WorldWideScience

Sample records for earthwork

  1. Earthworks: Educating Teachers in Earth System Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spetzler, H.; Weaver, A.; Buhr, S.

    2000-01-01

    Earthworks is a national community of teachers and scientists. Initiated in 1998 with funding from NASA, our summer workshops in the Rocky Mountains each year provide unique opportunities for teachers to design and conduct field research projects, working closely with scientists. Teachers then develop plans for classroom implementation during the school year, sharing their ideas and experiences with other community members through e-mail and a listserv. Scientists, from graduate students to expert senior researchers, share their knowledge of field methods in environmental science, and learn how to better communicate and teach about their research.

  2. Pre-Columbian Earthworks in Coastal Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphen Rostain

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available As in other parts of Amazonia, pre-Columbian Indians have profoundly modified the coast of the Guianas. Between 650 and 1650 AD, Arauquinoid people occupied a territory that was approximately 600 km long and used the raised field technique intensively before the European conquest. They erected thousands of raised fields of various shapes, dug canals, ditches, and pathways, and built artificial mounds to establish their villages. All these earthworks changed forever the face of the coastal flooded savannas and their ecology. Such labor was probably organized under the leadership of a central authority: it seems that Arauquinoid societies were organized in a chiefdom system. Statistical calculations, based on the known surface area of raised fields and on their estimated productivity, suggest a population density of 50 to 100 inhabitants per km2. Pre-Columbian inhabitants of the Guianas coast carefully organized, managed and “anthropisized” their territory following a specific pattern.

  3. An algorithm for earthwork allocation considering non-linear factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Ren-chao; LIU Jin-fei

    2008-01-01

    For solving the optimization model of earthwork allocation considering non-linear factors, a hybrid al-gorithm combined with the ant algorithm (AA) and particle swarm optimization (PSO) is proposed in this pa-per. Then the proposed method and the LP method are used respectively in solving a linear allocation model of a high rockfill dam project. Results obtained by these two methods are compared each other. It can be conclu-ded that the solution got by the proposed method is extremely approximate to the analytic solution of LP method. The superiority of the proposed method over the LP method in solving a non-linear allocation model is illustrated by a non-linear case. Moreover, further researches on improvement of the algorithm and the allocation model are addressed.

  4. Designation of typical team of construction machinery at execution of earthwork

    OpenAIRE

    Vučković, Zoran

    2006-01-01

    Diploma deals with procedure for designation of optimal group of construction machinery for execution of earthwork. Through comparisons, which based upon relationship of capacity of construction machines and capacity of transport vehicles and also price of realizations of earthwork, we decide which type of excavation and transport mechanizations, is from cost and time point of view, considering extend and geologic composition, most suitable. In continuation I determined concept theoretical ca...

  5. QUADRATIC REPRESENTATION FOR ROADWAY PROFILE THAT MINIMIZES EARTHWORK COST

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ahmad A.MOREB; Mohammad S.ALJOHANI

    2004-01-01

    Roadway design usually involves choices regarding grade selection and earthwork (transportation) that can be solved using linear programming. Previous work considered the road profile as series of interconnected linear segments. In these models, constraints are included in the linear programming formulation to insure continuity of the road, which cause sharp connectivity points at the intersection of the linear segments. This sharp connectivity needs to be smoothed out after the linear programming solution is found and the earth in the smoothed portion of the roadway has to be moved to the landfill.In previous research, the smoothing issue is dealt with after an optimal solution is found. This increases the work required by the design engineer and consequently increases the construction cost;furthermore, the optimal solution is violated by this smoothing operation. In this paper, the issue of sharp connectivity points is resolved by representing the road profile by a quadratic function. The continuity constraints are dropped (unneeded) and global optimality is guaranteed. Moreover, no violation is incurred to implement the optimum results. Although a quadratic function is used to represent the road profile, the mathematical model is purely linear in nature.

  6. Dynamic monitoring equipment for earthworks and sub grades; Euipos de auscultacion dinamica para obras de tierra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez de Sotomayor, R.

    2013-06-01

    This paper take into account some dynamic auscultation equipment s that currently are available in Spain for compaction quality control on earthworks and sub grades. Closed to the equipment description, a deformation modulus calculus approximation has been developed for each of them. A standards checking has been made from national and European point of view. some important research works that have been developed in our country about dynamic monitoring equipment s for quality control in earthworks has been mentioned. In addition to this, some variables are analyzed which have an influence on deformation modulus calculi and a possibility for comparing the equipment modulus calculated with a reference laboratory test has been offered. (Author) 18 refs.

  7. Environmental impact of geometric earthwork construction in pre-Columbian Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, John Francis; Whitney, Bronwen S; Mayle, Francis E; Iriarte, José; Prümers, Heiko; Soto, J Daniel; Watling, Jennifer

    2014-07-22

    There is considerable controversy over whether pre-Columbian (pre-A.D. 1492) Amazonia was largely "pristine" and sparsely populated by slash-and-burn agriculturists, or instead a densely populated, domesticated landscape, heavily altered by extensive deforestation and anthropogenic burning. The discovery of hundreds of large geometric earthworks beneath intact rainforest across southern Amazonia challenges its status as a pristine landscape, and has been assumed to indicate extensive pre-Columbian deforestation by large populations. We tested these assumptions using coupled local- and regional-scale paleoecological records to reconstruct land use on an earthwork site in northeast Bolivia within the context of regional, climate-driven biome changes. This approach revealed evidence for an alternative scenario of Amazonian land use, which did not necessitate labor-intensive rainforest clearance for earthwork construction. Instead, we show that the inhabitants exploited a naturally open savanna landscape that they maintained around their settlement despite the climatically driven rainforest expansion that began ∼2,000 y ago across the region. Earthwork construction and agriculture on terra firme landscapes currently occupied by the seasonal rainforests of southern Amazonia may therefore not have necessitated large-scale deforestation using stone tools. This finding implies far less labor--and potentially lower population density--than previously supposed. Our findings demonstrate that current debates over the magnitude and nature of pre-Columbian Amazonian land use, and its impact on global biogeochemical cycling, are potentially flawed because they do not consider this land use in the context of climate-driven forest-savanna biome shifts through the mid-to-late Holocene.

  8. Soil resilience and yield performance in a vineyard established after intense pre-planting earthworks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costantini, Edoardo; Valboa, Giuseppe; Gagnarli, Elena; Mocali, Stefano; Fabiani, Arturo; Priori, Simone; Simoni, Sauro; Storchi, Paolo; Perria, Rita; Vignozzi, Nadia; Agnelli, Alessandro

    2017-04-01

    Conventional earthworks undertaken before vine plantation may severely compromise soil functions and vine production, as a consequence of a decline of soil fertility caused by loss of organic matter and biological activity, along with changes in chemical and physical features of the topsoil due to the upset of the soil profile. This research was aimed at assessing the effects of conventional pre-planting earthworks on soil fertility and vine yield performance under organic farming. To this purpose, grape yield and quality along with soil chemical, physical and biological properties, were monitored over seven years in a young vineyard established in 2010 after soil leveling and deep ploughing, and in parallel in an older vineyard planted in 2000 after similar earthworks under the same soil and environment conditions. The vineyards (Vitis vinifera L., cv. Sangiovese) were located in the Chianti Classico district (Tuscany, Italy) on a stony calcareous soil classified as Cambic Skeletic Calcisol (loamic, aric) (WRB, 2014). Fertilization was based on annual applications of compost and shredded plant residues. According to the ordinary farming system, the older vineyard was kept free from grass covering during the first four years of growth by periodic tillage, in order to prevent nutritional competition, while in the following years it was managed by natural grass covering on alternate inter-rows. In the younger vineyard, grass covering needed to be postponed because of a delay in the vine development and grape yield induced by poor soil fertility. The results showed significant differences between the two vineyard, with the younger exhibiting lower total organic carbon (0.4 - 0.6 % vs 0.6 - 1.1 %), lower total nitrogen (0.07 - 0.11 % vs 0.10 - 0.15 %) and higher carbonate contents (32 - 38 % vs 21 -30 % total CaCO3), with no clear trend of recovery over time. Pre-planting earthworks also affected the structure and diversity of microbial and microarthropod communities

  9. SUBSTANTIATION OF EFFICIENCY OF THE MULTI-PURPOSE CONSTRUCTION MACHINERY IN EARTHWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SOKOLOV I. A.

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Formulation of the problem. Construction of buildings and structures is a complex process, one of the components of which are the processing of digging. The cost structure constructed earthworks, depending on the types of buildings and structures, ranging from three to sixty percent. Currently, excavation work on 98% mechanized. Machines for the production of excavation, are one of the main vehicles by which the comprehensive mechanization of construction. Equipment construction vehicle with high, fast replacement of obsolete equipment with new, highly productive - one of the main ways of increasing the efficiency of excavation in construction. Intensification excavation mainly ensured by improving the organizational and technological measures to ensure efficient use of earthmoving equipment fleet. The current structure of the fleet, each of which can perform only one operation of the production cycle, resulting in the fact that for the implementation of the entire set of works on creation of earthworks necessary to form a set of machines capable to realize them. An alternative is to use a set of machines earth-moving equipment, multi-purpose equipped with 5-10 kinds of changeable working equipment with 20-40 working bodies, which provides all kinds of earthworks single machine. The purpose of the article. Develop a mechanism for technical and economic assessment of the effectiveness of the set of specialized earth-moving machines as compared to earth-moving machines, multi-purpose allows, under specified production parameters, to establish the limits of their effective application. To determine the efficiency of each unit of the considered earth-moving equipment, and further, to form a rational set of machines that can run on time given the amount of work at minimum cost. Conclusions. Systematic approach to the design of complete production process of digging it possible to establish the relationship between technology and feasibility indexes

  10. Development of a Prototype Model to Establish an Economic Earthwork Plan that Includes the Selection of a Dump Site/Borrow Pit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung Hak Lee

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Earthwork in road construction projects is the major activity that accounts for about 20%–30% of the total construction cost, and the internal/external hauling plan is the key factor for determining the successful completion of the project. However, the hauling plan at the site, which includes the selection of the dump site and borrow pit, is usually determined by the site manager’s subjective and empirical discretion alone. Therefore, this study has developed a prototype model that provides the optimal internal/external hauling plan. It includes the determination of the most economical dump sites and borrow pits (location and number among other candidate sites as well. The transshipment problem theory is incorporated into the optimized algorithm with the consideration of various factors affecting earthwork cost. Direct costs from an optimized transport based on an existing model against another from this model were compared to prove its feasibility. As a result, the reduction of earthwork cost including the dump site/borrow pits reached 4%–8%. This result implies that this prototype model would also be useful in reducing both the earthwork cost and the occurrence of exhaust gas from earthwork equipment by providing optimized transportation paths.

  11. Application of CASS in Earthwork Calculation%南方CASS在土方计算中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范玉平

    2011-01-01

    Combined with the CASS2008 topographical and cadastral mapping software,this paper discussed on the working flowchart,operating method,calculation plan selection of earthwork computation,and the issues that to be solved in the procedure of computation.%结合南方CASS 2008地形地籍成图软件对土方计算的操作流程、使用方法、计算方案选择及其计算过程中可能遇到的问题进行了阐述。

  12. a Comparative Earthwork and Cost Analysis of Improving AN Existing Railway Line and Constructing a New High-Speed Line in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumus, K. A.; Gulal, V. E.

    2016-10-01

    In the past few decades, high-speed railways have become an important transportation system due to their high operational speed, and globally, the networks of these railways have been extended. In addition, there is ongoing work on the construction of new high-speed railways as well as improving existing lines to achieve the same operational speed. To contribute to high-speed railway works in Turkey, this study compared two high-speed railway lines; an existing conventional line, the design of which was improved, and a new high-speed line. The design of an existing conventional railway line was improved according to optimal geometric characteristics of high-speed railways and an alternative line was simulated. These two lines were evaluated on three different types of land in terms of the required volume of earthworks, engineering structures and total cost. The results show that the length of the conventional line was reduced after the improvement process; however, new engineering structures are needed. Furthermore, compared to the alternative line, the track length and total length of engineering structures required for the improvement of the existing line was shorter and the volume of required earthworks was less resulting in lower costs.

  13. 基于 ArcGIS 的土方量计算及可视化%Research on Cut/Fill Earthwork Algorithm and Visualization Based on ArcGIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘耀斌

    2015-01-01

    基于 ArcGIS 平台,应用工业园区项目的基础数据,通过不规则三角网(TIN)对研究区建立数字高程模型(DEM),探讨 ArcGIS 在土方计算中的应用,并对研究区的土方挖填量进行计算。结果表明,应用 ArcGIS 计算土方量原理简单,速度快,能够实现三维可视化,具有可行性。%Based on ArcGIS platform and the basic data of Industrial Park Projects,the triangulated irregularnetwork (TIN)of the studied area was used to establish a digital elevation model (DEM).The application of ArcGIS in earthwork calculation was explored,and the digging and filling amount of earthwork in the researched area was calculated.The results showed that applying ArcGIS to calculate earthwork had the advantages of simple principle,fast speed,good feasibility,and three-dimensional visualization.

  14. 盆式挖土施工时基坑支护的监测与分析%Monitoring and Analyzing of Foundation pit Support and Protection during Basin Earthwork Excavation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴泳川; 丁克胜; 杨宝珠; 王沛; 靳彬

    2001-01-01

    介绍地下连续墙内支撑支护结构的深基坑施工中,进行盆式挖土时,支护结构的监测情况及对监测中所发现各种异常现象的分析与处理。%In this article,authors introduce the monitoring of supporting and protecting structure,analyses and treatments of abnormal phenomena during basin earthwork excavation in the construction of supporting and protecting structures in underground continuous wall in deep foundation ditch.

  15. 三维可视化技术在道路纵断面设计及土方量算中的应用%Applications of 3D Visualization in Road Profile Design and Earthwork Calculation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王涵; 李建红

    2015-01-01

    结合滕州高铁商务区市政配套设计项目,研究三维可视化技术在道路纵断面设计中的应用。结果表明,三维可视化技术基于数字高程模型,利用空间分析可以快速高效地提取道路纵断面以及计算土方量,尤其适用于方案设计阶段需要多次调整道路中线的情形。另外,三维可视化技术可以更直观、更形象地展示设计成果,有助于投标方案的编制。%The purpose of this paper is to study the application of 3D visualition in road profile design,which com-bined with the municipal facilities design project in Tengzhou high-speed rail business district.The results show that the use of the technology of 3D visualition is able to extract road profile rapidly and calculate the earthwork accurately based on the surface digital elevation model,especially adapted to the situation of changing the road midline frequently.In addi-tion,it helps better show the design results,and it is visual and convenient for the public,which is contributed to the preparation of tender plans.

  16. Compendium of engineering geology. Including fundamentals of soil and rock mechanics, and of earthwork, foundation engineering, tunneling, and land fill construction. 2. rev. and enlarged ed. Abriss der Ingenieurgeologie. Mit Grundlagen der Boden- und Felsmechanik, des Erd-, Grund- und Tunnelbaus sowie der Abfalldeponien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prinz, H. (Hessisches Landesamt fuer Bodenforschung, Wiesbaden (Germany))

    1991-01-01

    The complex and intercisciplinary nature of the subject area of engineering geology does not easily lend itself to being summarised and condensed into textbook, but the approach chosen by the author has produced a textbook of use and value both from the theoretical and from the practical point of view. The book proceeds from the fundamentals of engineering geology, as e.g. exploration and investigation methods, or physical and chemical interactive processes in the underground, to specific engineering work such as earthwork, foundation and tunnel construction. The revised, second edition is up to date with the developments and new findings of the last few years. These also include the problems and possible solutions involved in landfill construction and management, not to forget radwaste repositories, and in the management of long-standing soil pollution, which are treated in a specific, new chapter. The author has taken great care to elucidate the interdisciplinary features. (orig.) With 352 figs., 74 tabs.

  17. IMPROVEMENT OF THE CALCULATION OF THE PROFILE VOLUME OF EARTHWORKS IN COMPUTER-AIDED DESIGN SYSTEM Совершенствование расчета профильного объема земляных работ в сис��еме автоматизированного проектирования

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afonichev D. N.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Dependences for calculating the volume of earthworks profiled in computer-aided design system (CAD are presented, taking into account the change in the parameters of the transverse profile of the subgrade of the road, the slope of the hillside. These function are used in computer-program of calculating the volume of earthworks profile, which allows us to calculate both the volume of earthworks profiled on the projected area of the road, and the amount of work on the mounds and excavations on the specific pickets, which allows to differentially estimate the distribution of ground masses for the development of technological processes of construction of subgrade, and it is also a source of information for the design of reserves and stockpiles of soil in CAD

  18. Uav Onboard Photogrammetry and GPS Positionning for Earthworks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daakir, M.; Pierrot-Deseilligny, M.; Bosser, P.; Pichard, F.; Thom, C.

    2015-08-01

    Over the last decade, Unmanned Airbone Vehicles (UAVs) have been largely used for civil applications. Airborne photogrammetry has found place in these applications not only for 3D modeling but also as a measurement tool. Vinci-Construction-Terrassement is a private company specialized in public works sector and uses airborn photogrammetry as a mapping solution and metrology investigation tool on its sites. This technology is very efficient for the calculation of stock volumes for instance, or for time tracking of specific areas with risk of landslides. The aim of the present work is to perform a direct georeferencing of images acquired by the camera leaning on an embedded GPS receiver. UAV, GPS receiver and camera used are low-cost models and therefore data processing is adapted to this particular constraint.

  19. Composite technology of earthwork construction on taliks in cryolithic zones

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Svyatoslav Ya Lutskiy; Taisiya V. Shepitko; Alexander M. Cherkasov

    2013-01-01

    This paper reviews construction and technological solutions for roadbeds in talik areas of permafrost soil, and proposes an integrated technology for prevention and elimination of taliks during construction periods. It also summarizes the expe-rience of process regulation scheduling and soil conditions monitoring during construction.

  20. Compaction quality control on site of earthworks - A comparative study

    OpenAIRE

    Blanco, Luís Miguel Paredes

    2015-01-01

    The capacity to use geologic materials (soil and rock) that are available in the surrounding environment is inherent to the human civilization and has contributed to the evolution of societies throughout the course of history. The use of these materials in the construction of structures such as houses, roads, railways or dams, stirred the improvement of socioeconomic and environmental conditions. Several reports of structural problems on embankments can be found throughout history. A consi...

  1. 基于VBA三角网格土石方开挖的三维模型%A three-diacentional model based on VBA triangle earthwork excavation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾建平; 刘发全

    2005-01-01

    利用VBA技术实现对离散高程点的三角构网,快速定位三角形.将其用于土方开挖边线处理,在此基础上重新构网.实际计算结果表明,将三角网格用于土方工程填挖量计算,可以提高计算精度并可实现填挖后的三维显示.

  2. Civil 3D Application in the Calculation of Earthwork%Civil 3D在土方量计算中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余剑

    2009-01-01

    土方量计算是在测绘工程中经常遇到的,本文通过一个实例,讲解了Civil 3D在土方量计算中的应用.软件的实时三维地形功能和数据排查功能在现实工作中有很大的实用意义.

