Sample records for earthwork

  1. Modern optimization in earthwork construction


    Parente, Manuel; Correia, A. Gomes; Cortez, Paulo


    Earthworks tasks are often regarded in transportation projects as some of the most demanding processes. In fact, sequential tasks such as excavation, transportation, spreading and compaction are strongly based on heavy mechanical equipment and repetitive processes, thus becoming as economically demanding as they are time-consuming. Moreover, actual construction requirements originate higher demands for productivity and safety in earthwork constructions. Given the percentual weight of costs an...

  2. Evaluation of Dynamic Methods for Earthwork Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlček Jozef


    Full Text Available Rapid development of road construction imposes requests on fast and quality methods for earthwork quality evaluation. Dynamic methods are now adopted in numerous civil engineering sections. Especially evaluation of the earthwork quality can be sped up using dynamic equipment. This paper presents the results of the parallel measurements of chosen devices for determining the level of compaction of soils. Measurements were used to develop the correlations between values obtained from various apparatuses. Correlations show that examined apparatuses are suitable for examination of compaction level of fine-grained soils with consideration of boundary conditions of used equipment. Presented methods are quick and results can be obtained immediately after measurement, and they are thus suitable in cases when construction works have to be performed in a short period of time.

  3. Earthworks: Educating Teachers in Earth System Sciences (United States)

    Spetzler, H.; Weaver, A.; Buhr, S.


    Earthworks is a national community of teachers and scientists. Initiated in 1998 with funding from NASA, our summer workshops in the Rocky Mountains each year provide unique opportunities for teachers to design and conduct field research projects, working closely with scientists. Teachers then develop plans for classroom implementation during the school year, sharing their ideas and experiences with other community members through e-mail and a listserv. Scientists, from graduate students to expert senior researchers, share their knowledge of field methods in environmental science, and learn how to better communicate and teach about their research.

  4. Pre-Columbian Earthworks in Coastal Amazonia

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    Stéphen Rostain


    Full Text Available As in other parts of Amazonia, pre-Columbian Indians have profoundly modified the coast of the Guianas. Between 650 and 1650 AD, Arauquinoid people occupied a territory that was approximately 600 km long and used the raised field technique intensively before the European conquest. They erected thousands of raised fields of various shapes, dug canals, ditches, and pathways, and built artificial mounds to establish their villages. All these earthworks changed forever the face of the coastal flooded savannas and their ecology. Such labor was probably organized under the leadership of a central authority: it seems that Arauquinoid societies were organized in a chiefdom system. Statistical calculations, based on the known surface area of raised fields and on their estimated productivity, suggest a population density of 50 to 100 inhabitants per km2. Pre-Columbian inhabitants of the Guianas coast carefully organized, managed and “anthropisized” their territory following a specific pattern.

  5. Modern Earthworks and Their Cosmic Embrace (United States)

    Hatch, J. G.


    This paper examines the use of sky imagery in a number of modern Earthworks. They range from Robert Smithson's Spiral Jetty (1970), Robert Morris' Observatory (1971), Nancy Holt's Sun Tunnels (1973-76), to ongoing manifestations like Charles Ross' Star Axis (1971-present) and James Turrell's Roden Crater Project (1974-present). My interest in discussing these various works is to look at why so many of them have focused on the firmament, what factors contributed to this interest, their specific meaning, what the various sites of these works have offered, and last but not least, their possible relationship to past Earth projects, like Stonehenge and Machu Picchu, for example, that have also embraced the sky as their subject.

  6. A model for the automated generation of earthwork planning activities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mawdesley, M.J.; Al-Jibouri, Saad H.S.; Askew, W.H.; Patterson, D.E.


    A review of techniques used in industry showed that there is an absence of a formalised, systematic approach to earthworks planning. The techniques used tend to be subjective and time consuming with a heavy reliance given to the experience and knowledge of the planner. This absence of a formalised

  7. Dynamic monitoring equipment for earthworks and sub grades

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez de Sotomayor, R.


    This paper take into account some dynamic auscultation equipment s that currently are available in Spain for compaction quality control on earthworks and sub grades. Closed to the equipment description, a deformation modulus calculus approximation has been developed for each of them. A standards checking has been made from national and European point of view. some important research works that have been developed in our country about dynamic monitoring equipment s for quality control in earthworks has been mentioned. In addition to this, some variables are analyzed which have an influence on deformation modulus calculi and a possibility for comparing the equipment modulus calculated with a reference laboratory test has been offered. (Author) 18 refs.

  8. Planning linear construction projects: automated method for the generation of earthwork activities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Askew, W.H.; Al-Jibouri, Saad H.S.; Mawdesley, M.J.; Patterson, D.E.


    Earthworks planning for road construction projects is a complex operation and the planning rules used are usually intuitive and not well defined. An approach to automate the earthworks planning process is described and the basic techniques that are used are outlined. A computer-based system has been

  9. Application of the GA-BP Neural Network in Earthwork Calculation (United States)

    Fang, Peng; Cai, Zhixiong; Zhang, Ping


    The calculation of earthwork quantity is the key factor to determine the project cost estimate and the optimization of the scheme. It is of great significance and function in the excavation of earth and rock works. We use optimization principle of GA-BP intelligent algorithm running process, and on the basis of earthwork quantity and cost information database, the design of the GA-BP neural network intelligent computing model, through the network training and learning, the accuracy of the results meet the actual engineering construction of gauge fan requirements, it provides a new approach for other projects the calculation, and has good popularization value.

  10. Dynamic monitoring equipment for earthworks and sub grades; Euipos de auscultacion dinamica para obras de tierra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez de Sotomayor, R.


    This paper take into account some dynamic auscultation equipment s that currently are available in Spain for compaction quality control on earthworks and sub grades. Closed to the equipment description, a deformation modulus calculus approximation has been developed for each of them. A standards checking has been made from national and European point of view. some important research works that have been developed in our country about dynamic monitoring equipment s for quality control in earthworks has been mentioned. In addition to this, some variables are analyzed which have an influence on deformation modulus calculi and a possibility for comparing the equipment modulus calculated with a reference laboratory test has been offered. (Author) 18 refs.

  11. Review of the earthwork for seawater pump room and the construction of big cofferdam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Puzhi; Yan Wenkang


    The fact that the project of big cofferdam facing the ocean for the pump room is one of prerequisites for the site earthwork and the building constructions was significantly shown in the paper. The design scheme provided by foreign party not exactly conforming with actual conditions resulted in many construction problems. Based on the site condition, Chinese party proposed new construction schemes, which not only ensured the first concrete pouring of the project on June 8, 1998, but also saved several million funds

  12. Environmental impact of geometric earthwork construction in pre-Columbian Amazonia. (United States)

    Carson, John Francis; Whitney, Bronwen S; Mayle, Francis E; Iriarte, José; Prümers, Heiko; Soto, J Daniel; Watling, Jennifer


    There is considerable controversy over whether pre-Columbian (pre-A.D. 1492) Amazonia was largely "pristine" and sparsely populated by slash-and-burn agriculturists, or instead a densely populated, domesticated landscape, heavily altered by extensive deforestation and anthropogenic burning. The discovery of hundreds of large geometric earthworks beneath intact rainforest across southern Amazonia challenges its status as a pristine landscape, and has been assumed to indicate extensive pre-Columbian deforestation by large populations. We tested these assumptions using coupled local- and regional-scale paleoecological records to reconstruct land use on an earthwork site in northeast Bolivia within the context of regional, climate-driven biome changes. This approach revealed evidence for an alternative scenario of Amazonian land use, which did not necessitate labor-intensive rainforest clearance for earthwork construction. Instead, we show that the inhabitants exploited a naturally open savanna landscape that they maintained around their settlement despite the climatically driven rainforest expansion that began ∼2,000 y ago across the region. Earthwork construction and agriculture on terra firme landscapes currently occupied by the seasonal rainforests of southern Amazonia may therefore not have necessitated large-scale deforestation using stone tools. This finding implies far less labor--and potentially lower population density--than previously supposed. Our findings demonstrate that current debates over the magnitude and nature of pre-Columbian Amazonian land use, and its impact on global biogeochemical cycling, are potentially flawed because they do not consider this land use in the context of climate-driven forest-savanna biome shifts through the mid-to-late Holocene.

  13. Earthworks logistics in the high density urban development conditions - case study (United States)

    Sobotka, A.; Blajer, M.


    Realisation of the construction projects on highly urbanised areas carries many difficulties and logistic problems. Earthworks conducted in such conditions constitute a good example of how important it is to properly plan the works and use the technical means of the logistics infrastructure. The construction processes on the observed construction site, in combination with their external logistics service are a complex system, difficult for mathematical modelling and achievement of appropriate data for planning the works. The paper shows describe and analysis of earthworks during construction of the Centre of Power Engineering of AGH in Krakow for two stages of a construction project. At the planning stage in the preparatory phase (before realization) and in the implementation phase of construction works (foundation). In the first case, an example of the use of queuing theory for prediction of excavation time under random work conditions of the excavator and the associated trucks is provided. In the second case there is a change of foundation works technology resulting as a consequence of changes in logistics earthworks. Observation of the construction has confirmed that the use of appropriate methods of construction works management, and in this case agile management, the time and cost of the project have not been exceeded. The success of a project depends on the ability of the contractor to react quickly when changes occur in the design, technology, environment, etc.

  14. Civil Engineering Works Status of the Proton Accelerator Research Center in PEFP - Site and Access Road Earthwork

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nam, Jung Min; Jeon, G. P.; Min, Y. S.; Park, S. S.; Cho, J. S.; Mun, K. J.; Kim, J. Y.


    PEFP(Proton Engineering Frontier Project) was Launched in 2002 as one of the 21st Century Frontier R and D Programs of MOST(Ministry of Science and Technology). Gyeongju city was selected as the project host site in March, 2006, where 'Proton Accelerator Research Center' was going to be constructed. Since 2005, the Architectural and Civil design work has been performing. The Earthwork of the site was started in June, 2009. In this paper, we describe the status of the civil engineering works for the PEFP, focusing on the earthwork of the site and access road

  15. Soil resilience and yield performance in a vineyard established after intense pre-planting earthworks (United States)

    Costantini, Edoardo; Valboa, Giuseppe; Gagnarli, Elena; Mocali, Stefano; Fabiani, Arturo; Priori, Simone; Simoni, Sauro; Storchi, Paolo; Perria, Rita; Vignozzi, Nadia; Agnelli, Alessandro


    Conventional earthworks undertaken before vine plantation may severely compromise soil functions and vine production, as a consequence of a decline of soil fertility caused by loss of organic matter and biological activity, along with changes in chemical and physical features of the topsoil due to the upset of the soil profile. This research was aimed at assessing the effects of conventional pre-planting earthworks on soil fertility and vine yield performance under organic farming. To this purpose, grape yield and quality along with soil chemical, physical and biological properties, were monitored over seven years in a young vineyard established in 2010 after soil leveling and deep ploughing, and in parallel in an older vineyard planted in 2000 after similar earthworks under the same soil and environment conditions. The vineyards (Vitis vinifera L., cv. Sangiovese) were located in the Chianti Classico district (Tuscany, Italy) on a stony calcareous soil classified as Cambic Skeletic Calcisol (loamic, aric) (WRB, 2014). Fertilization was based on annual applications of compost and shredded plant residues. According to the ordinary farming system, the older vineyard was kept free from grass covering during the first four years of growth by periodic tillage, in order to prevent nutritional competition, while in the following years it was managed by natural grass covering on alternate inter-rows. In the younger vineyard, grass covering needed to be postponed because of a delay in the vine development and grape yield induced by poor soil fertility. The results showed significant differences between the two vineyard, with the younger exhibiting lower total organic carbon (0.4 - 0.6 % vs 0.6 - 1.1 %), lower total nitrogen (0.07 - 0.11 % vs 0.10 - 0.15 %) and higher carbonate contents (32 - 38 % vs 21 -30 % total CaCO3), with no clear trend of recovery over time. Pre-planting earthworks also affected the structure and diversity of microbial and microarthropod communities


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Formulation of the problem. Construction of buildings and structures is a complex process, one of the components of which are the processing of digging. The cost structure constructed earthworks, depending on the types of buildings and structures, ranging from three to sixty percent. Currently, excavation work on 98% mechanized. Machines for the production of excavation, are one of the main vehicles by which the comprehensive mechanization of construction. Equipment construction vehicle with high, fast replacement of obsolete equipment with new, highly productive - one of the main ways of increasing the efficiency of excavation in construction. Intensification excavation mainly ensured by improving the organizational and technological measures to ensure efficient use of earthmoving equipment fleet. The current structure of the fleet, each of which can perform only one operation of the production cycle, resulting in the fact that for the implementation of the entire set of works on creation of earthworks necessary to form a set of machines capable to realize them. An alternative is to use a set of machines earth-moving equipment, multi-purpose equipped with 5-10 kinds of changeable working equipment with 20-40 working bodies, which provides all kinds of earthworks single machine. The purpose of the article. Develop a mechanism for technical and economic assessment of the effectiveness of the set of specialized earth-moving machines as compared to earth-moving machines, multi-purpose allows, under specified production parameters, to establish the limits of their effective application. To determine the efficiency of each unit of the considered earth-moving equipment, and further, to form a rational set of machines that can run on time given the amount of work at minimum cost. Conclusions. Systematic approach to the design of complete production process of digging it possible to establish the relationship between technology and feasibility indexes

  17. Effect of cement on the stability and the wearrance of soils in earthworks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karam Feth-Allah Bendimerad


    Full Text Available The technique of soil treatment is known for a long time, currently, during the big motorway programs this technique is experiencing important to reach zero imprints and zero deposit in a context of sustainable development or the socio-economic and environmental challenges incite during the work of earthworks. Our work puts highlights the treatment of fine soils in westerns region of Algeria (wilaya of Tlemcen, a project to construct a payment station for the entry of the wilaya (sample n°1, electrical post 400/200 KVA in the locality Ain Fetah (sample n°2, belonging to the class A3h (very plastic clay according to the Technical Guide for Earthworks (GTR, whose use in the raw state would involve great risks of stability because of their plasticity (Ip > 20% and their low capacity (CBR < 25 according to the Specification of the Algerian Loads, Technical Clauses (CSDCA-CT by the incorporation of the stabilizing agents, for example the variant of locally manufactured CEM II / A42.5N composite cement, in order to define their behaviours by examining the variation of their characteristics determined according to the Algerian standards and at a ambient temperature according to the additive dosage and to contribute to the deduction of the interest of the method demonstrated previously. The results obtained clearly show a tendency the rearrange classification of the soils studied according to the unified system en proportion whit to the additive dosage (0 to 14% in view of the appreciable change in the plasticity behaviour, which results in a decrease in the plasticity index, going up to 37.7% and the 11% of the maximum dry density accompanied by a satisfactory increase in the suitability of the materials to be supported a load with different moisture content and changes in water regime exceeds 100%. Given the unavailability of other exploitable deposits near the site and the experimental results obtained, the variant of the treatment seems feasible.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JANIĆ Milorad


    Full Text Available Accurate calculation of cut and fill volume has an essential importance in many fields. This article shows a new method, which has no approximation, based on Digital Terrain Models. A relatively new mathematical model is developed for that purpose, which is implemented in the software solution. Both of them has been tested and verified in the praxis on several large opencast mines. This application is developed in AutoLISP programming language and works in AutoCAD environment.

  19. Uav Onboard Photogrammetry and GPS Positionning for Earthworks (United States)

    Daakir, M.; Pierrot-Deseilligny, M.; Bosser, P.; Pichard, F.; Thom, C.


    Over the last decade, Unmanned Airbone Vehicles (UAVs) have been largely used for civil applications. Airborne photogrammetry has found place in these applications not only for 3D modeling but also as a measurement tool. Vinci-Construction-Terrassement is a private company specialized in public works sector and uses airborn photogrammetry as a mapping solution and metrology investigation tool on its sites. This technology is very efficient for the calculation of stock volumes for instance, or for time tracking of specific areas with risk of landslides. The aim of the present work is to perform a direct georeferencing of images acquired by the camera leaning on an embedded GPS receiver. UAV, GPS receiver and camera used are low-cost models and therefore data processing is adapted to this particular constraint.

  20. Boundary conditions estimation of scoop dosimeter for primary sorting during earthworks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batij, V.G.; Pravdivyj, A.A.; Stoyanov, A.I.


    Simple method of radioactive waste first separation using collimated dosimeter, which is placed on boom of power shovel, is proposed, and separation process mathematic modeling for boundary conditions definition of sorting under 'Ukryttya' object high gamma background condition are carry out

  1. Optimization and management of materials in earthwork construction : tech transfer summary. (United States)


    This research provides solutions to identified problems through better : management and optimization of the available pavement geotechnical : materials and through ground improvement, soil reinforcement, : and other soil treatment techniques. : Objec...

  2. Optimization and management of materials in earthwork construction : final report, April 2010. (United States)


    As a result of forensic investigations of problems across Iowa, a research study was developed aimed at providing solutions to identified : problems through better management and optimization of the available pavement geotechnical materials and throu...

  3. Liquid effluent retention facility dangerous waste permit application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    This appendix to the Liquid Effluent Retention Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application contains pumps, piping, leak detection systems, geomembranes, leachate collection systems, earthworks and floating cover systems

  4. A Grassroots Effort (United States)

    Pember, Mary Annette


    If academics, students and supporters at the Newark Earthworks Center at The Ohio State University have their way, the Newark Earthworks will be listed among the likes of England's Stonehenge and Mexico's Teotihuacan in terms of international archaeological and cultural importance. Dr. Richard Shiels, director of the newly founded center and Dr.…

  5. Beneficial use of dredged materials in Great Lakes commercial ports for transportation projects. (United States)


    This report describes an effort to facilitate beneficial use of dredged materials (DM) from Great Lakes ports and harbors as an alternative construction : material in transportation-related earthwork applications. The overall objective is to link tog...

