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Sample records for earthworm lumbricus terrestris

  1. Impact of the earthworm Lumbricus terrestris (L.) on As, Cu, Pb and Zn mobility and speciation in contaminated soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sizmur, Tom, E-mail: t.p.sizmur@reading.ac.uk [Soil Research Centre, Department of Geography and Environmental Science, School of Human and Environmental Sciences, University of Reading, Whiteknights, Reading RG6 6DW (United Kingdom); Palumbo-Roe, Barbara; Watts, Michael J. [British Geological Survey, Kingsley Dunham Centre, Keyworth, Nottingham NG12 5GG (United Kingdom); Hodson, Mark E. [Soil Research Centre, Department of Geography and Environmental Science, School of Human and Environmental Sciences, University of Reading, Whiteknights, Reading RG6 6DW (United Kingdom)

    2011-03-15

    To assess the risks that contaminated soils pose to the environment properly a greater understanding of how soil biota influence the mobility of metal(loid)s in soils is required. Lumbricus terrestris L. were incubated in three soils contaminated with As, Cu, Pb and Zn. The concentration and speciation of metal(loid)s in pore waters and the mobility and partitioning in casts were compared with earthworm-free soil. Generally the concentrations of water extractable metal(loid)s in earthworm casts were greater than in earthworm-free soil. The impact of the earthworms on concentration and speciation in pore waters was soil and metal specific and could be explained either by earthworm induced changes in soil pH or soluble organic carbon. The mobilisation of metal(loid)s in the environment by earthworm activity may allow for leaching or uptake into biota. - Research highlights: > Earthworms increase the mobility and availability of metals and metalloids in soils. > We incubated L. terrestris in three soils contaminated with As, Cu, Pb and Zn. > Earthworms increased the mobility of As, Cu, Pb and Zn in their casts. > The mechanisms for this could be explained by changes in pH or organic carbon. - Lumbricus terrestris change the partitioning of metal(loid)s between soil constituents and increase the mobility of metal(loid)s in casts and pore water.

  2. Impact of the earthworm Lumbricus terrestris (L.) on As, Cu, Pb and Zn mobility and speciation in contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sizmur, Tom; Palumbo-Roe, Barbara; Watts, Michael J; Hodson, Mark E

    2011-03-01

    To assess the risks that contaminated soils pose to the environment properly a greater understanding of how soil biota influence the mobility of metal(loid)s in soils is required. Lumbricus terrestris L. were incubated in three soils contaminated with As, Cu, Pb and Zn. The concentration and speciation of metal(loid)s in pore waters and the mobility and partitioning in casts were compared with earthworm-free soil. Generally the concentrations of water extractable metal(loid)s in earthworm casts were greater than in earthworm-free soil. The impact of the earthworms on concentration and speciation in pore waters was soil and metal specific and could be explained either by earthworm induced changes in soil pH or soluble organic carbon. The mobilisation of metal(loid)s in the environment by earthworm activity may allow for leaching or uptake into biota. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Arsenic speciation in field-collected and laboratory-exposed earthworms Lumbricus terrestris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Button, Mark; Moriarty, Maeve M; Watts, Michael J; Zhang, Jun; Koch, Iris; Reimer, Kenneth J

    2011-11-01

    Mature Lumbricus terrestris were host soils and leaf litter were collected from a former arsenic mine in Devon, UK (Devon Great Consols), a former gold mine in Ontario, Canada (Deloro), and an uncontaminated residential garden in Nottingham, UK. Arsenic concentrations determined by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) in soils were 16-348 mg kg(-1), 6.0-239 mg kg(-1) in the earthworms and 8.6 mg kg(-1) in leaf litter sampled at Deloro (all dry weight). High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC-ICP-MS) analysis revealed arsenite (As(III)), arsenate (As(V)) and five organoarsenic species; arsenobetaine (AB), methylarsonate (MA(V)), dimethylarsinate (DMA(V)), arsenosugar 1 (glycerol sugar), arsenosugar 2 (phosphate sugar), and trimethylarsineoxide (TMAO) in field-collected L. terrestris. Differences were observed in the variety of organoarsenic species present between field sites. Several organoarsenic species were observed in the leaf litter (DMA(V), arsenosugar 2 and TMAO) but not AB. Depuration resulted in higher concentrations of inorganic As being detected in the earthworm whereas the concentration or variety of organoarsenic species was unchanged. Commercially sourced L. terrestris were exposed to As contaminated soil in laboratory mesocosms (1.0, 98, 183, 236, 324 and 436 mg kg(-1)) without leaf litter and were additionally analyzed using X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES). Only inorganic As(III) and As(V) was observed. It is proposed that ingestion of leaf litter and symbiotic processes in the natural soil environment are likely sources of organoarsenic compounds in field-collected L. terrestris.

  4. Impact of the earthworm Lumbricus terrestris (L.) on As, Cu, Pb and Zn mobility and speciation in contaminated soils

    OpenAIRE

    Sizmur, Tom; B. Palumbo-Roe; Watts, M.J.; Hodson, Mark E.

    2011-01-01

    To assess the risks that contaminated soils pose to the environment properly a greater understanding of how soil biota influence the mobility of metal(loid)s in soils is required. Lumbricus terrestris L. were incubated in three soils contaminated with As, Cu, Pb and Zn. The concentration and speciation of metal(loid)s in pore waters and the mobility and partitioning in casts were compared with earthworm-free soil. Generally the concentrations of water extractable metal(loid)s in earthworm cas...

  5. Tissue distribution, isozyme abundance and sensitivity to chlorpyrifos-oxon of carboxylesterases in the earthworm Lumbricus terrestris

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez-Hernandez, Juan C. [Laboratory of Ecotoxicology, Faculty of Environmental Science, University of Castilla-La Mancha, Avda. Carlos III, 45071 Toledo (Spain)], E-mail: juancarlos.sanchez@uclm.es; Wheelock, Craig E. [Division of Physiological Chemistry II, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics, Karolinska Institutet, SE 171 77, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2009-01-15

    A laboratory-based study was conducted to determine the basal carboxylesterase (CbE) activity in different tissues of the earthworm Lumbricus terrestris, and its sensitivity to the organophosphate (OP) pesticide chlorpyrifos-oxon (CPx). Carboxylesterase activity was found in the pharynx, crop, gizzard, anterior intestine, wall muscle and reproductive tissues of L. terrestris, and multiple tissue-specific isozymes were observed by native gel electrophoresis. Esterase activity and sensitivity to CPx inhibition varied on a tissue- and substrate-specific basis, suggesting isoforms-specific selectivity to OP-mediated inhibition. Three practical issues are recommended for the use of earthworm CbE activity as a biomarker of pesticide exposure: (i) CbE should be measured using several routine substrates, (ii) it should be determined in selected tissues instead of whole organism homogenate, and (iii) earthworm CbE activity should be used in conjuncture with other common biomarkers (e.g., ChE) within a multibiomarker approach to assess field exposure of OPs, and potentially other agrochemicals. - The measurement of carboxylesterase inhibition in earthworm is a sensitive and complementary biomarker of pesticide exposure.

  6. Inhibition, recovery and oxime-induced reactivation of muscle esterases following chlorpyrifos exposure in the earthworm Lumbricus terrestris

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collange, B. [Universite d' Avignon et des Pays de Vaucluse, UMR 406 Abeilles et Environnement, Site AGROPARC, F-84914, Avignon Cede 09 (France); Wheelock, C.E. [Division of Physiological Chemistry II, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics, Karolinska Institutet, SE 171 77, Stockholm (Sweden); Rault, M.; Mazzia, C. [Universite d' Avignon et des Pays de Vaucluse, UMR 406 Abeilles et Environnement, Site AGROPARC, F-84914, Avignon Cede 09 (France); Capowiez, Y. [INRA, Unite PSH, Site AGROPARC, F-84914 Avignon Cedex 09 (France); Sanchez-Hernandez, J.C., E-mail: juancarlos.sanchez@uclm.e [Laboratory of Ecotoxicology, Faculty of Environmental Science, University of Castilla-La Mancha, Avda. Carlos III s/n, 45071, Toledo (Spain)

    2010-06-15

    Assessment of wildlife exposure to organophosphorus (OP) pesticides generally involves the measurement of cholinesterase (ChE) inhibition, and complementary biomarkers (or related endpoints) are rarely included. Herein, we investigated the time course inhibition and recovery of ChE and carboxylesterase (CE) activities in the earthworm Lumbricus terrestris exposed to chlorpyrifos, and the ability of oximes to reactivate the phosphorylated ChE activity. Results indicated that these esterase activities are a suitable multibiomarker scheme for monitoring OP exposure due to their high sensitivity to OP inhibition and slow recovery to full activity levels following pesticide exposure. Moreover, oximes reactivated the inhibited ChE activity of the earthworms exposed to 12 and 48 mg kg{sup -1} chlorpyrifos during the first week following pesticide exposure. This methodology is useful for providing evidence for OP-mediated ChE inhibition in individuals with a short history of OP exposure (<=1 week); resulting a valuable approach for assessing multiple OP exposure episodes in the field. - Esterase inhibition combined with oxime reactivation methods is a suitable approach for monitoring organophosphate contamination

  7. Combining µXANES and µXRD mapping to analyse the heterogeneity in calcium carbonate granules excreted by the earthworm Lumbricus terrestris

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brinza, Loredana [Diamond Light Source, Harwell Campus, Didcot, Oxon OX11 0DE (United Kingdom); Schofield, Paul F. [Natural History Museum, Cromwell Road, London SW7 5BD (United Kingdom); Hodson, Mark E. [University of York, York YO10 5DD (United Kingdom); Weller, Sophie [University of Oxford, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3QR (United Kingdom); Ignatyev, Konstantin; Geraki, Kalotina; Quinn, Paul D.; Mosselmans, J. Frederick W., E-mail: fred.mosselmans@diamond.ac.uk [Diamond Light Source, Harwell Campus, Didcot, Oxon OX11 0DE (United Kingdom)

    2014-01-01

    A new experimental set-up enabling microfocus fluorescence XANES mapping and microfocus XRD mapping on the same sample at beamline I18 at Diamond Light Source is described. To demonstrate this set-up the heterogeneous mineralogy in calcium carbonate granules excreted by the earthworm Lumbricus terrestris has been analysed. Data analysis methods have been developed which enable µXRD and µXANES two-dimensional maps to be compared. The use of fluorescence full spectral micro-X-ray absorption near-edge structure (µXANES) mapping is becoming more widespread in the hard energy regime. This experimental method using the Ca K-edge combined with micro-X-ray diffraction (µXRD) mapping of the same sample has been enabled on beamline I18 at Diamond Light Source. This combined approach has been used to probe both long- and short-range order in calcium carbonate granules produced by the earthworm Lumbricus terrestris. In granules produced by earthworms cultured in a control artificial soil, calcite and vaterite are observed in the granules. However, granules produced by earthworms cultivated in the same artificial soil amended with 500 p.p.m. Mg also contain an aragonite. The two techniques, µXRD and µXANES, probe different sample volumes but there is good agreement in the phase maps produced.

  8. Combining µXANES and µXRD mapping to analyse the heterogeneity in calcium carbonate granules excreted by the earthworm Lumbricus terrestris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinza, Loredana; Schofield, Paul F; Hodson, Mark E; Weller, Sophie; Ignatyev, Konstantin; Geraki, Kalotina; Quinn, Paul D; Mosselmans, J Frederick W

    2014-01-01

    The use of fluorescence full spectral micro-X-ray absorption near-edge structure (µXANES) mapping is becoming more widespread in the hard energy regime. This experimental method using the Ca K-edge combined with micro-X-ray diffraction (µXRD) mapping of the same sample has been enabled on beamline I18 at Diamond Light Source. This combined approach has been used to probe both long- and short-range order in calcium carbonate granules produced by the earthworm Lumbricus terrestris. In granules produced by earthworms cultured in a control artificial soil, calcite and vaterite are observed in the granules. However, granules produced by earthworms cultivated in the same artificial soil amended with 500 p.p.m. Mg also contain an aragonite. The two techniques, µXRD and µXANES, probe different sample volumes but there is good agreement in the phase maps produced.

  9. Mitigating N2O emissions from clover residues by 3,4-dimethylpyrazole phosphate (DMPP) without adverse effects on the earthworm Lumbricus terrestris

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kong, Xianwang; Duan, Yun-Feng (Kevin); Schramm, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    In EU-28, temporary grasslands constitute more than 10% of the total arable land. Grassland tillage will return up to 400 kg N ha−1 in residues that can lead to a pulse of N2O emissions. Here a novel application of the nitrification inhibitor 3,4-dimethylpyrazole phosphate (DMPP) was evaluated...... in a 28-d mesocosm experiment, where DMPP spraying prior to tillage was simulated. Above-ground parts of 15N-labelled clover residues were treated with DMPP and either placed at 10 cm depth to simulate ploughing (PL), or mixed with soil at 0–10 cm depth to simulate rotovation (RO). Earthworms (Lumbricus...... terrestris) were introduced to study their role in residue decomposition and N2O emissions. Fluxes and isotopic composition of N2O were determined with dynamic chambers using laser spectroscopy. A gradual increase in 15N-enrichment of N2O indicated that denitrification was the main source. DMPP reduced...

  10. Incorporation of microplastics from litter into burrows of Lumbricus terrestris

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huerta Lwanga, Esperanza; Gertsen, H.F.; Gooren, H.; Peters, P.; Salanki, T.E.; Ploeg, van der M.; Besseling, E.; Koelmans, A.A.; Geissen, V.

    2017-01-01

    Pollution caused by plastic debris is an urgent environmental problem. Here, we assessed the effects of microplastics in the soil surface litter on the formation and characterization of burrows built by the anecic earthworm Lumbricus terrestris in soil and quantified the amount of microplastics that

  11. Incorporation of microplastics from litter into burrows of Lumbricus terrestris

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huerta Lwanga, Esperanza; Gertsen, H.F.; Gooren, H.; Peters, P.; Salanki, T.E.; Ploeg, van der M.; Besseling, E.; Koelmans, A.A.; Geissen, V.

    2017-01-01

    Pollution caused by plastic debris is an urgent environmental problem. Here, we assessed the effects of microplastics in the soil surface litter on the formation and characterization of burrows built by the anecic earthworm Lumbricus terrestris in soil and quantified the amount of microplastics that

  12. Soluble calcium-binding proteins (SCBPs) of the earthworm Lumbricus terrestris: molecular characterization and localization by FISH in muscle and neuronal tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiruketheeswaran, Prasath; Kiehl, Ernst; D'Haese, Jochen

    2016-11-01

    Soluble calcium-binding proteins (SCBPs) of invertebrates probably serve like their vertebrate counterpart-the parvalbumins-as soluble relaxing factors in muscles. Three SCBP isoforms (SCBP1-3) have been isolated and biochemically characterized in the earthworm Lumbricus terrestris (Huch et al. in J Comp Physiol B 158:325-334, 1988). For SCBP2, we found two isoforms named SCBP2a/2b. Both of them together with SCBP3 are present in the body wall muscle. In the gizzard solely, SCBP2b and no SCBP2a or SCBP3 could be detected. The coding sequences of all three isoforms consist of 534 bp for 178 amino acids and contain four EF-hand motifs, of which the second EF-hands are truncated. Recombinant proteins show heat stability and a Ca(2+)-dependent mobility shift similar to the native proteins, indicating comparable calcium-binding properties. All three isoforms are encoded by three distinct and differentially expressed genes. The genes for SCBP2a, SCBP2b, and SCBP3 are interrupted by only one intron, inserting at nearly the same positions. Northern blot analysis revealed two mRNA transcripts for SCBP2 of approximately 1250 and 1500 kb and one transcript for SCBP3 of approximately 1250 kb. SCBP mRNA was localized by fluorescent in situ hybridization in the body wall and the gizzard. The distribution of the staining intensities resembles that for the myosin ATPase activity and indicates a correlation between the amount of SCBP and speed of muscle contraction. In addition, SCBP mRNA was localized within the nervous tissue, the cerebral and subesophageal ganglia and the ventral nerve cord.

  13. Lumbricus terrestris L. activity increases the availability of metals and their accumulation in maize and barley

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz, E. [Department of Chemical Engineering, School of Civil Engineering, University of Castilla-La Mancha, Avenida Camilo Jose Cela, s/n, 13071 Ciudad Real (Spain); Alonso-Azcarate, J. [Department of Physical Chemistry, Faculty of Environmental Sciences, University of Castilla-La Mancha, Avenida Carlos III, s/n, 45071 Toledo (Spain); Rodriguez, L., E-mail: Luis.Rromero@uclm.es [Department of Chemical Engineering, School of Civil Engineering, University of Castilla-La Mancha, Avenida Camilo Jose Cela, s/n, 13071 Ciudad Real (Spain)

    2011-03-15

    The effect of the earthworm Lumbricus terrestris L. on metal availability in two mining soils was assessed by means of chemical extraction methods and a pot experiment using crop plants. Results from single and sequential extractions showed that L. terrestris had a slight effect on metal fractionation in the studied soils: only metals bound to the soil organic matter were significantly increased in some cases. However, we found that L. terrestris significantly increased root, shoot and total Pb and Zn concentrations in maize and barley for the soil with the highest concentrations of total and available metals. Specifically, shoot Pb concentration was increased by a factor of 7.5 and 3.9 for maize and barley, respectively, while shoot Zn concentration was increased by a factor of 3.7 and 1.7 for maize and barley, respectively. Our results demonstrated that earthworm activity increases the bioavailability of metals in soils. - Research highlights: > Lumbricus terrestris L. activity increases the bioavailability of metals in soils. > Earthworm activity can significantly increase total, shoot and root metal concentrations for crop plants. > Both bioassays and chemical extraction methods are necessary for assessing the bioavailability of metals in contaminated soils. - Lumbricus terrestris L. activity increases the bioavailability of metals in soils and total, shoot and root metal concentrations for maize and barley.

  14. C60 exposure induced tissue damage and gene expression alterations in the earthworm Lumbricus rubellus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ploeg, van der M.J.C.; Handy, R.D.; Heckmann, L.H.; Hout, van der A.; Brink, van den N.W.

    2013-01-01

    Effects of C60 exposure (0, 15 or 154 mg/kg soil) on the earthworm Lumbricus rubellus were assessed at the tissue and molecular level, in two experiments. In the first experiment, earthworms were exposed for four weeks, and in the second lifelong. In both experiments, gene expression of heat shock

  15. Incorporation of microplastics from litter into burrows of Lumbricus terrestris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huerta Lwanga, Esperanza; Gertsen, Hennie; Gooren, Harm; Peters, Piet; Salánki, Tamás; van der Ploeg, Martine; Besseling, Ellen; Koelmans, Albert A; Geissen, Violette

    2017-01-01

    Pollution caused by plastic debris is an urgent environmental problem. Here, we assessed the effects of microplastics in the soil surface litter on the formation and characterization of burrows built by the anecic earthworm Lumbricus terrestris in soil and quantified the amount of microplastics that was transported and deposited in L. terrestris burrows. Worms were exposed to soil surface litter treatments containing microplastics (Low Density Polyethylene) for 2 weeks at concentrations of 0%, 7%, 28%, 45% and 60%. The latter representing environmentally realistic concentrations found in hot spot soil locations. There were significantly more burrows found when soil was exposed to the surface treatment composed of 7% microplastics than in all other treatments. The highest amount of organic matter in the walls of the burrows was observed after using the treatments containing 28 and 45% microplastics. The highest microplastic bioturbation efficiency ratio (total microplastics (mg) in burrow walls/initial total surface litter microplastics (mg)) was found using the concentration of 7% microplastics, where L. terrestris introduced 73.5% of the surface microplastics into the burrow walls. The highest burrow wall microplastic content per unit weight of soil (11.8 ± 4.8 g kg-(1)) was found using a concentration of 60% microplastics. L. terrestris was responsible for size-selective downward transport when exposed to concentrations of 7, 28 and 45% microplastics in the surface litter, as the fraction ≤50 μm microplastics in burrow walls increased by 65% compared to this fraction in the original surface litter plastic. We conclude that the high biogenic incorporation rate of the small-fraction microplastics from surface litter into burrow walls causes a risk of leaching through preferential flow into groundwater bodies. Furthermore, this leaching may have implications for the subsequent availability of microplastics to terrestrial organisms or for the transport

  16. Effects of C60 nanoparticle exposure on earthworms (Lumbricus rubellus) and implications for population dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ploeg, van der M.J.C.; Baveco, J.M.; Hout, van der A.; Rietjens, I.M.C.M.; Brink, van den N.W.

    2011-01-01

    Effects of C60 nanoparticles (nominal concentrations 0, 15.4 and 154 mg/kg soil) on mortality, growth and reproduction of Lumbricus rubellus earthworms were assessed. C60 exposure had a significant effect on cocoon production, juvenile growth rate and mortality. These endpoints were used to model ef

  17. In vitro nanoparticle toxicity to rat alveolar cells and coelomocytes from the earthworm Lumbricus rubelles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ploeg, van der M.J.C.; Berg, van den J.H.J.; Bhattacharjee, S.; Haan, de L.H.J.; Ershov, D.S.; Fokkink, R.G.; Zuilhof, H.; Rietjens, I.M.C.M.; Brink, van den N.W.

    2014-01-01

    Sensitivity of immune cells (coelomocytes) of Lumbricus rubellus earthworms was investigated for exposure to selected nanoparticles, in order to obtain further insight in mechanisms of effects observed after in vivo C60 exposure. In the in vivo study, tissue damage appeared to occur without

  18. Glutathione transferase (GST) as a candidate molecular-based biomarker for soil toxin exposure in the earthworm Lumbricus rubellus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaCourse, E. James, E-mail: james.la-course@liverpool.ac.u [Institute of Biological, Environmental, and Rural Sciences, Aberystwyth University, Aberystwyth SY23 3DA (United Kingdom); Hernandez-Viadel, Mariluz; Jefferies, James R. [Institute of Biological, Environmental, and Rural Sciences, Aberystwyth University, Aberystwyth SY23 3DA (United Kingdom); Svendsen, Claus; Spurgeon, David J. [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Huntingdon PE28 2LS (United Kingdom); Barrett, John [Institute of Biological, Environmental, and Rural Sciences, Aberystwyth University, Aberystwyth SY23 3DA (United Kingdom); John Morgan, A.; Kille, Peter [Biosciences, University of Cardiff, Cardiff CF10 3TL (United Kingdom); Brophy, Peter M. [Institute of Biological, Environmental, and Rural Sciences, Aberystwyth University, Aberystwyth SY23 3DA (United Kingdom)

    2009-08-15

    The earthworm Lumbricus rubellus (Hoffmeister, 1843) is a terrestrial pollution sentinel. Enzyme activity and transcription of phase II detoxification superfamily glutathione transferases (GST) is known to respond in earthworms after soil toxin exposure, suggesting GST as a candidate molecular-based pollution biomarker. This study combined sub-proteomics, bioinformatics and biochemical assay to characterise the L. rubellus GST complement as pre-requisite to initialise assessment of the applicability of GST as a biomarker. L. rubellus possesses a range of GSTs related to known classes, with evidence of tissue-specific synthesis. Two affinity-purified GSTs dominating GST protein synthesis (Sigma and Pi class) were cloned, expressed and characterised for enzyme activity with various substrates. Electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) and tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) following SDS-PAGE were superior in retaining subunit stability relative to two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE). This study provides greater understanding of Phase II detoxification GST superfamily status of an important environmental pollution sentinel organism. - This study currently provides the most comprehensive view of the Phase II detoxification enzyme superfamily of glutathione transferases within the important environmental pollution sentinel earthworm Lumbricus rubellus.

  19. Bioavailability and cellular effects of metals on Lumbricus terrestris inhabiting volcanic soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amaral, Andre [Departamento de Biologia, Universidade dos Acores, R. Mae de Deus, APT 1422, PT-9501-855 Ponta Delgada (Portugal)]. E-mail: aamaral@notes.uac.pt; Soto, Manu [Biologia Zelularra eta Histologia Laborategia, Zoologia eta Biologia Zelularra Saila, Zientzi Fakultatea, Euskal Herriko Unibertsitatea, 644 PK E-48080 Bilbao (Spain); Cunha, Regina [Departamento de Biologia, Universidade dos Acores, R. Mae de Deus, APT 1422, PT-9501-855 Ponta Delgada (Portugal); Marigomez, Ionan [Biologia Zelularra eta Histologia Laborategia, Zoologia eta Biologia Zelularra Saila, Zientzi Fakultatea, Euskal Herriko Unibertsitatea, 644 PK E-48080 Bilbao (Spain); Rodrigues, Armindo [Departamento de Biologia, Universidade dos Acores, R. Mae de Deus, APT 1422, PT-9501-855 Ponta Delgada (Portugal)

    2006-07-15

    Whether the radial thickness (RT) of the chloragogenous tissue and intestinal epithelium of earthworms (Lumbricus terrestris) reflects the bioavailability of metals in soils was investigated in two areas, one with active volcanism (Furnas) and another with no volcanic activity since 3 million years ago (Santa Maria), in the Azores. Metal contents in soil samples and earthworms from the two areas were analyzed. Autometallography and measurements of the RT were performed in the chloragogenous tissue and intestinal epithelium. Earthworms from the active volcanic area demonstrated lower RT of chloragogenous tissue and intestinal epithelium as well as higher levels of bioavailable metals, especially Zn and Cd. Comparison of bioavailable metal contents between both areas suggests a higher risk for uptake of potentially toxic metals in the active volcanic area than in the non-active volcanic area, which is reflected by the lower RT of the chloragogenous tissue and intestinal epithelium in the former. - In earthworms, differences in the chloragogenous tissue morphometry may be related to the bioavailability of metals in soils.

  20. Effects of earthworms on nitrogen mineralization.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willems, J.J.G.M.; Marinissen, J.C.Y.; Blair, J.

    1996-01-01

    The influence of earthworms (Lumbricus terrestris and Aporrectodea tuberculata) on the rate of net N mineralization was studied, both in soil with intact soil structure (partly influenced by past earthworm activity) and in columns with sieved soil

  1. Forest floor decomposition, metal exchangeability, and metal bioaccumulation by exotic earthworms: Amynthas agrestis and Lumbricus rubellus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, J B; Görres, J H; Friedland, A J

    2016-09-01

    Earthworms have the potential to reduce the retention of pollutant and plant essential metals in the forest floor (organic horizons) by decomposing organic matter and increasing exchangeability of metals. We conducted a laboratory experiment to investigate the effects of two exotic earthworms, Amynthas agrestis and Lumbricus rubellus, on forest floor decomposition, metal exchangeability, and metal bioaccumulation. Eighty-one pots containing homogenized forest floor material were incubated for 20, 40, or 80 days under three treatments: no earthworms, A. agrestis added, or L. rubellus added. For earthworm treatments, A. agrestis and L. rubellus were stocked at densities observed in previous field studies. Pots containing either A. agrestis or L. rubellus had lost more forest floor mass than the control plots after 40 and 80 days of incubation. Forest floor pots containing A. agrestis had significantly lower % C (16 ± 1.5 %) than control pots (21 ± 1.2 %) after 80 days. However, L. rubellus consumed more forest floor and C mass than A. agrestis, when evaluated on a per earthworm biomass basis. Exchangeable (0.1 M KCl + 0.01 M AcOH extractable) and stable (15 M HNO3+ 10 M HCl extractable) concentrations of Al, Ca, Cd, Cu, Mg, Mn, Pb, and Zn in forest floor material were measured. Stable concentrations and % exchangeable metals in forest floor material were similar among treatments. Although exchangeable metal concentrations varied significantly for most metals among treatments (except Mg and Zn), we conclude that earthworms did not increase or decrease the exchangeability of metals. However, earthworms bioaccumulated Cu, Cd, Zn, and Mg and had potentially hazardous tissue concentrations of Al and Pb. This was best illustrated by calculating bioaccumulation factors using exchangeable concentrations rather than total concentrations. Future research is needed to understand the effect of earthworms on metals in other soil types.

  2. Effectivity of the Earthworms Pheretima hupiensis, Eudrellus sp. and Lumbricus sp. on the Organic Matter Decomposition Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ea Kosman Anwar

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The earthworms are the one of soil fauna component in soil ecosystem have an important role in organic matter decomposition procces. The earthworm feed plant leaf and plant matter up to apart and dissolved. Earthworm metabolisms produce like faeces that mixed with decomposed organic matter mean vermicompost. The vermicompost fertility varies because of some kind of earthworm differ in “niche” and attitude. The experiment was to study the effectivity of earthworm on organic matter decomposition which has been conducted in Soil Biological and Healthy Laboratory and Green House of Soil Research Institute Bogor, during 2006 Budget Year. The three kind of earthworms i.e Pheretima hupiensis, Lumbricus sp. and Eudrellus sp. combined with three kind of organic matter sources i.e rice straw, trash and palm oil plant waste (compost heap. The result shows that the Lumbricus sp. are the most effective decomposer compared to Pheretima hupiensis and Eudrellus sp. and the organic matter decomposed by Lumbricus sp. as followed: market waste was decomposed of 100%, palm oil empty fruit bunch (compost heap 95.8 % and rice straw 84.9%, respectively. Earthworm effectively decreased Fe, Al, Mn, Cu dan Zn.

  3. [Study of genetic diversity of earthworm Lumbricus rubellus Hoff. (Oligochaeta, Lumbricidae)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhukovskaia, E A; Kodolova, O P; Pravduchina, O Iu; Barne, A Zh; Bolotetskiĭ, N M

    2005-01-01

    A polymorphism of the total protein (MY) and nonspecific esterase (EST) patterns was revealed in the musculocutaneous sac of earthworm Lumbricus rubellus by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The revealed polymorphism is attributed to genetically determined codominant systems, each of which is controlled by the corresponding locus, My and Est, represented by two and four alleles, respectively. The allelic frequency distribution of both loci demonstrated genetic heterogeneity of four L. rubellus samples from Moscow and Moscow Region (311 individuals in total). Allelic frequencies of the revealed loci are proposed as genetic markers for monitoring L. rubellus generations in vermiculture.

  4. Assessment of avoidance behaviour by earthworms (Lumbricus rubellus and Octolasion cyaneum) in linear pollution gradients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Christopher N; Butt, Kevin R; Cheynier, Kevin Yves-Marie

    2016-02-01

    Avoidance behaviour by earthworms is recognised as a valuable endpoint in soil quality assessment and has resulted in the development of a standardised test (ISO 17512-1, 2008) providing epigeic earthworms with a choice between test and control soils. This study sought to develop and evaluate an avoidance test utilising soil-dwelling earthworms in linear pollution gradients with Visible Implant Elastomer (VIE) tags used to identify individual organisms. Sequential experiments were established in laboratory-based mesocosms (0.6m×0.13m×0.1m) that determined the relative sensitivities (in terms of associated avoidance behaviour) of Octolasion cyaneum and Lumbricus rubellus at varying levels of polluted soil and also assessed the influence of introduction point on recorded movement within gradients. In an initial gradient (0%, 25%, 50%, 75%, 100% polluted soil), both species exhibited a clear avoidance response with all surviving earthworms retrieved (after 7 days) from the unpolluted soil. In a less polluted gradient (0%, 6.25%, 12.5%, 18.75%, 25%) L. rubellus were retrieved throughout the gradient while O. cyaneum were located within the 0% and 6.25% divisions, suggesting a species-specific response to polluted soil. Results also showed that the use of a linear pollution gradient system has the potential to assess earthworm avoidance behaviour and could provide a more ecologically relevant alternative to the ISO 17512: 2008 avoidance test. However, further work is required to establish the effectiveness of this procedure, specifically in initial chemical screening and assessment of single contaminant bioavailability, where uptake of pollutants by earthworms could be measured and directly related to the point of introduction and retrieval.

  5. Molecular shape of Lumbricus terrestris erythrocruorin studied by electron microscopy and image analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boekema, Egbert J.; Heel, Marin van

    1989-01-01

    The molecular structure of erythrocruorin (hemoglobin) from Lumbricus terrestris has been studied by electron microscopy of negatively stained particles. Over 1000 molecular projections were selected from a number of electron micrographs and were then classified by multivariate statistical

  6. Earthworm Lumbricus rubellus MT-2: Metal Binding and Protein Folding of a True Cadmium-MT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory R. Kowald

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Earthworms express, as most animals, metallothioneins (MTs—small, cysteine-rich proteins that bind d10 metal ions (Zn(II, Cd(II, or Cu(I in clusters. Three MT homologues are known for Lumbricus rubellus, the common red earthworm, one of which, wMT-2, is strongly induced by exposure of worms to cadmium. This study concerns composition, metal binding affinity and metal-dependent protein folding of wMT-2 expressed recombinantly and purified in the presence of Cd(II and Zn(II. Crucially, whilst a single Cd7wMT-2 species was isolated from wMT-2-expressing E. coli cultures supplemented with Cd(II, expressions in the presence of Zn(II yielded mixtures. The average affinities of wMT-2 determined for either Cd(II or Zn(II are both within normal ranges for MTs; hence, differential behaviour cannot be explained on the basis of overall affinity. Therefore, the protein folding properties of Cd- and Zn-wMT-2 were compared by 1H NMR spectroscopy. This comparison revealed that the protein fold is better defined in the presence of cadmium than in the presence of zinc. These differences in folding and dynamics may be at the root of the differential behaviour of the cadmium- and zinc-bound protein in vitro, and may ultimately also help in distinguishing zinc and cadmium in the earthworm in vivo.

  7. Uptake of cesium-134 by the earthworm species Eisenia foetida and Lumbricus rubellus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janssen, M.P.M.; Glastra, P.; Lembrechts, J.F.M.M. [National Inst. of Public Health and Environmental Protection, Bilthoven (Netherlands). Lab. of Radiation Research

    1996-06-01

    The uptake processes of {sup 134}Cs in two earthworm species were investigated as well as the effect of temperature on these processes. The results show that equilibrium concentrations in the two species differ by 1.5- to fivefold. Equilibrium concentrations range from 367 to 963 Bq g{sup {minus}1} in Lumbricus rubellus and from 920 to 1,893 g{sup {minus}1} in Eisenia foetida; biological half-lives range from 56 to 119 h and 52 to 64 h, respectively. Assimilation was two to four times higher in E. foetida and elimination rate one to two times higher in E. foetida than in L. rubellus. Further, the results show that temperature may affect the {sup 134}Cs concentration in these earthworms by a factor of 1.4 to 2.1 between 10 and 20 C, depending on the species. The maximum difference found within one species was a factor of 2.6. Their results show no clear effect of temperature on the assimilation, but a small negative effect on elimination, resulting in an increasing biological half-life and concentration factor with higher temperatures.

  8. Charles Darwin's Observations on the Behaviour of Earthworms and the Evolutionary History of a Giant Endemic Species from Germany, Lumbricus badensis (Oligochaeta: Lumbricidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Kutschera

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The British naturalist Charles Darwin (1809–1882 began and ended his almost 45-year-long career with observations, experiments, and theories related to earthworms. About six months before his death, Darwin published his book on The Formation of Vegetable Mould, through the Actions of Worms, With Observations on their Habits (1881. Here we describe the origin, content, and impact of Darwin's last publication on earthworms (subclass Oligochaeta, family Lumbricidae and the role of these annelids as global “ecosystem reworkers” (concept of bioturbation. In addition, we summarize our current knowledge on the reproductive behaviour of the common European species Lumbricus terrestris. In the second part of our account we describe the biology and evolution of the giant endemic species L. badensis from south western Germany with reference to the principle of niche construction. Biogeographic studies have shown that the last common ancestor of L. badensis, and the much smaller sister-taxon, the Atlantic-Mediterranean L. friendi, lived less than 10 000 years ago. Allopatric speciation occurred via geographically isolated founder populations that were separated by the river Rhine so that today two earthworm species exist in different areas.

  9. Antibacterial activity and retained protein of earthworm meal (Lumbricus rubellus as feed additive combined with chitosan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Sofyan

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available This research was conducted to enhance the bacterial growth inhibition of E. coli by using earthworm (Lumbricus rubellus meal (TCT which was added with chitosan and its effect on the retained protein in broilers. Inhibition of E. coli growth was tested using dilution method on the nutrient broth by additional 2% TCT combined with 0, 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5% chitosan. Retained protein was measured using broiler fed diet containing 2% TCT (w/w and added by chitosan 0, 0.5, 1.0 and 1.50% of TCT (w/w. The numbers of 15 broilers Cobb strain 35 days old were arranged on Completely Randomized Design (CRD. Results showed inhibition of E. coli was increased using TCT mixed chitosan. The highest inhibition to E. coli growth obtained from TCT + 0.5% chitosan. Retained protein tended to increase up to 1% (w/w chitosan. Otherwise, chitosan level more than 1% could reduce protein retention. It is concluded that use of 1% chitosan increased TCT capability to inhibit E. coli and protein retention in the broilers.

  10. Surface adsorption of metals onto the earthworm Lumbricus rubellus and the isopod Porcellio scaber is negligible compared to absorption in the body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijver, Martina G; Wolterbeek, Hubert Th; Vink, Jos P M; van Gestel, Cornelis A M

    2005-03-20

    In terrestrial organisms, bioaccumulation is usually based on a summation of the amount of metal adsorbed to the body wall and absorbed into the body. The relative proportions of metal adsorption and absorption are usually not quantified. In this study, the distinction between adsorbed and absorbed metals was investigated in two different terrestrial species exposed to metals for 2 weeks. The earthworm Lumbricus rubellus was chosen as representative for organisms mainly taking up metals via the dermal route, and the isopod Porcellio scaber as an organism taking up metals mainly via the alimentary tract. Cross-sections of whole animals were made using a cryostat and accumulated metals were localized by means of a phosphor screen (autoradiography). Radiolabels were used to determine the distribution of metals over the different organs and to distinguish between adsorption and absorption. Cd in the earthworm was mainly found in tissues of the chloragogenous region, whereas Zn was also found in various other organs and in the connective tissue. In the isopod, both Cd and Zn were mainly located in the hepatopancreas. Adsorbed amounts of Cd and Zn were negligible compared to internalized Cd and Zn concentrations for both organisms. Consequently, when focusing on effects of metal uptake for the organism itself, there is no need to correct for adsorption. This suggests that adsorption to the epidermis is not a rate limiting step in metal uptake by soil invertebrates.

  11. Effects of C{sub 60} nanoparticle exposure on earthworms (Lumbricus rubellus) and implications for population dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ploeg, M.J.C. van der, E-mail: merel.vanderploeg@wur.n [Alterra, Wageningen UR, Droevendaalssesteeg 3, 6700 AA, Wageningen (Netherlands); Division of Toxicology, Wageningen University, Tuinlaan 5, 6703 HE, Wageningen (Netherlands); Baveco, J.M.; Hout, A. van der [Alterra, Wageningen UR, Droevendaalssesteeg 3, 6700 AA, Wageningen (Netherlands); Bakker, R. [RIKILT, Wageningen UR, Akkermaalsbos 2, 6708 WB, Wageningen (Netherlands); Rietjens, I.M.C.M. [Division of Toxicology, Wageningen University, Tuinlaan 5, 6703 HE, Wageningen (Netherlands); Brink, N.W. van den [Alterra, Wageningen UR, Droevendaalssesteeg 3, 6700 AA, Wageningen (Netherlands)

    2011-01-15

    Effects of C{sub 60} nanoparticles (nominal concentrations 0, 15.4 and 154 mg/kg soil) on mortality, growth and reproduction of Lumbricus rubellus earthworms were assessed. C{sub 60} exposure had a significant effect on cocoon production, juvenile growth rate and mortality. These endpoints were used to model effects on the population level. This demonstrated reduced population growth rate with increasing C{sub 60} concentrations. Furthermore, a shift in stage structure was shown for C{sub 60} exposed populations, i.e. a larger proportion of juveniles. This result implies that the lower juvenile growth rate due to exposure to C{sub 60} resulted in a larger proportion of juveniles, despite increased mortality among juveniles. Overall, this study indicates that C{sub 60} exposure may seriously affect earthworm populations. Furthermore, it was demonstrated that juveniles were more sensitive to C{sub 60} exposure than adults. - C{sub 60} nanoparticle exposure can affect Lumbricus rubellus populations.

  12. Bioavailability pathways underlying zinc-induced avoidance behavior and reproduction toxicity in Lumbricus rubellus earthworms.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ma, W.C.; Bonten, L.T.C.

    2011-01-01

    We investigated possible bioavailability pathways underlying zinc-induced avoidance behavior and sublethal reproduction impairment in Lumbricus rubellus. Clay-loam (pH 7.3) and sandy soil (three pH values of 4.3–6.0) were amended with zinc sulfate at six soil concentrations of total Zn ranging from

  13. On a specimen of Lumbricus terrestris, L. with bifurcated tail

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horst, R.

    1886-01-01

    In the last number of the »Annals and Magazine of Nat. History” (Dec. 1885), I find a notice of Prof. Jeffrey Bell about two Lumbrici with bifid hinder ends, one specimen belonging to L. terrestris, the other to L. foetidus; moreover he mentions a specimen, presenting a similar remarquable arrangeme

  14. As-resistance in laboratory-reared F1, F2 and F3 generation offspring of the earthworm Lumbricus rubellus inhabiting an As-contaminated mine soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langdon, C.J., E-mail: clangdon1@btinternet.co [C/O The Open University in the North, Baltic Buiness Quarter, Abbots Hill, Gateshead NE8 3DF (United Kingdom); Morgan, A.J., E-mail: morganaj1@cardiff.ac.u [Cardiff School of Biosciences, Cardiff University, P.O. Box 913, Cardiff CF11 3TL, Wales (United Kingdom); Charnock, J.M., E-mail: john.charnock@manchester.ac.u [STFC Daresbury Laboratory, Warrington, Cheshire WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); School of Earth, Atmospheric and Environmental Sciences, University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Semple, K.T., E-mail: k.semple@lancaster.ac.u [Environment Centre, Lancaster University, Lancaster LA1 4YQ (United Kingdom); Lowe, C.N., E-mail: cnlowe@uclan.ac.u [School of Built and Natural Environment, University of Central Lancashire, Preston PR1 2HE (United Kingdom)

    2009-11-15

    Previous studies provided no unequivocal evidence demonstrating that field populations of Lumbricus rubellus Hoffmeister (1843), exhibit genetically inherited resistance to As-toxicity. In this study F1, F2 and F3 generation offspring derived from adults inhabiting As-contaminated field soil were resistant when exposed to 2000 mg kg{sup -1} sodium arsenate. The offspring of uncontaminated adults were not As-resistant. Cocoon viability was 80% for F1 and 82% for F2 offspring from As-contaminated adults and 59% in the F1 control population. High energy synchrotron analysis was used to determine whether ligand complexation of As differed in samples of: resistant mine-site adults, the resistant F1 and F2 offspring of the mine-site earthworms exposed to the LC{sub 25} sodium arsenate (700 mg kg{sup -1}) of the F1 parental generation; and adult L. rubellus from an uncontaminated site exposed to LC{sub 25} concentrations of sodium arsenate (50 mg kg{sup -1}). XANES and EXAFS indicated that As was present as a sulfur-coordinated species. - As-resistance in F1, F2 and F3 offspring of the earthworm Lumbricus rubellus.

  15. Measurement and simulation of unmyelinated nerve electrostimulation: Lumbricus terrestris experiment and numerical model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šarolić, A.; Živković, Z.; Reilly, J. P.

    2016-06-01

    The electrostimulation excitation threshold of a nerve depends on temporal and frequency parameters of the stimulus. These dependences were investigated in terms of: (1) strength-duration (SD) curve for a single monophasic rectangular pulse, and (2) frequency dependence of the excitation threshold for a continuous sinusoidal current. Experiments were performed on the single-axon measurement setup based on Lumbricus terrestris having unmyelinated nerve fibers. The simulations were performed using the well-established SENN model for a myelinated nerve. Although the unmyelinated experimental model differs from the myelinated simulation model, both refer to a single axon. Thus we hypothesized that the dependence on temporal and frequency parameters should be very similar. The comparison was made possible by normalizing each set of results to the SD time constant and the rheobase current of each model, yielding the curves that show the temporal and frequency dependencies regardless of the model differences. The results reasonably agree, suggesting that this experimental setup and method of comparison with SENN model can be used for further studies of waveform effect on nerve excitability, including unmyelinated neurons.

  16. Metals and terrestrial earthworms (Annelida: Oligochaeta)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, W.N.

    1981-01-01

    The toxicity of metals to earthworms and the residues of metals found in earthworms are reviewed. Meta 1 concentrations are rarely high enough to be toxic to worms, but copper may reduce populations in orchards heavily treated with fungicides and in soil contaminated with pig wastes. The metals in some industrial sewage sludges may interfere with using sludge in vermiculture. Storage ratios (the concentration of a metal in worms divided by the concentration in soil) tend to be highest in infertile soil and lowest in media rich in organic matter, such as sewage sludge. Cadmium, gold, and selenium are highly concentrated by worms. Lead concentrations in worms may be very high, but are generally lower than concentrations in soil. Body burdens of both copper and zinc seem to be regulated by worms. Because worms are part of the food webs of many wildlife species, and also because they are potentially valuable feed supplements for domestic animals, the possible toxic effects of cadmium and other metals should be studied. Worms can make metals more available to food webs and can redistribute them in soil.

  17. Earthworm functional traits and interspecific interactions affect plant nitrogen acquisition and primary production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andriuzzi, Walter; Schmidt, Olaf; Brussaard, L.; Faber, J.H.; Bolger, T.

    2016-01-01

    We performed a greenhouse experiment to test how the functional diversity of earthworms, the dominant group of soil macro-invertebrates in many terrestrial ecosystems, affects nitrogen cycling and plant growth. Three species were chosen to represent a range of functional traits: Lumbricus terrestris

  18. Interactions of juvenile Lumbricus terrestris with adults and their burrow systems in a two-dimensional microcosm Interações de juvenis de Lumbricus terrestris com adultos e seus sistemas de galerias em um microcosmo bidimensional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niki Grigoropoulou

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate interactions of Lumbricus terrestris juveniles with adults and with inherited burrow systems. An experiment was set up using a two dimensional Evans' boxes microcosm. Adult L. terrestris were added to 16 boxes (one individual per box and kept in darkness at 17ºC along with eight unoccupied boxes for two months. The adult L. terrestris were removed from eight randomly selected boxes, and L. terrestris juveniles were added (one juvenile per box, composing three treatments with eight replicates: 1, with an adult in an inherited burrow (ABJ; 2, alone in an inherited burrow (BJ; and 3, alone in a previously uninhabited box (J. The proportion of juveniles occupying adult burrows observed was significantly different in treatments ABJ (48% and BJ (75%. The mean mass of juveniles at experimental termination differed significantly among treatments and was greater in treatment J (4.04±0.39 g in comparison to the BJ (3.09±0.93 g and ABJ treatments (2.13±0.64 g. Results suggest a negative influence of both the presence of an adult and its burrow system on juvenile growth. Intraspecific competition partially explained this, but further investigation is required to examine how an inherited environment (i.e. burrow could negatively affect the growth of juveniles.O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar as interações de juvenis de Lumbricus terrestris com indivíduos adultos e com sistemas de galerias herdados. O experimento foi realizado usando microcosmos bidimensionais de Evans como unidades experimentais. Adultos de L. terrestris foram colocados em 16 unidades experimentais (um indivíduo por unidade e mantidos no escuro a 17ºC juntamente com oito unidades experimentais inabitadas, por dois meses. Os adultos foram removidos de oito unidades selecionadas aleatoriamente e juvenis foram adicionados a todas as unidades experimentais (um indivíduo por unidade, em três tratamentos, com oito repetições: 1, com um

  19. Spatial and temporal distribution of 13C labelled plant residues in soil aggregates and Lumbricus terrestris surface casts: A combination of Transmission Electron Microscopy and Nanoscale Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, Alix; Remusat, Laurent; Watteau, Françoise; Derenne, Sylvie; Quenea, Katell

    2016-04-01

    Earthworms play a central role in litter decomposition, soil structuration and carbon cycling. They ingest both organic and mineral compounds which are mixed, complexed with mucus and dejected in form of casts at the soil surface and along burrows. Bulk isotopic or biochemical technics have often been used to study the incorporation of litter in soil and casts, but they could not reflect the complex interaction between soil, plant and microorganisms at the microscale. However, the heterogeneous distribution of organic carbon in soil structures induces contrasted microbial activity areas. Nano-scale secondary ion mass spectrometry (NanoSIMS), which is a high spatial resolution method providing elemental and isotopic maps of organic and mineral materials, has recently been applied in soil science (Herrmann et al., 2007; Vogel et al., 2014). The combination of Nano-scale secondary ion mass spectrometry (NanoSIMS) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) has proven its potential to investigate labelled residues incorporation in earthworm casts (Vidal et al., 2016). In line of this work, we studied the spatial and temporal distribution of plant residues in soil aggregates and earthworm surface casts. This study aimed to (1) identify the decomposition states of labelled plant residues incorporated at different time steps, in casts and soil, (2) identify the microorganisms implied in this decomposition (3) relate the organic matter states of decomposition with their 13C signature. A one year mesocosm experiment was set up to follow the incorporation of 13C labelled Ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum) litter in a soil in the presence of anecic earthworms (Lumbricus terrestris). Soil and surface cast samples were collected after 8 and 54 weeks, embedded in epoxy resin and cut into ultra-thin sections. Soil was fractionated and all and analyzed with TEM and NanoSIMS, obtaining secondary ion images of 12C, 16O, 12C14N, 13C14N and 28Si. The δ13C maps were obtained using the 13C14

  20. Invasive Asian Earthworms Negatively Impact Keystone Terrestrial Salamanders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziemba, Julie L; Hickerson, Cari-Ann M; Anthony, Carl D

    2016-01-01

    Asian pheretimoid earthworms (e.g. Amynthas and Metaphire spp.) are invading North American forests and consuming the vital detrital layer that forest floor biota [including the keystone species Plethodon cinereus (Eastern Red-backed Salamander)], rely on for protection, food, and habitat. Plethodon cinereus population declines have been associated with leaf litter loss following the invasion of several exotic earthworm species, but there have been few studies on the specific interactions between pheretimoid earthworms and P. cinereus. Since some species of large and active pheretimoids spatially overlap with salamanders beneath natural cover objects and in detritus, they may distinctively compound the negative consequences of earthworm-mediated resource degradation by physically disturbing important salamander activities (foraging, mating, and egg brooding). We predicted that earthworms would exclude salamanders from high quality microhabitat, reduce foraging efficiency, and negatively affect salamander fitness. In laboratory trials, salamanders used lower quality microhabitat and consumed fewer flies in the presence of earthworms. In a natural field experiment, conducted on salamander populations from "non-invaded" and "pheretimoid invaded" sites in Ohio, salamanders and earthworms shared cover objects ~60% less than expected. Earthworm abundance was negatively associated with juvenile and male salamander abundance, but had no relationship with female salamander abundance. There was no effect of pheretimoid invasion on salamander body condition. Juvenile and non-resident male salamanders do not hold stable territories centered beneath cover objects such as rocks or logs, which results in reduced access to prey, greater risk of desiccation, and dispersal pressure. Habitat degradation and physical exclusion of salamanders from cover objects may hinder juvenile and male salamander performance, ultimately reducing recruitment and salamander abundance following Asian

  1. Invasive Asian Earthworms Negatively Impact Keystone Terrestrial Salamanders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie L Ziemba

    Full Text Available Asian pheretimoid earthworms (e.g. Amynthas and Metaphire spp. are invading North American forests and consuming the vital detrital layer that forest floor biota [including the keystone species Plethodon cinereus (Eastern Red-backed Salamander], rely on for protection, food, and habitat. Plethodon cinereus population declines have been associated with leaf litter loss following the invasion of several exotic earthworm species, but there have been few studies on the specific interactions between pheretimoid earthworms and P. cinereus. Since some species of large and active pheretimoids spatially overlap with salamanders beneath natural cover objects and in detritus, they may distinctively compound the negative consequences of earthworm-mediated resource degradation by physically disturbing important salamander activities (foraging, mating, and egg brooding. We predicted that earthworms would exclude salamanders from high quality microhabitat, reduce foraging efficiency, and negatively affect salamander fitness. In laboratory trials, salamanders used lower quality microhabitat and consumed fewer flies in the presence of earthworms. In a natural field experiment, conducted on salamander populations from "non-invaded" and "pheretimoid invaded" sites in Ohio, salamanders and earthworms shared cover objects ~60% less than expected. Earthworm abundance was negatively associated with juvenile and male salamander abundance, but had no relationship with female salamander abundance. There was no effect of pheretimoid invasion on salamander body condition. Juvenile and non-resident male salamanders do not hold stable territories centered beneath cover objects such as rocks or logs, which results in reduced access to prey, greater risk of desiccation, and dispersal pressure. Habitat degradation and physical exclusion of salamanders from cover objects may hinder juvenile and male salamander performance, ultimately reducing recruitment and salamander abundance

  2. Roles of epi-anecic taxa of earthworms in the organic matter recycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoeffner, Kevin; Monard, Cécile; Santonja, Mathieu; Pérès, Guénola; Cluzeau, Daniel

    2017-04-01

    Given their impact on soil functioning and their interactions with soil organisms, earthworms contribute to the recycling of organic matter and participate significantly in the numerous ecosystem services provided by soils. Most studies on the role of earthworms in organic matter recycling were conducted at the level of the four functional groups (epigeic, epi-anecic, anecic strict and endogeic), but their effects at taxa level remain largely unknown. Still, within a functional group, anatomic and physiologic earthworm taxa traits are different, which should impact organic matter recycling. This study aims at determining, under controlled conditions, epi-anecic taxa differences in (i) leaf litter mass loss, (ii) assimilation and (iii) impact on microorganisms communities implied in organic matter degradation. In seperate microcosms, we chose 4 epi anecic taxa (Lumbricus rubellus, Lumbricus festivus, Lumbricus centralis and Lumbricus terrestris). Each taxon was exposed separately to leaves of three different plants (Holcus lanatus, Lolium perenne and Corylus avellana). In the same microcosm, leaves of each plant was both placed on the surface and buried 10cm deep. The experiment lasted 10 days for half of the samples and 20 days for the second half. Microorganisms communities were analysed using TRFLP in each earthworm taxon burrow walls at 20 days. We observed differences between epi-anecic taxa depending on species of plant and the duration of the experiment. Results are discussed taking into account physical and chemical properties of these 3 trophic resources (e.g. C/N ratio, phenolic compounds, percentage of lignin and cellulose...).

  3. Effectivity of water soluble granule from kenikir leaves extract (Cosmos caudatus, noni leaves extract (Morinda citrifolia, and earthworm meal extract (Lumbricus rubellus as a natural coccidiostat for broiler chickens against infection caused by Eimeri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karimy MF

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to study effectivity of water soluble granule from kenikir leaves extract (Cosmos caudatus, noni leaves extract (Morinda citrifolia, and earthworm meal extract (Lumbricus rubellus as a natural coccidiostat for broiler chickens against infection caused by Eimeria tenella. One hundred day old chick (DOC of the Cobb strain broiler were randomly devided into 10 groups and each group consisted of 10 chickens. All groups were orally infected by 5000 sporulated oocyst of E. tenella on the 25th days old as a challenge infection. The chickens was treated by granule of kenikir leaves extract, noni leaves extract and granule of earthworm meal extract which level dosage was 100, 200 and 300 mg/kgbw, respectively on each treatment (K1, K2, K3; M1, M2, M3 and T1, T2, T3. Control (K0 did not treated by feed additive. Treatment was administered on drinking water. On the 5th days after challenge infection 5 chickens of each groups were slaughtered and necropted to evaluate lession score and histopatology of caeca. Oocyst per gram excreta was count on 7th days until 10th days after challenge infection of the others 5 chickens of each groups. The results showed that the lowest score of lession was obtained on M2 and M3 whereas the lowest total oocyst per gram excreta was obtained on M3. Histopathological observation revealed that there was no stadia development of E. tenella in M2 treatment. It was concluded that granule of noni leaves extract at 200 mg/kgbw (M2 was the most effective natural coccidiostat.

  4. Second contribution to the knowledge of earthworms (Lumbricidae in Montenegro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojanović Mirjana M.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper contains the results of qualitative analysis of Lumbricidae (Oligochaeta in Montenegro, during the period 1997-2003. The research has included natural and cultivated biotopes. The presence of 15 species was established and the habitats, localities and their zoogeographical position are given. In Montenegro we found four species for the first time Dendrobaena jastrebensis, D. vejdovskyi, Octodrilus bretcheri and Lumbricus terrestris. The complete list of earthworm species in Montenegro includes 45 taxa. With respects to the zoogeographic situation of the earthworms in Montenegro, the largest number belongs to endemic (10 and European (10 species. But 8 taxa are south-European, 9 Holarctic, 7 cosmopolitan, and 1 Palearctic. The degree of endemism of the earthworm fauna of Montenegro is quite high, exceeding 22.2%.

  5. Novel peptide chemistry in terrestrial animals: natural luciferin analogues from the bioluminescent earthworm Fridericia heliota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubinnyi, Maxim A; Tsarkova, Aleksandra S; Petushkov, Valentin N; Kaskova, Zinaida M; Rodionova, Natalja S; Kovalchuk, Sergey I; Ziganshin, Rustam H; Baranov, Mikhail S; Mineev, Konstantin S; Yampolsky, Ilia V

    2015-03-02

    We report isolation and structure elucidation of AsLn5, AsLn7, AsLn11 and AsLn12: novel luciferin analogs from the bioluminescent earthworm Fridericia heliota. They were found to be highly unusual modified peptides, comprising either of the two tyrosine-derived chromophores, CompX or CompY and a set of amino acids, including threonine, gamma-aminobutyric acid, homoarginine, and unsymmetrical N,N-dimethylarginine. These natural compounds represent a unique peptide chemistry found in terrestrial animals and rise novel questions concerning their biosynthetic origin. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Visualization of enzyme activities inside earthworm pores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang, Duyen; Razavi, Bahar S.

    2015-04-01

    In extremely dynamic microhabitats as bio-pores made by earthworm, the in situ enzyme activities are assumed as a footprint of complex biotic interactions. Our study focused on the effect of earthworm on the enzyme activities inside bio-pores and visualizing the differences between bio-pores and earthworm-free soil by zymography technique (Spohn and Kuzyakov, 2013). For the first time, we aimed at quantitative imaging of enzyme activities in bio-pores. Lumbricus terrestris L. was placed into transparent box (15×20×15cm). After two weeks when bio-pore systems were formed by earthworms, we visualized in situ enzyme activities of five hydrolytic enzymes (β-glucosidase, cellobiohydrolase, chitinase, xylanase, leucine-aminopeptidase, and phosphatase. Zymography showed higher activity of β-glucosidase, chitinase, xylanase and phosphatase in biopores comparing to bulk soil. However, the differences in activity of cellobiohydrolase and leucine aminopeptidase between bio-pore and bulk soil were less pronounced. This demonstrated an applicability of zymography approach to monitor and to distinguish the in situ activity of hydrolytic enzymes in soil biopores.

  7. Impact of earthworms on trace element solubility in contaminated mine soils amended with green waste compost

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sizmur, Tom, E-mail: t.p.sizmur@reading.ac.uk [Soil Research Centre, Dept. Geography and Environmental Science, School of Human and Environmental Sciences, University of Reading, Whiteknights, Reading, RG6 6DW (United Kingdom); Palumbo-Roe, Barbara [British Geological Survey, Kingsley Dunham Centre, Keyworth, Nottingham, NG12 5GG (United Kingdom); Hodson, Mark E. [Soil Research Centre, Dept. Geography and Environmental Science, School of Human and Environmental Sciences, University of Reading, Whiteknights, Reading, RG6 6DW (United Kingdom)

    2011-07-15

    The common practice of remediating metal contaminated mine soils with compost can reduce metal mobility and promote revegetation, but the effect of introduced or colonising earthworms on metal solubility is largely unknown. We amended soils from an As/Cu (1150 mgAs kg{sup -1} and 362 mgCu kg{sup -1}) and Pb/Zn mine (4550 mgPb kg{sup -1} and 908 mgZn kg{sup -1}) with 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20% compost and then introduced Lumbricus terrestris. Porewater was sampled and soil extracted with water to determine trace element solubility, pH and soluble organic carbon. Compost reduced Cu, Pb and Zn, but increased As solubility. Earthworms decreased water soluble Cu and As but increased Pb and Zn in porewater. The effect of the earthworms decreased with increasing compost amendment. The impact of the compost and the earthworms on metal solubility is explained by their effect on pH and soluble organic carbon and the environmental chemistry of each element. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: > Compost reduced the mobility of Cu, Pb and Zn. > Compost increased the mobility of As. > Earthworms decreased water soluble As and Cu but increased Pb and Zn in porewater. > These effects are explained by the impact of the earthworms and compost on pH and DOC. - The effect of earthworms on metal solubility was due to changes in dissolved organic carbon and pH but was reduced with increasing compost amendments.

  8. Joint acute toxicity of the herbicide butachlor and three insecticides to the terrestrial earthworm, Eisenia fetida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanhua; Cang, Tao; Yu, Ruixian; Wu, Shenggan; Liu, Xinju; Chen, Chen; Wang, Qiang; Cai, Leiming

    2016-06-01

    The herbicide butachlor and three insecticides phoxim, chlorpyrifos, and lambda-cyhalotrhin are widely used pesticides with different modes of action. As most previous laboratory bioassays for these pesticides have been conducted solely based on acute tests with a single compound, only limited information is available on the possible combined toxicity of these common chemicals to soil organisms. In this study, we evaluated their mixture toxicity on the terrestrial earthworm, Eisenia fetida, with binary, ternary, and quaternary mixtures. Two different types of bioassays were employed in our work, including a contact filter paper toxicity test and a soil toxicity test. Mixture toxicity effects were assessed using the additive index method. For all of the tested binary mixtures (butachlor-phoxim, butachlor-chlorpyrifos, and butachlor-lambda-cyhalothrin), significant synergistic interactions were observed after 14 days in the soil toxicity assay. However, greater additive toxicity was found after 48 h in the contact toxicity bioassay. Most of the ternary and quaternary mixtures exhibited significant synergistic effects on the worms in both bioassay systems. Our findings would be helpful in assessing the ecological risk of these pesticide mixtures to soil invertebrates. The observed synergistic interactions underline the necessity to review soil quality guidelines, which are likely underestimating the adverse combined effects of these compounds.

  9. Earthworms and nutrient availability: the ecosystem engineer as (bio)chemical engineer

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Groenigen, Jan Willem; Ros, Mart; Vos, Hannah; De Deyn, Gerlinde; Hiemstra, Tjisse; Oenema, Oene; Koopmans, Gerwin

    2017-04-01

    The ability of earthworms to increase plant production has long been recognized. However, the pathways through which they do so, and the magnitude of this effect, have not been conclusively addressed. In two studies we address these issues for nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) availability to plants. In the first study, a meta-analysis, we concluded that earthworm presence increases crop yield on average with 26% and aboveground biomass with 24%. The positive effects of earthworms increase when more residue is returned to the soil, but disappear when soil N availability is high. This suggests that earthworms stimulate plant growth predominantly through N mineralization from soil organic matter or crop residue. In a second study, we tested the effect of earthworms on plant P uptake from inorganic sources. In a greenhouse experiment on a soil with low P availability we showed that presence of the anecic earthworm Lumbricus terrestris resulted in increased aboveground biomass (from 164 to 188 g dry matter m-2) and P uptake (from 0.21 to 0.27 g m-2). Concentrations of total dissolved P and dissolved inorganic P in water extractions of earthworm casts were 7-9 times higher than in those of bulk soil. Using advanced surface complexation modelling, we showed that these effects were primarily related to desorption of inorganic P due to competition with organic carbon for binding sites. We conclude that earthworms can alter nutrient cycling and increase N and P uptake by plants through a combination of biochemical and chemical pathways. Earthworms are most likely to stimulate N uptake in organic farming systems and tropical subsistence farming, which largely rely on nutrient mineralization. Additional benefits of earthworms might be expected in conventional farming systems with low levels of available P.

  10. Earthworms influenced by reduced tillage, conventional tillage and energy forest in Swedish agricultural field experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lagerloef, Jan (SLU, Department of Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden)), Email: Jan.Lagerlof@ekol.slu.se; Paalsson, Olof; Arvidsson, Johan (SLU, Department of Soil and Environment, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden))

    2012-03-15

    We compared earthworm density, depth distribution and species composition in three soil cultivation experiments including the treatments ploughless tillage and mouldboard ploughing. Sampling was done in September 2005 and for one experiment also in 1994. By yearly sampling 1995-2005, earthworms in an energy forest of Salix viminalis were compared with those in an adjacent arable field. Sampling method was digging of soil blocks and hand sorting and formalin sampling in one cultivation experiment. Both methods were used in the energy forest and arable land comparison. In two soil cultivation experiments, highest abundances or biomass were found in ploughless tillage. Earthworm density was higher in the upper 10 cm, especially in the ploughless tillage. Earthworm density was significantly higher in the energy forest than in the arable field. Formalin sampling revealed c. 36% of the earthworm numbers found by digging in the energy forest and gave almost no earthworms in the arable field. In all treatments with soil cultivation, species living and feeding in the rhizosphere and soil dominated. One such species, Allolobophora chlorotica, was more abundant under mouldboard ploughing than ploughless tillage. Lumbricus terrestris, browsing on the surface and producing deep vertical burrows, was more common in the ploughless tillage. Species living and feeding close to the soil surface were almost only found in the energy forest, which had not been soil cultivated since 1984. The findings support earlier studies pointing out possibilities to encourage earthworms by reduced soil cultivation. This is one of the first published studies that followed earthworm populations in an energy forest plantation during several years. Explanation of earthworm reactions to management and environmental impacts should be done with consideration of the ecology of species or species groups. Earthworm sampling by formalin must always be interpreted with caution and calibrated by digging and

  11. Earthworm effects on the incorporation of litter C and N into soil organic matter in a sugar maple forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahey, Timothy J; Yavitt, Joseph B; Sherman, Ruth E; Maerz, John C; Groffman, Peter M; Fisk, Melany C; Bohlen, Patrick J

    2013-07-01

    To examine the mechanisms of earthworm effects on forest soil C and N, we double-labeled leaf litter with 13C and 15N, applied it to sugar maple forest plots with and without earthworms, and traced isotopes into soil pools. The experimental design included forest plots with different earthworm community composition (dominated by Lumbricus terrestris or L. rubellus). Soil carbon pools were 37% lower in earthworm-invaded plots largely because of the elimination of the forest floor horizons, and mineral soil C:N was lower in earthworm plots despite the mixing of high C:N organic matter into soil by earthworms. Litter disappearance over the first winter-spring was highest in the L. terrestris (T) plots, but during the warm season, rapid loss of litter was observed in both L. rubellus (R) and T plots. After two years, 22.0% +/- 5.4% of 13C released from litter was recovered in soil with no significant differences among plots. Total recovery of added 13C (decaying litter plus soil) was much higher in no-worm (NW) plots (61-68%) than in R and T plots (20-29%) as much of the litter remained in the former whereas it had disappeared in the latter. Much higher percentage recovery of 15N than 13C was observed, with significantly lower values for T than R and NW plots. Higher overwinter earthworm activity in T plots contributed to lower soil N recovery. In earthworm-invaded plots isotope enrichment was highest in macroaggregates and microaggregates whereas in NW plots silt plus clay fractions were most enriched. The net effect of litter mixing and priming of recalcitrant soil organic matter (SOM), stabilization of SOM in soil aggregates, and alteration of the soil microbial community by earthworm activity results in loss of SOM and lowering of the C:N ratio. We suggest that earthworm stoichiometry plays a fundamental role in regulating C and N dynamics of forest SOM.

  12. Ecological and geochemical impacts of exotic earthworm dispersal in forest ecosystems of Eastern Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drouin, Melanie; Fugere, Martine; Lapointe, Line; Vellend, Mark; Bradley, Robert L.

    2016-04-01

    In Eastern Canada, native earthworm species did not survive the Wisconsin glaciation, which ended over 11,000 years ago. Accordingly, the 17 known Lumbricidae species in the province of Québec were introduced in recent centuries by European settlers. Given that natural migration rates are no more than 5-10 m yr-1, exotic earthworm dispersal across the landscape is presumed to be mediated by human activities, although this assertion needs further validation. In agroecosystems, earthworms have traditionally been considered beneficial soil organisms that facilitate litter decomposition, increase nutrient availability and improve soil structure. However, earthworm activities could also increase soil nutrient leaching and CO2 emissions. Furthermore, in natural forest ecosystems, exotic earthworms may reduce organic forest floors provoking changes in watershed hydrology and loss of habitat for some faunal species. Over the past decade, studies have also suggested a negative effect of exotic earthworms on understory plant diversity, but the underlying mechanisms remain elusive. Finally, there are no studies to our knowledge that have tested the effects of Lumbricidae species on the production of N2O (an important greenhouse gas) in forest ecosystems. We report on a series of field, greenhouse and laboratory studies on the human activities responsible for the dispersal of exotic earthworms, and on their ecological / geochemical impacts in natural forest ecosystems. Our results show: (1) Car tire treads and bait discarded by fishermen are important human vectors driving the dispersal of earthworms into northern temperate forests; (2) Exotic earthworms significantly modify soil physicochemical properties, nutrient cycling, microbial community structure and biomass; (3) Earthworm abundances in the field correlate with a decrease in understory plant diversity; (4) Lumbricus terrestris, an anecic earthworm species and favorite bait of fishermen, reduces seed germination and

  13. Earthworm cast production as a new behavioural biomarker for toxicity testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capowiez, Yvan, E-mail: capowiez@avignon.inra.f [INRA, UR1115 ' Plantes et Systemes Horticoles' , Domaine Saint Paul, 84914 Avignon Cedex 09 (France); Dittbrenner, Nils [INRA, UR1115 ' Plantes et Systemes Horticoles' , Domaine Saint Paul, 84914 Avignon Cedex 09 (France); Animal Physiological Ecology, University of Tuebingen, Konrad-Adenauer-Str. 20, D-72072 Tuebingen (Germany); Rault, Magali [UAPV, UMR406 ' Abeilles et Environnement' , Domaine Saint Paul, 84914 Avignon Cedex 09 (France); Triebskorn, Rita [Animal Physiological Ecology, University of Tuebingen, Konrad-Adenauer-Str. 20, D-72072 Tuebingen (Germany); Hedde, Mickael [INRA, UR251 ' PESSAC' , RD10, 78026 Versailles Cedex (France); Mazzia, Christophe [UAPV, UMR406 ' Abeilles et Environnement' , Domaine Saint Paul, 84914 Avignon Cedex 09 (France)

    2010-02-15

    There is currently a lack of ecotoxicity tests adapted to earthworm species of higher ecological relevance and whose endpoints could be directly related to their ecological role in the soil. We propose a new and relatively simple ecotoxicity test based on the estimation of cast production (CP) by Lumbricus terrestris under laboratory conditions. CP was found to be linearly correlated to earthworm biomass and to be greatly influenced by soil water content. Azinphos-methyl had no effect on CP at all the concentrations tested. Significant decreases were observed at the normal application rate for other pesticides with (imidacloprid, carbaryl, methomyl) or without (ethyl-parathion and chlorpyrifos-ethyl) a clear concentration-effect response. For the highest concentration tested, reduction in CP varied between 35 and 67%. CP is straightforward and rapidly measured and ecologically meaningful. We thus believe it to be of great use as an endpoint in ecotoxicity testing. - Cast production of Lumbricus terrestris is affected by pesticides under laboratory conditions.

  14. Influence of Soil Organic Matter Content on Abundance and Biomass of Earthworm (Oligochaeta: Lumbricidae Populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hristo Valchovski

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The current study explores the influence of soil organic matter content on abundance and biomass of earthworm communities. The observation was carried out on three type of soils: PellicVertisols (very fine texture, Cromi-Vertic Luvisols (fine texture and Calcaric Fluvisols (mediumtexture from the Balkan Peninsula (Bulgaria. The field experiment was provided on uncultivatedplots. In the studied area earthworm fauna comprises of four species: Aporrectodea rosea,Aporrectodea caliginosa, Lumbricus terrestris and Octolasion lacteum. We found peregrine lumbricidtaxa, which are widely distributed in European soils. Our study demonstrated that soil organicmatter has a positive effect on lumbricid populations. It was revealed that augmentation of soilorganic matter favours characteristics of earthworm communities. The soil organic matter contentand earthworm abundance are in strong positive correlation (r > 0.981. The same relationship wasrevealed between the biomass of lumbricid fauna and amount of soil organic matter (r > 0.987. Insum, the soil organic matter could be used as an indicator for earthworm communities inuncultivated soils.

