WorldWideScience

Sample records for earthquake resistant structures

  1. Structural Earthquake Resistance Design Using Energy Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hu Rongrong

    2003-01-01

    A summary of status of researches in the field of structural earthquake resistance design on energy concept is presented in three parts: earthquake input, demands on the structure and supplied capacity of the structure. A new approach is proposed for analysis of the seismic response and damage criteria based on the momentary input energy.

  2. Earthquake resistant structural design of house JUBHome using simplified analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Lenarčič, Matej

    2016-01-01

    In this thesis we have designed steel reinforcement for a structure using JUBhome system, on the basis of simplified analysis. Design of the structure was carried out according to standards and guidelines for earthquake resistant design of foundations and reinforced concrete walls. In the first part of thesis we have introduced earthquake loads, guidelines for earthquake resistant design and controls, which have to be fulfilled, when using foundation system JUBHome BASE and wall JUBHome WALL....

  3. Seismicity controlled by resistivity structure: the 2016 Kumamoto earthquakes, Kyushu Island, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aizawa, Koki; Asaue, Hisafumi; Koike, Katsuaki; Takakura, Shinichi; Utsugi, Mitsuru; Inoue, Hiroyuki; Yoshimura, Ryokei; Yamazaki, Ken'ichi; Komatsu, Shintaro; Uyeshima, Makoto; Koyama, Takao; Kanda, Wataru; Shiotani, Taro; Matsushima, Nobuo; Hata, Maki; Yoshinaga, Tohru; Uchida, Kazunari; Tsukashima, Yuko; Shito, Azusa; Fujita, Shiori; Wakabayashi, Asuma; Tsukamoto, Kaori; Matsushima, Takeshi; Miyazaki, Masahiro; Kondo, Kentaro; Takashima, Kanade; Hashimoto, Takeshi; Tamura, Makoto; Matsumoto, Satoshi; Yamashita, Yusuke; Nakamoto, Manami; Shimizu, Hiroshi

    2017-01-01

    The M JMA 7.3 Kumamoto earthquake that occurred at 1:25 JST on April 16, 2016, not only triggered aftershocks in the vicinity of the epicenter, but also triggered earthquakes that were 50-100 km away from the epicenter of the main shock. The active seismicity can be divided into three regions: (1) the vicinity of the main faults, (2) the northern region of Aso volcano (50 km northeast of the mainshock epicenter), and (3) the regions around three volcanoes, Yufu, Tsurumi, and Garan (100 km northeast of the mainshock epicenter). Notably, the zones between these regions are distinctively seismically inactive. The electric resistivity structure estimated from one-dimensional analysis of the 247 broadband (0.005-3000 s) magnetotelluric and telluric observation sites clearly shows that the earthquakes occurred in resistive regions adjacent to conductive zones or resistive-conductive transition zones. In contrast, seismicity is quite low in electrically conductive zones, which are interpreted as regions of connected fluids. We suggest that the series of the earthquakes was induced by a local accumulated stress and/or fluid supply from conductive zones. Because the relationship between the earthquakes and the resistivity structure is consistent with previous studies, seismic hazard assessment generally can be improved by taking into account the resistivity structure. Following on from the 2016 Kumamoto earthquake series, we suggest that there are two zones that have a relatively high potential of earthquake generation along the western extension of the MTL. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  4. Earthquake Shaking and Damage to Buildings: Recent evidence for severe ground shaking raises questions about the earthquake resistance of structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, R A; Joyner, W B; Blume, J A

    1975-08-22

    Ground shaking close to the causative fault of an earthquake is more intense than it was previously believed to be. This raises the possibility that large numbers of buildings and other structures are not sufficiently resistant for the intense levels of shaking that can occur close to the fault. Many structures were built before earthquake codes were adopted; others were built according to codes formulated when less was known about the intensity of near-fault shaking. Although many building types are more resistant than conventional design analyses imply, the margin of safety is difficult to quantify. Many modern structures, such as freeways, have not been subjected to and tested by near-fault shaking in major earthquakes (magnitude 7 or greater). Damage patterns in recent moderate-sized earthquakes occurring in or adjacent to urbanized areas (17), however, indicate that many structures, including some modern ones designed to meet earthquake code requirements, cannot withstand the severe shaking that can occur close to a fault. It is necessary to review the ground motion assumed and the methods utilized in the design of important existing structures and, if necessary, to strengthen or modify the use of structures that are found to be weak. New structures situated close to active faults should be designed on the basis of ground motion estimates greater than those used in the past. The ultimate balance between risk of earthquake losses and cost for both remedial strengthening and improved earthquake-resistant construction must be decided by the public. Scientists and engineers must inform the public about earthquake shaking and its effect on structures. The exposure to damage from seismic shaking is steadily increasing because of continuing urbanization and the increasing complexity of lifeline systems, such as power, water, transportation, and communication systems. In the near future we should expect additional painful examples of the damage potential of moderate

  5. Research and development of earthquake-resistant structure model for nuclear fuel facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uryu, Mitsuru; Terada, S.; Shioya, I. [and others

    1999-05-01

    It is important for a nuclear fuel facility to reduce an input intensity of earthquake on the upper part of the building. To study of a response of the building caused by earthquake, an earthquake-resistant structure model is constructed. The weight of the structure model is 90 ton, and is supported by multiple layers of natural ruber and steel. And a weight support device which is called 'softlanding' is also installed to prevent the structure model from loosing the function at excess deformation. The softlanding device consists of Teflon. Dynamic response characteristics of the structure model caused by sine wave and simulated seismic waves are measured and analyzed. Soil tests of the fourth geologic stratum on which the structure model is sited are made to confirm the safety of soil-structure interactions caused by earthquake. (M. Suetake)

  6. Assessment of Structural Resistance of building 4862 to Earthquake and Tornado Forces [SEC 1 and 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    METCALF, I.L.

    1999-12-06

    This report presents the results of work done for Hanford Engineering Laboratory under contract Y213-544-12662. LATA performed an assessment of building 4862 resistance to earthquake and tornado forces.

  7. Earthquake design for controlled structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikos G. Pnevmatikos

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available An alternative design philosophy, for structures equipped with control devices, capable to resist an expected earthquake while remaining in the elastic range, is described. The idea is that a portion of the earthquake loading is under¬taken by the control system and the remaining by the structure which is designed to resist elastically. The earthquake forces assuming elastic behavior (elastic forces and elastoplastic behavior (design forces are first calculated ac¬cording to the codes. The required control forces are calculated as the difference from elastic to design forces. The maximum value of capacity of control devices is then compared to the required control force. If the capacity of the control devices is larger than the required control force then the control devices are accepted and installed in the structure and the structure is designed according to the design forces. If the capacity is smaller than the required control force then a scale factor, α, reducing the elastic forces to new design forces is calculated. The structure is redesigned and devices are installed. The proposed procedure ensures that the structure behaves elastically (without damage for the expected earthquake at no additional cost, excluding that of buying and installing the control devices.

  8. Experimental Study on a Self-Centering Earthquake-Resistant Masonry Pier with a Structural Concrete Column

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lijun Niu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a slotting construction strategy to avoid shear behavior of multistory masonry buildings. The aspect ratio of masonry piers increases via slotting between spandrels and piers, so that the limit state of piers under an earthquake may be altered from shear to rocking. Rocking piers with a structural concrete column (SCC form a self-centering earthquake-resistant system. The in-plane lateral rocking behavior of masonry piers subjected to an axial force is predicted, and an experimental study is conducted on two full-scale masonry piers with an SCC, which consist of a slotting pier and an original pier. Meanwhile, a comparison of the rocking modes of masonry piers with an SCC and without an SCC was conducted in the paper. Experimental verification indicates that the slotting strategy achieves a change of failure modes from shear to rocking, and this resistant system with an SCC incorporates the self-centering and high energy dissipation properties. For the slotting pier, a lateral story drift ratio of 2.5% and a high displacement ductility of approximately 9.7 are obtained in the test, although the lateral strength decreased by 22.3% after slotting. The predicted lateral strength of the rocking pier with an SCC has a margin of error of 5.3%.

  9. Soil/Structure Interactions in Earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramey, G. W.; Moore, R. K.; Yoo, C. H.; Bush, Thomas D., Jr.; Stallings, J. M.

    1986-01-01

    In effort to improve design of Earthquake-resistant structures, mathematical study undertaken to simulate interactions among soil, foundation, and superstructure during various kinds of vibrational excitation. System modeled as three lumped masses connected vertically by springs, with lowest mass connected to horizontal vibrator (representing ground) through springs and dashpot. Behavior of springs described by elastic or elastoplastic force/deformation relationships. Relationships used to approximate nonlinear system behavior and soil/foundation-interface behavior.

  10. Soil/Structure Interactions in Earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramey, G. W.; Moore, R. K.; Yoo, C. H.; Bush, Thomas D., Jr.; Stallings, J. M.

    1986-01-01

    In effort to improve design of Earthquake-resistant structures, mathematical study undertaken to simulate interactions among soil, foundation, and superstructure during various kinds of vibrational excitation. System modeled as three lumped masses connected vertically by springs, with lowest mass connected to horizontal vibrator (representing ground) through springs and dashpot. Behavior of springs described by elastic or elastoplastic force/deformation relationships. Relationships used to approximate nonlinear system behavior and soil/foundation-interface behavior.

  11. Earthquake resistant design of rock oil tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamada, M.; Iwano, M.; Izumi, H.; Shiba, Y.; Sugihara, Y.

    1983-01-01

    In order to establish a rational procedure of the earthquake resistant design of large rock caverns, such as oil storage tanks on nuclear power plants, experimental and numerical studies were conducted. Dynamic strains during earthquakes were observed on the lining of a railway tunnel constructed in a hard rock mountain, while the seismic motion in the surrounding rock was examined precisely. The observation clarified that the lining strain of the tunnel was linearly and statically related to the rock strain and the ratio of the lining strain to the rock strain was dominated by the relative stiffness of the lining and rock. Based on the results of the earthquake observation, numerical models were proposed for the estimation of the dynamic strains of rock caverns. A good agreement between the calculated strains and the observed ones assured the adequacy of the numerical models.

  12. EARTHQUAKE-INDUCED DEFORMATION STRUCTURES AND RELATED TO EARTHQUAKE MAGNITUDES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savaş TOPAL

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Earthquake-induced deformation structures which are called seismites may helpful to clasify the paleoseismic history of a location and to estimate the magnitudes of the potention earthquakes in the future. In this paper, seismites were investigated according to the types formed in deep and shallow lake sediments. Seismites are observed forms of sand dikes, introduced and fractured gravels and pillow structures in shallow lakes and pseudonodules, mushroom-like silts protruding laminites, mixed layers, disturbed varved lamination and loop bedding in deep lake sediments. Earthquake-induced deformation structures, by benefiting from previous studies, were ordered according to their formations and earthquake magnitudes. In this order, the lowest eartquake's record is loop bedding and the highest one is introduced and fractured gravels in lacustrine deposits.

  13. Behaviour of masonry structures during the Bhuj earthquake of January 2001

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K S Jagadish; S Raghunath; K S Nanjunda Rao

    2003-09-01

    A variety of masonry structures suffered damage during the recent Bhuj earthquake. Some of the traditional masonry structures had no earthquake resistant features and suffered considerable damage. This paper attempts to evaluate the behaviour of masonry structures based on the type of masonry used in places like Bhuj, Anjar, Bhachau, Morbi, Samakhyali and several other places. Quite a few masonry buildings had used earthquake resistant features like lintel bands and corner reinforcements. The cracking and failure patterns of such buildings have also been examined. The paper concludes with a discussion on the relevance of the current codal provisions for earthquake resistance of masonry structures and the direction of further research in the area.

  14. Modern earthquake engineering offshore and land-based structures

    CERN Document Server

    Jia, Junbo

    2017-01-01

    This book addresses applications of earthquake engineering for both offshore and land-based structures. It is self-contained as a reference work and covers a wide range of topics, including topics related to engineering seismology, geotechnical earthquake engineering, structural engineering, as well as special contents dedicated to design philosophy, determination of ground motions, shock waves, tsunamis, earthquake damage, seismic response of offshore and arctic structures, spatial varied ground motions, simplified and advanced seismic analysis methods, sudden subsidence of offshore platforms, tank liquid impacts during earthquakes, seismic resistance of non-structural elements, and various types of mitigation measures, etc. The target readership includes professionals in offshore and civil engineering, officials and regulators, as well as researchers and students in this field.

  15. On ethics and the earthquake resistant interior design of buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurol, Yonca

    2014-03-01

    The most common tectonic quality of modern structures, such as frame systems, is their flexibility; they are open for change. Although this characteristic is a big advantage in comparison to the inflexible masonry structures of the past, it might also create some serious problems, such as e.g. the lack of safety in the event of an earthquake, if the flexibility is not used consciously by architects and interior designers. This article attempts to define and establish some rules for the interior design of buildings with reinforced concrete frame systems. The rules for making subtractions from these structures and extending them by making additions to them are contained within this article. The main objective of this article is to derive some ethical values from these rules. Thus, the conclusion of the article focuses on the derivation of some ethical values for achieving earthquake resistant interior design of buildings with reinforced concrete frame systems.

  16. Analysis of overturning resistant performance of base-isolated structures subjected to near-fault earthquake%近断层地震作用下基础隔震结构抗倾覆性能的分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜永峰; 徐超; 李慧

    2012-01-01

    The overturning resistant performance of base-isolated structures subjected to near-fault earth quake was analyzed. The formula of the ratio of anti-over turning moment to overturning moment was established first and then five records of near-fault pulse-like ground motion and far-field earthquake were chosen, respectively, to set up the analysis model of framed anti-vibration structure. The influence of the earthquake intensity and the pulse effect of near-fault ground motion action on the overturning resistant performance of base-isolated structure was analyzed. The numerical computation result showed that base-isolated structure would exhibit worse overturning resistant performance with larger seismic peak acceleration. The ratio of anti-overturning moment to overturning moment decreased by more than 40% under rare earthquake of scale 7 when compared to that of scale 9. The pulse effect of near-fault ground motion action on overturning resistant performance of base-isolated structure was worse compared with far-field earthquake. Much more disciplinary action must be taken against the overturning resistant property of base isolated buildings during the design in near-fault area.%分析基础隔震结构在近断层脉冲型地震作用下的抗倾覆性能.首先建立隔震结构抗倾覆比的计算公式;然后选取近断层脉冲型地震动和远场非脉冲型地震动记录各5条,建立框架隔震结构分析模型,分析地震烈度及近断层地震动脉冲效应对基础隔震结构抗倾覆性能的影响.数值计算结果表明,地震动加速度峰值越大,基础隔震结构的抗倾覆性能越差,9度罕遇地震时的隔震结构抗倾覆比值较7度罕遇地震下减小40%以上;与远场非脉冲型地震相比,近断层脉冲型地震动对基础隔震结构抗倾覆性能的影响更为不利;近断层地区隔震结构设计时对抗倾覆性能应该采取更为严格的标准.

  17. PROBABILITY MODEL AND SOLUTION ON EARTHQUAKE EFFECTS COMBINATION IN ALONG WIND RESISTANT DESIGN OF TALL-FLEXIBLE BUILDINGS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HONG Xiao-jian; GU Ming

    2006-01-01

    A model on the earthquake effects combination in wind resistant design of high-rise flexible structures is proposed in accordance with the probability method. Based on the Turkstra criteria, the stochastic characters of wind velocity, earthquake ground acceleration and excitations occurrence probability are taken into account and then the combination of the earthquake effects in structure wind resistant design is analyzed with the convolution approach. The results indicate that as for the tall flexible buildings whose lateral force is governed by wind loading, the maximum lateral loads verification with respect to the wind resistant design combined with earthquake effects may be more unfavorable compared with that in terms of the earthquake resistant design involving wind effects.

  18. Peak earthquake response of structures under multi-component excitations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianwei Song; Zach Liang; Yi-Lun Chu; George C.Lee

    2007-01-01

    Accurate estimation of the peak seismic responses of structures is important in earthquake resistant design.The internal force distributions and the seismic responses of structures are quite complex,since ground motions are multidirectional.One key issue is the uncertainty of the incident angle between the directions of ground motion and the reference axes of the structure.Different assumed seismic incidences can result in difierent peak values within the scope of design spectrum analysis for a given structure and earthquake ground motion record combination.Using time history analysis to determine the maximum structural responses excited by a given earthquake record requires repetitive calculations to determine the critical incident angle.This paper presents a transformation approach for relatively accurate and rapid determination of the maximum peak responses of a linear structure subjected to three-dimensional excitations within all possible seismic incident angles.The responses can be deformations,internal forces,strains and so on.An irregular building structure model is established using SAP2000 program.Several typical earthquake records and an artificial white noise are applied to the structure model to illustrate the variation of the maximum structural responses for different incident angles.Numerical results show that for many structural parameters,the variation can be greater than 100%.This method can be directly applied to time history analysis of structures using existing computer software to determine the peak responses without carrying out the analyses for all possible incident angles.It can also be used to verify and/or modify aseismic designs by using response spectrum analysis.

  19. Passive earthquake-resistance through base isolation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Ting-Shu; Seidensticker, R.W.

    1990-04-01

    Base isolation is an effective approach in mitigating the seismic forces transmitted to the superstructure. It is able to provide reliable protection for the superstructure, its contents and occupants. With base isolation, dynamic characteristics of the superstructure and its contents become more predictable and controllable. In recent years, different base isolation systems have been installed in various new and existing buildings, including office buildings, computer centers, buildings for high technology industries, emergency and communication centers, buildings for high technology industries, emergency and communication centers. The concept of seismic isolation is also under active investigation for nuclear power plants, where safety and reliability of these systems are of utmost importance. One such system uses laminated high-damping rubber and steel shim plates vulcanized into a solid bearing. Under a joint program between Shimizu of Japan and Argonne National Laboratory of the United States, such high-damping rubber bearings were installed in the spring of 1989 in a three-story full size test building at the Tohoku University, Sendai, Japan. Within a period of six months after their installation, this test building and the bearings have experienced more than fifteen earthquakes. Valuable information on the performance of the isolation bearings and the building has been (and is continuing to be) gathered and analyzed. Simulation studies of the effects of these earthquakes using lumped mass systems have been conducted, and are in close agreement with the actual observed responses. 3 refs., 11 figs.

  20. 钢筋混凝土框架结构抗震能力评估研究%Evaluation of Earthquake-Resistant Capability of Reinforced Concrete Frame Structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈海霞; 李凯; 洪学娣

    2016-01-01

    为了有效的评估框架结构抵挡地震作用能力,结合我国现行抗震设计规范,从构件的实际尺寸和配筋入手,利用ETABS软件,借鉴结构的强度和延性,分析建筑结构的抗震能力。通过此方法不仅能够定量评估建筑物的抗震能力,还能找到抗震能力不足的部位,为后续的加固提供了基础。%In order to effectively evaluate frame structure ability to withstand earthquakes, in this paper, based on the current seismic design code and the size of the building and actual reinforcement, we use ETABS program software analysis strength and toughness of buildings to come to the conclusion of earthquake-resistant capability. Through this method not only can quantitatively evaluate the structure of the seismic capacity, but also can find the parts for the subsequent seismic ability to reinforcement.

  1. Study on earthquake resistant performance of a large span structure strengthened with HADAS%罕遇地震作用下HADAS加固某大跨度结构的静力弹塑性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈代果; 姚勇; 邓勇军; 杨亚龙; 王海军

    2012-01-01

    Seismic fortification intensity has been adjusted in some areas which were affected in the Wenchuan -earthquake. It was seismic strengthening for most of the buildings especially the public buildings after the adjustment. In order to ensure the seismic performance of the structure after reinforcement ,the analysis method based on performance was gradually applied in the large and complex engineering structure analysis. A large span sports training center was used taking construction as background. According to the fact that the fortification intensity was improved from 6 degrees to 7 degrees, Push - Over method was used to analyze the structures elastic - plastic performance under the action of the rare earthquake of 7 degrees by using the finite element models with the mild steel damper before and after reinforcement. The internal force , deformation and destruction of the structure were studied in the action of the rare earthquake, comparing the dynamic characteristics and seismic performance of the models, and researching distribution of weak links and plastic hinge of the models under the large earthquake. The results show that the models can meet collapse resistant checks under 7 degrees of the rare earthquake before and after reinforcement. The second floor of the original structure is relatively weak, and it can emerge local damage easily. But the structure' s stiffness is more uniform after reinforcement, and the structure has large resistance of the collapsed ability.%汶川大地震后,受影响的部分地区设防烈度进行了调整,设防烈度调整后大部分建筑尤其是公共建筑都进行了抗震加固,为了保证加固后结构的抗震性能,在大型复杂工程的结构分析中逐渐采用了基于性能分析方法.以地震时正在修建的某大跨度体育教学训练中心为背景,针对设防烈度提高由6度提高至7度的情况,采用P ish-Over法对其采用软钢阻尼器加固前后的有限元模型进行7度罕遇

  2. Design objectives and collapse prevention for building structures in mega-earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Lieping; Lu, Xinzheng; Li, Yi

    2010-06-01

    A “mega-earthquake” is one with an intensity larger than the most severe earthquake intensity category currently considered in design codes. For a “mega-earthquake,” the design objective of a given structure is to “preserve living spaces for people in the buildings.” In this paper, factors that may influence the collapse resistance of RC frames in a megaearthquake are analyzed based on seismic damage observed in the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake. Methodologies to improve structural collapse resistance focus on three aspects: global strength margin, global redundancy and global integration of the structural system. Fundamental principles and design concepts for collapse prevention under a mega-earthquake are proposed, and issues that need further research are identified.

  3. Design of Earthquake Resistant Bridges Using Rocking Columns

    OpenAIRE

    Barthes, Clement Benjamin

    2012-01-01

    The California Department of Transportation (CalTrans) is urging researchers and contractors to develop the next generation highway bridge design. New design solutions should favor the use of modular construction techniques over conventional cast-in-place reinforced concrete in order to reduce the cost of the projects and the amount of constructions on site. Earthquake resistant bridges are designed such that the columns are monolithically connected to the girder and the foundations. Hence, d...

  4. A STUDY ON THE EARTHQUAKE RESPONSE AND EARTHQUAKE RESISTANT DESIGN METHOD OF AN OPEN TYPE WHARF WITH PNEUMATIC CAISSONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oishi, Masahiko; Nagao, Takashi; Shigeki, Kouji; Ouchi, Masatoshi; Sato, Yuske; Kinomiya, Osamu

    Seismic response of an open type wharf with pneumatic caisson was clarified using a dynamic finite element method. As a result, rocking behavior of caisson foundations were observed and applicability of a frame model analysis to the earthquake resistant design of a wharf was suggested. Authors proposed the framework of earthquake resistant design method of the wharf including the evaluation method of response acceleration of the wharf.

  5. Timbered masonry for earthquake resistance in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dutu, A.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Europe is a continent that is subject to significant seismic activity. Thus, the buildings’ seismic behaviour must be analysed, including not only the new structures, designed under more rigorous codes, but also older ones. This article examines a traditional type of building that uses timber frame/masonry, which is found in Portugal, Turkey, France, England, Greece, Romania, Italy, Spain, Germany and Scandinavia. Although the structures differ in terms of construction details, their structural system is basically the same: the wooden structural system bears mainly the horizontal loads while the masonry supports the gravity loads. The study includes a brief report on the seismicity of each country where this traditional type of building made of timbered framed masonry is found, together with the description of these buildings’ constructive systems.

    Europa es un continente que está sujeto a una significativa actividad sísmica. Por esta razón, se debe analizar el comportamiento sísmico, no sólo de las nuevas estructuras, diseñadas sobre la base de códigos más exigentes, sino también de los diversos tipos de estructuras antiguas. En este artículo se analizan las estructuras constituidas por mampostería y madera, que se pueden encontrar en Portugal, Turquía, Francia, Inglaterra, Grecia, Rumania, Italia, España, Alemania y Escandinavia. Aunque estas estructuras presentan diferencias en cuanto a detalles constructivos, su sistema estructural es idéntico: el sistema estructural de madera absorbe principalmente las cargas horizontales, mientras que la mampostería garantiza la resistencia a la acción de la gravedad. El estudio presentado incluye un breve informe acerca de la sismicidad de los países en que existe el tipo de construcción mencionado, conjuntamente con la descripción de los sistemas constructivos específicos de cada país.

  6. Analysis of the Earthquake-Resistant Design Approach for Buildings in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carrillo Julián

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of new codes for earthquake-resistant structures has made possible to guarantee a better performance of buildings, when they are subjected to seismic actions. Therefore, it is convenient that current codes for design of building become conceptually transparent when defining the strength modification factors and assessing maximum lateral displacements, so that the design process can be clearly understood by structural engineers. The aim of this study is to analyze the transparency of earthquake-resistant design approach for buildings in Mexico by means of a critical review of the factors for strength modification and displacement amplification. The approach of building design codes in US is also analyzed. It is concluded that earthquake-resistant design in Mexico have evolved in refinement and complexity. It is also demonstrated that the procedure prescribed by such design codes allows the assessment of the design strengths and displacements in a more rational way, in accordance not only with the present stage of knowledge but also with the contemporary tendencies in building codes. In contrast, the procedures used in US codes may not provide a clear view for seismic response assessment of buildings.

  7. THEORETICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF STRUCTURES SUBJECTED TO EARTHQUAKES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soubirou, A.

    1967-12-31

    The object of the study was the investigation of the behaviour of structures subject to earthquakes. After .describing and analysing seismic movements, useful concepts for earthquake-proofing structures are lintroduced. Then, the dynamic behaviour of systems with n degrees of freedom was studied in order to evolve the theoretical computation of seismic behaviour, a typical application being reticulated structures. The next stage was showing the computational procedure for seismic spectra and the natural frequencies of buildings, an attempt being made to define earthquake-proofing criteria for a special type of reinforced-concrete construction. . The last matter dealt with is elastoplastic behaviour of structures, a study of increasingly growing importance.

  8. Earthquake and Schools. [Videotape].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Washington, DC.

    Designing schools to make them more earthquake resistant and protect children from the catastrophic collapse of the school building is discussed in this videotape. It reveals that 44 of the 50 U.S. states are vulnerable to earthquake, but most schools are structurally unprepared to take on the stresses that earthquakes exert. The cost to the…

  9. Fan-structure wave as a source of earthquake instability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarasov, Boris

    2015-04-01

    Today frictional shear resistance along pre-existing faults is considered to be the lower limit on rock shear strength at confined compression corresponding to the seismogenic layer. This determines the lithospheric strength and the primary earthquake mechanism associated with frictional stick-slip instability on pre-existing faults. This paper introduces a recently identified shear rupture mechanism providing a paradoxical feature of hard rocks - the possibility of shear rupture propagation through the highly confined intact rock mass at shear stress levels significantly less than frictional strength. In the new mechanism the rock failure, associated with consecutive creation of small slabs (known as 'domino-blocks') from the intact rock in the rupture tip, is driven by a fan-shaped domino structure representing the rupture head. The fan-head combines such unique features as: extremely low shear resistance (below the frictional strength), self-sustaining stress intensification in the rupture tip (providing easy formation of new domino-blocks), and self-unbalancing conditions in the fan-head (making the failure process inevitably spontaneous and violent). An important feature of the fan-mechanism is the fact that for the initial formation of the fan-structure an enhanced local shear stress is required, however, after completion of the fan-structure it can propagate as a dynamic wave through intact rock mass at shear stresses below the frictional strength. Paradoxically low shear strength of pristine rocks provided by the fan-mechanism determines the lower limit of the lithospheric strength and favours the generation of new faults in pristine rocks in preference to frictional stick-slip instability along pre-existing faults. The new approach reveals an alternative role of pre-existing faults in earthquake activity: they represent local stress concentrates in pristine rock adjoining the fault where special conditions for the fan-mechanism nucleation are created

  10. THE CEYHAN EARTHQUAKE OF JUNE 27, 1998 AND DESIGN OF EARTQUAKE RESISTING BUILDINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Kaplan

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available Our country is under risk of earthquake, and it has lost extensive economical goods. In addition to this, the reality of buildings those had not been constructed earthquake resisting on seismic regions have come out. It is true that those kind of building have been constructed all over the country. In this paper the design of earthquake resisting buildings have been taken up. It is dwelled upon the buildings had damages in Adana-Ceyhan earthquake at 27th July 1998 and reasons of damages. The damages on the buildings are appreciated under the lights of principles of design of earthquake resisting. The important precautions that have to taken are grouped for not living those kind of tragic earthquake disasters.

  11. The behaviour of reinforced concrete structure due to earthquake load using Time History analysis Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afifuddin, M.; Panjaitan, M. A. R.; Ayuna, D.

    2017-02-01

    Earthquakes are one of the most dangerous, destructive and unpredictable natural hazards, which can leave everything up to a few hundred kilometres in complete destruction in seconds. Indonesia has a unique position as an earthquake prone country. It is the place of the interaction for three tectonic plates, namely the Indo-Australian, Eurasian and Pacific plates. Banda Aceh is one of the cities that located in earthquake-prone areas. Due to the vulnerable conditions of Banda Aceh some efforts have been exerted to reduce these unfavourable conditions. Many aspects have been addressed, starting from community awareness up to engineering solutions. One of them is all buildings that build in the city should be designed as an earthquake resistant building. The objectives of this research are to observe the response of a reinforced concrete structure due to several types of earthquake load, and to see the performance of the structure after earthquake loads applied. After Tsunami in 2004 many building has been build, one of them is a hotel building located at simpang lima. The hotel is made of reinforced concrete with a height of 34.95 meters with a total area of 8872.5 m2 building. So far this building was the tallest building in Banda Aceh.

  12. Historical Earthquakes and Active Structure for Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsereteli, Nino; Varazanashivli, Otar

    2014-05-01

    Long-term seismic history is an important foundation for reliable assessment of seismic hazard and risk. Therefore, completeness of earthquake catalogues in the longest historical part is very important. Survived historical sources, as well as special researches from the institutes, museums, libraries and archives in Georgia, the Caucasus and the Middle East indicate to high level of seismicity which entailed numerous human casualties and destruction on the territory of Georgia during the historical period. The study and detailed analysis of these original documents and researches have allowed us to create a new catalogue of historical earthquakes of Georgia from 1250 BC to 1900 AD. The method of the study is based on a multidisciplinary approach, i.e. on the joint use of methods of history and paleoseismology, archeoseismology, seismotectonics, geomorphology, etc. We present here a new parametric catalogue of 44 historic earthquakes of Georgia and a full "descriptor" of all the phenomena described in it. Constructed on its basis, the summarized map of the distribution of maximum damage in the historical period (before 1900) on the territory of Georgia clearly shows the main features of the seismic field during this period. In particular, in the axial part and the southern slope of the Greater Caucasus there is a seismic gap, which was filled in 1991 by the strongest earthquake and its aftershocks in Racha. In addition, it is also obvious that very high seismic activity in the central and eastern parts of the Javakheti highland is not described in historical materials and this fact requires further searches of various kinds of sources that contain data about historical earthquakes. We hope that this catalogue will enable to create a new joint (instrumental and historical) parametric earthquake catalogue of Georgia and will serve to assess the real seismic hazard and risk in the country.

  13. Shock Absorbers Save Structures and Lives during Earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    With NASA funding, North Tonawanda, New York-based Taylor Devices Inc. developed fluidic shock absorbers to safely remove the fuel and electrical connectors from the space shuttles during launch. The company is now employing the technology as seismic dampers to protect structures from earthquakes. To date, 550 buildings and bridges have the dampers, and not a single one has suffered damage in the wake of an earthquake.

  14. The "peeling" method to process apparent resistivity data for earthquake precursory monitoring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Considering the fact that there is only one pair of fixed potential poles in one direction used to monitor the resis-tivity changes under the observatory station which may indicate process of earthquake preparation, based on the precondition that the resistivity structure is 1-dimensional under the observatory station, and by way of equivalent model put forward by the authors, this paper suggests a kind of method trying to separate the resistivity changes in deep layers from that of the shallow layer. Analysis shows that, to obtain the same measured data with the same array, any a multi-layered geo-electrical structure can be equivalently taken as a two-layered one, we call it equivalent model. In this paper, the resistivity and thickness of the upper layer of the equivalent model are equal to that of the first layer of the original one, the resistivity of the lower layer of the equivalent model is obtained with calculation according to the requirement of equivalence, its value is relevant with the resistivities and thicknesses of all layer of the original model except for the first one, so the resistivity change of the equivalent layer can indi-cate the synthetic effect of variation of all layers of the original model except for the first one. The primary resear-ch results show that this method can work well.

  15. Living with earthquakes - development and usage of earthquake-resistant construction methods in European and Asian Antiquity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kázmér, Miklós; Major, Balázs; Hariyadi, Agus; Pramumijoyo, Subagyo; Ditto Haryana, Yohanes

    2010-05-01

    Earthquakes are among the most horrible events of nature due to unexpected occurrence, for which no spiritual means are available for protection. The only way of preserving life and property is applying earthquake-resistant construction methods. Ancient Greek architects of public buildings applied steel clamps embedded in lead casing to hold together columns and masonry walls during frequent earthquakes in the Aegean region. Elastic steel provided strength, while plastic lead casing absorbed minor shifts of blocks without fracturing rigid stone. Romans invented concrete and built all sizes of buildings as a single, unflexible unit. Masonry surrounding and decorating concrete core of the wall did not bear load. Concrete resisted minor shaking, yielding only to forces higher than fracture limits. Roman building traditions survived the Dark Ages and 12th century Crusader castles erected in earthquake-prone Syria survive until today in reasonably good condition. Concrete and steel clamping persisted side-by-side in the Roman Empire. Concrete was used for cheap construction as compared to building of masonry. Applying lead-encased steel increased costs, and was avoided whenever possible. Columns of the various forums in Italian Pompeii mostly lack steel fittings despite situated in well-known earthquake-prone area. Whether frequent recurrence of earthquakes in the Naples region was known to inhabitants of Pompeii might be a matter of debate. Seemingly the shock of the AD 62 earthquake was not enough to apply well-known protective engineering methods throughout the reconstruction of the city before the AD 79 volcanic catastrophe. An independent engineering tradition developed on the island of Java (Indonesia). The mortar-less construction technique of 8-9th century Hindu masonry shrines around Yogyakarta would allow scattering of blocks during earthquakes. To prevent dilapidation an intricate mortise-and-tenon system was carved into adjacent faces of blocks. Only the

  16. Innovative Technologies for the Protection of Historical Structures against Earthquakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuat Aras

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to represent innovative technologies and strategies to preserve the cultural heritage structures against earthquake effect. In particular, the application of fibre reinforced polymers and structural control systems are explained. Suitability of the strategies to architectural, historical and structural features and reversibility aspects are evaluated. As a case study the application of these strategies to a historical building in Istanbul is discussed.

  17. Earthquake Analysis of Structure by Base Isolation Technique in SAP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Subramani

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an overview of the present state of base isolation techniques with special emphasis and a brief on other techniques developed world over for mitigating earthquake forces on the structures. The dynamic analysis procedure for isolated structures is briefly explained. The provisions of FEMA 450 for base isolated structures are highlighted. The effects of base isolation on structures located on soft soils and near active faults are given in brief. Simple case study on natural base isolation using naturally available soils is presented. Also, the future areas of research are indicated. Earthquakes are one of nature IS greatest hazards; throughout historic time they have caused significant loss offline and severe damage to property, especially to man-made structures. On the other hand, earthquakes provide architects and engineers with a number of important design criteria foreign to the normal design process. From well established procedures reviewed by many researchers, seismic isolation may be used to provide an effective solution for a wide range of seismic design problems. The application of the base isolation techniques to protect structures against damage from earthquake attacks has been considered as one of the most effective approaches and has gained increasing acceptance during the last two decades. This is because base isolation limits the effects of the earthquake attack, a flexible base largely decoupling the structure from the ground motion, and the structural response accelerations are usually less than the ground acceleration. In general, the increase of additional viscous damping in the structure may reduce displacement and acceleration responses of the structure. This study also seeks to evaluate the effects of additional damping on the seismic response when compared with structures without additional damping for the different ground motions.

  18. Earthquake Analysis of Structure by Base Isolation Technique in SAP

    OpenAIRE

    T. Subramani; J. Jothi

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the present state of base isolation techniques with special emphasis and a brief on other techniques developed world over for mitigating earthquake forces on the structures. The dynamic analysis procedure for isolated structures is briefly explained. The provisions of FEMA 450 for base isolated structures are highlighted. The effects of base isolation on structures located on soft soils and near active faults are given in brief. Simple case s...

  19. Earthquake

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    正A serious earthquake happened in Wenchuan, Sichuan. Over 60,000 people died in the earhtquake, millins of people lost their homes. After the earthquake, people showed their love in different ways. Some gave food, medicine and everything necessary, some gave money,

  20. Structural damages of L'Aquila (Italy earthquake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Kaplan

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available On 6 April 2009 an earthquake of magnitude 6.3 occurred in L'Aquila city, Italy. In the city center and surrounding villages many masonry and reinforced concrete (RC buildings were heavily damaged or collapsed. After the earthquake, the inspection carried out in the region provided relevant results concerning the quality of the materials, method of construction and the performance of the structures. The region was initially inhabited in the 13th century and has many historic structures. The main structural materials are unreinforced masonry (URM composed of rubble stone, brick, and hollow clay tile. Masonry units suffered the worst damage. Wood flooring systems and corrugated steel roofs are common in URM buildings. Moreover, unconfined gable walls, excessive wall thicknesses without connection with each other are among the most common deficiencies of poorly constructed masonry structures. These walls caused an increase in earthquake loads. The quality of the materials and the construction were not in accordance with the standards. On the other hand, several modern, non-ductile concrete frame buildings have collapsed. Poor concrete quality and poor reinforcement detailing caused damage in reinforced concrete structures. Furthermore, many structural deficiencies such as non-ductile detailing, strong beams-weak columns and were commonly observed. In this paper, reasons why the buildings were damaged in the 6 April 2009 earthquake in L'Aquila, Italy are given. Some suggestions are made to prevent such disasters in the future.

  1. Structural damages of L'Aquila (Italy) earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, H.; Bilgin, H.; Yilmaz, S.; Binici, H.; Öztas, A.

    2010-03-01

    On 6 April 2009 an earthquake of magnitude 6.3 occurred in L'Aquila city, Italy. In the city center and surrounding villages many masonry and reinforced concrete (RC) buildings were heavily damaged or collapsed. After the earthquake, the inspection carried out in the region provided relevant results concerning the quality of the materials, method of construction and the performance of the structures. The region was initially inhabited in the 13th century and has many historic structures. The main structural materials are unreinforced masonry (URM) composed of rubble stone, brick, and hollow clay tile. Masonry units suffered the worst damage. Wood flooring systems and corrugated steel roofs are common in URM buildings. Moreover, unconfined gable walls, excessive wall thicknesses without connection with each other are among the most common deficiencies of poorly constructed masonry structures. These walls caused an increase in earthquake loads. The quality of the materials and the construction were not in accordance with the standards. On the other hand, several modern, non-ductile concrete frame buildings have collapsed. Poor concrete quality and poor reinforcement detailing caused damage in reinforced concrete structures. Furthermore, many structural deficiencies such as non-ductile detailing, strong beams-weak columns and were commonly observed. In this paper, reasons why the buildings were damaged in the 6 April 2009 earthquake in L'Aquila, Italy are given. Some suggestions are made to prevent such disasters in the future.

  2. Dynamical evolution of the community structure of complex earthquake network

    CERN Document Server

    Abe, Sumiyoshi

    2012-01-01

    Earthquake network is known to be complex in the sense that it is scale-free, small-world, hierarchically organized and assortatively mixed. Here, the time evolution of earthquake networks is analyzed around main shocks in the context of the community structure. It is found that the maximum of the modularity measure quantifying existence of communities exhibits a peculiar behavior: its maximum value stays at a large value before a main shock, suddenly drops to a small values at the main shock, and then increases to relax to a large value again relatively slowly. In this way, a main shock is characterized in the language of theory of complex networks. The result is also interpreted in terms of the clustering structure of the earthquake network.

  3. Post-earthquake fire resistance of steel buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jelinek, T.; Zania, V.; Giuliani, Luisa

    2017-01-01

    Current design procedures do not account for the concomitant or subsequent occurrence of earthquakes and fires, which has so far been justified by the low probability of occurrence of accidental actions. Nevertheless, fires are often triggered as a consequence of damage caused by the earthquake a...

  4. Determining the Cognitive Structures of Geography Teacher Candidates on "Earthquake"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, Bastürk; Aladag, Caner

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study is to determine the cognitive structures of the students of geography teaching department by identifying their conceptual frameworks about the concept of earthquake. A case study design from qualitative research approaches was used in this research. Sample group of the study constitutes 155 students from the Department…

  5. Horizontal shaking table tests and analysis on structures with multi-dimensional earthquake isolation and mitigation devices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The viscoelastic multi-dimensional earthquake isolation and mitigation device is a new kind of passive control device, which has both earthquake isolation and earthquake mitigation abilities. In order to quantify the horizontal earthquake isolation and mitigation effect of this device on structures, shaking table tests on structures with and without the devices and the corresponding analysis on earthquake isolation and mitigation properties are carried out. It can be shown from the experimental and analytical results that the device has both earthquake isolation and earthquake mitigation effects on structures in horizontal direction, and its horizontal earthquake mitigation coefficients can be referred to those of the rubber bearing earthquake isolation structure.

  6. Fundamental principles of earthquake resistance calculation to be reflected in the next generation regulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mkrtychev Oleg

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article scrutinizes the pressing issues of regulation in the domain of seismic construction. The existing code of rules SNIP II-7-81* “Construction in seismic areas” provides that earthquake resistance calculation be performed on two levels of impact: basic safety earthquake (BSE and maximum considered earthquake (MCE. However, the very nature of such calculation cannot be deemed well-founded and contradicts the fundamental standards of foreign countries. The authors of the article have identified the main problems of the conceptual foundation underlying the current regulation. The first and foremost step intended to overcome the discrepancy in question is renunciation of the K1 damage tolerance factor when calculating the BSE. The second measure to be taken is implementing the response spectrum method of calculation, but the β spectral curve of the dynamic response factor must be replaced by a spectrum of worst-case accelerograms for this particular structure or a spectrum of simulated accelerograms obtained for the specific construction site. Application of the response spectrum method when calculating the MCE impact level makes it possible to proceed into the frequency domain and to eventually obtain spectra of the accelerograms. As a result we get to know the response of the building to some extent, i.e. forces, the required reinforcement, and it can be checked whether the conditions of the ultimate limit state apply. Then, the elements under the most intense load are excluded from the design model the way it is done in case of progressive collapse calculations, because the assumption is that these elements are destroyed locally by seismic load. This procedure is based on the already existing design practices of progressive collapse calculation.

  7. Strong motions and engineering structure performances in recent major earthquakes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaojun Li

    2010-01-01

    @@ In recent years, a series of major earthquakes occurred, which resulted in considerable engineering damage and collapse, triggered heavy geological hazards, and caused extremely high casualties and huge property and economic loss. The earthquakes include the 1994 Northridge earthquake (M6.8), the 1995 Kobe earthquake (M6.8), the 1999 Izmit earthquake (M7.6), the 1999 Jiji (Chi-Chi) earthquake (M7.6), the 2005 northern Pakistan earthquake (M7.6), the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake (M8.0) and the 2010 Haiti earthquake (M7.0). Some villages, towns and even cities were devastated in the earthquakes, especially in the 2005 northern Pakistan earthquake, the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake and the 2010 Haiti earthquake.

  8. Earthquake Engineering Research Center: 25th anniversry edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-10-01

    The Earthquake Engineering Research Center exists to conduct research and develop technical information in all areas pertaining to earthquake engineering, including strong ground motion and ground failure, response of natural and manmade structures to earthquakes, design of structures to resist earthquakes, development of new systems for earthquake protection, and development of architectural and public policy aspects of earthquake engineering. The annual report for 1992-93 presents information on: Current Research Programs; Contracts and Grants; Public Service Program; National Information Service for Earthquake Engineering; Core Administration; Committees of the Earthquake Engineering Research Center; Research Participants - Faculty; and Research Participants - Students.

  9. Earthquake Resistant Engineering and Application of Seismic Zonation Map of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ShiZhenliang; LiYuche; ZhangXiaodong

    2004-01-01

    China is a country with high seismieity. It is very important for industry and structure to fortify against earthquakes. In this paper the outline of seismicity in China, the criteria for fortification against earthquakes and the contents of seismic zonation map of China are described. The contents of seismic safety evaluation for major construction projects, such as large dams, large bridges, long distance pipe lines for transporting oil and natural gas, nuclear plants, petrochemical enterprises and so on, are presented. Some geological disasters caused by destructive earthquake, such as earthquake-caused collapse and landslide, liquefaction of saturated soll and earthquake fault and so on, are also presented. Preventive countermeasures for these disasters are discussed.

  10. Earthquake analysis of structures using nonlinear models

    OpenAIRE

    Cemalovic, Miran

    2015-01-01

    Throughout the governing design codes, several different methods are presented for the evaluation of seismic problems. This thesis assesses the non-linear static and dynamic procedures presented in EN 1998-1 through the structural response of a RC wall-frame building. The structure is designed in detail according to the guidelines for high ductility (DCH) in EN 1998-1. The applied procedures are meticulously evaluated and the requirements in EN 1998-1 are reviewed. In addition, the finite ele...

  11. Anisotropy of the apparent resistivity variation rate near the epicentral region for strong earthquakes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The apparent resistivity data of 11 stations observed in or near the epicentral regions for 6 strong earthquakes are processed by the normalized monthly rate method. The result show that in the medium-short and short-imminent terms of earthquake preparation the variation rate of apparent resistivity perpendicular (or near perpendicular) to the direction of maximum principal stress is greater than that parallel (or near parallel) to the direction. Such an-isotropic phenomenon is interpreted as follow: the predominant alignment of cracks containing conductive fluid in the maximum principal stress direction caused the anisotropy of the fluid migration during the dilatancy process in the late period of earthquake preparation and resulted in the anisotropy of true resistivity variation rate for rock (or solid) medium which induced the variation rate anisotropy of apparent resistivity on the ground. The study of this paper provides some seismic examples to show the apparent resistivity anisotropy which may be helpful to study the stress status in or near the source zone in the late period of earthquake preparation of strong events.

  12. Smart earthquake-resistant materials: using time-released adhesives for damping, stiffening, and deflection control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dry, Carolyn M.

    1996-04-01

    Preventing buildings and bridges from damage from severe dynamic loading events is a primary goal of civil infrastructure. Present designs attempt to control structural response by making the structures more massive, by increasing lateral stiffness through bracing, and by damping technology such as mass damping and base-isolation. These attempts affect portions of the governing equation: for an idealized building frame or bridge, the free vibrational behavior is described by Mu + cu + ku equals -mug(t) where m equals mass, c equals damping coefficient, k equals lateral stiffness, u equals deflection, and ug(t) equals ground acceleration. The use of adhesive released internally in a material based way of addressing the problem. The time release of low modulus adhesive chemicals would assist the damping characteristics of the structure, use of a stiffer adhesive would allow the damaged structure to regain some lateral stiffness (k) and adjustment of the set times of the adhesives would act to control the deflection. These can be thought of as potential new method of controlling vibration of behavior in case of a dynamic loading event. In past experiments, self-healing concrete matrices were shown to increase post-yield deflection and load carrying capability by the release and setting of adhesives. The results were promising in resisting damage of dynamic loads applied to frames. This indicates that self-healing concrete would be extremely valuable in civil engineering structures that were subjected to failure-inducing loads such as earthquakes.

  13. Geological structures control on earthquake ruptures: The Mw7.7, 2013, Balochistan earthquake, Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallage, A.; Klinger, Y.; Lacassin, R.; Delorme, A.; Pierrot-Deseilligny, M.

    2016-10-01

    The 2013 Mw7.7 Balochistan earthquake, Pakistan, ruptured the Hoshab fault. Left-lateral motion dominated the deformation pattern, although significant vertical motion is found along the southern part of the rupture. Correlation of high-resolution (2.5 m) optical satellite images provided horizontal displacement along the entire rupture. In parallel, we mapped the ground rupture geometry at 1:500 scale. We show that the azimuth of the ground rupture distributes mainly between two directions, N216° and N259°. The direction N216° matches the direction of preexisting geologic structures resulting from penetrative deformation caused by the nearby Makran subduction. Hence, during a significant part of its rupture, the 2013 Balochistan rupture kept switching between a long-term fault front and secondary branches, in which existence and direction are related to the compressional context. It shows unambiguous direct interactions between different preexisting geologic structures, regional stress, and dynamic-rupture stress, which controlled earthquake propagation path.

  14. Generalized Minimum Variance Control for MDOF Structures under Earthquake Excitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lakhdar Guenfaf

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Control of a multi-degree-of-freedom structural system under earthquake excitation is investigated in this paper. The control approach based on the Generalized Minimum Variance (GMV algorithm is developed and presented. Our approach is a generalization to multivariable systems of the GMV strategy designed initially for single-input-single-output (SISO systems. Kanai-Tajimi and Clough-Penzien models are used to generate the seismic excitations. Those models are calculated using the specific soil parameters. Simulation tests using a 3DOF structure are performed and show the effectiveness of the control method.

  15. Procedures and criteria for increasing the earthquake resistance level of electrical substations and special installations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Couch, R.W.; Deacon, R.J.

    1973-09-30

    This report defines a procedure and provides basic information needed to determine the modifications required to make electrical substations and special installations of the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) more resistant to strong earthquake ground motion. It also provides a procedure for developing an effective plan for establishing the sequence, or priority, of providing the required modifications.

  16. 框架结构抗地震倒塌能力的研究——汶川地震极震区几个框架结构震害案例分析%Seismic collapse resistance of RC frame structures——Case studies on seismic damages of several RC frame structures under extreme ground motion in Wenchuan Earthquake

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶列平; 陆新征; 赵世春; 李易

    2009-01-01

    介绍了汶川地震中极震区几组相同场地条件下倒塌与未倒塌框架结构的震害案例,并分别采用弹塑性时程分析方法、推覆分析方法和基于IDA的结构倒塌储备系数分析方法,对其中2个典型框架结构的抗地震倒塌能力进行了分析研究.在此基础上,结合国外关于结构抗地震倒塌计算方法及其相关研究,分析了影响结构抗倒塌能力的主要影响因素和评价指标.研究结果表明,保证结构的整体承载力储备和变形能力,增加结构的冗余度和整体性,采取有效措施使结构形成合理的屈服机制,充分利用填充墙使框架结构形成双重抗震防线,可显著提高框架结构的抗倒塌能力.最后提出了结构抗地震倒塌需进一步研究的问题.%The seismic damage of several groups of RC frames in the hardest-hit zone of the Great Wenchuan Earthquake is introduced. In each group, some frames collapsed while others survived, despite that they had similar site condition. The collapse resistance of two typical frames in earthquake is analyzed with elastic-plastic time-history analysis, pushover analysis and collapse margin ratio(CMR) analysis which is based on incremental dynamic analysis (IDA). The corresponding collapse resistance research and calculation methods in foreign countries are introduced. The main influencing factors and the evaluation indices that control the structural collapse resistance, as well as the global redundancy and integrity, are discussed. Based on this study, the following methods are identified to be effective in improving the collapse resistance of frames: (1)guarantee the global loading resistance capacity and lateral deformation capacity; (2) increase the redundancy and integrity; (3) achieve rational yield mechanism with proposed engineering method; (4) buildup dual-system for frame structures with infill walls. Finally, the problems that may need further research on structural collapse are proposed.

  17. 软钢阻尼器加固某大跨度结构减震性能研究%Study on Earthquake Resistant Performance of a Large Span Structure Strengthened with HADAS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓勇军; 姚勇; 陈代果

    2012-01-01

    After the "5.12 Wenchuan" earthquake, the fortification intensity of part of the affected areas has adjusted, most of the structures especially the public buildings need to reinforcement after the fortification in- tensity was adjusted. In this paper, based on a sports teaching training center which is building when the earthquake happening, with the particularity of the fortification intensity increased, evaluated the seismic per- formance of the structure before and after fortification intensity increased, and dynamic analysis on the finite element model of different HADAS reinforcement schemes has been done, then evaluated the shock absorption effect under different reinforcement schemes. The results show that : 1 ) HADAS has important role to adjust the vertical stiffness, enhance the capability of energy consumption, and improve the damping performance of structure; 2) HADAS should decorate in the layer which has larger inter-story displacement drift, that is the neighboring story of stiffness changes greatly ; 3) the number and arrangement mode of the HADAS has optimal solution and so on, provide the basis for the engineering reinforcement design of the structure, at the same time give reference for this kind of building structure' s seismic strengthening design.%“5.12汶川”大地震后,受影响的部分地区设防烈度进行了调整,设防烈度调整后大部分建筑尤其是公共建筑需要进行抗震加固。以地震时正在修建的某大跨度体育教学训练中心为背景,针对该地区设防烈度提高的特殊性,对其设防烈度提高前、后的抗震性能进行了评估,采用有限元模型对不同软钢阻尼器抗震加固方案进行了动力分析,评价了不同软钢阻尼器加固方案的减震效果。结果表明:(1)软钢阻尼器的设置对于调整结构的水平刚度,增强结构的耗能能力,改善结构的减震性能具有重要作用;(2)软钢阻尼器宜布置在层间

  18. Observational evidence of anisotropic changes of apparent resistivity before strong earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianguo; Wu, Xiaoping; Yang, Xiaodong; Du, Wei; Yue, Mingxin

    2017-09-01

    The observation data of seven circumjacent terrestrial resistivity stations before two strong historical earthquakes in China were studied through performing the method of normalized monthly variation rate. We analysed the relationship between anisotropic variations of apparent resistivity and the corresponding maximum principal stress's direction of the focal mechanism solution. The results may demonstrate that significant apparent resistivity variation occurs in the direction nearly perpendicular to the azimuth of the maximum compressive principal stress, while only small fluctuations were recorded in nearly parallel direction. In the first case, a decrease in 1 yr scale and a short-impending increase of apparent resistivity were clear. We also suggest that anisotropic variation of apparent resistivity is more substantial in (or near) the seismic fracture zone than at two sides of the fault. We conclude that the most effective way to estimate the epicentre of an earthquake is to increase the density of observation networks within the earthquake fault zone and to reasonably dispose electrode orientations based on this physical phenomenon.

  19. Soil Structure Interaction between Two Adjacent Buildings under Earthquake Load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Yahyai

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In some cases, tall buildings are located in geotechnically unsuitable places, due to their high ratio of height to width; there is risk of uplift and other effects such as overturning and reduction structure serviceability during earthquake. This research is aimed to evaluate the effect of Soil-Structure Interaction (SSI on seismic behavior of two adjacent 32 story buildings such as time period, base shear and displacements. The interaction effects are investigated for variable distance between the two buildings. Three types of soil such as soft clay, sandy gravel and compacted sandy gravel are considered for this study. The result obtained that the interaction effect increases time period of both buildings base shear and lateral displacement of the structures increases.

  20. Analysis and Capacity Based Earthquake Resistance Design of Multy Bay Multy Storeyed Residential Building

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhave Priyanka

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Many reinforced concrete (RC framed structures located in zones of high seismicity in India are constructed without considering the seismic code provisions. The vulnerability of inadequately designed structures represents seismic risk to occupants. The main cause of failure of multi-storey reinforced concrete frames during seismic motion is the sway mechanism. If the frame is designed on the basis of strong column-weak beam concept the possibilities of collapse due to sway mechanisms can be completely eliminated. In multi storey frame this can be achieved by allowing the plastic hinges to form, in a predetermined sequence only at the ends of all the beams while the columns remain essentially in elastic stage and by avoiding shear mode of failures in columns and beams. This procedure for design is known as Capacity based design which would be the future design philosophy for earthquake resistant design of multi storey reinforced concrete frames. Model of multi bay multi storied residential building study were done using the software program ETAB2015 and were analyzed using non-linear static pushover analysis.

  1. SEISMIC PERFORMANCE OF MOMENT-RESISTING CONCRETE FRAMES SUBJECTED TO EARTHQUAKE EXCITATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FADZLI MOHAMED NAZRI

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, moment-resisting concrete frames (MRCFs were designed based on Eurocodes 2 and 8, which indicate the seismic provisions and requirements for building design and construction. This study aims to investigate the damage measure of MRCFs subjected to earthquake excitation by pushover analysis (POA and incremental dynamic analysis (IDA. In POA, inverted triangular lateral load and uniform lateral load patterns were used to produce a base shear–drift curve. In IDA, seven far-field and seven near-field ground motion records were selected to establish the base shear–drift relationship. Structural response and damage measures were examined by the performance-based seismic design limit states. Vision 2000 proposed four performance states, namely, fully operational, operational, life safety (LS, and near collapse. The results showed that the designed structures have low stiffness because all MRCFs failed to meet the LS limit state. The base shear–drift relationship produced a higher demand in IDA than in POA. In POA, the lateral uniform load pattern produced higher demand than the lateral inverted triangular load pattern. In IDA, the farfield effect produced higher demand than the near-field effect. POA approximated IDA accurately at the elastic stage, but the approximation failed after the yield point.

  2. Bionic Optimisation of the Earthquake Resistance of High Buildings by Tuned Mass Dampers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rolf Steinbuch

    2011-01-01

    The optimisation of earthquake resistance of high buildings by multi-tuned mass dampers was investigated using bionic algorithms. In bionic or evolutionary optimisation studies the properties of parents are crossed and mutated to produce a new generation with slightly different properties. The kids which best satisfy the object of the study, become the parents of the next generation. After a series of generations essential improvements of the object may be observed. Tuned mass dampers are widely used to reduce the impact of dynamic excitations on structures. A single mass system and multi-mass oscillators help to explain the mechanics of the dampers. To apply the bionic optimisation strategy to high buildings with passive tuned mass dampers subject to seismic loading a special beam element has been developed. In addition to the 6 degrees of freedom of a conventional beam element, it has 2 degrees of freedom for the displacements of the dampers. It allows for fast studies of many variants. As central result, efficient designs for damping systems along the height of an edifice are found. The impact on the structure may be reduced essentially by the use of such dampers designed to interact in an optimal way.

  3. Earthquake engineering for nuclear facilities

    CERN Document Server

    Kuno, Michiya

    2017-01-01

    This book is a comprehensive compilation of earthquake- and tsunami-related technologies and knowledge for the design and construction of nuclear facilities. As such, it covers a wide range of fields including civil engineering, architecture, geotechnical engineering, mechanical engineering, and nuclear engineering, for the development of new technologies providing greater resistance against earthquakes and tsunamis. It is crucial both for students of nuclear energy courses and for young engineers in nuclear power generation industries to understand the basics and principles of earthquake- and tsunami-resistant design of nuclear facilities. In Part I, "Seismic Design of Nuclear Power Plants", the design of nuclear power plants to withstand earthquakes and tsunamis is explained, focusing on buildings, equipment's, and civil engineering structures. In Part II, "Basics of Earthquake Engineering", fundamental knowledge of earthquakes and tsunamis as well as the dynamic response of structures and foundation ground...

  4. Revision of Sustainable Criteria of Concrete Walls for Earthquake-Resistant Housing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alcocer S.M.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The seismic performance of low-rise housing has been noticeably inadequate during the most recent earthquakes occurred in Latin American countries. Moreover, the literature review revealed that some traditional techniques do not contribute to building sustainable housing. In the last decade, construction of concrete walls housing has become a preferred choice because of the speed of construction and availability of materials in most of these countries. Aimed at improving seismic design methods for this type of construction, an extensive analytical and experimental program was carried out. The experimental program included quasi-static and shaking-table tests of 47 walls with different height-to-length ratios and walls with openings. Variables studied were type of concrete, web steel ratio and type of web reinforcement. The paper presents and discusses the main results of the research program and evaluates the technical and environmental feasibility for using concrete walls for sustainable and earthquake-resistant housing. Performance of concrete walls housing is assessed in terms of key environmental and earthquake-resistant requirements. It was found that concrete wall housing is not only safe under earthquakes and easily adaptable to climate, but also it stimulates environmental conservation and promotes reducing the costs of construction, operation and maintenance.

  5. Stochastic Finite Element Simulation of Uncertain Structures Subjected to Earthquake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subrata Chakraborty

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available In present study, the stochastic finite element simulation based on the efficient Neumann expansion technique is extended for the analysis of uncertain structures under seismically induced random ground motion. The basic objective is to investigate the possibility of applying the Neumann expansion technique coupled with the Monte Carlo simulation for dynamic stochastic systems upto that extent of parameter variation after which the method is no longer gives accurate results compared to that of the direct Monte carlo simulation. The stochastic structural parameters are discretized by the local averaging method and then simulated by Cholesky decomposition of the respective covariance matrix. The earthquake induced ground motion is treated as stationary random process defined by respective power spectral density function. Finally, the finite element solution has been obtained in frequency domain utilizing the advantage of Neumann expansion technique.

  6. Sensitivity of Reliability Estimates in Partially Damaged RC Structures subject to Earthquakes, using Reduced Hysteretic Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iwankiewicz, R.; Nielsen, Søren R. K.; Skjærbæk, P. S.

    The subject of the paper is the investigation of the sensitivity of structural reliability estimation by a reduced hysteretic model for a reinforced concrete frame under an earthquake excitation.......The subject of the paper is the investigation of the sensitivity of structural reliability estimation by a reduced hysteretic model for a reinforced concrete frame under an earthquake excitation....

  7. Evaluation of earthquake-induced structural damages by wavelet transform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hongnan Li; Tinghua Yi; Ming Gu; Linsheng Huo

    2009-01-01

    The dynamic behavior of inelastic structures during an earthquake is a complicated non-stationary process that is affected by the random characteristics of seismic ground motions.The conventional Fourier analysis describes the feature of a dynamic process by decomposing the signal into infinitely long sine and cosine series,which loses all time-located information.However,both time and frequency localizations are necessary for the analysis of an evolutionary spectrum of non-stationary processes.In this paper,an analytical approach for seismic ground motions is developed by applying the wavelet transform,which focuses on the energy input to the structure.The procedure of identification of the instantaneous modal parameters based on the continuous wavelet transform (CWT) is given in detail.And then,a novel method using the auto-regressive moving average (ARMA),called "prediction extension",is presented to remedy the edge effect during the numerical computation of the CWT.The effectiveness of the method is verified by the use of the benchmark model developed by the American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE).Finally,a scale modal with three-storey reinforced concrete frame-share wall structure is made and tested on a shaking table to investigate the relation between the dynamic properties of structures and energy accumulation and its change rates during the earthquake.The results have shown that the wavelet transform is able to provide a deep insight into the identity of transient signals through time-frequency maps of the time variant spectral decomposition.

  8. Earthquake Ground Motion Measures for Seismic Response Evaluation of Structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, In-Kil; Ahn, Seong-Moon; Choun, Young-Sun; Seo, Jeong-Moon

    2007-03-15

    This study used the assessment results of failure criteria - base shear, story drift, top acceleration and top displacement - for a PSC containment building subjected to 30 sets of near-fault ground motions to evaluate the earthquake ground motion intensity measures. Seven intensity measures, peak ground acceleration(PGA), peak ground velocity(PGV), spectral acceleration(Sa), velocity(Sv), spectrum intensity for acceleration(SIa), velocity(SIv) and displacement(SId), were used to represent alternative ground motion. The regression analyses of the failure criteria for a PSC containment building were carried out to evaluate a proper intensity measure by using two regression models and seven ground motion parameters. The regression analysis results demonstrate the correlation coefficients of the failure criteria in terms of the candidate IM. From the results, spectral acceleration(Sa) is estimated as the best parameter for a evaluation of the structural safety for a seismic PSA.

  9. Reliability-Based Earthquake Design of Jacket-Type Offshore Platforms Considering Pile-Soil-Structure Interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behrouz Asgarian

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available There are plenty of uncertainties in environmental condition of ocean and also in platform element capacities. Reliability-based method could consider these uncertainties. A reliability-based earthquake design method was used to determine the earthquake LRFD parameters for two conventional, steel, pile-supported (template-type offshore platforms located in the Persian Gulf. The pile-soil-structure interaction, the buckling and postbuckling behavior of the braces were considered. Two steel platforms were simulated accurately by the finite element program Opensees. Field data were assumed based on past studies. Sensitiveness of reliability-based method was studied. It was found that the geometry of jacket and different types of braces was important in the capacity and the behavior of offshore platforms. Finally the calculated LRFD elements resistance factors for these two platforms were compared with API recommended factors and it was observed that API recommended element resistance factors were more appropriate for SSL 3.

  10. Discussion on Earthquake Forecasting and Early Warning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Xiaodong; Jiang Haikun; Li Mingxiao

    2008-01-01

    Through analysis of natural and social attributes of earthquake forecasting,the relationship between the natural and social attributes of earthquake forecasting (early warning) has been discussed.Regarding the natural attributes of earthquake forecasting,it only attempts to forecast the magnitude,location and occurrence time of future earthquake based on the aualysis of observational data and relevant theories and taking into consideration the present understanding of seismogeny and earthquake generation.It need not consider the consequences an earthquake forecast involves,and its purpose is to check out the level of scientific understanding of earthquakes.In respect of the social aspect of earthquake forecasting,people also focus on the consequence that the forecasting involves,in addition to its natural aspect,such as the uncertainty of earthquake prediction itself,the impact of earthquake prediction,and the earthquake resistant capability of structures (buildings),lifeline works,etc.In a word,it highlights the risk of earthquake forecasting and tries to mitigate the earthquake hazard as much as possible.In this paper,the authors also discuss the scientific and social challenges faced in earthquake prediction and analyze preliminarily the meanings and content of earthquake early warning.

