrographic analysis is in consistent with the experiment of measuring the discharging current: The elements Na and K can intensify the plasma emission spectrographic signal.

  20. Magnetic properties measurement of soft magnetic composite material (SOMALOY 700) by using 3-D tester

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asari, Ashraf; Guo, Youguang; Zhu, Jianguo

    2017-08-01

    Core losses of rotating electrical machine can be predicted by identifying the magnetic properties of the magnetic material. The magnetic properties should be properly measured since there are some variations of vector flux density in the rotating machine. In this paper, the SOMALOY 700 material has been measured under x, y and z- axes flux density penetration by using the 3-D tester. The calibrated sensing coils are used in detecting the flux densities which have been generated by the Labview software. The measured sensing voltages are used in obtaining the magnetic properties of the sample such as magnetic flux density B, magnetic field strength H, hysteresis loop which can be used to calculate the total core loss of the sample. The results of the measurement are analyzed by using the Mathcad software before being compared to another material.

  1. Application of Digital Image Correlation to Measurement of Packaging Material Mechanical Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-Wei Zhou

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Among various packaging materials, papers and polymer plastics are the most common due to their light weights, low costs, and other advantages. However, their mechanical properties are difficult to measure precisely because of their softness. To overcome the difficulty, a new measure instrument prototype is proposed based on an optical method known as the digital image correlation (DIC. Experiments are designed to apply the DIC to measure mechanical properties of flexible packaging materials, including the stress-strain relationship, the Poisson ratio, the coefficient of heat expansion, the creep deformation, and the top-pressure deformation of corrugated box. In addition, the low frequency vibration of package is simulated, and the vibration frequencies are measured by DIC. Results obtained in the experiments illustrate the advantages of the DIC over traditional methods: noncontact, no reinforced effect, high precision over entire area, wide measurement range, and good measurement stability.

  2. Active downhole thermal property measurement system for characterization of gas hydrate-bearing formations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukuhara, Masafumi; Fujii, Kasumi; Tertychnyi, Vladimir; Shandrygin, Alexander; Popov, Yuri; Matsubayashi, Osamu; Kusaka, Koji; Yasuda, Masato

    2005-07-01

    Gas hydrates dissociate or form when temperature and/or pressure conditions cross the equilibrium border. When we consider gas hydrates as an energy resource, understanding those parameters is very important for developing efficient production schemes. Therefore, thermal measurement is one of the key components of the characterization of the gas hydrate-bearing formation, not only statically but also dynamically. To estimate thermal properties such as thermal conductivity and diffusivity of subsurface formations, the conventional method has been to monitor temperature passively at several underground locations and interpret collected information with assumptions such as steady heat flow or relaxation from thermal disturbance by fluid flow, etc. Because the thermal properties are estimated based on several assumptions, these passive measurement methods sometimes leave a lot of uncertainties. On the other hand, active thermal property measurement, which could minimize those uncertainties, is commonly used in a laboratory and many types of equipment exist commercially for the purpose. The concept of measurement is very simple: creating a known thermal disturbance with a thermal source and then monitoring the response of the specimen. However, simply applying this method to subsurface formation measurement has many technical and logistical difficulties. In this paper, newly developed thermal property measurement equipment and its measurement methodology are described. Also discussed are the theoretical background for the application of the methodology to a gas hydrate-bearing formation through numerical simulation and the experimental results of laboratory mockup in a controlled environment. (Author)

  3. Measured RF Properties of the DTL for the J-PARC

    CERN Document Server

    Tanaka, H; Naito, F; Takasaki, E

    2004-01-01

    RF properties of the second DTL tank for J-PARC have been measured in KEK. The required flatness and stability of the accelerating field of the tank have been achieved by the tunung of the post-couplers, whose shape were modified to adjust the resonant frequency ?324 MHz). Because the third DTL tank has assembled, the rf measurement and the post-coupler tuning will be started soon. Thus the measured results for both tanks will be described in the paper.

  4. Measuring Physical Properties of Neuronal and Glial Cells with Resonant Microsensors

    OpenAIRE

    Corbin, Elise A.; Millet, Larry J.; Keller, Katrina R.; King, William P.; Bashir, Rashid

    2014-01-01

    Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) resonant sensors provide a high degree of accuracy for measuring the physical properties of chemical and biological samples. These sensors enable the investigation of cellular mass and growth, though previous sensor designs have been limited to the study of homogeneous cell populations. Population heterogeneity, as is generally encountered in primary cultures, reduces measurement yield and limits the efficacy of sensor mass measurements. This paper presen...

  5. An easily synthesized blue polymer for high-performance polymer solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Ergang; Hellstroem, Stefan; Zhang, Fengling; Andersson, Mats R. [Department of Chemical and Biological, Engineering/Polymer Technology, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-412 96 Goeteborg (Sweden); Hou, Lintao; Wang, Zhongqiang; Inganaes, Olle [Biomolecular and Organic Electronics, IFM, and Center of Organic Electronics, Linkoeping University, SE-581 83 Linkoeping (Sweden)

    2010-12-07

    High performance solar cells fabricated from an easily synthesized donor-acceptor polymer show maximum power point up to 6.0 mW cm{sup -2}, with an open-circuit voltage of 0.89 V, short-circuit current density of 10.5 mA cm{sup -2} and fill factor of 0.64, making this polymer a particularly promising candidate for high-efficiency low-cost polymer solar cells. (Copyright copyright 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  6. Cellulose with a High Fractal Dimension Is Easily Hydrolysable under Acid Catalysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Díaz

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The adsorption of three diverse amino acids couples onto the surface of microcrystalline cellulose was studied. Characterisation of modified celluloses included changes in the polarity and in roughness. The amino acids partially break down the hydrogen bonding network of the cellulose structure, leading to more reactive cellulose residues that were easily hydrolysed to glucose in the presence of hydrochloric acid or tungstophosphoric acid catalysts. The conversion of cellulose and selectivity for glucose was highly dependent on the self-assembled amino acids adsorbed onto the cellulose and the catalyst.

  7. Development and validation of a quick easily used biochemical assay for evaluating the viability of small immobile arthropods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Craig B; Iline, Ilia I; Richards, Nicola K; Novoselov, Max; McNeill, Mark R

    2013-10-01

    Quickly, accurately, and easily assessing the efficacy of treatments to control sessile arthropods (e.g., scale insects) and stationary immature life stages (e.g., eggs and pupae) is problematic because it is difficult to tell whether treated organisms are alive or dead. Current approaches usually involve either maintaining organisms in the laboratory to observe them for development, gauging their response to physical stimulation, or assessing morphological characters such as turgidity and color. These can be slow, technically difficult, or subjective, and the validity of methods other than laboratory rearing has seldom been tested. Here, we describe development and validation of a quick easily used biochemical colorimetric assay for measuring the viability of arthropods that is sufficiently sensitive to test even very small organisms such as white fly eggs. The assay was adapted from a technique for staining the enzyme hexokinase to signal the presence of adenosine triphosphate in viable specimens by reducing a tetrazolium salt to formazan. Basic laboratory facilities and skills are required for production of the stain, but no specialist equipment, expertise, or facilities are needed for its use.

  8. Experimental Techniques for the Measurement of Mechanical Properties of Materials Used in Microelectromechanical Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samir V. Kamat

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge of mechanical properties of materials used in microelectromechanical systems (MEMS devices is critical not only in designing structures such as cantilevers and beams but also for ensuring their reliability during operation of these devices. It has been established that the mechanical properties are scaleand-process-dependent, and hence it is essential to measure the mechanical properties of these materials at the same length scale and using the same process as that used in their usage in MEMS devices. The various experimental techniques in vogue to measure the mechanical properties of these materials are briefly reviewed. The facilities established at the Defence Metallurgical Research Laboratory, Hyderabad, and their capabilities are also highlighted.Defence Science Journal, 2009, 59(6, pp.605-615, DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.59.1565

  9. Method for measuring thermal properties using a long-wavelength infrared thermal image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Charles L.; Costin, Laurence S.; Smith, Jody L.; Moya, Mary M.; Mercier, Jeffrey A.

    2007-01-30

    A method for estimating the thermal properties of surface materials using long-wavelength thermal imagery by exploiting the differential heating histories of ground points in the vicinity of shadows. The use of differential heating histories of different ground points of the same surface material allows the use of a single image acquisition step to provide the necessary variation in measured parameters for calculation of the thermal properties of surface materials.

  10. Defining Allowable Physical Property Variations for High Accurate Measurements on Polymer Parts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohammadi, Ali; Sonne, Mads Rostgaard; Madruga, Daniel González

    2015-01-01

    cooling down after injection molding. In order to obtain accurate simulations, accurate inputs to the model are crucial. In reality however, the material and physical properties will have some variations. Although these variations may be small, they can act as a source of uncertainty for the measurement....... In this paper, we investigated how big the variation in material and physical properties are allowed in order to reach the 5 μm target on the uncertainty....

  11. An AAA-DDD triply hydrogen-bonded complex easily accessible for supramolecular polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yi-Fei; Chen, Wen-Qiang; Wang, Hong-Bo; Yuan, Ying-Xue; Wu, Na-Na; Song, Xiang-Zhi; Yang, Lan

    2014-12-15

    For a complementary hydrogen-bonded complex, when every hydrogen-bond acceptor is on one side and every hydrogen-bond donor is on the other, all secondary interactions are attractive and the complex is highly stable. AAA-DDD (A=acceptor, D=donor) is considered to be the most stable among triply hydrogen-bonded sequences. The easily synthesized and further derivatized AAA-DDD system is very desirable for hydrogen-bonded functional materials. In this case, AAA and DDD, starting from 4-methoxybenzaldehyde, were synthesized with the Hantzsch pyridine synthesis and Friedländer annulation reaction. The association constant determined by fluorescence titration in chloroform at room temperature is 2.09×10(7)  M(-1) . The AAA and DDD components are not coplanar, but form a V shape in the solid state. Supramolecular polymers based on AAA-DDD triply hydrogen bonded have also been developed. This work may make AAA-DDD triply hydrogen-bonded sequences easily accessible for stimuli-responsive materials.

  12. Morphological Characterization of a New and Easily Recognizable Nuclear Male Sterile Mutant of Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Zhanguo; Huang, Jian; Smith, Ashley R.; Chen, Junping; Burke, John; Sattler, Scott E.

    2017-01-01

    Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) is one of the most important grain crops in the world. The nuclear male sterility (NMS) trait, which is caused by mutations on the nuclear gene, is valuable for hybrid breeding and genetic studies. Several NMS mutants have been reported previously, but none of them were well characterized. Here, we present our detailed morphological characterization of a new and easily recognizable NMS sorghum mutant male sterile 8 (ms8) isolated from an elite inbred BTx623 mutagenized by ethyl methane sulfonate (EMS). Our results show that the ms8 mutant phenotype was caused by a mutation on a single recessive nuclear gene that is different from all available NMS loci reported in sorghum. In fertile sorghum plants, yellow anthers appeared first during anthesis, while in the ms8 mutant, white hairy stigma emerged first and only small white anthers were observed, making ms8 plants easily recognizable when flowering. The ovary development and seed production after manual pollination are normal in the ms8 mutant, indicating it is female fertile and male sterile only. We found that ms8 anthers did not produce pollen grains. Further analysis revealed that ms8 anthers were defective in tapetum development, which led to the arrest of pollen formation. As a stable male sterile mutant across different environments, greenhouses, and fields in different locations, the ms8 mutant could be a useful breeding tool. Moreover, ms8 might be an important for elucidating male gametophyte development in sorghum and other plants. PMID:28052078

  13. Phased array compaction cell for measurement of the transversely isotropic elastic properties of compacting sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nihei, K.T.; Nakagawa, S.; Reverdy, F.; Meyer, L.R.; Duranti, L.; Ball, G.

    2010-12-15

    Sediments undergoing compaction typically exhibit transversely isotropic (TI) elastic properties. We present a new experimental apparatus, the phased array compaction cell, for measuring the TI elastic properties of clay-rich sediments during compaction. This apparatus uses matched sets of P- and S-wave ultrasonic transducers located along the sides of the sample and an ultrasonic P-wave phased array source, together with a miniature P-wave receiver on the top and bottom ends of the sample. The phased array measurements are used to form plane P-waves that provide estimates of the phase velocities over a range of angles. From these measurements, the five TI elastic constants can be recovered as the sediment is compacted, without the need for sample unloading, recoring, or reorienting. This paper provides descriptions of the apparatus, the data processing, and an application demonstrating recovery of the evolving TI properties of a compacting marine sediment sample.

  14. Dynamic measurement of coal thermal properties and elemental composition of volatile matter during coal pyrolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohan Stanger

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A new technique that allows dynamic measurement of thermal properties, expansion and the elemental chemistry of the volatile matter being evolved as coal is pyrolysed is described. The thermal and other properties are measured dynamically as a function of temperature of the coal without the need for equilibration at temperature. In particular, the technique allows for continuous elemental characterisation of tars as they are evolved during pyrolysis and afterwards as a function of boiling point. The technique is demonstrated by measuring the properties of maceral concentrates from a coal. The variation in heats of reaction, thermal conductivity and expansion as a function of maceral composition is described. Combined with the elemental analysis, the results aid in the interpretation of the chemical processes contributing to the physical and thermal behaviour of the coal during pyrolysis. Potential applications in cokemaking studies are discussed.

  15. Self-administered health literacy instruments for people with diabetes: systematic review of measurement properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eun-Hyun; Kim, Chun-Ja; Lee, Jiyeon; Moon, Seung Hei

    2017-09-01

    The aims of this study were to identify all available self-administered instruments measuring health literacy in people with diabetes and to determine the current instrument that is the most appropriate for applying to this population in both practice and research. A systematic review of measurement properties. MEDLINE, EMBASE and CINAHL electronic databases from their inception up to 28 March 2016. The methodological quality of each included study was assessed using the COnsensus-based Standards for the selection of health Measurement INstruments checklist. The reported results for measurement properties in the studies were assessed according to Terwee's quality criteria. Thirteen self-administered instruments measuring health literacy in people with diabetes were identified, of which six (44%) were diabetes-specific instruments. The instruments that covered the broadest contents of health literacy were the Health Literacy Scale and Health Literacy Questionnaire. The (test-retest) reliability, measurement error and responsiveness were not evaluated for any instrument, while internal consistency and hypothesis testing validity were the most frequently assessed measurement properties. With the current evidence, the Health Literacy Scale may be the most appropriate instrument for patients with diabetes in practice and research. However, the structural validity of this scale needs to be further established, particularly in other language versions. It is also recommended to use the Diabetes Numeracy Test-15 along with the Health Literacy Scale to complement the lack of numeracy measures in the Health Literacy Scale. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. An innovative tester system for measuring mechanical property of foundry molding sand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuxi XIE

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available A new intelligent tester system for measuring multiple mechanical properties of foundry molding sand is introduced and has been patented for the invention in China. The testing process can be simutaneosly controlled wth a build-in chip microcomputer communicating with a PC through a serial port. The testing system pplies dynamic testing technology. During the measurement for compression, relaxation, shearing and tensile processes of sand specimens, the corresponding characteristic curves and eight mechanical property parameters can be obtained in a short time, simply by consecutively testing on four sand specimens. The properties and parameters to be measurable by the tester include compressive strength, elastic modulus, plastic deformation threshold, springback potential, shear strength, shear deformation limit, toughness and tensile strength. These properties and parameters for sand specimens can be defined as the corresponding characteristic curves with precise physical meanings, carried out by the tester. Two of them, namely plastic deformation threshold and springback potential, as well as their testing methods, have been invented for the first time. The testing system applying advanced data measurement technology as well as performing excellent functions is an important breakthrough and creativity in foundry molding sand property testing field. The parameters acquired by the testing system are stable, accurate and reliable. The test data can be instantly diaplayed or printed out or stored in the PC. As evidence, many experimental data obtained by the tester practically from bth laboratory and foundry floor tests indicate that the testr system can be widely applied in foundry industry.

  17. Influence of Halide Solutions on Collagen Networks: Measurements of Physical Properties by Atomic Force Microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempe, André; Lackner, Maximilian

    2016-01-01

    The influence of aqueous halide solutions on collagen coatings was tested. The effects on resistance against indentation/penetration on adhesion forces were measured by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and the change of Young's modulus of the coating was derived. Comparative measurements over time were conducted with halide solutions of various concentrations. Physical properties of the mesh-like coating generally showed large variability. Starting with a compact set of physical properties, data disperse after minutes. A trend of increase in elasticity and permeability was found for all halide solutions. These changes were largest in NaI, displaying a logical trend with ion size. However a correlation with concentration was not measured. Adhesion properties were found to be independent of mechanical properties. The paper also presents practical experience for AFM measurements of soft tissue under liquids, particularly related to data evaluation. The weakening in physical strength found after exposure to halide solutions may be interpreted as widening of the network structure or change in the chemical properties in part of the collagen fibres (swelling). In order to design customized surface coatings at optimized conditions also for medical applications, halide solutions might be used as agents with little impact on the safety of patients.

  18. Psychometric properties of carer-reported outcome measures in palliative care: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michels, Charlotte T J; Boulton, Mary; Adams, Astrid; Wee, Bee; Peters, Michele

    2016-01-01

    Informal carers face many challenges in caring for patients with palliative care needs. Selecting suitable valid and reliable outcome measures to determine the impact of caring and carers' outcomes is a common problem. To identify outcome measures used for informal carers looking after patients with palliative care needs, and to evaluate the measures' psychometric properties. A systematic review was conducted. The studies identified were evaluated by independent reviewers (C.T.J.M., M.B., M.P.). Data regarding study characteristics and psychometric properties of the measures were extracted and evaluated. Good psychometric properties indicate a high-quality measure. The search was conducted, unrestricted to publication year, in the following electronic databases: Applied Social Sciences Index and Abstracts, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, The Cochrane Library, EMBASE, PubMed, PsycINFO, Social Sciences Citation Index and Sociological Abstracts. Our systematic search revealed 4505 potential relevant studies, of which 112 studies met the inclusion criteria using 38 carer measures for informal carers of patients with palliative care needs. Psychometric properties were reported in only 46% (n = 52) of the studies, in relation to 24 measures. Where psychometric data were reported, the focus was mainly on internal consistency (n = 45, 87%), construct validity (n = 27, 52%) and/or reliability (n = 14, 27%). Of these, 24 measures, only four (17%) had been formally validated in informal carers in palliative care. A broad range of outcome measures have been used for informal carers of patients with palliative care needs. Little formal psychometric testing has been undertaken. Furthermore, development and refinement of measures in this field is required. © The Author(s) 2015.

  19. Rheological Properties of Extreme Pressure Greases Measured Using a Process Control Rheometer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glasscock, Julie; Smith, Robin S.

    2012-01-01

    A new process control rheometer (PCR) designed for use in industrial process flows has been used to measure the rheological properties of three extreme-pressure greases. The rheometer is a robust yet sensitive instrument designed to operate in an industrial processing environment in either in......-line or on-line configurations. The PCR was able to measure the rheological properties including the elastic modulus, viscous modulus, and complex viscosity of the greases which in an industrial flow application could be used as variables in a feedback system to control the process and the quality...

  20. Measurement properties of psychosocial and environmental measures associated with fruit and vegetable intake among middle school adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granner, Michelle L; Evans, Alexandra E

    2012-01-01

    To assess the measurement properties of several scales modified or created to assess factors related to fruit and vegetable intake within a young adolescent population. Cross-sectional with data collected via self-report. Data were collected in regularly scheduled classes in the school setting. African American and Caucasian middle school students (ages 11-15 years). Self-efficacy, modeling, outcome expectations, normative beliefs, parental food management practices, and influences on food choice. Pearson correlations, factor analysis, and Cronbach α. Subscales with adequate to good internal consistencies (0.65-0.88) were established. Fruit and vegetable intake was significantly correlated with self-efficacy, parent and peer modeling, family and peer normative beliefs, and social and health outcome expectations. Fruit and vegetable intake was not significantly correlated with permissive eating, food self-preparation, or the 3 subscales measuring influences on food choice (social influence, avoiding weight-gain food, and appeal and access). These measures, most originally developed for children and adults and modified for this study, demonstrated adequate measurement properties for an adolescent sample. Copyright © 2012 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Application of an easily water-compatible hypercrosslinked polymeric adsorbent for efficient removal of catechol and resorcinol in aqueous solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang Jianhan, E-mail: xiaomeijiangou@yahoo.com.cn [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Huang Kelong; Yan Cheng [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China)

    2009-08-15

    An easily water-compatible hypercrosslinked resin HJ-1 was developed for adsorbing catechol and resorcinol in aqueous solution in this study. Its adsorption performances for catechol and resorcinol were investigated in aqueous solution by using the commercial Amberlite XAD-4 as a reference. The adsorption dynamic curves were measured and the adsorption obeyed the pseudo-second-order rate equation of Boyer and Hsu. The adsorption isotherms were scaled and Freundlich isotherm model characterized the adsorption better. The adsorption thermodynamic parameters were calculated and the adsorption was an exothermic, favorable, and more ordered process. The fact that the adsorption capacity of catechol was larger than resorcinol and the adsorption enthalpy of catechol was more negative than resorcinol can be explained in terms of the solubility and the polarity of two adsorbates.

  2. Non-Contact Thermal Properties Measurement with Low-Power Laser and IR Camera System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Troy L.; Hecht, Michael H.

    2011-01-01

    As shown by the Phoenix Mars Lander's Thermal and Electrical Conductivity Probe (TECP), contact measurements of thermal conductivity and diffusivity (using a modified flux-plate or line-source heat-pulse method) are constrained by a number of factors. Robotic resources must be used to place the probe, making them unavailable for other operations for the duration of the measurement. The range of placement is also limited by mobility, particularly in the case of a lander. Placement is also subject to irregularities in contact quality, resulting in non-repeatable heat transfer to the material under test. Most important from a scientific perspective, the varieties of materials which can be measured are limited to unconsolidated or weakly-cohesive regolith materials, rocks, and ices being too hard for nominal insertion strengths. Accurately measuring thermal properties in the laboratory requires significant experimental finesse, involving sample preparation, controlled and repeatable procedures, and, practically, instrumentation much more voluminous than the sample being tested (heater plates, insulation, temperature sensors). Remote measurements (infrared images from orbiting spacecraft) can reveal composite properties like thermal inertia, but suffer both from a large footprint (low spatial resolution) and convolution of the thermal properties of a potentially layered medium. In situ measurement techniques (the Phoenix TECP is the only robotic measurement of thermal properties to date) suffer from problems of placement range, placement quality, occupation of robotic resources, and the ability to only measure materials of low mechanical strength. A spacecraft needs the ability to perform a non-contact thermal properties measurement in situ. Essential components include low power consumption, leveraging of existing or highly-developed flight technologies, and mechanical simplicity. This new in situ method, by virtue of its being non-contact, bypasses all of these

  3. Complex Fuzzy Set-Valued Complex Fuzzy Measures and Their Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Shengquan; Li, Shenggang

    2014-01-01

    Let F*(K) be the set of all fuzzy complex numbers. In this paper some classical and measure-theoretical notions are extended to the case of complex fuzzy sets. They are fuzzy complex number-valued distance on F*(K), fuzzy complex number-valued measure on F*(K), and some related notions, such as null-additivity, pseudo-null-additivity, null-subtraction, pseudo-null-subtraction, autocontionuous from above, autocontionuous from below, and autocontinuity of the defined fuzzy complex number-valued measures. Properties of fuzzy complex number-valued measures are studied in detail. PMID:25093202

  4. Measurement of Mechatronic Property of Biological Gel with Micro-Vibrating Electrode at Ultrasonic Frequency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shigehiro Hashimoto

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available A measurement system has been designed with a micro-vibrating electrode at ultrasonic frequency to measure local impedance of biological gel in vitro. The designed system consists of two electrodes, where one of the electrodes vibrates with a piezoelectric actuator. The component of variation at impedance between two electrodes with vibration of one electrode is analyzed at the corresponding spectrum. The manufactured system was applied to measure impedance of a physiological saline solution, a potassium chloride solution, a dextran aqueous solution, and an egg. The experimental results show that the designed system is effective to measure local mechatronic property of biological gel.

  5. Complex fuzzy set-valued complex fuzzy measures and their properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Shengquan; Li, Shenggang

    2014-01-01

    Let F*(K) be the set of all fuzzy complex numbers. In this paper some classical and measure-theoretical notions are extended to the case of complex fuzzy sets. They are fuzzy complex number-valued distance on F*(K), fuzzy complex number-valued measure on F*(K), and some related notions, such as null-additivity, pseudo-null-additivity, null-subtraction, pseudo-null-subtraction, autocontionuous from above, autocontionuous from below, and autocontinuity of the defined fuzzy complex number-valued measures. Properties of fuzzy complex number-valued measures are studied in detail.

  6. AeroCom INSITU Project: Comparing modeled and measured aerosol optical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Elisabeth; Schmeisser, Lauren; Schulz, Michael; Fiebig, Markus; Ogren, John; Bian, Huisheng; Chin, Mian; Easter, Richard; Ghan, Steve; Kokkola, Harri; Laakso, Anton; Myhre, Gunnar; Randles, Cynthia; da Silva, Arlindo; Stier, Phillip; Skeie, Ragnehild; Takemura, Toshihiko; van Noije, Twan; Zhang, Kai

    2016-04-01

    AeroCom, an open international collaboration of scientists seeking to improve global aerosol models, recently initiated a project comparing model output to in-situ, surface-based measurements of aerosol optical properties. The model/measurement comparison project, called INSITU, aims to evaluate the performance of a suite of AeroCom aerosol models with site-specific observational data in order to inform iterative improvements to model aerosol modules. Surface in-situ data has the unique property of being traceable to physical standards, which is an asset in accomplishing the overall goal of bettering the accuracy of aerosols processes and the predicative capability of global climate models. Here we compare dry, in-situ aerosol scattering and absorption data from ~75 surface, in-situ sites from various global aerosol networks (including NOAA, EUSAAR/ACTRIS and GAW) with a simulated optical properties from a suite of models participating in the AeroCom project. We report how well models reproduce aerosol climatologies for a variety of time scales, aerosol characteristics and behaviors (e.g., aerosol persistence and the systematic relationships between aerosol optical properties), and aerosol trends. Though INSITU is a multi-year endeavor, preliminary phases of the analysis suggest substantial model biases in absorption and scattering coefficients compared to surface measurements, though the sign and magnitude of the bias varies with location. Spatial patterns in the biases highlight model weaknesses, e.g., the inability of models to properly simulate aerosol characteristics at sites with complex topography. Additionally, differences in modeled and measured systematic variability of aerosol optical properties suggest that some models are not accurately capturing specific aerosol behaviors, for example, the tendency of in-situ single scattering albedo to decrease with decreasing aerosol extinction coefficient. The endgoal of the INSITU project is to identify specific

  7. A 2D zinc-organic network being easily exfoliated into isolated sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Guihong; Li, Ruiqing; Leng, Zhihua; Gan, Shucai

    2016-08-01

    A metal-organic aggregate, namely {Zn2Cl2(BBC)}n (BBC = 4,4‧,4‧‧-(benzene-1,3,5-triyl-tris(benzene-4,1-diyl))tribenzoate) was obtained by solvothermal synthesis. Its structure is featured with the Zn2(COO)3 paddle-wheels with two chloride anions on axial positions and hexagonal pores in the layers. The exclusion of water in the precursor and the solvent plays a crucial role in the formation of target compound. This compound can be easily dissolved in alkaline solution and exfoliated into isolated sheets, which shows a novel way for the preparation of 2D materials.

  8. TRANSALPINA CAN EASILY BE CONSIDERED THE DIAMOND COUNTRY LANDSCAPES, ADVENTURE AND MYSTERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constanta ENEA

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available If Transfăgărăşan is pearl Romanian mountains, the road easily qill be considered the diamond country landscapes, adventure and mystery. Hell 's Kitchen has developed and evolved naturally. Have no certainty of success and money required to carry out the infrastructure first and then see if investors come, so we can not blame the local authorities find here. The difficulties encountered in implementing funding programs made for funds to obtain hard enough. In this paper, I will briefly mention some ideas that could make the two cities, the holder of administratively to Rancière, the burgeoning tourist development area of Gorj County. I sincerely hope uhat there is among us and other people with vision who want to stand up and take action to provide a decent future for our children.

  9. An Easily Operating Polymer 1×4 Optical Waveguide Switch Matrix Based on Vertical Couplers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kaixin Chen; Pak L Chu; Hau Ping Chan; Kin S. Chiang

    2007-01-01

    A three-dimensional (3D) polymer thermo-optic (TO) 1×4 waveguide switch matrix based on vertical couplers is demonstrated. It consists of four basic 3D switch units and because of its 3D structure, its construction is compact, only 9mm in length; moreover, the control logic of the entire switch is very simple, the light signal can be easily switched to any output port by operating only a single switch unit. The finished devices exhibit a switching extinction ratio greater than 21 dB for all of four output ports and the crosstalk between two adjacent output ports is lower than n for all switching units is about 50 mW.

  10. Solving block linear systems with low-rank off-diagonal blocks is easily parallelizable

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menkov, V. [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States)

    1996-12-31

    An easily and efficiently parallelizable direct method is given for solving a block linear system Bx = y, where B = D + Q is the sum of a non-singular block diagonal matrix D and a matrix Q with low-rank blocks. This implicitly defines a new preconditioning method with an operation count close to the cost of calculating a matrix-vector product Qw for some w, plus at most twice the cost of calculating Qw for some w. When implemented on a parallel machine the processor utilization can be as good as that of those operations. Order estimates are given for the general case, and an implementation is compared to block SSOR preconditioning.

  11. Phonomicrosurgery simulation: A low-cost teaching model using easily accessible materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zambricki, Elizabeth A; Bergeron, Jennifer L; DiRenzo, Elizabeth E; Sung, C Kwang

    2016-11-01

    To introduce the use of a new phonomicrosurgical trainer using easily accessible materials, and to establish the effectiveness of the model. The model uses a grape imbedded in gelatin, a microscope, and microlaryngeal instruments. The study was designed to test baseline differences in training levels, as well as improvement in performance after training with the simulation model. Thirty subjects enrolled in the Stanford University School of Medicine otolaryngology training program performed microlaryngeal surgery tasks on a grape. Tasks were designed to model both excision of a vocal fold lesion and vocal fold injection. Anonymized video recordings comparing presimulation and postsimulation training were collected and graded by an expert laryngologist. Both objective comparison of skills and subjective participant surveys were analyzed. Objectively, trainees in all groups made statistically significant improvements across all tested variables, including microscope positioning, creation of a linear incision, elevation of epithelial flaps, excision of a crescent of tissue, vocal fold injection, preservation of remaining tissue, and time to complete all tasks. Subjectively, 100% of participants felt that they had increased comfort with microlaryngeal instruments and decreased intimidation of microlaryngeal surgery after completing the simulation training. This appreciation of skills was most notable and statistically significant in the intern trainees. Microlaryngeal surgical simulation is a tool that can be used to train residents to prepare them for phonomicrosurgical procedures at all levels of training. Our low-cost model with accessible materials can be easily duplicated and used to introduce trainees to microlaryngeal surgery or improve skills of more senior trainees. NA Laryngoscope, 126:2528-2533, 2016. © 2016 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  12. Nondestructive approach for measuring temperature-dependent dielectric properties of epoxy resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhtar, M Jaleel; Feher, Lambert E; Thumm, Manfred

    2008-01-01

    A practical method for measuring the complex relative permittivity of epoxy resins and other viscous liquids over a wide temperature range in S-band is presented. The method involves inserting a hot glass tube, filled with the liquid-under-test (LUT), into a length of WR-340 rectangular waveguide connected between two ports of a Vector Network Analyzer, which measures the reflection and transmission coefficients at 2.45 GHz. The heating arrangement consists of a temperature-controlled glycol bath, where the LUT-filled glass tube is placed. The dielectric properties are determined using an optimization routine, which minimizes the error between the theoretical and measured scattering coefficient data. The theoretical values of the scattering coefficient data are computed with the help of a numerical 3-D electromagnetic field simulator, the CST Microwave Studio. The dielectric properties of the empty glass tube (required by the simulation code) are also measured using the above methodology.

  13. Measurement of Magnetic Properties of an Inertial Sensor with a Torsion Balance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TU Hai-Bo; BAI Yan-Zheng; ZHOU Ze-Bing; LIANG Yu-Rong

    2009-01-01

    @@ A torsion balance is constructed to accurately measure the magnetic properties of the real proof mass of the inertial sensor. The magnetic susceptibility and remnant moment of a titanium proof mass are measured in the first experiment, and further improvements and the potential sensitivity are also discussed. This is significant for choosing the material of the proof mass and investigating the magnetic disturbances acting on the proof mass.

  14. Urban Aerosol Optical Properties Measurement by Elastic Counter-Look Lidar

    OpenAIRE

    Wang X.; Boselli A.; He Y; Sannino A.; Song C.; Spinelli N.

    2016-01-01

    The new developed elastic lidar system utilizes two identical elastic lidars, in counter-look configuration, to measure aerosol backscattering and extinction coefficients without any hypotheses. Compared to elastic-Raman lidar and high spectral resolution lidar, the proposed counter-look elastic lidar can use low power eyesafe laser and all available wavelengths. With this prototype lidar system, urban aerosol optical properties and their spatial distribution have been directly measured, incl...

  15. A review of recent measurements of optical and thermal properties of. alpha. -mercuric iodide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burger, A.; Morgan, S.H.; Silberman, E. (Fisk Univ., Nashville, TN (United States). Dept. of Physics); Nason, D.; Cheng, A.Y. (EG and G Energy Measurements, Inc., Goleta, CA (United States). Santa Barbara Operations)

    1991-01-01

    The knowledge of the physical properties of a crystal and their relation to the nature and content of defects are essential for both applications and fundamental reasons. Alpha-mercuric iodide ({alpha}-HgI{sub 2}) is a material which was found important applications as room temperature X-ray and gamma ray detectors. Some recent thermal and optical measurements of this material, using the samples of improved crystallinity which are now available, are reviewed below. Heretofore, these properties have received less attention than the mechanical and electrical properties, particularly at elevated temperatures. In the technology of {alpha}-HgI{sub 2} where there is a continuing motivation to obtain larger single crystals without compromising the material quality, a better knowledge of the thermal and optical properties may lead to improvements in the processes of material purification, crystal growth and device fabrication.

  16. Magnetic Property Measurements on Single Wall Carbon Nanotube-Polyimide Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Keun J.; Wincheski, Russell A.; Park, Cheol

    2008-01-01

    Temperature and magnetic field dependent magnetization measurements were performed on polyimide nanocomposite samples, synthesized with various weight percentages of single wall carbon nanotubes. It was found that the magnetization of the composite, normalized to the mass of nanotube material in the sample, decreased with increasing weight percentage of nanotubes. It is possible that the interfacial coupling between the carbon nanotube (CNT) fillers and the polyimide matrix promotes the diamagnetic response from CNTs and reduces the total magnetization of the composite. The coercivity of the samples, believed to originate from the residual magnetic catalyst particles, was enhanced and had a stronger temperature dependence as a result of the composite synthesis. These changes in magnetic properties can form the basis of a new approach to investigate the interfacial properties in the CNT nanocomposites through magnetic property measurements.

  17. Minimizing measurement uncertainties of coniferous needle-leaf optical properties, part I: methodological review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yanez Rausell, L.; Schaepman, M.E.; Clevers, J.G.P.W.; Malenovsky, Z.

    2014-01-01

    Optical properties (OPs) of non-flat narrow plant leaves, i.e., coniferous needles, are extensively used by the remote sensing community, in particular for calibration and validation of radiative transfer models at leaf and canopy level. Optical measurements of such small living elements are, howeve

  18. Assessing Chicken Meat Freshness through Measurement of Radio-Frequency Dielectric Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Change in freshness of chicken meat was assessed through measurement of the dielectric properties with a vector network analyzer and an open-ended coaxial-line probe between 200 MHz and 20 GHz at 23 oC. Chicken meat samples were stored in a refrigerator for 8 days at 4 oC. Changes in dielectric cons...

  19. Walking tests for stroke survivors: a systematic review of their measurement properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bloemendaal, M.; Water, A.T. van de; Port, I.G. van de

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE: To provide an overview of walking tests including their measurement properties that have been used in stroke survivors. METHOD: Electronic databases were searched using specific search strategies. Retrieved studies were selected by using specified inclusion criteria. A modified consensus-ba

  20. Measurement of Mechanical Properties of PVC Foam Using a Modified Arcan Fixture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taher, Siavash Talebi; Thomsen, Ole Thybo; M. Dulieu-Barton, Janice

    Previously, the Arcan test rig has been used to measure bidirectional properties of polymer foams used for sandwich core materials, especially in the tensile-shear stress region [1]. In this work, a modified Arcan fixture (MAF) is used to load polymer foam specimens to obtain their tensile...