  6. American National Standard: guidelines for evaluating site-related geotechnical parameters at nuclear power sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)



    This standard presents guidelines for evaluating site-related geotechnical parameters for nuclear power sites. Aspects considered include geology, ground water, foundation engineering, and earthwork engineering. These guidelines identify the basic geotechnical parameters to be considered in site evaluation, and in the design, construction, and performance of foundations and earthwork aspects for nuclear power plants. Also included are tabulations of typical field and laboratory investigative methods useful in identifying geotechnical parameters. Those areas where interrelationships with other standards may exist are indicated

  7. Physical soil properties and slope treatments effects on hydraulic excavator productivity for forest road construction. (United States)

    Parsakho, Aidin; Hosseini, Seyed Ataollah; Jalilvand, Hamid; Lotfalian, Majid


    Effects of moisture, porosity and soil bulk density properties, grubbing time and terrain side slopes on pc 220 komatsu hydraulic excavator productivity were investigated in Miana forests road construction project which located in the northern forest of Iran. Soil moisture and porosity determined by samples were taken from undisturbed soil. The elements of daily works were measured with a digital stop watch and video camera in 14 observations (days). The road length and cross section profiles after each 20 m were selected to estimate earthworks volume. Results showed that the mean production rates for the pc 220 komatsu excavators were 60.13 m3 h(-1) and earthwork 14.76 m h(-1) when the mean depth of excavation or cutting was 4.27 m3 m(-1), respectively. There was no significant effects (p = 0.5288) from the slope classes' treatments on productivity, whereas grubbing time, soil moisture, bulk density and porosity had significantly affected on excavator earthworks volume (p < 0.0001). Clear difference was showed between the earthwork length by slope classes (p = 0.0060). Grubbing time (p = 0.2180), soil moisture (p = 0.1622), bulk density (p = 0.2490) and porosity (p = 0.2159) had no significant effect on the excavator earthworks length.

  8. Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project (UMTRAP), Slick Rock, Colorado, Revision 1, Volume 4. Calculations, Final design for construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    Volume four contains calculations for: Borrow areas--site evaluation; temporary facilities--material quantities; embankment quantities--excavation and cover materials; Burro Canyon site excavation quantities--rippable and unrippable materials; site restoration--earthwork quantities and seeding; and bid schedule quantities and material balance

  9. ERDA test facilities, East Mesa Test Site. Geothermal resource investigations, Imperial Valley, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    Detailed specifications which must be complied with in the construction of the ERDA Test Facilities at the East Mesa Site for geothermal resource investigations in Imperial Valley, California are presented for use by prospective bidders for the construction contract. The principle construction work includes a 700 gpm cooling tower with its associated supports and equipment, pipelines from wells, electrical equipment, and all earthwork. (LCL)

  10. A Cultural Resource Reconnaissance for the Lower Rock River Flood Protection Study, (United States)


    the U. S. and French defensive earthworks of the Battle of Yorktown. Amistad Paleoecolo-v Study, 1964-66. I co-directed this interdisciplinary study...Excavaticns at Amistad Reservoir, 1962 Season. Miscel- laneous Papers of the Texas Archeological Salvage Pro- lect, No. 3. 129 pp. 1967 (co-editor, with

  11. Preliminary Cultural Resource Survey and Geomorphological Assessment of Selected Areas in Navigation Pool 16, Mississippi River. (United States)


    and French defensive earthworks of the Battle of Yorktown. Amistad Paleoecology Study, 1964-66. I. co-directed this in- terdisiTplinary study, funded by...299 pp. 1965 (co-author, with John P. Nunley and Lathel F. Duffield) Ex- I cavations at Amistad Reservoir, 1962 Season. Miscellaneous Paper of the

  12. Rehabilitation of Onitsha-Enugu Dual Carriageway in Anambra ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The rehabilitation of Onitsha-Enugu dual carriageway in Anambra State, Nigeria, which started in 2009 was marred by inadequate rehabilitation design and gross shortfall in earthwork quantities. The project was awarded at a cost less than 60% of what was actually needed to execute it at the time of award. Delays in the ...

  13. Freeway project to link east and west

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    <正> Construction work on aWorld Bank-financed sectionof a 1,400-kilometre freewaywill break ground in CentralChina’s Henan Province. Contracts for the earthwork of the Zhengzhou-Luoyang section of the freeway,backed by 120 million in

  14. Journal Home

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Ancient Earthworks of Western Uganda: Capital Sites or a Cwezi Empire · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. Peter Robertshaw, 17-32. ...

  15. Mitigation of environmental impacts due to ghat road formation in Palamalai Hills, South India, by optimizing cut and fill volumes using GPS and GIS techniques. (United States)

    Arulmozhi, R; Subramani, T; Sukumar, S


    Formation of new roads generally brings about adverse impact on the environment, and in the case of hill roads, the impact is diverse and effective measures are required to mitigate it. The common problems in hill road formation are tree cutting, destruction of canopies, change in land use pattern, soil erosion, slope instability, induced landslides, invasion of foreign species, and so on. Removal of trees and vegetations causes rapid soil erosion, landslides, and invasion of foreign species posing danger to the survival of weak native species. Dumping of surplus earth materials on the valley side poses a significant threat to the environment as it would cause induced landslides. Using the cut earth for filling in road formation and dumping, the surplus cut earth in safe locations will reduce environmental degradation considerably. Conventionally, hill road alignments are finalized using traditional survey methods using ghat tracer, compass, and leveling surveys which require enormous complicated field and office works. Any revision to reduce the quantum of earthwork is difficult in this method due to its complex nature. In the present study at Palamalai Hills, South India, an alignment for a length of 7.95 km was prepared by traditional methods using ghat tracer and total station instruments for survey works. The earthwork quantities were ascertained from the longitudinal profile of the alignment. A GPS survey was also conducted along the alignment to examine its utility in alignment modification. To modify the stretches, where the earthwork cutting and filling are above normal and unbalanced and result in surplus earth, repeated GPS surveys were conducted along different paths to optimize the earthwork. The earthwork quantities of the original alignment were analyzed, and its correlation with environmental effect and the usefulness of the GPS survey in this task are presented in this paper.

  16. Analysis of Radar Images of Angkor, Cambodia (United States)

    Freeman, Anthony; Hensley, Scott; Moore, Elizabeth


    During the 1996 AIRSAR Pacific Rim Deployment, data were collected over Angkor in Cambodia. The temples of Angkor date the succession of cities to the 9th-13th century AD, but little is known of its prehistoric habitation. A related area of archaeological debate has been the origin, spiritual meaning and use of the hydraulic constructions in the urban zone. The high resolution, multi-channel capability of AIRSAR, together with the unprecedentedly accurate topography provided by TOPSAR, offer identification and delineation of these features. Examples include previously unrecorded circular earthworks around circular village sites, detection of unrecorded earthwork dykes, reservoirs and canal features, and of temple sites located some distance from the main temple complex at Angkor.

  17. Fly ash. Quality recycling material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blomster, D.; Leisio, C.


    Imatran Voima`s coal-fired power plants not only generate power and heat but also produce fly ash which is suitable raw material for recycling. This material for recycling is produced in the flue gas cleaning process. It is economical and, thanks to close quality control, is suitable for use as a raw material in the building materials industry, in asphalt production, and in earthworks. Structures made from fly ash are also safe from an environmental point of view. (orig.)

  18. Engineering surveying theory and examination problems for students

    CERN Document Server

    Schofield, W


    Engineering Surveying: Theory and Examination Problems for Students, Volume 1, Third Edition discusses topics concerning engineering surveying techniques and instrumentations. The book is comprised of eight chapters that cover several concerns in engineering survey. Chapter 1 discusses the basic concepts of surveying. Chapter 2 deals with simple and precise leveling, while Chapter 3 covers earthworks. The book also talks about the theodolite and its applications, and then discusses optical distance measurement. Curves, underground and hydrographic surveying, and aspects of dimensional control

  19. Site surveying and levelling

    CERN Document Server

    Clancy, John


    This popular and useful text has been completely revised and up-dated so that it forms and indipensible handbook for any student of surveying. An additional chapter on modern developments is included and the text has also been extended to cover ordnance survey; calculation of areas; computation of true horizontal length; measurement of vertical angles; Code of Measuring Practice; curve ranging and calculations of volumes for earthworks.

  20. Use of soil-rock mixtures in dam construction


    Caldeira, L.; Brito, A.


    The employment of non-traditional materials such as soil–rock mixtures, for economic and environmental reasons, in the construction of earthworks poses some new challenges for compaction techniques and their control as well as for the determination of the characteristics of the embankment that result from the compaction method. Those characteristics experience important changes according to the relative percentages of the existing fractions. Usually, this kind of material results from bulky r...

  1. Radiological surveillance of members of the public during earthmoving activities in the area of the Ciemat mound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez, A.; Yague, L.; Navarro, N.; Gasco, C.; Ortiz, M. T.; Quinones, J.


    In the year 2012 was undertaken excavation and earthwork of the mound. The lands of this area contained remains sterile uranium mining and therefore concentrations of natural radionuclides higher than natural radioactive background activity. In order to assess the radiological impact on the public, was a theoretical evaluation of the dose inhaled that would get a person who remained in the vicinity during the making of the work. (Author)


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Gurko


    Full Text Available Earthwork improving is connected with excavators automation. In this paper, on the basis of the analysis of problems that a hydraulic excavator control system have to solve, the hierarchical structure of a control system have been proposed. The decomposition of the control process had been executed that allowed to develop the structural model which reflects the characteristics of a multilevel space-distributed control system of an excavator workflow.

  3. Automation of Military Civil Engineering and Site Design Functions: Software Evaluation (United States)


    AutoCad , in-house application programs written in AutoCad command language, AutoLISP , and BASIC Would like to obtain: Surveying, earthwork, utilities...Experiment Station (WES) Corps library programs, no one software is being used more than another. For drafting, AutoCAD has been the most commonly...ware packages evaluated. D.C.A. Engineering Software D.C.A. software is used to enhance the AutoCAD drafting package and operates solely within the

  4. The hidden cost of Canmada's cheap power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raphals, P.


    The environmental impacts from the expansion of the James Bay Hydroelectric Scheme in Northern Quebec are discussed. The current project provides 10 GW equivalent to forty percent of Hydro-Quebec's total capacity. The two proposed expansions account for over 11 GW but impinge upon the native Crees' land. Other topics discussed include the legal implications of previous agreements, mercury levels in fish, effects on the diversity of flora, fauna and fish and the gigantic earthworks which dam construction requires. (UK)

  5. Short term recovery of soil biological functions in a new vineyard cultivated in organic farming (United States)

    Costantini, Edoardo; Agnelli, Alessandro; Fabiani, Arturo; Gagnarli, Elena; Mocali, Stefano; Priori, Simone; Simoni, Sauro; Valboa, Giuseppe


    Deep earthwork activities carried out before vineyard plantation completely upset soil profile and characteristics. The resulting soil features are often much more similar to the underlying substratum than original soil profile. The time needed to recover soil functions is ecologically relevant and affects vine phenology and grape yield, particularly in organic viticulture. The general aim of this research work was to investigate the time needed to recover soil functions after the earthworks made before vine plantation. This study compared for a four years period physical and chemical properties, microbial and mesofauna communities, in new and old vineyards, cultivated on the same soil type. The experiment was conducted in a farm of the Chianti Classico district (Central Italy), on hills of high altitude (400-500 m a.s.l.) on clayey-calcareous flysches, with stony and calcareous soils (Haplic Cambisol (Calcaric, Skeletic)). The reference vine cultivar was Sangiovese. The older vineyard was planted in 2000, after slope reshaping by bulldozing and back hoe ploughing down to about 0.8-1.0 m. The new vineyard was planted in 2011 after an equivalent earthwork carried out in the summer of 2009. Both vineyards were organically managed and only compost at the rate of 1,000 kg ha-1 -a was added every year. The new vineyard was periodically cultivated by mechanical tillage, while the older only at alternate rows. Soil samples from the first 15 cm depth were collected in 4 replicates in the younger as well as in the older vineyard during the springtime of 2010-2013; in the older vineyard, two samples were from the periodically cultivated swaths and two under permanent grass cover. Samples were analysed for physical (particle size, field capacity, wilting point), chemical (pH, electrical conductivity, lime, active lime, organic carbon, total nitrogen), microbiological (soil respiration, microbial biomass, DGGE), and mesofauna features (abundance, taxa richness, BSQ index and

  6. Short term recovery of soil physical, chemical, micro- and mesobiological functions in a new vineyard under organic farming (United States)

    Costantini, E. A. C.; Agnelli, A. E.; Fabiani, A.; Gagnarli, E.; Mocali, S.; Priori, S.; Simoni, S.; Valboa, G.


    Deep earthwork activities carried out before vineyard plantation can severely upset soil profile properties. As a result, soil features in the root environment are often much more similar to those of the underlying substratum than those of the original profile. The time needed to recover the original soil functions is ecologically relevant and may strongly affect vine phenology and grape yield, particularly under organic viticulture. The general aim of this work was to investigate soil resilience after vineyard pre-planting earthworks. In particular, an old and a new vineyard, established on the same soil type, were compared over a five year period for soil chemical, physical, micro and mesobiological properties. The investigated vineyards (Vitis vinifera L., cv. Sangiovese) were located in the Chianti Classico district (Central Italy), on stony and calcareous soils and were not irrigated. The older vineyard was planted in 2000, after slope reshaping by bulldozing and back hoe ploughing down to about 0.8-1.0 m. The new vineyard was planted in 2011, after equivalent earthwork practices carried out in the summer of 2009. Both vineyards were organically managed and fertilized only with compost every autumn (1000 kg ha-1 per year). The new vineyard was cultivated by periodic tillage, while the old vineyard was managed with alternating grass-covered and tilled inter-rows. Soil samples were collected at 0-15 cm depth from the same plots of the new and old vineyards, during the springtime from 2010 to 2014. The old vineyard was sampled in both the tilled and the grass-covered swaths. According to the results from physical and chemical analyses, the new vineyard, during the whole 2010-2014 period, showed lower TOC, N, C/N and EC values, along with higher silt and total CaCO3 contents than the old vineyard, suggesting still evolving equilibrium conditions. The microarthropod analysis showed significantly different abundances and communities' structures, in relation to both

  7. Selection of Excavators for Earth Work on the Basis of their Performance (United States)

    Vondráčková, Terezie; Voštová, Věra


    For the specific construction of the reconstruction of the railway section Ostrov nad Oslavou and Žďár nad Sázavou will be done removed the railway superstructure and the partial adjustment of the substructure including drainage. For the earthwork will be used excavators of the company Komatsu, with the possibility of adjustment of parameters of the working tool - the length of the bracket and the volume of the shovel. The determined value will be purely indicative, as it does not affect how the operator of the excavator handles the discharge of cargo means.

  8. The archaeology of Omaha sandpit, Northland, New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, M.; Bickler, S.; Clough, R.


    In the course of mitigation of earthworks associated with residential development at Omaha, 249 middens were recorded and investigated. Dates range from about AD 1400-1700, placing the occupation and use of Omaha firmly within the late phase of prehistory. The middens contained very little other than shell, and we interpret their use as a combination of industrial scale shellfish processing and formal gatherings. The economic analysis of Omaha is fairly straight forward, but we also offer a socially oriented explanation to account for aspects of the archaeology that clearly are not economic. (author). 51 refs., 11 figs., 4 tabs

  9. The reclamation of former coal mines and steelworks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richards, I.G.; Palmer, J.P.; Barratt, P.A.


    The book is a result of studies undertaken on behalf of the European Commission and examines the current 'state of the art' techniques for the restoration of despoiled lands arising from the coal and steel industries. Chapters are entitled: introduction; site assessment; investigation and treatment of mine workings and unstable ground; demolition and site clearance; colliery spoil heap characteristics; colliery spoil heap stability; colliery spoil heap combustion; colliery spoil washing; steel industry raw materials and wastes; coal carbonisation; treatment of contaminated soils; water quality; landform and earthworks; the establishment and care of vegetation; management of reclaimed land; a framework for site generation; and case studies. 266 refs

  10. Project T100 -- Hazardous Materials Management and Emergency Response Training Center (HAMMER)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norton, C.E.


