WorldWideScience

Sample records for earthquake resistant structures

  1. Earthquake resistant design of structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Chang Geun; Kim, Gyu Seok; Lee, Dong Geun

    1990-02-01

    This book tells of occurrence of earthquake and damage analysis of earthquake, equivalent static analysis method, application of equivalent static analysis method, dynamic analysis method like time history analysis by mode superposition method and direct integration method, design spectrum analysis considering an earthquake-resistant design in Korea. Such as analysis model and vibration mode, calculation of base shear, calculation of story seismic load and combine of analysis results.

  2. Evaluation of earthquake resistance design for underground structures of nuclear power plant, (1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tohma, Junichi; Kokusho, Kenji; Iwatate, Takahiro; Ohtomo, Keizo

    1986-01-01

    As to earthquake resistant design of underground civil engineering structures related with emergency cooling water system of nuclear power plant, it is required these structures must maintain the function of great important their own facilities during earthquakes, especially for design earthquake motion. In this study, shaft pipline, pit and duct for cooling sea water facilities were chosen as typical underground structures, and the authors deal with the seismic design method for calculation of the principal sectional force in these structures generated by design earthquake motion. Especially, comparative investigations concerned with response displacement method versus dynamic analysis methods (lumped mass analysis and finite element analysis) are discussed. (author)

  3. Research and development of earthquake-resistant structure model for nuclear fuel facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uryu, Mitsuru; Terada, S.; Shioya, I. [and others

    1999-05-01

    It is important for a nuclear fuel facility to reduce an input intensity of earthquake on the upper part of the building. To study of a response of the building caused by earthquake, an earthquake-resistant structure model is constructed. The weight of the structure model is 90 ton, and is supported by multiple layers of natural ruber and steel. And a weight support device which is called 'softlanding' is also installed to prevent the structure model from loosing the function at excess deformation. The softlanding device consists of Teflon. Dynamic response characteristics of the structure model caused by sine wave and simulated seismic waves are measured and analyzed. Soil tests of the fourth geologic stratum on which the structure model is sited are made to confirm the safety of soil-structure interactions caused by earthquake. (M. Suetake)

  4. Low cost earthquake resistant ferrocement small house

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saleem, M.A.; Ashraf, M.; Ashraf, M.

    2008-01-01

    The greatest humanitarian challenge faced even today after one year of Kashmir Hazara earthquake is that of providing shelter. Currently on the globe one in seven people live in a slum or refugee camp. The earthquake of October 2005 resulted in a great loss of life and property. This research work is mainly focused on developing a design of small size, low cost and earthquake resistant house. Ferrocement panels are recommended as the main structural elements with lightweight truss roofing system. Earthquake resistance is ensured by analyzing the structure on ETABS for a seismic activity of zone 4. The behavior of structure is found satisfactory under the earthquake loading. An estimate of cost is also presented which shows that it is an economical solution. (author)

  5. Designing an Earthquake-Resistant Building

    Science.gov (United States)

    English, Lyn D.; King, Donna T.

    2016-01-01

    How do cross-bracing, geometry, and base isolation help buildings withstand earthquakes? These important structural design features involve fundamental geometry that elementary school students can readily model and understand. The problem activity, Designing an Earthquake-Resistant Building, was undertaken by several classes of sixth- grade…

  6. Performance evaluation recommendations of nuclear power plants outdoor significant civil structures earthquake resistance. Performance evaluation examples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-06-01

    The Japan Society of Civil Engineers has updated performance evaluation recommendations of nuclear power plants outdoor significant civil structures earthquake resistance in June 2005. Based on experimental and analytical considerations, analytical seismic models of soils for underground structures, effects of vertical motions on time-history dynamic analysis and shear fracture of reinforced concretes by cyclic loadings have been incorporated in new recommendations. This document shows outdoor civil structures earthquake resistance and endurance performance evaluation examples based on revised recommendations. (T. Tanaka)

  7. Earthquake design for controlled structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikos G. Pnevmatikos

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available An alternative design philosophy, for structures equipped with control devices, capable to resist an expected earthquake while remaining in the elastic range, is described. The idea is that a portion of the earthquake loading is under¬taken by the control system and the remaining by the structure which is designed to resist elastically. The earthquake forces assuming elastic behavior (elastic forces and elastoplastic behavior (design forces are first calculated ac¬cording to the codes. The required control forces are calculated as the difference from elastic to design forces. The maximum value of capacity of control devices is then compared to the required control force. If the capacity of the control devices is larger than the required control force then the control devices are accepted and installed in the structure and the structure is designed according to the design forces. If the capacity is smaller than the required control force then a scale factor, α, reducing the elastic forces to new design forces is calculated. The structure is redesigned and devices are installed. The proposed procedure ensures that the structure behaves elastically (without damage for the expected earthquake at no additional cost, excluding that of buying and installing the control devices.