  3. Auscultation d'ouvrages avec un capteur géotextile à fibres optiques Earthworks surveillance with a fiber optic sensor-enabled geotextile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ARTIERES, Olivier ; BRIANÇON, Laurent ; ROBINET, Alain

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Pour évaluer la sécurité d'un ouvrage en terre, il est indispensable de disposer et de pouvoir interpréter des données d'auscultation, mais les mesures sont parfois difficiles à mettre en place et pas toujours fiables sur le long terme. Avec l’insertion de fibres optiques dans un géotextile, la solution TenCate GeoDetect® est le premier système d'auscultation conçu spécifiquement pour les applications géotechniques. Implantée depuis huit ans avec succès sur de nombreux ouvrages, elle permet d’accéder à des informations jusqu’ici très difficiles à obtenir et ceci avec une grande précision.The monitoring solution is based on geotextile and fibre optics composite sensors, to measure both strain and temperature. It is very accurate as the detection thresholds are respectively lower than 0.02 % and 0.1°C, either on localized works or on long linear infrastructures of several tens of kilometres. It is now used for more than 6 years on several walls, embankments on piles or over potential cavities, basins, landfills and dykes.

  4. 深基坑土方开挖方案及管理%Earthwork Excavation Scheme and Management of Deep Foundation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏洪林

    2011-01-01

    Taking the foundation pit excavation of a square building project for example, this paper described the technical scheme and on-site security, technology management measures of deep foundation pit excavation, through the rational design, meticulous organization of construction successfully completed the excavation tasks under the request of ensuing safety and orotecting the surrounding environment.%以某广场大厦工程基坑开挖为例,阐述了深基坑土方开挖施工的技术方案及现场安全、技术管理措施,通过合理方案设计、精心组织施工,在保证安全、保护周边环境要求下圆满完成开挖任务.

  5. 浅谈广州亚运会马术比赛场土石方工程设计%On earthwork design in equestrian place for Asian Games in Guangzhou

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹友林

    2009-01-01

    阐述了广州亚运会马术比赛场土石方工程设计的特点和实施要素,根据现场地形地貌、环境条件及岩土层特征,对该区域的边坡设计、支护工程和填方体成型等难点进行了探讨,并提出了相应的解决技术方案.

  6. Application of VBA Technology in Intelligent Earthwork Design Report System%VBA技术在智能土石方平衡报表系统中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈茂国; 王乘; 燕乔

    2005-01-01

    水布垭智能土石方平衡系统中涉及大量的报表,它们结构不一,而且都很复杂,某些报表还需要动态地根据信息来规划报表结构,如果利用VC(Visual C++)或者其他高级语言来编写,将需要利用其高级编程或者第三方报表控件,实现起来非常复杂.文中利用VBA(Visual Basic Application)和ADO(ActiveX Data Objects)技术在Excel中生成复杂的动态报表,利用Excel现有的功能,省去了打印等工作量,提高了开发效率,取得了良好的效果.

  7. Study on Blasting Vibration Controlling of Earthwork Excavation in Complex Urban Environment%城市复杂环境下基坑土石方爆破振动控制研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊祖钊; 易流; 黄小武; 钟冬望; 马建军

    2016-01-01

    The controlling measures of the blasting vibration under complicated urban environment was presented on Wuhan Southland Tanhualin building foundation. The different charging structure and excavation of damping ditch impact on peak of vibration blasting was studied,and the monitored data from the on-farm tests was also discussed. The results show that the shock vibration peak of measuring point in double layers charge was much less than in suc-cessive charge,and the vibration decreased by 18. 7%. The damping ditch reduced the blasting vibration markedly, and the vibration peak decreased by 30. 5% in the same measuring point. Under similar urban environment,impro-ving charge structure and excavation of damping ditch could effectively reduce the blasting vibration.%以武汉南国昙华林基坑土石方爆破工程为背景,介绍了城市复杂环境下建筑基坑土石方爆破工程中爆破振动的控制措施。重点研究了不同装药结构和开挖减震沟对爆破振动峰值的影响,并对现场试验监测的数据进行了分析。结果表明:选择两层装药时测点的振动峰值明显小于连续装药时的振动峰值,振动降低率为18·7%;减震沟降低爆破振动效果明显,同一测点的振动峰值降低率为30·5%。在城市复杂环境下实施基坑土石方爆破,改良装药结构和开挖减震沟可以有效降低爆破振动。

  8. 三维激光扫描技术在土石方量测量中的应用%Application of 3D laser scanning technology to the earthwork calculation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁凤祥; 秦岩宾; 安家瑞

    2016-01-01

    This paper introduces the theory of the 3D laser scanner,the method of earth volume calculation, and the basic flow of measuring earth volume by 3D laser scanning technology.Combined with examples, illustrations are made on measuring a small ore heap by 3D laser scanning technology in the Town of Chujiang,Dayi County,Sichuan Province.The results show that 3D laser scanning technology enjoys high superiority over the traditional method of measuring the earth volume.%简要介绍三维激光扫描仪的工作原理,测量土石方量的基本步骤及土石方量计算的基本原理。结合四川省大邑县出江镇矿堆测量实例,计算出土石方量。结果表明,相对于传统测量方法,三维激光扫描技术更具优势。

  9. 22 CFR 1104.2 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., artificial mounds, earthworks, fortifications, canals, reservoirs, horticultural/agricultural gardens or..., refuse pits, burial pits or graves, hearths, kilns, post molds, wall trenches, middens); (ii) Surface or...

  10. 32 CFR 229.3 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., ceremonial structures, artificial mounds, earthworks, fortifications, canals, reservoirs, horticultural... pits, cooking pits, refuse pits, burial pits or graves, hearths, kilns, post molds, wall trenches...

  11. 36 CFR 296.3 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., artificial mounds, earthworks, fortifications, canals, reservoirs, horticultural/agricultural gardens or..., refuse pits, burial pits or graves, hearths, kilns, post molds, wall trenches, middens); (ii) Surface or...

  12. 25 CFR 700.805 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... structures, cooking structures, ceremonial structures, artificial mounds, earthworks, fortifications, canals... alignments, cairns, trails, borrow pits, cooking pits, refuse pits, burial pits, or graves, hearths, kilns...

  13. 43 CFR 7.3 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... structures, cooking structures, ceremonial structures, artificial mounds, earthworks, fortifications, canals... alignments, cairns, trails, borrow pits, cooking pits, refuse pits, burial pits or graves, hearths, kilns...

  14. 78 FR 3914 - Submission of U.S. Nomination to the World Heritage List

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-17

    ... the World Heritage List for the Monumental Earthworks of Poverty Point in West Carroll Parish.... The Monumental Earthworks of Poverty Point are nominated under World Heritage cultural criterion (iii... National Park Service Submission of U.S. Nomination to the World Heritage List AGENCY: National...

  15. A Grassroots Effort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pember, Mary Annette

    2007-01-01

    If academics, students and supporters at the Newark Earthworks Center at The Ohio State University have their way, the Newark Earthworks will be listed among the likes of England's Stonehenge and Mexico's Teotihuacan in terms of international archaeological and cultural importance. Dr. Richard Shiels, director of the newly founded center and Dr.…

  16. Lines under the forest

    CERN Document Server

    Sparavigna, Amelia Carolina

    2011-01-01

    Earthworks appear in the satellite images of deforested sections of the Amazon Basin. These images, and several other archaeological evidences, are showing that a lost civilization is waiting for further researches.

  17. 77 FR 19320 - Notice of a Record of Decision, Harpers Ferry National Historical Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-30

    ... returning John Brown's Fort to its original location will be undertaken. The train station will become a... War earthworks and the foundations of John Brown's Fort will be stabilized, and the Chambers/Murphy...

  18. The Future is Now: OpenTERRAworks - Interoperable 2D/3D Landscape Design Software for Integrated Environmental Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human activities involving significant terrain alteration (e.g., earthworks operations associated with mines, urban development, landslides) can lead to broad-ranging changes in the surrounding terrestrial and aquatic environments. Potential aesthetic impacts can be associated wi...

  19. Physical soil properties and slope treatments effects on hydraulic excavator productivity for forest road construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsakho, Aidin; Hosseini, Seyed Ataollah; Jalilvand, Hamid; Lotfalian, Majid

    2008-06-01

    Effects of moisture, porosity and soil bulk density properties, grubbing time and terrain side slopes on pc 220 komatsu hydraulic excavator productivity were investigated in Miana forests road construction project which located in the northern forest of Iran. Soil moisture and porosity determined by samples were taken from undisturbed soil. The elements of daily works were measured with a digital stop watch and video camera in 14 observations (days). The road length and cross section profiles after each 20 m were selected to estimate earthworks volume. Results showed that the mean production rates for the pc 220 komatsu excavators were 60.13 m3 h(-1) and earthwork 14.76 m h(-1) when the mean depth of excavation or cutting was 4.27 m3 m(-1), respectively. There was no significant effects (p = 0.5288) from the slope classes' treatments on productivity, whereas grubbing time, soil moisture, bulk density and porosity had significantly affected on excavator earthworks volume (p excavator earthworks length.

  20. ERDA test facilities, East Mesa Test Site. Geothermal resource investigations, Imperial Valley, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-01-01

    Detailed specifications which must be complied with in the construction of the ERDA Test Facilities at the East Mesa Site for geothermal resource investigations in Imperial Valley, California are presented for use by prospective bidders for the construction contract. The principle construction work includes a 700 gpm cooling tower with its associated supports and equipment, pipelines from wells, electrical equipment, and all earthwork. (LCL)

  1. Cultural Resources Survey and Testing Along Ditch 19 Dunklin and Stoddard Counties, Missouri

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-07-15

    the American 7ncians as the authnors o-f tie nreat earthworks of the eastern Unitec States. Most of the early work was corticernec with the collectiocri...included in reports as a readily removable appendix (ex: envelope). C-5.06. NK logo or other such organizational designation shall appear in any part of

  2. Geodetect: a new step for the use of fibre Bragg grating technology in soil engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voet, Marc R.; Nancey, Alain; Vlekken, Johan

    2005-05-01

    Geodetect is an innovative geotextile-based monitoring system, developed for the measurement of strain and deformation of earthwork structures reinforced with geosynthetics. This paper presents the background and the results of the development and the practical experience acquired in real time jobs with this new technology.

  3. Engineering surveying theory and examination problems for students

    CERN Document Server

    Schofield, W

    2013-01-01

    Engineering Surveying: Theory and Examination Problems for Students, Volume 1, Third Edition discusses topics concerning engineering surveying techniques and instrumentations. The book is comprised of eight chapters that cover several concerns in engineering survey. Chapter 1 discusses the basic concepts of surveying. Chapter 2 deals with simple and precise leveling, while Chapter 3 covers earthworks. The book also talks about the theodolite and its applications, and then discusses optical distance measurement. Curves, underground and hydrographic surveying, and aspects of dimensional control

  4. Fly ash. Quality recycling material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blomster, D.; Leisio, C.

    1996-11-01

    Imatran Voima`s coal-fired power plants not only generate power and heat but also produce fly ash which is suitable raw material for recycling. This material for recycling is produced in the flue gas cleaning process. It is economical and, thanks to close quality control, is suitable for use as a raw material in the building materials industry, in asphalt production, and in earthworks. Structures made from fly ash are also safe from an environmental point of view. (orig.)

  5. Radiological surveillance of members of the public during earthmoving activities in the area of the Ciemat mound; Vigilancia radiologica de los miembros del publico durante las actividades de movimiento de tierras del area del Montecillo del Ciemat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez, A.; Yague, L.; Navarro, N.; Gasco, C.; Ortiz, M. T.; Quinones, J.

    2013-07-01

    In the year 2012 was undertaken excavation and earthwork of the mound. The lands of this area contained remains sterile uranium mining and therefore concentrations of natural radionuclides higher than natural radioactive background activity. In order to assess the radiological impact on the public, was a theoretical evaluation of the dose inhaled that would get a person who remained in the vicinity during the making of the work. (Author)

  6. Use of Spatial Modelling by Designing and Construction of Roads and Railways.

    OpenAIRE

    Schrott, Miha

    2009-01-01

    This thesis deals with feasibility and efficaciousness of the programs made for roadway planning for the requirements of design and surveying of the construction works. The study is based on the programs Plateia and Autodesk Civil 3D, which are most widely used among the project engineers. The design of the highway AC Pluska-Ponikve was chosen, as there were being carried out earthworks during our study. The design documentation PGD was adopted for the input data, using all ess...

  7. Tri-Service Construction Guide Specifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-04-01

    items unique to civil works projects, such as relief wells, tunnel grouting, and hydraulic turbines, the CWGSs are used. We found the CWGS to be less...Systems CONTRACT FORMS, AND 02170 Cofferdams CONDITIONS OF THE CONTRACT 02200 Earthwork 02300 Tunneling 00010 Prebid Information 02350 Piles and...DIVISION 3 - CONCRETE Numbers, and Broadscope Section Explanations. 03100 Concrete Formwork SPECIFICATIONS 03200 Concrete Reinforcement 03250 Concrete

  8. A Cultural Resources Inventory of the Pearl River Basin, Louisiana and Mississippi. Volume II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-04-01

    Frank (phone and correspondence) 2406 Norben Drive Lake Charles, LA 70601 Dr. Nollie W. Hickman (phone) Professor of History (Retired) 1304 Spencer Monroe...the 1820 Census of Pike County are included. This book is illustrated. COTTERILL, ROBERT SPENCER 1922 The Beginnings of Railroads in the Southwest...None of the information in this article is referenced. POUNCEY, BRENDA J. 1970 Ancient Earthwork Fortification in Hancock County Saved by Collective

  9. Courting dissolution: the praxis of adumbrational space

    OpenAIRE

    van Lent, Michael

    2011-01-01

    The geographer Yi-Fu Tuan denotes the symbiotic relationship of space/place when he explains, what begins as undifferentiated space becomes place as we get to know it better and endow it with value. In the last fifty years, artists developed a discourse of earthworks and site-based arts that have sought to transform landscape. Ultimately, I argue, this transformation of landscape may lead to a spatial disappearance into place, as when Baudrillard warns: By their exceptional faculty for knowle...

  10. ON GROUND SURFACE EXTRACTION USING FULL-WAVEFORM AIRBORNE LASER SCANNER FOR CIM

    OpenAIRE

    Nakano, K.; H. Chikatsu

    2015-01-01

    Satellite positioning systems such as GPS and GLONASS have created significant changes not only in terms of spatial information but also in the construction industry. It is possible to execute a suitable construction plan by using a computerized intelligent construction. Therefore, an accurate estimate of the amount of earthwork is important for operating heavy equipment, and measurement of ground surface with high accuracy is required. A full-waveform airborne laser scanner is expected to be...

  11. Future-proofing the environmental performance of low-income housing: a South African case study

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ampofo-Anti, NL

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available sustainable development targets. 4 Building operation and maintenance Space and water heating, space cooling, appliances, lighting Facility improvement and maintenance materials 3 On-site construction Foundation and site earthwork... Code for Sustainable Homes (2006) is an environmental standard which is mainly concerned with achieving Use Phase energy efficiency. The key interventions include installation of smart metres, upgrades to insulation and boilers, appliance labelling...

  12. Cost and Performance Report Low Impact Technologies to Reduce Pollution from Storm Water Runoff SI-200405

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-01

    and will likely require earthwork to remove the lids over the media bed. 44 5.2 Cost Analysis The economic analysis performed on the NRRC dual...pump system. Given these two scenarios, the economic evaluation was constructed and compared. 5.3.2 Cost Drivers The cost of the implementing a...report 7374 National Defense Center for Enviromental Exellence, 1999, Environmental Cost Analysis Methodology (CECAM) handbook, March 29, 1999

  13. Fly ash. Quality recycling material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blomster, D.; Leisio, C.

    1996-11-01

    Imatran Voima`s coal-fired power plants not only generate power and heat but also produce fly ash which is suitable raw material for recycling. This material for recycling is produced in the flue gas cleaning process. It is economical and, thanks to close quality control, is suitable for use as a raw material in the building materials industry, in asphalt production, and in earthworks. Structures made from fly ash are also safe from an environmental point of view. (orig.)

  14. Environmental impacts of construction materials use: a life cycle perspective

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ampofo-Anti, N

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available , fibreboard, cellulose products, steel, aluminium frames, appliances, wire, paint, solvents, plate glass, carpet 3 On-site construction Foundation and site earthwork, concrete pouring, structural framing, roofing, mechanical... reusable materials, knock-down, site clearing, disposal PRE-USE PHASE USE-PHASE EOL 5 mining, growing/harvesting quarrying and felling is a source of air pollutants, solid waste, polluted water run-off and noise, vibration and odour. The processing...

  15. History of the Field Artillery School. Volume 1. l911-l942

    Science.gov (United States)

    1942-01-01

    the dreadful ditch with matchless valor , but the steady fire of the cannon, arranged to sweep the space before the earthwork, and the fire of the...American officers from Guatemala, Peru, Ecuador, and Chile attended this course. The students of the National Guard class had had little experi- j ence...instruction along the broad cultural lines laid down in the original letter. T raining To chnigue s Good progress along technical lines was made by the

  16. Influence of Hillside Gradient on Forest Road Cross Section Components in a Loamy Clay Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aidin Parsakhoo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: In this study to evaluate the effects of hillside gradient on forest road cross section components in a loamy clay soil the amount of cut and fill slopes gradient and length, road bed and earthwork width were taken on tangent sections in a lat talar forest roads of Iran. Approach: The objective of this study were: (i to evaluate the direct effects of hillside gradient on cross section components such as cut and fill slopes, road bed and earthwork width in a loamy clay soil, (ii to use the model to predict the effect of hillside gradient on cross section components. Results: Results indicated that the regression analysis between hillside gradient and cut slope length had a significant linear relationship (p2 = 0.60. The equation for the calculation of earthwork width (Y from hillside gradient was Y = 4.928+0.132 X (R2 = 0.44. A significant linear relationship (p Conclusion: Through analysis of variance it was also found that the hillside gradient had a significant influence (p<0.0001 on the cross section components.

  17. Railway cuttings and embankments: Experimental and numerical studies of ground vibration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouroussis, Georges; Connolly, David P; Olivier, Bryan; Laghrouche, Omar; Costa, Pedro Alves

    2016-07-01

    Railway track support conditions affect ground-borne vibration generation and propagation. Therefore this paper presents a combined experimental and numerical study into high speed rail vibrations for tracks on three types of support: a cutting, an embankment and an at grade section. Firstly, an experimental campaign is undertaken where vibrations and in-situ soil properties are measured at three Belgian rail sites. A finite element model is then developed to recreate the complex ground topology at each site. A validation is performed and it is found that although the at-grade and embankment cases show a correlation with the experimental results, the cutting case is more challenging to replicate. Despite this, each site is then analysed to determine the effect of earthworks profile on ground vibrations, with both the near and far fields being investigated. It is found that different earthwork profiles generate strongly differing ground-borne vibration characteristics, with the embankment profile generating lower vibration levels in comparison to the cutting and at-grade cases. Therefore it is concluded that it is important to consider earthwork profiles when undertaking vibration assessments.