  11. 某教学楼的抗震检测鉴定研究%Research on earthquake resistance examines and appraises of a teaching building

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛云岗

    2011-01-01

    Based on a teaching building's earthquake resistance examination appraisal example,through uses the work mentality which the reliability appraisal and the anti-knocking appraisal unify to carry on the examination and the appraisal,namely reflecting current teaching house structure present situation,also had determined the structure earthquake resistance performance,provides the scientific basis for the school house's safety handling.%针对某教学楼的抗震检测鉴定实例,通过采用可靠性鉴定与抗震性鉴定相结合的方式进行检测鉴定,既能得知房屋的现状质量,又能确定房屋结构的抗震性能,为学校建筑的正常安全使用提供科学的依据。

  12. The Structural Engineering Challenges Following the Wenchuan Earthquake

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GRUNDY Paul

    2009-01-01

    Ihe 5 · 12 Wenchuan Larthquake presents two challenges-reconstruction of the devastated areas and building adequate seismic resistance into the rest of China. The stages in recovery include structural condition assessment , identification of seismic weaknesses, appreciation of the variable seismicity of PR China, the development of a seismic performance index to aid the decision to relocate, rebuild or retrofit, development and application of the principles of retrofitting which recycles rubble and waste from Wenchuan "5 ? 12" , with an emphasis on integrating masonry construction into seismic resistance. The recovery and resilience achieved through structural engineering must be integrated into a broader community involvement in disaster risk reduction.

  13. Detection of the support damage of spatial steel structures under earthquakes based on shaking table test

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    There are always some local damages in spatial steel structures induced by strong earthquakes, such as welding cracks of steel nodes,anchor loose of supports etc.If these local damages of spatial steel structures occur,there will be serious dangers to the structural safety.In order to detect the position of local damage under earthquake quickly and accurately,the method of support damage diagnosis of spatial steel structures under earthquakes is studied by using wavelet packet decomposition,data fusion a...

  14. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptom Structure in Chinese Adolescents Exposed to a Deadly Earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li; Long, Di; Li, Zhongquan; Armour, Cherie

    2011-01-01

    This present study examined the structure of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms in a large sample of Chinese adolescents exposed to a deadly earthquake. A total of 2,800 middle school students aged 12 to 18 years participated in the study 6 months after the "Wenchuan Earthquake". Results of confirmatory factor analysis indicated that a…

  15. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptom Structure in Chinese Adolescents Exposed to a Deadly Earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li; Long, Di; Li, Zhongquan; Armour, Cherie

    2011-01-01

    This present study examined the structure of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms in a large sample of Chinese adolescents exposed to a deadly earthquake. A total of 2,800 middle school students aged 12 to 18 years participated in the study 6 months after the "Wenchuan Earthquake". Results of confirmatory factor analysis…

  16. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptom Structure in Chinese Adolescents Exposed to a Deadly Earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li; Long, Di; Li, Zhongquan; Armour, Cherie

    2011-01-01

    This present study examined the structure of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms in a large sample of Chinese adolescents exposed to a deadly earthquake. A total of 2,800 middle school students aged 12 to 18 years participated in the study 6 months after the "Wenchuan Earthquake". Results of confirmatory factor analysis…

  17. The Application of Light Steel Frame Structure System of Earthquake Resistance in the “Frontier Farmers House”%轻钢结构抗震节能体系在“塞上农民新居”中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘蕙兰; 张建中

    2011-01-01

    针对宁夏地区农民传统住宅抗震性差,建筑外围护结构保温性能差,采暖系统能源消耗量大,环境污染严重等问题,提出采用轻钢结构配以轻质保温板材的轻钢结构抗震节能体系,以期为宁夏农村住宅设计提供指导性建议.%In terms of weak earthquake resistance of traditional farmland residential houses, weak thermal loss resistance of building external fabric, high energy cost of heating system, serious environment pollution in Ningxia, gives the suggestions of using the system of light steel frame structure with light thermal insulation panels to solve the key problems in the houses, in order to give the constructed suggestions on how to solve the key technologies of the application.

  18. Deep Structure and Earthquake Generating Properties in the Yamasaki Fault Zone Estimated from Dense Seismic Observation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishigami, K.; Shibutani, T.; Katao, H.; Yamaguchi, S.; Mamada, Y.

    2010-12-01

    We have been estimating crustal heterogeneous structure and earthquake generating properties in and around the Yamasaki fault zone, which is a left-lateral strike-slip active fault with a total length of about 80 km in southwest Japan. We deployed dense seismic observation network, composed of 32 stations with average spacing of 5-10 km around the Yamasaki fault zone. We estimate detailed fault structure such as fault dip and shape, segmentation, and possible location of asperities and rupture initiation point, as well as generating properties of earthquakes in the fault zone, through analyses of accurate hypocenter distribution, focal mechanism, 3-D velocity tomography, coda wave inversion, and other waveform analyses. We also deployed a linear seismic array across the fault, composed of 20 stations with about 20 m spacing, in order to delineate the fault-zone structure in more detail using the seismic waves trapped inside the low velocity zone. We also estimate detailed resistivity structure at shallow depth of the fault zone by AMT (audio-frequency magnetotelluric) and MT surveys. In the scattering analysis of coda waves, we used 2,391 wave traces from 121 earthquakes that occurred in 2002, 2003, 2008 and 2009, recorded at 60 stations, including dense temporary and routine stations. We estimated 3-D distribution of relative scattering coefficients along the Yamasaki fault zone. Microseismicity is high and scattering coefficient is relatively larger in the upper crust along the entire fault zone. The distribution of strong scatterers suggests that the Ohara and Hijima faults, which are the segments in the northwestern part of the Yamasaki fault zone, have almost vertical fault plane from surface to a depth of about 15 km. We used seismic network data operated by Universities, NIED, AIST, and JMA. This study has been carried out as a part of the project "Study on evaluation of earthquake source faults based on surveys of inland active faults" by Japan Nuclear

  19. Earthquake engineering research: 1982

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Committee on Earthquake Engineering Research addressed two questions: What progress has research produced in earthquake engineering and which elements of the problem should future earthquake engineering pursue. It examined and reported in separate chapters of the report: Applications of Past Research, Assessment of Earthquake Hazard, Earthquake Ground Motion, Soil Mechanics and Earth Structures, Analytical and Experimental Structural Dynamics, Earthquake Design of Structures, Seismic Interaction of Structures and Fluids, Social and Economic Aspects, Earthquake Engineering Education, Research in Japan.

  20. Design of Blast Resistant Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. K. Gautam

    1997-04-01

    Full Text Available A shock blast resistant structure designed, developed and experimentally evaluated by the authors is described. We structure, capable of with standing dynamic loading (12 psi and a static pressure of 1.5 m earth cover due to blast or any other explosion, also gives protection against radiation, chemical and thermal hazards. Some results and details of analysis and experimentation are presented.

  1. Protection for structures in extreme earthquakes: Full Base Isolation (3-D) by the Swiss Seismafloat System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staudacher, K.

    1985-02-01

    Full Base Isolation (FBI, 3-D), an antiseismic concept for structures, adds vertical flexibility to horizontal base isolation (HBI, 2-D). Extensive experimental testing at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology and the University of California, Berkeley, has shown FBI to be a practicable way to reach the final goal of earthquake protection, i.e. elastic behavior of the structural frame in extreme earthquakes. Swiss engineers pioneered base isolation by the construction of the Pestalozzi School at Skopje in 1968. Further development has made Integral Earthquake Protection possible for structures and their contents. (orig.).

  2. Investigation and analysis of collapse mechanism and calamity resistance performance of structure: third anniversary memorical of 5·12 Wenchuan Earthquake%房屋倒塌规律调查分析及结构抗灾性——5·12汶川地震三周年祭

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐有邻; 邸小坛

    2011-01-01

    Based on the analysis of the collapsed buildings and the still standing buildings during the Wenchuan Earthquake, the collapse mechanism of the structure is summarized and the collapse resistance potential of the structure is discussed in this paper.Through the analysis of the building collapse phenomenon, the research results show that the causes of structural collapse include the inappropriate structural scheme, the inadequate load transfer path, the missing of connecting components, the poor material property and the uncontrollable construction quality.In addition, through the investigation and analysis of the survived buildings, the keys to structural safety is summarized, such as four needs, four taboo, four strengthening, four possibilities, and the collapse resisting ability of structure are thoroughly discussed.On this basis, the safety level is analyzed and the significance of the whole structural robustness in safety is pointed out.In addition, the design principal of the collapses prevention is introduced in this paper, the research on calamity resistance and collapse-prevention design are suggested.%通过对汶川地震中房屋倒塌及未倒塌现象的分析,总结了结构倒塌的规律并探讨了结构的防倒塌潜力.分析表明:结构方案缺陷、传力途径单薄、连接构造缺失、材料性能不良以及施工质量失控是造成结构倒塌的原因.而通过调查分析未倒塌房屋的现象,总结了结构"四要、四忌、四强、四宜"的要诀.在此基础上总结了结构的安全层次并指出了结构整体稳固性对于安全的重要意义.同时介绍了结构防倒塌设计的原则,并提出了结构的抗灾性能研究的建议.

  3. The ordered network structure of M {>=} 8 great earthquakes and their prediction in Mainland China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Men, Kepei [Nanjing Univ. of Information Science and Technology (China). College of Mathematics and Statistics

    2012-05-15

    China is one of the countries which have the most earthquake disasters in the world. A total of 23 M {>=} 8 earthquakes occurred in Mainland China from 1303 to 2010. The seismic activity of M {>=} 8 earthquakes has had an obvious self-organized orderliness. The main ordered values are 252 {proportional_to} 258 a, 108 {proportional_to} 112 a, 94 {proportional_to} 98 a, 44 {proportional_to} 47 a, 24 {proportional_to} 25 a, 16 {proportional_to} 19 a, and 11 {proportional_to} 14 a. According to the information forecasting theory of Wen-Bo Weng and combining ordered analysis with complex network technology, we build an informational ordered network structure of M {>=} 8 great earthquakes in Mainland China and try to explore the practical method for M {>=} 8 great earthquake prediction with Chinese characteristics. In this paper, we have summarized the prediction research on two great earthquakes (the 2001 Kunlunshan M8.1 and the 2008 Wenchuan M8.0 earthquake) during the beginning of the 21st century in western Mainland China. At last, with the method of ordered network structure, we present a new prediction opinion: the future M {>=} 8 great earthquakes will happen in 2026 and 2065 pre and post in Mainland China. The results show that a M {>=} 8 great earthquake could be predicted and the network feature is the formation mechanism of great earthquakes. The ordered network method has a unique effect on moderate term and long term prediction for M {>=} 8 great earthquakes. (orig.)

  4. Seismic response analysis of Wolsung NPP structure and equipment subjected to scenario earthquakes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, In Kil; Ahn, Seong Moon; Choun, Young Sun; Seo, Jeong Moon

    2005-03-15

    The standard response spectrum proposed by US NRC has been used as a design earthquake for the design of Korean nuclear power plant structures. However, it does not reflect the characteristic of seismological and geological of Korea. In this study, the seismic response analysis of Wolsung NPP structure and equipment were performed. Three types of input motions, artificial time histories that envelop the US NRC Regulatory Guide 1.60 spectrum and the probability based scenario earthquake spectra developed for the Korean NPP site and a typical near-fault earthquake recorded at thirty sites, were used as input motions. The acceleration, displacement and shear force responses of Wolsung containment structure due to the design earthquake were larger than those due to the other input earthquakes. But, considering displacement response increases abruptly as Wolsung NPP structure does nonlinear behavior, the reassessment of the seismic safety margin based on the displacement is necessary if the structure does nonlinear behavior; although it has adequate the seismic safety margin within elastic limit. Among the main safety-related devices, electrical cabinet and pump showed the large responses on the scenario earthquake which has the high frequency characteristic. This has great effects of the seismic capacity of the main devices installed inside of the building. This means that the design earthquake is not so conservative for the safety of the safety related nuclear power plant equipments.

  5. Direct methods of soil-structure interaction analysis for earthquake loadings (V)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, J. B.; Choi, J. S.; Lee, J. J.; Park, D. U. [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-07-15

    Methodologies of SSI analysis for earthquake loadings have been reviewed. Based on the finite method incorporating infinite element technique for the unbounded exterior region, a computer program for the nonlinear seismic analysis named as 'KIESSI' has been developed. The computer program has been verified using a free-field site-response problem. Post-correlation analysis for the Hualien FVT after backfill and the blind prediction of earthquake responses have been carried out utilizing the developed computer program. The earthquake response analyses for three LSST structures (Hualien, Lotung and Tepsco structure) have also been performed and compared with the measured data.

  6. The ordered network structure of M ≥ 8 earthquakes and its prediction for the ordered pair great earthquakes in Mainland China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Men, Ke-Pei; Zhao, Kai [Nanjing Univ. of Information Science and Technology (China). College of Mathematics and Statistics

    2014-03-15

    According to the statistical data, a total of 23 M ≥ 8 earthquakes occurred in Mainland China from 1303 to 2012. The seismic activity of M ≥ 8 earthquakes has showed an obvious self-organized orderliness. It should be remarked especially that there were three ordered pairs of M ≥ 8 earthquakes occurred in West China during 1902-2001, of which the time interval in each pair of two earthquakes was four years. This is a unique and rare earthquake example in earthquake history of China and the world. In the guidance of the information forecasting theory of Wen-Bo Weng, based on previous research results, combining ordered analysis with complex network technology, this paper focuses on the summary of the ordered network structure of M ≥ 8 earthquakes, supplements new information, constructs and further optimizes the 2D- and 3D-ordered network structure of M ≥ 8 earthquakes to make prediction research. At last, a new prediction opinion is presented that the future ordered pair of great earthquakes will probably occur around 2022 and 2026 in Mainland China. (orig.)

  7. Recent research in earth structure, earthquake and mine seismology, and seismic hazard evaluation in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Wright, C

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Research in earth structure, earthquake and mine seismology, and seismic hazard evaluation in South Africa is summarized for the last four years. Improvements to the South African National Seismograph Network (SANSN) include the gradual replacement...

  8. Maximum credible earthquake (MCE) magnitude of structures affecting the Ujung Lemahabang site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soerjodibroto, M. [National Atomic Energy Agency, Jakarta (Indonesia)

    1997-03-01

    This report analyse the geological structures in/around Muria Peninsula that might originating potential earthquake hazard toward the selected site for NPP, Ujung Lemahabang (ULA). Analysis was focused on the Lasem fault and AF-1/AF-4 offshore faults that are considered as the determinant structures affecting the seismicity of ULA (Nira, 1979, Newjec, 1994). Methods for estimating the MCE of the structures include maximum historical earthquake, and relationship between the length of the fault and the magnitude of earthquake originating from the known structure (Tocher, Iida, Matsuda, Wells and Coopersmith). The MCE magnitude estimating by these method for earthquake originating along the Lasem and AF-1/AF-4 faults vary from 2,1M to 7,0M. Comparison between the result of historical data and fault-magnitude relationship, however, suggest a MCE magnitude of Ms=7,0M for both fault zones. (author)

  9. Crustal structure beneath the southern Korean Peninsula from local earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kwang-Hee; Park, Jung-Ho; Park, Yongcheol; Hao, Tian-Yao; Kim, Han-Joon

    2017-02-01

    The three-dimensional subsurface structure beneath the southern Korean Peninsula is poorly known, even though such information could be key in verifying or rejecting several competing models of the tectonic evolution of East Asia. We constructed a three-dimensional velocity model of the upper crust beneath the southern Korean Peninsula using 19,935 P-wave arrivals from 747 earthquakes recorded by high-density local seismic networks. Results show significant lateral and vertical variations: velocity increases from northwest to southeast at shallow depths, and significant velocity variations are observed across the South Korea Tectonic Line between the Okcheon Fold Belt and the Youngnam Massif. Collision between the North China and South China blocks during the Early Cretaceous might have caused extensive deformation and the observed negative velocity anomalies in the region. The results of the tomographic inversion, combined with the findings of previous studies of Bouguer and isostatic gravity anomalies, indicate the presence of high-density material in the upper and middle crust beneath the Gyeongsang Basin in the southeastern Korean Peninsula. Although our results partially support the indentation tectonic model, it is still premature to discard other tectonic evolution models because our study only covers the southern half of the peninsula.

  10. Vertical shaking table tests on the structure with viscoelastic multi-dimensional earthquake isolation and mitigation devices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The viscoelastic multi-dimensional earthquake isolation and mitigation device is a new kind of passive control device, which can perform its "name-giving" task of earthquake isolation and earthquake mitigation simultaneously. In order to quantify its vertical earthquake isolation and mitigation effect on structures, firstly, shaking table tests on steel frame structures with and without the devices were carried out; secondly, analysis on dynamic characteristics and dynamic responses of the structures was also performed; furthermore, the finite element analytical results and the experimental results were compared. It can be shown from the analytical and experimental results that the devices have noticeable earthquake isolation and mitigation effect in the vertical direction.

  11. Direct methods of soil-structure interaction analysis for earthquake loadings (IV)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, J. B.; Kim, D. S.; Choi, J. S.; Kwon, K. C.; Kim, Y. J.; Lee, H. J.; Kim, S. B.; Kim, D. K. [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-07-15

    Methodologies of SSI analysis for earthquake loadings have been reviewed. Based on the finite element method incorporating infinite element technique for the unbounded exterior region, a computer program for the nonlinear seismic analysis named as 'KIESSI-QK' has been developed. The computer program has been verified using a free-field site-response problem. The Hualien FVT stochastic finite element analysis after backfill and the blind prediction of earthquake responses have been carried out utilizing the developed computer program. The earthquake response analysis for the LSST structure has also been performed and compared with the measured data.

  12. Deep electrical resistivity tomography along the tectonically active Middle Aterno Valley (2009 L'Aquila earthquake area, central Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pucci, Stefano; Civico, Riccardo; Villani, Fabio; Ricci, Tullio; Delcher, Eric; Finizola, Anthony; Sapia, Vincenzo; De Martini, Paolo Marco; Pantosti, Daniela; Barde-Cabusson, Stéphanie; Brothelande, Elodie; Gusset, Rachel; Mezon, Cécile; Orefice, Simone; Peltier, Aline; Poret, Matthieu; Torres, Liliana; Suski, Barbara

    2016-11-01

    Three 2-D Deep Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) transects, up to 6.36 km long, were obtained across the Paganica-San Demetrio Basin, bounded by the 2009 L'Aquila Mw 6.1 normal-faulting earthquake causative fault (central Italy). The investigations allowed defining for the first time the shallow subsurface basin structure. The resistivity images, and their geological interpretation, show a dissected Mesozoic-Tertiary substratum buried under continental infill of mainly Quaternary age due to the long-term activity of the Paganica-San Demetrio normal faults system (PSDFS), ruling the most recent deformational phase. Our results indicate that the basin bottom deepens up to 600 m moving to the south, with the continental infill largely exceeding the known thickness of the Quaternary sequence. The causes of this increasing thickness can be: (1) the onset of the continental deposition in the southern sector took place before the Quaternary, (2) there was an early stage of the basin development driven by different fault systems that produced a depocentre in the southern sector not related to the present-day basin shape, or (3) the fault system slip rate in the southern sector was faster than in the northern sector. We were able to gain sights into the long-term PSDFS behaviour and evolution, by comparing throw rates at different timescales and discriminating the splays that lead deformation. Some fault splays exhibit large cumulative throws (>300 m) in coincidence with large displacement of the continental deposits sequence (>100 m), thus testifying a general persistence in time of their activity as leading splays of the fault system. We evaluate the long-term (3-2.5 Myr) cumulative and Quaternary throw rates of most of the leading splays to be 0.08-0.17 mm yr-1, indicating a substantial stability of the faults activity. Among them, an individual leading fault splay extends from Paganica to San Demetrio ne' Vestini as a result of a post-Early Pleistocene linkage of

  13. Self-Centering Seismic Lateral Force Resisting Systems: High Performance Structures for the City of Tomorrow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan Brent Chancellor

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Structures designed in accordance with even the most modern buildings codes are expected to sustain damage during a severe earthquake; however; these structures are expected to protect the lives of the occupants. Damage to the structure can require expensive repairs; significant business downtime; and in some cases building demolition. If damage occurs to many structures within a city or region; the regional and national economy may be severely disrupted. To address these shortcomings with current seismic lateral force resisting systems and to work towards more resilient; sustainable cities; a new class of seismic lateral force resisting systems that sustains little or no damage under severe earthquakes has been developed. These new seismic lateral force resisting systems reduce or prevent structural damage to nonreplaceable structural elements by softening the structural response elastically through gap opening mechanisms. To dissipate seismic energy; friction elements or replaceable yielding energy dissipation elements are also included. Post-tensioning is often used as a part of these systems to return the structure to a plumb; upright position (self-center after the earthquake has passed. This paper summarizes the state-of-the art for self-centering seismic lateral force resisting systems and outlines current research challenges for these systems.

  14. Inherited structures impact on co-seismic surface deformation pattern during the 2013 Balochistan, Pakistan, earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallage, Amaury; Klinger, Yann; Grandin, Raphael; Delorme, Arthur; Pierrot-Deseilligny, Marc

    2016-04-01

    The understanding of earthquake processes and the interaction of earthquake rupture with Earth's free surface relies on the resolution of the observations. Recent and detailed post-earthquake measurements bring new insights on shallow mechanical behavior of rupture processes as it becomes possible to measure and locate surficial deformation distribution. The 2013 Mw 7.7 Balochistan earthquake, Pakistan, offers a nice opportunity to comprehend where and why surficial deformation might differs from at-depth localized slip. This earthquake ruptured the Hoshab fault over 200 km; the motion was mainly left lateral with a small and discontinuous vertical component in the southern part of the rupture. Using images with the finest resolution currently available, we measured the surface displacement amplitude and its orientation at the ground surface (including the numerous tensile cracks). We combined these measurements with the 1:500 scale ground rupture map to focus on the behavior of the frontal rupture in the area where deformation distributes. Comparison with orientations of inherited tectonic structures, visible in older rocks formation surrounding the actual 2013 rupture, shows the control exercised by such structures on co-seismic rupture distribution. Such observation raises the question on how pre-existing tectonic structures in a medium, mapped in several seismically active places around the globe; can control the co-seismic distribution of the deformation during earthquakes.

  15. Van earthquakes (23 October 2011 and 9 November 2011) and performance of masonry and adobe structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güney, D.

    2012-11-01

    Earthquakes, which are unavoidable natural phenomena in Turkey, have often produced economic and social disaster. The latest destructive earthquakes happened in Van city. Van, Turkey, earthquakes with M = 7.2 occurred on 23 October 2011 at 13:41 (local time), whose epicenter was about 16 km north of Van (Tabanlı village) and M = 5.6 on 9 November 2011 epicentered near the town of Edremit south of Van in eastern Turkey and caused the loss of life and heavy damages. Both earthquakes killed 644 people and 2608 people were injured. Approximately 4000 buildings collapsed or were seriously damaged. The majority of the damaged structures were seismically insufficient, unreinforced masonry and adobe buildings in rural areas. In this paper, site surveys of the damaged masonry and adobe buildings are presented and the reasons for the caused damages are discussed in detail.

  16. Earthquakes resistance of the CEA/Cadarache facilities; La tenue aux seismes des installations du CEA/Cadarache

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    The Cadarache Center presents three nuclear types installations: experimental reactors, fuel cycle research laboratories, radioactive wastes processing and wastes encapsulation or solidification. The evolution of the standards in the seismic risks domain, led to a new assessment of these installations earthquakes resistance. This report takes stock on the situation at the end of the year 2000. (A.L.B.)

  17. Relocation and seismogenic structure of the 1998 Zhangbei-Shangyi earthquake sequence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨智娴; 陈运泰; 张宏志

    2002-01-01

    On January 10, 1998, an earthquake of ML=6.2 occurred in the border region between the Zhangbei County and Shangyi County of Hebei Province. This earthquake has been the most significant event occurred in the northern China in the recent years. Historical seismicity in the Zhangbei-Shangyi region was very low. In the epicentral area no active fault capable of generating a moderate earthquake like this event was found. The earthquake locations of the main shock and its aftershocks of the Zhangbei-Shangyi earthquake sequence given by several agencies and authors were diverse and the resulted hypocentral distribution revealed no any dominant horizontal lineation. To study the seismogenic structure of the Zhangbei-Shangyi earthquake, in this paper the main shock and its aftershocks with ML≥3.0 of the Zhangbei-Shangyi earthquake sequence were relocated using the master event relative relocation algorithm. The relocated results show that the epicentral location of the main shock was 41.145°N, 114.462°E, which was located 4 km to the NE of the macro-epicenter of the main shock. The relocated focal depth of the main shock was 15 km. The hypocenters of the aftershocks distributed in a nearly vertical N20°E-striking plane and its vicinity. The relocated results of the Zhangbei-Shangyi earthquake sequence clearly indicated that the seismogenic structure of this event was a nearly N-S- to NNE-SSW-striking fault with right-lateral and reverse slip, and that the occurrence of this event was associated with the horizontal and ENE-oriented compressive tectonic stress, which was compatible with the tectonic stress field in the northern China.

  18. Hardware-software system for simulating and analyzing earthquakes applied to civil structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. P. Amezquita-Sanchez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of recent strong earthquakes, the incessant worldwide movements of tectonic plates and the continuous ambient vibrations caused by traffic and wind have increased the interest of researchers in improving the capacity of energy dissipation to avoid damages to civil structures. Experimental testing of structural systems is essential for the understanding of physical behaviors and the building of appropriate analytic models in order to expose difficulties that may not have been considered in analytical studies. This paper presents a hardware-software system for exciting, monitoring and analyzing simultaneously a structure under earthquake signals and other types of signals in real-time. Effectiveness of the proposed system has been validated by experimental case studies and has been found to be a useful tool in the analysis of earthquake effects on structures.

  19. Response spectra for differential motion of structures supports during earthquakes in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed I.S. Elmasry

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Differential motions of ground supports of stiff structures with large plan dimensions and separate foundations under earthquakes were studied by researchers during the last few decades. Such a type of structural response was previously underestimated. The importance of studying such a response comes up from the fact that usually the structures affected are of strategic importance such as bridges. During their expected life, structures may experience vibrations excited by ground waves of short wavelengths during near-source earthquakes, or during amplified earthquake signals, during explosions, or during vibrations induced from nearby strong vibration sources. This is the case when the differential motion of supports becomes considerable. This paper aims to review the effects of seismic signal variations along the structures dimensions with emphasis on Egypt as a case study. The paper shows some patterns of the damage imposed by such differential motion. A replication of the differential motion in the longitudinal direction is applied on a frame bridge model. The resulting straining actions show the necessity for considering the differential motion of supports in the design of special structures in Egypt. Finally, response spectra for the differential motion of supports, based on the available data from previous earthquakes in Egypt, is derived and proposed for designers to include in the design procedure when accounting for such type of structural response, and especially in long-span bridges.

  20. Study on the Sliding Displacement of a Sliding Structure Subjected to Multi-directional Earthquake Excitation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fan Aiwu; Tang Jiaxiang; Li Li; Yang Jun

    2005-01-01

    Transient dynamic analysis is used to study the effect of the bidirectional interaction of friction on the response of sliding displacement of a sliding structure subjected to bidirectional earthquake ground motion. The analysis varies the parameters of amplitude ratio of earthquake excitation, the period of the superstructure, and the coefficient of friction in the sliding support. Numerical results show that the sliding structure is significantly influenced by the interaction of frictional forces. So the sliding displacement may be underestimated and the acceleration of the superstructure may be overrated if the bidirectional interaction of frictional forces is neglected.

  1. A structural analysis in seismic archaeology: the walls of Noto and the 1693 earthquake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Lombardini

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available A crucial problenl for seismic archeology is how to recognize seismic effects and how to date them. On an experimental basis. we proposed that the problem be reversed, and that we begin at the other end: i.e. by analyzing already known seismic effects on ancient structures, testified by written sources. to be able to .calibrate>> the types or possible observations and any subsequent elaborations. The choice of the walls of Noto was suggested by the fact that Noto was abandoned following the earthquake of l693 (I,= XI MCS. Me 7.5 which had already been studied in depth as part of an ING research programme (1988-92. Moreover, just after recent research, this event proved to be reconstructed with a high quality standard. Photogrammetric measurements were made on several parts of the town walls to plot a numerical model aimed at ascertaining specific aspects of the earthquake damage. An estimate of the ground acceleration during the earthquake has been attempted via non-linear finite-element analyses of a building located by the main city gate. The analyses show that. in order to obtain the building vault collapse, a ground acceleration of 0.5 to 0.7 g had to be reached during the earthquake. This result, typical of a strong earthquake such as the one of 1693, proves that an approach based on finite element analysis and a sound engineering judgment Inay be systematically applied to historical earthquake sites to obtain some estimates of ground acceleration in historical earthquakes. On the whole, this work aimed at starting up the second development phase of the great event of 1693 of which the macroseismic erfects are known. In the meantime, some possibilities of tackling structural analyses in seismic archaeology are being explored.

  2. Response Analysis for Steel Reinforced Concrete Frame Structures under Earthquake Load

    OpenAIRE

    Hua Wei; Jiye Zhang; Haijun Wang

    2013-01-01

    In order to understand the whole process of the steel reinforced concrete frame structure from elastic to elasto-plastic cracking gradually, damage until the collapse, the elasto-plastic finite element analysis theory and ETABS structural analysis software were used, then the spatial three-dimensional truss system model of frame structures was established. Based on the analysis of the elasto-plastic response for the frame structure under one-dimensional and two-dimensional earthquake load, th...

  3. Imaging crustal structure using local earthquake and ambient noise tomography in North Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sufri, O.; DeShon, H. R.; Scales, M. M.; Hayward, C.; Magnani, M. B.

    2016-12-01

    North Texas, including the Dallas-Fort Worth metroplex, has experienced an increase in seismicity rate since 2008 and these events have been linked, to varying degrees of certainty, to wastewater injection in the Ordovician Ellenburger Formation, deposited on top of the crystalline basement. We focus here on local earthquake and ambient noise tomography approaches to imaging the subsurface velocity heterogeneity associated with the larger and better-recorded North Texas sequence: the Azle-Reno, the Irving-Dallas, and the M4 Venus earthquake sequences. The 2013-2014 Azle-Reno sequence generated 27 felt earthquakes (M2.1-3.6) between November 2013 and January 2014, although earthquake rates at lower magnitude levels (M0-2) during the same time window were highly variable. The most recent set of Azle-Reno earthquakes occurred in December 2015, following a nearby M3.0 event near Haslet. SMU and collaborators currently operate 30 seismic stations in the basin. In addition, SMU and Nodal Seismic collaborated to deploy a dense network of 10 Hz single-component (vertical) sensors over the Azle-Reno earthquakes source zone. Ten days of continuous data were acquired between February 25 and March 8, 2014. We present results of double-difference local earthquake tomography and ambient noise tomography using the local network and the nodal datasets. Ambient noise tomography allows us to obtain higher resolution near surface structure and group velocity maps to complement the Vp, Vs and Vp/Vs images provided by the local earthquake dataset. Local earthquake tomography results for the Irving-Dallas and Venus (Johnson County) seismicity will also be presented. The Fort Worth basin deepens from west-to-east, and we hypothesize that large NE-SW trending basement faults, some of which have been reactivated since 2008, compartmentalize the subsurface. Exploring similarities and differences in velocity heterogeneities in the Ellenburger formation, and the crystalline basement using

  4. Seismic damage to structures in the M s6.5 Ludian earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hao; Xie, Quancai; Dai, Boyang; Zhang, Haoyu; Chen, Hongfu

    2016-03-01

    On 3 August 2014, the Ludian earthquake struck northwest Yunnan Province with a surface wave magnitude of 6.5. This moderate earthquake unexpectedly caused high fatalities and great economic loss. Four strong motion stations were located in the areas with intensity V, VI, VII and IX, near the epicentre. The characteristics of the ground motion are discussed herein, including 1) ground motion was strong at a period of less than 1.4 s, which covered the natural vibration period of a large number of structures; and 2) the release energy was concentrated geographically. Based on materials collected during emergency building inspections, the damage patterns of adobe, masonry, timber frame and reinforced concrete (RC) frame structures in areas with different intensities are summarised. Earthquake damage matrices of local buildings are also given for fragility evaluation and earthquake damage prediction. It is found that the collapse ratios of RC frame and confined masonry structures based on the new design code are significantly lower than non-seismic buildings. However, the RC frame structures still failed to achieve the `strong column, weak beam' design target. Traditional timber frame structures with a light infill wall showed good aseismic performance.

  5. Reduction of structural response to near fault earthquakes by seismic isolation columns and variable friction dampers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribakov, Y.

    2010-03-01

    This paper focuses on the investigation of a hybrid seismic isolation system with passive variable friction dampers for protection of structures against near fault earthquakes. The seismic isolation can be implemented by replacing the conventional columns fixed to the foundations by seismic isolating ones. These columns allow horizontal displacement between the superstructure and the foundations and decouple the building from the damaging earthquake motion. As a result, the forces in the structural elements decrease and damage that may be caused to the building by the earthquake significantly decreases. However, this positive effect is achieved on account of displacements occurring in the isolating columns. These displacements become very large when the structure is subjected to a strong earthquake. In this case, impact may occur between the parts of the isolating column yielding their damage or collapse. In order to limit the displacements in the isolating columns, it is proposed to add variable friction dampers. A method for selecting the dampers’ properties is proposed. It is carried out using an artificial ground motion record and optimal active control algorithm. Numerical simulation of a sevenstory structure shows that the proposed method allows efficient reduction in structural response and limits the displacements at the seismic isolating columns.

  6. Response Analysis for Steel Reinforced Concrete Frame Structures under Earthquake Load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Wei

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In order to understand the whole process of the steel reinforced concrete frame structure from elastic to elasto-plastic cracking gradually, damage until the collapse, the elasto-plastic finite element analysis theory and ETABS structural analysis software were used, then the spatial three-dimensional truss system model of frame structures was established. Based on the analysis of the elasto-plastic response for the frame structure under one-dimensional and two-dimensional earthquake load, the interbedded displacement angle-time curve and horizontal displacement-time curve were obtained. Through the analysis of the model, the sequence of appearance of plastic hinges in the frame structure under earthquake load was cleared and the weak location of the frame structure was detected.

  7. Effects of Fault Segmentation, Mechanical Interaction, and Structural Complexity on Earthquake-Generated Deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddad, David Elias

    Earth's topographic surface forms an interface across which the geodynamic and geomorphic engines interact. This interaction is best observed along crustal margins where topography is created by active faulting and sculpted by geomorphic processes. Crustal deformation manifests as earthquakes at centennial to millennial timescales. Given that nearly half of Earth's human population lives along active fault zones, a quantitative understanding of the mechanics of earthquakes and faulting is necessary to build accurate earthquake forecasts. My research relies on the quantitative documentation of the geomorphic expression of large earthquakes and the physical processes that control their spatiotemporal distributions. The first part of my research uses high-resolution topographic lidar data to quantitatively document the geomorphic expression of historic and prehistoric large earthquakes. Lidar data allow for enhanced visualization and reconstruction of structures and stratigraphy exposed by paleoseismic trenches. Lidar surveys of fault scarps formed by the 1992 Landers earthquake document the centimeter-scale erosional landforms developed by repeated winter storm-driven erosion. The second part of my research employs a quasi-static numerical earthquake simulator to explore the effects of fault roughness, friction, and structural complexities on earthquake-generated deformation. My experiments show that fault roughness plays a critical role in determining fault-to-fault rupture jumping probabilities. These results corroborate the accepted 3-5 km rupture jumping distance for smooth faults. However, my simulations show that the rupture jumping threshold distance is highly variable for rough faults due to heterogeneous elastic strain energies. Furthermore, fault roughness controls spatiotemporal variations in slip rates such that rough faults exhibit lower slip rates relative to their smooth counterparts. The central implication of these results lies in guiding the

  8. Pounding effects during an earthquake, with and without consideration of soil‑structure interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela DOBRE

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The pounding between adjacent buildings can cause both architectural and structural damages. The paper presents some aspects related to the Vrancea seismic motions pattern, a review of observed damages after a strong earthquake due to pounding of buildings in Romania, a few causes of pounding, an analytical and numerical modeling study. For the behavior of buildings under structural pounding, an analysis with and without consideration of soil-structure interaction is done.

  9. Tomographic determination of the upper crustal structure in the Jiashi strong earthquake swarm region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨卓欣; 赵金仁; 张先康; 张成科; 成双喜; 段玉玲; 张建狮; 王帅军

    2002-01-01

    A three-dimensional temporary seismic transmission array was arranged in a 50(60 km2 region around Jiashi strong earthquake swarm to receive seismic waves generated by 8 fires from different azimuths. With the inversion method without model blocks and using P and S reflections from Moho at critical distances, the 3-D images of P, S velocity perturbation and ratio vP/vS perturbation of the upper crust under the seismic array were reconstructed. Meanwhile, the seismicity of the Jiashi earthquake swarm was taken into consideration in the analysis of the seismogenesis. The results indicate that the upper crustal structure under the Jiashi strong earthquake swarm region is characterized by significant inhomogeneity both laterally and vertically. From 12 km depth, it is clear that there is an NNW-oriented high P-wave velocity anomalous body corresponding to the epicenter of the swarm with low-velocity anomaly around it, which is the direct cause of the strong earthquakes. High vP/vS is distributed in the same location, which may indicate the decline of shear strength of the source region owing to relative softness of the medium, this can be accounted as an explanation for the seismicity feature of the Jiashi strong earthquake swarm.

  10. NGA-West 2 GMPE average site coefficients for use in earthquake-resistant design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borcherdt, Roger D.

    2015-01-01

    Site coefficients corresponding to those in tables 11.4–1 and 11.4–2 of Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other Structures published by the American Society of Civil Engineers (Standard ASCE/SEI 7-10) are derived from four of the Next Generation Attenuation West2 (NGA-W2) Ground-Motion Prediction Equations (GMPEs). The resulting coefficients are compared with those derived by other researchers and those derived from the NGA-West1 database. The derivation of the NGA-W2 average site coefficients provides a simple procedure to update site coefficients with each update in the Maximum Considered Earthquake Response MCER maps. The simple procedure yields average site coefficients consistent with those derived for site-specific design purposes. The NGA-W2 GMPEs provide simple scale factors to reduce conservatism in current simplified design procedures.

  11. Application of Incremental Dynamic Analysis (IDA Method for Studying the Dynamic Behavior of Structures During Earthquakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Javanpour

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Prediction of existing buildings’ vulnerability by future earthquakes is one of the most essential topics in structural engineering. Modeling steel structures is a giant step in determining the damage caused by the earthquake, as such structures are increasingly being used in constructions. Hence, two same-order steel structures with two types of structural systems were selected (coaxial moment frames and moment frame. In most cases, a specific structure needs to satisfy several functional levels. For this purpose, a method is required to determine the input request to the structures under possible earthquakes. Therefore, the Incremental Dynamic Analysis (IDA was preferred to the Push-Over non-linear static method for the analysis and design of the considered steel structures, due its accuracy and effect of higher modes at the same time intervals. OpenSees software was used to perform accurate nonlinear analysis of the steel structure. Two parameters (spectral acceleration and maximum ground acceleration were introduced to the modeled frames to compare the numerical correlations of seismic vulnerability obtained by two statistical methods based on the "log-normal distribution" and "logistics distribution", and finally, the parameters of displacement and drift were assessed after analysis.

  12. Critical earthquake load inputs for multi-degree-of-freedom inelastic structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moustafa, Abbas

    2009-08-01

    The problem of modeling earthquake ground motions as design inputs for multi-degree-of-freedom inelastic structures is studied. The earthquake acceleration is expressed as a Fourier series modulated by an envelope function. The coefficients of the series representation are calculated such that the structure inelastic deformation is maximized subjected to predefined constraints. These constraints are taken to reflect known characteristics of recorded earthquakes such as upper bounds on the energy and peak values of the ground acceleration, velocity and displacement and upper and lower limits on the Fourier spectra of the ground acceleration. The material stress-strain behavior is modeled using bilinear and elastic-plastic relations. The resulting nonlinear optimization problem is solved by using the sequential quadratic optimization method. Issues related to various forms of energy dissipated by the inelastic structure are explored. The study also examines the effect of nonlinear damping models and the influence of the strain hardening ratio (ratio of the post-yield stiffness to the pre-yield stiffness) on the derived optimal earthquake and associated inelastic deformation. The formulation is demonstrated for a two-storey inelastic building frame with nonlinear damping.

  13. The 2015 Mw7.8 Gorkha, Nepal Earthquake: Earthquake Relocations, Focal Mechanisms and 3D Velocity Structures of the Source Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, L.; Li, G.; Song, B.

    2016-12-01

    The Himalaya orogenic belt is one of the most representative continental collision zones on Earth. It is also a key region for seismological studies on the mechanism of shallow continental megathrust earthquakes and the evaluation of the associated seismic hazards. The 2015 Mw7.8 Gorkha, Nepal earthquake is the largest earthquake that has occurred along the Himalaya orogenic belt since digital earthquake recordings have become available. The broadband array we deployed before the earthquake along the China-Nepal border clearly recorded the main shock and aftershocks. We combine our data with the permanent short-period network of Nepal, and the broadband seismic network of Tibet, China earthquake administration to form a comprehensive dataset of the aftershock recordings. This work extends the analysis by Bai et al., (2016) who examined the geometry of the Main Himalaya thrust (MHT) faulting system based on relocated aftershocks. Here we focus on the 3D P- and S-wave tomography to study the velocity structure of the MHT and the subducting Indian slab. We also study the accurate locations and mechanisms of aftershocks that occurred far away from the main shock at the southern Tibet. This study provides new constraints on the collision and uplift processes for the Himalaya orogenic belt. ReferencesBai, L., Liu, H., Ritsema, J., Mori, J., Zhang, T., Ishikawa, Y., Li, G., 2016. Faulting structure above the Main Himalayan Thrust as shown by relocated aftershocks of the 2015 Mw 7.8 Gorkha, Nepal earthquake, Geophys. Res. Lett., 43, 637-642,doi:10.1002/2015GL066473.

  14. Hardware-software system for simulating and analyzing earthquakes applied to civil structures

    OpenAIRE

    J. P. Amezquita-Sanchez; OSORNIO-RIOS, R. A.; R. J. Romero-Troncoso; A. Dominguez-Gonzalez

    2012-01-01

    The occurrence of recent strong earthquakes, the incessant worldwide movements of tectonic plates and the continuous ambient vibrations caused by traffic and wind have increased the interest of researchers in improving the capacity of energy dissipation to avoid damages to civil structures. Experimental testing of structural systems is essential for the understanding of physical behaviors and the building of appropriate analytic models in order to expose difficulties that ma...

  15. Inelastic spectra to predict period elongation of structures under earthquake loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katsanos, Evangelos; Sextos, A.G.

    2015-01-01

    Period lengthening, exhibited by structures when subjected to strong ground motions, constitutes an implicit proxy of structural inelasticity and associated damage. However, the reliable prediction of the inelastic period is tedious and a multi-parametric task, which is related to both epistemic ...... for period lengthening as a function of Ry and Tel. These equations may be used in the framework of the earthquake record selection and scaling....

  16. An examination of the earthquake behaviour of a retaining wall considering soil-structure interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köktan, Utku; Demir, Gökhan; Kerem Ertek, M.

    2017-04-01

    The earthquake behavior of retaining walls is commonly calculated with pseudo static approaches based on Mononobe-Okabe method. The seismic ground pressure acting on the retaining wall by the Mononobe-Okabe method does not give a definite idea of the distribution of the seismic ground pressure because it is obtained by balancing the forces acting on the active wedge behind the wall. With this method, wave propagation effects and soil-structure interaction are neglected. The purpose of this study is to examine the earthquake behavior of a retaining wall taking into account the soil-structure interaction. For this purpose, time history seismic analysis of the soil-structure interaction system using finite element method has been carried out considering 3 different soil conditions. Seismic analysis of the soil-structure model was performed according to the earthquake record of "1971, San Fernando Pacoima Dam, 196 degree" existing in the library of MIDAS GTS NX software. The results obtained from the analyses show that the soil-structure interaction is very important for the seismic design of a retaining wall. Keywords: Soil-structure interaction, Finite element model, Retaining wall

  17. ON STRUCTURED AND DIFFUSE SEISMICITY, STIFFNESS OF EARTHQUAKE FOCI, AND NONLINEARITY OF MAGNITUDE RECURRENCE GRAPHS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgeny G. Bugaev

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Geological, geophysical and seismogeological studies are now conducted in a more detail and thus provide for determining seismic sources with higher accuracy, from the first meters to first dozens of meters [Waldhauser, Schaff, 2008]. It is now possible to consider uncertainty ellipses of earthquake hypocenters, that are recorded in the updated Earthquake Catalogue, as surfaces of earthquake focus generators. In our article, it is accepted that a maximum horizontal size of an uncertainty ellipse corresponds to an area of a focus generator, and seismic events are thus classified into two groups, earthquakes with nonstiff and stiff foci. Criteria of such a classification are two limits of elastic strain and brittle strain in case of uniaxial (3⋅10–5 or omnidirectional (10–6 compression. The criteria are established from results of analyses of parameters of seismic dislocations and earthquake foci with regard to studies of surface parameters and deformation parameters of fault zones. It is recommendable that the uniaxial compression criterion shall be applied to zones of interaction between tectonic plates, and the unilateral compression criterion shall be applied to low active (interplate areas. Sample cases demonstrate the use of data sets on nonstiff and stiff foci for separate evaluation of magnitude reoccurrence curves, analyses of structured and dissipated seismicity, review of the physical nature of nonlinearity of recurrence curves and conditions of preparation of strong earthquakes. Changes of parameters of the recurrence curves with changes of data collection square areas are considered. Reviewed are changes of parameters of the recurrence curves during preparation for the Japan major earthquake of 11 March 2011 prior to and after the major shock. It is emphasized that it is important to conduct even more detailed geological and geophysical studies and to improve precision and sensitivity of local seismological monitoring networks

  18. Prediction of Global and Localized Damage and Future Reliability for RC Structures subject to Earthquakes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Köyluoglu, H.U.; Nielsen, Søren R.K.; Cakmak, A.S.;

    1997-01-01

    The paper deals with the prediction of global and localized damage and the future reliability estimation of partly damaged reinforced concrete (RC) structures under seismic excitation. Initially, a global maximum softening damage indicator is considered based on the variation of the eigenfrequency...... of the first mode due to the stiffness and strength deterioration of the structure. The hysteresis of the first mode is modelled by a Clough and Johnston hysteretic oscillator with a degrading elastic fraction of the restoring force. The linear parameters of the model are assumed to be known, measured before....... The proposed model is next generalized for the MDOF system. Using the adapted models for the structure and the global damage state, the global damage in a future earthquake can then be estimated when a suitable earthquake model is applied. The performance of the model is illustrated on RC frames which were...

  19. Prediction of Global and Localized Damage and Future Reliability for RC Structures subject to Earthquakes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Köyluoglu, H.U.; Nielsen, Søren R.K.; Cakmak, A.S.;

    1994-01-01

    The paper deals with the prediction of global and localized damage and the future reliability estimation of partly damaged reinforced concrete (RC) structures under seismic excitation. Initially, a global maximum softening damage indicator is considered based on the variation of the eigenfrequency...... of the first mode due to the stiffness and strength deterioration of the structure. The hysteresis of the first mode is modelled by a Clough and Johnston hysteretic oscillator with a degrading elastic fraction of the restoring force. The linear parameters of the model are assumed to be known, measured before....... The proposed model is next generalized for the MDOF system. Using the adapted models for the structure and the global damage state, the global damage in a future earthquake can then be estimated when a suitable earthquake model is applied. The performance of the model is illustrated on RC frames which were...

  20. [Change in distribution of pathogens and nosocomial antibiotic resistant Gram-negative Bacilli infection in intensive care units one month after an earthquake].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Qing-quan; Tu, Chong-qi; Pei, Fu-xing; Huang, Fu-guo; Liu, Hao; Song, Yue-ming; Yang, Tian-fu; Kang, Yan; Wang, Guang-lin; Liu, Li-min; Fang, Yue; Zhang, Hui

    2010-03-01

    To investigate the change in distribution of pathogens and nosocomial antibiotic resistant Gram-negative Bacilli infection in intensive care units one month after an earthquake. A retrospective survey on the distribution of nosocomial Gram-negative bacilli infection in intensive care units before and one month after the Wenchuan Earthquake was conducted in the West China Hospital. MicroScan Walkaway 96SI or PHOENIX 100 Automatic System in combined with manual identification, was employed to identify the Gram-negative bacilli infection and antibiotic resistance. The proportion of wound infection increased from 7.9% to 20.2% one month after the earthquake, but infection in respiratory tract stayed the most common infection. The common pathogens included Acinetobacter spp. (36.2%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (22.7%), and Klebsiella spp. (12.3%) before the earthquake. One month after the earthquake, Imipenem remained highly sensitive against Escherichia coli and Klebsiella. spp., while their resistance to ceftazidime increased. Amikacin became the most sensitive antibiotics against Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Acinetobacter spp. had increased resistance to imipenem, but was highly sensitive to gatifloxacin and cefoxitin. The prevalence of extended spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) in Klebsiella spp. and Escherichia coli increased from 52.6% and 48.8% before the earthquake to 55.0% and 87.5% one month after the earthquake, respectively. There is a significant change in distribution of pathogens and nosocomial antibiotic resistant Gram-negative Bacilli infection in intensive care units one month after the Earthquake, which might be associated with a sudden increase in injured patients. It is essential to regularly monitor the resistant rate of bacilli to antibiotics.

  1. Earthquake Risk - MO 2010 Tectonic Fault Structures (SHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — The data set contains line data for known structural features in the state of Missouri. These include faults, folds, and other related tectonic structures. Source...

  2. Comparative Performance of Octagrid and Hexagrid Lateral Load Resisting Systems For Tall Building Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B K Raghu Prasad

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The construction of high rise structure is quite common in this era. There are a number of high rise structures constructed all over the world and are being constructed. The analysis and design of high rise structure is quite different from that of low rise structures because of lateral forces due to wind and earthquake. In high rise structures the resistance to lateral loading (wind and earthquake loads will be the dominant criteria that have to be considered in the analysis and design and an efficient lateral load resisting system will define the efficiency of tall structures. In the present paper it is aimed to study different lateral load resisting systems like octagrid and hexagrid bracing systems for tall building. Not much information is available in the literature on such systems. It is intended to study such lateral load resisting systems. The two types of bracing systems including octagrid and hexagrid bracings are modeled and analyzed. Behavior under lateral loads of hexagrid and octagridsystem is compared with that and the commonly employed shear wall systems. The key parameter for comparision is the top story displacement under wind and seismic loading, the maximum storey drift ratio and also quantity of concrete consumed. It is found that the hexagrid and octagrid systems are best with respect to the above parameter. Although there is a marginal increase in the quantity of concrete consumed.

  3. Crustal structure and fault geometry of the 2010 Haiti earthquake from temporary seismometer deployments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douilly, Roby; Haase, Jennifer S.; Ellsworth, William L.; Bouin, Marie‐Paule; Calais, Eric; Symithe, Steeve J.; Armbruster, John G.; Mercier de Lépinay, Bernard; Deschamps, Anne; Mildor, Saint‐Louis; Meremonte, Mark E.; Hough, Susan E.

    2013-01-01

    Haiti has been the locus of a number of large and damaging historical earthquakes. The recent 12 January 2010 Mw 7.0 earthquake affected cities that were largely unprepared, which resulted in tremendous losses. It was initially assumed that the earthquake ruptured the Enriquillo Plantain Garden fault (EPGF), a major active structure in southern Haiti, known from geodetic measurements and its geomorphic expression to be capable of producing M 7 or larger earthquakes. Global Positioning Systems (GPS) and Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) data, however, showed that the event ruptured a previously unmapped fault, the Léogâne fault, a north‐dipping oblique transpressional fault located immediately north of the EPGF. Following the earthquake, several groups installed temporary seismic stations to record aftershocks, including ocean‐bottom seismometers on either side of the EPGF. We use data from the complete set of stations deployed after the event, on land and offshore, to relocate all aftershocks from 10 February to 24 June 2010, determine a 1D regional crustal velocity model, and calculate focal mechanisms. The aftershock locations from the combined dataset clearly delineate the Léogâne fault, with a geometry close to that inferred from geodetic data. Its strike and dip closely agree with the global centroid moment tensor solution of the mainshock but with a steeper dip than inferred from previous finite fault inversions. The aftershocks also delineate a structure with shallower southward dip offshore and to the west of the rupture zone, which could indicate triggered seismicity on the offshore Trois Baies reverse fault. We use first‐motion focal mechanisms to clarify the relationship of the fault geometry to the triggered aftershocks.

  4. A refined Frequency Domain Decomposition tool for structural modal monitoring in earthquake engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pioldi, Fabio; Rizzi, Egidio

    2017-07-01

    Output-only structural identification is developed by a refined Frequency Domain Decomposition ( rFDD) approach, towards assessing current modal properties of heavy-damped buildings (in terms of identification challenge), under strong ground motions. Structural responses from earthquake excitations are taken as input signals for the identification algorithm. A new dedicated computational procedure, based on coupled Chebyshev Type II bandpass filters, is outlined for the effective estimation of natural frequencies, mode shapes and modal damping ratios. The identification technique is also coupled with a Gabor Wavelet Transform, resulting in an effective and self-contained time-frequency analysis framework. Simulated response signals generated by shear-type frames (with variable structural features) are used as a necessary validation condition. In this context use is made of a complete set of seismic records taken from the FEMA P695 database, i.e. all 44 "Far-Field" (22 NS, 22 WE) earthquake signals. The modal estimates are statistically compared to their target values, proving the accuracy of the developed algorithm in providing prompt and accurate estimates of all current strong ground motion modal parameters. At this stage, such analysis tool may be employed for convenient application in the realm of Earthquake Engineering, towards potential Structural Health Monitoring and damage detection purposes.

  5. Integrating geomatics and structural investigation in post-earthquake monitoring of ancient monumental Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominici, Donatella; Galeota, Dante; Gregori, Amedeo; Rosciano, Elisa; Alicandro, Maria; Elaiopoulos, Michail

    2014-06-01

    The old city center of L’Aquila is rich in historical buildings of considerable merit. On April 6th 2009 a devastating earthquake caused significant structural damages, affecting especially historical and monumental masonry buildings. The results of a study carried out on a monumental building, former headquarters of the University of L’Aquila (The Camponeschi building, XVI century) are presented in this paper. The building is situated in the heart of the old city center and was seriously damaged by the earthquake. Preliminary visual damage analysis carried out immediately after the quake, clearly evidenced the building’s complexity, raising the need for direct and indirect investigation on the structure. Several non-destructive test methods were then performed in situ to better characterize the masonry typology and the damage distribution, as well. Subsequently, a number of representative control points were identified on the building’s facades to represent, by their motion over time, the evolution of the structural displacements and deformations. In particular, a surveying network consisting of 27 different points was established. A robotic total station mounted on top of a concrete pillar was used for periodically monitoring the surveying control network. Stability of the pillar was checked through a GNSS static survey repeated before any set of measurements. The present study evidences the interesting possibilities of combining geomatics with structural investigation during post-earthquake monitoring of ancient monumental buildings.

  6. Analog earthquakes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofmann, R.B. [Center for Nuclear Waste Regulatory Analyses, San Antonio, TX (United States)

    1995-09-01

    Analogs are used to understand complex or poorly understood phenomena for which little data may be available at the actual repository site. Earthquakes are complex phenomena, and they can have a large number of effects on the natural system, as well as on engineered structures. Instrumental data close to the source of large earthquakes are rarely obtained. The rare events for which measurements are available may be used, with modfications, as analogs for potential large earthquakes at sites where no earthquake data are available. In the following, several examples of nuclear reactor and liquified natural gas facility siting are discussed. A potential use of analog earthquakes is proposed for a high-level nuclear waste (HLW) repository.

  7. Earthquake engineering in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡聿贤

    2002-01-01

    The development of earthquake engineering in China is described into three stages.The initial stage in 1950's -1960's was marked with the initiation of this branch of science from its creation in the first national 12-year plan of science andtechnology by specifying earthquake engineering as a branch item and IEM was one participant. The first earthquake zonationmap and the first seismic design code were soon completed and used in engineering design. Site effect on structural design andsite selection were seriously studied. The second stage marked with the occurrence of quite a few strong earthquakes in China,from which many lessons were learned and corresponding considerations were specified in our design codes and followed inconstruction practice. The third stage is a stage of disaster management, which is marked by a series of governmentdocumentations, leading by a national law of the People's Republic of China on the protecting against and mitigating earthquakedisasters adopted at the meeting of the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress of the People's Republic of Chinain 1997, and then followed by some provincial and municipal laws to force the actions outlined in the national law. It may beexpected that our society will be much more safer to resist the attack of future strong earthquakes with less losses. Lastly,possible future developments are also discussed.

  8. Introducing Students to Structural Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthoine, Armelle; Marazzi, Francesco; Tirelli, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    The European Laboratory for Structural Assessment (ELSA) is one of the world's main laboratories for seismic studies. Besides its research activities, it also aims to bring applied science closer to the public. This article describes teaching activities based on a demonstration shaking table which is used to introduce the structural dynamics of…

  9. Mechanism and bounding of earthquake energy input to building structure on surface ground subjected to engineering bedrock motion

    OpenAIRE

    Kojima, K; Sakaguchi, K; Takewaki, I.

    2015-01-01

    The mechanism of earthquake energy input to building structures is clarified by considering the surface ground amplification and soil–structure interaction. The earthquake input energies to superstructures, soil–foundation systems and total swaying–rocking system are obtained by taking the corresponding appropriate free bodies into account and defining the energy transfer functions. It has been made clear that, when the ground surface motion is white, the input energy to the swaying–rocking m...

  10. Automatic generation of smart earthquake-resistant building system: Hybrid system of base-isolation and building-connection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasagi, M; Fujita, K; Tsuji, M; Takewaki, I

    2016-02-01

    A base-isolated building may sometimes exhibit an undesirable large response to a long-duration, long-period earthquake ground motion and a connected building system without base-isolation may show a large response to a near-fault (rather high-frequency) earthquake ground motion. To overcome both deficiencies, a new hybrid control system of base-isolation and building-connection is proposed and investigated. In this new hybrid building system, a base-isolated building is connected to a stiffer free wall with oil dampers. It has been demonstrated in a preliminary research that the proposed hybrid system is effective both for near-fault (rather high-frequency) and long-duration, long-period earthquake ground motions and has sufficient redundancy and robustness for a broad range of earthquake ground motions.An automatic generation algorithm of this kind of smart structures of base-isolation and building-connection hybrid systems is presented in this paper. It is shown that, while the proposed algorithm does not work well in a building without the connecting-damper system, it works well in the proposed smart hybrid system with the connecting damper system.

  11. Automatic generation of smart earthquake-resistant building system: Hybrid system of base-isolation and building-connection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kasagi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available A base-isolated building may sometimes exhibit an undesirable large response to a long-duration, long-period earthquake ground motion and a connected building system without base-isolation may show a large response to a near-fault (rather high-frequency earthquake ground motion. To overcome both deficiencies, a new hybrid control system of base-isolation and building-connection is proposed and investigated. In this new hybrid building system, a base-isolated building is connected to a stiffer free wall with oil dampers. It has been demonstrated in a preliminary research that the proposed hybrid system is effective both for near-fault (rather high-frequency and long-duration, long-period earthquake ground motions and has sufficient redundancy and robustness for a broad range of earthquake ground motions.An automatic generation algorithm of this kind of smart structures of base-isolation and building-connection hybrid systems is presented in this paper. It is shown that, while the proposed algorithm does not work well in a building without the connecting-damper system, it works well in the proposed smart hybrid system with the connecting damper system.

  12. Earthquake Damage Assessment for RC Structures Based on Fuzzy Sets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haoxiang He

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A global damage index based on multiple linear force-deformation curves in pushover analysis is presented to evaluate the integrated damage of reinforced concrete structure. The modified coefficient is provided considering the cyclic load and hysteresis energy. The number of inelastic cycles and the coefficient of hysteresis energy concentration are also introduced as damage indices. Hence, multiple damage indices about displacement and energy for performance-based design are considered. The relation of multiple damage indices or factors and the fuzzy damage set is presented by comprehensive fuzzy evaluation; hence, a performance-based multiple fuzzy seismic damage-assessment method for reinforced concrete frame structures is established. The method can be accomplished based on pushover analysis, code spectrum, and capacity spectrum method. The fuzzy seismic damage-assessment method is verified through nonlinear analysis four different structures and the corresponding results and assessment conclusions are accurate.

  13. The Road to Total Earthquake Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frohlich, Cliff

    Cinna Lomnitz is possibly the most distinguished earthquake seismologist in all of Central and South America. Among many other credentials, Lomnitz has personally experienced the shaking and devastation that accompanied no fewer than five major earthquakes—Chile, 1939; Kern County, California, 1952; Chile, 1960; Caracas,Venezuela, 1967; and Mexico City, 1985. Thus he clearly has much to teach someone like myself, who has never even actually felt a real earthquake.What is this slim book? The Road to Total Earthquake Safety summarizes Lomnitz's May 1999 presentation at the Seventh Mallet-Milne Lecture, sponsored by the Society for Earthquake and Civil Engineering Dynamics. His arguments are motivated by the damage that occurred in three earthquakes—Mexico City, 1985; Loma Prieta, California, 1989; and Kobe, Japan, 1995. All three quakes occurred in regions where earthquakes are common. Yet in all three some of the worst damage occurred in structures located a significant distance from the epicenter and engineered specifically to resist earthquakes. Some of the damage also indicated that the structures failed because they had experienced considerable rotational or twisting motion. Clearly, Lomnitz argues, there must be fundamental flaws in the usually accepted models explaining how earthquakes generate strong motions, and how we should design resistant structures.

  14. Seismic velocity structure in the source region of the 2016 Kumamoto earthquake sequence, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shito, Azusa; Matsumoto, Satoshi; Shimizu, Hiroshi; Ohkura, Takahiro; Takahashi, Hiroaki; Sakai, Shinichi; Okada, Tomomi; Miyamachi, Hiroki; Kosuga, Masahiro; Maeda, Yuta; Yoshimi, Masayuki; Asano, Youichi; Okubo, Makoto

    2017-08-01

    We investigate seismic wave velocity structure and spatial distribution of the seismicity in the source region of the 2016 Kumamoto earthquake sequence. A one-dimensional mean velocity shows that the seismogenic zone has a high-velocity and low-Vp/Vs ratio relative to the average velocity structure of Kyushu Island. This indicates that the crust is relatively strong, capable of sustaining sufficiently high strain energy to facilitate two large (Mj > 6.5) earthquakes in close proximity to one another in rapid succession. Three-dimensional tomography of the seismogenic zone around the source of the 2016 Kumamoto earthquake sequence yields Vp = 6 km/s and Vs = 3.5 km/s. Most large-displacement areas (asperities) of the Mj 7.3 event overlap with the seismogenic zone and the overlying surface layer. Aftershock seismicity is distributed deeper than the conventional seismogenic zone, which suggests decreased strength due to fluids or increased stress, both caused by coseismic slip.

  15. Response of base-isolated nuclear structures to extreme earthquake shaking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Manish, E-mail: mkumar2@buffalo.edu; Whittaker, Andrew S.; Constantinou, Michael C.

    2015-12-15

    Highlights: • Response-history analysis of nuclear structures base-isolated using lead–rubber bearings is performed. • Advanced numerical model of lead–rubber bearing is used to capture behavior under extreme earthquake shaking. • Results of response-history analysis obtained using simplified and advanced model of lead–rubber bearings are compared. • Heating of the lead core and variation in buckling load and axial stiffness affect the response. - Abstract: Seismic isolation using low damping rubber and lead–rubber bearings is a viable strategy for mitigating the effects of extreme earthquake shaking on safety-related nuclear structures. The mechanical properties of these bearings are not expected to change substantially in design basis shaking. However, under shaking more intense than design basis, the properties of the lead cores in lead–rubber bearings may degrade due to heating associated with energy dissipation, some bearings in an isolation system may experience net tension, and the compression and tension stiffness may be affected by the lateral displacement of the isolation system. The effects of intra-earthquake changes in mechanical properties on the response of base-isolated nuclear power plants (NPPs) are investigated using an advanced numerical model of a lead–rubber bearing that has been verified and validated, and implemented in OpenSees. A macro-model is used for response-history analysis of base-isolated NPPs. Ground motions are selected and scaled to be consistent with response spectra for design basis and beyond design basis earthquake shaking at the site of the Diablo Canyon Nuclear Generating Station. Ten isolation systems of two periods and five characteristic strengths are analyzed. The responses obtained using simplified and advanced isolator models are compared. Strength degradation due to heating of lead cores and changes in buckling load most significantly affect the response of the base-isolated NPP.

  16. Earthquake Performance of Structures in the Philippines: A Post-event Assessment of the M7.2 October 2013 Bohol Earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naguit, M.; Cummins, P. R.; Bautista, B.; Edwards, M.; Ryu, H.; Jakab, M.

    2015-12-01

    A M7.2 inland earthquake occurred in Bohol, Philippines on the 15th of October 2013, associated with rupture along a newly-discovered thrust fault called the North Bohol Fault. While secondary hazards including lateral spreading, landslides, sinkholes, liquefaction, coastal uplift and subsidence have been observed, the impact was dominated by strong ground shaking that killed about 230 people and damaged over 70,000 buildings. Because of the extensive damage and the wide spread of intensities inferred to have shaken the island, the Bohol earthquake presents an important opportunity to improve knowledge of building fragility for the Philippines and similar countries. To this end we undertook a statistical building survey of over 18,000 damaged and undamaged structures located in urban and rural settings and at various inferred ground motion intensity levels. Building typology developed by structural engineers in the Philippines has been considered in classifying the structures based on structural materials and era of construction. The vast majority of the buildings are residential houses with wall types made of wooden materials, concrete hollow blocks or confined masonry. Tailored to assess the vulnerability of structures to earthquake loadings, this post-event analysis aims to validate and constrain the building fragility curves for seismic risk assessment. This can lead to more robust impact forecasts and higher priorities on seismic regulations and construction practices, applicable not only in Bohol but in other areas in the Philippines as well.

  17. Physics-Based Hazard Assessment for Critical Structures Near Large Earthquake Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchings, L.; Mert, A.; Fahjan, Y.; Novikova, T.; Golara, A.; Miah, M.; Fergany, E.; Foxall, W.