  15. Kinetics and spatial distribution of enzymes of carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus cycles in earthworm biopores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang Thi Thu, Duyen; Razavi, Bahar S.

    2016-04-01

    Earthworms boost microbial activities and consequently form hotspots in soil. The distribution of enzyme activities inside the earthworm biopores is completely unknown. For the first time, we analyzed enzyme kinetics and visualized enzyme distribution inside and outside biopores by in situ soil zymography. Kinetic parameters (Vmax and Km) of 6 enzymes β-glucosidase (GLU), cellobiohydrolase (CBH), xylanase (XYL), chitinase (NAG), leucine aminopeptidase (LAP) and acid phosphatase (APT) were determined in biopores formed by Lumbricus terrestris L.. The spatial distributions of GLU, NAG and APT become visible via zymograms in comparison between earthworm-inhabited and earthworm-free soil. Zymography showed heterogeneous distribution of hotspots in the rhizosphere and biopores. The hotspot areas were 2.4 to 14 times larger in the biopores than in soil without earthworms. The significantly higher Vmax values for GLU, CBH, XYL, NAG and APT in biopores confirmed the stimulation of enzyme activities by earthworms. For CBH, XYL and NAG, the 2- to 3-fold higher Km values in biopores indicated different enzyme systems with lower substrate affinity compared to control soil. The positive effects of earthworms on Vmax were cancelled by the Km increase for CBH, XYL and NAG at a substrate concentration below 20 μmol g-1 soil. The change of enzyme systems reflected a shift in dominant microbial populations toward species with lower affinity to holo-celluloses and to N-acetylglucosamine, and with higher affinity to proteins as compared to the biopores-free soil. We conclude that earthworm biopores are microbial hotspots with much higher and dense distribution of enzyme activities compared to bulk soil. References Spohn M, Kuzyakov Y. (2014) Spatial and temporal dynamics of hotspots of enzyme activity in soil as affected by living and dead roots - a soil zymography analysis, Plant Soil 379: 67-77. Blagodatskaya, E., Kuzyakov, Y., 2013. Review paper: Active microorganisms in soil

  16. Rapid determination of soil quality and earthworm impacts on soil microbial communities using fluorescence-based respirometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prendergast-Miller, Miranda T.; Thurston, Josh; Taylor, Joe; Helgason, Thorunn; Ashauer, Roman; Hodson, Mark E.

    2017-04-01

    We applied a fluorescence-based respirometry method currently devised for aquatic ecotoxicology studies to rapidly measure soil microbial oxygen consumption as a function of soil quality. In this study, soil was collected from an arable wheat field and the field margin. These two soil habitats are known to differ in their soil quality due to differences in their use and management as well as plant, microbial and earthworm community. The earthworm Lumbricus terrestris was incubated in arable or margin soil for three weeks. After this initial phase, a transfer experiment was then conducted to test the hypothesis that earthworm 'migration' alters soil microbial community function and diversity. In this transfer experiment, earthworms incubated in margin soil were transferred to arable soil. The converse transfer (i.e. earthworms incubated in arable soil) was also conducted. Soils of each type with no earthworms were also incubated as controls. After a further four week incubation, the impact of earthworm migration on the soil microbial community was tested by measuring oxygen consumption. Replicated soil slurry subsamples were aliquoted into individual respirometer wells (600 μl volume) on a glass 24-well microplate (Loligo Systems, Denmark) fitted with non-invasive, reusable oxygen sensor spots. The sealed microplate was then attached to an oxygen fluorescence sensor (SDR SensorDish Reader, PreSens, Germany). Oxygen consumption was measured in real-time over a 2 hr period following standard operating procedures. Soil microbial activity was measured with and without an added carbon source (glucose or cellulose, 50 mg C L-1). Using this system, we were able to differentiate between soil type, earthworm treatment and C source. Earthworm-driven impacts on soil microbial oxygen consumption were also supported by changes in soil microbial community structure and diversity revealed using DNA-based sequencing techniques. This method provides a simple and rapid system for

  17. Uji in Vitro Penghambatan Aktivitas Escherichia coli dengan Tepung Cacing Tanah (Lumbricus rubellus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Julendra

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available This research was conducted to study the inhibition growth of E. coli by using earthworm (Lumbricus rubellus meal. The earthworm meal was used in various concentrations, i.e. 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100 mg of earthworm meal in 100 ml DMSO for 0%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% (w/v as treatments respectively. Data were analyzed by ANOVA in Randomized Complete Block Design. Duncan’s multiple range test and polynomials orthogonal were used. Inhibition effects were measured through agar well diffusion test. Results showed that earthworm meal contain antibacterial compound which inhibit E. coli activity. There was a significant difference (P0.05 with 75% (w/v. It is concluded that earthworm meal is capable to inhibit E. coli in-vitro at the optimum level of 50% (w/v.

  18. Polyethylene Glycol Camouflaged Earthworm Hemoglobin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moges, Selamawit; Nacharaju, Parimala; Roche, Camille; Dantsker, David; Palmer, Andre; Friedman, Joel M.

    2017-01-01

    Nearly 21 million components of blood and whole blood and transfused annually in the United States, while on average only 13.6 million units of blood are donated. As the demand for Red Blood Cells (RBCs) continues to increase due to the aging population, this deficit will be more significant. Despite decades of research to develop hemoglobin (Hb) based oxygen (O2) carriers (HBOCs) as RBC substitutes, there are no products approved for clinical use. Lumbricus terrestris erythrocruorin (LtEc) is the large acellular O2 carrying protein complex found in the earthworm Lumbricus terrestris. LtEc is an extremely stable protein complex, resistant to autoxidation, and capable of transporting O2 to tissue when transfused into mammals. These characteristics render LtEc a promising candidate for the development of the next generation HBOCs. LtEc has a short half-life in circulation, limiting its application as a bridge over days, until blood became available. Conjugation with polyethylene glycol (PEG-LtEc) can extend LtEc circulation time. This study explores PEG-LtEc pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. To study PEG-LtEc pharmacokinetics, hamsters instrumented with the dorsal window chamber were subjected to a 40% exchange transfusion with 10 g/dL PEG-LtEc or LtEc and followed for 48 hours. To study the vascular response of PEG-LtEc, hamsters instrumented with the dorsal window chamber received multiple infusions of 10 g/dL PEG-LtEc or LtEc solution to increase plasma LtEc concentration to 0.5, then 1.0, and 1.5 g/dL, while monitoring the animals’ systemic and microcirculatory parameters. Results confirm that PEGylation of LtEc increases its circulation time, extending the half-life to 70 hours, 4 times longer than that of unPEGylated LtEc. However, PEGylation increased the rate of LtEc oxidation in vivo. Vascular analysis verified that PEG-LtEc showed the absence of microvascular vasoconstriction or systemic hypertension. The molecular size of PEG-LtEc did not change the

  19. The potential of Lumbricus rubellus as a bioaccumulator of excess Pb and Cd in organic media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Arifin

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Lead (Pb and cadmium (Cd are sources of serious problems in the environment due to their reactivity and toxicity. Lumbricus rubellus is an earthworm reared by people is expected to reduce Pb and Cd concentrations in the environments. The aim of this study was to explore the ability of Lumbricus rubellus in reducing excess of Pb and Cd in organic media generated from urban waste. Sixteen treatments (four levels of Pb concentration and four levels of Cd concentration were arranged in a completely randomized design with three replications. Each treatment was placed in a wooden pot of 20 cm x 20 cm x 25 cm, and supplied with 40 Lumbricus rubellus for 30 days. Results of this study showed that 20 and 40% of the earthworm could survive until day 30 in organic media contaminated with Pb and Cd, respectively. Pb accumulated in the earthworm bodies ranged from 0.03 to 211.42 mg/kg, while the Cd accumulated in the earthworm body ranged from 0.57 to 22.11 mg/kg. The bioaccumulation factor for Pb was 46.98%, while that of Cd was 53.83%t. The content of Pb in vermicompost ranged from 0.04 to 19.41 mg/kg, while that of Cd ranged from 0.01 to 1.58 mg/kg.

  20. The influence of earthworms on the mobility of microelements in soil and their availability for plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bityutskii, N. P.; Kaidun, P. I.

    2008-12-01

    The influence of earthworms ( Aporrectodea caliginosa, Lumbricus rubellus, L. terrestris, and Eisenia fetida) on the mobility of microelements and their availability for plants was studied. The contents of water-soluble Fe and Mn compounds extracted from the coprolites were 5-10 times higher than that in the soil (enriched in calcium carbonate and dried) consumed by the earthworms. This digestion-induced effect became higher with the age of the coprolites (up to 9 days) and took place under their alkalization. In the excreta (surface + enteric) of earthworms, the Fe concentration exceeded those of Mn and Zn by many times. Iron and manganese were mostly concentrated (>80% and >60%, respectively) in the organic part of the excrements. In the tests with hydroponics, the excreta were found to be a source of iron compounds available for plants that were similar to Fe2(SO4)3 or Fe-citrate by their physiological effect in the case when the Fe concentration in the excretions was above 0.7 μM. However, the single application of excreta of different earthworm species into the CaCO3 enriched soil did not significantly affect the plant (cucumber) nutrition. The analysis of the transport of microelements with xylem sap showed that this fact appeared to be due to the absence of an Fe deficit in the cucumber plants because of their high capability for the absorption of weakly soluble iron compounds.

  1. Application of lime (CaCO3) to promote forest recovery from severe acidification increases potential for earthworm invasion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homan, Caitlin; Beirer, Colin M; McCay, Timothy S; Lawrence, Gregory B.

    2016-01-01

    The application of lime (calcium carbonate) may be a cost-effective strategy to promote forest ecosystem recovery from acid impairment, under contemporary low levels of acidic deposition. However, liming acidified soils may create more suitable habitat for invasive earthworms that cause significant damage to forest floor communities and may disrupt ecosystem processes. We investigated the potential effects of liming in acidified soils where earthworms are rare in conjunction with a whole-ecosystem liming experiment in the chronically acidified forests of the western Adirondacks (USA). Using a microcosm experiment that replicated the whole-ecosystem treatment, we evaluated effects of soil liming on Lumbricus terrestris survivorship and biomass growth. We found that a moderate lime application (raising pH from 3.1 to 3.7) dramatically increased survival and biomass of L. terrestris, likely via increases in soil pH and associated reductions in inorganic aluminum, a known toxin. Very few L. terrestris individuals survived in unlimed soils, whereas earthworms in limed soils survived, grew, and rapidly consumed leaf litter. We supplemented this experiment with field surveys of extant earthworm communities along a gradient of soil pH in Adirondack hardwood forests, ranging from severely acidified (pH 5). In the field, no earthworms were observed where soil pH 4.4 and human dispersal vectors, including proximity to roads and public fishing access, were most prevalent. Overall our results suggest that moderate lime additions can be sufficient to increase earthworm invasion risk where dispersal vectors are present.

  2. Modelling spatiotemporal distribution patterns of earthworms in order to indicate hydrological soil processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palm, Juliane; Klaus, Julian; van Schaik, Loes; Zehe, Erwin; Schröder, Boris

    2010-05-01

    Soils provide central ecosystem functions in recycling nutrients, detoxifying harmful chemicals as well as regulating microclimate and local hydrological processes. The internal regulation of these functions and therefore the development of healthy and fertile soils mainly depend on the functional diversity of plants and animals. Soil organisms drive essential processes such as litter decomposition, nutrient cycling, water dynamics, and soil structure formation. Disturbances by different soil management practices (e.g., soil tillage, fertilization, pesticide application) affect the distribution and abundance of soil organisms and hence influence regulating processes. The strong relationship between environmental conditions and soil organisms gives us the opportunity to link spatiotemporal distribution patterns of indicator species with the potential provision of essential soil processes on different scales. Earthworms are key organisms for soil function and affect, among other things, water dynamics and solute transport in soils. Through their burrowing activity, earthworms increase the number of macropores by building semi-permanent burrow systems. In the unsaturated zone, earthworm burrows act as preferential flow pathways and affect water infiltration, surface-, subsurface- and matrix flow as well as the transport of water and solutes into deeper soil layers. Thereby different ecological earthworm types have different importance. Deep burrowing anecic earthworm species (e.g., Lumbricus terrestris) affect the vertical flow and thus increase the risk of potential contamination of ground water with agrochemicals. In contrast, horizontal burrowing endogeic (e.g., Aporrectodea caliginosa) and epigeic species (e.g., Lumbricus rubellus) increase water conductivity and the diffuse distribution of water and solutes in the upper soil layers. The question which processes are more relevant is pivotal for soil management and risk assessment. Thus, finding relevant

  3. Utilizing thin-film solid-phase extraction to assess the effect of organic carbon amendments on the bioavailability of DDT and dieldrin to earthworms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Natasha A.; Centofanti, Tiziana; McConnell, Laura L.; Hapeman, Cathleen J.; Torrents, Alba; Anh, Nguyen; Beyer, W. Nelson; Chaney, Rufus L.; Novak, Jeffrey M.; Anderson, Marya O.; Cantrell, Keri B.

    2014-01-01

    Improved approaches are needed to assess bioavailability of hydrophobic organic compounds in contaminated soils. Performance of thin-film solid-phase extraction (TF-SPE) using vials coated with ethylene vinyl acetate was compared to earthworm bioassay (Lumbricus terrestris). A DDT and dieldrin contaminated soil was amended with four organic carbon materials to assess the change in bioavailability. Addition of organic carbon significantly lowered bioavailability for all compounds except for 4,4′-DDT. Equilibrium concentrations of compounds in the polymer were correlated with uptake by earthworms after 48d exposure (R2 = 0.97; p 40yr of aging. Results show that TF-SPE can be useful in examining potential risks associated with contaminated soils and to test effectiveness of remediation efforts.

  4. Utilizing thin-film solid-phase extraction to assess the effect of organic carbon amendments on the bioavailability of DDT and dieldrin to earthworms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Natasha A; Centofanti, Tiziana; McConnell, Laura L; Hapeman, Cathleen J; Torrents, Alba; Nguyen, Anh; Beyer, W Nelson; Chaney, Rufus L; Novak, Jeffrey M; Anderson, Marya O; Cantrell, Keri B

    2014-02-01

    Improved approaches are needed to assess bioavailability of hydrophobic organic compounds in contaminated soils. Performance of thin-film solid-phase extraction (TF-SPE) using vials coated with ethylene vinyl acetate was compared to earthworm bioassay (Lumbricus terrestris). A DDT and dieldrin contaminated soil was amended with four organic carbon materials to assess the change in bioavailability. Addition of organic carbon significantly lowered bioavailability for all compounds except for 4,4'-DDT. Equilibrium concentrations of compounds in the polymer were correlated with uptake by earthworms after 48d exposure (R(2) = 0.97; p Dieldrin and DDX were respectively 18% and 11% less bioavailable in contaminated soil relative to spiked soil despite >40yr of aging. Results show that TF-SPE can be useful in examining potential risks associated with contaminated soils and to test effectiveness of remediation efforts. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Selection of focal earthworm species as non-target soil organisms for environmental risk assessment of genetically modified plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Capelle, Christine; Schrader, Stefan; Arpaia, Salvatore

    2016-04-01

    By means of a literature survey, earthworm species of significant relevance for soil functions in different biogeographical regions of Europe (Atlantic, Boreal, Mediterranean) were identified. These focal earthworm species, defined here according to the EFSA Guidance Document on the environmental risk assessment (ERA) of genetically modified plants, are typical for arable soils under crop rotations with maize and/or potatoes within the three regions represented by Ireland, Sweden and Spain, respectively. Focal earthworm species were selected following a matrix of four steps: Identification of functional groups, categorization of non-target species, ranking species on ecological criteria, and final selection of focal species. They are recommended as appropriate non-target organisms to assess environmental risks of genetically modified (GM) crops; in this case maize and potatoes. In total, 44 literature sources on earthworms in arable cropping systems including maize or potato from Ireland, Sweden and Spain were collected, which present information on species diversity, individual density and specific relevance for soil functions. By means of condensed literature data, those species were identified which (i) play an important functional role in respective soil systems, (ii) are well adapted to the biogeographical regions, (iii) are expected to occur in high abundances under cultivation of maize or potato and (iv) fulfill the requirements for an ERA test system based on life-history traits. First, primary and secondary decomposers were identified as functional groups being exposed to the GM crops. In a second step, anecic and endogeic species were categorized as potential species. In step three, eight anecic and endogeic earthworm species belonging to the family Lumbricidae were ranked as relevant species: Aporrectodea caliginosa, Aporrectodea rosea, Aporrectodea longa, Allolobophora chlorotica, Lumbricus terrestris, Lumbricus friendi, Octodrilus complanatus and

  6. Plastic Bag Derived-Microplastics as a Vector for Metal Exposure in Terrestrial Invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodson, Mark E; Duffus-Hodson, Calum A; Clark, Andy; Prendergast-Miller, Miranda T; Thorpe, Karen L

    2017-04-05

    Microplastics are widespread contaminants in terrestrial environments but comparatively little is known about interactions between microplastics and common terrestrial contaminants such as zinc (Zn). In adsorption experiments fragmented HDPE bags c. one mm(2) in size showed similar sorption characteristics to soil. However, when present in combination with soil, concentrations of adsorbed Zn on a per mass basis were over an order of magnitude lower on microplastics. Desorption of the Zn was minimal from both microplastics and soil in synthetic soil solution (0.01 M CaCl2), but in synthetic earthworm guts desorption was higher from microplastics (40-60%) than soil (2-15%), suggesting microplastics could increase Zn bioavailability. Individual Lumbricus terrestris earthworms exposed for 28 days in mesocosms of 260 g moist soil containing 0.35 wt % of Zn-bearing microplastic (236-4505 mg kg(-1)) ingested the microplastics, but there was no evidence of Zn accumulation, mortality, or weight change. Digestion of the earthworms showed that they did not retain microplastics in their gut. These findings indicate that microplastics could act as vectors to increase metal exposure in earthworms, but that the associated risk is unlikely to be significant for essential metals such as Zn that are well regulated by metabolic processes.

  7. Do alterations in mesofauna community affect earthworms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uvarov, Alexei V; Karaban, Kamil

    2015-11-01

    Interactions between the saprotrophic animal groups that strongly control soil microbial activities and the functioning of detrital food webs, such as earthworms and mesofauna, are not well understood. Earthworm trophic and engineering activities strongly affect mesofauna abundance and diversity through various direct and indirect pathways. In contrast, mesofauna effects on earthworm populations are less evident; however, their importance may be high, considering the keystone significance of earthworms for the functioning of the soil system. We studied effects of a diverse mesofauna community of a deciduous forest on two earthworm species representing epigeic (Lumbricus rubellus) and endogeic (Aporrectodea caliginosa) ecological groups. In microcosms, the density of total mesofauna or its separate groups (enchytraeids, collembolans, gamasid mites) was manipulated (increased) and responses of earthworms and soil systems were recorded. A rise in mesofauna density resulted in a decrease of biomass and an increased mortality in L. rubellus, presumably due to competition with mesofauna for litter resources. In contrast, similar mesofauna manipulations promoted reproduction of A. caliginosa, suggesting a facilitated exploitation of litter resources due to increased mesofauna activities. Changes of microcosm respiration rates, litter organic matter content and microbial activities across the manipulation treatments indicate that mesofauna modify responses of soil systems in the presence of earthworms. However, similar mesofauna manipulations could induce different responses in soil systems with either epigeic or endogeic lumbricids, which suggests that earthworm/mesofauna interactions are species-specific. Thus, mesofauna impacts should be treated as a factor affecting the engineering activities of epigeic and endogeic earthworms in the soil.

  8. Legacy of earthworms' engineering effects enlarges the actual effects of earthworms on plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudrák, Obdřej; Frouz, Jan

    2015-04-01

    Earthworms were recognized as key factor responsible for changes from early to late successional plant communities. They incorporate organic matter into the soil and creates there persistent structures, which improves conditions for plant growth. Earthworm activity might be therefore expected to be more important in early stages of the succession, when earthworm colonization of previously earthworm free soil starts, than in the late stages of the succession, where the soil was previously modified by earthworms. However, earthworms affect plants also via other effects such as increase of nutrient availability. The relative importance of soil structure modification and other earthworm effects on plants is poorly known, despite it is important for both theoretical and applied ecology. To test the effect of earthworms (Lumbricus rubellus and Aporrectodea caliginosa) on plants we performed microcosm laboratory experiment, where earthworms were affecting early successional (Poa compressa, Medicago lupulina, and Daucus carota) and late successional (Arrhenatherum elatius, Lotus corniculatus, and Plantago laceolata) plat species in soil previously unaffected by earthworms and in soil with previous long term effect of earthworms. These soils were taken from the early and late successional monitoring sites of the Sokolov coal mining district with known history. Earthworms increased plant biomass proportionally more in late successional soil. It was mainly because they increased availability of nutrients (nitrate and potassium) and plants get higher advantage out of this in late successional soil. Earthworms increased plant biomass of both early and late successional species, but late successional species suppressed early successional species in competition. This suppression was more intensive in presence of earthworms and in late successional soil. We therefore found multiplicative effect between earthworm soil engineering activity and their other effects, which might be

  9. Neurotropic and neuroprotective activities of the earthworm peptide Lumbricusin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dae Hong; Lee, Ik Hwan; Nam, Seung Taek; Hong, Ji; Zhang, Peng [Department of Life Science, College of Natural Science, Daejin University, Pocheon, Gyeonggido 487-711 (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Jae Sam [Department of Agricultural Biology, National Academy of Agricultural Science, RDA, Suwon 441-707 (Korea, Republic of); Seok, Heon [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Jungwon University, Goesan, Chungcheongbukdo 367-700 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Hyemin; Lee, Dong Gun [School of Life Sciences, KNU Creative Bioresearch Group (BK21 Plus Program), College of Natural Sciences, Kyungpook National University, Daehak-ro 80, Buk-gu, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jae Il [School of Life Sciences, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology, Oryong-dong, Buk-gu, Gwangju 500-712 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Ho, E-mail: hokim@daejin.ac.kr [Department of Life Science, College of Natural Science, Daejin University, Pocheon, Gyeonggido 487-711 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-06-06

    Highlights: • 11-mer peptide Lumbricusin, a defensin like peptide, is isolated from earthworm. • We here demonstrated that Lumbricusin has neurotropic and neuroprotective effects. • p27 degradation by Lumbricusin mediates effects of Lumbricusin on neuronal cells. - Abstract: We recently isolated a polypeptide from the earthworm Lumbricus terrestris that is structurally similar to defensin, a well-known antibacterial peptide. An 11-mer antibacterial peptide (NH{sub 2}-RNRRWCIDQQA), designated Lumbricusin, was synthesized based on the amino acid sequence of the isolated polypeptide. Since we previously reported that CopA3, a dung beetle peptide, enhanced neuronal cell proliferation, we here examined whether Lumbricusin exerted neurotropic and/or neuroprotective effects. Lumbricusin treatment induced a time-dependent increase (∼51%) in the proliferation of human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. Lumbricusin also significantly inhibited the apoptosis and decreased viability induced by treatment with 6-hydroxy dopamine, a Parkinson’s disease-mimicking agent. Immunoblot analyses revealed that Lumbricusin treatment increased ubiquitination of p27{sup Kip1} protein, a negative regulator of cell-cycle progression, in SH-SY5Y cells, and markedly promoted its degradation. Notably, adenoviral-mediated over-expression of p27{sup Kip1} significantly blocked the antiapoptotic effect of Lumbricusin in 6-hydroxy dopamine-treated SH-SY5Y cells. These results suggest that promotion of p27{sup Kip1} degradation may be the main mechanism underlying the neuroprotective and neurotropic effects of Lumbricusin.

  10. Comparison of direct, indirect, and ecosystem engineering effects of an earthworm on the red-backed salamander.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ransom, Tami S

    2012-10-01

    In addition to creating or modifying habitat, ecosystem engineers interact with other species as predators, prey, or competitors. The earthworm, Lumbricus terrestris, interacts with the common woodland salamander, Plethodon cinereus, via: (1) ecosystem engineering, by providing burrows that are used as a refuge, (2) direct effects as a prey item, and (3) indirectly, by competing with microinvertebrates, another prey item for P. cinereus. Using enclosures in the forest, I examined the relative strengths of these component pathways between seasons and salamander age classes. I found that the relative strength (partial eta2) of the positive direct (trophic) effect of L. terrestris on the change in mass of P. cineresus was greater than that of the negative indirect effect, but only in summer. Positive effects of ecosystem engineering were only evident over the winter as increased adult survival. This research has implications for how habitat provisioning complements more well-studied species interactions, such as competition and predation, within communities.

  11. Penetration of action potentials during collision in the medial giant axon of the earthworm

    CERN Document Server

    Gonzalez-Perez, A; Mosgaard, L D; Stauning, M T; Nissen, S; Heimburg, T

    2014-01-01

    The collisions of two simultaneously generated impulses in the medial giant axon of earthworms propagating in orthodromic and antidromic direction were investigated. The experiments have been performed in the extracted ventral cord of Lumbricus terrestris by using external stimulation and recording. The collision of two nerve impulses of orthodromic and antidromic propagation didn't result in the annihilation of the two signals contrary to the common notion that is based on the existence of a refractory period in the well-known Hodgkin-Huxley theory. However, the results are in agreement with the electromechanical soliton theory for nerve pulse propagation as suggested by Heimburg and Jackson (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 102, 9790 (2005)).

  12. Assessment of trace element accumulation by earthworms in an orchard soil remediation study using soil amendments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centofantia, Tiziana; Chaney, Rufus L.; Beyer, W. Nelson; McConnell, Laura L.; Davis, A. P.; Jackson, Dana

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed potential bioaccumulation of various trace elements in grasses and earthworms as a consequence of soil incorporation of organic amendments for in situ remediation of an orchard field soil contaminated with organochlorine and Pb pesticide residues. In this experiment, four organic amendments of differing total organic carbon content and quality (two types of composted manure, composted biosolids, and biochar) were added to a contaminated orchard field soil, planted with two types of grasses, and tested for their ability to reduce bioaccumulation of organochlorine pesticides and metals in earthworms. The experiment was carried out in 4-L soil microcosms in a controlled environment for 90 days. After 45 days of orchardgrass or perennial ryegrass growth, Lumbricus terrestris L. were introduced to the microcosms and exposed to the experimental soils for 45 days before the experiment was ended. Total trace element concentrations in the added organic amendments were below recommended safe levels and their phytoavailablity and earthworm availability remained low during a 90-day bioremediation study. At the end of the experiment, total tissue concentrations of Cu, Cd, Mn, Pb, and Zn in earthworms and grasses were below recommended safe levels. Total concentrations of Pb in test soil were similar to maximum background levels of Pb recorded in soils in the Eastern USA (100 mg kg−1 d.w.) because of previous application of orchard pesticides. Addition of aged dairy manure compost and presence of grasses was effective in reducing the accumulation of soil-derived Pb in earthworms, thus reducing the risk of soil Pb entry into wildlife food chains.

  13. Invasion of exotic earthworms into ecosystems inhabited by native earthworms

    Science.gov (United States)

    P. F. Hendrix; G. H. Baker; M. A. Callaham Jr; G. A. Damoff; Fragoso C.; G. Gonzalez; S. W. James; S. L. Lachnicht; T. Winsome; X. Zou

    2006-01-01

    The most conspicuous biological invasions in terrestrial ecosystems have been by exotic plants, insects and vertebrates. Invasions by exotic earthworms, although not as well studied, may be increasing with global commerce in agriculture, waste management and bioremediation. A number of cases has documented where invasive earthworms have caused significant changes in...

  14. Visualization of enzyme activities inside earthworm biopores by in situ soil zymography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thu Duyen Hoang, Thi; Razavi, Bahar. S.; Blagodatskaya, Evgenia; Kuzyakov, Yakov

    2015-04-01

    Earthworms can strongly activate microorganisms, increase microbial and enzyme activities and consequently the turnover of native soil organic matter. In extremely dynamic microhabitats and hotspots as biopores made by earthworms, the in situ enzyme activities are a footprint of complex biotic interactions. The effect of earthworms on the alteration of enzyme activities inside biopores and the difference between bio-pores and earthworm-free soil was visualized by in situ soil zymography (Spohn and Kuzyakov, 2014). For the first time, we prepared quantitative imaging of enzyme activities in biopores. Furthermore, we developed the zymography technique by direct application of a substrate saturated membrane to the soil to obtain better spatial resolution. Lumbricus terrestris L. was placed into transparent box (15×20×15cm). Simultaneously, maize seed was sown in the soil. Control soil box with maize and without earthworm was prepared in the same way. After two weeks when bio-pore systems were formed by earthworm, we visualized in situ enzyme activities of five hydrolytic enzymes (β-glucosidase, cellobiohydrolase, chitinase, xylanase, leucine aminopeptidase) and phosphatase. Followed by non-destructive zymography, biopore samples and control soil were destructively collected to assay enzyme kinetics by fluorogenically labeled substrates method. Zymography showed higher activity of β-glucosidase, chitinase, xylanase and phosphatase in biopores comparing to bulk soil. These differences were further confirmed by fluorimetric microplate enzyme assay detected significant difference of Vmax in four above mentioned enzymes. Vmax of β-glucosidase, chitinase, xylanase and phosphatase in biopores is 68%, 108%, 50% and 49% higher than that of control soil. However, no difference in cellobiohydrolase and leucine aminopeptidase kinetics between biopores and control soil were detected. This indicated little effect of earthworms on protein and cellulose transformation in soil

  15. Priming effect in topsoil and subsoil induced by earthworm burrows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thu, Duyen Hoang Thi

    2017-04-01

    Earthworms (Lumbricus terrestris L.) not only affect soil physics, but they also boost microbial activities and consequently important hotspots of microbial mediated carbon and C turnover through their burrowing activity. However, it is still unknown to which extend earthworms affect priming effect in top- and subsoil horizons. More labile C inputs in earthworm burrows were hypothesized to trigger higher priming of soil organic matter (SOM) decomposition compared to rhizosphere and bulk soil. Moreover, this effect was expected to be more pronounced in subsoil due to its greater C and nutrient limitation. To test these hypotheses, biopores and bulk soil were sampled from topsoil (0-30 cm) and two subsoil depths (45-75 and 75-105 cm). Additionally, rhizosphere samples were taken from the topsoil. Total organic C (Corg), total N (TN), total P (TP) and enzyme activities involved in C-, N-, and P-cycling (cellobiohydrolase, β-glucosidase, xylanase, chitinase, leucine aminopeptidase and phosphatase) were measured. Priming effects were calculated as the difference in SOM-derived CO2 from soil with or without 14C-labelled glucose addition. Enzyme activities in biopores were positively correlated with Corg, TN and TP, but in bulk soil this correlation was negative. The more frequent fresh and labile C inputs to biopores caused 4 to 20 time higher absolute priming of SOM turnover due to enzyme activities that were one order of magnitude higher than in bulk soil. In subsoil biopores, reduced labile C inputs and lower N availability stimulated priming twofold greater than in topsoil. In contrast, a positive priming effect in bulk soil was only detected at 75-105 cm depth. We conclude that earthworm burrows provide not only the linkage between top- and subsoil for C and nutrients, but strongly increase microbial activities and accelerate SOM turnover in subsoil, contributing to nutrient mobilization for roots and CO2 emission increase as a greenhouse gas. Additionally, the

  16. Use of plant and earthworm bioassays to evaluate remediation of soil from a site contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meier, J.R.; Chang, L.W.; Meckes, M.C.; Smith, M.K. [Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Jacobs, S. [DynCorp, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Torsella, J. [Oak Ridge Inst. of Science and Education, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    1997-05-01

    Soil from a site heavily contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) was treated with a pilot-scale, solvent extraction technology. Bioassays in earthworms and plants were used to examine the efficacy of the remediation process for reducing the toxicity of the soil. The earthworm toxicity bioassays were the 14-d survival test and 21-d reproduction test, using Lumbricus terrestris and Eisenia fetida andrei. The plant bioassays included phytotoxicity tests for seed germination and root elongation in lettuce and oats, and a genotoxicity test (anaphase aberrations) in Allium cepa (common onion). Although the PCB content of the soil was reduced by 99% (below the remediation goal), toxicity to earthworm reproduction remained essentially unchanged following remediation. Furthermore, phytotoxicity and genotoxicity were higher for the remediated soil compared to the untreated soil. The toxicity remaining after treatment appeared to be due to residual solvent introduced during the remediation process, and/or to heavy metals or other inorganic contaminants not removed by the treatment. Mixture studies involving isopropanol and known toxicants indicated possible synergistic effects of the extraction solvent and soil contaminants. The toxicity in plants was essentially eliminated by a postremediation, water-rinsing step. These results demonstrate a need for including toxicity measurements in the evaluation of technologies used in hazardous waste site remediations, and illustrate the potential value of such measurements for making modifications to remediation processes.

  17. Changes in hardwood forest understory plant communities in response to European earthworm invasions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, Cindy M; Frelich, Lee E; Reich, Peter B

    2006-07-01

    European earthworms are colonizing earthworm-free northern hardwood forests across North America. Leading edges of earthworm invasion provide an opportunity to investigate the response of understory plant communities to earthworm invasion and whether the species composition of the earthworm community influences that response. Four sugar maple-dominated forest sites with active earthworm invasions were identified in the Chippewa National Forest in north central Minnesota, USA. In each site, we established a 30 x 150 m sample grid that spanned a visible leading edge of earthworm invasion and sampled earthworm populations and understory vegetation over four years. Across leading edges of earthworm invasion, increasing total earthworm biomass was associated with decreasing diversity and abundance of herbaceous plants in two of four study sites, and the abundance and density of tree seedlings decreased in three of four study sites. Sample points with the most diverse earthworm species assemblage, independent of biomass, had the lowest plant diversity. Changes in understory plant community composition were most affected by increasing biomass of the earthworm species Lumbricus rubellus. Where L. rubellus was absent there was a diverse community of native herbaceous plants, but where L. rubellus biomass reached its maximum, the herbaceous-plant community was dominated by Carex pensylvanica and Arisaema triphyllum and, in some cases, was completely absent. Evidence from these forest sites suggests that earthworm invasion can lead to dramatic changes in the understory community and that the nature of these changes is influenced by the species composition of the invading earthworm community.

  18. Earthworm invasions in the tropics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grizelle Gonzalez; Ching Yu Huang; Xiaoming Zou; Carlos Rodriguez

    2006-01-01

    The effects and implications of invasive species in belowground terrestrial ecosystems are not well known in comparison with aboveground terrestrial and marine environments. The study of earthworm invasions in the tropics is limited by a lack of taxonomic knowledge and the potential for loss of species in native habitats due to anthropogenic land use change. Alteration...

  19. The effect of anthropogenic arsenic contamination on the earthworm microbiome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pass, Daniel Antony; Morgan, Andrew John; Read, Daniel S; Field, Dawn; Weightman, Andrew J; Kille, Peter

    2015-06-01

    Earthworms are globally distributed and perform essential roles for soil health and microbial structure. We have investigated the effect of an anthropogenic contamination gradient on the bacterial community of the keystone ecological species Lumbricus rubellus through utilizing 16S rRNA pyrosequencing for the first time to establish the microbiome of the host and surrounding soil. The earthworm-associated microbiome differs from the surrounding environment which appears to be a result of both filtering and stimulation likely linked to the altered environment associated with the gut micro-habitat (neutral pH, anoxia and increased carbon substrates). We identified a core earthworm community comprising Proteobacteria (∼50%) and Actinobacteria (∼30%), with lower abundances of Bacteroidetes (∼6%) and Acidobacteria (∼3%). In addition to the known earthworm symbiont (Verminephrobacter sp.), we identified a potential host-associated Gammaproteobacteria species (Serratia sp.) that was absent from soil yet observed in most earthworms. Although a distinct bacterial community defines these earthworms, clear family- and species-level modification were observed along an arsenic and iron contamination gradient. Several taxa observed in uncontaminated control microbiomes are suppressed by metal/metalloid field exposure, including eradication of the hereto ubiquitously associated Verminephrobacter symbiont, which raises implications to its functional role in the earthworm microbiome. © 2014 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Arsenic resistance and cycling in earthworms residing at a former gold mine in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Button, Mark; Koch, Iris; Reimer, Kenneth J

    2012-10-01

    Earthworms (Lumbricus castaneous and Dendrodrilus rubidus), their host soils and leaf litter were collected from a former gold mine with widespread arsenic (As) contamination in Nova Scotia, Canada and determined for total and speciated As. Resistance to As toxicity was investigated by measurement of DNA damage in exposed earthworm populations using the comet assay. Arsenobetaine (AB) was observed at low concentration in the earthworms but not in the host soil or leaf litter. Several different organoarsenic species were observed in the leaf litter and only inorganic As was found in the host soils. The results suggest that 1) adaptation to As toxicity in earthworms is widespread and not particular to a single species, 2) AB originates in the earthworm and not the consumed soil or leaf litter and 3) as previously hypothesised (Button et al., 2010), biotransformation of inorganic As to AB is not likely involved in the adaptation.

  1. Stable earthworm serine proteases: application of the protease function and usefulness of the earthworm autolysate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, N; Sugimoto, M; Ishihara, K

    2000-01-01

    The fibrinolytic enzymes from Lumbricus rubellus [Nakajima, N. et al., Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem., 57, 1726-1730 (1993), 60, 293-300 (1996), and 63, 2031-2033 (1999)] were further characterized to exploit their catalytic functions. These enzymes are stable in solution for long periods at room temperature and strongly resistant to organic solvents, even toluene and n-hexane. The serine proteases can act on various protein substrates such as elastin and hemoglobin as well as fibrin, and also catalyzed the hydrolysis of esters such as ethyl acetate and a bioplastic, poly[(R)-3-hydroxybutyrate] film. The enzymes, in the absence of microbial degradation, contributed to the production of the earthworm autolysate possessing antioxidant ability and protease activity, whose components were similar to those of soy sauce. The extract of the earthworm autolysate could be used as a peptone substitute in media for the cultivation of microorganisms.

  2. Global DNA methylation in earthworms: A candidate biomarker of epigenetic risks related to the presence of metals/metalloids in terrestrial environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maldonado Santoyo, Maria; Rodriguez Flores, Crescencio; Lopez Torres, Adolfo; Wrobel, Kazimierz [Department of Chemistry, University of Guanajuato, L de Retana No 5, 36000 Guanajuato (Mexico); Wrobel, Katarzyna, E-mail: katarzyn@quijote.ugto.mx [Department of Chemistry, University of Guanajuato, L de Retana No 5, 36000 Guanajuato (Mexico)

    2011-10-15

    In this work, possible relationships between global DNA methylation and metal/metalloid concentrations in earthworms have been explored. Direct correlation was observed between soil and tissue As, Se, Sb, Zn, Cu, Mn, Ag, Co, Hg, Pb (p < 0.05). Speciation results obtained for As and Hg hint at the capability of earthworms for conversion of inorganic element forms present in soil to methylated species. Inverse correlation was observed between the percentage of methylated DNA cytosines and total tissue As, As + Hg, As + Hg + Se + Sb ({beta} = -0.8456, p = 0.071; {beta} = -0.9406, p = 0.017; {beta} = -0.9526, p = 0.012 respectively), as well as inorganic As + Hg ({beta} = -0.8807, p = 0.049). It was concluded that earthworms would be particularly helpful as bioindicators of elements undergoing in vivo methylation and might also be used to assess the related risk of epigenetic changes in DNA methylation. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: > Several metals and metalloids contribute to epigenetic gene regulation. > As, Hg, Se, Sb inversely correlated with global DNA methylation in earthworms. > Biomethylation of the above elements in worms suggested. > Elements biomethylation apparently competes with DNA methylation. > DNA methylation a biomarker of epigenetic risks related to soil metals/metalloids. - Biomethylation of As, Hg in earthworms versus DNA methylation - a candidate biomarker of epigenetic risks related to the presence of metals/metalloids in soil.

  3. Influence of flooding and metal immobilising soil amendments on availability of metals for willows and earthworms in calcareous dredged sediment-derived soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vandecasteele, Bart, E-mail: bart.vandecasteele@ilvo.vlaanderen.b [Institute for Agricultural and Fisheries Research (ILVO), Scientific Institute of the Flemish Government, Burg. Van Gansberghelaan 109, B-9820 Merelbeke (Belgium); Du Laing, Gijs [Ghent University, Department of Applied Analytical and Physical Chemistry, Coupure 653, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium); Lettens, Suzanna [Research Institute for Nature and Forest (INBO), Scientific Institute of the Flemish Government, Gaverstraat 4, B-9500 Geraardsbergen (Belgium); Jordaens, Kurt [Department of Biology, Evolutionary Biology Group, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Tack, Filip M.G. [Ghent University, Department of Applied Analytical and Physical Chemistry, Coupure 653, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium)

    2010-06-15

    Soil amendments previously shown to be effective in reducing metal bioavailability and/or mobility in calcareous metal-polluted soils were tested on a calcareous dredged sediment-derived soil with 26 mg Cd/kg dry soil, 2200 mg Cr/kg dry soil, 220 mg Pb/kg dry soil, and 3000 mg Zn/kg dry soil. The amendments were 5% modified aluminosilicate (AS), 10% w/w lignin, 1% w/w diammonium phosphate (DAP, (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}HPO{sub 4}), 1% w/w MnO, and 5% w/w CaSO{sub 4}. In an additional treatment, the contaminated soil was submerged. Endpoints were metal uptake in Salix cinerea and Lumbricus terrestris, and effect on oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) in submerged soils. Results illustrated that the selected soil amendments were not effective in reducing ecological risk to vegetation or soil inhabiting invertebrates, as metal uptake in willows and earthworms did not significantly decrease following their application. Flooding the polluted soil resulted in metal uptake in S. cinerea comparable with concentrations for an uncontaminated soil. - Some soil amendments resulted in higher metal uptake by earthworms and willows than when the polluted soil was not amended but submersion of the polluted soil resulted in reduced Cd and Zn uptake in Salix cinerea.

  4. Sterilization affects soil organic matter chemistry and bioaccumulation of spiked p,p'-DDE and anthracene by earthworms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelsey, Jason W., E-mail: kelsey@muhlenberg.ed [Program in Environmental Science and Department of Chemistry, Muhlenberg College, 2400 Chew Street, Allentown, PA 18104 (United States); Slizovskiy, Ilya B.; Peters, Richard D.; Melnick, Adam M. [Program in Environmental Science and Department of Chemistry, Muhlenberg College, 2400 Chew Street, Allentown, PA 18104 (United States)

    2010-06-15

    Laboratory experiments were conducted to assess the effects of soil sterilization on the bioavailability of spiked p,p'-DDE and anthracene to the earthworms Eisenia fetida and Lumbricus terrestris. Physical and chemical changes to soil organic matter (SOM) induced by sterilization were also studied. Uptake of both compounds added after soil was autoclaved or gamma irradiated increased for E. fetida. Sterilization had no effect on bioaccumulation of p,p'-DDE by L. terrestris, and anthracene uptake increased only in gamma-irradiated soils. Analyses by FT-IR and DSC indicate sterilization alters SOM chemistry and may reduce pollutant sorption. Chemical changes to SOM were tentatively linked to changes in bioaccumulation, although the effects were compound and species specific. Artifacts produced by sterilization could lead to inaccurate risk assessments of contaminated sites if assumptions derived from studies carried out in sterilized soil are used. Ultimately, knowledge of SOM chemistry could aid predictions of bioaccumulation of organic pollutants. - Soil sterilization affects soil organic matter chemistry and pollutant bioaccumulation.

  5. Molecular Cloning and Characterization of cDNA Encoding Fibrinolytic Enzyme-3 from Earthworm Eisenia foetida

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo-Qing DONG; Xiao-Ling YUAN; Ya-Jun SHAN; Zhen-Hu ZHAO; Jia-Pei CHEN; Yu-Wen CONG

    2004-01-01

    The earthworm fibrinolytic enzyme-3 (EFE-3, GenBank accession No: AY438622), from the earthworm Eiseniafoetida, is a component of earthworm fibrinolytic enzymes. In this study, cDNA encoding the EFE-3 was cloned by RT-PCR. The eDNA contained an open reading frame of 741 nucleotides, which encoded a deduced protein of 247 amino acid residues, including signal sequences. EFE-3 showed a high degree of homology to earthworm (Lumbricus rebullus) proteases F-III-1, F-III-2, and bovine trypsin. The recombinant EFE-3 was expressed in E. coli as inclusion bodies, and the gene encoding the native form of EFE-3 was expressed in COS-7 cells in the medium. Both the refolding product of inclusion bodies and the secreted protease could dissolve the artificial fibrin plate.

  6. Diversity and host specificity of the Verminephrobacter–earthworm symbiosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Marie Braad; Davidson, Seana; Holmstrup, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Symbiotic bacteria of the genus Verminephrobacter (Betaproteobacteria) were detected in the nephridia of 19 out of 23 investigated earthworm species (Oligochaeta: Lumbricidae) by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). While all four Lumbricus species...... not be demonstrated unambiguously due to the poor resolution of the host phylogeny [based on histone H3 and cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene sequence analyses]. However, there was a pattern of symbiont diversification within four groups of closely related hosts. The mean rate of symbiont 16S rRNA gene...

  7. Effects of a constructed Technosol on mortality, survival and reproduction of earthworms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pey, Benjamin; Cortet, Jerome; Capowiez, Yvan; Mignot, Lenaic; Nahmani, Johanne; Watteau, Francoise; Schwartz, Christophe

    2010-05-01

    Soils, whose properties and pedogenesis are dominated by artificial materials or transported materials, are classified as Technosols. Some of these Technosols are used in soil engineering, which is the voluntary action to combine technical materials in a given objective to restore an ecosystem. Primary by products that are used to build these Technosols need to be assessed on an ecotoxicological point of view. The following study aims to assess the effects of a constructed Technosol made from different primary by-products on the mortality, survival and reproductions of two earthworm species. The model of Technosol used here is a combination of green-waste compost (GWC) and papermill sludge (PS) mixed with thermally treated industrial soil (TIS). OECD soil is used as a control soil. Three different experiments have been managed: i) the first, to assess the potential toxicity effect on Eisenia foetida biomass (28 days) and reproduction (56 days), ii) the second to assess the short-term effect (7 days) on Lumbricus terrestris biomass, iii) and the third to assess the medium-term effect (30 days) on L. terrestris biomass. Reproduction of E. foetida is enhanced with high proportions of GWC. For biomass, GWC seems to improve body mass contrary to other materials which lead to losses of body mass. Thus, for E. foetida, GWC seems to be a high-quality and long-term source of food. Body mass of L. terrestris decreased with GWC and OECD. At short-term only, TIS/PS leads to a gain of body mass. Only equilibrium of 25% GWC - 75% TIS/PS allows a gain of body mass at medium term. TIS/PS appears to be a low-quality and short-term food resource but an excellent water tank. It can be concluded that the constructed Technosol is not toxic for fauna but some differences appear between different tested material combinations, depending on nature, proportion and trophic properties of materials.

  8. Earthworms drive succession of both plant and Collembola communities in post-mining sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudrák, Ondřej; Uteseny, Karoline; Frouz, Jan

    2016-04-01

    Previous field observations indicated that earthworms promote late-successional plant species and reduce collembolan numbers at post-mining sites in the Sokolov coal mining district (Czech Republic). Here, we established a laboratory pot experiment to test the effect of earthworms (Aporrectodea caliginosa Savigny and Lumbricus rubellus Hoffm.) and litter of low, medium, and high quality (the grass Calamagrostis epigejos, the willow Salix caprea, and the alder Alnus glutinosa, respectively) on late successional plants (grasses Arrhenatherum elatius and Agrostis capillaris, legumes Lotus corniculatus and Trifolium medium, and non-leguminous dicots Centaurea jacea and Plantago lanceolata) in spoil substrate originating from Sokolov post-mining sites and naturally inhabited by abundant numbers of Collembola. The earthworms increased plant biomass, especially that of the large-seeded A. elatius, but reduced the number of plant individuals, mainly that of the small-seeded A. capillaris and both legumes. Litter quality affected plant biomass, which was highest with S. caprea litter, but did not change the number of plant individuals. Litter quality did not modify the effect of earthworms on plants; the effect of litter quality and earthworms was only additive. Species composition of Collembola community was altered by litter quality, but earthworms reduced the number of individuals, increased the number of species, and increased species evenness consistently across the litter qualities. Because the results of this experiment were consistent with the field observations, we conclude that earthworms help drive succession of both plant and Collembola communities on post-mining sites.

  9. Bioconversion of biomass residue from the cultivation of pea sprouts on spent Pleurotus sajor-caju compost employing Lumbricus rubellus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azizi Abu Bakar

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Vermicomposting is a green technology for the purpose of nutrient enrichment from a variety of organic waste products. In this study, saw dust-based spent mushroom compost (SMC, an organic waste and biomass residue, was used as a medium for the cultivation of pea sprouts. After harvesting the pea sprouts, the growth medium was reused to culture earthworms, Lumbricus rubellus. The culturing activity was conducted for 50 days without any pre-composting or thermocomposting. Thus duration of vermicomposting process was shortened as opposed to previous work on vermicomposting of saw dust-based SMC (no amendment for 70 days. The culturing treatments were conducted in triplicate, including one treatment without earthworms as the control. The analysis showed that concentrations of macronutrients in vermicompost were higher compared to controls, in which N = 4.12%, P = 2.07% and K = 1.56%. The C:N ratio was 11.77, which indicates a stabilisation and maturity of the organic waste compost, compared with the C:N ratio for the control, which was 59.34. At the end of the experiment, increment of total biomass and number of earthworms were observed and no mortality was recorded. The results suggested that vermicomposting could be used as an environmentally valuable technology to convert saw dust used for mushroom and pea sprouts cultivation into vermicompost or bio-fertiliser by employing L. rubellus.

  10. Metabolic rates in five animal populations after prolonged exposure to weak extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields in nature. [Lambricus terrestris, L. rubellus, Arion sp. , Oniscus asellus, Plettrodon cinereus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenberg, B.; Ash, N.

    1976-08-01

    Five species of soil-dwelling animals were collected under or some distance from the Navy's Project Sanguine extremely low frequency experimental antenna in September 1974 and in summer 1975, and their oxygen consumption and respiratory quotient (RQ) were tested and compared. The species were: earthworms, Lumbricus terrestris L. and Lumbricus rubellus Hoffmeister; slug, Arion sp.; wood louse, Oniscus asellus L.; and redbacked salamander, Plethodon cinereus cinereus (Green). Controls were collected on the same or next day, 6 to 13 miles from the nearest antenna. Test and control animals were tested simultaneously. In September 1974 there were no significant differences in O/sub 2/ consumption and RQ, except for a marginal difference (0.05 greater than P greater than 0.025) in O/sub 2/ consumption of L. rubellus; in 1975, there were no significant differences. Comparisons of metabolic rates between exposed and control groups in fall 1974 and between fall and summer (1973 and 1975) populations show no seasonally linked change in sensitivity to the electromagnetic fields. Controls showed an autumnal increase in metabolic rate of wood lice and salamanders. Oxygen consumption of wood lice is significantly (P less than 0.05) affected by method of shipment but there is no evidence that exposed and control animals react differently from each other to shipment by air or by car. Short-term (1 week) exposure of earthworms to the electromagnetic fields did not alter metabolic rate; however, confinement in nylon bags and translocation did, thereby limiting meaningful conclusions. No abnormalities in behavior, habitat selection, or external features and pigmentation have been observed in any of the exposed populations during 4 yr of collecting and observation.

  11. Earthworms produce phytochelatins in response to arsenic.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Liebeke

    Full Text Available Phytochelatins are small cysteine-rich non-ribosomal peptides that chelate soft metal and metalloid ions, such as cadmium and arsenic. They are widely produced by plants and microbes; phytochelatin synthase genes are also present in animal species from several different phyla, but there is still little known about whether these genes are functional in animals, and if so, whether they are metal-responsive. We analysed phytochelatin production by direct chemical analysis in Lumbricus rubellus earthworms exposed to arsenic for a 28 day period, and found that arsenic clearly induced phytochelatin production in a dose-dependent manner. It was necessary to measure the phytochelatin metabolite concentrations directly, as there was no upregulation of phytochelatin synthase gene expression after 28 days: phytochelatin synthesis appears not to be transcriptionally regulated in animals. A further untargetted metabolomic analysis also found changes in metabolites associated with the transsulfuration pathway, which channels sulfur flux from methionine for phytochelatin synthesis. There was no evidence of biological transformation of arsenic (e.g. into methylated species as a result of laboratory arsenic exposure. Finally, we compared wild populations of earthworms sampled from the field, and found that both arsenic-contaminated and cadmium-contaminated mine site worms had elevated phytochelatin concentrations.

  12. Earthworms produce phytochelatins in response to arsenic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebeke, Manuel; Garcia-Perez, Isabel; Anderson, Craig J; Lawlor, Alan J; Bennett, Mark H; Morris, Ceri A; Kille, Peter; Svendsen, Claus; Spurgeon, David J; Bundy, Jacob G

    2013-01-01

    Phytochelatins are small cysteine-rich non-ribosomal peptides that chelate soft metal and metalloid ions, such as cadmium and arsenic. They are widely produced by plants and microbes; phytochelatin synthase genes are also present in animal species from several different phyla, but there is still little known about whether these genes are functional in animals, and if so, whether they are metal-responsive. We analysed phytochelatin production by direct chemical analysis in Lumbricus rubellus earthworms exposed to arsenic for a 28 day period, and found that arsenic clearly induced phytochelatin production in a dose-dependent manner. It was necessary to measure the phytochelatin metabolite concentrations directly, as there was no upregulation of phytochelatin synthase gene expression after 28 days: phytochelatin synthesis appears not to be transcriptionally regulated in animals. A further untargetted metabolomic analysis also found changes in metabolites associated with the transsulfuration pathway, which channels sulfur flux from methionine for phytochelatin synthesis. There was no evidence of biological transformation of arsenic (e.g. into methylated species) as a result of laboratory arsenic exposure. Finally, we compared wild populations of earthworms sampled from the field, and found that both arsenic-contaminated and cadmium-contaminated mine site worms had elevated phytochelatin concentrations.

  13. Perceived predation risk as a function of predator dietary cues in terrestrial salamanders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray; Jenkins

    1999-01-01

    Prey often avoid predator chemical cues, and in aquatic systems, prey may even appraise predation risk via cues associated with the predator's diet. However, this relationship has not been shown for terrestrial predator-prey systems, where the proximity of predators and prey, and the intensity of predator chemical cues in the environment, may be less than in aquatic systems. In the laboratory, we tested behavioural responses (avoidance, habituation and activity) of terrestrial red-backed salamanders, Plethodon cinereus, to chemical cues from garter snakes, Thamnophis sirtalis, fed either red-backed salamanders or earthworms (Lumbricus spp.). We placed salamanders in arenas lined with paper towels pretreated with snake chemicals, and monitored salamander movements during 120 min. Salamanders avoided substrates preconditioned by earthworm-fed (avoidanceX+/-SE=91.1+/-2.5%, N=25) and salamander-fed (95.2+/-2.5%, N=25) snakes, when tested against untreated substrate (control). Salamanders avoided cues from salamander-fed snakes more strongly (75.2+/-5.5%, N=25) than earthworm-fed snakes when subjected to both treatments simultaneously, implying that salamanders were sensitive to predator diet. Salamanders tended to avoid snake substrate more strongly during the last 60 min of a trial, but activity patterns were similar between salamanders exposed exclusively to control substrate versus those subject to snake cues. In another experiment, salamanders failed to avoid cues from dead conspecifics, suggesting that the stronger avoidance of salamander-fed snakes in the previous experiment was not directly due to chemical cues emitted by predator-killed salamanders. Salamanders also did not discriminate between cues from a salamander-fed snake versus a salamander-fed snake that was recently switched (i.e. <14 days) to an earthworm diet. Our results imply that terrestrial salamanders are sensitive to perceived predation risk via by-products of predator diet, and that snake

  14. Earthworms and Soil Pollutants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuyoshi Tamae

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Although the toxicity of metal contaminated soils has been assessed with various bioassays, more information is needed about the biochemical responses, which may help to elucidate the mechanisms involved in metal toxicity. We previously reported that the earthworm, Eisenia fetida, accumulates cadmium in its seminal vesicles. The bio-accumulative ability of earthworms is well known, and thus the earthworm could be a useful living organism for the bio-monitoring of soil pollution. In this short review, we describe recent studies concerning the relationship between earthworms and soil pollutants, and discuss the possibility of using the earthworm as a bio-monitoring organism for soil pollution.

  15. Inherited resistance to arsenate toxicity in two populations of Lumbricus rubellus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langdon, Caroline J; Piearce, Trevor G; Meharg, Andrew A; Semple, Kirk T

    2003-10-01

    No unequivocal evidence exists of genetically inherited resistance to metals/metalloids in field populations of earthworms. We studied cocoon production in adult Lumbricus rubellus Hoffmeister collected from an abandoned arsenic and copper mine (Devon Great Consols, Devon, UK), and abandoned tungsten mine (Carrock Fell, Cumbria, UK) and an uncontaminated cultured population. The earthworms were kept in uncontaminated soil for nine weeks. From a total of 42 L. rubellus from each site, Devon Great Consols adults produced 301 cocoons, of which 42 were viable; Carrock Fell 60 cocoons, of which 11 were viable; and the reference population 101 cocoons, of which 62 were viable. The hatchlings were collected and stored at 4 degrees C at weekly intervals. After 12 weeks, all hatchlings were transferred to clean soil and maintained at 15 degrees C for 20 weeks until they showed evidence of a clitellum. In toxicity trials, F1 generation L. rubellus were exposed to 2,000 mg As/kg as sodium arsenate or 300 mg Cu/kg as copper chloride for 28 d. The F1 generation L. rubellus from Devon Great Consols mine demonstrated resistance to arsenate but not copper. All L. rubellus from Devon Great Consols kept in soil treated with sodium arsenate remained in good condition over the 28-d period but lost condition rapidly and suffered high mortality in soil treated with copper chloride. The control population suffered high mortality in soil treated with sodium arsenate and copper chloride. Previous work has shown that field-collected adults demonstrate resistance to both arsenate and Cu toxicity under these conditions. Thus, while arsenate resistance may be demonstrated in F1 generation L. rubellus from one of the contaminated sites, Cu resistance is not. The F1 adults and F2 cocoons did not have significantly higher levels of As than the control population, with no residual As tissue burden, suggesting that resistance to As in these populations may be inherited.

  16. Earthworms facilitate carbon sequestration through unequal amplification of carbon stabilization compared with mineralization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Weixin; Hendrix, Paul F; Dame, Lauren E; Burke, Roger A; Wu, Jianping; Neher, Deborah A; Li, Jianxiong; Shao, Yuanhu; Fu, Shenglei

    2013-01-01

    A recent review concluded that earthworm presence increases CO₂ emissions by 33% but does not affect soil organic carbon stocks. However, the findings are controversial and raise new questions. Here we hypothesize that neither an increase in CO₂ emission nor in stabilized carbon would entirely reflect the earthworms' contribution to net carbon sequestration. We show how two widespread earthworm invaders affect net carbon sequestration through impacts on the balance of carbon mineralization and carbon stabilization. Earthworms accelerate carbon activation and induce unequal amplification of carbon stabilization compared with carbon mineralization, which generates an earthworm-mediated 'carbon trap'. We introduce the new concept of sequestration quotient to quantify the unequal processes. The patterns of CO₂ emission and net carbon sequestration are predictable by comparing sequestration quotient values between treatments with and without earthworms. This study clarifies an ecological mechanism by which earthworms may regulate the terrestrial carbon sink.

  17. Aggregate formation and soil carbon sequestration by earthworms at the ORNL FACE experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-de Leon, Y.; Gonzalez-Meler, M. A.; Lugo-Perez, J.; Wise, D. H.; Jastrow, J. D.

    2012-12-01

    Earthworms have an important role in soil carbon sequestration, but their contribution to carbon sequestration in soils exposed to elevated atmospheric CO2 concentrations has been largely overlooked. Previous studies at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Free Air CO2 Experiment (ORNL FACE) site showed that the formation of soil aggregates is a key mechanism for soil carbon sequestration. We did a microcosm experiment to quantify earthworm-mediated aggregate formation and compare between two earthworm species with different feeding habits (endogeic vs. epi-edogeic). In addition, we wanted to identify the carbon source (soil, leaf litter or root litter) within aggregates formed by earthworms. We used 13C-depleted soil and 15N-enriched sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua) leaf and root litter collected from the ORNL FACE site to assess soil aggregate formation of the native, endogeic earthworm Diplocardia sp. and European, epi-endogeic earthworm Lumbricus rubellus. Both earthworm species are present at the ORNL FACE site. We crushed, sieved (treatments: (I) soil only; (II) soil and plant material; (III) soil, plant material and Diplocardia sp.; (IV) soil, plant material and L. rubellus. All treatments were at 30% water content and temperature was maintained at 20°C. The incubation period lasted 26 days. We measured aggregate size distribution, total aggregate carbon content and 13C and 15N to elucidate aggregate carbon source. Newly formed soil macroaggregates (> 250 μm) were higher in treatments with earthworms (III and IV) than in treatments without earthworms (I and II) (p = 0.02). Within macroaggregates, most of the carbon was soil-derived. Leaf and root-derived carbon was found in treatment IV only. Our results suggest that earthworms at the ORNL FACE site directly contribute to the formation of soil aggregates, thus contributing to soil carbon sequestration. Carbon source within macroaggregates correspond with earthworm feeding habits, with endogeic earthworms

  18. Belowground interactions with aboveground consequences: Invasive earthworms and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paudel, Shishir; Longcore, Travis; MacDonald, Beau; McCormick, Melissa K; Szlavecz, Katalin; Wilson, Gail W T; Loss, Scot R

    2016-03-01

    A mounting body of research suggests that invasive nonnative earthworms substantially alter microbial communities, including arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF). These changes to AMF can cascade to affect plant communities and vertebrate populations. Despite these research advances, relatively little is known about (1) the mechanisms behind earthworms' effects on AMF and (2) the factors that determine the outcomes of earthworm-AMF interactions (i.e., whether AMF abundance is increased or decreased and subsequent effects on plants). We predict that AMF-mediated effects of nonnative earthworms on ecosystems are nearly universal because (1) AMF are important components of most terrestrial ecosystems, (2) nonnative earthworms have become established in nearly every type of terrestrial ecosystem, and (3) nonnative earthworms, due to their burrowing and feeding behavior, greatly affect AMF with potentially profound concomitant effects on plant communities. We highlight the multiple direct and indirect effects of nonnative earthworms on plants and review what is currently known about the interaction between earthworms and AMF. We also illustrate how the effects of nonnative earthworms on plant-AMF mutualisms can alter the structure and stability of aboveground plant communities, as well as the vertebrate communities relying on these habitats. Integrative studies that assess the interactive effects of earthworms and AMF can provide new insights into the role that belowground ecosystem engineers play in altering aboveground ecological processes. Understanding these processes may improve our ability to predict the structure of plant and animal communities in earthworm-invaded regions and to develop management strategies that limit the numerous undesired impacts of earthworms.

  19. Descriptions of Earthworms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horst, R.

    1890-01-01

    Among the animals, collected by Dr. A. Vorderman in the island of Billiton 1) and presented to our Museum, I met with some earthworms belonging to the genus Perichaeta, which appear to be hitherto undescribed.

  20. Anti-elastase, anti-tyrosinase and matrix metalloproteinase-1 inhibitory activity of earthworm extracts as potential new anti-aging agent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nurhazirah Azmi; Puziah Hashim; Dzulkifly M Hashim; Normala Halimoon; Nik Muhamad Nik Majid

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To examine whether earthworms of Eisenia fetida, Lumbricus rubellus and Eudrilus eugeniae extracts have elastase, tyrosinase and matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) inhibitory activity.Methods:activity and compared with the positive controls. It was also evaluated for whitening and anti-wrinkle capacity.Results:The earthworms extract was screened for elastase, tyrosinase and MMP-1 inhibitory and excellent MMP-1 inhibition compared to N-Isobutyl-N-(4-methoxyphenylsulfonyl)-glycylhydroxamic acid.Conclusions:Earthworms extract showed effective inhibition of tyrosinase, elastase and MMP-1 The extract showed significantly (P<0.05) good elastase and tyrosinase inhibition activities. Therefore, this experiment further rationalizes the traditional use of this worm extracts which may be useful as an anti-wrinkle agent.

  1. Bioaccumulation and single and joint toxicities of penta-BDE and cadmium to earthworms (Eisenia fetida) exposed to spiked soils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Bioaccumulation of penta-BDE(DE-71) in earthworms(Eisenia fetida) and the induced toxicities on the growth and reproduction of earthworms were investigated.All the major congeners in DE-71 could be bioaccumulated in earthworms and the concentration found in earthworms correlated to the spiked concentration in soil.DE-71 might inhibit the growth and reproduction of cocoons and juveniles of earthworms.The toxicities were dose dependent and increased with exposure time.Exposing earthworms to combination of DE-71 and Cd resulted in enhanced mortality and reduction of cocoons or juveniles in a synergistic mode.The presence of DE-71 may affect the relocation of Cd in earthworms.When the earthworms were exposed to Cd alone,Cd up-taken by earthworms was mainly partitioned in the cytosolic fraction.While DE-71 was present,Cd in the cytosolic fraction decreased significantly.It is perhaps that DE-71 inhibits the synthesis of matallothioneins,and then reduces the detoxification ability of earthworms.This is the first report about the toxicity of PBDEs to earthworms.The result would be useful for ecological risk assessment of PBDEs in terrestrial ecosystem.

  2. Temporal variation in earthworm abundance and diversity along hedgerow-to-field transects in contrasting agricultural land uses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prendergast-Miller, Miranda T.; Jones, David; Hodson, Mark E.

    2017-04-01

    Earthworms are regarded as ecosystem engineers, integral to soil processes such as aggregation, nutrient cycling, water infiltration, plant growth and microbial function. Earthworm surveys were conducted for one year on hedge-to-field transects in arable and pasture fields (Yorkshire, UK). The transects incorporated hedgerow and field margin habitats and extended 60 m into the arable or pasture field. At defined distances, earthworm abundance and biomass were recorded, and earthworms were identified to species and ecological group. Soil density, moisture and temperature were also measured. Additional transects were surveyed on experimental plots with arable-to-ley conversions in the arable fields (wheat crop to grass-clover ley), and tilled plots in the pasture fields (grass-clover ley to wheat crop). The conversion plots were established to determine the benefit of grass-clover leys on soil function; and the tilled pasture plots were established to compare the impact of conventional or minimum tillage practices on earthworm abundance and diversity. A baseline survey was conducted before establishment of the experimental ley and tillage plots. The results showed differences in earthworm abundance, with greater earthworm numbers in the pasture soils compared to arable soils. In both soils, abundance of ecological group was endogeic > epigeic > anecic, and each group was dominated by the same species: Allolobophora chlorotica, Lumbricus castaneus and Apporectodea longa. After one year of treatment, there was some indication of increased earthworm abundance in the arable-to-ley conversion strips. Conversely, tillage in the pasture plots tended to reduce earthworm abundance, and conventional tillage tended to have the greater impact. However, within these major changes, there was also evidence of spatial (distance along transect; field location) and temporal (seasonal) variation on earthworm abundance. Although conversion to ley or tillage did not alter the pattern of

  3. Descriptions of Earthworms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horst, R.

    1895-01-01

    My colleague Mr. J. Büttikofer, at this moment making part of an expedition in West-Borneo, collected on the Goenong Kenepai a large earthworm, belonging to the family of the Moniligastridae. Though our knowledge of the organisation of this interesting group much increased in the last years thanks t

  4. Proximal Soil Sensing - A Contribution for Species Habitat Distribution Modelling of Earthworms in Agricultural Soils?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Schirrmann

    Full Text Available Earthworms are important for maintaining soil ecosystem functioning and serve as indicators of soil fertility. However, detection of earthworms is time-consuming, which hinders the assessment of earthworm abundances with high sampling density over entire fields. Recent developments of mobile terrestrial sensor platforms for proximal soil sensing (PSS provided new tools for collecting dense spatial information of soils using various sensing principles. Yet, the potential of PSS for assessing earthworm habitats is largely unexplored. This study investigates whether PSS data contribute to the spatial prediction of earthworm abundances in species distribution models of agricultural soils.Proximal soil sensing data, e.g., soil electrical conductivity (EC, pH, and near infrared absorbance (NIR, were collected in real-time in a field with two management strategies (reduced tillage / conventional tillage and sandy to loam soils. PSS was related to observations from a long-term (11 years earthworm observation study conducted at 42 plots. Earthworms were sampled from 0.5 x 0.5 x 0.2 m³ soil blocks and identified to species level. Sensor data were highly correlated with earthworm abundances observed in reduced tillage but less correlated with earthworm abundances observed in conventional tillage. This may indicate that management influences the sensor-earthworm relationship. Generalized additive models and state-space models showed that modelling based on data fusion from EC, pH, and NIR sensors produced better results than modelling without sensor data or data from just a single sensor. Regarding the individual earthworm species, particular sensor combinations were more appropriate than others due to the different habitat requirements of the earthworms. Earthworm species with soil-specific habitat preferences were spatially predicted with higher accuracy by PSS than more ubiquitous species.Our findings suggest that PSS contributes to the spatial

  5. Role of epigeic earthworms on trophic group of nematodes during organic matter decomposition in litter bags under tomato cropping on ultisol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Syamsu; Lisnawati, Kilowasid, Laode Muhammad Harjoni; Darwis, Asniah, Nurmas, Andi

    2015-09-01

    Epigeic earthworms are often used to restore of soil quality. Trophic group of nematodes plays an important role in driving of decomposition rate of organic matter. Ultisols is characterized with the soil biological quality that is not suitable for the development of vegetable crops. The objective of this study was to analyze the effect of epigeic earthworms on the abundance of nematode trophic groups during the decomposition of organic material in litter bags under cropping of tomato (L. esculentum Mill.) on Ultisols. Epigeic species of earthworms (Lumbricus sp.) were used to modify the soil environment. The experiment treatment consisted of nine combinations of three types of organic matter and three individual levels of earthworms. The organic material consisted of litters of C. odorata, I. cylindrica and Colopogonium sp. The number of earthworms consisted of 0, 20 and 40 individuals plot-1. Each combination of each litter type and number of earthworms was repeated three times in an experimental randomized block design. Research found three trophic groups of nematodes, namely root-herbivorous, bacterivorous and predaceous in the litter bags. Abundance of root-herbivorous between combinations was significantly different at 30 days after exposure. Abundance of bacterivorous nematodes among treatments was significant at 60 days after exposure, which at the 30 and 90 days were not significant. Abundance of predaceous was differed significantly at the 60 and 90 days, and at the 30 days was not significantly different. Constant of decomposition rate of each organic matter under different number of earthworms was similar. Coefficient correlation showed that relation between the constant of decomposition rate with abundance of root-herbivorous was positive at 30 days and negative with bacterivorous at the 90 days. Research concluded that the introduction of epigeic earthworms influenced trophic group dynamics of nematodes during the decomposition of organic material

  6. Effects of Epigeic Earthworms on Decomposition of Wheat Straw and Nutrient Cycling in Agricultural Soils in a Reclaimed Salinity Area: A Microcosm Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PANG Jun-Zhu; QIAO Yu-Hui; SUN Zhen-Jun; ZHANG Shuo-Xin; LI Yun-Le; ZHANG Rui-Qing

    2012-01-01

    Earthworms,one of the most important macroinvertebrates in terrestrial ecosystems of temperate zones,exert important influences on soil functions.A laboratory microcosm study was conducted to evaluate the influence of the earthworm Eisenia fetida on wheat straw decomposition and nutrient cycling in an agricultural soil in a reclaimed salinity area of the North China Plain.Each microcosm was simulated by thoroughly mixing wheat straw into the soil and incubated for 120 d with earthworms added at 3 different densities as treatments control with no earthworms,regular density (RD) with two earthworms,and increased density (ID) with six earthworms.The results showed that there was no depletion of carbon and nitrogen pools in the presence of the earthworms Basal soil respiration rates and metabolic quotient increased with the increase in earthworm density during the initial and middle part of the incubation period.In contrast,concentrations of microbial biomass carbon and microbial biomass quotient decreased in the presence of earthworms.Earthworm activity stimulated the transfer of microbial biomass carbon to dissolved organic carbon and could lead to a smaller,but more metabolically active microbial biomass.Concentrations of inorganic nitrogen and NO3--N increased significantly with the increase in earthworm density at the end of the incubation (P < 0.05),resulting in a large pool of inorganic nitrogen available for plant uptake.Cumulative net nitrogen mineralization rates were three times higher in the ID treatment than the RD treatment.