    The scope of this Quality Assurance Program Plan (QAPP) is to provide a system of Quality Assurance reviews and verifications on the design and construction of the Hazardous Materials Management and Emergency Response (HAMMER) Training Center, project 95L-EWT-100 at Hanford. The reviews and verifications will be on activities associated with design, procurement, and construction of the HAMMER project which includes, but is not limited to earthwork, placement of concrete, laying of rail, drilling of wells, water and sewer line fabrication and installation, communications systems, fire protection/detection systems, line tie-ins, building and mock-up (prop) construction, electrical, instrumentation, pump and valves and special coatings

  11. Towards a more sustainable transport infrastructure: how spatial geological data can be utilized to improve early stage Life cycle assessment of road infrastructure (United States)

    Karlsson, Caroline; Miliutenko, Sofiia; Björklund, Anna; Mörtberg, Ulla; Olofsson, Bo; Toller, Susanna


    Environmental impacts during the life cycle stages of transport infrastructure are substantial, including among other greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, as well as resource and energy use. For transport infrastructure to be sustainable, such issues need to be integrated in the planning process. Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) is required by the European Union (EU) in order to ensure that all environmental aspects are considered during planning of road infrastructure projects. As a part of this process, the European Commission has suggested the use of the tool life cycle assessment (LCA) for assessing life cycle energy use and GHG emissions. When analyzing life cycle impacts of the road infrastructure itself, it was shown that earthworks and materials used for the road construction have a big share in the total energy use and GHG emissions. Those aspects are largely determined by the geological conditions at the site of construction: parameters such as soil thickness, slope, bedrock quality and soil type. The geological parameters determine the amounts of earthworks (i.e. volumes of soil and rock that will be excavated and blasted), transportation need for excavated materials as well as the availability of building materials. The study presents a new geographic information system (GIS)-based approach for utilizing spatial geological data in three dimensions (i.e. length, width and depth) in order to improve estimates on earthworks during the early stages of road infrastructure planning. Three main methodological steps were undertaken: mass balance calculation, life cycle inventory analysis and spatial mapping of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and energy use. The proposed GIS-based approach was later evaluated by comparing with the actual values of extracted material of a real road construction project. The results showed that the estimate of filling material was the most accurate, while the estimate for excavated soil and blasted rock had a wide variation from

  12. 29Si solid state NMR investigation of pozzolanic reaction occurring in lime-treated Ca-bentonite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pomakhina, Elena; Deneele, Dimitri; Gaillot, Anne-Claire; Paris, Michael; Ouvrard, Guy


    Lime is widely used as additive to improve the mechanical properties of natural soil used in earthworks. However, the physico-chemical mechanisms involved are yet not well understood. In order to develop and optimize this treatment method, a better understanding of the interaction between lime and the minerals of the soils, in particular clay minerals, is required. In this study, Ca-bentonite was treated with 2, 5 and 10 wt.% of lime during 1 to 98 days. Modifications in the Si local environment were then monitored by solid state nuclear magnetic resonance to investigate the pozzolanic reaction. All the soil mineral phases contribute to the release of Si and to the pozzolanic reaction, with a rapid and total consumption of Si-polymorph and an exacerbated dissolution of montmorillonite. Mechanism of C–S–H formation, function of the Ca content in the system, was found to match the sorosilicate-tobermorite model described in cement systems.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdel A.Z. Barten


    Full Text Available Designing a road in the Arctic (Greenland which stretches 157 km between the towns of Sisimiut and Kangerlussuaq was very challenging. Difficult climatic and geotechnical conditions and presence of permafrost required some in-depth analysis and research. Geotechnical investigations were conducted along the entire route. The investigations included field geological and geophysical studies and survey using aerial photography.Based on the investigations a digital model of the area 2 km Ѕ 170 km was prepared. Using a Novapoint software a detailed geometric model was created which allowed for calculationsof the volume of earthworks and creation of transverse and longitudinal sections of the road. A virtual model of the entire road and a movie were made based on the results of all investigations.

  14. Challenges of the ILC Main Linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, Marc


    With the completion of the ILC Reference Design Report (RDR), we begin the next phase of the project - development of the Engineering Design. Our strategy and priorities come from the identification, contained in the RDR, of scientific and engineering challenges of the ILC. First among these is the cost of the main linac which, including the associated earthworks and cooling/power systems, amounts to 60% of the ILC total cost. Next is the challenge to reach the highest practical gradient since this R and D has the largest cost leverage of any of the ongoing programs. Finally, we have to understand the beam dynamics and beam tuning processes in the main linac, as we will not have the opportunity to do full (or even large) scale tests of these before the linac is constructed.

  15. Kempe's engineers year-book for 1977. Volume II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prockter, C.E. (ed.)


    The second volume of this two-volume yearbook contains data on: electrical and electronic engineering; aerodynamics and aircraft propulsion; gas turbines; internal combustion engines; motor vehicles; fuels; fluidics; nuclear energy; gas and gas engineering; steam engineering and steam turbines; marine diesel engines; naval architecture; mining engineering; industrial explosives; air compression, pneumatic equipment, etc.; refrigeration, heating, ventilation and air conditioning; lighting; industrial safety and protection; fire protection; highway engineering; surveying; foundation and earthwork; cements, mortars and clay products; buildings; public health engineering; concretes; design of steel structures; bridges and bridgework; paints and coatings; patents, designs and trade marks; depreciation; legal notes for engineers; factory planning and layout; and agricultural engineering. (1325p.) A subject index is provided. (LCL)

  16. [Epidemiological health surveillance among the troops during combat operations in armed conflicts]. (United States)

    Mel'nichenko, P I


    With local wars and armed conflicts the sanitary-epidemiological situation for the troops and local population shows a tendency to worsen. The main objects of the military medical service at the period of deployment are the preventive measures against troops infection from local sources by virus hepatitis A, bacterial dysentery, typhoid, cholera etc. As a rule, combat actions result in communal service destruction, low quality of potable water, soil contamination and worsening sanitary norms and standards. Also, there is a danger of reactivation of the natural centres of infection due to large-scale defence earthworks in the region of operations. The experience of the military medical service in Afghanistan and Chechnya proves, that a multimedia approach to preventive antiepidemic measures is necessary together with the emphasis on the most important actions against infections that represent the biggest danger for the land troops.

  17. Hydro-mechanical paths within unsaturated compacted soil framed through water retention surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pelizzari Benjamin


    Full Text Available Compaction is a key issue of modern earthworks... From sustainable development, a need arise of using materials for compaction under given conditions that would normally be avoid due to unpredictable pathologies. The application of compaction on fine grained soils, without a change of gravimetric water content, lead to very important modifications of the void ratio and hence suction. Therefore the hydro-mechanical behaviour of fine grained soil need to be rendered around three variables: suction, void ratio, saturation degree or water content. The barring capacity of the soil is assessed through Penetrometers (In-situ manual penetrometer, CBR in order to assess gains through compaction. The three states variables are then assessed for in situ and frame through water retention surfaces, realized from Proctor tests, in which compaction effect and path could be described.

  18. Short-term recovery of soil physical, chemical, micro- and mesobiological functions in a new vineyard under organic farming (United States)

    Costantini, E. A. C.; Agnelli, A. E.; Fabiani, A.; Gagnarli, E.; Mocali, S.; Priori, S.; Simoni, S.; Valboa, G.


    Deep earthwork activities carried out before vineyard plantation can severely affect soil profile properties. As a result, soil features in the root environment are often much more similar to those of the underlying substratum than those of the original profile. The time needed to recover the original soil functions is ecologically relevant and may strongly affect vine phenology and grape yield, particularly under organic viticulture. The general aim of this work was to investigate soil resilience after vineyard pre-planting earthworks. In particular, an old and a new vineyard, established on the same soil type, were compared over a 5-year period for soil chemical, physical, micro- and mesobiological properties. The investigated vineyards (Vitis vinifera L., cv. Sangiovese) were located in the Chianti Classico district (central Italy), on stony and calcareous soils, and were not irrigated. The older vineyard was planted in 2000, after slope reshaping by bulldozing and back-hoe ploughing down to about 0.8-1.0 m. The new vineyard was planted in 2011, after equivalent earthwork practices carried out in the summer of 2009. Both vineyards were organically managed, and they were fertilized with compost only every autumn (1000 kg ha-1 per year). The new vineyard was cultivated by periodic tillage, while the old vineyard was managed with alternating grass-covered and tilled inter-rows. Soil samples were collected at 0-15 cm depth from fixed locations in each vineyard every spring from 2010 to 2014. The old vineyard was sampled in both tilled and grass-covered inter-rows. According to the results from physical and chemical analyses, the new vineyard, during the whole 2010-2014 period, showed lower total organic carbon, total nitrogen, carbon to nitrogen ratio and electrical conductivity, along with higher silt and total CaCO3 contents than the old vineyard, suggesting still-evolving equilibrium conditions. The microarthropod analysis showed significantly different

  19. Compressive Strength of Compacted Clay-Sand Mixes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faseel Suleman Khan


    Full Text Available The use of sand to improve the strength of natural clays provides a viable alternative for civil infrastructure construction involving earthwork. The main objective of this note was to investigate the compressive strength of compacted clay-sand mixes. A natural clay of high plasticity was mixed with 20% and 40% sand (SP and their compaction and strength properties were determined. Results indicated that the investigated materials exhibited a brittle behaviour on the dry side of optimum and a ductile behaviour on the wet side of optimum. For each material, the compressive strength increased with an increase in density following a power law function. Conversely, the compressive strength increased with decreasing water content of the material following a similar function. Finally, the compressive strength decreased with an increase in sand content because of increased material heterogeneity and loss of sand grains from the sides during shearing.

  20. Commercial Light Water Reactor Tritium Extraction Facility. Geotechnical Summary report (U)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McHood, M.D.


    A geotechnical investigation program has been completed for the Commercial Light Water Reactor - Tritium Extraction Facility (CLWR-TEF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The program consisted of reviewing previous geotechnical and geologic data and reports, performing subsurface field exploration, field and laboratory testing, and geologic and engineering analyses. The purpose of this investigation was to characterize the subsurface conditions for the CLWR-TEF in terms of subsurface stratigraphy and engineering properties for design and to perform selected engineering analyses. The objectives of the evaluation were to establish site-specific geologic conditions, obtain representative engineering properties of the subsurface and potential fill materials, evaluate the lateral and vertical extent of any soft zones encountered, and perform engineering analyses for slope stability, bearing capacity and settlement, and liquefaction potential. In addition, provide general recommendations for construction and earthwork

  1. Commercial Light Water Reactor Tritium Extraction Facility Geotechnical Summary Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, M.R.


    A geotechnical investigation program has been completed for the Circulating Light Water Reactor - Tritium Extraction Facility (CLWR-TEF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The program consisted of reviewing previous geotechnical and geologic data and reports, performing subsurface field exploration, field and laboratory testing and geologic and engineering analyses. The purpose of this investigation was to characterize the subsurface conditions for the CLWR-TEF in terms of subsurface stratigraphy and engineering properties for design and to perform selected engineering analyses. The objectives of the evaluation were to establish site-specific geologic conditions, obtain representative engineering properties of the subsurface and potential fill materials, evaluate the lateral and vertical extent of any soft zones encountered, and perform engineering analyses for slope stability, bearing capacity and settlement, and liquefaction potential. In addition, provide general recommendations for construction and earthwork

  2. Semi top-down method combined with earth-bank, an effective method for basement construction. (United States)

    Tuan, B. Q.; Tam, Ng M.


    Choosing an appropriate method of deep excavation not only plays a decisive role in technical success, but also in economics of the construction project. Presently, we mainly base on to key methods: “Bottom-up” and “Top-down” construction method. Right now, this paper presents an another method of construction that is “Semi Top-down method combining with earth-bank” in order to take the advantages and limit the weakness of the above methods. The Bottom-up method was improved by using the earth-bank to stabilize retaining walls instead of the bracing steel struts. The Top-down method was improved by using the open cut method for the half of the earthwork quantities.

  3. Field Assessment and Specification Review for Roller-Integrated Compaction Monitoring Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J. White


    Full Text Available Roller-integrated compaction monitoring (RICM technologies provide virtually 100-percent coverage of compacted areas with real-time display of the compaction measurement values. Although a few countries have developed quality control (QC and quality assurance (QA specifications, broader implementation of these technologies into earthwork construction operations still requires a thorough understanding of relationships between RICM values and traditional in situ point test measurements. The purpose of this paper is to provide: (a an overview of two technologies, namely, compaction meter value (CMV and machine drive power (MDP; (b a comprehensive review of field assessment studies, (c an overview of factors influencing statistical correlations, (d modeling for visualization and characterization of spatial nonuniformity; and (e a brief review of the current specifications.

  4. Experiment on Uav Photogrammetry and Terrestrial Laser Scanning for Ict-Integrated Construction (United States)

    Takahashi, N.; Wakutsu, R.; Kato, T.; Wakaizumi, T.; Ooishi, T.; Matsuoka, R.


    In the 2016 fiscal year the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism of Japan started a program integrating construction and ICT in earthwork and concrete placing. The new program named "i-Construction" focusing on productivity improvement adopts such new technologies as UAV photogrammetry and TLS. We report a field experiment to investigate whether the procedures of UAV photogrammetry and TLS following the standards for "i-Construction" are feasible or not. In the experiment we measured an embankment of about 80 metres by 160 metres immediately after earthwork was done on the embankment. We used two sets of UAV and camera in the experiment. One is a larger UAV enRoute Zion QC730 and its onboard camera Sony α6000. The other is a smaller UAV DJI Phantom 4 and its dedicated onboard camera. Moreover, we used a terrestrial laser scanner FARO Focus3D X330 based on the phase shift principle. The experiment results indicate that the procedures of UAV photogrammetry using a QC730 with an α6000 and TLS using a Focus3D X330 following the standards for "i-Construction" would be feasible. Furthermore, the experiment results show that UAV photogrammetry using a lower price UAV Phantom 4 was unable to satisfy the accuracy requirement for "i-Construction." The cause of the low accuracy by Phantom 4 is under investigation. We also found that the difference of image resolution on the ground would not have a great influence on the measurement accuracy in UAV photogrammetry.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. E. Miller


    Full Text Available Road and rail networks are essential components of national infrastructures, underpinning the economy, and facilitating the mobility of goods and the human workforce. Earthwork slopes such as cuttings and embankments are primary components, and their reliability is of fundamental importance. However, instability and failure can occur, through processes such as landslides. Monitoring the condition of earthworks is a costly and continuous process for network operators, and currently, geospatial data is largely underutilised. The research presented here addresses this by combining airborne laser scanning and multispectral aerial imagery to develop a methodology for assessing landslide hazard. This is based on the extraction of key slope stability variables from the remotely sensed data. The methodology is implemented through numerical modelling, which is parameterised with the slope stability information, simulated climate conditions, and geotechnical properties. This allows determination of slope stability (expressed through the factor of safety for a range of simulated scenarios. Regression analysis is then performed in order to develop a functional model relating slope stability to the input variables. The remotely sensed raster datasets are robustly re-sampled to two-dimensional cross-sections to facilitate meaningful interpretation of slope behaviour and mapping of landslide hazard. Results are stored in a geodatabase for spatial analysis within a GIS environment. For a test site located in England, UK, results have shown the utility of the approach in deriving practical hazard assessment information. Outcomes were compared to the network operator’s hazard grading data, and show general agreement. The utility of the slope information was also assessed with respect to auto-population of slope geometry, and found to deliver significant improvements over the network operator’s existing field-based approaches.

  6. Providing Middle School Students With Science Research Experiences Through Community Partnerships (United States)

    Rodriguez, D.


    Science research courses have been around for years at the university and high school level. As inquiry based learning has become more and more a part of the science teacher's vocabulary, many of these courses have adopted an inquiry model for studying science. Learners of all ages benefit from learning through the natural process of inquiry. I participated in the CIRES Earthworks program for science teachers (Colorado University) in the summer of 2007 and experienced, first hand, the value of inquiry learning. With the support and vision of my school administration, and with the support and commitment of community partners, I have developed a Middle School Science Research Program that is transforming how science is taught to students in my community. Swift Creek Middle School is located in Tallahassee, Florida. There are approximately 1000 students in this suburban public school. Students at Swift Creek are required to take one science class each year through 8th grade. As more emphasis is placed on learning a large number of scientific facts and information, in order to prepare students for yearly, standardized tests, there is a concern that less emphasis may be placed on the process and nature of science. The program I developed draws from the inquiry model followed at the CIRES Earthworks program, utilizes valuable community partnerships, and plays an important role in meeting that need. There are three major components to this Middle School Research Program, and the Center for Integrated Research and Learning (CIRL) at the National High Magnetic Field Lab (NHMFL) at Florida State University is playing an important role in all three. First, each student will develop their own research question and design experiments to answer the question. Scientists from the NHMFL are serving as mentors, or "buddy scientists," to my students as they work through the process of inquiry. Scientists from the CIRES - Earthworks program, Florida State University, and other

  7. Geophysical Survey of Poverty Point UNESCO World Heritage Site Mound A (United States)

    Frazer, W.; Bourke, J. R.; De Smet, T.; Nikulin, A.