    2017-06-01

    We argue that for critical structures near large earthquake sources: (1) the ergodic assumption, recent history, and simplified descriptions of the hazard are not appropriate to rely on for earthquake ground motion prediction and can lead to a mis-estimation of the hazard and risk to structures; (2) a physics-based approach can address these issues; (3) a physics-based source model must be provided to generate realistic phasing effects from finite rupture and model near-source ground motion correctly; (4) wave propagations and site response should be site specific; (5) a much wider search of possible sources of ground motion can be achieved computationally with a physics-based approach; (6) unless one utilizes a physics-based approach, the hazard and risk to structures has unknown uncertainties; (7) uncertainties can be reduced with a physics-based approach, but not with an ergodic approach; (8) computational power and computer codes have advanced to the point that risk to structures can be calculated directly from source and site-specific ground motions. Spanning the variability of potential ground motion in a predictive situation is especially difficult for near-source areas, but that is the distance at which the hazard is the greatest. The basis of a "physical-based" approach is ground-motion syntheses derived from physics and an understanding of the earthquake process. This is an overview paper and results from previous studies are used to make the case for these conclusions. Our premise is that 50 years of strong motion records is insufficient to capture all possible ranges of site and propagation path conditions, rupture processes, and spatial geometric relationships between source and site. Predicting future earthquake scenarios is necessary; models that have little or no physical basis but have been tested and adjusted to fit available observations can only "predict" what happened in the past, which should be considered description as opposed to prediction

  18. Parallel Earthquake Simulations on Large-Scale Multicore Supercomputers

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Xingfu

    2011-01-01

    Earthquakes are one of the most destructive natural hazards on our planet Earth. Hugh earthquakes striking offshore may cause devastating tsunamis, as evidenced by the 11 March 2011 Japan (moment magnitude Mw9.0) and the 26 December 2004 Sumatra (Mw9.1) earthquakes. Earthquake prediction (in terms of the precise time, place, and magnitude of a coming earthquake) is arguably unfeasible in the foreseeable future. To mitigate seismic hazards from future earthquakes in earthquake-prone areas, such as California and Japan, scientists have been using numerical simulations to study earthquake rupture propagation along faults and seismic wave propagation in the surrounding media on ever-advancing modern computers over past several decades. In particular, ground motion simulations for past and future (possible) significant earthquakes have been performed to understand factors that affect ground shaking in populated areas, and to provide ground shaking characteristics and synthetic seismograms for emergency preparation and design of earthquake-resistant structures. These simulation results can guide the development of more rational seismic provisions for leading to safer, more efficient, and economical50pt]Please provide V. Taylor author e-mail ID. structures in earthquake-prone regions.

  19. Are segment boundaries of subduction earthquakes structurally controlled? Evidences from the Ecuador-Colombia 20th century earthquake sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collot, J.-Y.; Marcaillou, B.; Sage, F.; Gutscher, M.-A.; Charvis, P.; Michaud, F.

    2003-04-01

    Great subduction earthquakes nucleate along the seismogenic zone, a shallow portion of the plate-boundary interface. The mechanical factors that control the lateral limits of the rupture zones are yet poorly understood. In Northern Ecuador-SW Colombia, the subduction of the Nazca plate beneath the South America plate has produced one of the best examples of variable rupture behavior. In 1906, the plate interface ruptured in a single great thrust earthquake (Mw=8.8) with an estimated rupture length of 500 km. Approximately the same segment of the plate interface ruptured again from south to north, in three smaller thrust events abutting one another, in 1942 (Mw=7.8), 1958 (Mw=7.7) and 1979 (Mw=8.2). The simple asperity model, in which failure of one asperity produces a rupture that propagates through the neighboring weak zones and is pinned by the adjacent asperities, applies well to the 1942-1958-rupture sequence, but does not fully apply to the 1958-1979 earthquake sequence. The propagation of the 1958 rupture did not stop at the 1979 asperity, but mid-way between the earthquakes respective asperities. Multichannel seismic reflection and bathymetric data acquired during the SISTEUR cruise show evidence for a major NW-trending sub-vertical crustal fault, the Manglares Fault (MF), which correlates with the barrier between the 1958 and 1979 rupture zones. MF divides the margin transversally in two distinct tectonic blocks with distinct deformation styles. South of MF, deformation concentrates between the margin front, and a major landward-dipping crustal splay-fault. East of the splay fault, the fore-arc basin area does not show evidence for active shortening, supporting a relatively strong margin/weak plate interface. This area coincides with the rupture zone of the 1958 earthquake, suggesting that the splay fault accommodates great earthquake ruptures. North of MF, deformation is distributed across most of the margin width, and concentrated both at the margin front

  20. Fracking, wastewater disposal, and earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGarr, Arthur

    2016-03-01

    In the modern oil and gas industry, fracking of low-permeability reservoirs has resulted in a considerable increase in the production of oil and natural gas, but these fluid-injection activities also can induce earthquakes. Earthquakes induced by fracking are an inevitable consequence of the injection of fluid at high pressure, where the intent is to enhance permeability by creating a system of cracks and fissures that allow hydrocarbons to flow to the borehole. The micro-earthquakes induced during these highly-controlled procedures are generally much too small to be felt at the surface; indeed, the creation or reactivation of a large fault would be contrary to the goal of enhancing permeability evenly throughout the formation. Accordingly, the few case histories for which fracking has resulted in felt earthquakes have been due to unintended fault reactivation. Of greater consequence for inducing earthquakes, modern techniques for producing hydrocarbons, including fracking, have resulted in considerable quantities of coproduced wastewater, primarily formation brines. This wastewater is commonly disposed by injection into deep aquifers having high permeability and porosity. As reported in many case histories, pore pressure increases due to wastewater injection were channeled from the target aquifers into fault zones that were, in effect, lubricated, resulting in earthquake slip. These fault zones are often located in the brittle crystalline rocks in the basement. Magnitudes of earthquakes induced by wastewater disposal often exceed 4, the threshold for structural damage. Even though only a small fraction of disposal wells induce earthquakes large enough to be of concern to the public, there are so many of these wells that this source of seismicity contributes significantly to the seismic hazard in the United States, especially east of the Rocky Mountains where standards of building construction are generally not designed to resist shaking from large earthquakes.

  1. EFFECT OF RECYCLE TIRE ISOLATOR AS EARTHQUAKE RESISTANCE SYSTEM FOR LOW RISE BUILDINGS IN MALAYSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SOW WEI JIE

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to investigate the effect of Recycle Tire Isolator (RTI as earthquake resistance system for low rise buildings in Malaysia. Most of the earthquake’s victims are due to the collapse of poorly designed concrete and masonry buildings. Therefore, an economical but reliable RTI is introduced to solve the problem in most of the developing countries such as Malaysia. This study focuses on the effect of RTI-5 (5 layers RTI in protecting three stories buildings. The vertical displacement of RTI-5 was determined through static compression test. The maximum vertical displacement of RTI-5 was obtained when the specimen was monotonically loaded to failure. Finite element analysis was carried out by using ANSYS V16.0 to model the RTI-5 and the results obtained were compared to the experimental results. The dynamic stiffness and damping ratio of RTI-5 were investigated through dynamic test. The behaviour of various thickness of RTI were examined and compared with Rubber Bearing (RB and Scrap Tire Rubber Pad (STRP.Total displacement of three stories buildings on fixed base and on base isolation were determined. The results from static compression test and finite element analysis showed that RTI-5 could sustain a vertical load of 380 kN with vertical deformation of 12.5 mm. It has been verified by finite element analysis (FEA where both of the results achieved close agreement in terms of vertical deformation. RTI-5 and STRP have similar vertical stiffness due to the employment of same material in fabrication. However, rubber bearing is stiffer than RTI-5 due to the present of embedded steel plates. Besides, RTI-4 is stiffer than RTI-5 due to the number of layers are lesser in RTI-4. The results of dynamic test shown that RTI-5 has higher damping ratio than RTI-4. In overall, total deformation at the top floor of the three stories building is reduced by 83% via implementation of RTI in the base of the building. It has been proven

  2. 四川省南江县校舍抗震鉴定总结%Appraisal summary of earthquake resistance of school buildings in Sichuan Nanjiang County

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐珂; 王昌兴

    2009-01-01

    2008年9~10月对四川省南江县88所乡镇中心学校校舍进行了抗震鉴定,并对其中235栋建筑物出具安全鉴定报告,结合鉴定工作对校舍现状进行了分析总结,认为该县校舍普遍存在结构体系不合理、抗震构造措施不足、施工质量较差等问题,影响校舍安全性能.该县校舍情况在一定范围内具有普遍性,可作为汶川地震中校舍倒塌原因的辅助解释.%From September to October in 2008,the earthquake resistance appraisal to the center school buildings of 88 villages and towns in Sichuan Nanjiang County was carried on,and which issued 235 building safety appraisal reports.The analysis was carried on according to the appraisal work.The fact of unreasonable structure systems,inadequate seismic fortification measures,and poor construction quality and so on affected the safety of school buildings.The instances of these schools in the county are universal to a certain extent,which can be used to explain the reasons for the collapse of the schools in Wenchuan Earthquake.

  3. Blind identification of the Millikan Library from earthquake data considering soil–structure interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghahari, S. F.; Abazarsa, F.; Avci, O.; Celebi, Mehmet; Taciroglu, E.

    2016-01-01

    The Robert A. Millikan Library is a reinforced concrete building with a basement level and nine stories above the ground. Located on the campus of California Institute of Technology (Caltech) in Pasadena California, it is among the most densely instrumented buildings in the U.S. From the early dates of its construction, it has been the subject of many investigations, especially regarding soil–structure interaction effects. It is well accepted that the structure is significantly interacting with the surrounding soil, which implies that the true foundation input motions cannot be directly recorded during earthquakes because of inertial effects. Based on this limitation, input–output modal identification methods are not applicable to this soil–structure system. On the other hand, conventional output-only methods are typically based on the unknown input signals to be stationary whitenoise, which is not the case for earthquake excitations. Through the use of recently developed blind identification (i.e. output-only) methods, it has become possible to extract such information from only the response signals because of earthquake excitations. In the present study, we employ such a blind identification method to extract the modal properties of the Millikan Library. We present some modes that have not been identified from force vibration tests in several studies to date. Then, to quantify the contribution of soil–structure interaction effects, we first create a detailed Finite Element (FE) model using available information about the superstructure; and subsequently update the soil–foundation system's dynamic stiffnesses at each mode such that the modal properties of the entire soil–structure system agree well with those obtained via output-only modal identification.

  4. Prediction of Global Damage and Reliability Based Upon Sequential Identification and Updating of RC Structures Subject to Earthquakes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren R.K.; Skjærbæk, P. S.; Köylüoglu, H. U.;

    The paper deals with the prediction of global damage and future structural reliability with special emphasis on sensitivity, bias and uncertainty of these predictions dependent on the statistically equivalent realizations of the future earthquake. The predictions are based on a modified Clough......-Johnston single-degree-of-freedom (SDOF) oscillator with three parameters which are calibrated to fit the displacement response and the damage development in the past earthquake....

  5. P wave crustal velocity structure in the greater Mount Rainier area from local earthquake tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Seth C.; Lees, Jonathan M.; Malone, Stephen D.

    1999-05-01

    We present results from a local earthquake tomographic imaging experiment in the greater Mount Rainier area. We inverted P wave arrival times from local earthquakes recorded at permanent and temporary Pacific Northwest Seismograph Network seismographs between 1980 and 1996. We used a method similar to that described by Lees and Crosson [1989], modified to incorporate the parameter separation method for decoupling the hypocenter and velocity problems. In the upper 7 km of the resulting model there is good correlation between velocity anomalies and surface geology. Many focal mechanisms within the St. Helens seismic zone have nodal planes parallel to the epicentral trend as well as to a north-south trending low-velocity trough, leading us to speculate that the trough represents a zone of structural weakness in which a moderate (M 6.5-7.0) earthquake could occur. In contrast, the western Rainier seismic zone does not correlate in any simple way with anomaly patterns or focal mechanism fault planes, leading us to infer that it is less likely to experience a moderate earthquake. A ˜10 km-wide low-velocity anomaly occurs 5 to 18 km beneath the summit of Mount Rainier, which we interpret to be a signal of a region composed of hot, fractured rock with possible small amounts of melt or fluid. No systematic velocity pattern is observed in association with the southern Washington Cascades conductor. A midcrustal anomaly parallels the Olympic-Wallowa lineament as well as several other geophysical trends, indicating that it may play an important role in regional tectonics.

  6. Research on the Application of Time Structure Variation Analysis to the Jiashi-Bachu Earthquake Swarm Sequence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Xin; Long Haiying; Shangguan Wenming; Nie Xiaohong

    2008-01-01

    In 1997~2003, 27 earthquakes with M≥5.0 occurred in the Jiashi-Bachu area of Xinjiang. It was a rare strong earthquake swarm activity. The earthquake swarm has three time segments of activity with different magnitudes in the years 1997, 1998 and 2003. In different time segments, the seismic activity showed strengthening-quiet changes in various degrees before earthquakes with M≥5.0. In order to delimitate effectively the precursory meaning of the clustering (strengthening) quiet change in sequence and to seek the time criterion for impending prediction, the nonlinear characteristics of seismic activity have been used to analyze the time structure characteristics of the earthquake swarm sequence, and further to forecast the development tendency of earthquake sequences in the future. Using the sequence catalogue recorded by the Kashi Station, and taking the earthquakes with M≥5.0 in the sequence as the starting point and the next earthquake with M=5.0 as the end, statistical analysis has been performed on the time structure relations of the earthquake sequence in different stages. The main results are as follows: (1) Before the major earthquakes with M≥5.0 in the swarm sequence, the time variation coefficient (δ-value) has abnormal demonstrations to different degrees. (2) Within 10 days after δ≈1, occurrence of earthquakes with M≥5.0 in the swarm is very possible. (3) The time variation coefficient has three types of change. (4) The change process before earthquakes with M5.0 is similar to that before earthquakes with M6.0, with little difference in the threshold value. In the earthquake swarm sequence, it is difficult to delimitate accurately the attribute of the current sequences (foreshock or aftershnck sequence) and to judge the magnitude of the follow-up earthquake by δ-value. We can only make the judgment that earthquakes with M5.0 are likely to occur in the sequence. (5) The critical clustering characteristics of the sequence are hierarchical

  7. Optimal design of structures for earthquake loads by a hybrid RBF-BPSO method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Eysa Salajegheh; Saeed Gholizadeh; Mohsen Khatibina

    2008-01-01

    The optimal seismic design of structures requires that time history analyses (THA) be carried out repeatedly. This makes the optimal design process inefficient, in particular, if an evolutionary algorithm is used. To reduce the overall time required for structural optimization, two artificial intelligence strategies are employed. In the first strategy, radial basis function (RBF) neural networks are used to predict the time history responses of structures in the optimization flow. In the second strategy, a binary particle swarm optimization (BPSO) is used to find the optimum design. Combining the RBF and BPSO, a hybrid RBF-BPSO optimization method is proposed in this paper, which achieves fast optimization with high computational performance. Two examples are presented and compared to determine the optimal weight of structures under earthquake loadings using both exact and approximate analyses. The numerical results demonstrate the computational advantages and effectiveness of the proposed hybrid RBF-BPSO optimization method for the seismic design of structures.

  8. Fault Zone Resistivity Structure and Monitoring at the Taiwan Chelungpu Drilling Project (TCDP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Wen Chiang

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The Taiwan Chelungpu-fault drilling project (TCDP has undertaken scientific drilling and directly sampled the sub-surface rupture of the 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake. Audio-magnetotelluric (AMT measurements were used to investigate electrical resistivity structure at the TCDP site from 2004 - 2006. These data show a geoelectric strike direction of N15°E to N30°E. Inversion and forward modeling of the AMT data were used to generate a 1-D resistivity model that has a prominent low resistivity zone (< 10 ohm-m between depths of 1100 and 1500 m. When combined with porosity measurements, theAMT measurements imply that the ground water has a resistivity of 0.55 ohm-m at the depth of the fault zone.

  9. 3D Velocity Structure in Southern Haiti from Local Earthquake Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douilly, R.; Ellsworth, W. L.; Kissling, E. H.; Freed, A. M.; Deschamps, A.; de Lepinay, B. M.

    2016-12-01

    We investigate 3D local earthquake tomography for high-quality travel time arrivals from aftershocks following the 2010 M7.0 Haiti earthquake on the Léogâne fault. The data were recorded by 35 stations, including 19 ocean bottom seismometers, from which we selected 595 events to simultaneously invert for hypocenter location and 3D Vp and Vs velocity structures in southern Haiti. We performed several resolution tests and concluded that clear features can be recovered to a depth of 15 km. At 5km depth we distinguish a broad low velocity zone in the Vp and Vs structure offshore near Gonave Island, which correlate with layers of marine sediments. Results show a pronounced low velocity zone in the upper 5 km across the city of Léogâne, which is consistent with the sedimentary basin location from geologic map. At 10 km depth, we detect a low velocity anomaly offshore near the Trois Baies fault and a NW-SE directed low velocity zone onshore across Petit-Goâve and Jacmel, which is consistent with a suspected fault from a previous study and that we refer to it in our study as the Petit-Goâve-Jacmel fault (PGJF). These observations suggest that low velocity structures delineate fault structures and the sedimentary basins across the southern peninsula, which is extremely useful for seismic hazard assessment in Haiti.

  10. Dynamic Instability of Pile-Supported Structures in Liquefiable Soils during Earthquakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Adhikari

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Piles are long slender columns installed deep into the ground to support heavy structures such as oil platforms, bridges, and tall buildings where the ground is not strong enough to support the structure on its own. In seismic prone zones, in the areas of soft soils (loose to medium dense soil which liquefies like a quick sand piles are routinely used to support structures (buildings/ bridges. The pile and the building vibrate, and often collapse, in liquefiable soils during major earthquakes. In this paper an experimental and analytical approach is taken to characterize this vibration. The emphasis has been given to the dynamic instability of piled foundations in liquefied soil. The first natural frequency of a piled-structure vibrating in liquefiable soil is obtained from centrifuge tests. The experimental system is modelled using a fixed-free Euler-Bernoulli beam resting against an elastic support with axial load and tip mass with rotary inertia. Natural frequencies obtained from the analytical method are compared with experimental results. It was observed that the effective natural frequency of the system can reduce significantly during an earthquake.

  11. Electrical resistance tomography for imaging concrete structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buettner, M.; Ramirez, A.; Daily, W.

    1995-11-08

    Electrical Resistance Tomography (ERT) has been used to non-destructively examine the interior of reinforced concrete pillars in the laboratory during a water infiltration experiment. ERT is a technique for determining the electrical resistivity distribution within a volume from measurement of injected currents and the resulting electrical potential distribution on the surface. The transfer resistance (ratio of potential to injected current) data are inverted using an algorithm based on a finite element forward solution which is iteratively adjusted in a least squares sense until the measured and calculated transfer resistances agree to within some predetermined value. Laboratory specimens of concrete pillars, 61.0 cm (24 in) in length and 20.3 cm (8 in) on a side, were prepared with various combinations of steel reinforcing bars and voids (1.27 cm diameter) which ran along the length of the pillars. An array of electrodes was placed around the pillar to allow for injecting current and measuring the resulting potentials. After the baseline resistivity distribution was determined, water was added to a void near one comer of the pillar. ERT was used to determine the resistivity distribution of the pillar at regular time intervals as water was added. The ERT images show very clearly that the water was gradually imbibed into the concrete pillar during the course of the experiment. The resistivity decreased by nearly an order of magnitude near the point of water addition in the first hour, and by nearly two orders of magnitude by the end of the experiment. Other applications for this technology include monitoring of curing in concrete structures, detecting cracks in concrete structures, detecting rebar location and corrosion state, monitoring slope stability and the stability of footings, detecting and monitoring leaks from storage tanks, monitoring thermal processes during environmental remediation, and for detecting and monitoring contaminants in soil and groundwater.

  12. High-performance computing for structural mechanics and earthquake/tsunami engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Hori, Muneo; Ohsaki, Makoto

    2016-01-01

    Huge earthquakes and tsunamis have caused serious damage to important structures such as civil infrastructure elements, buildings and power plants around the globe.  To quantitatively evaluate such damage processes and to design effective prevention and mitigation measures, the latest high-performance computational mechanics technologies, which include telascale to petascale computers, can offer powerful tools. The phenomena covered in this book include seismic wave propagation in the crust and soil, seismic response of infrastructure elements such as tunnels considering soil-structure interactions, seismic response of high-rise buildings, seismic response of nuclear power plants, tsunami run-up over coastal towns and tsunami inundation considering fluid-structure interactions. The book provides all necessary information for addressing these phenomena, ranging from the fundamentals of high-performance computing for finite element methods, key algorithms of accurate dynamic structural analysis, fluid flows ...

  13. Applicability of soil-structure interaction analysis methods for earthquake loadings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, S. P.; Ko, H. M.; Yun, J. Y. and others [Korea Electrical Engineering and Science Research Institute, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1993-07-15

    We have investigated the related materials of Lotung large scale seismic test already completed and Hualien large scale seismic test under performing to evaluate the influence of parameters related to the soil-structure interaction effect. Furthermore, for establishing the analysis technique, currently used programs treating soil-structure interaction problem was described in details. Site investigation, large scale seismic model structure and measuring system has been examined. In addition, information of forced vibration test results, earthquake observation and blind prediction for Lotung experiment was summarized. Blind prediction and results of forced vibration test before backfill of Hualien large scale seismic test was also analyzed. The evaluation of the programs related to soil-structure interaction was performed for FLUSH, SASSI, CLASSI and Soil-Spring Method.

  14. Study of structures vulnerability with respect to near and distant earthquakes; Etude de la vulnerabilite des structures sous seismes proches et lointains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopes, E

    1998-06-01

    Today, according to the fundamental safety rules edited by the French institute of nuclear protection and safety (IPSN), para-seismic structures must be dimensioned in order to withstand the probable near and distant earthquakes. Classical dimensioning tools, like the linear analysis of the elastic response spectrum of an oscillator, show that nearby earthquakes are more damaging for structures. However, experience feedback seems to demonstrate the contrary. The aim of this study is to make a comparison between the damaging effects of nearby and distant earthquakes. Thus, other comparison criteria were defined in order to take into account new parameters and to fit with the experience feedback. In a first part, the difference between nearby and distant earthquakes is explained. Then, after a presentation of the limits of the existing dimensioning tools, the new calculation means are defined and presented with their results. These new methods take into account the inelastic property of the structures. (J.S.)

  15. Earthquake focal parameters and lithospheric structure of the anatolian plateau from complete regional waveform modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodgers, A

    2000-12-28

    This is an informal report on preliminary efforts to investigate earthquake focal mechanisms and earth structure in the Anatolian (Turkish) Plateau. Seismic velocity structure of the crust and upper mantle and earthquake focal parameters for event in the Anatolian Plateau are estimated from complete regional waveforms. Focal mechanisms, depths and seismic moments of moderately large crustal events are inferred from long-period (40-100 seconds) waveforms and compared with focal parameters derived from global teleseismic data. Using shorter periods (10-100 seconds) we estimate the shear and compressional velocity structure of the crust and uppermost mantle. Results are broadly consistent with previous studies and imply relatively little crustal thickening beneath the central Anatolian Plateau. Crustal thickness is about 35 km in western Anatolia and greater than 40 km in eastern Anatolia, however the long regional paths require considerable averaging and limit resolution. Crustal velocities are lower than typical continental averages, and even lower than typical active orogens. The mantle P-wave velocity was fixed to 7.9 km/s, in accord with tomographic models. A high sub-Moho Poisson's Ratio of 0.29 was required to fit the Sn-Pn differential times. This is suggestive of high sub-Moho temperatures, high shear wave attenuation and possibly partial melt. The combination of relatively thin crust in a region of high topography and high mantle temperatures suggests that the mantle plays a substantial role in maintaining the elevation.

  16. Three-dimensional seismic velocity structure and earthquake relocations at Katmai, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Rachel; Thurber, Clifford; Prejean, Stephanie G.; Bennington, Ninfa

    2014-01-01

    We invert arrival time data from local earthquakes occurring between September 2004 and May 2009 to determine the three-dimensional (3D) upper crustal seismic structure in the Katmai volcanic region. Waveforms for the study come from the Alaska Volcano Observatory's permanent network of 20 seismic stations in the area (predominantly single-component, short period instruments) plus a densely spaced temporary array of 11 broadband, 3-component stations. The absolute and relative arrival times are used in a double-difference seismic tomography inversion to solve for 3D P- and S-wave velocity models for an area encompassing the main volcanic centers. The relocated hypocenters provide insight into the geometry of seismogenic structures in the area, revealing clustering of events into four distinct zones associated with Martin, Mageik, Trident-Novarupta, and Mount Katmai. The seismic activity extends from about sea level to 2 km depth (all depths referenced to mean sea level) beneath Martin, is concentrated near 2 km depth beneath Mageik, and lies mainly between 2 and 4 km depth below Katmai and Trident-Novarupta. Many new features are apparent within these earthquake clusters. In particular, linear features are visible within all clusters, some associated with swarm activity, including an observation of earthquake migration near Trident in 2008. The final velocity model reveals a possible zone of magma storage beneath Mageik, but there is no clear evidence for magma beneath the Katmai-Novarupta area where the 1912 eruptive activity occurred, suggesting that the storage zone for that eruption may have largely been evacuated, or remnant magma has solidified.

  17. Seismogram Analysis of Earthquakes Around Indonesia In UGM Observational Station: S Velocity Structure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bagus Jaya Santosa

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The seismogram comparison between the measured and synthetics seismogram has been carried out in observation station of UGM, where the seismograms are excited by earthquakes that occurred at North Sumatra, Sumbawa, Sunda Strait, around North Celebes and PNG. The ray paths from earthquake's hypocenter to UGM give opportunity to understand the earth structure alongside the front area of subduction zone. The calculation of synthetic seismogram needs input in the form of earth model, the Centroid Moment Tensor (CMT solution of the earthquake and location of observation station, as well as the relevant date file response of the observation station. Waveform comparison and fitting at surface wave indicate that speed's anomalies in the lithosphere have negative character in front area of subducted zone, but become positive for northern area of subduction zone. By paying attention to waveform of Love surface wave, it is obtained, that this waveform are sensitive to the change of earth crust thickness, while Rayleigh waveform is not sensitive. Heterogeneity is not only occurred in the lithosphere, but also in deeper earth layers, until Core Mantle Boundary (CMB. Different corrections are needed to make the fitting at S secondary wave, but also at depth wave and its repetitions. The result of this research shows that the research area, which is located in the front of subduction zone has anomalies at S speed of at deeper earth layers which than the lithosphere. The earth structure as the result of this research differs from the other seismological results, where they used the methods, which are based on inversion of arrival time data of body wave and dispersion analysis on surface wave.

  18. Structural and thermal control of seismic activity and megathrust rupture dynamics in subduction zones: Lessons from the Mw 9.0, 2011 Tohoku earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satriano, Claudio; Dionicio, Viviana; Miyake, Hiroe; Uchida, Naoki; Vilotte, Jean-Pierre; Bernard, Pascal

    2014-10-01

    The 2011 Tohoku megathrust earthquake ruptured a vast region of the northeast Japan Trench subduction zone in a way that had not been enough anticipated by earthquake and tsunami risk scenarios. We analyzed the Tohoku rupture combining high-frequency back-projection analysis with low frequency kinematic inversion of the co-seismic slip. Results support the to-day well-accepted broadband characteristics of this earthquake. Most of the seismic moment is released during the first 100 s, with large co-seismic slip (up to 55 m) offshore Miyagi in a compact region on the landward side of the trench. Coherent high-frequency radiation areas and relatively low co-seismic slip are a distinctive signature of the slab-mantle interface. The broadband characteristics of the Tohoku rupture are interpreted, integrating the seismic activity and structure information on the NE Japan forearc region, as a signature of along-dip segmentation and segment interactions, that result from thermal structure, plate geometry, material composition and fracture heterogeneities along the plate boundary interface. Deep mantle corner flow and low dehydration rates along the cold subduction slab interface lead to an extended seismogenic slab-mantle interface, with strong bi-material contrast controlling larger propagation distance in the downdip preferred rupture direction. Off Miyagi, plate bending below the mantle wedge, ∼142.3°E at ∼25 km depth, is associated with the eastern limit of the deep M7-8-class thrust-earthquakes, and of the strongest coherent high-frequency generation areas. The region of the slab-crust interface between the mantle wedge limit, ∼142.7°E at ∼20 km depth, and a trenchward plate bending, ∼143.2°E at ∼15 km, acted as an effective barrier resisting for many centuries to stress-loading gradient induced by deep stable sliding and large earthquakes along the slab-mantle interface. The 2011 Tohoku earthquake, whose hypocenter is located on the east side of the

  19. Parametric and Non-Parametric Vibration-Based Structural Identification Under Earthquake Excitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pentaris, Fragkiskos P.; Fouskitakis, George N.

    2014-05-01

    The problem of modal identification in civil structures is of crucial importance, and thus has been receiving increasing attention in recent years. Vibration-based methods are quite promising as they are capable of identifying the structure's global characteristics, they are relatively easy to implement and they tend to be time effective and less expensive than most alternatives [1]. This paper focuses on the off-line structural/modal identification of civil (concrete) structures subjected to low-level earthquake excitations, under which, they remain within their linear operating regime. Earthquakes and their details are recorded and provided by the seismological network of Crete [2], which 'monitors' the broad region of south Hellenic arc, an active seismic region which functions as a natural laboratory for earthquake engineering of this kind. A sufficient number of seismic events are analyzed in order to reveal the modal characteristics of the structures under study, that consist of the two concrete buildings of the School of Applied Sciences, Technological Education Institute of Crete, located in Chania, Crete, Hellas. Both buildings are equipped with high-sensitivity and accuracy seismographs - providing acceleration measurements - established at the basement (structure's foundation) presently considered as the ground's acceleration (excitation) and at all levels (ground floor, 1st floor, 2nd floor and terrace). Further details regarding the instrumentation setup and data acquisition may be found in [3]. The present study invokes stochastic, both non-parametric (frequency-based) and parametric methods for structural/modal identification (natural frequencies and/or damping ratios). Non-parametric methods include Welch-based spectrum and Frequency response Function (FrF) estimation, while parametric methods, include AutoRegressive (AR), AutoRegressive with eXogeneous input (ARX) and Autoregressive Moving-Average with eXogeneous input (ARMAX) models[4, 5

  20. A Study on Earthquake-Resistance Performance of Main Bridge of Suramadu Sea-Crossing Bridge%苏拉马都跨海大桥主桥抗震性能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭河; 李毅谦

    2011-01-01

    The seismic performance of Suramadu Bridge is particularly important because of the bridge across the Madula Strait and the high seismic intensity at the bridge site. In this paper, based on the antiseismic design of Suramadu Bridge, seismic behavior of cable-stayed bridge is investigated by two-level earthquake-resistance method from the seismic input, the analysis of earthquake response spectrum, the selection of the damping parameters, the analysis of nonlinear time history and the checking of structural earthquake-resistance performance. It is indicated that, the resistance of main bridge of Suramadu Bridge is larger than the requirement under the 2 500-year recurrence interval (2% in 50year) earthquake load.%苏拉马都跨海大桥由于桥址处抗震设防烈度较高,又是跨越马都拉海峡的特大型桥梁,其抗震性能尤为重要.采用两水平的抗震设计方法,从地震输入、地震反应谱分析、阻尼器参数的选取、非线性时程分析、结构的抗震性能验算等方面对苏拉马都跨海大桥的抗震性能进行了研究,结果表明,在2 500年重现期的地震作用下,该桥的主塔以及各基础的抗震性能均满足抗震设防要求.

  1. Influence of earthquake ground motion incoherency on multi-support structures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    A linear response history analysis method is used to determine the influence of three factors: geometric incoherency, wave-passage, and local site characteristics on the response of multi-support structures subjected to differential ground motions. A one-span frame and a reduced model of a 24-span bridge, located in Las Vegas, Nevada are studied, in which the influence of each of the three factors and their combinations are analyzed. It is revealed that the incoherency of earthquake ground motion can have a dramatic influence on structural response by modifying the dynamics response to uniform excitation and inducing pseudo-static response, which does not exist in structures subjected to uniform excitation. The total response when all three sources of ground motion incoherency are included is generally larger than that of uniform excitation.

  2. Textual research of Wudu earthquake in 186 B.C. in Gansu Province, China and discussion on its causative structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUAN Dao-yang; LEI Zhong-sheng; HE Wen-gui; XIONG Zhen; GE Wei-peng; LIU Xing-wang; LIU Bai-chi

    2007-01-01

    On the basis of the textual research on the historical earthquake data and the field investigation of Wudu earthquake occurred in 186 B.C., we suggest that the earthquake parameters drawn from the present earthquake catalogs are not definite and amendments should be made. The heavily-damaged area of this earthquake should be located between Jugan township of Wudu County and Pingding township of Zhouqu County. Its epicenter should be in the vicinity of Lianghekou in Wudu County with a magnitude of about 7~7 1/4 and an intensity of about Ⅸ~Ⅹ. The major axis direction of the heavily-damaged area should be in the WNW direction that is approximately consistent with the strike of the middle-east segment of Diebu-Bailongjiang active fault zone, and the origin time should match up to that of the latest paleoearthquake event[before (83±46) B.C.] obtained by the trench investigation.Certain seismic rupture evidences are still preserved on this fault segment. Therefore, we propose on the basis of comprehensive analysis that the causative structure of the M7~7 1/4 Wudu earthquake in 186 B.C. Should be in the middle-east segment of Diebu-Bailongjiang active fault zone.

  3. Earthquake resistance of the PTR and ASG reservoirs of reactors 1 and 2 of the Fessenheim nuclear power plant; Resistance au seisme des reservoirs PTR et ASG des reacteurs 1 et 2 de la centrale nucleaire de Fessenheim

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-04-03

    This decision from the French authority of nuclear safety (ASN) concerns the improvement of the earthquake resistance of the PTR and ASG water tanks of the Fessenheim power plant. The PTR tank (refueling water storage tank) is used to fill up the reactor pool during the loading and unloading of the fuel and it ensures the cooling of the core during some accidental conditions by supplying the safety injection and spray systems. The ASG tank supplies the steam generators in case of failure of the normal water supply systems. A two-times restoration of the tanks has been considered as acceptable: a resistance to a maximum historically probable earthquake must be warranted by July 31, 2001, while a resistance to dimensioning earthquakes must be warranted by November 30, 2001. (J.S.)

  4. Source parameters of a M4.8 and its accompanying repeating earthquakes off Kamaishi, NE Japan: Implications for the hierarchical structure of asperities and earthquake cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchida, N.; Matsuzawa, T.; Ellsworth, W.L.; Imanishi, K.; Okada, T.; Hasegawa, A.

    2007-01-01

    We determine the source parameters of a M4.9 ?? 0.1 'characteristic earthquake' sequence and its accompanying microearthquakes at ???50 km depth on the subduction plate boundary offshore of Kamaishi, NE Japan. The microearthquakes tend to occur more frequently in the latter half of the recurrence intervals of the M4.9 ?? 0.1 events. Our results show that the microearthquakes are repeating events and they are located not only around but also within the slip area for the 2001 M4.8 event. From the hierarchical structure of slip areas and smaller stress drops for the microearthquakes compared to the M4.8 event, we infer the small repeating earthquakes rupture relatively weak patches in and around the slip area for the M4.8 event and their activity reflects a stress concentration process and/or change in frictional property (healing) at the area. We also infer the patches for the M4.9 ?? 0.1 and other repeating earthquakes undergo aseismic slip during their interseismic period. Copyright 2007 by the American Geophysical Union.

  5. Relationship between Crustal 3D Density Structure and the Earthquakes in the Longmenshan Range and Adjacent Areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jisheng; GAO Rui; ZENG Lingsen; LI Qiusheng; GUAN Ye; HE Rizheng; WANG Haiyan; LU Zhanwu

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the 3D density structure of crust in the Longmenshan range and adjacent areas, with constraints from seismic and density data. The density structure of crust shows that the immense boundary plane of density distribution in relation to the Longmeshan fault belt is extended downward to -80 km deep. This density boundary plane dips towards the northwest and crosses the Moho. With the proximity to the Longmenshan fault belt, it has a larger magnitude of undulation in the upper and middle crust levels. Density changes abruptly across Longmeshan fault belt. Seismic data show that most of the earthquakes in the Longmenshan area after the 2008 Ms8.0 Wenchuan Earthquake occurred within the upper to middle crust. These earthquakes are clearly distributed in the uplifted region of the basement. A few of them occurs in the transitional zone between the uplifted and subsided areas. But most of the earthquakes distributes in transitional zone from subsided to uplifted areas in the upper and middle crust where relatively large density changes occurr The 3D density structure of crust in the Longmenshan and adjacent areas can thus help us to understand the pattern of overthrusting from the standpoint of deep crust and where the earthquakes occurred.

  6. Influence of Forearc Structure on the Extent of Great Subduction Zone Earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, J. J.; Llenos, A.

    2007-05-01

    Structural features associated with forearc basins appear to strongly influence the rupture processes of large subduction zone earthquakes. Recent studies demonstrated that a significant percentage of the global seismic moment release on subduction zone thrust faults is concentrated beneath the gravity lows resulting from forearc basins. To better determine the nature of this correlation and examine its effect on rupture directivity and termination, we estimated the rupture areas of a set of Mw 7.5-8.7 earthquakes that occurred in circum-Pacific subduction zones. We compare synthetic and observed seismograms by measuring frequency- dependent amplitude and arrival time differences of the first orbit Rayleigh waves. At low frequencies, the amplitude anomalies primarily result from the spatial and temporal extent of the rupture. We then invert the amplitude and arrival time measurements to estimate the second moments of the slip distribution which describe the rupture length, width, duration and propagation velocity of each earthquake. Comparing the rupture areas to the trench-parallel gravity anomaly (TPGA, Song and Simons 2003) above each rupture, we find that in 12 of the 14 events considered in this study the TPGA increases between the centroid and the limits of the rupture. Thus, local increases in TPGA appear to be related to the physical conditions along the plate interface that favor rupture termination. Owing to the inherently long time scales required for forearc basin formation, the correlation between the TPGA field and rupture termination regions indicates that long-lived material heterogeneity rather than short time-scale stress heterogeneities are responsible for arresting most great subduction zone ruptures.

  7. 芯筒-刚臂结构体系分析理论及其抗震减震理论研究综述%Research Summary on Analysis Theory for Core-Outrigger Structures and Application of Earthquake Resistance and Absorption Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙飞飞; 李国强; 邓仲良

    2011-01-01

    The core-outrigger structure is an efficient structural style, which has been widely used in the highrise buildings, and the equipment story and the asylum story can be used as a rigid arm by arranging outriggers and belts. Exterior columns could provide axial forces by the outrigger connected with the core, then the ability of anti-overturning moment is improved remarkably, so the moment shared by the core is reduced. This type of structure has large lateral stiffness, however, the stiffness and internal forces break along the building are inevitable because of the arrangement of the outrigger, which will be hidden troubles in the rare earthquake. In addition, the location of multi-defense line for the core-outrigger structure is rather difficult.This paper summarizes several kinds of analysis method and models for core-outrigger structures, and relevant problems when designing such types of structures. Some current research progress of energy dissipation technology used in this structure is also introduced.%芯筒-刚臂结构是高层和超高层建筑的一种优越结构形式,其利用高层建筑的设备层、避难层等布置伸臂或环带加强构件,形成水平刚臂.由于伸臂使外柱参与抵抗倾覆弯矩,利用外柱轴力形成力偶,从而减小芯筒承担的力矩.这种结构形式具有较大的抗侧移刚度;但是刚臂的设置带来的芯筒刚度和内力沿楼高的突变等问题,容易造成结构在大震下的隐患.另外,对芯筒-刚臂结构体系设置多道防线较难.总结了针对该类结构体系的几种分析方法和分析模型,以及在进行抗震设计时应当注意的问题;同时介绍了耗能减震技术在该结构体系中的应用新进展.

  8. Auto correlation analysis of coda waves from local earthquakes for detecting temporal changes in shallow subsurface structures - The 2011 Tohoku-Oki, Japan, earthquake -

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakahara, H.

    2013-12-01

    For monitoring temporal changes in subsurface structures, I propose to use auto correlation functions of coda waves from local earthquakes recorded at surface receivers, which probably contain more body waves than surface waves. Because the use of coda waves requires earthquakes, time resolution for monitoring decreases. But at regions with high seismicity, it may be possible to monitor subsurface structures in sufficient time resolutions. Studying the 2011 Tohoku-Oki (Mw 9.0), Japan, earthquake for which velocity changes have been already reported by previous studies, I try to validate the method. KiK-net stations in northern Honshu are used in the analysis. For each moderate earthquake, normalized auto correlation functions of surface records are stacked with respect to time windows in S-wave coda. Aligning the stacked normalized auto correlation functions with time, I search for changes in arrival times of phases. The phases at lag times of less than 1s are studied because changes at shallow depths are focused. Based on the stretching method, temporal variations in the arrival times are measured at the stations. Clear phase delays are found to be associated with the mainshock and to gradually recover with time. Amounts of the phase delays are in the order of 10% on average with the maximum of about 50% at some stations. For validation, the deconvolution analysis using surface and subsurface records at the same stations are conducted. The results show that the phase delays from the deconvolution analysis are slightly smaller than those from the auto correlation analysis, which implies that the phases on the auto correlations are caused by larger velocity changes at shallower depths. The auto correlation analysis seems to have an accuracy of about several percents, which is much larger than methods using earthquake doublets and borehole array data. So this analysis might be applicable to detect larger changes. In spite of these disadvantages, this analysis is

  9. Geological structure of Osaka basin and characteristic distributions of structural damage caused by earthquake; Osaka bonchi kozo to shingai tokusei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakagawa, K.; Shiono, K.; Inoue, N.; Senda, S. [Osaka City University, Osaka (JP. Faculty of Science); Ryoki, K. [Osaka Polytechnic Collage, Osaka (Japan); Shichi, R. [Nagoya University, Nagoya (Japan). Faculty of Science

    1996-05-01

    The paper investigates relations between the damage caused by the Hyogo-ken Nanbu earthquake and the deep underground structures. A characteristic of the earthquake damage distribution is that the damage concentrated near faults. Most of the damages were seen on the side of faults` relatively falling rather than right above the faults and of their slightly slanting to the seaside. Distribution like this seems to be closely related to underground structures. Therefore, a distribution map of the depth of basement granite in Osaka sedimentary basin was drawn, referring to the data on basement rock depth obtained from the distribution map of gravity anomaly and the result of the survey using the air gun reflection method. Moreover, cubic underground structures were determined by 3-D gravity analysis. The result was concluded as follows: when observing the M7 zone of the low land, in particular, where the damage was great from an aspect of gravity anomaly, the basement rock below the zone declined near the cliff toward the sea, which indicates a great possibility of its being a fault. There is a high possibility that the zone suffered mostly from the damage caused by focusing by refraction and total reflection of seismic wave rays. 3 refs., 8 figs.

  10. The physical, chemical, and microscopic properties of masonry mortars from Alhambra Palace (Spain in reference to their earthquake resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanifi Binici

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Al-Andalus mortar is an ancient binding material (lime mortar that was used for centuries in numerous historical buildings in Al-Andalus, Granada (Spain. The physico-chemical and microscopic properties of Al-Andalus mortars in Granada were studied as part of an investigation into the mineral raw materials present in the territory of Spain. Scanning electron microscope and X-ray diffraction analyses of eight main types of mortars were performed to show the presence of calcite, gypsum, quartz, and muscovite minerals with organic fibers. Chemical analyses of the specimens showed that high SiO2+Al2O3+Fe2O3 contents yielded high values of hydraulicity and cementation indices. A significant result of this study was that mortars with high hydraulicity and cementation indices have high mechanical strengths. This characteristic may be the main reason for the earthquake resistance of the historical Alhambra Palace.

  11. Geologic structures related to New Madrid earthquakes near Memphis, Tennessee, based on gravity and magnetic interpretations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildenbrand, T.G.; Stuart, W.D.; Talwani, P.

    2001-01-01

    New inversions of gravity and magnetic data in the region north of memphis. Tennessee, and south of latitude 36?? define boundaries of regional structures and igneous complexes in the upper crust. Microseismicity patterns near interpreted boundaries suggest that igneous complexes influence the locations of microseismicity. A weak seismicity cluster occurs near one intrusion (Covington pluton), at the intersection of the southwest margin of the Missouri batholith and the southeast margin of the Reelfoot rift. A narrow seismicity trend along the Reelfoot rift axis becomes diffuse near a second intrusion (Osceola intrusive complex) and changes direction to an area along the northwest flank of the intrusion. The axial seismicity trend also contains a tight cluster of earthquakes located just outside the Osceola intrusive complex. The mechanical explanation of the two seismicity patterns is uncertain, but the first cluster may be caused by stress concentration due to the high elastic stiffness and strength of the Covington intrusion. The spatially changing seismicity pattern near the Osceola complex may be caused by the preceding factors plus interaction with faulting along the rift axis. The axial seismicity strand itself is one of several connected and interacting active strands that may produce stress concentrations at strand ends and junctions. The microseismicity clusters at the peripheries of the two intrusions lead us to conclude that these stress concentrations or stressed volumes may be locations of future moderate to large earthquakes near Memphis. Published by Elsevier Science B.V.

  12. Assessment of soil-structure interaction on a 51-story building from the spectral ratio of earthquake recordings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Kun-Sung

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The soil-structure interaction (SSI can significantly alter the characteristics of recorded motions in buildings. The ratio of Fourier amplitude spectrum of the top-story accelerations to that of the foundation accelerations permits the identification of the natural frequency of the fixed-base building. In this study, records of the Chi-Chi earthquake and the 1226 Hengchun earthquake doublet from the structural array in a 51-story highrise building are used to obtain the dynamic characteristics of the buildings by the transfer function (TF method. As a result, the acceleration amplification of seismic excitation on the 47th storey of buildings is 4.24, in the horizontal component, from the Chi-Chi earthquake data greater than those of the 1226 Hengchun earthquake doublet with a value of 2.82 and 2.06, respectively. In addition, from the spectral ratio of the accelerations (47th floor/basement, together with the Fourier Amplitude Spectrum (FAS of the 47th floor and basement accelerations, it is noted that the peaks of the 47th floor FAS and the spectral ratio appear to coincide with each other from the records of 1226 Hengchun earthquake doublet, suggesting that there is no significant SSI effects in both the longitudinal and transverse directions.

  13. Air void structure and frost resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasholt, Marianne Tange

    2014-01-01

    is proportional to the product of total air content and specific surface. In all 4 cases, the conclusion is concurrent that the parameter of total surface area of air voids performs equally well or better than the spacing factor when linking air void characteristics to frost resistance (salt frost scaling...... will take place in the air void, being feed from the capillary, but without pressure build-up in the capillary. If the capillary is not connected to an air void, ice formation will take place in the capillary pore, where it can generate substantial pressure. Like this, frost resistance depends......This article compiles results from 4 independent laboratory studies. In each study, the same type of concrete is tested at least 10 times, the air void structure being the only variable. For each concrete mix both air void analysis of the hardened concrete and a salt frost scaling test...

  14. Electrical resistance tomography of concrete structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daily, W.; Ramirez, A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Binley, A.; Henry-Poulter, S. [Lancaster Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Environmental Sciences

    1993-10-01

    The purpose of this work is to determine the feasibility of using Electrical resistance tomography (ERT) to nondestructively examine the interior of concrete structures such as bridge pillars and roadways. We report the results of experiments wherein ERT is used to image the two concrete specimens in the laboratory. Each specimen is 5 inches square and 12 inches long and contained steel reinforcing rods along its length. Twenty electrodes were placed on each sample and an-image of electrical resistivity distribution was generated from current and voltage measurements. We found that the images show the general location of the reinforcing steel and, what`s more important, delineate the absence of the steel. The method may therefore be useful for determining if such steel has been destroyed by corrosion, however to make it useful, the technique must have better resolution so that individual reinforcing steel units are resolved.

  15. Estudio experimental del Sistema de Albañilería Integral en la construcción de viviendas sismorresistentes. Experimental study of the Integral Masonry System in the construction of earthquake resistant houses

    OpenAIRE

    Bustamante Montoro, Rosa; Orta Rial, María Belén; Adell Argiles, Josep Maria

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the application of the Integral Masonry System (IMS) to the construction of earthquake resistant houses and its experimental study. To verify the security of this new type of building in seismic areas of the third world two prototypes have been tested, one with adobe and the other with hollow brick. In both cases it’s a two-story 6x6x6 m3 house built to scale 1/2. The tests are carried out at the Laboratory of Antiseismic Structures of the Departmen...

  16. Structural Architecture of the Western Transverse Ranges and Potential for Large Earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Y.; Rockwell, T. K.; Driscoll, N. W.; Shaw, J. H.; Kent, G. M.; Ucarkus, G.

    2015-12-01

    Understanding the subsurface structure of the Western Transverse Ranges (WTR) is critical to assess the seismic potential of large thrust faults comprising this fold-and-thrust belt. Several models have been advanced over the years, building on new data and understandings of thrust belt architecture, but none of these efforts have incorporated the full range of data, including style and rates of late Quaternary deformation in conjunction with surface geology, sub-surface well data and offshore seismic data. In our models, we suggest that the nearly continuous backbone with continuous stratigraphy of the Santa Ynez Mountains is explained by a large anticlinorium over a deep structural ramp, and that the current thrust front is defined by the southward-vergent Pitas Point-Ventura fault. The Ventura Avenue anticline and trend is an actively deforming fault propagation fold over the partially blind Pitas Point-Ventura fault. Details of how this fault is resolved to the surface are not well constrained, but any deformation model must account for the several back-thrusts that ride in the hanging wall of the thrust sheet, as well as the localized subsidence in Carpenteria and offshore Santa Barbara. Our preliminary starting model is a modification of a recently published model that invokes ramp-flat structure, with a deep ramp under the Santa Ynez Mountains, a shallower "flat" with considerable complexity in the hanging wall and a frontal ramp comprising the San Cayetano and Pitas Point thrusts. With the inferred deep ramp under the Santa Ynez Range, this model implies that large earthquakes may extend the entire length of the anticlinorium from Point Conception to eastern Ventura Basin, suggesting that the potential for a large earthquake is significantly higher then previously assumed.

  17. Effects of topographic position and geology on shaking damage to residential wood-framed structures during the 2003 San Simeon earthquake, western San Luis obispo county, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCrink, T.P.; Wills, C.J.; Real, C.R.; Manson, M.W.

    2010-01-01

    A statistical evaluation of shaking damage to wood-framed houses caused by the 2003 M6.5 San Simeon earthquake indicates that both the rate and severity of damage, independent of structure type, are significantly greater on hilltops compared to hill slopes when underlain by Cretaceous or Tertiary sedimentary rocks. This increase in damage is interpreted to be the result of topographic amplification. An increase in the damage rate is found for all structures built on Plio-Pleistocene rocks independent of topographic position, and this is interpreted to be the result of amplified shaking caused by geologic site response. Damage rate and severity to houses built on Tertiary rocks suggest that amplification due to both topographic position and geologic site response may be occurring in these rocks, but effects from other topographic parameters cannot be ruled out. For all geologic and topographic conditions, houses with raised foundations are more frequently damaged than those with slab foundations. However, the severity of damage to houses on raised foundations is only significantly greater for those on hill slopes underlain by Tertiary rocks. Structures with some damage-resistant characteristics experienced greater damage severity on hilltops, suggesting a spectral response to topographic amplification. ?? 2010, Earthquake Engineering Research Institute.

  18. Marine and land active-source seismic investigation of geothermal potential, tectonic structure, and earthquake hazards in Pyramid Lake, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eisses, A.; Kell, A.; Kent, G. [UNR; Driscoll, N. [UCSD; Karlin, R.; Baskin, R. [USGS; Louie, J.; Pullammanappallil, S. [Optim

    2016-08-01

    Amy Eisses, Annie M. Kell, Graham Kent, Neal W. Driscoll, Robert E. Karlin, Robert L. Baskin, John N. Louie, Kenneth D. Smith, Sathish Pullammanappallil, 2011, Marine and land active-source seismic investigation of geothermal potential, tectonic structure, and earthquake hazards in Pyramid Lake, Nevada: presented at American Geophysical Union Fall Meeting, San Francisco, Dec. 5-9, abstract NS14A-08.

  19. Investigation of the earth's crustal structure using earthquake and deep seismic sounding data obtained for the Carpathians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondorskaya, N. V.; Slavina, L. B.; Pivovarova, N. B.; Sollogub, V. B.; Chekunov, A. V.; Sagalova, E. A.; Shchukin, Y. K.

    1981-11-01

    The joint analysis performed for the Carpathian region from seismological data (three-dimensional fields of velocities, areas of concentration of earthquake foci in the Vrancea focal zone) and interpretation of DSS data and those of other geophysical fields have permitted to obtain new evidence for the earth's crust and mantle structure in this region.

  20. Marine and land active-source seismic investigation of geothermal potential, tectonic structure, and earthquake hazards in Pyramid Lake, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eisses, A.; Kell, A.; Kent, G. [UNR; Driscoll, N. [UCSD; Karlin, R.; Baskin, R. [USGS; Louie, J. [UNR; Pullammanappallil, S. [Optim

    2016-08-01

    Amy Eisses, Annie M. Kell, Graham Kent, Neal W. Driscoll, Robert E. Karlin, Robert L. Baskin, John N. Louie, Kenneth D. Smith, Sathish Pullammanappallil, 2011, Marine and land active-source seismic investigation of geothermal potential, tectonic structure, and earthquake hazards in Pyramid Lake, Nevada: presented at American Geophysical Union Fall Meeting, San Francisco, Dec. 5-9, abstract NS14A-08.

  1. Resistive field structures for semiconductor devices and uses therof

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marinella, Matthew; DasGupta, Sandeepan; Kaplar, Robert; Baca, Albert G.

    2017-09-12

    The present disclosure relates to resistive field structures that provide improved electric field profiles when used with a semiconductor device. In particular, the resistive field structures provide a uniform electric field profile, thereby enhancing breakdown voltage and improving reliability. In example, the structure is a field cage that is configured to be resistive, in which the potential changes significantly over the distance of the cage. In another example, the structure is a resistive field plate. Using these resistive field structures, the characteristics of the electric field profile can be independently modulated from the physical parameters of the semiconductor device. Additional methods and architectures are described herein.

  2. Three-dimensional velocity structure of the Galeras volcano (Colombia) from passive local earthquake tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Carlos Alberto; Torres, Roberto

    2015-08-01

    A three-dimensional estimation of the Vp, Vs and Vp/Vs ratio structure at Galeras volcano was conducted by means of passive local earthquake tomography. 14,150 volcano-tectonic events recorded by 58 stations in the seismological network established for monitoring the volcanic activity by the Colombian Geological Survey - Pasto Volcano Observatory between the years 1989 and 2015, were inverted by using the LOTOS code. The seismic events are associated with shear-stress fractures in solid rock as a response to pressure induced by magma flow. Tomography resolution tests suggest a depth of imaging that yield 10 km from the summit of the main crater, illuminating a large portion of the volcanic structure and the interaction of tectonic features like the Buesaco and Silvia-Pijao faults. Full catalog tomographic inversion, that represents the stacked image of the volcanic structure or the most permanent features underneath the volcano, shows vertical structures aligned with seismicity beneath the main crater. We hypothesize that these structures correspond to a system of ducts or fractures through which magma and fluid phases flow up from deeper levels toward the top and related with the intersection of the surface traces of the Silvia-Pijao and Buesaco faults.

  3. 2nd International Conference on Historic Earthquake-Resistant Timber Frames in the Mediterranean Area

    CERN Document Server

    Machado, José; Costa, Alfredo; Candeias, Paulo; Ruggieri, Nicola; Catarino, José

    2016-01-01

    This book presents a selection of the best papers from the HEaRT 2015 conference, held in Lisbon, Portugal, which provided a valuable forum for engineers and architects, researchers and educators to exchange views and findings concerning the technological history, construction features and seismic behavior of historical timber-framed walls in the Mediterranean countries. The topics covered are wide ranging and include historical aspects and examples of the use of timber-framed construction systems in response to earthquakes, such as the gaiola system in Portugal and the Bourbon system in southern Italy; interpretation of the response of timber-framed walls to seismic actions based on calculations and experimental tests; assessment of the effectiveness of repair and strengthening techniques, e.g., using aramid fiber wires or sheets; and modelling analyses. In addition, on the basis of case studies, a methodology is presented that is applicable to diagnosis, strengthening and improvement of seismic performance ...

  4. Coseismic conjugate faulting structures produced by the 2016 Mw 7.1 Kumamoto earthquake, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Aiming; Chiba, Tatsuro

    2017-06-01

    Field investigations and analyses of airborne LiDAR data reveal that the 2016 Mw7.1 Kumamoto earthquake produced a ∼40-km-long surface rupture zone with a typical conjugate Riedel shearing fault structure along the pre-existing right-lateral strike-slip Hinagu-Futagawa Fault Zone (HFFZ). The conjugate Riedel shearing structure comprises two sets of coseismic shear fault zones that are oriented to NE-SW to ENE-WSW and WNW-ESE to E-W. The NE-SW to ENE-WSW-trending shear fault zone is characterized by R Riedel shear structures with right-lateral strike-slip displacement of up to 2.5 m, including left-stepping en echelon cracks (T-shear) and mole tracks (P-shear). In contrast, the WNW-ESE to E-W-trending shear fault zone is dominated by R‧ Riedel shear structures with left-lateral displacement of up to 1.3 m, including right-stepping en echelon tension cracks (T) and mole tracks (P), which are concentrated in a zone of <10 m within individual rupture zones. Our findings demonstrate that the coseismic conjugate Riedel shear faulting is mainly controlled by the pre-existing active strike-slip faults of HFFZ under the present E-W compressive stress in the study area, associated with the ongoing penetration of the Philippine Sea Plate into the Eurasian Plate.

  5. Seismic soil structure interaction analysis for asymmetrical buildings supported on piled raft for the 2015 Nepal earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badry, Pallavi; Satyam, Neelima

    2017-01-01

    Seismic damage surveys and analyses conducted on modes of failure of structures during past earthquakes observed that the asymmetrical buildings show the most vulnerable effect throughout the course of failures (Wegner et al., 2009). Thus, all asymmetrical buildings significantly fails during the shaking events and it is really needed to focus on the accurate analysis of the building, including all possible accuracy in the analysis. Apart from superstructure geometry, the soil behavior during earthquake shaking plays a pivotal role in the building collapse (Chopra, 2012). Fixed base analysis where the soil is considered to be infinitely rigid cannot simulate the actual scenario of wave propagation during earthquakes and wave transfer mechanism in the superstructure (Wolf, 1985). This can be well explained in the soil structure interaction analysis, where the ground movement and structural movement can be considered with the equal rigor. In the present study the object oriented program has been developed in C++ to model the SSI system using the finite element methodology. In this attempt the seismic soil structure interaction analysis has been carried out for T, L and C types piled raft supported buildings in the recent 25th April 2015 Nepal earthquake (M = 7.8). The soil properties have been considered with the appropriate soil data from the Katmandu valley region. The effect of asymmetry of the building on the responses of the superstructure is compared with the author's research work. It has been studied/observed that the shape or geometry of the superstructure governs the response of the superstructure subjected to the same earthquake load.

  6. Earthquake-related soft-sediment deformation structures in Palaeogene on the continental shelf of the East China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Earthquake,as disastrous events in geological history,can be recorded as soft-sediment deformation.In the Palaeogene of the East China Sea shelf,the soft-sediment deformation related to earthquake event is recognized as seismic micro-fractures,micro-corrugated laminations,liquefied veins,'vibrated liquefied layers',deformed cross laminations and convolute laminations,load structures,flame structures,brecciation,slump structures and seismodisconformity.There exists a lateral continuum,the wide spatial distribution and the local vertical continuous sequences of seismites including slump,liquefaction and brecciation.In the Palaeogene of East China Sea shelf,where typical soft-sediment deformation structures were developed,clastic deposits of tidal-flat,delta and river facies are the main background deposits of Middle-Upper Eocene Pinghu Formation and Oligocene Huagang Formation.This succession also records diagnostic marks of event deposits and basinal tectonic activities in the form of seismites.

  7. Earthquake impact on settlements: the role of urban and structural morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostenaru Dan, M.; Armas, I.

    2015-10-01

    This study is aimed to create an alternative to the classical GIS representation of the impact of earthquake hazards on urban areas. To accomplish this, the traditional map was revised, so that it can cope with contemporary innovative ways of planning, namely strategic planning. As in the theory of fractals, the building dimension and the urban neighbourhood dimension are addressed as different geographic scales between which lessons for decisions can be learned through regression. The interaction between the two scales is useful when looking for alternatives, for the completion of a GIS analysis, and in choosing the landmarks, which, in the case of hazards, become strategic elements in strategic planning. A methodology to innovate mapping as a digital means for analysing and visualising the impact of hazards is proposed. This method relies on concepts from various geography, urban planning, structural engineering and architecture approaches related to disaster management. The method has been tested at the building scale for the N-S Boulevard in Bucharest, Romania, called Magheru. At the urban scale, an incident database has been created, in which the case study for the building level can be mapped. The paper presented is part of a larger research work, which addresses decision making using the framework shown here. The main value of the paper is in proposing a conceptual framework to deconstruct the map for digital earthquake disaster impact analysis and representation. The originality of the concept consists in the representation of elements at different scales considered to be of different levels of importance in the urban tissue, according to the analysis to be performed on them.

  8. Seismic resistance design of nuclear power plant building structures in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kitano, Takehito [Kansai Electric Power Co., Inc., Osaka (Japan)

    1997-03-01

    Japan is one of the countries where earthquakes occur most frequently in the world and has incurred a lot of disasters in the past. Therefore, the seismic resistance design of a nuclear power plant plays a very important role in Japan. This report describes the general method of seismic resistance design of a nuclear power plant giving examples of PWR and BWR type reactor buildings in Japan. Nuclear facilities are classified into three seismic classes and is designed according to the corresponding seismic class in Japan. Concerning reactor buildings, the short-term allowable stress design is applied for the S1 seismic load and it is confirmed that the structures have a safety margin against the S2 seismic load. (J.P.N.)

  9. Izmit (Kocaeli) Turkey Earthquake, August 17 1999, Set 2, Structural Damage

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — On August 17, 1999, at 3:01 A.M. local time (00:01:39.8 UTC) a magnitude (Mw) 7.4 earthquake occurred along the westernmost North Anatolian fault. The earthquake...

  10. SELF-CONSOLIDATING CONCRETE USED IN THE MONOLITHIC CONSTRUCTION OF EARTHQUAKE-RESISTANT TALL BUILDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Aliev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. The development of high-strength concrete based on experience both with domestic and foreign concretes has led to the production of a self-consolidating concrete (SCC formula. Method. Raw materials sourced from the Chechen Republic were used in the SUBconcrete formula, based on materials having different classes of compressive strength as well as the incorporation of polycarboxylate as an additive. Results. An investigation was carried out on natural and technogenic raw materials from the Chechen Republic and other regions of the country. Compositions of high-grade SCC with a compressive strength of B100 and higher are achieved with an integrated approach using both natural and man-made raw materials. The formulae of the basic concrete reinforcing technology are examined together with their physico-mechanical properties. The results of the study of locally sourced concrete, as well as that purchased from "Pavlovskgranit" and OOO "Progress" for testing from the Republic of North Ossetia–Alania, are provided. Of the various manufacturers' cements investigated, the highest quality Portland cement CEM I 4.5N was selected from the Tula cement manufacturers in the town of Chiri-Yurt. The fillers used were microsilica sourced from the Novokuznetsk plant, inactivated MP-1 mineral powder produced in Kaluga and fly ash sourced from Nevinnomyssk. Conclusion. The results of the studies show that the raw material potential of our country allows for the production of self-consolidating concrete from class B 25 to B100 and higher for use in monolithic construction, including high-rise. The concrete compositions arrived at are characterised by their high physical and mechanical properties and can be used in high-rise concrete construction sites operating in earthquake-prone areas. 

  11. Crustal Velocity Structure From Local Earthquake Data In Southeastern Sicily (italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musumeci, C.; di Grazia, G.; Gresta, S.

    The monitoring of seismic activity in Southeastern Sicily (Italy) has been recently im- proved, by a 3-C digital seismic network. This effort has produced a homogeneous and complete dataset (324 local events recorded from January 1994 till October 2000) which we used to define the space and time distribution of the recent seismicity. We inverted P- and S-wave arrival times from 51 selected earthquakes to obtain a 1D velocity model, with the simultaneous inversion for hypocenters and velocity param- eters. Then, once tested the robustness of the model, we assess the reliability of the hypocentral locations it provides and we discuss the results taking into account the actual geophysical knowledge of the area derived by previous studies. The average distribution of the 1D locations can be considered representative of the true hypocen- tral position and then, the observed trend can represent a tectonic feature. Improve- ments in location accuracy are indicated by the reduced amplitude in the residuals, the smaller estimated location errors, and the increased tendency of many locations to cluster. Further, the distribution of hypocenters confirmed the absence of seismicity in the central part of the studied area along a NE-SW direction where several tectonic structures, geologically active, are evident at the surface. On the other hand, the lo- cation accuracy permitted us to define the deeper seismogenic structures of the area down to 35 km.

  12. Digitization characteristics of geothermal information and structural analysis of 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku Ms9.0 earthquake

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lu Yajun; Chen Gangyi; Wei Ming; Ouyang Shoucheng

    2012-01-01

    Earthquake is one of the difficult problems that can not be solved as of this writing since the time when mod- em science was initiated over 300 years ago, and irregular events cannot be dealt with by using quantities examples before and followed by a view of the number of analysis systems in modem science ; meanwhile, it covers the problem that how to use changeable information. Structural analysis method is developed particularly for the study of evolutionary transitional processes of the changing events by employing irregular information, and emphasizes the primitiveness of changes in events. Based on the data of sounding observation every 08 o' clock and 20 o' clock per day from China Meteorological Administration, in this paper, we employ the digital structural analysis method to analyze the process of the special, structural characteristics of 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku Ms9.0 earthquake. The result shows that the method can reflect the process of geothermal structures before and after earthquake; it can reflect the congruity between geothermal "heat level" and the level of earthquake energy. When the structure before the earthquake is "the counter clockwise rolling current and the unstable structures" with "dry in lower levels and wet in upper levels", we should be worry about the problem of earthquake. In a word, geothermal information could reveal that earthquakes really would be "heralded".