  7. Transcriptome profiling of developmental and xenobiotic responses in a keystone soil animal, the oligochaete annelid Lumbricus rubellus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morgan A John

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Natural contamination and anthropogenic pollution of soils are likely to be major determinants of functioning and survival of keystone invertebrate taxa. Soil animals will have both evolutionary adaptation and genetically programmed responses to these toxic chemicals, but mechanistic understanding of such is sparse. The clitellate annelid Lumbricus rubellus is a model organism for soil health testing, but genetic data have been lacking. Results We generated a 17,000 sequence expressed sequence tag dataset, defining ~8,100 different putative genes, and built an 8,000-element transcriptome microarray for L. rubellus. Strikingly, less than half the putative genes (43% were assigned annotations from the gene ontology (GO system; this reflects the phylogenetic uniqueness of earthworms compared to the well-annotated model animals. The microarray was used to identify adult- and juvenile-specific transcript profiles in untreated animals and to determine dose-response transcription profiles following exposure to three xenobiotics from different chemical classes: inorganic (the metal cadmium, organic (the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon fluoranthene, and agrochemical (the herbicide atrazine. Analysis of these profiles revealed compound-specific fingerprints which identify the molecular responses of this annelid to each contaminant. The data and analyses are available in an integrated database, LumbriBASE. Conclusion L. rubellus has a complex response to contaminant exposure, but this can be efficiently analysed using molecular methods, revealing unique response profiles for different classes of effector. These profiles may assist in the development of novel monitoring or bioremediation protocols, as well as in understanding the ecosystem effects of exposure.

  8. Lead and stable lead isotope ratios in soil, earthworms, and bones of American woodcock (Scolopax minor) from eastern Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheuhammer, Anton M; Bond, Della E; Burgess, Neil M; Rodrigue, Jean

    2003-11-01

    A study to discriminate among different possible sources of elevated Pb exposure for American woodcock (Scolopax minor) in eastern Canada is described. Undamaged wing bones excised from young-of-the-year woodcock collected from several locations in southern Ontario, southern Quebec, New Brunswick, and Nova Scotia, Canada, along with soil and earthworm (Aporrectodea tuberculata and Lumbricus rubellus) samples from the same sites, were analyzed for total Pb, and stable Pb isotopes. Ignoring six soil samples with high (> 60 microg/g) Pb concentration from the vicinity of Montreal (QC, Canada), the mean soil-Pb concentration for all sites combined was 19 microg/g (dry wt; n = 64), with a mean 206Pb:207Pb ratio of 1.19, values typical for uncontaminated rural soils in eastern North America. In earthworms, Pb concentrations ranged from 2.4 to 865 (microg/g [dry wt], mean = 24 microg/g). Concentrations of Pb in worms and soils were positively correlated (r = 0.71; p 20 microg/g) had 206Pb:207Pb ratios substantially different from worms and soils sampled from the same areas, even though woodcock feed extensively on soil invertebrates, especially earthworms. The range of 206Pb:207Pb ratios in wing bones of woodcock with elevated Pb exposure was not consistent with exposure to environmental Pb from past gasoline combustion nor Precambrian mining wastes but was consistent with ingestion of spent Pb shotgun pellets.

  9. Properties of silver nanoparticles influencing their uptake in and toxicity to the earthworm Lumbricus rubellus following exposure in soil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Makama, Sunday; Piella, Jordi; Undas, Anna; Dimmers, Wim J.; Peters, Ruud; Puntes, Victor F.; Brink, van den Nico W.

    2016-01-01

    Physicochemical properties of nanoparticles influence their environmental fate and toxicity, and studies investigating this are vital for a holistic approach towards a comprehensive and adequate environmental risk assessment. In this study, we investigated the effects of size, surface coating

  10. Properties of silver nanoparticles influencing their uptake in and toxicity to the earthworm Lumbricus rubellus following exposure in soil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Makama, Sunday; Piella, Jordi; Undas, Anna; Dimmers, Wim J.; Peters, Ruud; Puntes, Victor F.; Brink, van den Nico W.

    2016-01-01

    Physicochemical properties of nanoparticles influence their environmental fate and toxicity, and studies investigating this are vital for a holistic approach towards a comprehensive and adequate environmental risk assessment. In this study, we investigated the effects of size, surface coating (ch

  11. Ecological functions of earthworms in soil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andriuzzi, W.S.

    2015-01-01

    Ecological functions of earthworms in soil Walter S. Andriuzzi Abstract Earthworms are known to play an important role in soil structure and fertility, but there are still big knowledge gaps on the functional ecology of distinct earthworm species, on their own and in interaction wit

  12. Ecological transfer of radionuclides and metals to free-living earthworm species in natural habitats rich in NORM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mrdakovic Popic, Jelena, E-mail: jelena.mrdakovic.popic@umb.no; Salbu, Brit; Skipperud, Lindis

    2012-01-01

    Transfer of radionuclides ({sup 232}Th and {sup 238}U) and associated metals (As, Cd, Pb and Cr) from soil to free-living earthworm species was investigated in a thorium ({sup 232}Th) rich area in Norway. Sampling took place within former mining sites representing the technologically enhanced naturally occurring radioactive materials (TENORM), at undisturbed site with unique bedrock geology representing the naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) and at site outside the {sup 232}Th rich area taken as reference Background site. Soil analysis revealed the elevated levels of investigated elements at NORM and TENORM sites. Based on sequential extraction, uranium ({sup 238}U) and cadmium (Cd) were quite mobile, while the other elements were strongly associated with mineral components of soil. Four investigated earthworm species (Aporrectodea caliginosa, Aporrectodea rosea, Dendrodrilus rubidus and Lumbricus rubellus) showed large individual variability in the accumulation of radionuclides and metals. Differences in uptake by epigeic and endogeic species, as well as differences within same species from the NORM, TENORM and Background sites were also seen. Based on total concentrations in soil, the transfer factors (TF) were in ranges 0.03-0.08 and 0.09-0.25, for {sup 232}Th and {sup 238}U, respectively. TFs for lead (Pb), chromium (Cr) and arsenic (As) were low (less than 0.5), while TFs for Cd were higher (about 10). Using the ERICA tool, the estimated radiation exposure dose rate of the earthworms ranged from 2.2 to 3.9 {mu}Gy/h. The radiological risk for investigated earthworms was low (0.28). The obtained results demonstrated that free-living earthworm species can survive in soil containing elevated {sup 232}Th and {sup 238}U, as well As, Cd, Pb and Cr levels, although certain amount of radionuclides was accumulated within their bodies. The present investigation contributes to general better understanding of complex soil-to-biota transfer processes of

  13. Trade-offs between nitrous oxide emission and C-sequestration in the soil: the role of earthworms

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Groenigen, J.; Lubbers, I. M.; Giannopoulos, G.

    2008-12-01

    The rapidly rising concentrations of the greenhouse gas carbon dioxide (CO2) in the atmosphere has spurred the interest in soils as a potential carbon (C) sink. However, there are many reports indicating that C- sequestration is often negated by elevated emissions of the potent greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N2O). It is not yet clear what the driving factors behind this trade-off are, nor how it can be avoided. We suggest that earthworm activity may be partly responsible for the trade-off. Earthworm activity is increasingly recognized as being beneficial to C-sequestration through stabilization of SOM. We report experimental results suggesting that they can also lead to strongly elevated N2O-emissions. In a first experiment, dried grass residue (Lolium perenne) was applied at the top of a loamy soil or mixed through the soil, and N2O-emission was followed for three months. Treatments included presence of the epigeic earthworm Lumbricus rubellus and the anecic earthworm Aporrectodea longa. Cumulative N2O-emissions increased significantly for both species. The strongest effect was measured for L. rubellus, where N2O-emissions significantly increased from 55.7 to 789.1 micro g N2O-N kg- 1 soil. This effect was only observed when residue was applied on top of the soil. In a second experiment we determined the effect of epigeic (L. rubellus) and endogeic (Aporrectodea caliginosa) earthworms on N2O-emissions for two different soil types (loam and sand) in the presence of 15N-labeled radish residue (Raphanus sativus subsp. oleiferus). Both species showed significant increases in N2O-emissions, which differed with residue application method and soil type. N2O- emissions were generally larger in loamy soils and the strongest effect was measured for A. caliginosa when residue was mixed into the soil, increasing emissions from 1350.1 to 2223.2 micro g N2O-N kg- 1 soil. L. rubellus only resulted in elevated N2O-emissions when residue was applied on top. These studies make it

  14. Biological response of earthworm, Eisenia fetida, to five neonicotinoid insecticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kai; Pang, Sen; Mu, Xiyan; Qi, Suzhen; Li, Dongzhi; Cui, Feng; Wang, Chengju

    2015-08-01

    Earthworms (Eisenia fetida) are one of the most abundant terrestrial species, and play an important role in maintaining the ecological function of soil. Neonicotinoids are some of the most widely used insecticides applied to crops. Studies on the effect of neonicotinoids on E. fetida are limited. In the present work, we evaluated the effects of five neonicotinoid insecticides on reproduction, cellulase activity and the tissues of E. fetida. The results showed that, the LC50 of imidacloprid, acetamiprid, nitenpyram, clothianidin and thiacloprid was 3.05, 2.69, 4.34, 0.93 and 2.68mgkg(-1), respectively. They also could seriously affect the reproduction of E. fetida, reducing the fecundity by 84.0%, 39.5%, 54.3%, 45.7% and 39.5% at the sub-lethal concentrations of 2.0, 1.5, 0.80, 2.0 and 1.5mgkg(-1), respectively. The cellulase activity of E. fetida was most sensitive to clothianidin. Significant disruption of the epidermal and midgut tissue was observed after 14d exposure. In summary, we demonstrate that imidacloprid, acetamiprid, nitenpyram, clothianidin and thiacloprid have high toxic to earthworm, and can significantly inhibited fecundity and cellulase activity of E. fetida, and they also damage the epidermal and midgut cells of earthworm. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Effects of polystyrene microplastics on the fitness of earthworms in an agricultural soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Dongdong; Wang, Xiao; Luo, Xianxiang; Liu, Guocheng; Zheng, Hao

    2017-04-01

    Microplastics (MPs) pollution is widespread in the environment, while the effects of MPs on the soil organisms are poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the fitness of earthworms (E. Foetida) exposed to MPs (Polystyrene, 58 μm) in soils at the concentrations of 0, 0.25, 0.5, 1 and 2% (w/w). The results showed that MPs had little effects on the fitness of earthworms under low exposure concentrations (≤ 0.5 % (w/w)), while MPs exposure with high concentrations (i.e., 1% and 2%) significantly inhibited the growth and increased the mortality of earthworms. The results indicated that the MPs pollution in soils have an adverse effect on the fitness of soil organisms, and implied the ecological risk of MPs in terrestrial ecosystems.

  16. Revealing hidden effect of earthworm on C distribution and enzyme activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razavi, Bahar S.; Hoang, Duyen; Kuzyakov, Yakov

    2017-04-01

    Despite its importance for terrestrial nutrient and carbon cycling, the spatial organization and localization of microbial activity in soil and in biopores is poorly understood. We hypothesized that biopores created by earthworm play a critical role in reducing the gap of SOM input and microbial activities between topsoil and subsoil. Accordingly, Carbon (C) allocation by earthworms was related to enzyme distribution along soil profile. For the first time we visualized spatial distribution of enzyme activities (β-glucosidase, chitinase and acid phosphatase) and C allocation (by 14C imaging) in earthworm biopores in topsoil and subsoil. Soil zymography (an in situ method for the analysis of the two-dimensional distribution of enzyme activity in soil) was accompanied with 14C imaging (a method that enables to trace distribution of litter and C in soil profile) to visualize change of enzyme activities along with SOM incorporation by earthworms from topsoil to subsoil. Experiment was set up acquiring rhizoboxes (9×1×50 cm) filled up with fresh soil and 3 earthworms (L. terrestris), which were then layered with 14C-labeled plant-litter of 0.3 MBq on the soil surface. 14C imaging and zymography have been carried out after one month. Activities of all enzymes regardless of their nutrient involvement (C, N, P) were higher in the biopores than in bulk soil, but the differences were larger in topsoil compared to subsoil. Among three enzymes, Phosphatase activity was 4-times higher in the biopore than in the bulk soil. Phosphatase activity was closely associated with edge of burrows and correlate positively with 14C activity. These results emphasized especial contribution of hotspheres such as biopores to C allocation in subsoil - which is limited in C input and nutrients - and in stimulation of microbial and enzymatic activity by input of organic residues, e.g. by earthworms. In conclusion, biopore increased enzymatic mobilization of nutrients (e.g. P) inducing allocation

  17. Organic Fertilizer Production From Cattle Waste Vermicomposting Assisted By Lumbricus Rubellus

    OpenAIRE

    Siswo Sumardiono; R.P. Djoko Murwono; Amin Nugroho

    2011-01-01

    Composting is decomposition of compound in organic waste by specific treatment using microorganism aerobically. Natural composting for producing organic fertilizer from manure and market waste utilize long time processing and less equal to the market demand. Vermicomposting is a technique to produce high quality compos fertilizer from biodegradable garbage and mixture of red worm (Lumbricus Rubellus). In conventional compos production took 8 weeks of processing time, in vermicomposting only t...

  18. Toxicity assessing for chlorpyrifos-contaminated soil with three different earthworm test methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Shi-ping; DUAN Chang-qun; FU Hui; CHEN Yu-hui; WANG Xue-hua; YU Ze-fen

    2007-01-01

    Earthworm toxicity tests are useful tools for terrestrial risk assessment but require a hierarchy of test designs that differ in effect levels (behavior, sublethal, lethal). In this study, the toxicity of chlorpyrifos contaminated soil on earthworms was assessed. In addition to the acute and chronic tests, an avoidance response test was applied. Earthworms were exposed to sublethal and lethal concentration of chlorpyrifos, and evaluated for acute toxicity, growth, fecundity and avoidance response after a certain exposure period. The test methods covered all important ecological relevant endpoints (acute, chronic, behavioral). Concentration of 78.91 mg/kg, chlorpyrifos caused significant toxic effects in all test methods, but at lower test concentrations, only significant chronic toxic effects could be observed. In the present study, chlorpyrifos had adverse effect on growth and fecundity in earthworm exposed to 5 mg/kg chlorpyrifos after eight weeks. The avoidance response test, however, showed significant repellent effects concentration of 40 mg/kg chlorpyrifos. For chlorpyrifos, concentration affecting avoidance response was far greater than growth and fecundity, it seemed likely that earthworms were not able to escape from pesticide-contaminated soil into the clean soil in field and hence were exposed continuously to elevated concentrations of pesticides.

  19. Development of earthworm burrow systems and the influence of earthworms on soil hydrology.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ligthart, T.N.

    1996-01-01

    Inoculation of earthworms can help to restore or ameliorate land qualities. Earthworms create burrows and alter the structure of the soil matrix, which influence the water infiltration, drainage, water retention and the aeration of the soil. The way and rate of the development of earthworm burrow sy

  20. Effect of temperature and season on reproduction, neutral red retention and metallothionein responses of earthworms exposed to metals in field soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svendsen, Claus [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Monks Wood, Abbots Ripton, Huntingdon, Cambridgeshire PE28 2LS (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: csv@ceh.ac.uk; Hankard, Peter K. [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Monks Wood, Abbots Ripton, Huntingdon, Cambridgeshire PE28 2LS (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: pkh@ceh.ac.uk; Lister, Lindsay J. [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Monks Wood, Abbots Ripton, Huntingdon, Cambridgeshire PE28 2LS (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: llist@ceh.ac.uk; Fishwick, Samantha K. [Environment Agency, Block 1 Government Buildings, Burghill Road, Westbury-on-Trym, Bristol BS10 6BF (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: samantha.fishwick@environment-agency.gov.uk; Jonker, Martijs J. [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Monks Wood, Abbots Ripton, Huntingdon, Cambridgeshire PE28 2LS (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: mjonker@science.uva.nl; Spurgeon, David J. [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Monks Wood, Abbots Ripton, Huntingdon, Cambridgeshire PE28 2LS (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: dasp@ceh.ac.uk

    2007-05-15

    This study investigated the short-term survival, reproduction and physiological (lysosomal membrane stability, metallothionein transcript copy number, body tissue metal concentrations) responses of Lumbricus rubellus exposed to metal contaminated field soils under different laboratory temperatures (10, 15 and 20 {sup o}C) and physiological responses of earthworms collected from the field in three different seasons (spring, autumn, winter). In the laboratory, metal contaminated soils had significant effects on reproduction (p < 0.001), metallothionein-2 (MT-2) expression (p = 0.033) and earthworm As (p = 0.003), Cd (p = 0.001), Pb (p < 0.001) and Zn (p < 0.001) concentration, but not lysosomal membrane stability and tissue Hg and Cu. No effect of temperature was found for any parameter. Principal component analysis of extractable and tissue metal concentrations indicated PC1 as a measure of metal stress. Both cocoon production (r = - 0.75) and MT-2 induction (r = 0.41) were correlated with PC1. A correlation was also found between cocoon production and MT-2 expression (r = - 0.41). Neutral red retention and MT-2 measurements in worms collected from the field sites in three seasons confirmed the absence of a temperature effect on these responses. - Laboratory and field studies demonstrate metal effects on earthworm life-cycle and biochemical responses are not influenced by temperature regime.

  1. Effects of azoxystrobin, chlorothalonil and ethoprophos on the reproduction of three terrestrial invertebrates using a natural Mediterranean soil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leitao, S.; Cerejeira, J.; Brink, van den P.J.; Sousa, J.P.

    2014-01-01

    The potential terrestrial toxicity of three pesticides, azoxystrobin, chlorothalonil, and ethoprophos was evaluated using reproduction ecotoxicological tests with different non-target species: the collembolan Folsomia candida, the earthworm Eisenia andrei, and the enchytraeid Enchytraeus crypticus.

  2. Effects of azoxystrobin, chlorothalonil and ethoprophos on the reproduction of three terrestrial invertebrates using a natural Mediterranean soil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leitao, S.; Cerejeira, J.; Brink, van den P.J.; Sousa, J.P.

    2014-01-01

    The potential terrestrial toxicity of three pesticides, azoxystrobin, chlorothalonil, and ethoprophos was evaluated using reproduction ecotoxicological tests with different non-target species: the collembolan Folsomia candida, the earthworm Eisenia andrei, and the enchytraeid Enchytraeus crypticus.

  3. Earthworms and the soil greenhouse gas balance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lubbers, I.M.

    2014-01-01

      Earthworms play an essential part in determining the greenhouse gas (GHG) balance of soils worldwide. Their activity affects both biotic and abiotic soil properties, which in turn influence soil GHG emissions, carbon (C) sequestration and plant growth. Yet, the balance of earthworms stimulat

  4. Earthworms and the soil greenhouse gas balance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lubbers, I.M.

    2014-01-01

      Earthworms play an essential part in determining the greenhouse gas (GHG) balance of soils worldwide. Their activity affects both biotic and abiotic soil properties, which in turn influence soil GHG emissions, carbon (C) sequestration and plant growth. Yet, the balance of earthworms stimulat

  5. The effects of soil chemical characteristics on the {sup 134}Cs concentrations in earthworms. Uptake from liquid medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janssen, M.P.M.; Glastra, P.; Lembrechts, J.F.M.M. [National Institute of Public Health and the Environment Laboratory of Radiation Research, Bilthoven (Netherlands)

    1997-07-01

    The concentrations of potassium, stable cesium, calcium and ammonium in soil, and of the pH are known to affect the uptake of {sup 134}Cs by plants and soil organisms. It is uncertain as to which extent this is a direct effect on the uptake of {sup 134}Cs (e.g. through competition for binding sites) or an indirect effect through a changing distribution of the {sup 134}Cs between the solid and liquid phase of the soil. Studying the effect of both varying concentrations of potassium, stable cesium, calcium and ammonium and the pH on the uptake of {sup 134}Cs by the earthworms Eisenia foetida and Lumbricus rubellus from solution was, therefore, a means to investigate this effect. The concentrations of {sup 134}Cs in the earthworms were found to differ by a factor of three between the species. Highest and lowest {sup 134}Cs concentration differed by a factor of five within each species. Potassium affected the {sup 134}Cs concentration in the earthworms significantly in contrast to stable cesium. However, the effects expressed per millimole added, were comparable for both elements. The non-significance of stable cesium might have been caused by the small concentration range used. Considering the natural concentrations of potassium and stable cesium in soil solution, addition of potassium was shown to be a more realistic countermeasure. No significant effects from varying pH or calcium and ammonium concentrations were observed. The internal calcium concentration increased with increasing calcium concentration in solution, whereas the internal potassium concentration was independent of the potassium concentration in the solution. (author).

  6. A study on bioluminescence and photoluminescence in the earthworm Eisenia lucens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pes, O; Midlik, A; Schlaghamersky, J; Zitnan, M; Taborsky, P

    2016-02-01

    Eisenia lucens is an earthworm living in the organic soil layer of decomposing wood. When irritated, the worm expels coelomic fluid through pores in its body wall, exhibiting blue-green bioluminescence. The mechanism of the bioluminescence, which seems to be different from other bioluminescence systems of terrestrial animals, has been studied in this work. Many lines of evidence indicate that riboflavin stored in coelomycetes plays an important role in this glowing reaction.

  7. Tree Species Identity Shapes Earthworm Communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schelfhout, Stephanie; Mertens, Jan; Verheyen, Kris

    2017-01-01

    Earthworms are key organisms in forest ecosystems because they incorporate organic material into the soil and affect the activity of other soil organisms. Here, we investigated how tree species affect earthworm communities via litter and soil characteristics. In a 36-year old common garden...... experiment, replicated six times over Denmark, six tree species were planted in blocks: sycamore maple (Acer pseudoplatanus), beech (Fagus sylvatica), ash (Fraxinus excelsior), Norway spruce (Picea abies), pedunculate oak (Quercus robur) and lime (Tilia cordata). We studied the chemical characteristics...... of soil and foliar litter, and determined the forest floor turnover rate and the density and biomass of the earthworm species occurring in the stands. Tree species significantly affected earthworm communities via leaf litter and/or soil characteristics. Anecic earthworms were abundant under Fraxinus, Acer...

  8. Bioaccumulation of perfluoroalkyl acids by earthworms (Eisenia fetida) exposed to contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rich, Courtney D; Blaine, Andrea C; Hundal, Lakhwinder; Higgins, Christopher P

    2015-01-20

    The presence of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in biosolids-amended and aqueous film-forming foam (AFFF)-impacted soils results in two potential pathways for movement of these environmental contaminants into terrestrial foodwebs. Uptake of PFAAs by earthworms (Eisenia fetida) exposed to unspiked soils with varying levels of PFAAs (a control soil, an industrially impacted biosolids-amended soil, a municipal biosolids-amended soil, and two AFFF-impacted soils) was measured. Standard 28 day exposure experiments were conducted in each soil, and measurements taken at additional time points in the municipal soil were used to model the kinetics of uptake. Uptake and elimination rates and modeling suggested that steady state bioaccumulation was reached within 28 days of exposure for all PFAAs. The highest concentrations in the earthworms were for perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) in the AFFF-impacted Soil A (2160 ng/g) and perfluorododecanoate (PFDoA) in the industrially impacted soil (737 ng/g). Wet-weight (ww) and organic carbon (OC)-based biota soil accumulation factors (BSAFs) for the earthworms were calculated after 28 days of exposure for all five soils. The highest BSAF in the industrially impacted soil was for PFDoA (0.42 goc/gww,worm). Bioaccumulation factors (BAFs, dry-weight-basis, dw) were also calculated at 28 days for each of the soils. With the exception of the control soil and perfluorodecanoate (PFDA) in the industrially impacted soil, all BAF values were above unity, with the highest being for perfluorohexanesulfonate (PFHxS) in the AFFF-impacted Soil A (139 gdw,soil/gdw,worm). BSAFs and BAFs increased with increasing chain length for the perfluorocarboxylates (PFCAs) and decreased with increasing chain length for the perfluoroalkyl sulfonates (PFSAs). The results indicate that PFAA bioaccumulation into earthworms depends on soil concentrations, soil characteristics, analyte, and duration of exposure, and that accumulation into earthworms may be a potential

  9. Molecular genetic differentiation in earthworms inhabiting a heterogeneous Pb-polluted landscape

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andre, J., E-mail: Andrej@cardiff.ac.u [Cardiff School of Biosciences, Cardiff University, BIOSI 1, Museum Avenue, Cardiff CF10 3TL (United Kingdom); Department of Soil Science, School of Human and Environmental Sciences, University of Reading, Whiteknights, Reading RG6 6DW (United Kingdom); King, R.A. [Cardiff School of Biosciences, Cardiff University, BIOSI 1, Museum Avenue, Cardiff CF10 3TL (United Kingdom); Stuerzenbaum, S.R. [King' s College London, School of Biomedical and Health Sciences, Pharmaceutical Sciences Division, London SE1 9NH (United Kingdom); Kille, P. [Cardiff School of Biosciences, Cardiff University, BIOSI 1, Museum Avenue, Cardiff CF10 3TL (United Kingdom); Hodson, M.E. [Department of Soil Science, School of Human and Environmental Sciences, University of Reading, Whiteknights, Reading RG6 6DW (United Kingdom); Morgan, A.J. [Cardiff School of Biosciences, Cardiff University, BIOSI 1, Museum Avenue, Cardiff CF10 3TL (United Kingdom)

    2010-03-15

    A Pb-mine site situated on acidic soil, but comprising of Ca-enriched islands around derelict buildings was used to study the spatial pattern of genetic diversity in Lumbricus rubellus. Two distinct genetic lineages ('A' and 'B'), differentiated at both the mitochondrial (mtDNA COII) and nuclear level (AFLPs) were revealed with a mean inter-lineage mtDNA sequence divergence of approximately 13%, indicative of a cryptic species complex. AFLP analysis indicates that lineage A individuals within one central 'ecological island' site are uniquely clustered, with little genetic overlap with lineage A individuals at the two peripheral sites. FTIR microspectroscopy of Pb-sequestering chloragocytes revealed different phosphate profiles in residents of adjacent acidic and calcareous islands. Bioinformatics found over-representation of Ca pathway genes in EST{sub Pb} libraries. Subsequent sequencing of a Ca-transport gene, SERCA, revealed mutations in the protein's cytosolic domain. We recommend the mandatory genotyping of all individuals prior to field-based ecotoxicological assays, particularly those using discriminating genomic technologies. - Landscapes punctuated by Pb-polluted islands have engendered local genetic differentiation in resident earthworms.

  10. Comportamiento de lombriz roja californiana y lombriz silvestre en bosta bovina y rumia bovina como sustrato Behavior of californian red earthworm and wild earthworm in bovine dung and bovine rumination as substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Loza Murguía

    californian red earthworm (Eisenia spp. and the wild earthworm (Lumbricus spp. in two substrates with the aim to improve the quality of vermicompost produced by these annelids. The work has been carried out in the module of Environmental Microbiology, in facilities of Unidad Académica Campesina Carmen Pampa (UACCP, Campus Leahy, located in Coroico Nor Yungas of Departamento of La Paz-Bolivia. Their behavior has been studied in two substrates bovine dung (manure and bovine rumination (rumination in 40 experimental units of 0.2 m width*0.25 m length*0.4 m depth, each unit showed a density of 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 individuals with two repetitions of each one in 1 000 g of substrate. The cocoons number, number of individuals at 8 weeks, and percentage of degradation of the substrate was determined. The results indicate that substrates manure is better in the population dynamics of Eisenia spp., in comparison with Lumbricus spp. The physical and chemical characteristics of manure and rumination possibly influenced in this type of behavior for Eisenia spp.

  11. Tree Species Identity Shapes Earthworm Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Schelfhout

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Earthworms are key organisms in forest ecosystems because they incorporate organic material into the soil and affect the activity of other soil organisms. Here, we investigated how tree species affect earthworm communities via litter and soil characteristics. In a 36-year old common garden experiment, replicated six times over Denmark, six tree species were planted in blocks: sycamore maple (Acer pseudoplatanus, beech (Fagus sylvatica, ash (Fraxinus excelsior, Norway spruce (Picea abies, pedunculate oak (Quercus robur and lime (Tilia cordata. We studied the chemical characteristics of soil and foliar litter, and determined the forest floor turnover rate and the density and biomass of the earthworm species occurring in the stands. Tree species significantly affected earthworm communities via leaf litter and/or soil characteristics. Anecic earthworms were abundant under Fraxinus, Acer and Tilia, which is related to calcium-rich litter and low soil acidification. Epigeic earthworms were indifferent to calcium content in leaf litter and were shown to be mainly related to soil moisture content and litter C:P ratios. Almost no earthworms were found in Picea stands, likely because of the combined effects of recalcitrant litter, low pH and low soil moisture content.

  12. Metabolic Rates in Five Animal Populations in 1977 After Prolonged Exposure to Seafarer ELF Electromagnetic Fields in Nature

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-02-23

    Oniscus asellus, 1972-77 . . . . . . 23 6 Mean Oxygen Consumption of the Redbacked Salamander, Plethodon cinereus cinerets, 1972-77 ...... 24 iv During... Plethodon cinereus cinereus (Green), and fotr invertebrates: the earthworm, Lumbricus terrestris L.; the redworm, Lumbricus rubellus (Hoffmeister); the...Mueller. 1972. Diurnal Variation in the Oxygen Consumption of Plethodon cinereus . Amer. Midland Nat., 88: 502-506. Temupleton, J.R. 1960

  13. Herbicide Glyphosate Impact to Earthworm (E. fetida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greta Dajoraitė

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Glyphosate is a broad spectrum weed resistant herbicide. Glyphosate may pose negative impact on land ecosystems because of wide broad usage and hydrofilic characteristic. The aim of this study was to investigate negative effects of glyphosate on soil invertebrate organisms (earthworm Eisenia fetida. The duration of experiment was 8 weeks. The range of the test concentrations of glyphosate were: 0,1, 1, 5, 10, 20 mg/kg. To investigate the glyphosate impact on earthworm Eisenia fetida the following endpoints were measured: survival, reproduction and weight. The exposure to 20 mg/kg glyphosate has led to the 100% mortality of earthworms. Glyphosate has led to decreased E. fetida reproduction, the cocoons were observed only in the lowest concentration (0,1 mg/kg. In general: long-term glyphosate toxicity to earthworms (E. fetida may be significant.

  14. Earthworm tolerance to residual agricultural pesticide contamination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Givaudan, Nicolas; Binet, Françoise; Le Bot, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates if acclimatization to residual pesticide contamination in agricultural soils is reflected in detoxification, antioxidant enzyme activities and energy budget of earthworms. Five fields within a joint agricultural area exhibited different chemical and farming histories from ...

  15. Lumbricid macrofauna alter atrazine mineralization and sorption in a silt loam soil

    OpenAIRE

    Binet, Françoise; Anne Kersanté; Munier-Lamy, Colette; Le Bayon, Renée-Claire; Belgy, Marie-José; Shipitalo, Martin J.

    2009-01-01

    Atrazine is a widely used herbicide and is often a contaminant in terrestrial and freshwater ecosystems. It is uncertain, however, how the activity of soil macrofauna affects atrazine fate and transport. Therefore, we investigated whether earthworms enhance atrazine biodegradation by stimulating herbicide degrading soil microflora, or if they increase atrazine persistence by facilitating herbicide sorption. Short (43 d) and medium term (86 d) effects of the earthworms Lumbricus terrestris and...

  16. Comparative Genomics of Symbiotic Bacteria in Earthworm Nephridia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Kasper Urup; Pinel, Nicolas; Lund, Marie Braad

    The excretory and osmoregulatory organs (nephridia) of lumbricid earthworms are densely colonized by extracellular bacterial symbionts belonging to the newly established betaproteobacterial genus Verminephrobacter. The nephridial symbiont of the earthworm Eisenia fetida was subjected to full geno...

  17. New earthworm species of the genus Amynthas Kinberg, 1867 from Thailand (Clitellata: Megascolecidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ueangfa Bantaowong

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Four new species of terrestrial earthworms from the zebrus-group in the genus Amynthas Kinberg, 1867, are described from Nan province, north Thailand: Amynthas phatubensis sp. n., from Tham Pha Tub Arboretum, Amynthas tontong sp. n., from Tontong Waterfall, Amynthas borealis sp. n., from Chaloemprakiat district, and Amynthas srinan sp. n., from Srinan National Park.After comparing with the two closely related Laos species Amynthas chandyi Hong, 2008 and Amynthas namphouinensis Hong, 2008, the four new species show clear morphological differences, and also it is confirmed that there are no previous records of the species described here. Amynthas phatubensis sp. n. is the largest (longest sized of these earthworms and is the only species that lives in limestone habitats. The genital characters are different among them and also from the two Laotian species. Molecular systematics would be a good method for further analysis of the diversity and species boundaries in SE Asian Amynthas.

  18. Synergism of Lumbricus rubellus and Pseudomonas putida Pf-20 in Inducing Resistance to Cucumber Mosaic Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WIWIEK SRI WAHYUNI

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Both Lumbricus rubellus and Pseudomonas putida decompose soil organic matters. The population of P. putida Pf-20 increased if L. rubellus was introduced to the cucumber growth medium. The process of organic decomposition was much better if the medium was introduced with both L. rubellus and P. putida Pf-20, compared to the medium contained only either one of those organisms. The activity of L. rubellus may serve to provide nutrients for both the cucumber and P. putida. The role of P. putida to reduce disease severity was increased if L. rubellus was introduced to the growth medium. The synergism of these two organisms, reduced either the level of disease severity to CMV-48 and C/N ratio of medium, but increased the content of available phosphor and potassium.

  19. Tracking earthworm communities from soil DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bienert, Friederike; De Danieli, Sébastien; Miquel, Christian; Coissac, Eric; Poillot, Carole; Brun, Jean-Jacques; Taberlet, Pierre

    2012-04-01

    Earthworms are known for their important role within the functioning of an ecosystem, and their diversity can be used as an indicator of ecosystem health. To date, earthworm diversity has been investigated through conventional extraction methods such as handsorting, soil washing or the application of a mustard solution. Such techniques are time consuming and often difficult to apply. We showed that combining DNA metabarcoding and next-generation sequencing facilitates the identification of earthworm species from soil samples. The first step of our experiments was to create a reference database of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) 16S gene for 14 earthworm species found in the French Alps. Using this database, we designed two new primer pairs targeting very short and informative DNA sequences (about 30 and 70 bp) that allow unambiguous species identification. Finally, we analysed extracellular DNA taken from soil samples in two localities (two plots per locality and eight samples per plot). The two short metabarcode regions led to the identification of a total of eight earthworm species. The earthworm communities identified by the DNA-based approach appeared to be well differentiated between the two localities and are consistent with results derived from inventories collected using the handsorting method. The possibility of assessing earthworm communities from hundreds or even thousands of localities through the use of extracellular soil DNA will undoubtedly stimulate further ecological research on these organisms. Using the same DNA extracts, our study also illustrates the potential of environmental DNA as a tool to assess the diversity of other soil-dwelling animal taxa.

  20. Sine systemate chaos? A versatile tool for earthworm taxonomy: non-destructive imaging of freshly fixed and museum specimens using micro-computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Rosa; Kvist, Sebastian; Lenihan, Jennifer; Giribet, Gonzalo; Ziegler, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    In spite of the high relevance of lumbricid earthworms ('Oligochaeta': Lumbricidae) for soil structure and functioning, the taxonomy of this group of terrestrial invertebrates remains in a quasi-chaotic state. Earthworm taxonomy traditionally relies on the interpretation of external and internal morphological characters, but the acquisition of these data is often hampered by tedious dissections or restricted access to valuable and rare museum specimens. The present state of affairs, in conjunction with the difficulty of establishing primary homologies for multiple morphological features, has led to an almost unrivaled instability in the taxonomy and systematics of certain earthworm groups, including Lumbricidae. As a potential remedy, we apply for the first time a non-destructive imaging technique to lumbricids and explore the future application of this approach to earthworm taxonomy. High-resolution micro-computed tomography (μCT) scanning of freshly fixed and museum specimens was carried out using two cosmopolitan species, Aporrectodea caliginosa and A. trapezoides. By combining two-dimensional and three-dimensional dataset visualization techniques, we demonstrate that the morphological features commonly used in earthworm taxonomy can now be analyzed without the need for dissection, whether freshly fixed or museum specimens collected more than 60 years ago are studied. Our analyses show that μCT in combination with soft tissue staining can be successfully applied to lumbricid earthworms. An extension of the approach to other families is poised to strengthen earthworm taxonomy by providing a versatile tool to resolve the taxonomic chaos currently present in this ecologically important, but taxonomically neglected group of terrestrial invertebrates.

  1. Biochemical diversity of betaines in earthworms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liebeke, Manuel [Department of Surgery and Cancer, Imperial College London, Sir Alexander Fleming Building, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Bundy, Jacob G., E-mail: j.bundy@imperial.ac.uk [Department of Surgery and Cancer, Imperial College London, Sir Alexander Fleming Building, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)

    2013-01-25

    Highlights: ► We develop a method for rapid untargetted analysis of betaines. ► We profile betaines in a comparative study of ten earthworm species. ► Earthworms contain a surprisingly high number of different betaine metabolites. ► Earthworms contain betaines normally seen only in plants or marine animals. -- Abstract: The ability to accumulate osmoprotectant compounds, such as betaines, is an important evolutionary feature in many organisms. This is particularly the case for organisms that live in variable environments, which may have fluctuations in moisture and salinity levels. There is, surprisingly, very little known about betaines in soil invertebrates in general, and there is almost no information about earthworms – a group that are important ‘ecosystem engineers’ and key indicators of soil health. Here, we describe a fast and reliable {sup 1}H–{sup 13}C heteronuclear single quantum coherence (HSQC) 2D NMR approach for the metabolic profiling of a series of betaines and related metabolites in tissue extracts, and list {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C chemical shifts for the trimethylammonium signal for 23 such compounds. The analysis of ten different species from three different families (Lumbricidae, Megascolecidae and Glossoscolecidae) showed an unexpected diversity of betaines present in earthworms. In total ten betaines were identified, including hydroxyproline-betaine, proline-betaine, taurine-betaine, GABA-betaine and histidine-betaine, and a further eleven as-yet unassigned putative betaine metabolites detected. The findings clearly indicate a hitherto-unappreciated important role for betaine metabolism in earthworms.

  2. Quantifying copper and cadmium impacts on intrinsic rate of population increase in the terrestrial oligochaete lumbricus rubellus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spurgeon, D.J.; Svendsen, C.; Weeks, J.M.; Hankard, P.K.; Stubberud, H.E.; Kammenga, J.E.

    2003-01-01

    Demographic methods can translate toxicant effects on individuals into consequences for populations. To date few such studies have been conducted with longer-lived invertebrates. This is because full life-cycle experiments are difficult with such species. Here we report the effects of copper and

  3. Enantiomer-specific toxicity and bioaccumulation of alpha-cypermethrin to earthworm Eisenia fetida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diao, Jinling; Xu, Peng; Liu, Donghui; Lu, Yule; Zhou, Zhiqiang

    2011-09-15

    Alpha-cypermethrin, a synthetic pyrethroid, is highly effective against a wide range of chewing and sucking insects in crops, and it is a racemic mixture of two enantiomers ((+)-1R-cis-αS+(-)-1S-cis-αR). Studies about the toxicity of alpha-cypermethrin to non-target organisms are mainly focused on aquatic organisms, whereas information regarding terrestrial organisms is relatively much less. Very little report about its enantioselective toxicity is known, so the present study tested the enantiomer-specific acute toxicity to earthworm Eisenia fetida. Experiment about bioaccumulation of two enantiomers in soil was conducted, peak-shaped accumulation curves were observed for both enantiomers, and the calculated biota to soil accumulations factor (BSAF) have significant difference between the two enantiomers. It was obvious that earthworm can uptake alpha-cypermethrin enantioselectively, preferentially accumulating (-)-(1S-cis-αR)-enantiomer. Great difference in toxicity to earthworm between two enantiomers was found, and the calculated LC(50) values for (+)-(1R-cis-αS)-, (-)-(1S-cis-αR)-, and rac-alpha-cypermethrin were 49.53, 1663.87 and 165.61 ng/cm(2), respectively. The acute toxicity of alpha-cypermethrin enantiomers was enantioselective.

  4. Ternary toxicological interactions of insecticides, herbicides, and a heavy metal on the earthworm Eisenia fetida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yanhua [State Key Laboratory Breeding Base for Zhejiang Sustainable Pest and Disease Control/Key Laboratory for Pesticide Residue Detection of Ministry of Agriculture, Institute of Quality and Standard for Agro-products, Zhejiang Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Hangzhou 310021 (China); Chen, Chen [Key Laboratory of Agro-Product Quality and Safety of Ministry of Agriculture, Institute of Quality Standards and Testing Technology for Agro-Products, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100081 (China); Qian, Yongzhong, E-mail: qyzcaas@aliyun.com [Key Laboratory of Agro-Product Quality and Safety of Ministry of Agriculture, Institute of Quality Standards and Testing Technology for Agro-Products, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100081 (China); Zhao, Xueping [State Key Laboratory Breeding Base for Zhejiang Sustainable Pest and Disease Control/Key Laboratory for Pesticide Residue Detection of Ministry of Agriculture, Institute of Quality and Standard for Agro-products, Zhejiang Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Hangzhou 310021 (China); Wang, Qiang, E-mail: qiangwang2003@vip.sina.com [State Key Laboratory Breeding Base for Zhejiang Sustainable Pest and Disease Control/Key Laboratory for Pesticide Residue Detection of Ministry of Agriculture, Institute of Quality and Standard for Agro-products, Zhejiang Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Hangzhou 310021 (China)

    2015-03-02

    Highlights: • The combined toxicity of insecticides, herbicides, and a heavy metal was examined. • Acute earthworm toxicity assays were conducted in twenty-one ternary mixtures. • Synergism predominated in the majority of the mixtures at low effect levels. • Combination index method could more accurately predict the combined toxicity. - Abstract: The combined toxicities of five insecticides (chlorpyrifos, avermectin, imidacloprid, λ-cyhalothrin, and phoxim), two herbicides (atrazine and butachlor), and a heavy metal (cadmium) have been examined using the acute toxicity test on the earthworm. With a concentration of 2.75 mg/kg being lethal for 50% of the organisms, imidacloprid exhibited the highest acute toxicity toward the earthworm Eisenia fetida. Toxicological interactions of these chemicals in ternary mixtures were studied using the combination-index (CI) equation method. Twenty-one ternary mixtures exhibited various interactive effects, in which 11 combinations showed synergistic effects, four led to dual synergistic/additive behaviors, one exhibited an additive effect, and five showed increasing antagonism within the entire range of effects. The CI method was compared with the classical models of concentration addition and independent action, and it was found that the CI method could accurately predict combined toxicity of the chemicals studied. The predicted synergism in the majority of the mixtures, especially at low-effect levels, might have implications in the real terrestrial environment.

  5. Population growth and development of the earthworm Lumbricus rubellus in a polluted field soil: possible consequences for the godwit (Limosa limosa)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klok, C.; Hout, van der A.; Bodt, J.M.

    2006-01-01

    Many soils are polluted with Mixtures of moderate levels of contaminants. In The Netherlands 175,000 sites in rural areas are classified as highly polluted. However, it remains unclear to what extent local ecosystems are endangered. In this paper, we report on the effect of contaminants on

  6. Impacts of leaves, roots, and earthworms on soil organic matter composition and distribution in sycamore maple stands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, N.; Mueller, K. E.; Mueller, C. W.; Oleksyn, J.; Hale, C.; Freeman, K. H.; Eissenstat, D.

    2009-12-01

    The relative contributions of leaf and root material to soil organic matter (SOM) are poorly understood despite the importance of constraining SOM sources to conceptual and numeric models of SOM dynamics. Selective ingestion and bioturbation of litter and soil by earthworms can alter the fate and spatial distribution of OM in soils, including stabilization pathways of leaf and root litter. However, studies on the contributions of leaves, roots, and earthworms to SOM dynamics are rare. In 3 stands of sycamore maple (Acer pseudoplatanus) with minimal O horizon development and high earthworm activity, we sampled surface litter (> 2 mm) from the Oi horizon, fine roots (cutin was low relative to plant litter, confirming the often-observed selective preservation of aliphatic over aromatic biomolecules. The ratio of lignin to cutin/suberin acids in earthworm casts was also low; based on the minimal extent of decomposition in casts evident by lignin acid to aldehyde ratios, we attribute this to selective ingestion by L. terrestris of leaf litter rich in aliphatic biomolecules at the expense of woody debris and petioles rich in lignin, rather than selective preservation.

  7. POPULATION DYNAMICS OF AMBIENT AND ALTERED EARTHWORM COMMUNITIES IN ROW-CROP AGROECOSYSTEMS IN OHIO, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although earthworms are known to influence agroecosystem processes, there are relatively few long-term studies addressing population dynamics under cropping systems in which earthworm populations were intentionally altered. We assessed earthworm communities from fall 1994 to spr...

  8. Earthworm communities in grasslands and horticultural soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Didden, W.A.M.

    2001-01-01

    In a survey of 42 farm sites, comprising grassland and two types of horticultural farms (growing vegetables or flower bulbs), earthworm communities were sampled by hand-sorting and a number of soil physico-chemical characteristics recorded. For heavy metals the availability in the soil solution was

  9. Basic Research Tools for Earthworm Ecology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin R. Butt

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Earthworms are responsible for soil development, recycling organic matter and form a vital component within many food webs. For these and other reasons earthworms are worthy of investigation. Many technologically-enhanced approaches have been used within earthworm-focused research. These have their place, may be a development of existing practices or bring techniques from other fields. Nevertheless, let us not overlook the fact that much can still be learned through utilisation of more basic approaches which have been used for some time. New does not always equate to better. Information on community composition within an area and specific population densities can be learned using simple collection techniques, and burrowing behaviour can be determined from pits, resin-insertion or simple mesocosms. Life history studies can be achieved through maintenance of relatively simple cultures. Behavioural observations can be undertaken by direct observation or with low cost webcam usage. Applied aspects of earthworm research can also be achieved through use of simple techniques to enhance population development and even population dynamics can be directly addressed with use of relatively inexpensive, effective marking techniques. This paper seeks to demonstrate that good quality research in this sphere can result from appropriate application of relatively simple research tools.

  10. Soil fauna research in Poland: earthworms (Lumbricidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pączka Grzegorz

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Living organisms are the foundation of ecosystem services. Of particular notice is zooedaphone, often underestimated and basically unknown to the general public. The present review summarizes the current state of knowledge related to earthworms occurring in natural and anthropogenically altered habitats in Poland, in the context of the requirement for protection of soil biodiversity.

  11. Earthworms increase plant production: a meta- analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenigen, van J.W.; Lubbers, I.M.; Vos, H.M.J.; Brown, G.G.; Deyn, de G.B.; Groenigen, van K.J.

    2014-01-01

    To meet the challenge of feeding a growing world population with minimal environmental impact, we need comprehensive and quantitative knowledge of ecological factors affecting crop production. Earthworms are among the most important soil dwelling invertebrates. Their activity affects both biotic and

  12. Earthworm-assisted bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ameh

    After 35 days of treatment, earthworm ... nated lands generally result from past industrial activities when awareness of the ... physical, chemical, biological or radiological integrity re- ..... Chukwuma MC, Eshett ET, Onweremadu EU, Okon MA (2010). Zinc ... of chromium uptake from wastewater using natural sorbent material.

  13. Earthworms, pesticides and sustainable agriculture: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Shivika; Singh, Joginder; Singh, Sharanpreet; Singh, Jaswinder

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this review is to generate awareness and understand the importance of earthworms in sustainable agriculture and effect of pesticides on their action. The natural resources are finite and highly prone to degradation by the misuse of land and mismanagement of soil. The world is in utter need of a healthy ecosystem that provides with fertile soil, clean water, food and other natural resources. Anthropogenic activities have led to an increased contamination of land. The intensification of industrial and agricultural practices chiefly the utilization of pesticides has in almost every way made our natural resources concave. Earthworms help in a number of tasks that support many ecosystem services that favor agrosystem sustainability but are degraded by exhaustive practices such as the use of pesticides. The present review assesses the response of earthworm toward the pesticides and also evaluates the relationship between earthworm activity and plant growth. We strictly need to refresh and rethink on the policies and norms devised by us on sustainable ecology. In an equivalent way, the natural resources should be utilized and further, essential ways for betterment of present and future livelihood should be sought.

  14. Activity of earthworm in Latosol under simulated acid rain stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jia-En; Yu, Jiayu; Ouyang, Ying

    2015-01-01

    Acid rain is still an issue of environmental concerns. This study investigated the impacts of simulated acid rain (SAR) upon earthworm activity from the Latosol (acidic red soil). Laboratory experiment was performed by leaching the soil columns grown with earthworms (Eisenia fetida) at the SAR pH levels ranged from 2.0 to 6.5 over a 34-day period. Results showed that earthworms tended to escape from the soil and eventually died for the SAR at pH = 2.0 as a result of acid toxicity. The catalase activity in the earthworms decreased with the SAR pH levels, whereas the superoxide dismutases activity in the earthworms showed a fluctuate pattern: decreasing from pH 6.5 to 5.0 and increasing from pH 5.0 to 4.0. Results implied that the growth of earthworms was retarded at the SAR pH ≤ 3.0.

  15. Influence of activated carbon amendment on the accumulation and elimination of PCBs in the earthworm Eisenia fetida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul, Piuly [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Maryland Baltimore County, 1000 Hilltop Circle, Baltimore, MA 21250 (United States); Ghosh, Upal, E-mail: ughosh@umbc.edu [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Maryland Baltimore County, 1000 Hilltop Circle, Baltimore, MA 21250 (United States)

    2011-12-15

    In this study we investigated the use of activated carbon (AC) as a soil amendment for reducing bioavailability of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) to the earthworm Eisenia fetida. Artificial soil was contaminated with PCBs and used in bioaccumulation experiments fresh or after aging for 19 months. PCB bioaccumulation in earthworms was reduced by 68% when AC was placed as a layer without mixing and by 94% when AC was manually mixed into the soil. Aging of the same AC mixed soil for 19 months resulted in an overall reduction of 99% in PCB biouptake. AC-treated aged soil also showed two orders of magnitude lower equilibrium aqueous concentrations of PCBs compared to untreated aged soils. The findings from this study indicate that application of engineered sorbents like AC to PCB impacted soils may greatly reduce PCB uptake at the base of the terrestrial food chain. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: > Activated carbon studied as a sorbent for PCB impacted unsaturated soil. > Bioaccumulation of PCB greatly reduced in earthworms after carbon amendment. > Aging of the activated carbon amended soil further reduced bioaccumulation. > Activated carbon can be used for in-situ stabilization of PCB impacted soil. - Addition of activated carbon to PCB impacted soil reduces equilibrium aqueous concentrations and uptake at the base of the terrestrial food chain.

  16. Organic Fertilizer Production From Cattle Waste Vermicomposting Assisted By Lumbricus Rubellus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siswo Sumardiono

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Composting is decomposition of compound in organic waste by specific treatment using microorganism aerobically. Natural composting for producing organic fertilizer from manure and market waste utilize long time processing and less equal to the market demand. Vermicomposting is a technique to produce high quality compos fertilizer from biodegradable garbage and mixture of red worm (Lumbricus Rubellus. In conventional compos production took 8 weeks of processing time, in vermicomposting only took half processing time of conventional technique. It is occurred by red worm additional ease cellulose degradation contain in manure which is could not decomposed with composting bacteria. The purposes of this research are to investigate the effect of manure comparison to red worm growth and to evaluate the effect of comparison between manure and market waste to red worm growth. This research was conducted by vary the weight of red worm (100 gr, 200 gr, 300 gr, 400 gr, 500 gr and market waste addition (50 gr, 100 gr, 150 gr, 200 gr, 300 gr. Moreover, 3 kg of manure was mixed by various weight of red worm, while variation of market waste addition was involved 500 gr red worm and 3 kg manure mixture. Optimum increasing weight of red worm that was obtained by 100 gr red worm addition is 160 gr within 2 weeks. In added market waste variation, the highest increasing of red worm was resulted by 50 gr market waste addition, with 60 gr increasing weight of red worm. Production of casting fertilizer was highly effected by composition of used materials such as medium, manure and red worm comparison as well as market waste additional

  17. Earthworm eco-physiological characteristics and quantification of earthworm feeding in vermifiltration system for sewage sludge stabilization using stable isotopic natural abundance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Xiaowei; Xing, Meiyan, E-mail: lixiaowei419@163.com; Yang, Jian; Dai, Xiaohu

    2014-07-15

    Highlights: • Earthworm growth biomass and activity decreased with the VF depth. • Earthworm gut microbial communities were dominated by Gammaproteobacteria. • δ{sup 15}N and δ{sup 13}C in earthworms decreased with time, and increased with the VF depth. • Effect of earthworm feeding in enhanced VSS reduction was analyzed quantitatively. • Earthworm feeding had low contribution to the enhanced VSS reduction. - Abstract: Previous studies showed that the presence of earthworm improves treatment performance of vermifilter (VF) for sewage sludge stabilization, but earthworm eco-physiological characteristics and effects in VF were not fully investigated. In this study, earthworm population, enzymatic activity, gut microbial community and stable isotopic abundance were investigated in the VF. Results showed that biomass, average weight, number and alkaline phosphatase activity of the earthworms tended to decrease, while protein content and activities of peroxidase and catalase had an increasing tendency as the VF depth. Earthworm gut microbial communities were dominated by Gammaproteobacteria, and the percentages arrived to 76–92% of the microbial species detected. {sup 15}N and {sup 13}C natural abundance of the earthworms decreased with operation time, and increased as the VF depth. Quantitative analysis using δ{sup 15}N showed that earthworm feeding and earthworm–microorganism interaction were responsible for approximately 21% and 79%, respectively, of the enhanced volatile suspended solid reduction due to the presence of earthworm. The finding provides a quantitative insight into how earthworms influence on sewage sludge stabilization in vermifiltration system.

  18. Earthworm effects without earthworms: inoculation of raw organic matter with worm-worked substrates alters microbial community functioning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Aira

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Earthworms are key organisms in organic matter decomposition because of the interactions they establish with soil microorganisms. They enhance decomposition rates through the joint action of direct effects (i.e. effects due to direct earthworm activity such as digestion, burrowing, etc and indirect effects (i.e. effects derived from earthworm activities such as cast ageing. Here we test whether indirect earthworm effects affect microbial community functioning in the substrate, as when earthworms are present (i. e., direct effects. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To address these questions we inoculated fresh organic matter (pig manure with worm-worked substrates (vermicompost produced by three different earthworm species. Two doses of each vermicompost were used (2.5 and 10%. We hypothesized that the presence of worm-worked material in the fresh organic matter will result in an inoculum of different microorganisms and nutrients. This inoculum should interact with microbial communities in fresh organic matter, thus promoting modifications similar to those found when earthworms are present. Inoculation of worm-worked substrates provoked significant increases in microbial biomass and enzyme activities (β-glucosidase, cellulase, phosphatase and protease. These indirect effects were similar to, although lower than, those obtained in pig manure with earthworms (direct and indirect earthworm effects. In general, the effects were not dose-dependent, suggesting the existence of a threshold at which they were triggered. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Our data reveal that the relationships between earthworms and microorganisms are far from being understood, and suggest the existence of several positive feedbacks during earthworm activity as a result of the interactions between direct and indirect effects, since their combination produces stronger modifications to microbial biomass and enzyme activity.

  19. Earthworm's immunity in the nanomaterial world: new room, future challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hayashi, Yuya; Engelmann, Péter

    2013-01-01

    including those on earthworms. Recently, we reported selective accumulation of silver nanoparticles in the amoebocyte population of Eisenia fetida coelomocytes in vitro. In this review, we give an overview of available literature on the life-history impacts on earthworms, and what we have learnt...

  20. Clay dispersability in moist earthworm casts of different soils.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marinissen, J.C.Y.; Nijhuis, E.; Breemen, van N.

    1996-01-01

    Earthworms were fed soil from two polders, differing in soil age and land use (grass and arable). Sterilised and non-sterilised moist earthworm casts were, directly or after ageing (for 2, 4, 8 and 20 weeks), analysed for clay dispersability and polysaccharide content, either as such, or after treat

  1. Avoidance of Ag nanoparticles by earthworms, Eisenia fetida

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mariyadas, Jennifer; Mónica, Amorim; Scott-Fordsmand, Janeck James

    2013-01-01

    Earthworms are key sentinel organisms playing an important role in improving the soil structure. Here we tested the avoidance behaviour of earthworms, Eisenia fetida to silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs). Silver nanoparticles are widely used in a range of consumer products mainly as antibacterial agents...... and thus causes potential risk to the environment once these particles are released into the environment [1]. In our tests, we were able to show that the earthworms avoided commercially fabricated silver nanoparticles in a dose and time dependent manner. The earthworms were exposed to 3 nanoparticles: NM....... The avoidance behaviour could not be explained by the release of silver ions in the soil-solution. Although, Ag-ions release (if any) may still have had an influence on behaviour. The present results suggests that the earthworms perceive the presence of actual nanoparticles in the soil. Our results suggest that...

  2. Vulnerable Earthworm Species Identified from Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.V. Ramasamy

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Diversity of earthworms at Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve is less known even though it is one among the biodiversity hot spots. Unless an authentic record of available earthworm species is made, the consequences of human alternation or climate change on the earthworm species diversity cannot be assessed. In this regard, the present study is relevant. Earthworms were collected from twenty three sites of NBR. The findings of this study showed that out of the total earthworm species identified from selected areas of NBR, 83.4% are native species and 16.6% are exotic. This indicates the predominance of native species in the study area possibly due to low level of disturbance in the area. Among the species identified from Mukurthi, Priodichaeta pellucida (Bourne which is listed as vulnerable and has not been encountered since its discovery about 100 years ago.

  3. The role of earthworm defense mechanisms in ecotoxicity studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Roubalová

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Earthworms are important soil organisms that affect the soil structure by influencing organic and inorganic matter breakdown. Earthworms are in permanent contact with soil particles via their permeable skin and digestive tract and are thus strongly affected by pollutants present in the soil. Earthworms often live in very hostile environments with an abundant microflora and therefore have developed very potent defense mechanisms. These mechanisms have been described to be influenced by various types of organic and inorganic pollutants and also by the nanoparticles that reach the soil system. Reduced abilities of earthworms to protect themselves against pathogenic microorganisms result in lower reproduction rates and increased mortality. In this review, a summary of the up-to-date data describing the effects of contaminants on the natural defense barriers and immune system of earthworms is presented.

  4. Effect of Soil Physical State on the Earthworms in Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Birkas

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Hungarian authors have long been discussing the role of earthworms in improving soil productivity. Earthworm counts in our higher quality soils are similar to those found in soils where more attention is paid to earthworm activity. Negative impacts that are independent of farming—such as sustained dry spells in the summer—also affect earthworm counts. Negative impacts that definitely depend on farming include land use causing soil moisture loss, deep stubble treatment leaving the soil without cover, and ploughing in the summer without subsequent pressing. The climate change is having both positive and negative impacts. Weather patterns are causing losses but adopting climate mitigating tillage are generating benefits. In the trials results so far show that tillage focusing on preserving soil moisture, structure, and organic materials, covering the surface in the critical months as well as adequate soil loosening are fundamental pre-requisites for making the soil a favourable habitat for earthworms.

  5. Effects of soil properties on the uptake of pharmaceuticals into earthworms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Laura J; Ryan, Jim J; Boxall, Alistair B A

    2016-06-01

    Pharmaceuticals can enter the soil environment when animal slurries and sewage sludge are applied to land as a fertiliser or during irrigation with contaminated water. These pharmaceuticals may then be taken up by soil organisms possibly resulting in toxic effects and/or exposure of organisms higher up the food chain. This study investigated the influence of soil properties on the uptake and depuration of pharmaceuticals (carbamazepine, diclofenac, fluoxetine and orlistat) in the earthworm Eisenia fetida. The uptake and accumulation of pharmaceuticals into E. fetida changed depending on soil type. Orlistat exhibited the highest pore water based bioconcentration factors (BCFs) and displayed the largest differences between soil types with BCFs ranging between 30.5 and 115.9. For carbamazepine, diclofenac and fluoxetine BCFs ranged between 1.1 and 1.6, 7.0 and 69.6 and 14.1 and 20.4 respectively. Additional analysis demonstrated that in certain treatments the presence of these chemicals in the soil matrices changed the soil pH over time, with a statistically significant pH difference to control samples. The internal pH of E. fetida also changed as a result of incubation in pharmaceutically spiked soil, in comparison to the control earthworms. These results demonstrate that a combination of soil properties and pharmaceutical physico-chemical properties are important in terms of predicting pharmaceutical uptake in terrestrial systems and that pharmaceuticals can modify soil and internal earthworm chemistry which may hold wider implications for risk assessment.

  6. Soil type influence on Ag Nanoparticles by earthworms, Eisenia fetida

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mariyadas, Jennifer; Mónica, Amorim; Scott-Fordsmand, Janeck James

    2014-01-01

    Earthworms are key sentinel organisms playing an important role in improving the soil structure. Here we tested the importance of soil type on the toxicity to silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) to earthworms, Eisenia fetida. Silver nanoparticles are widely used in a range of consumer products mainly...... as antibacterial agents and thus causes potential risk to the environment once these particles are released into the environment [1]. In our tests, we were able to show that the earthworm toxicity was strongly dependent on the soil type, with strongest effect in low organic matter soil. Studies on the organic...

  7. Vermicomposting of Taro (Colocasia esculenta) with two epigeic earthworm species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurien, J; Ramasamy, E V

    2006-07-01

    The bioconversion potential of two epigeic species (Eisenia foetida Sav. and Eudrilus eugeniae Kinberg) of earthworms was assessed in terms of efficiency and sustainability of vermicomposting of Taro (Colocasia esculenta (Linn) Schott in Schott and Endl). In different vermireactors, each run in triplicates with one of the two species of earthworms, and 60 g of 6:1 Colocasia:cowdung as feed, vermicasts were produced with steadily increasing output in all the reactors. E. eugeniae was found to be more efficient producer of vermicasts than E. foetida. In all reactors, the earthworms grew well, increasing their weights and number.

  8. Ternary toxicological interactions of insecticides, herbicides, and a heavy metal on the earthworm Eisenia fetida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanhua; Chen, Chen; Qian, Yongzhong; Zhao, Xueping; Wang, Qiang

    2015-03-01

    The combined toxicities of five insecticides (chlorpyrifos, avermectin, imidacloprid, λ-cyhalothrin, and phoxim), two herbicides (atrazine and butachlor), and a heavy metal (cadmium) have been examined using the acute toxicity test on the earthworm. With a concentration of 2.75 mg/kg being lethal for 50% of the organisms, imidacloprid exhibited the highest acute toxicity toward the earthworm Eisenia fetida. Toxicological interactions of these chemicals in ternary mixtures were studied using the combination-index (CI) equation method. Twenty-one ternary mixtures exhibited various interactive effects, in which 11 combinations showed synergistic effects, four led to dual synergistic/additive behaviors, one exhibited an additive effect, and five showed increasing antagonism within the entire range of effects. The CI method was compared with the classical models of concentration addition and independent action, and it was found that the CI method could accurately predict combined toxicity of the chemicals studied. The predicted synergism in the majority of the mixtures, especially at low-effect levels, might have implications in the real terrestrial environment.

  9. Measurement of annetocin gene expression: a new reproductive biomarker in earthworm ecotoxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricketts, H J; Morgan, A J; Spurgeon, D J; Kille, P

    2004-01-01

    The emergence of new technologies from the genomics revolution will transform the potential application of biomarkers to assess how pollutants impact people, animals, and ecosystems. Genetic databases provide a huge resource from which candidate molecular biomarkers can be identified and, subsequently, exploited to address these issues. However, a major challenge is to link these novel molecular indices to ecologically relevant whole-organism life-cycle traits (such as reproduction and growth). Such a functional link is provided by annetocin, previously characterized as a member of the vasopressin/oxytocin superfamily of neuropeptides. It is expressed in annelid worms within the neurons of the central nervous system and has been shown to be involved in the induction of egg-laying behavior. This paper outlines the validation of annetocin as a novel biomarker of reproductive fitness in the earthworm Eisenia fetida. The design of primer pairs targeted toward oligochaete annetocin has facilitated the isolation of a full-length annetocin cDNA from this species. Optimization of a real-time quantitative PCR procedure exploiting the fluorescent DNA-binding molecule, Sybr Green, has allowed the measurement of annetocin transcript levels over a range covering six orders of magnitude. Using this approach, gene expression was measured in earthworms exposed to soils polluted with high concentrations of zinc and lead. Traditional growth and reproductive indices, including cocoon production, were also recorded and related to the molecular parameter. The future use of annetocin as a molecular genetic biomarker in terrestrial ecotoxicology is discussed.

  10. Indication of metal homeostasis disturbance in earthworm Eisenia fetida after exposure to semi-solid depot sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babić, Sanja; Dragun, Zrinka; Sauerborn Klobučar, Roberta; Ivanković, Dušica; Bačić, Niko; Fiket, Željka; Barišić, Josip; Krasnići, Nesrete; Strunjak-Perović, Ivančica; Topić Popović, Natalija; Čož-Rakovac, Rozelindra

    2015-09-01

    Treated sewage sludge is commonly used in agriculture as fertilizer. It is, therefore, necessary to determine possible detrimental influences of sludge application on soil contamination and accumulation of contaminants in tissues of terrestrial animals, which in the long run could also have undesirable effects on humans. With that aim, the study was performed using earthworm Eisenia fetida as test organism and semi-solid depot sludge from a wastewater treatment plant as exposure media. The concentrations of 26 metals/metalloids were determined in depot sludge, and their bioaccumulation was estimated in whole tissue of E. fetida, and for the first time in the soluble tissue fraction, which represents metal fraction available for metabolic requirements and toxic effects. Obtained results have revealed acceptable levels of several elements (Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn) in depot sludge, when compared to currently valid regulations, and only moderate accumulation of some elements (e.g. As, Ba, Cd, Co, Fe, Tl, V, and Zn) in earthworms, as a consequence of exposure to depot sludge. However, a concentration increase after exposure to depot sludge was observed in E. fetida for several elements (Cd, Mo, and Zn), which were present in lower concentrations in the exposure mixtures than in soil. Contrary, a concentration decrease was observed for Cs, Mn, and Rb, although they were present in higher concentrations in depot sludge than in soil. It was an indication of disturbance in metal homeostasis in earthworms, possibly caused by exposure to complex mixture of contaminants present in depot sludge. The cumulative effect of exposure to a number of various contaminants (inorganic, organic, microbiological and pharmaceutical), even if each of them was not present in very high concentrations, could have caused distress in earthworms exposed to depot sludge. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Impact of roots, mycorrhizas and earthworms on soil physical properties as assessed by shrinkage analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milleret, R.; Le Bayon, R.-C.; Lamy, F.; Gobat, J.-M.; Boivin, P.

    2009-07-01

    SummarySoil biota such as earthworms, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and plant roots are known to play a major role in engineering the belowground part of the terrestrial ecosystems, thus strongly influencing the water budget and quality on earth. However, the effect of soil organisms and their interactions on the numerous soil physical properties to be considered are still poorly understood. Shrinkage analysis allows quantifying a large spectrum of soil properties in a single experiment, with small standard errors. The objectives of the present study were, therefore, to assess the ability of the method to quantify changes in soil properties as induced by single or combined effects of leek roots ( Allium porrum), AMF ( Glomus intraradices) and earthworms ( Allolobophora chlorotica). The study was performed on homogenised soil microcosms and the experiments lasted 35 weeks. The volume of the root network and the external fungal hyphae was measured at the end, and undisturbed soil cores were collected. Shrinkage analysis allowed calculating the changes in soil hydro-structural stability, soil plasma and structural pore volumes, soil bulk density and plant available water, and structural pore size distributions. Data analysis revealed different impacts of the experimented soil biota on the soil physical properties. At any water content, the presence of A. chlorotica resulted in a decrease of the specific bulk volume and the hydro-structural stability around 25%, and in a significant increase in the bulk soil density. These changes went with a decrease of the structural pore volumes at any pore size, a disappearing of the thinnest structural pores, a decrease in plant available water, and a hardening of the plasma. On the contrary, leek roots decreased the bulk soil density up to 1.23 g cm -3 despite an initial bulk density of 1.15 g cm -3. This increase in volume was accompanied with a enhanced hydro-structural stability, a larger structural pore volume at any

  12. Identification and Classification of Earthworm Species in Guyana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preeta Saywack

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Earthworms are very important organisms, they are both environmentally and economically beneficial and hence their correct identification and classification is very vital. Taxonomy aims to classify organisms based on their similarities and differences. The present study was carried out during the year 2006-2007 at University of Guyana, Georgetown focusing on identification and classification of local earthworm species of Guyana and comparison with a known non-native species (California red. The earthworms were collected (using hand sorting method, cultured and then carefully examined (worms were washed with water, preserved in 10% formalin solution. The two species studied were identified based on their external morphology and internal anatomy as well as their ecological features. The California red earthworm was grouped under the family Lumbricidae and identified as Eisenia foetida, while the local species was grouped under the family Eudrilidae and identified as Eudrilus eugenia.

  13. Numerical Simulation of Electroosmotic Flow near Earthworm Surface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Y.Q. Zu; Y.Y. Yan

    2006-01-01

    The electroosmotic flow near an earthworm surface is simulated numerically to further understand the anti soil adhesion mechanism of earthworm. A lattice Poisson method is employed to solve electric potential and charge distributions in the electric double layer along the earthworm surface. The external electric field is obtained by solving a Laplace equation. The electroosmotic flow controlled by the Navier-Stokes equations with external body force is simulated by the lattice Boltzmann method. A benchmark test shows that accurate electric potential distributions can be obtained by the LPM. The simulation shows that the moving vortices,which probably contribute to anti soil adhesion,are fonned near earthworm body surface by the nonuniform and variational electrical force.

  14. Earthworms lost from pesticides application in potato crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Santos, Glenda; Forrer, Karin; Binder, Claudia R.

    2010-05-01

    Bioturbation from earthworm's activity contributes to soil creep and soil carbon dynamics, and provide enough aeration conditions for agricultural practices all over the world. In developing countries where there is a long term misuse of pesticides for agricultural purposes, lost of these benefits from earthworms activity might already yielded negative effects in the current crop production. Little research has been performed on earthworms avoidance to pesticides in developing countries located in the tropics. Furthermore, the complete avoidance reaction (from attraction to 100% avoidance) from earthworms to most of the pesticides used in potato cultivation in developing countries like Colombia is incomplete as yet. Hence the aim of this study is to assess the lost of earthworm on the soils caused by different concentrations of pesticides and associated agricultural impacts caused by a lost in the soil bioturbation. As a first stage, we have studied earthworm's avoidance to pesticide concentration in a potato agricultural area located in Colombia. Local cultivated Eisenia fetida were exposed to four of the most frequent applied active ingredients in potato crops i.e. carbofuran, mancozeb, methamidophos and chlorpyriphos. Adult earthworm toxicity experiments were carried out in two soils, untreated grasslands under standard (ISO guidelines) and undisturbed conditions, and exposed to six different concentrations of the active ingredients. The results of the avoidance reaction on the standard soils were significant for carbofuran, mancoceb and chlorpyrifos. For each of the three active ingredients, we found i) overuse of pesticide, ii) applied dose of carbofuran, mancoceb and chlorpyrifos by the farmers potentially caused 20%, 11% and 9% of earthworms avoidance on the cultivated soils, respectively.