  1. Measurement properties of the CLASS Toddler in ECEC in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slot, Pauline L.; Boom, Jan; Verhagen, Josje; Leseman, Paul P M

    2017-01-01

    The present study investigated the measurement properties of the Classroom Assessment Scoring System (CLASS) Toddler using data from 276 classrooms and 375 teachers in Dutch early childhood education and care provisions. First, confirmatory factor analyses based on the CLASS Toddler indicators confi

  2. Measurement Properties of Questionnaires Assessing Complementary and Alternative Medicine Use in Pediatrics: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toupin April, Karine; Moher, David; Stinson, Jennifer; Byrne, Ani; White, Meghan; Boon, Heather; Duffy, Ciarán M.; Rader, Tamara; Vohra, Sunita; Tugwell, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Objective Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is commonly used by children, but estimates of that use vary widely partly due to the range of questionnaires used to assess CAM use. However, no studies have attempted to appraise measurement properties of these questionnaires. The aim of this systematic review was to critically appraise and summarize measurement properties of questionnaires of CAM use in pediatrics. Study design A search strategy was implemented in major electronic databases in March 2011 and conference websites, scientific journals and experts were consulted. Studies were included if they mentioned a questionnaire assessing the prevalence of CAM use in pediatrics. Members of the team independently rated the methodological quality of the studies (using the COSMIN checklist) and measurement properties of the questionnaires (using the Terwee and Cohen criteria). Results A total of 96 CAM questionnaires were found in 104 publications. The COSMIN checklist showed that no studies reported adequate methodological quality. The Terwee criteria showed that all included CAM questionnaires had indeterminate measurement properties. According to the Cohen score, none were considered to be a well-established assessment, two approached the level of a well-established assessment, seven were promising assessments and the remainder (n = 87) did not reach the score’s minimum standards. Conclusion None of the identified CAM questionnaires have been thoroughly validated. This systematic review highlights the need for proper validation of CAM questionnaires in pediatrics, which may in turn lead to improved research and knowledge translation about CAM in clinical practice. PMID:22768098

  3. Psychometric Properties of an Attitude Scale Measuring Physician-Nurse Collaboration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hojat, Mohammadreza; Fields, Sylvia K.; Veloski, J. Jon; Griffiths, Margaret; Cohen, Mitchell J. M.; Plumb, James D.

    1999-01-01

    Examined the psychometric properties of an assessment tool for measuring attitudes toward physician/nurse collaboration. Survey results from 208 medical students and 86 nursing students support the construct validity and reliability of the scale, which can be used to evaluate programs designed to foster physician/nurse collaboration. (SLD)

  4. Historical development of grain moisture measurement and other food quality sensing through electrical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    A review of the use of electrical properties of agricultural products for sensing moisture content and other qualities shows that their use for rapid measurements of the moisture content in grain and seed has been the most successful application. Discovery of useful correlations between the moistur...

  5. Overview of sun photometer measurements of aerosol properties in Scandinavia and Svalbard

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toledano, C.; Cachorro, V.E.; Gausa, M.; Stebel, K.; Aaltonen, V.; Berjón, A.; Ortiz de Galisteo, J.P.; Frutos, A.M. de; Bennouna, Y.; Blindheim, S.; Myhre, C.L.; Zibordi, G.; Wehrli, C.; Kratzer, S.; Hakansson, B.; Carlund, T.; Leeuw, G. de; Herber, A.; Torres, B.

    2012-01-01

    An overview on the data of columnar aerosol properties measured in Northern Europe is provided. Apart from the necessary data gathered in the Arctic, the knowledge of the aerosol loading in nearby areas (e.g. sub-Arctic) is of maximum interest to achieve a correct analysis of the Arctic aerosols and

  6. Capabilities for measuring physical and chemical properties of rocks at high pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durham, W.B. (comp.)

    1990-01-01

    The Experimental Geophysics Group of the Earth Sciences Department at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has experimental equipment that measures a variety of physical properties and phase equilibria and kinetics on rocks and minerals at extreme pressures (to 500 GPa) and temperatures (from 10 to 2800 K). These experimental capabilities are described in this report in terms of published results, photographs, and schematic diagrams.

  7. Minimizing measurement uncertainties of coniferous needle-leaf optical properties, part I: methodological review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yanez Rausell, L.; Schaepman, M.E.; Clevers, J.G.P.W.; Malenovsky, Z.

    2014-01-01

    Optical properties (OPs) of non-flat narrow plant leaves, i.e., coniferous needles, are extensively used by the remote sensing community, in particular for calibration and validation of radiative transfer models at leaf and canopy level. Optical measurements of such small living elements are, howeve

  8. Measurement Properties of the Motivation for Youth Treatment Scale with a Residential Group Home Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Matthew C.; Hurley, Kristin Duppong; Tomlinson, M. Michele Athay; Stevens, Amy L.

    2013-01-01

    Background: A client's motivation to receive services is significantly related to seeking services, remaining in services, and improved outcomes. The Motivation for Youth Treatment Scale (MYTS) is one of the few brief measures used to assess motivation for mental health treatment. Objective: To investigate if the psychometric properties of the…

  9. Statistical Properties of Generalized Gini Coefficient with Application to Health Inequality Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Dejian; Huang, Jin; Risser, Jan M.; Kapadia, Asha S.

    2008-01-01

    In this article, we report statistical properties of two classes of generalized Gini coefficients (G1 and G2). The theoretical results were assessed via Monte Carlo simulations. Further, we used G1 and G2 on life expectancy to measure health inequalities among the provinces of China and the states of the United States. For China, the results…

  10. Measuring the electrical properties of soil using a calibrated ground-coupled GPR system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oden, C.P.; Olhoeft, G.R.; Wright, D.L.; Powers, M.H.

    2008-01-01

    Traditional methods for estimating vadose zone soil properties using ground penetrating radar (GPR) include measuring travel time, fitting diffraction hyperbolae, and other methods exploiting geometry. Additional processing techniques for estimating soil properties are possible with properly calibrated GPR systems. Such calibration using ground-coupled antennas must account for the effects of the shallow soil on the antenna's response, because changing soil properties result in a changing antenna response. A prototype GPR system using ground-coupled antennas was calibrated using laboratory measurements and numerical simulations of the GPR components. Two methods for estimating subsurface properties that utilize the calibrated response were developed. First, a new nonlinear inversion algorithm to estimate shallow soil properties under ground-coupled antennas was evaluated. Tests with synthetic data showed that the inversion algorithm is well behaved across the allowed range of soil properties. A preliminary field test gave encouraging results, with estimated soil property uncertainties (????) of ??1.9 and ??4.4 mS/m for the relative dielectric permittivity and the electrical conductivity, respectively. Next, a deconvolution method for estimating the properties of subsurface reflectors with known shapes (e.g., pipes or planar interfaces) was developed. This method uses scattering matrices to account for the response of subsurface reflectors. The deconvolution method was evaluated for use with noisy data using synthetic data. Results indicate that the deconvolution method requires reflected waves with a signal/noise ratio of about 10:1 or greater. When applied to field data with a signal/noise ratio of 2:1, the method was able to estimate the reflection coefficient and relative permittivity, but the large uncertainty in this estimate precluded inversion for conductivity. ?? Soil Science Society of America.

  11. Psychometric properties of three measures assessing advanced theory of mind: Evidence from people with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kuan-Wei; Lee, Shih-Chieh; Chiang, Hsin-Yu; Syu, Ya-Cing; Yu, Xiao-Xuan; Hsieh, Ching-Lin

    2017-08-17

    Patients with schizophrenia tend to have deficits in advanced Theory of Mind (ToM). The "Reading the mind in the eyes" test (RMET), the Faux Pas Task, and the Strange Stories are commonly used for assessing advanced ToM. However, most of the psychometric properties of these 3 measures in patients with schizophrenia are unknown. The aims of this study were to validate the psychometric properties of the 3 advanced ToM measures in patients with schizophrenia, including: (1) test-retest reliability; (2) random measurement error; (3) practice effect; (4) concurrent validity; and (5) ecological validity. We recruited 53 patients with schizophrenia, who completed the 3 measures twice, 4 weeks apart. The Revised Social Functioning Scale-Taiwan short version (R-SFST) was completed within 3 days of first session of assessments. We found that the intraclass correlation coefficients of the RMET, Strange Stories, and Faux Pas Task were 0.24, 0.5, and 0.76. All 3 advanced ToM measures had large random measurement error, trivial to small practice effects, poor concurrent validity, and low ecological validity. We recommend that the scores of the 3 advanced ToM measures be interpreted with caution because these measures may not provide reliable and valid results on patients' advanced ToM abilities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. A new device to measure the settling properties of suspended particles : instrumental development and first applications during runoff events in small watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legoût, Cédric; Wendling, Valentin; Gratiot, Nicolas; Mercier, Bernard; Coulaud, Catherine; Nord, Guillaume; Droppo, Ian; Ribolzi, Olivier

    2016-04-01

    Most equations describing suspended particle transport balances the settling flux of particles against the turbulent flux of the flow. Although in-situ techniques have been developed to measure settling velocities of suspended particles in coastal areas, floodplain rivers and estuaries, they are not easily transferable to small and meso-scale watersheds. The main limitation lies in the range of concentrations frequently reaching several tens of grams per liter during runoff events. To overcome this instrumental limitation we developed an original System for the Characterization of Aggregates and Flocs (SCAF). An optical settling column, equipped with a vertical array of 16 optical sensors, was used to provide light transmission through a suspension during quiescent settling. It was specifically designed to be inserted in plastic bottles contained in classical sequential samplers, in order to obtain automatic measurements of the suspension immediately after its collection in the river. From the SCAF measurements, we calculate both the particle settling velocity distributions and the propensity of particles to flocculate. The prototypes were tested in laboratory conditions for a wide range of concentrations and material types, leading to consistent measurements with flocculation indices comprised between 0 and 80, respectively for non-cohesive and cohesive materials. First measurements in the field were achieved during runoff events at the outlet of small nested catchments in Lao PDR (MSEC network of environmental observatories) in order to explore the non-conservative behavior of the settling properties of eroded soil aggregates during their transfer.

  13. House supply with alternative energies. Easily installed, saves money and worries.; Hausversorgung mit alternativen Energien. Leicht gemacht, Geld und Aerger gespart.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanus, B.

    2007-07-01

    The book under consideration reports on the application of alternative energy and contains easily understandable operational descriptions of different systems: (a) Central heating plants with wood pellets; (b) Utilization of geothermal heat by heat pumps; (c) Solar-thermal plants; (d) Solar-electrical plants, photovoltaic plants; (e) Constructional measures at new buildings; (f) Constructional measures during the modernisation of older buildings. Disadvantages and weak points receive special attention. Comparisons of costs and hints to possible additional costs consequently are listed and described.

  14. Using 137 Cs measurements to investigate the influence of erosion and soil redistribution on soil properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, P; Walling, D E

    2011-05-01

    Information on the interaction between soil erosion and soil properties is an important requirement for sustainable management of the soil resource. The relationship between soil properties and the soil redistribution rate, reflecting both erosion and deposition, is an important indicator of this interaction. This relationship is difficult to investigate using traditional approaches to documenting soil redistribution rates involving erosion plots and predictive models. However, the use of the fallout radionuclide (137)Cs to document medium-term soil redistribution rates offers a means of overcoming many of the limitations associated with traditional approaches. The study reported sought to demonstrate the potential for using (137)Cs measurements to assess the influence of soil erosion and redistribution on soil properties (particle size composition, total C, macronutrients N, P, K and Mg, micronutrients Mn, Mo, Fe, Cu and Zn and other elements, including Ti and As). (137)Cs measurements undertaken on 52 soil cores collected within a 7 ha cultivated field located near Colebrooke in Devon, UK were used to establish the magnitude and spatial pattern of medium-term soil redistribution rates within the field. The soil redistribution rates documented for the individual sampling points within the field ranged from an erosion rate of -12.9 t ha(-1) yr(-1) to a deposition rate of 19.2 t ha(-1) yr(-1). Composite samples of surface soil (0-5 cm) were collected immediately adjacent to each coring point and these samples were analysed for a range of soil properties. Individual soil properties associated with these samples showed significant variability, with CV values generally lying in the range 10-30%. The relationships between the surface soil properties and the soil redistribution rate were analysed. This analysis demonstrated statistically significant relationships between some soil properties (total phosphorus, % clay, Ti and As) and the soil redistribution rate, but for

  15. Defining allowable physical property variations for high accurate measurements on polymer parts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, A.; Sonne, M. R.; Madruga, D. G.; De Chiffre, L.; Hattel, J. H.

    2016-06-01

    Measurement conditions and material properties have a significant impact on the dimensions of a part, especially for polymers parts. Temperature variation causes part deformations that increase the uncertainty of the measurement process. Current industrial tolerances of a few micrometres demand high accurate measurements in non-controlled ambient. Most of polymer parts are manufactured by injection moulding and their inspection is carried out after stabilization, around 200 hours. The overall goal of this work is to reach ±5μm in uncertainty measurements a polymer products which is a challenge in today`s production and metrology environments. The residual deformations in polymer products at room temperature after injection molding are important when micrometer accuracy needs to be achieved. Numerical modelling can give a valuable insight to what is happening in the polymer during cooling down after injection molding. In order to obtain accurate simulations, accurate inputs to the model are crucial. In reality however, the material and physical properties will have some variations. Although these variations may be small, they can act as a source of uncertainty for the measurement. In this paper, we investigated how big the variation in material and physical properties are allowed in order to reach the 5 μm target on the uncertainty.

  16. Polarized neutron beam properties for measuring parity-violating spin rotation in liquid {sup 4}He

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Micherdzinska, A.M., E-mail: amicherd@gwu.ed [Indiana University/IU Center for Exploration of Energy and Matter, Bloomington, IN 47408 (United States); George Washington University, Washington, DC 20052 (United States); Bass, C.D. [Indiana University/IU Center for Exploration of Energy and Matter, Bloomington, IN 47408 (United States); National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD 20899 (United States); Bass, T.D. [Indiana University/IU Center for Exploration of Energy and Matter, Bloomington, IN 47408 (United States); Gan, K. [George Washington University, Washington, DC 20052 (United States); Luo, D. [Indiana University/IU Center for Exploration of Energy and Matter, Bloomington, IN 47408 (United States); Markoff, D.M. [North Carolina Central University, Durham, NC 27707 (United States); Mumm, H.P.; Nico, J.S. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD 20899 (United States); Opper, A.K. [George Washington University, Washington, DC 20052 (United States); Sharapov, E.I. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna 141980 (Russian Federation); Snow, W.M. [Indiana University/IU Center for Exploration of Energy and Matter, Bloomington, IN 47408 (United States); Swanson, H.E. [University of Washington/CENPA, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Zhumabekova, V. [Al-Farabi Kazakh National University, Al-Farabi Ave. 71, 050038 Almaty (Kazakhstan)

    2011-03-01

    Measurements of parity-violating neutron spin rotation can provide insight into the poorly understood nucleon-nucleon weak interaction. Because the expected rotation angle per unit length is small (10{sup -7} rad/m), several properties of the polarized cold neutron beam phase space and the neutron optical elements of the polarimeter must be measured to quantify possible systematic effects. This paper presents (1) an analysis of a class of possible systematic uncertainties in neutron spin rotation measurements associated with the neutron polarimetry, and (2) measurements of the relevant neutron beam properties (intensity distribution, energy spectrum, and the product of the neutron beam polarization and the analyzing power as a function of the beam phase space properties) on the NG-6 cold neutron beam-line at the National Institute of Standards and Technology Center for Neutron Research. We conclude that the phase space nonuniformities of the polarimeter in this beam are small enough that a parity-violating neutron spin rotation measurement in n-{sup 4}He with systematic uncertainties at the 10{sup -7} rad/m level is possible.

  17. Dry fracture method for simultaneous measurement of in-situ stress state and material properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serata, S. [Serata Geomechanics, Inc., Richmond, CA (United States); Oka, S.; Kikuchi, S. [JDC Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-04-01

    Based on the dry fracture principle, a computerized borehole probe has been developed to measure stress state and material properties, simultaneously. The probe is designed to obtain a series of measurements in a continuing sequence along a borehole length, without any interruptive measures, such as resetting packers, taking indentation of borehole wall, overcoming, etc. The new dry fracture probe for the single fracture method is designed to overcome the difficulties posed by its ancestor which was based on the double fracture method. The accuracy of the single fracture method is confirmed by a close agreement with the theory, FE modeling and laboratory testing.

  18. Measurements of electronic properties of the Miyun 50 m Radio Telescope

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xi-Zhen Zhang; Xin-Ying Zhu; De-Qing Kong; Lei Zheng; Cheng Yao; Hong-Bo Zhang; Yan Su; Ting-Yi Piao

    2009-01-01

    Measurement results of some properties of the Miyun 50 m radio telescope (MRT50) of the National Astronomical Observatories, such as pointing calibration, an-tenna beams, system noise temperature, gain and gain variations with elevation are intro-duced. By using a new de-convolution technique developed by our group, the broadening effect on measured beams caused by the width of an extended radio source has been re-moved so that we obtained higher accuracy on the measurements of MRT50 beams.

  19. Aerosol Properties over Southeastern China from Multi-Wavelength Raman and Depolarization Lidar Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heese Birgit

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A dataset of particle optical properties of highly polluted urban aerosol over the Pearl River Delta, Guangzhou, China is presented. The data were derived from multi-wavelengths Raman and depolarization lidar PollyXT and AERONET sun photometer measurements. The measurement campaign was conducted from Nov 2011 to June 2012. High aerosol optical depth was observed in the polluted atmosphere over this megacity, with a mean value of 0.54 ± 0.33 and a peak value of even 1.9. For the particle characterization the lidar ratio and the linear particle depolarization ratio, both at 532 nm, were used. The mean values of these properties are 48.0 sr ± 10.7 sr for the lidar ratio and 4%+-4% for the particle depolarization ratio, which means most depolarization measurements stayed below 10%. So far, most of these results indicate urban pollution particles mixed with particles arisen from biomass and industrial burning.

  20. Aerosol Properties over Southeastern China from Multi-Wavelength Raman and Depolarization Lidar Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heese, Birgit; Althausen, Dietrich; Baars, Holger; Bohlmann, Stephanie; Deng, Ruru

    2016-06-01

    A dataset of particle optical properties of highly polluted urban aerosol over the Pearl River Delta, Guangzhou, China is presented. The data were derived from multi-wavelengths Raman and depolarization lidar PollyXT and AERONET sun photometer measurements. The measurement campaign was conducted from Nov 2011 to June 2012. High aerosol optical depth was observed in the polluted atmosphere over this megacity, with a mean value of 0.54 ± 0.33 and a peak value of even 1.9. For the particle characterization the lidar ratio and the linear particle depolarization ratio, both at 532 nm, were used. The mean values of these properties are 48.0 sr ± 10.7 sr for the lidar ratio and 4%+-4% for the particle depolarization ratio, which means most depolarization measurements stayed below 10%. So far, most of these results indicate urban pollution particles mixed with particles arisen from biomass and industrial burning.

  1. Dependence of Dynamic Modeling Accuracy on Sensor Measurements, Mass Properties, and Aircraft Geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grauer, Jared A.; Morelli, Eugene A.

    2013-01-01

    The NASA Generic Transport Model (GTM) nonlinear simulation was used to investigate the effects of errors in sensor measurements, mass properties, and aircraft geometry on the accuracy of identified parameters in mathematical models describing the flight dynamics and determined from flight data. Measurements from a typical flight condition and system identification maneuver were systematically and progressively deteriorated by introducing noise, resolution errors, and bias errors. The data were then used to estimate nondimensional stability and control derivatives within a Monte Carlo simulation. Based on these results, recommendations are provided for maximum allowable errors in sensor measurements, mass properties, and aircraft geometry to achieve desired levels of dynamic modeling accuracy. Results using additional flight conditions and parameter estimation methods, as well as a nonlinear flight simulation of the General Dynamics F-16 aircraft, were compared with these recommendations

  2. Characterization of nonlinear properties of black phosphorus nanoplatelets with femtosecond pulsed Z-scan measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xin; Chen, Runze; Shi, Gang; Zhang, Jianwei; Xu, Zhongjie; Cheng, Xiang'ai; Jiang, Tian

    2015-08-01

    The nonlinear properties of black phosphorus (BP) nanoplatelets (NPs) have been characterized with Z-scan measurements under 800-nm femtosecond pulsed laser excitation. A transition from saturable absorption (SA) to reverse saturable absorption (RSA) with the increase of laser intensity was observed in the open-aperture (OA) measurements. Simultaneously, closed-aperture (CA) measurements were carried out to investigate the nonlinear refractive index of BP NPs together, and a value of n(2) ≃(6.8±0.2)×10(-13) m2/W was obtained. The nonlinear absorption properties were analyzed according to the band structure of BP. A theoretical analysis based on SA and two-photon absorption (TPA) was used to determine the nonlinear absorption coefficients from the experimental results, and the TPA coefficient at 800 nm was estimated about (4.5±0.2)×10(-10) m/W.

  3. Anisotropic mechanical properties of magnetically aligned fibrin gels measured by magnetic resonance elastography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namani, Ravi; Wood, Matthew D; Sakiyama-Elbert, Shelly E; Bayly, Philip V

    2009-09-18

    The anisotropic mechanical properties of magnetically aligned fibrin gels were measured by magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) and by a standard mechanical test: unconfined compression. Soft anisotropic biomaterials are notoriously difficult to characterize, especially in vivo. MRE is well-suited for efficient, non-invasive, and non-destructive assessment of shear modulus. Direction-dependent differences in shear modulus were found to be statistically significant for gels polymerized at magnetic fields of 11.7 and 4.7 T compared to control gels. Mechanical anisotropy was greater in the gels polymerized at the higher magnetic field. These observations were consistent with results from unconfined compression tests. Analysis of confocal microscopy images of gels showed measurable alignment of fibrils in gels polymerized at 11.7 T. This study provides direct, quantitative measurements of the anisotropy in mechanical properties that accompanies fibril alignment in fibrin gels.

  4. Material Property Measurement of Metallic Parts using the INEEL Laser Ultrasonic Camera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K. L. Telschow; R. S. Schley; S. M. Watson; V. A. Deason

    1999-08-22

    Ultrasonic waves form a useful nondestructive evaluation (NDE) probe for determining physical, microstructural, and mechanical properties of materials and parts. Noncontacting laser ultrasonic methods are desired for remote measurements and on-line manufacture process monitoring. Researchers at the Idaho National Engineering & Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) have developed a versatile new method for detection of ultrasonic motion at surfaces. This method directly images, without the need for scanning, the surface distribution of subnanometer ultrasonic motion. By eliminating the need for scanning over large areas or complex parts, the inspection process can be greatly speeded up. Examples include measurements on parts with complex geometries through resonant ultrasound spectroscopy and of the properties of sheet materials determined through anisotropic elastic Lamb wave propagation. The operation and capabilities of the INEEL Laser Ultrasonic Camera are described along with measurement results.

  5. Material Property Measurement of Metallic Parts using the INEEL Laser Ultrasonic Camera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Telschow, Kenneth Louis; Deason, Vance Albert; Schley, Robert Scott; Watson, Scott Marshall

    1999-08-01

    Ultrasonic waves form a useful nondestructive evaluation (NDE) probe for determining physical, microstructural, and mechanical properties of materials and parts. Noncontacting laser ultrasonic methods are desired for remote measurements and on-line manufacture process monitoring. Researchers at the Idaho National Engineering & Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) have developed a versatile new method for detection of ultrasonic motion at surfaces. This method directly images, without the need for scanning, the surface distribution of subnanometer ultrasonic motion. By eliminating the need for scanning over large areas or complex parts, the inspection process can be greatly speeded up. Examples include measurements on parts with complex geometries through resonant ultrasound spectroscopy and of the properties of sheet materials determined through anisotropic elastic Lamb wave propagation. The operation and capabilities of the INEEL Laser Ultrasonic Camera are described along with measurement results.

  6. Genetic network properties of the human cortex based on regional thickness and surface area measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna R. Docherty

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available We examined network properties of genetic covariance between average cortical thickness (CT and surface area (SA within genetically-identified cortical parcellations that we previously derived from human cortical genetic maps using vertex-wise fuzzy clustering analysis with high spatial resolution. There were 24 hierarchical parcellations based on vertex-wise CT and 24 based on vertex-wise SA expansion/contraction; in both cases the 12 parcellations per hemisphere were largely symmetrical. We utilized three techniques—biometrical genetic modeling, cluster analysis, and graph theory—to examine genetic relationships and network properties within and between the 48 parcellation measures. Biometrical modeling indicated significant shared genetic covariance between size of several of the genetic parcellations. Cluster analysis suggested small distinct groupings of genetic covariance; networks highlighted several significant negative and positive genetic correlations between bilateral parcellations. Graph theoretical analysis suggested that small world, but not rich club, network properties may characterize the genetic relationships between these regional size measures. These findings suggest that cortical genetic parcellations exhibit short characteristic path lengths across a broad network of connections. This property may be protective against network failure. In contrast, previous research with structural data has observed strong rich club properties with tightly interconnected hub networks. Future studies of these genetic networks might provide powerful phenotypes for genetic studies of normal and pathological brain development, aging, and function.

  7. Genetic network properties of the human cortex based on regional thickness and surface area measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Docherty, Anna R.; Sawyers, Chelsea K.; Panizzon, Matthew S.; Neale, Michael C.; Eyler, Lisa T.; Fennema-Notestine, Christine; Franz, Carol E.; Chen, Chi-Hua; McEvoy, Linda K.; Verhulst, Brad; Tsuang, Ming T.; Kremen, William S.

    2015-01-01

    We examined network properties of genetic covariance between average cortical thickness (CT) and surface area (SA) within genetically-identified cortical parcellations that we previously derived from human cortical genetic maps using vertex-wise fuzzy clustering analysis with high spatial resolution. There were 24 hierarchical parcellations based on vertex-wise CT and 24 based on vertex-wise SA expansion/contraction; in both cases the 12 parcellations per hemisphere were largely symmetrical. We utilized three techniques—biometrical genetic modeling, cluster analysis, and graph theory—to examine genetic relationships and network properties within and between the 48 parcellation measures. Biometrical modeling indicated significant shared genetic covariance between size of several of the genetic parcellations. Cluster analysis suggested small distinct groupings of genetic covariance; networks highlighted several significant negative and positive genetic correlations between bilateral parcellations. Graph theoretical analysis suggested that small world, but not rich club, network properties may characterize the genetic relationships between these regional size measures. These findings suggest that cortical genetic parcellations exhibit short characteristic path lengths across a broad network of connections. This property may be protective against network failure. In contrast, previous research with structural data has observed strong rich club properties with tightly interconnected hub networks. Future studies of these genetic networks might provide powerful phenotypes for genetic studies of normal and pathological brain development, aging, and function. PMID:26347632

  8. A few nascent methods for measuring mechanical properties of the biological cell.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thayer, Gayle Echo; de Boer, Maarten Pieter; Corvalan, Carlos (Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN); Corwin, Alex David; Campanella, Osvaldo H. (Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN); Nivens, David (Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN); Werely, Steven (Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN); Sumali, Anton Hartono; Koch, Steven John

    2006-01-01

    This report summarizes a survey of several new methods for obtaining mechanical and rheological properties of single biological cells, in particular: (1) The use of laser Doppler vibrometry (LDV) to measure the natural vibrations of certain cells. (2) The development of a novel micro-electro-mechanical system (MEMS) for obtaining high-resolution force-displacement curves. (3) The use of the atomic force microscope (AFM) for cell imaging. (4) The adaptation of a novel squeezing-flow technique to micro-scale measurement. The LDV technique was used to investigate the recent finding reported by others that the membranes of certain biological cells vibrate naturally, and that the vibration can be detected clearly with recent instrumentation. The LDV has been reported to detect motions of certain biological cells indirectly through the motion of a probe. In this project, trials on Saccharomyces cerevisiae tested and rejected the hypothesis that the LDV could measure vibrations of the cell membranes directly. The MEMS investigated in the second technique is a polysilicon surface-micromachined force sensor that is able to measure forces to a few pN in both air and water. The simple device consists of compliant springs with force constants as low as 0.3 milliN/m and Moire patterns for nanometer-scale optical displacement measurement. Fields from an electromagnet created forces on magnetic micro beads glued to the force sensors. These forces were measured and agreed well with finite element prediction. It was demonstrated that the force sensor was fully functional when immersed in aqueous buffer. These results show the force sensors can be useful for calibrating magnetic forces on magnetic beads and also for direct measurement of biophysical forces on-chip. The use of atomic force microscopy (AFM) for profiling the geometry of red blood cells was the third technique investigated here. An important finding was that the method commonly used for attaching the cells to a

  9. Spatial concentration distribution analysis of cells in electrode-multilayered microchannel by dielectric property measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Jiafeng; Kodera, Tatsuya; Obara, Hiromichi; Sugawara, Michiko; Takei, Masahiro

    2015-07-01

    The spatial concentration distribution of cells in a microchannel is measured by combining the dielectric properties of cells with the specific structure of the electrode-multilayered microchannel. The dielectric properties of cells obtained with the impedance spectroscopy method includes the cell permittivity and dielectric relaxation, which corresponds to the cell concentration and structure. The electrode-multilayered microchannel is constructed by 5 cross-sections, and each cross-section contains 5 electrode-layers embedded with 16 micro electrodes. In the experiment, the dielectric properties of cell suspensions with different volume concentrations are measured with different electrode-combinations corresponding to different electric field distributions. The dielectric relaxations of different cell concentrations are compared and discussed with the Maxwell-Wagner dispersion theory, and the relaxation frequencies are analysed by a cell polarization model established based on the Hanai cell model. Moreover, a significant linear relationship with AC frequency dependency between relative permittivity and cell concentration was found, which provides a promising way to on-line estimate cell concentration in microchannel. Finally, cell distribution in 1 cross-section of the microchannel (X and Y directions) was measured with different electrode-combinations using the dielectric properties of cell suspensions, and cell concentration distribution along the microchannel (Z direction) was visualized at flowing state. The present cell spatial sensing study provides a new approach for 3 dimensional non-invasive online cell sensing for biological industry.

  10. [Sixty years ago, cell cultures finally permitted the poliomyelitis virus to multiply easily].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chastel, Claude

    2009-01-01

    In 1949, three American virologists, John F. Enders, Thomas H. Weller and Frederick C. Robbins, from the Harvard Medical Scholl and working at the Children's Medical Centre, Boston, Mass., have provoked a true revolution in Virology. Here, they have succeeded in readily multiplying the three poliomyelitis viruses in vitro, in non-nervous cells cultures. A few years afterwards (1954), they were collectively honoured by the Nobel Prize of Physiology and Medicine. This discovery not only has quickly led to the production of efficient poliomyelitis vaccines (J. E. Salk, 1953; A. B. Sabin, 1955) but also has permitted to easily isolate a number of already known viruses (measles, rubella, mumps, herpes simplex and herpes zoster) or until then totally unknown viruses (adenovirus, echovirus, cytomegalovirus). These progresses have significantly contributed to improve diagnosis, sanitary surveillance and vaccinal prophylaxis of human and animal viral diseases. Moreover, the cells cultures techniques have also benefited to other domains of fundamental Biology, such as cellular biology, genetics, cancerology, biology of the reproduction and regenerative medicine as well.

  11. Easily recycled Bi2O3 photocatalyst coatings prepared via ball milling followed by calcination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Lijun; Hu, Xumin; Hao, Liang

    2017-06-01

    Bi2O3 photocatalyst coatings derived from Bi coatings were first prepared by a two-step method, namely ball milling followed by the calcination process. The as-prepared samples were characterized by XRD, SEM, XPS and UV-Vis spectra, respectively. The results showed that monoclinic Bi2O3 coatings were obtained after sintering Bi coatings at 673 or 773 K, while monoclinic and triclinic mixed phase Bi2O3 coatings were obtained at 873 or 973 K. The topographies of the samples were observably different, which varied from flower-like, irregular, polygonal to nanosized particles with the increase in calcination temperature. Photodegradation of malachite green under simulated solar irradiation for 180 min showed that the largest degradation efficiency of 86.2% was achieved over Bi2O3 photocatalyst coatings sintered at 873 K. The Bi2O3 photocatalyst coatings, encapsulated with Al2O3 ball with an average diameter around 1 mm, are quite easily recycled, which provides an alternative visible light-driven photocatalyst suitable for practical water treatment application.

  12. Open window: when easily identifiable genomes and traits are in the public domain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Misha Angrist

    Full Text Available "One can't be of an enquiring and experimental nature, and still be very sensible."--Charles Fort. As the costs of personal genetic testing "self-quantification" fall, publicly accessible databases housing people's genotypic and phenotypic information are gradually increasing in number and scope. The latest entrant is openSNP, which allows participants to upload their personal genetic/genomic and self-reported phenotypic data. I believe the emergence of such open repositories of human biological data is a natural reflection of inquisitive and digitally literate people's desires to make genomic and phenotypic information more easily available to a community beyond the research establishment. Such unfettered databases hold the promise of contributing mightily to science, science education and medicine. That said, in an age of increasingly widespread governmental and corporate surveillance, we would do well to be mindful that genomic DNA is uniquely identifying. Participants in open biological databases are engaged in a real-time experiment whose outcome is unknown.

  13. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring during pregnancy with a new, small, easily concealed monitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tape, T G; Rayburn, W F; Bremer, K D; Schnoor, T A

    1994-12-01

    Before establishing the utility of ambulatory blood pressure monitoring during pregnancy, we evaluated the accuracy of a small, easily concealed monitor. The 59 normotensive pregnant patients were between 13 and 26 gestational weeks. For each monitor reading, two trained observers independently and simultaneously recorded blood pressures using a mercury manometer connected to the monitor cuff. Seven readings in three positions (sitting upright, semirecumbent, standing) were performed on each patient. Averaged differences between the observers' and monitor readings varied from -2.2 to -0.9 mm Hg (systolic) and from -2.8 to -0.6 (fifth-phase diastolic), indicating slight but clinically unimportant overestimation by the monitor. Correlations between averaged observers' readings and the monitor ranged from 0.79 to 0.92 (systolic) and from 0.85 to 0.92 (fifth-phase diastolic). Overall, the observers agreed with the monitor within 5 mm Hg on 94% of systolic readings and 99% of fifth-phase diastolic readings. There was no statistically significant difference in accuracy with changes in body position. We conclude that this small, quiet, noninvasive device accurately determined blood pressures during pregnancy.

  14. An easily-achieved time-domain beamformer for ultrafast ultrasound imaging based on compressive sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Congzhi; Peng, Xi; Liang, Dong; Xiao, Yang; Qiu, Weibao; Qian, Ming; Zheng, Hairong

    2015-01-01

    In ultrafast ultrasound imaging technique, how to maintain the high frame rate, and at the same time to improve the image quality as far as possible, has become a significant issue. Several novel beamforming methods based on compressive sensing (CS) theory have been proposed in previous literatures, but all have their own limitations, such as the excessively large memory consumption and the errors caused by the short-time discrete Fourier transform (STDFT). In this study, a novel CS-based time-domain beamformer for plane-wave ultrasound imaging is proposed and its image quality has been verified to be better than the traditional DAS method and even the popular coherent compounding method on several simulated phantoms. Comparing to the existing CS method, the memory consumption of our method is significantly reduced since the encoding matrix can be sparse-expressed. In addition, the time-delay calculations of the echo signals are directly accomplished in time-domain with a dictionary concept, avoiding the errors induced by the short-time Fourier translation calculation in those frequency-domain methods. The proposed method can be easily implemented on some low-cost hardware platforms, and can obtain ultrasound images with both high frame rate and good image quality, which make it has a great potential for clinical application.

  15. Shaft seals with an easily removable cylinder holder for low-pressure steam turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakharov, A. E.; Rodionov, D. A.; Pimenov, E. V.; Sobolev, A. S.

    2016-01-01

    The article is devoted to the problems that occur at the operation of LPC shaft seals (SS) of turbines, particularly, their bearings. The problems arising from the deterioration of oil-protecting rings of SS and bearings and also the consequences in which they can result are considered. The existing SS housing construction types are considered. Their operational features are specified. A new SS construction type with an easily removable holder is presented. The construction of its main elements is described. The sequence of operations of the repair personnel at the restoration of the new SS type spacings is proposed. The comparative analysis of the new and the existing SS construction types is carried out. The assessment results of the efficiency, the operational convenience, and the economic effect after the installation of the new type seals are given. The conclusions about the offered construction prospects are made by results of the comparative analysis and the carried-out assessment. The main advantage of this design is the possibility of spacings restoration both in SS and in oil-protecting rings during a short-term stop of a turbine, even without its cooling. This construction was successfully tested on the working K-300-23.5 LMP turbine. However, its adaptation for other turbines is quite possible.