  13. Treatment outcomes for patients with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in post-earthquake Port-au-Prince, Haiti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, Macarthur; Vilbrun, Stalz Charles; Koenig, Serena P; Hashiguchi, Lauren M; Mabou, Marie Marcelle; Ocheretina, Oksana; Pape, Jean W

    2014-10-01

    We report outcomes and 12-month survival for the first cohort of patients to undergo multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) treatment after the earthquake in Haiti. From March 3, 2010 to March 28, 2013, 110 patients initiated treatment of laboratory-confirmed MDR-TB at the Groupe Haïtien d'Etude du Sarcome de Kaposi et des Infections Opportunistes (GHESKIO) Center in Port-au-Prince, Haiti. Twenty-seven patients (25%) were human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive. As of October 31, 2013, 95 (86%) patients were either cured or alive on treatment, 4 (4%) patients defaulted, and 11 (10%) patients died. Culture conversion occurred by 30 days in 14 (13%) patients, 60 days in 49 (45%) patients, and 90 days in 81 (74%) patients. The probabilities of survival to 12 months were 96% (95% confidence interval [95% CI] = 89-99) and 85% (95% CI = 64-94) for HIV-negative and -positive patients, respectively. Despite adverse conditions, outcomes for patients with MDR-TB are highly encouraging. Major efforts are underway to scale up community directly observed therapy and expand care to other regions of Haiti.

  14. Application Of Long Range Holography In Earthquake Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trolinger, James D.; Weber, David C.; Pardoen, Gary; Gunnarsson, G. T.; Fagan, William F.

    1990-04-01

    Holography concepts have been evaluated as nonintrusive tools that can measure earthquake effects and earthquake resistance of structures. The methods offer potential for removing limitations currently obstructing the application of advanced design techniques in civil and earthquake engineering. Methods under study can result in a capability to holographically monitor large, distant surfaces such as the face of a building, bridge foundation, liquid storage tank, or dam during interaction with geological or meteorological forces. This work included the successful demonstration that holography could be used to obtain modal information from a 3.4-meter-tall, liquid storage tank at a distance of 20 meters.

  15. [Response of bacterial community structures at No. 10 Spring in Urumqi to felt earthquakes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jiao; Yang, Hongmei; Gao, Xiaoqi; You, Luhua; Lou, Kai

    2015-03-04

    Our aim was to know response of spring bacteria and metabolic characteristics of sensitive bacteria to felt earthquake. Water samples were collected from January 31 to December 31, 2012, during which period 5 felt earthquakes occurred and the epicenter was 100 kilometers away from the No. 10 Spring in Urumqi. We monitored the spring bacterial activities and function diversity changes from No. 10 Spring in Urumqi during the pre- and post-earthquake stages by using plate culture counting methods and BIOLOG GEN III bacteria plate. The spring bacterial numbers presented stochastic dynamic changes through the year. The culturable bacteria numbers and average well color development (AWCD ) of carbon source utilization of bacterial community were higher after the earthquake. Besides, there were some correlations with magnitude and epicenter distance of earthquake. The main carbon source utilization types of sensitive bacteria group for felt earthquake were sugar alcohol at the No. 10 Spring. The results indicated that the BIOLOG GEN III plate can be used for spring bacterial metabolism diversity research. Culturable bacteria numbers and carbon source utilization of bacterial communities showed some reflecting earthquake law.

  16. Advancing Integrated STEM Learning through Engineering Design: Sixth-Grade Students' Design and Construction of Earthquake Resistant Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    English, Lyn D.; King, Donna; Smeed, Joanna

    2017-01-01

    As part of a 3-year longitudinal study, 136 sixth-grade students completed an engineering-based problem on earthquakes involving integrated STEM learning. Students employed engineering design processes and STEM disciplinary knowledge to plan, sketch, then construct a building designed to withstand earthquake damage, taking into account a number of…

  17. Basic earthquake engineering from seismology to analysis and design

    CERN Document Server

    Sucuoğlu, Halûk

    2014-01-01

    This book provides senior undergraduate students, master students and structural engineers who do not have a background in the field with core knowledge of structural earthquake engineering that will be invaluable in their professional lives. The basics of seismotectonics, including the causes, magnitude, and intensity of earthquakes, are first explained. Then the book introduces basic elements of seismic hazard analysis and presents the concept of a seismic hazard map for use in seismic design. Subsequent chapters cover key aspects of the response analysis of simple systems and building struc­tures to earthquake ground motions, design spectrum, the adoption of seismic analysis procedures in seismic design codes, seismic design principles and seismic design of reinforced concrete structures. Helpful worked examples on seismic analysis of linear, nonlinear and base isolated buildings, earthquake-resistant design of frame and frame-shear wall systems are included, most of which can be solved using a hand calcu...

  18. RECENT STRONG EARTHQUAKES IN CENTRAL ASIA: REGULAR TECTONOPHYSICAL FEATURES OF LOCATIONS IN THE STRUCTURE AND GEODYNAMICS OF THE LITHOSPHERE. PART 1. MAIN GEODYNAMIC FACTORS PREDETERMINING LOCATIONS OF STRONG EARTHQUAKES IN THE STRUCTURE OF THE LITHOSPHER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. I. Sherman

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Studying locations of strong earthquakes (М≥8 in space and time in Central Asia has been among top prob-lems for many years and still remains challenging for international research teams. The authors propose a new ap-proach that requires changing the paradigm of earthquake focus – solid rock relations, while this paradigm is a basis for practically all known physical models of earthquake foci. This paper describes the first step towards developing a new concept of the seismic process, including generation of strong earthquakes, with reference to specific geodynamic features of the part of the study region wherein strong earthquakes were recorded in the past two centuries. Our analysis of the locations of М≥8 earthquakes shows that in the past two centuries such earthquakes took place in areas of the dynamic influence of large deep faults in the western regions of Central Asia. In the continental Asia, there is a clear submeridional structural boundary (95–105°E between the western and eastern regions, and this is a factor controlling localization of strong seismic events in the western regions. Obviously, the Indostan plate’s pressure from the south is an energy source for such events. The strong earthquakes are located in a relatively small part of the territory of Central Asia (i.e. the western regions, which is significantly different from its neighbouring areas at the north, east and west, as evidenced by its specific geodynamic parameters. (1 The crust is twice as thick in the western regions than in the eastern regions. (2 In the western regions, the block structures re-sulting from the crust destruction, which are mainly represented by lense-shaped forms elongated in the submeridio-nal direction, tend to dominate. (3 Active faults bordering large block structures are characterized by significant slip velocities that reach maximum values in the central part of the Tibetan plateau. Further northward, slip velocities decrease

  19. C~0.85 scaling and the universal clustering structure of earthquake networks

    CERN Document Server

    Abe, Sumiyoshi

    2014-01-01

    Earthquake network describes the complexity of seismicity both qualitatively and quantitatively. The procedure of constructing an earthquake network contains as a single parameter the size of the cells, into which a geographical region under consideration is divided. Then, the characteristics of the network depend on the cell size, in general. Here, the dependency of the clustering coefficient, C, of network on the cell size is studied. Remarkably, C of the earthquake networks constructed from the seismic data taken from California, Japan, and Iran well coincide for each value of the scaled dimensionless cell size. It is found that the networks in California and Japan are three-dimensional, whereas the one in Iran is rather two-dimensional. In addition, the values of C of all these three networks monotonically converge to C~0.85 as the scaled dimensionless cell size increases, highlighting a universal aspect of the concept of earthquake network.

  20. Applicability of soil-structure interaction analysis methods for earthquake loadings(II)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Sung Pil; Yoon, J. Y.; Park, H. K.; Lee, J. K.; Yang, T. S. [Seoul National Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-07-15

    The ultimate goal of this research is to cultivate the capability of accurate SSI analysis by comparing analysis results obtained in the Lotung and Hualien LSST project. In this report, influences of the parametric important to the SSI are evaluated by comparing predicted analysis results with the observed data obtained in the already completed Lotung and on-going Hualien LSST. It is confirmed that SSI effects may exerts strong influence on the dynamic response characteristics of the structure, especially under strong earthquake ground motion. Important parameters are identified to be the velocity profile of the ground medium and embedment depth. Strain-dependent characteristics of soil properties are found to be so pronounced that they should be taken into account in the SSI analysis. Gound motions are found to be decaying with depth and can be predicted with reasonable accuracy methods presently available. Since there are not significant discrepancies in the predictions obtained by different analysis methods, the current methods may be relied on with confidence if due considerations are given to the nonlinear characteristics of the ground media. However, the analysis results show strong dependence on the modeling of ground medium. It indicates that further research should be done in this area. In the process of this research, several important aspects of uncertainties involving SSI are clarified and capability of performing reliable SSI analysis has increased dratically.

  1. Effect of 3-D viscoelastic structure on post-seismic relaxation from the 2004 M = 9.2 Sumatra earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollitz, F.; Banerjee, P.; Grijalva, K.; Nagarajan, B.; Burgmann, R.

    2008-01-01

    The 2004 M=9.2 Sumatra-Andaman earthquake profoundly altered the state of stress in a large volume surrounding the ???1400 km long rupture. Induced mantle flow fields and coupled surface deformation are sensitive to the 3-D rheology structure. To predict the post-seismic motions from this earthquake, relaxation of a 3-D spherical viscoelastic earth model is simulated using the theory of coupled normal modes. The quasi-static deformation basis set and solution on the 3-D model is constructed using: a spherically stratified viscoelastic earth model with a linear stress-strain relation; an aspherical perturbation in viscoelastic structure; a 'static'mode basis set consisting of Earth's spheroidal and toroidal free oscillations; a "viscoelastic" mode basis set; and interaction kernels that describe the coupling among viscoelastic and static modes. Application to the 2004 Sumatra-Andaman earthquake illustrates the profound modification of the post-seismic flow field at depth by a slab structure and similarly large effects on the near-field post-seismic deformation field at Earth's surface. Comparison with post-seismic GPS observations illustrates the extent to which viscoelastic relaxation contributes to the regional post-seismic deformation. ?? Journal compilation ?? 2008 RAS.

  2. Behavior of non-structural masonry in the Lorca earthquake; Comportamiento de las fabricas no estructurales en el terremoto de Lorca

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hermmans, L.; Fraile de Lerma, A.; Alarcon Alvarez, E.; Alvarez Cabal, R.

    2012-07-01

    Lorca 11 May 2011 earthquake effects are described on both facades and partitions of Lorca buildings and the relationship among these elements, traditionally regarded as non-structural, and the structure itself is analysed. In addition, field observations are reproduced with simple numerical models. From this study we prove the high importance of the masonry in the building behaviour during this earthquake. (Author) 8 refs.

  3. Effects of three-dimensional crustal structure and smoothing constraint on earthquake slip inversions: Case study of the Mw6.3 2009 L'Aquila earthquake

    KAUST Repository

    Gallovič, František

    2015-01-01

    Earthquake slip inversions aiming to retrieve kinematic rupture characteristics typically assume 1-D velocity models and a flat Earth surface. However, heterogeneous nature of the crust and presence of rough topography lead to seismic scattering and other wave propagation phenomena, introducing complex 3-D effects on ground motions. Here we investigate how the use of imprecise Green\\'s functions - achieved by including 3-D velocity perturbations and topography - affect slip-inversion results. We create sets of synthetic seismograms, including 3-D heterogeneous Earth structure and topography, and then invert these synthetics using Green\\'s functions computed for a horizontally layered 1-D Earth model. We apply a linear inversion, regularized by smoothing and positivity constraint, and examine in detail how smoothing effects perturb the solution. Among others, our tests and resolution analyses demonstrate how imprecise Green\\'s functions introduce artificial slip rate multiples especially at shallow depths and that the timing of the peak slip rate is hardly affected by the chosen smoothing. The investigation is extended to recordings of the 2009 Mw6.3 L\\'Aquila earthquake, considering both strong motion and high-rate GPS stations. We interpret the inversion results taking into account the lessons learned from the synthetic tests. The retrieved slip model resembles previously published solutions using geodetic data, showing a large-slip asperity southeast of the hypocenter. In agreement with other studies, we find evidence for fast but subshear rupture propagation in updip direction, followed by a delayed propagation along strike. We conjecture that rupture was partially inhibited by a deep localized velocity-strengthening patch that subsequently experienced afterslip.

  4. Effects of three-dimensional crustal structure and smoothing constraint on earthquake slip inversions: Case study of the Mw6.3 2009 L'Aquila earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallovič, František; Imperatori, Walter; Mai, P. Martin

    2015-01-01

    Earthquake slip inversions aiming to retrieve kinematic rupture characteristics typically assume 1-D velocity models and a flat Earth surface. However, heterogeneous nature of the crust and presence of rough topography lead to seismic scattering and other wave propagation phenomena, introducing complex 3-D effects on ground motions. Here we investigate how the use of imprecise Green's functions—achieved by including 3-D velocity perturbations and topography—affect slip-inversion results. We create sets of synthetic seismograms, including 3-D heterogeneous Earth structure and topography, and then invert these synthetics using Green's functions computed for a horizontally layered 1-D Earth model. We apply a linear inversion, regularized by smoothing and positivity constraint, and examine in detail how smoothing effects perturb the solution. Among others, our tests and resolution analyses demonstrate how imprecise Green's functions introduce artificial slip rate multiples especially at shallow depths and that the timing of the peak slip rate is hardly affected by the chosen smoothing. The investigation is extended to recordings of the 2009 Mw6.3 L'Aquila earthquake, considering both strong motion and high-rate GPS stations. We interpret the inversion results taking into account the lessons learned from the synthetic tests. The retrieved slip model resembles previously published solutions using geodetic data, showing a large-slip asperity southeast of the hypocenter. In agreement with other studies, we find evidence for fast but subshear rupture propagation in updip direction, followed by a delayed propagation along strike. We conjecture that rupture was partially inhibited by a deep localized velocity-strengthening patch that subsequently experienced afterslip.

  5. A resistance formula for coherent multi-barrier structures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Zhi-Chen; Yang Jian-Hong

    2007-01-01

    Using the Landauer formula and the quantum S-matrix scattering theory, we derive a resistance formula for multi-barrier structure under phase coherent transmission condition. This formula shows that when the transport is coherent, the potential wells of the structure are just like conductors contributing to the overall resistance. And because the resistance formula is derived based on the scattering theory, the barrier resistance will change with the number of scattering centres (i.e. the number of barriers) in the structure.

  6. Uncertainty in Earthquake Source Imaging Due to Variations in Source Time Function and Earth Structure

    KAUST Repository

    Razafindrakoto, H. N. T.

    2014-03-25

    One way to improve the accuracy and reliability of kinematic earthquake source imaging is to investigate the origin of uncertainty and to minimize their effects. The difficulties in kinematic source inversion arise from the nonlinearity of the problem, nonunique choices in the parameterization, and observational errors. We analyze particularly the uncertainty related to the choice of the source time function (STF) and the variability in Earth structure. We consider a synthetic data set generated from a spontaneous dynamic rupture calculation. Using Bayesian inference, we map the solution space of peak slip rate, rupture time, and rise time to characterize the kinematic rupture in terms of posterior density functions. Our test to investigate the effect of the choice of STF reveals that all three tested STFs (isosceles triangle, regularized Yoffe with acceleration time of 0.1 and 0.3 s) retrieve the patch of high slip and slip rate around the hypocenter. However, the use of an isosceles triangle as STF artificially accelerates the rupture to propagate faster than the target solution. It additionally generates an artificial linear correlation between rupture onset time and rise time. These appear to compensate for the dynamic source effects that are not included in the symmetric triangular STF. The exact rise time for the tested STFs is difficult to resolve due to the small amount of radiated seismic moment in the tail of STF. To highlight the effect of Earth structure variability, we perform inversions including the uncertainty in the wavespeed only, and variability in both wavespeed and layer depth. We find that little difference is noticeable between the resulting rupture model uncertainties from these two parameterizations. Both significantly broaden the posterior densities and cause faster rupture propagation particularly near the hypocenter due to the major velocity change at the depth where the fault is located.

  7. Post-seismic displacement around the Kanto plain, Japan after the 2011 Tohoku earthquake: implications for the subsurface structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishitsuka, Kazuya; Matsuoka, Toshifumi; Tsuji, Takeshi

    2017-04-01

    We investigated three-year post-seismic displacement of the 2011 Tohoku earthquake around the Kanto plain using persistent scatterer interferometry and global positioning network. Several ground subsidence areas possibly due to groundwater extraction were observed before the earthquake. On the other hand, post-seismic displacements show overall ground uplift with both uniform and local scale. The global uplift areas were about the northeast of Japan island scale, whereas the local uplift areas were about 30 × 50 km2, and showed complex spatial distribution with irregular shape. Since the groundwater level has increased, we interpreted that the local ground uplift was associated with permeability enhancement and pore pressure increase of the aquifer system, which were induced by the mainshock vibration. The areas of local uplift are characterized by deeper sediment layer than in other areas, and the velocity response spectrum shows that the earthquake caused seismic shear waves of long period ( 1-30 sec), attributable to the thick sedimentary basin beneath the Kanto Plain. Based on the fact that low-frequency seismic wave especially increase permeability, the local structure beneath the Kanto plain would alter permeability of the aquifer structure and induce pore fluid migration.

  8. Structural Performance Assessment Based on Statistical and Wavelet Analysis of Acceleration Measurements of a Building during an Earthquake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mosbeh R. Kaloop

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study introduces the analysis of structural health monitoring (SHM system based on acceleration measurements during an earthquake. The SHM system is applied to assess the performance investigation of the administration building in Seoul National University of Education, South Korea. The statistical and wavelet analysis methods are applied to investigate and assess the performance of the building during an earthquake shaking which took place on March 31, 2014. The results indicate that (1 the acceleration, displacement, and torsional responses of the roof recording point on the top floor of the building are more dominant in the X direction; (2 the rotation of the building has occurred at the base recording point; (3 95% of the energy content of the building response is shown in the dominant frequency range (6.25–25 Hz; (4 the wavelet spectrum illustrates that the roof vibration is more obvious and dominant during the shaking; and (5 the wavelet spectrum reveals the elasticity responses of the structure during the earthquake shaking.

  9. Deep Background of Wenchuan Earthquake and the Upper Crust Structure beneath the Longmen Shan and Adjacent Areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Qiusheng; GAO Rui; WANG Haiyan; ZHANG Jisheng; LU Zhanwu; LI Pengwu; GUAN Ye; HE Rizheng

    2009-01-01

    By analyzing the deep seismic sounding profiles across the Longmen Shan, this paper focuses on the study of the relationship between the upper crust structure of the Longmen Shan area and the Wenchuan earthquake. The Longmen Shan thrust belt marks not only the topographical change, but also the lateral velocity variation between the eastern Tibetan Plateau and the Sichuan Basin. A low-velocity layer has consistently been found in the crust beneath the eastern edge of the Tibetan Plateau, and ends beneath the western Sichuan Basin. The low-velocity layer at a depth of -20 km beneath the eastern edge of the Tibetan Plateau has been considered as the deep condition for favoring energy accumulation that formed the great Wenchuan earthquake.

  10. Soft-sediment Deformation Structures Related to Earthquake from the Devonian of the Eastern North Qilian Mts. and Its Tectonic Significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DU Yuansheng; XU Yajun; YANG Jianghai

    2008-01-01

    Devonian in the North Qilian orogenic belt and Hexi Corridor developed terrestrial molasse of later stage of foreland basin caused by collision between the North China plate and Qaidam microplate. The foreland basin triggered a intense earthquake, and formed seismites and earthquake- related soft-sediment deformation. The soft-sediment deformation structures of Devonian in the eastern North Qilian Mts. consist of seismo-cracks, sandstone dykes, syn-depositional faults, microfolds (micro-corrugated lamination), fluidized veins, load casts, flame structures, pillow structures and brecciation. The seismo-cracks, syn-depositional faults and microfolds are cracks, faults and folds formed directly by oscillation of earthquake. The seismic dykes formed by sediment instilling into seismic cracks. Fluidized veins were made by instilling into the seismo-fissures of the fluidized sands. The load casts, flame structures and pillow structures were formed by sinking and instilling caused from oscillation of earthquake along the face between sandy and muddy beds. The brecciation resulted from the oscillation of earthquake and cracking of sedimentary layers. The seismites and soft-sediment deformations in Devonian triggered the earthquake related to tectonic activities during the orogeny and uplift of North Qilian Mts.

  11. Technical Developments and Trends of Earthquake Resisting High-Strength Reinforcing Steel Bars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Byoungchul [Seoul National University of Science and Technology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Shim, Jae-Hyeok [Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Myoung-Gyu; Lee, Joonho [Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Jun-Ho [Hyundai Steel, Incheon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Bo-Sung [Daehan Steel, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Won, Sung-Bin [Dongkuk Steel, Kyungju (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    Since reconstruction of old town in Korea requires high-rise and seismic design construction, many attentions have been paid to high strength seismic reinforced steel bar. In the present paper, technical developments and trends are summarized for developing next-generation seismic reinforced steel bar of grade 700 MPa. Steelmaking process requires high energy efficiency and refining ability. Effects of alloying elements are explained, and alloy design based on computational thermodynamics is introduced. On the other hand, it is considered that grain size refinement by the controlled rolling and low temperature transformation structures formed by the accelerated cooling are effective to obtain acceptable mechanical properties with high strength. Finite element simulation analysis is also useful to understand plastic deformation by rolling, internal and external heat transfer, and corresponding phase transformation of austenite phase to various low-temperature transformation structures.

  12. Earthquakes and Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Earthquakes are low-probability, high-consequence events. Though they may occur only once in the life of a school, they can have devastating, irreversible consequences. Moderate earthquakes can cause serious damage to building contents and non-structural building systems, serious injury to students and staff, and disruption of building operations.…

  13. Methods, Computational Platform, Verification, and Application of Earthquake-Soil-Structure-Interaction Modeling and Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tafazzoli, Nima

    Seismic response of soil-structure systems has attracted significant attention for a long time. This is quite understandable with the size and the complexity of soil-structure systems. The focus of three important aspects of ESSI modeling could be on consistent following of input seismic energy and a number of energy dissipation mechanisms within the system, numerical techniques used to simulate dynamics of ESSI, and influence of uncertainty of ESSI simulations. This dissertation is a contribution to development of one such tool called ESSI Simulator. The work is being done on extensive verified and validated suite for ESSI Simulator. Verification and validation are important for high fidelity numerical predictions of behavior of complex systems. This simulator uses finite element method as a numerical tool to obtain solutions for large class of engineering problems such as liquefaction, earthquake-soil-structure-interaction, site effect, piles, pile group, probabilistic plasticity, stochastic elastic-plastic FEM, and detailed large scale parallel models. Response of full three-dimensional soil-structure-interaction simulation of complex structures is evaluated under the 3D wave propagation. Domain-Reduction-Method is used for applying the forces as a two-step procedure for dynamic analysis with the goal of reducing the large size computational domain. The issue of damping of the waves at the boundary of the finite element models is studied using different damping patterns. This is used at the layer of elements outside of the Domain-Reduction-Method zone in order to absorb the residual waves coming out of the boundary layer due to structural excitation. Extensive parametric study is done on dynamic soil-structure-interaction of a complex system and results of different cases in terms of soil strength and foundation embedment are compared. High efficiency set of constitutive models in terms of computational time are developed and implemented in ESSI Simulator

  14. Ultimate Seismic Resistance Capacity for Long Span Lattice Structures under Vertical Ground Motions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiya Taniguchi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Seismic resistance capacities of frame structures have been discussed with equilibrium of energies among many researchers. The early one is the limit design presented by Housner, 1956; that is, frame structures should possess the plastic deformation ability equivalent to an earthquake input energy given by a velocity response spectrum. On such studies of response estimation by the energy equilibrium, the potential energy has been generally abandoned, since the effect of self-weight or fixed loads on the potential energy is negligible, while ordinary buildings usually sway in the horizontal direction. However, it could be said that the effect of gravity has to be considered for long span structures since the mass might be concerned with the vertical response. In this paper, as for ultimate seismic resistance capacity of long span structures, an estimation method considering the potential energy is discussed as for plane lattice beams and double-layer cylindrical lattice roofs. The method presented can be done with the information of static nonlinear behavior, natural periods, and velocity response spectrum of seismic motions; that is, any complicated nonlinear time history analysis is not required. The value estimated can be modified with the properties of strain energy absorption and the safety static factor.

  15. Report on planning of input earthquake vibration for design of vibration controlling structure, in the Tokai Works, Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uryu, Mitsuru; Shinohara, Takaharu; Terada, Shuji; Yamazaki, Toshihiko; Nakayama, Kazuhiko [Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Works; Kondo, Toshinari; Hosoya, Hisashi

    1997-05-01

    When adopting a vibration controlling structure for a nuclear facility building, it is necessary to evaluate a little longer frequency vibration properly. Although various evaluation methods are proposed, there is no finished method. And, to the earthquake itself to investigate, some factors such as effect of surface wave, distant great earthquake, and so on must be considered, and further various evaluations and investigations are required. Here is reported on an evaluation method of the input earthquake vibration for vibration controlling design establishing on adoption of the vibration controlling structure using a vibration control device comprising of laminated rubber and lead damper for the buildings of reprocessing facility in Tokai Works. The input earthquake vibration for vibration controlling design shown in this report is to be adopted for a vibration controlling facility buildings in the Tokai Works. (G.K.)

  16. Study on uniform collapse risk evaluation method for building structures under earthquakes%基于一致倒塌风险的建筑抗震评价方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    施炜; 叶列平; 陆新征

    2012-01-01

    Seismic design should quantitatively evaluate and control the earthquake collapse risk that building structures are likely to encounter during the design service life,which needs taking both the structural collapse resistant capacity and the earthquake demand into consideration.Firstly,this paper introduced IDA-based collapse fragility analysis and seismic hazard analysis,which evaluated the structural collapse resisting capacity and the earthquake demand in terms of probability,respectively.Furthermore,the structural collapse probability was proposed for measuring the earthquake collapse risk and its calculation method was provided.Finally,the collapse probabilities of RC frame structure for three seven-fortification areas with different seismic hazards were calculated as an example.The result shows the inadequacy of evaluating earthquake collapse risk only based on seismic fortification.The uniform-risk-targeted seismic design was proposed for collapse safety.%建筑结构的抗震能力、尤其是抗倒塌能力设计目标应根据其所在场地未来一定设计使用年限内可能遭遇的地震危险性来设定。首先介绍了基于动力增量分析(IDA)的结构倒塌易损性分析方法,随后结合地震危险性分析,分别给出了结构抗倒塌能力和结构所面临地震危险性的概率模型,进而根据结构在未来一定设计使用年限内的倒塌概率,对建筑结构的抗地震倒塌风险进行定量评价,并给出了相应的计算方法。以一座7度抗震设防的RC框架结构为例,计算了该RC框架结构在3个同为7度抗震设防而地震危险性不同地区的地震倒塌风险,指出仅以抗震设防烈度作为建筑结构抗震设计的依据所存在的不足,建议应基于一致倒塌风险进行结构抗震设计,并提出了相关结构抗震设计方法需开展的研究工作。

  17. Earthquake Analysis of Multi Storied Residential Building - A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Pavan Kumar

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Earthquake occurred in multistoried building shows that if the structures are not well designed and constructed with and adequate strength it leads to the complete collapse of the structures. To ensure safety against seismic forces of multi-storied building hence, there is need to study of seismic analysis to design earthquake resistance structures. In seismic analysis the response reduction was considered for two cases both Ordinary moment resisting frame and Special moment resisting frame. The main objective this paper is to study the seismic analysis of structure for static and dynamic analysis in ordinary moment resisting frame and special moment resisting frame. Equivalent static analysis and response spectrum analysis are the methods used in structural seismic analysis. We considered the residential building of G+ 15 storied structure for the seismic analysis and it is located in zone II. The total structure was analyzed by computer with using STAAD.PRO software. We observed the response reduction of cases ordinary moment resisting frame and special moment resisting frame values with deflection diagrams in static and dynamic analysis. The special moment of resisting frame structured is good in resisting the seismic loads.

  18. Active tectonic structures and submarine landslides offshore southern Apulia (Italy): a new scenario for the 1743 earthquake and subsequent tsunami

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milia, Alfonsa; Iannace, Pietro; Torrente, Maurizio M.

    2017-06-01

    The southern Apulia foreland recorded a strong (Imax=X MCS) earthquake in 1743 and a concomitant tsunami, which struck the southeastern Salento coast. The seismo-genetic fault and the triggering factors of the tsunami are unknown. Three-dimensional interpretation of multichannel seismic profiles calibrated by wells using a GIS software enabled the recognition of the stratigraphic succession, structural framework, and submarine landslides offshore Salento. A thin Pliocene unit overlying the Mesozoic-Cenozoic substrate is covered by a Pleistocene succession separated by a Middle Pleistocene unconformity that formed during the regional uplift of Salento. The latter gave rise to the morphologic conditions for the deposition of a prograding wedge off the Salento coast, with a shelf break located at 150 m depth. Normal faults, mainly oriented NW-SE, displaced the early Lower Pleistocene succession and are buried by younger deposits. Since the Middle Pleistocene, a compressional event gave rise to the Apulia uplift and large folds and basement-involved reverse faults that are active in the eastern part of Apulia. A huge (58 km3) slump affecting the Middle Pleistocene prograding wedge has been documented offshore the southeast coast of Salento. The proposed geological scenario of the 1743 earthquake and subsequent tsunami is (1) an initial strong earthquake (Imax=X MCS) associated with a thrust fault located in the eastern sector of the Apulia offshore, (2) a shacking-induced large-volume slump offshore Otranto, and (3) landslide-triggered tsunamis that struck the Salento coast.

  19. Structural features and seismotectonic implications of coseismic surface ruptures produced by the 2016 M w 7.1 Kumamoto earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Aiming

    2017-09-01

    Field investigations and analyses of satellite images and aerial photographs reveal that the 2016 M w 7.1 (Mj 7.3) Kumamoto earthquake produced a ˜40-km surface rupture zone striking NE-SW on central Kyushu Island, Japan. Coseismic surface ruptures were characterized by shear faults, extensional cracks, and mole tracks, which mostly occurred along the pre-existing NE-SW-striking Hinagu-Futagawa fault zone in the southwest and central segments, and newly identified faults in the northeast segment. This study shows that (i) the Hinagu-Futagawa fault zone triggered the 2016 Kumamoto earthquake and controlled the spatial distribution of coseismic surface ruptures; (ii) the southwest and central segments were dominated by right-lateral strike-slip movement with a maximum in-site measured displacement of up to 2.5 m, accompanied by a minor vertical component. In contrast, the northeast segment was dominated by normal faulting with a maximum vertical offset of up to 1.75 m with a minor horizontal component that formed graben structures inside Aso caldera; (iii) coseismic rupturing initiated at the jog area between the Hinagu and Futagawa faults, then propagated northeastward into Aso caldera, where it terminated. The 2016 M w 7.1 Kumamoto earthquake therefore offers a rare opportunity to study the relationships between coseismic rupture processes and pre-existing active faults, as well as the seismotectonics of Aso volcano.

  20. Active tectonic structures and submarine landslides offshore southern Apulia (Italy): a new scenario for the 1743 earthquake and subsequent tsunami

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milia, Alfonsa; Iannace, Pietro; Torrente, Maurizio M.

    2017-01-01

    The southern Apulia foreland recorded a strong (Imax=X MCS) earthquake in 1743 and a concomitant tsunami, which struck the southeastern Salento coast. The seismo-genetic fault and the triggering factors of the tsunami are unknown. Three-dimensional interpretation of multichannel seismic profiles calibrated by wells using a GIS software enabled the recognition of the stratigraphic succession, structural framework, and submarine landslides offshore Salento. A thin Pliocene unit overlying the Mesozoic-Cenozoic substrate is covered by a Pleistocene succession separated by a Middle Pleistocene unconformity that formed during the regional uplift of Salento. The latter gave rise to the morphologic conditions for the deposition of a prograding wedge off the Salento coast, with a shelf break located at 150 m depth. Normal faults, mainly oriented NW-SE, displaced the early Lower Pleistocene succession and are buried by younger deposits. Since the Middle Pleistocene, a compressional event gave rise to the Apulia uplift and large folds and basement-involved reverse faults that are active in the eastern part of Apulia. A huge (58 km3) slump affecting the Middle Pleistocene prograding wedge has been documented offshore the southeast coast of Salento. The proposed geological scenario of the 1743 earthquake and subsequent tsunami is (1) an initial strong earthquake (Imax=X MCS) associated with a thrust fault located in the eastern sector of the Apulia offshore, (2) a shacking-induced large-volume slump offshore Otranto, and (3) landslide-triggered tsunamis that struck the Salento coast.

  1. 地震作用下结构连续性倒塌研究进展与展望%Research progress and prospect of progressive collapse of structure under earthquake action

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹丹京; 马瑞升; 田利

    2015-01-01

    Owing to accidental disaster of earthquake,the collapse events of structures have often happened in recent years,which led to heavy casualties and serious economic losses.A lot of researches about collapse of structure under earthquake action have been done by domestic and foreign scholars.The present research conditions of collapse of structure are introduced and summarized collapse damage criteria,collapse and collapse resistance experiment,collapse simulation and collapse resistance measures.Finally,the important research problems of collapse of structure are prospected.%近年来,地震灾害频发,导致结构倒塌事故时有发生,造成重大的人员伤亡和经济损失.针对地震作用下结构倒塌破坏,国内外学者进行了诸多的研究工作.从倒塌破坏准则、结构倒塌与抗倒塌试验、结构倒塌数值模拟和结构抗倒塌措施四个方面,对结构连续性倒塌的研究现状进行了归纳和总结,并对未来的研究热点进行了展望.

  2. Crustal velocity structure and earthquake processes of Garhwal-Kumaun Himalaya: Constraints from regional waveform inversion and array beam modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negi, Sanjay S.; Paul, Ajay; Cesca, Simone; Kamal; Kriegerowski, Marius; Mahesh, P.; Gupta, Sandeep

    2017-08-01

    In order to understand present day earthquake kinematics at the Indian plate boundary, we analyse seismic broadband data recorded between 2007 and 2015 by the regional network in the Garhwal-Kumaun region, northwest Himalaya. We first estimate a local 1-D velocity model for the computation of reliable Green's functions, based on 2837 P-wave and 2680 S-wave arrivals from 251 well located earthquakes. The resulting 1-D crustal structure yields a 4-layer velocity model down to the depths of 20 km. A fifth homogeneous layer extends down to 46 km, constraining the Moho using travel-time distance curve method. We then employ a multistep moment tensor (MT) inversion algorithm to infer seismic moment tensors of 11 moderate earthquakes with Mw magnitude in the range 4.0-5.0. The method provides a fast MT inversion for future monitoring of local seismicity, since Green's functions database has been prepared. To further support the moment tensor solutions, we additionally model P phase beams at seismic arrays at teleseismic distances. The MT inversion result reveals the presence of dominant thrust fault kinematics persisting along the Himalayan belt. Shallow low and high angle thrust faulting is the dominating mechanism in the Garhwal-Kumaun Himalaya. The centroid depths for these moderate earthquakes are shallow between 1 and 12 km. The beam modeling result confirm hypocentral depth estimates between 1 and 7 km. The updated seismicity, constrained source mechanism and depth results indicate typical setting of duplexes above the mid crustal ramp where slip is confirmed along out-of-sequence thrusting. The involvement of Tons thrust sheet in out-of-sequence thrusting indicate Tons thrust to be the principal active thrust at shallow depth in the Himalayan region. Our results thus support the critical taper wedge theory, where we infer the microseismicity cluster as a result of intense activity within the Lesser Himalayan Duplex (LHD) system.

  3. Random Time Dependent Resistance Analysis on Reinforced Concrete Structures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUAN Chang-sheng; WU Ling

    2002-01-01

    The analysis method on random time dependence of reinforced concrete material is introduced,the effect mechanism on reinforced concrete are discussed, and the random time dependence resistance of reinforced concrete is studied. Furthermore, the corrosion of steel bar in reinforced concrete structures is analyzed. A practical statistical method of evaluating the random time dependent resistance, which includes material, structural size and calculation influence, is also established. In addition, an example of predicting random time dependent resistance of reinforced concrete structural element is given.

  4. Frost resistance of fibre reinforced concrete structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ernst Jan De Place

    1999-01-01

    of 0.4-1% by volume of fibres cannot replace air entrainment in order to secure a frost resistant concrete; the minimum amount of air needed to make the concrete frost resistant is not changed when adding fibres· the amount of air entrainment must be increased when fibres are added to establish......Frost resistance of fibre reinforced concrete with 2.5-4.2% air and 6-9% air (% by volume in fresh concrete) casted in the laboratory and in-situ is compared. Steel fibres with hooked ends (ZP, length 30 mm) and polypropylene fibres (PP, CS, length 12 mm) are applied. It is shown that· addition...

  5. Frost resistance of fibre reinforced concrete structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ernst Jan De Place

    1999-01-01

    Frost resistance of fibre reinforced concrete with 2.5-4.2% air and 6-9% air (% by volume in fresh concrete) casted in the laboratory and in-situ is compared. Steel fibres with hooked ends (ZP, length 30 mm) and polypropylene fibres (PP, CS, length 12 mm) are applied. It is shown that· addition...... of 0.4-1% by volume of fibres cannot replace air entrainment in order to secure a frost resistant concrete; the minimum amount of air needed to make the concrete frost resistant is not changed when adding fibres· the amount of air entrainment must be increased when fibres are added to establish...... the same amount of air pores as in the corresponding concrete without fibres...

  6. Structure of the Koyna-Warna Seismic Zone, Maharashtra, India: A possible model for large induced earthquakes elsewhere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catchings, Rufus D.; Dixit, M.M.; Goldman, Mark R.; Kumar, S.

    2015-01-01

    The Koyna-Warna area of India is one of the best worldwide examples of reservoir-induced seismicity, with the distinction of having generated the largest known induced earthquake (M6.3 on 10 December 1967) and persistent moderate-magnitude (>M5) events for nearly 50 years. Yet, the fault structure and tectonic setting that has accommodated the induced seismicity is poorly known, in part because the seismic events occur beneath a thick sequence of basalt layers. On the basis of the alignment of earthquake epicenters over an ~50 year period, lateral variations in focal mechanisms, upper-crustal tomographic velocity images, geophysical data (aeromagnetic, gravity, and magnetotelluric), geomorphic data, and correlation with similar structures elsewhere, we suggest that the Koyna-Warna area lies within a right step between northwest trending, right-lateral faults. The sub-basalt basement may form a local structural depression (pull-apart basin) caused by extension within the step-over zone between the right-lateral faults. Our postulated model accounts for the observed pattern of normal faulting in a region that is dominated by north-south directed compression. The right-lateral faults extend well beyond the immediate Koyna-Warna area, possibly suggesting a more extensive zone of seismic hazards for the central India area. Induced seismic events have been observed many places worldwide, but relatively large-magnitude induced events are less common because critically stressed, preexisting structures are a necessary component. We suggest that releasing bends and fault step-overs like those we postulate for the Koyna-Warna area may serve as an ideal tectonic environment for generating moderate- to large- magnitude induced (reservoir, injection, etc.) earthquakes.

  7. FDM simulation of earthquakes off western Kyushu, Japan, using a land-ocean unified 3D structure model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Taro; Takenaka, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Takeshi; Hara, Tatsuhiko

    2017-07-01

    Seismic activity occurred off western Kyushu, Japan, at the northern end of the Okinawa Trough on May 6, 2016 (14:11 JST), 22 days after the onset of the 2016 Kumamoto earthquake sequence. The area is adjacent to the Beppu-Shimabara graben where the 2016 Kumamoto earthquake sequence occurred. In the area off western Kyushu, a M7.1 earthquake also occurred on November 14, 2015 (5:51 JST), and a tsunami with a height of 0.3 m was observed. In order to better understand these seismic activity and tsunamis, it is necessary to study the sources of, and strong motions due to, earthquakes in the area off western Kyushu. For such studies, validation of synthetic waveforms is important because of the presence of the oceanic water layer and thick sediments in the source area. We show the validation results for synthetic waveforms through nonlinear inversion analyses of small earthquakes ( M5). We use a land-ocean unified 3D structure model, 3D HOT finite-difference method ("HOT" stands for Heterogeneity, Ocean layer and Topography) and a multi-graphic processing unit (GPU) acceleration to simulate the wave propagations. We estimate the first-motion augmented moment tensor (FAMT) solution based on both the long-period surface waves and short-period body waves. The FAMT solutions systematically shift landward by about 13 km, on average, from the epicenters determined by the Japan Meteorological Agency. The synthetics provide good reproductions of the observed full waveforms with periods of 10 s or longer. On the other hand, for waveforms with shorter periods (down to 4 s), the later surface waves are not reproduced well, while the first parts of the waveforms (comprising P- and S-waves) are reproduced to some extent. These results indicate that the current 3D structure model around Kyushu is effective for generating full waveforms, including surface waves with periods of about 10 s or longer. Based on these findings, we analyze the 2015 M7.1 event using the cross

  8. Probability based high temperature engineering creep and structural fire resistance

    CERN Document Server

    Razdolsky, Leo

    2017-01-01

    This volume on structural fire resistance is for aerospace, structural, and fire prevention engineers; architects, and educators. It bridges the gap between prescriptive- and performance-based methods and simplifies very complex and comprehensive computer analyses to the point that the structural fire resistance and high temperature creep deformations will have a simple, approximate analytical expression that can be used in structural analysis and design. The book emphasizes methods of the theory of engineering creep (stress-strain diagrams) and mathematical operations quite distinct from those of solid mechanics absent high-temperature creep deformations, in particular the classical theory of elasticity and structural engineering. Dr. Razdolsky’s previous books focused on methods of computing the ultimate structural design load to the different fire scenarios. The current work is devoted to the computing of the estimated ultimate resistance of the structure taking into account the effect of high temperatur...

  9. Effects of Fault Segmentation, Mechanical Interaction, and Structural Complexity on Earthquake-Generated Deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddad, David Elias

    2014-01-01

    Earth's topographic surface forms an interface across which the geodynamic and geomorphic engines interact. This interaction is best observed along crustal margins where topography is created by active faulting and sculpted by geomorphic processes. Crustal deformation manifests as earthquakes at centennial to millennial timescales. Given that…

  10. Effects of Fault Segmentation, Mechanical Interaction, and Structural Complexity on Earthquake-Generated Deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddad, David Elias

    2014-01-01

    Earth's topographic surface forms an interface across which the geodynamic and geomorphic engines interact. This interaction is best observed along crustal margins where topography is created by active faulting and sculpted by geomorphic processes. Crustal deformation manifests as earthquakes at centennial to millennial timescales. Given that…

  11. Social Structure and Resistance to Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillery, George A., Jr.

    The purpose of the research is to extract as many common factors as possible which are associated with resistance to change. Two peoples are selected for study, the Navajo Indians and the Trappist monks, both of which are rural and have an extensive history spanning at least several centuries, but which differ radically otherwise. The 2 major…

  12. A Note on Soil Structure Resistance of Natural Marine Deposits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    洪振舜; 刘松玉; 刘志方

    2004-01-01

    It has been well documented that natural normally-consolidated marine soils are generally subjected to the effects of soil structure. The interpretation of the resistance of soil structure is an important issue in the theory study and engineering practice of ocean engineering and geotechnical engineering. It is traditionally considered that the resistance of soil structure gradually disappears with increasing stress level when the applied stress is beyond the consolidation yield stress.In this study, however, it is found that this traditional interpretation of the resistance of soil structure can not explain the strength behavior of natural marine deposits with a normally-consolidated stress history. A new interpretation of the resistance of soil structure is proposed based on the strength behavior. In the preyield state, the undrained strength of natural marine deposits is composed of two components: one developed by the applied stress and the other developed by the resistance of soil structure. When the applied stress is beyond the consolidation yield stress, the strength behavior is independent of the resistance of soil structure.

  13. Three-dimensional velocity structure and high-precision earthquake relocations at Augustine, Akutan, and Makushin Volcanoes, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syracuse, E. M.; Thurber, C. H.; Power, J. A.; Prejean, S. G.

    2010-12-01

    Alaska contains over 100 volcanoes, 21 of which have been active within the past 20 years, including Augustine in Cook Inlet, and Akutan and Makushin in the central Aleutian arc. We incorporate 14-15 years of earthquake data from the Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) to obtain P-wave velocity structure and high-precision earthquake locations at each volcano. At Augustine, most relocated seismicity is beneath the summit at an average depth of 0.6 km. In the weeks leading to the 2006 eruption, seismicity shallowed and focused on a NW-SE line, suggestive of an inflating dike. Through August 2006, intermittent seismicity was observed at 1 to 4.5 km depth, pointing to an association with the transport of magma. Active-source data are also incorporated into the tomographic inversion, illuminating a high-velocity column beneath the summit, and elevated velocities on the south flank. The high-velocity column surrounds the observed deeper seismicity and is likely due to intruded volcanic material. The elevated velocities on the south flank are associated with uplifted zeolitzed sandstones. Akutan most recently erupted in 1992, before the seismic network was installed. Most seismicity is above 9 km depth, with 10% occurring between 14 to30 km depth. Seismicity is separated into two main groups that dip away from the caldera—one to the east and one to the west. The eastern group contains earthquakes from a swarm in early 1996 and the western group contains earthquakes from mid-1996 through the present that form rough lines radiating from the summit. Ongoing seismicity also occurs in a broader region beneath the caldera. Makushin most recently erupted in 1995, also prior to seismic monitoring by AVO. Relocations here show that most seismicity is at 3 to 13 km depth and either beneath the caldera or within one of two dipping clusters 20 km to the northeast. Additional seismicity occurs at up to 25 km depth beneath the summit, as well as scattered throughout the island at

  14. Earthquake Damage to Schools

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This set of slides graphically illustrates the potential danger that major earthquakes pose to school structures and to the children and adults who happen to be...

  15. Fracture resistance enhancement of layered structures by multiple cracks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goutianos, Stergios; Sørensen, Bent F.

    2016-01-01

    A theoretical model is developed to test if the fracture resistance of a layered structure can be increased by introducing weak layers changing the cracking mechanism. An analytical model, based on the J integral, predicts a linear dependency between the number of cracks and the steady state...... fracture resistance. A finite element cohesive zone model, containing two cracking planes for simplicity, is used to check the theoretical model and its predictions. It is shown that for a wide range of cohesive law parameters, the numerical predictions agree well quantitatively with the theoretical model....... Thus, it is possible to enhance considerably the fracture resistance of a structure by adding weak layers....

  16. A coupled soil-fluid-structure simulation of the near-field earthquake effects on gravity type quay-walls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeinoddini, M.; Matin Nikoo, H.; Ahmadpour, F.

    2013-08-01

    This study focuses on non-linear seismic response of concrete gravity quay-wall structures subjected to near-fault ground motions, a subject which seems not to have received much attention in the literature. A two-dimensional coupled fluid-structure-soil finite element modelling is employed to obtain the quay-wall response. The seawater medium is represented by acoustic type, potential based fluid elements. The elasto-plastic behavior of the soil medium is idealized using Drucker-Prager yield criterion based on associated flow rule assumption. Four nodded plane strain elements are used to model the concrete wall, foundation, subsoil, backfill and seabed zones. Fluid Structure Interface (FSI) elements are considered between the seawater interfaces with the quay-wall and the seabed. Frictional contact elements are employed between the wall and soil interfaces. The numerical model is validated using field measurements available for permanent drifts in a quay-wall damaged during Kobe earthquake. Reasonable agreements are obtained between the model predictions and the field measurements. Non-linear seismic analyses of the selected quay-wall subjected to both near-fault and far-fault ground motions are performed. An incremental dynamic analysis approach (IDA) is used. In general, at least for models examined in the current study, the gravity quay-walls are found to be more vulnerable to near-field, in comparison with the corresponding far-field, earthquakes.

  17. The GIS and analysis of earthquake damage distribution of the 1303 Hongtong M=8 earthquake

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高孟潭; 金学申; 安卫平; 吕晓健

    2004-01-01

    The geography information system of the 1303 Hongtong M=8 earthquake has been established. Using the spatial analysis function of GIS, the spatial distribution characteristics of damage and isoseismal of the earthquake are studied. By comparing with the standard earthquake intensity attenuation relationship, the abnormal damage distribution of the earthquake is found, so the relationship of the abnormal distribution with tectonics, site condition and basin are analyzed. In this paper, the influence on the ground motion generated by earthquake source and the underground structures near source also are studied. The influence on seismic zonation, anti-earthquake design, earthquake prediction and earthquake emergency responding produced by the abnormal density distribution are discussed.

  18. Three-dimensional P-wave velocity structure in the greater Mount Rainier area from local earthquake tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Seth Charles

    1997-08-01

    One of the most striking features of seismicity in western Washington is the clustering of crustal earthquakes into one of several zones of concentrated seismicity. In this dissertation I explore the hypothesis that geologic structures, in conjunction with regional tectonic forces, are primarily responsible for controlling the location of seismicity in parts of western Washington. The primary tool for testing this hypothesis is a 3-dimensional image of the P-wave velocity structure of the greater Mount Rainier area that I derive using local earthquake tomography. I use P-wave arrival times from local earthquakes occurring between 1980 and 1996 recorded at short-period vertical component stations operated by the Pacific Northwest Seismograph Network (PNSN) and 18 temporary sites operated during a field experiment in 1995 and 1996. The tomographic methodology I use is similar to that described by Lees and Crosson (1989, 1990). In addition, I use the parameter separation method to decouple the hypocenter and velocity problems, don't use station corrections, and use ray-bending for 3-D raytracing, allowing for a full non-linear inversion. In the upper 4 km several low velocity features show good correlation with the Carbon River, Skate Creek, and Morton anticlines, as well as the Chehalis, Tacoma, and Seattle basins. There is also good correlation between high velocity features and surface exposures of several plutons. One seismic zone, the St. Helens Seismic Zone, correlates well with a planar low velocity feature. This correlation supports the idea that this seismic zone reflects a continuous structure roughly 50 km in length. A second zone, the Western Rainier Seismic Zone (WRSZ), does not correlate in any simple way with anomaly patterns, suggesting that the WRSZ does not represent a distinct fault. A 10 km-wide low velocity anomaly occurs 8 to 18 km beneath Mount Rainier, which I interpret to be due to a thermal aureole associated with the magmatic system beneath

  19. 新抗震规范在高速公路典型桥梁设计中的应用%Application of New Earthquake Resistant Code in Typical Bridge Design for Expressway

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗波; 李峰

    2012-01-01

    对新桥梁抗震规范在高速公路典型桥梁设计中的应用进行了计算分析,以期达到经济合理和相当安全的抗震目的。%Computational analysis on application of new earthquake resistant code for bridge in typical bridge design for expressway is made so as to achieve the economic and reasonable and comparatively safe earthquake re-sistant aim.

  20. Structural damages observed in state buildings after Simav/Turkey earthquake occurred on 19 May 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. S. Tama

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Different levels of damages occurred in state buildings, especially in educational facilities, during the Simav earthquake (ML=5.7 on 19 May 2011. A site survey was carried out in the area after the earthquake, where six state buildings were examined in detail. The results of the survey showed that main reasons for the formation of damages in these buildings are the use of low strength concrete, insufficient reinforcement, inappropriate detailing, and low-quality workmanship. The investigated buildings were also evaluated by P25-rapid assessment method. The method demonstrates that two of the buildings in question are in "high risk band"; the other two fall into "detailed evaluation band", and the rest are in the "low risk band". This figure also matches with the damages observed in the site survey.

  1. Earthquake Vulnerability Assessment of House Constructions in Himalayas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ila Gupta,

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The entire Himalayan range is highly prone to earthquake s and the latest Kashmir earthquake (October 08, 2005 has once again drawn our attention to the highly vulnerable Himalayan settlements. Narcndranagar block of the Himalayan state of Uttaranchal lies in seismic zone IV of the seismic zoning map of India. Like in other hilly areas Narendranagar block also witnessed the traditional practice of house construction being replaced by modern construction materials and practices without the knowledge of earthquake resistant techniques rendering the present buildings more vulnerable to earthquakes. The objective of this paper is to assess the vulnerability of the buildings so that corrective measures can be taken to minimize the destruction during future earthquakes. Types of buildings observed in the entire block with different combinations of materials and their earthquake behaviours are explained. The existing structures are grouped into vulnerability categories Vl , V2 and V3 as per the descriptions provided in the MSK (Medvedev - Sponheaer - Karnik Intensity Scale. Damage estimation for a hypothetical earthquake is carried out for the Narcndranagar block. Conclusions and recommendations suggesting use of such studies in all earth quake prone areas of the Trans Himalayan region arc provided.

  2. Geological-Seismological Evaluation of Earthquake Hazards for Appurtenant Structures at Gathright Dam, Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-07-01

    Jan 1812 36.6 89.6 New Madrid, MO 650 (1046) XI-XII VI 4 7 Feb 1812 36.6 89.6 New Madrid, MO 650 (1046) XI-XII VII 1. Modified Mercalli Intensity at...Singh, S. K., E. Bazan and L. Esteva, 1980, Expected earthquake magnitude from a fault, Bull. Seism. Soc. Am, 70, pp. 903 - 914. Wyss, M., 1979

  3. Seismic design technology for breeder reactor structures. Volume 1. Special topics in earthquake ground motion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reddy, D.P.

    1983-04-01

    This report is divided into twelve chapters: seismic hazard analysis procedures, statistical and probabilistic considerations, vertical ground motion characteristics, vertical ground response spectrum shapes, effects of inclined rock strata on site response, correlation of ground response spectra with intensity, intensity attenuation relationships, peak ground acceleration in the very mean field, statistical analysis of response spectral amplitudes, contributions of body and surface waves, evaluation of ground motion characteristics, and design earthquake motions. (DLC)

  4. Nowcasting Earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rundle, J. B.; Donnellan, A.; Grant Ludwig, L.; Turcotte, D. L.; Luginbuhl, M.; Gail, G.

    2016-12-01

    Nowcasting is a term originating from economics and finance. It refers to the process of determining the uncertain state of the economy or markets at the current time by indirect means. We apply this idea to seismically active regions, where the goal is to determine the current state of the fault system, and its current level of progress through the earthquake cycle. In our implementation of this idea, we use the global catalog of earthquakes, using "small" earthquakes to determine the level of hazard from "large" earthquakes in the region. Our method does not involve any model other than the idea of an earthquake cycle. Rather, we define a specific region and a specific large earthquake magnitude of interest, ensuring that we have enough data to span at least 20 or more large earthquake cycles in the region. We then compute the earthquake potential score (EPS) which is defined as the cumulative probability distribution P(nearthquakes in the region. From the count of small earthquakes since the last large earthquake, we determine the value of EPS = P(nearthquake cycle in the defined region at the current time.

  5. Earthquake Facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jump to Navigation Earthquake Facts The largest recorded earthquake in the United States was a magnitude 9.2 that struck Prince William Sound, ... we know, there is no such thing as "earthquake weather" . Statistically, there is an equal distribution of ...

  6. Nowcasting earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rundle, J. B.; Turcotte, D. L.; Donnellan, A.; Grant Ludwig, L.; Luginbuhl, M.; Gong, G.

    2016-11-01

    Nowcasting is a term originating from economics and finance. It refers to the process of determining the uncertain state of the economy or markets at the current time by indirect means. We apply this idea to seismically active regions, where the goal is to determine the current state of the fault system and its current level of progress through the earthquake cycle. In our implementation of this idea, we use the global catalog of earthquakes, using "small" earthquakes to determine the level of hazard from "large" earthquakes in the region. Our method does not involve any model other than the idea of an earthquake cycle. Rather, we define a specific region and a specific large earthquake magnitude of interest, ensuring that we have enough data to span at least 20 or more large earthquake cycles in the region. We then compute the earthquake potential score (EPS) which is defined as the cumulative probability distribution P(n < n(t)) for the current count n(t) for the small earthquakes in the region. From the count of small earthquakes since the last large earthquake, we determine the value of EPS = P(n < n(t)). EPS is therefore the current level of hazard and assigns a number between 0% and 100% to every region so defined, thus providing a unique measure. Physically, the EPS corresponds to an estimate of the level of progress through the earthquake cycle in the defined region at the current time.

  7. Seismogenic Structure Beneath Décollement Inferred from 2009/11/5 ML 6.2 Mingjian Earthquake in Central Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Che-Min Lin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available One decade after the 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake, central Taiwan experienced more strong ground shaking [Central Weather Bureau (CWB, intensity VII] induced by a ML 6.2 earthquake on 5th November 2009. This earthquake occurred in the Mingjian Township of Nantou County, only 12 km southwest of the Chi-Chi earthquake epicenter. The broadband microearthquake monitoring network operated by the National Center for Research on Earthquake Engineering (NCREE observed numerous aftershocks in the five days following the mainshock. The relocated aftershocks and the mainshock focal mechanism indicated a NE-SW striking fault dipping 60¢X toward the northwest. This fault plane is inside the pre-Miocene basement and the rupture extends from the lower crust to 10 km depth just beneath the basal décollement of the thin-skinned model that is generally used to explain the regional tectonics in Taiwan. The fault plane is vertically symmetrical with the Chelungpu fault by the basal décollement. The NW-SE compressive stress of plate collision in Taiwan, as well as the deep tectonic background, resulted in the seismogenic structure of the Mingjian earthquake at this location.

  8. Seismogenic Structure Beneath Décollement Inferred from 2009/11/5 ML 6.2 Mingjian Earthquake in Central Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Che-Min Lin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available One decade after the 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake, central Taiwan experienced more strong ground shaking [Central Weather Bureau (CWB, intensity VII] induced by a ML 6.2 earthquake on 5th November 2009. This earthquake occurred in the Mingjian Township of Nantou County, only 12 km southwest of the Chi-Chi earthquake epicenter. The broadband microearthquake monitoring network operated by the National Center for Research on Earthquake Engineering (NCREE observed numerous aftershocks in the five days following the mainshock. The relocated aftershocks and the mainshock focal mechanism indicated a NE-SW striking fault dipping _ toward the northwest. This fault plane is inside the pre-Miocene basement and the rupture extends from the lower crust to 10 km depth just beneath the basal décollementdécollement of the thin-skinned model that is generally used to explain the regional tectonics in Taiwan. The fault plane is vertically symmetrical with the Chelungpu fault by the basal décollement.décollement. The NW-SE compressive stress of plate collision in Taiwan, as well as the deep tectonic background, resulted in the seismogenic structure of the Mingjian earthquake at this location.

  9. Structural dynamic analysis of the epicentral zone of the Ilin-Tas earthquake (Feb 14, 2013, Ms = 6.9)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imaeva, L. P.; Koz'min, B. M.; Imaev, V. S.; Mackey, K. G.

    2015-04-01

    The paper presents the results of analysis of tectonics, modern relief morphology, active faults, and types of Cenozoic deformations in the epicentral area of the Ilin-Tas (Ms = 6.9) earthquake, one of the strongest events registered at the boundary of the Eurasian and North American lithospheric plates in northeast Russia. Geological, tectonic, and geophysical characteristics of the Yana-Indigirka segment of the Chersky seismotectonic zone are studied. The methods of investigation were elaborated at the Institute of the Earth's Physics, RAS (Moscow), and were adapted to conducting seismotectonic work on the territory of northeast Russia. The results of instrumental observations are summarized, and manifestations of strong seismic events are discussed. Description is given of the structural-tectonic setting in which the Andrei-Tas seismic maximum developed. It originated under the effect of the Kolyma-Omolon terrane (indentor) which "intruded" into the Chersky seismotectonic zone on the side of the North American plate, thus leading to the formation of major seismoactive structures in the frontal Ilin-Tas folded zone. The indentor moved in NE-SW direction, which is consistent with the orientation of the major axis of isoseism ellipses (azimuth 50-85°) constructed from observation of macroseismic effects of the Uyandina (Ms = 5.6), Andrei-Tas (Ms = 6.1), and Ilin-Tas (Ms = 6.9) earthquakes.

  10. Formation of Surface Corrosion-Resistant Nanocrystalline Structures on Steel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nykyforchyn, Hryhoriy; Kyryliv, Volodymyr; Maksymiv, Olha; Slobodyan, Zvenomyra; Tsyrulnyk, Oleksandr

    2016-12-01

    Engineering materials with nanocrystalline structure could be exploited under simultaneous action of mechanical loading and corrosion environments; therefore, their corrosion resistance is important. Surface nanocrystalline structure was generated on middle carbon steels by severe plastic deformation using the method of mechanical pulse friction treatment. This treatment additionally includes high temperature phase transformation and alloying. Using a complex of the corrosive, electrochemical and physical investigations, it was established that nanocrystalline structures can be characterized by lower or increased corrosion resistance in comparison with the reference material. It is caused by the action of two confronting factors: arising energy level and anticorrosive alloying of the surface layer.

  11. An improved pseudo-static method for seismic resistant design of underground structures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Rushan; Shi Hongbin

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes a commonly used pseudo-static method in seismic resistant design of the cross section of underground structures. Based on dynamic theory and the vibration characteristics of underground structures, the sources of errors when using this method are analyzed. The traditional seismic motion loading approach is replaced by a method in which a one-dimensional soil layer response stress is differentiated and then converted into seismic live loads. To validate the improved method, a comparison of analytical results is conducted for internal forces under earthquake shaking of a typical shallow embedded box-shaped subway station structure using four methods: the response displacement method,finite element response acceleration method, the finite element dynamic analysis method and the improved pseudo-static calculation method. It is shown that the improved finite element pseudo-static method proposed in this paper provides an effective tool for the seismic design of underground structures. The evaluation yields results close to those obtained by the finite element dynamic analysis method, and shows that the improved finite element pseudo-static method provides a higher degree of precision.

  12. The 1946 Unimak Tsunami Earthquake Area: revised tectonic structure in reprocessed seismic images and a suspect near field tsunami source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, John J.; von Huene, Roland; Ryan, Holly F.

    2014-01-01

    In 1946 at Unimak Pass, Alaska, a tsunami destroyed the lighthouse at Scotch Cap, Unimak Island, took 159 lives on the Hawaiian Islands, damaged island coastal facilities across the south Pacific, and destroyed a hut in Antarctica. The tsunami magnitude of 9.3 is comparable to the magnitude 9.1 tsunami that devastated the Tohoku coast of Japan in 2011. Both causative earthquake epicenters occurred in shallow reaches of the subduction zone. Contractile tectonism along the Alaska margin presumably generated the far-field tsunami by producing a seafloor elevation change. However, the Scotch Cap lighthouse was destroyed by a near-field tsunami that was probably generated by a coeval large undersea landslide, yet bathymetric surveys showed no fresh large landslide scar. We investigated this problem by reprocessing five seismic lines, presented here as high-resolution graphic images, both uninterpreted and interpreted, and available for the reader to download. In addition, the processed seismic data for each line are available for download as seismic industry-standard SEG-Y files. One line, processed through prestack depth migration, crosses a 10 × 15 kilometer and 800-meter-high hill presumed previously to be basement, but that instead is composed of stratified rock superimposed on the slope sediment. This image and multibeam bathymetry illustrate a slide block that could have sourced the 1946 near-field tsunami because it is positioned within a distance determined by the time between earthquake shaking and the tsunami arrival at Scotch Cap and is consistent with the local extent of high runup of 42 meters along the adjacent Alaskan coast. The Unimak/Scotch Cap margin is structurally similar to the 2011 Tohoku tsunamigenic margin where a large landslide at the trench, coeval with the Tohoku earthquake, has been documented. Further study can improve our understanding of tsunami sources along Alaska’s erosional margins.

  13. Coseismic deformation due to the 2011 Tohoku-oki earthquake: influence of 3-D elastic structure around Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashima, Akinori; Becker, Thorsten W.; Freed, Andrew M.; Sato, Hiroshi; Okaya, David A.

    2016-09-01

    We investigated the effects of elastic heterogeneity on coseismic deformation associated with the 2011 Tohoku-oki earthquake, Japan, using a 3-D finite element model, incorporating the geometry of regional plate boundaries. Using a forward approach, we computed displacement fields for different elastic models with a given slip distribution. Three main structural models are considered to separate the effects of different kinds of heterogeneity: a homogeneous model, a two-layered model with crust-mantle stratification, and a crust-mantle layered model with a strong subducting slab. We observed two counteracting effects: (1) On large spatial scales, elastic layering with increasing rigidity with depth leads to a decrease in surface displacement. (2) An increase in rigidity from above the slab interface to below causes an increase in surface displacement, because the weaker hanging wall deforms to accommodate coseismic slip. Results for slip inversions associated with the Tohoku-oki earthquake show that slip patterns are modified when comparing homogeneous and heterogeneous models. However, the maximum slip only changes slightly: It increases from 38.5 m in the homogeneous to 39.6 m in the layered case and decreases to 37.3 m when slabs are introduced. Potency, i.e., the product of slip and fault area, changes accordingly. Layering leads to inferred slip distributions that are broader and deeper compared to the homogeneous case, particularly to the south of the overall slip maximum. The introduction of a strong slab leads to a reduction in slip around the slip maximum near the trench. We also find that details of the vertical deformation patterns for heterogeneous models are sensitive to the Poisson's ratio. While elastic heterogeneity does therefore not have a dramatic effect on bulk quantities such as inferred potency, the mechanical response of a layered medium with a slab does lead to a systematically modified slip response, and such effects may bias studies of

  14. Determination of Bedrock Variations and S-wave Velocity Structure in the NW part of Turkey for Earthquake Hazard Mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozel, A. O.; Arslan, M. S.; Aksahin, B. B.; Genc, T.; Isseven, T.; Tuncer, M. K.