  15. EPR detection of hydroxyl radical generation and oxidative perturbations in lead-exposed earthworms (Eisenia fetida) in the presence of decabromodiphenyl ether.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kou; Chen, Lin; Zhang, Wei; Lin, Kuangfei; Zhao, Li

    2015-03-01

    Lead (Pb) and decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE209) are the main contaminants at e-waste recycling sites, and their potential toxicological effects on terrestrial organisms have received extensive attention. However, the impacts on the oxidative perturbations and hydroxyl radical (·OH) generation in earthworms of exposure to the two chemicals remain almost unknown. Therefore, indoor incubation tests were performed on control and contaminated soil samples to determine the effects of Pb in earthworms Eisenia fetida in the presence of BDE209 through the use of several biomarkers in microcosms. The results have demonstrated that the addition of BDE209 (1 or 10 mg kg(-1)) decreased the enzymatic activities [superoxide dismutase, catalase (CAT), peroxidase] and total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) compared with exposure to BDE209 alone (50, 250 or 500 mg kg(-1)). Electron paramagnetic resonance spectra indicated that ·OH radicals in earthworms were significantly induced by Pb in the presence of BDE209. The changing pattern of malondialdehyde (MDA) contents was accordant with that of ·OH intensity suggested that reactive oxygen species might lead to cellular lipid peroxidation. Furthermore, CAT exhibited more sensitive response to single Pb exposure than the other biomarkers, while T-AOC, ·OH and MDA might be three most sensitive biomarkers in earthworms after simultaneous exposure to Pb and BDE209. The results of these observations suggested that oxidative stress appeared in E. fetida, and it may play an important role in inducing the Pb and BDE209 toxicity to earthworms.

  16. Off to the (Earthworm) Races: A Quick and Flexible Lab Experiment for Introductory Zoology Courses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Switzer, Paul V.; Fritz, Ann H.

    2001-01-01

    Presents a hands-on, investigative lab activity for use in an introductory zoology course. Tests the behavioral hypothesis that substrate texture affects earthworm locomotor ability. Provides background information on earthworm locomotion followed by details of the lab exercise. (NB)

  17. Earthworms Use Odor Cues to Locate and Feed on Microorganisms in Soil

    OpenAIRE

    Lara Zirbes; Mark Mescher; Véronique Vrancken; Jean-Paul Wathelet; Verheggen, François J.; Philippe Thonart; Eric Haubruge

    2011-01-01

    Earthworms are key components of temperate soil ecosystems but key aspects of their ecology remain unexamined. Here we elucidate the role of olfactory cues in earthworm attraction to food sources and document specific chemical cues that attract Eisenia fetida to the soil fungi Geotrichum candidum. Fungi and other microorganisms are major sources of volatile emissions in soil ecosystems as well as primary food sources for earthworms, suggesting the likelihood that earthworms might profitably u...

  18. Earthworm bioassays and seedling emergence for monitoring toxicity, aging and bioaccumulation of anthropogenic waste indicator compounds in biosolids-amended soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinney, Chad A.; Campbell, Bryan R.; Thompson, Regina; Furlong, Edward T.; Kolpin, Dana W.; Burkhardt, Mark R.; Zaugg, Steven D.; Werner, Stephen L.; Hay, Anthony G.

    2012-01-01

    Land application of biosolids (treated sewage sludge) can be an important route for introducing xenobiotic compounds into terrestrial environments. There is a paucity of available information on the effects of biosolids amendment on terrestrial organisms. In this study, the influence of biosolids and biosolids aging on earthworm (Eisenia fetida) reproduction and survival and lettuce (Lactuca sativa) seedling emergence was investigated. Earthworms were exposed to soils amended with varying quantities of biosolids (0, 1, 2, 3, or 4% dry mass). To investigate the influence of biosolids aging, the biosolids used in the study were aged for differing lengths of time (2 or 8 weeks) prior to exposure. All of the adult earthworms survived in the biosolids–amended soils at all concentrations that were aged for 2 weeks; however, only 20% of the adults survived in the soil amended with the highest concentration of biosolids and aged for 8 weeks. Reproduction as measured by mean number of juveniles and unhatched cocoons produced per treatment correlated inversely with biosolids concentration, although the effects were generally more pronounced in the 8-week aged biosolids–soil samples. Latent seedling emergence and reduced seedling fitness correlated inversely with biosolids concentration, but these effects were tempered in the 8-week aged versus the 2-week aged soil–biosolids mixtures. Anthropogenic waste indicator compounds (AWIs) were measured in the biosolids, biosolids–soil mixtures, and earthworm samples. Where possible, bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) were calculated or estimated. A wide variety of AWIs were detected in the biosolids (51 AWIs) and earthworm samples (≤ 19 AWI). The earthworms exposed to the 8-week aged biosolids–soil mixtures tended to accumulate greater quantities of AWIs compared to the 2-week aged mixture, suggesting that the bioavailability of some AWIs was enhanced with aging. The BAFs for a given AWI varied with treatment. Notably large

  19. Earthworm (Eisenia andrei Avoidance of Soils Treated with Cypermethrin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mara M. de Andréa

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The pyrethroid insecticide cypermethrin is used for agricultural and public health campaigns. Its residues may contaminate soils and the beneficial soil organisms, like the earthworms, that may ingest the contaminated soil particles. Due to its ecological relevance, earthworms Eisenia andrei/fetida have been used in different ecotoxicological tests. The avoidance of soils treated with cypermethrin by compost worms Eisenia andrei was studied here as a bioindicator of the influence of treatment dosage and the pesticide formulation in three different agricultural soils indicated by the Brazilian environmental authorities for ecotoxicological tests. This earthworms’ behavior was studied here as a first attempt to propose the test for regulation purposes. The two-compartment test systems, where the earthworms were placed for a two-day exposure period, contained samples of untreated soil alone or together with soil treated with technical grade or wettable powder formulation of cypermethrin. After 48 h, there was no mortality, but the avoidance was clear because all earthworms were found in the untreated section of each type of soil (p < 0.05. No differences were found by the Fisher’s exact test (p ≤ 1.000 for each soil and treatment, demonstrating that the different soil characteristics, the cypermethrin concentrations and formulation, as well as the smaller amounts of soil and earthworms did not influence the avoidance behavior of the earthworms to cypermethrin. The number and range of treatments used in this study do not allow a detailed recommendation of the conditions applied here, but to the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported attempt to identify the avoidance of pesticide treated tropical soils by earthworms.

  20. Darwin, Earthworms & Circadian Rhythms: A Fertile Field for Science Fair Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, John T.; Scurti, Paul J.; Furda, Amy M.

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses why the study of earthworms has fascinated many scientists, and why earthworms make ideal experimental animals for students to test in the laboratory. Although earthworms may appear to be primitive, they are governed by both circadian and seasonal rhythms, just as more advanced organisms are. They possess an intelligence…

  1. Earthworm assemblages as affected by field margin strips and tillage intensity: An on-farm approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crittenden, S.; Huerta, E.; Goede, de R.G.M.; Pulleman, M.M.

    2015-01-01

    Earthworm species contribute to soil ecosystem functions in varying ways. Important soil functions like structural maintenance and nutrient cycling are affected by earthworms, thus it is essential to understand how arable farm management influences earthworm species. One aim of arable field margin s

  2. Species-specific earthworm population responses in relation to flooding dynamics in a Dutch floodplain soil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zorn, M.I.; Gestel, van C.A.M.; Eijsackers, H.J.P.

    2005-01-01

    Earthworms dominate the animal biomass in moist floodplain soils. They are known to survive long periods in aerated water, but little is known about earthworm population dynamics in floodplain systems with changing inundation frequencies. This study determined earthworm population dynamics in a floo

  3. Earthworms and their Nephridial Symbionts: Co-diversification and Maintenance of the Symbiosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Marie Braad; Holmstrup, Martin; Davidson, Seana K.;

    ] and are vertically transmitted [3]. For these reasons we hypothesized that the earthworm-Verminephrobacter association evolved by co-diversification. This hypothesis was investigated by a comparison of earthworm and symbiont phylogenies. The earthworm phylogeny was based on Cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI...

  4. Co-Speciation of Earthworms and their nephridial symbionts, Acidovorax Spp

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Marie Braad; Fritz, Michael; Holmstrup, Martin

    2006-01-01

    within the genus Acidovorax [2], and they are transmitted vertically [3]. For these reasons, we suggest that the earthworm-Acidovorax association has evolved by co-speciation. This hypothesis was tested by a comparative study of earthworm and symbiont phylogeny. Different earthworm species were collected...

  5. Darwin, Earthworms & Circadian Rhythms: A Fertile Field for Science Fair Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, John T.; Scurti, Paul J.; Furda, Amy M.

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses why the study of earthworms has fascinated many scientists, and why earthworms make ideal experimental animals for students to test in the laboratory. Although earthworms may appear to be primitive, they are governed by both circadian and seasonal rhythms, just as more advanced organisms are. They possess an intelligence…

  6. Earthworms, soil aggregates and organic matter decomposition in agro-ecosystems in The Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marinissen, J.C.Y.

    1995-01-01

    The relationships between earthworm populations, soil aggregate stability and soil organic matter dynamics were studied at an experimental farm in The Netherlands.Arable land in general is not favourable for earthworm growth. In the Lovinkhoeve fields under conventional management earthworm populati

  7. Biotransformation of Earthworm Activity on Potassium-Bearing Mineral Powder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaoling Zhu; Bin Lian; Xue Yang; Congqiang Liu; Lijun Zhu

    2013-01-01

    This study analyzes the biotransformation of earthworms on K in potassium-bearing mineral powder (PBMP) under different PBMP recruitments.A mixture of PBMP (10% to 60% mass fraction) and decaying cow dung was used as feed for breeding the earthworms to study the potassium-releasing ability of earthworms on PBMP in soil.The mixture containing 20% and 30% PBMP resulted in good growth and propagation of the earthworms as well as higher conversion rates of potassium.Therefore,the optimum recruitments of mineral powder are 20% and 30%.The mixture of cow dung and PBMP was compared with the mixture of cow dung and corresponding proportions of quartz powder to analyze the conversion rate of earthworms on PBMP in different combinations.After the earthworms were raised with the mixture of cow dung and PBMP (8: 2 and 7: 3) for 30 d,the contents of rapidly available K and effective K were 10 824.3.±35.9 and 11 688.4±16.1 mg.kg-1 as well as 10079.6±62.2 and 10247.5±172.7 mg.kg-1,respectively.After the earthworms were raised with the mixture of cow dung and quartz powder (8: 2 and 7: 3) for 30 d,the contents of rapidly available K and effective K were 10 623.3± 41.1 and 11 385.5±13.5 mg.kg-1 as well as 9 834.2±51.8 and 9 907.6±11.4 mg.kg-1,respectively.Thus,the contents of rapidly available K and effective K in the mixture of cow dung and PBMP were significantly higher compared with those in the mixture of cow dung and quartz powder (P<0.05).The increment contents of rapidly available K and effective K were 201.0 and 302.9 mg·kg-1 as well as 245.4 and 339.9 mg.kg-1,respectively.Therefore,earthworms can activate and trans-form K into effective K through feeding,digestion,absorption,and excretion.The results provided a new idea of using earthworms to release potassium in low-grade potassium-bearing rocks and obtain the rapidly available K and effective K needed by plants.

  8. Bioaccumulation of total mercury in the earthworm Eisenia andrei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Roux, Shirley; Baker, Priscilla; Crouch, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Earthworms are a major part of the total biomass of soil fauna and play a vital role in soil maintenance. They process large amounts of plant and soil material and can accumulate many pollutants that may be present in the soil. Earthworms have been explored as bioaccumulators for many heavy metal species such as Pb, Cu and Zn but limited information is available for mercury uptake and bioaccumulation in earthworms and very few report on the factors that influence the kinetics of Hg uptake by earthworms. It is known however that the uptake of Hg is strongly influenced by the presence of organic matter, hence the influence of ligands are a major factor contributing to the kinetics of mercury uptake in biosystems. In this work we have focused on the uptake of mercury by earthworms (Eisenia andrei) in the presence of humic acid (HA) under varying physical conditions of pH and temperature, done to assess the role of humic acid in the bioaccumulation of mercury by earthworms from soils. The study was conducted over a 5-day uptake period and all earthworm samples were analysed by direct mercury analysis. Mercury distribution profiles as a function of time, bioaccumulation factors (BAFs), first order rate constants and body burden constants for mercury uptake under selected conditions of temperature, pH as well as via the dermal and gut route were evaluated in one comprehensive approach. The results showed that the uptake of Hg was influenced by pH, temperature and the presence of HA. Uptake of Hg(2+) was improved at low pH and temperature when the earthworms in soil were in contact with a saturating aqueous phase. The total amount of Hg(2+) uptake decreased from 75 to 48 % as a function of pH. For earthworms in dry soil, the uptake was strongly influenced by the presence of the ligand. Calculated BAF values ranged from 0.1 to 0.8. Mercury uptake typically followed first order kinetics with rate constants determined as 0.2 to 1 h(-1).

  9. Soil sterilization affects aging-related sequestration and bioavailability of p,p'-DDE and anthracene to earthworms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slizovskiy, Ilya B. [Program in Environmental Science and Department of Chemistry, Muhlenberg College, Allentown, PA 18104 (United States); Kelsey, Jason W., E-mail: Kelsey@muhlenberg.ed [Program in Environmental Science and Department of Chemistry, Muhlenberg College, Allentown, PA 18104 (United States)

    2010-10-15

    Laboratory experiments investigated the effects of soil sterilization and compound aging on the bioaccumulation of spiked p,p'-DDE and anthracene by Eisenia fetida and Lumbricus terrestris. Declines in bioavailability occurred as pollutant residence time in both sterile and non-sterile soils increased from 3 to 203 d. Accumulation was generally higher in sterile soils during initial periods of aging (from 3-103 d). By 203 d, however, bioavailability of the compounds was unaffected by sterilization. Gamma irradiation and autoclaving may have altered bioavailability by inducing changes in the chemistry of soil organic matter (SOM). The results support a dual-mode partitioning sorption model in which the SOM components associated with short-term sorption (the 'soft' or 'rubbery' phases) are more affected than are the components associated with long-term sorption (the 'glassy' or microcrystalline phases). Risk assessments based on data from experiments in which sterile soil was used could overestimate exposure and bioaccumulation of pollutants. - Soil sterilization affects aging-related sequestration of organic contaminants.

  10. Effects of anesthetic compounds on responses of earthworms to electrostimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podolak-Machowska, Agnieszka; Kostecka, Joanna; Librowski, Tadeusz; Santocki, Michal; Bigaj, Janusz; Plytycz, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    Earthworms play an important role in biomedical research, and some surgical procedures require anesthesia. Anesthetic treatments used so far usually induce convulsive body movements connected with extrusion of coelomocyte-containing coelomic fluid that may affect experimental results. Extensive movements connected with the expulsion of coelomic fluid are exploited by immunologists as a method of harvesting immunocompetent coelomocytes from worms subjected to mild electrostimulation (4.5V). The aim of the investigations was to find anesthetic drugs without unintentional coelomocyte depletion. Experiments were performed on adult specimens of Dendrobaena veneta, the coelomocytes of which consist of amoebocytes and riboflavin-storing eleocytes. Earthworm mobility was filmed and extrusion of coelomocytes was quantified by detection of eleocyte-derived riboflavin in immersion fluid. Treatments included earthworms (1) immersed either in physiological saline (controls) or in a solution of one of the tested anesthetic drugs; (2) electrostimulated immediately after anesthesia, and (3) electrostimulated a second time after a 1-hour recovery period. The well-established fish and amphibian anesthetic agent MS-222 induced coelomocyte expulsion. In contrast, solutions of the mammalian local anesthetic drug, prilocaine hydrochloride (0.25-0.5%, 5-10 min) caused temporal earthworm immobilization followed by recovery, thus showing utility as an efficient earthworm anesthetic.

  11. Impact of Parthenium weeds on earthworms (Eudrilus eugeniae) during vermicomposting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajiv, P; Rajeshwari, Sivaraj; Rajendran, Venckatesh

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this work is to evaluate the effect of Parthenium-mediated compost on Eudrilus eugeniae during the process of vermicomposting. Nine different concentrations of Parthenium hysterophorus and cow dung mixtures were used to assess toxicity. The earthworms' growth, fecundity and antioxidant enzyme levels were analysed every 15 days. The antioxidant activities of enzymes [superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx)], considered as biomarkers, indicate the biochemical and oxidative stresses due to the toxin from Parthenium weeds. The earthworms' growth, biomass gain, cocoon production and antioxidant enzymes were in a low level in a high concentration of P. hysterophorus (without cow dung). The results clearly indicated that appropriate mixing of P. hysterophorus quantity is an essential factor for the survival of earthworms without causing any harm.

  12. Assessing cypermethrin-contaminated soil with three different earthworm test methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Shiping; DUAN Changqun; WANG Xuehua; Wong Hang Gi Michelle; YU Zefen; FU Hui

    2008-01-01

    A series of tests (lethal, sublethal, and behavioral) on earthworms were conducted as an eeo-assessment of pesticides. In this study, the toxicity of cypermethrin-contaminating soil on adult and juvenile earthworms was assessed. Beside the acute and chronic tests, an avoidance response test was carried out. It was shown that the all-round toxicity from cypermethrin was weak on adult earthworms. Compared with adult earthworms, the toxicity of juvenile earthworms from cypermethrin especially chronic toxicity increased significantly. Growth and reproduction of earthworms appeared to be more severely affected by cypermethrin at juvenile stage than at adult stage. Applied at 10 mg/kg, cypermethrin had obvious adverse impact on the growth of juvenile earthworms, while 20 mg/kg, cypermethrin caused significant toxic effects in reproduction. The results also indicated that ecotoxicologieal risk assessment using only adult specimens may underestimate the effects of cypermethrin on soil invertebrate populations.

  13. Enantioseletive bioaccumulation of tebuconazole in earthworm Eisenia fetida

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dingyi Yu; Jianzhong Li; Yanfeng Zhang; Huili Wang; Baoyuan Guo; Lin Zheng

    2012-01-01

    Methods of extraction and determination of tebuconazole enantiomers in earthworm (Eisenia fetida) were developed by capillary electrophoresis (CE) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC).Both CE and HPLC have excellent resolution and recovery.The linearity ranges were 2.9-102.4 mg/kg and 3.0-99.6 mg/kg for (+)-R-tebuconazole and (-)-S-tebuconazole respectively in CE,and from 0.56 to 1000 mg/kg for both enantiomers in HPLC.Enantioselective bioaccumulation in earthworms from soil was investigated under laboratory condition at concentrations of 10 and 50 mg/kg dw in soil.The uptake kinetics of (+)-R-tebuconazole fitted the firstorder kinetics well with r2 0.97 and 0.94 under 10 and 50 mg/kg dw exposure condition,respectively,while (-)-S-tebueonazole with r2 0.75 and 0.22 did not show the same.Bioaccumulation of tebuconazole in earthworm tissues was enantioselective with a preferential accumulation of (+)-R-tebuconazole.The (+)-R-tebuconazole might also have biomagnifying effect potential in earthworm food chain with biota-sediment accumulation factor (BSAF) of 1.64 kg OC/kg lip in 10 mg/kg dw exposure group and 2.61 kg OC/kg lip in 50 mg/kg dw exposure group from soil to earthworm after 36 days.Although (-)-S-tebuconazole shares the same physicochemical properties with (+)-R-tebuconazole,it did not biomagnify.BSAFs of (-)-S-tebuconazole were 0.50 kg OC/kg lip (10 mg/kg dw tebuconazole exposure) and 0.28 kg OC/kg lip (50 mg/kg dw tebuconazole exposure) after 36 days,which was possibly owing to biotransformation or metabolism in earthworm tissues.

  14. New data to the earthworm fauna of Israel (Oligochaeta, Lumbricidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szederjesi, T.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Elaborating several smaller earthworm samples collected in different parts of Israel resulted in recording 20 earthworm species including Bimastos parvus (Eisen, 1874 a North American peregrine which represents new record for the country. Three other species; Dendrobaena nevoi Csuzdi & Pavlíček, 1999, Healyella jordanis (Csuzdi & Pavlíček, 1999and Perelia shamsi Csuzdi & Pavlíček, 2005 were first recorded after their original descriptions. The present list of lumbricidearthworms recorded for Israel is raised to 28.

  15. The influence of hydrous ferric oxide, earthworms, and a hypertolerant plant on arsenic and iron bioavailability, fate, and transport in soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maki, Benjamin C; Hodges, Kathryn R; Ford, Scott C; Sofield, Ruth M

    2016-10-24

    Historic applications of lead arsenate pesticides and smelting activities have resulted in elevated concentrations of arsenic in Washington State soils. For example, old orchard topsoils in Washington have concentrations reaching upwards of 350 mg As/kg soil with an estimated 187,590 acres of arsenic contamination from pesticide application alone. Iron oxides have been indicated as a key factor in modulating the fate and transport of arsenic in the soil environment. We employed a factorial design to investigate the role of a specific iron oxide, hydrous ferric oxide (HFO), and terrestrial organisms on the mobility, bioavailability, and fate of arsenic and iron in locally collected soils. Earthworms in soils amended with both arsenic and HFO had 47.2 % lower arsenic tissue concentrations compared to those in soils only amended with arsenic. Similarly, arsenic leachate concentrations and plant tissue concentrations were lower when HFO was present, although this was with a reduced magnitude and was not consistently significant. A lack of significance of HFO in three of the linear models for leachate and plant bioavailability, however, indicates that the role of HFO in arsenic mobility, bioavailability, and fate is more complicated than can be explained by the simple addition or not of HFO. For example, our analyses showed that earthworms decreased pH and increased bioavailability for both arsenic and iron as demonstrated by increases in leachate and plant tissue concentrations. The mechanisms for this could include a biotransformation of earthworm-ingested arsenic combined with an earthworm-induced change in pH. We also found that arsenic amendments increased the mobility and bioavailability of iron, evidenced by increased iron concentrations in earthworms, plants, and leachate. A mechanistic explanation for this change in bioavailability is not readily apparent but does support a need for more work on bioavailability when mixtures are present. From these results

  16. Uptake route and resulting toxicity of silver nanoparticles in Eisenia fetida earthworm exposed through Standard OECD Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Velasco, Nerea; Gandariasbeitia, Maite; Irizar, Amaia; Soto, Manuel

    2016-10-01

    Despite the increasing interest in silver nanoparticles toxicity still few works dealt with the hazards of nanosized Ag in soils (either dissolved in pore water or coupled to colloids) although disposal of biosolids in landfills has been reported as the major source of silver nanoparticles in terrestrial environments. Presently, Eisenia fetida was used to assess the toxicity of 5 nm sized PVP-PEI coated silver nanoparticles in soil through the implementation of different exposure media Standard Toxicity Tests (Paper Contact and Artificial Soil -OECD-207- and Reproduction -OECD-222- Tests) together with cellular biomarkers measured in extruded coelomocytes. In order to decipher the mode of action of silver nanoparticles in soil and the uptake routes in earthworms, special attention was given to the Ag accumulation and distribution in tissues. High Ag accumulation rates, weight loss, and mortality due to the disruption of the tegument could be the result of a dermal absorption of Ag ions released from silver nanoparticles (Paper Contact Test). However, autometallography showed metals mainly localized in the digestive tract after Artificial Soil Test, suggesting that Ag uptake occurred mostly through soil ingestion. That is, silver nanoparticles attached to soil colloids seemed to be internalized in earthworms after ingestion of soil and transferred to the digestive gut epithelium where at high doses they have triggered severe effects at different levels of biological complexity.

  17. Multibiomarker response in the earthworm Eisenia fetida as tool for assessing multi-walled carbon nanotube ecotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calisi, A; Grimaldi, A; Leomanni, A; Lionetto, M G; Dondero, F; Schettino, T

    2016-05-01

    Carbon nanotubes have received a great attention in the last years thanks to their remarkable structural, electrical, and chemical properties. Nowadays carbon nanotubes are increasingly found in terrestrial and aquatic environment and potential harmful impacts of these nanoparticles on humans and wildlife are attracting increasing research and public attention. The effects of carbon nanotubes on aquatic organisms have been explored by several authors, but comparatively the information available on the impact of these particles on soil organisms is much less. Earthworms have traditionally been considered to be convenient indicators of land use impact and soil fertility. The aim of this work was to study the integrated response of a suite of biomarkers covering molecular to whole organism endpoints for the assessment of multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNTs) effects on earthworms (Eisenia fetida) exposed to spiked soil. Results showed that cellular and biochemical responses, such as immune cells morphometric alterations and lysosomal membrane destabilization, acetylcholinesterase inhibition and metallothionein tissue concentration changes, showed high sensitivity to MWCNTs exposure. They can improve our understanding and ability to predict chronic toxicity outcomes of MWCNTs exposure such as reproductive alterations. In this context although more investigation is needed to understand the mechanistic pathway relating the biochemical and cellular biomarker analyzed to reproductive alterations, the obtained results give an early contribution to the future development of an adverse outcomes pathways for MWCNTs exposure.

  18. Soil Penetration by Earthworms and Plant Roots—Mechanical Energetics of Bioturbation of Compacted Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    We quantify mechanical processes common to soil penetration by earthworms and growing plant roots, including the energetic requirements for soil plastic displacement. The basic mechanical model considers cavity expansion into a plastic wet soil involving wedging by root tips or earthworms via cone-like penetration followed by cavity expansion due to pressurized earthworm hydroskeleton or root radial growth. The mechanical stresses and resulting soil strains determine the mechanical energy required for bioturbation under different soil hydro-mechanical conditions for a realistic range of root/earthworm geometries. Modeling results suggest that higher soil water content and reduced clay content reduce the strain energy required for soil penetration. The critical earthworm or root pressure increases with increased diameter of root or earthworm, however, results are insensitive to the cone apex (shape of the tip). The invested mechanical energy per unit length increase with increasing earthworm and plant root diameters, whereas mechanical energy per unit of displaced soil volume decreases with larger diameters. The study provides a quantitative framework for estimating energy requirements for soil penetration work done by earthworms and plant roots, and delineates intrinsic and external mechanical limits for bioturbation processes. Estimated energy requirements for earthworm biopore networks are linked to consumption of soil organic matter and suggest that earthworm populations are likely to consume a significant fraction of ecosystem net primary production to sustain their subterranean activities. PMID:26087130

  19. Soil Penetration by Earthworms and Plant Roots--Mechanical Energetics of Bioturbation of Compacted Soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Siul; Or, Dani; Schymanski, Stanislaus J

    2015-01-01

    We quantify mechanical processes common to soil penetration by earthworms and growing plant roots, including the energetic requirements for soil plastic displacement. The basic mechanical model considers cavity expansion into a plastic wet soil involving wedging by root tips or earthworms via cone-like penetration followed by cavity expansion due to pressurized earthworm hydroskeleton or root radial growth. The mechanical stresses and resulting soil strains determine the mechanical energy required for bioturbation under different soil hydro-mechanical conditions for a realistic range of root/earthworm geometries. Modeling results suggest that higher soil water content and reduced clay content reduce the strain energy required for soil penetration. The critical earthworm or root pressure increases with increased diameter of root or earthworm, however, results are insensitive to the cone apex (shape of the tip). The invested mechanical energy per unit length increase with increasing earthworm and plant root diameters, whereas mechanical energy per unit of displaced soil volume decreases with larger diameters. The study provides a quantitative framework for estimating energy requirements for soil penetration work done by earthworms and plant roots, and delineates intrinsic and external mechanical limits for bioturbation processes. Estimated energy requirements for earthworm biopore networks are linked to consumption of soil organic matter and suggest that earthworm populations are likely to consume a significant fraction of ecosystem net primary production to sustain their subterranean activities.

  20. Phenotypic and functional characterization of earthworm coelomocyte subsets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engelmann, Péter; Hayashi, Yuya; Bodo, Kornélia

    2016-01-01

    Flow cytometry is a common approach to study invertebrate immune cells including earthworm coelomocytes. However, the link between light-scatter- and microscopy-based phenotyping remains obscured. Here we show, by means of light scatter-based cell sorting, both subpopulations (amoebocytes and ele...

  1. Earthworm communities along an elevation gradient in Northeastern Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grizelle Gonzalez; Emerita Garcia; Veronica Cruz; Sonia Borges; Marcela Zalamea; Maria M. Rivera

    2007-01-01

    In this study, we describe earthworm communities along an elevation gradient of eight forest types in Northeastern Puerto Rico, and determine whether their abundance, biomass and/or diversity is related to climatic, soil physical/chemical and/or biotic characteristics. We found that the density, biomass, and diversity of worms varied significantly among forest types....

  2. Do earthworms affect phosphorus availability to grass? A pot experiment.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, M.J.; Ros, M.B.H.; Koopmans, G.F.; Groenigen, van J.W.

    2014-01-01

    The largest part of phosphorus (P) in soil is bound by the soil solid phase; its release to the soil solution therefore often does not meet the demand of plants. Since global P fertilizer reserves are declining, it becomes increasingly important to better utilize soil P. We tested whether earthworm

  3. Impact of Biochar on Earthworm Populations: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon L. Weyers

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the overwhelming importance of earthworm activity in the soil system, there are a limited number of studies that have examined the impact resulting from biochar addition to soil. Biochar is part of the black carbon continuum of chemo-thermal converted biomass. This review summarizes existing data pertaining to earthworms where biochar and other black carbon substances, including slash-and-burn charcoals and wood ash, have been applied. After analyzing existing studies on black carbon, we identified that these additions have a range from short-term negative impacts to long-term null effects on earthworm population density and total biomass. Documented cases of mortality were found with certain biochar-soil combinations; the cause is not fully understood, but hypothesized to be related to pH, whether the black carbon is premoistened, affects feeding behaviors, or other unknown factors. With wood ashes, negative impacts were overcome with addition of other carbon substrates. Given that field data is limited, soils amended with biochar did not appear to cause significant long-term impacts. However, this may indicate that the magnitude of short-term negative impacts on earthworm populations can be reduced with time.

  4. Ecotoxicology of mercury in tropical forest soils: Impact on earthworms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buch, Andressa Cristhy; Brown, George Gardner; Correia, Maria Elizabeth Fernandes; Lourençato, Lúcio Fábio; Silva-Filho, Emmanoel Vieira

    2017-07-01

    Mercury (Hg) is one of the most toxic nonessential trace metals in the environment, with high persistence and bioaccumulation potential, and hence of serious concern to environmental quality and public health. Emitted to the atmosphere, this element can travel long distances, far from emission sources. Hg speciation can lead to Hg contamination of different ecosystem components, as well as biomagnification in trophic food webs. To evaluate the effects of atmospheric Hg deposition in tropical forests, we investigated Hg concentrations in earthworm tissues and soils of two Forest Conservation Units in State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Next, we performed a laboratory study of the biological responses (cast analysis and behavioral, acute, chronic and bioaccumulation ecotoxicological tests) of two earthworms species (Pontoscolex corethrurus and Eisenia andrei) to Hg contamination in tropical artificial soil (TAS) and two natural forest soils (NS) spiked with increasing concentration of HgCl2. Field results showed Hg concentrations up to 13 times higher in earthworm tissues than in forest soils, while in the laboratory Hg accumulation after 91-days of exposure was 25 times greater in spiked-soils with 128mgHgkg(-1) (dry wt) than in control (unspiked) soils. In all the toxicity tests P. corethrurus showed a higher adaptability or resistance to mercury than E. andrei. The role of earthworms as environmental bioremediators was confirmed in this study, showing their ability to greatly bioaccumulate trace metals while reducing Hg availability in feces. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Greenhouse-gas emissions from soils increased by earthworms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lubbers, I.M.; Groenigen, van K.J.; Fonte, S.J.; Six, J.; Brussaard, L.; Groenigen, van J.W.

    2013-01-01

    Earthworms play an essential part in determining the greenhouse-gas balance of soils worldwide, and their influence is expected to grow over the next decades. They are thought to stimulate carbon sequestration in soil aggregates, but also to increase emissions of the main greenhouse gases carbon dio

  6. Greenhouse-gas emissions from soils increased by earthworms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lubbers, I.M.; Groenigen, van K.J.; Fonte, S.J.; Six, J.; Brussaard, L.; Groenigen, van J.W.

    2013-01-01

    Earthworms play an essential part in determining the greenhouse-gas balance of soils worldwide, and their influence is expected to grow over the next decades. They are thought to stimulate carbon sequestration in soil aggregates, but also to increase emissions of the main greenhouse gases carbon

  7. Producing earthworm fibrinolytic enzyme to fight against clots

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ On the basis of achievements scored by CAS scientists,a demonstration engineering project for lumbrokinase-based drugs and industrialization of earthworm derivatives has recently passed the acceptance check under the auspices of the National Development and Reform Commission (NDRC).

  8. Do earthworms affect phosphorus availability to grass? A pot experiment.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, M.J.; Ros, M.B.H.; Koopmans, G.F.; Groenigen, van J.W.

    2014-01-01

    The largest part of phosphorus (P) in soil is bound by the soil solid phase; its release to the soil solution therefore often does not meet the demand of plants. Since global P fertilizer reserves are declining, it becomes increasingly important to better utilize soil P. We tested whether earthworm

  9. Bioactive protein fraction DLBS1033 containing lumbrokinase isolated from Lumbricus rubellus: ex vivo, in vivo, and pharmaceutic studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tjandrawinata RR

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Raymond R Tjandrawinata,1 Jessica Trisina,1 Puji Rahayu,1 Lorentius Agung Prasetya,1 Aang Hanafiah,2 Heni Rachmawati3 1Dexa Laboratories of Biomolecular Sciences, Dexa Medica, Cikarang, Indonesia; 2National Nuclear Energy Agency, Bandung, Indonesia; 3School of Pharmacy, Bandung Institute of Technology, Bandung, Indonesia Abstract: DLBS1033 is a bioactive protein fraction isolated from Lumbricus rubellus that tends to be unstable when exposed to the gastrointestinal environment. Accordingly, appropriate pharmaceutical development is needed to maximize absorption of the protein fraction in the gastrointestinal tract. In vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo stability assays were performed to study the stability of the bioactive protein fraction in gastric conditions. The bioactive protein fraction DLBS1033 was found to be unstable at low pH and in gastric fluid. The “enteric coating” formulation showed no leakage in gastric fluid–like medium and possessed a good release profile in simulated intestinal medium. DLBS1033 was absorbed through the small intestine in an intact protein form, confirmed by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS PAGE analysis. This result confirmed that an enteric coating formula using methacrylic acid copolymer could protect DLBS1033 from the acidic condition of the stomach by preventing the release of DLBS1033 in the stomach, while promoting its release when reaching the intestine. From the blood concentration–versus-time curve, 99mTc-DLBS1033 showed a circulation half-life of 70 minutes. This relatively long biological half-life supports its function as a thrombolytic protein. Thus, an enteric delivery system is considered the best approach for DLBS1033 as an oral thrombolytic agent. Keywords: bioactive protein fraction, enteric coated tablet, pharmacodynamic

  10. Assessing the Potential for Bioremediation through Formation and Fate of Metal Rich Granules in the Terrestrial Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-01

    on earthworms Nanomaterials Fate and ecotoxicology of nanomaterials Aquatic Toxicology Long-term exposure to explosives Biomimetics of contaminant...bioavailability Impact of climate change to aquatic invertebrates Risk of contaminated sediment  5,000 sq ft: ► culture facility ► toxicology...surface waters – Groundwater • Potential for extensive impact to both aquatic and terrestrial organisms from Pb contaminated Army ranges Impact of Pb

  11. Avoidance, biomass and survival response of soil dwelling (endogeic) earthworms to OECD artificial soil: potential implications for earthworm ecotoxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brami, C; Glover, A R; Butt, K R; Lowe, C N

    2017-05-01

    Soil dwelling earthworms are now adopted more widely in ecotoxicology, so it is vital to establish if standardised test parameters remain applicable. The main aim of this study was to determine the influence of OECD artificial soil on selected soil-dwelling, endogeic earthworm species. In an initial experiment, biomass change in mature Allolobophora chlorotica was recorded in Standard OECD Artificial Soil (AS) and also in Kettering Loam (KL). In a second experiment, avoidance behaviour was recorded in a linear gradient with varying proportions of AS and KL (100% AS, 75% AS + 25% KL, 50% KS + 50% KL, 25% AS + 75% KL, 100% KL) with either A. chlorotica or Octolasion cyaneum. Results showed a significant decrease in A. chlorotica biomass in AS relative to KL, and in the linear gradient, both earthworm species preferentially occupied sections containing higher proportions of KL over AS. Soil texture and specifically % composition and particle size of sand are proposed as key factors that influenced observed results. This research suggests that more suitable substrates are required for ecotoxicology tests with soil dwelling earthworms.

  12. Transformation of Carbon and Nitrogen by Earthworms in the Decomposition Processes of Broad-leaved Litters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG Weihua; YIN Xiuqin

    2007-01-01

    Earthworms are the important constituents in the decayed food web and the main ecological conditioners in the process of decomposition and nutrient mineralization. The transformation of organic carbon (C) and total nitrogen (N) in the broad-leaved litters ingested by earthworms was researched by means of a laboratory experiment. Experimental samples were collected from broad-leaved Korea Pine mixed forest in Liangshui National Natural Reserve (47°10'50"N, 128°53'20"E) in the northeastern Xiao Hinggan Mountains of Northeast China. The contents of organic C and total N in earthworms, leaf litters and earthworm faeces were analyzed. Results show that the organic C content was in the following order: leaf litters>faeces>earthworms, while total N content was contrary to that of the organic C. The organic C contents in the different leaf litters were in the following order: Tilia amurensis>Betula costata>Acer mono, whereas the total N contents in the different leaf litters were: Betula costata>Tilia amurensis>Acer mono. The contents of organic C and total N in the faeces from the different leaf litters were almost consistent with the contents of the leaf litters. After the leaf litters were ingested by earthworms, the organic C, which was transformed to increase earthworms' weights, accounted for 3.90%-13.31% of the total ingestion by earthworms, while that in the earthworm faeces accounted for 6.14%-13.70%. The transformed organic C through the other metabolism (e.g., respiration) of earthworms accounted for 75.04%-89.92%. The ingested organic C by earthworms was mostly used for metabolic activities. The N ingested by earthworms was less than organic C. It is estimated that 37.08% of total N was transformed to increase the earthworm's weight, 19.97% into earthworm faeces and 47.86% for the consumption of the earthworm's activities. The earthworms not only increased the content of organic C and total N in the soil, but also decreased the values of C/N in

  13. Habitat type-based bioaccumulation and risk assessment of metal and As contamination in earthworms, beetles and woodlice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeulen, Frouke; Van den Brink, Nico W; D'Havé, Helga; Mubiana, Valentine K; Blust, Ronny; Bervoets, Lieven; De Coen, Wim

    2009-11-01

    The present study investigated the contribution of environmental factors to the accumulation of As, Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn in earthworms, beetles and woodlice, and framed within an exposure assessment of the European hedgehog. Soil and invertebrate samples were collected in three distinct habitat types. Results showed habitat-specific differences in soil and invertebrate metal concentrations and bioaccumulation factors when normalized to soil metal concentration. Further multiple regression analysis showed residual variability (habitat differences) in bioaccumulation that could not be fully explained by differences in soil metal contamination, pH or organic carbon (OC). Therefore, the study demonstrated that in bioaccumulation studies involving terrestrial invertebrates or in risk assessment of metals, it is not sufficient to differentiate habitat types on general soil characteristics such as pH and/or OC alone. Furthermore, simple generic soil risk assessments for Cd and Cu showed that risk characterization was more accurate when performed in a habitat-specific way.

  14. Heavy Metals Bioaccumulation by Iranian and Australian Earthworms (Eisenia fetida in the Sewage Sludge Vermicomposting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MR Shahmansouri, H Pourmoghadas, AR Parvaresh, H Alidadi

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Vermicomposting of organic waste has an important part to play in an integrated waste management strategy. In this study, the possibility of heavy metals accumulation with two groups of Iranian and Australian earthworms in sewage sludge vermicompost was investigated. Eisenia fetida was the species of earthworms used in the vermicomposting process. The bioaccumulation of Cr, Cd, Pb, Cu, and Zn as heavy metals by Iranian and Australian earthworms was studied. The results indicated that heavy metals concentration decreased with increasing vermicomposting time. Comparison of the two groups of earthworms showed that the Iranian earthworms consumed higher quantities of micronutrients such as Cu and Zn comparing with the Australian earthworms, while the bioaccumulation of non-essential elements such as Cr, Cd, and Pb by the Australian group was higher. The significant decrease in heavy metal concentrations in the final vermicompost indicated the capability of both Iranian and Australian E.fetida species in accumulating heavy metals in their body tissues.

  15. Total Nitorgen Content from Earthworm (Eisenia Foetida) Using The Kjeldahl Method

    OpenAIRE

    Zarina Zakaria; Alina Rahayu Mohamed; Noor Hasyierah Mohd Salleh; Siti Nursheela Abu Mansor

    2013-01-01

    In the fish aquaculture management, fish feed is identified as a major problem. The high cost and scarcity of fishmeal in formulated feeds have led to the use of other protein sources such as earthworms and animal by-product. Earthworm is an alternative protein source to replace the fish meal in the fish feed formulation. In this study, total nitrogen content in earthworm powder is determined using the Kjeldahl method by employing the statistical software, Full Factorial Design (FFD) which co...

  16. Accumulation of mercury and methylmercury by mushrooms and earthworms from forest soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rieder, Stephan R. [Rhizosphere Processes Group, Swiss Federal Research Institute WSL, 8903 Birmensdorf (Switzerland); Institute for Biogeochemistry and Pollutant Dynamics, ETH Zuerich, 8092 Zuerich (Switzerland); Brunner, Ivano [Rhizosphere Processes Group, Swiss Federal Research Institute WSL, 8903 Birmensdorf (Switzerland); Horvat, Milena [Jozef Stefan Institute, 1001 Ljubliana (Slovenia); Jacobs, Anna [Rhizosphere Processes Group, Swiss Federal Research Institute WSL, 8903 Birmensdorf (Switzerland); Department of Environmental Chemistry, University of Kassel, 37213 Witzenhausen (Germany); Frey, Beat, E-mail: beat.frey@wsl.ch [Rhizosphere Processes Group, Swiss Federal Research Institute WSL, 8903 Birmensdorf (Switzerland)

    2011-10-15

    Accumulation of total and methyl-Hg by mushrooms and earthworms was studied in thirty-four natural forest soils strongly varying in soil physico-chemical characteristics. Tissue Hg concentrations of both receptors did hardly correlate with Hg concentrations in soil. Both total and methyl-Hg concentrations in tissues were species-specific and dependent on the ecological groups of receptor. Methyl-Hg was low accounting for less than 5 and 8% of total Hg in tissues of mushrooms and earthworms, respectively, but with four times higher concentrations in earthworms than mushrooms. Total Hg concentrations in mushrooms averaged 0.96 mg Hg kg{sup -1} dw whereas litter decomposing mushrooms showed highest total Hg and methyl-Hg concentrations. Earthworms contained similar Hg concentrations (1.04 mg Hg kg{sup -1} dw) whereas endogeic earthworms accumulated highest amounts of Hg and methyl-Hg. - Highlights: > Hg and MeHg concentrations in mushrooms and earthworms at unpolluted forest soils. > Mushrooms and earthworms contained similar Hg concentrations. > MeHg was present in traces but four times higher in earthworms than in mushrooms. > Ecophysiological group influenced Hg and MeHg concentration in both receptors. - Accumulation of Hg and methyl-Hg by mushrooms and earthworms is species- and ecophysiological group dependent.

  17. Earthworms - role in soil fertility to the use in medicine and as a food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Grdiša

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Earthworms are important regulators of soil structure and dynamics of soil organic matter. They are a major component of soil fauna communities in most ecosystems and comprise a large proportion of macro fauna biomass. Their activities are beneficial because they can enhance soil nutrient cycling through the rapid incorporation of detritus into mineral soil. However, mucus production associated with water excretion in earthworm guts also enhances the activity of other beneficial soil microorganisms. Earthworms alter soil structure, water movement, nutrient dynamics and plant growth. The medical value of earthworms has been known for centuries. The extracts prepared from earthworm tissues have been used for the treatment of numerous diseases since they are valuable source of proteins, peptides, enzymes and physiologically active substances. Several studies have shown that the earthworm extracts contain different macromolecules which exhibited the variety of activities, such as antioxidative, antibacterial, antiinflammatory, anticancer etc. Some of these activities are involved in wound healing process, using the earthworm preparation. In some countries the earthworms are used as a part of healthy food. They have very high nutritive value because their bodies contain the high percentage of various proteins. Besides the human food, the earthworms are used in the feeding of animals (fish, chicken, etc..

  18. [Effect of hydraulic load distribution on sewage treatment efficiency of earthworm bio-filter].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jian; Yang, Jian; Yang, Ju-Chuan; Chen, Qiao-Yan; Lou, Shan-Jie

    2008-07-01

    Effect of hydraulic load distribution on sewage treatment efficiency of earthworm bio-filter was studied by analyzing influent and effluent of earthworm bio-filter and earthworm behaviors. The results show that when hydraulic load varying from 2.0 m3/(m2 x d) to 6.0 m3/(m2 x d), the concentration of each pollutant in earthworm bio-filter effluent increases slowly and is little effected by hydraulic load. When hydraulic load reaches 6.7 m3/(m2 x d), the concentration of COD, BOD5, SS, NH4(+) -N and TP in earthworm bio-filter effluent increases obviously, but the TN concentration in effluent presents descending tendency. The earthworms become rather inadaptable to the living conditions at this operating mode. As hydraulic load increasing, the earthworms' relative ingestive ability is improved at first, and then decreases. The earthworms' relative ingestive ability comes to the maximum at hydraulic load of 4.8 m3/(m2 x d), with good organic removal efficiency. The relation ships between hydraulic load and average weight, average density, unit-area biomass of the earthworms are significant negative correlation. The hydraulic load of 4.8 m3/(m2 x d) is recommended, but not over 6.7 m3/(m2 x d).

  19. Species Richness, Community Organization, and Spatiotemporal Distribution of Earthworms in the Pineapple Agroecosystems of Tripura, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Animesh Dey

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The impact that plant communities may have on underground faunal diversity is unclear. Therefore, understanding the links between plants and organisms is of major interest. Earthworm population dynamics were studied in the pineapple agroecosystems of Tripura to evaluate the impact of monoculture plantation on earthworm communities. A total of thirteen earthworm species belonging to four families and five genera were collected from different sampling sites. Application of sample-based rarefaction curve and nonparametric richness estimators reveal 90–95% completeness of sampling. Earthworm community of pineapple agroecosystems was dominated by endogeic earthworms and Drawida assamensis was the dominant species with respect to its density, biomass, and relative abundance. Vertical distribution of earthworms was greatly influenced by seasonal variations. Population density and biomass of earthworms peaked during monsoon and postmonsoon period, respectively. Overall density and biomass of earthworms were in increasing trend with an increase in plantation age and were highest in the 30–35-year-old plantation. Significant decrease in the Shannon diversity and evenness index and increase in Simpson’s dominance and spatial aggregation index with an increase in the age of pineapple plantation were recorded. Soil temperature and soil moisture were identified as the most potent regulators of earthworm distribution in the pineapple plantation.

  20. Heavy Metal-Induced Oxidative DNA Damage in Earthworms: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeshi Hirano

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Earthworms can be used as a bio-indicator of metal contamination in soil, Earlier reports claimed the bioaccumulation of heavy metals in earthworm tissues, while the metal-induced mutagenicity reared in contaminated soils for long duration. But we examined the metal-induced mutagenicity in earthworms reared in metal containing culture beddings. In this experiment we observed the generation of 8-oxoguanine (8-oxo-Gua in earthworms exposed to cadmium and nickel in soil. 8-oxo-Gua is a major premutagenic form of oxidative DNA damage that induces GC-to-TA point mutations, leading to carcinogenesis.

  1. Earthworms, as ecosystem engineers, influence multiple aspects of a salamander's ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ransom, Tami S

    2011-03-01

    Ecosystem engineers create habitat that can be used by other species in multiple ways, such as refugees from predators, places to breed, or areas with increased prey resources. I conducted a series of enclosure experiments to: (1) determine if salamanders use earthworm burrows, and (2) examine the potential influence of earthworm burrow use and indirect effects on salamander intra- and interspecific competition, predator avoidance, and seasonal performance. I found that one species of woodland salamander, Plethodon cinereus, used earthworm burrows 50% of the time when burrows were present. Neither adults nor juveniles of the congeneric P. glutinosus used earthworm burrows. Intraspecific, but not interspecific, competition by P. cinereus affected salamander behavior when earthworms were absent, with P. cinereus found under cover objects >70% of the time when alone or with a P. glutinosus, but only 40% of the time when with another P. cinereus. When earthworms were present, the behavior of P. cinereus was similar across salamander treatments. Earthworms decreased the amount of leaf litter and microinvertebrates, although this did not affect salamander mass. In subsequent experiments using only P. cinereus, the refuge provided by earthworm burrows increased the survival of P. cinereus over the winter and allowed P. cinereus to avoid being consumed by the common garter snake (Thamnophis sirtalis). Because earthworm burrows provide a refuge for P. cinereus during intraspecific encounters, in the presence of a predator and over the winter, they may serve as an important belowground-aboveground linkage in eastern forests where salamanders are common.

  2. Mercury in soil, earthworms and organs of voles Myodes glareolus and shrew Sorex araneus in the vicinity of an industrial complex in Northwest Russia (Cherepovets).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komov, V T; Ivanova, E S; Poddubnaya, N Y; Gremyachikh, V A

    2017-03-01

    The characteristic properties of uptake and distribution of mercury in terrestrial ecosystems have received much lesser attention compared to aquatic particularly in Russia. Terrestrial ecosystems adjacent to large industrial manufactures-potential sources of mercury inflow into the environment frequently remain unstudied. This is the first report on mercury (Hg) levels in the basic elements of terrestrial ecosystems situated close to a large metallurgical complex.Mean values of mercury concentration (mg Hg/kg dry weight) in the vicinity of city of Cherepovets were the following: 0.056 ± 0.033-in the humus layer of soil; 0.556 ± 0.159-in earthworms; in the organs of voles Myodes glareolus (kidneys-0.021 ± 0.001; liver-0.014 ± 0.003; muscle-0.014 ± 0.001; brain-0.008 ± 0.002); in the organs of shrew Sorex araneus (kidneys-0.191 ± 0.016; liver-0.124 ± 0.011; muscle-0.108 ± 0.009; brain-0.065 ± 0.000). Correlation dependences between Hg content in soil and earthworms (r s  = 0.85, p < 0.01) as well as soil and all studied shrews' organs (rs = 0.44-0.58; p ≤ 0.01) were found.The results obtained evidence for a strong trophic link in the bioaccumulation of Hg in terrestrial food webs. Despite the vicinity to a large metallurgical complex, mercury content in the studied objects was significantly lower than values of corresponding parameters in the soils and biota from industrial (polluted) areas of Great Britain, the USA, and China.

  3. Bacteria and protozoa in soil microhabitats as affected by earthworms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winding, Anne; Rønn, Regin; Hendriksen, Niels B.

    1997-01-01

    , were compared. The total, viable, and culturable number of bacteria, the metabolic potentials of bacterial populations, and the number of protozoa and nematodes were determined in soil size fractions. Significant differences between soil fractions were shown by all assays. The highest number......-cyano-2,3-ditolyl tetrazolim chloride (CTC)-reducing bacteria explained a major part of the variation in the number of protozoa. High protozoan activity and predation thus coincided with high bacterial activity. In soil with elm leaves, fungal growth is assumed to inhibit bacterial and protozoan...... activity. In soil with elm leaves and earthworms, earthworm activity led to increased culturability of bacteria, activity of protozoa, number of nematodes, changed metabolic potentials of the bacteria, and decreased differences in metabolic potentials between bacterial populations in the soil fractions...

  4. Earthworm Is a Versatile and Sustainable Biocatalyst for Organic Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Zhi; Chen, Yan-Li; Yuan, Yi; Song, Jian; Yang, Da-Cheng; Xue, Yang; He, Yan-Hong

    2014-01-01

    A crude extract of earthworms was used as an eco-friendly, environmentally benign, and easily accessible biocatalyst for various organic synthesis including the asymmetric direct aldol and Mannich reactions, Henry and Biginelli reactions, direct three-component aza-Diels-Alder reactions for the synthesis of isoquinuclidines, and domino reactions for the synthesis of coumarins. Most of these reactions have never before seen in nature, and moderate to good enantioselectivities in aldol and Mannich reactions were obtained with this earthworm catalyst. The products can be obtained in preparatively useful yields, and the procedure does not require any additional cofactors or special equipment. This work provides an example of a practical way to use sustainable catalysts from nature. PMID:25148527

  5. Resistance reduction by bionic coupling of the earthworm lubrication function

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Based on the biological coupling theory, the resistance reduction characteristic of the surface morphology and surface wettability of the earthworm were studied in this paper. The parameters of surface dorsal pore and corrugation were extracted. According to these parameters, the lubrication mechanism of the earthworm surface was analyzed. The distribution of the pores and surface morphology were designed and the bionic coupling samples were prepared. The positive pressure, lubricant flow rate and advancing velocity were selected as the experiment factors while the soil friction resistance as observed object. According to the obtained data of bionic coupling samples from the testing system of biologic signal for tiny soil adhesion test, the optimal samples from the bionic coupling resistance reduction tests were selected through the range analysis. Compared to the normal ones, the soil resistance of bionic coupling samples was reduced by 76.8%. This is of great significance and offers bright prospects for reducing energy loss in terrain mechanics.

  6. Evidence for Bioavailability of Au Nanoparticles from Soil and Biodistribution within Earthworms (Eisenia fetida)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J Unrine; S Hunyadi; O Tsyusko; W Rao; A Shoults-Wilson; P Bertsch

    2011-12-31

    Because Au nanoparticles (NPs) are resistant to oxidative dissolution and are easily detected, they have been used as stable probes for the behavior of nanomaterials within biological systems. Previous studies provide somewhat limited evidence for bioavailability of Au NPs in food webs, because the spatial distribution within tissues and the speciation of Au was not determined. In this study, we provide multiple lines of evidence, including orthogonal microspectroscopic techniques, as well as evidence from biological responses, that Au NPs are bioavailable from soil to a model detritivore (Eisenia fetida). We also present limited evidence that Au NPs may cause adverse effects on earthworm reproduction. This is perhaps the first study to demonstrate that Au NPs can be taken up by detritivores from soil and distributed among tissues. We found that primary particle size (20 or 55 nm) did not consistently influence accumulated concentrations on a mass concentration basis; however, on a particle number basis the 20 nm particles were more bioavailable. Differences in bioavailability between the treatments may have been explained by aggregation behavior in pore water. The results suggest that nanoparticles present in soil from activities such as biosolids application have the potential to enter terrestrial food webs.

  7. Earthworm-Mycorrhiza Interactions Can Affect the Diversity, Structure and Functioning of Establishing Model Grassland Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaller, Johann G.; Heigl, Florian; Grabmaier, Andrea; Lichtenegger, Claudia; Piller, Katja; Allabashi, Roza; Frank, Thomas; Drapela, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Both earthworms and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are important ecosystem engineers co-occurring in temperate grasslands. However, their combined impacts during grassland establishment are poorly understood and have never been studied. We used large mesocosms to study the effects of different functional groups of earthworms (i.e., vertically burrowing anecics vs. horizontally burrowing endogeics) and a mix of four AMF taxa on the establishment, diversity and productivity of plant communities after a simulated seed rain of 18 grassland species comprising grasses, non-leguminous forbs and legumes. Moreover, effects of earthworms and/or AMF on water infiltration and leaching of ammonium, nitrate and phosphate were determined after a simulated extreme rainfall event (40 l m−2). AMF colonisation of all three plant functional groups was altered by earthworms. Seedling emergence and diversity was reduced by anecic earthworms, however only when AMF were present. Plant density was decreased in AMF-free mesocosms when both anecic and endogeic earthworms were active; with AMF also anecics reduced plant density. Plant shoot and root biomass was only affected by earthworms in AMF-free mesocosms: shoot biomass increased due to the activity of either anecics or endogeics; root biomass increased only when anecics were active. Water infiltration increased when earthworms were present in the mesocosms but remained unaffected by AMF. Ammonium leaching was increased only when anecics or a mixed earthworm community was active but was unaffected by AMF; nitrate and phosphate leaching was neither affected by earthworms nor AMF. Ammonium leaching decreased with increasing plant density, nitrate leaching decreased with increasing plant diversity and density. In order to understand the underlying processes of these interactions further investigations possibly under field conditions using more diverse belowground communities are required. Nevertheless, this study demonstrates that

  8. Earthworm-mycorrhiza interactions can affect the diversity, structure and functioning of establishing model grassland communities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johann G Zaller

    Full Text Available Both earthworms and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF are important ecosystem engineers co-occurring in temperate grasslands. However, their combined impacts during grassland establishment are poorly understood and have never been studied. We used large mesocosms to study the effects of different functional groups of earthworms (i.e., vertically burrowing anecics vs. horizontally burrowing endogeics and a mix of four AMF taxa on the establishment, diversity and productivity of plant communities after a simulated seed rain of 18 grassland species comprising grasses, non-leguminous forbs and legumes. Moreover, effects of earthworms and/or AMF on water infiltration and leaching of ammonium, nitrate and phosphate were determined after a simulated extreme rainfall event (40 l m(-2. AMF colonisation of all three plant functional groups was altered by earthworms. Seedling emergence and diversity was reduced by anecic earthworms, however only when AMF were present. Plant density was decreased in AMF-free mesocosms when both anecic and endogeic earthworms were active; with AMF also anecics reduced plant density. Plant shoot and root biomass was only affected by earthworms in AMF-free mesocosms: shoot biomass increased due to the activity of either anecics or endogeics; root biomass increased only when anecics were active. Water infiltration increased when earthworms were present in the mesocosms but remained unaffected by AMF. Ammonium leaching was increased only when anecics or a mixed earthworm community was active but was unaffected by AMF; nitrate and phosphate leaching was neither affected by earthworms nor AMF. Ammonium leaching decreased with increasing plant density, nitrate leaching decreased with increasing plant diversity and density. In order to understand the underlying processes of these interactions further investigations possibly under field conditions using more diverse belowground communities are required. Nevertheless, this study

  9. Review on pharmacological action of lumbricus to treat rheumatism%地龙治疗风湿病的药理作用研究综述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨茜茜; 龚国清

    2015-01-01

    本文分析了地龙在药理方面的实验研究结果,并结合相关方面知识从中医、西医两个方面证明了地龙可以治疗风湿病的药理学成因,并且简要介绍了地龙对于治疗各种类型风湿病的临床应用与生化指标,进一步证实了地龙对于治疗风湿病的重要作用。%This paper analyzes the earthworm in the pharmacological aspects of animal experimental results, indirect from the two aspects of traditional Chinese medicine and Western medicine proved earthworm can treat rheumatism causes of pharmacology, and briefly introduces the earthworm for the treatment of various types of rheumatism clinical and biochemical indicators, which further confirmed the earthworm plays an important role in the treatment of rheumatism.

  10. Biological remediation of oil contaminated soil with earthworms Eisenia andrei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chachina, S. B.; Voronkova, N. A.; Baklanova, O. N.

    2017-08-01

    The study was performed on the bioremediation efficiency of the soil contaminated with oil (20 to 100 g/kg), petroleum (20 to 60 g/kg) and diesel fuel (20 to 40 g/kg) with the help of earthworms E. andrei in the presence of bacteria Pseudomonas, nitrogen fixing bacteria Azotobacter and Clostridium, yeasts Saccharomyces, fungi Aspergillus and Penicillium, as well as Actinomycetales, all being components of biopreparation Baykal-EM. It was demonstrated that in oil-contaminated soil, the content of hydrocarbons decreased by 95-97% after 22 weeks in the presence of worms and bacteria. In petroleum-contaminated soil the content of hydrocarbons decreased by 99% after 22 weeks. The presence of the diesel fuel in the amount of 40 g per 1 kg soil had an acute toxic effect and caused the death of 50 % earthworm species in 14 days. Bacteria introduction enhanced the toxic effect of the diesel fuel and resulted in the death of 60 % earthworms after 7 days.

  11. Short-term stabilization of grape marc through earthworms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Brandón, María; Lazcano, Cristina; Lores, Marta; Domínguez, Jorge

    2011-03-15

    The winery industry generates vast amounts of organic waste during the various stages of wine production. Among the possible methodological alternatives available for its treatment, vermicomposting is one of the best-known processes for the biological stabilization of solid organic wastes by transforming them into safer and more stabilized materials suitable for application to soil. In this study we carried out a mesocosm experiment to evaluate the effectiveness of the active phase of vermicomposting for the stabilization of grape marc, an enriched lignocellulosic by-product obtained after the grape crushing and pressing stages in wine production. For this we analysed the chemical, biochemical and microbiological properties of the product resulting from this phase, in comparison with those in a control treatment. Earthworm activity reduced the abundance of both bacterial and fungal PLFA biomarkers. Decreases in microbial activity and in protease and cellulase activities were also attributed to the presence of earthworms. The differences in microbial communities were accompanied by a reduction in the labile C pool and the cellulose content. These results indicate that earthworms played a key role in the stabilization of the grape marc in the short-term, via its effects on organic matter decomposition and microbial biomass and activity.

  12. Earthworm (Clitellata: Megadrili taxonomy in the last 200 years: A homage to András Zicsi (1928−2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Csuzdi, Cs.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Prof. Dr. András Zicsi, the renowned soil biologist and earthworm taxonomist passed away on 22 July, 2015 at the age of 87. To honour his enormous contribution in exploring earthworm biodiversity all over the world, we provide a brief, albeit subjective overview of the history of earthworm taxonomy in the last two century.

  13. Interactions between residue placement and earthworm ecological strategy affect aggregate turnover and N2O dynamics in agricultural soil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giannopoulos, G.; Pulleman, M.M.; Groenigen, van J.W.

    2010-01-01

    Previous laboratory studies using epigeic and anecic earthworms have shown that earthworm activity can considerably increase nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from crop residues in soils. However, the universality of this effect across earthworm functional groups and its underlying mechanisms remain unc

  14. Earthworm activities in cassava and egusi melon fields in the transitional zone of Benin: linking farmers' perceptions with field studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saïdou, A.; Kossou, D.; Brussaard, L.; Richards, P.; Kuyper, T.W.

    2008-01-01

    Farmers' perceptions of earthworm activities were studied in the transitional zone of Benin and linked to scientific explanations of earthworm casting activities. Earthworm activity was assessed in farmers' fields with three different cassava cultivars and in a field experiment with three different

  15. Earthworm activities in cassava and egusi melon fields in the transitional zone of Benin: linking farmers' perceptions with field studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saïdou, A.; Kossou, D.; Brussaard, L.; Richards, P.; Kuyper, T.W.

    2008-01-01

    Farmers' perceptions of earthworm activities were studied in the transitional zone of Benin and linked to scientific explanations of earthworm casting activities. Earthworm activity was assessed in farmers' fields with three different cassava cultivars and in a field experiment with three different

  16. The implications of copper fungicide usage in vineyards for earthworm activity and resulting sustainable soil quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijsackers, H.J.P.; Beneke, P.; Maboeta, M.; Louw, J.P.E.; Reinecke, A.J.

    2005-01-01

    To investigate the impact of copper-containing fungicides (copper oxychloride) on earthworms in South African vineyards, field inventories of earthworms in and between vine rows were carried out and compared to directly adjacent grassland. Also copper content, pH, organic matter content, and soil po

  17. Influence of earthworm mucus and amino acids on tomato seedling growth and cadmium accumulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Shujie [College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095 (China); Hu Feng, E-mail: fenghu@njau.edu.c [College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095 (China); Li Huixin; Li Xiuqiang [College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095 (China)

    2009-10-15

    The effects on the growth of tomato seedlings and cadmium accumulation of earthworm mucus and a solution of amino acids matching those in earthworm mucus was studied through a hydroponic experiment. The experiment included four treatments: 5 mg Cd L{sup -1} (CC), 5 mg Cd L{sup -1} + 100 mL L{sup -1} earthworm mucus (CE), 5 mg Cd L{sup -1} + 100 mL L{sup -1} amino acids solution (CA) and the control (CK). Results showed that, compared with CC treatment, either earthworm mucus or amino acids significantly increased tomato seedling growth and Cd accumulation but the increase was much higher in the CE treatment compared with the CA treatment. This may be due to earthworm mucus and amino acids significantly increasing the chlorophyll content, antioxidative enzyme activities, and essential microelement uptake and transport in the tomato seedlings. The much greater increase in the effect of earthworm mucus compared with amino acid treatments may be due to IAA-like substances in earthworm mucus. - Earthworm mucus increased tomato seedlings growth and Cd accumulation through increasing chlorophyll content, antioxidative enzyme activities, and essential microelement accumulation.

  18. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN MASS OF NEWLY HATCHED INDIVIDUALS AND COCOON MASS IN LUMBRICID EARTHWORMS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruus, Marianne; Bjerre, Arne

    1991-01-01

    Earthworm cocoons from laboratory cultures were collected and their mass was determined. When hatched, the mass of the young worms was found. Cocoon mass and the mass of hatchlings varied considerably within species. The hygromass of newly hatched earthworms was found to correlate linearly...

  19. Methanogenic Food Web in Gut Contents of the Methane-Emitting Earthworm Eudrilus eugeniae from Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schulz, Kristin; Hunger, S.; Brown, G.G.; Tsai, S.M.; Cerri, C.C.; Conrad, R.; Drake, H.

    2015-01-01

    The anoxic saccharide-rich conditions of the earthworm gut provide an ideal transient habitat for ingested microbes capable of anaerobiosis. It was recently discovered that the earthworm Eudrilus eugeniae from Brazil can emit methane (CH4) and that ingested methanogens might be associated with this

  20. Toxicities of TNT and RDX to the Earthworm Eisenia fetida in Five Soils with Contrasting Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    Monteil-Rivera et al., 2009). Abiotic reactions include alkaline hydrolysis, photolysis, and reduction by iron. Degradation of TNT by soil ...2 TOXICITIES OF TNT AND RDX TO THE EARTHWORM EISENIA FETIDA IN FIVE SOILS ...3. DATES COVERED (From - To) Apr 2001 – Nov 2004 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Toxicities of TNT and RDX to the Earthworm Eisenia fetida in Five Soils

  1. Earthworms as colonisers: Primary colonisation of contaminated land, and sediment and soil waste deposits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijsackers, H.J.P.

    2010-01-01

    This paper reviews the role of earthworms in the early colonisation of contaminated soils as well as sediment and waste deposits, which are worm-free because of anthropogenic activities such as open-cast mining, soil sterilisation, consistent pollution or remediation of contaminated soil. Earthworms

  2. Earthworms can increase nitrous oxide emissions from managed grassland: a field study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lubbers, I.M.; López González, E.; Hummelink, E.W.J.; Groenigen, van J.W.

    2013-01-01

    Earthworms are important in determining the greenhouse gas (GHG) balance of soils. In laboratory studies they have been shown to increase emissions of the potent GHG nitrous oxide (N2O). Here we test whether these earthworm-induced N2O emissions also occur in the field. We quantified N2O emissions

  3. Earthworms as phoretic hosts for Steinernema carpocapsae and Beauveria bassiana: Implications for enhanced biological control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prior research indicated that earthworms may serve as phoretic hosts to entomopathogenic nematodes. Therefore, we hypothesized that biocontrol efficacy of nematodes could be enhanced in the presence of earthworms based on increased nematode dispersal through the soil. We also hypothesized that ear...

  4. Diversity of introduced terrestrial flatworms in the Iberian Peninsula: a cautionary tale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez-Presas, Marta; Tudó, Àngels; Jones, Hugh; Riutort, Marta

    2014-01-01

    Many tropical terrestrial planarians (Platyhelminthes, Geoplanidae) have been introduced around the globe. One of these species is known to cause significant decline in earthworm populations, resulting in a reduction of ecological functions that earthworms provide. Flatworms, additionally, are a potential risk to other species that have the same dietary needs. Hence, the planarian invasion might cause significant economic losses in agriculture and damage to the ecosystem. In the Iberian Peninsula only Bipalium kewense Moseley, 1878 had been cited till 2007. From that year on, four more species have been cited, and several reports of the presence of these animals in particular gardens have been received. In the present study we have: (1) analyzed the animals sent by non-specialists and also the presence of terrestrial planarians in plant nurseries and garden centers; (2) identified their species through morphological and phylogenetic molecular analyses, including representatives of their areas of origin; (3) revised their dietary sources and (4) used Species Distribution Modeling (SDM) for one species to evaluate the risk of its introduction to natural areas. The results have shown the presence of at least ten species of alien terrestrial planarians, from all its phylogenetic range. International plant trade is the source of these animals, and many garden centers are acting as reservoirs. Also, landscape restoration to reintroduce autochthonous plants has facilitated their introduction close to natural forests and agricultural fields. In conclusion, there is a need to take measures on plant trade and to have special care in the treatment of restored habitats. PMID:24949245

  5. Diversity of introduced terrestrial flatworms in the Iberian Peninsula: a cautionary tale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Presas, Marta; Mateos, Eduardo; Tudó, Angels; Jones, Hugh; Riutort, Marta

    2014-01-01

    Many tropical terrestrial planarians (Platyhelminthes, Geoplanidae) have been introduced around the globe. One of these species is known to cause significant decline in earthworm populations, resulting in a reduction of ecological functions that earthworms provide. Flatworms, additionally, are a potential risk to other species that have the same dietary needs. Hence, the planarian invasion might cause significant economic losses in agriculture and damage to the ecosystem. In the Iberian Peninsula only Bipalium kewense Moseley, 1878 had been cited till 2007. From that year on, four more species have been cited, and several reports of the presence of these animals in particular gardens have been received. In the present study we have: (1) analyzed the animals sent by non-specialists and also the presence of terrestrial planarians in plant nurseries and garden centers; (2) identified their species through morphological and phylogenetic molecular analyses, including representatives of their areas of origin; (3) revised their dietary sources and (4) used Species Distribution Modeling (SDM) for one species to evaluate the risk of its introduction to natural areas. The results have shown the presence of at least ten species of alien terrestrial planarians, from all its phylogenetic range. International plant trade is the source of these animals, and many garden centers are acting as reservoirs. Also, landscape restoration to reintroduce autochthonous plants has facilitated their introduction close to natural forests and agricultural fields. In conclusion, there is a need to take measures on plant trade and to have special care in the treatment of restored habitats.

  6. Reduced greenhouse gas mitigation potential of no-tillage soils through earthworm activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubbers, Ingrid M; van Groenigen, Kees Jan; Brussaard, Lijbert; van Groenigen, Jan Willem

    2015-09-04

    Concerns about rising greenhouse gas (GHG) concentrations have spurred the promotion of no-tillage practices as a means to stimulate carbon storage and reduce CO2 emissions in agro-ecosystems. Recent research has ignited debate about the effect of earthworms on the GHG balance of soil. It is unclear how earthworms interact with soil management practices, making long-term predictions on their effect in agro-ecosystems problematic. Here we show, in a unique two-year experiment, that earthworm presence increases the combined cumulative emissions of CO2 and N2O from a simulated no-tillage (NT) system to the same level as a simulated conventional tillage (CT) system. We found no evidence for increased soil C storage in the presence of earthworms. Because NT agriculture stimulates earthworm presence, our results identify a possible biological pathway for the limited potential of no-tillage soils with respect to GHG mitigation.

  7. Microflora dynamics in earthworms casts in an artificial soil (biosynthesol containing lactic acid oligomers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alauzet Nathalie

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies were performed to appreciate the presence of micro-organisms able to degrade OLA, in earthworms casts or in the surroundings. Worms were grown in biosynthesol, an artificial soil. The counting of bacteria and fungi in earthworms casts and in biosynthesol without earthworms suggested that earthworms ate some of the micro-organisms. The main filamentous fungi genera found were Aspergillus, Trichoderma, Fusarium and Penicillium. Previous results in the literature have shown that some species from the Aspergillus and Fusarium genera were able to degrade OLA and other aliphatic esters. It could be suggested that these two genera and some bacteria were responsible for the pre-degradation of OLA, and that earthworms might eat them.