  18. Short term recovery of soil biological functions in a new vineyard cultivated in organic farming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costantini, Edoardo; Agnelli, Alessandro; Fabiani, Arturo; Gagnarli, Elena; Mocali, Stefano; Priori, Simone; Simoni, Sauro; Valboa, Giuseppe

    2014-05-01

    Deep earthwork activities carried out before vineyard plantation completely upset soil profile and characteristics. The resulting soil features are often much more similar to the underlying substratum than original soil profile. The time needed to recover soil functions is ecologically relevant and affects vine phenology and grape yield, particularly in organic viticulture. The general aim of this research work was to investigate the time needed to recover soil functions after the earthworks made before vine plantation. This study compared for a four years period physical and chemical properties, microbial and mesofauna communities, in new and old vineyards, cultivated on the same soil type. The experiment was conducted in a farm of the Chianti Classico district (Central Italy), on hills of high altitude (400-500 m a.s.l.) on clayey-calcareous flysches, with stony and calcareous soils (Haplic Cambisol (Calcaric, Skeletic)). The reference vine cultivar was Sangiovese. The older vineyard was planted in 2000, after slope reshaping by bulldozing and back hoe ploughing down to about 0.8-1.0 m. The new vineyard was planted in 2011 after an equivalent earthwork carried out in the summer of 2009. Both vineyards were organically managed and only compost at the rate of 1,000 kg ha-1 -a was added every year. The new vineyard was periodically cultivated by mechanical tillage, while the older only at alternate rows. Soil samples from the first 15 cm depth were collected in 4 replicates in the younger as well as in the older vineyard during the springtime of 2010-2013; in the older vineyard, two samples were from the periodically cultivated swaths and two under permanent grass cover. Samples were analysed for physical (particle size, field capacity, wilting point), chemical (pH, electrical conductivity, lime, active lime, organic carbon, total nitrogen), microbiological (soil respiration, microbial biomass, DGGE), and mesofauna features (abundance, taxa richness, BSQ index and

  19. E24 profile slope stability analysis in Haizhou Opencast Coal Mine of Fuxin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Simplice F. BOBY; Jianping CHEN

    2007-01-01

    The E24 profile slope analyzed belongs to a series of excavated slopes of the Haizhou Opencast Coal Mine. It seems to be divided into Downslope Part and Upslope Part. Its profile comprises two noticeable coal seams, called the 8# and 9# weak layers, considered as the potential failure surfaces. In consideration of the actual configuration as in the perspective of any modification, assessing the stability of this slope with various profile forms under given conditions, and assessing the risk of instability and quantifying the influence of earthworks or other modifications to the stability of this slope, have constituted the primordial objectives carried out. From assumed potential failure surfaces, any specific profiles and specified slip surfaces are defined. A factor of safety (FoS) is computed for each specified slip surface; the smallest FoS found corresponds to the least favorable slip surface. The safety factor values obtained are compared to the suggested safety factor. Limit equilibrium methods of vertical slices implemented in Slope/W, computer program for slope stability analyses, have been adopted to perform the E24 slope stability analysis. The safety factor values computed with 9# weak layer are lower than for 8#; the factors of safety obtained with Sarma's method are the smallest; more, without groundwater (long term) overall values are greater than those determined under groundwater condition (short term). The lowest safety factor value is found for a profile depending on an adopted earthwork sequence. The E24 profile slope stability analysis shows the instability risk for the deepest weak layer, and also shows the short and long term stability of this slope for the envisaged earth movements. However it demonstrates the existence of instability risk for any earthwork firstly affecting the downslope part.

  20. Short term recovery of soil physical, chemical, micro- and mesobiological functions in a new vineyard under organic farming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costantini, E. A. C.; Agnelli, A. E.; Fabiani, A.; Gagnarli, E.; Mocali, S.; Priori, S.; Simoni, S.; Valboa, G.

    2014-12-01

    Deep earthwork activities carried out before vineyard plantation can severely upset soil profile properties. As a result, soil features in the root environment are often much more similar to those of the underlying substratum than those of the original profile. The time needed to recover the original soil functions is ecologically relevant and may strongly affect vine phenology and grape yield, particularly under organic viticulture. The general aim of this work was to investigate soil resilience after vineyard pre-planting earthworks. In particular, an old and a new vineyard, established on the same soil type, were compared over a five year period for soil chemical, physical, micro and mesobiological properties. The investigated vineyards (Vitis vinifera L., cv. Sangiovese) were located in the Chianti Classico district (Central Italy), on stony and calcareous soils and were not irrigated. The older vineyard was planted in 2000, after slope reshaping by bulldozing and back hoe ploughing down to about 0.8-1.0 m. The new vineyard was planted in 2011, after equivalent earthwork practices carried out in the summer of 2009. Both vineyards were organically managed and fertilized only with compost every autumn (1000 kg ha-1 per year). The new vineyard was cultivated by periodic tillage, while the old vineyard was managed with alternating grass-covered and tilled inter-rows. Soil samples were collected at 0-15 cm depth from the same plots of the new and old vineyards, during the springtime from 2010 to 2014. The old vineyard was sampled in both the tilled and the grass-covered swaths. According to the results from physical and chemical analyses, the new vineyard, during the whole 2010-2014 period, showed lower TOC, N, C/N and EC values, along with higher silt and total CaCO3 contents than the old vineyard, suggesting still evolving equilibrium conditions. The microarthropod analysis showed significantly different abundances and communities' structures, in relation to both

  1. 防渗膜在磷石膏渣场的应用%Application of leakproof filmin phosphogypsum slag stacking area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    由继福

    2001-01-01

    对广西鹿寨化肥厂磷石膏渣场建设过程中存在的问题及经验进行了总结,详细介绍了复合土工膜在磷石膏渣场的应用情况及应注意的问题。%The problems presented in the construction of phosphogypsum stacking area in Guangxi Luzhai Chemical Fertilizer Plant and the experiences obtained in it were summarized.The application status of compound earthwork film in the phosphogypsum stacking area and problems which should be pay attention to were introduced in detail.

  2. Discussion on the quality control of rain sewage trench construction%谈雨污水沟槽施工的质量控制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王玉保

    2014-01-01

    Taking the specific engineering as example,this paper elaborated the construction scheme of rain sewage trench from earthwork exca-vation,dewatering ways,support ways,earthwork backfilling,rain sewage pipeline construction five aspects,and established the quality assur-ance measures,including the construction management,material,equipment management and other contents,in order to achieve the best con-struction result.%以具体工程为例,从土方开挖、降水方式、支护方式、土方回填、雨污水管道施工五方面阐述了雨污水沟槽施工的方案,并制定了质量保证措施,包括施工管理、材料、设备管理等内容,以期达到最佳的施工效果。

  3. Thoughts on the Internal Economic and Legal Basis for Operating Mechanism of Land Indicators in Chongqing%重庆市地票运行机制的内在经济法律依据——基于土地发展权视角的框架分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董晓方; 杜新波

    2012-01-01

    Based on the triangulation and grid calculation principle, on the platform of AutoCAD, Visual AutoLJSP and VBA as the development tools, the software was integrated and could calculate earthwork as data sources of topographic map or coordinate files. The main features were building and modifying triangulation and grid, interpolating triangulation in the triangle, calculating elevation of interpolation point, breaking up triangulation and grid, computing and counting network earthworks. The application in farmland consolidation shows that the ideas of software design are clear, algorithms used is advanced, operation is stable and calculation results are reliable.%以指标控制和农地发展权转移为理论基础,提出了重庆地票的运行模式实质是耕地发展权转移机制,并分析了地票机制运行的关键要素依据,提出了重庆地票制度创新改革启示和建议.

  4. Astronomical orientation analysis of three proto-historical sites in Friuli - Italy

    CERN Document Server

    Patat, Ferdinando

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we present the results of an archaeoastronomical survey of three proto-historical sites located in the high Friulian plain (Galleriano, Gradisca and Savalons), dating from the end of the Early Bronze Age (1900 B.C.) to the end of the Late Bronze Age (950 B.C.). These structures, commonly indicated as castellieri, are earthworks of quadrangular shape, with sides ranging from 140 to 250 m. At present the perimetrical earthen embankments reach a maximum base width of 18 m and an elevation of more than 5 m the surrounding plain in their best preserved parts. These three sites were often reported in the literature to have the corners aligned to the cardinal directions. Aveni and Romano (1986) included two of them (Galleriano and Gradisca) in their study of earthworks in Veneto and Friuli (Italy), tentatively proposing astronomically relevant alignments for some sides and diagonals. Inspired by this pioneering work and by the renovated archaeological interest for these sites, we obtained digital eleva...

  5. Towards a more sustainable transport infrastructure: how spatial geological data can be utilized to improve early stage Life cycle assessment of road infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Caroline; Miliutenko, Sofiia; Björklund, Anna; Mörtberg, Ulla; Olofsson, Bo; Toller, Susanna

    2017-04-01

    Environmental impacts during the life cycle stages of transport infrastructure are substantial, including among other greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, as well as resource and energy use. For transport infrastructure to be sustainable, such issues need to be integrated in the planning process. Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) is required by the European Union (EU) in order to ensure that all environmental aspects are considered during planning of road infrastructure projects. As a part of this process, the European Commission has suggested the use of the tool life cycle assessment (LCA) for assessing life cycle energy use and GHG emissions. When analyzing life cycle impacts of the road infrastructure itself, it was shown that earthworks and materials used for the road construction have a big share in the total energy use and GHG emissions. Those aspects are largely determined by the geological conditions at the site of construction: parameters such as soil thickness, slope, bedrock quality and soil type. The geological parameters determine the amounts of earthworks (i.e. volumes of soil and rock that will be excavated and blasted), transportation need for excavated materials as well as the availability of building materials. The study presents a new geographic information system (GIS)-based approach for utilizing spatial geological data in three dimensions (i.e. length, width and depth) in order to improve estimates on earthworks during the early stages of road infrastructure planning. Three main methodological steps were undertaken: mass balance calculation, life cycle inventory analysis and spatial mapping of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and energy use. The proposed GIS-based approach was later evaluated by comparing with the actual values of extracted material of a real road construction project. The results showed that the estimate of filling material was the most accurate, while the estimate for excavated soil and blasted rock had a wide variation from

  6. Field Assessment and Specification Review for Roller-Integrated Compaction Monitoring Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J. White

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Roller-integrated compaction monitoring (RICM technologies provide virtually 100-percent coverage of compacted areas with real-time display of the compaction measurement values. Although a few countries have developed quality control (QC and quality assurance (QA specifications, broader implementation of these technologies into earthwork construction operations still requires a thorough understanding of relationships between RICM values and traditional in situ point test measurements. The purpose of this paper is to provide: (a an overview of two technologies, namely, compaction meter value (CMV and machine drive power (MDP; (b a comprehensive review of field assessment studies, (c an overview of factors influencing statistical correlations, (d modeling for visualization and characterization of spatial nonuniformity; and (e a brief review of the current specifications.

  7. The effects of different compaction energy on geotechnical properties of kaolin and laterite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusoff, Siti Aimi Nadia Mohd; Bakar, Ismail; Wijeyesekera, D. C.; Zainorabidin, Adnan; Azmi, Mastura; Ramli, Harris

    2017-08-01

    Strength and deformation parameters of compacted soil are known to be related to soil type and moisture. However, little attention has been directed towards understanding the influence of compaction energy on soil type and moisture. This study considers the effect of different compaction energy on certain geotechnical properties of Kaolin and Laterite soil. This paper describes a laboratory study conducted to evaluate the relationship between soil type, soil moisture content with different compaction energy and strength characteristic. Specimens were compacted with impact energy at levels of 596 kg/m3(Standard Proctor) and 2682 kJ/m3 (Modified Proctor) over a wide range of moisture contents to determine dry unit weight, and Unconfined Compression Strength Test (UCS). Result shows that compaction energy is an important factor in determining soil strength that should be considered during the planning phase of any earthwork construction operation.

  8. DESIGNING ROADS IN GRENLAND USING GIS TECHNOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdel A.Z. Barten

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Designing a road in the Arctic (Greenland which stretches 157 km between the towns of Sisimiut and Kangerlussuaq was very challenging. Difficult climatic and geotechnical conditions and presence of permafrost required some in-depth analysis and research. Geotechnical investigations were conducted along the entire route. The investigations included field geological and geophysical studies and survey using aerial photography.Based on the investigations a digital model of the area 2 km Ѕ 170 km was prepared. Using a Novapoint software a detailed geometric model was created which allowed for calculationsof the volume of earthworks and creation of transverse and longitudinal sections of the road. A virtual model of the entire road and a movie were made based on the results of all investigations.

  9. Hydro-mechanical paths within unsaturated compacted soil framed through water retention surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pelizzari Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Compaction is a key issue of modern earthworks... From sustainable development, a need arise of using materials for compaction under given conditions that would normally be avoid due to unpredictable pathologies. The application of compaction on fine grained soils, without a change of gravimetric water content, lead to very important modifications of the void ratio and hence suction. Therefore the hydro-mechanical behaviour of fine grained soil need to be rendered around three variables: suction, void ratio, saturation degree or water content. The barring capacity of the soil is assessed through Penetrometers (In-situ manual penetrometer, CBR in order to assess gains through compaction. The three states variables are then assessed for in situ and frame through water retention surfaces, realized from Proctor tests, in which compaction effect and path could be described.

  10. Commercial Light Water Reactor Tritium Extraction Facility Geotechnical Summary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, M R

    2000-01-11

    A geotechnical investigation program has been completed for the Circulating Light Water Reactor - Tritium Extraction Facility (CLWR-TEF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The program consisted of reviewing previous geotechnical and geologic data and reports, performing subsurface field exploration, field and laboratory testing and geologic and engineering analyses. The purpose of this investigation was to characterize the subsurface conditions for the CLWR-TEF in terms of subsurface stratigraphy and engineering properties for design and to perform selected engineering analyses. The objectives of the evaluation were to establish site-specific geologic conditions, obtain representative engineering properties of the subsurface and potential fill materials, evaluate the lateral and vertical extent of any soft zones encountered, and perform engineering analyses for slope stability, bearing capacity and settlement, and liquefaction potential. In addition, provide general recommendations for construction and earthwork.

  11. Landfill liners from dam reservoir sediments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koś Karolina

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Landfill liners from dam reservoir sediments. Every municipal solid waste landfill has to be properly secured to protect the natural environment from possible leachate. Most often an artificial sealing is used, which is based on a soil liner from cohesive soils (clays, silts. Usability evaluation of bottom sediments from Rzeszowski Reservoir for building these liners was presented in the paper. Sediments from dam reservoirs, gathered as a result of the siltation process, can be a valuable material for earthworks purposes. Determination of their possible ways of usage is important, especially before the planned dredging, because thanks to that this material will not be put on a heap. Based on the analysis of the geotechnical parameters of these sediments it was stated that this material can be preliminary allowed for using in liners.

  12. On Ground Surface Extraction Using Full-Waveform Airborne Laser Scanner for Cim

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, K.; Chikatsu, H.

    2015-05-01

    Satellite positioning systems such as GPS and GLONASS have created significant changes not only in terms of spatial information but also in the construction industry. It is possible to execute a suitable construction plan by using a computerized intelligent construction. Therefore, an accurate estimate of the amount of earthwork is important for operating heavy equipment, and measurement of ground surface with high accuracy is required. A full-waveform airborne laser scanner is expected to be capable of improving the accuracy of ground surface extraction for forested areas, in contrast to discrete airborne laser scanners, as technological innovation. For forested areas, fundamental studies for construction information management (CIM) were conducted to extract ground surface using full-waveform airborne laser scanners based on waveform information.

  13. Impact of pre-Columbian "geoglyph" builders on Amazonian forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watling, Jennifer; Iriarte, José; Mayle, Francis E; Schaan, Denise; Pessenda, Luiz C R; Loader, Neil J; Street-Perrott, F Alayne; Dickau, Ruth E; Damasceno, Antonia; Ranzi, Alceu

    2017-02-21

    Over 450 pre-Columbian (pre-AD 1492) geometric ditched enclosures ("geoglyphs") occupy ∼13,000 km(2) of Acre state, Brazil, representing a key discovery of Amazonian archaeology. These huge earthworks were concealed for centuries under terra firme (upland interfluvial) rainforest, directly challenging the "pristine" status of this ecosystem and its perceived vulnerability to human impacts. We reconstruct the environmental context of geoglyph construction and the nature, extent, and legacy of associated human impacts. We show that bamboo forest dominated the region for ≥6,000 y and that only small, temporary clearings were made to build the geoglyphs; however, construction occurred within anthropogenic forest that had been actively managed for millennia. In the absence of widespread deforestation, exploitation of forest products shaped a largely forested landscape that survived intact until the late 20th century.

  14. ON GROUND SURFACE EXTRACTION USING FULL-WAVEFORM AIRBORNE LASER SCANNER FOR CIM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Nakano

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Satellite positioning systems such as GPS and GLONASS have created significant changes not only in terms of spatial information but also in the construction industry. It is possible to execute a suitable construction plan by using a computerized intelligent construction. Therefore, an accurate estimate of the amount of earthwork is important for operating heavy equipment, and measurement of ground surface with high accuracy is required. A full-waveform airborne laser scanner is expected to be capable of improving the accuracy of ground surface extraction for forested areas, in contrast to discrete airborne laser scanners, as technological innovation. For forested areas, fundamental studies for construction information management (CIM were conducted to extract ground surface using full-waveform airborne laser scanners based on waveform information.

  15. Compressive Strength of Compacted Clay-Sand Mixes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faseel Suleman Khan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of sand to improve the strength of natural clays provides a viable alternative for civil infrastructure construction involving earthwork. The main objective of this note was to investigate the compressive strength of compacted clay-sand mixes. A natural clay of high plasticity was mixed with 20% and 40% sand (SP and their compaction and strength properties were determined. Results indicated that the investigated materials exhibited a brittle behaviour on the dry side of optimum and a ductile behaviour on the wet side of optimum. For each material, the compressive strength increased with an increase in density following a power law function. Conversely, the compressive strength increased with decreasing water content of the material following a similar function. Finally, the compressive strength decreased with an increase in sand content because of increased material heterogeneity and loss of sand grains from the sides during shearing.

  16. On construction points deep well dewatering project of foundation pit%基坑深井降水工程施工要点

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李冬

    2015-01-01

    介绍了深井降水的概念,对深井降水设计及施工前应注意的问题进行了详细说明,并对施工时降水井施工、抽水施工、土方开挖等技术作了简要阐述,提出了一些深井降水关键控制点,以确保工程的顺利进行。%The paper introduces the concept of deep well dewatering project,indicates some precautions for deep well dewatering project,illus-trates some techniques including dewatering well project,pumping construction,and earthwork excavation,and points out its key controlling points,so as to ensure its smooth construction.

  17. The factor analysis of nuclear power plant in levelling off%核电厂四通一平要点分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王栋

    2014-01-01

    简要分析了四通一平阶段对核电站建设工期的影响,并采用理论联系实际的方法,对四通一平的土石方计算、边坡砌护及道路修建三个要点进行了详细阐述,为今后核电站的建设提供了参考借鉴。%The paper briefly analyzes impact of direct shipping links an even upon nuclear power station during its construction period,applies theory combining with practice method,and describes three points of earthwork calculation,slope masonry and road maintenance of direct ship-ping links an even,which has provided some guidance for nuclear power station construction.

  18. Commercial Light Water Reactor Tritium Extraction Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McHood, M D

    2000-10-12

    A geotechnical investigation program has been completed for the Commercial Light Water Reactor - Tritium Extraction Facility (CLWR-TEF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The program consisted of reviewing previous geotechnical and geologic data and reports, performing subsurface field exploration, field and laboratory testing, and geologic and engineering analyses. The purpose of this investigation was to characterize the subsurface conditions for the CLWR-TEF in terms of subsurface stratigraphy and engineering properties for design and to perform selected engineering analyses. The objectives of the evaluation were to establish site-specific geologic conditions, obtain representative engineering properties of the subsurface and potential fill materials, evaluate the lateral and vertical extent of any soft zones encountered, and perform engineering analyses for slope stability, bearing capacity and settlement, and liquefaction potential. In addition, provide general recommendations for construction and earthwork.