  8. Behaviour of masonry structures during the Bhuj earthquake of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A variety of masonry structures suffered damage during the recent Bhuj earthquake. Some of the traditional masonry structures had no earthquake resistant features and suffered considerable damage. This paper attempts to evaluate the behaviour of masonry structures based on the type of masonry used in places like Bhuj ...

  9. Modern earthquake engineering offshore and land-based structures

    CERN Document Server

    Jia, Junbo

    2017-01-01

    This book addresses applications of earthquake engineering for both offshore and land-based structures. It is self-contained as a reference work and covers a wide range of topics, including topics related to engineering seismology, geotechnical earthquake engineering, structural engineering, as well as special contents dedicated to design philosophy, determination of ground motions, shock waves, tsunamis, earthquake damage, seismic response of offshore and arctic structures, spatial varied ground motions, simplified and advanced seismic analysis methods, sudden subsidence of offshore platforms, tank liquid impacts during earthquakes, seismic resistance of non-structural elements, and various types of mitigation measures, etc. The target readership includes professionals in offshore and civil engineering, officials and regulators, as well as researchers and students in this field.

  10. Performance evaluation recommendations of nuclear power plants outdoor significant civil structures earthquake resistance. Technical documentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-06-01

    The Japan Society of Civil Engineers has updated performance evaluation recommendations of nuclear power plants outdoor significant civil structures earthquake resistance in June 2005. Experimental and analytical considerations on the seismic effects evaluation criteria, such as analytical seismic models of soils for underground structures, effects of vertical motions on time-history dynamic analysis and shear fracture of reinforced concretes by cyclic loadings, were shown in this document and incorporated in new recommendations. (T. Tanaka)

  11. Performance evaluation recommendations and manuals of nuclear power plants outdoor significant civil structures earthquake resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-06-01

    Performance evaluation recommendations and manuals of nuclear power plants outdoor significant civil structures earthquake resistance have been updated in June 2005 by the Japan Society of Civil Engineers. Based on experimental and analytical considerations on the recommendations of May 2002, analytical seismic models of soils for underground structures, effects of vertical motions on time-history dynamic analysis and shear fracture of reinforced concretes by cyclic loadings have been evaluated and incorporated in new recommendations. (T. Tanaka)

  12. Enhanced Earthquake-Resistance on the High Level Radioactive Waste Canister

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Youngchul; Yoon, Chanhoon; Lee, Jeaowan; Kim, Jinsup; Choi, Heuijoo

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, the earthquake-resistance type buffer was developed with the method protecting safely about the earthquake. The main parameter having an effect on the earthquake-resistant performance was analyzed and the earthquake-proof type buffer material was designed. The shear analysis model was developed and the performance of the earthquake-resistance buffer material was evaluated. The dynamic behavior of the radioactive waste disposal canister was analyzed in case the earthquake was generated. In the case, the disposal canister gets the serious damage. In this paper, the earthquake-resistance buffer material was developed in order to prevent this damage. By putting the buffer in which the density is small between the canister and buffer, the earthquake-resistant performance was improved about 80%

  13. Earthquake risk assessment of building structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellingwood, Bruce R.