    Poverty Point is an UNESCO World Heritage Site located in northern Louisiana, known for its six earthwork ridges and mounds of archeological significance. The largest of these earthworks and most significant feature on the site, Mound A is over 70 feet (21 m) high and 640 feet (200 m) long. To construct this mound, it would have taken about 16 million basket loads of dirt which weight approximately 50 lbs. each (23 kg). The current archeological theory describing the construction of Mound A states it was built in three months at most, with some suggesting construction times as short as a month, but beyond this not much else is known about Mound A or Poverty Point. The pace of Mound A's construction has been used as evidence to support the idea that there was a central leader directing its construction and that the population inhabiting the site was more socio-politically complex than previous hunter-gatherer populations in North America. Evidence of heterogeneity and stratigraphic layering, however, is an indication of a slow mound construction over centuries by a relatively egalitarian hunter-gather society. A greater understanding of the construction style and timeline for the construction of Mound A will lead to a greater understanding to the site, its people their lifestyles. Mound Builders have been known to cap mounds they have built if they were to be built in stages so if Mound A was built in stages it is likely capped with some more dense material than the dirt surrounding it. To better understand the construction history of Mound A we collected photogrammetry, seismic reflection, ground-penetrating radar, frequency-domain electromagnetic-induction, resistivity, and magnetometry data over the mound. The seismic data had a normal moveout correction, it was stacked and migrated. Additionally, with the application of quadcopter-based photogrammetry a three-dimensional digital model of Mound A was developed to display and assist in further understanding and

  8. Protection of Workers and Third Parties during the Construction of Linear Structures (United States)

    Vlčková, Jitka; Venkrbec, Václav; Henková, Svatava; Chromý, Adam


    The minimization of risk in the workplace through a focus on occupational health and safety (OHS) is one of the primary objectives for every construction project. The most serious accidents in the construction industry occur during work on earthworks and linear structures. The character of such structures places them among those posing the greatest threat to the public (referred to as “third parties”). They can be characterized as large structures whose construction may involve the building site extending in a narrow lane alongside previously constructed objects currently in use by the public. Linear structures are often directly connected to existing objects or buildings, making it impossible to guard the whole construction site. However, many OHS problems related to linear structures can be prevented during the design stage. The aim of this article is to introduce a new methodology which has been implemented into a computer program that deals with safety measures at construction sites where work is performed on linear structures. Based on existing experience with the design of such structures and their execution and supervision by safety coordinators, the basic types of linear structures, their location in the terrain, the conditions present during their execution and other marginal conditions and influences were modelled. Basic safety information has been assigned to this elementary information, which is strictly necessary for the construction process. The safety provisions can be grouped according to type, e.g. technical, organizational and other necessary documentation, or into sets of provisions concerning areas such as construction site safety, transport safety, earthworks safety, etc. The selection of the given provisions takes place using multiple criteria. The aim of creating this program is to provide a practical tool for designers, contractors and construction companies. The model can contribute to the sufficient awareness of these participants

  9. [Environmental investigation of ground water contamination at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    This Removal Action System Design has been prepared as a Phase I Volume for the implementation of the Phase II removal action at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base (WPAFB) near Dayton, Ohio. The objective of the removal action is to prevent, to the extent practicable, the migration of ground water contaminated with chlorinated volatile organic compounds (VOCS) across the southwest boundary of Area C. The Phase 1, Volume 9 Removal Action System Design compiles the design documents prepared for the Phase II Removal Action. These documents, which are presented in Appendices to Volume 9, include: Process Design, which presents the 30 percent design for the ground water treatment system (GWTS); Design Packages 1 and 2 for Earthwork and Road Construction, and the Discharge Pipeline, respectively; no drawings are included in the appendix; Design Package 3 for installation of the Ground Water Extraction Well(s); Design Package 4 for installation of the Monitoring Well Instrumentation; and Design Package 5 for installation of the Ground Water Treatment System; this Design Package is incorporated by reference because of its size

  10. Research and Enhancement of Used Tyres, Such as Material Innovative in Algeria (United States)

    Belabdelouahab, F.; Trouzine, H.

    Currently engineers seeking to improve the characteristics of soils used for the construction of earthworks, with innovations developed from ideas, products or processes of original construction, the land army is an early example particularly successful but there are many other processes as well as other Pneusol processes more or less known to sometimes use bulky industrial wastes, while fitting well into the existing environment. In this paper, we discuss a particular research work within the framework of environmental protection and sustainable development, led to the realization of the recovery and reuse of used tires in the construction of works civil engineering. The main objective of this paper is to present the results of studies in Algiers on ENSTP "Pneusol reducing the thrust" on a scale model on the study of a retaining wall reinforced by a simulation tablecloths tires, and the results of particular research enterprise at the University Djillali Liabes of Sidi Bel Abbes, on an experimental campaign on the Pneusol under expansive soil foundations. Topics will also present the projects carried out in Algeria, as the pilot of stability of a slope to Pneusol in Bousmail (2005), then another item of protection against landslides in Bejaia (2006), from the project of Africa in Mostaganem (2007), concerning the stability of an embankment on the RN11 road, and the conduct of a small dike protection technology Pneusol in Blida (2008), and in 2010 the stability of a landslide in Miliana.

  11. Methods of erection of high-rise buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cherednichenko Nadezhda


    Full Text Available The article contains the factors determining the choice of methods for organizing the construction and production of construction and installation work for the construction of high-rise buildings. There are also indicated specific features of their underground parts, characterized by powerful slab-pile foundations, large volumes of earthworks, reinforced bases and foundations for assembly cranes. The work cycle is considered when using reinforced concrete, steel and combined skeletons of high-rise buildings; the areas of application of flow, separate and complex methods are being disclosed. The main conditions for the erection of high-rise buildings and their components are singled out: the choice of formwork systems, delivery and lifting of concrete mixes, installation of reinforcement, the formation of lifting and transporting and auxiliary equipment. The article prescribes the reserves of reduction in the duration of construction due to the creation of: complex mechanized technologies for the efficient construction of foundations in various soil conditions, including in the heaving, swelling, hindered, subsidence, bulk, water-saturated forms; complex mechanized technologies for the erection of monolithic reinforced concrete structures, taking into account the winter conditions of production and the use of mobile concrete-laying complexes and new generation machines; modular formwork systems, distinguished by their versatility, ease, simplicity in operation suitable for complex high-rise construction; more perfect methodology and the development of a set of progressive organizational and technological solutions that ensure a rational relationship between the processes of production and their maximum overlap in time and space.

  12. Corrective Action Plan for Corrective Action Unit 143: Area 25 Contaminated Waste Dumps, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gustafason, D.L.


    This Corrective Action Plan (CAP) has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 143: Area 25 Contaminated Waste Dumps, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order of 1996. This CAP provides the methodology for implementing the approved corrective action alternative as listed in the Corrective Action Decision Document (U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office, 2000). The CAU includes two Corrective Action Sites (CASs): 25-23-09, Contaminated Waste Dump Number 1; and 25-23-03, Contaminated Waste Dump Number 2. Investigation of CAU 143 was conducted in 1999. Analytes detected during the corrective action investigation were evaluated against preliminary action levels to determine constituents of concern for CAU 143. Radionuclide concentrations in disposal pit soil samples associated with the Reactor Maintenance, Assembly, and Disassembly Facility West Trenches, the Reactor Maintenance, Assembly, and Disassembly Facility East Trestle Pit, and the Engine Maintenance, Assembly, and Disassembly Facility Trench are greater than normal background concentrations. These constituents are identified as constituents of concern for their respective CASs. Closure-in-place with administrative controls involves use restrictions to minimize access and prevent unauthorized intrusive activities, earthwork to fill depressions to original grade, placing additional clean cover material over the previously filled portion of some of the trenches, and placing secondary or diversion berm around pertinent areas to divert storm water run-on potential

  13. Modelling of series of types of automated trenchless works tunneling (United States)

    Gendarz, P.; Rzasinski, R.


    Microtunneling is the newest method for making underground installations. Show method is the result of experience and methods applied in other, previous methods of trenchless underground works. It is considered reasonable to elaborate a series of types of construction of tunneling machines, to develop this particular earthworks method. There are many design solutions of machines, but the current goal is to develop non - excavation robotized machine. Erosion machines with main dimensions of the tunnels which are: 1600, 2000, 2500, 3150 are design with use of the computer aided methods. Series of types of construction of tunneling machines creating process was preceded by analysis of current state. The verification of practical methodology of creating the systematic part series was based on the designed erosion machines series of types. There were developed: method of construction similarity of the erosion machines, algorithmic methods of quantitative construction attributes variant analyzes in the I-DEAS advanced graphical program, relational and program parameterization. There manufacturing process of the parts will be created, which allows to verify the technological process on the CNC machines. The models of designed will be modified and the construction will be consulted with erosion machine users and manufacturers like: Tauber Rohrbau GmbH & Co.KG from Minster, OHL ZS a.s. from Brna,. The companies’ acceptance will result in practical verification by JUMARPOL company.

  14. On the LiDAR contribution for the archaeological and geomorphological study of a deserted medieval village in Southern Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lasaponara, Rosa; Coluzzi, Rosa; Gizzi, Fabrizio T; Masini, Nicola


    Airborne laser scanning (ALS) is an optical measurement technique for obtaining high-precision information about the Earth's surface including basic terrain mapping (digital terrain model, bathymetry, corridor mapping), vegetation cover (forest assessment and inventory) and coastal and urban areas. Recent studies examined the possibility of using ALS in archaeological investigations to identify earthworks, although the ability of ALS measurements in this context has not yet been studied in detail. This paper focuses on the potential of the latest generation of airborne ALS for the detection and the spatial characterization of micro-topographic relief linked to archaeological and geomorphological features. The investigations were carried out near Monteserico, an archaeological area in the Basilicata region (Southern Italy) which is characterized by complex topographical and morphological features. The study emphasizes that the DTM-LiDAR data are a powerful instrument for detecting surface discontinuities relevant for investigating geomorphological processes and cultural features. The LiDAR survey allowed us to identify the urban shape of a medieval village, by capturing the small differences in height produced by surface and shallow archaeological remains (the so-called shadow marks) which were not visible from ground or from optical dataset. In this way, surface reliefs and small elevation changes, linked to geomorphological and archaeological features, have been surveyed with great detail

  15. The domestication of Amazonia before European conquest. (United States)

    Clement, Charles R; Denevan, William M; Heckenberger, Michael J; Junqueira, André Braga; Neves, Eduardo G; Teixeira, Wenceslau G; Woods, William I


    During the twentieth century, Amazonia was widely regarded as relatively pristine nature, little impacted by human history. This view remains popular despite mounting evidence of substantial human influence over millennial scales across the region. Here, we review the evidence of an anthropogenic Amazonia in response to claims of sparse populations across broad portions of the region. Amazonia was a major centre of crop domestication, with at least 83 native species containing populations domesticated to some degree. Plant domestication occurs in domesticated landscapes, including highly modified Amazonian dark earths (ADEs) associated with large settled populations and that may cover greater than 0.1% of the region. Populations and food production expanded rapidly within land management systems in the mid-Holocene, and complex societies expanded in resource-rich areas creating domesticated landscapes with profound impacts on local and regional ecology. ADE food production projections support estimates of at least eight million people in 1492. By this time, highly diverse regional systems had developed across Amazonia where subsistence resources were created with plant and landscape domestication, including earthworks. This review argues that the Amazonian anthrome was no less socio-culturally diverse or populous than other tropical forested areas of the world prior to European conquest. © 2015 The Author(s).

  16. A safe, efficient and cost effective process for removing petroleum hydrocarbons from a highly heterogeneous and relatively inaccessible shoreline. (United States)

    Guerin, Turlough F


    A rocky, intractable and highly heterogeneous, intertidal zone, was contaminated from a diesel fuel spill that occurred during refuelling of a grader used in road construction, on an operational mine's shiploading facility. A practical, cost-effective, and safer (to personnel by avoiding drilling and earthworks), and non-invasive sampling and remediation strategy was designed and implemented since the location and nature of the impacted geology (rock fill) and sediment, precluded conventional ex-situ and any in-situ treatment where drilling would be required. Enhanced biostimulation with surfactant, available N & P (which were highly constrained), and increased aeration, increased the degradation rate from no discernable change for 2 years post-spill, to 170 mg/kg/day; the maximum degradation rate after intervention. While natural attenuation was ineffective in this application, the low-cost, biostimulation intervention proved successful, allowing the site owner to meet their regulatory obligations. Petroleum hydrocarbons (aliphatic fraction) decreased from ∼20,000 mg/kg to <200 mg/kg at the completion of 180 weeks of treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Methods of erection of high-rise buildings (United States)

    Cherednichenko, Nadezhda; Oleinik, Pavel


    The article contains the factors determining the choice of methods for organizing the construction and production of construction and installation work for the construction of high-rise buildings. There are also indicated specific features of their underground parts, characterized by powerful slab-pile foundations, large volumes of earthworks, reinforced bases and foundations for assembly cranes. The work cycle is considered when using reinforced concrete, steel and combined skeletons of high-rise buildings; the areas of application of flow, separate and complex methods are being disclosed. The main conditions for the erection of high-rise buildings and their components are singled out: the choice of formwork systems, delivery and lifting of concrete mixes, installation of reinforcement, the formation of lifting and transporting and auxiliary equipment. The article prescribes the reserves of reduction in the duration of construction due to the creation of: complex mechanized technologies for the efficient construction of foundations in various soil conditions, including in the heaving, swelling, hindered, subsidence, bulk, water-saturated forms; complex mechanized technologies for the erection of monolithic reinforced concrete structures, taking into account the winter conditions of production and the use of mobile concrete-laying complexes and new generation machines; modular formwork systems, distinguished by their versatility, ease, simplicity in operation suitable for complex high-rise construction; more perfect methodology and the development of a set of progressive organizational and technological solutions that ensure a rational relationship between the processes of production and their maximum overlap in time and space.

  18. Geophysical investigation of the June 6, 1944 D-Day invasion site at Pointe du Hoc, Normandy, France (United States)

    Everett, M. E.; Pierce, C. J.; Warden, R. R.; Burt, R. A.


    A near-surface geophysical survey at the D-Day invasion site atop the cliffs at Pointe du Hoc, Normandy, France was carried out using ground-penetrating radar, electromagnetic induction, and magnetic gradiometry equipment. The subsurface targets of investigation are predominantly buried concrete and steel structures and earthworks associated with the German coastal fortifications at this stronpoint of Hitler's Atlantic Wall. The targets are readily detectable embedded within the vadose zone of a weakly magnetic, electrically resistive loess soil cover. The radar and electromagnetic induction responses lend themselves to plan-view imaging of the subsurface, while the magnetics data reveal the presence of buried magnetic bodies in a more subtle fashion. Several intriguing geophysical signatures were discovered, including what may be the buried remains of a railway turntable, ordnance fragments in the bomb craters, a buried steel-reinforced concrete trench, and a linear chain of machine gun firing positins. Geophysical prospecting is shown to be a very powerful tool for historical battlefield characterization.

  19. Pipe conveyors transport bulk material efficiently over long distances; Rohrgurtfoerderer transportieren Schuettgut effizient ueber lange Strecken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Will, Frank [BEUMER Maschinenfabrik GmbH und Co. KG, Beckum (Germany); Staribacher, Josef [KOCH Material Handling GmbH, Schwechat (Australia)


    The specific characteristics of a pipe conveyor, which are due to its operating principle, allow transportation solutions which are not possible with other conveyor systems; or if they are possible, then only with considerable restrictions or additional expenses. The enclosed design of the pipe conveyor protects the material from the environment and the environment from the conveyed material. The system, thus, makes a valuable contribution towards achieving environmental protection objectives and in meeting official regulations. The pipe conveyor handles both tight curve radiuses and steep inclines. This permits a very flexible route and also allows existing obstacles to be bypassed. Consequently, solutions can often be found which do not require any changes to be made to the existing terrain or plant structures. The investment costs of just the conveyor can sometimes be slightly higher for a pipe conveyor than for a conventional troughed belt conveyor. But if the pipe conveyor can take full advantage of its special features, then these additional costs become quite relative very quickly. And if, for example, transfer points, alterations of existing facilities, earthwork, or expensive dust and noise protection measures can be avoided due to the very flexible route layout of the pipe conveyor, then these savings on part of the customer are much higher than the additional costs for this perfect conveyor system. All told, it is possible to solve challenging conveying tasks with great efficiency while also saving resources when the pipe conveyor is used; thus, producing a sustained benefit to both the operator and the environment. (orig.)

  20. Unveiling topographical changes using LiDAR mapping capability: case study of Belaga in Sarawak, East-Malaysia (United States)

    Ganendra, T. R.; Khan, N. M.; Razak, W. J.; Kouame, Y.; Mobarakeh, E. T.


    The use of Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) remote sensing technology to scan and map landscapes has proven to be one of the most popular techniques to accurately map topography. Thus, LiDAR technology is the ultimate method of unveiling the surface feature under dense vegetation, and, this paper intends to emphasize the diverse techniques that can be utilized to elucidate topographical changes over the study area, using multi-temporal airborne full waveform LiDAR datasets collected in 2012 and 2014. Full waveform LiDAR data offers access to an almost unlimited number of returns per shot, which enables the user to explore in detail topographical changes, such as vegetation growth measurement. The study also found out topography changes at the study area due to earthwork activities contributing to soil consolidation, soil erosion and runoff, requiring cautious monitoring. The implications of this study not only concurs with numerous investigations undertaken by prominent researchers to improve decision making, but also corroborates once again that investigations employing multi-temporal LiDAR data to unveil topography changes in vegetated terrains, produce more detailed and accurate results than most other remote sensing data.

  1. Rainfall thresholds as a landslide indicator for engineered slopes on the Irish Rail network (United States)

    Martinović, Karlo; Gavin, Kenneth; Reale, Cormac; Mangan, Cathal


    Rainfall thresholds express the minimum levels of rainfall that need to be reached or exceeded in order for landslides to occur in a particular area. They are a common tool in expressing the temporal portion of landslide hazard analysis. Numerous rainfall thresholds have been developed for different areas worldwide, however none of these are focused on landslides occurring on the engineered slopes on transport infrastructure networks. This paper uses empirical method to develop the rainfall thresholds for landslides on the Irish Rail network earthworks. For comparison, rainfall thresholds are also developed for natural terrain in Ireland. The results show that particular thresholds involving relatively low rainfall intensities are applicable for Ireland, owing to the specific climate. Furthermore, the comparison shows that rainfall thresholds for engineered slopes are lower than those for landslides occurring on the natural terrain. This has severe implications as it indicates that there is a significant risk involved when using generic weather alerts (developed largely for natural terrain) for infrastructure management, and showcases the need for developing railway and road specific rainfall thresholds for landslides.