  19. Short-term recovery of soil physical, chemical, micro- and mesobiological functions in a new vineyard under organic farming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costantini, E. A. C.; Agnelli, A. E.; Fabiani, A.; Gagnarli, E.; Mocali, S.; Priori, S.; Simoni, S.; Valboa, G.

    2015-06-01

    Deep earthwork activities carried out before vineyard plantation can severely affect soil profile properties. As a result, soil features in the root environment are often much more similar to those of the underlying substratum than those of the original profile. The time needed to recover the original soil functions is ecologically relevant and may strongly affect vine phenology and grape yield, particularly under organic viticulture. The general aim of this work was to investigate soil resilience after vineyard pre-planting earthworks. In particular, an old and a new vineyard, established on the same soil type, were compared over a 5-year period for soil chemical, physical, micro- and mesobiological properties. The investigated vineyards (Vitis vinifera L., cv. Sangiovese) were located in the Chianti Classico district (central Italy), on stony and calcareous soils, and were not irrigated. The older vineyard was planted in 2000, after slope reshaping by bulldozing and back-hoe ploughing down to about 0.8-1.0 m. The new vineyard was planted in 2011, after equivalent earthwork practices carried out in the summer of 2009. Both vineyards were organically managed, and they were fertilized with compost only every autumn (1000 kg ha-1 per year). The new vineyard was cultivated by periodic tillage, while the old vineyard was managed with alternating grass-covered and tilled inter-rows. Soil samples were collected at 0-15 cm depth from fixed locations in each vineyard every spring from 2010 to 2014. The old vineyard was sampled in both tilled and grass-covered inter-rows. According to the results from physical and chemical analyses, the new vineyard, during the whole 2010-2014 period, showed lower total organic carbon, total nitrogen, carbon to nitrogen ratio and electrical conductivity, along with higher silt and total CaCO3 contents than the old vineyard, suggesting still-evolving equilibrium conditions. The microarthropod analysis showed significantly different

  20. Analysis of causes of construction failure of road embankments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryszard Chmielewski

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper proposes a methodology for conducting the analysis of causes of con-struction failure of road embankments. First of all, it is focused on damaged road embankments, which represent a substantial percentage of this type of failure. At the beginning, current norms, regulations and rules of building art are presented, compliance with which should ensure a proper quality of construction, and thus should also reduce the risk of failure. In the next part, the paper is focused on the juxtaposition of the causes of construction failure of road at various stages of carrying out the investment projects. It is proposed a methodology for evaluating the causes of the construction failure of road and the methodology followed in the event of their occurrence. In the final part, practical applications of analytical results for the selected examples are presented. Keywords: earthworks, road embankments, slopes and embankments, trenches, failure

  1. Flora of xerothermic sites of the Zachodniowołyńska Dolina Bugu Special area of conservation (Eastern Poland: The influence of habitat on rare grassland species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woch Marcin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the investigation was to study the flora of grasslands within the Zachodniowołyńska Dolina Bugu Special Area of Conservation and to identify the types of habitats with the highest concentration of grassland species. In the years 2011-2012, floristic analyses covered the slopes of the valley of the Bug river, balks and places of shallow bedrock deposition, roadsides, as well as railway and earthwork sites. One hundred and fifty eight plant species belonging to 37 families were found. Though considered extinct in Polish flora, Dianthus collinus subsp. glabriusculus was discovered. Close to half of the recorded species (47% were grassland taxa and 15% rare and/or protected plants, which make the studied area particularly valuable for the conservation of biodiversity. The fewest grassland plants occurred on habitats that are under the influence of agriculture, where the dominance of nitrophilous and herbicide resistant plant species was observed.

  2. Community health impacts from oil and gas development in Texas: The perspective of Sharon Wilson.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vera, Lourdes

    2016-08-30

    Sharon Wilson is a community organizer for the nonprofit organization Earthworks. After leaving her office job managing data for the oil and gas industry, she started organizing in response to negative impacts from unconventional oil and gas extraction methods near her Texas home and throughout the state. She describes the environmental health impacts of oil and gas development aided by new technologies and regulatory exemptions set forth by the 2005 Energy Policy Act. Production has spread to previously unexplored regions over the last decade, including her property on the Barnett Shale in North Texas, where she has interacted with energy corporations and observed the intensification of residents' health issues. I structured the questions in this interview to highlight her unique perspective on organizing in relation to current regulatory loopholes, health impacts of oil and gas development, and the experiences individuals have had with representatives from the industry. © The Author(s) 2016.

  3. Effective strategies for development of thermal heavy oil field facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Ken; Lehnert-Thiel, Gunter [IMV Projects (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    In thermal heavy oil, a significant part of the capital has to be invested in field facilities and therefore strategies have to be implemented to optimize these costs. Field facilities consist of pipelines, earthworks and production pads whose purpose is to connect an oilsands reservoir to a central processing facility. This paper, presented by IMV Projects, a leading company in the thermal heavy oil field, highlights strategies to manage field facility lifecycle cost. Upfront planning should be done and the development of field facilities should be thought of as a long term infrastructure program rather than a stand-alone project. In addition, templates should be developed to save money and repeatability should be implemented to obtain a better prediction of the program's costs. The strategies presented herein allow major savings over the program's life by implementing an improved schedule and allowing refinements all along the program's course.

  4. Geospatial Data Integration for Assessing Landslide Hazard on Engineered Slopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, P. E.; Mills, J. P.; Barr, S. L.; Birkinshaw, S. J.

    2012-07-01

    Road and rail networks are essential components of national infrastructures, underpinning the economy, and facilitating the mobility of goods and the human workforce. Earthwork slopes such as cuttings and embankments are primary components, and their reliability is of fundamental importance. However, instability and failure can occur, through processes such as landslides. Monitoring the condition of earthworks is a costly and continuous process for network operators, and currently, geospatial data is largely underutilised. The research presented here addresses this by combining airborne laser scanning and multispectral aerial imagery to develop a methodology for assessing landslide hazard. This is based on the extraction of key slope stability variables from the remotely sensed data. The methodology is implemented through numerical modelling, which is parameterised with the slope stability information, simulated climate conditions, and geotechnical properties. This allows determination of slope stability (expressed through the factor of safety) for a range of simulated scenarios. Regression analysis is then performed in order to develop a functional model relating slope stability to the input variables. The remotely sensed raster datasets are robustly re-sampled to two-dimensional cross-sections to facilitate meaningful interpretation of slope behaviour and mapping of landslide hazard. Results are stored in a geodatabase for spatial analysis within a GIS environment. For a test site located in England, UK, results have shown the utility of the approach in deriving practical hazard assessment information. Outcomes were compared to the network operator's hazard grading data, and show general agreement. The utility of the slope information was also assessed with respect to auto-population of slope geometry, and found to deliver significant improvements over the network operator's existing field-based approaches.

  5. Experiment on Uav Photogrammetry and Terrestrial Laser Scanning for Ict-Integrated Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, N.; Wakutsu, R.; Kato, T.; Wakaizumi, T.; Ooishi, T.; Matsuoka, R.

    2017-08-01

    In the 2016 fiscal year the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism of Japan started a program integrating construction and ICT in earthwork and concrete placing. The new program named "i-Construction" focusing on productivity improvement adopts such new technologies as UAV photogrammetry and TLS. We report a field experiment to investigate whether the procedures of UAV photogrammetry and TLS following the standards for "i-Construction" are feasible or not. In the experiment we measured an embankment of about 80 metres by 160 metres immediately after earthwork was done on the embankment. We used two sets of UAV and camera in the experiment. One is a larger UAV enRoute Zion QC730 and its onboard camera Sony α6000. The other is a smaller UAV DJI Phantom 4 and its dedicated onboard camera. Moreover, we used a terrestrial laser scanner FARO Focus3D X330 based on the phase shift principle. The experiment results indicate that the procedures of UAV photogrammetry using a QC730 with an α6000 and TLS using a Focus3D X330 following the standards for "i-Construction" would be feasible. Furthermore, the experiment results show that UAV photogrammetry using a lower price UAV Phantom 4 was unable to satisfy the accuracy requirement for "i-Construction." The cause of the low accuracy by Phantom 4 is under investigation. We also found that the difference of image resolution on the ground would not have a great influence on the measurement accuracy in UAV photogrammetry.

  6. Providing Middle School Students With Science Research Experiences Through Community Partnerships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, D.

    2007-12-01

    Science research courses have been around for years at the university and high school level. As inquiry based learning has become more and more a part of the science teacher's vocabulary, many of these courses have adopted an inquiry model for studying science. Learners of all ages benefit from learning through the natural process of inquiry. I participated in the CIRES Earthworks program for science teachers (Colorado University) in the summer of 2007 and experienced, first hand, the value of inquiry learning. With the support and vision of my school administration, and with the support and commitment of community partners, I have developed a Middle School Science Research Program that is transforming how science is taught to students in my community. Swift Creek Middle School is located in Tallahassee, Florida. There are approximately 1000 students in this suburban public school. Students at Swift Creek are required to take one science class each year through 8th grade. As more emphasis is placed on learning a large number of scientific facts and information, in order to prepare students for yearly, standardized tests, there is a concern that less emphasis may be placed on the process and nature of science. The program I developed draws from the inquiry model followed at the CIRES Earthworks program, utilizes valuable community partnerships, and plays an important role in meeting that need. There are three major components to this Middle School Research Program, and the Center for Integrated Research and Learning (CIRL) at the National High Magnetic Field Lab (NHMFL) at Florida State University is playing an important role in all three. First, each student will develop their own research question and design experiments to answer the question. Scientists from the NHMFL are serving as mentors, or "buddy scientists," to my students as they work through the process of inquiry. Scientists from the CIRES - Earthworks program, Florida State University, and other

  7. Quantitative Assessment of Cost and Time Implication of Susceptibility of Building Elements to Variation in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solomon Olusola Babatunde

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available A number of research studies have been carried out on the causes and effects of variation on construction project delivery, thereby taking for granted the susceptibility of building elements to variations. This formed the basis of this paper with a view to assessing the cost and time implications of the susceptibility of each building element to variation during construction process in Nigeria. Archival record comprises contract drawings, original bill of quantities, addendum and reduction bill of quantities, and minutes of site meetings among others were used to extract data relating to initial cost, final construction cost, estimated period, final completion period of each building element attributed to variations. The data obtained were analyzed using statistical methods of average, percentage, regression analysis, and analysis of variance (ANOVA. The study identified the building elements having greater than 20% of cost overrun due to variation as earthwork and fillings, frame, windows and external doors, fittings and furnishings, water installation, and external services. The study further identified the building elements having greater than 25% time overrun due to variation as earthwork and fillings, block work (at substructure, upper floors, external walls, wall finishing among others. The results of ANOVA and regression analysis on the building elements cost and time were used to establish models. Thus, the established models are: AFC= 981690 + 1.033AIC; and AFCO= 608390.865 +1.310AIC to predict the average final cost of each building element, and the average final cost overrun of each building element due to variation respectively, where AFC= Average Final Cost, AIC= Average Initial Cost, and AFCO= Average Final Cost Overrun. Also, the study established the model: Y = 1.379(X – 0.251 for predicting the average actual completion period of each building element, where Y= Average Actual Completion Period, and X= Average Estimated Period

  8. Study of Lever-Arm Effect Using Embedded Photogrammetry and On-Board GPS Receiver on Uav for Metrological Mapping Purpose and Proposal of a Free Ground Measurements Calibration Procedure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daakir, M.; Pierrot-Deseilligny, M.; Bosser, P.; Pichard, F.; Thom, C.; Rabot, Y.

    2016-03-01

    Nowadays, Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) on-board photogrammetry knows a significant growth due to the democratization of using drones in the civilian sector. Also, due to changes in regulations laws governing the rules of inclusion of a UAV in the airspace which become suitable for the development of professional activities. Fields of application of photogrammetry are diverse, for instance: architecture, geology, archaeology, mapping, industrial metrology, etc. Our research concerns the latter area. Vinci-Construction- Terrassement is a private company specialized in public earthworks that uses UAVs for metrology applications. This article deals with maximum accuracy one can achieve with a coupled camera and GPS receiver system for direct-georeferencing of Digital Surface Models (DSMs) without relying on Ground Control Points (GCPs) measurements. This article focuses specially on the lever-arm calibration part. This proposed calibration method is based on two steps: a first step involves the proper calibration for each sensor, i.e. to determine the position of the optical center of the camera and the GPS antenna phase center in a local coordinate system relative to the sensor. A second step concerns a 3d modeling of the UAV with embedded sensors through a photogrammetric acquisition. Processing this acquisition allows to determine the value of the lever-arm offset without using GCPs.

  9. DALY-Based Health Risk Assessment of Construction Noise in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Jun; Li, Xiaodong; Zhang, Zhihui

    2016-10-26

    Noise produced by construction activities has become the second most serious acoustic polluting element in China. To provide industry practitioners with a better understanding of the health risks of construction noise and to aid in creating environmentally friendly construction plans during early construction stages, we developed a quantitative model to assess the health impairment risks (HIA) associated with construction noise for individuals living adjacent to construction sites. This model classifies noise-induced health impairments into four categories: cardiovascular disease, cognitive impairment, sleep disturbance, and annoyance, and uses disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) as an indicator of damage. Furthermore, the value of a statistical life (VSL) is used to transform DALYs into a monetary value based on the affected demographic characteristics, thereby offering policy makers a reliable theoretical foundation for establishing reasonable standards to compensate residents suffering from construction noise. A practical earthwork project in Beijing is used as a case study to demonstrate the applicability of the proposed model. The results indicate that construction noise could bring significant health risks to the neighboring resident community, with an estimated 34.51 DALYs of health damage and 20.47 million yuan in social costs. In particular, people aged 45-54 are most vulnerable to construction noise, with the greatest health risks being caused by sleep disturbance.

  10. Developing environmental legislation to promote recycling of industrial by-products - an endless story?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorvari, Jaana

    2008-01-01

    In Finland during the last few decades, mineral industrial residues (by-products) have been used in earthworks, but only to a limited extent relative to their total volume. The most important barrier to efficient recycling of by-products has been the need for a site-specific environmental permit, since the permit process tends to be time-consuming and laborious. In 2000 a working group was set up to prepare national legislation, i.e., a Government decree, in order to promote the use of by-products in earth construction. The aim was to exempt certain residues from the environmental permit obligation. At the first stage, the working group determined specific decision criteria for the selection of the by-products to be included. For the selected residues, the acceptable construction applications and material-specific environmental standards were defined. Various difficulties were encountered during the preparation of the decree. These were mainly caused by the lack of data and by some ongoing changes in environmental regulations. Furthermore, the draft decree received several critical and partly contradictory comments and proposals for amendments. This resulted in considerable delay in implementation.

  11. Application of AutoCAD Civil 3D in Design of Water Resources Project%AutoCAD Civil 3D在新疆某水利工程设计中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝永志

    2014-01-01

    With example of the model building of one earthrock dam in Xinjiang, application of Civil 3D in aspect of model building of dam body in water recourses project is introduced in terms of terrain curve surface generation, dam slope formation, slope excavation, and earthwork calculation, etc.3D model effect of dam body is visually displayed with contribution of the functions of 3D model building.Ad-vantages and prospects of AutoCAD Civil 3D in model building of dam body are summarized.%以新疆某土石坝建模为例,从地形曲面生成、大坝主体放坡、边坡开挖、土方量计算等方面介绍了Civil 3D在水利工程中坝体建模方面的应用,借助Civil 3D三维建模方面的功能,直观展示坝体三维模型效果。总结了AutoCAD Civil 3D在坝体建模中的主要优点和在水利工程中的应用前景。

  12. The Application of AutoCAD Civil 3 D in Reservoir Storage Calculation%Auto CAD Civil 3D在湖泊库容计算中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程剑刚

    2014-01-01

    This paper briefly introduced the AutoCAD Civil 3D three-dimensional modeling and earthwork calculation capacity; by means of the function of AutoCAD Civil 3D in establishing three -dimensional surface modeling , three dimensional underwater terrain of lakes can be displayed intuitively , realizing the calculating of existing water capacity and largest storage capacity , which show in-structive significance in reservoir storage calculation .%简要介绍了AutoCAD Civil 3D三维建模和土方计算功能,并借助AutoCAD Civil 3D在创建三维曲面模型等方面的功能,将湖泊水下地形三维直观地展现出来,在此基础上实现了对湖泊现有水容积和最大库容的计算,对湖泊库容计算具有指导意义。

  13. An Original Testing Apparatus for Rapid Pull-Out Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aprialdi, D.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pull-out test is commonly used to investigate the pull-out behavior of geotextile reinforcement embedded in soil. It is also used by different authors to propose interface friction angles values. Unfortunately these works mainly deal with cyclic loadings with reference to seismic action, which are believed to be different to the load exposed to reinforced earthworks due to lateral impacts. Therefore an original rapid pull-out test apparatus is proposed in this study. This article assess the proposed test method in addressing the rapid pull-out response of a geotextile embedded in soil. The testing apparatus allows investigating shear velocities within the range of 0.1 to 1.2 m/s. This test method seems promising in addressing the response of soil-geotextile interfaces under dynamic loadings. Nevertheless, improvements concerning the testing apparatus are still required. The loading system could be modified to avoid oscillations and specific equipment should be added to increase the normal stress.

  14. Unveiling topographical changes using LiDAR mapping capability: case study of Belaga in Sarawak, East-Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganendra, T. R.; Khan, N. M.; Razak, W. J.; Kouame, Y.; Mobarakeh, E. T.

    2016-06-01

    The use of Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) remote sensing technology to scan and map landscapes has proven to be one of the most popular techniques to accurately map topography. Thus, LiDAR technology is the ultimate method of unveiling the surface feature under dense vegetation, and, this paper intends to emphasize the diverse techniques that can be utilized to elucidate topographical changes over the study area, using multi-temporal airborne full waveform LiDAR datasets collected in 2012 and 2014. Full waveform LiDAR data offers access to an almost unlimited number of returns per shot, which enables the user to explore in detail topographical changes, such as vegetation growth measurement. The study also found out topography changes at the study area due to earthwork activities contributing to soil consolidation, soil erosion and runoff, requiring cautious monitoring. The implications of this study not only concurs with numerous investigations undertaken by prominent researchers to improve decision making, but also corroborates once again that investigations employing multi-temporal LiDAR data to unveil topography changes in vegetated terrains, produce more detailed and accurate results than most other remote sensing data.

  15. Management and restoration of soil extraction and landfill areas in civil works; Gestion y restauracion de zonas de prestamo y vertederos en obras civiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carrasco Garcia, M. J.; Salamanca, A. E. de; Varela Nieto, J. M.; Magdaleno Mas, F.

    2009-07-01

    For year, the design of infrastructures provided compensation between excavated and contributed land volumes, but the increasing complexity of the works, the quality requirements of the materials, and the rigidity of the design parameters, have reduced the possibilities to optimize the land balance. Furthermore, with the current machinery, land moving is not a problem. The result is an increase in the requirements of external materials and surpluses. The environmental integration of land-loans and landfills in the planning of civil works is still unfulfilled, although in some cases it could outweigh the environment effect of the woks. The impacts can be minimized with a proper selection of the locations, and careful operation and restoration plan. This paper discusses the factors leading to the emergence of a land deficit or excess, the possibilities for action to reduce earthworks and decomposition, the criteria for selecting areas of land-loans and landfill, the environmental analysis and authorizations, and the exploitations and restoration techniques. (Author) 1 refs.