  8. Accumulation of mercury and methylmercury by mushrooms and earthworms from forest soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieder, Stephan R; Brunner, Ivano; Horvat, Milena; Jacobs, Anna; Frey, Beat

    2011-10-01

    Accumulation of total and methyl-Hg by mushrooms and earthworms was studied in thirty-four natural forest soils strongly varying in soil physico-chemical characteristics. Tissue Hg concentrations of both receptors did hardly correlate with Hg concentrations in soil. Both total and methyl-Hg concentrations in tissues were species-specific and dependent on the ecological groups of receptor. Methyl-Hg was low accounting for less than 5 and 8% of total Hg in tissues of mushrooms and earthworms, respectively, but with four times higher concentrations in earthworms than mushrooms. Total Hg concentrations in mushrooms averaged 0.96 mg Hg kg(-1) dw whereas litter decomposing mushrooms showed highest total Hg and methyl-Hg concentrations. Earthworms contained similar Hg concentrations (1.04 mg Hg kg(-1) dw) whereas endogeic earthworms accumulated highest amounts of Hg and methyl-Hg.

  9. Earthworms modify microbial community structure and accelerate maize stover decomposition during vermicomposting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yuxiang; Zhang, Yufen; Zhang, Quanguo; Xu, Lixin; Li, Ran; Luo, Xiaopei; Zhang, Xin; Tong, Jin

    2015-11-01

    In the present study, maize stover was vermicomposted with the epigeic earthworm Eisenia fetida. The results showed that, during vermicomposting process, the earthworms promoted decomposition of maize stover. Analysis of microbial communities of the vermicompost by high-throughput pyrosequencing showed more complex bacterial community structure in the substrate treated by the earthworms than that in the control group. The dominant microbial genera in the treatment with the earthworms were Pseudoxanthomonas, Pseudomonas, Arthrobacter, Streptomyces, Cryptococcus, Guehomyces, and Mucor. Compared to the control group, the relative abundance of lignocellulose degradation microorganisms increased. The results indicated that the earthworms modified the structure of microbial communities during vermicomposting process, activated the growth of lignocellulose degradation microorganisms, and triggered the lignocellulose decomposition.

  10. Control of Cultivable IAA-Producing Bacteria by the Plant Arabidopsis thaliana and the Earthworm Aporrectodea caliginosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruben Puga-Freitas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Some soil microorganisms are involved in the complex interactions with plants and earthworms, through the production of indole acetic acid (IAA which modifies plant growth and development. In a factorial experiment testing the impact of the presence/absence of plants and earthworms on IAA production by cultivable bacteria, we observed that plants were decreasing IAA production of 43%, whereas earthworms were increasing it of 46%. In the presence of both plant and earthworms, IAA production was as low as in the presence of plant control, showing that plants influence on IAA production by microorganisms prevails on earthworm influence. We discuss functional reasons which could explain this result.

  11. A brief review and evaluation of earthworm biomarkers in soil pollution assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Zhiming; Tang, Zhiwen; Wang, Congying

    2017-05-01

    Earthworm biomarker response to pollutants has been widely investigated in the assessment of soil pollution. However, whether and how the earthworm biomarker-approach can be actually applied to soil pollution assessment is still a controversial issue. This review is concerned about the following points: 1. Despite much debate, biomarker is valuable to ecotoxicology and biomarker approach has been properly used in different fields. Earthworm biomarker might be used in different scenarios such as large-scale soil pollution survey and soil pollution risk assessment. Compared with physicochemical analysis, they can provide more comprehensive and straightforward information about soil pollution at low cost. 2. Although many earthworm species from different ecological categories have been tested, Eisenia fetida/andrei is commonly used. Many earthworm biomarkers have been screened from the molecular to the individual level, while only a few biomarkers, such as avoidance behavior and lysosomal membrane stability, have been focused on. Other aspects of the experimental design were critically reviewed. 3. More studies should focus on determining the reliability of various earthworm biomarkers in soil pollution assessment in future research. Besides, establishing a database of a basal level of each biomarker, exploring biomarker response in different region/section/part of earthworm, and other issues are also proposed. 4. A set of research guideline for earthworm biomarker studies was recommended, and the suitability of several earthworm biomarkers was briefly evaluated with respect to their application in soil pollution assessment. This review will help to promote further studies and practical application of earthworm biomarker in soil pollution assessment.

  12. Low dose beta-emitter source induces sexual reproduction instead of fragmentation in an earthworm, Enchytraeus japonensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyachi, Yukihisa; Kanao, Tomoko; Okamoto, Takehito

    2005-01-01

    We examined whether background radiation, or radiation at a slightly higher level, plays a role in the reproduction of a terrestrial earthworm. Enchytraeus japonensis a recently described terrestrial oligochaete, reproduces asexually by fragmentation and subsequent regeneration. Following radiation exposure in which the worms were subjected to a 32P beta-emitter source at 15 times the background dose rate (4.5 microGy/h), a statistically significant decrease in the number of fragmentations was observed as compared with the sham controls. At that time, in a stained preparation with haematoxylin and eosin (HE), sexual reproduction occurred instead of asexual fragmentation, and mature oocytes were observed in the body of grown worms. However, increasing the radiation dose rate by 30 microGy/h resulted in the complete disappearance of the radiation-induced effects, i.e., fragmentation again occurred after 14 h. The results of this study indicate that a lower dose of radiation may be essential to achieve sexual reproduction, inducing an inhibition of fragmentation (asexual reproduction), but at higher, more cytotoxic doses of radiation these effects are negated.

  13. Low dose {beta}-emitter source induces sexual reproduction instead of fragmentation in an earthworm, Enchytraeus japonensis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyachi, Yukihisa E-mail: ymiyachi@iuhw.ac.jp; Kanao, Tomoko; Okamoto, Takehito

    2005-07-01

    We examined whether background radiation, or radiation at a slightly higher level, plays a role in the reproduction of a terrestrial earthworm. Enchytraeus japonensis a recently described terrestrial oligochaete, reproduces asexually by fragmentation and subsequent regeneration. Following radiation exposure in which the worms were subjected to a {sup 32}P {beta}-emitter source at 15 times the background dose rate (4.5 {mu}Gy/h), a statistically significant decrease in the number of fragmentations was observed as compared with the sham controls. At that time, in a stained preparation with haematoxylin and eosin (HE), sexual reproduction occurred instead of asexual fragmentation, and mature oocytes were observed in the body of grown worms. However, increasing the radiation dose rate by 30 {mu}Gy/h resulted in the complete disappearance of the radiation-induced effects, i.e., fragmentation again occurred after 14 h. The results of this study indicate that a lower dose of radiation may be essential to achieve sexual reproduction, inducing an inhibition of fragmentation (asexual reproduction), but at higher, more cytotoxic doses of radiation these effects are negated.

  14. V. Terrestrial vertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean Pearson; Deborah Finch

    2011-01-01

    Within the Interior West, terrestrial vertebrates do not represent a large number of invasive species relative to invasive weeds, aquatic vertebrates, and invertebrates. However, several invasive terrestrial vertebrate species do cause substantial economic and ecological damage in the U.S. and in this region (Pimental 2000, 2007; Bergman and others 2002; Finch and...

  15. Interactions between organic matter and mineral surfaces along an earthworm invasion gradient in a sugar maple forest of Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyttle, A.; Yoo, K.; Aufdenkampe, A. K.; Sebestyen, S. D.; Hale, C.

    2012-12-01

    Sorption of organic matter on mineral surface is critical for protection of organic carbon (C) against decomposition and thus may potentially increase the capacity of soils to store C. Such sorption, however, requires physical contacts between organic matter and available mineral surfaces. This study attempts to better understand how bioturbation by invasive earthworms influences the contacts between organic matter and mineral surface, and affects sorption of organic matter on mineral surface. Vertical soil mixing is a direct consequence of the introduction of invasive earthworms in natural forests previously devoid of native earthworm populations. Here we focus on an intensively studied earthworm invasion chronosequence in a glaciated sugar maple forest in northern Minnesota. With the advance of invasive earthworms, leaf litter disappears while the A horizon expands at the expense of the overlying litter layer and the underlying wind blown silt materials. Earthworms' biomasses and functional group compositions, depth profiles of soil C contents, and total and organic matter-covered mineral surface areas are determined at different stages of invasion. We found that minerals' specific surface areas (SSA) in the A horizons decrease with greater degree of earthworm invasion. Furthermore, less fractions of mineral SSA were found to be coated with organic C in the soils with active earthworm populations. These observations appear to contradict another finding that amounts of crystalline Fe oxide and organically-complexed Fe increase with the greater earthworm population. The overall trend shows that earthworms' active mixing resulting in incorporating silt materials with low SSA from the underlying E horizons to the A horizons. We are currently investigating whether the increased crystalline Fe oxides and organically-complexed Fe pools with increasing earthworm population helped reducing the gradient of overall trend. Our study highlights the importance of earthworm

  16. Elemental and mineralogical changes in soils due to bioturbation along an earthworm invasion chronosequence in Northern Minnesota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Resner, Kathryn [Dept. of Soil, Water, and Climate, University of Minnesota, 439 Borlaug Hall, 1991 Upper Buford Circle, St. Paul, MN, 55108-6028 (United States); Yoo, Kyungsoo, E-mail: kyoo@umn.edu [Dept. of Soil, Water, and Climate, University of Minnesota, 439 Borlaug Hall, 1991 Upper Buford Circle, St. Paul, MN, 55108-6028 (United States); Hale, Cindy [University of Minnesota Duluth, The Natural Resources Research Institute, 5013 Miller Trunk Hwy. Duluth, MN 55811 (United States); Aufdenkampe, Anthony [Assistant Research Scientist - Isotope and Organic Geochemistry, Stroud Water Research Center, 970 Spencer Road, Avondale, PA 19311 (United States); Blum, Alex [US Geological Survey, 3215 Marine St., Boulder, CO 80303 (United States); Sebestyen, Stephen [Research Hydrologist, USDA Forest Service, Northern Research Station, Grand Rapids, MN 55744-3399 (United States)

    2011-06-15

    Minnesota forested soils have evolved without the presence of earthworms since the last glacial retreat. When exotic earthworms arrive, enhanced soil bioturbation often results in dramatic morphological and chemical changes in soils with negative implications for the forests' sustainability. However, the impacts of earthworm invasion on geochemical processes in soils are not well understood. This study attempts to quantify the role of earthworm invasion in mineral chemical weathering and nutrient dynamics along an earthworm invasion chronosequence in a sugar maple forest in Northern Minnesota. Depth and rates of soil mixing can be tracked with atmospherically derived short lived radioisotopes {sup 210}Pb and {sup 137}Cs. Their radioactivities increase in the lower A horizon at the expense of the peak activities near the soil surface, which indicate that soil mixing rate and its depth reach have been enhanced by earthworms. Enhanced soil mixing by earthworms is consistent with the ways that the vertical profiles of elemental and mineralogical compositions were affected by earthworm invasion. Biologically cycled Ca and P have peak concentrations near the soil surface prior to earthworm invasion. However, these peak abundances significantly declined in the earthworm invaded soils presumably due to enhanced soil mixing. It is clear that enhanced soil mixing due to earthworms also profoundly altered the vertical distribution of most mineral species within A horizons. Though the mechanisms are not clear yet, earthworm invasion appears to have contributed to net losses of clay mineral species and opal from the A horizons. As much as earthworms vertically relocated minerals and elements, they also intensify the contacts between organic matter and cations as shown in the increased amount of Ca and Fe in organically complexed and in exchangeable pools. With future studies on soil mixing rates and elemental leaching, this study will quantitatively and mechanically

  17. Earthworm ecology affects the population structure of their Verminephrobacter symbionts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Macedo Viana, Flavia Daniela; Jensen, Christopher Erik; Macey, Michael;

    2016-01-01

    from two contrasting ecological types of earthworm hosts: the high population density, fast reproducing compost worms, Eisenia andrei and E. fetida, and the low-density, slow reproducing Aporrectodea tuberculata, commonly found in garden soils; for both types, three distinct populations were...... investigated. Based on MLST of 193 Verminephrobacter isolates, the symbiont community in each worm individual was very homogeneous. The more solitary A. tuberculata carried unique symbiont populations in 9 out of 10 host individuals, whereas the symbiont populations in the social compost worms were homogeneous...

  18. Effect of Earthworms on Distillery Effluent Treatment through Vermifiltration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nirmala Natarajan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Distillery is an important sub-unit of sugar production industry. Distillery wastewater generated from different stages of sugar and ethanol production contains huge amount of pollutants that are very harmful to the environment if released without proper treatment. The present paper describes the application of vermiculture based wastewater technology with the primary objective of converting liquid effluent into eco-friendly safe water. Vermifiltration of wastewater using waste eater earthworms is a newly conceived novel technology. The BOD, COD, TSS and TDS decreased by 90%, 94%, 88% and 82% respectively through vermifiltration.

  19. Comparative Genomics of Symbiotic Bacteria in Earthworm Nephridia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Kasper Urup; Pinel, Nicolas; Lund, Marie Braad

    sequencing along with two of its closest relatives; the plant pathogenic Acidovorax avena subsp. citrulli and the free-living Acidovorax sp. JS42. In addition, the genome of the nephridial symbiont of the earthworm Aporrectodea tuberculata was partially sequenced. In order to resolve the functional...... and evolutionary basis of the symbiosis we annotated and compared the genomes. The genomes ranged in size from 4.4 to 5.6 Mbp, the E. fetida symbiont genome being the largest. The symbiont genomes showed no evidence of gene-loss related to any particular type of functional gene category. In contrast, genes...

  20. Effect of enzyme producing microorganisms on the biomass of epigeic earthworms (eisenia fetida) in vermicompost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Sung Wook; Lee, Ju Sam; Chung, Kun Sub

    2011-05-01

    We analyzed the bacterial community structure of the intestines of earthworms and determined the effect of enzyme producing microorganisms on the biomass of earthworms in vermicompost. Fifty-seven bacterial 16S rDNA clones were identified in the intestines of earthworms by using polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) analysis. Entomoplasma somnilux and Bacillus licheniformis were the dominant microorganisms; other strains included Aeromonas, Bacillus, Clostridium, Ferrimonas, and uncultured bacteria. Among these strains, Photobacterium ganghwense, Aeromonas hydrophila, and Paenibacillus motobuensis were enzyme-producing microorganisms. In the mixtures that were inoculated with pure cultures of A. hydrophila WA40 and P. motobuensis WN9, the highest survival rate was 100% and the average number of earthworms, young earthworms, and cocoons were 10, 4.00-4.33, and 3.00-3.33, respectively. In addition, P. motobuensis WN9 increased the growth of earthworms and production of casts in the vermicompost. These results show that earthworms and microorganisms have a symbiotic relationship.

  1. Toxic effects of acetochlor and methamidophos on earthworm Eisenia fetida in phaiozem, northeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Qi-xing; ZHANG Qian-ru; LIANG Ji-dong

    2006-01-01

    Acetochlor and methamidophos are two important agrochemicals which are widely applied to agricultural production in northeast China. The investigation on the earthworm Eisenia fetida as an important type of soil animals exposed to single and binary-combined contamination of acetochlor and methamidophos was thus carried out. The single toxic effect test showed that the two agrochemicals had their toxicity to the earthworms living in phaiozem. Acetochlor had a stronger acute toxic effect on the earthworms than methamidophos. The mortality of the earthworms exposed to individual acetochlor and methamidophos changed with an increase in the exposure time and the exposed concentrations. The LD50 value of acetochlor and methamidophos toxic to the earthworms was 115.6-275.3 and 29.5-228.6 mg/kg, respectively. The weight of the earthworms was a more sensitive index compared to the mortality in indicating toxic effects of acetochlor and methamidophos in phaiozem. When considering both the mortality and the body-weight change, the combined pollution of acetochlor and methamidophos in phaiozem resulted in their synergic toxic effects on the earthworms.

  2. When citizens and scientists work together : a french collaborative science network on earthworms communities distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guernion, Muriel; Hoeffner, Kevin; Guillocheau, Sarah; Hotte, Hoël; Cylly, Daniel; Piron, Denis; Cluzeau, Daniel; Hervé, Morgane; Nicolai, Annegret; Pérès, Guénola

    2017-04-01

    Scientists have become more and more interested in earthworms because of their impact on soil functioning and their importance in provision of many ecosystem services. To improve the knowledge on soil biodiversity and integrate earthworms in soil quality diagnostics, it appeared necessary to gain a large amount of data on their distribution. The University of Rennes 1 developed since 2011 a collaborative science project called Observatoire Participatif des Vers de Terre (OPVT, participative earthworm observatory). It has several purposes : i) to offer a simple tool for soil biodiversity evaluation in natural and anthropic soils through earthworm assessment, ii) to offer trainings to farmers, territory managers, gardeners, pupils on soil ecology, iii) to build a database of reference values on earthworms in different habitats, iv) to propose a website (https://ecobiosoil.univ-rennes1.fr/OPVT_accueil.php) providing for example general scientific background (earthworm ecology and impacts of soil management), sampling protocols and online visualization of results (data processing and earthworms mapping). Up to now, more than 5000 plots have been prospected since the opening of the project in 2011., Initially available to anyone on a voluntary basis, this project is also used by the French Ministry of Agriculture to carry out a scientific survey throughout the French territory.

  3. Earthworms use odor cues to locate and feed on microorganisms in soil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lara Zirbes

    Full Text Available Earthworms are key components of temperate soil ecosystems but key aspects of their ecology remain unexamined. Here we elucidate the role of olfactory cues in earthworm attraction to food sources and document specific chemical cues that attract Eisenia fetida to the soil fungi Geotrichum candidum. Fungi and other microorganisms are major sources of volatile emissions in soil ecosystems as well as primary food sources for earthworms, suggesting the likelihood that earthworms might profitably use olfactory cues to guide foraging behavior. Moreover, previous studies have documented earthworm movement toward microbial food sources. But, the specific olfactory cues responsible for earthworm attraction have not previously been identified. Using olfactometer assays combined with chemical analyses (GC-MS, we documented the attraction of E. fetida individuals to filtrate derived from G. candidum colonies and to two individual compounds tested in isolation: ethyl pentanoate and ethyl hexanoate. Attraction at a distance was observed when barriers prevented the worms from reaching the target stimuli, confirming the role of volatile cues. These findings enhance our understanding of the mechanisms underlying key trophic interactions in soil ecosystems and have potential implications for the extraction and collection of earthworms in vermiculture and other applied activities.

  4. Earthworms use odor cues to locate and feed on microorganisms in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zirbes, Lara; Mescher, Mark; Vrancken, Véronique; Wathelet, Jean-Paul; Verheggen, François J; Thonart, Philippe; Haubruge, Eric

    2011-01-01

    Earthworms are key components of temperate soil ecosystems but key aspects of their ecology remain unexamined. Here we elucidate the role of olfactory cues in earthworm attraction to food sources and document specific chemical cues that attract Eisenia fetida to the soil fungi Geotrichum candidum. Fungi and other microorganisms are major sources of volatile emissions in soil ecosystems as well as primary food sources for earthworms, suggesting the likelihood that earthworms might profitably use olfactory cues to guide foraging behavior. Moreover, previous studies have documented earthworm movement toward microbial food sources. But, the specific olfactory cues responsible for earthworm attraction have not previously been identified. Using olfactometer assays combined with chemical analyses (GC-MS), we documented the attraction of E. fetida individuals to filtrate derived from G. candidum colonies and to two individual compounds tested in isolation: ethyl pentanoate and ethyl hexanoate. Attraction at a distance was observed when barriers prevented the worms from reaching the target stimuli, confirming the role of volatile cues. These findings enhance our understanding of the mechanisms underlying key trophic interactions in soil ecosystems and have potential implications for the extraction and collection of earthworms in vermiculture and other applied activities.

  5. Importance of earthworm-seed interactions for the composition and structure of plant communities: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forey, Estelle; Barot, Sébastien; Decaëns, Thibaud; Langlois, Estelle; Laossi, Kam-Rigne; Margerie, Pierre; Scheu, Stefan; Eisenhauer, Nico

    2011-11-01

    Soil seed bank composition and dynamics are crucial elements for the understanding of plant population and community ecology. Earthworms are increasingly recognized as important dispersers and predators of seeds. Through direct and indirect effects they influence either positively or negatively the establishment and survival of seeds and seedlings. Seedling establishment is affected by a variety of earthworm-mediated mechanisms, such as selective seed ingestion and digestion, acceleration or deceleration of germination, and seed transport. Earthworm casts deposited on the soil surface and the entrance of earthworm burrows often contain viable seeds and constitute important regeneration niches for plant seedlings and therefore likely favour specific seed traits. However, the role of earthworms as seed dispersers, mediators of seed bank dynamics and seed predators has not been considered in concert. The overall effect of earthworms on plant communities remains little understood. Most knowledge is based on laboratory studies on temperate species and future work has to explore the biological significance of earthworm-seed interactions under more natural conditions. In this review we summarize the current knowledge on earthworm-seed interactions and discuss factors determining these interactions. We highlight that this interaction may be an underappreciated, yet major driving force for the dynamics of soil seed banks and plant communities which most likely have experienced co-evolutionary processes. Despite the experimental bias, we hypothesize that the knowledge gathered in the present review is of crucial relevance for restoration and conservation ecology. For instance, as earthworms emerge as successful and ubiquitous invaders in various ecosystems, the summarized information might serve as a basis for realistic estimations and modelling of consequences on native plant communities. We depict promising directions of future research and point to the need to consider

  6. Bioremediation of heavy metals and petroleum hydrocarbons in diesel contaminated soil with the earthworm: Eudrilus eugeniae

    OpenAIRE

    Ekperusi, Ogheneruemu Abraham; Aigbodion, Iruobe Felix

    2015-01-01

    A laboratory study on the bioremediation of diesel contaminated soil with the earthworm Eudrilus eugeniae (Kingberg) was conducted. 5 ml of diesel was contaminated into soils in replicates and inoculated with E. eugeniae for 90 days. Physicochemical parameters, heavy metals and total petroleum hydrocarbons were analyzed using AAS. BTEX in contaminated soil and tissues of earthworms were determined with GC-FID. The activities of earthworms resulted in a decrease in pH (3.0 %), electrical condu...

  7. EarthWorm at INGV: monitoring the Italian seismicity and some more

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivieri, M.

    2006-12-01

    Since March 2005 we started testing EarthWorm as an auxiliar acquisition system at INGV (Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Roma). This was mainly dedicated to the acquisition of real-time seismic signal, to the data processing with a primary objective to locate earthquakes in the Italian Region. We also explored the capability of EarthWorm to be a robust and reliable system for automatically dissiminate parametric information and seismic data to the other routine activities of the network as magnitude estimation, moment tensor and Shakemap computation. We will present some preliminar results together with the technical improvements set up to integrate EarthWorm in the existing system.

  8. [Effects of earthworm on soil microbes and biological fertility: A review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Jia; Wang, Chong; Huang, Yan; Ji, Ding-ge; Lou, Yi

    2015-05-01

    Earthworms are considered as 'ecosystem engineers', as they affect soil microbial community and function by improving micro-habitat, increasing surface area of organic compound, feeding, and transporting microorganisms. Multi-scale cavities created through earthworm movements help improve soil porosity and aeration, thus supporting microbial growth and reproduction. Earthworms also break down complex organic compounds into microbe-accessible nutrients by means of feeding on, crushing, and mixing soil. This results in elevated mineralization and improvement of cycling of key soil nutrients including carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus, overall enhancing the soil biological fertility.

  9. Potential effects of earthworm activity on C and N dynamics in tropical paddy soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Katharina; Zaitsev, Andrey S.; Wolters, Volkmar

    2016-04-01

    Earthworms are involved in key ecosystem processes and are generally considered important for sustainable crop production. However, their provision of essential ecosystem services and contribution to tropical soil carbon and nitrogen balance in rice-based agroecosystems are not yet completely understood. We carried out two microcosm experiments to quantify the impact of a tropical earthworm Pheretima sp. from the Philippines on C and N turnover in rice paddy soils. First one was conducted to understand the modulation impact of soil water saturation level and nitrogen fertilizer input intensity on C and N cycles. The second one focused on the importance of additional organic matter (rice straw) amendment on the earthworm modulation of mineralization in non-flooded conditions. We measured CO2, CH4 (Experiments 1 and 2) and N2O evolution (Experiment 2) from rice paddy soil collected at the fields of the International Rice Research Institute (Philippines). Further we analysed changes in soil C and N content as well as nutrient loss via leaching induced by earthworms (Experiment 2). Addition of earthworms resulted in the strong increase of CH4 release under flooded conditions as well as after rice straw amendment. Compared to flooded conditions, earthworms suppressed the distinct CO2 respiration maximum at intermediate soil water saturation levels. In the first few days after the experiment establishment (Experiment 1) intensive nitrogen application resulted in the suppression of CO2 emission by earthworms at non-flooded soil conditions. However, at the longer term perspective addressed in the second experiment (30 days) earthworm activity rather increased average soil respiration under intensive fertilization or rice straw amendment. The lowest N2O release rates were revealed in the microcosms with earthworm and straw treatments. The combined effect of N fertilizer and straw addition to microcosms resulted in the increased leachate volume due to earthworm bioturbation

  10. The binding interactions of imidacloprid with earthworm fibrinolytic enzyme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan-Qing; Zhang, Hong-Mei; Chen, Tao

    2014-08-01

    In this paper, several studies were conducted to elucidate the binding mechanism of earthworm fibrinolytic enzyme (EFE) with imidocloprid (IMI) by using theoretical calculation, fluorescence, UV-vis, circular dichroism spectroscopy and an enzymatic inhibition assay. The spectral data showed that the binding interactions existed between IMI and EFE. The binding constants, binding site, thermodynamic parameters and binding forces were analyzed in detail. The results indicate a single class of binding sites for IMI in EFE and that this binding interaction is a spontaneous process with the estimated enthalpy and entropy changes being 2.195 kJ mol-1 and 94.480 J mol-1 K-1, respectively. A single class of binding site existed for IMI in EFE. The tertiary or secondary structure of EFE was partly destroyed by IMI. The visualized binding details were also exhibited by the theoretical calculation and the results indicated that the interaction between IMI and Phe (Tyr, or Trp) or EFE occurred. Combining the experimental data with the theoretical calculation data, we showed that the binding forces between IMI and EFE were mainly hydrophobic force accompanied by hydrogen binding, and π-π stacking. In addition, IMI did not obviously influence the activity of EFE. In a word, the above analysis offered insights into the binding mechanism of IMI with EFE and could provide some important information for the molecular toxicity of IMI for earthworms.

  11. Organic Matter Decomposition in Red Soil as Affected by Earthworms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The earthworms Pheretima carnosa, Drawida gisti and Eisenia foetida were studied to compare their contributions to the decomposition of various organic materials surface-applied on red soil in a 165-day greenhouse experiment. The native species Pheretima carnosa and Drawida gisti were equally effective in accelerating the decomposition of maize residue, according to fresh body weight, while commercial species Eisenia foetida had no significant influence on dry mass loss of maize residue. Liming with CaCO3 or CaO showed little effect on maize residue breakdown involved by Pheretima carnosa, but it inhibited this process involved by Drawida gisti. The capability of Pheretima carnosa to the decomposition of five kinds of organic materials was thoroughly examined. The dry mass losses in worm treatments were in the order of soybean residue > maize residue > pig manure > semi-decayed maize > ryegrass. However, the relative contributions of the earthworm to dry mass loss were in the order of pig manure (89.8%) > semi-decayed maize residue (49.1%) > maize residue (29.4%) > soybean residue (20.9%) > ryegrass residue (16.5%). Pheretima carnosa consumed 20~120 mg dry weight of organic material per gram fresh weight of biomass per day.

  12. Earthworm Preference Bioassays to Evaluate Land Management Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouldin, Jennifer L; Klasky, John W P; Green, V Steven

    2016-06-01

    Earthworm preference tests, especially in soil-dosed exposures, can be an informative tool for assessing land management practices. Agricultural management intended to increase crop yield and improve soil sustainability includes physical manipulation of topsoil through conventional tillage, reduced or no-tillage, and/or winter cover crops. Soil amendments include the addition of inorganic nitrogen or organic nitrogen derived from soil amendments including biosolids from sewage treatment plants, poultry litter, or locally available industrial effluent. This study used 48-h Eisenia fetida preference tests to assess impacts of agricultural management practices on soil macrofauna. Although in laboratory-dosed exposures, E. fetida preferred biosolid-dosed soils (80 %-95 % recovery) over control soils, the same results were not found with field soils receiving biosolid amendments (33 % recovery). Poultry litter-amended soils (68 % recovery) were preferred over control soils. No differences were measured between tilled fields and controls, and earthworms preferred control soils over those from fields with no-tillage and cover crops. Soil assessments through laboratory exposures such as these allows science-based agricultural management decisions to maintain or improve soil health.

  13. Biomanagement of petrochemical sludge using an exotic earthworm Eudrilus eugineae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banu, J Rajesh; Esakkiraj, S; Nagendran, R; Logakanthi, S

    2005-01-01

    Petrochemical industry have severe problem in disposing effluent and semisolid sludge despite repeated recycling. It requires further treatment prior to disposal of sludge. In recent years biological treatment methods received much attention and considered as an efficient low-cost treatment. One such method is vermiculture treatment The end product of vermicompost is rich in essential micro and macronutrients along with microorganisms in a very simple form. Adding cast, not only improves the soil structure and fertility but also leads to improvement in overall plant growth and thus increase their yield. The present study was carried out to dispose the petrochemical sludge biologically using an exotic earthworm Eudrilus eugineae. The petrochemical sludge at various concentrations 25, 50 and 75% were subjected to vermicomposting treatment for a period of 60 days. During the period of study, data were collected on life form of earthworm and chemical analysis of the sludge before and after treatment. The microbial analysis was carried out fortnightly. The results indicate that 25 and 50% concentration of sludge was ideal for the vermicomposting, whereas the higher concentration inhibits the vermicomposting.

  14. Bioaccumulation of microplastics in the terrestrial food chain: an example from home gardens in SE Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huerta, Esperanza; Mendoza Vega, Jorge; Quej, Victor Ku; Chi, Jesus de los Angeles; Sanchez del Cid, Lucero; Quijano, Cesar; Escalona-Segura, Griselda; Gertsen, Henny; Salánki, Tamás; van der Ploeg, Martine; Koelmans, Albert A.; Geissen, Violette

    2017-04-01

    Plastic in the aquatic environment has been studied since many years and is a well known problem. Plastic in the terrestrial environment is a neglected issue of high importance in regions with waste mismanagement. Therefore, we studied the bioaccumulation of plastics in the terrestrial food chain in home gardens of SE Mexico, a typical example for many countries in development. Plastic waste is not regularly collected and people burn it and burry the residues or the plastic waste directly into the soil of their home gardens, causing the risk of plastic fragmentation, formation of microplastics (MP) in the soil and accumulation in the food chain. To assess the risk, we sampled soil, earthworm cast and chicken feces as well as chicken gizzard and crop in 10 home gardens of Campeche, SE Mexico in September 2016. We analyzed their (micro)plastic content. (Micro)plastics were present in soil with 0.87±1.9 particles g-1, in earthworms casts with 14.8±28.8 particles g-1 casts and in chicken feces with 129.8±82.3 particles g-1 chicken feces), showing a magnification factor of 17±14.6 between the soil and the earthworms casts, and of 149±41.8 between the soil and the chicken feces. Macroplastics were also found in chicken gizzard (57±41.1 particles per chicken) and in the crop (32.4±15.1 particles per chicken). Chicken gizzard is a specialty in the Mexican kitchen and the intake of the present plastics form a strong risk for human health.

  15. Introduced Terrestrial Species (Future)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — These data represent predicted future potential distributions of terrestrial plants, animals, and pathogens non-native to the Middle-Atlantic region. These data are...

  16. Terrestrial Eco-Toxicological Tests as Screening Tool to Assess Soil Contamination in Krompachy Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ol'ga, Šestinová; Findoráková, Lenka; Hančuľák, Jozef; Fedorová, Erika; Tomislav, Špaldon

    2016-10-01

    In this study, we present screening tool of heavy metal inputs to agricultural and permanent grass vegetation of the soils in Krompachy. This study is devoted to Ecotoxicity tests, Terrestrial Plant Test (modification of OECD 208, Phytotoxkit microbiotest on Sinapis Alba) and chronic tests of Earthworm (Dendrobaena veneta, modification of OECD Guidelines for the testing of chemicals 317, Bioaccumulation in Terrestrial Oligochaetes) as practical and sensitive screening method for assessing the effects of heavy metals in Krompachy soils. The total Cu, Zn, As, Pb and Hg concentrations and eco-toxicological tests of soils from the Krompachy area were determined of 4 sampling sites in 2015. An influence of the sampling sites distance from the copper smeltery on the absolutely concentrations of metals were recorded for copper, lead, zinc, arsenic and mercury. The highest concentrations of these metals were detected on the sampling sites up to 3 km from the copper smeltery. The samples of soil were used to assess of phytotoxic effect. Total mortality was established at earthworms using chronic toxicity test after 7 exposure days. The results of our study confirmed that no mortality was observed in any of the study soils. Based on the phytotoxicity testing, phytotoxic effects of the metals contaminated soils from the samples 3KR (7-9) S.alba seeds was observed.

  17. Glyphosate herbicide affects belowground interactions between earthworms and symbiotic mycorrhizal fungi in a model ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaller, Johann G.; Heigl, Florian; Ruess, Liliane; Grabmaier, Andrea

    2014-07-01

    Herbicides containing glyphosate are widely used in agriculture and private gardens, however, surprisingly little is known on potential side effects on non-target soil organisms. In a greenhouse experiment with white clover we investigated, to what extent a globally-used glyphosate herbicide affects interactions between essential soil organisms such as earthworms and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF). We found that herbicides significantly decreased root mycorrhization, soil AMF spore biomass, vesicles and propagules. Herbicide application and earthworms increased soil hyphal biomass and tended to reduce soil water infiltration after a simulated heavy rainfall. Herbicide application in interaction with AMF led to slightly heavier but less active earthworms. Leaching of glyphosate after a simulated rainfall was substantial and altered by earthworms and AMF. These sizeable changes provide impetus for more general attention to side-effects of glyphosate-based herbicides on key soil organisms and their associated ecosystem services.

  18. Inhibition effect of glyphosate on the acute and subacute toxicity of cadmium to earthworm Eisenia fetida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Chui-Fan; Wang, Yu-Jun; Sun, Rui-Juan; Liu, Cun; Fan, Guang-Ping; Qin, Wen-Xiu; Li, Cheng-Cheng; Zhou, Dong-Mei

    2014-10-01

    The acute and subacute toxicities of cadmium (Cd) to earthworm Eisenia fetida in the presence and absence of glyphosate were studied. Although Cd is highly toxic to E. fetida, the presence of glyphosate markedly reduced the acute toxicity of Cd to earthworm; both the mortality rate of the earthworms and the accumulation of Cd decreased with the increase of the glyphosate/Cd molar ratio. The subcellular distribution of Cd in E. fetida tissues showed that internal Cd was dominant in the intact cells fraction and the heat-stable proteins fraction. The presence of glyphosate reduced the concentration of Cd in all fractions, especially the intact cells. During a longer period of exposure, the weight loss of earthworm and the total Cd absorption was alleviated by glyphosate. Thus, the herbicide glyphosate can reduce the toxicity and bioavailability of Cd in the soil ecosystems at both short- and long-term exposures.

  19. Effect of lead on survival, locomotion and sperm morphology of Asian earthworm, Pheretima guillelmi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Rongquan; LI Canyang

    2009-01-01

    To provide basic toxicity data for formulating risk characterization benchmarks, the effects of lead on survival, locomotion, and sperm morphology were investigated in the Asian earthworm Pheretima guillelmi. The LC50 of P. guillelmi for 7 and 14 d were 4285±339 mg/kg and 3207±248 mg/kg, which shows P. guillelmi can tolerate a higher concentration of lead nitrate. The average weight of the surviving earthworms decreased at concentration of 2800 mg/kg, and the locomotor ability of earthworms exposed to a range of soil lead concentrations showed a general decrease with increasing lead concentrations. We also presented data depicting the sperm morphology of earthworms, which shows potential as a sensitive biomarker for measuring effects of heavy metal on reproduction.

  20. Rapid Ecological Assessment of Forests and Associated Exotic Earthworms in Rice Lake NWR

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Summary tables/figures and analysis associated with the 2010 rapid ecological assessment of sampled forest stands and associated earthworms at Rice Lake National...

  1. Rapid Ecological Assessment of Forests and Associated Exotic Earthworms in Horicon NWR

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Summary tables/figures and analysis associated with the 2010 rapid ecological assessment of sampled forest stands and associated earthworms at Horicon National...

  2. Rapid Ecological Assessment of Forests and Associated Exotic Earthworms in Ottawa NWR

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Summary tables/figures and analysis associated with the 2010 rapid ecological assessment of sampled forest stands and associated earthworms at Ottawa National...

  3. Rapid Ecological Assessment of Forests and Associated Exotic Earthworms in Shiawassee NWR

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Summary tables/figures and analysis associated with the 2010 rapid ecological assessment of sampled forest stands and associated earthworms at Shiawassee National...

  4. Rapid Ecological Assessment of Forests and Associated Exotic Earthworms in Tamarac NWR

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Summary tables/figures and analysis associated with the 2010 rapid ecological assessment of sampled forest stands and associated earthworms at Tamarac National...

  5. The Impact of Invasive Earthworm Activity on Biopolymer Character of ýDecayed Litter ý

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filley, T.; Crow, S.; Johnston, C.; McCormick, M.; Szlavecz, K.

    2007-12-01

    Over the last 400-500 years invasive European earthworm populations have ýmoved steadily into North American forests either previously devoid of ýearthworms or that contained their own native populations. This has profound ýimpacts upon litter decay and soil organic matter dynamics. To determine the ýimpact of earthworm activity on the biopolymer and stable isotope chemistry of ýlitter residues and the nature of organic carbon moved to the soil profile we ýanalyzed tulip poplar leaves from a multi-year addition experiment in open ýsurface decay litter and litter bag decay experiments, as well as the associated ýsoils among forest plots that varied in non-native earthworm density and ýbiomass. The chemical alteration of biopolymers was tracked with FTIR ýspectroscopy, 13C-TMAH thermochemolysis, alkaline CuO extraction, and stable ýisotope mass spectrometry. Earthworm activity resulted in residues and soil ýparticulate organic matter depleted in cuticular aliphatic components and ýpolyphenols but highly enriched in ether-linked lignin with respect to initial litter ýmaterial. Decay in low earthworm abundance plots, as well as all experiments ýwith earthworm-excluding litter bags, resulted in enrichment in cutin aliphatics ýand only minor increases in ether linked lignin phenols which was also reflected ýin the soils below the amendments. Additionally, the stable carbon and nitrogen ýisotope composition of tulip poplar residues became isotopically distinct. The ýresults from litter bag decays were only reflective of the chemistry at sites with ývery low earthworm abundances. ý

  6. Effects of Earthworm and Microbe on Soil Nutrients and Heavy Metals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN Wei-bao; YANG Hong-qiang

    2008-01-01

    Earthworm and microbe are very important soil organisms. They play an important role in the stability of ecosystem and the bioavailability of nutrients and heavy metals in soils. This article reviewed the function of earthworm and microbes in improving soil structure and controlling soil nutrients as well as their effects on the bioavailability of heavy metals in soil through bioabsorption, enrichment, precipitation, dissolution, and oxidation-reduction. The aim is to provide a certain theoretical basis for modern agricultural production.

  7. Resource Utilization by Native and Invasive Earthworms and Their Effects on Soil Carbon and Nitrogen Dynamics in Puerto Rican Soils

    OpenAIRE

    Ching-Yu Huang; Grizelle González; Paul F. Hendrix

    2016-01-01

    Resource utilization by earthworms affects soil C and N dynamics and further colonization of invasive earthworms. By applying 13C-labeled Tabebuia heterophylla leaves and 15N-labeled Andropogon glomeratus grass, we investigated resource utilization by three earthworm species (invasive endogeic Pontoscolex corethrurus, native anecic Estherella sp, and native endogeic Onychochaeta borincana) and their effects on soil C and N dynamics in Puerto Rican soils in a 22-day laboratory experiment. Chan...

  8. Aporrectodea caliginosa, a suitable earthworm species for field based genotoxicity assessment?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klobucar, Goeran I.V., E-mail: gklobuca@zg.biol.pmf.hr [Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, University of Zagreb, Rooseveltov trg 6, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Stambuk, Anamaria; Srut, Maja [Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, University of Zagreb, Rooseveltov trg 6, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Husnjak, Ivana [Ministry of Environmental Protection, Physical Planning and Construction, Ulica Republike Austrije 14, Zagreb (Croatia); Merkas, Martina [Croatian Institute for Brain Research, School of Medicine, University of Zagreb, Salata 12, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Traven, Luka [Department of Environmental Medicine, Medical Faculty, University of Rijeka, Brace Branchetta 20a, 51000 Rijeka (Croatia); Teaching Institute of Public Health of the Primorsko-goranska County, Kresimirova 52a, 51000 Rijeka (Croatia); Cvetkovic, Zelimira [Department of Ecology, Institute of Public Health, Mirogojska c. 16, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia)

    2011-04-15

    There is a growing interest for the application of biomakers to field-collected earthworms. Therefore we have evaluated the usability of native populations of endogeic, widely distributed earthworm Aporrectodea caliginosa in the assessment of soil genotoxicity using the Comet assay. Validation of the Comet assay on earthworm coelomocytes has been established using commercially available Eisenia fetida exposed to copper, cadmium, and pentachlorophenol, along with A. caliginosa exposed to copper in a filter paper contact test. Neutral red retention time (NRRT) assay was conducted on copper exposed and field-collected earthworms. Significant DNA and lysosomal damage was measured using Comet and NRRT assays in native populations of A. caliginosa sampled from the polluted soils in the urban area in comparison to the earthworms from the reference site. The results of this study confirm the employment of A. caliginosa as a suitable species for the in situ soil toxicity and genotoxicity field surveys. - Research highlights: > Native A. caliginosa has shown significant biological effect measured by the Comet and NRRT assays. > The Comet assay on A. caliginosa and E. fetida has shown to be of similar sensitivity as the NRRT assay. > A. caliginosa is a suitable species for the in situ soil toxicity and genotoxicity field surveys. - Native populations of endogeic earthworm Aporrectodea caliginosa can be successfully applied in the genotoxicity field surveys using Comet assay.

  9. Can We Predict How Earthworm Effects on Plant Growth Vary with Soil Properties?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kam-Rigne Laossi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Earthworms are usually assumed to enhance plant growth through different mechanisms which are now clearly identified. It is however difficult to determine their relative importance, and to predict a priori the strength and direction of the effects of a given earthworm species on a given plant. Soil properties are likely to be very influential in determining plant responses to earthworm activities. They are likely to change the relative strength of the various mechanisms involved in plant-earthworm interactions. In this paper, we review the different rationales used to explain changes in earthworm effect due to soil type. Then, we systematically discuss the effect of main soil characteristics (soil texture, OM, and nutrient contents on the different mechanisms allowing earthworm to influence plant growth. Finally, we identify the main shortcomings in our knowledge and point out the new experimental and meta-analytical approaches that need to be developed. An example of such a meta-analysis is given and means to go further are suggested. The result highlights a strong positive effect size in sandy soil and a weakly negative effect in clayey soil.

  10. Functional attributes: Compacting vs decompacting earthworms and influence on soil structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnauth Martinez GUÉI, Yannick BAIDAI, Jérôme Ebagnerin TONDOH,Jeroen HUISING

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available A short term field mesocosm experiment was performed in semi-deciduous forest areas of Ivory Coast to assess the impact of a decompacting (Hyperiodrilus africanus, Eudrilidae and two compacting (Millsonia omodeoi and Dichogaster terraenigrae, Acanthodrilidae earthworm species on soil properties. These species have been selected for their predominance in the region and their contrasting impact on soil structure. The experimental design consisted of a treatment without worms (control, and treatments with one, two or three species of earthworms. Both compacting and decompacting earthworms increased water infiltration rate in all treatments, with marked impact in H. africanus and M. omodeoi+D. terraenigrae treatments. Interactions between compacting and decompacting species resulted in more large aggregates in comparison to when the compacting species D. terraenigrae was alone. This may be accounted for by their compacting attribute as compacting earthworms are responsible for producing the highest number of large aggregates. The low values of mean weight diameter in treatments combining decompacting and compacting earthworms compared with compacting "M. omodeoi" one also confirmed the trend of decline in soil compaction in the presence of the decompacting species. These results showed positive impact of species richness on soil structure regulation, which is crucial in ecosystem productivity and support consequently the insurance hypothesis. In fact, this study showed that the preservation of earthworm species belonging to these two contrasting functional groups is essential for the maintenance of stable soil structure regulation in agro-tropical ecosystems [Current Zoology 58 (4: 556–565, 2012].

  11. Influence of earthworm activity on microbial communities related with the degradation of persistent pollutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natal-da-Luz, Tiago; Lee, Iwa; Verweij, Rudo A; Morais, Paula V; Van Velzen, Martin J M; Sousa, José Paulo; Van Gestel, Cornelis A M

    2012-04-01

    Earthworms may promote the biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soil, but the mechanism through which they exert such influence is still unknown. To determine if the stimulation of PAH degradation by earthworms is related to changes in microbial communities, a microcosm experiment was conducted consisting of columns with natural uncontaminated soil covered with PAH-contaminated dredge sediment. Columns without and with low and high Eisenia andrei densities were prepared. Organic matter and PAH content, microbial biomass, and dehydrogenase activity (DHA) were measured in soil and sediment over time. Biolog Ecoplate™ and polymerase chain reaction using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis were used to evaluate changes in metabolic and structural diversity of the microbial community, respectively. Earthworm activity promoted PAH degradation in soil, which was significant for biphenyl, benzo[a]pyrene, and benzo[e]pyrene. Microbial biomass and DHA activity generally did not change over the experiment. Earthworm activity did change microbial community structure, but this did not affect its functioning in terms of carbon substrate consumption. Results suggest no relationship between changes in the microbial community by earthworm activity and increased PAH disappearance. The role of shifts in soil microbial community structure induced by earthworms in PAH removal needs further investigation.

  12. Self-assemblage and quorum in the earthworm Eisenia fetida (Oligochaete, Lumbricidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lara Zirbes

    Full Text Available Despite their ubiquity and ecological significance in temperate ecosystems, the behavioural ecology of earthworms is not well described. This study examines the mechanisms that govern aggregation behaviour specially the tendency of individuals to leave or join groups in the compost earthworm Eisenia fetida, a species with considerable economic importance, especially in waste management applications. Through behavioural assays combined with mathematical modelling, we provide the first evidence of self-assembled social structures in earthworms and describe key mechanisms involved in cluster formation. We found that the probability of an individual joining a group increased with group size, while the probability of leaving decreased. Moreover, attraction to groups located at a distance was observed, suggesting a role for volatile cues in cluster formation. The size of earthworm clusters appears to be a key factor determining the stability of the group. These findings enhance our understanding of intra-specific interactions in earthworms and have potential implications for extraction and collection of earthworms in vermicomposting processes.

  13. Effect of Earthworm(Pheretima sp.) Density on Revegetation of Lead/zinc Metal Mine Tailings Amended with Soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cheng Jiemin; Ming H Wong

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the ef-fects of earthworm density on the availability of nutrients and heavy metals in metal contaminated soils. Pb/Zn mine tailings were mixed throughly with a red yellow podzolic soil at the ratio (w/w) of 75:25. Earthworms (Pheretima sp.) were introduced to the mixture at four different densities, zero, three, six and nine individuals per pot planted with ryegrass (Loliun multiflorum). The results indicated that earthworm activity significantly en-hanced ryegrass shoot biomass. However, as denser earthworm population was introduced, shoot biomass tended to decrease. Earthworm activity significantly increased soil pH and availability of N, P and K in the tailings and soil mixture. There was a general tendency that uptake of Zn by ryegrass increased after earthworm inoculation, although the increase in extractable Zn in tailings and soil mixture was not significant. On the contrary, there seemed to be a lower uptake of Pb by ryegrass under earthworm inoclation, despite the fact that higher extractable Pb concentrations were observed. The present project indicated that the improved growth of ryegrass was due to improved nutrient availability and other soil conditions, by inoculation of earthworms at an appropriate rote. Further studies are needed to illustrate the relationship be-tween metal availability and earthworm activity in the field.

  14. Earthworms and priming of soil organic matter - The impact of food sources, food preferences and fauna - microbiota interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potthoff, Martin; Wichern, Florian; Dyckmans, Jens; Joergensen, Rainer Georg

    2016-04-01

    Earthworms deeply interact with the processes of soil organic matter turnover in soil. Stabilization of carbon by soil aggregation and in the humus fraction of SOM are well known processes related to earthworm activity and burrowing. However, recent research on priming effects showed inconsistent effects for the impact of earthworm activity. Endogeic earthworms can induce apparent as well as true positive priming effects. The main finding is almost always that earthworm increase the CO2 production from soil. The sources of this carbon release can vary and seem to depend on a complex interaction of quantity and quality of available carbon sources including added substrates like straw or other compounds, food preferences and feeding behavior of earthworms, and soil properties. Referring to recent studies on earthworm effects on soil carbon storage and release (mainly Eck et al. 2015 Priming effects of Aporrectodea caliginosa on young rhizodeposits and old soil organic matter following wheat straw addition, European Journal of Soil Biology 70:38-45; Zareitalabad et al. 2010 Decomposition of 15N-labelled maize leaves in soil affected by endogeic geophagous Aporrectodea caliginosa, Soil Biology and Biochemistry 42(2):276-282; and Potthoff et al. 2001 Short-term effects of earthworm activity and straw amendment on the microbial C and N turnover in a remoistened arable soil after summer drought, Soil Biology and Biochemistry 33(4):583-591) we summaries the knowledge on earthworms and priming and come up with a conceptual approach and further research needs.

  15. Building Terrestrial Planets

    CERN Document Server

    Morbidelli, Alessandro; O`brien, David P; Raymond, Sean N; Walsh, Kevin J; 10.1146/annurev-earth-042711-105319

    2012-01-01

    This paper reviews our current understanding of terrestrial planets formation. The focus is on computer simulations of the dynamical aspects of the accretion process. Throughout the chapter, we combine the results of these theoretical models with geochemical, cosmochemical and chronological constraints, in order to outline a comprehensive scenario of the early evolution of our Solar System. Given that the giant planets formed first in the protoplanetary disk, we stress the sensitive dependence of the terrestrial planet accretion process on the orbital architecture of the giant planets and on their evolution. This suggests a great diversity among the terrestrial planets populations in extrasolar systems. Issues such as the cause for the different masses and accretion timescales between Mars and the Earth and the origin of water (and other volatiles) on our planet are discussed at depth.

  16. Coreless Terrestrial Exoplanets

    CERN Document Server

    Elkins-Tanton, L

    2008-01-01

    Differentiation in terrestrial planets is expected to include the formation of a metallic iron core. We predict the existence of terrestrial planets that have differentiated but have no metallic core--planets that are effectively a giant silicate mantle. We discuss two paths to forming a coreless terrestrial planet, whereby the oxidation state during planetary accretion and solidification will determine the size or existence of any metallic core. Under this hypothesis, any metallic iron in the bulk accreting material is oxidized by water, binding the iron in the form of iron oxide into the silicate minerals of the planetary mantle. The existence of such silicate planets has consequences for interpreting the compositions and interior density structures of exoplanets based on their mass and radius measurements.

  17. Escape and avoidance learning in the earthworm Eisenia hortensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Jeffrey Wilson

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Interest in instrumental learning in earthworms dates back to 1912 when Yerkes concluded that they can learn a spatial discrimination in a T-maze. Rosenkoetter and Boice determined in the 1970s that the “learning” that Yerkes observed was probably chemotaxis and not learning at all. We examined a different form of instrumental learning: the ability to learn both to escape and to avoid an aversive stimulus. Freely moving “master” worms could turn off an aversive white light by increasing their movement; the behavior of yoked controls had no effect on the light. We demonstrate that in as few as 12 trials the behavior of the master worms comes under the control of this contingency.

  18. Earthworm-like micro robot based on electromagnetic driver

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Kundong; Yan Guozheng

    2007-01-01

    According to the principle of bionics, a prototype of the earthworm-like micro robot was developed and manufactured for entering the small tube. Based on the process of the action and mechanics analysis, the controller was designed. This micro robot with 6mm diameter was driven directly by three electromagnetic linear drivers. Mobile cells were Joined with two degree-of-freedom joint and the whole body Was flexible and soft. The driving force reached 10.8g in normal working condition. The direction of movement and the angle of imaging can be controlled by the shape memory alloy (SMA). The driving force, velocity and movement of micro robot in flexural tube were tested through experiments, which indicated that the driving force was in proportion to the current, and the velocity reached a maximum in certain range of frequency, and the micro robot could move in the thin tube flexibly.

  19. Terrestrial Gravity Fluctuations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harms, Jan

    2015-12-01

    Different forms of fluctuations of the terrestrial gravity field are observed by gravity experiments. For example, atmospheric pressure fluctuations generate a gravity-noise foreground in measurements with super-conducting gravimeters. Gravity changes caused by high-magnitude earthquakes have been detected with the satellite gravity experiment GRACE, and we expect high-frequency terrestrial gravity fluctuations produced by ambient seismic fields to limit the sensitivity of ground-based gravitational-wave (GW) detectors. Accordingly, terrestrial gravity fluctuations are considered noise and signal depending on the experiment. Here, we will focus on ground-based gravimetry. This field is rapidly progressing through the development of GW detectors. The technology is pushed to its current limits in the advanced generation of the LIGO and Virgo detectors, targeting gravity strain sensitivities better than 10-23 Hz-1/2 above a few tens of a Hz. Alternative designs for GW detectors evolving from traditional gravity gradiometers such as torsion bars, atom interferometers, and superconducting gradiometers are currently being developed to extend the detection band to frequencies below 1 Hz. The goal of this article is to provide the analytical framework to describe terrestrial gravity perturbations in these experiments. Models of terrestrial gravity perturbations related to seismic fields, atmospheric disturbances, and vibrating, rotating or moving objects, are derived and analyzed. The models are then used to evaluate passive and active gravity noise mitigation strategies in GW detectors, or alternatively, to describe their potential use in geophysics. The article reviews the current state of the field, and also presents new analyses especially with respect to the impact of seismic scattering on gravity perturbations, active gravity noise cancellation, and time-domain models of gravity perturbations from atmospheric and seismic point sources. Our understanding of

  20. Terrestrial Gravity Fluctuations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harms, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Different forms of fluctuations of the terrestrial gravity field are observed by gravity experiments. For example, atmospheric pressure fluctuations generate a gravity-noise foreground in measurements with super-conducting gravimeters. Gravity changes caused by high-magnitude earthquakes have been detected with the satellite gravity experiment GRACE, and we expect high-frequency terrestrial gravity fluctuations produced by ambient seismic fields to limit the sensitivity of ground-based gravitational-wave (GW) detectors. Accordingly, terrestrial gravity fluctuations are considered noise and signal depending on the experiment. Here, we will focus on ground-based gravimetry. This field is rapidly progressing through the development of GW detectors. The technology is pushed to its current limits in the advanced generation of the LIGO and Virgo detectors, targeting gravity strain sensitivities better than 10(-23) Hz(-1/2) above a few tens of a Hz. Alternative designs for GW detectors evolving from traditional gravity gradiometers such as torsion bars, atom interferometers, and superconducting gradiometers are currently being developed to extend the detection band to frequencies below 1 Hz. The goal of this article is to provide the analytical framework to describe terrestrial gravity perturbations in these experiments. Models of terrestrial gravity perturbations related to seismic fields, atmospheric disturbances, and vibrating, rotating or moving objects, are derived and analyzed. The models are then used to evaluate passive and active gravity noise mitigation strategies in GW detectors, or alternatively, to describe their potential use in geophysics. The article reviews the current state of the field, and also presents new analyses especially with respect to the impact of seismic scattering on gravity perturbations, active gravity noise cancellation, and time-domain models of gravity perturbations from atmospheric and seismic point sources. Our understanding of

  1. Terrestrial Gravity Fluctuations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Harms

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Different forms of fluctuations of the terrestrial gravity field are observed by gravity experiments. For example, atmospheric pressure fluctuations generate a gravity-noise foreground in measurements with super-conducting gravimeters. Gravity changes caused by high-magnitude earthquakes have been detected with the satellite gravity experiment GRACE, and we expect high-frequency terrestrial gravity fluctuations produced by ambient seismic fields to limit the sensitivity of ground-based gravitational-wave (GW detectors. Accordingly, terrestrial gravity fluctuations are considered noise and signal depending on the experiment. Here, we will focus on ground-based gravimetry. This field is rapidly progressing through the development of GW detectors. The technology is pushed to its current limits in the advanced generation of the LIGO and Virgo detectors, targeting gravity strain sensitivities better than 10^–23 Hz^–1/2 above a few tens of a Hz. Alternative designs for GW detectors evolving from traditional gravity gradiometers such as torsion bars, atom interferometers, and superconducting gradiometers are currently being developed to extend the detection band to frequencies below 1 Hz. The goal of this article is to provide the analytical framework to describe terrestrial gravity perturbations in these experiments. Models of terrestrial gravity perturbations related to seismic fields, atmospheric disturbances, and vibrating, rotating or moving objects, are derived and analyzed. The models are then used to evaluate passive and active gravity noise mitigation strategies in GW detectors, or alternatively, to describe their potential use in geophysics. The article reviews the current state of the field, and also presents new analyses especially with respect to the impact of seismic scattering on gravity perturbations, active gravity noise cancellation, and time-domain models of gravity perturbations from atmospheric and seismic point sources. Our

  2. Diversification patterns in cosmopolitan earthworms: similar mode but different tempo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Rosa; Novo, Marta; Marchán, Daniel F; Díaz Cosín, Darío J

    2016-01-01

    Comparative phylogeography of widespread species that span the same geographic areas can elucidate the influence of historical events on current patterns of biodiversity, identify patterns of co-vicariance, and therefore aid the understanding of general evolutionary processes. Soil-dwelling animals present characteristics that make them suitable for testing the effect of the palaeogeographical events on their distribution and diversification, such as their low vagility and population structure. In this study, we shed light on the spatial lineage diversification and cladogenesis of two widely-distributed cosmopolitan and invasive earthworms (Aporrectodea rosea and A. trapezoides) in their putative ancestral area of origin, the Western Palearctic, and a few populations in North America. Molecular analyses were conducted on mitochondrial and nuclear markers from 220 (A. rosea) and 198 (A. trapezoides) individuals collected in 56 and 57 localities, respectively. We compared the lineage diversification pattern, genetic variability and cladogenesis in both species. Our findings showed that both species underwent a similar diversification from the Western Mediterranean plates to (i) Northern Europe and (ii) the Iberian Peninsula, establishing their two main lineages. Their diversification was in concordance with the main palaeogeographical events in the Iberian Peninsula and Western Mediterranean, followed by a later colonization of North America from individuals derived exclusively from the Eurosiberian lineage. Their diversification occurred at different times, with the diversification of A. rosea being potentially more ancient. Cladogenesis in both species seems to have been modelled only by the Mediterranean plate shifts, ignoring historical climatic oscillations such as the Messinian salinity crisis. Their high genetic variability, strong population structure, lack of gene flow and stepping-stone-like cladogenesis suggest the existence of different cryptic lineages

  3. Terrestrial and extraterrestrial fullerenes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heymann, D.; Jenneskens, L.W.; Jehlicka, J; Koper, C.; Vlietstra, E. [Rice Univ, Houston, TX (United States). Dept. of Earth Science

    2003-07-01

    This paper reviews reports of occurrences of fullerenes in circumstellar media, interstellar media, meteorites, interplanetary dust particles (IDPs), lunar rocks, hard terrestrial rocks from Shunga (Russia), Sudbury (Canada) and Mitov (Czech Republic), coal, terrestrial sediments from the Cretaceous-Tertiary-Boundary and Pennian-Triassic-Boundary, fulgurite, ink sticks, dinosaur eggs, and a tree char. The occurrences are discussed in the context of known and postulated processes of fullerene formation, including the suggestion that some natural fullerenes might have formed from biological (algal) remains.

  4. Effects of Earthworms and Ryegrass on the Removal of Fluoranthene from Soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JING Yong-Ping; LIU Man-Qiang; YIN Qi-Peng; LI Hui-Xin; HU Feng

    2013-01-01

    Earthworms can promote the bioremediation of contaminated soils through enhancing plant growth and microorganism development.The individual and combined effects of earthworms and ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.) on the removal of fluoranthene from a sandy-loam alluvial soil were investigated in a 70-d microcosm experiment.The experiment was set up in a complete factorial design with treatments in four replicates:without earthworms or ryegrass (control,CK),with earthworms only (E),with ryegrass only (P),and with both earthworms and ryegrass (EP).The residual fluoranthene,microbial biomass C,and polyphenol oxidase activity in the soil changed significantly (P < 0.01) with time.In general,the residual concentration of fluoranthene in the soil decreased sharply from 71.8-88.7 to 31.7-37.4 mg kg-1 in 14 d,and then decreased gradually to 19.7-30.5 mg kg-1 on the 70th d.The fluoranthene concentration left in the soil was the least with both earthworms and ryegrass,compared to the other treatments at the end of the experiment.Half-life times of fluoranthene in the E,P,and EP treatments were 17.8%-36.3% smaller than that of CK.More fluoranthene was absorbed by earthworms than ryegrass.However,the total amounts of fluoranthene accumulated in both the ryegrass and earthworms were small,only accounting for 0.01%-1.20% of the lost fluoranthene.Therefore,we assumed that microbial degradation would play a dominant functional role in fluoranthene removal from soil.We found that earthworms significantly increased microbial biomass C and polyphenol oxidase activity (P < 0.01) in the presence of ryegrass at the end of the experiment.Furthermore,microbial biomass C and polyphenol oxidase activity were significantly (P < 0.05) and negatively related to the residual fluoranthene concentration.This implied that earthworms might promote the removal of fluoranthene from soil via stimulating microbial biomass C and polyphenol oxidase activity.

  5. Habitat type-based bioaccumulation and risk assessment of metal and As contamination in earthworms, beetles and woodlice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vermeulen, Frouke, E-mail: frouke.vermeulen@ua.ac.b [Ecophysiology, Biochemistry and Toxicology Group (U7), University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Van den Brink, Nico W., E-mail: nico.vandenbrink@wur.n [Alterra, Wageningen UR, Box 47, NL6700AA Wageningen (Netherlands); D' Have, Helga [Ecophysiology, Biochemistry and Toxicology Group (U7), University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Mubiana, Valentine K., E-mail: kayawe.mubiana@ua.ac.b [Ecophysiology, Biochemistry and Toxicology Group (U7), University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Blust, Ronny, E-mail: ronny.blust@ua.ac.b [Ecophysiology, Biochemistry and Toxicology Group (U7), University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Bervoets, Lieven, E-mail: lieven.bervoets@ua.ac.b [Ecophysiology, Biochemistry and Toxicology Group (U7), University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium); De Coen, Wim, E-mail: wim.decoen@ua.ac.b [Ecophysiology, Biochemistry and Toxicology Group (U7), University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium)

    2009-11-15

    The present study investigated the contribution of environmental factors to the accumulation of As, Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn in earthworms, beetles and woodlice, and framed within an exposure assessment of the European hedgehog. Soil and invertebrate samples were collected in three distinct habitat types. Results showed habitat-specific differences in soil and invertebrate metal concentrations and bioaccumulation factors when normalized to soil metal concentration. Further multiple regression analysis showed residual variability (habitat differences) in bioaccumulation that could not be fully explained by differences in soil metal contamination, pH or organic carbon (OC). Therefore, the study demonstrated that in bioaccumulation studies involving terrestrial invertebrates or in risk assessment of metals, it is not sufficient to differentiate habitat types on general soil characteristics such as pH and/or OC alone. Furthermore, simple generic soil risk assessments for Cd and Cu showed that risk characterization was more accurate when performed in a habitat-specific way. - Our study provided essential insights into habitat-specific accumulation patterns with respect to factors influencing metal bioaccumulation, BAFs, and site-specific risk assessment.

  6. The terrestrial silica pump.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna C Carey

    Full Text Available Silicon (Si cycling controls atmospheric CO(2 concentrations and thus, the global climate, through three well-recognized means: chemical weathering of mineral silicates, occlusion of carbon (C to soil phytoliths, and the oceanic biological Si pump. In the latter, oceanic diatoms directly sequester 25.8 Gton C yr(-1, accounting for 43% of the total oceanic net primary production (NPP. However, another important link between C and Si cycling remains largely ignored, specifically the role of Si in terrestrial NPP. Here we show that 55% of terrestrial NPP (33 Gton C yr(-1 is due to active Si-accumulating vegetation, on par with the amount of C sequestered annually via marine diatoms. Our results suggest that similar to oceanic diatoms, the biological Si cycle of land plants also controls atmospheric CO(2 levels. In addition, we provide the first estimates of Si fixed in terrestrial vegetation by major global biome type, highlighting the ecosystems of most dynamic Si fixation. Projected global land use change will convert forests to agricultural lands, increasing the fixation of Si by land plants, and the magnitude of the terrestrial Si pump.

  7. Terrestrial plant methane production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Teis Nørgaard; Bruhn, Dan; Møller, Ian M.

    We evaluate all experimental work published on the phenomenon of aerobic methane (CH4) generation in terrestrial plants. We conclude that the phenomenon is true. Four stimulating factors have been observed to induce aerobic plant CH4 production, i.e. cutting injuries, increasing temperature...

  8. Source-pathway-receptor investigation of the fate of trace elements derived from shotgun pellets discharged in terrestrial ecosystems managed for game shooting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sneddon, Jennifer; Clemente, Rafael; Riby, Philip; Lepp, Nicholas W

    2009-10-01

    Spent shotgun pellets may contaminate terrestrial ecosystems. We examined the fate of elements originating from shotgun pellets in pasture and woodland ecosystems. Two source-receptor pathways: i) soil-soil pore water-plant and ii) whole earthworm/worm gut contents--washed and unwashed small mammal hair were investigated. Concentrations of Pb and associated contaminants were higher in soils from shot areas than controls. Arsenic and lead concentrations were positively correlated in soils, soil pore water and associated biota. Element concentrations in biota were below statutory levels in all locations. Bioavailability of lead to small mammals, based on concentrations in washed body hair was low. Lead movement from soil water to higher trophic levels was minor compared to lead adsorbed onto body surfaces. Lead was concentrated in earthworm gut and some plants. Results indicate that managed game shooting presents minimal risk in terms of element transfer to soils and their associated biota.

  9. Epigeic earthworms exert a bottleneck effect on microbial communities through gut associated processes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Gómez-Brandón

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Earthworms play a critical role in organic matter decomposition because of the interactions they establish with microorganisms. The ingestion, digestion, assimilation of organic material in the gut and then casting is the first step in earthworm-microorganism interactions. The current knowledge of these direct effects is still limited for epigeic earthworm species, mainly those living in man-made environments. Here we tested whether and to what extent the earthworm Eisenia andrei is capable of altering the microbiological properties of fresh organic matter through gut associated processes; and if these direct effects are related to the earthworm diet. METHODOLOGY: To address these questions we determined the microbial community structure (phospholipid fatty acid profiles and microbial activity (fluorescein diacetate hydrolysis in the earthworm casts derived from three types of animal manure (cow, horse and pig manure, which differed in microbial composition. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The passage of the organic material through the gut of E. andrei reduced the total microbial biomass irrespective of the type of manure, and resulted in a decrease in bacterial biomass in all the manures; whilst leaving the fungi unaffected in the egested materials. However, unlike the microbial biomass, no such reduction was detected in the total microbial activity of cast samples derived from the pig manure. Moreover, no differences were found between cast samples derived from the different types of manure with regards to microbial community structure, which provides strong evidence for a bottleneck effect of worm digestion on microbial populations of the original material consumed. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our data reveal that earthworm gut is a major shaper of microbial communities, thereby favouring the existence of a reduced but more active microbial population in the egested materials, which is of great importance to understand how biotic interactions

  10. Bioaccumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and survival of earthworms (Eisenia andrei) exposed to biochar amended soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malev, O; Contin, M; Licen, S; Barbieri, P; De Nobili, M

    2016-02-01

    Biochar has a charcoal polycyclic aromatic structure which allows its long half-life in soil, making it an ideal tool for C sequestration and for adsorption of organic pollutants, but at the same time raises concerns about possible adverse impacts on soil biota. Two biochars were tested under laboratory-controlled conditions on Eisenia andrei earthworms: a biochar produced at low temperature from wine tree cuttings (WTB) and a commercial low tar hardwood lump charcoal (HLB). The avoidance test (48-h exposure) showed that earthworms avoid biochar-treated soil with rates higher than 16 t ha(-1) for HLB and 64 t ha(-1) for WTB. After 42 days, toxic effects on earthworms were observed even at application rates (100 t ha(-1)) that are generally considered beneficial for most crops. The concentration of HLB and WTB required to kill half of earthworms' population (LC50; 95% confidence limits) in the synthetic OECD soil was 338 and 580 t ha(-1), respectively. Accumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in earthworms exposed to the two biochar types at 100 t ha(-1) was tested in two soils of different texture. In biochar-treated soils, the average earthworm survival rates were about 64% in the sandy and 78% clay-loam soils. PAH accumulation was larger in the sandy soil and largest in soils amended with HLB. PAH with less than four rings were preferentially scavenged from the soil by biochars, and this behaviour may mask that of the more dangerous components (i.e. four to five rings), which are preferentially accumulated. Earthworms can accumulate PAH as a consequence of exposure to biochar-treated soils and transfer them along the food chain. Soil type and biochar quality are both relevant in determining PAH transfer.

  11. Epigeic Earthworms Exert a Bottleneck Effect on Microbial Communities through Gut Associated Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Brandón, María; Aira, Manuel; Lores, Marta; Domínguez, Jorge

    2011-01-01

    Background Earthworms play a critical role in organic matter decomposition because of the interactions they establish with microorganisms. The ingestion, digestion, assimilation of organic material in the gut and then casting is the first step in earthworm-microorganism interactions. The current knowledge of these direct effects is still limited for epigeic earthworm species, mainly those living in man-made environments. Here we tested whether and to what extent the earthworm Eisenia andrei is capable of altering the microbiological properties of fresh organic matter through gut associated processes; and if these direct effects are related to the earthworm diet. Methodology To address these questions we determined the microbial community structure (phospholipid fatty acid profiles) and microbial activity (fluorescein diacetate hydrolysis) in the earthworm casts derived from three types of animal manure (cow, horse and pig manure), which differed in microbial composition. Principal Findings The passage of the organic material through the gut of E. andrei reduced the total microbial biomass irrespective of the type of manure, and resulted in a decrease in bacterial biomass in all the manures; whilst leaving the fungi unaffected in the egested materials. However, unlike the microbial biomass, no such reduction was detected in the total microbial activity of cast samples derived from the pig manure. Moreover, no differences were found between cast samples derived from the different types of manure with regards to microbial community structure, which provides strong evidence for a bottleneck effect of worm digestion on microbial populations of the original material consumed. Conclusions/Significance Our data reveal that earthworm gut is a major shaper of microbial communities, thereby favouring the existence of a reduced but more active microbial population in the egested materials, which is of great importance to understand how biotic interactions within the decomposer

  12. Effect of earthworms on the community structure of active methanotrophic bacteria in a landfill cover soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Héry, Marina; Singer, Andrew C; Kumaresan, Deepak; Bodrossy, Levente; Stralis-Pavese, Nancy; Prosser, Jim I; Thompson, Ian P; Murrell, J Colin

    2008-01-01

    In the United Kingdom, landfills are the primary anthropogenic source of methane emissions. Methanotrophic bacteria present in landfill biocovers can significantly reduce methane emissions via their capacity to oxidize up to 100% of the methane produced. Several biotic and abiotic parameters regulate methane oxidation in soil, such as oxygen, moisture, methane concentration and temperature. Earthworm-mediated bioturbation has been linked to an increase in methanotrophy in a landfill biocover soil (AC Singer et al., unpublished), but the mechanism of this trophic interaction remains unclear. The aims of this study were to determine the composition of the active methanotroph community and to investigate the interactions between earthworms and bacteria in this landfill biocover soil where the methane oxidation activity was significantly increased by the earthworms. Soil microcosms were incubated with 13C-CH4 and with or without earthworms. DNA and RNA were extracted to characterize the soil bacterial communities, with a particular emphasis on methanotroph populations, using phylogenetic (16S ribosomal RNA) and functional methane monooxygenase (pmoA and mmoX) gene probes, coupled with denaturing gradient-gel electrophoresis, clone libraries and pmoA microarray analyses. Stable isotope probing (SIP) using 13C-CH4 substrate allowed us to link microbial function with identity of bacteria via selective recovery of 'heavy' 13C-labelled DNA or RNA and to assess the effect of earthworms on the active methanotroph populations. Both types I and II methanotrophs actively oxidized methane in the landfill soil studied. Results suggested that the earthworm-mediated increase in methane oxidation rate in the landfill soil was more likely to be due to the stimulation of bacterial growth or activity than to substantial shifts in the methanotroph community structure. A Bacteroidetes-related bacterium was identified only in the active bacterial community of earthworm-incubated soil but

  13. Evolution of the tripartite symbiosis between earthworms, Verminephrobacter and Flexibacter-like bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter eMøller

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Nephridial (excretory organ symbionts are widespread in lumbricid earthworms and the complexity of the nephridial symbiont communities varies greatly between earthworm species. The two most common symbionts are the well-described Verminephrobacter and less well-known Flexibacter-like bacteria. Verminephrobacter are present in almost all lumbricid earthworms, they are species-specific, vertically transmitted, and have presumably been associated with their hosts since the origin of lumbricids. Flexibacter-like symbionts have been reported from about half the investigated earthworms; they are also vertically transmitted. To investigate the evolution of this tri-partite symbiosis, phylogenies for 18 lumbricid earthworm species were constructed based on two mitochondrial genes, NADH dehydrogenase subunit 2 (ND2 and cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI, and compared to their symbiont phylogenies based on RNA polymerase subunit B (rpoB and 16S rRNA genes.The two nephridial symbionts showed markedly different evolutionary histories with their hosts. For Verminephrobacter, clear signs of long-term host-symbiont co-evolution with rare host switching events confirmed its ancient association with lumbricid earthworms, likely dating back to their last common ancestor about 100 million years (MY ago. In contrast, phylogenies for the Flexibacter-like symbionts suggested an ability to switch to new hosts, to which they adapted and subsequently became species-specific. Putative co-speciation events were only observed with closely related host species; on that basis, this secondary symbiosis was estimated to be minimum 45 MY old. Based on the monophyletic clustering of the Flexibacter-like symbionts, the low 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to the nearest described species (<92% and environmental sequences (<94.2 %, and the specific habitat in the earthworm nephridia, we propose a new candidate genus for this group, Candidatus Nephrothrix.