  16. Direct PCR: Alternative Diagnostic Method for Diagnosis of Diphtheria Rapidly, Easily and Cost Effective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunarno Sunarno

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Some diseases require immediate and appropriate treatment to decrease the fatality risk patients incident, for example diphtheria. Time to help patients is very crucial since delay of therapy may increase the mortality cases up to 20 times. In other hands, conventional diagnostic methods (the gold standard for diagnosis of diphtheria is time consuming and laborious. Therefore, an alternative diagnostic method which is rapid, easy and inexpensive is needed. In this case, direct PCR has been proved to reduce time and cost in laboratory examination. This study aimed to develop direct PCR as alternative diagnostic method for diagnosis of diphtheria rapidly, easily, and inexpensive. Fifteen samples include 10 isolates of Corynebacterium diphtheriae (toxigenic and 3 isolates of Corynebacterium non- diphtheriae (nontoxigenic and 2 clinical specimens (throat swab was examined by performing direct PCR method and a standard PCR method was used for optimizing the protocols. Result showed that direct PCR can be used to amplify target genes correctly as well as standard PCR. All of C. diphtheriae samples showed bands at 168 bp (dtxR gene marker and 551 bp (tox gene marker while no band appeared in others. Direct PCR detected at least 71 CFU/uL of bacterial cells in samples. We concluded that direct PCR can be used for alternative diagnostic method for diagnosis of diphtheria which is rapid, easy and cost effective.

  17. Easily regenerable solid adsorbents based on polyamines for carbon dioxide capture from the air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goeppert, Alain; Zhang, Hang; Czaun, Miklos; May, Robert B; Prakash, G K Surya; Olah, George A; Narayanan, S R

    2014-05-01

    Adsorbents prepared easily by impregnation of fumed silica with polyethylenimine (PEI) are promising candidates for the capture of CO2 directly from the air. These inexpensive adsorbents have high CO2 adsorption capacity at ambient temperature and can be regenerated in repeated cycles under mild conditions. Despite the very low CO2 concentration, they are able to scrub efficiently all CO2 out of the air in the initial hours of the experiments. The influence of parameters such as PEI loading, adsorption and desorption temperature, particle size, and PEI molecular weight on the adsorption behavior were investigated. The mild regeneration temperatures required could allow the use of waste heat available in many industrial processes as well as solar heat. CO2 adsorption from the air has a number of applications. Removal of CO2 from a closed environment, such as a submarine or space vehicles, is essential for life support. The supply of CO2-free air is also critical for alkaline fuel cells and batteries. Direct air capture of CO2 could also help mitigate the rising concerns about atmospheric CO2 concentration and associated climatic changes, while, at the same time, provide the first step for an anthropogenic carbon cycle.

  18. A comprehensive review on removal of arsenic using activated carbon prepared from easily available waste materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, Monoj Kumar; Garg, Ravi

    2017-05-01

    Arsenic contamination in water bodies is a serious problem and causes various health problems due to which US Environment Protection Agency (USEPA) set its maximum permissible limit of 10 ppb. The present review article starts with the removal of toxic arsenic using adsorbents prepared from easily available waste materials. Adsorbent either commercial or low-cost adsorbent can be used for arsenic removal but recent research was focused on the low-cost adsorbent. Preparation and activation of various adsorbents were discussed. Adsorption capacities, surface area, thermodynamic, and kinetics data of various adsorbents for As(III) and As(V) removal were compiled. Desorption followed by regeneration and reuse of adsorbents is an important step in adsorption and leads to economical process. Various desorbing and regenerating agents were discussed for arsenic decontamination from the adsorbent surface. Strong acids, bases, and salts are the main desorbing agents. Disposal of arsenic-contaminated adsorbent and arsenic waste was also a big problem because of the toxic and leaching effect of arsenic. So, arsenic waste was disposed of by proper stabilization/solidification (S/S) technique by mixing it in Portland cement, iron, ash, etc. to reduce the leaching effect.

  19. Ground-based measurements of aerosol optical properties and radiative forcing in North China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hongbin Chen; Xiangao Xia; Pucai Wang; Wenxing Zhang

    2007-01-01

    In order to gain an insight into the aerosol properties and their climatic effect over the continental source regions of China, it is of significance to carry out long-term ground-based measurements of aerosol optical properties and radiative forcing. A couple of temporary and permanent Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) sites and three comprehensive radiative sites were established in China as a result of international cooperation in recent years. Heavy aerosol loading and significant temporal and spatial variation over North China are revealed by the AERONET data.Aerosol-induced reductions in surface radiation budget are examined on the basis of collocated observations by sun photometers and pyranometers.

  20. A COAXIAL TE011 CAVITY AND A SYSTEM TO MEASURE DC AND RF PROPERTIES OF SUPERCONDUCTORS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gianluigi Ciovati; Peter Kneisel; Ganapati Rao Myneni; Larry Turlington; Gary Slack; Michael Morrone; William Clemens; Richard Bundy; Thomas Elliott; Jayanta Mondal

    2008-01-23

    A coaxial niobium cavity has been designed and built where the center conductor consists of a removable sample. In addition, a system to measure properties such as magnetization, penetration depth, critical temperature and thermal conductivity on the same cylindrical sample has been designed and built. The purpose of this effort is to investigate possible correlations between DC and RF properties of superconductors. In this contribution, the design of the various components is discussed and the test results on a niobium sample obtained so far are presented.

  1. Measurement of the properties of liquids and gases using a transient hot-wire technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, J R; Mulligan, J C

    1978-10-01

    A transient method of making simultaneous, in situ measurements of the thermal conductivity, volumetric specific heat, and kinematic viscosity of liquids and gases is presented. The technique utilizes the temperature response record of a fine horizontal wire, functioning as a resistance thermometer, when subjected to a sudden and constant electrical heating. It is shown that a formulation of the transient mechanisms governing the transition from pure conductive to free convective heat transfer from the wire can be used to produce simultaneous determinations of fluid properties from a single wire temperature versus time record. A simple apparatus is presented, along with the results of its use in determining the properties of air.

  2. A mixed method for measuring low-frequency acoustic properties of macromolecular materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU; Hongwei; YAO; Lei; ZHAO; Hong; ZHANG; Jichuan; XUE; Zhaohong

    2006-01-01

    A mixed method for measuring low-frequency acoustic properties of macromolecular materials is presented.The dynamic mechanical parameters of materials are first measured by using Dynamic Mechanical Thermal Apparatus(DMTA) at low frequencies,usually less than 100 Hz; then based on the Principles of Time-Temperature Super position (TTS),these parameters are extended to the frequency range that acousticians are concerned about,usually from hundreds to thousands of hertz; finally the extended dynamic mechanical parameters are transformed into acoustic parameters with the help of acoustic measurement and inverse analysis.To test the feasibility and accuracy,we measure a kind of rubber sample in DMTA and acquire the basic acoustic parameters of the sample by using this method.While applying the basic parameters to calculating characteristics of the sample in acoustic pipe,a reasonable agreement of sound absorption coefficients is obtained between the calculations and measurements in the acoustic pipe.

  3. Fast and direct measurements of the electrical properties of graphene using micro four-point probes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klarskov, M B; Dam, H F; Petersen, D H; Hansen, T M; Löwenborg, A; Booth, T J; Schmidt, M S; Lin, R; Nielsen, P F; Bøggild, P

    2011-11-04

    We present measurements of the electronic properties of graphene using a repositionable micro four-point probe system, which we show here to have unique advantages over measurements made on lithographically defined devices; namely speed, simplicity and lack of a need to pattern graphene. Measurements are performed in ambient, vacuum and controlled environmental conditions using an environmental scanning electron microscope (SEM). The results are comparable to previous results for microcleaved graphene on silicon dioxide (SiO(2)). We observe a pronounced hysteresis of the charge neutrality point, dependent on the sweep rate of the gate voltage; and environmental measurements provide insight into the sensor application prospects of graphene. The method offers a fast, local and non-destructive technique for electronic measurements on graphene, which can be positioned freely on a graphene flake.

  4. Fast and direct measurements of the electrical properties of graphene using micro four-point probes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klarskov, Mikkel Buster; Dam, Henrik Friis; Petersen, Dirch Hjorth

    2011-01-01

    . Measurements are performed in ambient, vacuum and controlled environmental conditions using an environmental scanning electron microscope (SEM). The results are comparable to previous results for microcleaved graphene on silicon dioxide (SiO2). We observe a pronounced hysteresis of the charge neutrality point......We present measurements of the electronic properties of graphene using a repositionable micro four-point probe system, which we show here to have unique advantages over measurements made on lithographically defined devices; namely speed, simplicity and lack of a need to pattern graphene......, dependent on the sweep rate of the gate voltage; and environmental measurements provide insight into the sensor application prospects of graphene. The method offers a fast, local and non-destructive technique for electronic measurements on graphene, which can be positioned freely on a graphene flake....

  5. Measurement of the Properties of the top Quark at D{\\O}

    CERN Document Server

    Jung, Andreas W

    2011-01-01

    Different measurements of the properties of the top quark using up to $5.4 fb^{-1}$ collected with the D{\\O} detector at the Fermilab Tevatron collider are presented. The top mass is obtained from a study of dilepton and lepton+jets final states, while the width is obtained from a combination of the measurements of the single top production via t-channel exchange and the determination of the t \\rightarrow Wb branching ratio. Furthermore the measurement of the helicity of the W boson from top quark decays, a measurement of $t\\bar{t}$ spin correlations and a measurement of the jet pull (color flow) in $t\\bar{t}$ events are presented.

  6. Measurement of the biaxial properties of nineteenth century canves primings using electronic speckle pattern interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Christina

    1999-07-01

    This paper reports on the use of electronic speckle pattern interferometry (ESPI) for the measurement of the biaxial tensile properties of English 19th century canvas primings and their constituent materials. Typically, such primings are comprised of a complex structure of layers, each with different mechanical properties. ESPI has been shown to be an effective technique for investigating complex composite structures and it is especially useful for understanding the behaviour of heterogeneous materials in which non-uniform strains can occur. The flexibility of canvas primings presents a more difficult application for both biaxial tensile testing and ESPI strain measurements. A series of experiments have been carried out to measure the Poisson's ratio of the three main constituents of a 19th Century priming as composites and of an original 19th century primed canvas. The samples have been uniaxially tensioned on a biaxial tensile tester designed specifically to investigate the mechanical properties of paintings on canvas. Measurements of deformation have made using a two-dimensional in-plane ESPI configuration. The results have shown that Poisson's ratio decreases as the constituents of a painting are built up. Preliminary tests on thermally aged and original primings suggest that for a painting without cracks it is the embrittled paint which determines the mechanical response of the painting at an relative humidity of 35-40%.

  7. Retrieve Optically Thick Ice Cloud Microphysical Properties by Using Airborne Dual-Wavelength Radar Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhien; Heymsfield, Gerald M.; Li, Lihua; Heymsfield, Andrew J.

    2005-01-01

    An algorithm to retrieve optically thick ice cloud microphysical property profiles is developed by using the GSFC 9.6 GHz ER-2 Doppler Radar (EDOP) and the 94 GHz Cloud Radar System (CRS) measurements aboard the high-altitude ER-2 aircraft. In situ size distribution and total water content data from the CRYSTAL-FACE field campaign are used for the algorithm development. To reduce uncertainty in calculated radar reflectivity factors (Ze) at these wavelengths, coincident radar measurements and size distribution data are used to guide the selection of mass-length relationships and to deal with the density and non-spherical effects of ice crystals on the Ze calculations. The algorithm is able to retrieve microphysical property profiles of optically thick ice clouds, such as, deep convective and anvil clouds, which are very challenging for single frequency radar and lidar. Examples of retrieved microphysical properties for a deep convective clouds are presented, which show that EDOP and CRS measurements provide rich information to study cloud structure and evolution. Good agreement between IWPs derived from an independent submillimeter-wave radiometer, CoSSIR, and dual-wavelength radar measurements indicates accuracy of the IWC retrieved from the two-frequency radar algorithm.

  8. Dynamical properties measurements for asteroid, comet and meteorite material applicable to impact modeling and mitigation calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furnish, M.D.; Boslough, M.B. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Gray, G.T. III [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Remo, J.L. [Quantametrics, Inc., St. James, NY (United States)

    1994-07-01

    We describe methods for measuring dynamical properties for two material categories of interest in understanding large-scale extraterrestrial impacts: iron-nickel and underdense materials (e.g. snow). Particular material properties measured by the present methods include Hugoniot release paths and constitutive properties (stress vs. strain). The iron-nickel materials lend themselves well to conventional shock and quasi-static experiments. As examples, a suite of experiments is described including six impact tests (wave profile compression/release) over the stress range 2--20 GPa, metallography, quasi-static and split Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB) mechanical testing, and ultrasonic mapping and sound velocity measurements. Temperature sensitivity of the dynamic behavior was measured at high and low strain rates. Among the iron-nickel materials tested, an octahedrite was found to have behavior close to that of Armco iron under shock and quasi-static conditions, while an ataxite exhibited a significantly larger quasi-static yield strength than did the octahedrite or a hexahedrite. The underdense materials pose three primary experimental difficulties. First, the samples are friable; they can melt or sublimate during storage, preparation and testing. Second, they are brittle and crushable; they cannot withstand such treatment as traditional machining or launch in a gun system. Third, with increasing porosity the calculated Hugoniot density becomes rapidly more sensitive to errors in wave time-of-arrival measurements. Carefully chosen simulants eliminate preservation (friability) difficulties, but the other difficulties remain. A family of 36 impact tests was conducted on snow and snow simulants at Sandia, yielding reliable Hugoniot and reshock states, but limited release property information. Other methods for characterizing these materials are discussed.

  9. Dynamical properties measurements for asteroid, comet and meteorite material applicable to impact modeling and mitigation calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furnish, M. D.; Boslough, M. B.; Gray, G. T., III; Remo, J. L.

    We describe methods for measuring dynamical properties for two material categories of interest in understanding large-scale extraterrestrial impacts: iron-nickel and underdense materials (e.g. snow). Particular material properties measured by the present methods include Hugoniot release paths and constitutive properties (stress vs. strain). The iron-nickel materials lend themselves well to conventional shock and quasi-static experiments. As examples, a suite of experiments is described including six impact tests (wave profile compression/release) over the stress range 2-20 GPa, metallography, quasi-static and split Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB) mechanical testing, and ultrasonic mapping and sound velocity measurements. Temperature sensitivity of the dynamic behavior was measured at high and low strain rates. Among the iron-nickel materials tested, an octahedrite was found to have behavior close to that of Armco iron under shock and quasi-static conditions, while an ataxite exhibited a significantly larger quasi-static yield strength than did the octahedrite or a hexahedrite. The underdense materials pose three primary experimental difficulties. First, the samples are friable; they can melt or sublimate during storage, preparation and testing. Second, they are brittle and crushable; they cannot withstand such treatment as traditional machining or launch in a gun system. Third, with increasing porosity the calculated Hugoniot density becomes rapidly more sensitive to errors in wave time-of-arrival measurements. Carefully chosen simulants eliminate preservation (friability) difficulties, but the other difficulties remain. A family of 36 impact tests was conducted on snow and snow simulants at Sandia, yielding reliable Hugoniot and reshock states, but limited release property information. Other methods for characterizing these materials are discussed.

  10. Comparability of Accounting Choices in Subsequent Measurement of Fixed Assets, Intangible Assets, and Investment Property in South American Companies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Flaida Êmine Alves de Souza; Sirlei Lemes

    2016-01-01

    ... Accounting Standards Board (IASB). In this article, we identified the comparability degree of accounting choices in the subsequent measurement of fixed assets, intangible assets, and investment property (IP...

  11. Psychometric properties of virtual reality vignette performance measures: a novel approach for assessing adolescents' social competency skills

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Paschall, Mallie J; Fishbein, Diana H; Hubal, Robert C; Eldreth, Diana

    This study examined the psychometric properties of performance measures for three novel, interactive virtual reality vignette exercises developed to assess social competency skills of at-risk adolescents...

  12. Impact of parasitic thermal effects on thermoelectric property measurements by Harman method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Beomjin; Baek, Seung-Hyub; Keun Kim, Seong; Kim, Jin-Sang

    2014-04-01

    Harman method is a rapid and simple technique to measure thermoelectric properties. However, its validity has been often questioned due to the over-simplified assumptions that this method relies on. Here, we quantitatively investigate the influence of the previously ignored parasitic thermal effects on the Harman method and develop a method to determine an intrinsic ZT. We expand the original Harman relation with three extra terms: heat losses via both the lead wires and radiation, and Joule heating within the sample. Based on the expanded Harman relation, we use differential measurement of the sample geometry to measure the intrinsic ZT. To separately evaluate the parasitic terms, the measured ZTs with systematically varied sample geometries and the lead wire types are fitted to the expanded relation. A huge discrepancy (˜28%) of the measured ZTs depending on the measurement configuration is observed. We are able to separately evaluate those parasitic terms. This work will help to evaluate the intrinsic thermoelectric property with Harman method by eliminating ambiguities coming from extrinsic effects.

  13. OntologyWidget – a reusable, embeddable widget for easily locating ontology terms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skene JH Pate

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Biomedical ontologies are being widely used to annotate biological data in a computer-accessible, consistent and well-defined manner. However, due to their size and complexity, annotating data with appropriate terms from an ontology is often challenging for experts and non-experts alike, because there exist few tools that allow one to quickly find relevant ontology terms to easily populate a web form. Results We have produced a tool, OntologyWidget, which allows users to rapidly search for and browse ontology terms. OntologyWidget can easily be embedded in other web-based applications. OntologyWidget is written using AJAX (Asynchronous JavaScript and XML and has two related elements. The first is a dynamic auto-complete ontology search feature. As a user enters characters into the search box, the appropriate ontology is queried remotely for terms that match the typed-in text, and the query results populate a drop-down list with all potential matches. Upon selection of a term from the list, the user can locate this term within a generic and dynamic ontology browser, which comprises the second element of the tool. The ontology browser shows the paths from a selected term to the root as well as parent/child tree hierarchies. We have implemented web services at the Stanford Microarray Database (SMD, which provide the OntologyWidget with access to over 40 ontologies from the Open Biological Ontology (OBO website 1. Each ontology is updated weekly. Adopters of the OntologyWidget can either use SMD's web services, or elect to rely on their own. Deploying the OntologyWidget can be accomplished in three simple steps: (1 install Apache Tomcat 2 on one's web server, (2 download and install the OntologyWidget servlet stub that provides access to the SMD ontology web services, and (3 create an html (HyperText Markup Language file that refers to the OntologyWidget using a simple, well-defined format. Conclusion We have developed Ontology

  14. Near field measurements on contrail properties from fuels with different sulfur content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petzold, A. [Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V. (DLR), Wessling (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik der Atmosphaere; Busen, R. [Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V. (DLR), Wessling (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik der Atmosphaere; Schroeder, F.P. [Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V. (DLR), Wessling (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik der Atmosphaere; Baumann, R. [Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V. (DLR), Wessling (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik der Atmosphaere; Kuhn, M. [Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V. (DLR), Wessling (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik der Atmosphaere; Stroem, J. [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Meteorology; Hagen, D.E. [Missouri Univ., Rolla, MO (United States); Whitefield, P.D. [Missouri Univ., Rolla, MO (United States); Baumgardner, D. [National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, Colorado (United States); Arnold, F. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany). Bereich Atmosphaerenphysik; Borrmann, S. [Mainz Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik der Atmosphaere; Schumann, U. [Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V. (DLR), Wessling (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik der Atmosphaere

    1997-08-01

    Microphysical properties of jet engine exhaust aerosol and contrails were studied in the near field of the emitting aircraft for different fuel sulfur contents. Measurements were performed behind the research aircraft ATTAS of DLR and an Airbus A310-300 using fuels with different sulfur contents of 6 ppm and 2700 ppm. The major differences in accumulation mode aerosol and microphysical contrail properties between the used aircraft were an increased number concentration of both the accumulation mode aerosol and the contrail particles in the Airbus A310-300 plume compared to the ATTAS plume. Part of the difference in contrail particles may be caused by different ambient conditions, but the major differences are assumed to be caused by different engine properties. (orig.)

  15. The Sclerotic Scatter Limbal Arc Is More Easily Elicited under Mesopic Rather Than Photopic Conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Denion

    Full Text Available We aimed to determine the limbal lighting illuminance thresholds (LLITs required to trigger perception of sclerotic scatter at the opposite non-illuminated limbus (i.e. perception of a light limbal scleral arc under different levels of ambient lighting illuminance (ALI.Twenty healthy volunteers were enrolled. The iris shade (light or dark was graded by retrieving the median value of the pixels of a pre-determined zone of a gray-level iris photograph. Mean keratometry and central corneal pachymetry were recorded. Each subject was asked to lie down, and the ALI at eye level was set to mesopic values (10, 20, 40 lux, then photopic values (60, 80, 100, 150, 200 lux. For each ALI level, a light beam of gradually increasing illuminance was applied to the right temporal limbus until the LLIT was reached, i.e. the level required to produce the faint light arc that is characteristic of sclerotic scatter at the nasal limbus.After log-log transformation, a linear relationship between the logarithm of ALI and the logarithm of the LLIT was found (p<0.001, a 10% increase in ALI being associated with an average increase in the LLIT of 28.9%. Higher keratometry values were associated with higher LLIT values (p = 0.008 under low ALI levels, but the coefficient of the interaction was very small, representing a very limited effect. Iris shade and central corneal thickness values were not significantly associated with the LLIT. We also developed a censored linear model for ALI values ≤ 40 lux, showing a linear relationship between ALI and the LLIT, in which the LLIT value was 34.4 times greater than the ALI value.Sclerotic scatter is more easily elicited under mesopic conditions than under photopic conditions and requires the LLIT value to be much higher than the ALI value, i.e. it requires extreme contrast.

  16. Threshold concentration of easily assimilable organic carton in feedwater for biofouling of spiral-wound membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hijnen, W A M; Biraud, D; Cornelissen, E R; van der Kooij, D

    2009-07-01

    One of the major impediments in the application of spiral-wound membranes in water treatment or desalination is clogging of the feed channel by biofouling which is induced by nutrients in the feedwater. Organic carbon is, under most conditions, limiting the microbial growth. The objective of this study is to assess the relationship between the concentration of an easily assimilable organic compound such as acetate in the feedwater and the pressure drop increase in the feed channel. For this purpose the membrane fouling simulator (MFS) was used as a model for the feed channel of a spiral-wound membrane. This MFS unit was supplied with drinking water enriched with acetate at concentrations ranging from 1 to 1000 microg C x L(-1). The pressure drop (PD) in the feed channel increased at all tested concentrations but not with the blank. The PD increase could be described by a first order process based on theoretical considerations concerning biofilm formation rate and porosity decline. The relationship between the first order fouling rate constant R(f) and the acetate concentration is described with a saturation function corresponding with the growth kinetics of bacteria. Under the applied conditions the maximum R(f) (0.555 d(-1)) was reached at 25 microg acetate-C x L(-1) and the half saturation constant k(f) was estimated at 15 microg acetate-C x L(-1). This value is higher than k(s) values for suspended bacteria grown on acetate, which is attributed to substrate limited growth conditions in the biofilm. The threshold concentration for biofouling of the feed channel is about 1 microg acetate-C x L(-1).

  17. Superomniphobic and easily repairable coatings on copper substrates based on simple immersion or spray processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangel, Thomaz C; Michels, Alexandre F; Horowitz, Flávio; Weibel, Daniel E

    2015-03-24

    Textures that resemble typical fern or bracken plant species (dendrite structures) were fabricated for liquid repellency by dipping copper substrates in a single-step process in solutions containing AgNO3 or by a simple spray liquid application. Superhydrophobic surfaces were produced using a solution containing AgNO3 and trimethoxypropylsilane (TMPSi), and superomniphobic surfaces were produced by a two-step procedure, immersing the copper substrate in a AgNO3 solution and, after that, in a solution containing 1H,1H,2H,2H-perfluorodecyltriethoxysilane (PFDTES). The simple functionalization processes can also be used when the superomniphobic surfaces were destroyed by mechanical stress. By immersion of the wrecked surfaces in the above solutions or by the spray method and soft heating, the copper substrates could be easily repaired, regenerating the surfaces' superrepellency to liquids. The micro- and nanoroughness structures generated on copper surfaces by the deposition of silver dendrites functionalized with TMPSi presented apparent contact angles greater than 150° with a contact angle hysteresis lower than 10° when water was used as the test liquid. To avoid total wettability with very low surface tension liquids, such as rapeseed oil and hexadecane, a thin perfluorinated coating of poly(tetrafluoroethylene) (PTFE), produced by physical vapor deposition, was used. A more efficient perfluorinated coating was obtained when PFDTES was used. The superomniphobic surfaces produced apparent contact angles above 150° with all of the tested liquids, including hexadecane, although the contact angle hysteresis with this liquid was above 10°. The coupling of dendritic structures with TMPSi/PTFE or directly by PFDTES coatings was responsible for the superrepellency of the as-prepared surfaces. These simple, fast, and reliable procedures allow the large area, and cost-effective scale fabrication of superrepellent surfaces on copper substrates for various industrial

  18. Easily-handled method to isolate mesenchymal stem cells from coagulated human bone marrow samples

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Heng-Xiang; Wang; Zhi-Yong; Li; Zhi-Kun; Guo; Zi-Kuan; Guo

    2015-01-01

    AIM:To establish an easily-handled method to isolate mesenchymal stem cells(MSCs) from coagulated human bone marrow samples. METHODS: Thrombin was added to aliquots of seven heparinized human bone marrow samples to mimic marrow coagulation. The clots were untreated,treated with urokinase or mechanically cut into pieces before culture for MSCs. The un-coagulated samples and the clots were also stored at 4 ℃ for 8 or 16 h before the treatment. The numbers of colony-forming unit-fibroblast(CFU-F) in the different samples were determined. The adherent cells from different groups were passaged and their surface profile was analyzed with flow cytometry. Their capacities of in vitro osteogenesis and adipogenesis were observed after the cells were exposed to specific inductive agents.RESULTS: The average CFU-F number of urokinasetreated samples(16.85 ± 11.77/106) was comparable to that of un-coagulated control samples(20.22 ± 10.65/106,P = 0.293),which was significantly higher than those of mechanically-cut clots(6.5 ± 5.32/106,P < 0.01) and untreated clots(1.95 ± 1.86/106,P < 0.01). The CFU-F numbers decreased after samples were stored,but those of control and urokinase-treated clots remained higher than the other two groups. Consistently,the numbers of the attached cells at passage 0 were higher in control and urokinase-treated clots than those of mechanically-cut clots and untreated clots.The attached cells were fibroblast-like in morphology and homogenously positive for CD44,CD73 and CD90,and negative for CD31 and CD45. Also,they could be induced to differentiate into osteoblasts and adipocytes in vitro. CONCLUSION: Urokinase pretreatment is an optimal strategy to isolate MSCs from human bone marrow samples that are poorly aspirated and clotted.

  19. Individual orientation measurements in quartz polycrystals: advantages and limitations for texture and petrophysical property determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mainprice, David; Lloyd, Geoffrey E.; Casey, Martin

    1993-09-01

    Individual orientation determination of quartz grains by electron channelling in principle gives the complete orientation. However, in routine analysis the noise level in electron channelling patterns (ECPs) does not permit the determination of handedness of a quartz grain in a polycrystal. In practice, all quartz grains are arbitrarily indexed as right-handed. Hence, Dauphiné twins can be identified, but not Brazil twins. This practice also means that only the centrosymmetric petrophysical properties can be determined from texture measurements. These include most geologically relevant properties (e.g. thermal conductivity, thermal expansion and elasticity). However, other properties (e.g. piezoelectricity) which are not centrosymmetric cannot be calculated from such texture measurements. Some texture-forming processes (e.g. dislocation glide) can also be considered to be centrosymmetric in quartz, whereas others (e.g. grain boundary migration) may not be. The method of quantitative texture analysis from individual measurements is briefly recalled. As an example, 382 grains from Tongue quartzite are used to illustrate the advantages of texture analysis from ECPs. The orientation distribution function (ODF) is calculated from ECPs and X-ray pole figures of the same sample. The agreement is found to be good between the two methods, proving that ECPs can be used for quantitative analysis. The methods used in local texture analysis and the definitions of the various misorientation distribution functions (MODFs) are given. Data collected from a traverse of a quartzo-feldspathic shear zone in Lewisian gneiss (Torridon 'quartzite') are used to illustrate local texture analysis. Examples from a region of shear strain of about one are given of core and mantle subgrains and Dauphiné twins. Dispersion trails of the crystallographic axes within a single grain show an apparent rotation about the intermediate structural axis Y. Detailed analysis of the subgrain misorientation

  20. Measuring tendon properties in mdx mice: cell viability and viscoelastic characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzuto, E; Musarò, A; Catizone, A; Del Prete, Z

    2009-10-16

    Muscular dystrophy is a genetic disorder of skeletal muscle characterized by progressive muscle weakness. Here we assessed whether muscle wasting affects cell viability and mechanical properties of extensor digitorum longus (EDL) and of tibialis anterior (TA) tendons from mdx dystrophic mice compared to wild type (WT) mice. mdx mice represent the classical animal model for human Duchenne muscular dystrophy, and show several signs of the pathology, including a decrease in specific force and an increase of fibrotic index. Cell viability of tendons was evaluated by histological analysis, and viscoelastic properties have been assessed by a rapid measurement protocol that allowed us to compute, at the same time, tissue complex compliance for all the frequencies of interest. Confocal microscopy and mechanical properties measurements revealed that mdx tendons, compared to WT ones, have an increase in the number of dead cells and a significant reduction in tissue elasticity for all the frequencies that were tested. These findings indicate a reduced quality of the tissue. Moreover, mdx tendons have an increase in the viscous response, indicating that during dynamic loading, they dissipate more energy compared to WT. Our results demonstrate that muscular dystrophy involves not only muscle wasting, but also alteration in the viscoelastic properties of tendons, suggesting a paracrine effect of altered skeletal muscle on tendinous tissue.

  1. Measuring optical properties of a blood vessel model using optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levitz, David; Hinds, Monica T.; Tran, Noi; Vartanian, Keri; Hanson, Stephen R.; Jacques, Steven L.

    2006-02-01

    In this paper we develop the concept of a tissue-engineered optical phantom that uses engineered tissue as a phantom for calibration and optimization of biomedical optics instrumentation. With this method, the effects of biological processes on measured signals can be studied in a well controlled manner. To demonstrate this concept, we attempted to investigate how the cellular remodeling of a collagen matrix affected the optical properties extracted from optical coherence tomography (OCT) images of the samples. Tissue-engineered optical phantoms of the vascular system were created by seeding smooth muscle cells in a collagen matrix. Four different optical properties were evaluated by fitting the OCT signal to 2 different models: the sample reflectivity ρ and attenuation parameter μ were extracted from the single scattering model, and the scattering coefficient μ s and root-mean-square scattering angle θ rms were extracted from the extended Huygens-Fresnel model. We found that while contraction of the smooth muscle cells was clearly evident macroscopically, on the microscopic scale very few cells were actually embedded in the collagen. Consequently, no significant difference between the cellular and acellular samples in either set of measured optical properties was observed. We believe that further optimization of our tissue-engineering methods is needed in order to make the histology and biochemistry of the cellular samples sufficiently different from the acellular samples on the microscopic level. Once these methods are optimized, we can better verify whether the optical properties of the cellular and acellular collagen samples differ.

  2. Modified T-history method for measuring thermophysical properties of phase change materials at high temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omaraa, Ehsan; Saman, Wasim; Bruno, Frank; Liu, Ming

    2017-06-01

    Latent heat storage using phase change materials (PCMs) can be used to store large amounts of energy in a narrow temperature difference during phase transition. The thermophysical properties of PCMs such as latent heat, specific heat and melting and solidification temperature need to be defined at high precision for the design and estimating the cost of latent heat storage systems. The existing laboratory standard methods, such as differential thermal analysis (DTA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), use a small sample size (1-10 mg) to measure thermophysical properties, which makes these methods suitable for homogeneous elements. In addition, this small amount of sample has different thermophysical properties when compared with the bulk sample and may have limitations for evaluating the properties of mixtures. To avoid the drawbacks in existing methods, the temperature - history (T-history) method can be used with bulk quantities of PCM salt mixtures to characterize PCMs. This paper presents a modified T-history setup, which was designed and built at the University of South Australia to measure the melting point, heat of fusion, specific heat, degree of supercooling and phase separation of salt mixtures for a temperature range between 200 °C and 400 °C. Sodium Nitrate (NaNO3) was used to verify the accuracy of the new setup.

  3. Rigorous bounds on aerosol optical properties from measurement and/or model constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGraw, Robert; Fierce, Laura

    2016-04-01

    Sparse-particle aerosol models are an attractive alternative to sectional and modal methods for representation of complex, generally mixed particle populations. In the quadrature method of moments (QMOM) a small set of abscissas and weights, determined from distributional moments, provides the sparse set. Linear programming (LP) yields a generalization of the QMOM that is especially convenient for sparse particle selection. In this paper we use LP to obtain rigorous, nested upper and lower bounds to aerosol optical properties in terms of a prescribed Bayesian-like sequence of model or simulated measurement constraints. Examples of such constraints include remotely-sensed light extinction at different wavelengths, modeled particulate mass, etc. Successive reduction in bound separation with each added constraint provides a quantitative measure of its contextual information content. The present study is focused on univariate populations as a first step towards development of new simulation algorithms for tracking the physical and optical properties of multivariate particle populations.

  4. Electrical transport measurements and emission properties of freestanding single crystalline CVD diamond samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deferme, W.; Bogdan, A.; Bogdan, G. [Hasselt University, Institute for Materials Research (IMO), Diepenbeek (Belgium); Haenen, K.; Ceuninck, W. de [Hasselt University, Institute for Materials Research (IMO), Diepenbeek (Belgium); IMEC vzw, Division IMOMEC, Diepenbeek (Belgium); Nesladek, M. [Hasselt University, Institute for Materials Research (IMO), Diepenbeek (Belgium); IMEC vzw, Division IMOMEC, Diepenbeek (Belgium); CEA/Saclay, LIST (CEA-Recherche Technologique)/DETECS/SSTM/LTD, Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2007-09-15

    In this work time-of-flight (TOF) measurements are performed on freestanding single crystalline (100) CVD diamond layers with different surface terminations. The transit properties and electron and hole mobility are measured for completely oxidised and completely hydrogenated diamonds. The results clearly show that the different terminations of the diamond surface have an influence on the electrical transport properties. Furthermore, evidence is given that oxygen-induced surface states influence the TOF spectra. Light emission at 235 nm and around 430 nm is observed when applying a pulsed electric field on the diamond. The small peak at 235 nm is attributed to free exciton recombination while the broad band at 430 nm is contributed to A-band luminescence. Emission spectra at voltages as high as 1.4 V/{mu}m are given and compared. (copyright 2007 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  5. Cole-Cole Measurement of Dispersion Properties for Quality Evaluation of Red Wine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Kota; Taka, Yoshinori; Fujiwara, Osamu

    2009-01-01

    In order to evaluate the quality of red wine, measurement of the complex relative permittivity was conducted in the frequency range from 100 MHz to 40 GHz with a network analyzer. Results showed that the Cole-Cole plot of red wine consists of a semicircle at frequencies above 1 GHz and a straight line at frequencies below 1 GHz, which come from the dispersion properties for the water solution of alcohol and ingredients peculiar to red wine, respectively. Based on the Cole-Cole plots measured for seven kinds of red wines made from the same brand of Merlot in different production years, we estimated Debye dispersion parameters to reveal that the alcohol concentration and ingredient property can simultaneously be evaluated from the parameters for the semicircle and straight line, respectively.

  6. In vivo measurement of mechanical properties of human long bone by using sonic sound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, M. Jayed; Rahman, M. Moshiur; Alam, Morshed

    2016-07-01

    Vibration analysis has evaluated as non-invasive techniques for the in vivo assessment of bone mechanical properties. The relation between the resonant frequencies, long bone geometry and mechanical properties can be obtained by vibration analysis. In vivo measurements were performed on human ulna as a simple beam model with an experimental technique and associated apparatus. The resonant frequency of the ulna was obtained by Fast Fourier Transformation (FFT) analysis of the vibration response of piezoelectric accelerometer. Both elastic modulus and speed of the sound were inferred from the resonant frequency. Measurement error in the improved experimental setup was comparable with the previous work. The in vivo determination of bone elastic response has potential value in screening programs for metabolic bone disease, early detection of osteoporosis and evaluation of skeletal effects of various therapeutic modalities.