  16. Dam and spillway construction to remediate a failed reservoir rim

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kostaschuk, R.; Grover, P.; Wanner, C. [AMEC Earth and Environmental Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada); Lockhart, S. [Priddis Greens Golf and Country Club, Priddis, AB (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    Priddis Greens Golf and Country Club (PGGCC) is located in southern Alberta, about 25 kilometres southwest of Calgary. Lake Loon reservoir supplies water for irrigation of the 36-hole golf course and also supplies water to the water treatment plant that provides potable water to the golf course and the housing development. An earthen spillway channel on the reservoir rim failed by erosion at the PGGCC during an extreme flood event in June 2005. The failure resulted in loss of the reservoir for the water supply system servicing the golf course and its housing cooperative. Design and reconstruction of the reservoir rim were undertaken and a new concrete spillway structure was built. This paper provided background information on the June 2005 failure and provided an overview of the design concept for reservoir restoration. The Alberta Environment permitting process was also outlined. Hydrology, flood management and spillway design were explained in detail. A geotechnical design of earthworks was also provided. The paper concluded with a discussion of an emergency preparedness and response plan and operation, maintenance and surveillance manual that were developed for the project. 2 refs., 20 figs.

  17. Studies on Pollution Control Standards of Comprehensive Utilization of Oily Sludge Pollution%油田含油污泥综合利用污染控制标准研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    匡丽; 葛树生

    2013-01-01

    Researching on oily sludge treatment and comprehensive utilization at home and abroad, this paper finds out four ways of oil sludge treatment and comprehensive utilization in Heilongjiang Province, which include landfill disposal, agricultural utilization, padding the well site and well road as well as road subgrade earthwork. DB23/T 1413 - 2010 " Pollution Control Standards of Oily Sludge Comprehensive Utilization of the Oilfield" eventually defines petroleum and another 11 indexes as comprehensive utilization pollution control standards for padding well site and well road as well as agricultural utilization.%通过国内外油田含油污泥处理和综合利用的调研,确定了黑龙江省油田含油污泥的处理和综合利用途径主要有填埋处理、农用、垫井场和通井路、公路路基土方.DB23/T 1413-2010《油田含油污泥综合利用污染控制标准》最终将油田含油污泥中的石油类等11项指标,作为油田含油污泥用于垫井场和通井路或农用综合利用的污染控制指标.

  18. 地铁车站暗挖工程(PBA 工法)施工技术控制要点%Construction technology control points of subway station excavation engineering(PBA mehtod)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘泽胜

    2015-01-01

    结合具体工程实例,介绍了PBA工法施工工艺流程和控制要点,着重阐述了其施工准备阶段控制要点、施工过程中挖孔桩施工、土方开挖、临时支撑拆除等关键工序控制要点,为今后类似地下车站工程施工提供参考和借鉴。%Combining with specific engineering examples,the paper introduces construction technology procedures and control points of PBA method,mainly describes control points at construction preparation phase,excavation pile construction,earthwork excavation and temporary sup-port dismantle in construction process and other critical construction technology control points,which has provided some guidance for similar sub-way station engineering construction in future.

  19. Combining ER and GPR surveys for evidence of prehistoric landscape construction: case study at Mound City, Ohio, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, B. B.; Mandel, R. D.; Tsoflias, G. P.; De Vore, S. L.; Lynott, M.

    2016-06-01

    Mound City, located at the Hopewell Culture National Historical Park in south-central Ohio, USA, is a prehistoric earthwork (200 BC-500 AD) that consists of 24 mounds enclosed in a square embankment wall and is surrounded by eight pits. Recent excavation of two of these pits resulted in the discovery of a clay loam liner that appears to have been placed on the floor of the pits by a prehistoric society known as the Hopewell. The aim of this study was to determine the spatial pattern of this liner in one of the pits using non-invasive geophysical techniques, specifically electrical resistivity and ground-penetrating radar. Minimally invasive soil augers and a test trench yielded information that was used to corroborate interpretations of the geophysical data. The geophysical methods proved to be useful in locating and defining the remnants of the prehistoric clay loam liner, and the results of our investigation indicate that almost 50% of the liner still remains in the pit today. This discovery supports a new interpretation that the Hopewell excavated and preserved the pits at the Mound City site because they served as cultural landscape features.

  20. Greenhouse Gas Assessment and Compensation on Brazilian Low Volume Rural Roads Using CarbonROAD—The Santa Rosa de Lima Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reus Salini

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The “Santa Catarina Rural” is a Program co-funded by The World Bank for improvements on 1300 km of low volume rural roads on Southern Brazil. The pioneer project under the program was on the municipality of Santa Rosa de Lima, where the greenhouse gas (GHG emissions resulting from the road improvement activities as well as the regular traffic were assessed on an experimental basis using the CarbonROAD software application. Here, we show details of the CarbonROAD software application and the construction emissions assessment procedure as well as the mitigating effect of the plants used for compensation. It was found that most of the emissions come from the road improvement work. This includes earthworks, fuel for motor graders, bulldozers and other machines, and materials and gravel extraction, industrialization and transportation, etc. Only a smaller portion comprises regular road traffic. The accumulated emission balance shows that the carbon absorption is larger than construction emissions after just 15 months. The potential for price appraisal of the generated carbon credits is explored.

  1. Technologies nouvelles en améliorations foncières et réflexions sur leurs retombées économiques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cogels, O.

    1987-01-01

    Full Text Available New technologies about ground improvements and thoughts on their economical repercussions. After an introduction on the importance of land and water improvement in the world, a synthesis is presented about the main contributions of new technologies at the levels of the preliminary investigations, the execution and the operation and management. At the level of the preliminary investigations, the contribution of electronics and computers is discussed as well for the data acquisition as for the data structuration, namely with the aid of data banks and numerical cartography. At the level of the execution, the laser technique for guidance of earthwork engines is discussed. At the level of operation and management, the support of new technologies consists of an increasing use of electronic sensors for local or remote control and monitoring of soil and plant water status. The laser technique is also used for the guidance of irrigation machines such as the central pivot. On an economical point of vue, these innovations don't seem to improve considerably the agricultural production per unit area, but they increase undoubtedly the productivity of the factor water. This is all the more true when the improved area is large. New technologies lead to scale economics. They are thus in favor of putting the land in common during the stages of investigations and excutions and to keep in common some aspects of the management.

  2. A Case Study of Land Leveling Cost Audit%场地平整造价审核实例分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘汉清

    2015-01-01

    Land leveling is an important part of a construction project. Its cost audit should take place on the base of the contract of the construction project, and by setting up an efficient team, examining the foundation of the calculation of land leveling project, and constructing an accurate digital terrain model, so as to work out the exact earthwork volume, and to determine and control the land leveling cost.%场地平整是工程项目建设的重要工作内容,其造价审核应依据建设工程合同,组建合适的造价审核组织,审查场地平整工程量计算依据,构建准确的数字地面模型,从而计算出正确的土方工程量,实现合理确定和有效控制项目场地平整工程造价。

  3. Construction of Deep Foundation Ditch Neighboring Subway%邻近地铁旁的深基坑施工

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨学清

    2001-01-01

    The distance between the exterior protection wall o f foundation ditch of Wanxiang International Plaza and the side of subways is only 3 meters, and they were constucted at the same time. In the construction of Wanxiang International Plaza, many techniques such as scientific construction procedure and information alized construction were adopted to make the protection structure strong and bear such tests as subway shield driving, subway earthwork excavation and sustainer demolition blasting and so on.%万象国际广场基坑外围距地铁边缘仅3m,且二者同步施工。施工中采取科学的工艺流程、多种技术措施和实现了信息化施工,使支护结构经受了地铁盾构顶进、基坑土方大开挖以及支撑爆破等考验。

  4. Influence of Geosta Addition on Cement-stabilised Chicoco Mud of the Niger Delta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olujide Omotosho

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Chicoco is a very soft and extremely compressible organic marine mud found extensively and to considerable depths within the saline tidal flat or mangrove swamp of the Niger delta in southern Nigeria. Natural chicoco is highly undesirable, barely able to support a human of average weight but air-dried chicoco has been used successfully by the indigeneous people for shore protection, etc. especially if placed above water. Plain cement stabilization of most organic soils (including chicoco is known to be ineffective. In this study, geosta, a chemical stabiliser relatively newly developed for organic soils was combined with ordinary Portland cement to stabilise chicoco. It was observed that neutralisation of acidic "air-dried" chicoco by basic geosta inhibited the expected ion-exchange reaction and its attendant improvement on mechanical properties. As a result and as geosta content increases, maximum dry density (MDD was found to be only marginally improved but better for higher cement contents while optimum moisture content (OMC decreases but with higher values for lower cement contents. Unsoaked CBR (but with samples wax-cured for 3 days on the other hand was found to maximise at low geosta content and thereafter decreases continually - a major cost advantage in earthworks. In fact, the most effective influence was obtained at 4.0% cement plus about 1.5% geosta. This stabilization was also found to produce optimum road sub-base materials.

  5. A safe, efficient and cost effective process for removing petroleum hydrocarbons from a highly heterogeneous and relatively inaccessible shoreline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerin, Turlough F

    2015-10-01

    A rocky, intractable and highly heterogeneous, intertidal zone, was contaminated from a diesel fuel spill that occurred during refuelling of a grader used in road construction, on an operational mine's shiploading facility. A practical, cost-effective, and safer (to personnel by avoiding drilling and earthworks), and non-invasive sampling and remediation strategy was designed and implemented since the location and nature of the impacted geology (rock fill) and sediment, precluded conventional ex-situ and any in-situ treatment where drilling would be required. Enhanced biostimulation with surfactant, available N & P (which were highly constrained), and increased aeration, increased the degradation rate from no discernable change for 2 years post-spill, to 170 mg/kg/day; the maximum degradation rate after intervention. While natural attenuation was ineffective in this application, the low-cost, biostimulation intervention proved successful, allowing the site owner to meet their regulatory obligations. Petroleum hydrocarbons (aliphatic fraction) decreased from ∼20,000 mg/kg to <200 mg/kg at the completion of 180 weeks of treatment.

  6. Restoring the natural state of the soil surface by biocrusts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaady, Eli; Ungar, Eugene D.; Stavi, Ilan; Shuker, Shimshon; Knoll, Yaakov M.

    2017-04-01

    In arid and semi-arid areas, with mean annual precipitation of 70-200 mm, the dominant component of the ground cover is biocrusts composed of cyanobacteria, moss and lichens. Biocrusts play a role in stabilizing the soil surface, which reduces erosion by water and wind. Human disturbances, such as heavy vehicular traffic, earthworks, overgrazing and land mining destroy the soil surface and promote erosion. The aim of the study was to evaluate restoration of the soil surface by the return of a biocrust layer. We examined the impact of disturbances on the creation of a stable crust and on the rate of recovery. Biocrust disturbance was studied in two sites in the northern Negev. The nine treatments included different rates of biocrust inoculum application and NPK fertilization. Recovery rates of the biocrusts were monitored for five years using chemical, physical and bio-physiological tests which determined infiltration rate, soil surface resistance to pressure, shear force of the soil surface, levels of chlorophyll, organic matter and polysaccharide, NDVI and aggregate stability. The results show that untreated disturbed biocrusts present long-term damage and a very slow rate of recovery, which may take decades, while most of the treatments showed a faster recovery. In particular, NDVI, polysaccharide levels and aggregate stability showed steady improvements over the research period.

  7. Bitcoin and Potosí Silver: Historical Perspectives on Cryptocurrency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmer, Zac

    Bitcoin, the digital cryptocurrency, has been celebrated as the future of money on the Internet. Although Bitcoin does present several forward-looking innovations, it also integrates a very old concept into its digital architecture: the mining of precious metals. Even though Bitcoin explicitly invokes mining as a metaphor and gold as an example for understanding the cryptocurrency, there has been little critical work on the connections between Bitcoin and previous metalist currency regimes. The following essay proposes a historical comparison with colonial South American silver mining and the global currency regime based on the New World silver peso it created as a way to interrogate Bitcoin. The comparison with colonial South America, and specifically the silver mining economy around the Cerro Rico de Potosí, will help to develop a historical and political understanding of Bitcoin's stakes, including questions of resources, labor, energy, and ecology. Mining and the extractive apparatus that accompanies it always imply massive-scale earthworks that reshape the planet itself, a process known as terraforming. The Potosí comparison will reveal Bitcoin to form part of a similar process of digital primitive accumulation we can provisionally name cryptoforming.

  8. A theoretical retention model for unsaturated uniform and graded soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monnet Jacques

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Modelling the relation between the degree of saturation and the suction (ie retention curve is an important challenge for geotechnical engineering. It has a huge influence on the behavior of large soil constructions as levees, embankments, road earthworks. We present here a theoretical model of retention curve which considers physical relations of unsaturated soils. With this approach, there is no need to assume particular shapes of the retention curves, which are a consequence of the physical assumptions. The present study is focused on a theoretical model based on elastic spherical particle arrangement. As a first step a uniform model is presented with a single diameter of soil particle. A second step extends the use of the model to graded soils. The model uses only 5 physical parameters. It is compared with the experimental retention curve of two different samples of glass uniform particles and two different graded soils, a graded glass sample and the Livet-Gavet loam. It shows its ability to model the experimental curves and a better agreement than the former theory of Brooks and Corey (1966. This current publication is funded by the French National Project «Terredurable» (ANR 2011,.

  9. 2006 equipment evolutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McArdle, D. [KMC Mining, Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    KMC Mining is a privately-owned major mining contractor that was established in 1949. The company has a long history in construction of roads; railroads; dams; and other major earthworks. It is primarily involved in Alberta oilsands, although it has also performed elsewhere in northern and western Canada. This presentation provided a corporate overview of KMC Mining and discussed its fleet profile, operations and an overview of its South Tailings Pond Project. The company added 7 new 320 ton class haul trucks to its fleet in 2005 to match its shovel capacity. The presentation provided an overview of 3 separate incidents in 2005 that resulted in damage to the frame and steering linkage; tie-rod failure with both front struts separated from a truck; and tie-rod failure with left hand front strut separated from a truck. These incidents were described in detail and post-investigations were conducted. As a result of this investigation, some possible incident contributors were also discussed. Next, the presentation discussed mounting hardware and provided an overview of hardware failure and replacement hardware. Last, the presentation addressed incident reoccurrence mitigation. A reoccurrence prevention plan was developed, which included suspension mounting hardware; tie-rod inspection and re-design; and payload monitoring and operating practices. It was summarized that measures are still in place since the reoccurrence prevention plan and there have been no further incidents. figs.

  10. The domestication of Amazonia before European conquest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, Charles R.; Denevan, William M.; Heckenberger, Michael J.; Junqueira, André Braga; Neves, Eduardo G.; Teixeira, Wenceslau G.; Woods, William I.

    2015-01-01

    During the twentieth century, Amazonia was widely regarded as relatively pristine nature, little impacted by human history. This view remains popular despite mounting evidence of substantial human influence over millennial scales across the region. Here, we review the evidence of an anthropogenic Amazonia in response to claims of sparse populations across broad portions of the region. Amazonia was a major centre of crop domestication, with at least 83 native species containing populations domesticated to some degree. Plant domestication occurs in domesticated landscapes, including highly modified Amazonian dark earths (ADEs) associated with large settled populations and that may cover greater than 0.1% of the region. Populations and food production expanded rapidly within land management systems in the mid-Holocene, and complex societies expanded in resource-rich areas creating domesticated landscapes with profound impacts on local and regional ecology. ADE food production projections support estimates of at least eight million people in 1492. By this time, highly diverse regional systems had developed across Amazonia where subsistence resources were created with plant and landscape domestication, including earthworks. This review argues that the Amazonian anthrome was no less socio-culturally diverse or populous than other tropical forested areas of the world prior to European conquest. PMID:26202998

  11. Revealing the Secrets of Stonehenge Through the Application of Laser Scanning, Photogrammetry and Visualisation Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan, P. G.; Abbott, M.; Dodson, A. J.

    2013-07-01

    Stonehenge is perhaps the most famous prehistoric monument in the world. Begun as a simple earthwork enclosure, it was built in several stages with the unique lintelled stone circle being erected in the Neolithic period in around 2,500 BC. Today Stonehenge, together with Avebury and other associated sites, form the heart of a World Heritage Site (WHS) with a unique and dense concentration of outstanding prehistoric monuments. In 2011 English Heritage (EH) embarked on a new survey of the monument. Undertaken by the Greenhatch Group, a commercial survey company based near Derby, a combination of laser scanning and photogrammetric approaches were used to generate the required scale and detailed level of output required by English Heritage. This paper will describe the background to this project and its context within previous survey activities at this World Heritage Site. It will explain the data acquisition technology and processes undertaken on site, the datasets derived from post-processing and their filtering and analysis within both subsequent research projects. Alongside a description of how the data is currently being exploited and proposed future applications within the conservation and management of the site, it will finish by considering the impact of developing geospatial imaging technologies.

  12. The domestication of Amazonia before European conquest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, Charles R; Denevan, William M; Heckenberger, Michael J; Junqueira, André Braga; Neves, Eduardo G; Teixeira, Wenceslau G; Woods, William I

    2015-08-07

    During the twentieth century, Amazonia was widely regarded as relatively pristine nature, little impacted by human history. This view remains popular despite mounting evidence of substantial human influence over millennial scales across the region. Here, we review the evidence of an anthropogenic Amazonia in response to claims of sparse populations across broad portions of the region. Amazonia was a major centre of crop domestication, with at least 83 native species containing populations domesticated to some degree. Plant domestication occurs in domesticated landscapes, including highly modified Amazonian dark earths (ADEs) associated with large settled populations and that may cover greater than 0.1% of the region. Populations and food production expanded rapidly within land management systems in the mid-Holocene, and complex societies expanded in resource-rich areas creating domesticated landscapes with profound impacts on local and regional ecology. ADE food production projections support estimates of at least eight million people in 1492. By this time, highly diverse regional systems had developed across Amazonia where subsistence resources were created with plant and landscape domestication, including earthworks. This review argues that the Amazonian anthrome was no less socio-culturally diverse or populous than other tropical forested areas of the world prior to European conquest.

  13. Corrective Action Plan for Corrective Action Unit 143: Area 25 Contaminated Waste Dumps, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. L. Gustafason

    2001-02-01

    This Corrective Action Plan (CAP) has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 143: Area 25 Contaminated Waste Dumps, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order of 1996. This CAP provides the methodology for implementing the approved corrective action alternative as listed in the Corrective Action Decision Document (U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office, 2000). The CAU includes two Corrective Action Sites (CASs): 25-23-09, Contaminated Waste Dump Number 1; and 25-23-03, Contaminated Waste Dump Number 2. Investigation of CAU 143 was conducted in 1999. Analytes detected during the corrective action investigation were evaluated against preliminary action levels to determine constituents of concern for CAU 143. Radionuclide concentrations in disposal pit soil samples associated with the Reactor Maintenance, Assembly, and Disassembly Facility West Trenches, the Reactor Maintenance, Assembly, and Disassembly Facility East Trestle Pit, and the Engine Maintenance, Assembly, and Disassembly Facility Trench are greater than normal background concentrations. These constituents are identified as constituents of concern for their respective CASs. Closure-in-place with administrative controls involves use restrictions to minimize access and prevent unauthorized intrusive activities, earthwork to fill depressions to original grade, placing additional clean cover material over the previously filled portion of some of the trenches, and placing secondary or diversion berm around pertinent areas to divert storm water run-on potential.