    2001-01-01

    During the past two decades, probabilistic risk analysis tools have been applied to assess the performance of new and existing building structural systems. Structural design and evaluation of buildings and other facilities with regard to their ability to withstand the effects of earthquakes requires special considerations that are not normally a part of such evaluations for other occupancy, service and environmental loads. This paper reviews some of these special considerations, specifically as they pertain to probability-based codified design and reliability-based condition assessment of existing buildings. Difficulties experienced in implementing probability-based limit states design criteria for earthquake are summarized. Comparisons of predicted and observed building damage highlight the limitations of using current deterministic approaches for post-earthquake building condition assessment. The importance of inherent randomness and modeling uncertainty in forecasting building performance is examined through a building fragility assessment of a steel frame with welded connections that was damaged during the Northridge Earthquake of 1994. The prospects for future improvements in earthquake-resistant design procedures based on a more rational probability-based treatment of uncertainty are examined

  14. Analysis of the Earthquake-Resistant Design Approach for Buildings in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carrillo Julián

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of new codes for earthquake-resistant structures has made possible to guarantee a better performance of buildings, when they are subjected to seismic actions. Therefore, it is convenient that current codes for design of building become conceptually transparent when defining the strength modification factors and assessing maximum lateral displacements, so that the design process can be clearly understood by structural engineers. The aim of this study is to analyze the transparency of earthquake-resistant design approach for buildings in Mexico by means of a critical review of the factors for strength modification and displacement amplification. The approach of building design codes in US is also analyzed. It is concluded that earthquake-resistant design in Mexico have evolved in refinement and complexity. It is also demonstrated that the procedure prescribed by such design codes allows the assessment of the design strengths and displacements in a more rational way, in accordance not only with the present stage of knowledge but also with the contemporary tendencies in building codes. In contrast, the procedures used in US codes may not provide a clear view for seismic response assessment of buildings.

  15. PROSPECTS OF ESTABLISHING EARTHQUAKE RESISTANT BUILDINGS FROM TUBE CONCRETE CONSTRUCTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdujafar I. Akaev

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Objectives The aim of the research is to find optimal design solutions for the erection of buildings that will ensure their reliability and durability, compliance with environmental requirements, fire resistance and earthquake resistance. In this regard, the task is to determine the advantages and prospects of erecting earthquake resistant buildings from tube concrete constructions, since they are distinct in constructive, technological and economic efficiency when are used as vertical load-bearing struts of high-rise buildings. Method The technique for calculating the strength of normal sections of eccentrically-compressed tube concrete elements uses a nonlinear deformation model, taking into account the joint operation of the steel shell and the concrete core under the conditions of triaxial compression. Results In the article the review of the newest world experience of using tube concrete as vertical load-bearing structures for public facilities from the standpoint of earthquake resistant construction is given. The international practices of public facility construction ranging in height from 100 to 600 m with the use of tube concrete technology, including regions with dangerous natural and man-made conditions, have been studied. The structural, operational and technological advantages and disadvantages of tube concrete technology are analysed. Methods for calculating the strength of concrete tube elements in the case of central compression are considered: according to the so-called deformation theory, the state of total destruction of both concrete and tube fluidity attained at maximum pressure are indicated by the beginning of "tube flow on the longitudinal axis". The advantages and disadvantages of both methods are shown. Factors constraining the introduction and wider application of tube concrete constructions in Russia are considered. Conclusion While the advantages of concrete tube constructions in their extensive

  16. Experimental Study on a Self-Centering Earthquake-Resistant Masonry Pier with a Structural Concrete Column

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lijun Niu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a slotting construction strategy to avoid shear behavior of multistory masonry buildings. The aspect ratio of masonry piers increases via slotting between spandrels and piers, so that the limit state of piers under an earthquake may be altered from shear to rocking. Rocking piers with a structural concrete column (SCC form a self-centering earthquake-resistant system. The in-plane lateral rocking behavior of masonry piers subjected to an axial force is predicted, and an experimental study is conducted on two full-scale masonry piers with an SCC, which consist of a slotting pier and an original pier. Meanwhile, a comparison of the rocking modes of masonry piers with an SCC and without an SCC was conducted in the paper. Experimental verification indicates that the slotting strategy achieves a change of failure modes from shear to rocking, and this resistant system with an SCC incorporates the self-centering and high energy dissipation properties. For the slotting pier, a lateral story drift ratio of 2.5% and a high displacement ductility of approximately 9.7 are obtained in the test, although the lateral strength decreased by 22.3% after slotting. The predicted lateral strength of the rocking pier with an SCC has a margin of error of 5.3%.

  17. Soil/Structure Interactions in Earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramey, G. W.; Moore, R. K.; Yoo, C. H.; Bush, Thomas D., Jr.; Stallings, J. M.