  14. Impact of a changed inundation regime caused by climate change and floodplain rehabilitation on population viability of earthworms in a lower River Rhine floodplain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thonon, I.; Klok, C.

    2007-01-01

    River floodplains are dynamic and fertile ecosystems where soil invertebrates such as earthworms can reach high population densities. Earthworms are an important food source for a wide range of organisms including species under conservation such as badgers. Flooding, however, reduces earthworm

  15. Impact of a changed inundation regime caused by climate change and floodplain rehabilitation on population viability of earthworms in a lower River Rhine floodplain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thonon, I.; Klok, C.

    2007-01-01

    River floodplains are dynamic and fertile ecosystems where soil invertebrates such as earthworms can reach high population densities. Earthworms are an important food source for a wide range of organisms including species under conservation such as badgers. Flooding, however, reduces earthworm numbe

  16. Long-term effects of fertilisation regime on earthworm abundance in a semi-natural grassland area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmerman, A.; Bos, D.; Ouwehand, J.; Goede, de R.G.M.

    2006-01-01

    Environmental protection organisations involved in farmland-bird conservation promote the use of organic fertilisers, especially farmyard manure, to enhance the availability of earthworms, which are an important prey for farmland-birds. We studied changes in earthworm numbers in a field experiment o

  17. Dual roles of glucose in the freeze-tolerant earthworm Dendrobaena octaedra: cryoprotection and fuel for metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calderon, Sofia; Holmstrup, Martin; Westh, Peter;

    2009-01-01

    Ectothermic animals inhabiting the subarctic and temperate regions have evolved strategies to deal with periods of continuous frost during winter. The earthworm Dendrobaena octaedra is freeze tolerant and accumulates large concentrations of glucose upon freezing. The present study investigates...... degrees C of the 'average' D. octaedra. Such conditions are very likely to occur in the northern distribution ranges of this stress-tolerant earthworm....

  18. Earthworms change the quantity and composition of dissolved organic carbon and reduce greenhouse gas emissions during composting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nigussie, Abebe; Bruun, Sander; Neergaard, de Andreas; Kuijper, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) has recently been proposed as an indicator of compost stability. We assessed the earthworms' effect on DOC content and composition during composting, and linked compost stability to greenhouse gas emissions and feeding ratio. Earthworms reduced total DOC content,

  19. Earthworms change the quantity and composition of dissolved organic carbon and reduce greenhouse gas emissions during composting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nigussie, Abebe; Bruun, Sander; Neergaard, de Andreas; Kuijper, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) has recently been proposed as an indicator of compost stability. We assessed the earthworms' effect on DOC content and composition during composting, and linked compost stability to greenhouse gas emissions and feeding ratio. Earthworms reduced total DOC content, in

  20. Earthworm populations are affected from Long-Term Crop Sequences and Bio-Covers under No-Tillage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earthworms are crucial for improving soil biophysical properties in cropping systems. Consequently, effects of cropping rotation and bio-covers were assessed on earthworm populations under no-tillage sites. Main effects of 6 different cropping sequences [corn (Zea mays), cotton (Gossypium hirsutum),...

  1. The influence of the earthworm Lampito mauritii (Kinberg) on the activity of selected soil enzymes in cadmium-amended soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivakumar, S; Prabha, D; Barathi, S; Nityanandi, D; Subbhuraam, C V; Lakshmipriya, T; Kamala-Kannan, Seralathan; Jang, S H; Yi, P I

    2015-03-01

    The effects of cadmium (CdCl2·7H2O) on cellulase, urease, amylase, invertase and phosphatase were assessed for a period of 45 days in the presence and absence of earthworms [Lampito mauritii (Kinberg)] in alfisol soil. The activities of all enzymes significantly increased with longer incubation times (45 days) under laboratory conditions in both control and Cd-amended soils (both with and without earthworm incubation). However, the activities of all enzymes decreased with increasing Cd concentrations under laboratory conditions, both in the presence and absence of earthworms. In the presence of earthworms, cellulase, urease, invertase and amylase activities increased. However, phosphatase activity was lower in most of the Cd-amended soils in the presence of earthworms compared to its activity levels in soils lacking earthworms. These results show that earthworms modulated the stress imposed by Cd by providing suitable substrates, which in turn acted as stimulants for extracellular enzyme secretion by microbes, and by removing Cd through its accumulation in the tissues of the earthworms.

  2. Species-specific differences in biomarker responses in two ecologically different earthworms exposed to the insecticide dimethoate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velki, Mirna; Hackenberger, Branimir K

    2012-08-01

    Earthworms ingest large amounts of soil and therefore are continuously exposed to contaminants through their alimentary surfaces. Additionally, several studies have shown that earthworm skin is a significant route of contaminant uptake as well. In order to determine effects of dimethoate, a broad-spectrum organophosphorous insecticide, two ecologically different earthworm species were used - Eisenia andrei and Octolasion lacteum. Although several studies used soil organisms to investigate the effects of dimethoate, none of these studies included investigations of dimethoate effects on biochemical biomarkers in earthworms. Earthworms were exposed to 0.001, 0.005, 0.01, 0.5 and 1 μg/cm(2) of dimethoate for 24 h, and the activities of acetylcholinesterase, carboxylesterase, catalase and efflux pump were measured. In both earthworm species dimethoate caused significant inhibition of acetylcholinesterase and carboxylesterase activities, however in E. andrei an hormetic effect was evident. Efflux pump activity was inhibited only in E. andrei, and catalase activity was significantly inhibited in both earthworm species. Additionally, responses of earthworm acetylcholinesterase, carboxylesterase and catalase activity to dimethoate were examined through in vitro experiments. Comparison of responses between E. andrei and O. lacteum has shown significant differences, and E. andrei has proved to be less susceptible to dimethoate exposure.

  3. Long-term effects of fertilisation regime on earthworm abundance in a semi-natural grassland area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmerman, A.; Bos, D.; Ouwehand, J.; Goede, de R.G.M.

    2006-01-01

    Environmental protection organisations involved in farmland-bird conservation promote the use of organic fertilisers, especially farmyard manure, to enhance the availability of earthworms, which are an important prey for farmland-birds. We studied changes in earthworm numbers in a field experiment o

  4. DNA damage in earthworms (Eisenia spp.) as an indicator of environmental stress in the industrial zone of Coatzacoalcos, Veracruz, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa-Reyes, Guillermo; Ilizaliturri, Cesar A; Gonzalez-Mille, Donaji J; Costilla, Rogelio; Diaz-Barriga, Fernando; Carmen Cuevas, Maria Del; Martinez, Miguel Angel; Mejia-Saavedra, Jesus

    2010-01-01

    Coatzacoalcos, Veracruz is one of the major industrial areas of Mexico. Presently, the Coatzacoalcos River and the areas surrounding the industrial complex are considered by various authors to be some of most polluted sites in Mexico. The objective of this study was to determine if earthworms could be used as indicators of environmental stress in the Coatzacoalcos industrial zone. Often, detritivores and decomposers such as earthworms are the first to be affected when the soil is contaminated. We collected soil samples to be used for persistent organic pollutants (POPs) quantification by gas chromatography. Concentrations of hexachlorobenzene, lindane and total polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the soil were above the maximum permissible limits of the Canadian Environmental Quality Guidelines (CEQG). Comet assay was conducted in coelomocytes of wild earthworms collected in Coatzacoalcos and compared with the control earthworms. We found DNA damage in earthworms from Coatzacoalcos that was significantly higher (P < 0.05) in comparison to laboratory earthworms. Earthworms are an appropriate organism to use as an indicator of environmental impact in contaminated sites. DNA damage recorded in the earthworms provides clear evidence of environmental impacts by the chemical industry on the wildlife of this region.

  5. Biochar and earthworm effects on soil nitrous oxide and carbon dioxide emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustenborg, Cara A; Hepp, Simone; Kammann, Claudia; Hagan, David; Schmidt, Olaf; Müller, Christoph

    2012-01-01

    Biochar is the product of pyrolysis produced from feedstock of biological origin. Due to its aromatic structure and long residence time, biochar may enable long-term carbon sequestration. At the same time, biochar has the potential to improve soil fertility and reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from soils. However, the effect of biochar application on GHG fluxes from soil must be investigated before recommendations for field-scale biochar application can be made. A laboratory experiment was designed to measure carbon dioxide (CO) and nitrous oxide (NO) emissions from two Irish soils with the addition of two different biochars, along with endogeic (soil-feeding) earthworms and ammonium sulfate, to assist in the overall evaluation of biochar as a GHG-mitigation tool. A significant reduction in NO emissions was observed from both low and high organic matter soils when biochars were applied at rates of 4% (w/w). Earthworms significantly increased NO fluxes in low and high organic matter soils more than 12.6-fold and 7.8-fold, respectively. The large increase in soil NO emissions in the presence of earthworms was significantly reduced by the addition of both biochars. biochar reduced the large earthworm emissions by 91 and 95% in the low organic matter soil and by 56 and 61% in the high organic matter soil (with and without N fertilization), respectively. With peanut hull biochar, the earthworm emissions reduction was 80 and 70% in the low organic matter soil, and only 20 and 10% in the high organic matter soil (with and without N fertilization), respectively. In high organic matter soil, both biochars reduced CO efflux in the absence of earthworms. However, soil CO efflux increased when peanut hull biochar was applied in the presence of earthworms. This study demonstrated that biochar can potentially reduce earthworm-enhanced soil NO and CO emissions. Hence, biochar application combined with endogeic earthworm activity did not reveal unknown risks for GHG emissions

  6. Impact of Native and Invasive Earthworm Activity on Forest Soil Organic Matter Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Top, Sara; Filley, Timothy

    2010-05-01

    Many northern North American forests are experiencing the introduction of exotic European lumbricid species earthworms with documented losses in litter layers, expansion of A-horizons, loss of the organic horizon, changes in fine root density, and shifts in microbial populations as a result. Some of these forests were previously devoid of these ecosystem engineers. We compare the soil isotope and molecular chemistry from two free air CO2 enrichment (FACE) forest experiments (aspen FACE at Rhinelander, Wisconsin and sweet gum FACE at Oak Ridge National Lab, Tennessee) that lie within the zones of earthworm invasion. These sites exhibit differences in amounts of exotic and native species as well as endogeic (predominantly mineral soil dwelling) and epigeic (litter and organic matter horizon dwelling) types. We investigated the impact of earthworm activity by tracking the relative abundance and stable carbon isotope compositions of lignin and substituted fatty acids extracted from isolated earthworms and their fecal pellets and from host soils. Additionally, 15N-labeled additions to the soil provide additional methods for tracking earthworm impacts. Indications of root vs leaf input to earthworm casts and fecal matter were derived from differences in the chemical composition of cutin, suberin, and lignin. The isotopically depleted CO2 used in FACE and the resulting isotopically depleted plant organic matter afford an excellent opportunity to assess biopolymer-specific turnover dynamics. We find that endogeic species are proportionately more responsible for fine root cycling while some epigeic species are responsible for microaggregation of foliar cutin. CSIA of fecal pellet lignin and SFA indicate how these biopolymer pools can be derived from variable sources, roots, background soil, foliar tissue within one earthworm. Additionally, CSIA indicates the distinct roles that different earthworm types have in "aging" surface soil biopolymer pools through encapsulation and

  7. THE ROLE OF RED PIGMENT PRODIGIOSIN FROM BACTERIA OF EARTHWORM GUT AS AN ANTICANCER AGENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sruthy P.B.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Earthworms are the most ancient invertebrate animals on earth which can be used as a good source of pharmaceutical compounds. A study was carried out to find out the distribution of microorganisms in the gut of earthworm, Eudrilus eugeniae. Significant number of microbial populations in the gut of earthworm was observed and it was gradually increased from the initial day to final day of composting. Pigmented colonies of bacteria from earthworm gut were selectively isolated, the pigment was extracted from the culture broth and a presumptive test was carried out for the confirmation of prodigiosin. The pigment component was separated using thin layer chromatography and the structural elucidation of the compound was performed using U.V. spectroscopy. The inhibitory effect of prodigiosin on bacterial pathogens was studied and the results confirmed the antibacterial activity against gram positive bacteria. The anticancer activity of the prodigiosin pigment was evaluated under in vitro conditions against the breast cancer cell lines and it was observed that prodigiosin induced the apoptosis in MCF-7 cell lines in a dose dependent manner. Then the potential isolate was subjected to morphological and biochemical analysis and it was confirmed that the colonies were of Serratia marcescens. The results obtained from the present study indicated that earthworm gut is promising and could be a vital source of habitat possessing antimicrobial and anticancer activity.

  8. Genotoxicity assessment of cobalt chloride in Eisenia hortensis earthworms coelomocytes by comet assay and micronucleus test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciğerci, İbrahim Hakkı; Ali, Muhammad Muddassir; Kaygısız, Şöhret Yüksek; Liman, Recep

    2016-02-01

    Cobalt and its different compounds are extensively used worldwide and considered as possible environmental pollutant. Earthworms are useful model organism and its different species are used to monitor soil pollution. No study has been found to detect cobalt chloride (CoCl2) genotoxicity in earthworms. So, current study aimed to evaluate CoCl2 induced genotoxicity in Eisenia hortensis earthworms coelomocytes by alkaline comet assay (CA) and micronucleus (MN) test. The earthworms (n = 10 for each group) were exposed to different series of CoCl2 concentrations (100 ppm, 200 ppm, 300 ppm, 400 ppm, 500 ppm, 600 ppm) to find LD50. The LD50 for CoCl2 was found at 226 ppm. Then, doses of LD50/2, LD50 and 2XLD50 for 48 h were used. CA and MN demonstrated the significant increase (P < 0.05) in DNA damage and chromosomal aberrations. Dose dependent relationship was found. Highest DNA damage and chromosomal aberrations were noticed at 2XLD50. The results concluded that CoCl2 induced DNA damage, cytokinesis failure and chromosomal aberrations in E. hortensis earthworms.

  9. Earthworms Dilong: Ancient, Inexpensive, Noncontroversial Models May Help Clarify Approaches to Integrated Medicine Emphasizing Neuroimmune Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwin L. Cooper

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Earthworms have provided ancient cultures with food and sources of medicinal cures. Ayurveda, traditional Chinese medicine (TCM, and practices in Japan, Vietnam, and Korea have focused first on earthworms as sources of food. Gradually fostering an approach to potential beneficial healing properties, there are renewed efforts through bioprospecting and evidence-based research to understand by means of rigorous investigations the mechanisms of action whether earthworms are used as food and/or as sources of potential medicinal products. Focusing on earthworms grew by serendipity from an extensive analysis of the earthworm’s innate immune system. Their immune systems are replete with leukocytes and humoral products that exert credible health benefits. Their emerging functions with respect to evolution of innate immunity have long been superseded by their well-known ecological role in soil conservation. Earthworms as inexpensive, noncontroversial animal models (without ethical concerns are not vectors of disease do not harbor parasites that threaten humans nor are they annoying pests. By recognizing their numerous ecological, environmental, and biomedical roles, substantiated by inexpensive and more comprehensive investigations, we will become more aware of their undiscovered beneficial properties.

  10. Enantioselective bioaccumulation and toxic effects of metalaxyl in earthworm Eisenia foetida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Peng; Diao, Jinling; Liu, Donghui; Zhou, Zhiqiang

    2011-05-01

    Knowledge about the enantioselective bioavailability of chiral pesticides in soil invertebrates facilitates more accurate interpretation of their environmental behaviors. In this study, the acute toxicities of R-metalaxyl and rac-metalaxyl to earthworm (Eisenia foetida) were assayed by filter paper contact test. After 48 h of exposure, the calculated LC(50) values for R- and rac-metalaxyl were 0.052 and 0.022 mg cm(-2), respectively, resulting in a two fold difference in toxicity. For uptake experiment, earthworms were exposed in soil at two dose levels (10 and 50 mg kg(dwt)(-1)). The concentrations of two enantiomers in soil and earthworm were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography based on cellulose tri-(3,5-dimethylphenyl-carbamate) chiral stationary phase. The results showed that metalaxyl was taken up by earthworm rapidly, and the bioaccumulation of metalaxyl in earthworm was enantioselective with preferential accumulation of S-enantiomer. In addition, biota to soil accumulation factor (BSAF) used to express the bioaccumulation of metalaxyl enantiomers was investigated, and significant difference was observed between rac-metalaxyl and R-metalaxyl. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Production and utilization of earthworms as feeds for broilers in the Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barcelo P., M.

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available A study on the production of earthworms was conducted using a 50 : 50 by volume of animal manures in combination with Leucaena leucocephala. A combination of sawdust, rice hull and rice bran at a proportion of 55, 35 and 10 respectively was also used as a substrate. The earthworms in each box were supplemented with either 0, 100, 200, 300 and 400 g kitchen scraps. On harvesting, hand picking the earthworms from the castings and arranging the contents of the box in a pyramid were tested. Blanching, direct heating, freezing and using an oven-drier were likewise tested on "killing" earthworms prior to drying. On broiler utilization, eighty four one-day old broiler chicks were fed with the six rations formulated where in 6 %, 10 % and 14 % levels of vermimeal and fish meal were used with the commercial mash as the control. Results revealed that goat manure in combination with Leucaena leucocephala with 100 to 400g feed supplement produced the highest gain and largest population. The pyramid method for harvesting and freezing for processing earthworms were found to be the best. Commercial broiler mash was significantly better than the home-mixed rations. In the home-mixed rations, 10 to 14 % levels of vermimeal were comparable to 6 % vermimeal and 6-10 % fish meal.

  12. Role of Earthworms in Soil Fertility Maintenance through the Production of Biogenic Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tunira Bhadauria

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The soil biota benefits soil productivity and contributes to the sustainable function of all ecosystems. The cycling of nutrients is a critical function that is essential to life on earth. Earthworms (EWs are a major component of soil fauna communities in most ecosystems and comprise a large proportion of macrofauna biomass. Their activity is beneficial because it can enhance soil nutrient cycling through the rapid incorporation of detritus into mineral soils. In addition to this mixing effect, mucus production associated with water excretion in earthworm guts also enhances the activity of other beneficial soil microorganisms. This is followed by the production of organic matter. So, in the short term, a more significant effect is the concentration of large quantities of nutrients (N, P, K, and Ca that are easily assimilable by plants in fresh cast depositions. In addition, earthworms seem to accelerate the mineralization as well as the turnover of soil organic matter. Earthworms are known also to increase nitrogen mineralization, through direct and indirect effects on the microbial community. The increased transfer of organic C and N into soil aggregates indicates the potential for earthworms to facilitate soil organic matter stabilization and accumulation in agricultural systems, and that their influence depends greatly on differences in land management practices. This paper summarises information on published data on the described subjects.

  13. Evaluation of genotoxicity of combined soil pollution by cadmium and phenanthrene on earthworm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Jiang; ZHAO Zuo-yuan; LU Yi-tong

    2006-01-01

    The DNA-damaging effects of the combined pollution of heavy metal and organic contamination on earthworms were evaluated by single cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE) assay. Earthworms Eisenia andrei were exposed to single or combined test compounds in different doses of cadmium (Cd) 5, 10, 50 mg/kg and phenanthrene (Phe) 0.5, 2.5, 12.5 mg/kg with a treatment of 14 d.In SCGE assay, isolated coelomcytes and electrophoresis were employed to determine DNA damage degree after a 14-d treatment by test compounds. The results showed that there was a significant statistical difference between earthworms treated with Cd combined Phe with them treated alone with Cd or Phe. The Olive tail moment (OTM) of SCGE assay using earthworm coelomcytes appears to be a sensitive biomarker for evaluating exposure to genotoxic compounds. These tests also revealed that the interaction between Cd and Phe to DNA damaging effects was negative, and was strongly dependent on the concentration of pollution. This study corresponds to exploratory phase in order to reveal interaction effects of heavy metal and organic contamination on earthworms and then to set up more in-depth analysis to increase progressively the understanding of the genotoxicity mechanisms involved.

  14. Organic Amendments and Earthworm Addition Improve Properties of Nonacidic Mine Tailings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. M. Rutherford

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In many mined areas, lack of topsoil limits conversion of disturbed landscapes to former or other productive uses. We examined the use of biosolids (10 or 20% by dry mass, with or without sawdust, pulp sludge, and the contribution of an earthworm species (Dendrobaena veneta to improve the properties of nonacidic mine tailings. Pulp sludge more rapidly immobilized excessive NH4 + concentrations from biosolids early in the study; however, total mineral N concentrations were similar in pulp sludge and sawdust treatments by week 29. Although NO3 −-N concentrations were generally greater in treatments with earthworms, these trends were not statistically significant (P>0.05. In general, Bray P concentrations were greater in the presence of earthworms. Soil thin sections showed that earthworms mixed organic residues into elongated spherical units within mine tailings. Organic residues in combination with earthworm addition may improve the chemical and microstructural properties of non-acidic mine tailings, producing a substrate conducive for plant establishment.

  15. Changes in forest floor composition and chemistry along an invasive earthworm gradient in a hardwood forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jourdain, J. N.; Filley, T. R.; Top, S. M.; Thayer, C.; Johnson, A.; Jenkins, M.; Welle, P.; Zurn-Birkhimer, S.; Kroeger, T.; Gemscholars

    2010-12-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated how invasive European earthworm species have caused large and long lasting perturbations to forest floor dynamics and soil composition in many northern hardwood forests. The type of perturbation is driven primarily by the composition and activity of the invasive species and the original state of the forest system. Over the past 4 years we have investigated an invasive earthworm front moving through the Ojibwa Red Lake Reservation (Minnesota). Significant shifts in litter and organic horizon mass were observed, similar to other gradients identified in the region, but the species of earthworms exhibited differences compared to other reservation lands in the region--possibly driven by the availability of recreation fishing near to the sites. Sharp gradients in earthworm abundance were observed exhibiting shifts from 600- 900 individuals per meter square to no observed worms within only 500 meters. The gradients in earthworm activity also influenced decay rates of litter, as was observed by placement of litter decay bags across the gradient. Our findings demonstrate the tenuous nature of many tribal reservation forests and point to the need for policies to address spread on such species to minimize impacts to soil carbon stocks as well as culturally important plant species.

  16. Toxicity and bioaccumulation of biosolids-borne triclocarban (TCC) in terrestrial organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Elizabeth Hodges; O'Connor, George A; McAvoy, Drew C

    2011-01-01

    Triclocarban (TCC) toxicity and bioaccumulation data are primarily limited to direct human and animal dermal exposures, animal ingestion exposures to neat and feed-spiked TCC, and/or aquatic organism exposures. Three non-human, terrestrial organism groups anticipated to be the most highly exposed to land-applied, biosolids-borne TCC are soil microbes, earthworms, and plants. The three ecological receptors are expected to be at particular risk due to unique modes of exposure (e.g. constant, direct contact with soil; uptake of amended soil and pore water), inherently greater sensitivity to environmental contaminants (e.g. increased body burdens, permeable membranes), and susceptibility to minute changes in the soil environment. The toxicities of biosolids-borne TCC to Eisenia fetida earthworms and soil microbial communities were characterized using adaptations of the USEPA Office of Prevention, Pesticides, and Toxic Substances (OPPTS) Guidelines 850.6200 (Earthworm Subchronic Toxicity Test) and 850.5100 (Soil Microbial Community Toxicity Test), respectively. The resultant calculated TCC LC50 value for E. fetida was 40 mg TCC kg amended fine sand(-1). Biosolids-borne TCC in an amended fine sand had no significant effect on soil microbial community respiration, ammonification, or nitrification. Bioaccumulation of biosolids-borne TCC by E. fetida and Paspulum notatum was measured to characterize potential biosolids-borne TCC movement through the food chain. Dry-weight TCC bioaccumulation factor (BAF) values in E. fetida and P. notatum ranged from 5.2-18 and 0.00041-0.007 (gsoil gtissue(-1)), respectively.

  17. Evaluation of the joint effect of glyphosate and dimethoate using a small-scale terrestrial ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Miguel J G; Morgado, Rui; Ferreira, Nuno Gonçalo C; Soares, Amadeu M V M; Loureiro, Susana

    2011-10-01

    In the present work a small-scale terrestrial ecosystem (STEM) containing a soil collected from an agricultural field in Central Portugal was used to evaluate the effects of the combination of the herbicide glyphosate and the insecticide dimethoate. Earthworms (Eisenia andrei), isopods (Porcellionides pruinosus), turnip seeds (Brassica rapa), and bait-lamina strips were placed in the STEM. The results showed that the application of the recommended field dose of both pesticides did not cause any effect on the weight variation of earthworms and growth of the plants. The application of the herbicide, even at 5 and 10 times the field dose, increased feeding activity in soil (bait-lamina test), although the application of dimethoate led to a decrease in feeding activity in all concentrations tested. The binary mixtures performed showed that according to the Independent Action model, synergism (higher effect than expected from the single exposures) was observed in both the shoot length and fresh weight of B. rapa at 5 times the field dose, but antagonism was observed at 10 times the field dose. Regarding the germination success, synergism was observed at the field dose, but antagonism was detected at 5 times and 10 times the field dose. There was a decrease on the earthworm's weight in all concentrations tested, although no statistical differences were observed in any of the treatments made. Regarding depth distribution of E. andrei, worms were found in the upper layer more than it was predicted for all concentrations. In the mixtures with the field and 5 times the field dose there was a decrease in the feeding activity (bait-lamina consumption) by the soil fauna. From the four biomarkers assessed on the isopods (Catalase, Acetylcholinesterase, Glutathione-S-transferase, and Lipid peroxidation), only a significant decrease in the Acetylcholinesterase activity upon dimethoate and the binary mixtures exposures performed with the field dose was observed and on Lipid

  18. Solar-Terrestrial Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    observed. We worked out a polar theory that incorporates molecular ions and shows that they are expected to be associated with large outflow speeds...because of the change in the mean molecular degrees of freedom of the plasma. We calculated vertical cutoff rigidities for spacecraft altitudes and...E. Lamanna, Societa Italiana di Fisica , Bologna, Italy, 1997.) Shea, M.A., and D.F. Smart, Overview of the Effects of Solar Terrestrial Phenomena

  19. Terrestrial Gravity Fluctuations

    CERN Document Server

    Harms, Jan

    2015-01-01

    The article reviews the current state of the field, and also presents new analyses especially with respect to the impact of seismic scattering on gravity perturbations, active gravity noise cancellation, and time-domain models of gravity perturbations from atmospheric and seismic point sources. Our understanding of terrestrial gravity fluctuations will have great impact on the future development of GW detectors and high-precision gravimetry in general, and many open questions need to be answered still as emphasized in this article.

  20. Individual and combined toxic effects of cypermethrin and chlorpyrifos on earthworm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shiping Zhou; Changqun Duan; Wong Hang Gi Michelle; Fazhong Yang; Xuehua Wang

    2011-01-01

    Toxicities were assessed for a pyrethroid (cypermethrin) and an organophosphate insecticide (chlorpyrifos) individually and in combination. A series of tests were conducted on different responses (acute, chronic, behavioral) of earthworms of species Eisenia fetida andrei in the ecological risk assessment of these pesticides. The results showed that the toxicity of the mixture of cypermethrin and chiorpyfifos was significantly higher than either of these pesticides individually, especially on the earthworm's chronic responses.At a concentration of 5 mg/kg, the mixture caused significant reductions on the growth and reproduction rates of earthworms, but did not cause any significant effect when the individual was tested. The increase in toxicity of the pesticide mixture means that the use of toxicity data obtained exclusively from single-pesticide experiments may underestimate the ecological risk of pesticides that actually present in the field.

  1. DNA Repair Inhibition by Mercuric Chloride in Earthworms after Exposure to Radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryu, Tae Ho; Kim, Jin Kyu [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Nili, Mohammad [Dawnesh Radiation Research Institute, Barcelona (Spain); An, Kwang Guk [Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-10-15

    All organisms are being exposed to harmful factors present in the environment. Ionizing radiation can damage DNA through a series of molecular events depending on the radiation energy. The biological effects due to the combined action of ionizing radiation with the other factor are hard to estimate and predict in advance. Recently International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) requires the effect data of ionizing radiation on non-human biota for the radiological protection of the environment. Earthworms have been identified by the ICRP as one of the reference animals and plants to be used in environmental radiation protection. Particularly, the earthworm Eisenia fetida can be used as a bio-indicator of pollution in soil. This study was performed to investigate the acute genotoxic effects of radiation and the synergistic effects between radiation and mercury in earthworm, E. fetida

  2. Associations between soil texture, soil water characteristics and earthworm populations of grassland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmstrup, Martin; Lamandé, Mathieu; Torp, Søren Bent;

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationships between soil physical characteristics and earthworms in a regional-scale field study in Denmark. The earthworm populations along within-field gradients in soil texture were quantified at five field sites, representing dominant soil......) was not causally associated with the soil parameters studied. This indicates that there must be other causal factors associated with the abundance (and composition) of anecic worms that are not among the soil texture and structure parameters studied. On the other hand, soil texture (Coarse sand) was associated...... with the abundance of the dominant endogeic species, A. tuberculata, but not endogeic worms in general. It was hypothesized that anecic and endogeic earthworms might respond to local soil water characteristics rather than soil texture, but this hypothesis could not be confirmed with the present data....

  3. Bioaccumulation and biological effects in the earthworm Eisenia fetida exposed to natural and depleted uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giovanetti, Anna, E-mail: anna.giovanetti@enea.i [ENEA, Institute of Radiation Protection, CR Casaccia Via Anguillarese 301, 00123 Rome (Italy); Fesenko, Sergey [International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Agency' s Laboratories Seibersdorf, A-2444 Seibersdorf (Austria); Cozzella, Maria L. [ENEA, National Institute for Metrology of Ionizing Radiation, CR Casaccia Via Anguillarese 301, 00123 Rome (Italy); Asencio, Lisbet D. [Centro de Estudios Ambientales, Carretera a Castillo de Jagua, CP. 59350 C. Nuclear, Cienfuegos (Cuba); Sansone, Umberto [International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Agency' s Laboratories Seibersdorf, A-2444 Seibersdorf (Austria)

    2010-06-15

    The accumulations of both natural (U) and depleted (DU) uranium in the earthworms (Eisenia fetida) were studied to evaluate corresponding biological effects. Concentrations of metals in the experimental soil ranged from 1.86 to 600 mg kg{sup -1}. Five biological endpoints: mortality, animals' weight increasing, lysosomal membrane stability by measuring the neutral red retention time (the NRRT), histological changes and genetic effects (Comet assay) were used to evaluate biological effects in the earthworms after 7 and 28 days of exposure. No effects have been observed in terms of mortality or weight reduction. Cytotoxic and genetic effects were identified at quite low U concentrations. For some of these endpoints, in particular for genetic effects, the dose (U concentration)-effect relationships have been found to be non-linear. The results have also shown a statistically significant higher level of impact on the earthworms exposed to natural U compared to depleted U.

  4. Data to the earthworm fauna of Myanmar with notes on some little known species (Annelida, Oligochaeta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szederjesi, T.

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The earthworm fauna of the Republic of the Union of Myanmar (Burma is quite well studied due to the studious works of Gordon E. Gates. However, after the publication of the comprehensive monograph Burmese earthworms (Gates 1972 there has been no new data published from this country. In the last year the last author collected several earthworm samples from Burma, resulting in 7 species records belonging to the families Moniligastridae, Benhamiidae, Octochaetidae and Megascolecidae including some little known species like Tonoscolex depressus (Gates, 1929 and Eutyphoeus constrictus Gates, 1929. Examination of the E. constrictus specimens revealed that they show different states of metandry, they are morphologically very similar to E. hastatus Gates, 1929, and only differ by the functionality of the testes in segment 10, therefore it should be regarded as a synonym of E. constrictus.

  5. Comparative Genotoxicity of Cadmium and Lead in Earthworm Coelomocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ptumporn Muangphra

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available To determine genotoxicity to coelomocytes, Pheretima peguana earthworms were exposed in filter paper studies to cadmium (Cd and lead (Pb for 48 h, at concentrations less than the LC10—Cd: 0.09, 0.19, 0.38, 0.75, and 1.50 μg cm−2; Pb: 1.65, 3.29, 6.58, 13.16, and 26.32 μg cm−2. For Cd at 0.75 μg cm−2, in the micronucleus test (detects chromosomal aberrations, significant increases (<.05 in micronuclei and binucleate cells were observed, and in the comet assay (detects DNA single-strand breaks, tail DNA% was significantly increased. Lead was less toxic with minimal effects on DNA, but the binucleates were significantly increased by Pb at 3.29 μg cm−2. This study shows that Cd is more acutely toxic and sublethally genotoxic than Pb to P. peguana. Cadmium caused chromosomal aberrations and DNA single-strand breaks at 45% of the LC10 concentration. Lead, in contrast, did not induce DNA damage but caused cytokinesis defects.

  6. Pesticide soil contamination mainly affects earthworm male reproductive parameters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    EduardoBustos-Obregon; RogerIzigaGoicochea

    2002-01-01

    Aim:To explore the effect of exposure to commercial Parathion(Pc)on the reproductive parameters(sperm and cocoon production and genotoxicity on male germ cells),the survival,the body weight and the gross anatomical changes in Eisenia foetida.Methods:Three doses of Pc(1478,739and 444mg/kg of soil)and three thme intervals of exposure(5,15and30days)were used.Results:Alltreated amimals were affected.An acute genotoxic effect,revealed by DNAfragmentation(comet assay),was seen by 5days,Alterations in reproductive parameters were conspicuous in regard to the number of sperm,cocoons and worms born,and the histological observation of the gonads and seminal receptacles.In addition,the body weight and survival rate were decreased,Neuromuscular function was also affected.Conclusion:Earthworms are suitable bioindicators of chemical contamination of the soil,their advantage being their easy and economical handling.

  7. Snakes mimic earthworms: propulsion using rectilinear travelling waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marvi, Hamidreza; Bridges, Jacob; Hu, David L.

    2013-01-01

    In rectilinear locomotion, snakes propel themselves using unidirectional travelling waves of muscular contraction, in a style similar to earthworms. In this combined experimental and theoretical study, we film rectilinear locomotion of three species of snakes, including red-tailed boa constrictors, Dumeril's boas and Gaboon vipers. The kinematics of a snake's extension–contraction travelling wave are characterized by wave frequency, amplitude and speed. We find wave frequency increases with increasing body size, an opposite trend than that for legged animals. We predict body speed with 73–97% accuracy using a mathematical model of a one-dimensional n-linked crawler that uses friction as the dominant propulsive force. We apply our model to show snakes have optimal wave frequencies: higher values increase Froude number causing the snake to slip; smaller values decrease thrust and so body speed. Other choices of kinematic variables, such as wave amplitude, are suboptimal and appear to be limited by anatomical constraints. Our model also shows that local body lifting increases a snake's speed by 31 per cent, demonstrating that rectilinear locomotion benefits from vertical motion similar to walking. PMID:23635494

  8. Responses of Earthworms to Organic Matter at Different Stages of Decomposition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jian-Xiong; ZHANG Wei-Xin; LIAO Chong-Hui; YANG Yue-Ping; FU Sheng-Lei

    2009-01-01

    This study was conducted to examine the responses of earthworms to soil organic matter and litter at different decomposition stages and their contributions in litter decomposition processes in southern subtropical areas of China.Two plantations were selected as the study sites:Site I was dominated by the exotic endogeic earthworm species Ocnerodrilus occidentalis;Site II was dominated by epigeie species Amynthas cortieis.After the fallen litter and earthworms were removed or expelled,four treatments were set up as:reserving the top soil (0-5 cm,equal to H layer) (H),removing the top soil and adding fresh litter (Le),removing the top soil and adding semi-decomposed litter (Li),and a control with no top soil nor any litter (CK).Five randomized blocks that were enclosed with nylon nets on the top were set up in each site,and then the four treatments were arranged randomly in each block.After 2-3 months,earthworms were collected using the formalin method.The results showed that Ocnerodrilus occidentalis preferred Treatment H though it was found in Treatments Le and Li us well;Amynthas corticis preferred Treatment Li though sometimes it also appeared in Treatment H;and Amynthas sp.,another epigeic species,was mainly present under Treatment Le and only appeared in Treatment H occasionally.These findings confirmed that earthworm species belonging to different ecological groups had different responses to organic matter at different decomposition stages.The impacts of earthworm communities dominated by O.occidentalis mainly appeared at the later periods of litter decomposition.

  9. Functional attributes: Compacting vs decompacting earthworms and influence on soil structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Arnauth Martinez GU(E)I; Yannick BAIDAI; Jér(o)me Ebagnerin TONDOH; Jeroen HUISING

    2012-01-01

    A short term field mesocosm experiment was performed in semi-deciduous forest areas of Ivory Coast to assess the impact of a decompacting (Hyperiodrilus africanus,Eudrilidae) and two compacting (Millsonia omodeoi and Dichogaster terraenigrae,Acanthodfilidae) earthworm species on soil properties.These species have been selected for their predominance in the region and their contrasting impact on soil structure.The experimental design consisted of a treatment without worms (control),and treatments with one,two or three species of earthworms.Both compacting and decompacting earthworms increased water infiltration rate in all treatments,with marked impact in H.africanus and M.omodeoi+D.terraenigrae treatments.Interactions between compacting and decompacting species resulted in more large aggregates in comparison to when the compacting species D.terraenigrae was alone.This may be accounted for by their compacting attribute as compacting earthworms are responsible for producing the highest number of large aggregates.The low values of mean weight diameter in treatments combining decompacting and compacting earthworms compared with compacting “M.omodeoi” one also confirmed the trend of decline in soil compaction in the presence of the decompacting species.These results showed positive impact of species richness on soil structure regulation,which is crucial in ecosystem productivity and support consequently the insurance hypothesis.In fact,this study showed that the preservation of earthworm species belonging to these two contrasting functional groups is essential for the maintenance of stable soil structure regulation in agro-tropical ecosystems.

  10. Balkanized research in ecological engineering revealed by a bibliometric analysis of earthworms and ecosystem services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blouin, Manuel; Sery, Nicolas; Cluzeau, Daniel; Brun, Jean-Jacques; Bédécarrats, Alain

    2013-08-01

    Energy crisis, climate changes, and biodiversity losses have reinforced the drive for more ecologically-based approaches for environmental management. Such approaches are characterized by the use of organisms rather than energy-consuming technologies. Although earthworms are believed to be potentially useful organisms for managing ecosystem services, there is actually no quantification of such a trend in literature. This bibliometric analysis aimed to measure the evolution of the association of "earthworms" and other terms such as ecosystem services (primary production, nutrient cycling, carbon sequestration, soil structure, and pollution remediation), "ecological engineering" or "biodiversity," to assess their convergence or divergence through time. In this aim, we calculated the similarity index, an indicator of the paradigmatic proximity defined in applied epistemology, for each year between 1900 and 2009. We documented the scientific fields and the geographical origins of the studies, as well as the land uses, and compare these characteristics with a 25 years old review on earthworm management. The association of earthworm related keywords with ecosystem services related keywords was increasing with time, reflecting the growing interest in earthworm use in biodiversity and ecosystem services management. Conversely, no significant increase in the association between earthworms and disciplines such as ecological engineering or restoration ecology was observed. This demonstrated that general ecologically-based approaches have yet to emerge and that there is little exchange of knowledge, methods or concepts among balkanized application realms. Nevertheless, there is a strong need for crossing the frontiers between fields of application and for developing an umbrella discipline to provide a framework for the use of organisms to manage ecosystem services.

  11. Balkanized Research in Ecological Engineering Revealed by a Bibliometric Analysis of Earthworms and Ecosystem Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blouin, Manuel; Sery, Nicolas; Cluzeau, Daniel; Brun, Jean-Jacques; Bédécarrats, Alain

    2013-08-01

    Energy crisis, climate changes, and biodiversity losses have reinforced the drive for more ecologically-based approaches for environmental management. Such approaches are characterized by the use of organisms rather than energy-consuming technologies. Although earthworms are believed to be potentially useful organisms for managing ecosystem services, there is actually no quantification of such a trend in literature. This bibliometric analysis aimed to measure the evolution of the association of "earthworms" and other terms such as ecosystem services (primary production, nutrient cycling, carbon sequestration, soil structure, and pollution remediation), "ecological engineering" or "biodiversity," to assess their convergence or divergence through time. In this aim, we calculated the similarity index, an indicator of the paradigmatic proximity defined in applied epistemology, for each year between 1900 and 2009. We documented the scientific fields and the geographical origins of the studies, as well as the land uses, and compare these characteristics with a 25 years old review on earthworm management. The association of earthworm related keywords with ecosystem services related keywords was increasing with time, reflecting the growing interest in earthworm use in biodiversity and ecosystem services management. Conversely, no significant increase in the association between earthworms and disciplines such as ecological engineering or restoration ecology was observed. This demonstrated that general ecologically-based approaches have yet to emerge and that there is little exchange of knowledge, methods or concepts among balkanized application realms. Nevertheless, there is a strong need for crossing the frontiers between fields of application and for developing an umbrella discipline to provide a framework for the use of organisms to manage ecosystem services.

  12. Earthworms and litter management contributions to ecosystem services in a tropical agroforestry system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonte, Steven J; Six, Johan

    2010-06-01

    The development of sustainable agricultural systems depends in part upon improved management of non-crop species to enhance the overall functioning and provision of services by agroecosystems. To address this need, our research examined the role of earthworms and litter management on nutrient dynamics, soil organic matter (SOM) stabilization, and crop growth in the Quesungual agroforestry system of western Honduras. Field mesocosms were established with two earthworm treatments (0 vs. 8 Pontoscolex corethrurus individuals per mesocosm) and four litter quality treatments: (1) low-quality Zea mays, (2) high-quality Diphysa robinioides, (3) a mixture of low- and high-quality litters, and (4) a control with no organic residues applied. Mesocosms included a single Z. mays plant and additions of 15N-labeled inorganic nitrogen. At maize harvest, surface soils (0-15 cm) in the mesocosms were sampled to determine total and available P as well as the distribution of C, N, and 15N among different aggregate-associated SOM pools. Maize plants were divided into grain and non-grain components and analyzed for total P, N, and 15N. Earthworm additions improved soil structure as demonstrated by a 10% increase in mean weight diameter and higher C and N storage within large macro-aggregates (>2000 microm). A corresponding 17% increase in C contained in micro-aggregates within the macro-aggregates indicates that earthworms enhance the stabilization of SOM in these soils; however, this effect only occurred when organic residues were applied. Earthworms also decreased available P and total soil P, indicating that earthworms may facilitate the loss of labile P added to this system. Earthworms decreased the recovery of fertilizer-derived N in the soil but increased the uptake of 15N by maize by 7%. Litter treatments yielded minimal effects on soil properties and plant growth. Our results indicate that the application of litter inputs and proper management of earthworm populations can have

  13. Co-Speciation of Earthworms and their nephridial symbionts, Acidovorax Spp

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Marie Braad; Fritz, Michael; Holmstrup, Martin

    2006-01-01

    in Denmark and DNA was extracted from their nephridia. Earthworm phylogeny was resolved on the basis of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) by direct PCR amplification and sequencing from the nephridial DNA extract. Symbiont 16S rRNA gene sequences were retrieved by cloning and sequencing...... the extracted DNA. The presence of the symbionts in the ampulla was verified by performing fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) on all worm species using an Acidovorax-specific probe. Earthworm and symbiont phylogeny was largely congruent, indicating that host and symbiont have indeed co-evolved since...

  14. Infestation of natural populations of earthworm cocoons by rhabditid and cephalobid nematodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kraglund, HO; Ekelund, Flemming

    2002-01-01

    Nematodes infested 13 of 100 earthworm cocoons from a compost pile and 17 of 197 cocoons from a permanent pasture soil. Between one and 2000 nematodes were found within the infested cocoons. All nematodes found in cocoons from the compost pile belonged to the genus Rhabditis, while Rhabditis spp....... as well as members of Cephalobidae infested earthworm cocoons in the pasture soil. In cultures established from cocoons found in the pasture soil, at least five different types of nematodes belonging to the family Cephalobidae were found. Acrobeloides nanus was found in six cocoons, Cephalobus persegnis...

  15. The Earthworm Gut: an Ideal Habitat for Ingested N2O-Producing Microorganisms

    OpenAIRE

    Horn, Marcus A.; Schramm, Andreas; Drake, Harold L.

    2003-01-01

    The in vivo production of nitrous oxide (N2O) by earthworms is due to their gut microbiota, and it is hypothesized that the microenvironment of the gut activates ingested N2O-producing soil bacteria. In situ measurement of N2O and O2 with microsensors demonstrated that the earthworm gut is anoxic and the site of N2O production. The gut had a pH of 6.9 and an average water content of approximately 50%. The water content within the gut decreased from the anterior end to the posterior end. In co...

  16. Quantitative modelling of the response of earthworms to metals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qiu, Hao

    2014-01-01

    Metals in soils can pose a serious threat to soil dwelling organisms, plants, and human beings. A major uncertainty in terrestrial ecological risk assessment for metals is the integrated effect of the physicochemical properties of soil on toxicity and how this allows for extrapolation of toxicity

  17. Uptake and retention of radio-caesium in earthworms cultured in soil contaminated by the Fukushima nuclear power plant accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, K; Takahashi, T; Nguyen, P; Kubota, Y; Gamou, S; Sakurai, S; Takahashi, S

    2015-01-01

    To understand the effects of radionuclides on non-human biota and the environment, it is essential to study the intake and metabolism of radio-isotopes in earthworms which are among the most important soil organisms, and Eisenia fetida, which were used in this study, are known to be sufficiently sensitive to chemicals and representative of common earthworms. In this study, we assessed the concentration ratios, uptake and retention, absorbed dose rate, and distribution of radio-caesium in earthworms. The concentration ratios of (137)Cs (i.e., the concentrations of radio-caesium in earthworms relative to those in dry soil) were higher early in the culturing period and decreased gradually over the experimental period. (137)Cs taken up by E. fetida was cleared rapidly after the worms were cultured in radio-caesium-free soil, suggesting that the metabolism of radio-caesium in earthworms is very rapid. Autoradiography demonstrated that the concentration of radio-caesium within the digestive tract was as high as that in the soil, while radio-caesium in the body tissue was lower than radio-caesium in the soil and was almost uniformly distributed among earthworm tissues. The highest absorbed dose rate of total exposure to radio-caesium ((137)Cs + (134)Cs) was calculated to be 1.9 × 10(3) (μGy/day) in the earthworms.

  18. Survival, growth, detoxifying and antioxidative responses of earthworms (Eisenia fetida) exposed to soils with industrial DDT contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yajuan; Zhang, Qiangbin; Huang, Dunqi; Zheng, Xiaoqi; Shi, Yajing

    2016-03-01

    The survival, growth, activity of the biotransformation system phase II enzyme glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and the oxidative defense enzyme catalase (CAT) of earthworms exposed to the contaminated soils from a former DDT plant and reference soils were investigated, and compared with the corresponding indicators in simulated soil-earthworm system, unpolluted natural soils with spiked-in DDT series, to identify the toxic effects of DDT on earthworms and their cellular defense system in complex soil system. The results indicated that DDT level in the contaminated soils was significantly higher than that in the reference soils with similar level of other pollutants and soil characters. The mortality, growth inhibition rates, GST and CST activities of earthworms exposed to the contaminated soils were significantly higher than that in reference soils. The contribution of historical DDT in contaminated soils to earthworms was confirmed by the DDT spiked tests. DDT spiked in soils at rates of higher than 200 mg·kg(-1) was significantly toxic to both the survival and the growth of earthworms. DDT significantly stimulated GST and CAT activity in earthworms after 14 days. The CAT and GST activities were also stimulated by DDT exposure at rates of 100 mg·kg(-1) after chronic exposure (42 days). The results provide implications for validating the extrapolation from laboratory simulated soils criteria to contaminated soils and for making site risk assessments.

  19. Cholinesterase activity as a biomarker of pesticide exposure in Allolobophora chlorotica earthworms living in apple orchards under different management strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denoyelle, Renaud; Rault, Magali; Mazzia, Christophe; Mascle, Odile; Capowiez, Yvan

    2007-12-01

    The present study used cholinesterase (ChE) activity in earthworms as a biomarker of pesticide exposure at 17 apple orchards using different pest protection strategies (organic, integrated pest management [IPM], conventional, and abandoned) located within a 300-km(2) subregion near Avignon in southeastern France). The most common earthworm species in the 17 orchards was Allolobophora chlorotica. We examined inherent variability in ChE activity that might be attributable to soil characteristics and found that differences in soil structure or type did not significantly influence ChE activity. Furthermore, there was no relation between ChE specific activity and earthworm weight, and thus activity does not require correction for weight. Ten earthworms were collected in two successive months (April and May 2003) from each of the 17 orchards. Compared to the activity in worms from the control abandoned orchards, ChE activity was significantly decreased in earthworms from half the IPM and conventional orchards in April and all these orchards in May. Notably, ChE activity was also lower in earthworms from three organic orchards during May. No relation was observed between ChE decrease and the number of treatments (total or only organophosphorous and carbamate pesticides). Cholinesterase activity in earthworms from abandoned orchards varied between the two collecting periods, illustrating the difficulty in obtaining reference values for the use of ChE as a biomarker in field studies.

  20. Arctic Terrestrial Biodiversity Monitoring Plan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Tom; Payne, J.; Doyle, M.

    The Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna (CAFF), the biodiversity working group of the Arctic Council, established the Circumpolar Biodiversity Monitoring Program (CBMP) to address the need for coordinated and standardized monitoring of Arctic environments. The CBMP includes an international...... on developing and implementing long-term plans for monitoring the integrity of Arctic biomes: terrestrial, marine, freshwater, and coastal (under development) environments. The CBMP Terrestrial Expert Monitoring Group (CBMP-TEMG) has developed the Arctic Terrestrial Biodiversity Monitoring Plan (CBMP......-Terrestrial Plan/the Plan) as the framework for coordinated, long-term Arctic terrestrial biodiversity monitoring. The goal of the CBMP-Terrestrial Plan is to improve the collective ability of Arctic traditional knowledge (TK) holders, northern communities, and scientists to detect, understand and report on long...

  1. Application of Pb isotopes to track the sources and routes of metal uptake in the earthworm Eisenia fetida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bader Albogami

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to determine the important routes of metal uptake in earthworms to enable a better understanding of the primary source of metal uptake in the environment. Earthworms can take up chemicals from pore water and soil both by ingestion and through contact with their skin. However, it is unclear which pathway is the most important for metal uptake. An experiment was designed in which both soil chemistry and foods were artificially manipulated, producing different pools of soil lead (Pb with different isotope compositions at a range of Pb concentrations. Earthworms (Eiseniafetida were exposed to different lead concentrations through the addition of 500 mg/kg lead oxide (Pb3O4 to soil and 500 mg/kg lead nitrate to food (manure, with distinctly different isotopic compositions. Earthworms were also exposed to combinations of soil only and soil plus food in order to quantify the proportions of Pb taken up from each component. After acid digestion of the earthworm tissues, the Pb isotope composition of the accumulated lead in the earthworms was measured using a Thermo-fisher, iCAPQ, ICP-MS for 208Pb/206Pb and 207Pb/206Pb ratios measured relative to NIST SRM 981, allowing us to determine the pathway of lead uptake. Mixing calculations have been used to deconvolute the lead isotope signatures and identify the amount of lead taken up by the earthworms from the different soil pools. Differences in bioaccumulation factors and the relative amounts of lead accumulated from different pools changes as a function of concentration in the different pools. Earthworms were shown to uptake lead from bothsoil and food sources through ingestion route. Our findings suggest that a major pathway of lead uptake in earthworm species is heavily influenced by their ecology.

  2. Comparison of the chemical alteration trajectory of Liriodendron tulipifera L. leaf litter among forests with different earthworm abundance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filley, Timothy R.; McCormick, Melissa K.; Crow, Susan E.; Szlavecz, Katalin; Whigham, Dennis F.; Johnston, Cliff T.; van den Heuvel, Ronald N.

    2008-03-01

    To investigate the control of earthworm populations on leaf litter biopolymer decay dynamics, we analyzed the residues of Liriodendron tulipifera L. (tulip poplar) leaves after six months of decay, comparing open surface litter and litter bag experiments among forests with different native and invasive earthworm abundances. Six plots were established in successional tulip poplar forests where sites varied in earthworm density and biomass, roughly 4-10 fold, of nonnative lumbricid species. Analysis of residues by diffuse reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and alkaline CuO extraction indicated that open decay in sites with abundant earthworms resulted in residues depleted in cuticular aliphatic and polysaccharide components and enriched in ether-linked lignin relative to open decay in low earthworm abundance plots. Decay within earthworm-excluding litter bags resulted in an increase in aliphatic components relative to initial amendment and similar chemical trajectory to low earthworm open decay experiments. All litter exhibited a decline in cinnamyl-based lignin and an increase in nitrogen content. The influence of earthworm density on the chemical trajectory of litter decay was primarily a manifestation of the physical separation and concentration of lignin-rich and cutin-poor petioles with additional changes promoted by either microorganisms and/or mesofauna resulting in nitrogen addition and polysaccharide loss. These results illustrate how projected increases in invasive earthworm activity in northern North American forests could alter the chemical composition of organic matter in litter residues and potentially organic matter reaching the soil which may result in shifts in the aromatic and aliphatic composition of soils in different systems.

  3. Earthworms (Eisenia fetida) demonstrate potential for use in soil bioremediation by increasing the degradation rates of heavy crude oil hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinkosky, Luke; Barkley, Jaimie; Sabadell, Gabriel; Gough, Heidi; Davidson, Seana

    2017-02-15

    Crude oil contamination widely impacts soil as a result of release during oil and gas exploration and production activities. The success of bioremediation methods to meet remediation goals often depends on the composition of the crude oil, the soil, and microbial community. Earthworms may enhance bioremediation by mixing and aerating the soil, and exposing soil microorganisms to conditions in the earthworm gut that lead to increased activity. In this study, the common composting earthworm Eisenia fetida was tested for utility to improve remediation of oil-impacted soil. E. fetida survival in soil contaminated with two distinct crude oils was tested in an artificial (lab-mixed) sandy loam soil, and survival compared to that in the clean soil. Crude oil with a high fraction of light-weight hydrocarbons was more toxic to earthworms than the crude oil with a high proportion of heavy polyaromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbons. The heavier crude oil was added to soil to create a 30,000mg/kg crude oil impacted soil, and degradation in the presence of added earthworms and feed, feed alone, or no additions was monitored over time and compared. Earthworm feed was spread on top to test effectiveness of no mixing. TPH degradation rate for the earthworm treatments was ~90mg/day slowing by 200days to ~20mg/day, producing two phases of degradation. With feed alone, the rate was ~40mg/day, with signs of slowing after 500days. Both treatments reached the same end point concentrations, and exhibited faster degradation of aliphatic hydrocarbons C21, decreased. During these experiments, soils were moderately toxic during the first three months, then earthworms survived well, were active and reproduced with petroleum hydrocarbons present. This study demonstrated that earthworms accelerate bioremediation of crude oil in soils, including the degradation of the heaviest polyaromatic fractions.

  4. Enrofloxacin at environmentally relevant concentrations enhances uptake and toxicity of cadmium in the earthworm Eisenia fetida in farm soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yinsheng, E-mail: yinshengli@sjtu.edu.cn [School of Agriculture and Biology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Tang, Hao; Hu, Yingxiu; Wang, Xiuhong; Ai, Xiaojie; Tang, Li [School of Agriculture and Biology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Matthew, Cory [Institute of Agriculture & Environment, Massey University, Private Bag 11-222, Palmerston North 4442 (New Zealand); Cavanagh, Jo [Landcare Research, PO Box 40, Lincoln 7640 (New Zealand); Qiu, Jiangping [School of Agriculture and Biology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China)

    2016-05-05

    Highlights: • Enrofloxacin (EF) and cadmium (Cd) were independently adsorbed in soils. • EF accelerated and increased Cd bioaccumulation in earthworms. • At high concentration EF (10 mg kg{sup −1}) was toxic to earthworms. • EF enhanced Cd induced oxidative stress, and increased burrowing and respiration. • EF did not affect the Cd induced increase in metallothionein in earthworms. - Abstract: Individual and combined effects of enrofloxacin (EF) and cadmium (Cd) on the earthworm Eisenia fetida at environmentally relevant concentrations were investigated. EF is a veterinary antibiotic; Cd is an impurity in phosphatic fertiliser. For both, residues may accumulate in farm soils. In laboratory tests, over 98% of spiked EF was adsorbed by farm soils, with a half-life >8 weeks. However, earthworms absorbed less than 20% of spiked EF. Earthworms in soil with EF concentration 10 mg kg{sup −1} soil experienced transient oxidative stress and exhibited reduced burrowing activity and respiration after an 8-week exposure; EF at 0.1 and 1.0 mg kg{sup −1} soil did not elicit toxicity symptoms. When both were added, Cd did not affect EF uptake, but each increment of spiked EF increased Cd bioaccumulation and associated oxidative stress of earthworms, and also caused decreased burrow length and CO{sub 2} production. However, metallothionein induction was not affected. The enhanced toxicity of Cd to earthworms in the presence of EF at low environmental concentrations may have implications for the health and reproductive success of earthworm populations and highlights the importance of understanding effects of antibiotic contamination of farm soils, and of awareness of environmental effects from interaction between multiple contaminants.

  5. Terrestrial Plume Impingement Testbed Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Masten Space Systems proposes to create a terrestrial plume impingement testbed for generating novel datasets for extraterrestrial robotic missions. This testbed...

  6. Potential risk of microplastics transportation into ground water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huerta, Esperanza; Gertsen, Hennie; Gooren, Harm; Peters, Piet; Salánki, Tamás; van der Ploeg, Martine; Besseling, Ellen; Koelmans, Albert A.; Geissen, Violette

    2016-04-01

    Microplastics, are plastics particles with a size smaller than 5mm. They are formed by the fragmentation of plastic wastes. They are present in the air, soil and water. But only in aquatic systems (ocean and rivers) are studies over their distribution, and the effect of microplastics on organisms. There is a lack of information of what is the distribution of microplastics in the soil, and in the ground water. This study tries to estimate the potential risk of microplastics transportation into the ground water by the activity of earthworms. Earthworms can produce burrows and/or galleries inside the soil, with the presence of earthworms some ecosystem services are enhanced, as infiltration. In this study we observed after 14 days with 5 treatments (0, 7, 28 and 60% w/w microplastics mixed with Populus nigra litter) and the anecic earthworm Lumbricus terrestris, in microcosms (3 replicas per treatment) that macroplastics are indeed deposit inside earthworms burrows, with 7% microplastics on the surface is possible to find 1.8 g.kg-1 microplastics inside the burrows, with a bioaumentation factor of 0.65. Burrows made by earthworms under 60% microplastics, are significant bigger (pmicroplastics in their soil surface. The amount of litter that is deposit inside the burrows is significant higher (pmicroplastics on the surface than without microplastics. The microplastics size distribution is smaller inside the burrows than on the surface, with an abundance of particles under 63 μm.

  7. Terrestrial Carbon Cycle Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldocchi, Dennis; Ryu, Youngryel; Keenan, Trevor

    2016-01-01

    A growing literature is reporting on how the terrestrial carbon cycle is experiencing year-to-year variability because of climate anomalies and trends caused by global change. As CO 2 concentration records in the atmosphere exceed 50 years and as satellite records reach over 30 years in length, we are becoming better able to address carbon cycle variability and trends. Here we review how variable the carbon cycle is, how large the trends in its gross and net fluxes are, and how well the signal can be separated from noise. We explore mechanisms that explain year-to-year variability and trends by deconstructing the global carbon budget. The CO 2 concentration record is detecting a significant increase in the seasonal amplitude between 1958 and now. Inferential methods provide a variety of explanations for this result, but a conclusive attribution remains elusive. Scientists have reported that this trend is a consequence of the greening of the biosphere, stronger northern latitude photosynthesis, more photosynthesis by semi-arid ecosystems, agriculture and the green revolution, tropical temperature anomalies, or increased winter respiration. At the global scale, variability in the terrestrial carbon cycle can be due to changes in constituent fluxes, gross primary productivity, plant respiration and heterotrophic (microbial) respiration, and losses due to fire, land use change, soil erosion, or harvesting. It remains controversial whether or not there is a significant trend in global primary productivity (due to rising CO 2, temperature, nitrogen deposition, changing land use, and preponderance of wet and dry regions). The degree to which year-to-year variability in temperature and precipitation anomalies affect global primary productivity also remains uncertain. For perspective, interannual variability in global gross primary productivity is relatively small (on the order of 2 Pg-C y -1) with respect to a large and uncertain background (123 +/- 4 Pg-C y -1), and

  8. Detrimental Influence of Invasive Earthworms on North American Cold-Temperate Forest Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enerson, Isabel

    2012-01-01

    The topic of invasive earthworms is a timely concern that goes against many preconceived notions regarding the positive benefits of all worms. In the cold-temperate forests of North America invasive worms are threatening forest ecosystems, due to the changes they create in the soil, including decreases in C:N ratios and leaf litter, disruption of…

  9. Nitric oxide production in celomocytes of the earthworm Eisenia hortensis following bacterial challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SR Cook

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In this in vitro investigation, nitric oxide (NO production was induced within celomocytes of the earthworm Eisenia hortensis following microbial challenge. Celomocytes were pre-loaded with the fluorescent indicator 4-amino-5-methylamino-2’, 7’-difluorofluorescein diacetate (DAF-FM DA in order to detect the presence of intracellular nitric oxide subsequent to a 16 h incubation with chemically-fixed soil bacteria including Bacillus megaterium, Arthrobacter globiformis, Pseudomonas stutzeri, and Azotobacter chroococcum at a range of multiplicities of infection (MOIs. Flow cytometric analysis measuring increases in relative fluorescence intensity (RFI, which is directly proportional to the amount of intracellular NO produced, permitted determination of statistical significance (p < 0.05 of exposed celomocytes compared to baseline controls. Significant increases in NO were detected reproducibly in celomocytes treated with all bacterial species used. The most prominent results were observed after exposure to Gram positive B. megaterium and A. globiformis where 100 % of earthworms tested exhibited statistically significant increases of RFI at MOIs of 100:1 and 500:1, respectively. Furthermore, significant decreases in NO production in bacteria-stimulated earthworm celomocytes incubated with the NOS inhibitor aminoguanidine hydrochloride were observed. These results demonstrate microbial induction of NO synthesis in earthworms and provide evidence of an antimicrobial role of NO in the innate immune system.

  10. Earthworm symbiont Verminephrobacter eiseniae mediates natural transformation within the host egg capsules using type IV pili

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SEANA Kelyn DAVIDSON

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The dense microbial communities commonly associated with plants and animals should offer many opportunities for horizontal gene transfer (HGT through described mechanisms of DNA exchange including natural transformation. However, studies of the significance of natural transformation have focused primarily on pathogens. The study presented here demonstrates highly efficient DNA exchange by natural transformation in a common symbiont of earthworms. The obligate bacterial symbiont Verminephrobacter eiseniae is a member of a microbial consortium of the earthworm Eisenia fetida that is transmitted into the egg capsules to colonize the embryonic worms. In the study presented here, by testing for transformants under different conditions in culture, we demonstrate that V. eiseniae can incorporate free DNA from the environment, that competency is regulated by environmental factors, and that it is sequence specific. Mutations in the type IV pili of V. eiseniae resulted in loss of DNA uptake, implicating the type IV pilus (TFP apparatus in DNA uptake. Furthermore, injection of DNA carrying antibiotic-resistance genes into egg capsules resulted in transformants within the capsule, demonstrating the relevance of DNA uptake within the earthworm system. The ability to take up species-specific DNA from the environment may explain the maintenance of the relatively large, intact genome of this long-associated obligate symbiont, and provides a mechanism for acquisition of foreign genes within the earthworm system.

  11. Soil organic matter distribution as influenced by enchytraeid and earthworm activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koutika, L.S.; Didden, W.A.M.; Marinissen, J.C.Y.

    2001-01-01

    Loam and sandy soils, and the earthworm casts produced with 14C-labelled plant material in both soils, were incubated in airtight glass vessels with and without enchytraeids to evaluate the effects of soil fauna on the distribution and fragmentation of organic matter. After 1, 3, and 6 weeks, the

  12. A review of earthworm impact on soil function and ecosystem services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blouin, M.; Hodson, M.E.; Delgado, E.A.; Baker, G.; Brussaard, L.; Butt, K.R.; Dai, J.; Dendooven, L.; Peres, G.; Tondoh, J.E.; Cluzeau, D.; Brun, J.J.

    2013-01-01

    Biodiversity is responsible for the provision of many ecosystem services; human well-being is based on these services, and consequently on biodiversity. In soil, earthworms represent the largest component of the animal biomass and are commonly termed ecosystem engineers'. This review considers the

  13. Chlorpyrifos causes decreased organic matter decomposition by suppressing earthworm and termite communities in tropical soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Silva, P. Mangala C.S., E-mail: msilva@falw.vu.n [Department of Animal Ecology, VU University, De Boelelaan 1085, 1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands); Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, University of Ruhuna, Matara (Sri Lanka); Pathiratne, Asoka [Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, University of Kelaniya, Kelaniya (Sri Lanka); Straalen, Nico M. van; Gestel, Cornelis A.M. van [Department of Animal Ecology, VU University, De Boelelaan 1085, 1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2010-10-15

    Effects of pesticides on structural and functional properties of ecosystems are rarely studied under tropical conditions. In this study litterbag and earthworm field tests were performed simultaneously at the same tropical field site sprayed with chlorpyrifos (CPF). The recommended dose of CPF (0.6 kg a.i. ha{sup -1}) and two higher doses (4.4-8.8 kg a.i. ha{sup -1}) significantly decreased litter decomposition during the first 3 months after application, which could be explained from lower earthworm and termite abundances during this period. Species-specific effects of CPF on organism abundance and biomass were observed, with termites being mostly affected followed by the earthworm Perionyx excavatus; the earthworm Megascolex sp. was least affected. Recovery was completed within 6 months. Decomposition in the controls and lowest two treatments was completed within 4 months, which suggests the need for modification of standard test guidelines to comply with faster litter degradation under tropical conditions. - Effects of chlorpyrifos on functional and structural endpoints in soil.

  14. Alternatives to herbicides in an apple orchard, effects on yield, earthworms and plant diversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, L.; Kuehn, Birka Falk; Bertelsen, M.

    2013-01-01

    tIn a newly established apple orchard eight alternative methods to weed control in the tree row werecompared to a herbicide treatment with respect to effects on tree growth, first-quality fruit yield, earth-worms and flora. All treatments were tested at two irrigation schedules, with similar amount...

  15. Bioremediation of polluted soil through the combined application of plants, earthworms and organic matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macci, Cristina; Doni, Serena; Peruzzi, Eleonora; Ceccanti, Brunello; Masciandaro, Grazia

    2012-10-26

    Two plant species (Paulownia tomentosa and Cytisus scoparius), earthworms (Eisenia fetida), and organic matter (horse manure) were used as an ecological approach to bioremediate a soil historically contaminated by heavy metals and hydrocarbons. The experiment was carried out for six months at a mesoscale level using pots containing 90 kg of polluted soil. Three different treatments were performed for each plant: (i) untreated planted soil as a control (C); (ii) planted soil + horse manure (20:1 w/w) (M); (iii) planted soil + horse manure + 15 earthworms (ME). Both the plant species were able to grow in the polluted soil and to improve the soil's bio-chemical conditions, especially when organic matter and earthworms were applied. By comparing the two plant species, few significant differences were observed in the soil characteristics; Cytisus scoparius improved soil nutrient content more than Paulownia tomentosa, which instead stimulated more soil microbial metabolism. Regarding the pollutants, Paulownia tomentosa was more efficient in reducing the heavy metal (Pb, Cr, Cd, Zn, Cu, Ni) content, while earthworms were particularly able to stimulate the processes involved in the decontamination of organic pollutants (hydrocarbons). This ecological approach, validated at a mesoscale level, has recently been transferred to a real scale situation to carry out the bioremediation of polluted soil in San Giuliano Terme Municipality (Pisa, Italy).

  16. Earthworms facilitate carbon sequestration through unequal amplification of carbon stabilization compared with mineralization

    Science.gov (United States)

    A recent review concluded that earthworm presence increases CO2 emissions by 33% but does not affect soil organic carbon stocks. However, the findings are controversial and raise new questions. Here we hypothesize that neither an increase in CO2 emission nor in stabilized carbon...

  17. Earthworms and Humans in Vitro: Characterizing Evolutionarily Conserved Stress and Immune Responses to Silver Nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hayashi, Yuya; Engelmann, Péter; Foldbjerg, Rasmus

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about the potential threats of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) to ecosystem health, with no detailed report existing on the stress and immune responses of soil invertebrates. Here we use earthworm primary cells, cross-referencing to human cell cultures with a particular emphasis on t...

  18. Toxicological Effects of Organophosphate Pesticide on Ceolomocytes Viability of Earthworm E. Foetida Using NRRA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sameena Farrukh

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: In recent years, there has been a growing interest in the development of sub-lethal earthworm biomarkers as they are relevant indicators of environmental change and they are among the five key indicators for ecotoxicological testing of industrial chemicals determined by the OECD. In the present study, the effects of an organophosphate pesticide dichlorovos on lysosomes of coelomocytes of earthworm E. foetida are studied using Neutral Red Retention Assay (NRRA. Methods: Earthworms were exposed to three sub-lethal concentrations of the pesticide for 7, 14, 21, and 28 days and neutral red retention assay was done following the method employed by Weeks and Sevendsen and Booth et al. Results: It was observed that the pesticide significantly affected the coelomocyte viability within 28 days of exposure. The neutral red retention time of lysosomal membrane significantly decreased at all concentrations when compared with well-matched controls. Conclusion: After the analysis of results, it was concluded that the neutral red retention time assay in earthworms can be used to link changes in the permeability of lysosomal membranes to ecologically relevant life cycle effects caused by such toxic substances.