  2. Determination of the utility of remote sensing data for land use/cover analysis in the lower Appalachia region: Assessing the utility of remote sensing data for archeological site recognition (United States)

    Weber, N. V.


    Thematic Mapper Simulator (TMS) data were gathered by NASA/ERL over a portion of the lower Ohio River and the middle Mississippi River valleys on April 11, 1982. CIR imagery accompanied the 10 and 30 meter resolution TMS data sets. This area is somewhat unique archeologically as there exists a concentration of sites with major features such as mounds, earthworks, and villages. It was the primary purpose of this study to determine the utility of TMS data in identifying signatures which are distinctly archeological. TMS data were processed using the NASA/ERL software package ELAS. No signatures that were distinctly archeological were detected, due in large part to the complexity of the land cover and land use practices. However, as more sophisticated classification techniques were employed, the classes which were related to archeological features were narrowed. TMS data could certainly be of assistance to a trained archeologist/interpreter in narrowing an area which has to be field-surveyed as anomalous features can be recognized within a particular environmental context.

  3. 2006 equipment evolutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McArdle, D. [KMC Mining, Edmonton, AB (Canada)


    KMC Mining is a privately-owned major mining contractor that was established in 1949. The company has a long history in construction of roads; railroads; dams; and other major earthworks. It is primarily involved in Alberta oilsands, although it has also performed elsewhere in northern and western Canada. This presentation provided a corporate overview of KMC Mining and discussed its fleet profile, operations and an overview of its South Tailings Pond Project. The company added 7 new 320 ton class haul trucks to its fleet in 2005 to match its shovel capacity. The presentation provided an overview of 3 separate incidents in 2005 that resulted in damage to the frame and steering linkage; tie-rod failure with both front struts separated from a truck; and tie-rod failure with left hand front strut separated from a truck. These incidents were described in detail and post-investigations were conducted. As a result of this investigation, some possible incident contributors were also discussed. Next, the presentation discussed mounting hardware and provided an overview of hardware failure and replacement hardware. Last, the presentation addressed incident reoccurrence mitigation. A reoccurrence prevention plan was developed, which included suspension mounting hardware; tie-rod inspection and re-design; and payload monitoring and operating practices. It was summarized that measures are still in place since the reoccurrence prevention plan and there have been no further incidents. figs.

  4. Bitcoin and Potosí Silver: Historical Perspectives on Cryptocurrency. (United States)

    Zimmer, Zac

    Bitcoin, the digital cryptocurrency, has been celebrated as the future of money on the Internet. Although Bitcoin does present several forward-looking innovations, it also integrates a very old concept into its digital architecture: the mining of precious metals. Even though Bitcoin explicitly invokes mining as a metaphor and gold as an example for understanding the cryptocurrency, there has been little critical work on the connections between Bitcoin and previous metalist currency regimes. The following essay proposes a historical comparison with colonial South American silver mining and the global currency regime based on the New World silver peso it created as a way to interrogate Bitcoin. The comparison with colonial South America, and specifically the silver mining economy around the Cerro Rico de Potosí, will help to develop a historical and political understanding of Bitcoin's stakes, including questions of resources, labor, energy, and ecology. Mining and the extractive apparatus that accompanies it always imply massive-scale earthworks that reshape the planet itself, a process known as terraforming. The Potosí comparison will reveal Bitcoin to form part of a similar process of digital primitive accumulation we can provisionally name cryptoforming.

  5. Identification and Characterization of Particulate Matter Concentrations at Construction Jobsites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid P. S. Araújo


    Full Text Available The identification and characterization of particulate matter (PM concentrations from construction site activities pose major challenges due to the diverse characteristics related to different aspects, such as concentration, particle size and particle composition. Moreover, the characterization of particulate matter is influenced by meteorological conditions, including temperature, humidity, rainfall and wind speed. This paper is part of a broader investigation that aims to develop a methodology for assessing the environmental impacts caused by the PM emissions that arise from construction activities. The objective of this paper is to identify and characterize the PM emissions on a construction site with different aerodynamic diameters (PM2.5, PM10, total suspended particulates (TSP, based on an exploratory study. Initially, a protocol was developed to standardize the construction site selection criteria, laboratory procedures, field sample collection and laboratory analysis. This protocol was applied on a multifamily residential building construction site during three different construction phases (earthworks, superstructure and finishings aimed at measuring and monitoring PM concentrations arising from construction activities. The particulate matter was characterized in different particle sizes. Results showed that the higher TSP emissions arising from construction activities provoked environmental impacts. Some limitations to the results were identified, especially with regards the need for a detailed investigation about the influence of different construction phases on PM emissions. The findings provided significant knowledge about various situations, serving as a basis for improving the existing methodology for particulate material collection on construction sites and the development of future studies on the specific construction site phases.

  6. Research-informed design, management and maintenance of infrastructure slopes: development of a multi-scalar approach (United States)

    Glendinning, S.; Helm, P. R.; Rouainia, M.; Stirling, R. A.; Asquith, J. D.; Hughes, P. N.; Toll, D. G.; Clarke, D.; Powrie, W.; Smethurst, J.; Hughes, D.; Harley, R.; Karim, R.; Dixon, N.; Crosby, C.; Chambers, J.; Dijkstra, T.; Gunn, D.; Briggs, K.; Muddle, D.


    The UK's transport infrastructure is one of the most heavily used in the world. The performance of these networks is critically dependent on the performance of cutting and embankment slopes which make up £20B of the £60B asset value of major highway infrastructure alone. The rail network in particular is also one of the oldest in the world: many of these slopes are suffering high incidents of instability (increasing with time). This paper describes the development of a fundamental understanding of earthwork material and system behaviour, through the systematic integration of research across a range of spatial and temporal scales. Spatially these range from microscopic studies of soil fabric, through elemental materials behaviour to whole slope modelling and monitoring and scaling up to transport networks. Temporally, historical and current weather event sequences are being used to understand and model soil deterioration processes, and climate change scenarios to examine their potential effects on slope performance in futures up to and including the 2080s. The outputs of this research are being mapped onto the different spatial and temporal scales of infrastructure slope asset management to inform the design of new slopes through to changing the way in which investment is made into aging assets. The aim ultimately is to help create a more reliable, cost effective, safer and more resilient transport system.

  7. Uncertainty modelling and analysis of volume calculations based on a regular grid digital elevation model (DEM) (United States)

    Li, Chang; Wang, Qing; Shi, Wenzhong; Zhao, Sisi


    The accuracy of earthwork calculations that compute terrain volume is critical to digital terrain analysis (DTA). The uncertainties in volume calculations (VCs) based on a DEM are primarily related to three factors: 1) model error (ME), which is caused by an adopted algorithm for a VC model, 2) discrete error (DE), which is usually caused by DEM resolution and terrain complexity, and 3) propagation error (PE), which is caused by the variables' error. Based on these factors, the uncertainty modelling and analysis of VCs based on a regular grid DEM are investigated in this paper. Especially, how to quantify the uncertainty of VCs is proposed by a confidence interval based on truncation error (TE). In the experiments, the trapezoidal double rule (TDR) and Simpson's double rule (SDR) were used to calculate volume, where the TE is the major ME, and six simulated regular grid DEMs with different terrain complexity and resolution (i.e. DE) were generated by a Gauss synthetic surface to easily obtain the theoretical true value and eliminate the interference of data errors. For PE, Monte-Carlo simulation techniques and spatial autocorrelation were used to represent DEM uncertainty. This study can enrich uncertainty modelling and analysis-related theories of geographic information science.

  8. Review On Feasibility of Using Satellite Imaging for Risk Management of Derailment Related Turnout Component Failures (United States)

    Dindar, Serdar; Kaewunruen, Sakdirat; Osman, Mohd H.


    One of the emerging significant advances in engineering, satellite imaging (SI) is becoming very common in any kind of civil engineering projects e.g., bridge, canal, dam, earthworks, power plant, water works etc., to provide an accurate, economical and expeditious means of acquiring a rapid assessment. Satellite imaging services in general utilise combinations of high quality satellite imagery, image processing and interpretation to obtain specific required information, e.g. surface movement analysis. To extract, manipulate and provide such a precise knowledge, several systems, including geographic information systems (GIS) and global positioning system (GPS), are generally used for orthorectification. Although such systems are useful for mitigating risk from projects, their productiveness is arguable and operational risk after application is open to discussion. As the applicability of any novel application to the railway industry is often measured in terms of whether or not it has gained in-depth knowledge and to what degree, as a result of errors during its operation, this novel application generates risk in ongoing projects. This study reviews what can be achievable for risk management of railway turnouts thorough satellite imaging. The methodology is established on the basis of other published articles in this area and the results of applications to understand how applicable such imagining process is on railway turnouts, and how sub-systems in turnouts can be effectively traced/operated with less risk than at present. As a result of this review study, it is aimed that the railway sector better understands risk mitigation in particular applications.

  9. Combining Off-the-Job Productivity Regression Model with EPA’s NONROAD Model in Estimating CO2 Emissions from Bulldozer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apif M. Hajji


    Full Text Available Heavy duty diesel (HDD construction equipment which includes bulldozer is important in infrastructure development. This equipment consumes large amount of diesel fuel and emits high level of carbon dioxide (CO2. The total emissions are dependent upon the fuel use, and the fuel use is dependent upon the productivity of the equipment. This paper proposes a methodology and tool for estimating CO2 emissions from bulldozer based on the productivity rate. The methodology is formulated by using the result of multiple linear regressions (MLR of CAT’s data for obtaining the productivity model and combined with the EPA’s NONROAD model. The emission factors from NONROAD model were used to quantify the CO2 emissions. To display the function of the model, a case study and sensitivity analysis for a bulldozer’s activity is also presented. MLR results indicate that the productivity model generated from CAT’s data can be used as the basis for quantifying the total CO2 emissions for an earthwork activity.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. G. Bryan


    Full Text Available Stonehenge is perhaps the most famous prehistoric monument in the world. Begun as a simple earthwork enclosure, it was built in several stages with the unique lintelled stone circle being erected in the Neolithic period in around 2,500 BC. Today Stonehenge, together with Avebury and other associated sites, form the heart of a World Heritage Site (WHS with a unique and dense concentration of outstanding prehistoric monuments. In 2011 English Heritage (EH embarked on a new survey of the monument. Undertaken by the Greenhatch Group, a commercial survey company based near Derby, a combination of laser scanning and photogrammetric approaches were used to generate the required scale and detailed level of output required by English Heritage. This paper will describe the background to this project and its context within previous survey activities at this World Heritage Site. It will explain the data acquisition technology and processes undertaken on site, the datasets derived from post-processing and their filtering and analysis within both subsequent research projects. Alongside a description of how the data is currently being exploited and proposed future applications within the conservation and management of the site, it will finish by considering the impact of developing geospatial imaging technologies.

  11. Revealing the Secrets of Stonehenge Through the Application of Laser Scanning, Photogrammetry and Visualisation Techniques (United States)

    Bryan, P. G.; Abbott, M.; Dodson, A. J.


    Stonehenge is perhaps the most famous prehistoric monument in the world. Begun as a simple earthwork enclosure, it was built in several stages with the unique lintelled stone circle being erected in the Neolithic period in around 2,500 BC. Today Stonehenge, together with Avebury and other associated sites, form the heart of a World Heritage Site (WHS) with a unique and dense concentration of outstanding prehistoric monuments. In 2011 English Heritage (EH) embarked on a new survey of the monument. Undertaken by the Greenhatch Group, a commercial survey company based near Derby, a combination of laser scanning and photogrammetric approaches were used to generate the required scale and detailed level of output required by English Heritage. This paper will describe the background to this project and its context within previous survey activities at this World Heritage Site. It will explain the data acquisition technology and processes undertaken on site, the datasets derived from post-processing and their filtering and analysis within both subsequent research projects. Alongside a description of how the data is currently being exploited and proposed future applications within the conservation and management of the site, it will finish by considering the impact of developing geospatial imaging technologies.

  12. Effect of Cement and Compaction on the Physicochemical Behavior of a Material in the Region of Sidi Bel Abbes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. S. Ikhlef


    Full Text Available Soil treatment describes the procedure under which a soil acquires certain characteristics that did not originally have. This paper is focused in the field of road earthworks and the treatment of a material found in the region of Sidi Bel Abbes, Algeria. This material has poor characteristics that do not meet the standards used in road geotechnics. To remedy this, firstly, the Proctor Standard characteristics of this material were improved using mechanical treatment that increased the compaction energy. Then a chemical treatment was employed, adding some cement dosages, and results show that the material classified in the A1h class, for an increased maximum dry density and a reduction in water content. A comparative study is made on the optimal properties of the material between the two modes of treatment. On the other hand, after treatment, one finds a decrease in the plasticity index and the methylene blue value. This material exhibits a change of class. Therefore, soil class CL turned into a soil class CL-ML (silt of low plasticity. This observation allows the material to be used as backfill or subgrade.

  13. Derailment-based Fault Tree Analysis on Risk Management of Railway Turnout Systems (United States)

    Dindar, Serdar; Kaewunruen, Sakdirat; An, Min; Gigante-Barrera, Ángel


    Railway turnouts are fundamental mechanical infrastructures, which allow a rolling stock to divert one direction to another. As those are of a large number of engineering subsystems, e.g. track, signalling, earthworks, these particular sub-systems are expected to induce high potential through various kind of failure mechanisms. This could be a cause of any catastrophic event. A derailment, one of undesirable events in railway operation, often results, albeit rare occurs, in damaging to rolling stock, railway infrastructure and disrupt service, and has the potential to cause casualties and even loss of lives. As a result, it is quite significant that a well-designed risk analysis is performed to create awareness of hazards and to identify what parts of the systems may be at risk. This study will focus on all types of environment based failures as a result of numerous contributing factors noted officially as accident reports. This risk analysis is designed to help industry to minimise the occurrence of accidents at railway turnouts. The methodology of the study relies on accurate assessment of derailment likelihood, and is based on statistical multiple factors-integrated accident rate analysis. The study is prepared in the way of establishing product risks and faults, and showing the impact of potential process by Boolean algebra.

  14. Technologies nouvelles en améliorations foncières et réflexions sur leurs retombées économiques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cogels, O.


    Full Text Available New technologies about ground improvements and thoughts on their economical repercussions. After an introduction on the importance of land and water improvement in the world, a synthesis is presented about the main contributions of new technologies at the levels of the preliminary investigations, the execution and the operation and management. At the level of the preliminary investigations, the contribution of electronics and computers is discussed as well for the data acquisition as for the data structuration, namely with the aid of data banks and numerical cartography. At the level of the execution, the laser technique for guidance of earthwork engines is discussed. At the level of operation and management, the support of new technologies consists of an increasing use of electronic sensors for local or remote control and monitoring of soil and plant water status. The laser technique is also used for the guidance of irrigation machines such as the central pivot. On an economical point of vue, these innovations don't seem to improve considerably the agricultural production per unit area, but they increase undoubtedly the productivity of the factor water. This is all the more true when the improved area is large. New technologies lead to scale economics. They are thus in favor of putting the land in common during the stages of investigations and excutions and to keep in common some aspects of the management.

  15. Structural aspect on the Slano blato landslide (Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ladislav Placer


    Full Text Available The active landslide Slano blato above Lokavec in the Vipava valley, Slovenia, is a complex phenomenon. The hinterland of the landslide consists of the large fossil block of Mala Gora that slid about 300 m down the slope of Mt. Čaven, and was tilted with respect to the slope. We presume that the corresponding failure surface is concavelyshaped. The block consist in its lower part of Eocene flysch beds and in its upper part of Triassic carbonate rocks that are thrust over the flysch. It is probable that due to gravitational slumping the flysch basement obtained a concave shape, that serves as a catchment structure for retaining the ground water. It slowly percolates throughthe crushed calcarenitic layers in flysch. According to available data the Slano blato was triggered in 1887 by earthworks, and in 2000 by natural erosion processes. The structural characteristics allow the assumption that movement occurs in crushed and weathered flysch beds that are percolated by a steady or periodical supply ofgroundwater from the structural reservoir in the Mala Gora fossil slumped block. Coexistence of the older structural and the younger active weathered material landslides can be observed also at other localities along the thrust front of the Trnovo and Hrušica (Nanos nappe. Especially interesting in this respect are the Razdrto and Strane landslides.

  16. A developing chronology for prehistoric 'moated sites' in northeast Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGrath, R.J.; Boyd, W.E.


    Full text: Many mounded Iron Age occupation sites in the Mun River Valley,N.E. Thailand are characterised by distinctive encircling earthworks, these are commonly known as 'moated sites'. The first excavations of any significance within the moats themselves at six sites -Noen U-Loke, Non Muang Khao, Ban Non Khrua Chut, Ban Non Ngiu, Ban Makham Thae and Ban Non Wat - in the form of long trenches have been carried out to enable detailed examination of their structure. Significantly, the surficial morphology of the moats, and the notable regularity of shape and patterning of the moats in plan, usually does not accurately reflect the buried sectional morphology of incised channel features, which are in no way expressed on the surface. Buried channels beneath the edge of the mounds as well as the surrounding moat banks have also been revealed. Stratigraphic and geomorphic relationships of the buried features imply critical chronological relationships which need to be tested to allow full development of a model for the evolution of the archaeological sites. Extremely small quantities of charcoal and shells obtained from the buried features has necessitated the need for AMS dating to develop the chronology for the development, use and decline of the moated features and channels. The dating is an ongoing process, however, results thus far obtained supports the development of older channels towards the archaeological mounds, and yet older buried channels under the sites

  17. The contribution of 14C AMS dating to the Greater Angkor archaeological project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zoppi, U.; Barbetti, M.; Fletcher, R.; Hua, Q.; Chhem, R.K.; Pottier, C.; Watanasak, M.