  7. A new method for measuring the thermal regulatory properties of phase change material (PCM) fabrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, X.; Fan, J.

    2009-02-01

    Several methods already exist for the measurement of the thermal regulatory properties of fabrics containing phase change materials (PCMs). However, they do not adequately simulate the actual use condition; consequently the measurements may not have relevance to the performance of PCM fabrics in actual use. Here we report on the development of a new method, which better simulates the real use situation. In this method, a hot plate, simulating the human body, generates a constant amount of heat depending on the type of human activity to be simulated. The hot plate covered by the PCM fabric is then exposed to a thermal transient simulating a wearer moving from one thermal environment to another; the changes of surface temperature and heat loss of the hot plate are then recorded and used to characterize the thermal regulatory properties of the PCM fabrics.

  8. Development of SH-SAW sensors for measurement of the properties of protein solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roh, Yongrae; Kwon, Yongjun; Kim, Kyungho; Koh, Kwangnak; Kim, Jaeho

    2003-07-01

    We developed new surface acoustic wave (SAW) sensors to measure the properties of protein solutions applying a particular organic thin film on the delay line of transverse type SAW devices. Each delay line is configured as an oscillator. The delay line for a sensing channel is coated with a gold film on which an antibody layer is immobilized by protein A. The sensing delay line selectively adsorbs antigens when exposed to a protein solution, which results in phase delay changes due to the mass loading effects induced by the adsorbed antigens. The other delay line is uncoated for use as a stable reference. The relative change in the frequency of the two oscillators is monitored to measure the concentration of the antigens. Sensor properties investigated include selectivity, sensitivity, response time and stability in response to the antigen concentration as well as the viscosity and electrical conductivity of the protein solution.

  9. Effects of fixation and preservation on tissue elastic properties measured by quantitative optical coherence elastography (OCE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Yuting; Li, Chunhui; Feng, Kairui; Duncan, Robyn; Eisma, Roos; Huang, Zhihong; Nabi, Ghulam

    2016-05-03

    Fixed and preserved tissues have been massively used in the development of biomedical equipment and instrumentation. Not only the tissue morphology, but also its mechanical properties need to be considered in the fixation and preservation procedures since mechanical properties have significant influence on the design and performance of such instruments. Understanding the effects of storage and preservation conditions on the mechanical properties of soft tissue has both clinical and experimental significance. To this end, we aimed to study the effects of tissue preservation (by 10% formalin and Thiel fluids) on the elastic properties of five different kinds of fresh tissues from pig and chicken; specifically fat, liver, muscle, tendon and cartilage. The tissue elasticity was measured intensively and strictly within a controlled timeline of 6 months by quantitative optical coherence elastography (OCE) system. Our findings suggest that the elasticity change of tissues in the formalin solution has an ascending trend, but that of Thiel remains almost constant, providing a more real texture and properties. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Implications of measured properties of the mixing matrix on mass matrices

    CERN Document Server

    Chaturvedi, S; Sánchez-Colón, G; Chaturvedi, Subhash; Gupta, Virendra; Sanchez-Colon, Gabriel

    2006-01-01

    It is shown how the two experimentally measurable properties of the mixing matrix $V$, the asymmetry Delta(V)=|V_{12}|^2- |V_{21}|^2 of V with respect to the main diagonal and the Jarlskog invariant J(V)=Im(V_{11}V_{12}^*V_{21}^*V_{22}), can be exploited to obtain constraints on possible structures of mass matrices in the quark sector. Specific mass matrices are examined in detail as an illustration.

  11. Extraction of glass-wafers electrical properties based on S-parameters measurements of coplanar waveguides

    OpenAIRE

    Mendes, P. M.; Polyakov, A.; Bartek, M.; Burghartz, J.N.; Correia, J.H.

    2003-01-01

    The measured S-parameters of a coplanar waveguide (CPW) propagating the dominant mode were used to obtain the electrical permittivity and the dielectric loss tangent of three different glass wafers: non-alkaline Schott AF45, Corning Pyrex #7740 and Hoya SD-2. These properties were obtained up to 10 GHz. The obtained values were used together with the CPW model in ADS to obtain the simulated S-parameters for the used CPW cell. The obtained results shows good agreement b...

  12. Optimization of displacement-measuring quadrature interferometers considering the real properties of optical components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pozar, Tomaz; Gregorcic, Peter; Mozina, Janez

    2011-03-20

    We present the influence of alignment and the real properties of optical components on the performance of a two-detector homodyne displacement-measuring quadrature laser interferometer. An experimental method, based on the optimization of visibility and sensitivity, was established and theoretically described to assess the performance and stability of the interferometer. We show that the optimal performance of such interferometers is achieved with the iterative alignment procedure described.

  13. A systematic review of mobility instruments and their measurement properties for older acute medical patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berlowitz David J

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Independent mobility is a key factor in determining readiness for discharge for older patients following acute hospitalisation and has also been identified as a predictor of many important outcomes for this patient group. This review aimed to identify a physical performance instrument that is not disease specific that has the properties required to accurately measure and monitor the mobility of older medical patients in the acute hospital setting. Methods Databases initially searched were Medline, Cinahl, Embase, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials without language restriction or limits on year of publication until July 2005. After analysis of this yield, a second step was the systematic search of Medline, Cinahl and Embase until August 2005 for evidence of the clinical utility of each potentially suitable instrument. Reports were included in this review if instruments described had face validity for measuring from bed bound to independent levels of ambulation, the items were suitable for application in an acute hospital setting and the instrument required observation (rather than self-report of physical performance. Evidence of the clinical utility of each potentially suitable instrument was considered if data on measurement properties were reported. Results Three instruments, the Elderly Mobility Scale (EMS, Hierarchical Assessment of Balance and Mobility (HABAM and the Physical Performance Mobility Examination (PPME were identified as potentially relevant. Clinimetric evaluation indicated that the HABAM has the most desirable properties of these three instruments. However, the HABAM has the limitation of a ceiling effect in an older acute medical patient population and reliability and minimally clinically important difference (MCID estimates have not been reported for the Rasch refined HABAM. These limitations support the proposal that a new mobility instrument is

  14. Measurements of the linear elastic properties of the face soft tissues using an aspiration device

    OpenAIRE

    Luboz, Vincent; Promayon, Emmanuel; Payan, Yohan

    2014-01-01

    International audience; Maxillo-facial surgeries have a direct impact on the face shape and appearance. The anatomical variations in the face soft tissues (skin thickness, skin or muscle material parameters…) make it hard to predict the face final shape accurately. Biomechanical modeling could help in this prediction by simulating the soft tissue displacement following the bone remodeling and therefore the patient's face visible outcome. Measuring the variation of the skin properties across a...

  15. Modeling and experimental measurements of thermodynamic properties of natural gas mixtures and their components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez Osorio, Martin Alonso

    Chemical process design requires mathematical models for predicting thermophysical properties. Those models, called equations of state (EoS), need experimental data for parameter estimation and validation. This work presents a detailed description of a vibrating tube densimeter, which is an alternative technique for measurement of p-rho-T data in gases at critical conditions. This apparatus can measure fluids in a temperature range of 300 K to 470 K and pressures up to 140 MPa. This work calibrates the vibrating tube using a physical-based methodology with nitrogen, methane and argon measurements. Carbon dioxide and ethane p-rho-T data validate calibration procedures covering a wide range in density and pressure. The vibrating tube densimeter performs density measurements for nitrogen + methane mixtures for pressures up to 140 MPa. This work also presents a new equation of state (EoS) having a rational form that can describe properties with accuracy comparable to the best multi-parametric equations with less mathematical complexity. This EoS presents the Helmholtz residual energy as a ratio of two polynomial functions in density (no exponential terms in density are included), which can describe the behavior of pure components. The EoS can be transformed to describe other thermophysical properties as pressure, compressibility factor, heat capacity and speed of sound. Also this equation can calculate saturated liquid-vapor properties with 20 times less computational time. This work presents rational EoS for nitrogen, argon and methane applicable in wide ranges of pressure and temperature. Finally, this work proposes a new mixing rule for binary mixtures of gases based upon a quadratic combination of residual Helmholtz energy. This approach divides the energy contribution between interactions of same species and interaction of different species molecules. A rational form is proposed for description of energy interaction between molecules of different species. The

  16. Measurement properties of existing clinical assessment methods evaluating scapular positioning and function. A systematic review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Camilla Marie; Juul-Kristensen, B; Lund, H;

    2014-01-01

    analysis) is rarely available in the clinic, the clinician needs applicable assessment tools to characterise scapular alterations.The aims were to compile a schematic overview of the available clinical scapular assessment methods and critically appraise the methodological quality of the involved studies...... an exhaustive list of scapular assessment methods on the basis of an initial search; 2) Additionally search for studies including clinimetric outcome measures of the identified assessment methods; 3) Critically appraise the methodological quality of the identified measurement properties in each study; and 4...

  17. Wetting properties of AFM probes by means of contact angle measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Zhenhua; Bhushan, Bharat

    2006-09-01

    An atomic force microscopy (AFM) based technique was developed to measure the wetting properties of probe tips. By advancing and receding the AFM tip across the water surface, the meniscus force between the tip and the liquid was measured at the tip-water separation. The water contact angle was determined from the meniscus force. The obtained contact angle results were compared with that by the sessile drop method. It was found that the AFM based technique provided higher contact angle values than the sessile drop method. The mechanisms responsible for the difference are discussed.

  18. A Novel Technology for Measurements of Dielectric Properties of Extremely Small Volumes of Liquids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Na Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A high sensitivity sensor for measurement radio frequency (RF dielectric permittivity of liquids is described. Interference is used and parasitic effects are cancellation, which makes the sensor can catch weak signals caused by liquids with extremely small volumes. In addition, we present the relationship between transmission coefficient and permittivity of liquids under test (LUT. Using this sensor, quantitative measurements of the dielectric properties at 5.8 GHz are demonstrated of LUTs. Experiments show that the proposed method only requires the volume of 160 nanoliters for liquids. Therefore, the technology can be used for RF spectroscopic analysis of biological samples and extremely precious liquids.

  19. Laser patterning: A new approach to measure local magneto-transport properties in multifilamentary superconducting tapes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez Valdes, C.F. [Superconductivity Laboratory, Magnetism Laboratory, IMRE-Physics Faculty, University of Havana, 10400 Havana (Cuba); Perez-Penichet, C. [Superconductivity Laboratory, Magnetism Laboratory, IMRE-Physics Faculty, University of Havana, 10400 Havana (Cuba); Noda, C. [Superconductivity Laboratory, Magnetism Laboratory, IMRE-Physics Faculty, University of Havana, 10400 Havana (Cuba); Arronte, M. [Laser Technology Laboratory, CICATA-IPN, ALTAMIRA, Altamira 89600, TAMPS (Mexico); Batista-Leyva, A.J. [Department of General Physics and Mathematics, InSTEC, 10400 Havana (Cuba); Haugen, O. [Department of Physics, University of Oslo, Blindern, N-0316 Oslo (Norway); Johansen, T.H. [Department of Physics, University of Oslo, Blindern, N-0316 Oslo (Norway); Han, Z. [Applied Superconductivity Research Center, Department of Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Altshuler, E. [Superconductivity Laboratory, Magnetism Laboratory, IMRE-Physics Faculty, University of Havana, 10400 Havana (Cuba)]. E-mail: ea@infomed.sld.cu

    2007-09-15

    The determination of inter- and intra-filament characteristics in superconducting composites such as BSCCO-Ag tapes is of great importance for material evaluation towards applications. Most attempts to separate the two contributions have relied on indirect methods based on magnetic measurements such as SQUID or magneto-optic imaging techniques. Here we show that laser patterning of superconducting BSCCO-Ag tapes constitutes a simple approach to measure local transport properties in a direct way, even able to separate inter- and intra-filament contributions to the overall transport behavior of the sample.

  20. Measuring the properties of shock released Quartz and Parylene-N

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawreliak, James; Karasik, Max; Oh, Jaechul; Aglitskiy, Yefim

    2016-10-01

    The high pressure and temperature properties of Quartz and hydrocarbons are important to high energy density (HED) research and inertial confinement fusion (ICF) science. The bulk of HED material research studies the single shock Hugoniot. Here, we present experimental results from the NIKE laser where quartz and parylene-N are shock compressed to high pressure and temperature and the release state is measured through x-ray imaging. The shock state is characterized by shock front velocity measurements using VISAR and the release state is characterized by using side-on streaked x-ray radiography.

  1. The measurement properties of mentoring relationship quality scales for mentoring programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferro, Annalise; Wells, Samantha; Speechley, Kathy Nixon; Lipman, Ellen; DeWit, David

    2014-10-01

    The measurement properties of two new scales designed to measure global and engagement mentoring relationship quality (Global Mentoring Relationship Quality Scale and Quality of Mentoring Relationship Engagement Scale) were examined among 272 mentors, 491 children, and 554 parents participating in Big Brothers Big Sisters community mentoring programs across Canada. Results demonstrated their unidimensionality, moderate convergent validity, good external validity, and weak-to-moderate reporter concordance. Longitudinal analyses demonstrated good predictive validity of mentor and parent mentoring relationship quality scales with respect to predicting mentoring relationship status.

  2. Apparent and inherent optical properties of turbid estuarine waters: measurements, empirical quantification relationships, and modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doxaran, David; Cherukuru, Nagur; Lavender, Samantha J.

    2006-04-01

    Spectral measurements of remote-sensing reflectance (Rrs) and absorption coefficients carried out in three European estuaries (Gironde and Loire in France, Tamar in the UK) are presented and analyzed. Typical Rrs and absorption spectra are compared with typical values measured in coastal waters. The respective contributions of the water constituents, i.e., suspended sediments, colored dissolved organic matter, and phytoplankton (characterized by chlorophyll-a), are determined. The Rrs spectra are then reproduced with an optical model from the measured absorption coefficients and fitted backscattering coefficients. From Rrs ratios, empirical quantification relationships are established, reproduced, and explained from theoretical calculations. These quantification relationships were established from numerous field measurements and a reflectance model integrating the mean values of the water constituents' inherent optical properties. The model's sensitivity to the biogeochemical constituents and to their nature and composition is assessed.

  3. Influence of skin tissue properties on the radial reference point for glucose measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yue; Xu, Kexin; Ding, Lijun; Shi, Zhenzhi; Chen, Wenliang

    2009-02-01

    A reference position where the diffuse reflectance light intensity is insensitive to the variation of glucose concentration exists in the radial detection space for glucose measurement in the scattering medium such as skin. The signal measured in this position could be used as an inside reference to evaluate the influence on spectrum caused by other interferential factors. The relationship between the position of radial reference point and the skin tissue property is studied in this paper. Three-layer skin models with different optical parameters are designed to get sample sets at 1200~1700nm. In these sets, μa, μs and g of dermis varies respectively, so does the depth of epidermis or dermis. The distribution rule of dispersion of diffuse reflectance light intensity in the radial space is confirmed with the glucose concentration changes. And the distribution property of the radial reference position in every sample set is obtained through Monte Carlo simulation. The result shows that the distance of radial reference position from light source is insensitive to the variation of absorption coefficient or the depth of dermis, but an increased scattering coefficient will shorten the distance; an increased anisotropy coefficient or depth of epidermis will lengthen it. On the basis of that, the optical probes with different structures are designed according to the skin tissue properties. So they could be used for the measurement of corresponding patients, which enhances the practicability of floating reference method greatly.

  4. The doping concentration and physical properties measurement of silicon water using tera hertz wave

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Sung Hyeon; Oh, Gyung Hwan; Kim, Hak Sung [Dept. of Mechanical Convergence Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul(Korea, Republic of)

    2017-02-15

    In this study, a tera hertz time domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) imaging technique was used to measure doping concentration and physical properties (such as refractive index and permittivity) of the doped silicon (Si) wafers. The transmission and reflection modes with an incidence angle of 30° were employed to determine the physical properties of the doped Si wafers. The doping concentrations of the prepared Si wafers were varied from 10{sup 14} to 10{sup 18} in both N-type and P-type cases. Finally, the correlation between the doping concentration and the power of the THz wave was determined by measuring the powers of the transmitted and reflected THz waves of the doped Si wafers. Additionally, the doped thickness, the refractive index, and permittivity of each doped Si wafer were calculated using the THz time domain waveform. The results indicate that the THz-TDS imaging technique is potentially a promising technique to measure the doping concentration as well as other optical properties (such as the refractive index and permittivity) of the doped Si wafer.

  5. Measurement of viscoelastic properties of in vivo swine myocardium using lamb wave dispersion ultrasound vibrometry (LDUV).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban, Matthew W; Pislaru, Cristina; Nenadic, Ivan Z; Kinnick, Randall R; Greenleaf, James F

    2013-02-01

    Viscoelastic properties of the myocardium are important for normal cardiac function and may be altered by disease. Thus, quantification of these properties may aid with evaluation of the health of the heart. Lamb wave dispersion ultrasound vibrometry (LDUV) is a shear wave-based method that uses wave velocity dispersion to measure the underlying viscoelastic material properties of soft tissue with plate-like geometries. We tested this method in eight pigs in an open-chest preparation. A mechanical actuator was used to create harmonic, propagating mechanical waves in the myocardial wall. The motion was tracked using a high frame rate acquisition sequence, typically 2500 Hz. The velocities of wave propagation were measured over the 50-400 Hz frequency range in 50 Hz increments. Data were acquired over several cardiac cycles. Dispersion curves were fit with a viscoelastic, anti-symmetric Lamb wave model to obtain estimates of the shear elasticity, μ(1), and viscosity, μ(2) as defined by the Kelvin-Voigt rheological model. The sensitivity of the Lamb wave model was also studied using simulated data. We demonstrated that wave velocity measurements and Lamb wave theory allow one to estimate the variation of viscoelastic moduli of the myocardial walls in vivo throughout the course of the cardiac cycle.

  6. A new measure for evaluating spatially related properties of traffic information credibility

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李海舰; 董宏辉; 贾利民; 仁墨羽; 秦勇

    2014-01-01

    With the wide applications of sensor network technology in traffic information acquisition systems, a new measure will be quite necessary to evaluate spatially related properties of traffic information credibility. The heterogeneity of spatial distribution of information credibility from sensor networks is analyzed and a new measure, information credibility function (ICF), is proposed to describe this heterogeneity. Three possible functional forms of sensor ICF and their corresponding expressions are presented. Then, two feasible operations of spatial superposition of sensor ICFs are discussed. Finally, a numerical example is introduced to show the calibration method of sensor ICF and obtain the spatially related properties of expressway in Beijing. The results show that the sensor ICF of expressway in Beijing possesses a negative exponent property. The traffic information is more abundant at or near the locations of sensor, while with the distance away from the sensor increasing, the traffic information credibility will be declined by an exponential trend. The new measure provides theoretical bases for the optimal locations of traffic sensor networks and the mechanism research of spatial distribution of traffic information credibility.

  7. Mechanical properties of a primary cilium as measured by resonant oscillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resnick, Andrew

    2015-07-07

    Primary cilia are ubiquitous mammalian cellular substructures implicated in an ever-increasing number of regulatory pathways. The well-established ciliary hypothesis states that physical bending of the cilium (for example, due to fluid flow) initiates signaling cascades, yet the mechanical properties of the cilium remain incompletely measured, resulting in confusion regarding the biological significance of flow-induced ciliary mechanotransduction. In this work we measure the mechanical properties of a primary cilium by using an optical trap to induce resonant oscillation of the structure. Our data indicate 1) the primary cilium is not a simple cantilevered beam; 2) the base of the cilium may be modeled as a nonlinear rotatory spring, with the linear spring constant k of the cilium base calculated to be (4.6 ± 0.62) × 10(-12) N/rad and nonlinear spring constant α to be (-1 ± 0.34) × 10(-10) N/rad(2); and 3) the ciliary base may be an essential regulator of mechanotransduction signaling. Our method is also particularly suited to measure mechanical properties of nodal cilia, stereocilia, and motile cilia-anatomically similar structures with very different physiological functions. Copyright © 2015 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Measurements and empirical model of the acoustic properties of reticulated vitreous carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muehleisen, Ralph T.; Beamer, C. Walter; Tinianov, Brandon D.

    2005-02-01

    Reticulated vitreous carbon (RVC) is a highly porous, rigid, open cell carbon foam structure with a high melting point, good chemical inertness, and low bulk thermal conductivity. For the proper design of acoustic devices such as acoustic absorbers and thermoacoustic stacks and regenerators utilizing RVC, the acoustic properties of RVC must be known. From knowledge of the complex characteristic impedance and wave number most other acoustic properties can be computed. In this investigation, the four-microphone transfer matrix measurement method is used to measure the complex characteristic impedance and wave number for 60 to 300 pore-per-inch RVC foams with flow resistivities from 1759 to 10 782 Pa s m-2 in the frequency range of 330 Hz-2 kHz. The data are found to be poorly predicted by the fibrous material empirical model developed by Delany and Bazley, the open cell plastic foam empirical model developed by Qunli, or the Johnson-Allard microstructural model. A new empirical power law model is developed and is shown to provide good predictions of the acoustic properties over the frequency range of measurement. Uncertainty estimates for the constants of the model are also computed. .

  9. Measurement Properties of the Smartphone-Based B-B Score in Current Shoulder Pathologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claude Pichonnaz

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This study is aimed at the determination of the measurement properties of the shoulder function B-B Score measured with a smartphone. This score measures the symmetry between sides of a power-related metric for two selected movements, with 100% representing perfect symmetry. Twenty healthy participants, 20 patients with rotator cuff conditions, 23 with fractures, 22 with capsulitis, and 23 with shoulder instabilities were measured twice across a six-month interval using the B-B Score and shoulder function questionnaires. The discriminative power, responsiveness, diagnostic power, concurrent validity, minimal detectable change (MDC, minimal clinically important improvement (MCII, and patient acceptable symptom state (PASS were evaluated. Significant differences with the control group and significant baseline—six-month differences were found for the rotator cuff condition, fracture, and capsulitis patient groups. The B-B Score was responsive and demonstrated excellent diagnostic power, except for shoulder instability. The correlations with clinical scores were generally moderate to high, but lower for instability. The MDC was 18.1%, the MCII was 25.2%, and the PASS was 77.6. No floor effect was observed. The B-B Score demonstrated excellent measurement properties in populations with rotator cuff conditions, proximal humerus fractures, and capsulitis, and can thus be used as a routine test to evaluate those patients.

  10. Thermophysical properties of medium density fiberboards measured by quasi-stationary method: experimental and numerical evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troppová, Eva; Tippner, Jan; Hrčka, Richard

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents an experimental measurement of thermal properties of medium density fiberboards with different thicknesses (12, 18 and 25 mm) and sample sizes (50 × 50 mm and 100 × 100 mm) by quasi-stationary method. The quasi-stationary method is a transient method which allows measurement of three thermal parameters (thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity and heat capacity). The experimentally gained values were used to verify a numerical model and furthermore served as input parameters for the numerical probabilistic analysis. The sensitivity of measured outputs (time course of temperature) to influential factors (density, heat transfer coefficient and thermal conductivities) was established and described by the Spearman's rank correlation coefficients. The dependence of thermal properties on density was confirmed by the data measured. Density was also proved to be an important factor for sensitivity analyses as it highly correlated with all output parameters. The accuracy of the measurement method can be improved based on the results of the probabilistic analysis. The relevancy of the experiment is mainly influenced by the choice of a proper ratio between thickness and width of samples.

  11. Thermal property measurement of insulating material used in HTS power device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yeon Suk; Kim, Dong Lak

    2012-10-01

    An experiment to measure the thermal property of insulating material at cryogenic temperature has been performed. The main objective of this study is to develop a precise instrument for measuring the thermal property of insulating materials over a temperature range of 30 K to approximately room temperature by utilizing a cryocooler. In a vacuum chamber, the cold head of the cryocooler is thermally anchored to the copper link and used to bring the apparatus to a desired temperature. An electric heater is placed in the middle of test sample for generating uniform heat flux. The entire apparatus is covered by thermal shields and wrapped in multi-layer insulation to minimize thermal radiation in a vacuum chamber. For a supplied heat flux the temperature distribution in test sample, polypropylene laminated paper (PPLP), is measured in steady state, from which the effective thermal conductivity is calculated and presented with respect to the mean temperature. The correlation near liquid nitrogen temperature is derived from measured data. Moreover, using the measured thermal conductivity, we obtain the specific heat of PPLP by solving one-dimensional heat diffusion equation.

  12. Measurement of Rank and Other Properties of Direct and Scattered Signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svante Björklund

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We have designed an experiment for low-cost indoor measurements of rank and other properties of direct and scattered signals with radar interference suppression in mind. The signal rank is important also in many other applications, for example, DOA (Direction of Arrival estimation, estimation of the number of and location of transmitters in electronic warfare, and increasing the capacity in wireless communications. In real radar applications, such measurements can be very expensive, for example, involving airborne radars with array antennas. We have performed the measurements in an anechoic chamber with several transmitters, a receiving array antenna, and a moving reflector. Our experiment takes several aspects into account: transmitted signals with different correlation, decorrelation of the signals during the acquisition interval, covariance matrix estimation, noise eigenvalue spread, calibration, near-field compensation, scattering in a rough surface, and good control of the influencing factors. With our measurements we have observed rank, DOA spectrum, and eigenpatterns of direct and scattered signals. The agreement of our measured properties with theoretic and simulated results in the literature shows that our experiment is realistic and sound. The detailed description of our experiment could serve as help for conducting other well-controlled experiments.

  13. Measurement properties of the smartphone-based B-B Score in current shoulder pathologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pichonnaz, Claude; Duc, Cyntia; Gleeson, Nigel; Ancey, Céline; Jaccard, Hervé; Lécureux, Estelle; Farron, Alain; Jolles, Brigitte M; Aminian, Kamiar

    2015-10-22

    This study is aimed at the determination of the measurement properties of the shoulder function B-B Score measured with a smartphone. This score measures the symmetry between sides of a power-related metric for two selected movements, with 100% representing perfect symmetry. Twenty healthy participants, 20 patients with rotator cuff conditions, 23 with fractures, 22 with capsulitis, and 23 with shoulder instabilities were measured twice across a six-month interval using the B-B Score and shoulder function questionnaires. The discriminative power, responsiveness, diagnostic power, concurrent validity, minimal detectable change (MDC), minimal clinically important improvement (MCII), and patient acceptable symptom state (PASS) were evaluated. Significant differences with the control group and significant baseline-six-month differences were found for the rotator cuff condition, fracture, and capsulitis patient groups. The B-B Score was responsive and demonstrated excellent diagnostic power, except for shoulder instability. The correlations with clinical scores were generally moderate to high, but lower for instability. The MDC was 18.1%, the MCII was 25.2%, and the PASS was 77.6. No floor effect was observed. The B-B Score demonstrated excellent measurement properties in populations with rotator cuff conditions, proximal humerus fractures, and capsulitis, and can thus be used as a routine test to evaluate those patients.

  14. Vertical Profiles of Aerosol Optical Properties Over Central Illinois and Comparison with Surface and Satellite Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheridan P. J.; Andrews, E.; Ogren, J A.; Tackett, J. L.; Winker, D. M.

    2012-01-01

    Between June 2006 and September 2009, an instrumented light aircraft measured over 400 vertical profiles of aerosol and trace gas properties over eastern and central Illinois. The primary objectives of this program were to (1) measure the in situ aerosol properties and determine their vertical and temporal variability and (2) relate these aircraft measurements to concurrent surface and satellite measurements. Underflights of the CALIPSO satellite show reasonable agreement in a majority of retrieved profiles between aircraft-measured extinction at 532 nm (adjusted to ambient relative humidity) and CALIPSO-retrieved extinction, and suggest that routine aircraft profiling programs can be used to better understand and validate satellite retrieval algorithms. CALIPSO tended to overestimate the aerosol extinction at this location in some boundary layer flight segments when scattered or broken clouds were present, which could be related to problems with CALIPSO cloud screening methods. The in situ aircraft-collected aerosol data suggest extinction thresholds for the likelihood of aerosol layers being detected by the CALIOP lidar. These statistical data offer guidance as to the likelihood of CALIPSO's ability to retrieve aerosol extinction at various locations around the globe.

  15. Measuring physical properties of neuronal and glial cells with resonant microsensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbin, Elise A; Millet, Larry J; Keller, Katrina R; King, William P; Bashir, Rashid

    2014-05-20

    Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) resonant sensors provide a high degree of accuracy for measuring the physical properties of chemical and biological samples. These sensors enable the investigation of cellular mass and growth, though previous sensor designs have been limited to the study of homogeneous cell populations. Population heterogeneity, as is generally encountered in primary cultures, reduces measurement yield and limits the efficacy of sensor mass measurements. This paper presents a MEMS resonant pedestal sensor array fabricated over through-wafer pores compatible with vertical flow fields to increase measurement versatility (e.g., fluidic manipulation and throughput) and allow for the measurement of heterogeneous cell populations. Overall, the improved sensor increases capture by 100% at a flow rate of 2 μL/min, as characterized through microbead experiments, while maintaining measurement accuracy. Cell mass measurements of primary mouse hippocampal neurons in vitro, in the range of 0.1-0.9 ng, demonstrate the ability to investigate neuronal mass and changes in mass over time. Using an independent measurement of cell volume, we find cell density to be approximately 1.15 g/mL.

  16. Retrieval of aerosol microphysical and optical properties above liquid clouds from POLDER/PARASOL polarization measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Waquet

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Most of the current aerosol retrievals from passive sensors are restricted to cloud-free scenes, which strongly reduces our ability to monitor the aerosol properties at a global scale and to estimate their radiative forcing. The presence of aerosol above clouds (AAC affects the polarized light reflected by the cloud layer, as shown by the spaceborne measurements provided by the POlarization and Directionality of Earth Reflectances (POLDER instrument on the PARASOL satellite. In a previous work, a first retrieval method was developed for AAC scenes and evaluated for biomass-burning aerosols transported over stratocumulus clouds. The method was restricted to the use of observations acquired at forward scattering angles (90–120° where polarized measurements are highly sensitive to fine-mode particle scattering. Non-spherical particles in the coarse mode, such as mineral dust particles, do not much polarize light and cannot be handled with this method. In this paper, we present new developments that allow retrieving also the properties of mineral dust particles above clouds. These particles do not much polarize light but strongly reduce the polarized cloud bow generated by the liquid cloud layer beneath and observed for scattering angles around 140°. The spectral attenuation can be used to qualitatively identify the nature of the particles (i.e. accumulation mode versus coarse mode, i.e. mineral dust particles versus biomass-burning aerosols, whereas the magnitude of the attenuation is related to the optical thickness of the aerosol layer. We also use the polarized measurements acquired in the cloud bow to improve the retrieval of both the biomass-burning aerosol properties and the cloud microphysical properties. We provide accurate polarized radiance calculations for AAC scenes and evaluate the contribution of the POLDER polarization measurements for the simultaneous retrieval of the aerosol and cloud properties. We investigate various scenes

  17. Gel stretch method: a new method to measure constitutive properties of cardiac muscle cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zile, M. R.; Cowles, M. K.; Buckley, J. M.; Richardson, K.; Cowles, B. A.; Baicu, C. F.; Cooper G, I. V.; Gharpuray, V.

    1998-01-01

    Diastolic dysfunction is an important cause of congestive heart failure; however, the basic mechanisms causing diastolic congestive heart failure are not fully understood, especially the role of the cardiac muscle cell, or cardiocyte, in this process. Before the role of the cardiocyte in this pathophysiology can be defined, methods for measuring cardiocyte constitutive properties must be developed and validated. Thus this study was designed to evaluate a new method to characterize cardiocyte constitutive properties, the gel stretch method. Cardiocytes were isolated enzymatically from normal feline hearts and embedded in a 2% agarose gel containing HEPES-Krebs buffer and laminin. This gel was cast in a shape that allowed it to be placed in a stretching device. The ends of the gel were held between a movable roller and fixed plates that acted as mandibles. Distance between the right and left mandibles was increased using a stepper motor system. The force applied to the gel was measured by a force transducer. The resultant cardiocyte strain was determined by imaging the cells with a microscope, capturing the images with a CCD camera, and measuring cardiocyte and sarcomere length changes. Cardiocyte stress was characterized with a finite-element method. These measurements of cardiocyte stress and strain were used to determine cardiocyte stiffness. Two variables affecting cardiocyte stiffness were measured, the passive elastic spring and viscous damping. The passive spring was assessed by increasing the force on the gel at 1 g/min, modeling the resultant stress vs. strain relationship as an exponential [sigma = A/k(ekepsilon - 1)]. In normal cardiocytes, A = 23.0 kN/m2 and k = 16. Viscous damping was assessed by examining the loop area between the stress vs. strain relationship during 1 g/min increases and decreases in force. Normal cardiocytes had a finite loop area = 1.39 kN/m2, indicating the presence of viscous damping. Thus the gel stretch method provided accurate

  18. In situ gas analysis for high pressure applications using property measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeller, J; Span, R; Fieback, T

    2013-10-01

    As the production, distribution, and storage of renewable energy based fuels usually are performed under high pressures and as there is a lack of in situ high pressure gas analysis instruments on the market, the aim of this work was to develop a method for in situ high pressure gas analysis of biogas and hydrogen containing gas mixtures. The analysis is based on in situ measurements of optical, thermo physical, and electromagnetic properties in gas mixtures with newly developed high pressure sensors. This article depicts the calculation of compositions from the measured properties, which is carried out iteratively by using highly accurate equations of state for gas mixtures. The validation of the method consisted of the generation and measurement of several mixtures, of which three are presented herein: a first mixture of 64.9 mol. % methane, 17.1 mol. % carbon dioxide, 9 mol. % helium, and 9 mol. % ethane at 323 K and 423 K in a pressure range from 2.5 MPa to 17 MPa; a second mixture of 93.0 mol. % methane, 4.0 mol. % propane, 2.0 mol. % carbon dioxide, and 1.0 mol. % nitrogen at 303 K, 313 K, and 323 K in a pressure range from 1.2 MPa to 3 MPa; and a third mixture of 64.9 mol. % methane, 30.1 mol. % carbon dioxide, and 5.0 mol. % nitrogen at 303 K, 313 K, and 323 K in a pressure range from 2.5 MPa to 4 MPa. The analysis of the tested gas mixtures showed that with measured density, velocity of sound, and relative permittivity the composition can be determined with deviations below 1.9 mol. %, in most cases even below 1 mol. %. Comparing the calculated compositions with the generated gas mixture, the deviations were in the range of the combined uncertainty of measurement and property models.

  19. Assessing medical professionalism: A systematic review of instruments and their measurement properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Honghe; Ding, Ning; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Liu, Yang; Wen, Deliang

    2017-01-01

    Over the last three decades, various instruments were developed and employed to assess medical professionalism, but their measurement properties have yet to be fully evaluated. This study aimed to systematically evaluate these instruments' measurement properties and the methodological quality of their related studies within a universally acceptable standardized framework and then provide corresponding recommendations. A systematic search of the electronic databases PubMed, Web of Science, and PsycINFO was conducted to collect studies published from 1990-2015. After screening titles, abstracts, and full texts for eligibility, the articles included in this study were classified according to their respective instrument's usage. A two-phase assessment was conducted: 1) methodological quality was assessed by following the COnsensus-based Standards for the selection of health status Measurement INstruments (COSMIN) checklist; and 2) the quality of measurement properties was assessed according to Terwee's criteria. Results were integrated using best-evidence synthesis to look for recommendable instruments. After screening 2,959 records, 74 instruments from 80 existing studies were included. The overall methodological quality of these studies was unsatisfactory, with reasons including but not limited to unknown missing data, inadequate sample sizes, and vague hypotheses. Content validity, cross-cultural validity, and criterion validity were either unreported or negative ratings in most studies. Based on best-evidence synthesis, three instruments were recommended: Hisar's instrument for nursing students, Nurse Practitioners' Roles and Competencies Scale, and Perceived Faculty Competency Inventory. Although instruments measuring medical professionalism are diverse, only a limited number of studies were methodologically sound. Future studies should give priority to systematically improving the performance of existing instruments and to longitudinal studies.