    2015-12-01

    Tekirdag region (NW Turkey) is quite close to the North Anatolian Fault which is capable of producing a large earthquake. Therefore, earthquake hazard mitigation studies are important for the urban areas close to the major faults. From this point of view, integration of different geophysical methods has important role for the study of seismic hazard problems including seismotectonic zoning. On the other hand, geological mapping and determining the subsurface structure, which is a key to assist management of new developed areas, conversion of current urban areas or assessment of urban geological hazards can be performed by integrated geophysical methods. This study has been performed in the frame of a national project, which is a complimentary project of the cooperative project between Turkey and Japan (JICA&JST), named as "Earthquake and Tsunami Disaster Mitigation in the Marmara Region and Disaster Education". With this principal aim, this study is focused on Tekirdag and its surrounding region (NW of Turkey) where some uncertainties in subsurface knowledge (maps of bedrock depth, thickness of quaternary sediments, basin geometry and seismic velocity structure,) need to be resolved. Several geophysical methods (microgravity, magnetic and single station and array microtremor measurements) are applied and the results are evaluated to characterize lithological changes in the region. Array microtremor measurements with several radiuses are taken in 30 locations and 1D-velocity structures of S-waves are determined by the inversion of phase velocities of surface waves, and the results of 1D structures are verified by theoretical Rayleigh wave modelling. Following the array measurements, single-station microtremor measurements are implemented at 75 locations to determine the predominant frequency distribution. The predominant frequencies in the region range from 0.5 Hz to 8 Hz in study area. On the other hand, microgravity and magnetic measurements are performed on

  15. Contact resistance measurement structures for high frequencies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roy, Deepu; Pijper, Ralf M.T.; Tiemeijer, Luuk F.; Wolters, Robertus A.M.

    2011-01-01

    Knowledge of the interfacial contact impedance offered by the device at its operating frequency range is crucial for accurate modelling and understanding of the device. In this article, a novel modified TLM test-structure has been devised to extract interfacial contact parameters at frequencies upto

  16. Evaluation of Dynamic Soil-Structure Interaction and Dynamic Seismic Soil Pressures Acting on It Subjected to Strong Earthquake Motions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    In order to clarify the damage mechanism of the subway structure, the dynamic soil-structure interaction and the dynamic forces acting on the structure, a series of shaking table tests and simulation analyses were performed. The seismic response of the structure and the dynamic forces acting on the structure due to sinusoidal and random waves were investigated with special attention to the dynamic soil-structure interaction. The result shows that the compression seismic soil pressures and extension seismic soil pressures simultaneously act on the sidewalls, and big shear stress also acts on the ceiling slab due to horizontal excitation. The seismic soil pressure could be approximated to hyperbola curve, and reached a peak value with increase of the shear strain of the model ground. In addition, a slide and exfoliation phenomenon between the structure and the surrounding ground was simulated, using the nonlinear analyses. The foundation is provided for amending the calculation method of seismic soil pressure and improving the anti-earthquake designing level of underground structure.

  17. Resist bias measured in Iso-focal structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jianliang; Wang, Chunqing; Kazarian, Aram; Yan, Qiliang; Melvin, Lawrence S., III

    2008-03-01

    In modern photolithography as the feature sizes reduce, the simulation of manufacturing process calls on more and more accurate grasp of various effects in the process. While the optical simulation is calculated precisely by both firstprinciple simulators and optical proximity correction (OPC) model simulator, an accurate and computational inexpensive resist model has yet to be developed. After the exposure, resist parameters change the resist part of the proximity effects by either moving the "optical image" or responding differently to varying image qualities. By inspecting the wafer data, one can only see the results after development, which is the mixture of optical and resist effects. To isolate the effect contributed by resist, it is necessary to separate the optical component and resist component. In this paper, a novel method is proposed to determine the resist bias from the iso-focal structure, the critical dimension (CD) of which was measured under different defocus conditions. The results extracted from experiments indicate that a constant CD bias can catch most of resist effect at the first order of approximation.

  18. Creating a Global Building Inventory for Earthquake Loss Assessment and Risk Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaiswal, Kishor; Wald, David J.

    2008-01-01

    contribution of building stock, its relative vulnerability, and distribution are vital components for determining the extent of casualties during an earthquake. It is evident from large deadly historical earthquakes that the distribution of vulnerable structures and their occupancy level during an earthquake control the severity of human losses. For example, though the number of strong earthquakes in California is comparable to that of Iran, the total earthquake-related casualties in California during the last 100 years are dramatically lower than the casualties from several individual Iranian earthquakes. The relatively low casualties count in California is attributed mainly to the fact that more than 90 percent of the building stock in California is made of wood and is designed to withstand moderate to large earthquakes (Kircher, Seligson and others, 2006). In contrast, the 80 percent adobe and or non-engineered masonry building stock with poor lateral load resisting systems in Iran succumbs even for moderate levels of ground shaking. Consequently, the heavy death toll for the 2003 Bam, Iran earthquake, which claimed 31,828 lives (Ghafory-Ashtiany and Mousavi, 2005), is directly attributable to such poorly resistant construction, and future events will produce comparable losses unless practices change. Similarly, multistory, precast-concrete framed buildings caused heavy casualties in the 1988 Spitak, Armenia earthquake (Bertero, 1989); weaker masonry and reinforced-concrete framed construction designed for gravity loads with soft first stories dominated losses in the Bhuj, India earthquake of 2001 (Madabhushi and Haigh, 2005); and adobe and weak masonry dwellings in Peru controlled the death toll in the Peru earthquake of 2007 (Taucer, J. and others, 2007). Spence (2007) after conducting a brief survey of most lethal earthquakes since 1960 found that building collapses remains a major cause of earthquake mortality and unreinforced masonry buildings are one of the mos

  19. Resistive interchange modes and plasma flow structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paccagnella, Roberto

    2011-10-01

    Interchange modes are ubiquitous in magnetic confinement systems and are likely to determine or influence their transport properties. For example a good agreement between theory predictions for linear interchange modes and experimental results has been found recently in a Reverse Field Pinch device. In this work a set of magneto-hydro-dynamic (MHD) equations that describe the dynamical evolution for the pressure driven interchange modes in a magnetic confinement system are studied. Global and local solutions relevant for tokamaks and Reversed Field Pinches (RFPs) configurations are considered. The emphasis is especially in the characterization of the plasma flow structures associated with the dominant modes.

  20. Shallow resistivity structure of Asama Volcano and its implications for magma ascent process in the 2004 eruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aizawa, Koki; Ogawa, Yasuo; Hashimoto, Takeshi; Koyama, Takao; Kanda, Wataru; Yamaya, Yusuke; Mishina, Masaaki; Kagiyama, Tsuneomi

    2008-06-01

    Asama volcano is an active volcano with many historical records of Vulcanian eruptions. Its most recent eruptions occurred in 2004 at the summit crater. In this paper, we argue the resistivity structure shallower than 3 km obtained by a dense magnetotelluric survey. The magnetotelluric data were obtained at 74 measurement sites mainly along the four survey lines across the volcano. The resistivity profiles obtained by two-dimensional inversions are characterized by a resistive surface layer and an underlying conductive layer. The dominant feature of the profiles is the existence of resistive bodies at a depth range of a few hundred meters to a few kilometers surrounded by a highly conductive region. Considering that the location of resistive bodies correspond to the old eruption centers (one corresponds to the 24 ka collapse caldera and the other to the 21 ka lava dome), the resistive bodies imply zones of old and solidified intrusive magma with low porosity. Because geothermal activities exist near the resistive bodies, the enclosing highly conductive regions are interpreted as a hydrothermal system driven by the heat from the old solidified magma. Beneath the resistive body under the collapsed caldera, intrusion of magma is inferred from the studies of volcano-tectonic earthquakes and continuous global positioning system (GPS) observation, implying the structural control of magma activity within the volcano. In this study, we propose that the magma ascent was impeded by the old and solidified remnant magma and partly migrated horizontally to the east and finally ascended to the summit, resulting in the 2004 eruptions.

  1. Upper crustal stress and seismotectonics of the Garhwal Himalaya using small-to-moderate earthquakes: Implications to the local structures and free fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasath, R. Arun; Paul, Ajay; Singh, Sandeep

    2017-03-01

    The work presents new focal-mechanism data of small-to-moderate (3.0 ⩾ ML ⩽ 5.0) upper crustal earthquakes for the Garhwal Himalaya from a local seismic network installed in July 2007. Majority of the epicenters of these earthquakes are located close to the Main Central Thrust (MCT) zone. We retrieved Moment Tensor (MT) solutions of 26 earthquakes by waveform inversion. The MT results and 11 small-to-moderate earthquakes from the published records are used for stress inversions. The MT solutions reveal dominatingly thrust mechanisms with few strike slip earthquakes near Chamoli. The seismic cross sections illustrate that, these earthquakes are located around the Mid-Crustal-Ramp (MCR) in the detachment. The optimally oriented faults from stress inversions suggest that, the seismogenic fault in this region is similar to a fault plane having dip angle between 12 and 25 degrees, which is compatible with the dip angle of the MCR (∼16°) in this region. P-axes and the maximum horizontal compressive stress are NE-SW oriented; the direction of the relative motion of Indian plate with respect to the Eurasian plate. The Friction Coefficient estimated from stress inversions show that the Chamoli region having low friction in comparison to the overall values. The free fluids trapped beneath the detachment are penetrating into the local faults, hence, decreasing the frictional strength and altering the prevailing stress conditions of the surroundings. The present study reveals that the MCR structure is seismogenically active and producing the small-moderate earthquakes in the region, while the MCT is probably dormant at present.

  2. Fluid-rock interactions in seismic faults : implications from the structures and mineralogical and geochemical compositions of drilling cores from the rupture of the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake, China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duan, Qingbao; Yang, Xiaosong; Ma, Shengli; Chen, J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/370819071; Chen, Jinyu

    2016-01-01

    We describe the structural features and mineralogical and geochemical compositions of the fault rocks recovered from boreholes at the Golden River site on the Yingxiu–Beichuan fault, which activated and slipped along a 240 km-long main surface rupture zone during the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake. The

  3. Fluid-rock interactions in seismic faults : implications from the structures and mineralogical and geochemical compositions of drilling cores from the rupture of the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake, China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duan, Qingbao; Yang, Xiaosong; Ma, Shengli; Chen, J.; Chen, Jinyu

    2016-01-01

    We describe the structural features and mineralogical and geochemical compositions of the fault rocks recovered from boreholes at the Golden River site on the Yingxiu–Beichuan fault, which activated and slipped along a 240 km-long main surface rupture zone during the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake. The fa

  4. Rupture process of the 2016 Kumamoto earthquake in relation to the thermal structure around Aso volcano

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yagi, Yuji; Okuwaki, Ryo; Enescu, Bogdan; Kasahara, Amato; Miyakawa, Ayumu; Otsubo, Makoto

    2016-07-01

    We constructed the rupture process model for the 2016 Kumamoto, Japan, earthquake from broadband teleseismic body waveforms (P-waves) by using a novel waveform inversion method that takes into account the uncertainty of Green's function. The estimated source parameters are: seismic moment = 5.1 × 1019 Nm (Mw = 7.1), fault length = 40 km, and fault width = 15 km. The mainshock rupture mainly propagated northeastward from the epicenter, for about 30 km, along an active strike-slip fault. The rupture propagation of the mainshock decelerated and terminated near the southwest side of the Aso volcano; the aftershock activity was low around the northeastern edge of the major slip area. Our results suggest that the rupture process of the mainshock and the distribution of aftershocks were influenced by the high-temperature area around the magma chamber of Mt. Aso.

  5. Modeling of Discontinuities in Resistance Structures due to Corrosion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Boboş

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The corrosion process is a process that produces significant negative effects on the resistance structures by reducing their section and by deterioration of mechanical properties of materials. In this paper are presented some notions about the corrosion process, types of corrosion encountered and types of geometric models that can be used for analytical calculation and for numerical simulation using finite element analysis programs, of the effects produced in the corrosion process on the natural frequency of the structure elements.

  6. Resistive switching characteristic of electrolyte-oxide-semiconductor structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaoyu; Wang, Hao; Sun, Gongchen; Ma, Xiaoyu; Gao, Jianguang; Wu, Wengang

    2017-08-01

    The resistive switching characteristic of SiO2 thin film in electrolyte-oxide-semiconductor (EOS) structures under certain bias voltage is reported. To analyze the mechanism of the resistive switching characteristic, a batch of EOS structures were fabricated under various conditions and their electrical properties were measured with a set of three-electrode systems. A theoretical model based on the formation and rupture of conductive filaments in the oxide layer is proposed to reveal the mechanism of the resistive switching characteristic, followed by an experimental investigation of Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) and secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) to verify the proposed theoretical model. It is found that different threshold voltage, reverse leakage current and slope value features of the switching I-V characteristic can be observed in different EOS structures with different electrolyte solutions as well as different SiO2 layers made by different fabrication processes or in different thicknesses. With a simple fabrication process and significant resistive switching characteristic, the EOS structures show great potential for chemical/biochemical applications. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 61274116) and the National Basic Research Program of China (No. 2015CB352100).

  7. Fracture Resistance, Surface Defects and Structural Strength of Glass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodichev, Y.M.; Veer, F.A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper poses the theory that the fracture resistance of basic float glass is dependent on it physicochemical properties and the surface defects fonned under the float glass production, glass processing and handling at the service conditions compose the aggregate basis for structural glass

  8. Thermal-Interaction Matrix For Resistive Test Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buehler, Martin G.; Dhiman, Jaipal K.; Zamani, Nasser

    1990-01-01

    Linear mathematical model predicts increase in temperature in each segment of 15-segment resistive structure used to test electromigration. Assumption of linearity based on fact: equations that govern flow of heat are linear and coefficients in equations (heat conductivities and capacities) depend only weakly on temperature and considered constant over limited range of temperature.

  9. Influence of soil–structure interaction on seismic collapse resistance of super-tall buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mengke Li

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Numerous field tests indicate that the soil–structure interaction (SSI has a significant impact on the dynamic characteristics of super-tall buildings, which may lead to unexpected structural seismic responses and/or failure. Taking the Shanghai Tower with a total height of 632 m as the research object, the substructure approach is used to simulate the SSI effect on the seismic responses of Shanghai Tower. The refined finite element (FE model of the superstructure of Shanghai Tower and the simplified analytical model of the foundation and adjacent soil are established. Subsequently, the collapse process of Shanghai Tower taking into account the SSI is predicted, as well as its final collapse mechanism. The influences of the SSI on the collapse resistance capacity and failure sequences are discussed. The results indicate that, when considering the SSI, the fundamental period of Shanghai Tower has been extended significantly, and the collapse margin ratio has been improved, with a corresponding decrease of the seismic demand. In addition, the SSI has some impact on the failure sequences of Shanghai Tower subjected to extreme earthquakes, but a negligible impact on the final failure modes.

  10. Blogs, social-networks and narrative strategies for resistance in the aftermath of L’Aquila’s earthquake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Giuliani

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available An earthquake, when it attacks a territory and its history, strikes the collectivememory of a population. The reconstruction that followed the earthquake ofL'Aquila contained elements that were equally problematic for the cohesion of thesocial and relational network, and therefore for mental health of stricken citizensand territories. Blogs, Facebook and online communication have been a possibilityfor the population (not only for the age group that usually makes use of digitaltechnologies to share informations, chronicles, narrations about the postearthquakeand to tell a story that was different from the sweetened one told bymedia.While trying a way to process loss and their own discomfort, many authors andbloggers became datum points for a community of readers thanks to their storiesand chronicles. In addition, for the active citizenry the virtual setting of the Webbecame a substitute to the physical agora that had been wiped out by the earthquakeand the dispersion of the community all over national territory. The experienceof L'Aquila, also recreated through conversations with bloggers and the observationof Facebook status updates, shows interesting elements in order to understandthe role of new media in everyday life and in an exceptional context suchas collective trauma.

  11. INVESTIGATION OF THERMAL BEHAVIOR OF MULTILAYERED FIRE RESISTANT STRUCTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. GUOBYS

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents experimental and numerical investigations of thermal behavior under real fire conditions of new generation multilayered fire resistant structure (fire door, dimensions H × W × D: 2090 × 980 × 52 mm combining high strength and fire safety. This fire door consists of two steel sheets (thickness 1.5 and 0.7 mm with stone wool ( = 33 kg/m3, k = 0.037 W/mK, E = 5000 N/m2,  = 0.2 insulating layer in between. One surface of the structure was heated in fire furnace for specified period of time of 60 min. Temperature and deformation of opposite surface were measured from outside at selected measuring points during fire resistance test. Results are presented as temperature-time and thermal deformation-time graphs. Experimental results were compared with numerical temperature field simulation results obtained from SolidWorks®Simulation software. Numerical results were found to be in good agreement with experimental data. The percent differences between door temperatures from simulation and fire resistance test don’t exceed 8%. This shows that thermal behaviour of such multilayered structures can be investigated numerically, thus avoiding costly and time-consuming fire resistance tests. It is established that investigated structure should be installed in a way that places thicker steel sheet closer to the potential heat source than thinner one. It is also obtained that stone wool layer of higher density should be used to improve fire resistance of the structure.

  12. Structural origin of resistance drift in amorphous GeTe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zipoli, Federico; Krebs, Daniel; Curioni, Alessandro

    2016-03-01

    We used atomistic simulations to study the origin of the change of resistance over time in the amorphous phase of GeTe, a prototypical phase-change material (PCM). Understanding the cause of resistance drift is one of the biggest challenges to improve multilevel storage technology. For this purpose, we generated amorphous structures via classical molecular-dynamics simulations under conditions as close as possible to the experimental operating ones of such memory devices. Moreover, we used the replica-exchange technique to generate structures comparable with those obtained in the experiment after long annealing that show an increase of resistance. This framework allowed us to overcome the main limitation of previous simulations, based on density-functional theory, that suffered from being computationally too expensive therefore limited to the nanosecond time scale. We found that resistance drift is caused by consumption of Ge atom clusters in which the coordination of at least one Ge atom differs from that of the crystalline phase and by removal of stretched bonds in the amorphous network, leading to a shift of the Fermi level towards the middle of the band gap. These results show that one route to design better memory devices based on current chalcogenide alloys is to reduce the resistance drift by increasing the rigidity of the amorphous network.

  13. Impact of the January-February 1980 earthquake sequence on various structures at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murray, R.C.; Nelson, T.A.; Coats, D.W.; Ng, D.S.; Weaver, H.J.

    1981-02-04

    On January 24, 1980, California's Livermore Valley was rocked by a moderate earthquake that caused some damage to the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The earthquake, which measured 5.5 on the Richter scale and was centered about 20 km (12 mi) northwest of the Laboratory, produced estimated peak horizontal ground acceleration at LLNL of between 0.15 and 0.3 g. The earthquake was part of a sequence that included two sharp aftershocks (magnitudes 5.2 and 4.2) within 1.5 minutes of the initial event. A second earthquake (magnitude 5.8) struck on January 26, and several lesser earthquakes occurred during the next few weeks. This paper describes the damage impact of the January 24 earthquake, including: background information on LLNL, discussion of pre-earthquake seismic safety philosophy, and description of the impact of the January 24 earthquake, including a description of the seismic setting of the Laboratory, a discussion of the ground motion, and a summary of damage. This paper also describes a data gathering and reduction effort at LLNL in the aftermath of the January earthquakes.

  14. The HayWired earthquake scenario—Earthquake hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detweiler, Shane T.; Wein, Anne M.

    2017-01-01

    The HayWired scenario is a hypothetical earthquake sequence that is being used to better understand hazards for the San Francisco Bay region during and after an earthquake of magnitude 7 on the Hayward Fault. The 2014 Working Group on California Earthquake Probabilities calculated that there is a 33-percent likelihood of a large (magnitude 6.7 or greater) earthquake occurring on the Hayward Fault within three decades. A large Hayward Fault earthquake will produce strong ground shaking, permanent displacement of the Earth’s surface, landslides, liquefaction (soils becoming liquid-like during shaking), and subsequent fault slip, known as afterslip, and earthquakes, known as aftershocks. The most recent large earthquake on the Hayward Fault occurred on October 21, 1868, and it ruptured the southern part of the fault. The 1868 magnitude-6.8 earthquake occurred when the San Francisco Bay region had far fewer people, buildings, and infrastructure (roads, communication lines, and utilities) than it does today, yet the strong ground shaking from the earthquake still caused significant building damage and loss of life. The next large Hayward Fault earthquake is anticipated to affect thousands of structures and disrupt the lives of millions of people. Earthquake risk in the San Francisco Bay region has been greatly reduced as a result of previous concerted efforts; for example, tens of billions of dollars of investment in strengthening infrastructure was motivated in large part by the 1989 magnitude 6.9 Loma Prieta earthquake. To build on efforts to reduce earthquake risk in the San Francisco Bay region, the HayWired earthquake scenario comprehensively examines the earthquake hazards to help provide the crucial scientific information that the San Francisco Bay region can use to prepare for the next large earthquake, The HayWired Earthquake Scenario—Earthquake Hazards volume describes the strong ground shaking modeled in the scenario and the hazardous movements of

  15. Investigations of deep resistivity structures at the Wairakei geothermal field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bibby, Hugh M.; Risk, George F.; Grant Caldwell, T.; Heise, Wiebke [GNS Science, P.O. Box 30368, Lower Hutt (New Zealand)

    2009-03-15

    The Wairakei geothermal field was the proving ground for the use of electrical resistivity methods for geothermal exploration. At this site it was first demonstrated that a large contrast in resistivity existed between geothermal ground and the cold surroundings. Within the top 500 m of the geothermal field, low-resistivity (5-10 {omega}m) reflects the effects of both the hot saline water in the pore spaces and the conductive rock-matrix. The first surveys at Wairakei used a Wenner array (a {proportional_to}550 m) to measure the resistivity values along tracks throughout the field; contour maps of the resistivities were used to estimate the lateral extent of the geothermal waters at a few hundred metres depth. In the late 1960s the Wenner array was superseded by the Schlumberger array (AB/2 = 500 m and 1000 m), which enabled deeper penetration and better definition of the extent of the geothermal waters. These early surveys showed that the bounds of the geothermal waters were often sharp, leading to the concept that a 'resistivity boundary' could be defined for New Zealand's liquid-dominated geothermal fields. As new methods of measuring electrical structure with greater precision became available, Wairakei was often chosen as the testing ground. In 1982, a deep penetrating tensor bipole-dipole survey was made over the northern part of the field to provide close-spaced data across the boundary, leading to a better definition of the boundary and its change with depth. A similar survey over the eastern edge of the field revealed a very sharp boundary with an apparent correlation between its location and a deeper caldera structure. The first application of tensor time-domain resistivity (tensor LOTEM) was made across the north-western edge of Wairakei in 1997 giving both a detailed image of the boundary and showing that it was possible to trace geological structures within the geothermal field. The most commonly used method for resistivity surveying in

  16. Comparison of the Structurally Controlled Landslides Numerical Model Results to the M 7.2 2013 Bohol Earthquake Co-seismic Landslides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macario Galang, Jan Albert; Narod Eco, Rodrigo; Mahar Francisco Lagmay, Alfredo

    2015-04-01

    The M 7.2 October 15, 2013 Bohol earthquake is the most destructive earthquake to hit the Philippines since 2012. The epicenter was located in Sagbayan municipality, central Bohol and was generated by a previously unmapped reverse fault called the "Inabanga Fault". Its name, taken after the barangay (village) where the fault is best exposed and was first seen. The earthquake resulted in 209 fatalities and over 57 billion USD worth of damages. The earthquake generated co-seismic landslides most of which were related to fault structures. Unlike rainfall induced landslides, the trigger for co-seismic landslides happen without warning. Preparedness against this type of landslide therefore, relies heavily on the identification of fracture-related unstable slopes. To mitigate the impacts of co-seismic landslide hazards, morpho-structural orientations or discontinuity sets were mapped in the field with the aid of a 2012 IFSAR Digital Terrain Model (DTM) with 5-meter pixel resolution and landslide inventory of 456 landslides. Out the total number of landslides identified from post-earthquake high-resolution imagery, 366 or 80% intersect the structural-controlled hazard areas of Bohol. The results show the potential of this method to identify co-seismic landslide hazard areas for disaster mitigation. Along with computer methods to simulate shallow landslides, and debris flow paths, located structurally-controlled unstable zones can be used to mark unsafe areas for settlement. The method can be further improved with the use of Lidar DTMs, which has better accuracy than the IFSAR DTM. A nationwide effort under DOST-Project NOAH (DREAM-LIDAR) is underway, to map the Philippine archipelago using Lidar.

  17. Comparison of the ELF-MT resistivity structure and the thermal structure in Takenoyu geothermal area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mogi, Toru; Ehara, Sachio; Yuhara, Kozo; Asoshina, Keishi; Fujimitsu, Yasuhiro

    1987-07-01

    Takenoyu goethermal area locates in the north-eastern part of Kumamoto Prefecture, extending at the western foot of Mt. Togai-san. Compression of specific resistance structure and thermal structure by means of ELF-MT method was made for the exploration of the geothermal areas. The results are as follows. (1) Distribution of apparent specific resistance well corresponds with the temperature distribution of the shallow zones and the distribution of the altered zone, but does not so much correspond to the temperature distribution of the deep zones. (2) ELF-MT method has only 300 m detectable depth for the low specific resistance zone with 5 ohm-cm. Its breadth into the deep zones is not known. (3) For the high specific resistance zone with 500 ohm-m, the detectable depth is as deep as 3 km. Low specific resistance layer does not exist where such a layer as above continues to the deep zone. (4) In the case when underground structure contains a low specific resistance layer in a high specific resistance layer, MT method excels in its detecting ability. It can often detect the low specific resistance layer even when the measuring frequency is wide. (10 figs, 4 refs)

  18. Late Pleistocene-Holocene earthquake-induced slumps and soft-sediment deformation structures in the Acequion River valley, Central Precordillera, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perucca Laura P

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Evidence of earthquake-induced liquefaction features in the Acequión river valley, central western Argentina, is analysed. Well-preserved soft-sediment deformation structures are present in Late Pleistocene deposits; they include two large slumps and several sand dikes, convolutions, pseudonodules, faults, dish structures and diapirs in the basal part of a shallow-lacustrine succession in the El Acequión River area. The water-saturated state of these sediments favoured deformation.

  19. 钢筋混凝土T形柱斜撑框架抗震性能试验研究%Experimental Study on Earthquake Resistant Behaviour of R. C. T-shaped Column Braced Frame

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晓轩; 严士超

    2001-01-01

    对1/2缩尺比例、单层单跨的3榀钢筋混凝土T形柱斜撑框架和1榀钢筋混凝土T形柱框架在低周反复水平荷载作用下进行了试验研究,分析了钢筋混凝土异形柱斜撑框架的承载力、刚度、延性、恢复力特性、耗能能力及破坏机制等。研究结果表明,钢筋混凝土T形柱斜撑框架结构具有良好的抗震性能。%Based on the experimental study of 3 R. C. T-shaped column bracedframe models and 1 R. C. T-shaped column frame model of 1/2 scale single storey and single span under low frequency cyclic and reversed lateral loads, the strength, stiff ness, ductility, restoring force characteristics, energy consumption ability as well as the failure mechanism of R. C. T-shaped column braced frame structure have been carried out. It was shown by the experimental results that the earthquake resistant behaviour of R. C. T-shaped olumn braced frame structure is satisfactory.

  20. The seismic wave speed structure of the Ontong Java Plateau determined from joint ambient noise and earthquake waveform data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covellone, B. M.; Savage, B. K.; Shen, Y.

    2014-12-01

    The Ontong Java Plateau (OJP) represents the result of a significant event in the Earth's geologic history. Limited geophysical and geochemical data, as well as the plateau's relative isolation in the Pacific Ocean, have made interpretation of the modern day geologic structure and its 120 Ma formation history difficult. Here we present the highest resolution images to date of the wave speed structure of the OJP region. We use an iterative finite-frequency tomography methodology and a unique data set that combines empirical Green's functions extracted from ambient noise and earthquake waveforms. The uniqueness and combination of datasets allow us to best exploit the limited station distribution in the Pacific and image wave speed structures between 35 km and greater than 250 km into the Earth. We image a region of fast shear wave speeds, greater than 4.75 km/s, that extends to greater than 100 km beneath the plateau. The wave speeds are similar to as observed in cratonic environments and are consistent with a compositional anomaly likely a result of eclogite entrainment during the plateau's formation.

  1. Effects of hanging wall and forward directivity in the 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake on inelastic displacement response of structures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Shuang; Xie Lili

    2007-01-01

    The characteristics of the inelastic response of structures affected by hanging wall and forward directivity in the 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake are investigated. Inelastic displacement ratios (IDRs) for ground motions impacted by these nearfield effects are evaluated and comprehensively compared to far-field ground motions. In addition, the inelastic displacement responses to hanging wall and footwall ground motions are compared. It is concluded that the inelastic displacement response is significantly affected in the short period range by hanging wall and in the long period range by footwall. Although high peak ground acceleration was observed at hanging wall stations, the IDRs for structures on hanging wall sites are only larger than footwall sites in the very long period range. Forward directivity effects result in larger IDRs for periods longer than about 0.5s. Adopting statistical relationships for IDRs established using far-field ground motions may lead to either overestimation or underestimation in the seismic evaluation of existing structures located in near-field regions, depending on their fundamental vibration periods.

  2. The characteristic of the earthquake damage in Kyoto during the historical period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiyama, Akihito

    2017-04-01

    The Kyoto city is located in the northern part of the Kyoto basin, central Japan and has a history of more than 1200 years. Kyoto has long been populated area with many buildings, and the center of politics, economics and culture of Japan. Due to historical large earthquakes, the Kyoto city was severely damaged such as collapses of buildings and human casualties. In the historical period, the Kyoto city has experienced six damaging large earthquake of 976, 1185, 1449, 1596, 1662 and 1830. Among them, Kyoto has experienced three damaging large earthquakes from the end of the 16th century to the middle of the 19th century, when the urban area was being expanded. All of these earthquakes are considered to be not the earthquakes in the Kyoto basin but inland earthquakes occurred in the surrounding area. The earthquake damage in Kyoto during the historical period is strongly controlled by ground conditions and earthquakes resistance of buildings rather than distance from the estimated source fault. To better estimate seismic intensity based on building damage, it is necessary to consider the state of buildings (e.g., elapsed years since established, histories of repairs and/or reinforcements, building structures) as well as the strength of ground shakings. By considering the strength of buildings at the time of an earthquake occurrence, the seismic intensity distribution due to historical large earthquakes can be estimated with higher reliability than before. The estimated seismic intensity distribution map for such historical earthquakes can be utilized for developing the strong ground motion prediction in the Kyoto basin.

  3. Macroscopic Fault Structure of the 1911 Mw8.1 Chon Kemin Earthquake (Tien Shan, Kyrgyzstan) from Combined Seismic Imaging, Palaeo-Seismological Investigations and Historial Seismicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haberland, C. A.; Sonnemann, T.; Landgraf, A.; Ryberg, T.; Kulikova, G.; Krueger, F.; Dzhumabaeva, A.; Abdrakhmatov, K.; Abdybachaev, U.; Orunbaev, S.; Rosenwinkel, S.; Sharshebaev, A.

    2014-12-01

    Earthquakes in low-strain regions and their driving forces are still sparsely studied and understood, and constitute serious first-order research questions. Data acquisition concerning paleo-earthquakes, related hazards, and tectonic activity beyond historical records plays an important role. Such information can be obtained with tools from tectonic geomorphology, geophysics, historic seismicity, and paleo-seismology that should span a variety of time and length scales. The Chon-Kemin Valley in the northern Tien Shan (Kyrgyzstan) is a small, intermontane basin of unknown origin framed by a network of active faults. In the year 1911, the Chon-Kemin earthquake (Mw=8.1) activated fault structures of about 200 km length which also ruptured the surface along the Chon-Kemin Valley and caused numerous landslides and rock avalanches of up to several tens of millions of cubic meters in volume. The Chon-Kemin earthquake was one of a series of strong seismic events that affected the northern Tien Shan between 1885 and 1938. A seismic survey across the Chon-Kemin Valley was conducted to investigate the subsurface velocity structure of the valley and its surrounding faults. Tomographic inversion techniques were applied to first-arrival traveltimes of refracted P waves, and the seismic data were screened for reflection signatures. Additionally, the region was analyzed through paleo-seismological trenching. Tomographic and reflection images identified a shallow basin structure bounded by a set of thrust faults in the south only which - in part - correlate with the surface trace of the rupture. The deformation seems to be distributed in time and space across several sub-parallel fault strands. Synthesis of historical (analog) recordings of this earthquake provide new insights into the source mechanisms and processes.

  4. Health Monitoring of TPS Structures by Measuring Their Electrical Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preci, Arianit; Herdrich, Georg; Steinbeck, Andreas; Auweter-Kurtz, Monika

    Health Monitoring in aerospace applications becomes an emerging technology leading to the development of systems capable of continuously monitoring structures for damage with minimal human intervention. A promising sensing method to be applied on hot structures and thermal protection systems is the electrical resistance measurement technique, which is barely investigated up to now. This method benefits from the advantageous characteristics of self-monitoring materials, such as carbon fiber-reinforced materials. By measuring the variation of the electrical resistance of these materials information on possibly present mechanical damage can be derived. In order to set up a database on electric properties of relevant materials under relevant conditions and to perform a proof-of-concept for this health monitoring method a facility has been laid out, which allows for the measurement of the electrical resistance of thermal protection system relevant materials at temperatures up to 2000°C. First preliminary measurements of the surface resistance of a graphite sample have been performed and are presented. It has been proven necessary to make some modifications to the setup. Therefore, the remaining measurements with graphite and C/C-SiC samples are subject of further investigation which will be performed in the future.

  5. Damage evolution process of frame structure in earthquake%框架结构地震损伤演化过程数值分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周娜; 刘海卿

    2011-01-01

    In order to better study the damage evolution mechanism of reinforced concrete frame structure in earthquake, the two-parameter seismic damage factor model, which is based on deformation and dissipation, was improved using the theoretical analysis method in this study. Using the three-level earthquake-resistant design damage index based on the importance of structure as the collapse criteria for evaluation, the numerical simulation on the collapse of reinforced concrete of a three-tier frame structure was conducted with nonlinear dynamic finite element method. In addition, the dynamic response and damage index of each time step was calculated. The entire collapse process was quantitatively modeled. The result shows that the improved damage index calculation model can calculate both the maximum damage index and the structure damage index quantitatively and continuously, and describe the process of collapse damage of entire structure. Using a single item upper cross-structure as example enables to consider not only side column damage, but also stele damage, which is in confirm with the actual damage process.%为了更好地研究钢筋混凝土框架结构在地震作用下的损伤演化规律,采用理论分析的方法,改进了以往的基于变形及耗能的双参数损伤指数模型,应用按结构的重要程度所提出的“三水准”抗震设计地震损伤指标作为倒塌评定准则;采用非线性动力有限元法,模拟分析了某三层钢筋混凝土框架结构在地震作用下的倒塌破坏过程,计算了主要构件和整体结构的地震损伤指数,定量的描述了结构的整个倒塌破坏过程。结果表明:改进后的损伤指数计算模型既能够计算最大损伤指数,又能定量连续化计算结构损伤指数,描述结构的整个倒塌破坏过程。采用的单榀双跨结构为研究对象,不仅考虑了边柱而且考虑了中柱损伤,与实际结构破坏过程相符。

  6. Bacterial spore structures and their protective role in biocide resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leggett, M J; McDonnell, G; Denyer, S P; Setlow, P; Maillard, J-Y

    2012-09-01

    The structure and chemical composition of bacterial spores differ considerably from those of vegetative cells. These differences largely account for the unique resistance properties of the spore to environmental stresses, including disinfectants and sterilants, resulting in the emergence of spore-forming bacteria such as Clostridium difficile as major hospital pathogens. Although there has been considerable work investigating the mechanisms of action of many sporicidal biocides against Bacillus subtilis spores, there is far less information available for other species and particularly for various Clostridia. This paucity of information represents a major gap in our knowledge given the importance of Clostridia as human pathogens. This review considers the main spore structures, highlighting their relevance to spore resistance properties and detailing their chemical composition, with a particular emphasis on the differences between various spore formers. Such information will be vital for the rational design and development of novel sporicidal chemistries with enhanced activity in the future.

  7. ROLE OF UNDERGROUND STRUCTURE DEFORMATION VELOCITY IN THE ANALYSIS OF BLAST-RESISTANT STRUCTURES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵晓兵; 方秦

    2002-01-01

    The structural deformation velocity plays a significant role in the dynamic calculation of underground blast-resistant structures. The motion differentiating equation of a structure system taking into account the role of deformation velocity of the structure will truthfully describe the actual situation of structural vibration. With the one-dimensional plane wave theory, the expression of load on the structural periphery is developed, and the generalized variation principle for the dynamic analysis of underground arched-bar structures is given. At the same time, the results of the numerical calculation are compared.

  8. Deep structure of Eastern part of Bandung Basin based on 2D resistivity structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harja, Asep

    2013-09-01

    Bandung basin is an intramontane basin located in West Java, extending from west to east along 35 km and north to south along 15 km distance, with elevation of 660-680 m. The plain in the eastern part is the basin center with lake deposit as primary sediment filling the basin. Investigation of the subsurface structure and thickness of the basin is the main topic in this research. Beside the deeper structure of the basin, the shallow structure is also very important to be revealed since human activities are concentrated in this part. The latter is supposed to explain phenomenon related to the flood and drought that frequently occur in the area. Controlled-source audio-frequency magneto telluric (CSAMT) is a highly effective electromagnetic (EM) method to deploy in this area. Its robustness toward electromagnetic noises related to human and industrial activities particularly in the eastern part of the basin is the strong point of this method. It uses a grounded horizontal electric dipole as artificial source of electromagnetic signal that ensures data with a high signal to noise (S/N) ratio. This method is capable to map subsurface resistivity structure with high sensitivity to resistivity contras and deeper penetration. 1D inversion scheme was used to the far-field component of CSAMT data (plane wave assumption) in order to obtain resistivity cross-sections that are more suitable with the basin's structure complexity. The results show that until the depth of more than 200 m, no high resistivity structure is found. This unlikely indicated the presence of volcanic rocks beneath the area. The subsurface resistivity distribution is dominated by tens of Om, indicating that the basement comprises deep marine sediment. In addition, clay lens are also indicated in the resulting resistivity structure. Based on 2D view of resistivity cross-sections based 1D inverted and 2D inversion, it is found that a low resistivity elongation extends in southeast-northwest direction at

  9. 2D Modelling of the Gorkha earthquake through the joint exploitation of Sentinel 1-A DInSAR measurements and geological, structural and seismological information

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Novellis, Vincenzo; Castaldo, Raffaele; Solaro, Giuseppe; De Luca, Claudio; Pepe, Susi; Bonano, Manuela; Casu, Francesco; Zinno, Ivana; Manunta, Michele; Lanari, Riccardo; Tizzani, Pietro

    2016-04-01

    A Mw 7.8 earthquake struck Nepal on 25 April 2015 at 06:11:26 UTC, killing more than 9,000 people, injuring more than 23,000 and producing extensive damages. The main seismic event, known as the Gorkha earthquake, had its epicenter localized at ~82 km NW of the Kathmandu city and the hypocenter at a depth of approximately 15 km. After the main shock event, about 100 aftershocks occurred during the following months, propagating toward the south-east direction; in particular, the most energetic shocks were the Mw 6.7 and Mw 7.3 occurred on 26 April and 12 May, respectively. In this study, we model the causative fault of the earthquake by jointly exploiting surface deformation retrieved by the DInSAR measurements collected through the Sentinel 1-A (S1A) space-borne sensor and the available geological, structural and seismological information. We first exploit the analytical solution performing a back-analysis of the ground deformation detected by the first co-seismic S1A interferogram, computed by exploiting the 17/04/2015 and 29/04/2015 SAR acquisitions and encompassing the main earthquake and some aftershocks, to search for the location and geometry of the fault plane. Starting from these findings and by benefiting from the available geological, structural and seismological data, we carry out a Finite Element (FE)-based 2D modelling of the causative fault, in order to evaluate the impact of the geological structures activated during the seismic event on the distribution of the ground deformation field. The obtained results show that the causative fault has a rather complex compressive structure, dipping northward, formed by segments with different dip angles: 6° the deep segment and 60° the shallower one. Therefore, although the hypocenters of the main shock and most of the more energetic aftershocks are located along the deeper plane, corresponding to a segment of the Main Himalayan Thrust (MHT), the FE solution also indicates the contribution of the shallower

  10. Soft-sediment deformation structures related to volcanic earthquakes of the Lower Cretaceous Qingshan Group in Lingshan Island, Shandong Province, East China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao-Qi Zhou

    2017-04-01

    The SSDS types in the Qingshan Group includes load and flame structure, ball and pillow structure, water-escape structure, hydroplastic deformation structure, plastic sandstone breccia structure, volcanic drop stone and V-shaped ground fissure mainly caused by volcanic earthquakes of three types: (1 seismic waves, (2 gravity and inertia effect of pyroclastic flows, (3 instant differential air pressure; which is different from slumping and tectonic earthquakes occurred in the Laiyang Group. In addition, with the lithofacies association analysis between pyroclastic flow and SSDS beds, a distribution model of SSDS related to volcanic earthquakes can be established: SSDS types changed gradually with their distance further away from the volcanic activity core. Brittle deformation which was common in the proximal zone disappeared gradually; liquefied and plastic SSDS continued to dominate in the medial zone; and slightly liquefied SSDS were developed in the distal zone. Meanwhile, the scale and size of SSDS is negatively correlated with the distance of SSDS depositional locations from the volcanic vent.

  11. Structural abnormalities of small resistance arteries in essential hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzoni, Damiano; Agabiti-Rosei, Enrico

    2012-06-01

    Regardless of the mechanisms that initiate the increase in blood pressure, the development of structural changes in the systemic vasculature is the end result of established hypertension. In essential hypertension, the small arteries smooth muscle cells are restructured around a smaller lumen, and there is no net growth of the vascular wall, while in some secondary forms of hypertension, a hypertrophic remodeling may be detected. Also, in non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, a hypertrophic remodeling of subcutaneous small arteries is present. The results from our own group have suggested that indices of small resistance artery structure, such as the tunica media to internal lumen ratio, may have a strong prognostic significance in hypertensive patients, over and above all other known cardiovascular risk factors. Therefore, the regression of vascular alterations is an appealing goal of antihypertensive treatment. Different antihypertensive drugs seem to have different effect on vascular structure, both in human and in animal models of genetic and experimental hypertension. A complete normalization of small resistance artery structure is demonstrated in hypertensive patients, after long-term and effective therapy with ACE inhibitors, angiotensin II receptor blockers and calcium antagonists. Few data are available in diabetic hypertensive patients; however, blockade of the renin-angiotensin system seems to be effective in this regard. In conclusion, there are several pieces of evidence that suggest that small resistance artery structure may be considered an intermediate endpoint in the evaluation of the effects of antihypertensive therapy; however, there are presently no data available about the prognostic impact of the regression of vascular structural alterations in hypertension and diabetes.

  12. Structural alterations in small resistance arteries in obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzoni, Damiano; De Ciuceis, Carolina; Porteri, Enzo; Semeraro, Francesco; Rosei, Enrico Agabiti

    2012-01-01

    In cardiovascular and metabolic diseases, small resistance arteries may show the presence of structural alterations. In particular, in essential hypertension, an increased media-to-lumen ratio of subcutaneous small arteries with no change in the total amount of vascular wall tissue (eutrophic remodelling) has already been described several years ago. Similar alterations have been demonstrated also in patients with diabetes mellitus and obesity; in this case, however, a more evident contribution of vascular smooth muscle cell growth (hypertrophic remodelling) is present. This review addresses the effects of obesity on small resistance artery structure. Similar to diabetic patients, obese patients show an increased media-to-lumen ratio of subcutaneous small arteries, which appears associated with hypertrophic remodelling, as demonstrated by an increase in media cross-sectional area. Endothelial dysfunction evaluated as vasodilator response to acetylcholine has also been observed. Several studies have shown that increased media-to-lumen ratio of subcutaneous small resistance arteries possesses a prognostic significance in relation to cardiovascular outcome. Appropriate antihypertensive treatment may improve microvascular alterations both in essential hypertension and in type 2 diabetes mellitus. In obesity, a pronounced weight loss may improve microvascular structure. However, further studies are needed to elucidate the effects of other pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions in obesity. © 2011 The Authors. Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology © 2011 Nordic Pharmacological Society.

  13. Crust and upper mantle structure beneath the Pacific Northwest from joint inversions of ambient noise and earthquake data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Lara S.; Fouch, Matthew J.; James, David E.; Hanson-Hedgecock, Sara

    2012-12-01

    We perform a joint inversion of phase velocities from both earthquake and ambient noise induced Rayleigh waves to determine shear wave velocity structure in the crust and upper mantle beneath the Pacific Northwest. We focus particularly on the areas affected by mid-Miocene to present volcanic activity. The joint inversion, combined with the high density seismic network of the High Lava Plains seismic experiment and data from the EarthScope Transportable Array, provides outstanding resolution for this area. In Oregon, we find that the pattern of low velocities in the crust and uppermost mantle varies between the High Lava Plains physiographic province and the adjacent northwestern Basin and Range. These patterns may be due to the presence of the Brothers Fault Zone which separates the clockwise rotating northwest Basin and Range from the relatively undeformed areas further north. Further to the east, the Owyhee Plateau, Snake River Plain (SRP) and northeastern Basin and Range are characterized by high crustal velocities, though the depth extent of these fast wave speeds varies by province. Of particular interest is the mid-crustal high velocity sill, previously only identified within the SRP. We show this anomaly extends significantly further south into Utah and Nevada. We suggest that one possible explanation is lateral crustal extrusion due to the emplacement of the high density mafic mid-crustal sill structures within the SRP.

  14. INVESTIGATION OF THERMAL BEHAVIOR OF MULTILAYERED FIRE RESISTANT STRUCTURE

    OpenAIRE

    R. GUOBYS; V. Vekteris; V. MOKSHIN

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents experimental and numerical investigations of thermal behavior under real fire conditions of new generation multilayered fire resistant structure (fire door, dimensions H × W × D: 2090 × 980 × 52 mm) combining high strength and fire safety. This fire door consists of two steel sheets (thickness 1.5 and 0.7 mm) with stone wool ( = 33 kg/m3, k = 0.037 W/mK, E = 5000 N/m2,  = 0.2) insulating layer in between. One surface of the structure was heated in fire furnace for spe...

  15. Crustal magma pathway beneath Aso caldera inferred from three-dimensional electrical resistivity structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hata, Maki; Takakura, Shinichi; Matsushima, Nobuo; Hashimoto, Takeshi; Utsugi, Mitsuru

    2016-10-01

    At Naka-dake cone, Aso caldera, Japan, volcanic activity is raised cyclically, an example of which was a phreatomagmatic eruption in September 2015. Using a three-dimensional model of electrical resistivity, we identify a magma pathway from a series of northward dipping conductive anomalies in the upper crust beneath the caldera. Our resistivity model was created from magnetotelluric measurements conducted in November-December 2015; thus, it provides the latest information about magma reservoir geometry beneath the caldera. The center of the conductive anomalies shifts from the north of Naka-dake at depths >10 km toward Naka-dake, along with a decrease in anomaly depths. The melt fraction is estimated at 13-15% at 2 km depth. Moreover, these anomalies are spatially correlated with the locations of earthquake clusters, which are distributed within resistive blocks on the conductive anomalies in the northwest of Naka-dake but distributed at the resistive sides of resistivity boundaries in the northeast.

  16. Earthquake impact scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wald, D.J.; Jaiswal, K.S.; Marano, K.D.; Bausch, D.

    2011-01-01

    With the advent of the USGS prompt assessment of global earthquakes for response (PAGER) system, which rapidly assesses earthquake impacts, U.S. and international earthquake responders are reconsidering their automatic alert and activation levels and response procedures. To help facilitate rapid and appropriate earthquake response, an Earthquake Impact Scale (EIS) is proposed on the basis of two complementary criteria. On the basis of the estimated cost of damage, one is most suitable for domestic events; the other, on the basis of estimated ranges of fatalities, is generally more appropriate for global events, particularly in developing countries. Simple thresholds, derived from the systematic analysis of past earthquake impact and associated response levels, are quite effective in communicating predicted impact and response needed after an event through alerts of green (little or no impact), yellow (regional impact and response), orange (national-scale impact and response), and red (international response). Corresponding fatality thresholds for yellow, orange, and red alert levels are 1, 100, and 1,000, respectively. For damage impact, yellow, orange, and red thresholds are triggered by estimated losses reaching $1M, $100M, and $1B, respectively. The rationale for a dual approach to earthquake alerting stems from the recognition that relatively high fatalities, injuries, and homelessness predominate in countries in which local building practices typically lend themselves to high collapse and casualty rates, and these impacts lend to prioritization for international response. In contrast, financial and overall societal impacts often trigger the level of response in regions or countries in which prevalent earthquake resistant construction practices greatly reduce building collapse and resulting fatalities. Any newly devised alert, whether economic- or casualty-based, should be intuitive and consistent with established lexicons and procedures. Useful alerts should

  17. Wind-resistant studies on tall buildings and structures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    This paper introduces some aspects of wind-resistant studies of our research team on tall buildings and structures. Wind tunnel tests were carried out on 27 typical tall building models by using wind pressure scanning and HFFB techniques. The characteristics of wind pressures and forces acting on these buildings were analyzed. Some results have been adopted in a Shanghai code for structural design of steel tall buildings. Interference effects on wind forces and wind pressures among two and three tall buildings were experimentally investigated with about 10000 testing conditions. Regression analyses of the interference factors under different parameter conditions were made and the main regression formulas are presented. Theoretical study on equivalent static wind loads of tall buildings and structures are then introduced. Especially,a new concept of "mode coupling factor" and a modified SRSS method for wind response and equivalent static wind load of complicated tall buildings and structures with consideration of multi mode contributions and their coupling effects are presented. Finally,practical applications of wind-resistant studies on tall building and structures,taking the Guangzhou New TV Tower as an example,are presented.

  18. Rupture mechanism and seismotectonics of the Ms6.5 Ludian earthquake inferred from three-dimensional magnetotelluric imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Juntao; Chen, Xiaobin; Xu, Xiwei; Tang, Ji; Wang, Lifeng; Guo, Chunling; Han, Bing; Dong, Zeyi

    2017-02-01

    A three-dimensional (3-D) resistivity model around the 2014 Ms6.5 Ludian earthquake was obtained. The model shows that the aftershocks were mainly distributed in a shallow inverse L-shaped conductive angular region surrounded by resistive structures. The presences of this shallow conductive zone may be the key factor leading to the severe damage and surface rupture of the Ludian earthquake. A northwest trending local resistive belt along the Baogunao-Xiaohe fault interrupts the northeast trending conductive zone at the Zhaotong-Lianfeng fault zone in the middle crust, which may be the seismogenic structure of the main shock. Based on the 3-D electrical model, combining with GPS, thermal structure, and seismic survey results, a geodynamic model is proposed to interpret the seismotectonics, deep seismogenic background, and deformation characterized by a sinistral strike slip with a tensile component of the Ludian earthquake.

  19. Analysis and design for inelastic structural response of extended pile shaft foundations in laterally spreading ground during earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosravifar, Arash

    Experiences from past earthquakes have shown that lateral spreading associated with liquefaction of cohesionless soils can be a cause of severe damage to bridge foundations. Large diameter extended pile shafts can be an effective bridge foundation choice for areas subjected to lateral spreading because they offer greater stiffness and strength relative to the magnitude of lateral spreading loads that can develop against them. A limited degree of plastic hinging below the ground surface may be allowable in design of extended pile shafts. Issues for design for extended pile shafts include: (a) how to estimate the demands due to superstructure inertia and lateral spreading in liquefied soils, and (b) how to combine these two loads in estimating the local and global inelastic demands on the structure. Studies of the response of pile foundations and pile-supported structures in liquefiable soils using physical models, numerical models, and case studies have provided the basis for a number of design recommendations. The guidance is, however, quite varied regarding how lateral spreading and superstructure inertial loads should be combined in design. To answer the above questions a series of Nonlinear Dynamic Finite Element Analyses (NDA) have been performed to investigate inelastic response of extended pile shafts subjected to liquefaction-induced lateral spreading, covering a range of soil, pile, and ground motion conditions. The results of NDA were first used to show that combined effects of lateral spreading and superstructure inertia produce larger demands than are produced by either loading case alone, such that the combined demand cannot be enveloped by analyzing the two load cases separately. The results were then used to evaluate current equivalent static analysis (ESA) method (Caltrans, 2008), with the relatively poor agreement illustrating the limitations of methods that do not combine the two loads. The results of NDA parametric study were then used to develop

  20. Tomography S Velocity Structure between Washington’s Earthquake C022801l and Observational Station Tuc through Seismogram Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bagus Jaya Santosa

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available In this research the S speed structure is investigated by seismogram analysis of Washington's earthquake, C022801L using data of TUC station, Tucson, Arizona, U.S.A. The seismogram comparison between the observed and the synthetic seismogram is conducted in time domain and three components simultaneously. The initially input for the calculation of synthetic seismogram is earth model of PREMAN and CMT solution from the earthquake. A low-pass Butterworth filter with corner frequency of 20 mHz is convolved to observed and synthetic seismogram. Waveform comparison shows a real deviation when travel time and waveform of some wave phase are compared, namely on S wave, surface wave of Love and Rayleigh and wave ScS and ScS-2. This research shows, how sensitive the waveform is to the earth model, better than the method of travel time or the dispersion analysis. Research hereinafter is addressed to finish the found discrepancies at S wave, surface wave of Love and Rayleigh and ScS and ScS-2 wave, in observation station TUC. To obtain the seismogram fitting, correction for S speed structure in earth model is needed, that are changes of earth crust thickness, the speed model of β in upper mantle covering the speed gradient of βh and value of zeroeth order coefficient for the βh and βv, for accomplishing the discrepancies at surface wave of Love and Rayleigh. Further correction on S speed is conducted to accomplish the deviation at S wave at earth layering systems from Upper Mantle up to a 630 km depth. Mean while for the ScS and ScS-2 wave phase the correction is carried out on S speed in the earth layers up to CMB. Fitting Seismogram is obtained at waveform of various wave phases that is S wave, surface wave of Love and Rayleigh and ScS, ScS-2 wave, either on travel time or especially also at oscillation number in Love wave. This result indicates that the anisotropy is occurred not only in upper mantle but till deeper earth layers, till CMB.

  1. Structural basis of protein oxidation resistance: a lysozyme study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marion Girod

    Full Text Available Accumulation of oxidative damage in proteins correlates with aging since it can cause irreversible and progressive degeneration of almost all cellular functions. Apparently, native protein structures have evolved intrinsic resistance to oxidation since perfectly folded proteins are, by large most robust. Here we explore the structural basis of protein resistance to radiation-induced oxidation using chicken egg white lysozyme in the native and misfolded form. We study the differential resistance to oxidative damage of six different parts of native and misfolded lysozyme by a targeted tandem/mass spectrometry approach of its tryptic fragments. The decay of the amount of each lysozyme fragment with increasing radiation dose is found to be a two steps process, characterized by a double exponential evolution of their amounts: the first one can be largely attributed to oxidation of specific amino acids, while the second one corresponds to further degradation of the protein. By correlating these results to the structural parameters computed from molecular dynamics (MD simulations, we find the protein parts with increased root-mean-square deviation (RMSD to be more susceptible to modifications. In addition, involvement of amino acid side-chains in hydrogen bonds has a protective effect against oxidation Increased exposure to solvent of individual amino acid side chains correlates with high susceptibility to oxidative and other modifications like side chain fragmentation. Generally, while none of the structural parameters alone can account for the fate of peptides during radiation, together they provide an insight into the relationship between protein structure and susceptibility to oxidation.

  2. Crustal Velocity Structure of the Rio Grande Rift and Rocky Mountains from Local Earthquakes and Blasts Recorded by USArray and CREST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakai, J.; Sheehan, A. F.; Bilek, S. L.

    2015-12-01

    Arrival times from over 3,100 earthquakes and 2,800 mine blasts recorded at USArray Transportable Array (TA) and other regional broadband seismic stations are inverted to find the regional P and S velocity structure in Colorado and New Mexico. Knowledge of the crustal structure in Colorado will help inform to what extent this structure and composition influences the isostatic compensation of high topography in the region. The relationship between the Rio Grande rift and the surrounding physiographic provinces remains enigmatic, and neither the geology nor geophysical surveys have clearly resolved the rift in Colorado. Therefore, tomography may supply more information about velocity variations along the rift within the context of the Colorado Plateau, the Great Plains, and the Rocky Mountains. Thus far, applications with the TA data to resolve P wave crustal structure are rare due to distant station spacing and small magnitude and shallow (mid to upper crustal) local earthquakes. The depths of the earthquakes range from 4 km to the mid-crust, so we expect dense ray coverage in the upper crust. In order to increase the number of crossing rays, we use mine blast P wave arrivals to constrain shallow surface structure. A total of 70,000 P wave arrivals and 18,000 S wave arrivals constitute the dataset. We develop a reliable 1D regional velocity model using 500 of the largest earthquakes with a fixed Vp/Vs ratio from the arrival data, then use this model as an input to investigate the feasibility of utilization of a 3D inversion algorithm. While use of a 3D inversion algorithm will be explored, construction of a series of 1D velocity and Vp/Vs models may prove to be more robust.

  3. A New On-Land Seismogenic Structure Source Database from the Taiwan Earthquake Model (TEM Project for Seismic Hazard Analysis of Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Bruce H. Shyu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Taiwan is located at an active plate boundary and prone to earthquake hazards. To evaluate the island’s seismic risk, the Taiwan Earthquake Model (TEM project, supported by the Ministry of Sciences and Technology, evaluates earthquake hazard, risk, and related social and economic impact models for Taiwan through multidisciplinary collaboration. One of the major tasks of TEM is to construct a complete and updated seismogenic structure database for Taiwan to assess future seismic hazards. Toward this end, we have combined information from pre-existing databases and data obtained from new analyses to build an updated and digitized three-dimensional seismogenic structure map for Taiwan. Thirty-eight on-land active seismogenic structures are identified. For detailed information of individual structures such as their long-term slip rates and potential recurrence intervals, we collected data from existing publications, as well as calculated from results of our own field surveys and investigations. We hope this updated database would become a significant constraint for seismic hazard assessment calculations in Taiwan, and would provide important information for engineers and hazard mitigation agencies.

  4. Recorded motions of the 6 April 2009 Mw 6.3 L'Aquila, Italy, earthquake and implications for building structural damage: Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celebi, M.; Bazzurro, P.; Chiaraluce, L.; Clemente, P.; Decanini, L.; Desortis, A.; Ellsworth, W.; Gorini, A.; Kalkan, E.; Marcucci, S.; Milana, G.; Mollaioli, F.; Olivieri, M.; Paolucci, R.; Rinaldis, D.; Rovelli, A.; Sabetta, F.; Stephens, C.

    2010-01-01

    The normal-faulting earthquake of 6 April 2009 in the Abruzzo Region of central Italy caused heavy losses of life and substantial damage to centuriesold buildings of significant cultural importance and to modern reinforcedconcrete- framed buildings with hollow masonry infill walls. Although structural deficiencies were significant and widespread, the study of the characteristics of strong motion data from the heavily affected area indicated that the short duration of strong shaking may have spared many more damaged buildings from collapsing. It is recognized that, with this caveat of shortduration shaking, the infill walls may have played a very important role in preventing further deterioration or collapse of many buildings. It is concluded that better new or retrofit construction practices that include reinforcedconcrete shear walls may prove helpful in reducing risks in such seismic areas of Italy, other Mediterranean countries, and even in United States, where there are large inventories of deficient structures. ?? 2010, Earthquake Engineering Research Institute.

  5. Structural basis of HIV-1 resistance to AZT by excision

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tu, Xiongying; Das, Kalyan; Han, Qianwei; Bauman, Joseph D.; Clark, Jr., Arthur D.; Hou, Xiaorong; Frenkel, Yulia V.; Gaffney, Barbara L.; Jones, Roger A.; Boyer, Paul L.; Hughes, Stephen H.; Sarafianos, Stefan G.; Arnold, Eddy (Rutgers); (Clark); (NCI)

    2011-11-23

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) develops resistance to 3'-azido-2',3'-deoxythymidine (AZT, zidovudine) by acquiring mutations in reverse transcriptase that enhance the ATP-mediated excision of AZT monophosphate from the 3' end of the primer. The excision reaction occurs at the dNTP-binding site, uses ATP as a pyrophosphate donor, unblocks the primer terminus and allows reverse transcriptase to continue viral DNA synthesis. The excision product is AZT adenosine dinucleoside tetraphosphate (AZTppppA). We determined five crystal structures: wild-type reverse transcriptase-double-stranded DNA (RT-dsDNA)-AZTppppA; AZT-resistant (AZTr; M41L D67N K70R T215Y K219Q) RT-dsDNA-AZTppppA; AZTr RT-dsDNA terminated with AZT at dNTP- and primer-binding sites; and AZTr apo reverse transcriptase. The AMP part of AZTppppA bound differently to wild-type and AZTr reverse transcriptases, whereas the AZT triphosphate part bound the two enzymes similarly. Thus, the resistance mutations create a high-affinity ATP-binding site. The structure of the site provides an opportunity to design inhibitors of AZT-monophosphate excision.

  6. Near-Surface Fault Structures of the Seulimuem Segment Based on Electrical Resistivity Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Nazli; Yanis, Muhammad; Idris, Syafrizal; Abdullah, Faisal; Hanafiah, Bukhari

    2017-05-01

    The Great Sumatran Fault (GSF) system is arc-parallel strike-slip fault system along the volcanic front related to the oblique subduction of the oceanic Indo-Australian plate. Large earthquakes along the southern GSF since 1892 have been reported, but the Seulimuem segment at the northernmost Sumatran has not produced large earthquakes in the past 100 years. The 200-km-long segment is considered to be a seismic gap. Detailed geological study of the fault and thus its surface trace locations, late Quaternary slip rate, and rupture history are urgently needed for earthquake disaster mitigation in the future. However, finding a suitable area for paleoseismic trenching is an obstacle when the fault traces are not clearly shown on the surface. We have conducted geoelectrical measurement in Lamtamot area of Aceh Besar District in order to locate the fault line for paleoseismic excavation. Apparent resistivity data were collected along 40 m profile parallel to the planned trenching site. The 2D electrical resistivity model provided evidence of some resistivity anomalies by high lateral contrast. This anomaly almost coincides with the topographic scarp which is modified by agriculture on the surface at the northern part of Lamtamot. The steep dipping electrical contrast may correspond to a fault. However, the model does not resolve well evidences from minor faults that can be related to the presence of surface ruptures. A near fault paleoseismic investigation requires trenching across the fault in order to detect and analyze the geological record of the past large earthquakes along the Seulimuem segment.

  7. Seismic Study of the Velocity Structure and Earthquake FocalMechanisms beneath the Krafla Central Volcano, NE Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martens, H. R.; Schuler, J.; Greenfield, T. S.; White, R. S.; Roecker, S. W.; Brandsdottir, B.; Stock, J. M.; Tarasewicz, J.; Pugh, D. J.

    2015-12-01

    We investigated the seismic velocity structure of the Krafla central volcano, NE Iceland, and its shallow geothermal fields. In our 3D tomographic inversions, we used passive seismic data recorded between 2009-2012 from a temporary local network as well as active seismic legacy data to constrain the velocity models. We find high P-wave velocities (Vp) underneath regions of elevated topographic relief as well as two low-Vp anomalies that coincide spatially with two attenuating bodies outlined from S-wave shadows during the Krafla rifting episode of 1974-1985. Within the Krafla geothermal reservoir, which is developed for energy production, we imaged a shallow low-Vp/Vs zone overlying a deeper high-Vp/Vs zone and interpreted them as steam- and brine-bearing formations, respectively. Previously undertaken borehole measurements support our findings. A prominent low-Vp/Vs anomaly underlies these zones at rock depths greater than 1.5 km, where a super-heated zone within felsic overlies rhyolitic within the geothermal melt. Calculations systems show that of the most earthquake focal events are mechanisms consistent double-couple source models with only a few clear non-shear source models.

  8. Three-dimensional seismic structure and moment tensors of non-double-couple earthquakes at the Hengill-Grensdalur volcanic complex, Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, A.D.; Julian, B.R.; Foulger, G.R.

    1998-01-01

    The volcanic and geothermal areas of Iceland are rich sources of non-double-couple (non-DC) earthquakes. A state-of-the-art digital seismometer network deployed at the Hengill-Grensdalur volcanic complex in 1991 recorded 4000 small earthquakes. We used the best recorded of these to determine 3-D VP and VP/VS structure tomographically and accurate earthquake moment tensors. The VP field is dominated by high seismic wave speed bodies interpreted as solidified intrusions. A widespread negative (-4 per cent) VP/VS anomaly in the upper 4 km correlates with the geothermal field, but is too strong to be caused solely by the effect of temperature upon liquid water or the presence of vapour, and requires in addition mineralogical or lithological differences between the geothermal reservoir and its surroundings. These may be caused by geothermal alteration. Well-constrained moment tensors were obtained for 70 of the best-recorded events by applying linear programming methods to P- and S-wave polarities and amplitude ratios. About 25 per cent of the mechanisms are, within observational error, consistent with DC mechanisms consistent with shear faulting. The other 75 per cent have significantly non-DC mechanisms. Many have substantial explosive components, one has a substantial implosive component, and the deviatoric component of many is strongly non-DC. Many of the non-DC mechanisms are consistent, within observational error, with simultaneous tensile and shear faulting. However, the mechanisms occupy a continuum in source-type parameter space and probably at least one additional source process is occurring. This may be fluid flow into newly formed cracks, causing partial compensation of the volumetric component. Studying non-shear earthquakes such as these has great potential for improving our understanding of geothermal processes and earthquake source processes in general.

  9. Improving Resistance of Masonry Structures to Tsunami Loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revanth, D.; Akshay, Baheti; Nayak, Sanket; Dutta, Sekhar Chandra

    2016-06-01

    The Asian tsunami of 26th December, 2004 took the lives of 2,20,000 people and devastated coastal structures, including many thousands of brick-built homes. Many economically backward people who have made their homes in non-engineered masonry lost their shelters. Though very high waves of tsunami cannot be resisted, waves comparable to the height of the masonry structures can be tolerated by these structures by implementing simple design techniques which are cost effective and can be implemented without any modern equipment. The present study throws light on the issues related to effect of brick orientation, number of openings, orientation and shape of the structures with respect to possible direction of wave movement and effect of support conditions upon the performance of masonry structures subjected to tsunami loading. It has also been noticed that boundary walls acts as a barrier to reduce the effect on the actual structures. In this context, this study may be helpful in framing design guidelines for improving the performance of non-engineered masonry structures under tsunami loading.