  14. Modelling of series of types of automated trenchless works tunneling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gendarz, P.; Rzasinski, R.

    2016-08-01

    Microtunneling is the newest method for making underground installations. Show method is the result of experience and methods applied in other, previous methods of trenchless underground works. It is considered reasonable to elaborate a series of types of construction of tunneling machines, to develop this particular earthworks method. There are many design solutions of machines, but the current goal is to develop non - excavation robotized machine. Erosion machines with main dimensions of the tunnels which are: 1600, 2000, 2500, 3150 are design with use of the computer aided methods. Series of types of construction of tunneling machines creating process was preceded by analysis of current state. The verification of practical methodology of creating the systematic part series was based on the designed erosion machines series of types. There were developed: method of construction similarity of the erosion machines, algorithmic methods of quantitative construction attributes variant analyzes in the I-DEAS advanced graphical program, relational and program parameterization. There manufacturing process of the parts will be created, which allows to verify the technological process on the CNC machines. The models of designed will be modified and the construction will be consulted with erosion machine users and manufacturers like: Tauber Rohrbau GmbH & Co.KG from Minster, OHL ZS a.s. from Brna,. The companies’ acceptance will result in practical verification by JUMARPOL company.

  15. Tunnels: different construction methods and its use for pipelines installation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattos, Tales; Soares, Ana Cecilia; Assis, Slow de; Bolsonaro, Ralfo; Sanandres, Simon [Petroleo do Brasil S.A. (PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    In a continental dimensions country like Brazil, the pipeline modal faces the challenge of opening ROW's in the most different kind of soils with the most different geomorphology. To safely fulfill the pipeline construction demand, the ROW opening uses all techniques in earthworks and route definition and, where is necessary, no digging techniques like horizontal directional drilling, micro tunneling and also full size tunnels design for pipelines installation in high topography terrains to avoid geotechnical risks. PETROBRAS has already used the tunnel technique to cross higher terrains with great construction difficult, and mainly to make it pipeline maintenance and operation easier. For the GASBOL Project, in Aparados da Serra region and in GASYRG, in Bolivia, two tunnels were opened with approximately 700 meters and 2,000 meters each one. The GASBOL Project had the particularity of being a gallery with only one excavation face, finishing under the hill and from this point was drilled a vertical shaft was drilled until the top to install the pipeline section, while in GASYRG Project the tunnel had two excavation faces. Currently, two projects are under development with tunnels, one of then is the Caraguatatuba-Taubate gas pipeline (GASTAU), with a 5 km tunnel, with the same concepts of the GASBOL tunnel, with a gallery to be opened with the use of a TBM (Tunneling Boring Machine), and a shaft to the surface, and the gas pipeline Cabiunas-Reduc III (GASDUC III) project is under construction with a 3.7 km tunnel, like the GASYRG tunnel with two faces. This paper presents the main excavation tunneling methods, conventional and mechanized, presenting the most relevant characteristics from both and, in particular, the use of tunnels for pipelines installation. (author)

  16. Beyond Design: The Importance of Construction and Post-Construction Phases in Green Developments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Hostetler

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Green developments are becoming a popular land use planning concept that attempts to accommodate growth while minimizing impacts on natural resources. Various policies encourage conservation designs that usually translate into the clustering of homes and the conservation of some percentage of open space. However, the success of a design is determined by what happens during the construction and post-construction phases of a subdivision project. These two phases are often ignored in land use planning and given only minimal attention by built environment professionals. As a result, green developments may not be functioning as originally intended. This essay discusses the importance of construction and post-construction and a way forward to create functional, sustainable communities. Construction activities and decisions, such as impacts from earthwork machines, improper protection of conserved open spaces and trees, the choice of plants used for yards and common areas, and the storage of construction material all can lead to severe impacts on natural areas both within and surrounding a development site. During post-construction, a variety of improper management practices by homeowners can compromise the sustainability of a development. Developers and associated environmental consultant teams could implement approaches that would engage contractors and residents, such as environmental construction covenants and the installment of a neighborhood, environmental education program. To increase the adoption of relevant construction and post-construction practices, appropriate policies need to be created. However, the shift will only occur once the planning and built environment community acknowledges that design is only the first step towards sustainability. Academic design studios and continuing education courses can help with this culture shift by including construction and post-construction considerations within their curriculum.

  17. Geospatial modeling approach to monument construction using Michigan from A.D. 1000-1600 as a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howey, Meghan C L; Palace, Michael W; McMichael, Crystal H

    2016-07-01

    Building monuments was one way that past societies reconfigured their landscapes in response to shifting social and ecological factors. Understanding the connections between those factors and monument construction is critical, especially when multiple types of monuments were constructed across the same landscape. Geospatial technologies enable past cultural activities and environmental variables to be examined together at large scales. Many geospatial modeling approaches, however, are not designed for presence-only (occurrence) data, which can be limiting given that many archaeological site records are presence only. We use maximum entropy modeling (MaxEnt), which works with presence-only data, to predict the distribution of monuments across large landscapes, and we analyze MaxEnt output to quantify the contributions of spatioenvironmental variables to predicted distributions. We apply our approach to co-occurring Late Precontact (ca. A.D. 1000-1600) monuments in Michigan: (i) mounds and (ii) earthwork enclosures. Many of these features have been destroyed by modern development, and therefore, we conducted archival research to develop our monument occurrence database. We modeled each monument type separately using the same input variables. Analyzing variable contribution to MaxEnt output, we show that mound and enclosure landscape suitability was driven by contrasting variables. Proximity to inland lakes was key to mound placement, and proximity to rivers was key to sacred enclosures. This juxtaposition suggests that mounds met local needs for resource procurement success, whereas enclosures filled broader regional needs for intergroup exchange and shared ritual. Our study shows how MaxEnt can be used to develop sophisticated models of past cultural processes, including monument building, with imperfect, limited, presence-only data.

  18. 基于BIM的变电站工程图形算量系统研究%Development and Research of Substation Engineering BIM Cost Software

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    屠庆波; 王霄燕; 曾大林; 纪凡荣; 刘宏志

    2015-01-01

    BIM plays an important role in the project cost management of construction industry. Based on BIM technology,it is beneficial that using BIM technology will enhance the working efficiency of grid technology. At present substation project cost has problems in the aspects of quadratic computation and construction,reinforced,and small installation cost integration. Based on three-dimensional MVC modeling platform and synchronous support,BIM cost software and modular structure were put forward. The quantities calculation of cable channel and earthwork in substation project were selected for case study to illustrate the implementation of the proposed method.%BIM技术在建筑行业的工程造价管理中逐渐发挥其作用,基于BIM技术的多方优势,利用其可视化、精确性特点可为电网工程技经方面提升工作效率。变电站工程造价存在二次算量及建筑、钢筋、安装造价无法集成等问题。利用MVC模式的三维建模平台和同步算量技术支撑,提出了基于BIM的变电站工程图形算量系统。以变电站站区工程中常见的电缆沟及盖板和基础土方工程量计算为例阐述了主要技术的实现方式。

  19. Risk management of a torrential flood construction project using the Monte Carlo simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baumgertel Aleksandar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Projects for the regulation of torrent basins carry various unforeseen adverse effects that may result in breached deadlines, increased costs, a reduction of quality etc. The paper presents the basic characteristics and most frequent risks associated with erosion control. Furthermore, it provides an overview of risk management through its basic stages - starting from risk identification and risk analysis to risk responses, including the methods used for risk analysis. As a part of quantitative methods for risk analysis, the Monte Carlo method is presented as the one most frequently used in simulations. The Monte Carlo method is a stochastic simulation method consisting of the following stages: the identification of criterion and relevant variables, the allocation of probability for relevant variables, the determination of correlation coefficient among relevant variables, simulation execution and result analysis. This method was applied in the analysis of the total cost of the project for the basin regulation of the Dumača River in order to determine the funding that would be used as a backup in case of unforeseen events with a negative impact. The project for the regulation of the Dumača River includes basin regulation in the form of complex flow profile and the lining of zones where necessary in terms of stability. The total cost is presented as a sum of costs of all works (preliminary works, earthworks, masonry works, concrete works and finishing works. The Monte Carlo simulation for cost analysis is carried out using the Oracle Crystal Ball software with its basic steps described in the paper. A sum of funding needed as a financial backup in case of unforeseen events with negative effects is obtained as the simulated total cost of the project.

  20. An integrated program of geophysical survey, coring, and test excavations to study a 4th millennium bc-cal ditch at Alt del Punxó (Muro de L’alcoi, Alacant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García Puchol, Otero

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The potentially long and interesting archaeological sequence revealed by systematic survey at the site of Alt Del Punxó (Muro de l’Alcoi, Alacant was the basis for initiating a study of the locality’s subsurface structures using new methods of remote sensing. Geophysical survey (magnetometry and tomography and systematic augering revealed buried structures, including monumental earthworks, and guided subsequent excavations to collect more detailed data about the nature and age of these prehistoric features. The information recovered, including new radiocarbon dates, offers a new perspective on the organization of prehistoric populations in this region of south-central Valencia since the beginning of the Holocene and is especially important for understanding the Neolithic IIB from the 4th through the early 3rd Millennium BC.

    La amplia e interesante secuencia arqueológica sugerida por los materiales de superficie del yacimiento de Alt del Punxó (Muro de l’Alcoi, Alacant ha supuesto el punto de partida para la práctica de una serie de métodos de detección de las estructuras conservadas en el lugar. La prospección geofísica (magnetometría y tomografía, y los microsondeos (augers han dirigido la planificación de la excavación con el fin de obtener nuevos datos a propósito de la naturaleza y cronología del gran foso prehistórico, así como de las diversas estructuras localizadas. La información obtenida, junto a la serie radiocarbónica disponible, abre nuevas perspectivas para el estudio del poblamiento prehistórico al aire libre en las comarcas centro-meridionales valencianas desde los inicios del Holoceno, y de un modo particular en el IV e inicios del III milenio cal AC –Neolítico IIB.

  1. Monitoramento de poropressões construtivas Porepressure monitoring during construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena Romã Penna

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Em obras de terra, onde as poropressões construtivas são condicionantes de projeto, é fundamental o uso de instrumentação de campo, de forma a se evitarem incidentes ou riscos à segurança das estruturas. Nesse contexto, apresentam-se, no artigo, testes de laboratório e de campo com uma sonda piezométrica conhecida como Levelogger®, originalmente usada para medir pressão de fluidos em tanques e que foi adaptada para uso em solos. Esse instrumento foi, depois, usado com sucesso numa aplicação prática de obra geotécnica. Ambos os testes foram realizados de forma inovadora e o Levelogger® provou ser uma excelente opção para medição de poropressões em eventos que demandam tempo de resposta rápido e facilidade de operação.In earthworks where construction porepressures are a conditioning design factor, field instrumentation becomes essential in order to avoid incidents or risks to the structure's safety. In this context, this article presents the laboratory and field tests performed with a piezometer probe known as Levelogger®, originally developed for fluid pressure measurement in tanks and which was modified for use in soils. This device was then used with success in a practical geotechnical application. Both tests were conducted in an innovative manner and the Levelogger® proved to be an excellent alternative for measuring porepressures in events which require quick response and easy operation.

  2. 一种道路参数化快速建模技术与应用%Road Quick Modeling and Application Based on Parameter Design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王阳生; 何兴富

    2014-01-01

    介绍一种在高精度三维地形模型的基础上对道路设计方案快速集成和实时模拟的方法。基于道路设计领域知识,设计道路空间-语义一体化的信息模型,实现道路设计成果的快速整合;基于参数化设计技术和断面拉伸建模技术实现道路三维模型的快速构建。在此基础上开展路基土石方计算、征地统计和辅助规划管理等工作,为道路方案的可视化展现、辅助分析决策和提升设计效率、加强方案科学性等提供了一种技术手段。%This paper introduces a method of rapid integration and real-time modeling for road design project based on high accuracy three-dimensional terrain model ,with constructing a space-semantic integration road information mod-eling based on knowledge of the field of road design to achieve rapid integration of road design project ,and creating road model rapidly by section stretching modeling based on parametric design techniques .Based on 3D road model,roadbed earthwork calculations ,statistical land acquisition and planning management were conducted .This paper provides a new technique for visualizing of road program ,assisting decision-making and improving road design efficiency and more scien-tific.

  3. Flux estimation of fugitive particulate matter emissions from loose Calcisols at construction sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Hala A.; Kumar, Prashant; Kakosimos, Konstantinos E.

    2016-09-01

    A major source of airborne pollution in arid and semi-arid environments (i.e. North Africa, Middle East, Central Asia, and Australia) is the fugitive particulate matter (fPM), which is a frequent product of wind erosion. However, accurate determination of fPM is an ongoing scientific challenge. The objective of this study is to examine fPM emissions from the loose Calcisols (i.e. soils with a substantial accumulation of secondary carbonates), owing to construction activities that can be frequently seen nowadays in arid urbanizing regions such as the Middle East. A two months field campaign was conducted at a construction site, at rest, within the city of Doha (Qatar) to measure number concentrations of PM over a size range of 0.25-32 μm using light scattering based monitoring stations. The fPM emission fluxes were calculated using the Fugitive Dust Model (FDM) in an iterative manner and were fitted to a power function, which expresses the wind velocity dependence. The power factors were estimated as 1.87, 1.65, 2.70 and 2.06 for the four different size classes of particles ≤2.5, 2.5-6, 6-10 and ≤10 μm, respectively. Fitted power function was considered acceptable given that adjusted R2 values varied from 0.13 for the smaller particles and up to 0.69 for the larger ones. These power factors are in the same range of those reported in the literature for similar sources. The outcome of this study is expected to contribute to the improvement of PM emission inventories by focusing on an overlooked but significant pollution source, especially in dry and arid regions, and often located very close to residential areas and sensitive population groups. Further campaigns are recommended to reduce the uncertainty and include more fPM sources (e.g. earthworks) and other types of soil.

  4. Hypothesis on a portrait of a girl of Severan age from Via Labicana (Rome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariarosaria Barbera

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In 2007, during the archaeological excavations in via Labicana close to the church of SS. Pietro e Marcellino, a statue portraying a female head was unearthed: the piece appeared well-preserved and the formal characteristics suggested it had been sculpted under the Severian Dinasty. The Greek marble head by reason of the quality and style, can be compared with a series of portraits dating to the period between second and third decade of the III century A.D. It was possible to identify the head as that of Annia Aurelia Faustina by reason of the face and hair. She was the great niece of Marcus Aurelius and the third wife of emperor Eliogabalus, who was proclaimed Augusta from summer to winter in the year 221 A.D. Stratigraphic data proved uncertain, because in modern times, probably in the XVIIIth century, the head was thrown onto an earth dump, and the archaeological provenance is therefore uncertain being situated within an area where important monuments like the Isium Metellinum and the domus Tetricorum, are not yet placed with certainty. The excavations unearthed a cross-vaulted room with pillars and high skylights, maybe a horreum, that were laid upon previous structures constructed during Domitian’s reign, forming part of the earthworks on the northern side of Caelius hill. Later flights of stairs were built, to enable the room to link with the terrace and brick stamps were found, in part referring to the family of Marcus Aurelius and the Ummidia gens (in fact emperor’s sister, Annia Cornificia Faustina married Ummidius Quadratus, and in part to Commodus. It is suggested that after Ummidius’nephew had conspired in the plot against Commodus, the property formerly belonging to Cornificia was seized by the emperor himself but was later returned by Eliogabalus to his wife Annia Faustina, whom he honoured by commissioning the wonderful sculpture portrayed here.

  5. Long-term final void salinity prediction for a post-mining landscape in the Hunter Valley, New South Wales, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hancock, G. R.; Wright, A.; de Silva, H.

    2005-02-01

    Opencast mining alters surface and subsurface hydrology of a landscape both during and post-mining. At mine closure, following opencast mining in mines with low overburden to coal ratios, a void is left in the final landform. This final void is the location of the active mine pit at closure. Voids are generally not infilled within the mines' lifetime, because of the prohibitive cost of earthwork operations, and they become post-mining water bodies or pit lakes. Water quality is a significant issue for pit lakes. Groundwater within coal seams and associated rocks can be saline, depending on the nature of the strata and groundwater circulation patterns. This groundwater may be preferentially drawn to and collected in the final void. Surface runoff to the void will not only collect salts from rainfall and atmospheric fallout, but also from the ground surface and the weathering of fresh rock. As the void water level rises, its evaporative surface area increases, concentrating salts that are held in solution. This paper presents a study of the long term, water quality trends in a post-mining final void in the Hunter Valley, New South Wales, Australia. This process is complex and occurs long term, and modelling offers the only method of evaluating water quality. Using available geochemical, climate and hydrogeological data as inputs into a mass-balance model, water quality in the final void was found to increase rapidly in salinity through time (2452 to 8909 mg l-1 over 500 years) as evaporation concentrates the salt in the void and regional groundwater containing high loads of salt continues to flow into the void.

  6. Análise do impacto do período de projeto de pavimentos no custo global de obras rodoviárias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Guilherme Rodrigues Mello

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Most projects for the construction of big highways in Brazil are based on conventional design methods. It is also common practice in Brazil to adopt a period of ten years to account for the traffic load when designing flexible pavements. However, some highway infrastructure projects are rather expensive and the costs related to earthworks or special structures, such as bridges and drainage, can significantly overshadow the cost of the pavement construction. Therefore, it is important to evaluate the economic impact of considering longer design periods, still in the stage of study of viability of a big highway project. The objective of this paper is to show the relation between overall cost and design reliability with the increase of design period. Five big highways infrastructure projects under construction by the Brazilian National Department of Transport Infrastructure (DNIT, in the context of the Program for Growth Acceleration (PAC, are investigated as case studies. The cases include two highways with rigid pavement and three others with flexible pavements. The results show clearly that a significant increase in design period does not impact significantly the overall costs. In all cases, doubling the period of design would increase the of overall cost of the contract by less than 4%. Perhaps most importantly, the results of mechanist analyses show that the probability of failure of the pavement due to fatigue cracking of the concrete layer decreases when longer design periods are adopted. In order works, the adoption of longer design periods not only has little impact on the overall costs of big highway construction projects, but also lead to pavements with higher design reliability.

  7. The history of a Bronze Age tell reconstructed from soil data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Füleky, György; Kovács, Gabriella; Vicze, Magdolna

    2013-04-01

    It is a common place to say that human activity leaves an imprint not only on its environment but on the soil as well. As we all know the soil like a book, keeps a good record of all kinds of activities ever effected its structure. The understanding and interpretation of complete history of the Százhalombatta Földvár is more complex than that of the customary one layer archaeological sites. The site itself is situated on the high plateau on the right hand site of the bank of Danube River. The reconstruction of 4000 years of history - from the middle of the Early Bronze Age /c. 2000 BC/ till the present day - became possible on the tell and its environment with the co-ordination of the archaeological finds and with following the changes within the soil cover. During this period the height of the area increased by an average of 4 m compared to the original soil surface level. As the result of intensive human activities the phosphorus content of the soils rose from an initial value of 1000 mg/kg to an average of 4000 mg/kg. It can be calculated that this increase in the phosphorus content must have been derived from approximately 1 t of bones a year. Calculations based on the increase in the mass of tell indicate that at least 20 houses at a time must have stood on the area during the 600 year period. Soil drillings and analytical data have proved that considerable earthworks were carried out for various purposes at different times, from the early years of settlement up to the present day. These affected both the material of tell itself and the soil of surrounding areas.