  20. Measurements along the growth direction of PMN-PT crystals: dielectric, piezoelectric, and elastic properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Jian; Han, Pengdi; Payne, David A

    2007-09-01

    Property measurements are reported for Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)03-PbTiO3 (PMN-PT) single crystals grown along (001) by a seeded-melt method. Chemical segregation occurs during crystal growth, leading to property changes along the growth direction. Variations in dielectric, piezoelectric, and elastic properties were evaluated for specimens selected from the crystals. Room-temperature data are correlated with Tc and composition that ranged from 27 to 32% PT, i.e., in the vicinity of the morphotropic phase boundary (MPB). While there was little change in the high electromechanical coupling factor k33 (0.87-0.92), both the piezoelectric charge coefficient d33 (1100-1800 pC/N) and the free dielectric constant K3 (4400-7000) were found to vary significantly with position. Increases in d33 and KT33 were relatively offsetting in that the ratio yielded a relatively stable piezoelectric voltage coefficient g33 (27-31 x 10(-3) Vm/N). Values are also reported for the elastic compliance (3.3-6.3 x 10(-11) m2/N) determined from resonance measurements. Enhancements in d33 and K(T)33 were associated with lattice softening (increasing sE33) as the composition approached the MPB. Details are reported for the piezoelectric, dielectric, and elastic properties as a function of growth direction, Tc, and composition. The results are useful for an understanding of properties in PMN-PT crystals and for the design of piezoelectric devices.

  1. Online single particle measurements of black carbon coatings, structure and optical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan, James; Liu, Dantong; Taylor, Jonathan; Flynn, Michael; Williams, Paul; Morgan, William; Whitehead, James; Alfarra, Rami; McFiggans, Gordon; Coe, Hugh

    2016-04-01

    The impacts of black carbon on meteorology and climate remain a major source of uncertainty, owing in part to the complex relationship between the bulk composition of the particulates and their optical properties. A particular complication stems from how light interacts with particles in response to the microphysical configuration and any 'coatings', i.e. non-black carbon material that is either co-emitted or subsequently obtained through atmospheric processing. This may cause the particle to more efficiently absorb or scatter light and may even change the sign of its radiative forcing potential. While much insight has been gained through measurements of bulk aerosol properties, either while suspended or after collection on a filter or impactor substrate, this does not provide a complete picture and thus may not adequately constrain the system. Here we present an overview of recent work to better constrain the properties of black carbon using online, in situ measurements of single particles, primarily using a Single Particle Soot Photometer (SP2). We have developed novel methods of inverting the data produced and combining the different metrics derived so as to give the most effective insights into black carbon sources, processes and properties. We have also used this measurement in conjunction with other instruments (sometimes in series) and used the data to challenge many commonly used models of optical properties such as core-shell Mie, Rayleigh-Debeye-Gans and effective medium. This work has been carried out in a variety of atmospheric environments and with laboratory-produced soots, e.g. from a diesel engine rig. Highlights include the finding that with real-world atmospheric aerosols, bulk optical measurements may be insufficient to derive brown carbon parameters without detailed morphological data. We also show that the enhancement of absorption for both ambient and laboratory generated particles only occurs after the coating mass fraction reaches a certain

  2. Tests examining skill outcomes in sport: a systematic review of measurement properties and feasibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Samuel J; Burnett, Angus F; Cochrane, Jodie

    2014-04-01

    A high level of participant skill is influential in determining the outcome of many sports. Thus, tests assessing skill outcomes in sport are commonly used by coaches and researchers to estimate an athlete's ability level, to evaluate the effectiveness of interventions or for the purpose of talent identification. The objective of this systematic review was to examine the methodological quality, measurement properties and feasibility characteristics of sporting skill outcome tests reported in the peer-reviewed literature. A search of both SPORTDiscus and MEDLINE databases was undertaken. Studies that examined tests of sporting skill outcomes were reviewed. Only studies that investigated measurement properties of the test (reliability or validity) were included. A total of 22 studies met the inclusion/exclusion criteria. A customised checklist of assessment criteria, based on previous research, was utilised for the purpose of this review. A range of sports were the subject of the 22 studies included in this review, with considerations relating to methodological quality being generally well addressed by authors. A range of methods and statistical procedures were used by researchers to determine the measurement properties of their skill outcome tests. The majority (95%) of the reviewed studies investigated test-retest reliability, and where relevant, inter and intra-rater reliability was also determined. Content validity was examined in 68% of the studies, with most tests investigating multiple skill domains relevant to the sport. Only 18% of studies assessed all three reviewed forms of validity (content, construct and criterion), with just 14% investigating the predictive validity of the test. Test responsiveness was reported in only 9% of studies, whilst feasibility received varying levels of attention. In organised sport, further tests may exist which have not been investigated in this review. This could be due to such tests firstly not being published in the peer

  3. Measuring Hugoniot, reshock and release properties of natural snow and simulants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furnish, M.D.; Boslough, M.B.

    1996-02-01

    We describe methods for measuring dynamical properties for underdense materials (e.g. snow) over a stress range of roughly 0. 1 - 4 GPa. Particular material properties measured by the present methods include Hugoniot states, reshock states and release paths. The underdense materials may pose three primary experimental difficulties. Snow in particular is perishable; it can melt or sublime during storage, preparation and testing. Many of these materials are brittle and crushable; they cannot withstand such treatment as traditional machining or launch in a gun system. Finally, with increasing porosity the calculated Hugoniot density becomes rapidly more sensitive to errors in wave time-of-arrival measurements. A family of 36 impact tests was conducted on snow and six proposed snow simulants at Sandia, yielding reliable Hugoniot states, somewhat less reliable reshock 3 states, and limited release property information. Natural snow of density {approximately}0.5 gm/cm{sup 3}, a lightweight concrete of density {approximately}0.7 gm/cm{sup 3} and a {open_quotes}snow-matching grout{close_quotes} of density {approximately}0.28 gm/cm 3 were the subjects of the majority of the tests. Hydrocode calculations using CTH were performed to elucidate sensitivities to edge effects as well as to assess the applicability of SESAME 2-state models to these materials. Simulations modeling snow as porous water provided good agreement for Hugoniot stresses to 1 GPa; a porous ice model was preferred for higher Hugoniot stresses. On the other hand, simulations of tests on snow, lightweight concrete and the snow-matching grout based on (respectively) porous ice, tuff and polyethylene showed a too-stiff response. Other methods for characterizing these materials are discussed. Based on the Hugoniot properties, the snow-matching grout appears to be a better snow simulant than does the lightweight concrete.

  4. Influence of preservation temperature on the measured mechanical properties of brain tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, Badar; Destrade, Michel; Gilchrist, Michael D

    2013-04-26

    The large variability in experimentally measured mechanical properties of brain tissue is due to many factors including heterogeneity, anisotropy, age dependence and post-mortem time. Moreover, differences in test protocols also influence these measured properties. This paper shows that the temperature at which porcine brain tissue is stored or preserved prior to testing has a significant effect on the mechanical properties of brain tissue, even when tests are conducted at the same temperatures. Three groups of brain tissue were stored separately for at least 1h at three different preservation temperatures, i.e., ice cold, room temperature (22 °C) and body temperature (37 °C), prior to them all being tested at room temperature (~22 °C). Significant differences in the corresponding initial elastic shear modulus μ (Pa) (at various amounts of shear, 0≤K≤1.0) were observed. The initial elastic moduli were 1043±271 Pa, 714±210 Pa and 497±156 Pa (mean±SD) at preservation temperatures of ice cold, 22 °C and 37 °C, respectively. Based on this investigation, it is strongly recommended that brain tissue samples must be preserved at an ice-cold temperature prior to testing in order to minimize the difference between the measured in vitro test results and the in vivo properties. A by-product of the study is that simple shear tests allow for large, almost perfectly homogeneous deformation of brain matter. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Towards Measurement of Polarization Properties of Skin using the Ellipsometry Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pejhman Ghassemi

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The human skin is an active medium from the optical point of view. Therefore, the diagnostic and therapeutic techniques employing light are increasing. Current optical techniques are based on the measurement of the intensity of reflected absorbed or backscattered light from or within skin. Studies have shown that biological tissues, and in particular skin, demonstrate polarization properties. Scattering of light from the surface of skin or the layers within it is a function of incident polarization. Therefore, by changing the polarization of the incident light and measuring the backscattered light, we can study those skin properties which affect the state of polarization. Material and methods: We have implemented a scattering ellipsometry system in order to investigate the polarization properties of a phantom representing skin. Using the Stocks vector defining the state of polarization and measuring the elements of the Mueller matrix representing the phantom under study, we have shown that by changing the reflection and scattering properties of the sample, polarization characteristics of the backscattered light will be affected. Results: The results of this investigation showed that some elements of the Mueller matrix of the phantom under study were affected by the polarization state of the incident light and the scattering component within the phantom. Therefore, these elements have the potential of being used as polarization markers of the biological tissue. Discussion and conclusion: Upon interaction of polarized light with the skin tissue, the backscattered light will contain optical and polarization information about the skin. Using a simple laboratory-made phantom, we have shown that by analyzing the polarization information within the backscattered light we can study the cause, and possibly the disease, which affected the polarization characteristics of the skin.

  6. The DIGISOIL multi-sensor system: from geophysical measurements to soil properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandjean, Gilles

    2010-05-01

    The purposes of the multidisciplinary DIGISOIL project are the integration and improvement of in situ and proximal measurement technologies for the assessment of soil properties and soil degradation indicators, going from the sensing technologies to their integration and their application in (digital) soil mapping (DSM). In order to assess and prevent soil degradation and to benefit from the different ecological, economical and historical functions of the soil in a sustainable way, high resolution and quantitative maps of soil properties are needed. The core objective of the project is to explore and exploit new capabilities of advanced geophysical technologies for answering this societal demand. To this aim, DIGISOIL addresses four issues covering technological, soil science and economic aspects: (i) the validation of geophysical (in situ, proximal and airborne) technologies and integrated pedo-geophysical inversion techniques (mechanistic data fusion) (ii) the relation between the geophysical parameters and the soil properties, (iii) the integration of the derived soil properties for mapping soil functions and soil threats, (iv) the pre-evaluation, standardisation and sub-industrialization of the proposed methodologies, including technical and economical studies related to the societal demand. With respect to these issues, the preliminary tasks of the DIGISOIL project were to develop, test and validate the most relevant geophysical technologies for mapping soil properties. The different field tests, realized at this time, allow focusing on technological suitable solutions for each of the identified methods: geoelectric, GPR, EMI, seismics, magnetic and hyperspectral. After data acquisition systems, sensor geometry, and advanced data processing techniques have been developed and validated, we present now the solutions for going from such data to soil properties maps.

  7. The study of measuring technology on the dynamic mechanical properties of welded joint with high strain rate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    In this paper, to meet the needs of studying work of dynamic mechanical properties of welded joint, the dynamic mechanical properties of welded joint were measured by means of SHPB(Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar).The dynamic mechanical property's curves of every part of welded joint were obtained. For studying the dynamic behavior of mechanical heterogeneity of welded joint, important data were offered. The method of test creates a new way of studying dynamic mechanical properties of welded joint.

  8. Reduced-Gravity Measurements of the Effect of Oxygen on Properties of Zirconium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, J.; Lee, J.; Wunderlich, R.; Fecht, H.-J.; Schneider, S.; SanSoucie, M.; Rogers, J.; Hyers, R.

    2016-01-01

    The influence of oxygen on the thermophysical properties of zirconium is being investigated using MSL-EML (Material Science Laboratory - Electromagnetic Levitator) on ISS (International Space Station) in collaboration with NASA, ESA (European Space Agency), and DLR (German Aerospace Center). Zirconium samples with different oxygen concentrations will be put into multiple melt cycles, during which the density, viscosity, surface tension, heat capacity, and electric conductivity will be measured at various undercooled temperatures. The facility check-up of MSL-EML and the first set of melting experiments have been successfully performed in 2015. The first zirconium sample will be tested near the end of 2015. As part of ground support activities, the thermophysical properties of zirconium and ZrO were measured using a ground-based electrostatic levitator located at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center. The influence of oxygen on the measured surface tension was evaluated. The results of this research will serve as reference data for those measured in ISS.

  9. Thermodynamic Properties of Liquid Silver-Antimony-Tin Alloys Determined from Electrochemical and Calorimetric Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łapsa, Joanna; Onderka, Bogusław

    2016-08-01

    The thermodynamic properties of liquid Ag-Sb-Sn alloys were obtained through use of the drop solution calorimetric method and electromotive force (emf) measurements of galvanic cells with a yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) solid electrolyte. The experiments were carried out along Ag0.25Sb0.75, Ag0.5Sb0.5 and Ag0.75Sb0.25 sections of the ternary system in the temperature range from 973 K to 1223 K. From the measured emf, the tin activity in liquid solutions of Ag-Sb-Sn was determined for the first time. The partial and integral enthalpy of mixing were determined from calorimetric measurements at two temperatures. These measurements were performed along two cross-sections: Sb0.5Sn0.5 at 912 K and 1075 K, and Ag0.75Sb0.25 at 1075 K. Both experimental data sets were used to find ternary interaction parameters by applying the Redlich-Kister-Muggianu model of the substitutional solution. Consequently, the set of parameters describing the thermodynamic properties of the liquid phase was derived.

  10. Dynamic Material Property Measurement of Steel Thin Sheets using Laser-Based Ultrasonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagata, Y.; Yamada, H.; Hashiguchi, S.; Lim, C. S.; Park, H. C.; Huh, H. J.; Kang, M. K.; Oh, K. J.

    2014-06-01

    A material property measurement system for steel sheets using laser-based ultrasonics was developed. The system consists of a pulsed Nd:YAG laser for ultrasonic generation and multi-channel interferometer coupled with a CW single frequency laser for ultrasonic detection. The system can measure the frequency of the S1 Lamb wave mode of zero group velocity (S1f) as well as the longitudinal resonance frequencies without ablative damage to the steel surface. It was confirmed that Poisson's ratio could be directly obtained by combining the measured S1f value and the longitudinal resonance frequencies. To evaluate the applicability of this system in an actual steel production setting, the system was installed in hot rolling pilot plant that produces steel samples. As a result, it was demonstrated that the system can measure dynamic changes in Poisson's ratio values within steel sheets, even in the hot rolling pilot plant environment. Material property data, such as Poisson's ratio, during the thin sheet production process will be very useful for manufacturing high value-added steel, such as sheets with uniform quality.

  11. Bayesian inferences of the thermal properties of a wall using temperature and heat flux measurements

    KAUST Repository

    Iglesias, Marco

    2017-09-20

    The assessment of the thermal properties of walls is essential for accurate building energy simulations that are needed to make effective energy-saving policies. These properties are usually investigated through in situ measurements of temperature and heat flux over extended time periods. The one-dimensional heat equation with unknown Dirichlet boundary conditions is used to model the heat transfer process through the wall. In Ruggeri et al. (2017), it was assessed the uncertainty about the thermal diffusivity parameter using different synthetic data sets. In this work, we adapt this methodology to an experimental study conducted in an environmental chamber, with measurements recorded every minute from temperature probes and heat flux sensors placed on both sides of a solid brick wall over a five-day period. The observed time series are locally averaged, according to a smoothing procedure determined by the solution of a criterion function optimization problem, to fit the required set of noise model assumptions. Therefore, after preprocessing, we can reasonably assume that the temperature and the heat flux measurements have stationary Gaussian noise and we can avoid working with full covariance matrices. The results show that our technique reduces the bias error of the estimated parameters when compared to other approaches. Finally, we compute the information gain under two experimental setups to recommend how the user can efficiently determine the duration of the measurement campaign and the range of the external temperature oscillation.

  12. Measurement of uranium dioxide thermophysical properties by the laser flash method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grossi, Pablo Andrade; Ferreira, Ricardo Alberto Neto; Camarano, Denise das Merces [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)], e-mail: pabloag@cdtn.br, e-mail: ranf@cdtn.br, e-mail: dmc@cdtn.br; Andrade, Roberto Marcio de [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica], e-mail: rma@ufmg.br

    2009-07-01

    The evaluation of the thermophysical properties of uranium dioxide (UO{sub 2}), including a reliable uncertainty assessment, are required by the nuclear reactor design. These important information are used by thermohydraulic codes to define operational aspects and to assure the safety, when analyzing various potential situations of accident. The laser flash method had become the most popular method to measure the thermophysical properties of materials. Despite its several advantages, some experimental obstacles have been found due to the difficulty to obtain experimentally the ideals initial and boundary conditions required by the original method. An experimental apparatus and a methodology for estimating uncertainties of thermal diffusivity, thermal conductivity and specific heat measurements based on the laser flash method are presented. A stochastic thermal diffusion modeling has been developed and validated by standard samples. Inverse heat conduction problems (IHCPs) solved by finite volumes technique were applied to the measurement process with real initial and boundary conditions, and Monte Carlo Method was used for propagating the uncertainties. The main sources of uncertainty were due to: pulse time, laser power, thermal exchanges, absorptivity, emissivity, sample thickness, specific mass and dynamic influence of temperature measurement system. As results, mean values and uncertainties of thermal diffusivity, thermal conductivity and specific heat of UO{sub 2} are presented. (author)

  13. Ultrafast Measurement of the Optical Properties of Shocked Nickel and Laser Heated Gold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funk, David J.; Moore, D. S.; Reho, J. H.; Gahagan, K. T.; McGrane, S. D.; Rabie, R. L.

    2002-07-01

    We have used high-resolution Frequency Domain Interferometry (FDI) to make the first ultrafast measurement of shock-induced changes in the optical properties of thin nickel (approx500 nm) targets. Data taken at several angles of incidence allowed the separation of optical effects from material motion, yielding an effective complex index for the shocked material. In contrast to our previous studies of aluminum, measurements with an 800 nm probe wavelength found a phase shift attributable to optical property changes with the same sign as that due to surface motion, during an 11.5 GPa shock breakout. A similar experiment was attempted with thin gold films (approx180 nm) using Ultrafast Spatial Interferometry (USI). However, since the electron-phonon coupling in gold is extremely weak, a shock is observed as it "forms". Ballistic electrons and electron-electron equilibrium cause fast heating of the electrons in the entire thickness of the thin film, followed by lattice excitation through electron-phonon coupling, eventually leading to melt and frustrated thermal expansion yielding the observed surface motion. We suggest that these experiments offer a new path for observation of phase changes or for temperature measurements, by allowing a determination of the complex index under dynamic loading conditions and comparing the measured values to those obtained under static conditions.

  14. Ultrafast NMR T1 relaxation measurements: probing molecular properties in real time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Pieter E S; Donovan, Kevin J; Szekely, Or; Baias, Maria; Frydman, Lucio

    2013-09-16

    The longitudinal relaxation properties of NMR active nuclei carry useful information about the site-specific chemical environments and about the mobility of molecular fragments. Molecular mobility is in turn a key parameter reporting both on stable properties, such as size, as well as on dynamic ones, such as transient interactions and irreversible aggregation. In order to fully investigate the latter, a fast sampling of the relaxation parameters of transiently formed molecular species may be needed. Nevertheless, the acquisition of longitudinal relaxation data is typically slow, being limited by the requirement that the time for which the nucleus relaxes be varied incrementally until a complete build-up curve is generated. Recently, a number of single-shot-inversion-recovery methods have been developed capable of alleviating this need; still, these may be challenged by either spectral resolution restrictions or when coping with very fast relaxing nuclei. Here, we present a new experiment to measure the T1s of multiple nuclear spins that experience fast longitudinal relaxation, while retaining full high-resolution chemical shift information. Good agreement is observed between T1s measured with conventional means and T1s measured using the new technique. The method is applied to the real-time investigation of the reaction between D-xylose and sodium borate, which is in turn elucidated with the aid of ancillary ultrafast and conventional 2D TOCSY measurements. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Thermal properties measurement of dry bulk materials with a cylindrical three layers device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jannot, Y.; Degiovanni, A.

    2013-09-01

    This paper presents a new method dedicated to thermal properties (conductivity and diffusivity) measurement of dry bulk materials including powders. The cylindrical three layers experimental device (brass/bulk material/stainless steel) and the principle of the measurement method based on a crenel thermal excitation are presented. The one-dimensional modeling of the system is used for a sensitivity analysis and to calculate the standard deviation of the estimation error. Experimental measurements are carried out on three bulk materials: glass beads, cork granules, and expanded polystyrene beads. The estimated thermal properties are compared with the values obtained by other measurement methods. Results are in good agreement with theoretical predictions: both thermal conductivity and diffusivity can be estimated with a good accuracy for low density material like cork granules or expanded polystyrene beads since only thermal diffusivity can be estimated for heavier materials like glass beads. It is finally shown that this method like all transient methods is not suited to the thermal characterization of wet bulk materials.

  16. New way of measurement of thermophysical properties of clay loam materials by transient methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boháč, Vlastimil; Dieška, Peter; Vretenár, Viliam; Lukáč, Vladimír

    2016-07-01

    The problem of the measurement of clay loam materials in plastic consistency is more or less difficult as they can change the shape during the long time measurements. The specimen thickness is expected as the constant during all the experiment measured by transient pulse method. In a case of plastic clay loam, it can change the form during the measurement because of the squeeze of the material even under the gravity condition. Thus the specimen surface wall should be reinforced by special dimensionally well-defined thin wall container. In this paper the special container in a form of thin tube rings bounded by central annular ring was constructed and used for the measurements. The heat source was inserted into the tube rings through the nozzle in the middle part and the thermocouple was inserted through the drilled openings at defined distance from the heat source. System clamped the heat source together with the rings at desired distance from the thermocouple. This distance represents the thickness of tested specimen. The soft plastic material fill the inner space of tube rings in such a way to fulfill the geometry conditions for this method. The need of soft clay loam material measurement is to test its thermal properties because of the interest to use it as the heat storage material below the buildings. The measured clay loam containing some moisture has quite high values of specific heat and thus the use of it as the heat storage material is promising.

  17. Traveling wave tube measurements for low-frequency properties of underwater acoustic materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    A traveling wave tube measurement technique for measuring acoustic properties of underwater acoustic materials was developed. Water temperature and pressure environments of the ocean can be simulated in a water-filled tube, and the acoustic parameters of samples of underwater acoustic materials are measured in the range of low-frequency. A tested sample is located at central position of the tube. A pair of projectors is separately located at both ends of the tube. Using an active anechoic technique, the sound wave transmitting the tested sample is hardly reflected by the surface of secondary transducer. So the traveling sound field is built up in the tube. By separately calculating the transfer functions of every pair of double hydrophones in the sound fields from the both sides of the sample, its reflection coefficients and transmission coefficients are obtained. In the measurement system, the inside diameter of the tube is Φ208 mm, the working frequency range is from 100 to 4000 Hz, the maximum pressure is 5 MPa. The reflection coefficients and transmission coefficients of a water layer and a stainless steel layer samples are measured actually and calculated theoretically. The results show that the measured values are in good agreement with the values calculated, and the measurement uncertainty is not greater than 1.5 dB.

  18. Assessment of strain measurement techniques to characterise mechanical properties of structural steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.B. Motra

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Strain measurement is important in mechanical testing. A wide variety of techniques exists for measuring strain in the tensile test; namely the strain gauge, extensometer, stress and strain determined by machine crosshead motion, Geometric Moire technique, optical strain measurement techniques and others. Each technique has its own advantages and disadvantages. The purpose of this study is to quantitatively compare the strain measurement techniques. To carry out the tensile test experiments for S 235, sixty samples were cut from the web of the I-profile in longitudinal and transverse directions in four different dimensions. The geometry of samples are analysed by 3D scanner and vernier caliper. In addition, the strain values were determined by using strain gauge, extensometer and machine crosshead motion. Three techniques of strain measurement are compared in quantitative manner based on the calculation of mechanical properties (modulus of elasticity, yield strength, tensile strength, percentage elongation at maximum force of structural steel. A statistical information was used for evaluating the results. It is seen that the extensometer and strain gauge provided reliable data, however the extensometer offers several advantages over the strain gauge and crosshead motion for testing structural steel in tension. Furthermore, estimation of measurement uncertainty is presented for the basic material parameters extracted through strain measurement.

  19. Preparation and Use of an Easily Constructed, Inexpensive Chamber for Viewing Courtship Behaviors of Fruit Flies, Drosophila sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Timothy J.; Labov, Jay B.

    1997-01-01

    Details the construction of a viewing chamber for fruit flies that connects to a dissecting microscope and features a design that enables students to easily move fruit flies in and out of the chamber. (DDR)

  20. Understanding properties of engineered catalyst supports using contact angle measurements and X-ray reflectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amama, Placidus B; Islam, Ahmad E; Saber, Sammy M; Huffman, Daniel R; Maruyama, Benji

    2016-02-01

    There is significant interest in broadening the type of catalyst substrates that support the growth of high-quality carbon nanotube (CNT) carpets. In this study, ion beam bombardment has been utilized to modify catalyst substrates for CNT carpet growth. Using a combination of contact angle measurements (CAMs) and X-ray reflectivity (XRR) for the first time, new correlations between the physicochemical properties of pristine and engineered catalyst substrates and CNT growth behavior have been established. The engineered surfaces obtained after exposure to different degrees of ion beam damage have distinct physicochemical properties (porosity, layer thickness, and acid-base properties). The CAM data were analyzed using the van Oss-Chaudhury-Good model, enabling the determination of the acid-base properties of the substrate surfaces. For the XRR data, a Fourier analysis of the interference patterns enabled extraction of layer thickness, while the atomic density and interfacial roughness were extracted by analyzing the amplitude of the interference oscillations. The dramatic transformation of the substrate from "inactive" to "active" is attributed to a combined effect of substrate porosity or damage depth and Lewis basicity. The results reveal that the efficiency of catalyst substrates can be further improved by increasing the substrate basicity, if the minimum surface porosity is established. This study advances the use of a non-thermochemical approach for catalyst substrate engineering, as well as demonstrates the combined utility of CAM and XRR as a powerful, nondestructive, and reliable tool for rational catalyst design.

  1. Assessing Physicochemical Properties of Drug Molecules via Microsolvation Measurements with Differential Mobility Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chang; Le Blanc, J C Yves; Schneider, Bradley B; Shields, Jefry; Federico, James J; Zhang, Hui; Stroh, Justin G; Kauffman, Gregory W; Kung, Daniel W; Ieritano, Christian; Shepherdson, Evan; Verbuyst, Mitch; Melo, Luke; Hasan, Moaraj; Naser, Dalia; Janiszewski, John S; Hopkins, W Scott; Campbell, J Larry

    2017-02-22

    The microsolvated state of a molecule, represented by its interactions with only a small number of solvent molecules, can play a key role in determining the observable bulk properties of the molecule. This is especially true in cases where strong local hydrogen bonding exists between the molecule and the solvent. One method that can probe the microsolvated states of charged molecules is differential mobility spectrometry (DMS), which rapidly interrogates an ion's transitions between a solvated and desolvated state in the gas phase (i.e., few solvent molecules present). However, can the results of DMS analyses of a class of molecules reveal information about the bulk physicochemical properties of those species? Our findings presented here show that DMS behaviors correlate strongly with the measured solution phase pKa and pKb values, and cell permeabilities of a set of structurally related drug molecules, even yielding high-resolution discrimination between isomeric forms of these drugs. This is due to DMS's ability to separate species based upon only subtle (yet predictable) changes in structure: the same subtle changes that can influence isomers' different bulk properties. Using 2-methylquinolin-8-ol as the core structure, we demonstrate how DMS shows promise for rapidly and sensitively probing the physicochemical properties of molecules, with particular attention paid to drug candidates at the early stage of drug development. This study serves as a foundation upon which future drug molecules of different structural classes could be examined.

  2. Optical measurement of arterial mechanical properties: from atherosclerotic plaque initiation to rupture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadkarni, Seemantini K.

    2013-12-01

    During the pathogenesis of coronary atherosclerosis, from lesion initiation to rupture, arterial mechanical properties are altered by a number of cellular, molecular, and hemodynamic processes. There is growing recognition that mechanical factors may actively drive vascular cell signaling and regulate atherosclerosis disease progression. In advanced plaques, the mechanical properties of the atheroma influence stress distributions in the fibrous cap and mediate plaque rupture resulting in acute coronary events. This review paper explores current optical technologies that provide information on the mechanical properties of arterial tissue to advance our understanding of the mechanical factors involved in atherosclerosis development leading to plaque rupture. The optical approaches discussed include optical microrheology and traction force microscopy that probe the mechanical behavior of single cell and extracellular matrix components, and intravascular imaging modalities including laser speckle rheology, optical coherence elastography, and polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography to measure the mechanical properties of advanced coronary lesions. Given the wealth of information that these techniques can provide, optical imaging modalities are poised to play an increasingly significant role in elucidating the mechanical aspects of coronary atherosclerosis in the future.

  3. Measurement of Tensile Properties for Thin Aluminium Film by Using White Light Interferometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sang Kyo; Lee, Hak Joo [Korea Institute of Machine and Materials, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Chung Seog [Kumoh National Institute of Technology, Gumi (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-10-15

    Thin films play an important role in many technological applications including microelectronic devices, magnetic storage media, MEMS and surface coatings. It is well known that a thin film's material properties can be very different from the corresponding bulk properties and thus there has been a strong need for the development of a reliable test method to measure the mechanical properties of a thin film. We have developed an alternative and convenient test method to overcome the limitations of previous membrane deflection experiment and uniaxial tensile test by adopting a white light interferometer having sub-nanometer out-of-plane displacement resolution. The free standing aluminium specimens are tested to verify the effectiveness of the test method developed and get the tensile properties. The specimens are 0.5 mm wide, 1 {mu}m thick and fabricated through MEMS processes including sputtering. 1 to 5 specimens are fabricated on Si dies. The membrane deflection experiments are carried out by using a homemade tester consisted of a motor-driven loading tip, a load cell, and 6 DOF alignment stages. The test system is compact enough to set it up beneath a commercial white light interferometric microscope. The white light fringes are utilized to align a specimen with the tester. The Young's modulus and yield point stress of the aluminium film are 62 GPa and 247 MPa, respectively

  4. Overview on Measured Properties of VTT's Edgeless Detectors and their use in High Energy Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalliopuska, Juha; Jakubek, Jan; Tlustos, Lukas

    During the past five years VTT has actively developed fabrication processes for the state-of-the-art edgeless strip and pixel detectors with a negligible dead region at the edges. The article summarizes the measured properties of VTT's edgeless detectors and gives references to the relevant journal papers. The measured properties include leakage current, breakdown voltage and capacitance dependences on the detector thickness and polarity. Earlier X-ray tube and radiation source characterization results are revised and new ones are introduced to reveal a pixel response as a function of bias voltage and pixel location in the detector's pixel matrix. Part of the article concentrates on alpha particle characterization of the detectors, especially to the pixel response properties at the edge regions of the detector. The article shows that the edgeless detectors are not losing charge collections efficiency at the edge and the spectroscopic response is comparable to the inner regions of the detector. In addition, the distortion of the electric field at the edge of the detector is almost independent on the applied reverse bias voltage.

  5. Regional analysis techniques for integrating experimental and numerical measurements of transport properties of reservoir rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alizadeh, S. M.; Latham, S.; Middleton, J.; Limaye, A.; Senden, T. J.; Arns, C. H.

    2017-02-01

    Assessing the mechanisms of micro-structural change and their effect on transport properties using digital core analysis requires balancing field of view and resolution. This typically leads to the compromise of working with relatively small samples, where boundary effects can be substantial. A direct comparison with experiment, as e.g. desirable to eliminate unknown parameters and integrate numerical and physical experiments, needs to consider these boundary effects. Here we develop a workflow to define measuring windows within a sample where these boundary effects are minimised allowing the integration of physical and numerical experiment. We consider in particular sleeve leakage and use a radial partitioning of the solutions to various transport equations to derive relevant regional measures, which may be used for the development of cross-correlations between physical properties. Samples of Bentheimer and Castlegate sandstone as well as Mt. Gambier limestone and a sucrosic dolomite are considered. The sample plugs are encased in rubber sleeves and micro-CT images acquired at ambient conditions. Using these high-resolution images we calculate transport properties, namely permeability and electrical conductivity, and analyse the resulting field solutions with regard to flux across different regions of interest. The latter are selected on the basis of distance to the sample sleeve inner surface. Clear bypassing at the sleeve-sample interface in terms of elevated fluxes is observed for all samples, although to different extent. We consider different sleeve boundary conditions to define a measuring window minimising these effects, use the procedure to compare flux averages defined over these measuring windows with conventional choices of simulation domains, and compare resulting physical cross-correlations.

  6. Non-Invasive Diagnostics for Measuring Physical Properties and Processes in High Level Wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert Powell; David Pfund

    2005-07-17

    This research demonstrated the usefulness of tomographic techniques for determining the physical properties of slurry suspensions. Of particular interest was the measurement of the viscosity of suspensions in complex liquids and modeling these. We undertook a long rage program that used two techniques, magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasonic pulsed Doppler velocimetry. Our laboratory originally developed both of these for the measurement of viscosity of complex liquids and suspensions. We have shown that the relationship between shear viscosity and shear rate can be determined over a wide range of shear rates from a single measurement. We have also demonstrated these techniques for many non-Newtonian fluids which demonstrate highly shear thinning behavior. This technique was extended to determine the yield stress with systems of interacting particles. To model complex slurries that may be found in wastes applications, we have also used complex slurries that are found in industrial applications

  7. ATLAS measurements of the properties of jets for boosted particle searches

    CERN Document Server

    Aad, Georges; Abdallah, Jalal; Abdel Khalek, Samah; Abdelalim, Ahmed Ali; Abdinov, Ovsat; Abi, Babak; Abolins, Maris; AbouZeid, Ossama; Abramowicz, Halina; Abreu, Henso; Acerbi, Emilio; Acharya, Bobby Samir; Adamczyk, Leszek; Adams, David; Addy, Tetteh; Adelman, Jahred; Adomeit, Stefanie; Adragna, Paolo; Adye, Tim; Aefsky, Scott; Aguilar-Saavedra, Juan Antonio; Aharrouche, Mohamed; Ahlen, Steven; Ahles, Florian; Ahmad, Ashfaq; Ahsan, Mahsana; Aielli, Giulio; Akdogan, Taylan; Å kesson, Torsten Paul Ake; Akimoto, Ginga; Akimov, Andrei; Akiyama, Kunihiro; Alam, Mohammad; Alam, Muhammad Aftab; Albert, Justin; Albrand, Solveig; Aleksa, Martin; Aleksandrov, Igor; Alessandria, Franco; Alexa, Calin; Alexander, Gideon; Alexandre, Gauthier; Alexopoulos, Theodoros; Alhroob, Muhammad; Aliev, Malik; Alimonti, Gianluca; Alison, John; Allbrooke, Benedict; Allport, Phillip; Allwood-Spiers, Sarah; Almond, John; Aloisio, Alberto; Alon, Raz; Alonso, Alejandro; Alvarez Gonzalez, Barbara; Alviggi, Mariagrazia; Amako, Katsuya; Amelung, Christoph; Ammosov, Vladimir; Amorim, Antonio; Amram, Nir; Anastopoulos, Christos; Ancu, Lucian Stefan; Andari, Nansi; Andeen, Timothy; Anders, Christoph Falk; Anders, Gabriel; Anderson, Kelby; Andreazza, Attilio; Andrei, George Victor; Anduaga, Xabier; Anger, Philipp; Angerami, Aaron; Anghinolfi, Francis; Anisenkov, Alexey; Anjos, Nuno; Annovi, Alberto; Antonaki, Ariadni; Antonelli, Mario; Antonov, Alexey; Antos, Jaroslav; Anulli, Fabio; Aoun, Sahar; Aperio Bella, Ludovica; Apolle, Rudi; Arabidze, Giorgi; Aracena, Ignacio; Arai, Yasuo; Arce, Ayana; Arfaoui, Samir; Arguin, Jean-Francois; Arik, Engin; Arik, Metin; Armbruster, Aaron James; Arnaez, Olivier; Arnal, Vanessa; Arnault, Christian; Artamonov, Andrei; Artoni, Giacomo; Arutinov, David; Asai, Shoji; Asfandiyarov, Ruslan; Ask, Stefan; Å sman, Barbro; Asquith, Lily; Assamagan, Ketevi; Astbury, Alan; Aubert, Bernard; Auge, Etienne; Augsten, Kamil; Aurousseau, Mathieu; Avolio, Giuseppe; Avramidou, Rachel Maria; Axen, David; Azuelos, Georges; Azuma, Yuya; Baak, Max; Baccaglioni, Giuseppe; Bacci, Cesare; Bach, Andre; Bachacou, Henri; Bachas, Konstantinos; Backes, Moritz; Backhaus, Malte; Badescu, Elisabeta; Bagnaia, Paolo; Bahinipati, Seema; Bai, Yu; Bailey, David; Bain, Travis; Baines, John; Baker, Oliver Keith; Baker, Mark; Baker, Sarah; Banas, Elzbieta; Banerjee, Piyali; Banerjee, Swagato; Banfi, Danilo; Bangert, Andrea Michelle; Bansal, Vikas; Bansil, Hardeep Singh; Barak, Liron; Baranov, Sergei; Barbaro Galtieri, Angela; Barber, Tom; Barberio, Elisabetta Luigia; Barberis, Dario; Barbero, Marlon; Bardin, Dmitri; Barillari, Teresa; Barisonzi, Marcello; Barklow, Timothy; Barlow, Nick; Barnett, Bruce; Barnett, Michael; Baroncelli, Antonio; Barone, Gaetano; Barr, Alan; Barreiro, Fernando; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, João; Barrillon, Pierre; Bartoldus, Rainer; Barton, Adam Edward; Bartsch, Valeria; Bates, Richard; Batkova, Lucia; Batley, Richard; Battaglia, Andreas; Battistin, Michele; Bauer, Florian; Bawa, Harinder Singh; Beale, Steven; Beau, Tristan; Beauchemin, Pierre-Hugues; Beccherle, Roberto; Bechtle, Philip; Beck, Hans Peter; Becker, Anne Kathrin; Becker, Sebastian; Beckingham, Matthew; Becks, Karl-Heinz; Beddall, Andrew; Beddall, Ayda; Bedikian, Sourpouhi; Bednyakov, Vadim; Bee, Christopher; Begel, Michael; Behar Harpaz, Silvia; Beimforde, Michael; Belanger-Champagne, Camille; Bell, Paul; Bell, William; Bella, Gideon; Bellagamba, Lorenzo; Bellina, Francesco; Bellomo, Massimiliano; Belloni, Alberto; Beloborodova, Olga; Belotskiy, Konstantin; Beltramello, Olga; Benary, Odette; Benchekroun, Driss; Bendtz, Katarina; Benekos, Nektarios; Benhammou, Yan; Benhar Noccioli, Eleonora; Benitez Garcia, Jorge-Armando; Benjamin, Douglas; Benoit, Mathieu; Bensinger, James; Benslama, Kamal; Bentvelsen, Stan; Berge, David; Bergeaas Kuutmann, Elin; Berger, Nicolas; Berghaus, Frank; Berglund, Elina; Beringer, Jürg; Bernat, Pauline; Bernhard, Ralf; Bernius, Catrin; Berry, Tracey; Bertella, Claudia; Bertin, Antonio; Bertolucci, Federico; Besana, Maria Ilaria; Besjes, Geert-Jan; Besson, Nathalie; Bethke, Siegfried; Bhimji, Wahid; Bianchi, Riccardo-Maria; Bianco, Michele; Biebel, Otmar; Bieniek, Stephen Paul; Bierwagen, Katharina; Biesiada, Jed; Biglietti, Michela; Bilokon, Halina; Bindi, Marcello; Binet, Sebastien; Bingul, Ahmet; Bini, Cesare; Biscarat, Catherine; Bitenc, Urban; Black, Kevin; Blair, Robert; Blanchard, Jean-Baptiste; Blanchot, Georges; Blazek, Tomas; Blocker, Craig; Blocki, Jacek; Blondel, Alain; Blum, Walter; Blumenschein, Ulrike; Bobbink, Gerjan

    2012-01-01

    Measurements are presented of the properties of high transverse momentum jets, produced in proton-proton collisions at a center-of-mass energy of $\\sqrt{s}$ = 7 TeV. The data correspond to an integrated luminosity of 35 pb$^{-1}$ and were collected with the ATLAS detector in 2010. Jet mass, width, eccentricity, planar flow and angularity are measured for jets reconstructed using the anti-kt algorithm with distance parameters R = 0.6 and 1.0, with transverse momentum pT > 300 GeV and pseudorapidity |$\\eta$| < 2. The measurements are compared to the expectations of Monte Carlo generators that match leading-logarithmic parton showers to leading-order, or next-to-leading-order, matrix elements. The generators describe the general features of the jets, although discrepancies are observed in some distributions.