    For well over five centuries, the Khmer kingdom ruled over a vast territory, including most of what is now known as Cambodia, Thailand, Vietnam and Laos. Between the 9th and 14th century AD, the Khmer Kings developed the Angkor area into a remarkable administrative and religious centre for their society. According to new estimates by the Greater Angkor Project, the entire urban complex of the capital city covered about 1000 square km making it probably the largest archaeological site in the world. Great stone temples and some other monumental structures and earthworks are the only visible remains of this fascinating civilisation. Thankfully, there is a substantial on-going multinational effort to preserve and restore what is left and in 1992 UNESCO (United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organisation) declared Angkor a World Heritage Site. This paper presents two particular aspects of the Greater Angkor Project where radiocarbon dating by AMS specifically added to our knowledge of the history of this ancient capital city

  18. DALY-Based Health Risk Assessment of Construction Noise in Beijing, China (United States)

    Xiao, Jun; Li, Xiaodong; Zhang, Zhihui


    Noise produced by construction activities has become the second most serious acoustic polluting element in China. To provide industry practitioners with a better understanding of the health risks of construction noise and to aid in creating environmentally friendly construction plans during early construction stages, we developed a quantitative model to assess the health impairment risks (HIA) associated with construction noise for individuals living adjacent to construction sites. This model classifies noise-induced health impairments into four categories: cardiovascular disease, cognitive impairment, sleep disturbance, and annoyance, and uses disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) as an indicator of damage. Furthermore, the value of a statistical life (VSL) is used to transform DALYs into a monetary value based on the affected demographic characteristics, thereby offering policy makers a reliable theoretical foundation for establishing reasonable standards to compensate residents suffering from construction noise. A practical earthwork project in Beijing is used as a case study to demonstrate the applicability of the proposed model. The results indicate that construction noise could bring significant health risks to the neighboring resident community, with an estimated 34.51 DALYs of health damage and 20.47 million yuan in social costs. In particular, people aged 45–54 are most vulnerable to construction noise, with the greatest health risks being caused by sleep disturbance. PMID:27792207

  19. Lime treatment of an Italian pyroclastic soil: a multi-scale analysis for the correlation of mechanical and chemo-mineralogical effects. (United States)

    Guidobaldi, Giulia; Cambi, Costanza; Cecconi, Manuela; Comodi, Paola; Zucchini, Azzurra


    In recent years, the ever-growing need to minimize costs and environmental impact in the construction of major civil infrastructure has led to the development of a large amount of methods based on the reuse of local materials. In particular, one of the most diffused methods is represented by lime treatment, widely applied in earthwork field to achieve mechanical improvement of otherwise unsuitable fine grained soils. However, unlike fine grained soils, many other types of world-wide common natural soils still represent a geotechnical obstacle. Among these, pyroclastic soils are a typology widely spread in Central and Southern Italy that finds marginal applications in earthworks practice due to the intrinsic complexities in terms of nature, heterogeneity, microstructural features and unsaturated hydro-mechanical behaviour. The need to overcome the described limitations motivates the focus of this work on the geotechnical characterization of pyroclastic deposits along with the increasing attention on the volume-scale and micro-scale features characterization and correlation. The main goal of the present study is to highlight the effects of lime treatment on a zeolite rich pyroclastic soil, focusing on the relationship between macro and micro modifications induced by lime addition. Within this research, an extensive experimental work was developed on a zeolitic pyroclastic soil coming from Orvieto cliff (Vulsini volcanic district, Central Italy). The overall investigation was organized in three phases: the first phase was devoted to the thorough chemo-physical and mineralogical characterization of the raw soil; subsequently, conventional direct shear tests were performed on reconstituted specimens of both raw and lime treated soil (2% and 5% Ca(OH)2) at increasing curing times and stress levels; finally, a wide chemo-mineralogical investigation was carried out on the lime treated samples to gain a more complete knowledge of the reactions responsible for the mechanical

  20. Análise do impacto do período de projeto de pavimentos no custo global de obras rodoviárias

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    Luiz Guilherme Rodrigues Mello


    Full Text Available Most projects for the construction of big highways in Brazil are based on conventional design methods. It is also common practice in Brazil to adopt a period of ten years to account for the traffic load when designing flexible pavements. However, some highway infrastructure projects are rather expensive and the costs related to earthworks or special structures, such as bridges and drainage, can significantly overshadow the cost of the pavement construction. Therefore, it is important to evaluate the economic impact of considering longer design periods, still in the stage of study of viability of a big highway project. The objective of this paper is to show the relation between overall cost and design reliability with the increase of design period. Five big highways infrastructure projects under construction by the Brazilian National Department of Transport Infrastructure (DNIT, in the context of the Program for Growth Acceleration (PAC, are investigated as case studies. The cases include two highways with rigid pavement and three others with flexible pavements. The results show clearly that a significant increase in design period does not impact significantly the overall costs. In all cases, doubling the period of design would increase the of overall cost of the contract by less than 4%. Perhaps most importantly, the results of mechanist analyses show that the probability of failure of the pavement due to fatigue cracking of the concrete layer decreases when longer design periods are adopted. In order works, the adoption of longer design periods not only has little impact on the overall costs of big highway construction projects, but also lead to pavements with higher design reliability.

  1. Steel Sheet Piles - Applications and Elementary Design Issues (United States)

    Sobala, Dariusz; Rybak, Jarosław


    High-intensity housing having been carried out in town’s centres causes that many complex issues related to earthworks and foundations must be resolved. Project owners are required to ensure respective number of parking bays, which in turn demands 2-3 storeys of underground car parks. It is especially difficult to fulfil in dense buildings of old town areas where apart from engineering problems, very stringent requirements of heritage conservator supervision are also raised. The problems with ensuring stability of excavation sidewalls need to be, at the same time, dealt with analysis of foundations of neighbouring structures, and possible strengthening them at the stages of installing the excavation protection walls, progressing the excavations and constructing basement storeys. A separate problem refers to necessity of constructing underground storeys below the level of local groundwater. This requires long-term lowering of water table inside excavation while at possibly limited intervention in hydrological regime beyond the project in progress. In river valleys such “hoarding off” the excavation and cutting off groundwater leads to temporary or permanent disturbances of groundwater run-off and local swellings. Traditional way to protect vertical fault and simultaneously to cut-off groundwater inflow consists in application of steel sheet pilings. They enable to construct monolithic reinforced concrete structures of underground storeys thus ensuring both their tightness and high rigidity of foundation. Depending on situation, steel sheet pilings can be in retrieving or staying-in-place versions. This study deals with some selected aspects of engineering design and fabrication of sheet piling for deep excavations and underground parts of buildings.

  2. Tunnels: different construction methods and its use for pipelines installation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattos, Tales; Soares, Ana Cecilia; Assis, Slow de; Bolsonaro, Ralfo; Sanandres, Simon [Petroleo do Brasil S.A. (PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)


    In a continental dimensions country like Brazil, the pipeline modal faces the challenge of opening ROW's in the most different kind of soils with the most different geomorphology. To safely fulfill the pipeline construction demand, the ROW opening uses all techniques in earthworks and route definition and, where is necessary, no digging techniques like horizontal directional drilling, micro tunneling and also full size tunnels design for pipelines installation in high topography terrains to avoid geotechnical risks. PETROBRAS has already used the tunnel technique to cross higher terrains with great construction difficult, and mainly to make it pipeline maintenance and operation easier. For the GASBOL Project, in Aparados da Serra region and in GASYRG, in Bolivia, two tunnels were opened with approximately 700 meters and 2,000 meters each one. The GASBOL Project had the particularity of being a gallery with only one excavation face, finishing under the hill and from this point was drilled a vertical shaft was drilled until the top to install the pipeline section, while in GASYRG Project the tunnel had two excavation faces. Currently, two projects are under development with tunnels, one of then is the Caraguatatuba-Taubate gas pipeline (GASTAU), with a 5 km tunnel, with the same concepts of the GASBOL tunnel, with a gallery to be opened with the use of a TBM (Tunneling Boring Machine), and a shaft to the surface, and the gas pipeline Cabiunas-Reduc III (GASDUC III) project is under construction with a 3.7 km tunnel, like the GASYRG tunnel with two faces. This paper presents the main excavation tunneling methods, conventional and mechanized, presenting the most relevant characteristics from both and, in particular, the use of tunnels for pipelines installation. (author)

  3. Application of concrete technology to disposal of the waste contaminated with radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Kazuo


    This paper describes the application of concrete technology to disposal of the waste contaminated with radioactive Cs originated from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station accident. In accordance with the migration of waste, Cs has been concentrated in water purification sludge, sewage sludge, agriculture and forestry waste, cleaning sediment, and the incineration ash of combustible waste. Among them, only incineration fly ash contains much water-soluble components, and has a high dissolution rate of Cs. City garbage generates HCl gas from the contained polyvinyl chloride and others due to incineration, and lime is often blown into for neutralization. As a result, for incineration fly ash (MSWI-FA), CaCl 2 is generated with the content of 20±10 mass%. There is data that Cs is 1.7 ppm at a stoker furnace. A large amount of CaCl 2 tends to lower the pH when fly ash is solidified as cement. As the concrete technology corresponding to the volume reduction after interim storage, there are molten slag production (with assumption of existence of markets for distribution and consumption) and earthwork material production. In addition, in view of the harmful components such as heavy metals, the following technologies and products are considered necessary: (1) shielding type concrete container that can directly handle soluble salts, (2) radioactive Cs stabilization technique such as pollucite formation of Cs using ferrocyanides, (3) stability evaluation technology for concrete aiming at 300 to 400 years, (4) design of final disposal system, and (5) optimization system for interim storage facility. (A.O.)

  4. Potential of scrap tire rubber as lightweight aggregate in flowable fill. (United States)

    Pierce, C E; Blackwell, M C


    Flowable fill is a self-leveling and self-compacting material that is rapidly gaining acceptance and application in construction, particularly in transportation and utility earthworks. When mixed with concrete sand, standard flowable fill produces a mass density ranging from 1.8 to 2.3 g/cm(3) (115-145 pcf). Scrap tires can be granulated to produce crumb rubber, which has a granular texture and ranges in size from very fine powder to coarse sand-sized particles. Due to its low specific gravity, crumb rubber can be considered a lightweight aggregate. This paper describes an experimental study on replacing sand with crumb rubber in flowable fill to produce a lightweight material. To assess the technical feasibility of using crumb rubber, the fluid- and hardened-state properties of nine flowable fill mixtures were measured. Mixture proportions were varied to investigate the effects of water-to-cement ratio and crumb rubber content on fill properties. Experimental results indicate that crumb rubber can be successfully used to produce a lightweight flowable fill (1.2-1.6 g/cm(3) [73-98 pcf]) with excavatable 28-day compressive strengths ranging from 269 to 1194 kPa (39-173 psi). Using a lightweight fill reduces the applied stress on underlying soils, thereby reducing the potential for bearing capacity failure and minimizing soil settlement. Based on these results, a crumb rubber-based flowable fill can be used in a substantial number of construction applications, such as bridge abutment fills, trench fills, and foundation support fills.


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    V. Tesi


    Full Text Available The deep fusion of natural and artificial elements typical of Italian Renaissance gardens is particularly evident in the park of Villa di Castello and in the Grotto of the Animals, also called Grotto of the Flood. The soil slope is the essential element of a huge underlying hydraulic machine and it is the result of extensive earthworks which led to the construction of the big retaining wall limiting the grotto and the adjacent fountains. Hence, this grotto represents only the visible part of a mechanism running all around it. It is formed by a single chamber vaulted and covered with sponge-like stones, as well as decorations made of pebbles and shells. The space is divided into three wings, with big marble basins at their end. Over them there are reliefs of animals made of different stones and marbles. Animals recur also in the compositions of fish and shellfish decorating the side basins and in the bronze birds currently kept in the Museo del Bargello. The name “Grotto of the Flood” comes from the water feature that characterised this place: visitors were surprised by tens of jets hidden among the stones in the vault and in the floor. To obtain this effect, the whole grotto is surrounded by multi-storey tunnels, hiding the hydraulic system and people activating the mechanisms. Research agreements were drawn up between the Special Superintendence for the Historical, Artistic and Ethnoanthropological Heritage, the Florence museums group and the GeCO Lab, for the realization of the survey presented in this paper. The task of the GeCO Lab was thus identifying the best solutions to check the spatial relations between the grotto and the area above, as well as the geometric and functional connections between the building and the ancient hydraulic system, composed by pipes and nozzles concealed between the stones. Besides, the overall survey was intended as a documentation of the on-going restoration work.

  6. Laser Scanning and Modelling of Barely Visible Features: the Survey of the Grotto of the Animals at the Villa of Castello (florence) (United States)

    Tesi, V.; Tucci, G.; Bonora, V.; Fiorini, L.; Conti, A.


    The deep fusion of natural and artificial elements typical of Italian Renaissance gardens is particularly evident in the park of Villa di Castello and in the Grotto of the Animals, also called Grotto of the Flood. The soil slope is the essential element of a huge underlying hydraulic machine and it is the result of extensive earthworks which led to the construction of the big retaining wall limiting the grotto and the adjacent fountains. Hence, this grotto represents only the visible part of a mechanism running all around it. It is formed by a single chamber vaulted and covered with sponge-like stones, as well as decorations made of pebbles and shells. The space is divided into three wings, with big marble basins at their end. Over them there are reliefs of animals made of different stones and marbles. Animals recur also in the compositions of fish and shellfish decorating the side basins and in the bronze birds currently kept in the Museo del Bargello. The name "Grotto of the Flood" comes from the water feature that characterised this place: visitors were surprised by tens of jets hidden among the stones in the vault and in the floor. To obtain this effect, the whole grotto is surrounded by multi-storey tunnels, hiding the hydraulic system and people activating the mechanisms. Research agreements were drawn up between the Special Superintendence for the Historical, Artistic and Ethnoanthropological Heritage, the Florence museums group and the GeCO Lab, for the realization of the survey presented in this paper. The task of the GeCO Lab was thus identifying the best solutions to check the spatial relations between the grotto and the area above, as well as the geometric and functional connections between the building and the ancient hydraulic system, composed by pipes and nozzles concealed between the stones. Besides, the overall survey was intended as a documentation of the on-going restoration work.

  7. Urban Landslides Induced by the 2004 Niigata-Chuetsu Earthquake (United States)

    Kamai, T.; Trandafir, A. C.; Sidle, R. C.


    Landslides triggered by the Chuetsu earthquake occurred in artificial slopes of some new developments in suburban Nagaoka, the largest city in the affected area. The landslides occurred in hilly terrain of the eastern part of Nagaoka between the alluvial plain and Tertiary folded mountains of Yamakoshi. Although the extent of landslides in urban Nagaoka was small compared with landslides on natural slopes (especially near Yamakoshi), they represent an important case study for urban landslide disasters. Slope instabilities in urban residential areas were classified as: A) landslides in steep embankments; B) landslides in gently sloping artificial valley fills; C) re-activation of old landslides; and D) liquefaction in deep artificial valley fills. All these failures occurred in relatively uniform suburban landscapes, which were significantly modified from the original landforms. Recent destructive earthquakes in Japan caused similar types of slope failures in urban regions, suggesting that lessons from past earthquakes were not implemented. The greatest damage due to type-A failures occurred in the 25-yr old Takamachi residential area, where about 70 of 522 homes were judged to be uninhabitable. Before development, this area was an isolated hill (90 m elevation) with an adjacent terrace (60 m elevation) consisting of gravel, sand, and silt of the lower to middle Pleistocene deposits. Development earthworks removed the hill crest and created a wide plateau (70 m elevation); excavated soil was placed on the perimeter as an embankment. During the earthquake, the embankment slope collapsed, including retaining walls, perimeter road, and homes. The most serious damage occurred in five places around the margin of the plateau corresponding to shallow valley fills (5 to 8 m thick). Earthquake response analyses using an equivalent linear model indicated the amplification of seismic waves at the surface of embankment slopes, and the peak earthquake acceleration exceeded 1 G

  8. An integrated program of geophysical survey, coring, and test excavations to study a 4th millennium bc-cal ditch at Alt del Punxó (Muro de L’alcoi, Alacant

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    García Puchol, Otero


    Full Text Available The potentially long and interesting archaeological sequence revealed by systematic survey at the site of Alt Del Punxó (Muro de l’Alcoi, Alacant was the basis for initiating a study of the locality’s subsurface structures using new methods of remote sensing. Geophysical survey (magnetometry and tomography and systematic augering revealed buried structures, including monumental earthworks, and guided subsequent excavations to collect more detailed data about the nature and age of these prehistoric features. The information recovered, including new radiocarbon dates, offers a new perspective on the organization of prehistoric populations in this region of south-central Valencia since the beginning of the Holocene and is especially important for understanding the Neolithic IIB from the 4th through the early 3rd Millennium BC.

    La amplia e interesante secuencia arqueológica sugerida por los materiales de superficie del yacimiento de Alt del Punxó (Muro de l’Alcoi, Alacant ha supuesto el punto de partida para la práctica de una serie de métodos de detección de las estructuras conservadas en el lugar. La prospección geofísica (magnetometría y tomografía, y los microsondeos (augers han dirigido la planificación de la excavación con el fin de obtener nuevos datos a propósito de la naturaleza y cronología del gran foso prehistórico, así como de las diversas estructuras localizadas. La información obtenida, junto a la serie radiocarbónica disponible, abre nuevas perspectivas para el estudio del poblamiento prehistórico al aire libre en las comarcas centro-meridionales valencianas desde los inicios del Holoceno, y de un modo particular en el IV e inicios del III milenio cal AC –Neolítico IIB.