  8. Land, Water and Society in the Maya Lowlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murtha, T.; French, K.; Duffy, C.; Webster, D.

    2013-12-01

    This paper reports the results of our project investigating the long-term spatial and temporal dynamics of land use management, agricultural decision-making and patterns of resource availability in the tropical lowlands of Central America. Overall, our project combines diachronic environmental simulation with historic settlement pattern survey to address a series of long-standing questions about the coupled natural and human (CNH) landscape history in the Central Maya lowlands (at the UNESCO world heritage site of Tikal in the Maya Biosphere Reserve). The paper describes the preliminary results of our project, including changing patterns of land, water, settlement and political history using climate, soil and hydrologic modeling and time series spatial analysis of population and settlement patterns. The critical period of the study, 1000 BC until the present, begins with dispersed settlements accompanied by widespread deforestation and soil erosion. Population size and density grows rapidly for 800 years, while deforestation and erosion rates decline; however, there is striking evidence of political evolution during this period, including the construction of monumental architecture, hieroglyphic monuments detailing wars and alliances, and the construction of a defensive earthwork feature, signaling political territories and possibly delineating natural resource boundaries. Population decline and steady reforestation followed until more recent migration into the region, which has impacted the biosphere ecology. Building on our previous research regionally and comparative research completed in Belize and Mexico, we are modeling sample periods the 3,000-year landscape history of the region, comparing land and water availability to population distributions and what we know about political history. Simulations are generated using historic climate and land use data, primarily relying on the Erosion Productivity Impact Calculator (EPIC) and the Penn State Integrated

  9. Inimluud Mihkli kiriku võlvidelt / Human remains on the vaulted ceiling of Mihkli Church

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Malve

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Altogether 4029 human bones or their fragments from the C 13th–18th were gathered and analysed from soil on the vaults of Mihkli (St Michael’s Church in western Estonia during the rescue works in 2011 (photo 1. Ribs and vertebrae formed the majority of bones, but wholly preserved long bones and other larger bones, as well as, hand and foot bones that are quite typical among mixed human remains were almost absent in this case. Therefore, it can be concluded that during the earthworks larger bones were taken from the soil. The minimum number of adults was determined by the ribs of the right side. Only the ribs with preserved heads (figure 1 were used in calculations. The rib fragments indicate approximately 60 adults among the assorted bones. Judging by the radius, there were at least 16 children among the bone assemblage. Scarceness of children in the Mihkli church can be the result of poor preservation, smallness and fragility of their bones, but the possibility that subadult (child and juvenile burials were fewer in the destroyed part of the churchyard cannot be ruled out.Pathological analysis of the osteological material ascertained several diseases and traumas, the most common pathologies being connected to ageing, for example, wearing of joints (Osteoarthrosis. Various diseases related to degeneration of the spine were present – spondylosis, spondyloarthrosis and osteochondrosis. Compression fractures (fractura compressiva and Schmorl´s nodes (nodi Schmorl indicated strenuous physical activity and/or traumas. Dental diseases included caries (photo 2, alveolar reduction, hypoplasia and tooth abscesses. Several upper and lower jaws showed traces of ante mortem lost teeth (photo 3. In one case a canine of the right mandible of an adult man (age 45 + years had formed but had not erupted (photo 4.Various healed fractures of ribs and limb bones formed the bulk of traumas detected on the bones. Three right ribs had fractures in a stage of

  10. What Negative Impact does Wind have on the Deadline of a Construction Project? Mathematical Modeling for the Measurement and Optimization of Wind Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adil Hafidi Alaoui

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In regard to economic phenomena such as the expansion of trade, the interactions between markets encouraging companies to cross borders, the research for market in new areas should be accompanied by sufficient knowledge of their own environment and especially the weather conditions. Indeed, the objectives of a construction project (cost, deadline and quality are affected by a multitude of events, of internal and external origin, such as climate changes when they are severe and abrupt. Certainly, each region is characterized by a specific climate. For some regions, it is rather the wind that remains the most characterizing climate factor. Wind is widely felt in areas exposed to currents such as (trade wind, North wind, Nordet, Harmattan etc…, in other places we underestimate, see, ignore the effects of wind, particularly on a construction site. Yet, the consequences of ignoring this risk factor can be heavy on a construction company (in terms of late penalty law for example; In fact, if bad weather affects particularly on the initial works: earthworks, foundations, slab; wind effects may proclaim during all the duration of the construction site. The wind affect all project’s aspects, quality, cost, safety as well as deadline. Nevertheless there are few studies that were interested in studying relation construction‘s deadline and wind. Tangier, the city located on the Strait of Gibraltar, where the study was conducted, is exposed to wind whose origin is the Anti cyclone of the Azores, in addition to the local winds that are due to the presence of the two seas and imposing mountains, with a wind that might exceed 220km/h. The equation introduced by this study will allow evaluating (measuring the impact of wind on the deadline (expressed Δ, it shall encompass all aspects: - Limiting conditions of equipments existing in construction site (producers’ references - Recommendations of the standard practice - Regulation in terms of work

  11. Correlation-based static correction of 4D seismic data with a demonstration at the Ketzin CO2 storage site, Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmann, P.; Kashubin, A.; Ivandic, M.; Lueth, S.; Juhlin, C.

    2013-12-01

    Statics are time-shifts that occur in reflection seismic trace data and are generally considered to be mainly due to shallow velocity variations. Since the refraction static correction is most often based on first break picking and subsequent velocity model estimation, it is even today a labor-consuming and error-prone procedure. Time-lapse seismic also faces this issue in a temporal sense, since changes in statics, due to temporally variable near-surface conditions, are known to be first-order contributors to time-lapse noise. Considerable changes in the statics of repeated on-shore seismic surveys can occur due to precipitation-related changes in soil moisture and in the groundwater table, or may be due to man-made earthworks. Production-related or injection-related processes can cause considerable velocity changes, which leave time-shift imprints on time-lapse seismic data that can be very similar to that of near-surface velocity variations. In this context it is crucial to consider that refraction static corrections are in many cases of limited use, as they aim to enhance the stack coherency of the individual time-lapse data sets only. As an alternative, we propose a time-lapse difference (TLD) static correction that is focused on the accommodation of static changes between the time-lapse data sets. This TLD static correction decomposes the static differences that are determined from cross-correlations in a surface-consistent manner. It therefore does not require first break picking and inversion for velocities from repeat data sets. We tested the TLD static correction for a 4D case study from the Ketzin CO2 storage site, Germany. As a reference we used the results that were obtained from a recent processing in which refraction static corrections were performed individually on the time-lapse data sets. Although the TLD static corrections method is considerably less time-consuming, we found that it is providing a stack difference with enhanced S/N. This is

  12. Debris flow hazards in plantation forests in New Zealand: what we know and need to know

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Chris; Basher, Les; Marden, Michael; Harrison, Duncan; Heaphy, Marie

    2015-04-01

    In recent years, extensive storm-induced landsliding has mobilised woody residue during or after plantation forest harvesting and caused debris flows that have affected houses, roads and bridges downstream of forests in several parts of New Zealand. In part, this relates to increasing levels of harvesting activity as many plantations originally planted for soil conservation purposes have reached merchantable size but could also be in response to an increasing incidence of high intensity storms affecting parts of New Zealand. In several cases these incidents have featured on national television and in newspaper headlines with members of the public complaining about the consequences of forestry operations on steep erodible hill country. Forestry companies have responded by developing more detailed environmental impact assessment and erosion and sediment control planning approaches, and by assisting with clean-up operations. Similarly regional councils (the regulatory bodies) have looked more closely at the environmental impacts of forest harvesting and some have modified erosion and sediment control guidelines, previously largely applied to urban earthworks, for forestry application. As part of a wider research programme that aims to raise the profitability and improve the sustainability of New Zealand's forestry sector, we collected information from both forestry companies and regional and unitary councils via survey and interviews to determine the size and scope of the issue, how individual forest companies were identifying and managing the risk, and to determine if national threshold conditions or standards could be established. Even with risk management and good management practices in place, it will not be possible to entirely avoid slope failures and debris flows following harvesting in the future. Thus the need to determine a national level of understanding of what can and can't be managed for is important to allow the development of risk management approaches

  13. The Basement Roof Subsidence Pre Closed the Construction Technology of Post-cast Strip%地下室顶板沉降后浇带预封闭施工技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋虎山

    2014-01-01

    目前,高层建筑周边均设置了沉降后浇带,以满足高层建筑在主体施工期间的沉降需要。其中,顶板后浇带的存在给地下室顶板整体防水施工、土方回填和场地的布置利用带来了一定的影响。鉴于此,传统的做法为对后浇带钢筋防锈处理后进行临时苫盖,车库顶板防水施工至后浇带两侧预留接槎,同时在两侧砌筑挡土墙,以满足回填等后续施工。部分案例还采用了预封闭盖板、从下部进行压力灌注混凝土的方式。天保B01项目部在对既有的施工方式进行了相应改进和完善后,成功实现了沉降后浇带的预封闭,并取得了较好的效果。%At present, high-rise buildings are set around the settlement after pouring belt, in order to meet the high-rise building subsidence needs during the subject construction. Among them, the roof after the existence of the pouring belt to the basement roof waterproof construction, earthwork backfilling and of the whole site layout using a certain impact. In view of this, the traditional approach to the reinforcement of post-cast strip rust proofing after they are temporary, garage roof waterproof construction on both sides of post-cast strip to reserve if, in the masonry retaining wall on both sides at the same time, in order to meet the backfill and other follow-up construction. Part of the case also adopted closed cover plate, from the lower pressure grouting concrete way. Tianbao B01 projects department in the existing way of construction for the corresponding improvement and perfect, closed in advance of settlement of post-cast strip is implemented, and achieved good results.

  14. Raised fields in the Llanos de Moxos, Bolivia - description and analysis of their morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Leonor; Lombardo, Umberto; Veit, Heinz

    2014-05-01

    The disturbance of Pre Columbian populations on Amazonian ecosystems is being actively debated. The traditional view of amazon being an untouched landscape because of its poor soils and harsh climate has been challenged and the extreme opposite idea of highly modified landscapes with complex societies is growing. Recent research has led to new impulses and issues requesting about the agricultural strategies people developed to survive in this climate. The Llanos de Moxos, situated in the Bolivian Lowlands in south-eastern Amazonia is one important region which was densely altered and where a great variety of earthworks can be found. One of the most impressive earth works are the raised fields, which are earth platforms for cultivation of differing shape and dimension that are elevated above the landscapes natural surface. In contrast to the "terra preta" formation where artefacts and amendments like charcoal and kitchen waste have been clearly identified, raised fields have shown to be artefact poor and studies up till now couldn't find any evidence of additional amendments which could have improved soil quality in the long term. As a result the function and productivity of raised fields is still not well understood and is being actively discussed. Detailed investigations on raised fields located in the indigenous community of Bermeo, in the vicinity of San Ignacio de Moxos provides data showing a novel explanation of the Pre-Columbian management of raised fields, and a chronological sequence of their utilization and abandonment. OSL dating has shown that the raised fields had been in use since as early as 600 AD. Comparison of Geochemistry with a reference profile, away from raised fields, showed that there is no evidence for manure amendments deriving from kitchen waste or animal residues suggesting a rather extensive use of those fields. Complementary the description of intern morphology and laboratory analysis of this raised fields, combined with radiocarbon

  15. TREATMENT OF CYANIDE SOLUTIONS AND SLURRIES USING AIR-SPARGED HYDROCYCLONE (ASH) TECHNOLOGY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jan D. Miller; Terrence Chatwin; Jan Hupka; Doug Halbe; Tao Jiang; Bartosz Dabrowski; Lukasz Hupka

    2003-03-31

    The two-year Department of Energy (DOE) project ''Treatment of Cyanide Solutions and Slurries Using Air-Sparged Hydrocyclone (ASH) Technology'' (ASH/CN) has been completed. This project was also sponsored by industrial partners, ZPM Inc., Elbow Creek Engineering, Solvay Minerals, EIMCO-Baker Process, Newmont Mining Corporation, Cherokee Chemical Co., Placer Dome Inc., Earthworks Technology, Dawson Laboratories and Kennecott Minerals. Development of a new technology using the air-sparged hydrocyclone (ASH) as a reactor for either cyanide recovery or destruction was the research objective. It was expected that the ASH could potentially replace the conventional stripping tower presently used for HCN stripping and absorption with reduced power costs. The project was carried out in two phases. The first phase included calculation of basic processing parameters for ASH technology, development of the flowsheet, and design/adaptation of the ASH mobile system for hydrogen cyanide (HCN) recovery from cyanide solutions. This was necessary because the ASH was previously used for volatile organics removal from contaminated water. The design and modification of the ASH were performed with the help from ZPM Inc. personnel. Among the modifications, the system was adapted for operation under negative pressure to assure safe operating conditions. The research staff was trained in the safe use of cyanide and in hazardous material regulations. Cyanide chemistry was reviewed resulting in identification of proper chemical dosages for cyanide destruction, after completion of each pilot plant run. The second phase of the research consisted of three field tests that were performed at the Newmont Mining Corporation gold cyanidation plant near Midas, Nevada. The first field test was run between July 26 and August 2, 2002, and the objective was to demonstrate continuous operation of the modified ASH mobile system. ASH units were applied for both stripping and absorption

  16. Wind-To-Hydrogen Energy Pilot Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ron Rebenitsch; Randall Bush; Allen Boushee; Brad G. Stevens; Kirk D. Williams; Jeremy Woeste; Ronda Peters; Keith Bennett

    2009-04-24

    feasibility study showed that several factors can greatly affect, both positively and negatively, the "per kg" cost of hydrogen. After a September 15, 2005, meeting to evaluate the advisability of funding Phase II of the project DOE concurred with BEPC that Phase I results did warrant a "go" recommendation to proceed with Phase II activities. The hydrogen production system was built by Hydrogenics and consisted of several main components: hydrogen production system, gas control panel, hydrogen storage assembly and hydrogen-fueling dispenser The hydrogen production system utilizes a bipolar alkaline electrolyzer nominally capable of producing 30 Nm3/h (2.7 kg/h). The hydrogen is compressed to 6000 psi and delivered to an on-site three-bank cascading storage assembly with 80 kg of storage capacity. Vehicle fueling is made possible through a Hydrogenics-provided gas control panel and dispenser able to fuel vehicles to 5000 psi. A key component of this project was the development of a dynamic scheduling system to control the wind energy's variable output to the electrolyzer cell stacks. The dynamic scheduling system received an output signal from the wind farm, processed this signal based on the operational mode, and dispatched the appropriate signal to the electrolyzer cell stacks. For the study BEPC chose to utilize output from the Wilton wind farm located in central ND. Site design was performed from May 2006 through August 2006. Site construction activities were from August to November 2006 which involved earthwork, infrastructure installation, and concrete slab construction. From April - October 2007, the system components were installed and connected. Beginning in November 2007, the system was operated in a start-up/shakedown mode. Because of numerous issues, the start-up/shakedown period essentially lasted until the end of January 2008, at which time a site acceptance test was performed. Official system operation began on February 14, 2008, and continued through the

  17. Assembling the Anthropocene: The global significance of anthropogenic sediment flux through the creation of artificial ground

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, S.; Ford, J. R.; Waters, C. N.; Cooper, A. H.

    2012-12-01

    . 1950. This time of acceleration of the human endeavour has been referred to as the 'Great Acceleration' of the Anthropocene (Steffen et al. 2007). When other hidden anthropogenic material flows such as those associated with urbanisation (widespread use of cement and concrete), major earthworks, engineered infrastructure development and waste disposal are considered, the anthropogenic flux will be significantly higher. It is proposed that the rate of change and volume of production of anthropogenic materials in the sedimentary cycle is so significant and novel, that it may be used as a basis on which to characterise the global sedimentary cycle in the Anthropocene. Douglas, I. & Lawson, N. 2001 The Human Dimensions of Geomorphological Work in Britain. Journal of Industrial Ecology 4, 9-33. Price, S. J., Ford, J. R., Cooper, A. H. & Neal, C. 2011 Humans as major geological and geomorphological agents in the Anthropocene: the significance of artificial ground in Great Britain. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A 369, 1056-1084. Steffen, W., Crutzen, P. J. & McNeill, J. 2007 The Anthropocene: Are Humans Now Overwhelming the Great Forces of Nature? Ambio 36, 614-621.

  18. Custos de produção de tilápias (Oreochromis niloticus em um modelo de propriedade da região oeste do Estado do Paraná, Brasil Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus production costs in a farm model of the west region of the State of Paraná, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Luiz Barboza de Andrade

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do estudo foi analisar os custos de produção da piscicultura praticada na região oeste do Paraná. Os custos são apurados mensalmente pela equipe do GEPEC/Piscicultura. Em linhas gerais, os custos referem-se à exploração comercial de uma área de 24.000m², em oito tanques, o que proporciona a produção de 14,4t de tilápia (Oreochromis niloticus por ciclo de produção, com o peso unitário médio de 0,4kg. Para o custo total de implantação, a taxa de crescimento foi de 0,47% am (ao mês e para os custos de terraplanagem, 0,63% am, sendo que o último representa em torno de 70% dos investimentos iniciais. Os custos fixos apresentaram uma taxa de crescimento de 0,032% am, o custo variável representou 70,18% do custo total de produção e uma taxa de crescimento de 0,32% am, o que exige a necessidade de se verificar alternativas para diminuir esses custos, que são bastante sensíveis às variações nos preços das matérias-primas. Ficou evidenciada a necessidade do estabelecimento de um agente responsável pela governança da cadeia, para garantir sua sobrevivência.The objective of this research was to analyze the production cost of fish production in the western region of Paraná, Brazil. The costs were obtained monthly by the GEPEC/Pisciculture group. In general, the costs refer to the commercial exploration of a 24,000m² area, in eight tanks, which enable the production of 14.4t of Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus per production cycle, with an average unit weight of 0.4kg. For the total cost of the implantation, the growth rate was of 0.47% pm (per month and for the earthwork costs, 0.63% pm, representing around 70% of the initial investments. The fixed costs represented a growth rate of 0.032% pm, the variable cost represented 70.18% of the total production cost and a growth rate of 0.32% pm which demands the necessity of verifying alternatives to decrease these costs, which are very sensitive to the variation of

  19. The 50th Anniversary of the First International Conference on Permafrost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, J.