  19. Determination of biomarkers for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) toxicity to earthworm (Eisenia fetida).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Tae-Hoon; Jeon, Hwang-Ju; Mo, Hyung-ho; Cho, Kijong; Ok, Yong-Sik; Lee, Sung-Eun

    2015-12-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) compounds are persistent, carcinogenic, and mutagenic. When PAHs enter agricultural soils through sewage sludge, they pose an environmental risk to soil organisms, including earthworms. Therefore, we aimed to determine the toxic effects of PAHs on earthworms. Five PAHs were used: fluorene, anthracene, phenanthrene, fluoranthene, and pyrene. Only fluorene and phenanthrene exhibited toxicity (LC50 values 394.09 and 114.02 g L(-1), respectively) against the earthworm Eisenia fetida. None of the other PAHs tested in this study enhanced the mortality of adult earthworm until the concentrations reached to 1000 g L(-1). After exposure to PAHs, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity in E. fetida decreased in a concentration-dependent manner, and phenanthrene exhibited the strongest inhibitory effect on AChE, followed by fluorene. Activity of a representative detoxifying enzyme, carboxylesterase, was dramatically reduced in E. fetida exposed to all tested PAHs in comparison with that observed in the control test. The remaining glutathione S-transferase activity significantly decreased in E. fetida after exposure to PAHs. To profile small proteins PAHs tested in E. fetida.

  20. The cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of metalaxy-M on earthworms (Eisenia fetida).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tong; Zhu, Lusheng; Han, Yingnan; Wang, Jinhua; Wang, Jun; Zhao, Yan

    2014-10-01

    As the main optical isomer of metalaxyl, metalaxyl-M has been widely used worldwide in recent years because of its notable effect on the prevention and control of crop diseases. Together with the toxicity and degradation of metalaxyl-M, the chemical has attracted the attention of researchers. The present study examined the toxic effects of metalaxyl-M on earthworms at 0 mg kg(-1) , 0.1 mg kg(-1) , 1 mg kg(-1) , and 3 mg kg(-1) on days 7, 14, 21 and 28 after exposure. The results showed that metalaxyl-M could cause an obvious increase in the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) when the concentration was higher than 0.1 mg kg(-1) , which led to lipid peroxidation in earthworms. Metalaxyl-M can induce DNA damage in earthworms, and the level of DNA damage markedly increased with increasing the concentration of metalaxyl-M. Metalaxyl-M also has a serious influence on the activities of antioxidant enzymes, which results in irreversible oxidative damage in cells. The changes of these indicators all indicated that metalaxyl-M may cause cytotoxic and genotoxic effects on earthworms. © 2014 SETAC.

  1. Some Guides to Discovery About Elm Trees, Owls, Cockroaches, Earthworms, Cement and Concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busch, Phyllis S.

    The introduction emphasizes the need for environmental and conservation education, and advocates an inquiry approach. Outdoor resources available to every school are listed. Detailed suggestions are made for investigating cement and concrete, cockroaches, earthworms, elm trees, and owls. In each case general background information and a list of…

  2. Earthworms and Plant Residues Modify Nematodes in Tropical Cropping Soils (Madagascar: A Mesocosm Experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cécile Villenave

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Free-living nematodes present several characteristics that have led to their use as bioindicators of soil quality. Analyzing the structure of nematofauna is a pertinent way to understand soil biological processes. Earthworms play an important role in soil biological functioning and organic matter dynamics. Their effects on soil nematofauna have seldom been studied. We studied the effect of the tropical endogeic earthworm, Pontoscolex corethrurus, on nematode community structure in a 5-month field mesocosm experiment conducted in Madagascar. Ten different treatments with or without earthworms and with or without organic residues (rice, soybean were compared. Organic residues were applied on the soil surface or mixed with the soil. The abundance of nematodes (bacterial and fungal feeders was higher in presence of P. corethrurus than in their absence. The type of plant residues as well as their localisation had significant effects on the abundance and composition of soil nematodes. The analysis of nematode community structure showed that earthworm activity led to an overall activation of the microbial compartment without specific stimulation of the bacterial or fungal compartment.

  3. Molecular toxicity of earthworms induced by cadmium contaminated soil and biomarkers screening

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaohui MO; Yuhui Qiao; Zhenjun Sun; Xiaofei Sun; Yang Li

    2012-01-01

    Earthworms(Eiseniafetida)were used to study the impact of low-dose cadmium in treated artificial soil(0,0.6,3,6,15,30 mg/kg)and contaminated natural soil(1.46 mg/kg).The changes of earthworms' physiological related gene expressions of metallothionein (MT),annetocin,calreticulin and antimicrobial peptides were detected using real-time PCR after a 70-day incubation period.The results showed that low doses of cadmium could up regulate earthworms' MT and down regulate armetocin gene expression and show a significant positive and negative correlation respectively.The expression of two other genes,calreticulin and anti-microbial peptides,was induced at low doses of cadmium(highest gene expression at 0.6 mg/kg for calreticulin and 6 mg/kg for anti-microbial peptides)and inhibited at high doses.No significant correlation was found for these two genes.This study shows that MT and annetocin genes expression found in earthworms in contaminated soil have the potential to be developed as biomarkers of soil cadmium pollution.

  4. Purification and characterization of novel fibrinolytic proteases as potential antithrombotic agents from earthworm Perionyx excavatus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    phan, T.T.B.; Ta, T.D.; Nguyen, D.T.X.; Broek, van den L.A.M.

    2011-01-01

    Six protease fractions, namely FI, FII, FIII-1, FIII-2, FIII-3 and FIV, were isolated from Perionyx excavatus earthworm biomass by acetone precipitation, followed by serial chromatography using anion exchange, hydrophobic interaction and size exclusion chromatography. All fractions exhibited strong

  5. Bioaccumulation and Elimination of the Herbicide Clomazone in the Earthworms Eisenia fetida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Jia; Li, Ping; Li, Qing X; Zheng, Pengfei; Diao, Xiaoping

    2015-11-01

    Acute toxicity, bioaccumulation, and elimination of herbicide clomazone in the earthworm Eisenia fetida were investigated in the different exposure systems. The LC50 values of clomazone on earthworms were 5.6 μg cm(-2) in the contact filter paper test (48 h), 174.9 mg kg(-1) (7 days) and 123.4 mg kg(-1) (14 days) in artificial soil test, respectively. Clomazone could rapidly bioaccumulate in earthworms and reached the highest concentration after 3 days exposure, with the maximum concentrations of 9.0, 35.3 and 142.3 mg kg(-1) at 10.0, 40.0 and 160.0 mg kg(-1) of clomazone, respectively. Clomazone uptake showed a good correlation with exposure concentration. After the 14th day, clomazone declined to minimum value. About 74%-80% of accumulated clomazone was eliminated within 1 day after exposed to clomazone-free soil. However, a trace amount of clomazone persisted for a relatively long time in earthworms.

  6. Detrimental Influence of Invasive Earthworms on North American Cold-Temperate Forest Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enerson, Isabel

    2012-01-01

    The topic of invasive earthworms is a timely concern that goes against many preconceived notions regarding the positive benefits of all worms. In the cold-temperate forests of North America invasive worms are threatening forest ecosystems, due to the changes they create in the soil, including decreases in C:N ratios and leaf litter, disruption of…

  7. Effect of mulch quality on earthworm activity and nutrient supply in the humid tropics.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tian, G.; Kang, B.T.; Brussaard, L.

    1997-01-01

    An experiment was conducted in 1990 and 1991 at the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA), Ibadan, Nigeria to study the role of earthworms in the decomposition of plant residue mulches with different qualities. Five mulches of Dactyladenia barteri, Gliricidia sepium, Leucaena leucoc

  8. Anti-inflammatory, antipyretic and antioxidant activities of the earthworms extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossam El-Din Mohamed Omar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Earthworms are the major biomass in soil. They have been widely used in traditional Chinese medicine for a long time. However, in the past few decades with the development of biochemical technologies the research on the pharmaceutical effects of earthworms has been commencement.Aims: Experiments were conducted to recognize the therapeutic properties such as anti-inflammatory, antipyretic and antioxidant activities of biologically active extract isolated from two species of earthworm (Pheretima hawayana Rosa and Allolobophora caliginosa Savigny.Materials and methods: inflammation in the hind paw of albino rat, Rattus rattus, was induced by histamine, pyrexia was induced by Escherichia coli in rats and liver damage was induced by injection of rats with CCl4. Anti-inflammatory drug - indomethacin, anti-pyretic drug - paracetamol and antioxidant drug - silymarin plus were used as standard drug for comparison.Results: Administration of Eearthworms extract (100 mg/kg and indomethacin (10 mg/kg, paracetamol (150 mg/kg, silymarin plus (150 mg/kg as standard drugs reduced and restored to normal the changes that induced by histamine, Escherichia coli and CCl4 in rats.Conclusions: The present study conclude that both extract of earthworms gave result as anti-inflammatory and anti-pyretic similar to the standard drugs. The extract of the two species showed various responds as antioxidants against CCl4 induced hepatotoxicity.

  9. Influence of soil properties on the bioaccumulation and effects of arsenic in the earthworm Eisenia andrei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Freire, A; Peinado, F J Martín; Ortiz, M Díez; van Gestel, C A M

    2015-10-01

    This study aimed at assessing the influence of soil properties on the uptake and toxicity effects of arsenic in the earthworm Eisenia andrei exposed for 4 weeks to seven natural soils spiked with different arsenic concentrations. Water-soluble soil concentrations (AsW) and internal As concentrations in the earthworms (AsE) were greatly different between soils. These two variables were highly correlated and were key factors in earthworm toxicity response. AsW was explained by some soil properties, such as the pH, calcium carbonate content, ionic strength, texture or oxide forms. Toxicity showed a clear variation between soils, in some cases without achieving 50 % adverse effect at the highest As concentration added (600 mg kg(-1)). Nevertheless, soil properties did not show, in general, a high relation with studied toxicity endpoints, although the high correlation with AsW could greatly reduce indirectly As bioavailability and toxicity risk for earthworms. Obtained results suggest that soil properties should be part of the criteria to establishing thresholds for contaminated soils because they will be key in controlling As availability and thus result in different degrees of toxicity.

  10. Dietary supplementation with two Lamiaceae herbs-(oregano and sage modulates innate immunity parameters in Lumbric us terrestris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D A Vattem

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Lamiaceae herbs have are well known for their immunomodulatory effects, however, the mechanism by which they effect innate immune system is not clearly understood. Objective: The effect of dietary supplementation with two Lamiaceae herbs (oregano and sage modulation of on innate immunological parameters was investigated in Lumbricus terrestris. Materials and Methods: Animals were fed (ad libitum on herbs supplemented diet [(0.1% (w/v and 0.5% (w/v] for 6 days. Changes in immune competent cell counts, viability, and relative neutrophil-like cell counts were determined in response to herb treatment. Changes in nitric oxide, phagocytic activity, and respiratory burst index were also determined in response to herb treatment relative to control. Additionally, effect of herb co-treatment cyclophosphamide (50 mg/kg-BW induced immunosuppression was also evaluated. Results: Our results suggested abrogation of CP-induced immunosuppression in response to co-treatment with herbs. Significant increase in nitric oxide-mediated immune-competent cell counts, viability, and differentiation into neutrophil-like cells were observed in response to dietary supplementation with Lamiaceae herbs. Significantly higher phagocytic activity relative to control was also noted in response to dietary intake of oregano and sage. However, the respiratory burst index did not increase exponentially in response to herb treatments, suggesting a potential enhancement in pathogen recognition and antioxidant defenses. Conclusion: Lamiaceae herbs may have potential immune-modulatory properties important for human health and merits further investigation.

  11. Terrestrial plant methane production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Teis Nørgaard; Bruhn, Dan; Møller, Ian M.

    We evaluate all experimental work published on the phenomenon of aerobic methane (CH4) generation in terrestrial plants. We conclude that the phenomenon is true. Four stimulating factors have been observed to induce aerobic plant CH4 production, i.e. cutting injuries, increasing temperature......, ultraviolet radiation and reactive oxygen species. Further, we analyze rates of measured emission of aerobically produced CH4 in pectin and in plant tissues from different studies and argue that pectin is very far from the sole contributing precursor. Hence, scaling up of aerobic CH4 emission needs to take...... the aerobic methane emission in plants. Future work is needed for establishing the relative contribution of several proven potential CH4 precursors in plant material....

  12. Role of Native and Exotic Earthworms in Plant Biopolymer Dynamics in Forest Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filley, Timothy

    2010-05-01

    Many forests within northern North America are experiencing the introduction of earthworms for the first time, presumably since before the last major glaciation. Forest dynamics are undergoing substantial changes because of the activity of the mainly European lumbricid species. Documented losses in litter layers, expansion of A-horizons, loss of the organic horizon, changes in fine root density, and shifts in microbial populations have all been documented in invaded zones. Two free air CO2 enrichment (FACE) forest experiments (aspen FACE at Rhinelander, Wisconsin and sweet gum FACE at Oak Ridge National Lab, Tennessee) lie within the zones of invasion and exhibit differences in amounts of exotic and native species as well as endogeic (predominantly mineral soil dwelling) and epigeic (litter and organic matter horizon dwelling) types. Considerations of carbon accrual dynamics and relative input of above vs. below ground plant input in these young successional systems do not consider the potential impact of these ecosystem engineers. We investigated the impact of earthworm activity by tracking the relative abundance and stable carbon isotope compositions of lignin and substituted fatty acids extracted from isolated earthworms and their fecal pellets and from host soils. Indications of root vs leaf input to earthworm casts and fecal matter were derived from differences in the chemical composition of cutin, suberin, and lignin. The isotopically depleted CO2 used in FACE and the resulting isotopically depleted plant organic matter afford an excellent opportunity to assess biopolymer-specific turnover dynamics. We find that endogeic species are proportionately more responsible for fine root cycling while some epigeic species are responsible for microaggregation of foliar cutin. CSIA of fecal pellet lignin and SFA indicates how these biopolymer pools can be derived from variable sources, roots, background soil, foliar tissue within one earthworm. Additionally, CSIA

  13. Terrestrial Planets Accreted Dry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albarede, F.; Blichert-Toft, J.

    2007-12-01

    Plate tectonics shaped the Earth, whereas the Moon is a dry and inactive desert. Mars probably came to rest within the first billion years of its history, and Venus, although internally very active, has a dry inferno for its surface. The strong gravity field of a large planet allows for an enormous amount of gravitational energy to be released, causing the outer part of the planetary body to melt (magma ocean), helps retain water on the planet, and increases the pressure gradient. The weak gravity field and anhydrous conditions prevailing on the Moon stabilized, on top of its magma ocean, a thick buoyant plagioclase lithosphere, which insulated the molten interior. On Earth, the buoyant hydrous phases (serpentines) produced by reactions between the terrestrial magma ocean and the wet impactors received from the outer Solar System isolated the magma and kept it molten for some few tens of million years. The elemental distributions and the range of condensation temperatures show that the planets from the inner Solar System accreted dry. The interior of planets that lost up to 95% of their K cannot contain much water. Foundering of their wet surface material softened the terrestrial mantle and set the scene for the onset of plate tectonics. This very same process may have removed all the water from the surface of Venus 500 My ago and added enough water to its mantle to make its internal dynamics very strong and keep the surface very young. Because of a radius smaller than that of the Earth, not enough water could be drawn into the Martian mantle before it was lost to space and Martian plate tectonics never began. The radius of a planet therefore is the key parameter controlling most of its evolutional features.

  14. Terrestrial Coordinate Systems and Frames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boucher, C.; Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    A terrestrial reference system (TRS) is a spatial reference system corotating with the Earth in its DIURNAL MOTION in space. In such a system, the positions of points anchored on the Earth's solid surface have coordinates which have only small variations with time, as a result of geophysical effects (tectonic or tidal deformations; see TECTONICS, EARTH'S INTERIOR, TIDES). A terrestrial reference ...

  15. Invasion of the tropical earthworm Pontoscolex corethrurus (Rhinodrilidae, Oligochaeta in temperate grasslands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Ortiz-Gamino

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The tropical earthworm Pontoscolex corethrurus (Rhinodrilidae, Oligochaeta presents a broad distribution (e.g., 56 countries from four continents. It is generally assumed that temperature appears to limit the success of tropical exotic species in temperate climates. However, the distribution range of this species could advance towards higher elevations (with lower temperatures where no tropical species currently occur. The aim of this study was to evaluate the soil and climatic variables that could be closely associated with the distribution of P. corethrurus in four sites along an altitudinal gradient in central Veracruz, Mexico. We predicted that the distribution of P. corethrurus would be more related to climate variables than edaphic parameters. Five sampling points (in the grassland were established at each of four sites along an altitudinal gradient: Laguna Verde (LV, La Concepción (LC, Naolinco (NA and Acatlán (AC at 11–55, 992–1,025, 1,550–1,619 y 1,772–1,800 masl, respectively. The climate ranged from tropical to temperate along the altitudinal gradient. Ten earthworm species (5 Neotropical, 4 Palearctic and 1 Nearctic were found along the gradient, belonging to three families (Rhinodrilidae, Megascolecide and Lumbricidae. Soil properties showed a significant association (positive for Ngrass, pH, permanent wilting point, organic matter and P; and negative for Total N, K and water-holding capacity with the abundance of the earthworm community. Also there seems to be a relationship between climate and earthworm distribution along the altitudinal gradient. P. corethrurus was recorded at tropical (LV and LC and temperate sites (NA along the altitudinal gradient. Our results reveal that soil fertility determines the abundance of earthworms and site (climate can act as a barrier to their migration. Further research is needed to determine the genetic structure and lineages of P. corethrurus along altitudinal gradients.

  16. 蚯蚓粪的研究及应用%Research and Application of Earthworm Excrement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周美荣; 孙振江; 申晓强

    2012-01-01

    绿色农业是全世界关注的焦点问题.目前,施用含有丰富营养元素和有机质的蚯蚓粪这类优质生物有机肥已成为发展趋势,特别是将其用在有机、绿色农产品的生产以及花卉、草坪、绿化苗木上,不仅效果好,而且效率高.另外,还可将蚯蚓粪进行深加工,加工后其产品蛋白质含量高,市场潜力大、附加值高.蚯蚓粪可以作为高效生物肥和饲料,还可以修复污染土壤、作吸附剂除臭、抑制植物病虫害,还具有解毒作用.%Green agriculture is the focus of worldwide attention. At present, use of rich nutrients and organic matter of earthworm excrement quality organic fertilizer has become a developing trend. In particular, its use has good effect in organic production of agricultural products, flowers, lawn, and gardening seedlings, In addition, the earthworm excrement and earthworms could be deep processed, and the product had high protein, promising market potentiality and high increment. Earthworm excrement in application could be made as efficient biological fertilizer and feed. It also has the function of soil restoration, adsorbent, detoxification, inhibition of pests and diseases, and detoxification. To reach the goal of green, environmental protection and safe agriculture, we should also study the development prospects of earthworm excrement and its application in agriculture economic benefits.

  17. Effects of Cry1Ab Bt maize straw return on bacterial community of earthworm Eisenia fetida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Yinghua; Zhang, Yanyan; Zeng, Huilan; Zhang, Yahui; Wang, Jianwu

    2017-04-01

    The eco-toxicological effects of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) maize on earthworm life-history traits were widely studied and the results were controversial, while their effects on earthworm bacterial community have been rarely studied. Here, effects of two hybrids of Bt maize [5422Bt1 (event Bt11) and 5422CBCL (MON810)] straw return on Eisenia fetida bacterial community were investigated by the terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) and polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) combing with DNA sequencing, compared to near-isogenic non-Bt maize (5422). Bt maize straw return had significant effects on soil nutrients, especially for available nitrogen (N). The significant differences were shown in soil bacterial community between Bt and non-Bt maize treatments on the 75(th) and 90(th) d, which was closely correlated with soil available N, P and K rather than Cry1Ab protein. There was no statistically significant difference in the bacterial community of earthworm gut contents between Bt and non-Bt maize treatments. The significant differences in the bacterial community of earthworm casts were found among three maize varieties treatments, which were closely correlated with Cry1Ab protein and N levels. The differentiated bacterial species in earthworm casts mainly belonged to Proteobacteria, including Brevundimonas, Caulobacter, Pseudomonas, Stenotrophomonas, Methylobacterium, Asticcacaulis and Achromobacter etc., which were associated with the mineralization, metabolic process and degradation of plants residues. Therefore, Bt maize straw return caused changes in the bacterial community of E. fetida casts, which was possibly caused by the direct (Cry1Ab protein) and non-expected effects (N levels) of Bt maize straw.

  18. Soil microbial community and endemic earthworm Allolobophora hrabei in soils of steppe fragments of central Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elhottová, Dana; Jirout, Jiří; Pižl, Václav

    2016-04-01

    The earthworm activity is generally recognized as an important factor changing the intrinsic heterogeneity of soil environment including the microbial constituents. In central Europe, about 40% of earthworm species are endemic to this region, some of them dominating forest and grassland ecosystems and playing a keystone role in the soil food-web. However, current knowledge about the effects of earthworms on soil microorganisms derives from studies on a few peregrine species only. Our study brought a view on the microbial component of the steppe soil affected by the activity of Allolobophora hrabei, an endemic earthworm fragmentary distributed in the border regions of the Czech Republic, Austria, Slovakia and Hungary. The study was carried out in three steppe fragments, where A. hrabei represented a key earthworm species. Comprehensive approach based on bio-indicating quantitative and qualitative options of extended phospholipid fatty acids analysis (PLFA) of bulk soil, drilosphere sensu lato and casts was used on data from two-years monitoring. In situ observation was completed by detailed observation of the casts-microbiota succession under controlled laboratory conditions. Our results showed that A. hrabei significantly affected soil microorganisms mainly via its extremely high casting activity. The doubled biomass, new qualitative composition, better growth and nutritional status of microbial community together with significantly higher availability of phosphorus and organic carbon in casts in contrast to bulk soil confirmed beneficial impact of A. hrabei on the soil environment. A. hrabei has burrowed up to more than one metre depths and produced more than 3 kg . m-2 of casts per year.

  19. Determination of multi-walled carbon nanotube bioaccumulation in earthworms measured by a microwave-based detection technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reliable quantification techniques for carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are limited. In this study, a new procedure was developed for quantifying multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) in earthworms (Eisenia fetida) based on freeze drying and microwave-induced heating. Specifically, earthw...

  20. Determination of multi-walled carbon nanotube bioaccumulation in earthworms measured by a microwave-based detection technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reliable quantification techniques for carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are limited. In this study, a new procedure was developed for quantifying multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) in earthworms (Eisenia fetida) based on freeze drying and microwave-induced heating. Specifically, earthw...

  1. Bioaccumulation of pharmaceuticals and other anthropogenic waste indicators in earthworms from agricultural soil amended with biosolid or swine manure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinney, C.A.; Furlong, E.T.; Kolpin, D.W.; Burkhardt, M.R.; Zaugg, S.D.; Werner, S.L.; Bossio, J.P.; Benotti, M.J.

    2008-01-01

    Analysis of earthworms offers potential for assessing the transfer of organic anthropogenic waste indicators (AWIs) derived from land-applied biosolid or manure to biota. Earthworms and soil samples were collected from three Midwest agricultural fields to measure the presence and potential for transfer of 77 AWIs from land-applied biosolids and livestock manure to earthworms. The sites consisted of a soybean field with no amendments of human or livestock waste (Site 1), a soybean field amended with biosolids from a municipal wastewater treatment plant (Site 2), and a cornfield amended with swine manure (Site 3). The biosolid applied to Site 2 contained a diverse composition of 28 AWIs, reflecting the presence of human-use compounds. The swine manure contained 12 AWIs, and was dominated by biogenic sterols. Soil and earthworm samples were collected in the spring (about 30 days after soil amendment) and fall (140-155 days after soil amendment) at all field sites. Soils from Site 1 contained 21 AWIs and soil from Sites 2 and 3 contained 19 AWIs. The AWI profiles at Sites 2 and 3 generally reflected the relative composition of AWIs present in waste material applied. There were 20 AWIs detected in earthworms from Site 1 (three compounds exceeding concentrations of 1000 ??g/kg), 25 AWIs in earthworms from Site 2 (seven compounds exceeding concentrations of 1000 ??g/kg), and 21 AWIs in earthworms from Site 3 (five compounds exceeding concentrations of 1000 ??g/kg). A number of compounds thatwere present in the earthworm tissue were at concentrations less than reporting levels in the corresponding soil samples. The AWIs detected in earthworm tissue from the three field sites included pharmaceuticals, synthetic fragrances, detergent metabolites, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), biogenic sterols, disinfectants, and pesticides, reflecting a wide range of physicochemical properties. For those contaminants detected in earthworm tissue and soil, bioaccumulation factors

  2. Earthworm impacts on organo-mineral interactions and soil carbon inventories in Fennoscandian boreal and sub-arctic landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wackett, Adrian; Yoo, Kyungsoo; Cameron, Erin; Klaminder, Jonatan

    2017-04-01

    Boreal and sub-arctic environments sustain some of the most pristine and fragile ecosystems in the world and house a disproportionate amount of the global soil carbon pool. Although the historical view of soil carbon turnover has focused on the intrinsic molecular structure of organic matter, recent work has highlighted the importance of stabilizing soil carbon on reactive mineral surfaces. However, the rates and mechanisms controlling these processes at high latitudes are poorly understood. Here we explored the biogeochemical impacts of deep-burrowing earthworm species on a range of Fennoscandian forest soils to investigate how earthworms impact soil carbon inventories and organo-mineral associations across boreal and sub-arctic landscapes. We sampled soils and earthworms at six sites spanning almost ten degrees latitude and encompassing a wide range of soil types and textures, permitting simultaneous consideration of how climate and mineralogy affect earthworm-mediated shifts in soil carbon dynamics. Across all sites, earthworms significantly decreased the carbon and nitrogen contents of the upper 10 cm, presumably through consumption of the humus layer and subsequent incorporation of the underlying mineral soil into upper organic horizons. Their mixing of humus and underlying soil also generally increased the proportion of mineral surface area occluded by organic matter, although the extent to which earthworms facilitate such organo-mineral interactions appears to be controlled by soil texture and mineralogy. This work indicates that quantitative measurements of mineral surface area and its extent of coverage by soil organic matter facilitate scaling up of molecular interactions between organic matter and minerals to the level of soil profiles and landscapes. Our preliminary data also strongly suggests that earthworms have profound effects on the fate of soil carbon and nitrogen in boreal and sub-arctic environments, highlighting the need for a better

  3. Uptake and retention of radio-caesium in earthworms cultured in soil contaminated by the Fukushima nuclear power plant accident.

    OpenAIRE

    Fujiwara, K.; T. Takahashi; P. Nguyen; Kubota, Y.; Gamou, S; Sakurai, S; Takahashi, S

    2015-01-01

    To understand the effects of radionuclides on non-human biota and the environment, it is essential to study the intake and metabolism of radio-isotopes in earthworms which are among the most important soil organisms, and Eisenia fetida, which were used in this study, are known to be sufficiently sensitive to chemicals and representative of common earthworms. In this study, we assessed the concentration ratios, uptake and retention, absorbed dose rate, and distribution of radio-caesium in eart...

  4. Design and experimental gait analysis of a multi-segment in-pipe robot inspired by earthworm's peristaltic locomotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Hongbin; Wang, Chenghao; Li, Suyi; Xu, Jian; Wang, K. W.

    2014-03-01

    This paper reports the experimental progress towards developing a multi-segment in-pipe robot inspired by earthworm's body structure and locomotion mechanism. To mimic the alternating contraction and elongation of a single earthworm's segment, a robust, servomotor based actuation mechanism is developed. In each robot segment, servomotor-driven cords and spring steel belts are utilized to imitate the earthworm's longitudinal and circular muscles, respectively. It is shown that the designed segment can contract and relax just like an earthworm's body segment. The axial and radial deformation of a single segment is measured experimentally, which agrees with the theoretical predictions. Then a multisegment earthworm-like robot is fabricated by assembling eight identical segments in series. The locomotion performance of this robot prototype is then extensively tested in order to investigate the correlation between gait design and dynamic locomotion characteristics. Based on the principle of retrograde peristalsis wave, a gait generator is developed for the multi-segment earthworm-like robot, following which gaits of the robot can be constructed. Employing the generated gaits, the 8-segment earthworm-like robot can successfully perform both horizontal locomotion and vertical climb in pipes. By changing gait parameters, i.e., with different gaits, locomotion characteristics including average speed and anchor slippage can be significantly tailored. The proposed actuation method and prototype of the multi-segment in-pipe robot as well as the gait generator provide a bionic realization of earthworm's locomotion with promising potentials in various applications such as pipeline inspection and cleaning.

  5. Species-Specific Effects of Epigeic Earthworms on Microbial Community Structure during First Stages of Decomposition of Organic Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Brandón, María; Lores, Marta; Domínguez, Jorge

    2012-01-01

    Background Epigeic earthworms are key organisms in organic matter decomposition because of the interactions they establish with microorganisms. The earthworm species and the quality and/or substrate availability are expected to be major factors influencing the outcome of these interactions. Here we tested whether and to what extent the epigeic earthworms Eisenia andrei, Eisenia fetida and Perionyx excavatus, widely used in vermicomposting, are capable of altering the microbiological properties of fresh organic matter in the short-term. We also questioned if the earthworm-induced modifications to the microbial communities are dependent on the type of substrate ingested. Methodology/Principal Findings To address these questions we determined the microbial community structure (phospholipid fatty acid profiles) and microbial activity (basal respiration and microbial growth rates) of three types of animal manure (cow, horse and rabbit) that differed in microbial composition, after being processed by each species of earthworm for one month. No differences were found between earthworm-worked samples with regards to microbial community structure, irrespective of type of manure, which suggests the existence of a bottleneck effect of worm digestion on microbial populations of the original material consumed. Moreover, in mesocosms containing cow manure the presence of E. andrei resulted not only in a decrease in bacterial and fungal biomass, but also in a reduced bacterial growth rate and total microbial activity, while no such reduction was found with E. fetida and P. excavatus. Conclusions/Significance Our results point to the species of earthworm with its associated gut microbiota as a strong determinant of the process shaping the structure of microbial communities in the short-term. This must nonetheless be weighed against the fact that further knowledge is necessary to evaluate whether the changes in the composition of microbiota in response to the earthworm species is

  6. Radiocesium concentrations in epigeic earthworms at various distances from the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant 6 months after the 2011 accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Motohiro; Ito, Masamichi T; Kaneko, Shinji; Kiyono, Yoshiyuki; Ikeda, Shigeto; Makino, Shun'ichi

    2013-12-01

    We investigated the concentrations of radiocesium in epigeic earthworms, litter, and soil samples collected from forests in Fukushima Prefecture 6 months after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident in 2011. Radiocesium concentrations in litter accumulated on the forest floor were higher than those in the soil (0-5 cm depth). The highest average (134+137)Cs concentrations in earthworms (approximately 19 Bq g(-1) of wet weight with gut contents and 108 Bq g(-1) of dry weight without gut contents) were recorded from a plot that experienced an air dose rate of 3.1 μSv h(-1), and earthworm concentrations were found to increase with litter and/or soil concentrations. Average (134)Cs and (137)Cs concentrations (with or without gut contents) were intermediate between accumulated litter and soil. Different species in the same ecological groups on the same plots had similar concentrations because of their use of the same habitats or their similar physiological characteristics. The contribution of global fallout (137)Cs to earthworms with gut contents was calculated to be very low, and most (137)Cs in earthworms was derived from the Fukushima accident. Transfer factors from accumulated litter to earthworms, based on their dry weights, ranged from 0.21 to 0.35, in agreement with previous field studies.

  7. Aquatic and Terrestrial Environment 2004

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, J. M.; Boutrup, S.; Bijl, L. van der

    This report presents the 2004 results of the Danish National Monitoring and Assess-ment Programme for the Aquatic and Terrestrial Environments (NOVANA). 2004 was the first year in which terrestrial nature was included in the monitoring pro-gramme. The report reviews the state of the groundwater......, watercourses, lakes and marine waters and the pressures upon them and reviews the monitoring of terrestrial natural habitats and selected plants and animals. The report is based on the annual reports prepared for each subprogramme by the Topic Centres. The latter reports are mainly based on data collected...

  8. Aquatic and Terrestrial Environment 2004

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, J. M.; Boutrup, S.; Bijl, L. van der

    This report presents the 2004 results of the Danish National Monitoring and Assess-ment Programme for the Aquatic and Terrestrial Environments (NOVANA). 2004 was the first year in which terrestrial nature was included in the monitoring pro-gramme. The report reviews the state of the groundwater......, watercourses, lakes and marine waters and the pressures upon them and reviews the monitoring of terrestrial natural habitats and selected plants and animals. The report is based on the annual reports prepared for each subprogramme by the Topic Centres. The latter reports are mainly based on data collected...

  9. Uptake and metabolism of 10:2 fluorotelomer alcohol in soil-earthworm (Eisenia fetida) and soil-wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Shuyan; Zhu, Lingyan

    2017-01-01

    The behavior of 10:2 fluorotelomer alcohol (10:2 FTOH) in the systems of soil-earthworm (Eisenia fetida), soil-wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and soil-earthworm-wheat, including degradation in soil, uptake and metabolism in wheat and earthworms were investigated. Several perfluorocarboxylic acids (PFCAs) as degradation products of 10:2 FTOH were identified in the soil, plant and earthworms. 10:2 FTOH could be biodegraded to perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), perfluorononanate (PFNA) and perfluorodecanoate (PFDA) in soil in the absence or presence of wheat/earthworms, and PFDA was the predominant metabolite. Accumulation of initial 10:2 FTOH and its metabolites were observed in the wheat and earthworms, suggesting that 10:2 FTOH could be bioaccumulated in wheat and earthworms and biotransformed to the highly stable PFCAs. Perfluoropentanoic acid (PFPeA), perfluorohexanoic (PFHxA) and PFDA were detected in wheat root, while PFDA and perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUnDA) were detected in shoot. PFNA and PFDA were determined in earthworms and the concentration of PFDA was much higher. The presence of earthworms and/or plant stimulated the microbial degradation of 10:2 FTOH in soil. The results supplied important evidence that degradation of 10:2 FTOH was an important potential source of PFCAs in the environment and in biota. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Radiocarbon dating of terrestrial carbonates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pigati, Jeffrey S.; Rink, W. Jack; Thompson, Jeroen

    2014-01-01

    Terrestrial carbonates encompass a wide range of materials that potentially could be used for radiocarbon (14C) dating. Biogenic carbonates, including shells and tests of terrestrial and aquatic gastropods, bivalves, ostracodes, and foraminifera, are preserved in a variety of late Quaternary deposits and may be suitable for 14C dating. Primary calcareous deposits (marls, tufa, speleothems) and secondary carbonates (rhizoliths, fracture fill, soil carbonate) may also be targeted for dating when conditions are favorable. This chapter discusses issues that are commonly encountered in 14C dating of terrestrial carbonates, including isotopic disequilibrium and open-system behavior, as well as methods used to determine the reliability of ages derived from these materials. Recent methodological advancements that may improve the accuracy and precision of 14C ages of terrestrial carbonates are also highlighted.

  11. Atmospheric Circulation of Terrestrial Exoplanets

    CERN Document Server

    Showman, Adam P; Merlis, Timothy M; Kaspi, Yohai

    2013-01-01

    The investigation of planets around other stars began with the study of gas giants, but is now extending to the discovery and characterization of super-Earths and terrestrial planets. Motivated by this observational tide, we survey the basic dynamical principles governing the atmospheric circulation of terrestrial exoplanets, and discuss the interaction of their circulation with the hydrological cycle and global-scale climate feedbacks. Terrestrial exoplanets occupy a wide range of physical and dynamical conditions, only a small fraction of which have yet been explored in detail. Our approach is to lay out the fundamental dynamical principles governing the atmospheric circulation on terrestrial planets--broadly defined--and show how they can provide a foundation for understanding the atmospheric behavior of these worlds. We first survey basic atmospheric dynamics, including the role of geostrophy, baroclinic instabilities, and jets in the strongly rotating regime (the "extratropics") and the role of the Hadle...

  12. Multi-species interactions impact the accumulation of weathered 2,2-bis (p-chlorophenyl)-1,1-dichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE) from soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelsey, Jason W. [Program in Environmental Science and Department of Chemistry, Muhlenberg College, Allentown, PA 18104 (United States)]. E-mail: kelsey@muhlenberg.edu; White, Jason C. [Department of Soil and Water, Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station, 123 Huntington Street, New Haven, CT 06504 (United States)]. E-mail: jason.white@po.state.ct.us

    2005-09-15

    The impact of interactions between the earthworms Eisenia foetida and Lumbricus terrestris and the plants Cucurbita pepo and Cucurbita maxima on the uptake of weathered p,p'-DDE from soil was determined. Although some combinations of earthworm and plant species caused significant changes in the p,p'-DDE burden in both organisms, the effects were species specific. Contaminant bioconcentration in C. pepo was increased slightly by E. foetida and by 3-fold when the plant was grown with L. terrestris. E. foetida had no effect on the contaminant BCF by C. maxima, but L. terrestris caused a 2-fold reduction in p,p'-DDE uptake by the plant. Contaminant levels in E. foetida and L. terrestris were unaffected by C. pepo. When grown with C. maxima, the concentration of p,p'-DDE decreased by approximately 4-fold and 7-fold in E. foetida and L. terrestris, respectively. The data suggest that the prediction of contaminant bioavailability should consider interactions among species. - Interactions between earthworms and plants affect both the phytoextraction and bioaccumulation of p,p'-DDE in soil.

  13. Fossil worm burrows reveal very early terrestrial animal activity and shed light on trophic resources after the end-cretaceous mass extinction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Chin

    Full Text Available The widespread mass extinctions at the end of the Cretaceous caused world-wide disruption of ecosystems, and faunal responses to the one-two punch of severe environmental perturbation and ecosystem collapse are still unclear. Here we report the discovery of in situ terrestrial fossil burrows from just above the impact-defined Cretaceous-Paleogene (K/Pg boundary in southwestern North Dakota. The crisscrossing networks of horizontal burrows occur at the interface of a lignitic coal and silty sandstone, and reveal intense faunal activity within centimeters of the boundary clay. Estimated rates of sedimentation and coal formation suggest that the burrows were made less than ten thousand years after the end-Cretaceous impact. The burrow characteristics are most consistent with burrows of extant earthworms. Moreover, the burrowing and detritivorous habits of these annelids fit models that predict the trophic and sheltering lifestyles of terrestrial animals that survived the K/Pg extinction event. In turn, such detritus-eaters would have played a critical role in supporting secondary consumers. Thus, some of the carnivorous vertebrates that radiated after the K/Pg extinction may owe their evolutionary success to thriving populations of earthworms.

  14. Fossil Worm Burrows Reveal Very Early Terrestrial Animal Activity and Shed Light on Trophic Resources after the End-Cretaceous Mass Extinction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Karen; Pearson, Dean; Ekdale, A. A.

    2013-01-01

    The widespread mass extinctions at the end of the Cretaceous caused world-wide disruption of ecosystems, and faunal responses to the one-two punch of severe environmental perturbation and ecosystem collapse are still unclear. Here we report the discovery of in situ terrestrial fossil burrows from just above the impact-defined Cretaceous-Paleogene (K/Pg) boundary in southwestern North Dakota. The crisscrossing networks of horizontal burrows occur at the interface of a lignitic coal and silty sandstone, and reveal intense faunal activity within centimeters of the boundary clay. Estimated rates of sedimentation and coal formation suggest that the burrows were made less than ten thousand years after the end-Cretaceous impact. The burrow characteristics are most consistent with burrows of extant earthworms. Moreover, the burrowing and detritivorous habits of these annelids fit models that predict the trophic and sheltering lifestyles of terrestrial animals that survived the K/Pg extinction event. In turn, such detritus-eaters would have played a critical role in supporting secondary consumers. Thus, some of the carnivorous vertebrates that radiated after the K/Pg extinction may owe their evolutionary success to thriving populations of earthworms. PMID:23951041

  15. An exploration of the relationship between adsorption and bioavailability of pesticides in soil to earthworm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu Yunlong [Department of Plant Protection, Zhejiang University, Kaixuan Road 268, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310029 (China)]. E-mail: ylyu@zju.edu.cn; Wu Xiaomao [Department of Plant Protection, College of Agriculture, Guizhou University, Guiyang 550025 (China); Li Shaonan [Department of Plant Protection, Zhejiang University, Kaixuan Road 268, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310029 (China); Fang Hua [Department of Plant Protection, Zhejiang University, Kaixuan Road 268, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310029 (China); Zhan Haiyan [Department of Plant Protection, Zhejiang University, Kaixuan Road 268, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310029 (China); Yu Jingquan [Department of Horticulture, College of Agriculture and Biotechnology, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310029 (China)

    2006-06-15

    A study was conducted to determine the adsorption/desorption of butachlor, myclobutanil and chlorpyrifos on five soils using a batch equilibration technique and to study the relationship between bioavailability to Allolobophora caliginosa and the adsorption/desorption of these three pesticides. The results showed that the adsorption/desorption processes of the tested compounds were mainly controlled by soil organic matter content (OM) and octanol/water-partitioning coefficient (K {sub ow}), and that the bioavailability of the pesticides was dependent on characteristics of pesticides, properties of soils, and uptake routes of earthworms. Bioconcentration of butachlor and myclobutanil was negatively correlated with Freundlich adsorption constant K {sub af} and K {sub df}. However, only a slightly positive correlation between bioconcentration and K {sub af} and K {sub df} was observed for chlorpyrifos due to its high affinity onto soil. - Bioavailability of pesticides in soil to earthworm is governed by adsorption characteristics.

  16. Molecular and cellular response of earthworm Eisenia andrei (Oligochaeta, Lumbricidae) to PCDD/Fs exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nusair, Shreen Deeb; Abu Zarour, Yousef Sa'id

    2017-01-01

    The acute toxicity of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) was investigated in the earthworm Eisenia andrei using filter paper toxicity test. Protein content, catalase (CAT) activity, and histology of intestinal wall (chloragogen cells and intestinal epithelium) were investigated in earthworms exposed for 48 h to 0 (control), 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 ng/cm(2) PCDD/Fs. The results showed an increase in the total protein content 1.56- (p = 0.104), 1.66- (p = 0.042), and 2.26-fold (p biomarkers of E. andrei within 48 h, the cellular and molecular alterations resulted from the filter paper contact test could be utilized as a rapid toxicity assessment tool of environmental contamination with dioxins/furans and to assess consequent potential adverse effects on soil biota and other organisms in the ecosystem.

  17. Effects of PAHs and dioxins on the earthworm Eisenia andrei: a multivariate approach for biomarker interpretation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sforzini, Susanna; Moore, Michael N; Boeri, Marta; Bencivenga, Mauro; Viarengo, Aldo

    2015-01-01

    In this study, a battery of biomarkers was utilised to evaluate the stress syndrome induced in the earthworm Eisenia andrei by exposure to environmentally realistic concentrations of benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-para-dioxin (TCDD) in OECD soil. The set of tests was then employed to assess the toxicity of field soils contaminated with organic xenobiotic compounds (such as PAHs, dioxins and PCBs). The results highlighted an impairment of immune and metabolic functions and genotoxic damage in worms exposed also to lower bioavailable concentrations of toxic chemicals. Multivariate analysis of biomarker data showed that all different contaminated soils had a detrimental effect on the earthworms. A separation between temporal and concentration factors was also evident for B[a]P and TCDD treatments; and field contaminated soils were further differentiated reflecting a diverse contamination. Multivariate analysis also demonstrated that lysosomal membrane stability can be considered a prognostic indicator for worm health status.

  18. Effects of Rare Earth Element Lan on the Activities of Earthworm Enzyme

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Dongmei; Liu Wenli; Liu Weiping

    2007-01-01

    The effects of Rare Earth Element Lan on the activities of cellulose, catalase, peroxidase and superoxide dismutasein in earthworm were carried out by natural soil test. The results indicated that Lan can significantly suppress the activity of cellulose. The responses of three enzymes in earthworm to Lan were different, Lan mostly affects catalase activity and inhibited catalase activity throughout the experiment. Peroxidase activity tend to "promote weakly and inhibited strongly" when short term of exposure to Lan, while "inhibited weakly and promote strongly" as a function of time. In comparison, Lan had little influence on the activity of superoxide dismutase. The variance analysis results showed that the concentration of Lan significantly affected the activities of cellulose and CAT but had no obvious influence on the activities of SOD and POD. The treatment time and the interactive effect between treatment concentrations and time had very significant effect on the activities of cellulose, SOD, CAT and POD.

  19. Combined toxicity of butachlor, atrazine and λ-cyhalothrin on the earthworm Eisenia fetida by combination index (CI)-isobologram method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chen; Wang, Yanhua; Zhao, Xueping; Qian, Yongzhong; Wang, Qiang

    2014-10-01

    Pesticides in the environment do not appear singly and usually occur as complex mixtures and their combined effect may exhibit toxicity to organisms. The individual and combined toxicities of two herbicides, atrazine and butachlor and an insecticide λ-cyhalothrin have been examined to the earthworm Eisenia fetida, as a non-target terrestrial organism, in artificial soil and filter paper tests. The order of toxicity for the individual pesticides was ranked as atrazine>λ-cyhalothrin>butachlor in both tests. We applied the combination index (CI)-isobologram method which is widely used to study chemical interactions to determine the nature of toxicological interactions of the pesticides and it allows computerized quantitation of synergism, additive effect and antagonism. For most cases in artificial soil test, synergism was observed in majority of the mixtures except for the combination of butachlor plus λ-cyhalothrin. This particular combination displayed opposite interaction in filter paper test. The CI method was compared with the classical models of Concentration Addition (CA) and Independent Action (IA) and we found that CI method could accurately predict the combined toxicity and can serve as a useful tool in ecotoxicological risk assessment.

  20. Earthworms as indicators for different forest management types and human disturbance in Ilam oak forest, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heydari Mehdi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available There has been observed widespread destruction of natural ecosystems around the world due to population growth, land use change and clear cutting which have affected soil properties. Different management strategies have been so far implemented to reduce this crisis in various regions of the world, such as e.g. short-term and long-term conservation management in the Zagros region. However, any management approach should be evaluated with appropriate measures to determine how managed areas respond. The main objective of the present study was to evaluate the potential of earthworms as an indicator for different forest management strategies and human disturbances in Zagros oak (Quercus persica Jaub. and Spach forest. The sites selected included undisturbed one as the control (Un, the sites under five-year conservation management (FCM and twenty-year conservation management (TCM as well as the disturbed site (D. The results of principal component analysis (PCA showed that different regions separated into the components: PC1 and PC2. Un and TCM sites gathered together and represented higher values of the factors such as pH, Kavailable, OC, clay content, Pavailable, CEC, overstory tree canopy, Ntot, biomass and abundance of earthworms. The positive direction of the first axis reflected a gradient of EC, BD and Ptot. According to the logistic model, NH4-N and EC played the most important role in earthworm presence and absence in Zagros forest ecosystem. Earthworm abundance and biomass could be a good indicator to evaluate different forest management strategies in the study area.

  1. Amelioration of iron mine soils with biosolids: Effects on plant tissue metal content and earthworms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cele, Emmanuel Nkosinathi; Maboeta, Mark

    2016-11-01

    The achievement of environmentally sound and economically feasible disposal strategies for biosolids is a major issue in the wastewater treatment industry around the world, including Swaziland. Currently, an iron ore mine site, which is located within a wildlife sanctuary, is being considered as a suitable place where controlled disposal of biosolids may be practiced. Therefore, this study was conducted to investigate the effects of urban biosolids on iron mine soils with regard to plant metal content and ecotoxicological effects on earthworms. This was done through chemical analysis of plants grown in biosolid-amended mine soil. Earthworm behaviour, reproduction and bioaccumulation tests were also conducted on biosolid-amended mine soil. According to the results obtained, the use of biosolids led to creation of soil conditions that were generally favourable to earthworms. However, plants were found to have accumulated Zn up to 346 mg kg(-1) (in shoots) and 462 mg kg(-1) (in roots). This was more than double the normal Zn content of plants. It was concluded that while biosolids can be beneficial to mine soils and earthworms, they can also lead to elevated metal content in plant tissues, which might be a concern to plant-dependant wildlife species. Nonetheless, it was not possible to satisfactorily estimate risks to forage quality since animal feeding tests with hyperaccumulator plants have not been reported. Quite possibly, there may be no cause for alarm since the uptake of metals from soil is greater in plants grown in pots in the greenhouse than from the same soil in the field since pot studies fail to mimic field conditions where the soil is heterogeneous and where the root system possesses a complex topology. It was thought that further field trials might assist in arriving at more satisfactory conclusions.

  2. Bioremediation of heavy metals and petroleum hydrocarbons in diesel contaminated soil with the earthworm: Eudrilus eugeniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekperusi, Ogheneruemu Abraham; Aigbodion, Iruobe Felix

    2015-01-01

    A laboratory study on the bioremediation of diesel contaminated soil with the earthworm Eudrilus eugeniae (Kingberg) was conducted. 5 ml of diesel was contaminated into soils in replicates and inoculated with E. eugeniae for 90 days. Physicochemical parameters, heavy metals and total petroleum hydrocarbons were analyzed using AAS. BTEX in contaminated soil and tissues of earthworms were determined with GC-FID. The activities of earthworms resulted in a decrease in pH (3.0 %), electrical conductivity (60.66 %), total nitrogen (47.37 %), chloride (60.66 %), total organic carbon (49.22 %), sulphate (60.59 %), nitrate (60.65 %), phosphate (60.80 %), sodium (60.65 %), potassium (60.67 %), calcium (60.67 %), magnesium (60.68 %), zinc (60.59 %), manganese (60.72 %), copper (60.68 %), nickel (60.58 %), cadmium (60.44 %), vanadium (61.19 %), chromium (53.60 %), lead (60.38 %), mercury (61.11 %), arsenic (80.85 %), TPH (84.99 %). Among the BTEX constituents, only benzene (8.35 %) was detected in soil at the end of the study. Earthworm tissue analysis showed varying levels of TPH (57.35 %), benzene (38.91 %), toluene (27.76 %), ethylbenzene (42.16 %) and xylene (09.62 %) in E. eugeniae at the end of the study. The study has shown that E. eugeniae could be applied as a possible bioremediator in diesel polluted soil.

  3. Acute and chronic toxicity testing of TPH-contaminated soils with the earthworm, Eisenia foetida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stewart, A.J.; Wicker, L.F.; Nazerias, M.S. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Responses of Eisenia foetida to petroleum-contaminated soils are being assessed using a 21-day test described previously. The authors prepared dilutions of two soils, referred to as A and B, using their reference-soil counterparts, collected from near the contaminated sites. The total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) content of each soil was measured by latroscan before the dilutions were prepared. References for the A and B soils contained 167 and 1,869 ppm of TPH, respectively. Thus, neither reference soil was pristine. Dilutions of the A soil tested with E. foetida contained from 179 to 305 ppm TPH; dilutions of the B soil contained from 1,875 to 1,950 ppm TPH. E foetida survival was 100% in both dilution series. Mean growth of Eisenia in dilutions of the A soil ranged from 48 to 74 mg dry-weight growth per pair of worms; these values were lower than those in any dilution of the B soil series. Lipid levels of worms in higher concentrations of the A and B soils were similar to one another and to published values, suggesting little inhibition of feeding in either dilution series. Earthworm reproduction was zero in the A series, but moderately high in the B series. Thus, the A soil apparently contained materials other than TPH that inhibited earthworm growth and reproduction. This study shows that (1) TPH at concentrations as high as 1,800 ppm may not always be inhibitor to earthworm growth or reproduction and (2) that earthworm survival, as a test endpoint, is much less sensitive than either growth or reproduction.

  4. Effect of tree species mixture on earthworm communities on a continental scale

    OpenAIRE

    De Wandeler, Hans; Baeten, Lander; Carnol, Monique; Hermy, Martin; Muys, Bart

    2014-01-01

    The belowground food web represents a major part of associated biodiversity in forest ecosystems, and plays a significant role in the ecosystem processes of litter decomposition and nutrient turnover. Past research has demonstrated overwhelming evidence of strong tree species identity effects on earthworm communities. It has been proposed that increased plant community diversity would be beneficial to the abundance and diversity of the belowground food web, but effects of tree ...

  5. Earthworm assemblages in different intensity of agricultural uses and their relation to edaphic variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LB Falco

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to relate earthworm assemblage structure with three different soil use intensities, and to indentify the physical, chemical, and microbiological soil variables that are associated to the observed differences. Three soil uses were evaluated: 1-Fifty year old naturalized grasslands, low use intensity; 2-Recent agricultural fields, intermediate use intensity, and 3-Fifty year old intensive agricultural fields, high use intensity. Three different sites for each soil use were evaluated from winter 2008 through summer 2011. Nine earthworm species were identified across all sampling sites. The sites shared five species: the native Microscolex dubius, and the introduced Aporrectodea caliginosa, A. rosea, Octalasion cyaneum, and O. lacteum, but they differed in relative abundance by soil use. The results show that the earthworm community structure is linked to and modulated by soil properties. Both species abundance and diversity showed significant differences depending on soil use intensity. A principal component analysis showed that species composition is closely related to the environmental variability. The ratio of native to exotic species was significantly lower in the intensive agricultural system when compared to the other two, lower disturbance systems. Microscolex dubius abundance was related to naturalized grasslands along with soil Ca, pH, mechanical resistance, and microbial respiration. Aporrectodea caliginosa abundance was related to high K levels, low enzymatic activity, slightly low pH, low Ca, and appeared related to the highly disturbed environment. Eukerria stagnalis and Aporrectodea rosea, commonly found in the recent agricultural system, were related to high soil moisture condition, low pH, low Ca and low enzymatic activity. These results show that earthworm assemblages can be good indicators of soil use intensities. In particular, Microscolex dubius, Aporrectodea caliginosa, and Aporrectodea rosea

  6. Earthworm assemblages in different intensity of agricultural uses and their relation to edaphic variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falco, L B; Sandler, R; Momo, F; Di Ciocco, C; Saravia, L; Coviella, C

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to relate earthworm assemblage structure with three different soil use intensities, and to indentify the physical, chemical, and microbiological soil variables that are associated to the observed differences. Three soil uses were evaluated: 1-Fifty year old naturalized grasslands, low use intensity; 2-Recent agricultural fields, intermediate use intensity, and 3-Fifty year old intensive agricultural fields, high use intensity. Three different sites for each soil use were evaluated from winter 2008 through summer 2011. Nine earthworm species were identified across all sampling sites. The sites shared five species: the native Microscolex dubius, and the introduced Aporrectodea caliginosa, A. rosea, Octalasion cyaneum, and O. lacteum, but they differed in relative abundance by soil use. The results show that the earthworm community structure is linked to and modulated by soil properties. Both species abundance and diversity showed significant differences depending on soil use intensity. A principal component analysis showed that species composition is closely related to the environmental variability. The ratio of native to exotic species was significantly lower in the intensive agricultural system when compared to the other two, lower disturbance systems. Microscolex dubius abundance was related to naturalized grasslands along with soil Ca, pH, mechanical resistance, and microbial respiration. Aporrectodea caliginosa abundance was related to high K levels, low enzymatic activity, slightly low pH, low Ca, and appeared related to the highly disturbed environment. Eukerria stagnalis and Aporrectodea rosea, commonly found in the recent agricultural system, were related to high soil moisture condition, low pH, low Ca and low enzymatic activity. These results show that earthworm assemblages can be good indicators of soil use intensities. In particular, Microscolex dubius, Aporrectodea caliginosa, and Aporrectodea rosea, showed different

  7. Combined subacute toxicity of copper and antiparasitic albendazole to the earthworm (Eisenia fetida).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yuhong; Li, Hongshuang; Li, Xuemei; Sun, Zhenjun

    2016-03-01

    Copper (Cu) is one of the most common metal contaminants, and albendazole (ABZ) is a veterinary drug with a high efficacy against helminthes. It is believed that the two may co-exist in soil. In this study, the combined subacute toxicity of Cu exposure (0, 80, 120, 160 mg kg(-1)) and ABZ exposure (0, 3, 9 mg kg(-1)) in earthworms (Eisenia fetida) were observed using three approaches, namely chronic growth and reproduction, antioxidant enzyme activity, and earthworm Cu residue. The results have shown that the toxicity of Cu on cocoon hatching success and biomass was alleviated by presence of low concentrations of ABZ (3 mg kg(-1)) during a 56-day exposure period. However, the sensitivity of the earthworms' reproduction to Cu increased with the presence of high concentrations of ABZ (9 mg kg(-1)), indicating a reduction beginning at a Cu concentration of 80 mg kg(-1), in the cocoon number, hatching success, and biomass. In addition, the three enzyme activities exhibited different responsive patterns, indicating inducement in the catalase and glutathione peroxidase, and inhibition in the superoxide dismutase, which were dependent on the exposure times and concentrations. In regard to the earthworm Cu residue, when increasing Cu exposure concentrations, the internal Cu concentrations tended to level off, exhibited a linear pattern at the Cu concentration range of 40 to 120 mg kg(-1), and showed a stable trend above 120 mg kg(-1). The results of the present study can potentially provide important information regarding the combined toxicity of the veterinary drugs and the heavy metals in soil.

  8. Identification and Optimization of Classifier Genes from Multi-Class Earthworm Microarray Dataset

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-28

    This work was supported by the U.S. Army Environmental Quality Technology Research Program. The funders had no role in study design, data collection... bioindicators for adverse effects caused by environmental contaminants. Previously, we developed an earthworm (Eisenia fetida) cDNA microarray to...Zhang1, Ping Gong3* 1 School of Computing, University of Southern Mississippi, Hattiesburg, Mississippi, United States of America, 2 Environmental

  9. An Ancient Divide in a Contiguous Rainforest: Endemic Earthworms in the Australian Wet Tropics

    OpenAIRE

    Moreau, Corrie S.; Andrew F Hugall; McDonald, Keith R.; Jamieson, Barrie G. M.; Craig Moritz

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the factors that shape current species diversity is a fundamental aim of ecology and evolutionary biology. The Australian Wet Tropics (AWT) are a system in which much is known about how the rainforests and the rainforest-dependent organisms reacted to late Pleistocene climate changes, but less is known about how events deeper in time shaped speciation and extinction in this highly endemic biota. We estimate the phylogeny of a species-rich endemic genus of earthworms (Terrisswalk...

  10. Degradation of potassium rock by earthworms and responses of bacterial communities in its gut and surrounding substrates after being fed with mineral.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dianfeng Liu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Earthworms are an ecosystem's engineers, contributing to a wide range of nutrient cycling and geochemical processes in the ecosystem. Their activities can increase rates of silicate mineral weathering. Their intestinal microbes usually are thought to be one of the key drivers of mineral degradation mediated by earthworms,but the diversities of the intestinal microorganisms which were relevant with mineral weathering are unclear. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this report, we show earthworms' effect on silicate mineral weathering and the responses of bacterial communities in their gut and surrounding substrates after being fed with potassium-bearing rock powder (PBRP. Determination of water-soluble and HNO(3-extractable elements indicated some elements such as Al, Fe and Ca were significantly released from mineral upon the digestion of earthworms. The microbial communities in earthworms' gut and the surrounding substrates were investigated by amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis (ARDRA and the results showed a higher bacterial diversity in the guts of the earthworms fed with PBRP and the PBRP after being fed to earthworms. UPGMA dendrogram with unweighted UniFrac analysis, considering only taxa that are present, revealed that earthworms' gut and their surrounding substrate shared similar microbiota. UPGMA dendrogram with weighted UniFrac, considering the relative abundance of microbial lineages, showed the two samples from surrounding substrate and the two samples from earthworms' gut had similarity in microbial community, respectively. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results indicated earthworms can accelerate degradation of silicate mineral. Earthworms play an important role in ecosystem processe since they not only have some positive effects on soil structure, but also promote nutrient cycling of ecosystem by enhancing the weathering of minerals.

  11. Chemical and microbiological changes during vermicomposting of coffee pulp using exotic (Eudrilus eugeniae) and native earthworm (Perionyx ceylanesis) species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raphael, Kurian; Velmourougane, K

    2011-06-01

    Coffee pulp is the main solid residue from the wet processing of coffee berries. Due to presence of anti-physiological and anti-nutritional factors, coffee pulp is not considered as adequate substrate for bioconversion process by coffee farmers. Recent stringent measures by Pollution Control authorities, made it mandatory to treat all the solid and liquid waste emanating from the coffee farms. A study was conducted to evaluate the efficiency of an exotic (Eudrilus eugeniae) and a native earthworm (Perionyx ceylanesis) from coffee farm for decomposition of coffee pulp into valuable vermicompost. Exotic earthworms were found to degrade the coffee pulp faster (112 days) as compared to the native worms (165 days) and the vermicomposting efficiency (77.9%) and vermicompost yield (389 kg) were found to significantly higher with native worms. The multiplication rate of earthworms (280%) and worm yield (3.78 kg) recorded significantly higher with the exotic earthworms. The percentage of nitrogen, phosphorous, potassium, calcium and magnesium in vermicompost was found to increase while C:N ratio, pH and total organic carbon declined as a function of the vermicomposting. The plant nutrients, nitrogen (80.6%), phosphorus (292%) and potassium (550%) content found to increase significantly in the vermicompost produced using native earthworms as compared to the initial values, while the calcium (85.7%) and magnesium (210%) content found to increase significantly in compost produced utilizing exotic worms. Vermicompost and vermicasts from native earthworms recorded significantly higher functional microbial group's population as compared to the exotic worms. The study reveals that coffee pulp can be very well used as substrate for vermicomposting using exotic (Eudrilus eugeniae) and native earthworm (Perionyx ceylanesis).

  12. Searching for external sources of the riboflavin stored in earthworm eleocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Sulik

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Riboflavin (vitamin B2 is essential to maintain immune potency in animals and plants. So far is accepted that animals cannot synthesise riboflavin; they rely on plant-sourced diets and intestinal bacteria for their supplies. A unique feature of earthworm ‘hepatocyte-like’ chloragocytes and chloragocyte-derived eleocytes floating in celomic cavity is the storage of riboflavin within intracellular granules. The hypothesis was that vegetarian food-deprivation or antibiotic/antifungal treatment inhibits riboflavin accumulation in eleocytes of Eisenia andrei. The 7-week starvation inhibited worm body weight gain and worm reproduction but had insignificant effects on celomocytes, both amoebocytes and eleocytes, and eleocyte riboflavin accumulation. The 1 week or 3 week antibiotic exposure had insignificant effects on worm coelomocytes and riboflavin content. Thus, a vegetarian diet and intestinal bacteria are not the exclusive or perhaps even the main sources of eleocyte riboflavin. The role of endosymbionts in earthworm flavonoid economy warrants targeted investigation. Moreover, the possibility of horizontal transfer of riboflavin biosynthesis genes from bacteria/fungi to earthworm genomes cannot be neglected.

  13. BIOCONCENTRATION OF HEAVY METALS IN VERMICOMPOSTING EARTHWORMS (Eisenia fetida, Perionyx excavatus and Lampito mauritii IN NEPAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raju Panday

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Vermicomposting of organic waste can play an important part during the waste management process in larger cities such as Kathmandu where 70% of the waste generated is organic. In this study, the possibility of heavy metal (Pb, Cd, Cu and Cr bioaccumulation by three different species of earthworms Eisenia fetida, Lampito mauritii and Perionyx excavatus in domestic waste vermicompost was investigated. Quantification of heavy metals by Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy(AAS in final vermicompost showed a significant reduction in concentration of metals, Pb (11.4-26.0%, Cd (48-61%, Cu (4.9- 29.01% and Cr (18.90-33.60% at the end. Bioaccumulation of heavy metal in the composting earthworms was also recorded. Comparison of the three groups of earthworms showed that the bioaccumulation of Pb, Cu and Cr was greater for P. excavatus whereas E. fetida was the most reluctant. Heavy metal content in the vermicompost was within the limit of USEPA for Biosolids and the compost could be used for the agriculture purpose.

  14. The spatiotemporal pattern of earthworm community in the grass savannas of Lamto (Ivory Coast).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Jean-Pierre; Lavelle, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    The impact of earthworms on both soil physical properties and soil organic matter dynamics has been well documented (Lavelle and Spain 2001). There is a wealth of literature dedicated to the biological mechanisms at work or to empirical approaches based on field data. Assessing the functional role of a species or community implies establishing both time and space scales at which it is effectively the primary determinant of the process(es) at hand. In that context, space-time data analyses are powerful tools to process community data collected on numerous occasions but are, however, not widely disseminated in the community of ecologists. Although computer resources are available, one difficulty is that ad hoc field data are not always easily available which hinders the percolation of the methods. We provide the results of a 5 dates survey of earthworm community in a grass savanna of Lamto (Ivory Coast) conducted between 1995 and 1997. At each sampling date, earthworm community was assessed by hand-sorting a set of 100 soil monoliths distributed on a regular grid of 5 m mesh. These data were analyzed in Rossi (2003a) and are published here with the aim that they could be reanalyzed using new statistical tools (e.g. MEM analyses see Jiménez et al. 2014) or serve as example for researchers that train on space-time statistical methods.

  15. A method for assessing sublethal effects of contaminants in soils to the earthworm, Eisenia foetida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gibbs, M.H. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Center for Environmental Biotechnology; Wicker, L.F.; Stewart, A.J. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Environmental Sciences Div.

    1996-03-01

    The authors developed and tested a procedure that allows quantification of the effects of soil contaminants on earthworm (Eisenia foetida) growth and reproduction. The procedure monitors isolated pairs of earthworms and generates a higher ratio of data per organisms than other commonly used procedures. It also incorporates an accurate technique for measuring adult growth, has high sensitivity compared to the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) 14-d acute toxicity test, and is cost effective. The authors applied the method to a variety of soil-testing problems. A food-and-substrate trial using artificial soil demonstrated the sensitivity of the method and the need for food supplementation to stimulate earthworm reproduction. Application of the procedure to assess efficacy of a soil bioremediation technology revealed the advantage of measuring both growth and reproduction and highlighted the usefulness of a single integrated measure of these two responses. The method also was used as a fast-screening analysis for field soils in a large-scale ecological risk assessment. Finally, a reference toxicant, used in dilution series, demonstrated that responses of E. foetida using the authors` method were similar to their responses in the OECD artificial-soil test method. The results of this study indicate that this procedure can be used both for regulatory and compliance needs within the framework of ecological risk assessment.

  16. Chlorinated pesticide and PCB analysis of earthworms for determination of body burden and bioaccumulation factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gouveia, D.A.; Turton, D.; Rury, P. [Arthur D. Little, Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    A study of target chlorinated pesticide and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) uptake in Red Wiggler (Eisenia foetida) earthworms for the determination of body burden and bioaccumulation factors was performed to provide site-specific data for an extensive ecological risk assessment. Earthworms and contaminated site soil (both prior to and following earthworm exposure) were analyzed for chlorinated pesticides, PCB Aroclors, and target metals. While the target metal analysis was straightforward, the pesticide and PCB analyses were complicated due to the number and concentration of site contaminants, as well as interferences from the biological matrix. This study provided valuable information on: integration of analytical chemistry in an ecological risk assessment; available options for extraction, cleanup, and analysis; selection of optimum analytical methodologies to meet data quality objectives (DQOs); interpretation of soil and tissue analytical results; and understanding of the potential error and uncertainty in the analyses. By coordinating risk assessment needs and expectations with the analytical laboratory capabilities and by maintaining a flexible analysis program, the study provided analytical data capable of meeting the DQOs and overall risk assessment objectives.

  17. The Changes of Earthworm Population and Chemical Properties of Tropical Soils under Different Land Use Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Yusnaini

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Hilly area Sumberjaya, West Lampung Province, South Sumatra, Indonesia, is one of the Province where deforestation increasing in the past 30 years as a result of the implementation of agricultural systems, especially coffee plantation. it is important to study the soil fauna in these natural relicts. Six sites (3 naturals and 3 managed systems were studied in order to identify earthworm species communities, using the hand sorting method and soil chemical parameters (pH, avail-P, org-C., tot-N, and cation exchange capacity (CEC. Two species were found (Pheretima sp. and Pontoscolex sp.. All land use systems had very similar soil chemical characteristics, there can be characterised as acidic (pH between 3.6 and 5.0. A high content of organic carbon was in natural sites (bush 4.0% and primary forest 3.9%, and a low content was in managed sites (coffee plantation 2.1%. Total nitrogen (0.37% and CEC (21.84 Cmol-c kg-1 was in primary forest. However, the earthworm densities were significantly lower under primary forest than in the other sites. The acidity component explained mainly the lowest earthworm population at the primary forest (soil pH 3.6. The use of succession forest (bush and mix farming showed a positive effect on soil fertility.

  18. Body metal concentrations and glycogen reserves in earthworms (Dendrobaena octaedra) from contaminated and uncontaminated forest soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmstrup, Martin, E-mail: martin.holmstrup@dmu.d [National Environmental Research Institute, Aarhus University, Department of Terrestrial Ecology, Vejlsovej 25, DK-8600 Silkeborg (Denmark); Sorensen, Jesper G. [National Environmental Research Institute, Aarhus University, Department of Terrestrial Ecology, Vejlsovej 25, DK-8600 Silkeborg (Denmark); Overgaard, Johannes; Bayley, Mark [Zoophysiology, Department of Biological Sciences, Aarhus University, Building 131, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Bindesbol, Anne-Mette [National Environmental Research Institute, Aarhus University, Department of Terrestrial Ecology, Vejlsovej 25, DK-8600 Silkeborg (Denmark); Zoophysiology, Department of Biological Sciences, Aarhus University, Building 131, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Slotsbo, Stine; Fisker, Karina V.; Maraldo, Kristine [National Environmental Research Institute, Aarhus University, Department of Terrestrial Ecology, Vejlsovej 25, DK-8600 Silkeborg (Denmark); Waagner, Dorthe [National Environmental Research Institute, Aarhus University, Department of Terrestrial Ecology, Vejlsovej 25, DK-8600 Silkeborg (Denmark); Zoophysiology, Department of Biological Sciences, Aarhus University, Building 131, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Labouriau, Rodrigo [Aarhus University, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Genetics and Biotechnology, Research Centre Foulum, Blichers Alle 20, P.O. Box 50, DK-8830 Tjele (Denmark); Asmund, Gert [National Environmental Research Institute, Aarhus University, Department of Arctic Environment, Frederiksborgvej 399, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark)

    2011-01-15

    Stress originating from toxicants such as heavy metals can induce compensatory changes in the energy metabolism of organisms due to increased energy expenses associated with detoxification and excretion processes. These energy expenses may be reflected in the available energy reserves such as glycogen. In a field study the earthworm, Dendrobaena octaedra, was collected from polluted areas, and from unpolluted reference areas. If present in the environment, cadmium, lead and copper accumulated to high concentrations in D. octaedra. In contrast, other toxic metals such as aluminium, nickel and zinc appeared to be regulated and kept at low internal concentrations compared to soil concentrations. Lead, cadmium and copper accumulation did not correlate with glycogen reserves of individual worms. In contrast, aluminium, nickel and zinc were negatively correlated with glycogen reserves. These results suggest that coping with different metals in earthworms is associated with differential energy demands depending on the associated detoxification strategy. - Detoxification and accumulation of cadmium and lead by earthworms carries little energetic expenses whereas strict internal regulation of aluminium and nickel has energetic costs.

  19. cDNA cloning and expression of earthworm fibrinolytic enzyme component A

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Earthworm fibrinolytic enzyme component A (EFEa), a protein with dual fibrinolytic activity, is one of the major therapeutically important earthworm fibrinolytic enzyme components. The cDNA fragment encoded the mature protein was cloned from earthworm (Eisenia fetida) by the RT-PCR technique. The deduced amino acid sequence of the EFE component A shows high homology with some members of serine proteases trypsin family, and the amino acid residues constituting the active sites are conserved in the EFEa as compared with the other proteins of the trypsin family. The cDNA fragment was subcloned into the expression vector pQE31 and pMAL-c2X of E. coli. The resulting expression plasmids, pQE-efea and pMAL-efea, were used to transform the E. coli strain M15. Recombinant protein bands corresponding with calculated molecular weights were induced. The induced His6-EFEa fusion protein with pQE- efea was accumulated into inclusion body, while the induced MBP-EFEa fusion protein with pMAL-efea was soluble and showed fibrinolytic activities.