  9. Long-term forest-savannah dynamics in the Bolivian Amazon: implications for conservation. (United States)

    Mayle, Francis E; Langstroth, Robert P; Fisher, Rosie A; Meir, Patrick


    The aim of this paper is to evaluate the respective roles of past changes in climate, geomorphology and human activities in shaping the present-day forest-savannah mosaic of the Bolivian Amazon, and consider how this palaeoecological perspective may help inform conservation strategies for the future. To this end, we review a suite of palaeoecological and archaeological data from two distinct forest-savannah environments in lowland Bolivia: Noel Kempff Mercado National Park (NKMNP) on the Precambrian Shield and the 'Llanos de Moxos' in the Beni basin. We show that they contain markedly contrasting legacies of past climatic, geomorphic and anthropogenic influences between the last glacial period and the Spanish Conquest. In NKMNP, increasing precipitation caused evergreen rainforest expansion, at the expense of semi-deciduous dry forest and savannahs, over the last three millennia. In contrast, pre-Hispanic indigenous cultures were instrumental in facilitating recent forest expansion in the Llanos de Moxos by building a vast network of earthworks. Insights from Mid-Holocene palaeodata, together with ecological observations and modelling studies, suggest that there will be progressive replacement of rainforest by dry forest and savannah in NKMNP over the twenty-first century in response to the increased drought predicted by general circulation models. Protection of the latitudinal landscape corridors may be needed to facilitate these future species reassortments. However, devising appropriate conservation strategies for the Llanos de Moxos will be more difficult due to its complex legacy of Palaeo-Indian impact. Without fully understanding the degree to which its current biota has been influenced by past native cultures, the type and intensity of human land use appropriate for this landscape in the future will be difficult to ascertain.

  10. Hypothesis on a portrait of a girl of Severan age from Via Labicana (Rome

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    Mariarosaria Barbera


    Full Text Available In 2007, during the archaeological excavations in via Labicana close to the church of SS. Pietro e Marcellino, a statue portraying a female head was unearthed: the piece appeared well-preserved and the formal characteristics suggested it had been sculpted under the Severian Dinasty. The Greek marble head by reason of the quality and style, can be compared with a series of portraits dating to the period between second and third decade of the III century A.D. It was possible to identify the head as that of Annia Aurelia Faustina by reason of the face and hair. She was the great niece of Marcus Aurelius and the third wife of emperor Eliogabalus, who was proclaimed Augusta from summer to winter in the year 221 A.D. Stratigraphic data proved uncertain, because in modern times, probably in the XVIIIth century, the head was thrown onto an earth dump, and the archaeological provenance is therefore uncertain being situated within an area where important monuments like the Isium Metellinum and the domus Tetricorum, are not yet placed with certainty. The excavations unearthed a cross-vaulted room with pillars and high skylights, maybe a horreum, that were laid upon previous structures constructed during Domitian’s reign, forming part of the earthworks on the northern side of Caelius hill. Later flights of stairs were built, to enable the room to link with the terrace and brick stamps were found, in part referring to the family of Marcus Aurelius and the Ummidia gens (in fact emperor’s sister, Annia Cornificia Faustina married Ummidius Quadratus, and in part to Commodus. It is suggested that after Ummidius’nephew had conspired in the plot against Commodus, the property formerly belonging to Cornificia was seized by the emperor himself but was later returned by Eliogabalus to his wife Annia Faustina, whom he honoured by commissioning the wonderful sculpture portrayed here.

  11. Beyond Design: The Importance of Construction and Post-Construction Phases in Green Developments

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    Mark Hostetler


    Full Text Available Green developments are becoming a popular land use planning concept that attempts to accommodate growth while minimizing impacts on natural resources. Various policies encourage conservation designs that usually translate into the clustering of homes and the conservation of some percentage of open space. However, the success of a design is determined by what happens during the construction and post-construction phases of a subdivision project. These two phases are often ignored in land use planning and given only minimal attention by built environment professionals. As a result, green developments may not be functioning as originally intended. This essay discusses the importance of construction and post-construction and a way forward to create functional, sustainable communities. Construction activities and decisions, such as impacts from earthwork machines, improper protection of conserved open spaces and trees, the choice of plants used for yards and common areas, and the storage of construction material all can lead to severe impacts on natural areas both within and surrounding a development site. During post-construction, a variety of improper management practices by homeowners can compromise the sustainability of a development. Developers and associated environmental consultant teams could implement approaches that would engage contractors and residents, such as environmental construction covenants and the installment of a neighborhood, environmental education program. To increase the adoption of relevant construction and post-construction practices, appropriate policies need to be created. However, the shift will only occur once the planning and built environment community acknowledges that design is only the first step towards sustainability. Academic design studios and continuing education courses can help with this culture shift by including construction and post-construction considerations within their curriculum.

  12. Raised fields in the Llanos de Moxos, Bolivia - description and analysis of their morphology (United States)

    Rodrigues, Leonor; Lombardo, Umberto; Veit, Heinz


    The disturbance of Pre Columbian populations on Amazonian ecosystems is being actively debated. The traditional view of amazon being an untouched landscape because of its poor soils and harsh climate has been challenged and the extreme opposite idea of highly modified landscapes with complex societies is growing. Recent research has led to new impulses and issues requesting about the agricultural strategies people developed to survive in this climate. The Llanos de Moxos, situated in the Bolivian Lowlands in south-eastern Amazonia is one important region which was densely altered and where a great variety of earthworks can be found. One of the most impressive earth works are the raised fields, which are earth platforms for cultivation of differing shape and dimension that are elevated above the landscapes natural surface. In contrast to the "terra preta" formation where artefacts and amendments like charcoal and kitchen waste have been clearly identified, raised fields have shown to be artefact poor and studies up till now couldn't find any evidence of additional amendments which could have improved soil quality in the long term. As a result the function and productivity of raised fields is still not well understood and is being actively discussed. Detailed investigations on raised fields located in the indigenous community of Bermeo, in the vicinity of San Ignacio de Moxos provides data showing a novel explanation of the Pre-Columbian management of raised fields, and a chronological sequence of their utilization and abandonment. OSL dating has shown that the raised fields had been in use since as early as 600 AD. Comparison of Geochemistry with a reference profile, away from raised fields, showed that there is no evidence for manure amendments deriving from kitchen waste or animal residues suggesting a rather extensive use of those fields. Complementary the description of intern morphology and laboratory analysis of this raised fields, combined with radiocarbon

  13. Inimluud Mihkli kiriku võlvidelt / Human remains on the vaulted ceiling of Mihkli Church

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    Martin Malve


    Full Text Available Altogether 4029 human bones or their fragments from the C 13th–18th were gathered and analysed from soil on the vaults of Mihkli (St Michael’s Church in western Estonia during the rescue works in 2011 (photo 1. Ribs and vertebrae formed the majority of bones, but wholly preserved long bones and other larger bones, as well as, hand and foot bones that are quite typical among mixed human remains were almost absent in this case. Therefore, it can be concluded that during the earthworks larger bones were taken from the soil. The minimum number of adults was determined by the ribs of the right side. Only the ribs with preserved heads (figure 1 were used in calculations. The rib fragments indicate approximately 60 adults among the assorted bones. Judging by the radius, there were at least 16 children among the bone assemblage. Scarceness of children in the Mihkli church can be the result of poor preservation, smallness and fragility of their bones, but the possibility that subadult (child and juvenile burials were fewer in the destroyed part of the churchyard cannot be ruled out.Pathological analysis of the osteological material ascertained several diseases and traumas, the most common pathologies being connected to ageing, for example, wearing of joints (Osteoarthrosis. Various diseases related to degeneration of the spine were present – spondylosis, spondyloarthrosis and osteochondrosis. Compression fractures (fractura compressiva and Schmorl´s nodes (nodi Schmorl indicated strenuous physical activity and/or traumas. Dental diseases included caries (photo 2, alveolar reduction, hypoplasia and tooth abscesses. Several upper and lower jaws showed traces of ante mortem lost teeth (photo 3. In one case a canine of the right mandible of an adult man (age 45 + years had formed but had not erupted (photo 4.Various healed fractures of ribs and limb bones formed the bulk of traumas detected on the bones. Three right ribs had fractures in a stage of

  14. VÍAS - software libre para el diseño geométrico de vías, topografía y SIG VÍAS - freeware for road highway, topography and GIS

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    John Jairo Agudelo Ospina


    Full Text Available El software VIAS, de uso fibre, permite realizar el diseño completo o una etapa cualquiera dentro de un proyecto de una carretera. Posee comandos fáciles de usar, además de estar en español, y suministra una información clara, de fácil manejo e interpretación además de una excelente presentación. Este se puede instalar de una manera sencilla en cualquier versión de Autocad, que es el software más usado a nivel mundial para diseño asistido por computador. Ejecuta de manera completa y precisa cada una de las etapas de un diseño de una carretera. El alineamiento horizontal se puede realizar utilizando curvas circulares o espirales. Obtiene perfiles, realiza el diseño vertical, calcula y dibuja de manera automática el peralte, obtiene secciones transversales, calcula el movimiento de tierra, afectación de predios y dibuja la banca proyectada en 3 dimensiones. Además de realizar el diseño gráfico suministra una completa información en archivos de texto y en Excel que puede ser fácilmente manipulada e incorporada a cualquier informe. Adicionalmente presenta una serie de aplicaciones prácticas para topografía y SIGSoftware VÍAS, free versions, allows to make the complete design or a stage anyone within a project of a highway. It has controls easy to use, is in Spanish, and provides clear information, of easy handling and interpretation in addition an excellent presentation. The software can be easily installed in any version of Autocad, the most popular CAD software in the world. It executes completely each one of the stages in a highway design . The horizontal alignment can be made using curved circular or spiral. VIAS software obtains profiles, makes the vertical design, calculates and draws automatically the superelevation, obtains cross sections, calculates the earthwork, affectation of lands and draws the road projected in 3 dimensions. Besides to make the graphical design it provides a complete information in text and

  15. Land, Water and Society in the Maya Lowlands (United States)

    Murtha, T.; French, K.; Duffy, C.; Webster, D.


    This paper reports the results of our project investigating the long-term spatial and temporal dynamics of land use management, agricultural decision-making and patterns of resource availability in the tropical lowlands of Central America. Overall, our project combines diachronic environmental simulation with historic settlement pattern survey to address a series of long-standing questions about the coupled natural and human (CNH) landscape history in the Central Maya lowlands (at the UNESCO world heritage site of Tikal in the Maya Biosphere Reserve). The paper describes the preliminary results of our project, including changing patterns of land, water, settlement and political history using climate, soil and hydrologic modeling and time series spatial analysis of population and settlement patterns. The critical period of the study, 1000 BC until the present, begins with dispersed settlements accompanied by widespread deforestation and soil erosion. Population size and density grows rapidly for 800 years, while deforestation and erosion rates decline; however, there is striking evidence of political evolution during this period, including the construction of monumental architecture, hieroglyphic monuments detailing wars and alliances, and the construction of a defensive earthwork feature, signaling political territories and possibly delineating natural resource boundaries. Population decline and steady reforestation followed until more recent migration into the region, which has impacted the biosphere ecology. Building on our previous research regionally and comparative research completed in Belize and Mexico, we are modeling sample periods the 3,000-year landscape history of the region, comparing land and water availability to population distributions and what we know about political history. Simulations are generated using historic climate and land use data, primarily relying on the Erosion Productivity Impact Calculator (EPIC) and the Penn State Integrated

  16. Professional Development in Climate Science Education as a Model for Navigating the Next Generations Science Standards - A High School Science Teacher's Perspective (United States)

    Manning, C.; Buhr, S. M.


    The Next Generation Science Standards attempt to move the American K12 education system into the 21st century by focusing on science and engineering practice, crosscutting concepts, and the core ideas of the different disciplines. Putting these standards into practice will challenge a deeply entrenched system and science educators will need significant financial support from state and local governments, professional development from colleges and universities, and the creation of collegial academic networks that will help solve the many problems that will arise. While all of this sounds overwhelming, there are proven strategies and mechanisms already in place. Educators who tackle challenging topics like global climate change are turning to scientists and other like-minded teachers. Many of these teachers have never taken a class in atmospheric science but are expected to know the basics of climate and understand the emerging science as well. Teachers need scientists to continue to reach out and provide rigorous and in-depth professional development opportunities that enable them to answer difficult student questions and deal with community misconceptions about climate science. Examples of such programs include Earthworks, ICEE (Inspiring Climate Education Excellence) and ESSEA (Earth System Science Education Alliance). Projects like CLEAN (Climate Literacy and Energy Awareness Network) provide excellent resources that teachers can integrate into their lessons. All of these benefit from the umbrella of documents like Climate Literacy: The Essential Principles of Climate Science. Support from the aforementioned networks has encouraged the development of effective approaches for teaching climate science. From the perspective of a Geoscience master teacher and instructional coach, this presentation will demonstrate how scientists, researchers, and science education professionals have created models for professional development that create long-term networks supporting

  17. La emulsión bituminosa como alternativa ecológica en las estabilizaciones de suelos para firmes, en vías de baja intensidad de tráfico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martín-Montalvo, J. M.


    Full Text Available Road construction often cause certain environmental impact, due to:

    1. - The big earthmovings required to gain the ideal grade profile.
    2. - The extraction of materials from gravels mine or quarries necessary to implement granular stabilizations of poor quality soils.
    In rural roads the first point have not significant entity, as for the saving cause and for the traffic characteristics, excavation quantities are very short. It is not the case of the second point, as for the great amount of earthwork that this type of stabilization needs, can cause environmental changes of some importance in zones of development of this works. This paper attempt to show present available methods, designed to reduce impact, by means of the usage of techniques and materials that needs not to operate with spoil earths.

    La realización de vías de comunicación ocasiona, con frecuencia, ciertos impactos ambientales debidos a:
    1. - Los importantes movimientos de tierra que el logro del perfil adecuado exige.
    2. - La extracción de materiales de graveras o canteras necesarias para realizar estabilizaciones granulométricas de terrenos de mala calidad.
    En los caminos rurales el primer motivo señalado no alcanza una entidad significativa ya que, por razones de economía y por permitirlo las características del tráfico, son muy reducidos los volúmenes de excavación de tierras. No sucede lo mismo con el indicado en segundo lugar, puesto que al ser sustancial el volumen de obra que precisa este tipo de estabilización, se puede ocasionar una alteración ecológica de alguna importancia en las zonas de desarrollo de estas obras. Este artículo intenta mostrar los medios disponibles en la actualidad, encaminados a reducir ese impacto, mediante el empleo de técnicas y materiales que no impliquen el uso de tierras de préstamo.

  18. The stormwater management manual for Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Md Nasir Md Noh


    management practices (BMPS). Three types of best management practices are specified, which include; housekeeping, source control and treatment control. To further assist proper stormwater management practice, the authorities have started to impose land development activities to submit erosion and sediment control plan (ESCP) apart from the drainage layout plan and earthwork plan prior to approval. (Author)

  19. An approach to identification and modelling of artificial grounds in urban area from multidisciplinary data (Oviedo, NW Spain) (United States)

    Pando, Luis; Flor-Blanco, Germán; María Díaz-Díaz, Luis; Arias, Daniel


    This contribution describes the investigation of changes on urban relief caused by anthropogenic processes in Oviedo (population 215,000), the capital city of Asturias, formerly a Christian kingdom (719-925 AD) located in the north-western Iberian Peninsula. This city is placed on a Mesozoic-Cenozoic basin above a folded Paleozoic basement. Oviedo's subsurface is formed by carbonate and siliciclastic Cretaceous formations, and the overlying fluvial-lacustrine deposits of Paleogene age; the latter are mainly composed of marls, clays and gypsum layers. The urban core, which extends 15 km2, presents an elevation range between 160 to 330 m above mean sea level and the natural slopes reach up 15o in the built-up area. The research involved at first the collection and review of more than 950 borehole logs, presenting the man-made fills an average thickness of 1.9 m with maximum value of 25 m. Then topographic variations that occurred during the period of greatest urban development were analysed through map algebra. The data used to construct Digital Elevation Models (DEM) were provided by 1:5,000 city maps performed since 1869 to the present, all properly georeferenced. The subtraction operations generated Digital Terrain Models representing ground elevation gains and losses during different periods of time, after setting the necessary control points (elevation remains invariant) and corrections in order to avoid altitude deviations between DEMs. The thicknesses estimated for the man-made fills were compared with borehole data to validate the prediction, obtaining good correlations. The GIS-based methodology was complemented by an inspection of the historical evolution of land uses (i.e., using ancient street maps, aerial images interpretation and documentary references since the thirteenth century), and the analysis of all the surficial geological maps that have been published. Man-made grounds were then classified into categories, mainly: (i) earthworks related to

  20. The 50th Anniversary of the First International Conference on Permafrost (United States)

    Brown, J.