    2013-12-01

    This year marks the 50th anniversary of the First International Conference on Permafrost (ICOP) that was held at Purdue University on 11-15 November 1963. The conference was a historic event in that it brought together for the first time the leading researchers and practitioners from North America and other countries that had diverse interests and activities in the study and applications of perennially frozen ground, cold regions engineering and related laboratory investigations. The 285 registered participants represented engineers, researchers, manufacturers and builders from the USA (231), Canada (42), the USSR (5), Sweden (3) and Argentina, Austria, Great Britain, Japan, Norway, Poland, Switzerland, and West Germany. The conference was organized by the Building Research Advisory Board of the U.S. National Academy of Sciences-National Research Council (NAS-NRC). The carefully edited volume, published in 1966 by the NAS, is considered to be the first multi-national, English-language collection of papers devoted entirely to permafrost topics. The 100 published papers followed closely the actual conference venue and panel discussions: soils and vegetation (9), massive ground ice (10), geomorphology (16), phase equilibrium and transition (8), thermal aspects (8), physico-mechanical properties (7), exploration and site selection (11), sanitary and hydraulic engineering (14), and earthwork and foundations (17). This 1963 Purdue conference essentially broke the 'ice' between East and West permafrost researchers and set the stage for the Second ICOP that was held in 1973 in Yakutsk, Siberia, and represented the first large international conference held in the restricted area of Siberia. All subsequent conferences maintained the interdisciplinary principles set forth at Purdue: two more in the United States (Fairbanks 1983, 2008), two in Canada (Edmonton 1978, Yellowknife 1998), and one in Trondheim, Norway (1988), Beijing, China (1993), and Zurich, Switzerland (2003

  20. Suspended solids and nutrient retention in rural constructed wetlands in cold climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koskiaho, Jari; Siimekselä, Tiina; Puustinen, Markku

    2016-04-01

    occurred. The most probable reason behind the occasional negative nitrogen retention was the ditching and earthworks made at the Tarvaala CW. These actions have obviously mobilized nitrogen and increased its concentrations. Micromac 1000 -phosphate analyzer proved to produce reliable (uncertainty 30 μg/l. According to the results of this study, the major factor behind the differences in the retention performance of the CWs was dimensioning. Indeed, the average annual nutrient retentions measured here are close to those predicted by the model equations presented in Finnish CW planning and dimensioning guidelines (Puustinen et al. 2007): TP retention for Hovi 58%, for Rantamo-Seitteli 27% and for Tarvaala 23%. Another factor affecting the CW retention performance was the land-use of the upstream catchment; the more agricultural land there was, the higher were the inflow concentrations, and the higher were also the retentions. On the base of our results, CWs can be recommended as water protection measures in Finnish rural areas. However, generous dimensioning, like in Hovi, often reduces their cost-effectiveness and the willingness of the landowners to build them.

  1. Estudo químico de alguns pontos do solo superficial do aterro controlado do Botuquara / Chemestry study of some points of soil surface the Botuquara controlled garbage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Nascimento

    2012-04-01

    aim in this paper was to evaluate the characteristics of same earth points of the surface soil layer at the base of the now Botuquara’s controlled landfill earthwork. It was checked in this area the possible trends of its contamination. It were accomplishing analyses of pH, organic carbon, organic matter, total nitrogen, C:N relation, cation exchange capacity, bases saturation and sand contents, clay and silt to the earth. It was also checked the concentration of Ag, Cr, Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn biodegradable metals and pseudo-total into the land. As a result it was show high concentration of Cr and Pb biodegradable and Pb, Cu and Ag pseudo-total. Already saturation of colloids, indicates that the soil has reached its maximum capacity of retentions.

  2. Global compilation of coastline change at river mouths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aadland, Tore; Helland-Hansen, William

    2016-04-01

    filter out significant land change caused by earthworks at the coast. By assuming that changes in land area can be attributed to sedimentation driven by the fluvial system we can propose scaling relationships that can be used in stratigraphic analysis. The data could potentially be applied to develop models predicting shoreline behaviour of modern systems as a function of climate and catchment properties. This could be used to evaluate the shoreline response to damming of rivers and the impact of climate change. Google Earth Engine is a user-friendly platform that facilitates generation of global compilations of landscape change. We are using it to investigate scaling relationships between the rate at which the shorelines build out and the catchment properties of its rivers, but we believe it could also be used to investigate scaling relationships and sediment budgets associated with other landforms.

  3. 沙漠铁路周边生态环境恢复演化研究%Study on the Ecological Environment Recovery and Evolution around Desert Railway

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李嘉

    2009-01-01

    十一五期间,国家将重点加强中西部铁路建设,到2010年,西部铁路网总规模即达35 000 km.选择位于腾格里沙漠东南缘的包兰铁路中卫至干塘段为研究对象,通过对该段铁路周边生态环境的回访调查与监测,研究分析沙漠铁路对周边生态环境的影响以及恢复演变过程.认为铁路工程建设在施工期对地表植被、沙结皮等原有覆盖层会造成不同程度的破坏,从而加剧风沙活动,但通过采取卵石覆盖、土工网垫、草方格沙障、植树造林等治理措施,能够得到有效控制.人工干预措施中,灌溉造林对沙漠铁路生态环境起到了良好的改善作用,但投资较大;旱生造林也有改善作用,但作用缓慢;沙化严重地区植被自然恢复能力较差,较人工干预条件下的恢复要慢得多.通过治理,铁路周边生态环境已由铁路修建前沙漠化严重的生态背景逐步演化为绿色防护体系格局.这为修建铁路过程中沙漠地区生态环境保护,尤其是沙漠化严重地区的生态恢复与重建提供了参考依据,并对西部大开发战略实施具有重要的实践意义.%In the eleventh five-year plan, the nation will pay much attention for railway construction. By the end of 2010, the general scale of railway network in that area will be 35 000 km. Taking Baotou-Lanzhou railway (Zhongwei-Gantang section) location on southeastern tengger desert as research objects, by callback investigation and monitoring the surrounding environment, the impact induced from railway construction and progress of ecological environment recovery and evolution was analyzed. The results showed that construction had an impact on surface covered layer such as vegetation and sandy crust, which would aggravate aeolian activities, but be controlled by using some engineering measures such as gravel cover, earthwork mesh cushion, straw-checker sand-barrier and afforestation. Among artificial intervention measures

  4. Watching the Creation of Southern California's Largest Reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    The new Diamond Valley Lake Reservoir near the city of Hemet in Riverside County is billed as the largest earthworks construction project in U.S.history. Construction began in 1995 and involved 31 million cubic meters of foundation excavation and 84 million cubic meters of embankment construction. This set of MISR images captures the most recent phase in the reservoir's activation. At the upper left is a natural-color view acquired by the instrument's vertical-viewing (nadir) camera on March 14, 2000 (Terra orbit 1273), shortly after the Metropolitan Water District began filling the reservoir with water from the Colorado River and Northern California. Water appears darker than the surrounding land. The image at the upper right was acquired nearly one year later on March 1, 2001 (Terra orbit 6399), and shows a clear increase in the reservoir's water content. When full, the lake will hold nearly a trillion liters of water.According to the Metropolitan Water District, the 7 kilometer x 3 kilometer reservoir nearly doubles Southern California's above-groundwater storage capacity. In addition to routine water management, Diamond Valley Lake is designed to provide protection against drought and a six-month emergency supply in the event of earthquake damage to a major aqueduct. In the face of electrical power shortages, it is also expected to reduce dependence on the pumping of water from northern mountains during the high-demand summer months. An unexpected result of site excavation was the uncovering of mastodon and mammoth skeletons along with bones from extinct species not previously thought to have been indigenous to the area, such as the giant long-horned bison and North American lion. A museum and interpretive center is being built to protect these finds.The lower MISR image, from May 20, 2001 (Terra orbit 7564), is a false-color view combining data from the instrument's 26-degree forward view (displayed as blue) with data from the 26-degree backward view

  5. On the integration of Airborne full-waveform laser scanning and optical imagery for Site Detection and Mapping: Monteserico study case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coluzzi, R.; Guariglia, A.; Lacovara, B.; Lasaponara, R.; Masini, N.

    2009-04-01

    dataset, whereas other only by lidar. The pattern of shadow-marks has been integrated by processing the optic imagery (aerial and satellite), which put in evidence other features related to buried deposits of archaeological interest. Another contribution of lidar to the knowledge of the medieval site was the survey of eroded earthworks, that are very small differences in height, related to possible ancient human transformations of the hill. The numerical modelling of DSM has allowed for integrating and managing all the different georeferenced data for the reconstruction of urban fabric of the medieval village. [1] N. MASINI, Note storico-topografiche e fotointerpretazione aerea per la ricostruzione della '"forma urbis" del sito medievale di Monte Serico, Tarsia, 16-17 (1995), pp. 45-64. [2] R. LASAPONARA, N. MASINI, QuickBird-based analysis for the spatial characterization of archaeological sites: case study of the Monte Serico Medioeval village, Geophysical Research Letter, Vol. 32, No. 12 (2005), L12313.

  6. Watching the Creation of Southern California's Largest Reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    The new Diamond Valley Lake Reservoir near the city of Hemet in Riverside County is billed as the largest earthworks construction project in U.S.history. Construction began in 1995 and involved 31 million cubic meters of foundation excavation and 84 million cubic meters of embankment construction. This set of MISR images captures the most recent phase in the reservoir's activation. At the upper left is a natural-color view acquired by the instrument's vertical-viewing (nadir) camera on March 14, 2000 (Terra orbit 1273), shortly after the Metropolitan Water District began filling the reservoir with water from the Colorado River and Northern California. Water appears darker than the surrounding land. The image at the upper right was acquired nearly one year later on March 1, 2001 (Terra orbit 6399), and shows a clear increase in the reservoir's water content. When full, the lake will hold nearly a trillion liters of water.According to the Metropolitan Water District, the 7 kilometer x 3 kilometer reservoir nearly doubles Southern California's above-groundwater storage capacity. In addition to routine water management, Diamond Valley Lake is designed to provide protection against drought and a six-month emergency supply in the event of earthquake damage to a major aqueduct. In the face of electrical power shortages, it is also expected to reduce dependence on the pumping of water from northern mountains during the high-demand summer months. An unexpected result of site excavation was the uncovering of mastodon and mammoth skeletons along with bones from extinct species not previously thought to have been indigenous to the area, such as the giant long-horned bison and North American lion. A museum and interpretive center is being built to protect these finds.The lower MISR image, from May 20, 2001 (Terra orbit 7564), is a false-color view combining data from the instrument's 26-degree forward view (displayed as blue) with data from the 26-degree backward view

  7. Products of steel slags an opportunity to save natural resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motz, H; Geiseler, J

    2001-01-01

    already accepted as a CEN standard and are used for a continuous quality control. Usually the suitability of steel slags is stated by fulfilling the requirements of national and/or international standards and regulations. Based on these standards and regulations in Germany in 1998 about 97% of the produced steel slags have been used as aggregates for road construction (e.g. as surface layer, road base and sub base for high trafficked roads), ways, earthworks, and armourstones for hydraulic structures. Consistent to the successful long-term experience not only products of steel slags but also products of blast furnace slags have been eliminated from the European Waste Catalogue and the European Shipment of Waste Regulation of the European Community, as well as from the lists of OECD for transfrontier movements by the decision of the OECD-Council from 21 September, 1995.

  8. An approach to identification and modelling of artificial grounds in urban area from multidisciplinary data (Oviedo, NW Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pando, Luis; Flor-Blanco, Germán; María Díaz-Díaz, Luis; Arias, Daniel

    2016-04-01

    This contribution describes the investigation of changes on urban relief caused by anthropogenic processes in Oviedo (population 215,000), the capital city of Asturias, formerly a Christian kingdom (719-925 AD) located in the north-western Iberian Peninsula. This city is placed on a Mesozoic-Cenozoic basin above a folded Paleozoic basement. Oviedo's subsurface is formed by carbonate and siliciclastic Cretaceous formations, and the overlying fluvial-lacustrine deposits of Paleogene age; the latter are mainly composed of marls, clays and gypsum layers. The urban core, which extends 15 km2, presents an elevation range between 160 to 330 m above mean sea level and the natural slopes reach up 15o in the built-up area. The research involved at first the collection and review of more than 950 borehole logs, presenting the man-made fills an average thickness of 1.9 m with maximum value of 25 m. Then topographic variations that occurred during the period of greatest urban development were analysed through map algebra. The data used to construct Digital Elevation Models (DEM) were provided by 1:5,000 city maps performed since 1869 to the present, all properly georeferenced. The subtraction operations generated Digital Terrain Models representing ground elevation gains and losses during different periods of time, after setting the necessary control points (elevation remains invariant) and corrections in order to avoid altitude deviations between DEMs. The thicknesses estimated for the man-made fills were compared with borehole data to validate the prediction, obtaining good correlations. The GIS-based methodology was complemented by an inspection of the historical evolution of land uses (i.e., using ancient street maps, aerial images interpretation and documentary references since the thirteenth century), and the analysis of all the surficial geological maps that have been published. Man-made grounds were then classified into categories, mainly: (i) earthworks related to

  9. Wind-To-Hydrogen Energy Pilot Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ron Rebenitsch; Randall Bush; Allen Boushee; Brad G. Stevens; Kirk D. Williams; Jeremy Woeste; Ronda Peters; Keith Bennett

    2009-04-24

    feasibility study showed that several factors can greatly affect, both positively and negatively, the "per kg" cost of hydrogen. After a September 15, 2005, meeting to evaluate the advisability of funding Phase II of the project DOE concurred with BEPC that Phase I results did warrant a "go" recommendation to proceed with Phase II activities. The hydrogen production system was built by Hydrogenics and consisted of several main components: hydrogen production system, gas control panel, hydrogen storage assembly and hydrogen-fueling dispenser The hydrogen production system utilizes a bipolar alkaline electrolyzer nominally capable of producing 30 Nm3/h (2.7 kg/h). The hydrogen is compressed to 6000 psi and delivered to an on-site three-bank cascading storage assembly with 80 kg of storage capacity. Vehicle fueling is made possible through a Hydrogenics-provided gas control panel and dispenser able to fuel vehicles to 5000 psi. A key component of this project was the development of a dynamic scheduling system to control the wind energy's variable output to the electrolyzer cell stacks. The dynamic scheduling system received an output signal from the wind farm, processed this signal based on the operational mode, and dispatched the appropriate signal to the electrolyzer cell stacks. For the study BEPC chose to utilize output from the Wilton wind farm located in central ND. Site design was performed from May 2006 through August 2006. Site construction activities were from August to November 2006 which involved earthwork, infrastructure installation, and concrete slab construction. From April - October 2007, the system components were installed and connected. Beginning in November 2007, the system was operated in a start-up/shakedown mode. Because of numerous issues, the start-up/shakedown period essentially lasted until the end of January 2008, at which time a site acceptance test was performed. Official system operation began on February 14, 2008, and continued through the

  10. Impactos ambientais sobre o manguezal de Suape - PE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Augusto Pessôa Braga

    1989-01-01

    seu equilibrio.The suape estuarine zone is formed by Massangana, Tatuoca, Ipojuca and Merepe rivers, that are located about 25km Southern far from Recife. The settlement of a port and the industrial Complex structure came to cause earthwork, dredging and darnming, modifying extensively the local hidrology and the scenery. Photointerpretation and reambulation were realized on the basis of aerial photographs (scale 1:30.000 taken in 1974 and 1988; images of the Landsat 5 satellite in 1984, and topographic maps (scale 1:25.000 in 1971, resulting in mangrove vegetation maps of 1974 and 1988, which clearly indicate the physical interventions during this period. In 1974 there were 2874ha of mangrove. A reduction of 21% led, in 1988, to 2276ha from whiten 214ha have been landing by clay land material from other areas; 384ha were inundated due to dredging gand diking. More than 27ha are in a degradation process. In order to allow the characterization of the mangrove structure, eight observation stations were settled in preserved and regenerating areas. The mangrove is formed by Rhizophora mangle L., Avicennia germinans (L. Stearn., Avicennia schaueriana Stapf. i; Leechman., Laguncularia racemosa Gaertn. in its nucleus and Conocarpus erectus L. in the bordeline. In preserved areas, the forest of mangrove exhibit a good expansion profile in agreement with the considered parameters (density, basal area, forest height and medium diameter. The regenerating areas characterized by a high dense incipient forest what lead us to believe that if these areas will be preserved they will get the equilibrium.

  11. The Paranal Metamorphosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-12-01

    VLT Project (with Massimo Tarenghi as Project Manager), Paranal was chosen as the site in 1991. In the meantime, the Chilean Government had resolved to donate an area of approx. 700 km 2 around this mountain to ESO, and construction work started the same year. The left photo shows Paranal at this stage. The development of Paranal included much blasting and heavy earthwork; about 350,000 m 3 of rock had to be moved to achieve a flat platform of sufficient size to house the various components of the VLT and, in particular, the spacious VLT Interferometer. The situation, right after this work, is depicted in the middle photo from 1994. An operational observatory The construction at Paranal progressed at high speed. It is hard to believe that just four years later, "First Light" was achieved with the first 8.2-m telescope, ANTU, in May 1998. Then followed KUEYEN (March 1999), MELIPAL (January 2000) and YEPUN (September 2000). The first two telescopes have now been "taken over" by the astronomers and Paranal has become an operational observatory with Roberto Gilmozzi as Director. Large numbers of scientists in the ESO member countries, and even more within international collaborations, are busy producing exciting research results, now increasingly visible in the world's professional journals and some of which are announced in the ESO Press Releases. The other two will soon be equipped with high-quality astronomical instruments; the first will be VIMOS at MELIPAL in the beginning of 2001. Both telescopes will become fully available to the astronomical community in the course of 2001. And now the VLT Interferometer... The next decisive step will happen already in early 2001, when the VLT Interferometer is expected to see "First Fringes", the equivalent of "First Light" for this type of facility. This is when two small "siderostats" on the Paranal platform will track and capture the light from one and the same (bright) star, directing the two beams towards the underground

  12. 2000 years of sustainable use of watersheds and coral reefs in Pacific Islands: A review for Palau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshiba, Shirley; Besebes, Meked; Soaladaob, Kiblas; Ngiraingas, Madelsar; Isechal, Adelle Lukes; Victor, Steven; Golbuu, Yimnang

    2014-05-01

    mostly after about A.D. 900 to 1100, was presumably the culmination of accelerated erosion in the island's interior following extensive clearing of the vegetation on slopes. Sediment analyses, radiocarbon dating, and archaeological investigations indicate substantial inland land disturbance starting around 2400 years ago (Liston and Tuggle, 2006; Liston, 2009). These findings almost certainly signify the use of the interior of Babeldaob Island by this time, including the onset of major earthwork (terrace) construction. Intensive and extensive inland use continued for about another 1200 years. The continuous deposition of inland erosional soils expanded the coastal plains and formed expansive fertile wetlands” (Athens, 2009).Culturally in Palau taro fields were tendered by women (Del Rosario and Esguerra, 2003). In other parts of Micronesia, taro is planted in well drained mixed gardens or ditches (Falanruw, 1980; Englberger et al., 2009). In Palau taro is commonly grown in swampy areas, often man-made, in the lowlands usually just upstream of the mangrove areas. Traditional management of taro cultivation in Palau can be considered a type of intensive agricultural method found in societies that possess a complex social structure that is reflected in traditional Palauan society. Taro cultivation in Palau is an amalgamation of skills and knowledge for both the plant and agricultural system.Palau taro field structure, regulations of water flow and management have persisted for many generations and have proven to an integral part of Palauan life which continues to be seen today. Taro fields are distinguished separately depending on cultivation methods and taro species being planted. To illustrate, an omrekongel is a marsh land in which giant taro (Cyrtosperma merkusii) is planted. A mesei is an irrigated wet land for planting taro (Colocasia esculenta) and dechel is a marsh land where taro and giant taro is cultivated (Palau Society of Historians, 2001). Culturally