  10. Earthquake Hazards Program: Earthquake Scenarios

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A scenario represents one realization of a potential future earthquake by assuming a particular magnitude, location, and fault-rupture geometry and estimating...

  11. Insights into the Lurking Structures and Related Intraplate Earthquakes in the Region of Bay of Bengal Using Gravity and Full Gravity Gradient Tensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, C. P.; Tiwari, V. M.; Rao, P. R.

    2017-09-01

    Comprehension of subsurface structures buried under thick sediments in the region of Bay of Bengal is vital as structural features are the key parameters that influence or are caused by the subsurface deformation and tectonic events like earthquakes. Here, we address this issue using the integrated analysis and interpretation of gravity and full gravity gradient tensor with few seismic profiles available in the poorly known region. A 2D model of the deep earth crust-mantle is constructed and interpreted with gravity gradients and seismic profiles, which made it possible to obtain a visual image of a deep seated fault below the basement associated with thick sediments strata. Gravity modelling along a NE-SW profile crossing the hypocentre of the earthquake of 21 May 2014 (M w 6.0) in the northern Bay of Bengal suggests that the location of intraplate normal dip fault earthquake in the upper mantle is at the boundary of density anomalies, which is probably connected to the crustal fault. We also report an enhanced structural trend of two major ridges, the 85°E and the 90°E ridges hidden under the sedimentary cover from the computed full gravity gradients tensor components.

  12. Rupture, waves and earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    UENISHI, Koji

    2017-01-01

    Normally, an earthquake is considered as a phenomenon of wave energy radiation by rupture (fracture) of solid Earth. However, the physics of dynamic process around seismic sources, which may play a crucial role in the occurrence of earthquakes and generation of strong waves, has not been fully understood yet. Instead, much of former investigation in seismology evaluated earthquake characteristics in terms of kinematics that does not directly treat such dynamic aspects and usually excludes the influence of high-frequency wave components over 1 Hz. There are countless valuable research outcomes obtained through this kinematics-based approach, but “extraordinary” phenomena that are difficult to be explained by this conventional description have been found, for instance, on the occasion of the 1995 Hyogo-ken Nanbu, Japan, earthquake, and more detailed study on rupture and wave dynamics, namely, possible mechanical characteristics of (1) rupture development around seismic sources, (2) earthquake-induced structural failures and (3) wave interaction that connects rupture (1) and failures (2), would be indispensable. PMID:28077808

  13. Rupture, waves and earthquakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uenishi, Koji

    2017-01-01

    Normally, an earthquake is considered as a phenomenon of wave energy radiation by rupture (fracture) of solid Earth. However, the physics of dynamic process around seismic sources, which may play a crucial role in the occurrence of earthquakes and generation of strong waves, has not been fully understood yet. Instead, much of former investigation in seismology evaluated earthquake characteristics in terms of kinematics that does not directly treat such dynamic aspects and usually excludes the influence of high-frequency wave components over 1 Hz. There are countless valuable research outcomes obtained through this kinematics-based approach, but "extraordinary" phenomena that are difficult to be explained by this conventional description have been found, for instance, on the occasion of the 1995 Hyogo-ken Nanbu, Japan, earthquake, and more detailed study on rupture and wave dynamics, namely, possible mechanical characteristics of (1) rupture development around seismic sources, (2) earthquake-induced structural failures and (3) wave interaction that connects rupture (1) and failures (2), would be indispensable.

  14. 桩伴侣与基桩抗震的概念设计%Pile Partner and the Conceptual Earthquake-resistant Design of Foundation Pile

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛江炜; 葛忻声; 蔡景珞; 杨勇

    2013-01-01

    It is uncertain that the lateral components such as basement wall and cap side wall bearing horizontal load,so the conventional pile foundation with low cap might endure lateral force that is larger,and even cause its damage.The applying of pile partner to improve traditional foundation pile structure form is put for ward,especially when there is few frictional force between pile cap and soil,or the soil modulus is small.The partner can be component for anti-earthquake concept design under rare earthquake action,pile partner may be sacrificed firstly to keep pile perform well.The improper design of composite foundation will destroy or weaken the isolation effect of pillow,and can be solved by reserving buffer space between pile and partner.%地下室外墙、承台侧壁等侧向构件承担水平荷载具有很大的不确定性,常规采用的低承台桩基有可能承受较大的甚至导致破坏的水平力,建议用桩伴侣改善传统基桩的构造形式,特别是对于承台与桩间土摩擦力小或者桩身范围地基土模量低的两类状况.在罕遇地震时,作为抗震概念设计的耗能构件,首先牺牲伴侣,避免或延迟桩头的破坏;复合地基如果设计不当会破坏或削弱褥垫层隔震的效果,可在伴侣与桩之间预留缓冲空间.

  15. Comparison of Structurally Controlled Landslide Hazard Simulation to the Co-seismic Landslides Caused by the M 7.2 2013 Bohol Earthquake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galang, J. A. M. B.; Eco, R. C.; Lagmay, A. M. A.

    2014-12-01

    The M_w 7.2 October 15, 2013 Bohol earthquake is one of the more destructive earthquake to hit the Philippines in the 21st century. The epicenter was located in Sagbayan municipality, central Bohol and was generated by a previously unmapped reverse fault called the "Inabanga Fault". The earthquake resulted in 209 fatalities and over 57 million USD worth of damages. The earthquake generated co-seismic landslides most of which were related to fault structures. Unlike rainfall induced landslides, the trigger for co-seismic landslides happen without warning. Preparations for this type of landslides rely heavily on the identification of fracture-related slope instability. To mitigate the impacts of co-seismic landslide hazards, morpho-structural orientations of discontinuity sets were mapped using remote sensing techniques with the aid of a Digital Terrain Model (DTM) obtained in 2012. The DTM used is an IFSAR derived image with a 5-meter pixel resolution and approximately 0.5 meter vertical accuracy. Coltop 3D software was then used to identify similar structures including measurement of their dip and dip directions. The chosen discontinuity sets were then keyed into Matterocking software to identify potential rock slide zones due to planar or wedged discontinuities. After identifying the structurally-controlled unstable slopes, the rock mass propagation extent of the possible rock slides was simulated using Conefall. Separately, a manually derived landslide inventory has been performed using post-earthquake satellite images and LIDAR. The results were compared to the landslide inventory which identified at least 873 landslides. Out of the 873 landslides identified through the inventory, 786 or 90% intersect the simulated structural-controlled landslide hazard areas of Bohol. The results show the potential of this method to identify co-seismic landslide hazard areas for disaster mitigation. Along with computer methods to simulate shallow landslides, and debris flow

  16. Substructure method of soil-structure interaction analysis for earthquake loadings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, H. G.; Joe, Y. H. [Industrial Development Research Center, Univ. of Incheon, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-07-15

    Substructure method has been preferably adopted for soil-structure interaction analysis because of its simplicity and economy in practical application. However, substructure method has some limitation in application and does not always give reliable results especially for embedded structures or layered soil conditions. The objective of this study to validate the reliability of the soil-structure interaction analysis results by the proposed substructure method using lumped-parameter model and suggest a method of seismic design of nuclear power plant structures with specific design conditions. In this study, theoretic background and modeling technique of soil-structure interaction phenomenon have been reviewed and an analysis technique based on substructure method using lumped-parameter model has been suggested. The practicality and reliability of the proposed method have been validated through the application of the method to the seismic analysis of the large-scale seismic test models. A technical guide for practical application and evaluation of the proposed method have been also provided through the various type parametric.

  17. Deep electromagnetic investigation to study the geological and structural setting of the epicentral area of the April 6, 2009 Abruzzo earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasco, Marianna; Giocoli, Alessandro; Gueguen, Erwan; Lapenna, Vincenzo; Perrone, Angela; Piscitelli, Sabatino; Rizzo, Enzo; Romano, Gerardo; Siniscalchi, Agata; Votta, Mario

    2010-05-01

    Deep electromagnetic investigation, using magnetotelluric (MT) and Deep Electrical Resistivity Tomography (DERT) methods, has been carried out across the Aterno Valley, in the epicentral area of April 6, 2009 (Mw=6.3) Abruzzo earthquake, with the aim to study the geological and structural setting of the subsurface. The L'Aquila Basin is a 60 Km long intermountain depression of the Central Apennines, with a NW-SE-trending, bounded to SW by Monti Sirente-Monte Ocre and by Gran Sasso to NE. This depression is filled in Quaternary continental sediments of the Aterno River while the bedrock is composed by Mesocenozoic calcareous of platform. In the middle part of the basin, from Bagno (SW) to Paganica village (NE), along a profile about 9 km long were carried out 10 MT soundings with site separations of about of 1 km. The acquisition of MT data were obtained with MT24-LF systems (Schlumberger/EMI). The frequency of data recording was set to 6.25 Hz for at least 24 hours and during night-time we launched high frequency sampling acquisition events (500 Hz) for at least 2 hour. Time series data were analyzed using the processing based on Egbert's robust code (Egbert, 1997) to compute estimates of the MT transfer function in the period range 0.00931-238.313 s. Applying an inversion 2D model we have obtained the distribution resistivity of subsoil, as function of depth. The apparent resistivity and phase for TE and TM mode (in all investigated period range) were inverted by using an algorithm developed by Rodi & Mackie, 2001. Almost coincident with MT profile, a DERT with "dipole-dipole" array configuration has been carried out along a profile of 8Km, using 21 stations with an electrode spacing of 400 m and a maximum distance between current and potential probes 7-8 times the basic spacing. In this way, the electrode array geometry allows us to obtain a an exploration depth of about 900 m. The acquisition system consists of a transmitting stations which injects the current

  18. Behavior of Columns During Earthquakes

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The behavior of columns during earthquakes is very important since column failures may lead to additional structural failures and result in total building collapses....

  19. Testing earthquake source inversion methodologies

    KAUST Repository

    Page, Morgan T.

    2011-01-01

    Source Inversion Validation Workshop; Palm Springs, California, 11-12 September 2010; Nowadays earthquake source inversions are routinely performed after large earthquakes and represent a key connection between recorded seismic and geodetic data and the complex rupture process at depth. The resulting earthquake source models quantify the spatiotemporal evolution of ruptures. They are also used to provide a rapid assessment of the severity of an earthquake and to estimate losses. However, because of uncertainties in the data, assumed fault geometry and velocity structure, and chosen rupture parameterization, it is not clear which features of these source models are robust. Improved understanding of the uncertainty and reliability of earthquake source inversions will allow the scientific community to use the robust features of kinematic inversions to more thoroughly investigate the complexity of the rupture process and to better constrain other earthquakerelated computations, such as ground motion simulations and static stress change calculations.

  20. Direct methods of soil-structure interaction analysis for earthquake loadings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yun, J. B.; Kim, J. M.; Kim, Y. S. and others [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1993-07-15

    The objectives of this study are to review the methods of soil- structure interaction system analysis, particularly the direct method, and to carry out the blind prediction analysis of the Forced Vibration Test(FVT) before backfill in the course of Hualien LSST project. The scope and contents of this study are as follows : theoretical review on soil-structure interaction analysis methods, free-field response analysis methods, modelling methods of unbounded exterior region, hualien LSST FVT blind prediction analysis before backfill. The analysis results are found to be very well compared with the field test results.

  1. Direct methods of soil-structure interaction analysis for earthquake loadings (III)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, J. B.; Lee, S. R.; Kim, J. M.; Park, K. R.; Choi, J. S.; Oh, S. B. [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-06-15

    In this study, direct methods for seismic analysis of soil-structure interaction system have been studied. A computer program 'KIESSI-QK' has been developed based on the finite element technique coupled with infinite element formulation. A substructuring method isolating the displacement solution of near field soil region was adopted. The computer program developed was verified using a free-field site response problem. The post-correlation analysis for the forced vibration tests after backfill of the Hualien LSST project has been carried out. The seismic analyses for the Hualien and Lotung LSST structures have been also performed utilizing the developed computer program 'KIESSI-QK'.

  2. Basement and regional structure along strike of the Queen Charlotte Fault in the context of modern and historical earthquake ruptures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, Maureen A. L.; Gulick, Sean P. S.; Haeussler, Peter J.; Roland, Emily C.; Trehu, Anne M.

    2015-01-01

    The Queen Charlotte fault (QCF) is a dextral transform system located offshore of southeastern Alaska and western Canada, accommodating ∼4.4  cm/yr of relative motion between the Pacific and North American plates. Oblique convergence along the fault increases southward, and how this convergence is accommodated is still debated. Using seismic reflection data, we interpret offshore basement structure, faulting, and stratigraphy to provide a geological context for two recent earthquakes, an Mw 7.5 strike‐slip event near Craig, Alaska, and an Mw 7.8 thrust event near Haida Gwaii, Canada. We map downwarped Pacific oceanic crust near 54° N, between the two rupture zones. Observed downwarping decreases north and south of 54° N, parallel to the strike of the QCF. Bending of the Pacific plate here may have initiated with increased convergence rates due to a plate motion change at ∼6  Ma. Tectonic reconstruction implies convergence‐driven Pacific plate flexure, beginning at 6 Ma south of a 10° bend the QCF (which is currently at 53.2° N) and lasting until the plate translated past the bend by ∼2  Ma. Normal‐faulted approximately late Miocene sediment above the deep flexural depression at 54° N, topped by relatively undeformed Pleistocene and younger sediment, supports this model. Aftershocks of the Haida Gwaii event indicate a normal‐faulting stress regime, suggesting present‐day plate flexure and underthrusting, which is also consistent with reconstruction of past conditions. We thus favor a Pacific plate underthrusting model to initiate flexure and accommodation space for sediment loading. In addition, mapped structures indicate two possible fault segment boundaries along the QCF at 53.2° N and at 56° N.

  3. Wood-framed houses for earthquake zones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Klavs Feilberg

    Wood-framed houses with a sheathing are suitable for use in earthquake zones. The Direction describes a method of determining the earthquake forces in a house and shows how these forces can be resisted by diaphragm action in the walls, floors, and roof, of the house. An appendix explains how...

  4. Identification of Damage in IR-Structures from Earthquake Records - Optimal Location of Sensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren R.K.; Skjærbæk, P. S.; Cakmak, A. S.

    of the optimal location of measurements sensors, i.e. at which locations along the structure the most information about the damage distribution is gained. In all cases it is assumed that measurements are performed at top storey and ground surface, and the investigations are concentrated on putting one or two...

  5. 3D velocity structure of the outer forearc of the Colombia-Ecuador subduction zone; implications for the 1958 megathrust earthquake rupture zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galve, A.; Charvis, P.; Garcia Cano, L.; Marcaillou, B.

    2013-12-01

    earthquake had a limited extension toward the trench. The short width of the rupture might in turn explain why the 1958 earthquake had obviously a large stress drop, induced an important uplift of the wedge, and was accompanied by a large tsunami. The repetition over time of similar large stress drop earthquakes might have induced off-fault fracturing damage in the plate above, and this fracturing might have contributed to enhance fluid circulations in the upper plate mafic rocks, thereby contributing to form the low-velocity zone observed right above the rupture. Together these results suggest that rupture zones of large subduction earthquakes are partly controlled by the structure and rheology of the upper plate, but in turn, contribute to make these structure and rheology evolving in space and time.

  6. S-Wave Velocity Structure beneath Southwest North America from Seismogram Comparisons of the Mexico Earthquake on 22 June 1997

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bagus Jaya Santosa

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available This research investigates earth structure beneath the Southwest North America landmass, especially between Mexico and California. Models based on S wave velocities for this area were obtained by carrying out seismogram fitting in time domain and three Cartesian components simultaneously. The data used is from an event, coded as C052297B that occurred in the state of Guerrero, Mexico and it was fitted to synthetic data computed with the GEMINI program at TS network stations. Earth model IASPEI91 and SPREM were used as input to create the synthetic data. Real and synthetic seismograms were subjected to a low-pass filter with a frequency corner of 20 mHz.Waveform analysis results show very unsystematic and strong deviations in the waveform, arrival times, amount of oscillation and the height of the wave amplitude. Discrepancies are met on S, Love, Rayleigh and ScS waves, where the stations epicentral distances are below 300. Deviation in analysis waveform because of the usage of model 1-D of SPREM and IASPEI91, because the 1-D was a kind of average value an elastic property at one particular depth of global earth. With the method of waveform analysis we can see how sensitive waveform is to structures within the layers of the Earth.To explain the discrepancies, a correction to the earth structure is essential. The corrections account for the thickness of the crust, speed gradient of bh, the coefficient for the bh and bv in the upper mantle for surface wave fitting, a small variation of the S speed structure at a layer under the upper mantle above 771 km for S wave fitting, and a small variation at the base the mantle layers for ScS wave fitting. At some stations, a correction for S speed structure have yielded P wave fitting. Results of this research indicate that the 1-D earth model obtained through seismogram fitting at every hypocenter-observation station pair is unique. The S-wave velocity on the upper mantle has strong negative anomalies. This

  7. Understanding Earthquake Hazard & Disaster in Himalaya - A Perspective on Earthquake Forecast in Himalayan Region of South Central Tibet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanker, D.; Paudyal, ,; Singh, H.

    2010-12-01

    It is not only the basic understanding of the phenomenon of earthquake, its resistance offered by the designed structure, but the understanding of the socio-economic factors, engineering properties of the indigenous materials, local skill and technology transfer models are also of vital importance. It is important that the engineering aspects of mitigation should be made a part of public policy documents. Earthquakes, therefore, are and were thought of as one of the worst enemies of mankind. Due to the very nature of release of energy, damage is evident which, however, will not culminate in a disaster unless it strikes a populated area. The word mitigation may be defined as the reduction in severity of something. The Earthquake disaster mitigation, therefore, implies that such measures may be taken which help reduce severity of damage caused by earthquake to life, property and environment. While “earthquake disaster mitigation” usually refers primarily to interventions to strengthen the built environment, and “earthquake protection” is now considered to include human, social and administrative aspects of reducing earthquake effects. It should, however, be noted that reduction of earthquake hazards through prediction is considered to be the one of the effective measures, and much effort is spent on prediction strategies. While earthquake prediction does not guarantee safety and even if predicted correctly the damage to life and property on such a large scale warrants the use of other aspects of mitigation. While earthquake prediction may be of some help, mitigation remains the main focus of attention of the civil society. Present study suggests that anomalous seismic activity/ earthquake swarm existed prior to the medium size earthquakes in the Nepal Himalaya. The mainshocks were preceded by the quiescence period which is an indication for the occurrence of future seismic activity. In all the cases, the identified episodes of anomalous seismic activity were

  8. Direct methods of soil-structure interaction analysis for earthquake loadings(II)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yun, Chung Bang; Lee, S. R.; Kim, J. M.; Park, K. L.; Oh, S. B.; Choi, J. S.; Kim, Y. S. [Korea Advanced Institute of Science Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-07-15

    In this study, methods for 3-D soil-structure interaction analysis have been studied. They are 3-D axisymmetric analysis method, 3-D axisymmetric finite element method incorporating infinite elements, and 3-D boundary element methods. The computer code, named as 'KIESSI - PF', has been developed which is based on the 3-D axisymmetric finite element method coupled with infinite element method. It is able to simulate forced vibration test results of a soil-structure interaction system. The Hualien FVT post-correlation analysis before backfill and the blind prediction analysis after backfill have been carried out using the developed computer code 'KIESSI - PF'.

  9. The 2015 Gorkha Nepal Earthquake: Insights from Earthquake Damage Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsuichiro eGoda

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The 2015 Gorkha Nepal earthquake caused tremendous damage and loss. To gain valuable lessons from this tragic event, an earthquake damage investigation team was dispatched to Nepal from 1 May 2015 to 7 May 2015. A unique aspect of the earthquake damage investigation is that first-hand earthquake damage data were obtained 6 to 11 days after the mainshock. To gain deeper understanding of the observed earthquake damage in Nepal, the paper reviews the seismotectonic setting and regional seismicity in Nepal and analyzes available aftershock data and ground motion data. The earthquake damage observations indicate that the majority of the damaged buildings were stone/brick masonry structures with no seismic detailing, whereas the most of RC buildings were undamaged. This indicates that adequate structural design is the key to reduce the earthquake risk in Nepal. To share the gathered damage data widely, the collected damage data (geo-tagged photos and observation comments are organized using Google Earth and the kmz file is made publicly available.

  10. Development of the asperity-matrix structure in fault zones: a model for strength reduction and generation of earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeshita, T.

    2014-12-01

    Seismologists have now believed that the fault interface is characterized by the asperity-matrix structure, where the upper and lower plates are strongly coupled at the asperity, and the matrix, which surrounds the asperity, is deformed by creeping. Earthquakes are generated by dynamic rupture only in the non-creeping hard asperity, where the strain energy is accumulated if the asperity and matrix are mechanically coupled to a certain degree. In this presentation, we will argue that this structure is developed as brittle fracturing proceeds aided by dissolution-precipitation creep in particular at the brittle-ductile transition zone, which leads to the strength reduction and seimogenesis in both crust and subduction zones. We have been studying deformation processes and mechanisms in rocks at brittle-ductile transition conditions, based on microstructural analyses in naturally deformed rocks. For example, we reported that pervasive micro-faulting in the high-P/T Sambagawa quartz schist at brittle-ductile transition conditions, where a volume fraction of micro-shear zones consisting of both very-fine grained dynamically recrystallized quartz and white mica increased with increasing deformation (Takeshita and El-Fakharani, 2013). We believe that the resultant structure, "undeformed lenses surrounded by microshear zones" can be correlated with the asperity-matrix structure in the thin section scale, which could have occurred in the mesoscopic to macroscopic scales (cf. Schrank et al., 2008). It is inferred that the rocks became softened with increasing volume fraction of micro-shear zones, because dissolution-precipitation creep could have occurred at low differential stresses in the sheared zones. Further, cataclasites were formed along the Median Tectonic Line in the Cretaceous to Paleogene, where new minerals precipitated from fluids in the space created by fracturing at the conditions of brittle-ductile transition. The fracturing was accompanied by element

  11. Using structures of the August 24, 2016 Amatrice earthquake affected area as seismoscopes for assessing ground motion characteristics and parameters of the main shock and its largest aftershocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carydis, Panayotis; Lekkas, Efthymios; Mavroulis, Spyridon

    2017-04-01

    On August 24, 2016 an Mw 6.0 earthquake struck Central Apennines (Italy) resulting in 299 fatalities, 388 injuries and about 3000 homeless in Amatrice wider area. Normal faulting surface ruptures along the western slope of Mt Vettore along with provided focal mechanisms demonstrated a NW-SE striking and SE dipping causative normal fault. The dominant building types in the affected area are unreinforced masonry (URM) and reinforced concrete (RC) buildings. Based on our macroseismic survey in the affected area immediately after the earthquake, RC buildings suffered non-structural damage including horizontal cracking of infill and internal partition walls, detachment of infill walls from the surrounding RC frame and detachment of large plaster pieces from infill walls as well as structural damage comprising soft story failure, symmetrical buckling of rods, compression damage at midheight of columns and bursting of over-stressed columns resulting in partial or total collapse. Damage in RC buildings was due to poor quality of concrete, inadequacy of reinforcement, inappropriate foundation close to the edge of slopes leading to differential settlements, poor workmanship and the destructive effect of vertical ground motions. Damage in URM buildings ranged from cracks and detachment of large plaster pieces from load-bearing walls to destruction due to poor workmanship with randomly placed materials bound by low-strength mortars, the effect of the vertical ground motion, inadequate repair and/or strengthening after previous earthquakes as well as inadequate interventions, additions and extensions to older URM buildings. During field surveying, the authors had the opportunity to observe damage induced not only by the main shock but also by its largest aftershocks (Mw 4.5-5.3) during the first three days of the aftershock sequence (August 24-26). Bearing in mind that: (a) soil conditions in foundations of the affected villages were more or less similar, (b) building damage

  12. Three-dimensional velocity structure and earthquake locations beneath the northern Tien Shan of Kyrgyzstan, central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghose, Sujoy; Hamburger, Michael W.; Virieux, Jean

    1998-02-01

    We used the arrival times of local earthquakes and quarry blasts recorded by the Kyrgyzstan Broadband Network (KNET) to obtain three-dimensional (3-D) P and S wave velocity models of the upper crust beneath an actively deforming mountain front and its associated foreland in the Kyrgyz Tien Shan. The continuous velocity models, described by cubic B spline interpolation of the squared slowness over a regular 3-D grid, were computed by simultaneous inversion of hypocenter and medium parameters. Exact ray tracing was done in the smooth 3-D medium by shooting rays from the sources to the stations by an analytical perturbation method based on the paraxial ray theory. The deduced large, sparse, linear system was solved using the damped, iterative, least squares algorithm LSQR. The stability and resolution of the result was qualitatively tested by two synthetic tests: the spike test and the checkerboard resolution test. We found that the models are well resolved up to a depth of ˜27 km for most parts of our image domain. The P and S wave velocity models are consistent with each other and provide evidence for marked heterogeneity in the upper crustal structure beneath the northern Tien Shan. At shallower depths (<7 km) the sediment-filled foreland is imaged as a relatively lower velocity feature compared to the mountains, which are cored by crystalline basement rocks. In contrast, at midcrustal depths the mountains are underlain by relatively lower velocity materials compared to the foreland. A distinct contrast in velocity structure is also observed between the eastern and western parts of the Kyrgyz Range at midcrustal depths, with the presence of relatively higher velocities toward the east. The seismicity is concentrated near the traces of major active faults and extends deeper beneath the foreland compared to the mountains. The regional compression in the Tien Shan is accommodated along a series of high-angle reverse faults distributed throughout the orogenic system

  13. Sensing the earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bichisao, Marta; Stallone, Angela

    2017-04-01

    Making science visual plays a crucial role in the process of building knowledge. In this view, art can considerably facilitate the representation of the scientific content, by offering a different perspective on how a specific problem could be approached. Here we explore the possibility of presenting the earthquake process through visual dance. From a choreographer's point of view, the focus is always on the dynamic relationships between moving objects. The observed spatial patterns (coincidences, repetitions, double and rhythmic configurations) suggest how objects organize themselves in the environment and what are the principles underlying that organization. The identified set of rules is then implemented as a basis for the creation of a complex rhythmic and visual dance system. Recently, scientists have turned seismic waves into sound and animations, introducing the possibility of "feeling" the earthquakes. We try to implement these results into a choreographic model with the aim to convert earthquake sound to a visual dance system, which could return a transmedia representation of the earthquake process. In particular, we focus on a possible method to translate and transfer the metric language of seismic sound and animations into body language. The objective is to involve the audience into a multisensory exploration of the earthquake phenomenon, through the stimulation of the hearing, eyesight and perception of the movements (neuromotor system). In essence, the main goal of this work is to develop a method for a simultaneous visual and auditory representation of a seismic event by means of a structured choreographic model. This artistic representation could provide an original entryway into the physics of earthquakes.

  14. Evaluation and analysis of the performance of masonary infills during the Northridge earthquake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennett, R.M.; Fischer, W.L. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Flanagan, R.D.; Tenbus, M.A. [Lockheed Martin, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)] [and others

    1996-02-01

    Observations were made of the behavior of masonry infills in structural frames during the Northridge earthquake, and an analytical technique was developed for analyzing infilled frame structures. Infills near the epicenter suffered significant damage, but in several cases contributed to the seismic resistance and life safety performance. Older infill buildings in downtown Los Angeles experienced intensity of shaking similar to that expected in central/eastern United States earthquakes. The infills experienced some cracking, but otherwise complemented the lateral resistance of the weak building frames. This suggests infill frame buildings in moderate seismic zones may provide at least life safety functions without the need for expensive retrofit. A developed analytical technique was used to analyze two buildings for which the observed behavior and records from the Northridge earthquake were available. The analytical technique was based on using a piecewise linear equivalent strut for the infill. Parameters for the strut were obtained by examining the results of a wide variety of experimental infill tests. The strut method is easy to incorporate in standard linear analyses, and converges quite rapidly. The strut method was applied to two structures that had records from the Northridge earthquake. Very favorable comparisons between the analytical method and observed response were obtained. Recommendations were made concerning evaluation of the vulnerability of infills to earthquakes, and the construction of infills.

  15. Towards Coupling of Macroseismic Intensity with Structural Damage Indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouteva, Mihaela; Boshnakov, Krasimir

    2016-04-01

    Knowledge on basic data of ground motion acceleration time histories during earthquakes is essential to understanding the earthquake resistant behaviour of structures. Peak and integral ground motion parameters such as peak ground motion values (acceleration, velocity and displacement), measures of the frequency content of ground motion, duration of strong shaking and various intensity measures play important roles in seismic evaluation of existing facilities and design of new systems. Macroseismic intensity is an earthquake measure related to seismic hazard and seismic risk description. Having detailed ideas on the correlations between the earthquake damage potential and macroseismic intensity is an important issue in engineering seismology and earthquake engineering. Reliable earthquake hazard estimation is the major prerequisite to successful disaster risk management. The usage of advanced earthquake engineering approaches for structural response modelling is essential for reliable evaluation of the accumulated damages in the existing buildings and structures due to the history of seismic actions, occurred during their lifetime. Full nonlinear analysis taking into account single event or series of earthquakes and the large set of elaborated damage indices are suitable contemporary tools to cope with this responsible task. This paper presents some results on the correlation between observational damage states, ground motion parameters and selected analytical damage indices. Damage indices are computed on the base of nonlinear time history analysis of test reinforced structure, characterising the building stock of the Mediterranean region designed according the earthquake resistant requirements in mid XX-th century.

  16. Rapid estimation of the economic consequences of global earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaiswal, Kishor; Wald, David J.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) Prompt Assessment of Global Earthquakes for Response (PAGER) system, operational since mid 2007, rapidly estimates the most affected locations and the population exposure at different levels of shaking intensities. The PAGER system has significantly improved the way aid agencies determine the scale of response needed in the aftermath of an earthquake. For example, the PAGER exposure estimates provided reasonably accurate assessments of the scale and spatial extent of the damage and losses following the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake (Mw 7.9) in China, the 2009 L'Aquila earthquake (Mw 6.3) in Italy, the 2010 Haiti earthquake (Mw 7.0), and the 2010 Chile earthquake (Mw 8.8). Nevertheless, some engineering and seismological expertise is often required to digest PAGER's exposure estimate and turn it into estimated fatalities and economic losses. This has been the focus of PAGER's most recent development. With the new loss-estimation component of the PAGER system it is now possible to produce rapid estimation of expected fatalities for global earthquakes (Jaiswal and others, 2009). While an estimate of earthquake fatalities is a fundamental indicator of potential human consequences in developing countries (for example, Iran, Pakistan, Haiti, Peru, and many others), economic consequences often drive the responses in much of the developed world (for example, New Zealand, the United States, and Chile), where the improved structural behavior of seismically resistant buildings significantly reduces earthquake casualties. Rapid availability of estimates of both fatalities and economic losses can be a valuable resource. The total time needed to determine the actual scope of an earthquake disaster and to respond effectively varies from country to country. It can take days or sometimes weeks before the damage and consequences of a disaster can be understood both socially and economically. The objective of the U.S. Geological Survey's PAGER system is

  17. Revealing the deep structure and rupture plane of the 2010 Maule, Chile earthquake (Mw = 8.8) using wide angle seismic data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moscoso, Eduardo; Grevemeyer, Ingo; Contreras-Reyes, Eduardo; Flueh, Ernst R.; Dzierma, Yvonne; Rabbel, Wolfgang; Thorwart, Martin

    2011-07-01

    The 27 February, 2010 Maule earthquake (Mw = 8.8) ruptured ~ 400 km of the Nazca-South America plate boundary and caused hundreds of fatalities and billions of dollars in material losses. Here we present constraints on the fore-arc structure and subduction zone of the rupture area derived from seismic refraction and wide-angle data. The results show a wedge shaped body ~ 40 km wide with typical sedimentary velocities interpreted as a frontal accretionary prism (FAP). Landward of the imaged FAP, the velocity model shows an abrupt velocity-contrast, suggesting a lithological change which is interpreted as the contact between the FAP and the paleo accretionary prism (backstop). The backstop location is coincident with the seaward limit of the aftershocks, defining the updip limit of the co-seismic rupture and seismogenic zone. Furthermore, the seaward limit of the aftershocks coincides with the location of the shelf break in the entire earthquake rupture area (33°S-38.5°S), which is interpreted as the location of the backstop along the margin. Published seismic profiles at the northern and southern limit of the rupture area also show the presence of a strong horizontal velocity gradient seismic backstop at a distance of ~ 30 km from the deformation front. The seismic wide-angle reflections from the top of the subducting oceanic crust constrain the location of the plate boundary offshore, dipping at ~ 10°. The projection of the epicenter of the Maule earthquake onto our derived interplate boundary yielded a hypocenter around 20 km depth, this implies that this earthquake nucleated somewhere in the middle of the seismogenic zone, neither at its updip nor at its downdip limit.

  18. 3D seismic velocity structure in the rupture area of the 2014 M8.2 Iquique earthquake in Northern Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woollam, Jack; Fuenzallida, Amaya; Garth, Tom; Rietbrock, Andreas; Ruiz, Sergio; Tavera, Hernando

    2016-04-01

    Seismic velocity tomography is one of the key tools in Earth sciences to image the physical properties of the subsurface. In recent years significant advances have been made to image the Chilean subductions zone, especially in the area of the 2010 M8.8 Maule earthquake (e.g. Hicks et al., 2014), providing much needed physical constraints for earthquakes source inversions and rupture models. In 2014 the M8.2 Iquique earthquake struck the northern part of the Chilean subduction zone in close proximity to the Peruvian boarder. The pre- and aftershock sequence of this major earthquake was recorded by a densified seismological network in Northern Chile and Southern Peru, which provides an excellent data set to study in depth the 3D velocity structure along the subduction megathrust. Based on an automatic event catalogue of nearly 10,000 events spanning the time period March to May 2014 we selected approximately 450 events for a staggered 3D inversion approach. Events are selected to guarantee an even ray coverage through the inversion volume. We only select events with a minimum GAP of 200 to improve depth estimates and therefore increase resolution in the marine forearc. Additionally, we investigate secondary arrivals between the P- and S-wave arrival to improve depth location. Up to now we have processed about 450 events, from which about 150 with at least 30 P- and S-wave observations have been selected for the subsequent 3D tomography. Overall the data quality is very high, which allows arrival time estimates better than 0.05s on average. We will show results from the 1D, 2D, and preliminary 3D inversions and discuss the results together with the obtained seismicity distribution.

  19. The Mw6.5 17 November 2015 Lefkada (Greece) Earthquake: Structural Interpretation by Means of the Aftershock Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadimitriou, E.; Karakostas, V.; Mesimeri, M.; Chouliaras, G.; Kourouklas, Ch.

    2017-07-01

    The 2015 Mw6.5 Lefkada main shock occurred at the south western part of Lefkada Island (Greece), less than 2 years after the occurrence of a doublet along the western part of the nearby Kefalonia Island, Paliki peninsula (on 25/01/2014, with Mw6.1 and 03/02/2014 with Mw6.0) and 12 years after the 2003 Mw6.2 main shock that struck the northwestern part of Lefkada Island. The four failed dextral strike slip fault segments belong to the Kefalonia transform fault zone (KTFZ), the major active boundary that bounds from the west the area of central Ionian Islands, namely Lefkada and Kefalonia. It is associated with several known historical earthquakes and is considered the most hazardous area in the Greek territory. The KTFZ fault segments are characterized by high slip rates (of the order of tens of millimeters per year), with maximum earthquake magnitudes up to 6.7 for Lefkada and 7.2 for Kefalonia fault zone, respectively. The double difference location technique was employed for relocating the aftershocks revealing a seismogenic layer extending from 3 to 16 km depth and multiple activation on well-defined fault planes, with strikes that differ than the main rupture and dips either to east or to west. This implies that strain energy was not solely released on a main fault only, but on secondary and adjacent fault segments as well. The reliable definition of their geometry forms the basis for the structural interpretation of the local fault network. The aftershock spatial distribution indicates three main clusters of the seismic activity, along with activation of smaller faults to an extent of more than 50 km. A northeasterly striking cluster is observed to the north of the main shock epicenter, with a remarkable aftershock density. The central cluster is less dense than the previous one with an epicentral alignment in full accordance with the strike provided by the main shock centroid moment tensor solution, and is considered as the main rupture with a length of 17 km

  20. Seismogenic Structure Beneath Décollement Inferred from 2009/11/5 ML 6.2 Mingjian Earthquake in Central Taiwan

    OpenAIRE

    Che-Min Lin; Tao-Ming Chang; Kuo-Liang Wen; Chun-Hsiang Kuo; Hung-Hao Hsieh

    2014-01-01

    One decade after the 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake, central Taiwan experienced more strong ground shaking [Central Weather Bureau (CWB), intensity VII] induced by a ML 6.2 earthquake on 5th November 2009. This earthquake occurred in the Mingjian Township of Nantou County, only 12 km southwest of the Chi-Chi earthquake epicenter. The broadband microearthquake monitoring network operated by the National Center for Research on Earthquake Engineering (NCREE) observed numerous aftershocks in the five da...

  1. Geotechnical aspects of the January 2003 Tecoma'n, Mexico, earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wartman, Joseph; Rodriguez-Marek, Adrian; Macari, Emir J.; Deaton, Scott; Ramirez-Reynaga, Marti'n; Ochoa, Carlos N.; Callan, Sean; Keefer, David; Repetto, Pedro; Ovando-Shelley, Efrai'n

    2005-01-01

    Ground failure was the most prominent geotechnical engineering feature of the 21 January 2003 Mw 7.6 Tecoma´n earthquake. Ground failure impacted structures, industrial facilities, roads, water supply canals, and other critical infrastructure in the state of Colima and in parts of the neighboring states of Jalisco and Michoaca´n. Landslides and soil liquefaction were the most common type of ground failure, followed by seismic compression of unsaturated materials. Reinforced earth structures generally performed well during the earthquake, though some structures experienced permanent lateral deformations up to 10 cm. Different ground improvement techniques had been used to enhance the liquefaction resistance of several sites in the region, all of which performed well and exhibited no signs of damage or significant ground deformation. Earth dams in the region experienced some degree of permanent deformation but remained fully functional after the earthquake.

  2. Mega-mining in Mexico. Structural reforms and resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darcy Tetreault

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the structural causes of social environmental conflicts around mega-mining in Mexico and describes the emergence and coordination of resistance movements. It argues that neoliberal reforms have facilitated ‘accumulation by dispossession’ on two levels: first, by transferring public resources in the form of mineral reserves and state-run mining companies to the private sector; and second, bydispossessing smallholder farmers and indigenous communities of their land, water and cultural landscapes, in order to allow mining companies to carry out their activities. Furthermore, it argues that some factions of the resistance movements reflect ‘the environmentalism of the poor’ insofar as they seek to maintain natural resources outside of the sphere of the capitalist mode of production. Through a systematic revision of newspaper articles, blogs and scholarly publications, 29 high-profile eco-territorial mining conflicts are identified and a preliminary analysis of these is provided.

  3. 轻钢结构住宅地震模拟振动台试验研究%STUDY ON EARTHQUAKE SIMULATION SHAKING TABLE TEST OF LIGHT STEEL STRUCTURE HOUSING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李茂; 刘浩; 赵永刚; 张靖

    2012-01-01

    主要对轻型钢框架-支撑结构住宅模型进行了地震模拟振动台试验研究.模型结构以轻质方钢管作为模型框架结构的梁柱,以角钢作为框间支撑,楼板采用轻质兼强板,整体结构模型为1∶3缩尺模型,通过测试该种结构体系的动力特性,了解和研究结构或构件的抗震性能和破坏机理,推动我国轻钢结构住宅的的发展和应用.试验结果表明该种结构具有足够的抗侧力能力,满足规范要求,抗震性能良好.%The light steel frame-support structure housing earthquake simulation model by the shaking table is studied mainly. Model structure used the light steel frame structure as a model party of the beam and with angle steel to frame support, floor use of lightweight and wall panel, and the overall structure model is 1:3 scale model, through test the structure system of the dynamic properties, to understand and study the structure or structures of the seismic performance and failure mechanism, to promote the development and application of our country' s light steel structure housing. Experiment results show that the structure has enough ability to resist lateral force, satisfy the standard requirement, the seismic performance is good.

  4. Scalable, ultra-resistant structural colors based on network metamaterials

    KAUST Repository

    Galinski, Henning

    2017-05-05

    Structural colors have drawn wide attention for their potential as a future printing technology for various applications, ranging from biomimetic tissues to adaptive camouflage materials. However, an efficient approach to realize robust colors with a scalable fabrication technique is still lacking, hampering the realization of practical applications with this platform. Here, we develop a new approach based on large-scale network metamaterials that combine dealloyed subwavelength structures at the nanoscale with lossless, ultra-thin dielectric coatings. By using theory and experiments, we show how subwavelength dielectric coatings control a mechanism of resonant light coupling with epsilon-near-zero regions generated in the metallic network, generating the formation of saturated structural colors that cover a wide portion of the spectrum. Ellipsometry measurements support the efficient observation of these colors, even at angles of 70°. The network-like architecture of these nanomaterials allows for high mechanical resistance, which is quantified in a series of nano-scratch tests. With such remarkable properties, these metastructures represent a robust design technology for real-world, large-scale commercial applications.

  5. Lincosamides: Chemical structure, biosynthesis, mechanism of action, resistance, and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spížek, Jaroslav; Řezanka, Tomáš

    2017-06-01

    Lincomycin and its derivatives are antibiotics exhibiting biological activity against bacteria, especially Gram-positive ones, and also protozoans. Lincomycin and its semi-synthetic chlorinated derivative clindamycin are widely used in clinical practice. Both antibiotics are bacteriostatic, inhibiting protein synthesis in sensitive bacteria; however, at higher concentrations, they may be bactericidal. Clindamycin is usually much more active than lincomycin in the treatment of bacterial infections, in particular those caused by anaerobic species; it can also be used for the treatment of important protozoal diseases, e.g. malaria, most effectively in combination with other antibiotic or non-antibiotic antimicrobials (primaquine, fosfidomycin, benzoyl peroxide). Chemical structures of lincosamide antibiotics and the biosynthesis of lincomycin and its genetic control have been summarized and described. Resistance to lincomycin and clindamycin may be caused by methylation of 23S ribosomal RNA, modification of the antibiotics by specific enzymes or active efflux from the bacterial cell. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Evaluation of the simultaneous action of earthquake, LOCA and SRV on Mark-III containment and drywell structures. [Safety Relief Valve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Philippacopoulos, A.J.; Reich, M.

    1981-01-01

    The containment and drywell structures of a generic Mark-III nuclear power facility are investigated with respect to their structural response when subjected to various load combinations that may occur during their operational lifetime. Both structures are idealized with three-dimensional finite element models. In addition a lumped-mass cantilever beam representation of the containment and drywell structures is developed and used for the soil-structure interaction analysis. The types of dynamic events considered include earthquakes, loss-of-coolant-accidents (LOCA) and those generated by safety/relief valve actuations. The evaluation of the combined actions of these dynamic events is first performed by using combination methods such as Absolute Sum (ABS) and Square-Root-of-the-Sum-of-the-Squares (SRSS). A Monte Carlo simulation procedure is subsequently used for probabilistic evaluation of the combinations.

  7. Study of the structure changes caused by earthquakes in Chile applying the lineament analysis to the Aster (Terra) satellite data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arellano-Baeza, A.; Zverev, A.; Malinnikov, V.

    Chile is one of the most seismically and volcanically active regions in the South America due to a constant subdiction of the South American plate, converging with the Nazca plate in the extreme North of Chile. Four events, namely: the Ovalle earthquake of Juny 18, 2003, M=6.3, with epicenter localized at (-30:49:33, -71:18:53), the Calama earthquake of Junly 19, 2001, M=5.2, (-30:29:38,-68:33:18), the Pica earthquake of April 10, 2003, M=5.1, (-21:03:20,-68:47:10) and the La Ligua earthquake of May 6, 2001, M=5.1, (-32:35:31,-71:07:58:) were analysed using the 15 m resolution satellite images, provided by the ASTER/VNIR instrument. The Lineament Extraction and Stripes Statistic Analysis (LESSA) software package was used to examine changes in the lineament features caused by sismic activity. Lack of vegetation facilitates the study of the changes in the topography common to all events and makes it possible to evaluate the sismic risk in this region for the future.

  8. Use of high resolution satellite images for tracking of changes in the lineament structure, caused by earthquakes

    CERN Document Server

    Arellano-Baeza, A A; Trejo-Soto, M

    2007-01-01

    Over the last decades strong efforts have been made to apply new spaceborn technologies to the study and possible forecast of strong earthquakes. In this study we use ASTER/TERRA multispectral satellite images for detection and analysis of changes in the system of lineaments previous to a strong earthquake. A lineament is a straight or a somewhat curved feature in an image, which it is possible to detect by a special processing of images based on directional filtering and or Hough transform. "The Lineament Extraction and Stripes Statistic Analysis" (LESSA) software package, developed by Zlatopolsy (1992, 1997). We assume that the lineaments allow to detect, at least partially, the presence ruptures in the Earths crust, and therefore enable one to follow the changes in the system of faults and fractures associated with strong earthquakes. We analysed 6 earthquakes occurred in the Pacific coast of the South America and XXX with the Richter scale magnitude >4.5. They were located in the regions with small season...

  9. THE STRUCTURAL FABRIC AND SEISMOTECTONIC ACTIVITY OF NORTHERN VELEBIT: SOME NEW OBSERVATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Eduard Prelogović; Vlado Kuk; Renato Buljan

    1998-01-01

    A permanent seismotectonic activity is present in the region of northern Velebit. Through history a number of earthquakes magnitudes of VIII° and IX° MCS are reported. In this century the most powerful earthquake of a magnitude of 5.8 occurred in 1916. The key tectonic movements that cause these earthquakes are dislocations of the Adriatic platform towards the north and the resistance of the Dinarides towards these movements. The tectonic dynamics of a structural arrangement depend on the rel...

  10. Liquefaction-induced lateral spreading in Oceano, California, during the 2003 San Simeon Earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzer, Thomas L.; Noce, Thomas E.; Bennett, Michael J.; Di Alessandro, Carola; Boatwright, John; Tinsley, John C.; Sell, Russell W.; Rosenberg, Lewis I.

    2004-01-01

    the 2003 damage was caused by lateral spreading in two separate areas, one near Norswing Drive and the other near Juanita Avenue. The areas coincided with areas with the highest liquefaction potential found in Oceano. Areas with site amplification conditions similar to those in Oceano are particularly vulnerable to earthquakes. Site amplification may cause shaking from distant earthquakes, which normally would not cause damage, to increase locally to damaging levels. The vulnerability in Oceano is compounded by the widespread distribution of highly liquefiable soils that will reliquefy when ground shaking is amplified as it was during the San Simeon earthquake. The experience in Oceano can be expected to repeat because the region has many active faults capable of generating large earthquakes. In addition, liquefaction and lateral spreading will be more extensive for moderate-size earthquakes that are closer to Oceano than was the 2003 San Simeon earthquake. Site amplification and liquefaction can be mitigated. Shaking is typically mitigated in California by adopting and enforcing up-to-date building codes. Although not a guarantee of safety, application of these codes ensures that the best practice is used in construction. Building codes, however, do not always require the upgrading of older structures to new code requirements. Consequently, many older structures may not be as resistant to earthquake shaking as new ones. For older structures, retrofitting is required to bring them up to code. Seismic provisions in codes also generally do not apply to nonstructural elements such as drywall, heating systems, and shelving. Frequently, nonstructural damage dominates the earthquake loss. Mitigation of potential liquefaction in Oceano presently is voluntary for existing buildings, but required by San Luis Obispo County for new construction. Multiple mitigation procedures are available to individual property owners. These procedures typically involve either

  11. Response of Olive View Hospital to Northridge and Whittier earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celebi, M.

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to study the response of the conventionally designed new Olive View Medical Center (OVMC) building at 16 km from the epicenter of the January 17, 1994 Northridge, California earthquake (Ms = 6.8). OVMC is on an alluvial deposit. The building was subjected to design level peak accelerations during the earthquake and suffered only limited structural and nonstructural damage. The recorded motions at different levels of the OVMC building as well as its associated free-field sites are analyzed using spectral analyses and system identification techniques. The new OVMC building was conservatively designed in 1976 with very high lateral load resisting capability - particularly as a reaction to the detrimental fate of the original Olive View Hospital that was heavily damaged during the 1971 San Fernando earthquake. The original hospital building was later razed. The replacement structure, the new cross-shaped OVMC building, experienced peak acceleration of 2.31g at the roof while its peak ground floor acceleration was 0.82g. The free-field peak acceleration was 0.91g. The lateral load resisting system of the OVMC building consists of concrete shear walls in the lower two stories and steel shear walls at the perimeter of the upper four stories. Spectral analysis shows that this stiff structure was not affected by the long duration pulses of the motions recorded at this site.

  12. A possible explanation for deeper earthquakes under the Sacramento delta, California, in terms of its deep structure and thermal history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikhailov, V.; Parsons, T.; Simpson, R. W.; Timoshkina, E.; Williams, C.

    2003-04-01

    Hypocentral depth of earthquakes under the Sacramento River Delta region in Northern California extends to nearly 20 km, whereas in the Coast Ranges to the west it is less than 12-15 km. In order to better understand the origin of these deeper earthquakes and the potential earthquake hazard in the vicinity, we have used data from wells in the Sacramento Valley to construct and calibrate a model of tectonic subsidence and thermal evolution of this forearc basin. Our model assumes an oceanic basement with an initial thermal profile dependent on its age, subjected to a refrigeration effect caused by subducting slab, which age and rate could change in time. Subsidence obtained for the Sacramento Delta area is close to that expected for a forearc basin underlain by normal oceanic lithosphere of 150 My age. Observed subsidence at the eastern and northern borders of the Sacramento valley appears to be considerably less, corresponding to subsidence caused by the dynamics of the subduction zone alone. Thus, it appears that the lithosphere of the Sacramento Delta, being thinner and having undergone deeper long-term subsidence, differs from the lithosphere of other parts of the Sacramento valley. Strength diagrams based on the thermal model show that even under very slow deformation the upper part of the Sacramento Delta crystalline crust (at least down to 20-22 km) can fail in brittle fashion, which is in agreement with earthquake occurrence. Rheology of the mantle below the Moho also appears to be brittle. The greater width of the seismogenic zone in this area raises the possibility that for segments of comparable length, earthquakes of somewhat greater magnitude might occur than in the Coast Ranges to the west.

  13. Nonlinear time-domain soil–structure interaction analysis of embedded reactor structures subjected to earthquake loads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solberg, Jerome M., E-mail: solberg2@llnl.gov [Methods Development Group, Lawrence Livermore Nat’l Lab, P.O. Box 808, Mailstop L-125, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Hossain, Quazi, E-mail: hossain1@llnl.gov [Structural and Applied Mechanics Group, Lawrence Livermore Nat’l Lab, P.O. Box 808, Mailstop L-129, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Mseis, George, E-mail: george.mseis@gmail.com [Structural and Applied Mechanics Group, Lawrence Livermore Nat’l Lab, P.O. Box 808, Mailstop L-129, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States)

    2016-08-01

    Highlights: • Derived modified version of Bielak’s SSI method for nonlinear time-domain analysis. • Utilized a Ramberg–Osgood material with parameters that can be fit to EPRI data. • Matched vertically propagating shear wave results from CARES. • Applied this technique to a representative SMR, compared well with SASSI. • The technique is extensible to other material models and nonlinear effects. - Abstract: A generalized time-domain method for soil–structure interaction analysis is developed, based upon an extension of the work of the domain reduction method of Bielak et al. The methodology is combined with the use of a simple hysteretic soil model based upon the Ramberg–Osgood formulation and applied to a notional Small Modular Reactor. These benchmark results compare well (with some caveats) with those obtained by using the industry-standard frequency-domain code SASSI. The methodology provides a path forward for investigation of other sources of nonlinearity, including those associated with the use of more physically-realistic material models incorporating pore-pressure effects, gap opening/closing, the effect of nonlinear structural elements, and 3D seismic inputs.

  14. New insights into crustal structure, Cenozoic magmatism, CO2 degassing, and seismogenesis in the southern Apennines and Irpinia region from local earthquake tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Improta, Luigi; De Gori, Pasquale; Chiarabba, Claudio

    2014-11-01

    We present high-resolution Vp and Vp/Vs models of the southern Apennines (Italy) computed using local earthquakes recorded from 2006 to 2011 with a graded inversion scheme that progressively resolves the crustal structure, from the large scale of the Apennines belt to the local scale of the normal fault system. High-Vp bodies defined in the upper crust and midcrust under the external Apennines are interpreted as extensive mafic intrusions revealing anorogenic magmatism episodes that broadened on the Adriatic domain during Paleogene. Under the mountain belt, a low-Vp region, annular to the Neapolitan volcanic district, indicates the existence of a thermal/fluid anomaly in the midcrust, coinciding with a shallow Moho and diffuse degassing of deeply derived CO2. In the belt axial zone, low-Vp/Vs gas-pressurized rock volumes under the Apulian carbonates correlate to high heat flow, strong CO2-dominated gas emissions of mantle origin, and shallow carbonate reservoirs with pressurized CO2 gas caps. We hypothesize that the pressurized fluid volumes located at the base of the active fault system influence the rupture process of large normal faulting earthquakes, like the 1980 Mw6.9 Irpinia event, and that major asperities are confined within the high-Vp Apulian carbonates. This study confirms once more that preexisting structures of the Pliocene Apulian belt controlled the rupture propagation during the Irpinia earthquake. The main shock broke a ~30 km long, NE dipping seismogenic structure, whereas delayed ruptures (both the 20 s and the 40 s subevents) developed on antithetic faults, reactivating thrust faults located at the eastern edge of the Apulian belt.

  15. Deep resistivity structure of Yucca Flat, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asch, Theodore H.; Rodriguez, Brian D.; Sampson, Jay A.; Wallin, Erin L.; Williams, Jackie M.

    2006-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) and the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) at their Nevada Site Office are addressing groundwater contamination resulting from historical underground nuclear testing through the Environmental Management program and, in particular, the Underground Test Area project. One issue of concern is the nature of the somewhat poorly constrained pre Tertiary geology and its effects on ground-water flow in the area adjacent to a nuclear test. Ground water modelers would like to know more about the hydrostratigraphy and geologic structure to support a hydrostratigraphic framework model that is under development for the Yucca Flat Corrective Action Unit (CAU). During 2003, the U.S. Geological Survey, supported by the DOE and NNSA-NSO, collected and processed data from 51 magnetotelluric (MT) and audio-magnetotelluric (AMT) stations at the Nevada Test Site in and near Yucca Flat to assist in characterizing the pre-Tertiary geology in that area. The primary purpose was to refine the character, thickness, and lateral extent of pre Tertiary confining units. In particular, a major goal has been to define the upper clastic confining unit (late Devonian - Mississippian-age siliciclastic rocks assigned to the Eleana Formation and Chainman Shale) in the Yucca Flat area. The MT and AMT data have been released in separate USGS Open File Reports. The Nevada Test Site magnetotelluric data interpretation presented in this report includes the results of detailed two-dimensional (2 D) resistivity modeling for each profile (including alternative interpretations) and gross inferences on the three dimensional (3 D) character of the geology beneath each station. The character, thickness, and lateral extent of the Chainman Shale and Eleana Formation that comprise the Upper Clastic Confining Unit are generally well determined in the upper 5 km. Inferences can be made regarding the presence of the Lower Clastic Confining Unit at depths below 5 km. Large fault

  16. Deep Resistivity Structure of Yucca Flat, Nevada Test Site, Nevada.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Theodore H. Asch, Brian D. Rodriguez; Jay A. Sampson; Erin L. Wallin; and Jackie M. Williams.

    2006-09-18

    The Department of Energy (DOE) and the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) at their Nevada Site Office are addressing groundwater contamination resulting from historical underground nuclear testing through the Environmental Management program and, in particular, the Underground Test Area project. One issue of concern is the nature of the somewhat poorly constrained pre Tertiary geology and its effects on ground-water flow in the area adjacent to a nuclear test. Ground water modelers would like to know more about the hydrostratigraphy and geologic structure to support a hydrostratigraphic framework model that is under development for the Yucca Flat Corrective Action Unit (CAU). During 2003, the U.S. Geological Survey, supported by the DOE and NNSA-NSO, collected and processed data from 51 magnetotelluric (MT) and audio-magnetotelluric (AMT) stations at the Nevada Test Site in and near Yucca Flat to assist in characterizing the pre-Tertiary geology in that area. The primary purpose was to refine the character, thickness, and lateral extent of pre Tertiary confining units. In particular, a major goal has been to define the upper clastic confining unit (late Devonian – Mississippian-age siliciclastic rocks assigned to the Eleana Formation and Chainman Shale) in the Yucca Flat area. The MT and AMT data have been released in separate USGS Open File Reports. The Nevada Test Site magnetotelluric data interpretation presented in this report includes the results of detailed two-dimensional (2 D) resistivity modeling for each profile (including alternative interpretations) and gross inferences on the three dimensional (3 D) character of the geology beneath each station. The character, thickness, and lateral extent of the Chainman Shale and Eleana Formation that comprise the Upper Clastic Confining Unit are generally well determined in the upper 5 km. Inferences can be made regarding the presence of the Lower Clastic Confining Unit at depths below 5 km. Large

  17. High-resolution lithospheric structure beneath Mainland China from ambient noise and earthquake surface-wave tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, X.; Song, X.; Li, J.

    2016-12-01

    We present a new high-resolution shear-velocity model of the lithosphere (down to about 160 km) beneath China using Rayleigh-wave tomography. We combined ambient noise and earthquake data recorded at 1316 seismic stations, the largest number used for the region to date. More than 700,000 dispersion curves were measured to generate group and phase velocity maps at periods of 10-140s. The resolution of our model is significantly improved over previous models with about 1-2°in eastern China and 2-3°in western China. We also derived models of the study region for crustal thickness and averaged S velocities for upper and mid-lower crust and uppermost mantle. These models reveal important lithospheric features beneath China and provide a fundamental data set for understanding continental dynamics and evolution. Different geological units show distinct features in the Moho depth, lithospheric thickness, and shear velocity. In particular, the North China Craton (NCC) lithosphere shows strong east-west structural variations with thin and low-velocity lithosphere in eastern NCC and thick and high-velocity lithosphere beneath western NCC and the lithosphere of the Ordos Block seems to have undergone strong erosion. The results support the progressive destruction of the NCC lithosphere from east to west at least partly caused by the thermal-chemical erosion of the cratonic lithosphere from the asthenosphere. Another pronounced feature of our model is the strong lateral variations of the mantle lithosphere beneath the Tibetan Plateau (TP). The Indian lithosphere beneath the TP shows variable northward advancement with nearly flat subduction in western and eastern TP and steep subduction in central TP with evidence for the tearing of Indian lithosphere beneath central TP, which may be important for the riftings at the surface in Himalayas and southern TP. The low-velocity zone in northern TP shows strong correlation with the region of the mid-Miocene to Quaternary potassic

  18. Connecting slow earthquakes to huge earthquakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obara, Kazushige; Kato, Aitaro

    2016-07-15

    Slow earthquakes are characterized by a wide spectrum of fault slip behaviors and seismic radiation patterns that differ from those of traditional earthquakes. However, slow earthquakes and huge megathrust earthquakes can have common slip mechanisms and are located in neighboring regions of the seismogenic zone. The frequent occurrence of slow earthquakes may help to reveal the physics underlying megathrust events as useful analogs. Slow earthquakes may function as stress meters because of their high sensitivity to stress changes in the seismogenic zone. Episodic stress transfer to megathrust source faults leads to an increased probability of triggering huge earthquakes if the adjacent locked region is critically loaded. Careful and precise monitoring of slow earthquakes may provide new information on the likelihood of impending huge earthquakes.

  19. Connecting slow earthquakes to huge earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obara, Kazushige; Kato, Aitaro

    2016-07-01

    Slow earthquakes are characterized by a wide spectrum of fault slip behaviors and seismic radiation patterns that differ from those of traditional earthquakes. However, slow earthquakes and huge megathrust earthquakes can have common slip mechanisms and are located in neighboring regions of the seismogenic zone. The frequent occurrence of slow earthquakes may help to reveal the physics underlying megathrust events as useful analogs. Slow earthquakes may function as stress meters because of their high sensitivity to stress changes in the seismogenic zone. Episodic stress transfer to megathrust source faults leads to an increased probability of triggering huge earthquakes if the adjacent locked region is critically loaded. Careful and precise monitoring of slow earthquakes may provide new information on the likelihood of impending huge earthquakes.

  20. Corrosion Resistant Steels for Structural Applications in Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    Nitriding Trials ........................................................................................203 LIST OF TABLES Table 1 Property...25% min. transverse KIC 50 ksi√in min. Fatigue Similar to 300M Cleanliness AMS 2300, ASTM E45 SCC Superior to 300M Corrosion Resistance Better...those that have a high deformation resistance associated with very hard and thermal resistant multi-layer PVD titanium aluminum nitride coatings

  1. A rapid method for post-earthquake fire risk assessment in urban planning on earthquake resistance and disaster prevention%城市抗震防灾规划中次生火灾风险快速评估方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈志芬; 蔺昊; 邹亮; 朱思诚

    2013-01-01

    地震次生火灾风险评估是城市抗震防灾规划的重要内容之一.由于引起地震次生火灾的因素较多,因此,需要综合多因素进行地震次生火灾风险评估.从致灾因子危险性、承灾体易损性、环境因素三个方面研究地震次生火灾风险的评估方法,引入分类地块的概念,建立了致灾因子危险性评估的模型,以火灾荷载和人口密度作为财产损失和人员伤亡的衡量指标,评估承灾体易损性,并借助GIS的分析手段,发展了一套在抗震防灾规划中快速评估地震次生火灾风险的方法.案例研究的结果表明,该方法的评估结果能更全面地反映城市地震次生火灾风险的分布特征.%Post-earthquake secondary fire risk assessment is one of the important content in urban planning on earthquake resistance and disaster prevention. Integrated method is required to assess the post-earthquake fire risk for the reason that fire risks are affected by many factors, which can be classified into hazard, hazard-affected bodies and environment. In this paper, a rapid method was built to assess the post-earthquake fire risk based on GIS analysis. The method includes the statistics method for hazard risk assessment, matrix method for calculating the vulnerability of hazard-affected bodies and the correction of environmental influence. The provided case study show good performance of this method for the urban planning on earthquake resistance and disaster prevention for a wide range of cities.

  2. The Effect of Sonic Booms on Earthquake Warning Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurman, Gilead; Haering, Edward A, Jr.; Price, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    Several aerospace companies are designing quiet supersonic business jets for service over the United States. These aircraft have the potential to increase the occurrence of mild sonic booms across the country. This leads to interest among earthquake warning (EQW) developers and the general seismological community in characterizing the effect of sonic booms on seismic sensors in the field, their potential impact on EQW systems, and means of discriminating their signatures from those of earthquakes. The SonicBREWS project (Sonic Boom Resistant Earthquake Warning Systems) is a collaborative effort between Seismic Warning Systems, Inc. (SWS) and NASA Dryden Flight Research Center. This project aims to evaluate the effects of sonic booms on EQW sensors. The study consists of exposing high-sample-rate (1000 sps) triaxial accelerometers to sonic booms with overpressures ranging from 10 to 600 Pa in the free field and the built environment. The accelerometers record the coupling of the sonic boom to the ground and surrounding structures, while microphones record the acoustic wave above ground near the sensor. Sonic booms are broadband signals with more high-frequency content than earthquakes. Even a 1000 sps accelerometer will produce a significantly aliased record. Thus the observed peak ground velocity is strongly dependent on the sampling rate, and increases as the sampling rate is reduced. At 1000 sps we observe ground velocities that exceed those of P-waves from ML 3 earthquakes at local distances, suggesting that sonic booms are not negligible for EQW applications. We present the results of several experiments conducted under SonicBREWS showing the effects of typical-case low amplitude sonic booms and worst-case high amplitude booms. We show the effects of various sensor placements and sensor array geometries. Finally, we suggest possible avenues for discriminating sonic booms from earthquakes for the purposes of EQW.

  3. On dynamic response analysis of base-isolated structures for the Northridge earthquake and the Hyogo-ken Nanbu earthquake; Chokka jishin ni taisuru nenshin kozo no oto kyodo ni kansuru kosatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takayama, M.; Morita, K. [Fukuoka University, Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1995-09-01

    The January 17, 1995, Hyogo-ken Nanbu earthquake was occurred. This earthquake was the most damaging earthquake to have struck Japan since the great Kanto earthquake. In Los Angela area, the Northridge earthquake was occurred at January 17, 1994. In this earthquake, the large acceleration over 1G was observed. Two base-isolated buildings (computer center and research facility) in Kobe-city, and USC Hospice (base-isolated building) in Los Angeles survived these big earthquakes. In this paper, the observed response of these base-isolated buildings was introduced and the performance of base-isolated buildings was discussed. And the dynamic response analysis was carried out using the observed ground motions during the two big earthquakes. As the results, the acceleration response of base-isolated buildings which isolated period Tf is over 4 sec was below 0.1-0.2G, and the relative displacement of isolated story was under 30-50cm. 13 figs., 4 tabs.

  4. 新型抗震体系隅撑支撑框架结构研究%The research of new earthquake-resistant system:knee-braced frames

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄金桥; 余金华; 尹卫群; 田相合; 李新

    2011-01-01

    新型抗震隅撑支撑框架(knee-braced frame,KBF)是在梁柱连接的附近设一起耗能作用的隅撑,主支撑连接在此隅撑上构成的抗震结构体系.与偏心支撑体系EBF抗震结构体系对比,具有大震时框架结构不易损坏、维修方便的优点.采用有限元考察了不同的隅撑形式、不同高宽比下KBF结构的性能.在分析总结的基础上,系统地提出了KBF框架的抗震设计要求和有关的计算公式.%A new earthquake-resistant system (knee-braced frame,KBF) was investigated,in which an energy dissipation knee brace near the beam-column joint,and the main brace is connected to the knee brace.Compared with EBF,the beams and columns in KBF will sustain limited plastic deformation in strong earthquake,and repair work in KBF after earthquake is very convenient.The elastic and elastic-plastic behavior of the KBF is parametrically investigated.Based on those researches, design requirements and corresponding formulas were suggested.