  8. SAGE II Measurements of Stratospheric Aerosol Properties at Non-Volcanic Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomason, Larry W.; Burton, Sharon P.; Luo, Bei-Ping; Peter, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Since 2000, stratospheric aerosol levels have been relatively stable and at the lowest levels observed in the historical record. Given the challenges of making satellite measurements of aerosol properties at these levels, we have performed a study of the sensitivity of the product to the major components of the processing algorithm used in the production of SAGE II aerosol extinction measurements and the retrieval process that produces the operational surface area density (SAD) product. We find that the aerosol extinction measurements, particularly at 1020 nm, remain robust and reliable at the observed aerosol levels. On the other hand, during background periods, the SAD operational product has an uncertainty of at least a factor of 2 during due to the lack of sensitivity to particles with radii less than 100 nm.

  9. Ultrasonic sensor properties characterized by a PC-controlled scanning measuring system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henning; Prange; Dierks; Daur

    2000-03-01

    The use of ultrasonic sensors for process control is currently widespread for flow, level or distance measurements. Recently, interest has increased, too in the application of ultrasonic sensors to concentration measurements in complex liquids. In this application there are high demands for a defined and stable quality of the properties of both the sensor transfer function and the sound field characteristic. For a detailed investigation and characterization of ultrasonic sensor propertiess, an efficient PC-controlled measuring system was developed by the Institut fur Automation und Kommunikation (IFAK). In this contribution, this high performance approach is presented to make visible the vibrating ultrasonic sensor surface as well as the sound field in front of acoustic sensors in liquids.

  10. Defining Allowable Physical Property Variations for High Accurate Measurements on Polymer Parts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohammadi, Ali; Sonne, Mads Rostgaard; Madruga, Daniel González;

    2015-01-01

    cooling down after injection molding. In order to obtain accurate simulations, accurate inputs to the model are crucial. In reality however, the material and physical properties will have some variations. Although these variations may be small, they can act as a source of uncertainty for the measurement...... high accurate measurements in non-controlled ambient. Most of polymer parts are manufactured by injection moulding and their inspection is carried out after stabilization, around 200 hours. The overall goal of this work is to reach ±5μm in uncertainty measurements a polymer products which...... is a challenge in today‘s production and metrology environments. The residual deformations in polymer products at room temperature after injection molding are important when micrometer accuracy needs to be achieved. Numerical modelling can give a valuable insight to what is happening in the polymer during...

  11. A measure of localization properties of one-dimensional single electron lattice systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gong, Longyan, E-mail: lygong@njupt.edu.cn [Information Physics Research Center and Department of Applied Physics, Nanjing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Nanjing 210003 (China); Institute of Signal Processing and Transmission, Nanjing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Nanjing 210003 (China); National Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Li, Wenjia [Information Physics Research Center and Department of Applied Physics, Nanjing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Nanjing 210003 (China); Institute of Signal Processing and Transmission, Nanjing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Nanjing 210003 (China); Zhao, Shengmei, E-mail: zhaosm@njupt.edu.cn [Institute of Signal Processing and Transmission, Nanjing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Nanjing 210003 (China); Cheng, Weiwen, E-mail: wwcheng@njupt.edu.cn [Institute of Signal Processing and Transmission, Nanjing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Nanjing 210003 (China); National Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)

    2016-01-08

    We propose a novel quantity to measure the degree of localization properties of various types of one-dimension single electron states. The quantity includes information about the spatial variation of probability density of quantum states. Numerical results show that it can distinguish localized states from delocalized ones, so it can be used as a fruitful index to monitor the localization–delocalization transition. Comparing with existing measures, such as geometric average density of states, inverse participation ratio, and quantum information entropies, our proposed quantity has some advantages over them. - Highlights: • A novel quantity is proposed to measure the degree of localization. • It includes information about the spatial variation of probability density. • It is a fruitful index to monitor the localization–delocalization transition.

  12. [Cytomechanics of oscillatory contractions. Measurement of active mechanical properties of Physarum polycephalum plasmodium strands].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Il'iasov, F E; Morozov, M A; Teplov, V A

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this series of studies is to elucidate the role of mechanical stresses in the processes of cell activation. The experiments were done with a huge unicellular organism, the Physarum polycephalum plasmodium, which is a classical object in studies of the nonmuscle motility. The contractile properties of this amoeboid cell were investigated with the help of an inexpensive electronic-mechanical measuring system. A short description of this device is presented, which allows one to maintain a given kinetics of either the length or the load of the object and to measure either its tension force or deformation, respectively, as a response. Some examples of the longitudinal dynamics of the plasmodial strand and its activation under periodic switching of regimes of measurement in certain phases of the contraction-relaxation cycle are shown.

  13. Measurements of Acoustic Properties of Porous and Granular Materials and Application to Vibration Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Junhong; Palumbo, Daniel L.

    2004-01-01

    For application of porous and granular materials to vibro-acoustic controls, a finite dynamic strength of the solid component (frame) is an important design factor. The primary goal of this study was to investigate structural vibration damping through this frame wave propagation for various poroelastic materials. A measurement method to investigate the vibration characteristics of the frame was proposed. The measured properties were found to follow closely the characteristics of the viscoelastic materials - the dynamic modulus increased with frequency and the degree of the frequency dependence was determined by its loss factor. The dynamic stiffness of hollow cylindrical beams containing porous and granular materials as damping treatment was measured also. The data were used to extract the damping materials characteristics using the Rayleigh-Ritz method. The results suggested that the acoustic structure interaction between the frame and the structure enhances the dissipation of the vibration energy significantly.

  14. Softness sensor system for simultaneously measuring the mechanical properties of superficial skin layer and whole skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakatani, Masashi; Fukuda, Toru; Arakawa, Naomi; Kawasoe, Tomoyuki; Omata, Sadao

    2013-02-01

    Few attempts have been made to distinguish the softness of different skin layers, though specific measurement of the superficial layer would be useful for evaluating the emollient effect of cosmetics and for diagnosis of skin diseases. We developed a sensor probe consisting of a piezoelectric tactile sensor and a load cell. To evaluate it, we firstly measured silicone rubber samples with different softness. Then, it was applied to human forearm skin before and after tape-stripping. A VapoMeter and skin-surface hygrometer were used to confirm removal of the stratum corneum. A Cutometer was used to obtain conventional softness data for comparison. Both the piezoelectric tactile sensor and the load cell could measure the softness of silicone rubber samples, but the piezoelectric tactile sensor was more sensitive than the load cell when the reaction force of the measured sample was under 100 mN in response to a 2-mm indentation. For human skin in vivo, transepidermal water loss and skin conductance were significantly changed after tape-stripping, confirming removal of the stratum corneum. The piezoelectric tactile sensor detected a significant change after tape-stripping, whereas the load cell did not. Thus, the piezoelectric tactile sensor can detect changes of mechanical properties at the skin surface. The load cell data were in agreement with Cutometer measurements, which showed no change in representative skin elasticity parameters after tape-stripping. These results indicate that our sensor can simultaneously measure the mechanical properties of the superficial skin layer and whole skin. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  15. Measurement of optical properties of nano-cement using THz electromagnetic waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Heon Young; Kang, Dong Hoon [Advanced Materials Research Team, Korea Railroad Research Institute, Uiwang (Korea, Republic of); Joo, Chulmin [Dept. of Engineering, Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Seung Jae [Institute for Medical Convergence, Yonsei University Medical Liberay, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Enhancing mechanical strength of concrete has been fascinated using carbon-based nanomaterials such as CNT and graphene. The key to improving strength is a dispersion of nanomaterials. A novel method is required to investigate the dispersion inner concrete nondestructively. In this study, the optical optical properties such as refractive index and absorption coefficient are measured in nano-cement mortar specimens containing MWCNT and GO using THz electro-magnetic waves. From the results, the properties of nano-cement mortar are confirmed to be 1.0% to 2.5% higher in refractive index, and -14% to 28% higher in absorption coefficient than those of cement mortar at the average values. Using these characteristics, visualizing the dispersion of nano-concrete structures seems possible in future.

  16. Nonlinear optical properties measurement of polypyrrole -carbon nanotubes prepared by an electrochemical polymerization method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahriari

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the optical properties dependence of Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes (MWNT on concentration was discussed. MWNT samples were prepared in polypyrrole by an electrochemical polymerization of monomers, in the presence of different concentrations of MWNTs, using Sodium Dodecyl-Benzen-Sulfonate (SDBS as surfactant at room temperature. The nonlinear refractive and nonlinear absorbtion indices were measured using a low power CW laser beam operated at 532 nm using z-scan method. The results show that nonlinear refractive and nonlinear absorbtion indices tend to be increased with increasing the concentration of carbon nanotubes. Optical properties of  carbone nanotubes indicate that they are good candidates for nonlinear optical devices

  17. Thermodynamic properties of liquid Au–Cu–Sn alloys determined from electromotive force measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Zhongnan; Hindler, Michael; Yuan, Wenxia; Mikula, Adolf

    2011-01-01

    The thermodynamic properties of the ternary Au–Cu–Sn system were determined with the electromotive force (EMF) method using a liquid electrolyte. Three different cross-sections with constant Au:Cu ratios of 3:1, 1:1, and 1:3 were applied to measure the thermodynamic properties of the ternary system in the temperature range between the liquidus temperature of the alloys and 1023 K. The partial free energies of Sn in liquid Au–Cu–Sn alloys were obtained from EMF data. The integral Gibbs free energy and the integral enthalpy at 900 K were calculated by Gibbs–Duhem integration. The ternary interaction parameters were evaluated using the Redlich–Kister–Muggianu polynomial. PMID:22039311

  18. Thermodynamic properties of liquid Au-Cu-Sn alloys determined from electromotive force measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Zhongnan; Hindler, Michael; Yuan, Wenxia; Mikula, Adolf

    2011-10-20

    The thermodynamic properties of the ternary Au-Cu-Sn system were determined with the electromotive force (EMF) method using a liquid electrolyte. Three different cross-sections with constant Au:Cu ratios of 3:1, 1:1, and 1:3 were applied to measure the thermodynamic properties of the ternary system in the temperature range between the liquidus temperature of the alloys and 1023 K. The partial free energies of Sn in liquid Au-Cu-Sn alloys were obtained from EMF data. The integral Gibbs free energy and the integral enthalpy at 900 K were calculated by Gibbs-Duhem integration. The ternary interaction parameters were evaluated using the Redlich-Kister-Muggianu polynomial.

  19. Electric polarization properties of single bacteria measured with electrostatic force microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteban-Ferrer, Daniel; Edwards, Martin A; Fumagalli, Laura; Juárez, Antonio; Gomila, Gabriel

    2014-10-28

    We quantified the electrical polarization properties of single bacterial cells using electrostatic force microscopy. We found that the effective dielectric constant, ε(r,eff), for the four bacterial types investigated (Salmonella typhimurium, Escherchia coli, Lactobacilus sakei, and Listeria innocua) is around 3-5 under dry air conditions. Under ambient humidity, it increases to ε(r,eff) ∼ 6-7 for the Gram-negative bacterial types (S. typhimurium and E. coli) and to ε(r,eff) ∼ 15-20 for the Gram-positive ones (L. sakei and L. innocua). We show that the measured effective dielectric constants can be consistently interpreted in terms of the electric polarization properties of the biochemical components of the bacterial cell compartments and of their hydration state. These results demonstrate the potential of electrical studies of single bacterial cells.

  20. Reproducibility experiments on measuring acoustical properties of rigid-frame porous media (round-robin tests).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horoshenkov, Kirill V; Khan, Amir; Bécot, François-Xavier; Jaouen, Luc; Sgard, Franck; Renault, Amélie; Amirouche, Nesrine; Pompoli, Francesco; Prodi, Nicola; Bonfiglio, Paolo; Pispola, Giulio; Asdrubali, Francesco; Hübelt, Jörn; Atalla, Noureddine; Amédin, Celse K; Lauriks, Walter; Boeckx, Laurens

    2007-07-01

    This paper reports the results of reproducibility experiments on the interlaboratory characterization of the acoustical properties of three types of consolidated porous media: granulated porous rubber, reticulated foam, and fiberglass. The measurements are conducted in several independent laboratories in Europe and North America. The studied acoustical characteristics are the surface complex acoustic impedance at normal incidence and plane wave absorption coefficient which are determined using the standard impedance tube method. The paper provides detailed procedures related to sample preparation and installation and it discusses the dispersion in the acoustical material property observed between individual material samples and laboratories. The importance of the boundary conditions, homogeneity of the porous material structure, and stability of the adopted signal processing method are highlighted.

  1. A Simplified Measurement Method of Solar-Optical Properties of Multi-Pane Glazing Units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuolun Chen

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Energy-efficient windows with double- or triple-pane glazing units are currently widely utilized in building applications. The solar-optical properties of glazing units can greatly affect their energy and daylighting performance. However, it is generally difficult to measure the solar-optical properties of glazings using the current ISO standards, especially for multi-pane units. This paper presents a simplified test method suitable for multi-pane glazing. Three sets of double-pane Low-Emissivity (LOW-E glazing units were tested under ISO standard and proposed methods. Good agreement between the two testing methods was obtained. However, the simplified method required much less experimental time and labor..

  2. The capacitive drop tensiometer - a novel multianalysing technique for measuring the properties of liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, C. H.; Augousti, A. T.; Mason, J.; McMillan, N. D.

    1999-01-01

    A new instrumental method for measuring the physical properties of a liquid has been developed. The instrument, called a capacitive drop tensiometer (CDT), is based on the drop volume principle in combination with a capacitive transducer. A delivery head with a specialized wetting design was constructed for forming drops. The capacitive transducer uses the delivery head as one of its plates and a cylindrical ring plate, which surrounds the delivery head and the space occupied by the drop that is formed, as another. Excellent linearity is achieved by optimizing the design, with an accuracy of drop volume measurement of approximately 0957-0233/10/1/007/img6. The system is suitable for measuring both drops in equilibrium and those in the process of growing. Its capability of real-time measurement makes it particularly useful for volatile liquids, in which instance the measurement of drop volume using a flowmeter or a pump is no longer reliable. The CDT can also be used to determine concentration. It was found that the concentration curve is linear for aqueous glycerol solutions although not so for aqueous ethanol solutions. The CDT's ability to measure surface tension was also explored and experimental results are presented here.

  3. Combining measurements to estimate properties and characterization extent of complex biochemical mixtures; applications to Heparan Sulfate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradines, Joël R.; Beccati, Daniela; Lech, Miroslaw; Ozug, Jennifer; Farutin, Victor; Huang, Yongqing; Gunay, Nur Sibel; Capila, Ishan

    2016-04-01

    Complex mixtures of molecular species, such as glycoproteins and glycosaminoglycans, have important biological and therapeutic functions. Characterization of these mixtures with analytical chemistry measurements is an important step when developing generic drugs such as biosimilars. Recent developments have focused on analytical methods and statistical approaches to test similarity between mixtures. The question of how much uncertainty on mixture composition is reduced by combining several measurements still remains mostly unexplored. Mathematical frameworks to combine measurements, estimate mixture properties, and quantify remaining uncertainty, i.e. a characterization extent, are introduced here. Constrained optimization and mathematical modeling are applied to a set of twenty-three experimental measurements on heparan sulfate, a mixture of linear chains of disaccharides having different levels of sulfation. While this mixture has potentially over two million molecular species, mathematical modeling and the small set of measurements establish the existence of nonhomogeneity of sulfate level along chains and the presence of abundant sulfate repeats. Constrained optimization yields not only estimations of sulfate repeats and sulfate level at each position in the chains but also bounds on these levels, thereby estimating the extent of characterization of the sulfation pattern which is achieved by the set of measurements.

  4. Apparatus and method to measure dielectric properties (epsilon(') and epsilon(")) of ionic liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Göllei, Attila; Vass, András; Pallai, Elisabeth; Gerzson, Miklós; Ludányi, Lajos; Mink, János

    2009-04-01

    Conventional techniques for measurement of dielectric properties of ionic liquids or electrolyte solutions fail because the samples are largely short circuited by the high electrical conductance. The object of the author's research activity was to elaborate an apparatus (microwave dielectrometer) and method suitable to measure the dielectric constant (epsilon(')) and loss factor (epsilon(")) of well conducting ionic liquids and other solvents. This process is based on a revised waveguide method completed with an automatic calibration possibility. Contrary to conventional measuring methods this technique uses about 20 W/g power density. The measurements were carried out at 2.45 GHz frequency in the temperature range from 10 up to 100 degrees C. The obtained (epsilon(')) and (epsilon(")) values of different solvents were compared with several published (calculated and measured) data. Statistical analysis was used to determine the error of measurements and distilled water was chosen as a standard for study of data dispersion. To accomplish statistical analysis, namely, the dielectric characteristics have to be determined at the same temperature. The values of variances were less or equal 1 in case of epsilon(') and decrease with increasing temperature. In case of epsilon(") the variance data were much smaller.

  5. Reference dataset of volcanic ash physicochemical and optical properties for atmospheric measurement retrievals and transport modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Andreas; Durant, Adam; Sytchkova, Anna; Diplas, Spyros; Bonadonna, Costanza; Scarnato, Barbara; Krüger, Kirstin; Kylling, Arve; Kristiansen, Nina; Stohl, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    Explosive volcanic eruptions emit up to 50 wt.% (total erupted mass) of fine ash particles (threat for aviation operations. Recent volcanic eruptions, such as the 2010 Icelandic Eyjafjallajökull event, illustrated how volcanic ash can severely impact commercial air traffic. In order to manage the threat, it is important to have accurate forecast information on the spatial extent and absolute quantity of airborne volcanic ash. Such forecasts are constrained by empirically-derived estimates of the volcanic source term and the nature of the constituent volcanic ash properties. Consequently, it is important to include a quantitative assessment of measurement uncertainties of ash properties to provide realistic ash forecast uncertainty. Currently, information on volcanic ash physicochemical and optical properties is derived from a small number of somewhat dated publications. In this study, we provide a reference dataset for physical (size distribution and shape), chemical (bulk vs. surface chemistry) and optical properties (complex refractive index in the UV-vis-NIR range) of a representative selection of volcanic ash samples from 10 different volcanic eruptions covering the full variability in silica content (40-75 wt.% SiO2). Through the combination of empirical analytical methods (e.g., image analysis, Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy, X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy, Transmission Electron Microscopy and UV/Vis/NIR/FTIR Spectroscopy) and theoretical models (e.g., Bruggeman effective medium approach), it was possible to fully capture the natural variability of ash physicochemical and optical characteristics. The dataset will be applied in atmospheric measurement retrievals and atmospheric transport modelling to determine the sensitivity to uncertainty in ash particle characteristics.

  6. Assessment of the measurement properties of the post stroke motor function instruments available in Brazil: a systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Elaine; Teixeira-Salmela, Luci F.; Simões, Luan; Guerra, Ana C. C.; Lemos, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Background While there are several instruments in Brazil that measure motor function in patients after stroke, it is unknown whether the measurement properties of these instruments are appropriate. Objective To identify the motor function instruments available in Brazil for patients after stroke. To assess the methodological quality of the studies and the results related to the measurement properties of these instruments. Method Two independent reviewers conducted searches on PubMed, LILACS, CINAHL, Web of Science, and Scopus. Studies that aimed to cross-culturally adapt an existing instrument or create a Brazilian instrument and test at least one measurement property related to motor function in patients after stroke were included. The methodological quality of these studies was checked by the COSMIN checklist with 4-point rating scale and the results of the measurement properties were analyzed by the criteria developed by Terwee et al. Results A total of 11 instruments were considered eligible, none of which were created in Brazil. The process of cross-cultural adaptation was inadequate in 10 out of 11 instruments due to the lack of back-translation or due to inappropriate target population. All of the instruments presented flaws in the measurement properties, especially reliability, internal consistency, and construct validity. Conclusion The flaws observed in both cross-cultural adaptation process and testing measurement properties make the results inconclusive on the validity of the available instruments. Adequate procedures of cross-cultural adaptation and measurement properties of these instruments are strongly needed. PMID:26982452

  7. Measurement of the Dielectric Properties of Volcanic Scoria and Basalt at 9370 MHz

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Yongchun; WANG Shijie; OUYANG Ziyuan; LI Xiongyao

    2005-01-01

    Dielectric data for volcanic scoria and basalt on the earth at microwave frequency are extremely sparse, and also crucial for volcanic terrains imaging, and development. In consideration of their similarity to lunar regolith (soils and rocks) in chemical and mineral composition, the dielectric data is significative for passive and active microwave remote sensing on the Moon. This study provides the data about the dielectric properties of three kinds of scoria and two kinds of basalt in China. The method put forward in this paper is also applicable for measuring the dielectric properties of dry rocks and other granular ground materials with low complex dielectric constants. Firstly, the authors measured the ε' and tanδvalues of strip specimens prepared from the mixture of scoria or basalt powder and polythene with the resonant cavity perturbation method at 9370 MHz. Secondly, from the ε' and tanδ values of the mixture, the ε's and ranδs values of solid scoria and basalt were calculated using Lichtenecker's mixture formulae. Finally, the effective complex dielectric constants, ε'e and tanδe, of scoria at different bulk densities were calculated. The results have shown that the ε's and tancδs values of all solid basaltic materials measured (both solid basaltic scoria or basalt) are approximately 7 and 0.05, respectively. With increasing bulk density of scoria, the ε'e and tanδe values of scoria increase significantly.

  8. Effects of Thermal Treatment on the Dynamic Mechanical Properties of Coal Measures Sandstone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ming; Mao, Xianbiao; Cao, Lili; Pu, Hai; Mao, Rongrong; Lu, Aihong

    2016-09-01

    Many projects such as the underground gasification of coal seams and coal-bed methane mining (exploitation) widely involve the dynamic problems of coal measures sandstone achieved via thermal treatment. This study examines the dynamic mechanical properties of coal measures sandstone after thermal treatment by means of an MTS653 high-temperature furnace and Split Hopkinson pressure bar test system. Experimental results indicate that 500 °C is a transition point for the dynamic mechanical parameters of coal measures sandstone. The dynamic elastic modulus and peak strength increase linearly from 25 to 500 °C while the dynamic peak strain decreases linearly over the same temperature range. The dynamic elastic modulus and peak strength drop quickly from 500 to 800 °C, with a significant increase in the dynamic peak strain over the same temperature range. The rock mechanics are closely linked to material composition and mesoscopic structure. Analysis by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy indicate that the molecules inside the sandstone increase in density due to the thermal expansion of the material particles, which effectively improves the deformation resistance and carrying capacity of the sandstone and reduces the likelihood of axial deformation. With heat treatment that exceeds 500 °C, the dynamic mechanical properties rapidly weaken due to the decomposition of kaolinite; additionally, hot cracking of the mineral particles within the materials arises from coal sandstone internal porosity, and other defects gradually appear.

  9. The construction of a magnetite electrode for measurement of the electrochemical property

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Myongjin; Kim, Hong Pyo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    Flow accelerated corrosion (FAC) causes severe damage to secondary piping systems. An accident from FAC occurred at the Oyster Creek nuclear power plant (NPP) in 1978. Other NPPs such as Surry 2 and Mihama 3 have also experienced an FAC that induced damage to the carbon steel piping. FAC is influenced by many factors such as the water chemistry (temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen (D. O.) in a solution, and etc.), chemical composition of carbon steel, and fluid dynamics. Magnetite is formed at the inner surface of carbon steel, and protects the integrity of pipes from damage. The magnetite has a stable state at each equilibrium condition, so that it can be dissolved into the fluid under conditions that satisfy the equilibrium state. The iron solubility can be calculated by considering the reaction equilibrium constants for prediction of the change in the magnetite layer. On the other hand, it is necessary to measure the experimental solubility to compare the theoretical data and the experimental data. In addition, the solubility of magnetite can be predicted by measuring the electrochemical experiments. However, there are few studies related to the electrochemical property of magnetite owing to the difficulty of the electrode fabrication. In the present work, a magnetite electrode was prepared using a dipping method, and the electrochemical property of the magnetite electrode was measured in an alkaline solution.

  10. On the variation of aerosol properties over Finland based on the optical columnar measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaltonen, V.; Rodriguez, E.; Kazadzis, S.; Arola, A.; Amiridis, V.; Lihavainen, H.; de Leeuw, G.

    2012-10-01

    Long-range aerosol transport over Finland has been studied using ground-based sunphotometer measurements of aerosol optical properties. Cimel sunphotometers were used at an urban site (Helsinki), a rural site (Hyytiälä) and a semiurban site (Kuopio) and PFR sunphotometer measurements were made at two rural sites, Jokioinen and Sodankylä. The CIMEL measurements are part of the AERONET (Aerosol robotic network) network and Jokioinen and Sodankylä are GAW-PFR (Global Atmosphere Watch-Precision Filter Radiometer) Associate Stations. Sunphotometers provide information on local columnar aerosol properties such as aerosol optical depth (AOD) and Ångström exponent (ÅE) that were used to investigate the aerosol content and aerosol type in this region. A set of representative event days, i.e. days with high turbidity, covering the time period between March 2006 and June 2010 has been selected for further analysis. For these days the AOD results were combined with air mass back trajectories to provide information about the air mass origin, especially for cases with moderate turbidity produced by long-range transported aerosols from mid latitudes to Finland. As expected, episodes with high AOD are connected with the transport of polluted air masses originating from the east or southeast or from industrial areas in Central Europe. We distinguished events with long range transported air pollution from cases where pollution was accumulated in the area due to the local meteorological factors.

  11. Surface properties of a single perfluoroalkyl group on water surfaces studied by surface potential measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimoaka, Takafumi; Tanaka, Yuki; Shioya, Nobutaka; Morita, Kohei; Sonoyama, Masashi; Amii, Hideki; Takagi, Toshiyuki; Kanamori, Toshiyuki; Hasegawa, Takeshi

    2016-12-01

    A discriminative study of a single perfluoroalkyl (Rf) group from a bulk material is recently recognized to be necessary toward the total understanding of Rf compounds based on a primary chemical structure. The single molecule and the bulk matter have an interrelationship via an intrinsic two-dimensional (2D) aggregation property of an Rf group, which is theorized by the stratified dipole-arrays (SDA) theory. Since an Rf group has dipole moments along many C-F bonds, a single Rf group would possess a hydrophilic-like character on the surface. To reveal the hydration character of a single Rf group, in the present study, surface potential (ΔV) measurements are performed for Langmuir monolayers of Rf-containing compounds. From a comparative study with a monolayer of a normal hydrocarbon compound, the hydration/dehydration dynamics of a lying Rf group on water has first been monitored by ΔV measurements, through which a single Rf group has been revealed to have a unique "dipole-interactive" character, which enables the Rf group interacted with the water 'surface.' In addition, the SDA theory proves to be useful to predict the 2D aggregation property across the phase transition temperature of 19°C by use of the ΔV measurements.

  12. Recent development and applications of an optical method for measurements of thermophysical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagashima, A.

    1995-09-01

    The experimental determination of thermophysical properties has been greatly improved by the introduction of laser technology. The laser beam is used for sensing and also for heating (or exciting) the specimen. The advantage of using a laser beam is most strongly felt in the measurement of the thermal conductivity or the thermal diffusivity, which are some of the most difficult properties to measure. Interesting features of new techniques for investigating various aspects of thermal conductivity in fluids and solids are reviewed. An optical method, the so-called forced Rayleigh scattering method, or the laser-induced optical-grating method, has been developed and used extensively by the present author's group. The method is a high-speed remote-sensing method which can also quantitatively detect anisotropy, namely, direction dependence of heat conduction in the material. It was used for determination of the thermal diffusivity and its anisotropic behavior for high-temperature materials such as molten salts, liquid crystals, extended polymer samples, and flowing polymer melts under shear. Interesting applications of the method were demonstrated also for thermal diffusivity “mapping” and microscale measurement.

  13. The Youth Psychopathic Traits Inventory: Measurement Invariance and Psychometric Properties among Portuguese Youths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Pechorro

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to examine the psychometric properties of the Youth Psychopathic Traits Inventory (YPI among a mixed-gender sample of 782 Portuguese youth (M = 15.87 years; SD = 1.72, in a school context. Confirmatory factor analysis revealed the expected three-factor first-order structure. Cross-gender measurement invariance and cross-sample measurement invariance using a forensic sample of institutionalized males were also confirmed. The Portuguese version of the YPI demonstrated generally adequate psychometric properties of internal consistency, mean inter-item correlation, convergent validity, discriminant validity, and criterion-related validity of statistically significant associations with conduct disorder symptoms, alcohol abuse, drug use, and unprotected sex. In terms of known-groups validity, males scored higher than females, and males from the school sample scored lower than institutionalized males. The use of the YPI among the Portuguese male and female youth population is psychometrically justified, and it can be a useful measure to identify adolescents with high levels of psychopathic traits.