    This year marks the 50th anniversary of the First International Conference on Permafrost (ICOP) that was held at Purdue University on 11-15 November 1963. The conference was a historic event in that it brought together for the first time the leading researchers and practitioners from North America and other countries that had diverse interests and activities in the study and applications of perennially frozen ground, cold regions engineering and related laboratory investigations. The 285 registered participants represented engineers, researchers, manufacturers and builders from the USA (231), Canada (42), the USSR (5), Sweden (3) and Argentina, Austria, Great Britain, Japan, Norway, Poland, Switzerland, and West Germany. The conference was organized by the Building Research Advisory Board of the U.S. National Academy of Sciences-National Research Council (NAS-NRC). The carefully edited volume, published in 1966 by the NAS, is considered to be the first multi-national, English-language collection of papers devoted entirely to permafrost topics. The 100 published papers followed closely the actual conference venue and panel discussions: soils and vegetation (9), massive ground ice (10), geomorphology (16), phase equilibrium and transition (8), thermal aspects (8), physico-mechanical properties (7), exploration and site selection (11), sanitary and hydraulic engineering (14), and earthwork and foundations (17). This 1963 Purdue conference essentially broke the 'ice' between East and West permafrost researchers and set the stage for the Second ICOP that was held in 1973 in Yakutsk, Siberia, and represented the first large international conference held in the restricted area of Siberia. All subsequent conferences maintained the interdisciplinary principles set forth at Purdue: two more in the United States (Fairbanks 1983, 2008), two in Canada (Edmonton 1978, Yellowknife 1998), and one in Trondheim, Norway (1988), Beijing, China (1993), and Zurich, Switzerland (2003

  1. Watching the Creation of Southern California's Largest Reservoir (United States)


    The new Diamond Valley Lake Reservoir near the city of Hemet in Riverside County is billed as the largest earthworks construction project in U.S.history. Construction began in 1995 and involved 31 million cubic meters of foundation excavation and 84 million cubic meters of embankment construction. This set of MISR images captures the most recent phase in the reservoir's activation. At the upper left is a natural-color view acquired by the instrument's vertical-viewing (nadir) camera on March 14, 2000 (Terra orbit 1273), shortly after the Metropolitan Water District began filling the reservoir with water from the Colorado River and Northern California. Water appears darker than the surrounding land. The image at the upper right was acquired nearly one year later on March 1, 2001 (Terra orbit 6399), and shows a clear increase in the reservoir's water content. When full, the lake will hold nearly a trillion liters of water.According to the Metropolitan Water District, the 7 kilometer x 3 kilometer reservoir nearly doubles Southern California's above-groundwater storage capacity. In addition to routine water management, Diamond Valley Lake is designed to provide protection against drought and a six-month emergency supply in the event of earthquake damage to a major aqueduct. In the face of electrical power shortages, it is also expected to reduce dependence on the pumping of water from northern mountains during the high-demand summer months. An unexpected result of site excavation was the uncovering of mastodon and mammoth skeletons along with bones from extinct species not previously thought to have been indigenous to the area, such as the giant long-horned bison and North American lion. A museum and interpretive center is being built to protect these finds.The lower MISR image, from May 20, 2001 (Terra orbit 7564), is a false-color view combining data from the instrument's 26-degree forward view (displayed as blue) with data from the 26-degree backward view


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jan D. Miller; Terrence Chatwin; Jan Hupka; Doug Halbe; Tao Jiang; Bartosz Dabrowski; Lukasz Hupka


    The two-year Department of Energy (DOE) project ''Treatment of Cyanide Solutions and Slurries Using Air-Sparged Hydrocyclone (ASH) Technology'' (ASH/CN) has been completed. This project was also sponsored by industrial partners, ZPM Inc., Elbow Creek Engineering, Solvay Minerals, EIMCO-Baker Process, Newmont Mining Corporation, Cherokee Chemical Co., Placer Dome Inc., Earthworks Technology, Dawson Laboratories and Kennecott Minerals. Development of a new technology using the air-sparged hydrocyclone (ASH) as a reactor for either cyanide recovery or destruction was the research objective. It was expected that the ASH could potentially replace the conventional stripping tower presently used for HCN stripping and absorption with reduced power costs. The project was carried out in two phases. The first phase included calculation of basic processing parameters for ASH technology, development of the flowsheet, and design/adaptation of the ASH mobile system for hydrogen cyanide (HCN) recovery from cyanide solutions. This was necessary because the ASH was previously used for volatile organics removal from contaminated water. The design and modification of the ASH were performed with the help from ZPM Inc. personnel. Among the modifications, the system was adapted for operation under negative pressure to assure safe operating conditions. The research staff was trained in the safe use of cyanide and in hazardous material regulations. Cyanide chemistry was reviewed resulting in identification of proper chemical dosages for cyanide destruction, after completion of each pilot plant run. The second phase of the research consisted of three field tests that were performed at the Newmont Mining Corporation gold cyanidation plant near Midas, Nevada. The first field test was run between July 26 and August 2, 2002, and the objective was to demonstrate continuous operation of the modified ASH mobile system. ASH units were applied for both stripping and absorption

  3. Products of steel slags an opportunity to save natural resources. (United States)

    Motz, H; Geiseler, J


    already accepted as a CEN standard and are used for a continuous quality control. Usually the suitability of steel slags is stated by fulfilling the requirements of national and/or international standards and regulations. Based on these standards and regulations in Germany in 1998 about 97% of the produced steel slags have been used as aggregates for road construction (e.g. as surface layer, road base and sub base for high trafficked roads), ways, earthworks, and armourstones for hydraulic structures. Consistent to the successful long-term experience not only products of steel slags but also products of blast furnace slags have been eliminated from the European Waste Catalogue and the European Shipment of Waste Regulation of the European Community, as well as from the lists of OECD for transfrontier movements by the decision of the OECD-Council from 21 September, 1995.

  4. Changing Settlements and Landscapes: Medieval Whittlewood, its Predecessors and Successors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Jones


    approach. Methodologies have included test pitting in village cores, larger excavations and trial trenches both within and outside the village, geophysical and earthwork survey, extensive fieldwalking, exhaustive documentary research, retrospective analysis of a rich corpus of early maps, targeted palaeoenvironmental sampling, detailed place-name study, and the comprehensive survey of the standing buildings of the area. This has generated a substantial body of evidence, the broader conclusions from which are due to be published in 2006 in a monograph entitled Medieval Villages in an English Landscape: Beginnings and Ends (Macclesfield, Windgather Press. In embracing the unique opportunity offered by e-publishing and its integration with extensive digital archives, this article thus aims to achieve far more than simply duplicating its sister publication. It does not offer the in-depth explanations for change that are set out in the monograph, but rather focuses on the mechanics of change. But by presenting all the data on which reconstructions of these villages' territories have been based, readers will be able to test the veracity of the conclusions outlined both here and in the monograph, and to identify the intrinsic strengths and weaknesses of each class of evidence. It is hoped that by providing access to the data, readers will be encouraged to explore their own research agenda and to develop different readings of the evidence on which alternative models of medieval settlement and landscape change can be built.

  5. Effect of vegetation and surface amelioration on simulated landform evolution of the post-mining landscape at ERA Ranger mine, Northern Territory. Supervising Scientist report 134

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, K.G.; Saynor, M.J.; House, T.; The University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW; Willgoose, G.


    in similar locations as for the unvegetated and unripped case (ie on steep batter slopes and in the central depression areas of the landform). For the vegetated and ripped condition simulated maximum valley depth in the capping over the tailings containment structure was about 2.2 m. By modelling valley incision, decisions can be made on the minimum depth of tailings cover required to prevent tailings from being exposed to the Environment within a certain time frame. A reduction in thickness of 1 m of capping material over tailings equates to about 1 000 000 Mm 3 /km 2 tailings dam area. This represents a saving of about $1 500 000/km 2 in earthworks. Incorporation of SIBERIA simulations in the design process may result in cost reduction while improving confidence in Environmental protection mechanisms

  6. Estudo químico de alguns pontos do solo superficial do aterro controlado do Botuquara / Chemestry study of some points of soil surface the Botuquara controlled garbage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Nascimento


    aim in this paper was to evaluate the characteristics of same earth points of the surface soil layer at the base of the now Botuquara’s controlled landfill earthwork. It was checked in this area the possible trends of its contamination. It were accomplishing analyses of pH, organic carbon, organic matter, total nitrogen, C:N relation, cation exchange capacity, bases saturation and sand contents, clay and silt to the earth. It was also checked the concentration of Ag, Cr, Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn biodegradable metals and pseudo-total into the land. As a result it was show high concentration of Cr and Pb biodegradable and Pb, Cu and Ag pseudo-total. Already saturation of colloids, indicates that the soil has reached its maximum capacity of retentions.

  7. Impactos ambientais sobre o manguezal de Suape - PE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Augusto Pessôa Braga


    seu equilibrio.The suape estuarine zone is formed by Massangana, Tatuoca, Ipojuca and Merepe rivers, that are located about 25km Southern far from Recife. The settlement of a port and the industrial Complex structure came to cause earthwork, dredging and darnming, modifying extensively the local hidrology and the scenery. Photointerpretation and reambulation were realized on the basis of aerial photographs (scale 1:30.000 taken in 1974 and 1988; images of the Landsat 5 satellite in 1984, and topographic maps (scale 1:25.000 in 1971, resulting in mangrove vegetation maps of 1974 and 1988, which clearly indicate the physical interventions during this period. In 1974 there were 2874ha of mangrove. A reduction of 21% led, in 1988, to 2276ha from whiten 214ha have been landing by clay land material from other areas; 384ha were inundated due to dredging gand diking. More than 27ha are in a degradation process. In order to allow the characterization of the mangrove structure, eight observation stations were settled in preserved and regenerating areas. The mangrove is formed by Rhizophora mangle L., Avicennia germinans (L. Stearn., Avicennia schaueriana Stapf. i; Leechman., Laguncularia racemosa Gaertn. in its nucleus and Conocarpus erectus L. in the bordeline. In preserved areas, the forest of mangrove exhibit a good expansion profile in agreement with the considered parameters (density, basal area, forest height and medium diameter. The regenerating areas characterized by a high dense incipient forest what lead us to believe that if these areas will be preserved they will get the equilibrium.

  8. Wind-To-Hydrogen Energy Pilot Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ron Rebenitsch; Randall Bush; Allen Boushee; Brad G. Stevens; Kirk D. Williams; Jeremy Woeste; Ronda Peters; Keith Bennett


    feasibility study showed that several factors can greatly affect, both positively and negatively, the "per kg" cost of hydrogen. After a September 15, 2005, meeting to evaluate the advisability of funding Phase II of the project DOE concurred with BEPC that Phase I results did warrant a "go" recommendation to proceed with Phase II activities. The hydrogen production system was built by Hydrogenics and consisted of several main components: hydrogen production system, gas control panel, hydrogen storage assembly and hydrogen-fueling dispenser The hydrogen production system utilizes a bipolar alkaline electrolyzer nominally capable of producing 30 Nm3/h (2.7 kg/h). The hydrogen is compressed to 6000 psi and delivered to an on-site three-bank cascading storage assembly with 80 kg of storage capacity. Vehicle fueling is made possible through a Hydrogenics-provided gas control panel and dispenser able to fuel vehicles to 5000 psi. A key component of this project was the development of a dynamic scheduling system to control the wind energy's variable output to the electrolyzer cell stacks. The dynamic scheduling system received an output signal from the wind farm, processed this signal based on the operational mode, and dispatched the appropriate signal to the electrolyzer cell stacks. For the study BEPC chose to utilize output from the Wilton wind farm located in central ND. Site design was performed from May 2006 through August 2006. Site construction activities were from August to November 2006 which involved earthwork, infrastructure installation, and concrete slab construction. From April - October 2007, the system components were installed and connected. Beginning in November 2007, the system was operated in a start-up/shakedown mode. Because of numerous issues, the start-up/shakedown period essentially lasted until the end of January 2008, at which time a site acceptance test was performed. Official system operation began on February 14, 2008, and continued through the

  9. 2000 years of sustainable use of watersheds and coral reefs in Pacific Islands: A review for Palau (United States)

    Koshiba, Shirley; Besebes, Meked; Soaladaob, Kiblas; Ngiraingas, Madelsar; Isechal, Adelle Lukes; Victor, Steven; Golbuu, Yimnang


    mostly after about A.D. 900 to 1100, was presumably the culmination of accelerated erosion in the island's interior following extensive clearing of the vegetation on slopes. Sediment analyses, radiocarbon dating, and archaeological investigations indicate substantial inland land disturbance starting around 2400 years ago (Liston and Tuggle, 2006; Liston, 2009). These findings almost certainly signify the use of the interior of Babeldaob Island by this time, including the onset of major earthwork (terrace) construction. Intensive and extensive inland use continued for about another 1200 years. The continuous deposition of inland erosional soils expanded the coastal plains and formed expansive fertile wetlands” (Athens, 2009).Culturally in Palau taro fields were tendered by women (Del Rosario and Esguerra, 2003). In other parts of Micronesia, taro is planted in well drained mixed gardens or ditches (Falanruw, 1980; Englberger et al., 2009). In Palau taro is commonly grown in swampy areas, often man-made, in the lowlands usually just upstream of the mangrove areas. Traditional management of taro cultivation in Palau can be considered a type of intensive agricultural method found in societies that possess a complex social structure that is reflected in traditional Palauan society. Taro cultivation in Palau is an amalgamation of skills and knowledge for both the plant and agricultural system.Palau taro field structure, regulations of water flow and management have persisted for many generations and have proven to an integral part of Palauan life which continues to be seen today. Taro fields are distinguished separately depending on cultivation methods and taro species being planted. To illustrate, an omrekongel is a marsh land in which giant taro (Cyrtosperma merkusii) is planted. A mesei is an irrigated wet land for planting taro (Colocasia esculenta) and dechel is a marsh land where taro and giant taro is cultivated (Palau Society of Historians, 2001). Culturally

  10. Off-site embankments to protect fields from the growth of peatlands in the Valli Grandi Veronesi Meridionali (Italy during Middle and Recent Bronze Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Balista


    ceramic material recovered from a intrasite excavation by F. Zorzi made around the mid of the last century and documented in a dissertation by Zanetti (1970-71. It allowed for the first time to present aspects of material culture (pottery facies, belonging to the first large RBA settlement of CdT, surrounded by the embanked. On these basis was initiated a revision of the stratigraphic position of the two samples for14C dating collected in the 90’s of the last century from the great embankment of CdT, both related to MBA/RBA. In the light of the analysis of the above mentioned ceramics, it was possible to discriminate a phase of MBA3 nucleated site without bounding embankment, but probably with a moat, from the later phase of RBA with massive embankment and surrounded by multiple ditches. Finally, the juxtaposition of the two systems separated from the earthen bank of the SAM, first meadows and pastures, latter fields delimited by long ditches (maybe opened fields and others small and closed, it has given rise to an important result directed to the definition of socio-political organisation which regulated this fundamental transect in the MBA-RBA for the economy and polity of VGVM near the sites of CDT and FP. The construction of the SAM embankment, erected to preserve the balanced distribution of lands allocated to support the two major sites, could therefore be reviewed as an expression of a huge collective work, continuously maintained, presumably demanded by the elite-polity of VGVM, to prevent the formation of peatlands. These, due to the rise of water table for paleoidrographic reasons, tended to invade the cultivated fields. This engineering earthwork had to play an important role for regulation and control for the drain and irrigation network made of main and secondary ditches extending to the nearby fields, before dissipating in the lower land of marginal pasture-wet meadows, next to fluvial woodland.

  11. Results of Monitoring at Olkiluoto in 2007. Hydrogeochemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pitkaenen, P.; Partamies, S. (VTT, Espoo (Finland)); Lahdenperae, A.-M.; Ahokas, T.; Penttinen, T. (Poeyry Environment Oy, Vantaa (Finland)); Lehtinen, A. (Posiva Oy, Helsinki (Finland)); Pedersen, K. (Microbial Analytics Sweden AB (Sweden)); Lamminmaeki, T. (Teollisuuden Voima Oy, Olkiluoto (Finland)); Hatanpaeae, E. (Ramboll Analytics Oy, Lahti (Finland))


    . Hydrogeochemical development in them requires close monitoring in the future. The gas results also correspond very well to the baseline data suggesting no influence of ONKALO on the groundwater conditions, although gases are not considered to be as sensitive indicators of changes as dissolved solids. Groundwater sampling from ONKALO has so far not revealed notably high SO{sub 4} contents, which are relatively common in surface based sampling at 100 to 300 m depth. The number of groundwater samples and the potential sampling locations are small after excavation passed through HZ19 at about 100 m depth due to low permeability of the host rock. The 2H- and 18O- compositions in samples taken from ONK-KR3 and particularly ONK-KR4 show a tendency towards isotopic composition of Korvensuo water, suggesting that water from the reservoir may discharge in these drillholes. Earlier shallow groundwater data from bedrock between ONKALO and Korvensuo are lacking, making it impossible to evaluate if this is caused by ONKALO or if water from the reservoir has already earlier infiltrated and mixed in the shallow depths. Microbiological data obtained during the 2007 monitoring programme with three independent methods support the results that suggest the 300 m depth level in Olkiluoto to be more active with respect to microbiological processes than the depth interval between 20 and 250 m. Starting at a depth of approximately 300 m, there are steep gradients of decreasing sulphate and increasing methane concentrations with depth; together with the peaks in biomass and sulphide concentration at this depth (Pedersen 2008) these suggest that anaerobic methane oxidation may be a significant process at 300 m depth in Olkiluoto. Gefinex S400 sounding curves show slight changes in comparison with the 2004 - 2006 ARD curves. The differences may mostly be caused by the new earthwork structures or the alteration of the moisture of soil and bedrock. According to the monitoring results, decreasing resistivity