  5. ELASTIC EARTHQUAKE RESPONSE ANALYSIS OF STEEL FRAME-BENT STRUCTURES OF MAIN BUILDINGS FOR LARGE THERMAL POWER PLANT%大型火电厂钢结构主厂房弹性地震反应分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛建阳; 梁炯丰; 彭修宁; 温永强

    2012-01-01

    The steel frame-bent structure is the main load-supporting structure in thermal power plants of China, whose structural quality and rigidity are distributed non-uniformly. It is particularly necessary to research earthquake resistant behavior of this structure. The time history response analysis method was used to study the dynamic properties, the interlayer deformation and the interlayer shear of steel frame-bent structures of main buildings for large thermal power plant. The results showed that there were many weak parts in the horizontal frame-bent and longitudinal frame-supporting structures, which must be strengthened when designed. The space model should be used to consider the effect of torsion in structural calculation and analysis.%钢框排架结构是我国火电厂主厂房的主要结构形式之一,但因其结构质量、刚度分布不均匀,所以对它的抗震性能研究尤为必要。采用弹性时程分析方法对大型火电厂钢框排架主厂房进行抗震分析,研究该类结构的动力特性、层间变形和层剪力等。计算结果表明:主厂房横向框排架和纵向框架-支撑结构存在较多的薄弱部位,计算分析应采用考虑扭转效应的空间模型。

  6. Experimental and numerical studies on new multi-dimensional earthquake isolation and mitigation device:Horizontal properties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Earthquake is a complex multi-dimensional excitation. Counter-measures of such multi-dimensional excitation on many critical structures,such as long-span structures and high-rise buildings,must be taken into account to avert the structural failure. Many types of earthquake mitigation or isolation devices for mitigating earthquake-induced effects in the horizontal direction have been proposed and applied to real applications. However,study on multi-dimensional earthquake isolation and mitigation devices for structures has been received much less attention. In this paper,a new multi-dimensional earthquake isolation and mitigation device was developed and tested. Effects of excitation frequency and environmental temperature on horizontal properties of this device were considered. At the same time,fatigue properties of the device under different amplitude horizontal excitations were also studied experimentally. The equivalent standard solid model which can effectively describe the effect of frequency and temperature on the horizontal properties of the device was proposed and verified. From the experimental results,it may be concluded that the multi-dimensional earthquake isolation and mitigation device owns fine energy dissipation and fatigue resistance capabilities.

  7. Is Earthquake Triggering Driven by Small Earthquakes?

    CERN Document Server

    Helmstetter, A

    2002-01-01

    Using a catalog of seismicity for Southern California, we measure how the number of triggered earthquakes increases with the earthquake magnitude. The trade-off between this scaling and the distribution of earthquake magnitudes controls the relative role of small compared to large earthquakes. We show that seismicity triggering is driven by the smallest earthquakes, which trigger fewer aftershocks than larger earthquakes, but which are much more numerous. We propose that the non-trivial scaling of the number of aftershocks emerges from the fractal spatial distribution of aftershocks.

  8. Medical complications associated with earthquakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartels, Susan A; VanRooyen, Michael J

    2012-02-25

    Major earthquakes are some of the most devastating natural disasters. The epidemiology of earthquake-related injuries and mortality is unique for these disasters. Because earthquakes frequently affect populous urban areas with poor structural standards, they often result in high death rates and mass casualties with many traumatic injuries. These injuries are highly mechanical and often multisystem, requiring intensive curative medical and surgical care at a time when the local and regional medical response capacities have been at least partly disrupted. Many patients surviving blunt and penetrating trauma and crush injuries have subsequent complications that lead to additional morbidity and mortality. Here, we review and summarise earthquake-induced injuries and medical complications affecting major organ systems.

  9. Seismogenesis in Central Apennines, Italy: an integrated analysis of minor earthquake sequences and structural data in the Amatrice-Campotosto area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Rozzi

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available We present a seismotectonic study of the Amatrice-Campotosto area (Central Italy based on an integrated analysis of minor earthquake sequences, geological data and crustal rheology. The area has been affected by three small-magnitude seismic sequences: August 1992 (M=3.9, June 1994 (M=3.7 and October 1996 (M=4.0. The hypocentral locations and fault plane solutions of the 1996 sequence are based on original data; the seismological features of the 1992 and 1994 sequences are summarised from literature. The active WSWdipping Mt. Gorzano normal fault is interpreted as the common seismogenic structure for the three analysed sequences. The mean state of stress obtained by inversion of focal mechanisms (WSW-ENE-trending deviatoric tension is comparable to that responsible for finite Quaternary displacement, showing that the stress field has not changed since the onset of extensional tectonics. Available morphotectonic data integrated with original structural data show that the Mt. Gorzano Fault extends for ~28 km along strike. The along-strike displacement profile is typical of an isolated fault, without significant internal segmentation. The strong evidence of late Quaternary activity in the southern part of the fault (with lower displacement gradient is explained in this work in terms of displacement profile readjustment within a fault unable to grow further laterally. The depth distribution of seismicity and the crustal rheology yield a thickness of ~15 km for the brittle layer. An area of ~530 km2 is estimated for the entire Mt. Gorzano Fault surface. In historical times, the northern portion of the fault was probably activated during the 1639 Amatrice earthquake (I = X, M~ 6.3, but this is not the largest event we expect on the fault. We propose that a large earthquake might activate the entire 28 km long Mt. Gorzano Fault, with an expected Mmax up to 6.7.

  10. Assessing the latent structure of DSM-5 PTSD among Chinese adolescents after the Ya'an earthquake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiao; Wu, Xinchun; Zhen, Rui

    2017-08-01

    To examine the underlying substructure of DSM-5 PTSD in an adolescent sample, this study used a confirmatory factor analysis alternative model approach to assess 813 adolescents two and a half years after the Ya'an earthquake. Participants completed the PTSD Checklist for DSM-5, the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale for Children, and the Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders. The results found that the seven-factor hybrid PTSD model entailing intrusion, avoidance, negative affect, anhedonia, externalizing behaviors, anxious arousal, and dysphoric arousal had significantly better fit indices than other alternative models. Depression and anxiety displayed high correlations with the seven-factor model. The findings suggested that the seven-factor model was more applicable to adolescents following the earthquake, and may carry important implications for further clinical practice and research on posttraumatic stress symptomatology. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Moisture resistance of SU-8 and KMPR as structural material for integrated gaseous detectors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blanco Carballo, V.M.; Melai, J.; Salm, Cora; Schmitz, Jurriaan

    2008-01-01

    This paper treats the moisture resistance of SU-8 and KMPR, two photoresists considered as structural material in microsystems. Our experiments focus on the moisture resistance of newly developed radiation imaging detectors containing these resists. Since these microsystems will be used unpackaged,

  12. Estimation of Future Earthquake Losses in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowshandel, B.; Wills, C. J.; Cao, T.; Reichle, M.; Branum, D.

    2003-12-01

    earthquake sources included in the national seismic hazard maps. Initial results give an expected annual loss in California of 2.2 billion dollars. This estimate is based on the 2002 CGS-USGS ground motion data and the 1997 NEHRP soil amplification factors. It should be pointed out that these results are very sensitive to the soil amplification factors used in the analysis. Using amplification factors from Boore, Joyner and Fumal, 1997, which had been used in previous CGS loss estimation studies, the state wide estimated annual loss becomes roughly 3.3 billion dollars. The estimates presented in this study include only structural and non-structural damage to buildings. Experience with real earthquakes suggest that when associated losses, such as losses to contents, inventory and income, are included, the total expected annual would be considerably larger.

  13. Predictable earthquakes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, D.

    2002-12-01

    acceleration) and global number of earthquake for this period from published literature which give us a great picture about the dynamical geophysical phenomena. Methodology: The computing of linear correlation coefficients gives us a chance to quantitatively characterise the relation among the data series, if we suppose a linear dependence in the first step. The correlation coefficients among the Earth's rotational acceleration and Z-orbit acceleration (perpendicular to the ecliptic plane) and the global number of the earthquakes were compared. The results clearly demonstrate the common feature of both the Earth's rotation and Earth's Z-acceleration around the Sun and also between the Earth's rotational acceleration and the earthquake number. This fact might means a strong relation among these phenomena. The mentioned rather strong correlation (r = 0.75) and the 29 year period (Saturn's synodic period) was clearly shown in the counted cross correlation function, which gives the dynamical characteristic of correlation, of Earth's orbital- (Z-direction) and rotational acceleration. This basic period (29 year) was also obvious in the earthquake number data sets with clear common features in time. Conclusion: The Core, which involves the secular variation of the Earth's magnetic field, is the only sufficiently mobile part of the Earth with a sufficient mass to modify the rotation which probably effects on the global time distribution of the earthquakes. Therefore it might means that the secular variation of the earthquakes is inseparable from the changes in Earth's magnetic field, i.e. the interior process of the Earth's core belongs to the dynamical state of the solar system. Therefore if the described idea is real the global distribution of the earthquakes in time is predictable.

  14. Defeating Earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, R. S.

    2012-12-01

    The 2004 M=9.2 Sumatra earthquake claimed what seemed an unfathomable 228,000 lives, although because of its size, we could at least assure ourselves that it was an extremely rare event. But in the short space of 8 years, the Sumatra quake no longer looks like an anomaly, and it is no longer even the worst disaster of the Century: 80,000 deaths in the 2005 M=7.6 Pakistan quake; 88,000 deaths in the 2008 M=7.9 Wenchuan, China quake; 316,000 deaths in the M=7.0 Haiti, quake. In each case, poor design and construction were unable to withstand the ferocity of the shaken earth. And this was compounded by inadequate rescue, medical care, and shelter. How could the toll continue to mount despite the advances in our understanding of quake risk? The world's population is flowing into megacities, and many of these migration magnets lie astride the plate boundaries. Caught between these opposing demographic and seismic forces are 50 cities of at least 3 million people threatened by large earthquakes, the targets of chance. What we know for certain is that no one will take protective measures unless they are convinced they are at risk. Furnishing that knowledge is the animating principle of the Global Earthquake Model, launched in 2009. At the very least, everyone should be able to learn what his or her risk is. At the very least, our community owes the world an estimate of that risk. So, first and foremost, GEM seeks to raise quake risk awareness. We have no illusions that maps or models raise awareness; instead, earthquakes do. But when a quake strikes, people need a credible place to go to answer the question, how vulnerable am I, and what can I do about it? The Global Earthquake Model is being built with GEM's new open source engine, OpenQuake. GEM is also assembling the global data sets without which we will never improve our understanding of where, how large, and how frequently earthquakes will strike, what impacts they will have, and how those impacts can be lessened by

  15. 3-D P- and S-wave velocity structure and low-frequency earthquake locations in the Parkfield, California region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Xiangfang; Thurber, Clifford H.; Shelly, David R.; Harrington, Rebecca M.; Cochran, Elizabeth S.; Bennington, Ninfa L.; Peterson, Dana; Guo, Bin; McClement, Kara

    2016-09-01

    To refine the 3-D seismic velocity model in the greater Parkfield, California region, a new data set including regular earthquakes, shots, quarry blasts and low-frequency earthquakes (LFEs) was assembled. Hundreds of traces of each LFE family at two temporary arrays were stacked with time-frequency domain phase weighted stacking method to improve signal-to-noise ratio. We extend our model resolution to lower crustal depth with LFE data. Our result images not only previously identified features but also low velocity zones (LVZs) in the area around the LFEs and the lower crust beneath the southern Rinconada Fault. The former LVZ is consistent with high fluid pressure that can account for several aspects of LFE behaviour. The latter LVZ is consistent with a high conductivity zone in magnetotelluric studies. A new Vs model was developed with S picks that were obtained with a new autopicker. At shallow depth, the low Vs areas underlie the strongest shaking areas in the 2004 Parkfield earthquake. We relocate LFE families and analyse the location uncertainties with the NonLinLoc and tomoDD codes. The two methods yield similar results.

  16. Three dimensional velocity structure and relocated aftershocks for the 1985 Constantine, Algeria (MS = 5.9 earthquake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Dorbath

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available Local earthquake travel-time data were inverted to obtain a three dimensional tomographic image of the region centered on the 1985 Constantine earthquake. The resulting velocity model was then used to relocate the events. The tomographic data set consisted of P and S waves travel-times from 653 carefully selected aftershocks of this moderate size earthquake, recorded at 10 temporary stations. A three-dimensional P-wave velocity image to a depth of 12 km was obtained by Thurber's method. At shallower depth, the velocity contrasts reflected the differences in tectonic units. Velocities lower than 4 km/s corresponded to recent deposits, velocities higher than 5 km/s to the Constantine Neritic and the Tellian nappes. The relocation of the aftershocks indicates that most of the seismicity occured where the velocity exceeded 5.5 km/s. The aftershock distribution accurately defined the three segments involved in the main shock and led to a better understanding of the rupture process.

  17. Impact of Corrugated Paperboard Structure on Puncture Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaidas Bivainis

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Thanks to its excellentprotective properties, lightness, a reasonable price, and ecology, corrugated paperboardis one of the most popular materials used in the production of packaging for variousproducts. During transportation or storage, packaging with goods can be exposedto the mass of other commodities, dropping from heights and transportationshock loads, which can lead to their puncture damage. Depending on the purposeand size of the packaging, the thickness, grammage, constituent paper layers,numbers of layers and type of fluting of corrugated paperboard used in itsproduction differ. A standard triangular prism, corrugated paperboard fixationplates and a universal tension-compression machine were used to investigate theimpact of corrugated paperboard structure and other parameters on the punctureresistance of the material. The investigation determines the maximum punctureload and estimates energy required to penetrate the corrugated paperboard. Itwas found that the greatest puncture resistance is demonstrated by paperboardwith a larger number of corrugating flutings and the board produced from harderpaper with a smaller amount of recycled paper. It was established that thegrammage of three-layered paperboard with two different fluting profiles has thegreatest impact on the level of static puncture energy.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.21.1.5713

  18. Earthquake Response Analysis of High Pier and Upper Auxiliary Structure%高闸墩及其上部附属结构地震响应分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢义华; 宫必宁; 刘莎

    2013-01-01

    At present, there is less aseismic research on the upper auxiliary structure and has no standards for mention, so it leads to random and empirical knowledge for equivalent static calculation. Dynamic time-history method is applied to calculate pier and frame structures of a hydropower station in the northwestern districts by using ADINA software. And the coupling effect between different structures is discussed under the action of earthquake through dynamic characteristics of different structures and response characteristics at different operating conditions. The results show that under the action of earthquake, pier and frame structures with mutational mass and stiffness in vertical direction produce structural damages like whiplash effect easily. So this phenomenon must be taken a special attention when designing.%鉴于我国对上部附属结构抗震研究较少,规范中也未专门提及,由此导致设计人员进行等效静力计算时带有一定的随意性和经验性.借助有限元软件ADINA,利用动力时程分析法计算了西北地区某水电站的闸墩和框架结构,并通过各结构的动力特性和不同工况下的响应特点,探讨了地震作用下结构之间的耦联作用.结果表明,在地震作用时,质量和刚度沿竖向均存在明显突变的高闸墩和框架结构易产生类鞭梢效应的结构破坏,设计时应引起格外重视.

  19. 钢筋混凝土框架-斜撑结构的震害预测%Earthquake Damage Prediction for R. C. Frame-braced Structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    成浩; 严士超

    2001-01-01

    An earthquake damage precdiction method for R. C. frame-bracedstructure is presented based on the storey ductility factor. The relationship between storey ductility factor and damage degree is established on the basis of 480 elastic-plastic responses of 6 typical R. C. frame-braced structures,as well as some related experimental data. At last,a calculating example for earthquake damage predication of a 8-storey R. C. frame-braced structure by using the presented method is given. It is proved that the presented method is reasonable.%通过对钢筋混凝土框架-斜撑结构6个典型工程的480余例结构弹塑性地震反应分析,并结合有关试验结果,确定了框架-斜撑结构由层间延伸率大小决定的破坏程度,建立了一个以层间延伸率为判据的钢筋混凝土框架-斜撑结构房屋的震害预测方法。最后,通过对一栋8层框架-斜撑结构试验工程的弹塑性时程分析,验证了方法的正确合理性。

  20. Rapid Field Response to the 3 September 2016 M5.8 Earthquake Near Pawnee, Oklahoma: Summary of Structural Damage and Liquefaction Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, S. E. K.; Streig, A. R.; Chang, J. C.; Hornsby, K. T.; Woelfel, I. E.; Andrews, R. D.; Briggs, R. W.; McNamara, D. E.; Williams, R. A.; Wald, D. J.

    2016-12-01

    The Mw5.8 Pawnee, Oklahoma earthquake occurred on 03 September 2016 (07:02:44 local time; depth 5.6 km) in a rural, sparsely populated area. The USGS, Mw-phase moment tensor indicated slip occurred on a sub-vertical fault plane, striking WNW or NNE. Relocations of this mainshock and a dozen aftershocks (Mw 2.5-3.6) in the day following the event were broadly aligned along a WNW trend. These data, along with USGS `Did You Feel It?' and ShakeMap products, helped guide our field response. Our team arrived to the epicentral region 10 hours after the mainshock and spent the next 1.5 days examining 60 km of paved and dirt roads across a 40 km2 area for evidence of surface deformation, liquefaction, and structural damage. We completed a 2 km-long, NNE transect on foot centered on the epicenter, perpendicular to the suspected WNW-striking source fault. No surface rupture was observed during our reconnaissance surveys. We interviewed 10 residents within a 1-6 km radius of the epicenter, who reported up to 30 seconds of shaking. Structural damage was common and ranged from minor to moderate. Failure and collapse of masonry chimneys and exterior house facades made of stone or brick was common near the epicenter, yet a few were undamaged. At several locations, damage patterns suggest an E-W shaking direction; for example, only the western wall of a century-old unreinforced brick storage building failed, elevated fuel tanks shook E-W, and most metal straps securing a trailer home to its cinder-block foundation were sheared in an E-W direction. One earthquake-related injury was caused by chimney bricks that struck a man on the head. Strong ground motion cracked foundations and interior walls at many homes near the epicenter. Minor ground settlement and ground cracking was observed in artificial fill surrounding houses and along the crests of small earthen dams. A large barn fire was attributed to the earthquake. Landowners reported sand blows in farm fields underlain by sandy

  1. Analysis and Research on Earthquake Resistant Performance of Liaohe Grand Bridge%辽河特大桥抗震性能分析研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈建荣

    2012-01-01

    Taking Liaohe grand bridge of coastal highway as an example,mechanical characteristics of cable-stayed bridge with large span locating at the region of high earthquake intensity and calculation method of mechanical analysis under earthquake are introduced.%以滨海公路辽河特大桥为例,介绍了位于高地震烈度地区的大跨度斜拉桥在地震作用下的受力特点以及动力分析计算方法。

  2. An asthma patient with steroid-resistant decrease in peak expiratory flow after the Great East Japan earthquake showing spontaneous recovery after 1 month.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanagimoto, Shintaro; Haida, Michiko; Suko, Matsunobu

    2012-01-01

    People living in Japan were affected in various ways after the Great East Japan earthquake of March 11, 2011. A 52-year-old female asthma patient not directly affected by the disaster experienced a decrease in peak expiratory flow (PEF) immediately after the earthquake. Despite increasing the inhaled and oral corticosteroid doses, her PEF did not recover. One month later, her PEF level abruptly returned to normal with minimal medications, which were previously ineffective, and the asthma-related symptoms vanished. The stabilization of her state of mind and actual social state seemed to be a part of the reason for the patient's recovery.

  3. Structural fire resistance: Rating system manifests crude, inconsistent design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eoin O’Loughlin

    2015-05-01

    Although the concept of standard fire resistance, benchmarked against performance under normalised furnace test heating regimes, is useful in that it allows for the comparison necessary to safeguard consistency across products, design methods and geographies, the historic 15-min fire resistance increments (for example 60, 75, 90 min result in inconsistent levels of safety. Refined grades, as in fact already allowed under fire resistance testing standards, would yield significant benefits for reliability and design efficiency. The paper uses hypothetical case studies to exhibit the merits of refined fire resistance grades and explains how implementing the enhanced classification system may be readily achievable.

  4. Understanding the structural mechanisms of antibiotic resistance sets the platform for new discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeve, Stephanie M; Lombardo, Michael N; Anderson, Amy C

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the structural basis of antibacterial resistance may enable rational design principles that avoid and subvert that resistance, thus leading to the discovery of more effective antibiotics. In this review, we explore the use of crystal structures to guide new discovery of antibiotics that are effective against resistant organisms. Structures of efflux pumps bound to substrates and inhibitors have aided the design of compounds with lower affinity for the pump or inhibitors that more effectively block the pump. Structures of β-lactamase enzymes have revealed the mechanisms of action toward key carbapenems and structures of gyrase have aided the design of compounds that are less susceptible to point mutations.

  5. The sensibility of resistance sensor structures with graphene to the action of selected gaseous media

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    T Pustelny; M Setkiewicz; S Drewniak; E Maciak; A Stolarczyk; M Urbanczyk; M Procek; K Gut; Z Opilski; I Pasternak; W Strupinski

    2013-01-01

      The paper presents resistance sensor structures with a graphene sensing layer. The structures were tested concerning their sensitivity to the affects of hydrogen, nitrogen dioxide and steam in an atmosphere of a synthetic air...

  6. Update earthquake risk assessment in Cairo, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badawy, Ahmed; Korrat, Ibrahim; El-Hadidy, Mahmoud; Gaber, Hanan

    2016-12-01

    The Cairo earthquake (12 October 1992; m b = 5.8) is still and after 25 years one of the most painful events and is dug into the Egyptians memory. This is not due to the strength of the earthquake but due to the accompanied losses and damages (561 dead; 10,000 injured and 3000 families lost their homes). Nowadays, the most frequent and important question that should rise is "what if this earthquake is repeated today." In this study, we simulate the same size earthquake (12 October 1992) ground motion shaking and the consequent social-economic impacts in terms of losses and damages. Seismic hazard, earthquake catalogs, soil types, demographics, and building inventories were integrated into HAZUS-MH to produce a sound earthquake risk assessment for Cairo including economic and social losses. Generally, the earthquake risk assessment clearly indicates that "the losses and damages may be increased twice or three times" in Cairo compared to the 1992 earthquake. The earthquake risk profile reveals that five districts (Al-Sahel, El Basateen, Dar El-Salam, Gharb, and Madinat Nasr sharq) lie in high seismic risks, and three districts (Manshiyat Naser, El-Waily, and Wassat (center)) are in low seismic risk level. Moreover, the building damage estimations reflect that Gharb is the highest vulnerable district. The analysis shows that the Cairo urban area faces high risk. Deteriorating buildings and infrastructure make the city particularly vulnerable to earthquake risks. For instance, more than 90 % of the estimated buildings damages are concentrated within the most densely populated (El Basateen, Dar El-Salam, Gharb, and Madinat Nasr Gharb) districts. Moreover, about 75 % of casualties are in the same districts. Actually, an earthquake risk assessment for Cairo represents a crucial application of the HAZUS earthquake loss estimation model for risk management. Finally, for mitigation, risk reduction, and to improve the seismic performance of structures and assure life safety

  7. Update earthquake risk assessment in Cairo, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badawy, Ahmed; Korrat, Ibrahim; El-Hadidy, Mahmoud; Gaber, Hanan

    2017-07-01

    The Cairo earthquake (12 October 1992; m b = 5.8) is still and after 25 years one of the most painful events and is dug into the Egyptians memory. This is not due to the strength of the earthquake but due to the accompanied losses and damages (561 dead; 10,000 injured and 3000 families lost their homes). Nowadays, the most frequent and important question that should rise is "what if this earthquake is repeated today." In this study, we simulate the same size earthquake (12 October 1992) ground motion shaking and the consequent social-economic impacts in terms of losses and damages. Seismic hazard, earthquake catalogs, soil types, demographics, and building inventories were integrated into HAZUS-MH to produce a sound earthquake risk assessment for Cairo including economic and social losses. Generally, the earthquake risk assessment clearly indicates that "the losses and damages may be increased twice or three times" in Cairo compared to the 1992 earthquake. The earthquake risk profile reveals that five districts (Al-Sahel, El Basateen, Dar El-Salam, Gharb, and Madinat Nasr sharq) lie in high seismic risks, and three districts (Manshiyat Naser, El-Waily, and Wassat (center)) are in low seismic risk level. Moreover, the building damage estimations reflect that Gharb is the highest vulnerable district. The analysis shows that the Cairo urban area faces high risk. Deteriorating buildings and infrastructure make the city particularly vulnerable to earthquake risks. For instance, more than 90 % of the estimated buildings damages are concentrated within the most densely populated (El Basateen, Dar El-Salam, Gharb, and Madinat Nasr Gharb) districts. Moreover, about 75 % of casualties are in the same districts. Actually, an earthquake risk assessment for Cairo represents a crucial application of the HAZUS earthquake loss estimation model for risk management. Finally, for mitigation, risk reduction, and to improve the seismic performance of structures and assure life safety

  8. Structural basis for the beta lactam resistance of PBP2a from methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Daniel; Strynadka, Natalie C J

    2002-11-01

    The multiple antibiotic resistance of methicillin-resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has become a major clinical problem worldwide. The key determinant of the broad-spectrum beta-lactam resistance in MRSA strains is the penicillin-binding protein 2a (PBP2a). Because of its low affinity for beta-lactams, PBP2a provides transpeptidase activity to allow cell wall synthesis at beta-lactam concentrations that inhibit the beta-lactam-sensitive PBPs normally produced by S. aureus. The crystal structure of a soluble derivative of PBP2a has been determined to 1.8 A resolution and provides the highest resolution structure for a high molecular mass PBP. Additionally, structures of the acyl-PBP complexes of PBP2a with nitrocefin, penicillin G and methicillin allow, for the first time, a comparison of an apo and acylated resistant PBP. An analysis of the PBP2a active site in these forms reveals the structural basis of its resistance and identifies features in newly developed beta-lactams that are likely important for high affinity binding.

  9. Earthquake damage to underground facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pratt, H.R.; Hustrulid, W.A. Stephenson, D.E.

    1978-11-01

    The potential seismic risk for an underground nuclear waste repository will be one of the considerations in evaluating its ultimate location. However, the risk to subsurface facilities cannot be judged by applying intensity ratings derived from the surface effects of an earthquake. A literature review and analysis were performed to document the damage and non-damage due to earthquakes to underground facilities. Damage from earthquakes to tunnels, s, and wells and damage (rock bursts) from mining operations were investigated. Damage from documented nuclear events was also included in the study where applicable. There are very few data on damage in the subsurface due to earthquakes. This fact itself attests to the lessened effect of earthquakes in the subsurface because mines exist in areas where strong earthquakes have done extensive surface damage. More damage is reported in shallow tunnels near the surface than in deep mines. In mines and tunnels, large displacements occur primarily along pre-existing faults and fractures or at the surface entrance to these facilities.Data indicate vertical structures such as wells and shafts are less susceptible to damage than surface facilities. More analysis is required before seismic criteria can be formulated for the siting of a nuclear waste repository.

  10. Aftershock distribution and heterogeneous structure in and around the source area of the 2014 northern Nagano Prefecture earthquake (Mw 6.2) , central Japan, revealed by dense seismic array observation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurashimo, E.; Hirata, N.; Iwasaki, T.; Sakai, S.; Obara, K.; Ishiyama, T.; Sato, H.

    2015-12-01

    A shallow earthquake (Mw 6.2) occurred on November 22 in the northern Nagano Prefecture, central Japan. Aftershock area is located near the Kamishiro fault, which is a part of the Itoigawa-Shizuoka Tectonic Line (ISTL). ISTL is one of the major tectonic boundaries in Japan. Precise aftershock distribution and heterogeneous structure in and around the source region of this earthquake is important to constrain the process of earthquake occurrence. We conducted a high-density seismic array observation in and around source area to investigate aftershock distribution and crustal structure. One hundred sixty-three seismic stations, approximately 1 km apart, were deployed during the period from December 3, 2014 to December 21, 2014. Each seismograph consisted of a 4.5 Hz 3-component seismometer and a digital data recorder (GSX-3). Furthermore, the seismic data at 40 permanent stations were incorporated in our analysis. During the seismic array observation, the Japan Meteorological Agency located 977 earthquakes in a latitude range of 35.5°-37.1°N and a longitude range of 136.7°-139.0°E, from which we selected 500 local events distributed uniformly in the study area. To investigate the aftershock distribution and the crustal structure, the double-difference tomography method [Zhang and Thurber, 2003] was applied to the P- and S-wave arrival time data obtained from 500 local earthquakes. The relocated aftershock distribution shows a concentration on a plane dipping eastward in the vicinity of the mainshock hypocenter. The large slip region (asperity) estimated from InSAR analysis [GSI, 2014] corresponds to the low-activity region of the aftershocks. The depth section of Vp structure shows that the high Vp zone corresponds to the large slip region. These results suggest that structural heterogeneities in and around the fault plane may have controlled the rupture process of the 2014 northern Nagano Prefecture earthquake.

  11. Multiple faulting events revealed by trench analysis of the seismogenic structure of the 1976 Ms7.1 Luanxian earthquake, Tangshan Region, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Hui; Jiang, Wali; Xie, Xinsheng

    2017-10-01

    The Ms7.8 Tangshan earthquake occurred on 28 July 1976 at 03:42 CST. Approximately 15 h later, the Ms7.1 Luanxian earthquake occurred approximately 40 km northeast of the main shock. The two earthquakes formed different surface rupture zones. The surface rupture of the Tangshan earthquake was NNE-trending and more than 47 km long. The surface rupture of the Luanxian earthquake was more than 6 km long and consisted of two sections, forming a protruding arc to the west. The north and south sections were NE- and NW-trending and 2 km and 4 km long, respectively. A trench was excavated in Sanshanyuan Village across the NE-trending rupture of the Luanxian earthquake, at the macroscopic epicenter of the Luanxian earthquake. Analysis of this trench revealed that the surface rupture is connected to the underground active fault. The following major conclusions regarding Late Quaternary fault activity have been reached. (1) The Sanshanyuan trench indicated that its fault planes trend NE30° and dip SE or NW at angles of approximately 69-82°. (2) The fault experienced four faulting events prior to the Luanxian earthquake at 27.98 ka with an average recurrence interval of approximately 7.5 ka. (3) The Ms7.1 Luanxian earthquake resulted from the activity of the Luanxian Western fault and was triggered by the Ms7.8 Tangshan earthquake. The seismogenic faults of the 1976 Ms7.1 Luanxian earthquake and the 1976 Ms7.8 Tangshan earthquake are not the same fault. This example of an M7 earthquake triggered by a nearly M8 earthquake after more than 10 h on a nearby fault is a worthy topic of research for the future prediction of strong earthquakes.

  12. Seismic velocity structure of the Juan de Fuca and Gorda plates revealed by a joint inversion of ambient noise and regional earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Haiying

    2016-05-01

    The crust and upper mantle seismic structure, spanning from the Juan de Fuca and Gorda spreading centers to the Cascade back arc, is imaged with full-wave propagation simulation and a joint inversion of ambient noise and regional earthquake recordings. The spreading centers have anomalously low shear wave velocity beneath the oceanic lithosphere. Around the Cobb axial seamount, we observe a low-velocity anomaly underlying a relatively thin oceanic lithosphere, indicating its influence on the Juan de Fuca ridge. The oceanic Moho is clearly defined by a P velocity increase from 6.3 km/s to 7.5 km/s at about 6 km depth beneath the seafloor. The thickness of the oceanic plates is less than 40 km prior to subduction, and the structure of the oceanic lithosphere varies both along strike and along dip. Farther landward, very low velocity anomalies are observed above the plate interface along the Cascade fore arc, indicative of subducted sediments.

  13. Initiatives to Reduce Earthquake Risk of Developing Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, B. E.

    2008-12-01

    an earthquake- and tsunami-resistant structure in Sumatra to house a tsunami museum, a community training center, and offices of a local NGO that is preparing Padang for the next tsunami. This facility would be designed and built by a team of US and Indonesian academics, architects, engineers and students. Another initiative would launch a collaborative research program on school earthquake safety with the scientists and engineers from the US and the ten Islamic countries that comprise the Economic Cooperation Organization. Finally, GHI hopes to develop internet and satellite communication techniques that will allow earthquake risk managers in the US to interact with masons, government officials, engineers and architects in remote communities of vulnerable developing countries, closing the science and engineering divide.

  14. Insulin Resistance, Diabetes Mellitus, and Brain Structure in Bipolar Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajek, Tomas; Calkin, Cynthia; Blagdon, Ryan; Slaney, Claire; Uher, Rudolf; Alda, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) damages the brain, especially the hippocampus, and frequently co-occurs with bipolar disorders (BD). Reduced hippocampal volumes are found only in some studies of BD subjects and may thus be secondary to the presence of certain clinical variables. Studying BD patients with abnormal glucose metabolism could help identify preventable risk factors for hippocampal atrophy in BD. We compared brain structure using optimized voxel-based morphometry of 1.5T MRI scans in 33 BD subjects with impaired glucose metabolism (19 with insulin resistance/glucose intolerance (IR/GI), 14 with T2DM), 15 euglycemic BD participants and 11 euglycemic, nonpsychiatric controls. The group of BD patients with IR, GI or T2DM had significantly smaller hippocampal volumes than the euglycemic BD participants (corrected p=0.02) or euglycemic, nonpsychiatric controls (corrected p=0.004). Already the BD subjects with IR/GI had smaller hippocampal volumes than euglycemic BD participants (t(32)=−3.15, p=0.004). Age was significantly more negatively associated with hippocampal volumes in BD subjects with IR/GI/T2DM than in the euglycemic BD participants (F(2, 44)=9.96, p=0.0003). The gray matter reductions in dysglycemic subjects extended to the cerebral cortex, including the insula. In conclusion, this is the first study demonstrating that T2DM or even prediabetes may be risk factors for smaller hippocampal and cortical volumes in BD. Abnormal glucose metabolism may accelerate the age-related decline in hippocampal volumes in BD. These findings raise the possibility that improving diabetes care among BD subjects and intervening already at the level of prediabetes could slow brain aging in BD. PMID:25074491

  15. Post-Earthquake Fire Tests - Part 1: Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrina, Tudor

    2016-10-01

    Immediately after an earthquake, fire is the most probable accidental action on buildings. Beam-to-column steel connections are parts of the structure that need to have sufficient fire resistance in order for occupants to exit the building and firemen to intervene. Fire and post-earthquake fire tests on steel connections were made at the Technical University of Cluj-Napoca, Romania. Real scale specimens were created and some of them were subjected to cyclic action following a special procedure. After the cyclic action, the deteriorated specimens were immediately subjected to fire. New connections were also tested for fire action in order to find differences to the deteriorated case. In this paper, a short description of the specimen, test stand and equipment, the reports of all tests and immediate conclusions of each test are presented.

  16. Hurricane Sandy and earthquakes

    OpenAIRE

    MAVASHEV BORIS; MAVASHEV IGOR

    2013-01-01

    Submit for consideration the connection between formation of a hurricane Sandy and earthquakes. As a rule, weather anomalies precede and accompany earthquakes. The hurricane Sandy emerged 2 days prior to strong earthquakes that occurred in the area. And the trajectory of the hurricane Sandy matched the epicenter of the earthquakes. Possibility of early prediction of natural disasters will minimize the moral and material damage.

  17. The Structure of Fitness Landscapes in Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deris, Barrett; Kim, Minsu; Zhang, Zhongge; Okano, Hiroyuki; Hermsen, Rutger; Gore, Jeff; Hwa, Terence

    2014-03-01

    To predict the emergence of antibiotic resistance, quantitative relations must be established between the fitness of drug-resistant organisms and the molecular mechanisms conferring resistance. We have investigated E. coli strains expressing resistance to translation-inhibiting antibiotics. We show that resistance expression and drug inhibition are linked in a positive feedback loop arising from an innate, global effect of drug-inhibited growth on gene expression. This feedback leads generically to plateau-shaped fitness landscapes and concomitantly, for strains expressing at least moderate degrees of drug resistance, gives rise to an abrupt drop in growth rates of cultures at threshold drug concentrations. A simple quantitative model of bacterial growth based on this innate feedback accurately predicts experimental observations without ad hoc parameter fitting. We describe how drug-inhibited growth rate and the threshold drug concentration (the minimum inhibitory concentration, or MIC) depend on the few biochemical parameters that characterize the molecular details of growth inhibition and drug resistance (e.g., the drug-target dissociation constant). And finally, we discuss how these parameters can shape fitness landscapes to determine evolutionary dynamics and evolvability.

  18. How geometry and structure control the seismic radiation : spectral element simulation of the dynamic rupture of the Mw 9.0 Tohoku earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Festa, G.; Vilotte, J.; Scala, A.

    2012-12-01

    The M 9.0, 2011 Tohoku earthquake, along the North American-Pacific plate boundary, East of the Honshu Island, yielded a complex broadband rupture extending southwards over 600 km along strike and triggering a large tsunami that ravaged the East coast of North Japan. Strong motion and high-rate continuous GPS data, recorded all along the Japanese archipelago by the national seismic networks K-Net and Kik-net and geodetic network Geonet, together with teleseismic data, indicated a complex frequency dependent rupture. Low frequency signals (fmeters), extending along-dip over about 100 km, between the hypocenter and the trench, and 150 to 200 km along strike. This slip asperity was likely the cause of the localized tsunami source and of the large amplitude tsunami waves. High-frequency signals (f>0.5 Hz) were instead generated close to the coast in the deeper part of the subduction zone, by at least four smaller size asperities, with possible repeated slip, and were mostly the cause for the ground shaking felt in the Eastern part of Japan. The deep origin of the high-frequency radiation was also confirmed by teleseismic high frequency back projection analysis. Intermediate frequency analysis showed a transition between the shallow and deeper part of the fault, with the rupture almost confined in a small stripe containing the hypocenter before propagating southward along the strike, indicating a predominant in-plane rupture mechanism in the initial stage of the rupture itself. We numerically investigate the role of the geometry of the subduction interface and of the structural properties of the subduction zone on the broadband dynamic rupture and radiation of the Tohoku earthquake. Based upon the almost in-plane behavior of the rupture in its initial stage, 2D non-smooth spectral element dynamic simulations of the earthquake rupture propagation are performed including the non planar and kink geometry of the subduction interface, together with bi-material interfaces

  19. Geologic and structural controls on rupture zone fabric: A field-based study of the 2010 Mw 7.2 El Mayor–Cucapah earthquake surface rupture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teran, Orlando; Fletcher, John L.; Oskin, Michael; Rockwell, Thomas; Hudnut, Kenneth W.; Spelz, Ronald; Akciz, Sinan; Hernandez-Flores, Ana Paula; Morelan, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    We systematically mapped (scales >1:500) the surface rupture of the 4 April 2010 Mw (moment magnitude) 7.2 El Mayor-Cucapah earthquake through the Sierra Cucapah (Baja California, northwestern Mexico) to understand how faults with similar structural and lithologic characteristics control rupture zone fabric, which is here defined by the thickness, distribution, and internal configuration of shearing in a rupture zone. Fault zone thickness and master fault dip are strongly correlated with many parameters of rupture zone fabric. Wider fault zones produce progressively wider rupture zones and both of these parameters increase systematically with decreasing dip of master faults, which varies from 20° to 90° in our dataset. Principal scarps that accommodate more than 90% of the total coseismic slip in a given transect are only observed in fault sections with narrow rupture zones (Sierra Cucapah are those developed above buried low angle faults due to the transfer of slip to widely distributed steeper faults, which are mechanically more favorably oriented. The results from this study show that the measureable parameters that define rupture zone fabric allow for testing hypotheses concerning the mechanics and propagation of earthquake ruptures, as well as for siting and designing facilities to be constructed in regions near active faults.

  20. Sensitivity of broad-band ground-motion simulations to earthquake source and Earth structure variations: an application to the Messina Straits (Italy)

    KAUST Repository

    Imperatori, W.

    2012-03-01

    In this paper, we investigate ground-motion variability due to different faulting approximations and crustal-model parametrizations in the Messina Straits area (Southern Italy). Considering three 1-D velocity models proposed for this region and a total of 72 different source realizations, we compute broad-band (0-10 Hz) synthetics for Mw 7.0 events using a fault plane geometry recently proposed. We explore source complexity in terms of classic kinematic (constant rise-time and rupture speed) and pseudo-dynamic models (variable rise-time and rupture speed). Heterogeneous slip distributions are generated using a Von Karman autocorrelation function. Rise-time variability is related to slip, whereas rupture speed variations are connected to static stress drop. Boxcar, triangle and modified Yoffe are the adopted source time functions. We find that ground-motion variability associated to differences in crustal models is constant and becomes important at intermediate and long periods. On the other hand, source-induced ground-motion variability is negligible at long periods and strong at intermediate-short periods. Using our source-modelling approach and the three different 1-D structural models, we investigate shaking levels for the 1908 Mw 7.1 Messina earthquake adopting a recently proposed model for fault geometry and final slip. Our simulations suggest that peak levels in Messina and Reggio Calabria must have reached 0.6-0.7 g during this earthquake.

  1. 基于大震时楼梯间人员安全的框架结构设计%Design for Frame Structure of Personnel Security in Stairwell Based on Strong Earthquake

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程志辉; 胡智荣

    2013-01-01

    为了保证框架结构楼梯间在大震下的层间位移角满足人员疏散要求,采用基于位移的框架结构抗震计算模型,推导出大震对于小震的地震剪力放大系数.可在常规小震设计的基础上,利用较简单的计算对框架柱进行重新设计,算例表明本文方法可实现大震弹塑性层间位移角小于1/167的性能目标,保证大震下在楼梯间的人员安全.%By using the anti-seismic computation model of frame structure based on displacement, the shear force amplification coefficient that strong earthquake compares with small earthquake is deduced to ensure that the inter story drift under strong earthquake of stairwell frame structure could meet requirement of person evacuation. The calculative example indicates that the performance objective, that the limit value of elastic-plastic inter story drift under strong earthquake is 1/167, could be realized by the method of this paper through using easily calculate to redesign the frame columns on the basis of conventional small seismic design, then the personnel security in stairwell under strong earthquake could be ensured.

  2. Resistivity tomography study on samples with water-bearing structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The apparent resistivity of the samples with water-bearing configuration was measured by an electrode-array and 2-D resistivity images of these samples were reconstructed then. The obtained series of tomograms reveal the distribution and its variation of true resistivity within the samples caused by the changes of crack and liquid distribution. Applying this method to the simulation experiment on the electrical properties of rocks, the fracturing and water filling process, which produces the electrical changes, can be brought to light clearly.

  3. Seismotectonics of Taiwan Shoal region in northeastern SCS: Insights from crustal structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuiyuan, Wan; Jinlong, Sun; Shaohong, Xia; Xiaoling, Xie; Xiang, Zhang; Huilong, Xu; Jinghe, Cao

    2017-04-01

    A seismicity cluster and a great 16 September 1994 earthquake occur in the Taiwan Shoal region, outer rise of the Manila subduction zone. To understand what mechanisms control and generate the earthquake cluster, it is important to investigate the deep crustal structure of the Taiwan Shoal region. We present a 2-D seismic tomographic image of the crustal structure along the OBS2012 profile based on ocean bottom seismographic (OBS) data. The structure exhibits that a high velocity anomaly in the upper crust beneath the Taiwan Shoal is flanked by lower velocity anomalies. Based on the crustal structure, we study the 765 earthquakes, which occurred in the period 1991-2015. These epicenters, combined with the regional faults, and crustal structure, allow us to better understand the nature of the active tectonics in this region. The high velocity area is interpreted as representing stronger, defining major asperities where stress is concentrated corresponding to the location of the earthquake cluster. The earthquake cluster is influenced by the fault interactions. However, the 16 September 1994 earthquake is independents of the seismic activities but associated with the reactivation of the preexisting fault. In Taiwan region, the slab-pull was resisted by the exposed pre-collision accretionary prism and the resistive force caused the in-plane compressive stress accumulation. This condition may favor the triggering of future damaging earthquakes in this region. Key words: earthquake cluster; crustal structure; fault interactions; outer rise; Taiwan Shoal

  4. Understanding earthquake hazards in urban areas - Evansville Area Earthquake Hazards Mapping Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Oliver S.

    2012-01-01

    The region surrounding Evansville, Indiana, has experienced minor damage from earthquakes several times in the past 200 years. Because of this history and the proximity of Evansville to the Wabash Valley and New Madrid seismic zones, there is concern among nearby communities about hazards from earthquakes. Earthquakes currently cannot be predicted, but scientists can estimate how strongly the ground is likely to shake as a result of an earthquake and are able to design structures to withstand this estimated ground shaking. Earthquake-hazard maps provide one way of conveying such information and can help the region of Evansville prepare for future earthquakes and reduce earthquake-caused loss of life and financial and structural loss. The Evansville Area Earthquake Hazards Mapping Project (EAEHMP) has produced three types of hazard maps for the Evansville area: (1) probabilistic seismic-hazard maps show the ground motion that is expected to be exceeded with a given probability within a given period of time; (2) scenario ground-shaking maps show the expected shaking from two specific scenario earthquakes; (3) liquefaction-potential maps show how likely the strong ground shaking from the scenario earthquakes is to produce liquefaction. These maps complement the U.S. Geological Survey's National Seismic Hazard Maps but are more detailed regionally and take into account surficial geology, soil thickness, and soil stiffness; these elements greatly affect ground shaking.

  5. 安居富民工程在地震灾害中的减灾效益初探--以2012年新疆新源、和静交界6.6级地震为例%Research on Disaster Reduction Benefit of Earthquake Resistant Project---Taking the M6.6 Earthquake in Xinyuan-Hejing Junction in 2012 for an Example

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘军; 宋立军; 胡伟华; 李志强; 谭明

    2014-01-01

    Earthquake damage characteristics the M6.6 Earthquake in Xinyuan-Hejing Junction on June 30, 2012 are introduced.Damage characteristics especially of the welfarehousing are studied as references.Earthquake damage cases of hazard bearing bodies before the earthquake resistant project in the same intensity of earthquake damage are derived by the seismic damage model.Parameters as damage area,number of casualties,homeless peo-ple and direct economic loss of houses of various types of housing are calculated and compared with the field data in the earthquake.The results show that,earthquake resistant project could ensure the safety of people′s lives and property in a destructive earthquake.Compared to the previous construction investment,the engineering is of obvi-ous mitigation benefits.%介绍了2012年6月30日新疆新源、和静交界6.6级地震的震害特征,并以此次地震中安居房的震害的为参照,通过模型反导出灾区在安居富民工程改造前同等强度地震破坏情形下承灾体的震害,分别计算了安居工程实施前各类房屋破坏面积、死伤人数、失去住所人数和房屋直接经济损失等参数,并与现场调查的安居房在此次地震中的震害进行对比分析。结果表明,安居富民工程在破坏性地震中为人民生命财产安全的保障及政府的救灾投入的统筹发挥着重要作用,相对于前期建设投资,安居富民工程具有显著的减灾效益。

  6. Electrical Resistivity Structure and Helium Isotopes around Naruko Volcano, Northeastern Japan and Its Implication for the Distribution of Crustal Magma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koichi Asamori

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The two-dimensional electrical resistivity structure beneath Naruko volcano was determined using magnetotelluric soundings. The resulting model shows that a prominent conductor exists through the middle crust to the uppermost mantle beneath the volcano. The location of the conductor agrees closely with a seismic low-velocity zone. Low-frequency microearthquakes occur near the conductor around the Moho depth. The cutoff depth of crustal earthquakes is coincident with the upper boundary of the conductor, implying that the conductor has a temperature appreciably higher than 400∘C. Furthermore, new helium isotope data from hot springs around the volcano were obtained. The spatial distribution of the observed 3He/4He ratios reveals the extent of mantle-derived materials beneath Naruko volcano. Consequently, it is apparent that the conductor determined beneath the volcano reflects the presence of high-temperature mantle-derived materials such as magmas and/or related fluids derived from active magmatism in the northeastern Japan subduction zone.

  7. Direct measurement of graphene contact resistivity to pre-deposited metal in buried contact test structure

    KAUST Repository

    Qaisi, Ramy M.

    2013-08-01

    We demonstrate a buried contact based novel test structure for direct contact resistivity measurement of graphene-metal interfaces. We also observe excellent contact resistivity 1 μO-cm2 without any additional surface modification suggesting that the intrinsic Au-graphene contact is sufficient for achieving devices with low contact resistance. The chemical mechanical polishing less test structure and data described herein highlights an ideal methodology for systematic screening and engineering of graphene-metal contact resistivity to enable low power high speed carbon electronics. © 2013 IEEE.

  8. Theoretical model of the three-dimensional structure of a disease resistance gene homolog encoding resistance protein in Vigna mungo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basak, Jolly; Bahadur, Ranjit P

    2006-10-01

    Plant disease resistance (R) genes, the key players of innate immunity system in plants encode 'R' proteins. 'R' protein recognizes product of avirulance gene from the pathogen and activate downstream signaling responses leading to disease resistance. No three dimensional (3D) structural information of any 'R' proteins is available as yet. We have reported a 'R' gene homolog, the 'VMYR1', encoding 'R' protein in Vigna mungo. Here, we describe the homology modeling of the 'VMYR1' protein. The model was created by using the 3D structure of an ATP-binding cassette transporter protein from Vibrio cholerae as a template. The strategy for homology modeling was based on the high structural conservation in the superfamily of P-loop containing nucleoside triphosphate hydrolase in which target and template proteins belong. This is the first report of theoretical model structure of any 'R' proteins.

  9. The 2011 Earthquake in Simav, Turkey and Seismic Damage to Reinforced Concrete Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yücel Güney

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Reinforced concrete buildings suffered significant damage in the region affected by the 29 May 2011 earthquake in Simav (Kutahya, Turkey. Typical building damage is classified and potential causes of damage are investigated. Reinforced concrete moment resisting frames with hollow brick infill walls are the most common structural system in and around the Simav city center while masonry construction is common in rural areas. Although the Simav earthquake, with a magnitude of 5.7 to 5.9, can be classified as a moderate earthquake, many buildings experienced damage varying from frequent diagonal cracking and brittle failure of infill walls to collapse or severe damage to frames due to short columns, soft stories or other reasons including insufficient or poor detailing of reinforcement. This study investigates and presents the seismicity of the region, characteristics of the measured ground motions, seismic load demands including response spectra, and damage mechanisms, potential causes and classification of observed damage in reinforced concrete buildings.

  10. Performance of masonry buildings during the 20 and 27 December 2007 Bala (Ankara earthquakes in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Adanur

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper evaluates the performance of masonry buildings during the 20 and 27 December 2007 Bala (Ankara earthquakes. Bala is a township located 50 km southeast from Ankara city in Turkey. The majority of the buildings in the affected region are built in masonry. Most of masonry buildings were formed with random or coursed stone and mud brick walls without any reinforcement. Many of these buildings were damaged or had collapsed. The cracking and failure patterns of the buildings are examined and interpreted according to current provisions for earthquake resistance of masonry structures. The damages are due to several reasons such as poor construction quality and poor workmanship of the buildings. In addition to these reasons, the two earthquakes hit the buildings within seven days, causing progressive damage.

  11. The Science of Structural Revolutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William P. Graf

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A perspective on the very human process by which scientific paradigms change can help point the path forward in any science, or in an applied science, such as Structural Engineering. Understanding this process of change, we can examine earthquake engineering, seismic building codes and theories of structural engineering for earthquake loads. When we take this perspective, we recognize that Structural Engineering for earthquake resistance is in the midst of a number of revolutions, from paradigms embodied in current building codes in which earthquake demands are associated with forces, to a new paradigm in which earthquake demands are re-envisioned as resulting from structural displacements or drift. The new paradigm is embodied in the current national standard for the seismic rehabilitation of existing structures, ASCE 41 [2] and the emerging standards for performance-based earthquake engineering (PBEE. Associated with this is the shift from design oriented towards life-safety to design for a range of performance objectives, such as life-safety, damage reduction, or immediate occupancy. With this perspective, we further recognize deficiencies in research and development. We have failed to systematically use the experimental and computational tools we possess to fill in the gaps of scientific knowledge. We have not developed and deployed appropriate frameworks to collect and share ideas and results. As one example, the formulation of performance-based codes now outstrips the knowledge-base needed to ensure that structures designed by the new tools will meet their performance objectives.

  12. The Role of Multiple Foreshock Structures in Facilitating the Rupture of the Mw 5.0 Earthquake Swarm Mainshock near Urban Reno, Nevada in 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruhl, C. J.; Smith, K. D.; Abercrombie, R. E.

    2014-12-01

    We resolve complex spatial and temporal evolution of a long-duration earthquake sequence on multiple fault planes by combining high-precision relative relocations with over 350 first-motion focal mechanisms and applying physics-based, open-source software supported by both the USGS and CIG (Computational Infrastructure in Geodynamics) to investigate static and quasi-static stress changes during an 8 week foreshock period. Low-magnitude earthquake activity began on February 28, 2008 in the Mogul neighborhood west of urban Reno, NV and continued to build in intensity leading to the MW 5.0 mainshock on April 26, 2008. Initial locations are obtained by applying station and datum corrections to analyst-picked travel times using HYPOINVERSE then relocating the sequence via the HypoDD double-difference algorithm of Waldhauser and Ellsworth (2000) using both cross-correlated and catalog phase data on P and S arrivals. The final relocation set reveals a mechanism-supported temporal and spatial migration of seismicity on several distinct structures prior to the mainshock rupture. First-motion focal mechanisms are computed using the HASH code of Hardebeck and Shearer (2002). We apply the spatial and temporal stress inversion (SATSI) software (Hardebeck and Michael, 2006) to investigate variations in the stress field throughout the sequence. We integrate preliminary analysis of stress drops (ML ≥ 3.0) using an EGF-derived spectral ratio technique. Finally, we determine significant fault planes identified in the foreshock sequence and build a local 3D fault model. We systematically test various slip scenarios on these structures using both CIG's finite-element crustal deformation code PyLith and the USGS-supported Coulomb 3 program to explore how the foreshocks promote or inhibit failure on subsequent structures that may facilitate mainshock rupture.

  13. Thermal infrared anomalies of several strong earthquakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Congxin; Zhang, Yuansheng; Guo, Xiao; Hui, Shaoxing; Qin, Manzhong; Zhang, Ying

    2013-01-01

    In the history of earthquake thermal infrared research, it is undeniable that before and after strong earthquakes there are significant thermal infrared anomalies which have been interpreted as preseismic precursor in earthquake prediction and forecasting. In this paper, we studied the characteristics of thermal radiation observed before and after the 8 great earthquakes with magnitude up to Ms7.0 by using the satellite infrared remote sensing information. We used new types of data and method to extract the useful anomaly information. Based on the analyses of 8 earthquakes, we got the results as follows. (1) There are significant thermal radiation anomalies before and after earthquakes for all cases. The overall performance of anomalies includes two main stages: expanding first and narrowing later. We easily extracted and identified such seismic anomalies by method of "time-frequency relative power spectrum." (2) There exist evident and different characteristic periods and magnitudes of thermal abnormal radiation for each case. (3) Thermal radiation anomalies are closely related to the geological structure. (4) Thermal radiation has obvious characteristics in abnormal duration, range, and morphology. In summary, we should be sure that earthquake thermal infrared anomalies as useful earthquake precursor can be used in earthquake prediction and forecasting.

  14. Structure of the scientific community modelling the evolution of resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-12-05

    Faced with the recurrent evolution of resistance to pesticides and drugs, the scientific community has developed theoretical models aimed at identifying the main factors of this evolution and predicting the efficiency of resistance management strategies. The evolutionary forces considered by these models are generally similar for viruses, bacteria, fungi, plants or arthropods facing drugs or pesticides, so interaction between scientists working on different biological organisms would be expected. We tested this by analysing co-authorship and co-citation networks using a database of 187 articles published from 1977 to 2006 concerning models of resistance evolution to all major classes of pesticides and drugs. These analyses identified two main groups. One group, led by ecologists or agronomists, is interested in agricultural crop or stock pests and diseases. It mainly uses a population genetics approach to model the evolution of resistance to insecticidal proteins, insecticides, herbicides, antihelminthic drugs and miticides. By contrast, the other group, led by medical scientists, is interested in human parasites and mostly uses epidemiological models to study the evolution of resistance to antibiotic and antiviral drugs. Our analyses suggested that there is also a small scientific group focusing on resistance to antimalaria drugs, and which is only poorly connected with the two larger groups. The analysis of cited references indicates that each of the two large communities publishes its research in a different set of literature and has its own keystone references: citations with a large impact in one group are almost never cited by the other. We fear the lack of exchange between the two communities might slow progress concerning resistance evolution which is currently a major issue for society.

  15. Antioptimization of earthquake exitation and response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Zuccaro

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a novel approach to predict the response of earthquake-excited structures. The earthquake excitation is expanded in terms of series of deterministic functions. The coefficients of the series are represented as a point in N-dimensional space. Each available ccelerogram at a certain site is then represented as a point in the above space, modeling the available fragmentary historical data. The minimum volume ellipsoid, containing all points, is constructed. The ellipsoidal models of uncertainty, pertinent to earthquake excitation, are developed. The maximum response of a structure, subjected to the earthquake excitation, within ellipsoidal modeling of the latter, is determined. This procedure of determining least favorable response was termed in the literature (Elishakoff, 1991 as an antioptimization. It appears that under inherent uncertainty of earthquake excitation, antioptimization analysis is a viable alternative to stochastic approach.

  16. Textual research of 1219 A.D. Guyuan earthquake in Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region, China and discussion on its causative structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUAN Dao-yang; LEI Zhong-sheng; ZHANG Jun-ling; LIU Bai-chi; LIANG Ming-jian

    2008-01-01

    On the basis of textual research on the historical earthquake data and the field investigation of 1219 A.D. Guyuan earthquake, we suggest that there is only one strong earthquake occurred in Guyuan area in 1219 A.D., instead of two or three strong earthquakes. We further suggest that the earthquake parameters recorded in the present earthquake catalogs are not defimite and should be modified. The occurrence time of this earthquake should be about Ⅱ am, August 7, 1219 A.D. and the heavily-damaged area of this earthquake, the Ⅷ intensity area, should be located among the regions of Guyuan, Pingliang and Longde county cities. The epicenter area should be near Guyuan city. The magnitude of this earthquake is about 7 and it has intensity about larger than or equal to IX within the epicenter area. The major axis direction of the heavily-damaged area strikes in north-northwest that is approximately consistent with the strike of the Liupan Shan thrust fault zone. The new tectonic activity of the Liupan Shan thrust fault zone resulted in the M7 Guyuan earthquake in 1219 A.D.

  17. Resistance and Security Index of Networks: Structural Information Perspective of Network Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Angsheng; Hu, Qifu; Liu, Jun; Pan, Yicheng

    2016-06-01

    Recently, Li and Pan defined the metric of the K-dimensional structure entropy of a structured noisy dataset G to be the information that controls the formation of the K-dimensional structure of G that is evolved by the rules, order and laws of G, excluding the random variations that occur in G. Here, we propose the notion of resistance of networks based on the one- and two-dimensional structural information of graphs. Given a graph G, we define the resistance of G, written , as the greatest overall number of bits required to determine the code of the module that is accessible via random walks with stationary distribution in G, from which the random walks cannot escape. We show that the resistance of networks follows the resistance law of networks, that is, for a network G, the resistance of G is , where and are the one- and two-dimensional structure entropies of G, respectively. Based on the resistance law, we define the security index of a network G to be the normalised resistance of G, that is, . We show that the resistance and security index are both well-defined measures for the security of the networks.

  18. Resistance and Security Index of Networks: Structural Information Perspective of Network Security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Angsheng; Hu, Qifu; Liu, Jun; Pan, Yicheng

    2016-06-03

    Recently, Li and Pan defined the metric of the K-dimensional structure entropy of a structured noisy dataset G to be the information that controls the formation of the K-dimensional structure of G that is evolved by the rules, order and laws of G, excluding the random variations that occur in G. Here, we propose the notion of resistance of networks based on the one- and two-dimensional structural information of graphs. Given a graph G, we define the resistance of G, written , as the greatest overall number of bits required to determine the code of the module that is accessible via random walks with stationary distribution in G, from which the random walks cannot escape. We show that the resistance of networks follows the resistance law of networks, that is, for a network G, the resistance of G is , where and are the one- and two-dimensional structure entropies of G, respectively. Based on the resistance law, we define the security index of a network G to be the normalised resistance of G, that is, . We show that the resistance and security index are both well-defined measures for the security of the networks.

  19. Structural protein alterations to resistance and endurance cycling exercise training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parcell, Allen C; Woolstenhulme, Mandy T; Sawyer, Robert D

    2009-03-01

    The muscle cytoskeleton is necessary for the effective transmission of forces generated by actin-myosin interactions. We have examined the impact of muscle force and exercise volume on the cytoskeleton by measuring desmin and dystrophin content in human skeletal muscle after 12 weeks of progressive resistance or endurance cycle training. Muscle biopsies of the vastus lateralis were obtained before and after training. Desmin and dystrophin content was determined using immunoblotting techniques. After resistance training, desmin content increased 82 +/- 18% (p < 0.05), whereas there was no change in desmin content with endurance cycling. Dystrophin content did not change in either group. One-repetition maximum and VO2max increased (p < 0.05) in the resistance and endurance groups, respectively. These data demonstrate that a high-tension stimulus impacts the cytoskeleton in contrast to high-volume concentric contractions. The tensile loading and eccentric components of resistance training are implicated in desmin alterations. Indeed, the functional improvements resulting from resistance training may be related in part to the mechanical integration provided by the desmin protein.

  20. Evidence for Ancient Mesoamerican Earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovach, R. L.; Garcia, B.

    2001-12-01

    Evidence for past earthquake damage at Mesoamerican ruins is often overlooked because of the invasive effects of tropical vegetation and is usually not considered as a casual factor when restoration and reconstruction of many archaeological sites are undertaken. Yet the proximity of many ruins to zones of seismic activity would argue otherwise. Clues as to the types of damage which should be soughtwere offered in September 1999 when the M = 7.5 Oaxaca earthquake struck the ruins of Monte Alban, Mexico, where archaeological renovations were underway. More than 20 structures were damaged, 5 of them seriously. Damage features noted were walls out of plumb, fractures in walls, floors, basal platforms and tableros, toppling of columns, and deformation, settling and tumbling of walls. A Modified Mercalli Intensity of VII (ground accelerations 18-34 %b) occurred at the site. Within the diffuse landward extension of the Caribbean plate boundary zone M = 7+ earthquakes occur with repeat times of hundreds of years arguing that many Maya sites were subjected to earthquakes. Damage to re-erected and reinforced stelae, walls, and buildings were witnessed at Quirigua, Guatemala, during an expedition underway when then 1976 M = 7.5 Guatemala earthquake on the Motagua fault struck. Excavations also revealed evidence (domestic pttery vessels and skeleton of a child crushed under fallen walls) of an ancient earthquake occurring about the teim of the demise and abandonment of Quirigua in the late 9th century. Striking evidence for sudden earthquake building collapse at the end of the Mayan Classic Period ~A.D. 889 was found at Benque Viejo (Xunantunich), Belize, located 210 north of Quirigua. It is argued that a M = 7.5 to 7.9 earthquake at the end of the Maya Classic period centered in the vicinity of the Chixoy-Polochic and Motagua fault zones cound have produced the contemporaneous earthquake damage to the above sites. As a consequences this earthquake may have accelerated the

  1. Seismic Sensors to Supercomputers: Internet Mapping and Computational Tools for Teaching and Learning about Earthquakes and the Structure of the Earth from Seismology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meertens, C. M.; Seber, D.; Hamburger, M.

    2004-12-01

    The Internet has become an integral resource in the classrooms and homes of teachers and students. Widespread Web-access to seismic data and analysis tools enhances opportunities for teaching and learning about earthquakes and the structure of the earth from seismic tomography. We will present an overview and demonstration of the UNAVCO Voyager Java- and Javascript-based mapping tools (jules.unavco.org) and the Cornell University/San Diego Supercomputer Center (www.discoverourearth.org) Java-based data analysis and mapping tools. These map tools, datasets, and related educational websites have been developed and tested by collaborative teams of scientific programmers, research scientists, and educators. Dual-use by research and education communities ensures persistence of the tools and data, motivates on-going development, and encourages fresh content. With these tools are curricular materials and on-going evaluation processes that are essential for an effective application in the classroom. The map tools provide not only seismological data and tomographic models of the earth's interior, but also a wealth of associated map data such as topography, gravity, sea-floor age, plate tectonic motions and strain rates determined from GPS geodesy, seismic hazard maps, stress, and a host of geographical data. These additional datasets help to provide context and enable comparisons leading to an integrated view of the planet and the on-going processes that shape it. Emerging Cyberinfrastructure projects such as the NSF-funded GEON Information Technology Research project (www.geongrid.org) are developing grid/web services, advanced visualization software, distributed databases and data sharing methods, concept-based search mechanisms, and grid-computing resources for earth science and education. These developments in infrastructure seek to extend the access to data and to complex modeling tools from the hands of a few researchers to a much broader set of users. The GEON

  2. 玉树地震应急医学救援人员结构分析%Structural analysis of members in Yushu earthquake emergency medical relief team

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈燕; 张鹭鹭; 刘源; 刘旭; 林俊聪

    2012-01-01

    目的 分析玉树地震应急医学救援人员结构,为应急医学救援队伍优化配置提供依据.方法 对参与玉树地震救援的来自青海省44个卫生单位的911名医学救援队员进行全面问卷调查及部分访谈并进行描述性分析.结果 在总体卫生专业技术人员中,男女比例为1:0.4;外科专业卫生技术人员最多,其次为相关护理专业,内科专业位居第3位;本科及以上学历者占53.6%,以中级职称为主;临床专业技术人员年龄分布主要集中在36~45岁,护理人员年龄则集中在23~32岁.结论 玉树地震应急医学救援人员结构相对合理,但是也要深化医学救援队伍建设,在更大的范围实现专业优化配置.%Objective To analyze the structure of members in Yushu earthquake emergency medical relief team, in order to provide basis for optimal allocation of emergency medical relief team. Methods 911 members in Yushu earthquake emergency medical relief team from 44 medical units of Qinghai Province were investigated by comprehensive questionnaire survey and interviews, and the results were analyzed descriptively. Results Among all professional medical workers, male to female ratio was 1:0.4; most of them were surgical professional health workers, followed by the relevant care professionals. medical professional was ranked in the third place; works with bachelor degree or above were accounted for 53-6%, most of them had medium-grade professional title: the age distribution of clinical professional and technical personnel was mainly between 36 to 45 years old, the age of nurses was concentrated in 23 to 32 years old. Conclusion Structure of members in Yushu earthquake emergency medical medical relief team is relatively reasonable, but it also need to deepen medical rescue team building, to achieve professional optimization configuration in a larger range.