  14. Measurement of the properties of a Higgs boson in the four-lepton final state

    CERN Document Server

    Chatrchyan, Serguei; Sirunyan, Albert M; Tumasyan, Armen; Adam, Wolfgang; Bergauer, Thomas; Dragicevic, Marko; Erö, Janos; Fabjan, Christian; Friedl, Markus; Fruehwirth, Rudolf; Ghete, Vasile Mihai; Hartl, Christian; Hörmann, Natascha; Hrubec, Josef; Jeitler, Manfred; Kiesenhofer, Wolfgang; Knünz, Valentin; Krammer, Manfred; Krätschmer, Ilse; Liko, Dietrich; Mikulec, Ivan; Rabady, Dinyar; Rahbaran, Babak; Rohringer, Herbert; Schöfbeck, Robert; Strauss, Josef; Taurok, Anton; Treberer-Treberspurg, Wolfgang; Waltenberger, Wolfgang; Wulz, Claudia-Elisabeth; Mossolov, Vladimir; Shumeiko, Nikolai; Suarez Gonzalez, Juan; Alderweireldt, Sara; Bansal, Monika; Bansal, Sunil; Cornelis, Tom; De Wolf, Eddi A; Janssen, Xavier; Knutsson, Albert; Luyckx, Sten; Mucibello, Luca; Ochesanu, Silvia; Roland, Benoit; Rougny, Romain; Van Haevermaet, Hans; Van Mechelen, Pierre; Van Remortel, Nick; Van Spilbeeck, Alex; Blekman, Freya; Blyweert, Stijn; D'Hondt, Jorgen; Heracleous, Natalie; Kalogeropoulos, Alexis; Keaveney, James; Kim, Tae Jeong; Lowette, Steven; Maes, Michael; Olbrechts, Annik; Strom, Derek; Tavernier, Stefaan; Van Doninck, Walter; Van Mulders, Petra; Van Onsem, Gerrit Patrick; Villella, Ilaria; Caillol, Cécile; Clerbaux, Barbara; De Lentdecker, Gilles; Favart, Laurent; Gay, Arnaud; Léonard, Alexandre; Marage, Pierre Edouard; Mohammadi, Abdollah; Perniè, Luca; Reis, Thomas; Seva, Tomislav; Thomas, Laurent; Vander Velde, Catherine; Vanlaer, Pascal; Wang, Jian; Adler, Volker; Beernaert, Kelly; Benucci, Leonardo; Cimmino, Anna; Costantini, Silvia; Dildick, Sven; Garcia, Guillaume; Klein, Benjamin; Lellouch, Jérémie; Mccartin, Joseph; Ocampo Rios, Alberto Andres; Ryckbosch, Dirk; Salva Diblen, Sinem; Sigamani, Michael; Strobbe, Nadja; Thyssen, Filip; Tytgat, Michael; Walsh, Sinead; Yazgan, Efe; Zaganidis, Nicolas; Basegmez, Suzan; Beluffi, Camille; Bruno, Giacomo; Castello, Roberto; Caudron, Adrien; Ceard, Ludivine; Da Silveira, Gustavo Gil; Delaere, Christophe; Du Pree, Tristan; Favart, Denis; Forthomme, Laurent; Giammanco, Andrea; Hollar, Jonathan; Jez, Pavel; Komm, Matthias; Lemaitre, Vincent; Liao, Junhui; Militaru, Otilia; Nuttens, Claude; Pagano, Davide; Pin, Arnaud; Piotrzkowski, Krzysztof; Popov, Andrey; Quertenmont, Loic; Selvaggi, Michele; Vidal Marono, Miguel; Vizan Garcia, Jesus Manuel; Beliy, Nikita; Caebergs, Thierry; Daubie, Evelyne; Hammad, Gregory Habib; Alves, Gilvan; Correa Martins Junior, Marcos; Martins, Thiago; Pol, Maria Elena; Henrique Gomes E Souza, Moacyr; Aldá Júnior, Walter Luiz; Carvalho, Wagner; Chinellato, Jose; Custódio, Analu; Melo Da Costa, Eliza; De Jesus Damiao, Dilson; De Oliveira Martins, Carley; Fonseca De Souza, Sandro; Malbouisson, Helena; Malek, Magdalena; Matos Figueiredo, Diego; Mundim, Luiz; Nogima, Helio; Prado Da Silva, Wanda Lucia; Santaolalla, Javier; Santoro, Alberto; Sznajder, Andre; Tonelli Manganote, Edmilson José; Vilela Pereira, Antonio; Bernardes, Cesar Augusto; De Almeida Dias, Flavia; Tomei, Thiago; De Moraes Gregores, Eduardo; Lagana, Caio; Mercadante, Pedro G; Novaes, Sergio F; Padula, Sandra; Genchev, Vladimir; Iaydjiev, Plamen; Marinov, Andrey; Piperov, Stefan; Rodozov, Mircho; Sultanov, Georgi; Vutova, Mariana; Dimitrov, Anton; Glushkov, Ivan; Hadjiiska, Roumyana; Kozhuharov, Venelin; Litov, Leander; Pavlov, Borislav; Petkov, Peicho; Bian, Jian-Guo; Chen, Guo-Ming; Chen, He-Sheng; Chen, Mingshui; Du, Ran; Jiang, Chun-Hua; Liang, Dong; Liang, Song; Meng, Xiangwei; Plestina, Roko; Tao, Junquan; Wang, Xianyou; Wang, Zheng; Asawatangtrakuldee, Chayanit; Ban, Yong; Guo, Yifei; Li, Qiang; Li, Wenbo; Liu, Shuai; Mao, Yajun; Qian, Si-Jin; Wang, Dayong; Zhang, Linlin; Zou, Wei; Avila, Carlos; Carrillo Montoya, Camilo Andres; Chaparro Sierra, Luisa Fernanda; Florez, Carlos; Gomez, Juan Pablo; Gomez Moreno, Bernardo; Sanabria, Juan Carlos; Godinovic, Nikola; Lelas, Damir; Polic, Dunja; Puljak, Ivica; Antunovic, Zeljko; Kovac, Marko; Brigljevic, Vuko; Kadija, Kreso; Luetic, Jelena; Mekterovic, Darko; Morovic, Srecko; Tikvica, Lucija; Attikis, Alexandros; Mavromanolakis, Georgios; Mousa, Jehad; Nicolaou, Charalambos; Ptochos, Fotios; Razis, Panos A; Finger, Miroslav; Finger Jr, Michael; Abdelalim, Ahmed Ali; Assran, Yasser; Elgammal, Sherif; Ellithi Kamel, Ali; Mahmoud, Mohammed; Radi, Amr; Kadastik, Mario; Müntel, Mait; Murumaa, Marion; Raidal, Martti; Rebane, Liis; Tiko, Andres; Eerola, Paula; Fedi, Giacomo; Voutilainen, Mikko; Härkönen, Jaakko; Karimäki, Veikko; Kinnunen, Ritva; Kortelainen, Matti J; Lampén, Tapio; Lassila-Perini, Kati; Lehti, Sami; Lindén, Tomas; Luukka, Panja-Riina; Mäenpää, Teppo; Peltola, Timo; Tuominen, Eija; Tuominiemi, Jorma; Tuovinen, Esa; Wendland, Lauri; Tuuva, Tuure; Besancon, Marc; Couderc, Fabrice; Dejardin, Marc; Denegri, Daniel; Fabbro, Bernard; Faure, Jean-Louis; Ferri, Federico; Ganjour, Serguei; Givernaud, Alain; Gras, Philippe; Hamel de Monchenault, Gautier; Jarry, Patrick; Locci, Elizabeth; Malcles, Julie; Nayak, Aruna; Rander, John; Rosowsky, André; Titov, Maksym; Baffioni, Stephanie; Beaudette, Florian; Busson, Philippe; Charlot, Claude; Daci, Nadir; Dahms, Torsten; Dalchenko, Mykhailo; Dobrzynski, Ludwik; Florent, Alice; Granier de Cassagnac, Raphael; Miné, Philippe; Mironov, Camelia; Naranjo, Ivo Nicolas; Nguyen, Matthew; Ochando, Christophe; Paganini, Pascal; Sabes, David; Salerno, Roberto; Sirois, Yves; Veelken, Christian; Yilmaz, Yetkin; Zabi, Alexandre; Agram, Jean-Laurent; Andrea, Jeremy; Bloch, Daniel; Brom, Jean-Marie; Chabert, Eric Christian; Collard, Caroline; Conte, Eric; Drouhin, Frédéric; Fontaine, Jean-Charles; Gelé, Denis; Goerlach, Ulrich; Goetzmann, Christophe; Juillot, Pierre; Le Bihan, Anne-Catherine; Van Hove, Pierre; Gadrat, Sébastien; Beauceron, Stephanie; Beaupere, Nicolas; Boudoul, Gaelle; Brochet, Sébastien; Chasserat, Julien; Chierici, Roberto; Contardo, Didier; Depasse, Pierre; El Mamouni, Houmani; Fan, Jiawei; Fay, Jean; Gascon, Susan; Gouzevitch, Maxime; Ille, Bernard; Kurca, Tibor; Lethuillier, Morgan; Mirabito, Laurent; Perries, Stephane; Ruiz Alvarez, José David; Sgandurra, Louis; Sordini, Viola; Vander Donckt, Muriel; Verdier, Patrice; Viret, Sébastien; Xiao, Hong; Tsamalaidze, Zviad; Autermann, Christian; Beranek, Sarah; Bontenackels, Michael; Calpas, Betty; Edelhoff, Matthias; Feld, Lutz; Hindrichs, Otto; Klein, Katja; Ostapchuk, Andrey; Perieanu, Adrian; Raupach, Frank; Sammet, Jan; Schael, Stefan; Sprenger, Daniel; Weber, Hendrik; Wittmer, Bruno; Zhukov, Valery; Ata, Metin; Caudron, Julien; Dietz-Laursonn, Erik; Duchardt, Deborah; Erdmann, Martin; Fischer, Robert; Güth, Andreas; Hebbeker, Thomas; Heidemann, Carsten; Hoepfner, Kerstin; Klingebiel, Dennis; Knutzen, Simon; Kreuzer, Peter; Merschmeyer, Markus; Meyer, Arnd; Olschewski, Mark; Padeken, Klaas; Papacz, Paul; Reithler, Hans; Schmitz, Stefan Antonius; Sonnenschein, Lars; Teyssier, Daniel; Thüer, Sebastian; Weber, Martin; Cherepanov, Vladimir; Erdogan, Yusuf; Flügge, Günter; Geenen, Heiko; Geisler, Matthias; Haj Ahmad, Wael; Hoehle, Felix; Kargoll, Bastian; Kress, Thomas; Kuessel, Yvonne; Lingemann, Joschka; Nowack, Andreas; Nugent, Ian Michael; Perchalla, Lars; Pooth, Oliver; Stahl, Achim; Asin, Ivan; Bartosik, Nazar; Behr, Joerg; Behrenhoff, Wolf; Behrens, Ulf; Bell, Alan James; Bergholz, Matthias; Bethani, Agni; Borras, Kerstin; Burgmeier, Armin; Cakir, Altan; Calligaris, Luigi; Campbell, Alan; Choudhury, Somnath; Costanza, Francesco; Diez Pardos, Carmen; Dooling, Samantha; Dorland, Tyler; Eckerlin, Guenter; Eckstein, Doris; Eichhorn, Thomas; Flucke, Gero; Geiser, Achim; Grebenyuk, Anastasia; Gunnellini, Paolo; Habib, Shiraz; Hauk, Johannes; Hellwig, Gregor; Hempel, Maria; Horton, Dean; Jung, Hannes; Kasemann, Matthias; Katsas, Panagiotis; Kieseler, Jan; Kleinwort, Claus; Krämer, Mira; Krücker, Dirk; Lange, Wolfgang; Leonard, Jessica; Lipka, Katerina; Lohmann, Wolfgang; Lutz, Benjamin; Mankel, Rainer; Marfin, Ihar; Melzer-Pellmann, Isabell-Alissandra; Meyer, Andreas Bernhard; Mnich, Joachim; Mussgiller, Andreas; Naumann-Emme, Sebastian; Novgorodova, Olga; Nowak, Friederike; Perrey, Hanno; Petrukhin, Alexey; Pitzl, Daniel; Placakyte, Ringaile; Raspereza, Alexei; Ribeiro Cipriano, Pedro M; Riedl, Caroline; Ron, Elias; Sahin, Mehmet Özgür; Salfeld-Nebgen, Jakob; Schmidt, Ringo; Schoerner-Sadenius, Thomas; Schröder, Matthias; Stein, Matthias; Vargas Trevino, Andrea Del Rocio; Walsh, Roberval; Wissing, Christoph; Aldaya Martin, Maria; Blobel, Volker; Enderle, Holger; Erfle, Joachim; Garutti, Erika; Goebel, Kristin; Görner, Martin; Gosselink, Martijn; Haller, Johannes; Höing, Rebekka Sophie; Kirschenmann, Henning; Klanner, Robert; Kogler, Roman; Lange, Jörn; Marchesini, Ivan; Ott, Jochen; Peiffer, Thomas; Pietsch, Niklas; Rathjens, Denis; Sander, Christian; Schettler, Hannes; Schleper, Peter; Schlieckau, Eike; Schmidt, Alexander; Seidel, Markus; Sibille, Jennifer; Sola, Valentina; Stadie, Hartmut; Steinbrück, Georg; Troendle, Daniel; Usai, Emanuele; Vanelderen, Lukas; Barth, Christian; Baus, Colin; Berger, Joram; Böser, Christian; Butz, Erik; Chwalek, Thorsten; De Boer, Wim; Descroix, Alexis; Dierlamm, Alexander; Feindt, Michael; Guthoff, Moritz; Hartmann, Frank; Hauth, Thomas; Held, Hauke; Hoffmann, Karl-Heinz; Husemann, Ulrich; Katkov, Igor; Kornmayer, Andreas; Kuznetsova, Ekaterina; Lobelle Pardo, Patricia; Martschei, Daniel; Mozer, Matthias Ulrich; Müller, Thomas; Niegel, Martin; Nürnberg, Andreas; Oberst, Oliver; Quast, Gunter; Rabbertz, Klaus; Ratnikov, Fedor; Röcker, Steffen; Schilling, Frank-Peter; Schott, Gregory; Simonis, Hans-Jürgen; Stober, Fred-Markus Helmut; Ulrich, Ralf; Wagner-Kuhr, Jeannine; Wayand, Stefan; Weiler, Thomas; Wolf, Roger; Zeise, Manuel; Anagnostou, Georgios; Daskalakis, Georgios; Geralis, Theodoros; Kesisoglou, Stilianos; Kyriakis, Aristotelis; Loukas, Demetrios; Markou, Athanasios; Markou, Christos; Ntomari, Eleni; Psallidas, Andreas; Topsis-Giotis, Iasonas; Gouskos, Loukas; Panagiotou, Apostolos; Saoulidou, Niki; Stiliaris, Efstathios; Aslanoglou, Xenofon; Evangelou, Ioannis; Flouris, Giannis; Foudas, Costas; Kokkas, Panagiotis; Manthos, Nikolaos; Papadopoulos, Ioannis; Paradas, Evangelos; Bencze, Gyorgy; Hajdu, Csaba; Hidas, Pàl; Horvath, Dezso; Sikler, Ferenc; Veszpremi, Viktor; Vesztergombi, Gyorgy; Zsigmond, Anna Julia; Beni, Noemi; Czellar, Sandor; Molnar, Jozsef; Palinkas, Jozsef; Szillasi, Zoltan; Karancsi, János; Raics, Peter; Trocsanyi, Zoltan Laszlo; Ujvari, Balazs; Swain, Sanjay Kumar; Beri, Suman Bala; Bhatnagar, Vipin; Dhingra, Nitish; Gupta, Ruchi; Kaur, Manjit; Mehta, Manuk Zubin; Mittal, Monika; Nishu, Nishu; Sharma, Archana; Singh, Jasbir; Kumar, Ashok; Kumar, Arun; Ahuja, Sudha; Bhardwaj, Ashutosh; Choudhary, Brajesh C; Kumar, Ajay; Malhotra, Shivali; Naimuddin, Md; Ranjan, Kirti; Saxena, Pooja; Sharma, Varun; Shivpuri, Ram Krishen; Banerjee, Sunanda; Bhattacharya, Satyaki; Chatterjee, Kalyanmoy; Dutta, Suchandra; Gomber, Bhawna; Jain, Sandhya; Jain, Shilpi; Khurana, Raman; Modak, Atanu; Mukherjee, Swagata; Roy, Debarati; Sarkar, Subir; Sharan, Manoj; Singh, Anil; Abdulsalam, Abdulla; Dutta, Dipanwita; Kailas, Swaminathan; Kumar, Vineet; Mohanty, Ajit Kumar; Pant, Lalit Mohan; Shukla, Prashant; Topkar, Anita; Aziz, Tariq; Chatterjee, Rajdeep Mohan; Ganguly, Sanmay; Ghosh, Saranya; Guchait, Monoranjan; Gurtu, Atul; Kole, Gouranga; Kumar, Sanjeev; Maity, Manas; Majumder, Gobinda; Mazumdar, Kajari; Mohanty, Gagan Bihari; Parida, Bibhuti; Sudhakar, Katta; Wickramage, Nadeesha; Banerjee, Sudeshna; Dugad, Shashikant; Arfaei, Hessamaddin; Bakhshiansohi, Hamed; Behnamian, Hadi; Etesami, Seyed Mohsen; Fahim, Ali; Jafari, Abideh; Khakzad, Mohsen; Mohammadi Najafabadi, Mojtaba; Naseri, Mohsen; Paktinat Mehdiabadi, Saeid; Safarzadeh, Batool; Zeinali, Maryam; Grunewald, Martin; Abbrescia, Marcello; Barbone, Lucia; Calabria, Cesare; Chhibra, Simranjit Singh; Colaleo, Anna; Creanza, Donato; De Filippis, Nicola; De Palma, Mauro; Fiore, Luigi; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Maggi, Giorgio; Maggi, Marcello; Marangelli, Bartolomeo; My, Salvatore; Nuzzo, Salvatore; Pacifico, Nicola; Pompili, Alexis; Pugliese, Gabriella; Radogna, Raffaella; Selvaggi, Giovanna; Silvestris, Lucia; Singh, Gurpreet; Venditti, Rosamaria; Verwilligen, Piet; Zito, Giuseppe; Abbiendi, Giovanni; Benvenuti, Alberto; Bonacorsi, Daniele; Braibant-Giacomelli, Sylvie; Brigliadori, Luca; Campanini, Renato; Capiluppi, Paolo; Castro, Andrea; Cavallo, Francesca Romana; Codispoti, Giuseppe; Cuffiani, Marco; Dallavalle, Gaetano-Marco; Fabbri, Fabrizio; Fanfani, Alessandra; Fasanella, Daniele; Giacomelli, Paolo; Grandi, Claudio; Guiducci, Luigi; Marcellini, Stefano; Masetti, Gianni; Meneghelli, Marco; Montanari, Alessandro; Navarria, Francesco; Odorici, Fabrizio; Perrotta, Andrea; Primavera, Federica; Rossi, Antonio; Rovelli, Tiziano; Siroli, Gian Piero; Tosi, Nicolò; Travaglini, Riccardo; Albergo, Sebastiano; Cappello, Gigi; Chiorboli, Massimiliano; Costa, Salvatore; Giordano, Ferdinando; Potenza, Renato; Tricomi, Alessia; Tuve, Cristina; Barbagli, Giuseppe; Ciulli, Vitaliano; Civinini, Carlo; D'Alessandro, Raffaello; Focardi, Ettore; Gallo, Elisabetta; Gonzi, Sandro; Gori, Valentina; Lenzi, Piergiulio; Meschini, Marco; Paoletti, Simone; Sguazzoni, Giacomo; Tropiano, Antonio; Benussi, Luigi; Bianco, Stefano; Fabbri, Franco; Piccolo, Davide; Fabbricatore, Pasquale; Ferretti, Roberta; Ferro, Fabrizio; Lo Vetere, Maurizio; Musenich, Riccardo; Robutti, Enrico; Tosi, Silvano; Benaglia, Andrea; Dinardo, Mauro Emanuele; Fiorendi, Sara; Gennai, Simone; Ghezzi, Alessio; Govoni, Pietro; Lucchini, Marco Toliman; Malvezzi, Sandra; Manzoni, Riccardo Andrea; Martelli, Arabella; Menasce, Dario; Moroni, Luigi; Paganoni, Marco; Pedrini, Daniele; Ragazzi, Stefano; Redaelli, Nicola; Tabarelli de Fatis, Tommaso; Buontempo, Salvatore; Cavallo, Nicola; Fabozzi, Francesco; Iorio, Alberto Orso Maria; Lista, Luca; Meola, Sabino; Merola, Mario; Paolucci, Pierluigi; Azzi, Patrizia; Bacchetta, Nicola; Bisello, Dario; Branca, Antonio; Carlin, Roberto; Checchia, Paolo; Dorigo, Tommaso; Dosselli, Umberto; Fanzago, Federica; Galanti, Mario; Gasparini, Fabrizio; Gasparini, Ugo; Giubilato, Piero; Gonella, Franco; Gozzelino, Andrea; Kanishchev, Konstantin; Lacaprara, Stefano; Lazzizzera, Ignazio; Margoni, Martino; Meneguzzo, Anna Teresa; Pazzini, Jacopo; Pozzobon, Nicola; Ronchese, Paolo; Simonetto, Franco; Torassa, Ezio; Tosi, Mia; Zotto, Pierluigi; Zucchetta, Alberto; Zumerle, Gianni; Gabusi, Michele; Ratti, Sergio P; Riccardi, Cristina; Vitulo, Paolo; Biasini, Maurizio; Bilei, Gian Mario; Fanò, Livio; Lariccia, Paolo; Mantovani, Giancarlo; Menichelli, Mauro; Romeo, Francesco; Saha, Anirban; Santocchia, Attilio; Spiezia, Aniello; Androsov, Konstantin; Azzurri, Paolo; Bagliesi, Giuseppe; Bernardini, Jacopo; Boccali, Tommaso; Broccolo, Giuseppe; Castaldi, Rino; Ciocci, Maria Agnese; Dell'Orso, Roberto; Fiori, Francesco; Foà, Lorenzo; Giassi, Alessandro; Grippo, Maria Teresa; Kraan, Aafke; Ligabue, Franco; Lomtadze, Teimuraz; Martini, Luca; Messineo, Alberto; Moon, Chang-Seong; Palla, Fabrizio; Rizzi, Andrea; Savoy-Navarro, Aurore; Serban, Alin Titus; Spagnolo, Paolo; Squillacioti, Paola; Tenchini, Roberto; Tonelli, Guido; Venturi, Andrea; Verdini, Piero Giorgio; Vernieri, Caterina; Barone, Luciano; Cavallari, Francesca; Del Re, Daniele; Diemoz, Marcella; Grassi, Marco; Jorda, Clara; Longo, Egidio; Margaroli, Fabrizio; Meridiani, Paolo; Micheli, Francesco; Nourbakhsh, Shervin; Organtini, Giovanni; Paramatti, Riccardo; Rahatlou, Shahram; Rovelli, Chiara; Soffi, Livia; Traczyk, Piotr; Amapane, Nicola; Arcidiacono, Roberta; Argiro, Stefano; Arneodo, Michele; Bellan, Riccardo; Biino, Cristina; Cartiglia, Nicolo; Casasso, Stefano; Costa, Marco; Degano, Alessandro; Demaria, Natale; Finco, Linda; Machet, Martina; Mariotti, Chiara; Maselli, Silvia; Migliore, Ernesto; Monaco, Vincenzo; Musich, Marco; Obertino, Maria Margherita; Ortona, Giacomo; Pacher, Luca; Pastrone, Nadia; Pelliccioni, Mario; Pinna Angioni, Gian Luca; Romero, Alessandra; Sacchi, Roberto; Solano, Ada; Staiano, Amedeo; Belforte, Stefano; Candelise, Vieri; Casarsa, Massimo; Cossutti, Fabio; Della Ricca, Giuseppe; Gobbo, Benigno; La Licata, Chiara; Marone, Matteo; Montanino, Damiana; Penzo, Aldo; Schizzi, Andrea; Umer, Tomo; Zanetti, Anna; Chang, Sunghyun; Kim, Tae Yeon; Nam, Soon-Kwon; Kim, Dong Hee; Kim, Gui Nyun; Kim, Ji Eun; Kong, Dae Jung; Lee, Sangeun; Oh, Young Do; Park, Hyangkyu; Son, Dong-Chul; Kim, Jae Yool; Kim, Zero Jaeho; Song, Sanghyeon; Choi, Suyong; Gyun, Dooyeon; Hong, Byung-Sik; Jo, Mihee; Kim, Hyunchul; Kim, Yongsun; Lee, Kyong Sei; Park, Sung Keun; Roh, Youn; Choi, Minkyoo; Kim, Ji Hyun; Park, Chawon; Park, Inkyu; Park, Sangnam; Ryu, Geonmo; Choi, Young-Il; Choi, Young Kyu; Goh, Junghwan; Kim, Min Suk; Kwon, Eunhyang; Lee, Byounghoon; Lee, Jongseok; Lee, Sungeun; Seo, Hyunkwan; Yu, Intae; Juodagalvis, Andrius; Komaragiri, Jyothsna Rani; Castilla-Valdez, Heriberto; De La Cruz-Burelo, Eduard; Heredia-de La Cruz, Ivan; Lopez-Fernandez, Ricardo; Martínez-Ortega, Jorge; Sánchez Hernández, Alberto; Villasenor-Cendejas, Luis Manuel; Carrillo Moreno, Salvador; Vazquez Valencia, Fabiola; Salazar Ibarguen, Humberto Antonio; Casimiro Linares, Edgar; Morelos Pineda, Antonio; Krofcheck, David; Butler, Philip H; Doesburg, Robert; Reucroft, Steve; Silverwood, Hamish; Ahmad, Muhammad; Asghar, Muhammad Irfan; Butt, Jamila; Hoorani, Hafeez R; Khalid, Shoaib; Khan, Wajid Ali; Khurshid, Taimoor; Qazi, Shamona; Shah, Mehar Ali; Shoaib, Muhammad; Bialkowska, Helena; Bluj, Michal; Boimska, Bożena; Frueboes, Tomasz; Górski, Maciej; Kazana, Malgorzata; Nawrocki, Krzysztof; Romanowska-Rybinska, Katarzyna; Szleper, Michal; Wrochna, Grzegorz; Zalewski, Piotr; Brona, Grzegorz; Bunkowski, Karol; Cwiok, Mikolaj; Dominik, Wojciech; Doroba, Krzysztof; Kalinowski, Artur; Konecki, Marcin; Krolikowski, Jan; Misiura, Maciej; Wolszczak, Weronika; Bargassa, Pedrame; Beirão Da Cruz E Silva, Cristóvão; Faccioli, Pietro; Ferreira Parracho, Pedro Guilherme; Gallinaro, Michele; Nguyen, Federico; Rodrigues Antunes, Joao; Seixas, Joao; Varela, Joao; Vischia, Pietro; Golutvin, Igor; Gorbunov, Ilya; Kamenev, Alexey; Karjavin, Vladimir; Konoplyanikov, Viktor; Kozlov, Guennady; Lanev, Alexander; Malakhov, Alexander; Matveev, Viktor; Moisenz, Petr; Palichik, Vladimir; Perelygin, Victor; Savina, Maria; Shmatov, Sergey; Shulha, Siarhei; Skatchkov, Nikolai; Smirnov, Vitaly; Zarubin, Anatoli; Golovtsov, Victor; Ivanov, Yury; Kim, Victor; Levchenko, Petr; Murzin, Victor; Oreshkin, Vadim; Smirnov, Igor; Sulimov, Valentin; Uvarov, Lev; Vavilov, Sergey; Vorobyev, Alexey; Vorobyev, Andrey; Andreev, Yuri; Dermenev, Alexander; Gninenko, Sergei; Golubev, Nikolai; Kirsanov, Mikhail; Krasnikov, Nikolai; Pashenkov, Anatoli; Tlisov, Danila; Toropin, Alexander; Epshteyn, Vladimir; Gavrilov, Vladimir; Lychkovskaya, Natalia; Popov, Vladimir; Safronov, Grigory; Semenov, Sergey; Spiridonov, Alexander; Stolin, Viatcheslav; Vlasov, Evgueni; Zhokin, Alexander; Andreev, Vladimir; Azarkin, Maksim; Dremin, Igor; Kirakosyan, Martin; Leonidov, Andrey; Mesyats, Gennady; Rusakov, Sergey V; Vinogradov, Alexey; Belyaev, Andrey; Boos, Edouard; Bunichev, Viacheslav; Dubinin, Mikhail; Dudko, Lev; Ershov, Alexander; Gribushin, Andrey; Klyukhin, Vyacheslav; Kodolova, Olga; Lokhtin, Igor; Obraztsov, Stepan; Petrushanko, Sergey; Savrin, Viktor; Azhgirey, Igor; Bayshev, Igor; Bitioukov, Sergei; Kachanov, Vassili; Kalinin, Alexey; Konstantinov, Dmitri; Krychkine, Victor; Petrov, Vladimir; Ryutin, Roman; Sobol, Andrei; Tourtchanovitch, Leonid; Troshin, Sergey; Tyurin, Nikolay; Uzunian, Andrey; Volkov, Alexey; Adzic, Petar; Djordjevic, Milos; Ekmedzic, Marko; Milosevic, Jovan; Aguilar-Benitez, Manuel; Alcaraz Maestre, Juan; Battilana, Carlo; Calvo, Enrique; Cerrada, Marcos; Chamizo Llatas, Maria; Colino, Nicanor; De La Cruz, Begona; Delgado Peris, Antonio; Domínguez Vázquez, Daniel; Fernandez Bedoya, Cristina; Fernández Ramos, Juan Pablo; Ferrando, Antonio; Flix, Jose; Fouz, Maria Cruz; Garcia-Abia, Pablo; Gonzalez Lopez, Oscar; Goy Lopez, Silvia; Hernandez, Jose M; Josa, Maria Isabel; Merino, Gonzalo; Navarro De Martino, Eduardo; Puerta Pelayo, Jesus; Quintario Olmeda, Adrián; Redondo, Ignacio; Romero, Luciano; Senghi Soares, Mara; Willmott, Carlos; Albajar, Carmen; de Trocóniz, Jorge F; Brun, Hugues; Cuevas, Javier; Fernandez Menendez, Javier; Folgueras, Santiago; Gonzalez Caballero, Isidro; Lloret Iglesias, Lara; Brochero Cifuentes, Javier Andres; Cabrillo, Iban Jose; Calderon, Alicia; Chuang, Shan-Huei; Duarte Campderros, Jordi; Fernandez, Marcos; Gomez, Gervasio; Gonzalez Sanchez, Javier; Graziano, Alberto; Lopez Virto, Amparo; Marco, Jesus; Marco, Rafael; Martinez Rivero, Celso; Matorras, Francisco; Munoz Sanchez, Francisca Javiela; Piedra Gomez, Jonatan; Rodrigo, Teresa; Rodríguez-Marrero, Ana Yaiza; Ruiz-Jimeno, Alberto; Scodellaro, Luca; Vila, Ivan; Vilar Cortabitarte, Rocio; Abbaneo, Duccio; Auffray, Etiennette; Auzinger, Georg; Bachtis, Michail; Baillon, Paul; Ball, Austin; Barney, David; Bendavid, Joshua; Benhabib, Lamia; Benitez, Jose F; Bernet, Colin; Bianchi, Giovanni; Bloch, Philippe; Bocci, Andrea; Bonato, Alessio; Bondu, Olivier; Botta, Cristina; Breuker, Horst; Camporesi, Tiziano; Cerminara, Gianluca; Christiansen, Tim; Coarasa Perez, Jose Antonio; Colafranceschi, Stefano; D'Alfonso, Mariarosaria; D'Enterria, David; Dabrowski, Anne; David Tinoco Mendes, Andre; De Guio, Federico; De Roeck, Albert; De Visscher, Simon; Di Guida, Salvatore; Dobson, Marc; Dupont-Sagorin, Niels; Elliott-Peisert, Anna; Eugster, Jürg; Franzoni, Giovanni; Funk, Wolfgang; Giffels, Manuel; Gigi, Dominique; Gill, Karl; Girone, Maria; Giunta, Marina; Glege, Frank; Gomez-Reino Garrido, Robert; Gowdy, Stephen; Guida, Roberto; Hammer, Josef; Hansen, Magnus; Harris, Philip; Innocente, Vincenzo; Janot, Patrick; Karavakis, Edward; Kousouris, Konstantinos; Krajczar, Krisztian; Lecoq, Paul; Lourenco, Carlos; Magini, Nicolo; Malgeri, Luca; Mannelli, Marcello; Masetti, Lorenzo; Meijers, Frans; Mersi, Stefano; Meschi, Emilio; Moortgat, Filip; Mulders, Martijn; Musella, Pasquale; Orsini, Luciano; Palencia Cortezon, Enrique; Perez, Emmanuelle; Perrozzi, Luca; Petrilli, Achille; Petrucciani, Giovanni; Pfeiffer, Andreas; Pierini, Maurizio; Pimiä, Martti; Piparo, Danilo; Plagge, Michael; Racz, Attila; Reece, William; Rolandi, Gigi; Rovere, Marco; Sakulin, Hannes; Santanastasio, Francesco; Schäfer, Christoph; Schwick, Christoph; Sekmen, Sezen; Sharma, Archana; Siegrist, Patrice; Silva, Pedro; Simon, Michal; Sphicas, Paraskevas; Steggemann, Jan; Stieger, Benjamin; Stoye, Markus; Tsirou, Andromachi; Veres, Gabor Istvan; Vlimant, Jean-Roch; Wöhri, Hermine Katharina; Zeuner, Wolfram Dietrich; Bertl, Willi; Deiters, Konrad; Erdmann, Wolfram; Horisberger, Roland; Ingram, Quentin; Kaestli, Hans-Christian; König, Stefan; Kotlinski, Danek; Langenegger, Urs; Renker, Dieter; Rohe, Tilman; Bachmair, Felix; Bäni, Lukas; Bianchini, Lorenzo; Bortignon, Pierluigi; Buchmann, Marco-Andrea; Casal, Bruno; Chanon, Nicolas; Deisher, Amanda; Dissertori, Günther; Dittmar, Michael; Donegà, Mauro; Dünser, Marc; Eller, Philipp; Grab, Christoph; Hits, Dmitry; Lustermann, Werner; Mangano, Boris; Marini, Andrea Carlo; Martinez Ruiz del Arbol, Pablo; Meister, Daniel; Mohr, Niklas; Nägeli, Christoph; Nef, Pascal; Nessi-Tedaldi, Francesca; Pandolfi, Francesco; Pape, Luc; Pauss, Felicitas; Peruzzi, Marco; Quittnat, Milena; Ronga, Frederic Jean; Rossini, Marco; Starodumov, Andrei; Takahashi, Maiko; Tauscher, Ludwig; Theofilatos, Konstantinos; Treille, Daniel; Wallny, Rainer; Weber, Hannsjoerg Artur; Amsler, Claude; Chiochia, Vincenzo; De Cosa, Annapaola; Favaro, Carlotta; Hinzmann, Andreas; Hreus, Tomas; Ivova Rikova, Mirena; Kilminster, Benjamin; Millan Mejias, Barbara; Ngadiuba, Jennifer; Robmann, Peter; Snoek, Hella; Taroni, Silvia; Verzetti, Mauro; Yang, Yong; Cardaci, Marco; Chen, Kuan-Hsin; Ferro, Cristina; Kuo, Chia-Ming; Li, Syue-Wei; Lin, Willis; Lu, Yun-Ju; Volpe, Roberta; Yu, Shin-Shan; Bartalini, Paolo; Chang, Paoti; Chang, You-Hao; Chang, Yu-Wei; Chao, Yuan; Chen, Kai-Feng; Chen, Po-Hsun; 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Ellison, John Anthony; Gary, J William; Hanson, Gail; Heilman, Jesse; Jandir, Pawandeep; Lacroix, Florent; Liu, Hongliang; Long, Owen Rosser; Luthra, Arun; Malberti, Martina; Nguyen, Harold; Shrinivas, Amithabh; Sturdy, Jared; Sumowidagdo, Suharyo; Wimpenny, Stephen; Andrews, Warren; Branson, James G; Cerati, Giuseppe Benedetto; Cittolin, Sergio; D'Agnolo, Raffaele Tito; Evans, David; Holzner, André; Kelley, Ryan; Kovalskyi, Dmytro; Lebourgeois, Matthew; Letts, James; Macneill, Ian; Padhi, Sanjay; Palmer, Christopher; Pieri, Marco; Sani, Matteo; Sharma, Vivek; Simon, Sean; Sudano, Elizabeth; Tadel, Matevz; Tu, Yanjun; Vartak, Adish; Wasserbaech, Steven; Würthwein, Frank; Yagil, Avraham; Yoo, Jaehyeok; Barge, Derek; Campagnari, Claudio; Danielson, Thomas; Flowers, Kristen; Geffert, Paul; George, Christopher; Golf, Frank; Incandela, Joe; Justus, Christopher; Magaña Villalba, Ricardo; Mccoll, Nickolas; Pavlunin, Viktor; Richman, Jeffrey; Rossin, Roberto; Stuart, David; To, Wing; West, Christopher; Apresyan, Artur; Bornheim, Adolf; Bunn, Julian; Chen, Yi; Di Marco, Emanuele; Duarte, Javier; Kcira, Dorian; Mott, Alexander; Newman, Harvey B; Pena, Cristian; Rogan, Christopher; Spiropulu, Maria; Timciuc, Vladlen; Wilkinson, Richard; Xie, Si; Zhu, Ren-Yuan; Azzolini, Virginia; Calamba, Aristotle; Carroll, Ryan; Ferguson, Thomas; Iiyama, Yutaro; Jang, Dong Wook; Paulini, Manfred; Russ, James; Vogel, Helmut; Vorobiev, Igor; Cumalat, John Perry; Drell, Brian Robert; Ford, William T; Gaz, Alessandro; Luiggi Lopez, Eduardo; Nauenberg, Uriel; Smith, James; Stenson, Kevin; Ulmer, Keith; Wagner, Stephen Robert; Alexander, James; Chatterjee, Avishek; Eggert, Nicholas; Gibbons, Lawrence Kent; Hopkins, Walter; Khukhunaishvili, Aleko; Kreis, Benjamin; Mirman, Nathan; Nicolas Kaufman, Gala; Patterson, Juliet Ritchie; Ryd, Anders; Salvati, Emmanuele; Sun, Werner; Teo, Wee Don; Thom, Julia; Thompson, Joshua; Tucker, Jordan; Weng, Yao; Winstrom, Lucas; Wittich, Peter; Winn, Dave; Abdullin, Salavat; Albrow, Michael; Anderson, Jacob; Apollinari, Giorgio; Bauerdick, Lothar AT; Beretvas, Andrew; Berryhill, Jeffrey; Bhat, Pushpalatha C; Burkett, Kevin; Butler, Joel Nathan; Chetluru, Vasundhara; Cheung, Harry; Chlebana, Frank; Cihangir, Selcuk; Elvira, Victor Daniel; Fisk, Ian; Freeman, Jim; Gao, Yanyan; Gottschalk, Erik; Gray, Lindsey; Green, Dan; Grünendahl, Stefan; Gutsche, Oliver; Hare, Daryl; Harris, Robert M; Hirschauer, James; Hooberman, Benjamin; Jindariani, Sergo; Johnson, Marvin; Joshi, Umesh; Kaadze, Ketino; Klima, Boaz; Kwan, Simon; Linacre, Jacob; Lincoln, Don; Lipton, Ron; Lykken, Joseph; Maeshima, Kaori; Marraffino, John Michael; Martinez Outschoorn, Verena Ingrid; Maruyama, Sho; Mason, David; McBride, Patricia; Mishra, Kalanand; Mrenna, Stephen; Musienko, Yuri; Nahn, Steve; Newman-Holmes, Catherine; O'Dell, Vivian; Prokofyev, Oleg; Ratnikova, Natalia; Sexton-Kennedy, Elizabeth; Sharma, Seema; Spalding, William J; Spiegel, Leonard; Taylor, Lucas; Tkaczyk, Slawek; Tran, Nhan Viet; Uplegger, Lorenzo; Vaandering, Eric Wayne; Vidal, Richard; Whitbeck, Andrew; Whitmore, Juliana; Wu, Weimin; Yang, Fan; Yun, Jae Chul; Acosta, Darin; Avery, Paul; Bourilkov, Dimitri; Cheng, Tongguang; Das, Souvik; De Gruttola, Michele; Di Giovanni, Gian Piero; Dobur, Didar; Field, Richard D; Fisher, Matthew; Fu, Yu; Furic, Ivan-Kresimir; Hugon, Justin; Kim, Bockjoo; Konigsberg, Jacobo; Korytov, Andrey; Kropivnitskaya, Anna; Kypreos, Theodore; Low, Jia Fu; Matchev, Konstantin; Milenovic, Predrag; Mitselmakher, Guenakh; Muniz, Lana; Rinkevicius, Aurelijus; Shchutska, Lesya; Skhirtladze, Nikoloz; Snowball, Matthew; Yelton, John; Zakaria, Mohammed; Gaultney, Vanessa; Hewamanage, Samantha; Linn, Stephan; Markowitz, Pete; Martinez, German; Rodriguez, Jorge Luis; Adams, Todd; Askew, Andrew; Bochenek, Joseph; Chen, Jie; Diamond, Brendan; Haas, Jeff; Hagopian, Sharon; Hagopian, Vasken; Johnson, Kurtis F; Prosper, Harrison; Tentindo, Silvia; Veeraraghavan, Venkatesh; Weinberg, Marc; Baarmand, Marc M; 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Yang, Mingming; Yoon, Sungho; Zanetti, Marco; Zhukova, Victoria; Dahmes, Bryan; De Benedetti, Abraham; Gude, Alexander; Kao, Shih-Chuan; Klapoetke, Kevin; Kubota, Yuichi; Mans, Jeremy; Pastika, Nathaniel; Rusack, Roger; Singovsky, Alexander; Tambe, Norbert; Turkewitz, Jared; Acosta, John Gabriel; Cremaldi, Lucien Marcus; Kroeger, Rob; Oliveros, Sandra; Perera, Lalith; Rahmat, Rahmat; Sanders, David A; Summers, Don; Avdeeva, Ekaterina; Bloom, Kenneth; Bose, Suvadeep; Claes, Daniel R; Dominguez, Aaron; Gonzalez Suarez, Rebeca; Keller, Jason; Knowlton, Dan; Kravchenko, Ilya; Lazo-Flores, Jose; Malik, Sudhir; Meier, Frank; Snow, Gregory R; Dolen, James; Godshalk, Andrew; Iashvili, Ia; Jain, Supriya; Kharchilava, Avto; Kumar, Ashish; Rappoccio, Salvatore; Wan, Zongru; Alverson, George; Barberis, Emanuela; Baumgartel, Darin; Chasco, Matthew; Haley, Joseph; Massironi, Andrea; Nash, David; Orimoto, Toyoko; Trocino, Daniele; Wood, Darien; Zhang, Jinzhong; Anastassov, Anton; Hahn, Kristan Allan; Kubik, Andrew; Lusito, Letizia; Mucia, Nicholas; Odell, Nathaniel; Pollack, Brian; Pozdnyakov, Andrey; Schmitt, Michael Henry; Stoynev, Stoyan; Sung, Kevin; Velasco, Mayda; Won, Steven; Berry, Douglas; Brinkerhoff, Andrew; Chan, Kwok Ming; Drozdetskiy, Alexey; Hildreth, Michael; Jessop, Colin; Karmgard, Daniel John; Kellams, Nathan; Kolb, Jeff; Lannon, Kevin; Luo, Wuming; Lynch, Sean; Marinelli, Nancy; Morse, David Michael; Pearson, Tessa; Planer, Michael; Ruchti, Randy; Slaunwhite, Jason; Valls, Nil; Wayne, Mitchell; Wolf, Matthias; Woodard, Anna; Antonelli, Louis; Bylsma, Ben; Durkin, Lloyd Stanley; Flowers, Sean; Hill, Christopher; Hughes, Richard; Kotov, Khristian; Ling, Ta-Yung; Puigh, Darren; Rodenburg, Marissa; Smith, Geoffrey; Vuosalo, Carl; Winer, Brian L; Wolfe, Homer; Wulsin, Howard Wells; Berry, Edmund; Elmer, Peter; Halyo, Valerie; Hebda, Philip; Hegeman, Jeroen; Hunt, Adam; Jindal, Pratima; Koay, Sue Ann; Lujan, Paul; Marlow, Daniel; Medvedeva, Tatiana; Mooney, Michael; Olsen, James; Piroué, Pierre; Quan, Xiaohang; Raval, Amita; Saka, Halil; Stickland, David; Tully, Christopher; Werner, Jeremy Scott; Zenz, Seth Conrad; Zuranski, Andrzej; Brownson, Eric; Lopez, Angel; Mendez, Hector; Ramirez Vargas, Juan Eduardo; Alagoz, Enver; Benedetti, Daniele; Bolla, Gino; Bortoletto, Daniela; De Mattia, Marco; Everett, Adam; Hu, Zhen; Jones, Matthew; Jung, Kurt; Kress, Matthew; Leonardo, Nuno; Lopes Pegna, David; Maroussov, Vassili; Merkel, Petra; Miller, David Harry; Neumeister, Norbert; Radburn-Smith, Benjamin Charles; Shipsey, Ian; Silvers, David; Svyatkovskiy, Alexey; Wang, Fuqiang; Xie, Wei; Xu, Lingshan; Yoo, Hwi Dong; Zablocki, Jakub; Zheng, Yu; Parashar, Neeti; Adair, Antony; Akgun, Bora; Ecklund, Karl Matthew; Geurts, Frank JM; Li, Wei; Michlin, Benjamin; Padley, Brian Paul; Redjimi, Radia; Roberts, Jay; Zabel, James; Betchart, Burton; Bodek, Arie; Covarelli, Roberto; de Barbaro, Pawel; Demina, Regina; Eshaq, Yossof; Ferbel, Thomas; Garcia-Bellido, Aran; Goldenzweig, Pablo; Han, Jiyeon; Harel, Amnon; Miner, Daniel Carl; Petrillo, Gianluca; Vishnevskiy, Dmitry; Zielinski, Marek; Bhatti, Anwar; Ciesielski, Robert; Demortier, Luc; Goulianos, Konstantin; Lungu, Gheorghe; Malik, Sarah; Mesropian, Christina; Arora, Sanjay; Barker, Anthony; Chou, John Paul; Contreras-Campana, Christian; Contreras-Campana, Emmanuel; Duggan, Daniel; Ferencek, Dinko; Gershtein, Yuri; Gray, Richard; Halkiadakis, Eva; Hidas, Dean; Lath, Amitabh; Panwalkar, Shruti; Park, Michael; Patel, Rishi; Rekovic, Vladimir; Robles, Jorge; Salur, Sevil; Schnetzer, Steve; Seitz, Claudia; Somalwar, Sunil; Stone, Robert; Thomas, Scott; Thomassen, Peter; Walker, Matthew; Rose, Keith; Spanier, Stefan; Yang, Zong-Chang; York, Andrew; Bouhali, Othmane; Eusebi, Ricardo; Flanagan, Will; Gilmore, Jason; Kamon, Teruki; Khotilovich, Vadim; Krutelyov, Vyacheslav; Montalvo, Roy; Osipenkov, Ilya; Pakhotin, Yuriy; Perloff, Alexx; Roe, Jeffrey; Safonov, Alexei; Sakuma, Tai; Suarez, Indara; Tatarinov, Aysen; Toback, David; Akchurin, Nural; Cowden, Christopher; Damgov, Jordan; Dragoiu, Cosmin; Dudero, Phillip Russell; Kovitanggoon, Kittikul; Kunori, Shuichi; Lee, Sung Won; Libeiro, Terence; Volobouev, Igor; Appelt, Eric; Delannoy, Andrés G; Greene, Senta; Gurrola, Alfredo; Johns, Willard; Maguire, Charles; Mao, Yaxian; Melo, Andrew; Sharma, Monika; Sheldon, Paul; Snook, Benjamin; Tuo, Shengquan; Velkovska, Julia; Arenton, Michael Wayne; Boutle, Sarah; Cox, Bradley; Francis, Brian; Goodell, Joseph; Hirosky, Robert; Ledovskoy, Alexander; Lin, Chuanzhe; Neu, Christopher; Wood, John; Gollapinni, Sowjanya; Harr, Robert; Karchin, Paul Edmund; Kottachchi Kankanamge Don, Chamath; Lamichhane, Pramod; Belknap, Donald; Borrello, Laura; Carlsmith, Duncan; Cepeda, Maria; Dasu, Sridhara; Duric, Senka; Friis, Evan; Grothe, Monika; Hall-Wilton, Richard; Herndon, Matthew; Hervé, Alain; Klabbers, Pamela; Klukas, Jeffrey; Lanaro, Armando; Levine, Aaron; Loveless, Richard; Mohapatra, Ajit; Ojalvo, Isabel; Perry, Thomas; Pierro, Giuseppe Antonio; Polese, Giovanni; Ross, Ian; Sakharov, Alexandre; Sarangi, Tapas; Savin, Alexander; Smith, Wesley H