  20. Numerical results on the contribution of an earthworm hole to infiltration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pezzotti, Dario; Barontini, Stefano; Casali, Federico; Comincini, Mattia; Peli, Marco; Ranzi, Roberto; Rizzo, Gabriele; Tomirotti, Massimo; Vitale, Paolo

    2017-04-01

    On 9 March 2016 the WormEx I experiment was launched at the experimental site of Cividate Camuno (274ma.s.l., Oglio river basin, Central Italian Alps), aiming at contributing to understand how the soil-fauna digging activity affects soil-water flow. Particularly the experiment investigates the effects of earthworms holes on the soil-water constitutive laws, in the uppermost layers of a shallow anthropized soil. In this framework a set of simulations of the water flow in presence of an earthworm hole was preliminarily performed. The FV-FD numerical code AdHydra was used to solve the Richards equation in an axis-symmetric 2D domain around a vertical earthworm hole. The hole was represented both as a void cylinder and as a virtual porous domain with typical constitutive laws of a Δ-soil. The hypothesis of Poiseuille flow and the Jourin-Borelli law applied to determine its conductivity and soil-water retention relationship. Different scenarios of hole depth and infiltration rate were explored. As a result a meaningful change in the downflow condition was observed when burrows intersect a layered soil, both in saturated and partially unsaturated soils, in case a perched water table onsets at the interface between an upper and more conductive soil layer and a lower and less conductive one. These results may contribute to a better understanding of the streamflow generation processes and soil-water movement in shallow layered soils.

  1. Effect of Butachlor Herbicide on Earthworm Eisenia fetida—Its Histological Perspicuity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muthukaruppan Gobi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available With the advent of the Green Revolution, there has been a quantum leap in the use of synthetic herbicides and pesticides throughout the world to sustain high yielding crop varieties. Continuous use of these synthetic chemicals leads to loss of soil fertility and soil organisms. To explore the effect of exposure to commercial herbicide (Butachlor on the life history parameters (biomass, clitellum development, and cocoon production and the histological changes in the earthworm Eisenia fetida over 60 days, the dried cow dung was contaminated with 0.2575 mg kg−1, 0.5150 mg kg−1, and 2.5750 mg kg−1 of butachlor based on the LC50 value, and a control was maintained. The mean earthworm biomass was found to be decreased with increasing herbicide concentration. Similarly, cocoon production was also reduced by the increasing herbicide concentration. A possible explanation is an increased demand for energy, needed for the regulation and detoxification of herbicide. All earthworms in the exposed group were found to have glandular cell enlargement and to be vacuolated.

  2. Rank-based biomarker index to assess cadmium ecotoxicity on the earthworm Eisenia andrei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panzarino, O; Hyršl, P; Dobeš, P; Vojtek, L; Vernile, P; Bari, G; Terzano, R; Spagnuolo, M; de Lillo, E

    2016-02-01

    A proper soil risk assessment needs to estimate the processes that affect the fate and the behaviour of a contaminant, which are influenced by soil biotic and abiotic components. For this reason, the measurement of biomarkers in soil bioindicator organisms, such as earthworms, has recently received increasing attention. In this study, the earthworm Eisenia andrei was used to assess the pollutant-induced stress syndrome after exposure to sublethal concentrations of Cd (10 or 100 μg g(-1)) in OECD soil, after 14 d of exposure. Cadmium bioaccumulation and potential biomarkers such as catalase (CAT), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), malondialdehyde (MDA), phenoloxidase (PO), metallothioneins (MTs) and genotoxic damage were determined. Results suggested that the exposure to 10 and 100 μg g(-1) Cd significantly increased Cd bioaccumulation, MTs and MDA; 100 μg g(-1) Cd contamination evidenced significantly higher values of H2O2 content and PO activity; CAT activity was inhibited at the higher concentration while GST and Comet assay did not show any significant differences from the control. Rank-based biomarker index showed that both different contaminated soils had an effect on the earthworms and allowed to validate the ecotoxicological relevance of this battery of biomarkers for a promising integrated multi-marker approach in soil monitoring and assessment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Persistence and changes in bioavailability of dieldrin, DDE and heptachlor epoxide in earthworms over 45 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, W. Nelson; Gale, Robert W.

    2013-01-01

    The finding of dieldrin (88 ng/g), DDE (52 ng/g), and heptachlor epoxide (19 ng/g) in earthworms from experimental plots after a single moderate application (9 kg/ha) 45 years earlier attests to the remarkable persistence of these compounds in soil and their continued uptake by soil organisms. Half-lives (with 95 % confidence intervals) in earthworms, estimated from exponential decay equations, were as follows: dieldrin 4.9 (4.3-5.7) years, DDE 5.3 (4.7-6.1) years, and heptachlor epoxide 4.3 (3.8-4.9) years. These half-lives were not significantly different from those estimated after 20 years. Concentration factors (dry weight earthworm tissue/dry weight soil) were initially high and decreased mainly during the first 11 years after application. By the end of the study, average concentration factors were 1.5 (dieldrin), 4.0 (DDE), and 1.8 (heptachlor epoxide), respectively.

  4. Uptake dynamics of inorganic mercury and methylmercury by the earthworm Pheretima guillemi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Fei; Zhao, Jie; Zhou, Dongmei

    2016-02-01

    Mercury uptake dynamics in the earthworm Pheretima guillemi, including the dissolved uptake rate constant (ku) from pore-water and assimilation efficiencies (AEs) from mercury-contaminated soil, was quantified in this study. Dissolved uptake rate constants were 0.087 and 0.553 L g(-1) d(-1) for inorganic mercury (IHg) and methylmercury (MeHg), respectively. Assimilation efficiency of IHg in field-contaminated soil was 7.2%, lower than 15.4% of spiked soil. In contrast, MeHg exhibited comparable AEs for both field-contaminated and spiked soil (82.4-87.2%). Within the framework of biodynamic model, we further modelled the exposure pathways (dissolved exposure vs soil ingestion) to source the accumulated mercury in Pheretima guillemi. The model showed that the relative importance of soil ingestion to mercury bioaccumulation depended largely on mercury partitioning coefficients (K(d)), and was also influenced by soil ingestion rate of earthworms. In the examined field-contaminated soil, almost (>99%) accumulated IHg and MeHg was predicted to derive from soil ingestion. Therefore, soil ingestion should be carefully considered when assessing mercury exposure risk to earthworms.

  5. Oxidative and genotoxic effects of 900 MHz electromagnetic fields in the earthworm Eisenia fetida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tkalec, Mirta; Stambuk, Anamaria; Srut, Maja; Malarić, Krešimir; Klobučar, Göran I V

    2013-04-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic field (RF-EMF) can have various biological effects. In this study the oxidative and genotoxic effects were investigated in earthworms Eisenia fetida exposed in vivo to RF-EMF at the mobile phone frequency (900 MHz). Earthworms were exposed to the homogeneous RF-EMF at field levels of 10, 23, 41 and 120 V m(-1) for a period of 2h using a Gigahertz Transversal Electromagnetic (GTEM) cell. At the field level of 23 V m(-1) the effect of longer exposure (4h) and field modulation (80% AM 1 kHz sinusoidal) was investigated as well. All exposure treatments induced significant genotoxic effect in earthworms coelomocytes detected by the Comet assay, demonstrating DNA damaging capacity of 900 MHz electromagnetic radiation. Field modulation additionally increased the genotoxic effect. Moreover, our results indicated the induction of antioxidant stress response in terms of enhanced catalase and glutathione reductase activity as a result of the RF-EMF exposure, and demonstrated the generation of lipid and protein oxidative damage. Antioxidant responses and the potential of RF-EMF to induce damage to lipids, proteins and DNA differed depending on the field level applied, modulation of the field and duration of E. fetida exposure to 900 MHz electromagnetic radiation. Nature of detected DNA lesions and oxidative stress as the mechanism of action for the induction of DNA damage are discussed.

  6. Persistence and changes in bioavailability of dieldrin, DDE, and heptachlor epoxide in earthworms over 45 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, W Nelson; Gale, Robert W

    2013-02-01

    The finding of dieldrin (88 ng/g), DDE (52 ng/g), and heptachlor epoxide (19 ng/g) in earthworms from experimental plots after a single moderate application (9 kg/ha) 45 years earlier attests to the remarkable persistence of these compounds in soil and their continued uptake by soil organisms. Half-lives (with 95 % confidence intervals) in earthworms, estimated from exponential decay equations, were as follows: dieldrin 4.9 (4.3-5.7) years, DDE 5.3 (4.7-6.1) years, and heptachlor epoxide 4.3 (3.8-4.9) years. These half-lives were not significantly different from those estimated after 20 years. Concentration factors (dry weight earthworm tissue/dry weight soil) were initially high and decreased mainly during the first 11 years after application. By the end of the study, average concentration factors were 1.5 (dieldrin), 4.0 (DDE), and 1.8 (heptachlor epoxide), respectively.

  7. Living on a volcano's edge: genetic isolation of an extremophile terrestrial metazoan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, L; Montiel, R; Novo, M; Orozco-terWengel, P; Rodrigues, A; Morgan, A J; Kille, P

    2014-02-01

    Communities of organisms inhabiting extreme terrestrial environments provide a unique opportunity to study evolutionary forces that drive population structure and genetic diversity under the combined challenges posed by multiple geogenic stressors. High abundance of an invasive pantropical earthworm (and the absence of indigenous lumbricid species) in the Furnas geothermal field (Sao Miguel Island, Azores) indicates its remarkable tolerance to high soil temperature, exceptionally high carbon dioxide and low oxygen levels, and elevated metal bioavailability, conditions which are lethal for the majority of terrestrial metazoans. Mitochondrial and nuclear markers were used to analyze the relationship between populations living inside and outside the geothermal field. Results showed that Pontoscolex corethrurus (Annelida, Oligochaeta, Glossoscolecidae) to be a genetically heterogeneous complex within the Sao Miguel landscape and is probably differentiated into cryptic species. The population exposed to the hostile soil conditions within the volcanic caldera possesses the lowest within-population mitochondrial diversity but an unexpectedly high degree of nuclear variability with several loci evidencing positive selection, parameters indicative of a genetically unique population only distantly related to conspecifics living outside the caldera. In conclusion, P. corethrurus inhabiting active volcanic soil is a discrete extremophile population that has evolved by tolerating a mixture of non-anthropogenic chemical and physical stressors.

  8. Transcriptomic underpinning of toxicant-mediated physiological function alterations in three terrestrial invertebrate taxa: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brulle, Franck [Univ Lille Nord de France, F59000 Lille (France); LGCgE-Lille 1, Ecologie Numerique et Ecotoxicologie, F-59650 Villeneuve d' Ascq (France); Morgan, A. John [Cardiff School of Biosciences, Cardiff University, P.O. Box 915, Cardiff, CF10 3US Wales (United Kingdom); Cocquerelle, Claude [Univ Lille Nord de France, F59000 Lille (France); LGCgE-Lille 1, Ecologie Numerique et Ecotoxicologie, F-59650 Villeneuve d' Ascq (France); Vandenbulcke, Franck, E-mail: franck.vandenbulcke@univ-lille1.f [Univ Lille Nord de France, F59000 Lille (France); LGCgE-Lille 1, Ecologie Numerique et Ecotoxicologie, F-59650 Villeneuve d' Ascq (France)

    2010-09-15

    Diverse anthropogenic activities often lead to the accumulation of inorganic and organic residues in topsoils. Biota living in close contact with contaminated soils may experience stress at different levels of biological organisation throughout the continuum from the molecular-genetic to ecological and community levels. To date, the relationship between changes at the molecular (mRNA expression) and biochemical/physiological levels evoked by exposures to chemical compounds has been partially established in a limited number of terrestrial invertebrate species. Recently, the advent of a family of transcriptomic tools (e.g. Real-time PCR, Subtractive Suppressive Hybridization, Expressed Sequence Tag sequencing, pyro-sequencing technologies, Microarray chips), together with supporting informatic and statistical procedures, have permitted the robust analyses of global gene expression changes within an ecotoxicological context. This review focuses on how transcriptomics is enlightening our understanding of the molecular-genetic responses of three contrasting terrestrial macroinvertebrate taxa (nematodes, earthworms, and springtails) to inorganics, organics, and agrochemicals. - Environmental toxicology and transcriptomics in soil macroinvertebrates.

  9. Simulations for terrestrial planets formation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    In this paper,the formation of terrestrial planets in the late stage of planetary formation is investigated using the two-planet model.At that time,the protostar formed for about 3 Ma and the gas disk dissipated.In the model,the perturbations from Jupiter and Saturn are considered.Variations of the mass of outer planet,and the initial eccentricities and inclinations of embryos and planetesimals are also considered.Our results show that,terrestrial planets are formed in 50 Ma,and the accretion rate is about 60%-80%.In each simulation,3-4 terrestrial planets are formed inside"Jupiter"with masses of 0.15 -3.6M⊕.In the 0.5-4 AU,when the eccentricities of planetesimals are excited,planetesimals are able to accrete material from wide radial direction.The plenty of water material of the terrestrial planet in the Habitable Zone may be transferred from the farther places by this mechanism.Accretion could also happen a few times between two major planets only if the outer planet has a moderate mass and the small terrestrial planet could survive at some resonances over time scale of 10 8 a.In one of our simulations,commensurability of the orbital periods of planets is very common.Moreover,a librating-circulating 3:2 configuration of mean motion resonance is found.

  10. Simulations for terrestrial planets formation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Niu; JI JiangHui

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, the formation of terrestrial planets in the late stage of planetary formation is Investigated using the two-planet model. At that time, the protostar formed for about 3 Ma and the gas disk dissipated. In the model, the perturbations from Jupiter and Saturn are considered. Variations of the mass of outer planet, and the initial eccentricities and inclinations of embryos and planetesimals are also considered. Our results show that, terrestrial planets are formed in 50 Ma, and the accretion rate is about 60%-80%. In each simulation, 3-4 terrestrial planets are formed inside "Jupiter" with masses of 0.15-3.6 M(⊙). In the 0.5-4 AU, when the eccentricities of planetesimals are excited, planetesimals are able to accrete material from wide radial direction. The plenty of water material of the terrestrial planet in the Habitable Zone may be transferred from the farther places by this mechanism. Accretion could also happen a few times between two major planets only if the outer planet has a moderate mass and the small terrestrial planet could survive at some resonances over time scale of 108a. In one of our simulations, commensurability of the orbital periods of planets is very common. Moreover, a librating-circulating 3:2 configuration of mean motion resonance is found.

  11. Mercury cycling in terrestrial watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanley, James B.; Bishop, Kevin; Banks, Michael S.

    2012-01-01

    This chapter discusses mercury cycling in the terrestrial landscape, including inputs from the atmosphere, accumulation in soils and vegetation, outputs in streamflow and volatilization, and effects of land disturbance. Mercury mobility in the terrestrial landscape is strongly controlled by organic matter. About 90% of the atmospheric mercury input is retained in vegetation and organic matter in soils, causing a buildup of legacy mercury. Some mercury is volatilized back to the atmosphere, but most export of mercury from watersheds occurs by streamflow. Stream mercury export is episodic, in association with dissolved and particulate organic carbon, as stormflow and snowmelt flush organic-rich shallow soil horizons. The terrestrial landscape is thus a major source of mercury to downstream aquatic environments, where mercury is methylated and enters the aquatic food web. With ample organic matter and sulfur, methylmercury forms in uplands as well—in wetlands, riparian zones, and other anoxic sites. Watershed features (topography, land cover type, and soil drainage class) are often more important than atmospheric mercury deposition in controlling the amount of stream mercury and methylmercury export. While reductions in atmospheric mercury deposition may rapidly benefit lakes, the terrestrial landscape will respond only over decades, because of the large stock and slow turnover of legacy mercury. We conclude with a discussion of future scenarios and the challenge of managing terrestrial mercury.

  12. Total Nitorgen Content from Earthworm (Eisenia Foetida Using The Kjeldahl Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zarina Zakaria

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In the fish aquaculture management, fish feed is identified as a major problem. The high cost and scarcity of fishmeal in formulated feeds have led to the use of other protein sources such as earthworms and animal by-product. Earthworm is an alternative protein source to replace the fish meal in the fish feed formulation. In this study, total nitrogen content in earthworm powder is determined using the Kjeldahl method by employing the statistical software, Full Factorial Design (FFD which could provide the significant information about the studied parameters. The parameters are the digestion time (min and the volume of sulfuric acid (H2SO4 (ml. From the analysis of variance (ANOVA, the volume of H2SO4and the interaction between digestion time and the volume of H2SO4arefound to be important parameters in the nitrogen determination process via the Kjeldahl method. The highest nitrogen content obtained was 12.23% when using 15 ml H2SO4 and 60 mins of digestion time. The value of R2 is 0.9986 which shows that the selected parameters (the digestion time and the volume of H2SO4 and its corresponding levels are highly correlated to the percentage nitrogen content in earthworm powder using the Kjeldahl method. ABSTRAK:Dalam pengurusan akuakultur ikan, makanan telah dikenalpasti sebagai masalah utama. Kos yang tinggi serta kekurangan sumber makanan telah menggalakkan pencarian sumber protein baru seperti cacing tanah dan hasil sampingan sembelihan haiwan ternakan. Cacing adalah sumber protein alternatif menggantikan ramuan ikan (fish meal dalam formulasi makanan ikan. Dalam kajian ini, kandungan jumlah nitrogen dalam serbuk cacing tanah telah dianalisa menggunakan kaedah Kjeldahl dengan menggunapakai perisian statistikal iaitu Full Factorial Design (FFD yang boleh memberikan maklumat yang penting berkenaan dengan parameter-parameter yang dikaji. Parameter-parameter tersebut adalah masa pencernaan (min dan isipadu asid sulfurik (H2SO4 (ml. Daripada

  13. Overview on Pharmacological and Clinical Study of Earthworm%地龙的药理与临床研究概况

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙姹; 张长林

    2011-01-01

    This article summarizes the pharmacological effect and clinical application of earthworm, in order to provide the reference for the further research and development of earthworm.%为进一步研究和开发地龙,本文对地龙的药理作用及临床研究的进展做一综述.

  14. Assessing earthworm and sewage sludge impacts on microbiological and biochemical soil quality using multivariate analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanye Jafari Vafa

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Land application of organic wastes and biosolids such as municipal sewage sludge has been an important and attractive practice for improving different properties of agricultural soils with low organic matter content in semi-arid regions, due to an increase of soil organic matter level and fertility. However, application of this organic waste may directly or indirectly affect soil bio-indicators such as microbial and enzymatic activities through a change in the activity of other soil organisms such as earthworms. Earthworms are the most important soil saprophagous fauna and much of the faunal biomass is attributed to the presence of these organisms in the soil. Therefore, it is crucial to evaluate the effect of earthworm activity on soil microbial and biochemical attributes, in particularly when soils are amended with urban sewage sludge. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the earthworm effects on biochemical and microbiological properties of a calcareous soil amended with municipal sewage sludge using Factor Analysis (FA. Materials and Methods: In the present study, the experimental treatments were sewage sludge (without and with 1.5% sewage sludge as the first factor and earthworm (no earthworm, Eiseniafoetida from epigeic group, Allolobophracaliginosa from endogeic group and a mixture of the two species as the second factor. The study was setup as 2×4 full factorial experiment arranged in a completely randomized design with three replications for each treatment under greenhouse conditions over 90 days. A calcareous soil from the 0-30 cm layer with clay loam texture was obtained from a farmland field under fallow without cultivation history for ten years. The soil was air-dried and passed through a 2-mm sieve for the experiment. Sewage sludge as the soil organic amendment was collected from Wastewater Treatment Plant in Shahrekord. Sewage sludge was air-dried and grounded to pass through a 1-mm sieve for a uniform mixture

  15. Population dynamics of earthworms in relation to soil physico-chemical parameters in agroforestry systems of Mizoram, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalthanzara, H; Ramanujam, S N; Jha, L K

    2011-09-01

    Earthworm population dynamics was studied in two agroforestry systems in the tropical hilly terrain of Mizoram, north-east India, over a period of 24 months, from July 2002 to June 2004. Two sites of agroforestry situated at Sakawrtuichhun (SKT) and Pachhunga University College (PUC) campus, Aizawl, having pineapple as the main crop, were selected for detail studies on population dynamics. Five of the total twelve species of earthworm reported from the state were recorded in the study sites. The density of earthworm ranged from 6 to 243 ind.m(-2) and biomass from 3.2 - 677.64 g.m(-2) in SKT. Comparatively the density and biomass in PUC, which is at relatively higher altitude were lowerwith a range of 0 to 176 ind.m(-2) and biomass from 0 - 391.36 g.m(-2) respectively. Population dynamics of earthworm was significantly correlated with rainfall and physical characters of the soil. Earthworm biomass was significantly affected by rainfall and moisture content of the soil. The influence of chemical factors was relatively less.

  16. Impact of ionophore monensin on performance and Cu uptake in earthworm Eisenia andrei exposed to copper-contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zidar, Primož; Kos, Monika; Vogel-Mikuš, Katarina; van Elteren, Johannes Teun; Debeljak, Marta; Žižek, Suzana

    2016-10-01

    Exposure of beneficial soil organisms to chemical mixtures is of great concern and can result in unexpected deleterious consequences. We investigated the effects of concurrent soil contamination with monensin, a veterinary pharmaceutical and feed additive, and copper, on earthworm copper uptake and reproductive success. The animals were exposed for 14 or 28 days to both substances and the results showed that the Cu body burden of earthworms increases in the presence of monensin. The harmful effects of Cu on earthworm cocoon production were considerably higher when monensin was also present in the soil. To localise the copper in earthworm tissues, histological staining was performed using two different dyes (rubeanic acid and 5-4-(p-dimethylaminobenzylidene)-rhodanine). Laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) was used to quantify the Cu levels in the tissues. Cu was found predominantly in the gut wall. The Cu content in the body wall was at least ten times lower compared to the gut, but was proportional to the level of soil contamination. Concurrent soil contamination with monensin and copper resulted in higher earthworm Cu levels and in decreased reproductive success of these important soil decomposers.

  17. Impact of biotransformation and bioavailability on the toxicity of the insecticides alpha-cypermethrin and chlorfenvinphos in earthworm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartnik, Thomas; Styrishave, Bjarne

    2008-11-26

    Knowledge about the bioavailability and metabolism of pesticides in soil organisms facilitates interpretation of its toxicity in soil. The present study relates uptake kinetics and metabolism of two insecticides, the pyrethroid alpha-cypermethrin (alpha-CYP) and the organophosphate chlorfenvinphos (CFVP), in the earthworm Eisenia fetida to their lethal and sublethal toxicity. Experiments were conducted in two soils with different organic matter contents to provide media with contrasting sorption capacity for the insecticides. The results showed that organophosphate CFVP was, when taken up by earthworms, rapidly and irreversibly bound to biomolecules and the fraction of extractable parent insecticide and metabolites was low. In contrast, alpha-CYP was rapidly metabolized by earthworms but did not form conjugates. It seems that the phase II metabolism of alpha-CYP is inhibited in earthworms, resulting in an increasing accumulation of its metabolites. Instantaneous binding of non-altered CFVP to the target site presumably resulted in a higher toxicity compared to alpha-CYP and explains the small difference between lethal and reproduction toxicity. For alpha-CYP, however, accumulation of alpha-CYP metabolites in earthworms during chronic exposure may explain the large observed difference between lethal and sublethal toxicity. Bioaccumulation and toxicity of either insecticide decreased with increasing organic matter content in soil, emphasizing the role of compound sorption on bioavailability and toxicity for soil organisms.

  18. Interactions between sewage sludge-amended soil and earthworms--comparison between Eisenia fetida and Eisenia andrei composting species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rorat, Agnieszka; Suleiman, Hanine; Grobelak, Anna; Grosser, Anna; Kacprzak, Małgorzata; Płytycz, Barbara; Vandenbulcke, Franck

    2016-02-01

    Vermicomposting is an eco-friendly technology, where earthworms are introduced in the waste, inter alia sewage sludge, to cooperate with microorganisms and enhance decomposition of organic matter. The main aims of the present study was to determine the influence of two different earthworm species, Eisenia fetida and Eisenia andrei, on the changes of selected metallic trace elements content in substratum during vermicomposting process using three different sewage sludge mainly differentiated by their metal contents. Final vermicompost has shown a slight reduction in Cd, Cu, Ni, and Pb, while the Zn concentration tends to increase. Accumulation of particular heavy metals in earthworms' bodies was assessed. Both species revealed high tendency to accumulate Cd and Zn, but not Cu, Ni, and Pb, but E. andrei has higher capabilities to accumulate some metals. Riboflavin content, which content varies depending on metal pollution in several earthworms species, was measured supravitaly in extruded coelomocytes. Riboflavin content decreased slightly during the first 6 weeks of exposure and subsequently restored till the end of the 9-week experiment. Selected agronomic parameters have also been measured in the final product (vermicompost) to assess the influence of earthworms on substratum.

  19. Combined effects of soil moisture and carbaryl to earthworms and plants: Simulation of flood and drought scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, Maria P.R.; Soares, Amadeu M.V.M. [Department of Biology and CESAM, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Loureiro, Susana, E-mail: sloureiro@ua.pt [Department of Biology and CESAM, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal)

    2011-07-15

    Studying tolerance limits in organisms exposed to climatic variations is key to understanding effects on behaviour and physiology. The presence of pollutants may influence these tolerance limits, by altering the toxicity or bioavailability of the chemical. In this work, the plant species Brassica rapa and Triticum aestivum and the earthworm Eisenia andrei were exposed to different levels of soil moisture and carbaryl, as natural and chemical stressors, respectively. Both stress factors were tested individually, as well as in combination. Acute and chronic tests were performed and results were discussed in order to evaluate the responses of organisms to the combination of stressors. When possible, data was fitted to widely employed models for describing chemical mixture responses. Synergistic interactions were observed in earthworms exposed to carbaryl and drought conditions, while antagonistic interactions were more representative for plants, especially in relation to biomass loss under flood-simulation conditions. - Highlights: > Climate variations may cause changes on chemicals' toxicity or bioavailability. > Earthworms and plants are exposed simultaneously to carbaryl and flood and drought conditions. > The IA model and possible deviations were used to evaluate combination exposures. > Synergism was observed for earthworms exposed to carbaryl and drought conditions. > Antagonistic interactions were observed for plants, in flood conditions and carbaryl. - Soil moisture can play an important role in carbaryl toxicity towards plants and earthworms.

  20. Utilization of the terrestrial cyanobacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katoh, Hiroshi; Tomita-Yokotani, Kaori; Furukawa, Jun; Kimura, Shunta; Yokoshima, Mika; Yamaguchi, Yuji; Takenaka, Hiroyuki

    The terrestrial, N _{2}-fixing cyanobacterium, Nostoc commune has expected to utilize for agriculture, food and terraforming cause of its extracellular polysaccharide, desiccation tolerance and nitrogen fixation. Previously, the first author indicated that desiccation related genes were analyzed and the suggested that the genes were related to nitrogen fixation and metabolisms. In this report, we suggest possibility of agriculture, using the cyanobacterium. Further, we also found radioactive compounds accumulated N. commune (cyanobacterium) in Fukushima, Japan after nuclear accident. Thus, it is investigated to decontaminate radioactive compounds from the surface soil by the cyanobacterium and showed to accumulate radioactive compounds using the cyanobacterium. We will discuss utilization of terrestrial cyanobacteria under closed environment. Keyword: Desiccation, terrestrial cyanobacteria, bioremediation, agriculture

  1. Arctic Terrestrial Biodiversity Monitoring Plan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Tom; Payne, J.; Doyle, M.

    The Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna (CAFF), the biodiversity working group of the Arctic Council, established the Circumpolar Biodiversity Monitoring Program (CBMP) to address the need for coordinated and standardized monitoring of Arctic environments. The CBMP includes an international...... network of scientists, conservation organizations, government agencies, Permanent Participants Arctic community experts and leaders. Using an ecosystem-based monitoring approach which includes species, ecological functions, ecosystems, their interactions, and potential drivers, the CBMP focuses...... on developing and implementing long-term plans for monitoring the integrity of Arctic biomes: terrestrial, marine, freshwater, and coastal (under development) environments. The CBMP Terrestrial Expert Monitoring Group (CBMP-TEMG) has developed the Arctic Terrestrial Biodiversity Monitoring Plan (CBMP...

  2. Groundwater and Terrestrial Water Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodell, Matthew; Chambers, Don P.; Famiglietti, James S.

    2012-01-01

    Groundwater is a vital resource and also a dynamic component of the water cycle. Unconfined aquifer storage is less responsive to short term weather conditions than the near surface terrestrial water storage (TWS) components (soil moisture, surface water, and snow). However, save for the permanently frozen regions, it typically exhibits a larger range of variability over multi-annual periods than the other components. Groundwater is poorly monitored at the global scale, but terrestrial water storage (TWS) change data from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite mission are a reasonable proxy for unconfined groundwater at climatic scales.

  3. Priapism caused by 'Tribulus terrestris'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campanelli, M; De Thomasis, R; Tenaglia, R L

    2016-01-01

    A 36-year-old Caucasian man was diagnosed with a 72-h-lasting priapism that occurred after the assumption of a Herbal supplement based on Tribulus terrestris, which is becoming increasingly popular for the treatment of sexual dysfunction. The patient underwent a cavernoglandular shunt (Ebbehoj shunt) in order to obtain complete detumescence, from which derived negative post-episode outcomes on sexual function. All patients consuming non-FDA-approved alternative supplements such as Tribulus terrestris should be warned about the possible serious side effects.

  4. Earthworms change the quantity and composition of dissolved organic carbon and reduce greenhouse gas emissions during composting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nigatu, Abebe Nigussie; Bruun, Sander; de Neergaard, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) has recently been proposed as an indicator of compost stability. We assessed the earthworms' effect on DOC content and composition during composting, and linked compost stability to greenhouse gas emissions and feeding ratio. Earthworms reduced total DOC content......, indicating larger stability of vermicompost than of thermophilic compost. The concentrations of humic acid and fulvic acid were reduced by earthworms, whereas there was no significant effect on hydrophobic neutrals and hydrophilics. The humic acid fraction was depleted more quickly than the other compounds......, indicating humic acid degradation during composting. The optimum feeding ratio decreased DOC content compared to the high feeding ratio. The lowest N2O emissions were also observed at the optimum feeding ratio. Our study confirmed the use of DOC content and composition as an indicator of compost stability...

  5. Assessment of Sediment Heavy Metals Pollution Using Screening Methods (XRF, TGA/MS, XRPD and Earthworms Bioassay)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Findoráková, Lenka; Šestinová, Ol'ga; Hančul'ák, Jozef; Fedorová, Erika; Zorkovská, Anna

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study is focused on the use of screening methods (TG/DTA coupled with MS, XRF, AAS, XRPD and earthworm bioassay) for sediments pollution assessing by heavy metals (Cu, Zn, Pb, Hg) coming from the former mining workloads in the central Spis, Eastern Slovakia. The screening methods (XRF, AAS) indicated pollution of studied sediments by Cu, Zn, Pb, Hg. The earthworms Dendrobaena veneta caused in some studied samples decrease of heavy metals concentration after their 7 days’ exposure in sediments. The other screening methods such as thermal analysis and XRPD analysis, does not confirm the specifically changes in physicochemical properties comparing the properties before and after 7 days’ earthworm's exposure.

  6. Remediation of PAH-contaminated soil by the combination of tall fescue, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus and epigeic earthworms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yan-Fei; Lu, Mang

    2015-03-21

    A 120-day experiment was performed to investigate the effect of a multi-component bioremediation system consisting of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea), arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus (AMF) (Glomus caledoniun L.), and epigeic earthworms (Eisenia foetida) for cleaning up polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)-contaminated soil. Inoculation with AMF and/or earthworms increased plant yield and PAH accumulation in plants. However, PAH uptake by tall fescue accounted for a negligible portion of soil PAH removal. Mycorrhizal tall fescue significantly enhanced PAH dissipation, PAH degrader density and polyphenol oxidase activity in soil. The highest PAH dissipation (93.4%) was observed in the combination treatment: i.e., AMF+earthworms+tall fescue, in which the soil PAH concentration decreased from an initial value of 620 to 41 mg kg(-1) in 120 days. This concentration is below the threshold level required for Chinese soil PAH quality (45 mg kg(-1) dry weight) for residential use.

  7. Resource Utilization by Native and Invasive Earthworms and Their Effects on Soil Carbon and Nitrogen Dynamics in Puerto Rican Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Yu Huang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Resource utilization by earthworms affects soil C and N dynamics and further colonization of invasive earthworms. By applying 13C-labeled Tabebuia heterophylla leaves and 15N-labeled Andropogon glomeratus grass, we investigated resource utilization by three earthworm species (invasive endogeic Pontoscolex corethrurus, native anecic Estherella sp, and native endogeic Onychochaeta borincana and their effects on soil C and N dynamics in Puerto Rican soils in a 22-day laboratory experiment. Changes of 13C/C and 15N/N in soils, earthworms, and microbial populations were analyzed to evaluate resource utilization by earthworms and their influences on C and N dynamics. Estherella spp. utilized the 13C-labeled litter; however, its utilization on the 13C-labeled litter reduced when cultivated with P. corethrurus and O. borincana. Both P. corethrurus and O. borincana utilized the 13C-labeled litter and 15C-labeled grass roots and root exudates. Pontoscolex corethrurus facilitated soil respiration by stimulating 13C-labeled microbial activity; however, this effect was suppressed possibly due to the changes in the microbial activities or community when coexisting with O. borincana. Increased soil N mineralization by individual Estherella spp. and O. borincana was reduced in the mixed-species treatments. The rapid population growth of P. corethrurus may increase competition pressure on food resources on the local earthworm community. The relevance of resource availability to the population growth of P. corethrurus and its significance as an invasive species is a topic in need of future research.

  8. Valorisation of a water hyacinth in vermicomposting using an epigeic earthworm Perionyx excavatus in Central Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zirbes, L.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The feasibility of vermicomposting water hyacinth (WH [Eichhornia crassipes (Mart. Solms] mixed with pig manure (PM in different proportions was tested using tropical composting earthworm Perionyx excavatus. Earthworms grew and reproduced normally until the incorporation of 50% WH in initial substrate. Higher water hyacinth proportions induced earthworms' mortality and significantly affected the numbers of hatchlings and cocoons produced during vermicomposting period. The influence of the application of compost/vermicompost obtained from water hyacinth mixed with pig manure was also studied on seeds germination. Only water hyacinth substrate with 25% WH + 75% PM enhanced seeds germination for Oryza sp. and Nasturtium officinale. At the end of experiments, a significant decrease was observed in organic carbon content for each tested substrates (S1 to S8, in total nitrogen (N for substrates containing 70% to 100% of water hyacinth (S5 to S3 and compost substrates (S1 and S2. An important decrease was also noted in total potassium for all vermicompost substrates (S3 to S8, in total magnesium for composted substrates (S1 and S2, and in C/N ratio for substrates containing 0% to 50% of water hyacinth (S8 to S6. Whereas total N in vermicompost containing 0% to 50% of water hyacinth (S8 to S6, total phosphorus, total potassium in composted substrates (S1 and S2, total magnesium in vermicompost substrates (S3 to S8 and C:N ratio in substrates containing 70% to 100% of water hyacinth (S5 to S3 expressed a significant increase after eight weeks. The result suggested that water hyacinth could be potentially useful as raw material in vermicomposting and biofertilizing if mixed with 75% of pig manure.

  9. Ecotoxicological effects on the earthworm Eisenia fetida following exposure to soil contaminated with imidacloprid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qingming; Zhang, Baohua; Wang, Caixia

    2014-11-01

    Imidacloprid, a neonicotinoid insecticide, has been used widely in agriculture worldwide. The adverse effects of imidacloprid on exposed biota have brought it increasing attention. However, knowledge about the effects of imidacloprid on antioxidant defense systems and digestive systems in the earthworm is vague and not comprehensive. In the present study, the changes in the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POD), cellulase, reactive oxygen species (ROS), and malondialdehyde (MDA) in the earthworm Eisenia fetida exposed to artificial soil treated with imidacloprid were examined systematically. The results showed that the activity of these biomarkers was closely related to the dose and duration of the exposure to imidacloprid. The activity of SOD was stimulated significantly at doses of 0.66 and 2 mg kg(-1) imidacloprid but markedly inhibited at a dose of 4 mg kg(-1) imidacloprid with prolonged exposure. The activities of CAT and POD increased irregularly at 0.2-4 mg kg(-1) imidacloprid over different exposure times. The level of ROS at a dose of 2 or 4 mg kg(-1) imidacloprid was significantly increased over the entire exposure period. When the concentration of imidacloprid was above 0.66 mg kg(-1), the balance of the activity of the antioxidant enzymes and ROS level was interrupted. The activity of cellulase decreased significantly with prolonged exposure. At the stress of 4 mg kg(-1) imidacloprid, the content of MDA was significantly increased with increasing exposure time. The results of the present study suggest that imidacloprid has a potentially harmful effect on E. fetida and may be helpful for assessment of the risk of imidacloprid to the soil ecosystem environment. However, to obtain more comprehensive toxicity data, it is necessary to investigate the effects of imidacloprid on earthworm using native soils in the future work.

  10. Toxicity of diesel contaminated soils to the subantarctic earthworm Microscolex macquariensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooney, Thomas J; King, Catherine K; Wasley, Jane; Andrew, Nigel R

    2013-02-01

    Several fuel spills have occurred on subantarctic Macquarie Island (54°30' S 158°57' E) associated with storing fuel and generating power for the island's research station. The Australian Antarctic Division began full-scale, on-site remediation of these sites in 2009. To develop appropriate target concentrations for remediation, acute and chronic tests were developed with the endemic earthworm, Microscolex macquariensis, using avoidance, survival, and reproduction as endpoints. Uncontaminated low (3%), medium (11%), and high (38-48%) carbon content soils from Macquarie Island were used to examine the influence of soil carbon on toxicity. Soils were spiked with Special Antarctic Blend (SAB) diesel and used either immediately to simulate a fresh spill or after four weeks to simulate an aged spill. Earthworms were sensitive to fresh SAB, with significant avoidance at 181 mg/kg; acute 14-d survival median lethal concentration (LC50) of 103 mg/kg for low carbon soil; and juvenile production median effective concentration (EC50) of 317 mg/kg for high carbon soil. Earthworms were less sensitive to aged SAB than to fresh SAB in high carbon soil for juvenile production (EC50 of 1,753 and 317 mg/kg, respectively), but were more sensitive for adult survival (LC50 of 2,322 and 1,364 mg/kg, respectively). Using M. macquariensis as a surrogate for soil quality, approximately 50 to 200 mg SAB/kg soil would be a sufficiently protective remediation target.

  11. Immobilization of Cu(2+) and Cd(2+) by earthworm manure derived biochar in acidic circumstance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhanghong; Shen, Fei; Shen, Dekui; Jiang, Yahui; Xiao, Rui

    2017-03-01

    Earthworm manure, the by-product obtained from the disposing of biowastes by earthworm breeding, is largely produced and employed as a feedstock for biochar preparation through pyrolysis. For repairing acidic soil or acidic electroplating effluent, biochar physicochemical properties would suffer from some changes like an acidic washing process, which hence affected its application functions. Pristine biochar (UBC) from pyrolysis of earthworm manure at 700°C and biochar treated by HCl (WBC) were comparatively investigated regarding their physicochemical properties, adsorption capability and adsorption mechanism of Cu(2+) and Cd(2+) from aqueous solution to explore the immobilization characteristics of biochar in acidic environment. After HCl treatment, the soluble ash content and phenolic-OH in the WBC sample was notably decreased against the increase of the carboxyl CO, aromatic CC and Si-O-Si, compared to that of UBC. All adsorption processes can be well described by Langmuir isotherm model. The calculated maximum adsorption capacity of Cu(2+) and Cd(2+) adsorption on UBC were 36.56 and 29.31mg/g, respectively, which were higher than that of WBC (8.64 and 12.81mg/g, respectively), indicating that HCl treatment significantly decreased biochar adsorption ability. Mechanism analysis revealed that alkali and alkaline earth metallic, salts (carbonates, phosphates and silicates), and surface functional groups were responsible for UBC adsorption, corresponding to ion exchange, precipitation and complexation, respectively. However, ion exchange made little contributions to WBC adsorption due to the great loss of soluble ash content. WBC adsorption was mainly attributed to the abundant exposure of silicates and surface functional groups (carboxyl CO and aromatic CC). Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Heavy metal induced biomolecule and genotoxic changes in earthworm Eisenia fetida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Muthukaruppan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A vibrational [Fourier transform infrared (FTIR] spectroscopic method was used for the structural and compositional analysis of earthworm Eisenia fetida by monitoring of metal binding and further transformations in live cells. The FTIR analyses for metals taken up by the E. fetida will be useful for analyzing the impact of the heavy metal stress on the worm metabolism. The epigeic earthworm E. fetida were exposed to 100 %, 75 %, 50 %, 30 %, 25 %, 15 % and 5 % of dried automobile service station waste mud. All the earthworms exposed in the 100 %, 75 % and 50 % concentrations didn’t survived within 10days. Further experiments were conducted with 25 %, 15 % and 5 % concentration of wastes. Each concentration level was tested with three replicates using 10 animals and the metabolic response after exposure to the heavy metal containing service station waste mud was assessed by FTIR. Furthermore we also emphasized that DNA damage was confirmed with the use of other biomarker like comet assay. The peaks at 1045, 1080, 1236 cm−1 and 1650 cm−1 represented the overall susceptibility of nucleotides, phospholipids, DNA and RNA. Nucleic acids and proteins were modified due to heavy metal accumulation. In flow-through, single cell gel electrophoresis revealed the degradation nuclear DNA. Heavy metals accumulation in the worms was measured and it was found that lead, zinc and copper accumulation increased in the treatment group. Without the use of biomarkers for identifying ecological risks of land contamination, traditional assessment would be difficult to interpret. This new FTIR based biomolecules study revealed a clear molecule shift in the exposed worms, due to heavy metal accumulation.

  13. Identification and optimization of classifier genes from multi-class earthworm microarray dataset.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Li

    Full Text Available Monitoring, assessment and prediction of environmental risks that chemicals pose demand rapid and accurate diagnostic assays. A variety of toxicological effects have been associated with explosive compounds TNT and RDX. One important goal of microarray experiments is to discover novel biomarkers for toxicity evaluation. We have developed an earthworm microarray containing 15,208 unique oligo probes and have used it to profile gene expression in 248 earthworms exposed to TNT, RDX or neither. We assembled a new machine learning pipeline consisting of several well-established feature filtering/selection and classification techniques to analyze the 248-array dataset in order to construct classifier models that can separate earthworm samples into three groups: control, TNT-treated, and RDX-treated. First, a total of 869 genes differentially expressed in response to TNT or RDX exposure were identified using a univariate statistical algorithm of class comparison. Then, decision tree-based algorithms were applied to select a subset of 354 classifier genes, which were ranked by their overall weight of significance. A multiclass support vector machine (MC-SVM method and an unsupervised K-mean clustering method were applied to independently refine the classifier, producing a smaller subset of 39 and 30 classifier genes, separately, with 11 common genes being potential biomarkers. The combined 58 genes were considered the refined subset and used to build MC-SVM and clustering models with classification accuracy of 83.5% and 56.9%, respectively. This study demonstrates that the machine learning approach can be used to identify and optimize a small subset of classifier/biomarker genes from high dimensional datasets and generate classification models of acceptable precision for multiple classes.

  14. Effects of Biosolids at Varying Rates on Earthworms (Eisenia fetida and Springtails (Folsomia candida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Artuso

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Land spreading is a major option internationally for the disposal/use of treated sewage sludge (biosolids, but effects of this practice on soil organisms are largely unknown. This study investigated the effects of biosolids on two soil invertebrate species, earthworms (Eisenia fetida and Collembola (Folsomia candida, in laboratory tests. Five biosolids from different sewage works were assessed at rates equivalent to 0, 2, 5, 10, and 20 t ha−1. Biosolids applied at 2 and 5 t ha−1 did not cause mortality of adult earthworms but did at 10 and 20 t ha−1. At 5, 10 and 20 t ha−1, all biosolids had significantly fewer juvenile worms relative to controls. Increasing the rates from 2 to 10 t ha−1 did not impact on the number of adult Collembola, but at 20 t ha−1 there were significantly fewer adults. There were significantly fewer juvenile Collembola recorded for biosolids applied at the 2 t ha−1 when compared with controls, and also when biosolids were applied at 5, 10, and 20 t ha−1 relative to 2 t ha−1. Some significant difference between biosolids were observed, but generally, negative effects were not related to heavy metal concentrations in biosolids. It is recommended that possible detrimental mechanisms (e.g., ammonia production, lack of oxygen be investigated in future work. It is concluded that biosolids, applied at legal, low rates (about 2 t ha−1 are unlikely to be detrimental to earthworms or adult Collembola but can be detrimental to Collembola reproduction.

  15. The role of macrosymbiont genotypes and earthworms in the enrichment of soil with biological nitrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazaryuk, V. M.; Kalimullina, F. R.; Klenova, M. I.

    2010-06-01

    The specific features of the symbiotic apparatus and the accumulation of the plant biomass under the influence of different genotypes of peas ( Pisum sativum L.) on gray forest soils were studied in field conditions. With the alternation of legume and grass cultures, the genotypes of plants with supernodulation were found to affect the microbial nitrogen content in the soil to a greater extent than the concentration of ammonium and nitrate nitrogen. For the growing period, the N content in the microbial biomass increased, on the average, by 1.3 to 1.5 times. The consumption of nitrogen by the plants of the supernodular mutant K-301a was found to be 2.6 and 3.0 times greater than that by the pea plants of the Ramonskii-77 variety and of the K-562a line, respectively. During the after effect of the symbiotically bound air nitrogen, a significant uptake of this element was observed only by the oat plants grown after the K-56 2a. The nitrogen fixation by these plants was 1.3 times more active than that by the peas of the Ramonskii-77 variety. The importance of earthworms (Lumbricidae) and plant residues of different genotypes for the processes of mineralization of organic compounds and accumulation of ammonium, nitrate, and microbial nitrogen in the soils under optimal hydrothermal conditions was revealed. In the experiment, two maximums of the CO2 emission were recorded; they may be related to the periodic production of organic mass by the earthworms and the creation of favorable conditions for microbial activity by them. The accumulation of nitrate nitrogen (up to 150 mg/kg) in the soil was the greatest owing to the interaction between the earthworms and the residues of the supernodular K-301a mutant.

  16. Screening of actinomycetes from earthworm castings for their antimicrobial activity and industrial enzymes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay Kumar

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Actinomycetes from earthworm castings were isolated and screened for their antimicrobial activity and industrial enzymes. A total of 48 isolates were obtained from 12 samples of earthworm castings. Highest numbers of isolates were recovered from forest site (58.33 % as compared to grassland (25% and agricultural land (16.66%. The growth patterns, mycelial coloration of abundance actinomycetes were documented. The dominant genera Identified by cultural, morphological and physiological characteristics were Streptomyces (60.41% followed by Streptosporangium (10.41%, Saccharopolyspora (6.25% and Nocardia (6.25%. Besides these, other genera like Micromonospora, Actinomadura, Microbispora, Planobispora and Nocardiopsis were also recovered but in low frequency. Among the 48 isolates, 52.08% were found active against one or more test organisms. Out of 25 active isolates 16% showed activity against bacterial, human fungal as well as phytopathogens. Among 48 isolates 38, 32, 21, 20, 16 and 14 produced enzyme amylase, caseinase, cellulase, gelatinase, xylanase and lipase respectively while 10 isolates produced all the enzymes. More interestingly 2, 3, and 1 isolates produced amylase, xylanase and lipase at 45°C respectively. In the view of its antimicrobial activity as well as enzyme production capability the genus Streptomyces was dominant. The isolate EWC 7(2 was most promising on the basis of its interesting antimicrobial activity and was identified as Streptomyces rochei. The results of these findings have increased the scope of finding industrially important actinomycetes from earthworm castings and these organisms could be promising sources for industrially important molecules or enzymes.

  17. Remarks on the earthworm genus Helodrilus Hoffmeister, 1845 with new epigean and subterranean records (Oligochaeta, Lumbricidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tímea Szederjesi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The earthworm genus Helodrilus Hoffmeister, 1845 is shortly reviewed. Its special semi-aquatic and subterranean way of life and its consequences to the taxonomy of the genus is discussed. Several new occurrences of some little-known Helodrilus species are given including new country records of H. oculatus for Hungary and H. putricola putricola for Portugal. Examining a topotype of H. hachiojii revealed presence of saccular nephridial bladders consequently, here we propose its transposal to the genus Eisenia as E. hachiojii (Blakemore, 2007 comb. nov.

  18. New species of the earthworm genus Zapatadrilus (Clitellata, Acanthodrilidae) from northern Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervantes, Gabriela; Fragoso, Carlos; Monteros, Alejandro Espinosa DE Los; Sánchez-Ramos, Gerardo; Lara-Villalón, Manuel; Yañez-Pacheco, Manuel DE Jesús; Lázaro-Castellanos, Jesús Omar; James, Samuel W

    2016-11-10

    Three new species of the earthworm genus Zapatadrilus are described from Tamaulipas, Mexico: Zapatadrilus aurelius sp. nov., Zapatadrilus huastecus sp. nov., and Zapatadrilus montezumensis sp. nov. Delimitation of the new species was supported by morphological and molecular (genetic distances) evidence. Diagnostic characters of the three new species include: tubulo-racemose prostates in segments 18 and 20, penial setae absent, typhlosole present and intestine beginning in 17/18. Z. montezumensis sp. nov. is separated by its metandric condition, Z. aurelius sp. nov. by the last hearts in 13 and Z. huastecus sp. nov. by the shape of the spermathecae and patterns of genital markings.

  19. Time-course profiling of molecular stress responses to silver nanoparticles in the earthworm Eisenia fetida

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hayashi, Yuya; Heckmann, Lars-Henrik; Simonsen, Vibeke

    2013-01-01

    The molecular mechanism of silver nanoparticle (AgNP) toxicity, particularly its temporal aspect, is currently limited in the literature. This study seeks to identify and profile changes in molecular response patterns over time during soil exposure of the earthworm Eisenia fetida to AgNPs (82±27 nm......) with reference to dissolved silver salt (AgNO3). Principal component analysis of selected gene and enzyme response profiles revealed dissimilar patterns between AgNO3 and AgNP treatments and also over time. Despite the observed difference in molecular profiles, the body burdens of total Ag were within the same...

  20. Earthworm nano‐ecotoxicology: Towards an integrated approach in toxicity testing of metal nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hayashi, Yuya; Pedersen, Henrik; Wang, Jing

    Manufactured nanoparticles (NPs) belong to an emerging class of potential environmental pollutants. Of particular interest are the characteristics of NP toxicity under different exposure conditions e.g. cell culture, aquatic or soil media. NPs are thought to behave differently depending...... are versatile indicator organisms that can be tested in a wide range of different exposure media providing the possibility for a mechanistic insight into exposure testing of NPs. Here we report characterisation of Ag-NPs and their toxicity to the earthworm Eisenia fetida based on soil and aquatic exposures...

  1. Earthworms and their Nephridial Symbionts: Co-diversification and Maintenance of the Symbiosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Marie Braad; Holmstrup, Martin; Davidson, Seana K.

    Earthworms harbor in their nephridia (excretory organs) symbiotic bacteria which densely colonize a specific part of the nephridia, called the ampulla [1]. The symbiosis is species-specific and the symbionts form their own monophyletic genus Verminephrobacter (β-proteobacteria) [2...... showed no significant differences in growth rate and fecundity between symbiotic and aposymbiotic worms. Thus the symbionts do not appear to have an effect on worm fitness, under growth conditions tested. The underlying functional and maintaining mechanisms of this symbiosis remain a conundrum. [1] Knop...

  2. Purification of a Novel Antibacterial Short Peptide in Earthworm Eisenia foetida

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan-Qin LIU; Zhen-Jun SUN; Chong WANG; Shi-Jie LI; Yu-Zhi LIU

    2004-01-01

    A novel antimicrobial short peptide was purified from earthworm (Eisenia foetida) by a five-step protocol including ammonium sulfate precipitation, ultrafiltration, DE-52 ion exchange chromatography, Sephadex G-10 column chromatography, and C-18 reversed-phase HPLC techniques.The purified peptide was applied to the MALDI-TOP MS to determine the molecular mass and was also subjected to TOF MS-MS analysis to determine the amino acid sequence. As a result, a novel antibacterial peptide, named OEP3121, was obtained, with the molecular mass of 510.8 Da and the sequence being "ACSAG".

  3. Assessment of soil stabilization by chemical extraction and bioaccumulation using earthworm, Eisenia fetida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Byung-Tae; Abd Aziz, Azilah; Han, Heop Jo; Kim, Kyoung-Woong

    2014-05-01

    Soil stabilization does not remove heavy metals from contaminated soil, but lowers their exposures to ecosystem. Thus, it should be evaluated by measuring the fractions of heavy metals which are mobile and/or bioavailable in soils. The study compared several chemical extractions which intended to quantify the mobile or bioaccessible fractions with uptake and bioaccumulation by earthworm, Eisenia fetida. Soil samples were taken from the abandoned mine area contaminated with As, Cd, Cu, Pb and/or Zn. To stabilize heavy metals, the soils were amended with limestone and steel slag at 5% and 2% (w/w), respectively. All chemical extractions and earthworm tests were applied to both the contaminated and the stabilized soils with triplicates. The chemical extractions consisted of six single extractions which were 0.01M CaCl2 (unbufferred), EDTA or DTPA (chelating), TCLP (acidic), Mehlich 3 (mixture), and aqua regia (peudo-total). Sequential extractions were also applied to fractionate heavy metals in soils. In earthworm tests, worms were exposed to the soils for uptake of heavy metals. After 28 days of exposure to soils, worms were transferred to clean soils for elimination. During the tests, three worms were randomly collected at proper sampling events. Worms were rinsed with DI water and placed on moist filter paper for 48 h for depuration. Filter paper was renewed at 24 h to prevent coprophagy. The worms were killed with liquid nitrogen, dried in the oven, and digested with aqua regia for ICP-MS analysis. In addition to the bioaccumulation, several toxicity endpoints were observed such as burrowing time, mortality, cocoon production, and body weight changes. Toxicokinetics was applied to determine the uptake and elimination heavy metals by the earthworms. Bioaccumulation factor (BAF) was estimated using total metal concentrations and body burdens. Pearson correlation and simple linear regression were applied to evaluate the relationship between metal fractions by single

  4. [Evaluation of production parameters of earthworms Eiseniella tetraedra Sav. in a laboratory culture].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barne, A Zh; Striganova, B R

    2005-01-01

    Use of earthworm Eiseniella tetraedra in vermiculture was tested for the first time. The structural parameters of its natural and laboratory populations under constant hydrothermal conditions were determined together with the production parameters such as the rate of weight gain, cocoon production, and duration of embryonic development. The mean weight gain was 84% of the baseline within 6 weeks, the rate of cocoon deposition was 0.8 per week, and the incubation duration was about 3 weeks, which provided for population doubling within 3 months. The obtained data demonstrated a good adaptation of Eiseniella tetraedra to the culture conditions with a synthetic organic substrate.

  5. In Vitro Anthelmintic Activity of Lagenaria Siceraria Leaves in Indian Adult Earthworm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Kumar

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Different extracts of Lagenaria siceraria were taken for anthelmintic activity against Indian earthworm Pheritima posthuma. Two concentrations (50 and 100 mg/ml of various extracts were tested and results were expressed in terms of time for paralysis and time for death of worms. Albendazole (20 mg/ml was used as reference standard and carboxy methyl cellulose (0.5% as a control group. Dose dependent activity was observed in the plant extracts but methanolic extract exhibited more activity as compared to others. The anthelmintic activity of Lagenaria sicerarialeaves extract has therefore been demonstrated for the first time.

  6. Investigating the Multiple Food Sources and N Chemistry of Invasive Earthworms at the Rhinelander, WI, Free Air CO2 Enrichment (FACE) Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Top, S. M.; Filley, T. R.

    2013-12-01

    Rising levels of atmospheric CO2 can directly and indirectly alter biogeochemical cycling in forest ecosystems through changes to plant productivity, tissue chemistry, and associated feedbacks to microbial and faunal communities. At the Rhinelander free air CO2 enrichment site (FACE), Rhinelander WI, we examined the consumption and movement of plant tissue and soil by invasive earthworm species using a multi-proxy stable isotope and amino acid chemistry analysis of plant and soil, as well as fecal matter extracted from invasive earthworms present at the site. Using an isotopic mixing model that exploits the 13C-depleted CO2 source and a previous 15N labeling in the FACE experiment, we determined potential sources to the earthworm fecal matter and the movement of amino compounds. For epigeic, surface dwelling earthworms, the stable isotope modeling showed the largest contribution to the C and N in fecal matter was from leaf litter (up to 80%) which was depleted in amino acid C under elevated CO2 conditions. Fecal matter from the endogeic, mineral soil dwelling earthworms was primarily derived from 0-5 cm soil (up to 56%) and fine root tissue (up to 70%). Additionally, amino acid C in this group of earthworms had a proportionately greater relative concentration compared to the epigeic species and the 0-5cm soil. Here we demonstrate that earthworms are incorporating multiple sources (leaf litter, root, and soil) into their fecal matter, which then get deposited throughout the soil profile, where nutrients could become available for plant use.

  7. Cold tolerance of terrestrial isopod

    OpenAIRE

    Součková, Kateřina

    2008-01-01

    The woodlice, Porcellio scaber (Latreille, 1804), is a terrestrial isopod. Its metabolic reserves and body size are important factors affecting the fitness attributes, such as survival at unfavourable conditions. The larger and heavier individuals did not survive longer than smaller individuals. Amount of glycogen and body weight (fresh and dry) appeared to be an inapplicable parameter in the observed differences among individuals during survival at low temperature. We compared three treatmen...

  8. Spatial vision in Bombus terrestris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aravin eChakravarthi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Bombus terrestris is one of the most commonly used insect models to investigate visually guided behavior and spatial vision in particular. Two fundamental measures of spatial vision are spatial resolution and contrast sensitivity. In this study, we report the threshold of spatial resolution in B. terrestris and characterize the contrast sensitivity function of the bumblebee visual system for a dual choice discrimination task. We trained bumblebees in a Y-maze experimental set-up to associate a vertical sinusoidal grating with a sucrose reward, and a horizontal grating with absence of a reward. Using a logistic psychometric function, we estimated a resolution threshold of 0.21 cycles deg-1 of visual angle. This resolution is in the same range but slightly lower than that found in honeybees (Apis mellifera and A. cerana and another bumblebee species (B. impatiens. We also found that the contrast sensitivity of B. terrestris was 1.57 for the spatial frequency 0.09 cycles deg-1 and 1.26. for 0.18 cycles deg-1.

  9. 1H NMR-Based Metabolomic Analysis of Sub-Lethal Perfluorooctane Sulfonate Exposure to the Earthworm, Eisenia fetida, in Soil

    OpenAIRE

    SIMPSON, Myrna J.; André J. Simpson; Reiner, Eric J.; Brian P. Lankadurai; Furdui, Vasile I.

    2013-01-01

    1H NMR-based metabolomics was used to measure the response of Eisenia fetida earthworms after exposure to sub-lethal concentrations of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) in soil. Earthworms were exposed to a range of PFOS concentrations (five, 10, 25, 50, 100 or 150 mg/kg) for two, seven and fourteen days. Earthworm tissues were extracted and analyzed by 1H NMR. Multivariate statistical analysis of the metabolic response of E. fetida to PFOS exposure identified time-dependent responses that wer...

  10. Substantial nutritional contribution of bacterial amino acids to earthworms and enchytraeids: A case study from organic grasslands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Thomas; Pollierer, Melanie M.; Holmstrup, Martin

    2016-01-01

    species, we employed δ13C fingerprinting of essential amino acids (EAA) for distinguishing between bacterial, fungal, and plant derived food sources. We collected earthworms and enchytraeids from organic grasslands with grass, clover, and mixtures of these two plants. Our results showed that the worms...

  11. Land use intensity impact on functional diversity in earthworms regarding regulation of soil structure and water infiltration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faber, Jack H.; Pérès, G.; de Groot, Arjen;

    Earthworms can be distinguished into three groups that represent different clusters of morphological and behavioural traits. These so-called ecological groups (sensu Bouché 1977) have traditionally been considered to represent different functional groups with respect to soil processes. In this co...

  12. Optimal growth condition of earthworms and their vermicompost features during recycling of five different fresh fruit and vegetable wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Kui; Xia, Hui; Li, Fusheng; Wei, Yongfen; Cui, Guangyu; Fu, Xiaoyong; Chen, Xuemin

    2016-07-01

    This study aimed to promote vermicomposting performance for recycling fresh fruit and vegetable wastes (FVWs) and to assess microbial population and community of final products. Five fresh FVWs including banana peels, cabbage, lettuce, potato, and watermelon peels were chosen as earthworms' food. The fate test of earthworms showed that 30 g fresh FVWs/day was the optimal loading and the banana peels was harmful for the survival of Eisenia fetida. The followed vermicomposting test revealed lower contents of total carbon and weaker microbial activity in final vermicomposts, relative to those in compared systems without earthworms worked. The leachate from FVWs carried away great amounts of nutrients from reactors. Additionally, different fresh FVWs displayed dissimilar stabilization process. Molecular biological approaches revealed that earthworms could broaden bacterial diversity in their products, with significant greater populations of actinobacteria and ammonia oxidizing bacteria than in control. This study evidences that vermicomposting efficiency differs with the types and loadings of fresh FVWs and vermicomposts are rich in agricultural probiotics.

  13. Treatment and biotransformation of highly polluted agro-industrial wastewater from a palm oil mill into vermicompost using earthworms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Su Lin; Wu, Ta Yeong; Clarke, Charles

    2014-01-22

    In this laboratory-scale study, earthworms were introduced as biodegraders of palm oil mill effluent (POME), which is a wastewater produced from the wet process of palm oil milling. POME was absorbed into amendments (soil or rice straw) in different ratios as feedstocks for the earthworm, Eudrilus eugeniae. The presence of earthworms led to significant increases in pH, electrical conductivity, and nutrient content but decreases in the C/N ratio (0.687-75.8%), soluble chemical oxygen demand (19.7-87.9%), and volatile solids (0.687-52.7%). However, earthworm growth was reduced in all treatments by the end of the treatment process. Rice straw was a better amendment/absorbent relative to soil, with a higher nutrient content and greater reduction in soluble chemical oxygen demand with a lower C/N ratio in the vermicompost. Among all treatments investigated, the treatment with 1 part rice straw and 3 parts POME (w/v) (RS1:3) produced the best quality vermicompost with high nutritional status.

  14. Single and Combined Effects of Pesticide Seed Dressings and Herbicides on Earthworms, Soil Microorganisms, and Litter Decomposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hoesel, Willem; Tiefenbacher, Alexandra; König, Nina; Dorn, Verena M; Hagenguth, Julia F; Prah, Urša; Widhalm, Theresia; Wiklicky, Viktoria; Koller, Robert; Bonkowski, Michael; Lagerlöf, Jan; Ratzenböck, Andreas; Zaller, Johann G

    2017-01-01

    Seed dressing, i.e., the treatment of crop seeds with insecticides and/or fungicides, aiming to protect seeds from pests and diseases, is widely used in conventional agriculture. During the growing season, those crop fields often receive additional broadband herbicide applications. However, despite this broad utilization, very little is known on potential side effects or interactions between these different pesticide classes on soil organisms. In a greenhouse pot experiment, we studied single and interactive effects of seed dressing of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L. var. Capo) with neonicotinoid insecticides and/or strobilurin and triazolinthione fungicides and an additional one-time application of a glyphosate-based herbicide on the activity of earthworms, soil microorganisms, litter decomposition, and crop growth. To further address food-web interactions, earthworms were introduced to half of the experimental units as an additional experimental factor. Seed dressings significantly reduced the surface activity of earthworms with no difference whether insecticides or fungicides were used. Moreover, seed dressing effects on earthworm activity were intensified by herbicides (significant herbicide × seed dressing interaction). Neither seed dressings nor herbicide application affected litter decomposition, soil basal respiration, microbial biomass, or specific respiration. Seed dressing did also not affect wheat growth. We conclude that interactive effects on soil biota and processes of different pesticide classes should receive more attention in ecotoxicological research.

  15. Genotoxic endpoints in the earthworms sub-lethal assay to evaluate natural soils contaminated by metals and radionuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lourenco, Joana I., E-mail: joanalourenco@ua.pt [CESAM and Departamento de Biologia, Universidade de Aveiro, Campus Universitario de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Pereira, Ruth O., E-mail: ruthp@ua.pt [CESAM and Departamento de Biologia, Universidade de Aveiro, Campus Universitario de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Silva, Ana C., E-mail: ana.cmj@ua.pt [CESAM and Departamento de Biologia, Universidade de Aveiro, Campus Universitario de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Morgado, Jose M., E-mail: jmtmorgado@gmail.com [Centro de Histocompatibilidade do Centro, Praceta Prof. Mota Pinto, Edificio S. Jeronimo, 4o piso, Apartado 9041, 3001-301 Coimbra (Portugal); Carvalho, Fernando P., E-mail: fernando.carvalho@itn.pt [Instituto Tecnologico Nuclear, Estrada Nacional 10, 2686-953 Sacavem (Portugal); Oliveira, Joao M., E-mail: joaomota@itn.pt [Instituto Tecnologico Nuclear, Estrada Nacional 10, 2686-953 Sacavem (Portugal); Malta, Margarida P., E-mail: margm@itn.pt [Instituto Tecnologico Nuclear, Estrada Nacional 10, 2686-953 Sacavem (Portugal); Paiva, Artur A., E-mail: apaiva@histocentro.min-saude.pt [Centro de Histocompatibilidade do Centro, Praceta Prof. Mota Pinto, Edificio S. Jeronimo, 4o piso, Apartado 9041, 3001-301 Coimbra (Portugal); Mendo, Sonia A., E-mail: smendo@ua.pt [CESAM and Departamento de Biologia, Universidade de Aveiro, Campus Universitario de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Goncalves, Fernando J., E-mail: fjmg@ua.pt [CESAM and Departamento de Biologia, Universidade de Aveiro, Campus Universitario de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal)

    2011-02-15

    Eisenia andrei was exposed, for 56 days, to a contaminated soil from an abandoned uranium mine and to the natural reference soil LUFA 2.2. The organisms were sampled after 0, 1, 2, 7, 14 and 56 days of exposure, to assess metals bioaccumulation, coelomocytes DNA integrity and cytotoxicity. Radionuclides bioaccumulation and growth were also determined at 0 h, 14 and 56 days of exposure. Results have shown the bioaccumulation of metals and radionuclides, as well as, growth reduction, DNA damages and cytotoxicity in earthworms exposed to contaminated soil. The usefulness of the comet assay and flow cytometry, to evaluate the toxicity of contaminants such as metals and radionuclides in earthworms are herein reported. We also demonstrated that DNA strand breakage and immune cells frequency are important endpoints to be employed in the earthworm reproduction assay, for the evaluation of soil geno and cytotoxicity, as part of the risk assessment of contaminated areas. This is the first study that integrates DNA damage and cytotoxicity evaluation, growth and bioaccumulation of metals and radionuclides in a sub lethal assay, for earthworms exposed to soil contaminated with metals and radionuclides.

  16. Land use intensity impact on functional diversity in earthworms regarding regulation of soil structure and water infiltration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faber, Jack H.; Pérès, G.; de Groot, Arjen

    discuss the functional ecology of earthworms at the level of functional group and the individual species, focussing on burrow morphology and vulnerability towards agricultural management practices. Results contribute to the understanding of the linkage between soil biodiversity and provision of ecosystem...

  17. Production and characterization of bacterial cellulose by Leifsonia sp. CBNU-EW3 isolated from the earthworm, Eisenia fetida

    Science.gov (United States)

    A total of five bacterial strains were isolated from earthworm, Eisenia fetida and examined for bacterial cellulose (BC) production in Hestrin–Schramm medium (HS). Among the five strains tested, CBNU-EW3 exhibited excellent BC production and was identified as Leifsonia sp. by 16S rDNA sequence analy...

  18. Single and Combined Effects of Pesticide Seed Dressings and Herbicides on Earthworms, Soil Microorganisms, and Litter Decomposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hoesel, Willem; Tiefenbacher, Alexandra; König, Nina; Dorn, Verena M.; Hagenguth, Julia F.; Prah, Urša; Widhalm, Theresia; Wiklicky, Viktoria; Koller, Robert; Bonkowski, Michael; Lagerlöf, Jan; Ratzenböck, Andreas; Zaller, Johann G.

    2017-01-01

    Seed dressing, i.e., the treatment of crop seeds with insecticides and/or fungicides, aiming to protect seeds from pests and diseases, is widely used in conventional agriculture. During the growing season, those crop fields often receive additional broadband herbicide applications. However, despite this broad utilization, very little is known on potential side effects or interactions between these different pesticide classes on soil organisms. In a greenhouse pot experiment, we studied single and interactive effects of seed dressing of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L. var. Capo) with neonicotinoid insecticides and/or strobilurin and triazolinthione fungicides and an additional one-time application of a glyphosate-based herbicide on the activity of earthworms, soil microorganisms, litter decomposition, and crop growth. To further address food-web interactions, earthworms were introduced to half of the experimental units as an additional experimental factor. Seed dressings significantly reduced the surface activity of earthworms with no difference whether insecticides or fungicides were used. Moreover, seed dressing effects on earthworm activity were intensified by herbicides (significant herbicide × seed dressing interaction). Neither seed dressings nor herbicide application affected litter decomposition, soil basal respiration, microbial biomass, or specific respiration. Seed dressing did also not affect wheat growth. We conclude that interactive effects on soil biota and processes of different pesticide classes should receive more attention in ecotoxicological research. PMID:28270821

  19. Effects of Particle Size on Chemical Speciation and Bioavailability of Copper to Earthworms ( Eisenia fetida ) Exposed to Copper Nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J Unrine; O Tsyusko; S Hunyadi; J Judy; P Bertsch

    2011-12-31

    To investigate the role of particle size on the oxidation, bioavailability, and adverse effects of manufactured Cu nanoparticles (NPs) in soils, we exposed the earthworm Eisenia fetida to a series of concentrations of commercially produced NPs labeled as 20- to 40-nm or <100-nm Cu in artificial soil media. Effects on growth, mortality, reproduction, and expression of a variety of genes associated with metal homeostasis, general stress, and oxidative stress were measured. We also used X-ray absorption spectroscopy and scanning X-ray fluorescence microscopy to characterize changes in chemical speciation and spatial distribution of the NPs in soil media and earthworm tissues. Exposure concentrations of Cu NPs up to 65 mg kg{sup -1} caused no adverse effects on ecologically relevant endpoints. Increases in metallothionein expression occurred at concentrations exceeding 20 mg kg-1 of Cu NPs and concentrations exceeding 10 mg kg{sup -1} of CuSO{sub 4} Based on the relationship of Cu tissue concentration to metallothionein expression level and the spatial distribution and chemical speciation of Cu in the tissues, we conclude that Cu ions and oxidized Cu NPs were taken up by the earthworms. This study suggests that oxidized Cu NPs may enter food chains from soil but that adverse effects in earthworms are likely to occur only at relatively high concentrations (>65 mg Cu kg{sup -1} soil).

  20. The Effect of Biochar and Its Interaction with the Earthworm Pontoscolex corethrurus on Soil Microbial Community Structure in Tropical Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paz-Ferreiro, Jorge; Liang, Chenfei; Fu, Shenglei; Mendez, Ana; Gasco, Gabriel

    2015-01-01

    Biochar effects on soil microbial abundance and community structure are keys for understanding the biogeochemical cycling of nutrients and organic matter turnover, but are poorly understood, in particular in tropical areas. We conducted a greenhouse experiment in which we added biochars produced from four different feedstocks [sewage sludge (B1), deinking sewage sludge (B2), Miscanthus (B3) and pine wood (B4)] at a rate of 3% (w/w) to two tropical soils (an Acrisol and a Ferralsol) planted with proso millet (Panicum milliaceum L.). The interactive effect of the addition of earthworms was also addressed. For this purpose we utilized soil samples from pots with or without the earthworm Pontoscolex corethrurus, which is a ubiquitous earthworm in tropical soils. Phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) measurements showed that biochar type, soil type and the presence of earthworms significantly affected soil microbial community size and structure. In general, biochar addition affected fungal but not bacterial populations. Overall, biochars rich in ash (B1 and B2) resulted in a marked increase in the fungi to bacteria ratio, while this ratio was unaltered after addition of biochars with a high fixed carbon content (B3 and B4). Our study