  3. Photovoltage versus microprobe sheet resistance measurements on ultrashallow structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clarysse, T.; Moussa, A.; Parmentier, B.

    2010-01-01

    Earlier work [T. Clarysse , Mater. Sci. Eng., B 114-115, 166 (2004); T. Clarysse , Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 912, 197 (2006)] has shown that only few contemporary tools are able to measure reliably (within the international technology roadmap for semiconductors specifications) sheet resistances...... on ultrashallow (sub-50-nm) chemical-vapor-deposited layers [T. Clarysse , Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 912, 197 (2006)], especially in the presence of medium/highly doped underlying layers (representative for well/halo implants). Here the authors examine more closely the sheet resistance anomalies which have......-based millisecond anneal). Conventional four-point probe tools fail on almost all of these samples due to excessive probe penetration, whereas in several cases variable probe spacing (using a conventional spreading resistance probe tool) [T. Clarysse , Mater. Sci. Eng. R. 47, 123 (2004)] still gives useful values...

  4. Development of flame resistant treatment for Nomex fibrous structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toy, M. S.

    1977-01-01

    Flame resistant fibrous materials for space shuttle application were developed through chemical modification of commercially available aromatic polyamide fibrous products. The new surface treatment was achieved in the laboratory by ultraviolet activation of the fabric in the presence of fluoroolefin monomers and a diluent gas. The monomers grafted under these conditions provide the improved properties of the fabric in flame resistance, chemical inertness, and nonwettability without the sacrifice of color or physical properties. The laboratory reaction vessel was scaled-up to a batch continuous process, which treats ten yards of the commercial width textiles. The treated commercial width Nomex (HT-10-41) from the scaled-up reactor is self-extinguishing in an oxygen-enriched environment, water-repellent, soft, silky, and improved in chemical resistance. Unlike most textile processes, the grafting unit operates under dry conditions and no chemical by-products have to be washed out of the finished product.

  5. Building damage in Dujiangyan during Wenchuan Earthquake

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Minzheng; Jin Yingjie

    2008-01-01

    A field damage survey of 1,005 buildings damaged by the Wenchuan Earthquake in Dujiangyan City was carried out and the resulting data was analyzed using the statistical method. It is shown that buildings that were seismically designed achieved the desired seismic fortification target; they sustained less damage than the non-seismically designed buildings. Among the seismically designed buildings investigated, RC frame buildings performed the best in terms of seismic resistance. Masonry buildings with a ground story of RC frame structure were the second best, and masonry buildings performed the worst. Considering building height, multistory buildings sustained more severe damage than high-rise buildings and 2-and 3-story buildings. Compared to residential buildings, public buildings, such as schools and hospitals, suffered more severe damage.

  6. Field reconnaissance of the 2007 Niigata-Chuetsu Oki earthquake

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Georgios Apostolakis; Bing Qu; Nurhan Ecemis; Seda Dogruel

    2007-01-01

    As part of the 2007 Yri-Center Field Mission to Japan,a reconnaissance team comprised of fourteen graduate students and three faculty members from three U.S. earthquake engineering research centers,namely,Multidisciplinary Center for Earthquake Engineering Research (MCEER),Mid-America Earthquake Center(MAE),and Pacific Earthquake Engineering Research Center (PEER),undertook a reconnaissance visit to the affected area shortly after the 2007 NiigataChuetsu Oki earthquake.This mission provided an opportunity to review the nature of the earthquake damage that occurred,as well as to assess the significance of the damage from an educational perspective.This paper reports on the seismological characteristics of the earthquake,preliminary findings of geotechnical and structural damage,and the causes of the observed failures or collapses.In addition,economic and socio-economic considerations and experiences to enhance earthquake resilience are presented.

  7. Field reconnaissance of the 2007 Niigata-Chuetsu Oki earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apostolakis, Georgios; Qu, Bing; Ecemis, Nurhan; Dogruel, Seda

    2007-12-01

    As part of the 2007 Tri-Center Field Mission to Japan, a reconnaissance team comprised of fourteen graduate students and three faculty members from three U.S. earthquake engineering research centers, namely, Multidisciplinary Center for Earthquake Engineering Research (MCEER), Mid-America Earthquake Center (MAE), and Pacific Earthquake Engineering Research Center (PEER), undertook a reconnaissance visit to the affected area shortly after the 2007 Niigata-Chuetsu Oki earthquake. This mission provided an opportunity to review the nature of the earthquake damage that occurred, as well as to assess the significance of the damage from an educational perspective. This paper reports on the seismological characteristics of the earthquake, preliminary findings of geotechnical and structural damage, and the causes of the observed failures or collapses. In addition, economic and socio-economic considerations and experiences to enhance earthquake resilience are presented.

  8. 军队地震灾害应急医学救援组织指挥体制结构设想%Assumption on structure of military organization command system for emergency medical relief in earthquake disaster

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    公斌; 孔兵; 郭树森; 刘思含; 孙志宏; 罗耀钦; 韩冰

    2015-01-01

    According to the characteristics of earthquake disaster, the system structure of military organization command system for emergency medical relief in earthquake disaster, including command organization system, staff composition and the function, relationship between organizations, in order to provide the certain supporting theory for military organization command work of earthquake relief in the future.%根据地震灾害发生后的特点,阐述了我军地震灾害应急医学救援组织指挥的体制结构,包含组织指挥体系、人员组成及职能,以及组织之间的关系。以期为军队以后的抗震救灾组织指挥工作提供一定的理论支撑。

  9. Imaging the structural style of an active normal fault through multidisciplinary geophysical investigation: a case study from the Mw 6.1, 2009 L'Aquila earthquake region (central Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villani, Fabio; Pucci, Stefano; Civico, Riccardo; De Martini, Paolo Marco; Nicolosi, Iacopo; D'Ajello Caracciolo, Francesca; Carluccio, Roberto; Di Giulio, Giuseppe; Vassallo, Maurizio; Smedile, Alessandra; Pantosti, Daniela

    2015-03-01

    The normal fault-system responsible of the 2009 Mw 6.1 L'Aquila earthquake (Paganica-San Demetrio fault-system) comprises several narrow, fault-parallel valleys of controversial origin. We investigated a key section of the southeastern portion of this fault network along the small Verupola Valley. In order to characterize its nature and possible tectonic activity, we applied multiple-geosciences techniques able to image at depth the structure associated to this peculiar landform. We integrated magnetometry, 2-D P wave and resistivity tomography, surface waves and seismic noise analysis coupled with field mapping, shallow boreholes and trenching. According to our results, the Verupola Valley is a ˜30-40-m-deep graben controlled by a SW-dipping master fault and synthetic splays paired with an antithetic NE-dipping fault. The SW-dipping splays are active and cut very shallow (<2 m deep) Late Pleistocene sediments. The small amount of cumulated vertical offset (˜15 m) across the conjugated system may indicate a young fault inception or very low Quaternary slip-rates. Due to its structural continuity with the adjacent mapped strands of the Paganica-San Demetrio fault network, we relate the Verupola Valley to the recent activity of the southeastern segment of this fault system. We also suggest that other fault-parallel valleys can have the same tectonic origin and setting of the Verupola Valley. This latter represents a scale-independent analogue from metric scale (exposed in the palaeoseismological trenches) to the Middle Aterno Basin scale (seen from seismic profiles and fault mapping). Overall, the imaged structural style is coherent with the regional tectonic setting due to Quaternary crustal extension.

  10. Tohoku earthquake: a surprise?

    CERN Document Server

    Kagan, Yan Y

    2011-01-01

    We consider three issues related to the 2011 Tohoku mega-earthquake: (1) how to evaluate the earthquake maximum size in subduction zones, (2) what is the repeat time for the largest earthquakes in Tohoku area, and (3) what are the possibilities of short-term forecasts during the 2011 sequence. There are two quantitative methods which can be applied to estimate the maximum earthquake size: a statistical analysis of the available earthquake record and the moment conservation principle. The latter technique studies how much of the tectonic deformation rate is released by earthquakes. For the subduction zones, the seismic or historical record is not sufficient to provide a reliable statistical measure of the maximum earthquake. The moment conservation principle yields consistent estimates of maximum earthquake size: for all the subduction zones the magnitude is of the order 9.0--9.7, and for major subduction zones the maximum earthquake size is statistically indistinguishable. Starting in 1999 we have carried out...

  11. Heterogeneous Earth Structure, Deformation, and Slip During the 2010 Mw 7.2 El Mayor-Cucapah Earthquake from Geodetic Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, M. H.; Dickinson, H.; Fielding, E. J.; Sun, J.; Freed, A. M.; Burgmann, R.

    2015-12-01

    The 4th of April 2010 Mw 7.2 El Mayor-Cucapah (EMC) earthquake in Baja California and Sonora, Mexico has primarily right-lateral strike-slip motion and a minor normal slip component. The surface rupture extends about 120 km west of the boundary between the Pacific and the North American plates. The EMC event initiated near the center and ruptured bilaterally into an east-dipping strike-slip fault zone to the north and a west-dipping strike-slip zone to the south. Here we use geodetic measurements including GPS, InSAR (SAR interferometry), and sub-pixel offset measurements to characterize the fault slip during the EMC event. We use dislocation inversion methods to determine fault geometry as well as sub-fault slip distribution based on geodetic measurements. We find that assuming layered earth elastic structure increased the inferred deep slip (10-15 km depth) by up to 1.6 m (60%) compared to assuming a homogeneous elastic structure. Inferred slip was also strongly (up to 2 m) influenced by the choice of observational constraints used in the inversion. The choice of constraints also influenced the inverted seismic moment from Mw 7.20 to 7.26, and the difference is equivalent to a Mw 6.5 event. Our results show that the outcomes of coseismic inversions can vary greatly depending on the methodology, something that needs to be considered both for characterizing an earthquake and when using such results in subsequent studies of postseismic deformation.

  12. Characteristics of local earthquake seismograms of varying dislocation sources in a stratified upper crust and modeling for P and S velocity structure: comparison with observations in the Koyna-Warna region, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. G. Krishna

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Vertical component record sections of local earthquake seismograms from a state-of-the-art Koyna-Warna digital seismograph network are assembled in the reduced time versus epicentral distance frame, similar to those obtained in seismic refraction profiling. The record sections obtained for an average source depth display the processed seismograms from nearly equal source depths with similar source mechanisms and recorded in a narrow azimuth range, illuminating the upper crustal P and S velocity structure in the region. Further, the seismogram characteristics of the local earthquake sources are found to vary significantly for different source mechanisms and the amplitude variations exceed those due to velocity model stratification. In the present study a large number of reflectivity synthetic seismograms are obtained in near offset ranges for a stratified upper crustal model having sharp discontinuities with 7%-10% velocity contrasts. The synthetics are obtained for different source regimes (e.g., strike-slip, normal, reverse and different sets of source parameters (strike, dip, and rake within each regime. Seismogram sections with dominantly strike-slip mechanism are found to be clearly favorable in revealing the velocity stratification for both P and S waves. In contrast the seismogram sections for earthquakes of other source mechanisms seem to display the upper crustal P phases poorly with low amplitudes even in presence of sharp discontinuities of high velocity contrasts. The observed seismogram sections illustrated here for the earthquake sources with strike-slip and normal mechanisms from the Koyna-Warna seismic region substantiate these findings. Travel times and reflectivity synthetic seismograms are used for 1-D modeling of the observed virtual source local earthquake seismogram sections and inferring the upper crustal velocity structure in the Koyna-Warna region. Significantly, the inferred upper crustal velocity model in the region

  13. Earthquake-induced soft-sediment deformation structures in the Mesoproterozoic Wumishan Formation,North China,and their geologic implications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Soft-sediment structures are key to defining seismites. Two soft-sediment deformation horizons, bounded by undeformed carbonate strata, have been found in the Wumishan Formation in the Jumahe region, 175 km southwest of Beijing. One is in the lowest part of Wumishan Formation; and the other is in the uppermost part of Litho-member I. The soft-sediment structures in these two horizons fall into three categories: mould-and-sag structures, hydraulic shatterings and liquefaction dikes. The mould-and-sag structures are divided into two types: one developed in tidal-flat sediments, accompa-nied by many liquefaction-related structures and characterized by autochthonous post-earthquake sediments in sags, and the other type developed in deep-water environments, is not associated with liquefaction structures, and is overlain immediately by seismogenic tsunamites. The hydraulic shat-terings are composed of pockets of fluidization conglomerate, sand intrusions, and syndepositional faults. The liquefaction dikes fall into two categories: hydraulic-fracturing dikes and lateral-spreading dikes. The former are steep, planar, and pinch out upwards. The latter are snake-like and characterized by no diapir-related drag structures in surrounding rocks. Examination of the attitudes and strati-graphic positions of these structures suggests that these soft-sediment structures are seismogenic, and consequently, are seismites. Most seismites in the Wumishan Formation are developed near the former western, margin fault of Yanliao rift. This occurrence suggests that they could be related to movements on this fault. Other geological implications are discussed.

  14. Heterogeneous structure around the rupture area of the 2003 Tokachi-oki earthquake (Mw=8.0), Japan, as revealed by aftershock observations using Ocean Bottom Seismometers

    OpenAIRE

    Machida, Yuya; SHINOHARA, MASANAO; Takanami, Tetsuo; Murai, Yoshio; Yamada, Tomoaki; Hirata, Naoshi; Suyehiro, Kiyoshi; KANAZAWA, Toshihiko; KANEDA, YOSHIYUKI; Mikada, Hitoshi; SAKAI, Shin'ichi; Watanabe, Tomoki; Uehira, Kenji; TAKAHASHI, NARUMI; NISHINO, Minoru

    2009-01-01

    Large earthquakes have repeatedly occurred in the area off southeastern Hokkaido Island, Japan, as the Pacific Plate subducts beneath the island, which is on the North American Plate. The most recent large earthquake in this area, the 2003 Tokachi-oki earthquake (Mw = 8.0), occurred on September 26, 2003. In order to investigate aftershock activity in the rupture area, 47 Ocean Bottom Seismometers (OBSs) were quickly deployed after the main shock. In the present study, we simultaneously estim...

  15. Computational methods in earthquake engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Plevris, Vagelis; Lagaros, Nikos

    2017-01-01

    This is the third book in a series on Computational Methods in Earthquake Engineering. The purpose of this volume is to bring together the scientific communities of Computational Mechanics and Structural Dynamics, offering a wide coverage of timely issues on contemporary Earthquake Engineering. This volume will facilitate the exchange of ideas in topics of mutual interest and can serve as a platform for establishing links between research groups with complementary activities. The computational aspects are emphasized in order to address difficult engineering problems of great social and economic importance. .

  16. Relationship between maize stem structural characteristics and resistance to pink stem borer (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) attack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago, R; Souto, X C; Sotelo, J; Butrón, A; Malvar, R A

    2003-10-01

    The pink stem borer, Sesamia nonagrioides (Lefebvre), is one of the most important insect pests of maize (Zea mays L.) in northwestern Spain. The objectives of this work were to evaluate, at different times during the growth of maize, structural traits related to the entry point and tissues on which larvae feed and to determine the relationship between these structural traits and the stem borer resistance. Six inbred lines with different levels of stem resistance to S. nonagrioides were evaluated in several trials. Potential structural resistance factors included rind and pith puncture resistance (RPR and PPR), rind thickness, length of the meristematic area (LMA), and pith parenchyma interlumen thickness (PPIT). Surprisingly, the inbred lines that showed the strongest stalks, EP42 and EP47, were not stem resistant to pink stem borer attack, while the stem resistant inbreds A509, CM151, and PB130 were among the least resistant to rind puncture. There were no significant differences among resistant and susceptible inbreds for the rind thickness. However, the susceptible inbred EP42 had the softest internode pith, and the resistant inbred PB130 showed the hardest, as was expected. Susceptible inbred lines in general showed higher values for the LMA, while the PPIT was important for individual inbreds. The results suggest that the usefulness of these characters as estimators of pink stem borer resistance is limited to some genotypes. Besides, even among those genotypes, other mechanisms of resistance that do not involve stalk strength could be present. Among the traits considered, the LMA was the most promising as an indicator of resistance to pink stem borer, although further experimentation is necessary.

  17. THE MECHANISM OF STRUCTURE FORMATION IN SPARINGLY ALLOYED WEAR RESISTANT IRONS

    OpenAIRE

    A. I. Garost

    2012-01-01

    The results of researches of macro - and microstructure, the structure, formed at primary crystallization of abrasion-resistant irons, and peculiarities of their change in process of thermal processing are given. 

  18. Seismic Design Guidelines For Port Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, H. F.; Bernal, Alberto; Blazquez, Rafael

    -balance approach, in which structures are designed to resist a prescribed level of seismic force specified as a fraction of gravity. These methodologies have contributed to the acceptable seismic performance of port structures, particularly when the earthquake motions are more or less within the prescribed design...

  19. Lithospheric Structure and Active Deformation in the Salton Trough from Coseismic and Postseismic Models of the 2010 Mw 7.2 El Mayor-Cucapah Earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fielding, E. J.; Huang, M. H.; Dickinson, H.; Freed, A. M.; Burgmann, R.; Gonzalez-Ortega, J. A.; Andronicos, C.

    2016-12-01

    The 4 April 2010 Mw 7.2 El Mayor-Cucapah (EMC) Earthquake ruptured about 120 km along several NW-striking faults to the west of the Cerro Prieto Fault in the Salton Trough of Baja California, Mexico. We analyzed interferometric synthetic aperture radar (SAR), SAR and optical pixel offsets, and continuous and campaign GPS data to optimize an EMC coseismic rupture model with 9 fault segments, which fits the complex structure of the faults. Coseismic slip inversion with a layered elastic model shows that largely right-lateral slip is confined to upper 10 km with strong variations along strike. Near-field GPS measures slip on a north-striking normal fault that ruptured at the beginning of the earthquake, previously inferred from seismic waveforms. EMC Earthquake postseismic deformation shows the Earth's response to the large coseismic stress changes. InSAR shows rapid shallow afterslip at the north and south ends of the main ruptures. Continuous GPS from the Plate Boundary Observatory operated by UNAVCO measures the first six years of postseismic deformation, extremely rapid near the rupture. Afterslip on faults beneath the coseismic rupture cannot explain far-field displacements that are best explained by viscoelastic relaxation of the lower crust and upper mantle. We built a viscoelastic 3D finite element model of the lithosphere and asthenosphere based on available data for the region with the EMC coseismic faults embedded inside. Coseismic slip was imposed on the model, allowed to relax for 5 years, and then compared to the observed surface deformation. Systematic exploration of the viscoelastic parameters shows that horizontal and vertical heterogeneity is required to fit the postseismic deformation. Our preferred viscoelastic model has weaker viscosity layers beneath the Salton Trough than adjacent blocks that are consistent with the inferred differences in the geotherms. Defining mechanical lithosphere as rocks that have viscosities greater than 10^19 Pa s (able

  20. Heterogeneous structure around the rupture area of the 2003 Tokachi-oki earthquake (Mw = 8.0), Japan, as revealed by aftershock observations using Ocean Bottom Seismometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machida, Yuya; Shinohara, Masanao; Takanami, Tetsuo; Murai, Yoshio; Yamada, Tomoaki; Hirata, Naoshi; Suyehiro, Kiyoshi; Kanazawa, Toshihiko; Kaneda, Yoshiyuki; Mikada, Hitoshi; Sakai, Shin'ichi; Watanabe, Tomoki; Uehira, Kenji; Takahashi, Narumi; Nishino, Minoru; Mochizuki, Kimihiro; Sato, Takeshi; Araki, Ei'ichiro; Hino, Ryota; Uhira, Kouichi; Shiobara, Hajime; Shimizu, Hiroshi

    2009-02-01

    Large earthquakes have repeatedly occurred in the area off southeastern Hokkaido Island, Japan, as the Pacific Plate subducts beneath the island, which is on the North American Plate. The most recent large earthquake in this area, the 2003 Tokachi-oki earthquake (Mw = 8.0), occurred on September 26, 2003. In order to investigate aftershock activity in the rupture area, 47 Ocean Bottom Seismometers (OBSs) were quickly deployed after the main shock. In the present study, we simultaneously estimate the hypocenters and 3-D seismic velocity models from the P- and S-wave arrivals of the aftershocks recorded by OBSs. The subducting plate is clearly imaged as a northwest dipping zone in which Vp is greater than 7 km/s, and the relocated hypocenters also show the subducting Pacific Plate. The aftershock distribution reveals that the dip angle of the plate boundary increases abruptly around 90 km from the Kuril Trench. The bending of the subducting plate corresponds to the southeastern edge of the rupture area. The island arc crust on the overriding plate has P-wave velocities of 6-7 km/s and a Vp/Vs of 1.73. A region of Vp/Vs greater than 1.88 was found north of the epicenter of the main shock. The depth of the high Vp/Vs region extends about 10 km upward from the plate interface. The plate boundary just below the high Vp/Vs region has the largest slip at the main rupture. A high Vp anomaly (~ 7.5 km/s) is found in the island arc crust in northeast part of the study area, which we interpret as a structural boundary related to the arc-arc collisional tectonics of the Hokkaido region, as the rupture of the main shock terminated at this high Vp region. We suggest that the plate interface geometry and the trench-parallel velocity heterogeneity in the landward plate are principal factors in controlling the rupture area of the main shock.

  1. A novel structure in reducing the on-resistance of a VDMOS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Yonghui; Tang Zhaohuan; Zhang Zhengyuan; Liu Yong; Wang Zhikuan; Tan Kaizhou; Feng Zhicheng

    2011-01-01

    A novel structure of a VDMOS in reducing on-resistance is proposed. With this structure, the specific on-resistance value of thc VDMOS is reduced by 22% of that of the traditional VDMOS structure as the breakdown voltage maintained the same value in theory, and there is only one additional mask in processing thc new structure VDMOS, which is easily fabricated With the TCAD tool, one 200 V N-channel VDMOS with the new structure is analyzed, and simulated results show that a specific on-resistance value will reduce by 23%, and the value by 33% will be realized when the device is fabricated in three epitaxies and four buried layers. The novel structure can be widely used in the strip-gate VDMOS area.

  2. Base isolation system for earthquake protection of structures. (Part 9). ; Vibration tests and earthquake observation results from a 9 stories base-isolated building. Tatemono no menshin boshin koho no kenkyu kaihatsu. 9. ; 9 kaidate menshin building no shindo jikken kekka, jishin kansoku kekka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koshida, H.; Yasaka, A.; Yamaya, H. (Kajima Corp., Tokyo (Japan))

    1991-10-31

    As a part of the development of base isolation systems for earthquake protection of structures, the result of vibration tests and earthquake observations was reported of a 9-story base-isolated building. To clarify vibration characteristics of the base-isolated building, static loading tests and forced vibration tests were conducted by installing four oil jacks between the earth retaining wall and first floor beams, and an exciter at the center of the first floor, respectively, and the horizontal stiffness of isolators, building natural frequency, damping constant and vibration mode were obtained. In addition, three earthquake response observations were recorded until March 1991 since completion of the building. As every harmonic frequency and the acceleration response ratio of superstructure/basement floor were measured at earthquake response, the average peak acceleration response ratios of roof floor/basement floor were 0.85 along a short side and 0.71 along a long side of the building, indicating the acceleration reduction effect proper to base-isolated buildings. 6 refs., 20 figs., 5 tabs.

  3. Characteristics of postseismic deformation following the 2003 Tokachi-oki earthquake and estimation of the viscoelastic structure in Hokkaido, northern Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoh, Yuji; Nishimura, Takuya

    2016-09-01

    Postseismic deformation of the 2003 Tokachi-oki earthquake ( M w 8.0) has been observed by GNSS. We analyzed the deformation observed in Hokkaido in the 2nd to the 7th year following the 2003 Tokachi-oki earthquake and examined the effect of two major mechanisms (i.e., afterslip and viscoelastic relaxation) for the observed postseismic deformation by fitting it with a model consisting of afterslip and viscoelastic relaxation. The thickness of the lithosphere, the viscosity of the asthenosphere, and the time decaying constant of afterslip were estimated to be 50 km, 2.0 × 1019 Pa s, and 0.110 year, respectively, which are concordant with those in the Tohoku region estimated in previous studies. The revealed characteristics of postseismic deformation are as follows. At most of the used stations, afterslip played the dominant role in the 2nd year and was still sustained near the coseismic area even in the 7th year. However, the calculated velocity due to viscoelastic relaxation was comparable to that due to afterslip at the stations in northern Hokkaido after the 5th year. Because the calculated velocity due to viscoelastic relaxation was landward near the coseismic slip area, afterslip near the coseismic slip area will be biased to be smaller if viscoelastic relaxation is ignored. A systematic spatial pattern of the residuals considering afterslip only highlights an importance for explaining the observation data. We also examined the effect of viscoelastic relaxation due to afterslip for the parameter estimation and found that it was too small to affect the estimated structure parameters.[Figure not available: see fulltext.

  4. Shallow seismic structure of Kunlun fault zone in northern Tibetan Plateau, China: Implications for the 2001 M s8.1 Kunlun earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chun-Yong; Mooney, W.D.; Ding, Z.; Yang, J.; Yao, Z.; Lou, H.

    2009-01-01

    The shallow seismic velocity structure of the Kunlun fault zone (KLFZ) was jointly deduced from seismic refraction profiling and the records of trapped waves that were excited by five explosions. The data were collected after the 2001 Kunlun M s8.1 earthquake in the northern Tibetan Plateau. Seismic phases for the in-line record sections (26 records up to a distance of 15 km) along the fault zone were analysed, and 1-D P- and S-wave velocity models of shallow crust within the fault zone were determined by using the seismic refraction method. Sixteen seismic stations were deployed along the off-line profile perpendicular to the fault zone. Fault-zone trapped waves appear clearly on the record sections, which were simulated with a 3-D finite difference algorithm. Quantitative analysis of the correlation coefficients of the synthetic and observed trapped waveforms indicates that the Kunlun fault-zone width is 300 m, and S-wave quality factor Q within the fault zone is 15. Significantly, S-wave velocities within the fault zone are reduced by 30-45 per cent from surrounding rocks to a depth of at least 1-2 km, while P-wave velocities are reduced by 7-20 per cent. A fault-zone with such P- and S-low velocities is an indication of high fluid pressure because Vs is affected more than Vp. The low-velocity and low-Q zone in the KLFZ model is the effect of multiple ruptures along the fault trace of the 2001 M s8.1 Kunlun earthquake. ?? 2009 The Authors Journal compilation ?? 2009 RAS.

  5. Nano Structured Plasma Spray Coating for Wear and High Temperature Corrosion Resistance Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, D.; Shukla, A. K.; Roy, H.

    2014-04-01

    The nano structured coating is a major challenge today to improve the different mechanical properties, wear and high temperature corrosion resistance behaviour of different industrial alloys. This paper is a review on synthesis of nano powder, plasma spraying methods, techniques of nano structured coating by plasma spray method, mechanical properties, tribological properties and high temperature corrosion behaviour of nano structured coating. Nano structured coatings of ceramic powders/composites are being developed for wide variety of applications like boiler, turbine and aerospace industries, which requires the resistance against wear, corrosion, erosion etc. The nano sized powders are subjected to agglomeration by spray drying, after which nano structured coating can be successfully applied over the substrate. Nano structured coating shows improved mechanical wear resistance and high temperature corrosion resistance. The significant improvement of wear and corrosion resistance is mainly attributed to formation of semi molten nano zones in case of nano structured coatings. The future scope of application of nano structured coating has also been highlighted in this paper.

  6. Structural insights into the anti-methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) activity of ceftobiprole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovering, Andrew L; Gretes, Michael C; Safadi, Susan S; Danel, Franck; de Castro, Liza; Page, Malcolm G P; Strynadka, Natalie C J

    2012-09-14

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is an antibiotic-resistant strain of S. aureus afflicting hospitals and communities worldwide. Of greatest concern is its development of resistance to current last-line-of-defense antibiotics; new therapeutics are urgently needed to combat this pathogen. Ceftobiprole is a recently developed, latest generation cephalosporin and has been the first to show activity against MRSA by inhibiting essential peptidoglycan transpeptidases, including the β-lactam resistance determinant PBP2a, from MRSA. Here we present the structure of the complex of ceftobiprole bound to PBP2a. This structure provides the first look at the molecular details of an effective β-lactam-resistant PBP interaction, leading to new insights into the mechanism of ceftobiprole efficacy against MRSA.

  7. Study on financial loss and its adjustment in earthquake insurance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Ru-shan; WANG Zifa; ZHU Min

    2006-01-01

    In the paper, we briefly introduce the development and present situation of earthquake insurance in China and foreign countries, and the evaluation of earthquake losses on the basis of seismic risk and structural vulnerability analyses. The emphasis is given to the probabilistic density function of earthquake loss adjustment for a single building under the given insurance policy and the overall variance of estimated earthquake losses aggregated from various locations with keen interest in the insurance industries. The correlation coefficient for the damages among single structures in the United States is also introduced to interpret the risk of loss concentration in the earthquake insurance. The paper provides a scientific basis for adjusting earthquake loss and premium rate, and it also provides a useful reference for the application and expansion of earthquake insurance in China.

  8. Crystal structure of the TLDc domain of oxidation resistance protein 2 from zebrafish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaise, Mickael; Alsarraf, Husam Mohammad Ali Baker; Wong, Jaslyn

    2012-01-01

    The oxidation resistance proteins (OXR) help to protect eukaryotes from reactive oxygen species. The sole C-terminal domain of the OXR, named TLDc is sufficient to perform this function. However, the mechanism by which oxidation resistance occurs is poorly understood. We present here the crystal...... structure of the TLDc domain of the oxidation resistance protein 2 from zebrafish. The structure was determined by X-ray crystallography to atomic resolution (0.97Å) and adopts an overall globular shape. Two antiparallel β-sheets form a central β-sandwich, surrounded by two helices and two one-turn helices...

  9. Earthquake Damage - General

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — An earthquake is the motion or trembling of the ground produced by sudden displacement of rock in the Earth's crust. Earthquakes result from crustal strain,...

  10. Earthquake Notification Service

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Earthquake Notification Service (ENS) is a free service that sends you automated notifications to your email or cell phone when earthquakes happen.

  11. Earthquakes: hydrogeochemical precursors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingebritsen, Steven E.; Manga, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Earthquake prediction is a long-sought goal. Changes in groundwater chemistry before earthquakes in Iceland highlight a potential hydrogeochemical precursor, but such signals must be evaluated in the context of long-term, multiparametric data sets.

  12. Earthquakes in Southern California

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — There have been many earthquake occurrences in Southern California. This set of slides shows earthquake damage from the following events: Imperial Valley, 1979,...

  13. Insights into the mechanism of drug resistance. X-ray structure analysis of multi-drug resistant HIV-1 protease ritonavir complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Zhigang [Wayne State Univ., Detroit, MI (United States); Harbor Hospital Baltimore, MD (United States); Yedidi, Ravikiran S. [Wayne State Univ., Detroit, MI (United States); National Inst. of Health (NIH), Bethesda, MD (United States); Wang, Yong [Wayne State Univ., Detroit, MI (United States); Dewdney, Tamaria G. [Wayne State Univ., Detroit, MI (United States); Reiter, Samuel J. [Wayne State Univ., Detroit, MI (United States); Brunzelle, Joseph S. [Northwestern Univ., Chicago, IL (United States); Kovari, Iulia A. [Wayne State Univ., Detroit, MI (United States); Kovari, Ladislau C. [Wayne State Univ., Detroit, MI (United States)

    2013-01-08

    Ritonavir (RTV) is a first generation HIV-1 protease inhibitor with rapidly emerging drug resistance. Mutations at residues 46, 54, 82 and 84 render the HIV-1 protease drug resistant against RTV. We report the crystal structure of multi-drug resistant (MDR) 769 HIV-1 protease (carrying resistant mutations at residues 10, 36, 46, 54, 62, 63, 71, 82, 84 and 90) complexed with RTV and the in vitro enzymatic IC50 of RTV against MDR HIV-1 protease. The structural and functional studies demonstrate significant drug resistance of MDR HIV-1 protease against RTV, arising from reduced hydrogen bonds and Van der Waals interactions between RTV and MDR HIV-1 protease.

  14. Deterministic and Probabilistic Analysis of NPP Communication Bridge Resistance Due to Extreme Loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Králik Juraj

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the experiences from the deterministic and probability analysis of the reliability of communication bridge structure resistance due to extreme loads - wind and earthquake. On the example of the steel bridge between two NPP buildings is considered the efficiency of the bracing systems. The advantages and disadvantages of the deterministic and probabilistic analysis of the structure resistance are discussed. The advantages of the utilization the LHS method to analyze the safety and reliability of the structures is presented

  15. Strong motion duration and earthquake magnitude relationships

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salmon, M.W.; Short, S.A. [EQE International, Inc., San Francisco, CA (United States); Kennedy, R.P. [RPK Structural Mechanics Consulting, Yorba Linda, CA (United States)

    1992-06-01

    Earthquake duration is the total time of ground shaking from the arrival of seismic waves until the return to ambient conditions. Much of this time is at relatively low shaking levels which have little effect on seismic structural response and on earthquake damage potential. As a result, a parameter termed ``strong motion duration`` has been defined by a number of investigators to be used for the purpose of evaluating seismic response and assessing the potential for structural damage due to earthquakes. This report presents methods for determining strong motion duration and a time history envelope function appropriate for various evaluation purposes, for earthquake magnitude and distance, and for site soil properties. There are numerous definitions of strong motion duration. For most of these definitions, empirical studies have been completed which relate duration to earthquake magnitude and distance and to site soil properties. Each of these definitions recognizes that only the portion of an earthquake record which has sufficiently high acceleration amplitude, energy content, or some other parameters significantly affects seismic response. Studies have been performed which indicate that the portion of an earthquake record in which the power (average rate of energy input) is maximum correlates most closely with potential damage to stiff nuclear power plant structures. Hence, this report will concentrate on energy based strong motion duration definitions.

  16. Method study of classification and gradation of earthquake disasters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MAO Guo-min; GU Jian-hua; WU Xin-yan

    2007-01-01

    Based on data of earthquake disaster events during 1954~2005 in the Chinese mainland, the classification and gradation of earthquake disasters have been studied by multivariate statistical analysis. Three fundamental structures of earthquake disasters have been found and an FAPE (factor analysis-principal component-equamax rotation) classification model and an HCWS (hierarchical cluster-ward method-seuclid) gradation model have been constructed. Earthquake disasters are divided into eight classes and five grades respectively in the models, which give a reasonable explanation to the phenomenon of earthquake disasters.

  17. Network similarity and statistical analysis of earthquake seismic data

    CERN Document Server

    Deyasi, Krishanu; Banerjee, Anirban

    2016-01-01

    We study the structural similarity of earthquake networks constructed from seismic catalogs of different geographical regions. A hierarchical clustering of underlying undirected earthquake networks is shown using Jensen-Shannon divergence in graph spectra. The directed nature of links indicates that each earthquake network is strongly connected, which motivates us to study the directed version statistically. Our statistical analysis of each earthquake region identifies the hub regions. We calculate the conditional probability of the forthcoming occurrences of earthquakes in each region. The conditional probability of each event has been compared with their stationary distribution.

  18. Network similarity and statistical analysis of earthquake seismic data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deyasi, Krishanu; Chakraborty, Abhijit; Banerjee, Anirban

    2017-09-01

    We study the structural similarity of earthquake networks constructed from seismic catalogs of different geographical regions. A hierarchical clustering of underlying undirected earthquake networks is shown using Jensen-Shannon divergence in graph spectra. The directed nature of links indicates that each earthquake network is strongly connected, which motivates us to study the directed version statistically. Our statistical analysis of each earthquake region identifies the hub regions. We calculate the conditional probability of the forthcoming occurrences of earthquakes in each region. The conditional probability of each event has been compared with their stationary distribution.

  19. Dynamics and structure of the vertical ionospheric disturbances caused by Tohoku earthquake according to Irkutsk bistatic CHIRP-sounding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berngardt, Oleg; Kotovich, Galina; Podlesnyi, Alexey

    In the work we present results of observation of the mid-scale vertical ionospheric irregularities caused by Tohoku earthquake with 1 minute temporary resolution. Their spatial and temporary dynamics is also investigated. The main instrument used in the analysis is bistatic CHIRP-sounder of own development of ISTP SB RAS. The CHIRP-sounder provides frequency change speed up to 1000 kHz/sec, and provides 1 minute temporal resolution, comparable with SuperDARN radars and GPS receivers network. The receiver and the transmitter of the sounder are located close to Irkutsk (52N,104E) at distance 120 km between each other. Synchronization of time and frequency is provided by GPS. As showed the analysis of the experimental data, the main response of the ionosphere was observed at Irkutsk from 06:10 to 07:00UT. Short-term variations of the electron density profile were also observed from 06:00UT. This corresponds to the main horizontal speed of disturbances about 2500 m/s and below. The vertical scale of the irregularities was 10-20 km. Irregularities practically weren't observed at heights above 200km. The obtained data don't contradict the data obtained by other researchers. Work was done under financial support of IV.12.2 OFN Russian Academy of Sciences program.

  20. EARTHQUAKE SCALING PARADOX

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU ZHONG-LIANG

    2001-01-01

    Two measures of earthquakes, the seismic moment and the broadband radiated energy, show completely different scaling relations. For shallow earthquakes worldwide from January 1987 to December 1998, the frequency distribution of the seismic moment shows a clear kink between moderate and large earthquakes, as revealed by previous works. But the frequency distribution of the broadband radiated energy shows a single power law, a classical Gutenberg-Richter relation. This inconsistency raises a paradox in the self-organized criticality model of earthquakes.

  1. Predicting the Liquid Phase Mass Transfer Resistance of Structured Packings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olujic, Z.; Seibert, A.F.

    2014-01-01

    Published correlations for estimating the liquid phase mass transfer coefficients of structured packings are compared using experimental evidence on the efficiency of Montz-Pak B1–250MN and B1–500MN structured packings as measured in total reflux distillation tests using the chlorobenzene/ethylbenze

  2. Superplasticizer effect on cement paste structure and concrete freeze-thaw resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuldyakov, Kirill; Kramar, Lyudmila; Trofimov, Boris; Ivanov, Ilya

    2016-01-01

    Article presents the results of studies of various types of superplasticizer additives and their influence on concrete structure and resistance under cyclic freezing-thawing. Glenium ACE 430 was taken as a polycarboxylate superplasticizer, and SP-1 - as a naphthalene-formaldehyde superplasticizer. It is revealed that at identical structure, W/C and fluidity of concrete mix, application of the polycarboxylate superplasticizer, Glenium AC 430, in comparison to the naphthalene-formaldehyde one SP-1, facilitates the increase of the concrete grade in freeze and thaw resistance from F2300 to F2400, concrete freeze and thaw resistance can be possible even higher if the gravel with higher freeze and thaw resistance is applied. To assess the superplasticizers influence on cement paste structure tests of the phase composition of the cement paste of the studied concrete were conducted. It is established that the use of polycarboxylate superplasticizer together with silica fume facilitates formation of cement plaster structure from tobermorite gel. This gel has increased basicity and is resistant to crystallization due to cyclic freezing. It is shown that in the presence of SP-1+SF in the cement paste of concrete during hydration the structure of hydrosilicate phases preferably comprises of C-S-H(I) and C-S-H(II) phases which actively crystallize while cyclic freezing and thawing and reduce freeze-thaw resistance of concrete.

  3. Sputtered Pt electrode structures with smoothly tapered edges by bi-layer resist lift-off

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Preiss, Elisabeth M., E-mail: elisabeth.preiss@de.bosch.com [Robert Bosch GmbH, Corporate Sector Research and Advance Engineering, Robert-Bosch-Campus 1, 71272 Renningen (Germany); Saarland University, Lab for Micromechanics, Microfluidics, and Microactuators, 66123 Saarbruecken (Germany); Krauss, Andreas [Robert Bosch GmbH, Corporate Sector Research and Advance Engineering, Robert-Bosch-Campus 1, 71272 Renningen (Germany); Seidel, Helmut [Saarland University, Lab for Micromechanics, Microfluidics, and Microactuators, 66123 Saarbruecken (Germany)

    2015-12-31

    A lift-off process using a bi-layer resist consisting of an image reversal resist on top and a lift-off resist at the bottom was used to structure Ti–Pt thin films. DC magnetron sputtered metal films patterned by this process show ultra smooth edges, ideal for applications such as interdigitated electrodes in resistive gas sensors including thin-film based sensitive coatings with thicknesses below 100 nm. Profiles of processed structures were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy and surface profilometer. The thickness profile and structure width were controlled by using different resist thicknesses and undercut lengths. Results were compared with iterative simulations by a geometric shadowing model, predicting undersputtering length and profile structure of the experimentally manufactured samples in good agreement. Target-to-substrate distance variation was found to have only a minor influence on the sputtering result. - Highlights: • Ti–Pt electrode structures were prepared using sputtering bi-layer-resist lift-off. • Prepared lift-off electrodes can be used for good overgrowth of thin films. • Ultra-smoothly tapered edges were controlled by the process parameters. • Simulations using a geometric shadowing model confirm our experimental results.

  4. Seismic analysis of nuclear power plant structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Go, J. C.

    1973-01-01

    Primary structures for nuclear power plants are designed to resist expected earthquakes of the site. Two intensities are referred to as Operating Basis Earthquake and Design Basis Earthquake. These structures are required to accommodate these seismic loadings without loss of their functional integrity. Thus, no plastic yield is allowed. The application of NASTRAN in analyzing some of these seismic induced structural dynamic problems is described. NASTRAN, with some modifications, can be used to analyze most structures that are subjected to seismic loads. A brief review of the formulation of seismic-induced structural dynamics is also presented. Two typical structural problems were selected to illustrate the application of the various methods of seismic structural analysis by the NASTRAN system.

  5. Children's Ideas about Earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simsek, Canan Lacin

    2007-01-01

    Earthquake, a natural disaster, is among the fundamental problems of many countries. If people know how to protect themselves from earthquake and arrange their life styles in compliance with this, damage they will suffer will reduce to that extent. In particular, a good training regarding earthquake to be received in primary schools is considered…

  6. School Safety and Earthquakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwelley, Laura; Tucker, Brian; Fernandez, Jeanette

    1997-01-01

    A recent assessment of earthquake risk to Quito, Ecuador, concluded that many of its public schools are vulnerable to collapse during major earthquakes. A subsequent examination of 60 buildings identified 15 high-risk buildings. These schools were retrofitted to meet standards that would prevent injury even during Quito's largest earthquakes. US…

  7. Redefining Earthquakes and the Earthquake Machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubenthal, Michael; Braile, Larry; Taber, John

    2008-01-01

    The Earthquake Machine (EML), a mechanical model of stick-slip fault systems, can increase student engagement and facilitate opportunities to participate in the scientific process. This article introduces the EML model and an activity that challenges ninth-grade students' misconceptions about earthquakes. The activity emphasizes the role of models…

  8. Redefining Earthquakes and the Earthquake Machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubenthal, Michael; Braile, Larry; Taber, John

    2008-01-01

    The Earthquake Machine (EML), a mechanical model of stick-slip fault systems, can increase student engagement and facilitate opportunities to participate in the scientific process. This article introduces the EML model and an activity that challenges ninth-grade students' misconceptions about earthquakes. The activity emphasizes the role of models…

  9. Problems of Collisions Between Adjacent Steel Structures under Earthquake Excitation / Problemy Zderzeń Pomiędzy Sąsiadującymi Konstrukcjami Stalowymi Poddanymi Obciążeniom Sejsmicznym

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sołtysik Barbara

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the high level of urbanization forces the engineers to design closelyseparated structures and to take into account many factors influencing their response, including collisions between them due to insufficient separation distance during moderate to strong ground motions. Recent observations as well as experimental and numerical investigations have confirmed that interactions between structures may lead to significant damage of structural elements and even to its total collapse. The aim of this paper is to investigate the influence of collisions between three insufficiently separated models of steel structures on structural response under earthquake excitation. The experimental tests as well as numerical analyses have been conducted in the study.

  10. Perception of earthquake risk in Taiwan: effects of gender and past earthquake experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kung, Yi-Wen; Chen, Sue-Huei

    2012-09-01

    This study explored how individuals in Taiwan perceive the risk of earthquake and the relationship of past earthquake experience and gender to risk perception. Participants (n= 1,405), including earthquake survivors and those in the general population without prior direct earthquake exposure, were selected and interviewed through a computer-assisted telephone interviewing procedure using a random sampling and stratification method covering all 24 regions of Taiwan. A factor analysis of the interview data yielded a two-factor structure of risk perception in regard to earthquake. The first factor, "personal impact," encompassed perception of threat and fear related to earthquakes. The second factor, "controllability," encompassed a sense of efficacy of self-protection in regard to earthquakes. The findings indicated prior earthquake survivors and females reported higher scores on the personal impact factor than males and those with no prior direct earthquake experience, although there were no group differences on the controllability factor. The findings support that risk perception has multiple components, and suggest that past experience (survivor status) and gender (female) affect the perception of risk. Exploration of potential contributions of other demographic factors such as age, education, and marital status to personal impact, especially for females and survivors, is discussed. Future research on and intervention program with regard to risk perception are suggested accordingly. © 2012 Society for Risk Analysis.

  11. Operational earthquake forecasting can enhance earthquake preparedness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, T.H.; Marzocchi, W.; Michael, A.J.; Gerstenberger, M.C.

    2014-01-01

    We cannot yet predict large earthquakes in the short term with much reliability and skill, but the strong clustering exhibited in seismic sequences tells us that earthquake probabilities are not constant in time; they generally rise and fall over periods of days to years in correlation with nearby seismic activity. Operational earthquake forecasting (OEF) is the dissemination of authoritative information about these time‐dependent probabilities to help communities prepare for potentially destructive earthquakes. The goal of OEF is to inform the decisions that people and organizations must continually make to mitigate seismic risk and prepare for potentially destructive earthquakes on time scales from days to decades. To fulfill this role, OEF must provide a complete description of the seismic hazard—ground‐motion exceedance probabilities as well as short‐term rupture probabilities—in concert with the long‐term forecasts of probabilistic seismic‐hazard analysis (PSHA).

  12. Seismic design of earth-retaining structures and foundations

    OpenAIRE

    Choudhury, Deepankar; Sitharam, TG; Rao, Subba KS

    2004-01-01

    Earthquake-resistant design of earth retaining structures like retaining walls, earth dams and foundations are very important problems to minimize the devastating effect of earthquake hazards. In this paper a comprehensive review for different methods to calculate seismic earth pressures and their point of applications is shown. Numerical example shows the merit of a displacement-based analysis over force-based analysis by considering a permissible displacement of the wall.Modification of IS ...

  13. New geological perspectives on earthquake recurrence models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwartz, D.P. [Geological Survey, Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    1997-02-01

    In most areas of the world the record of historical seismicity is too short or uncertain to accurately characterize the future distribution of earthquakes of different sizes in time and space. Most faults have not ruptured once, let alone repeatedly. Ultimately, the ability to correctly forecast the magnitude, location, and probability of future earthquakes depends on how well one can quantify the past behavior of earthquake sources. Paleoseismological trenching of active faults, historical surface ruptures, liquefaction features, and shaking-induced ground deformation structures provides fundamental information on the past behavior of earthquake sources. These studies quantify (a) the timing of individual past earthquakes and fault slip rates, which lead to estimates of recurrence intervals and the development of recurrence models and (b) the amount of displacement during individual events, which allows estimates of the sizes of past earthquakes on a fault. When timing and slip per event are combined with information on fault zone geometry and structure, models that define individual rupture segments can be developed. Paleoseismicity data, in the form of timing and size of past events, provide a window into the driving mechanism of the earthquake engine--the cycle of stress build-up and release.

  14. Earthquake effect on volcano and the geological structure in central java using tomography travel time method and relocation hypocenter by grid search method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suharsono; Nurdian, S. W.; Palupi, I. R.

    2016-11-01

    Relocating hypocenter is a way to improve the velocity model of the subsurface. One of the method is Grid Search. To perform the distribution of the velocity in subsurface by tomography method, it is used the result of relocating hypocenter to be a reference for subsurface analysis in volcanic and major structural patterns, such as in Central Java. The main data of this study is the earthquake data recorded from 1952 to 2012 with the P wave number is 9162, the number of events is 2426 were recorded by 30 stations located in the vicinity of Central Java. Grid search method has some advantages they are: it can relocate the hypocenter more accurate because this method is dividing space lattice model into blocks, and each grid block can only be occupied by one point hypocenter. Tomography technique is done by travel time data that has had relocated with inversion pseudo bending method. Grid search relocated method show that the hypocenter's depth is shallower than before and the direction is to the south, the hypocenter distribution is modeled into the subduction zone between the continent of Eurasia with the Indo-Australian with an average angle of 14 °. The tomography results show the low velocity value is contained under volcanoes with value of -8% to -10%, then the pattern of the main fault structure in Central Java can be description by the results of tomography at high velocity that is from 8% to 10% with the direction is northwest and northeast-southwest.

  15. Earthquake Response Mitigation of RC Building Using Friction Pendulum System

    OpenAIRE

    Sudarshan B. Sanap; Pradip D. Jadhao; S. M. Dumne

    2014-01-01

    Earthquake hazard mitigation is very sensitive issue now a day’s therefore researchers are struggling for optimum solution since last few decades. Base isolation technique is one of the effective techniques which give better results seismic hazard mitigation under earthquake excitation particularly in building structures, bridges and water tanks etc. Base isolation reduces not only the effects of earthquake acceleration to be transmitted to the structures, but also protects the content of ...

  16. Evaluation of Transmission Line Model Structures for Silicide-to-Silicon Specific Contact Resistance Extraction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stavitski, Natalie; Dal, van Mark J.H.; Lauwers, Anne; Vrancken, Christa; Kovalgin, Alexey Y.; Wolters, Rob A.M.

    2008-01-01

    In order to measure silicide-to-silicon specific contact resistance ρc, transmission line model (TLM) structures were proposed as attractive candidates for embedding in CMOS processes. We optimized TLM structures for nickel silicide and platinum silicide and evaluated them for various doping levels

  17. Effect of molecular structure and slump loss resistance of polycarboxylate superplasticizers on self-compacting concrete

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LAN Zi-dong

    2016-01-01

    A new kind of polycarboxylate superplasticizer with high slump loss resistance was obtained by designing scheduled molecular structure. The number average molecular mass of the polymer was characterized by thegel permeation chromatography measurements. And chemical structure of the polymer was observed by the Fouriertransform infrared spectroscopy(FT-IR). The results showthat the good workablemaintaining ofself-compacting concretecould be achieved through direct adjustmentof number average molecular mass and different unsaturated monomer in synthetic process. The FT-IR analysis illustrated that the high slump loss resistance of polycarboxylate superplasticizers with ester and carboxyl group and expectations of molecular structure were designed.

  18. Development of Light Weight Structures to Provide Blast-Resistant Designs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CRAWFORD John E

    2006-01-01

    In the past,blast-resistant designs for structures were often constructed with massive type structural systems,which relied more on brute strength than on finesse to achieve the required blast resistance.However,structures composed of COLD-FORMED steel components,such as sheet metal and metal studs,have shown great promise in providing blast resistance with the added benefits of Iow cost and ease of construction.Some examples of using such structures to provide containment for package handling facilities (PHF) are described in the paper for situations where blast containment is needed,such as a potential package bomb being discovered during the package vetting process.Results from tests and analytic data are used to illustrate aspects of design peculiar to such types of applications.Designs for specific capacities of PHF are described.

  19. Fault geometry and earthquake mechanics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. J. Andrews

    1994-06-01

    Full Text Available Earthquake mechanics may be determined by the geometry of a fault system. Slip on a fractal branching fault surface can explain: 1 regeneration of stress irregularities in an earthquake; 2 the concentration of stress drop in an earthquake into asperities; 3 starting and stopping of earthquake slip at fault junctions, and 4 self-similar scaling of earthquakes. Slip at fault junctions provides a natural realization of barrier and asperity models without appealing to variations of fault strength. Fault systems are observed to have a branching fractal structure, and slip may occur at many fault junctions in an earthquake. Consider the mechanics of slip at one fault junction. In order to avoid a stress singularity of order 1/r, an intersection of faults must be a triple junction and the Burgers vectors on the three fault segments at the junction must sum to zero. In other words, to lowest order the deformation consists of rigid block displacement, which ensures that the local stress due to the dislocations is zero. The elastic dislocation solution, however, ignores the fact that the configuration of the blocks changes at the scale of the displacement. A volume change occurs at the junction; either a void opens or intense local deformation is required to avoid material overlap. The volume change is proportional to the product of the slip increment and the total slip since the formation of the junction. Energy absorbed at the junction, equal to confining pressure times the volume change, is not large enongh to prevent slip at a new junction. The ratio of energy absorbed at a new junction to elastic energy released in an earthquake is no larger than P/µ where P is confining pressure and µ is the shear modulus. At a depth of 10 km this dimensionless ratio has th value P/µ= 0.01. As slip accumulates at a fault junction in a number of earthquakes, the fault segments are displaced such that they no longer meet at a single point. For this reason the

  20. EARTHQUAKES - VOLCANOES (Causes - Forecast - Counteraction)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsiapas, Elias

    2014-05-01

    Earthquakes and volcanoes are caused by: 1)Various liquid elements (e.g. H20, H2S, S02) which emerge from the pyrosphere and are trapped in the space between the solid crust and the pyrosphere (Moho discontinuity). 2)Protrusions of the solid crust at the Moho discontinuity (mountain range roots, sinking of the lithosphere's plates). 3)The differential movement of crust and pyrosphere. The crust misses one full rotation for approximately every 100 pyrosphere rotations, mostly because of the lunar pull. The above mentioned elements can be found in small quantities all over the Moho discontinuity, and they are constantly causing minor earthquakes and small volcanic eruptions. When large quantities of these elements (H20, H2S, SO2, etc) concentrate, they are carried away by the pyrosphere, moving from west to east under the crust. When this movement takes place under flat surfaces of the solid crust, it does not cause earthquakes. But when these elements come along a protrusion (a mountain root) they concentrate on its western side, displacing the pyrosphere until they fill the space created. Due to the differential movement of pyrosphere and solid crust, a vacuum is created on the eastern side of these protrusions and when the aforementioned liquids overfill this space, they explode, escaping to the east. At the point of their escape, these liquids are vaporized and compressed, their flow accelerates, their temperature rises due to fluid friction and they are ionized. On the Earth's surface, a powerful rumbling sound and electrical discharges in the atmosphere, caused by the movement of the gasses, are noticeable. When these elements escape, the space on the west side of the protrusion is violently taken up by the pyrosphere, which collides with the protrusion, causing a major earthquake, attenuation of the protrusions, cracks on the solid crust and damages to structures on the Earth's surface. It is easy to foresee when an earthquake will occur and how big it is

  1. Scalable, ultra-resistant structural colors based on network metamaterials

    CERN Document Server

    Galinski, Henning; Dong, Hao; Gongora, Juan S Totero; Favaro, Grégory; Döbeli, Max; Spolenak, Ralph; Fratalocchi, Andrea; Capasso, Federico

    2016-01-01

    Structural colours have drawn wide attention for their potential as a future printing technology for various applications, ranging from biomimetic tissues to adaptive camouflage materials. However, an efficient approach to realise robust colours with a scalable fabrication technique is still lacking, hampering the realisation of practical applications with this platform. Here we develop a new approach based on large scale network metamaterials, which combine dealloyed subwavelength structures at the nanoscale with loss-less, ultra-thin dielectrics coatings. By using theory and experiments, we show how sub-wavelength dielectric coatings control a mechanism of resonant light coupling with epsilon-near-zero (ENZ) regions generated in the metallic network, manifesting the formation of highly saturated structural colours that cover a wide portion of the spectrum. Ellipsometry measurements report the efficient observation of these colours even at angles of $70$ degrees. The network-like architecture of these nanoma...

  2. Corrosion-resistant multilayer structures with improved reflectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soufli, Regina; Fernandez-Perea, Monica; Robinson, Jeff C.

    2013-04-09

    In one general embodiment, a thin film structure includes a substrate; a first corrosion barrier layer above the substrate; a reflective layer above the first corrosion barrier layer, wherein the reflective layer comprises at least one repeating set of sub-layers, wherein one of the sub-layers of each set of sub-layers being of a corrodible material; and a second corrosion barrier layer above the reflective layer. In another general embodiment, a system includes an optical element having a thin film structure as recited above; and an image capture or spectrometer device. In a further general embodiment, a laser according to one embodiment includes a light source and the thin film structure as recited above.

  3. Wave-equation Based Earthquake Location

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, P.; Yang, D.; Yang, X.; Chen, J.; Harris, J.

    2014-12-01

    Precisely locating earthquakes is fundamentally important for studying earthquake physics, fault orientations and Earth's deformation. In industry, accurately determining hypocenters of microseismic events triggered in the course of a hydraulic fracturing treatment can help improve the production of oil and gas from unconventional reservoirs. We develop a novel earthquake location method based on solving full wave equations to accurately locate earthquakes (including microseismic earthquakes) in complex and heterogeneous structures. Traveltime residuals or differential traveltime measurements with the waveform cross-correlation technique are iteratively inverted to obtain the locations of earthquakes. The inversion process involves the computation of the Fréchet derivative with respect to the source (earthquake) location via the interaction between a forward wavefield emitting from the source to the receiver and an adjoint wavefield reversely propagating from the receiver to the source. When there is a source perturbation, the Fréchet derivative not only measures the influence of source location but also the effects of heterogeneity, anisotropy and attenuation of the subsurface structure on the arrival of seismic wave at the receiver. This is essential for the accuracy of earthquake location in complex media. In addition, to reduce the computational cost, we can first assume that seismic wave only propagates in a vertical plane passing through the source and the receiver. The forward wavefield, adjoint wavefield and Fréchet derivative with respect to the source location are all computed in a 2D vertical plane. By transferring the Fréchet derivative along the horizontal direction of the 2D plane into the ones along Latitude and Longitude coordinates or local 3D Cartesian coordinates, the source location can be updated in a 3D geometry. The earthquake location obtained with this combined 2D-3D approach can then be used as the initial location for a true 3D wave

  4. Roof structure theory and support resistance determination of longwall face in shallow seam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Qing-xiang(黄庆享)

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents the structure models founded in shallow seam, the roof asymmetry arch with three articulations in roof first weighting and the step voussoir beam in roof periodic weighting. These structure models are differ from classic theory, it establishes the new roof control theory of instability structure roof, especially in shallow seam. Based on the new roof structure theory, the support working state of "given sliding load" is put forward, and the factor of load transmitting is introduced to determine the load on roof structure. Therefore, the proper and accurate calculating methods of support resistance are established. Based on this, the dynamic structure theory in shallow seam could be predicted.

  5. Laboratory studies of THGEM-based WELL structures with resistive anodes

    CERN Document Server

    Arazi, L; Bressler, S; Moleri, L; Rubin, A; Breskin, A

    2013-01-01

    In this work we investigate three variants of single amplification-stage detector elements; they comprise THGEM electrodes closed at their bottom with metallic or resistive anodes to form WELL-type configurations. We present the results of a comparative study of the Thick-WELL (THWELL), Resistive-WELL (RWELL) and Segmented Resistive WELL (SRWELL), focusing on their performance in terms of spark-quenching capability, gain variation with position and counting rate, pulse shapes and signal propagation to neighboring readout pads; the study included both 30x30 and 100x100 mm$^2$ detectors. It was shown that the WELL structures with resistive anodes offer stable operation even in a highly ionizing environment, with effective spark quenching, as well as higher gain than the standard THGEM/induction-gap configuration. Cross talk between neighboring readout pads was shown to be effectively eliminated in the segmented detector with a conductive grid underneath the resistive layer. The latter multiplier should allow fo...

  6. Influence of TiO2 on the Alkali Resistance and Structure of Invert Glass

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Qing-lin; WU Zheng-ming; BU Heng-zhi

    2003-01-01

    Through measuring the alkali resistance of the invert glass and the quantity of SiO2 and TiO2 migrating fron the glass into the solution,the influence of TiO2 on the alkali resistance of the glass is discussed and its structure is also analyzed by infrared spectroscopy.It is concluded that TiO2 has double functions for the alkali resistance of the invert glass.On the one hand ,both TiO2 polarizing the secondary ions in glass and TiO2 isomorphism replacement of SiO2 make the alkali resistance of the glass decrease.On the ther hand,TiO2 patching network and anti-erosion covering help to increase the alkali resistance.

  7. Shear Wave Structure of Umbria and Marche, Italy, Strong Motion Seismometer Sites Affected by the 1997-98 Umbria-Marche, Italy, Earthquake Sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayen, Robert; Scasserra, Giuseppe; Stewart, Jonathan P.; Lanzo, Giuseppe

    2008-01-01

    A long sequence of earthquakes, eight with magnitudes between 5 and 6, struck the Umbria and Marche regions of central Italy between September 26, 1997 and July 1998. The earthquake swarm caused severe structural damage, particularly to masonry buildings, and resulted in the loss of twelve lives and about 150 injuries. The source of the events was a single seismogenic structure that consists of several faults with a prevailing northwest-southeast strike and crosses the Umbria-Marche border. The focal mechanism of the largest shocks indicates that the events were the product of shallow extensional normal faulting along a NE-SW extension perpendicular to the trend of the Apennines. The network of analog seismometer stations in the Umbria and Marche regions recorded motions of the main September and October 1997 events and a dense array of mobile digital stations, installed since September 29, recorded most of the swarm. The permanent national network Rete Accelerometrica Nazionale (RAN) is administered and maintained by Dipartimento delle Protezione Civile (DPC: Civil Protection Department); the temporary array was managed by Servizio Sismico Nazionale (SSN) in cooperation with small agencies and Universities. ENEA, the operator of many seismometer stations in Umbria, is the public Italian National Agency for New Technologies, Energy and the Environment. Many of the temporary and permanent stations in the Italian seismic network have little or no characterization of seismic velocities. In this study, we investigated 17 Italian sites using an active-source approach that employs low frequency harmonic waves to measure the dispersive nature of surface waves in the ground. We used the Spectral Analysis of Surface Wave (SASW) approach, coupled with an array of harmonic-wave electro-mechanical sources that are driven in-phase to excite the ground. An inversion algorithm using a non-linear least-squares best-fit method is used to compute shear wave velocities for up to 100

  8. The Effects of 3-D Velocity Structure on a Finite Fault Inversion of the 1989 M 7.1 Loma Prieta Earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, P.; Archuleta, R.

    2002-12-01

    Several excellent studies on finite fault source of the 1989 M 7.1 Loma Prieta earthquake have been completed using different data sets and approaches (Beroza, 1991; Hartzell et al., 1991; Steidl et al., 1991; Wald, et al., 1991). Most of these studies find low slip in the hypocentral region and a bimodal distribution of slip with respect to the hypocenter. The seismic moment ranges from 2.3x1019 to 3.5x1019 N-m, spanning approximately the same range determined teleseismically at longer periods. In addition to the similarities, the differences in these models were also indicated by Beroza (1995). The location of the high-slip areas and, specially, the rake differs among these models. The lateral variations in velocity structure may be one important effect causing the differences among the source models. To address this problem, we determine a finite fault source model for the Loma Prieta earthquake through the inversion of ground motion using 3D Green's functions. We used the 3D crustal model recently developed by the U.S. Geological Survey (Brocher et al., 1997) and a 3D viscoelastic finite-difference method (Liu and Archuleta, 1999) to compute the Green's functions. The data from 16 three-component stations and Green's functions are band-passed between 0.05-1.0 Hz. A global inversion algorithm (Liu and Archuleta, 2001) is employed to solve for the two components of fault slip, rise time, rupture time and the shape of source function for each subfault. In the inversion process we limit the time window to the direct P and S waves to mitigate the influence of the uncertainties in the 3D-velocity structure on later arrivals. We also perform another inversion using 1-D synthetic Green's functions. To insure that the inversion results are comparable, both inversions will use exactly same procedure, data, source parameterization and constraint conditions. By quantitatively comparing spatial distributions of source parameters and the fit between the data and the

  9. Modeling fast and slow earthquakes at various scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ide, Satoshi

    2014-01-01

    Earthquake sources represent dynamic rupture within rocky materials at depth and often can be modeled as propagating shear slip controlled by friction laws. These laws provide boundary conditions on fault planes embedded in elastic media. Recent developments in observation networks, laboratory experiments, and methods of data analysis have expanded our knowledge of the physics of earthquakes. Newly discovered slow earthquakes are qualitatively different phenomena from ordinary fast earthquakes and provide independent information on slow deformation at depth. Many numerical simulations have been carried out to model both fast and slow earthquakes, but problems remain, especially with scaling laws. Some mechanisms are required to explain the power-law nature of earthquake rupture and the lack of characteristic length. Conceptual models that include a hierarchical structure over a wide range of scales would be helpful for characterizing diverse behavior in different seismic regions and for improving probabilistic forecasts of earthquakes.

  10. Class I Microcins: Their Structures, Activities, and Mechanisms of Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severinov, Konstantin; Semenova, Ekaterina; Kazakov, Teymur

    Microcin J25, microcin B17, and microcin C7-C51 are the three known members of class I posttranslatio