    2014-05-14

    The properties of a Higgs boson candidate are measured in the $H \\to ZZ \\to 4l$ decay channel, with $l=e,\\mu$, using data from pp collisions corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 5.1 inverse femtobarns at center-of-mass energy of $\\sqrt{s}$=7 TeV and 19.7 inverse femtobarns at $\\sqrt{s}$=8 TeV, recorded with the CMS detector at the LHC. The new boson is observed as a narrow resonance with a local significance of 6.8 standard deviations, a measured mass of 125.6$\\pm$0.4 (stat.) $\\pm$0.2 (syst.) GeV, and a total width less than 3.4 GeV at a 95% confidence level. The production cross section of the new boson times the branching fraction to four leptons is measured to be $0.93^{+0.26}_{-0.23} (stat.)^{+0.13}_{-0.09}$ (syst.) times that predicted by the standard model. Its spin-parity properties are found to be consistent with the expectations for the standard model Higgs boson. The hypotheses of a pseudoscalar and all tested spin-one boson hypotheses are excluded at a 99% confidence level or higher. All te...

  15. Measurement properties of the Minimal Insomnia Symptom Scale (MISS in an elderly population in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fagerström Cecilia

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Insomnia is common among elderly people and associated with poor health. The Minimal Insomnia Symptom Scale (MISS is a three item screening instrument that has been found to be psychometrically sound and capable of identifying insomnia in the general population (20-64 years. However, its measurement properties have not been studied in an elderly population. Our aim was to test the measurement properties of the MISS among people aged 65 + in Sweden, by replicating the original study in an elderly sample. Methods Data from a cross-sectional survey of 548 elderly individuals were analysed in terms of assumptions of summation of items, floor/ceiling effects, reliability and optimal cut-off score by means of ROC-curve analysis and compared with self-reported insomnia criteria. Results Corrected item-total correlations ranged between 0.64-0.70, floor/ceiling effects were 6.6/0.6% and reliability was 0.81. ROC analysis identified the optimal cut-off score as ≥7 (sensitivity, 0.93; specificity, 0.84; positive/negative predictive values, 0.256/0.995. Using this cut-off score, the prevalence of insomnia in the study sample was 21.7% and most frequent among women and the oldest old. Conclusions Data support the measurement properties of the MISS as a possible insomnia screening instrument for elderly persons. This study make evident that the MISS is useful for identifying elderly people with insomnia-like sleep problems. Further studies are needed to assess its usefulness in identifying clinically defined insomnia.

  16. Assessment of the measurement properties of quality of life questionnaires in Brazilian women with breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Indiara S.; Costa, Lucíola C. M.; Manzoni, Ana C. T.; Cabral, Cristina M. N.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There are several questionnaires available to assess quality of life in breast cancer, however the choice of the best questionnaire often does not take into account the adequacy of these questionnaires' measurement properties. OBJECTIVE: To test the measurement properties of two generic quality of life questionnaires and one quality of life questionnaire specific for women with breast cancer. METHOD: We assessed 106 women after surgery for breast cancer. The assessment included application of the SF-36, WHOQOL-bref, and FACT-B+4 questionnaires as well as the Global Perceived Effect and Pain Numerical Rating scales. The participants were interviewed on three occasions to investigate internal consistency, floor and ceiling effects, construct validity, reproducibility, and responsiveness. RESULTS: Most of the instruments' domains showed adequate internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha varying from 0.66 to 0.91). Reliability varied from poor to substantial (ICC2,1 between 0.39 and 0.87) and agreement varied from negative to very good. The SF-36 presented doubtful agreement and showed floor and ceiling effects in three domains. The domains of the generic questionnaires presented moderate to good correlation with the FACT-B+4 (Pearson varying from 0.31 to 0.69). The internal responsiveness varied from small to large (ES varying from -0.26 to 0.98) and external responsiveness was found in only some of the instruments' domains. CONCLUSIONS: Most of the measurement properties tested for the WHOQOL-bref and FACT-B+4 were adequate as was their ability to assess quality of life in women with breast cancer. The SF-36 showed inadequacy in agreement and floor and ceiling effects and should not be used in women with breast cancer. PMID:25075998

  17. Assessment of the measurement properties of quality of life questionnaires in Brazilian women with breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indiara S. Oliveira

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There are several questionnaires available to assess quality of life in breast cancer, however the choice of the best questionnaire often does not take into account the adequacy of these questionnaires' measurement properties. OBJECTIVE: To test the measurement properties of two generic quality of life questionnaires and one quality of life questionnaire specific for women with breast cancer. METHOD: We assessed 106 women after surgery for breast cancer. The assessment included application of the SF-36, WHOQOL-bref, and FACT-B+4 questionnaires as well as the Global Perceived Effect and Pain Numerical Rating scales. The participants were interviewed on three occasions to investigate internal consistency, floor and ceiling effects, construct validity, reproducibility, and responsiveness. RESULTS: Most of the instruments' domains showed adequate internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha varying from 0.66 to 0.91. Reliability varied from poor to substantial (ICC2,1 between 0.39 and 0.87 and agreement varied from negative to very good. The SF-36 presented doubtful agreement and showed floor and ceiling effects in three domains. The domains of the generic questionnaires presented moderate to good correlation with the FACT-B+4 (Pearson varying from 0.31 to 0.69. The internal responsiveness varied from small to large (ES varying from -0.26 to 0.98 and external responsiveness was found in only some of the instruments' domains. CONCLUSIONS: Most of the measurement properties tested for the WHOQOL-bref and FACT-B+4 were adequate as was their ability to assess quality of life in women with breast cancer. The SF-36 showed inadequacy in agreement and floor and ceiling effects and should not be used in women with breast cancer.

  18. Measurement properties of the Inventory of Cognitive Bias in Medicine (ICBM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phillips Paddy A

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Understanding how doctors think may inform both undergraduate and postgraduate medical education. Developing such an understanding requires valid and reliable measurement tools. We examined the measurement properties of the Inventory of Cognitive Bias in Medicine (ICBM, designed to tap this domain with specific reference to medicine, but with previously questionable measurement properties. Methods First year postgraduate entry medical students at Flinders University, and trainees (postgraduate doctors in any specialty and consultants (N = 348 based at two teaching hospitals in Adelaide, Australia, completed the ICBM and a questionnaire measuring thinking styles (Rational Experiential Inventory. Results Questions with the lowest item-total correlation were deleted from the original 22 item ICBM, although the resultant 17 item scale only marginally improved internal consistency (Cronbach's α = 0.61 compared with 0.57. A factor analysis identified two scales, both achieving only α = 0.58. Construct validity was assessed by correlating Rational Experiential Inventory scores with the ICBM, with some positive correlations noted for students only, suggesting that those who are naïve to the knowledge base required to "successfully" respond to the ICBM may profit by a thinking style in tune with logical reasoning. Conclusion The ICBM failed to demonstrate adequate content validity, internal consistency and construct validity. It is unlikely that improvements can be achieved without considered attention to both the audience for which it is designed and its item content. The latter may need to involve both removal of some items deemed to measure multiple biases and the addition of new items in the attempt to survey the range of biases that may compromise medical decision making.

  19. Ultrasonic techniques for measuring physical properties of fluids in harsh environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantea, Cristian

    Ultrasonic-based measurement techniques, either in the time domain or in the frequency domain, include a wide range of experimental methods for investigating physical properties of materials. This discussion is specifically focused on ultrasonic methods and instrumentation development for the determination of liquid properties at conditions typically found in subsurface environments (in the U.S., more than 80% of total energy needs are provided by subsurface energy sources). Such sensors require materials that can withstand harsh conditions of high pressure, high temperature and corrosiveness. These include the piezoelectric material, electrically conductive adhesives, sensor housings/enclosures, and the signal carrying cables, to name a few. A complete sensor package was developed for operation at high temperatures and pressures characteristic to geothermal/oil-industry reservoirs. This package is designed to provide real-time, simultaneous measurements of multiple physical parameters, such as temperature, pressure, salinity and sound speed. The basic principle for this sensor's operation is an ultrasonic frequency domain technique, combined with transducer resonance tracking. This multipurpose acoustic sensor can be used at depths of several thousand meters, temperatures up to 250 °C, and in a very corrosive environment. In the context of high precision measurement of sound speed, the determination of acoustic nonlinearity of liquids will also be discussed, using two different approaches: (i) the thermodynamic method, in which precise and accurate frequency domain sound speed measurements are performed at high pressure and high temperature, and (ii) a modified finite amplitude method, requiring time domain measurements of the second harmonic at room temperature. Efforts toward the development of an acoustic source of collimated low-frequency (10-150 kHz) beam, with applications in imaging, will also be presented.

  20. Viscoelastic properties of healthy human artery measured in saline solution by AFM based indentation technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lundkvist, A.; Lilleodden, E.; Sickhaus, W.; Kinney, J.; Pruitt, L.; Balooch, M.

    1998-02-09

    Using an Atomic Force Microscope with an attachment for indentation, we have measured local, in vitro mechanical properties of healthy femoral artery tissue held in saline solution. The elastic modulus (34. 3 kPa) and viscoelastic response ({tau}sub{epsilon} {equals} 16.9 s and {tau}sub{sigma} {equals} 29.3 s) of the unstretched,intimal vessel wall have been determined using Sneddon theory and a three element model(standard linear solid) for viscoelastic materials. The procedures necessary to employ the indenting attachment to detect elastic moduli in the kPa range in liquid are described.

  1. Electric and magnetic properties measurement and analysis of a conventional and a superconducting power transformer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueira, P.; Pronto, A. G.; Vilhena, N.; Pina, J. M.

    2014-05-01

    Power transformers based on High Temperature Superconductors (HTS) technology have revealed potential for several practical applications, offering economic, environmental and operational benefits. In this work, two 650 VA single-phase transformers prototypes were developed, tested and characterized: a conventional one, using copper windings, and another with the same primary copper winding, but with a secondary winding made of HTS BSCCO tape. The two prototypes were compared regarding magnetic properties, losses, electric parameters and efficiency, and the results are presented and interpreted. Also, several measures to determine AC critical current of the HTS tape were made. The results are compared with DC critical current for the same tape.

  2. Determination of human skin optical properties in vivo from reflectance spectroscopic measurements

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hongqin Yang; Shusen Xie; Hui Li; Zukang Lu

    2007-01-01

    A novel approach has been proved to quickly and non-invasively determine the optical properties of human skin in vivo. It is based on the diffuse reflectance approximation model and subjected to the well established library of absorption spectra of water and hemoglobin. Under the nonlinear least-square algorithm, fitting the measured spectra in the range of 400-1000 nm to the diffusion approximation model, the reduced scattering coefficient and absorption coefficient of skin tissue can be quickly determined in vivo. The results show that this method is convenient and suitable for the real-time clinical application.

  3. Measuring neutron-star properties via gravitational waves from neutron-star mergers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauswein, A; Janka, H-T

    2012-01-06

    We demonstrate by a large set of merger simulations for symmetric binary neutron stars (NSs) that there is a tight correlation between the frequency peak of the postmerger gravitational-wave (GW) emission and the physical properties of the nuclear equation of state (EoS), e.g., expressed by the radius of the maximum-mass Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkhoff configuration. Therefore, a single measurement of the peak frequency of the postmerger GW signal will constrain the NS EoS significantly. For optimistic merger-rate estimates a corresponding detection with Advanced LIGO is expected to happen within an operation time of roughly a year.

  4. Measurement of the Higgs properties in bosonic decay channels at 13 TeV in ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Haney, Bijan; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    In 2015 and 2016, ATLAS collected proton-proton collision data at the Large Hadron Collider corresponding to an integrated luminosity of $36.1 \\text{fb}^{−1}$ at a centre-of-mass energy of 13 TeV. The inclusive and differential cross section of the Higgs has been measured in multiple production modes and decay channels in order to learn about the properties of the Higgs. This talk concentrates on the cross sections calculated from the bosonic decay channels $H \\rightarrow ZZ^* \\rightarrow 4\\ell $, $H \\rightarrow WW^* \\rightarrow \\ell\

  5. Measurement of intrinsic properties of amyloid fibrils by the peak force QNM method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamcik, Jozef; Lara, Cecile; Usov, Ivan; Jeong, Jae Sun; Ruggeri, Francesco S.; Dietler, Giovanni; Lashuel, Hilal A.; Hamley, Ian W.; Mezzenga, Raffaele

    2012-07-01

    We report the investigation of the mechanical properties of different types of amyloid fibrils by the peak force quantitative nanomechanical (PF-QNM) technique. We demonstrate that this technique correctly measures the Young's modulus independent of the polymorphic state and the cross-sectional structural details of the fibrils, and we show that values for amyloid fibrils assembled from heptapeptides, α-synuclein, Aβ(1-42), insulin, β-lactoglobulin, lysozyme, ovalbumin, Tau protein and bovine serum albumin all fall in the range of 2-4 GPa.

  6. Property Changes in Aqueous Solutions due to Surfactant Treatment of PCE: Implications to Geophysical Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werkema, D. D.

    2007-12-01

    Select physicochemical properties of aqueous solutions composed of surfactants, dye, and perchloroethylene (PCE) were evaluated through a response surface quadratic design model of experiment. Nine surfactants, which are conventionally used in the remediation of PCE, were evaluated with varying concentrations of PCE and indicator dyes in aqueous solutions. Two hundred forty experiments were performed using PCE as a numerical factor (coded A) from 0 to 200 parts per million (ppm), dye type (coded B) as a 3-level categorical factor, and surfactant type (coded C) as a 10-level categorical factor. Five responses were measured: temperature (°C), pH, conductivity (μS/cm), dissolved oxygen (DO, mg/L), and density (g/mL). Diagnostics proved a normally distributed predictable response for all measured responses except pH. The Box-Cox plot for transforms recommended a power transform for the conductivity response with lambda (λ) = 0.50, and for the DO response, λ =2.2. The overall mean of the temperature response proved to be a better predictor than the linear model. The conductivity response is best fitted with a linear model using significant coded terms B and C. Both DO and density also showed a linear model with coded terms A, B, and C for DO; and terms A and C for density. Some of the surfactant treatments of PCE significantly alter the conductivity, DO, and density of the aqueous solution. However, the magnitude of the density response is so small that it does not exceed the instrument tolerance. Results for the conductivity and DO responses provide predictive models for the surfactant treatment of PCE and may be useful in determining the potential for geophysically monitoring surfactant enhanced aquifer remediation (SEAR) of PCE. As the aqueous physicochemical properties change due to surfactant remediation efforts, so will the properties of the subsurface pore water which are influential factors in geophysical measurements. Geoelectrical methods are potentially

  7. Evaluation of Rotor Structural and Aerodynamic Loads Using Measured Blade Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    German-Dutch wind tunnel (DNW) by a joint research team from the German DLR, the French ONERA , NASA Langley, DNW, and the U.S. Army [1]. The main...is based on the ONERA -EDLIN unsteady airfoil theory combined with C81 airfoil table look-up. For the vortex wake representation, the free wake...acknowledge the support of HART I partners – DLR, DNW, NASA, ONERA , and AFDD. The authors acknowledge Benton Lau who began the blade property measurement but

  8. On the hydrological properties of mountain soils, from measurement to the geotechnical implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barontini Stefano

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aiming at contributing with a hydrological perspective to the geotechnical investigation in mountain environments, particularly focusing on landslides triggered by perched water tables, we present some findings of a longlasting experimental and theoretical investigation of mountain—soils hydrology. After recalling a theoretical framework suitable to describe the hydrology of shallow, sloping and heterogeneous soils, we discuss some relevant difficulties concerning the measurement of the hydrological properties of heterogeneous and non mature soils, and we finally focus on the role played by the soil heterogeneity in the perched water tables onset.

  9. Measurement of focusing properties for high numerical aperture optics using an automated submicron beamprofiler

    CERN Document Server

    Chapman, J J; Streed, E W; Kielpinski, D

    2007-01-01

    The focusing properties of three aspheric lenses with numerical aperture (NA) between 0.53 and 0.68 were directly measured using an interferometrically referenced scanning knife-edge beam profiler with sub-micron resolution. The results obtained for two of the three lenses tested were in agreement with paraxial gaussian beam theory. It was also found that the highest NA aspheric lens which was designed for 830nm was not diffraction limited at 633nm. This process was automated using motorized translation stages and provides a direct method for testing the design specifications of high numerical aperture optics.

  10. Generating few-cycle pulses for nanoscale photoemission easily with an erbium-doped fiber laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Sebastian; Holzwarth, Ronald; Hommelhoff, Peter

    2012-06-18

    We demonstrate a simple setup capable of generating four-cycle pulses at a center wavelength of 1700 nm for nanoscale photoemission. Pulses from an amplified erbium-doped fiber laser are spectrally broadened by propagation through a highly non-linear fiber. Subsequently, we exploit dispersion in two different types of glass to compress the pulses. The pulse length is estimated by measuring an interferometric autocorrelation trace and comparing it to a numerical simulation. We demonstrate highly non-linear photoemission of electrons from a nanometric tungsten tip in a hitherto unexplored pulse parameter range.

  11. Measuring patient engagement: development and psychometric properties of the Patient Health Engagement (PHE) Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graffigna, Guendalina; Barello, Serena; Bonanomi, Andrea; Lozza, Edoardo

    2015-01-01

    Beyond the rhetorical call for increasing patients' engagement, policy makers recognize the urgency to have an evidence-based measure of patients' engagement and capture its effect when planning and implementing initiatives aimed at sustaining the engagement of consumers in their health. In this paper, authors describe the Patient Health Engagement Scale (PHE-scale), a measure of patient engagement that is grounded in rigorous conceptualization and appropriate psychometric methods. The scale was developed based on our previous conceptualization of patient engagement (the PHE-model). In particular, the items of the PHE-scale were developed based on the findings from the literature review and from interviews with chronic patients. Initial psychometric analysis was performed to pilot test a preliminary version of the items. The items were then refined and administered to a national sample of chronic patients (N = 382) to assess the measure's psychometric performance. A final phase of test-retest reliability was performed. The analysis showed that the PHE Scale has good psychometric properties with good correlation with concurrent measures and solid reliability. Having a valid and reliable measure to assess patient engagement is the first step in understanding patient engagement and its role in health care quality, outcomes, and cost containment. The PHE Scale shows a promising clinical relevance, indicating that it can be used to tailor intervention and assess changes after patient engagement interventions.

  12. Soot properties and species measurements in a two-meter diameter JP-8 pool fire.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaddix, Christopher R.; Murphy, Jeffrey J.

    2003-06-01

    A tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy probe was used to measure in situ soot properties and species concentrations in two-meter diameter JP-8 pool fires. Twelve tests were performed at the Lurance Canyon Bum Site operated by Sandia in Albuquerque, New Mexico. Seven of the tests were conducted with the probe positioned close to the centerline at heights above the pool surface ranging from 0.5 m to 2.0 mm in 0.25 m increments. For the remaining five tests, the probe was positioned at two heights 0.3 m from the centerline and at three heights 0.5 m from the centerline. Soot concentration was determined using a soot absorption measurement based on the transmission of a solid-state red laser (635 nm) through the 3.7 cm long probe volume. Soot temperature and a second estimate of soot concentration were measured using two-color optical pyrometry at 850 nm and la00 nm. The effective data rate for these measurements was 10 Mz. Finally, tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy was used to qualitatively estimate water concentration at a rate of 1 kHz. To improve signal-to-noise, these data were averaged to an effective rate of 2 Hz. The results presented include the statistics, probability density functions, and spectral density functions of soot concentration, soot temperature, and approximate water concentrations at the different measurement locations throughout the fire.

  13. A quadruple-scanning-probe force microscope for electrical property measurements of microscopic materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higuchi, Seiji; Kubo, Osamu; Kuramochi, Hiromi; Aono, Masakazu; Nakayama, Tomonobu

    2011-07-15

    Four-terminal electrical measurement is realized on a microscopic structure in air, without a lithographic process, using a home-built quadruple-scanning-probe force microscope (QSPFM). The QSPFM has four probes whose positions are individually controlled by obtaining images of a sample in the manner of atomic force microscopy (AFM), and uses the probes as contacting electrodes for electrical measurements. A specially arranged tuning fork probe (TFP) is used as a self-detection force sensor to operate each probe in a frequency modulation AFM mode, resulting in simultaneous imaging of the same microscopic feature on an insulator using the four TFPs. Four-terminal electrical measurement is then demonstrated in air by placing each probe electrode in contact with a graphene flake exfoliated on a silicon dioxide film, and the sheet resistance of the flake is measured by the van der Pauw method. The present work shows that the QSPFM has the potential to measure the intrinsic electrical properties of a wide range of microscopic materials in situ without electrode fabrication.

  14. A quadruple-scanning-probe force microscope for electrical property measurements of microscopic materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higuchi, Seiji; Kubo, Osamu; Kuramochi, Hiromi; Aono, Masakazu; Nakayama, Tomonobu, E-mail: higuchi.seiji@nims.go.jp, E-mail: nakayama.tomonobu@nims.go.jp [International Center for Materials Nanoarchitectonics (MANA), National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS), Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0044 (Japan)

    2011-07-15

    Four-terminal electrical measurement is realized on a microscopic structure in air, without a lithographic process, using a home-built quadruple-scanning-probe force microscope (QSPFM). The QSPFM has four probes whose positions are individually controlled by obtaining images of a sample in the manner of atomic force microscopy (AFM), and uses the probes as contacting electrodes for electrical measurements. A specially arranged tuning fork probe (TFP) is used as a self-detection force sensor to operate each probe in a frequency modulation AFM mode, resulting in simultaneous imaging of the same microscopic feature on an insulator using the four TFPs. Four-terminal electrical measurement is then demonstrated in air by placing each probe electrode in contact with a graphene flake exfoliated on a silicon dioxide film, and the sheet resistance of the flake is measured by the van der Pauw method. The present work shows that the QSPFM has the potential to measure the intrinsic electrical properties of a wide range of microscopic materials in situ without electrode fabrication.

  15. Improvements on effective permittivity measurements of powdered alumina: Implications for bulk permittivity properties of asteroid regoliths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickson, Dylan; Sotodeh, Shahroukh; Daly, Michael G.; Ghent, Rebecca; Nolan, Michael C.

    2017-01-01

    Accurate measurements of the dielectric properties of materials are essential in constraining interpretations of radar observations of planetary bodies. For bodies whose surfaces are comprised of regolith this requires an understanding of the behaviour of the bulk permittivity of powders. In this research we measure the effective permittivity of powdered aluminium oxide (or alumina, Al2O3) in a 7 mm and 14 mm (diameter) coaxial airline at 7.5 GHz for multiple samples with varying grain size. The dielectric constant of alumina is extracted from these measurements using the Bruggeman (Effective Medium Approximation) mixing equation. We develop a model to account for heterogeneity within the airline, specifically in regards to local variation in porosity. The results of the model show good correlation to experimental data and effectively correct for grain size effects on the measured bulk permittivity. We show that particle shape can have a significant impact on the output of the model and can be accounted for by modelling particles as ellipsoids rather than perfect spheres, where the depolarization factor must be measured and averaged for a specific sample batch.

  16. Top quark pair property measurements and ttbar+X, using the ATLAS detector at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Rosien, Nils-Arne; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Since the last DIS conference in April 2016 the ATLAS Top Properties group has released 5 public results: \\begin{itemize} \\item "Measurements of top quark spin observables in tt events using dilepton final states in 8 TeV pp collisions with the ATLAS detector" \\item "Measurements of the charge asymmetry in top-quark pair production in the dilepton final state at 8 TeV with the ATLAS detector" \\item "Measurements of charge and CP asymmetries in b-hadron decays using top-quark events collected by the ATLAS detector in pp collisions at 8 TeV" \\item "Measurement of the W boson polarisation in tt events from pp collisions at 8 TeV in the lepton+jets channel with ATLAS" \\item "Measurement of the ttZ and ttW production cross sections in multilepton final states using 3.2 fb -1 of pp collisions at 13 TeV at the LHC" \\end{itemize} This talk will give a 15+5 minute overview of these 5 analyses on April 4th during the 2017 DIS conference.

  17. A technique to measure optical properties of brownout clouds for modeling terahertz propagation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorino, Steven T; Deibel, Jason A; Grice, Phillip M; Novak, Markus H; Spinoza, Julian; Owens, Lindsay; Ganti, Satya

    2012-06-01

    Brownout, the loss of visibility caused by dust resultant of helicopter downwash, is a factor in the large majority of military helicopter accidents. As terahertz radiation readily propagates through the associated dust aerosols and is attenuated by atmospheric water vapor within short distances, it can provide low-profile imaging that improves effective pilot visibility. In order to model this application of terahertz imaging, it is necessary to determine the optical properties of obscurants at these frequencies. We present here a method of empirical calculation and experimental measurement of the complex refractive index of the obscuring aerosols. Results derived from terahertz time-domain spectral measurements are incorporated into the AFIT CDE Laser Environmental Effects Definition and Reference (LEEDR) software.

  18. GPS Multipath Fade Measurements to Determine L-Band Ground Reflectivity Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavak, Adnan; Xu, Guang-Han; Vogel, Wolfhard J.

    1996-01-01

    In personal satellite communications, especially when the line-of-sight is clear, ground specular reflected signals along with direct signals are received by low gain, almost omni-directional subscriber antennas. A six-channel, C/A code processing, GPS receiver with an almost omni-directional patch antenna was used to take measurements over three types of ground to characterize 1.575 GHz specular ground reflections and ground dielectric properties. Fade measurements were taken over grass, asphalt, and lake water surfaces by placing the antenna in a vertical position at a fixed height from the ground. Electrical characteristics (conductivity and dielectric constant) of these surfaces (grass, asphalt, lake water) were obtained by matching computer simulations to the experimental results.

  19. Measurement of dielectric properties of subcutaneous fat with open-ended coaxial sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alanen, Esko; Nuutinen, Jouni [Department of Oncology, Kuopio University Hospital (Finland); Lahtinen, Tapani [Department of Oncology, Kuopio University Hospital (Finland); Department of Applied Physics, University of Kuopio, FIN-70210, Kuopio (Finland)

    1998-03-01

    A three-layer model of stratum corneum, epidermis/dermis and subcutaneous fat has been developed for the capacitance of an open-ended coaxial line in contact with human skin. Applying the model, the electrical properties of subcutaneous fat can be calculated from skin dielectric measurements with three probes of different sizes. The three-layer model is based on a variational formula for the capacitance of the coaxial probe. An accurate approximation for the dielectric constant of the multilayer cutaneous structure is presented for the inverse problem of solving the dielectric constants of variouslayers. The method was tested at 300 MHz with breast cancer patients who often have radiotherapy-induced late alterations in the structure of subcutaneous fat due to the development of subcutaneous fibrosis. Measurements from 206 sites yielded a good agreement between the dielectric constant of subcutaneous fat and the clinical score for subcutaneous fibrosis. (author)

  20. Major Article Social Facilitation Expectancies for Smoking: Psychometric Properties of a New Measure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweizer, C. Amanda; Doran, Neal; Myers, Mark G.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Expectancies about social outcomes for smoking are relevant to college student smokers, who frequently report “social smoking.” A new measure, the Social Facilitation Expectancies (SFE) scale, was developed to assess these beliefs. Participants The SFE was administered to undergraduate college student smokers (N=1096; study completed in May 2011). Methods Items were scored on a five-point scale with a summed total score. The sample was randomly split and principle axis factoring and confirmatory factor analysis applied to determine scale structure. The structure was tested across sex and smoking groups and validation analyses were conducted. Results A nine-item, one-factor scale was replicated within each group. Higher SFE scores were observed among those with greater smoking experience and higher scores were associated with greater endorsement of other smoking related beliefs. Conclusions These preliminary findings provide support for the sound psychometric properties of this measure for use with young adult college students. PMID:24456515