    1986-01-01

    In effort to improve design of Earthquake-resistant structures, mathematical study undertaken to simulate interactions among soil, foundation, and superstructure during various kinds of vibrational excitation. System modeled as three lumped masses connected vertically by springs, with lowest mass connected to horizontal vibrator (representing ground) through springs and dashpot. Behavior of springs described by elastic or elastoplastic force/deformation relationships. Relationships used to approximate nonlinear system behavior and soil/foundation-interface behavior.

  18. Partial Prestress Concrete Beams Reinforced Concrete Column Joint Earthquake Resistant On Frame Structure Building

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astawa, M. D.; Kartini, W.; Lie, F. X. E.

    2018-01-01

    Floor Building that requires a large space such as for the meeting room, so it must remove the column in the middle of the room, then the span beam above the room will be long. If the beam of structural element with a span length reaches 15.00 m, then it is less effective and efficient using a regular Reinforced Concrete Beam because it requires a large section dimension, and will reduce the beauty of the view in terms of aesthetics of Architecture. In order to meet these criteria, in this design will use partial prestressing method with 400/600 mm section dimension, assuming the partial Prestressed Beam structure is still able to resist the lateral force of the earthquake. The design of the reinforcement has taken into account to resist the moment due to the gravitational load and lateral forces. The earthquake occurring on the frame structure of the building. In accordance with the provisions, the flexural moment capacity of the tendon is permitted only by 25% of the total bending moment on support of the beam, while the 75% will be charged to the reinforcing steel. Based on the analysis result, bring ini 1 (one) tendon contains 6 strand with diameter 15,2 mm. On the beam pedestal, requires 5D25 tensile reinforcement and 3D25 for the compression reinforcement, for shear reinforcement on the pedestal using Ø10-100 mm. Dimensional column section are 600/600 mm with longitudinal main reinforcement of 12D25, and transverse reinforcement Ø10-150. At the core of the beam-column joint, use the transversal reinforcement Ø10-100 mm. The moment of Column versus Beam Moment ∑Me > 1.2 Mg, with a value of 906.99 kNm > 832.25 kNm, qualify for ductility and Strong Columns-weak beam. Capacity of contribution bending moment of Strand Tendon’s is 23.95% from the total bending moment capacity of the beam, meaning in accordance with the provisions. Thus, the stability and ductility structure of Beam-Column joint is satisfy the requirements of SNI 2847: 2013 and ACI 318-11.

  19. EARTHQUAKE-INDUCED DEFORMATION STRUCTURES AND RELATED TO EARTHQUAKE MAGNITUDES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savaş TOPAL

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Earthquake-induced deformation structures which are called seismites may helpful to clasify the paleoseismic history of a location and to estimate the magnitudes of the potention earthquakes in the future. In this paper, seismites were investigated according to the types formed in deep and shallow lake sediments. Seismites are observed forms of sand dikes, introduced and fractured gravels and pillow structures in shallow lakes and pseudonodules, mushroom-like silts protruding laminites, mixed layers, disturbed varved lamination and loop bedding in deep lake sediments. Earthquake-induced deformation structures, by benefiting from previous studies, were ordered according to their formations and earthquake magnitudes. In this order, the lowest eartquake's record is loop bedding and the highest one is introduced and fractured gravels in lacustrine deposits.

  20. On ethics and the earthquake resistant interior design of buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurol, Yonca

    2014-03-01

    The most common tectonic quality of modern structures, such as frame systems, is their flexibility; they are open for change. Although this characteristic is a big advantage in comparison to the inflexible masonry structures of the past, it might also create some serious problems, such as e.g. the lack of safety in the event of an earthquake, if the flexibility is not used consciously by architects and interior designers. This article attempts to define and establish some rules for the interior design of buildings with reinforced concrete frame systems. The rules for making subtractions from these structures and extending them by making additions to them are contained within this article. The main objective of this article is to derive some ethical values from these rules. Thus, the conclusion of the article focuses on the derivation of some ethical values for achieving earthquake resistant interior design of buildings with reinforced concrete frame systems.

  1. Living with earthquakes - development and usage of earthquake-resistant construction methods in European and Asian Antiquity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kázmér, Miklós; Major, Balázs; Hariyadi, Agus; Pramumijoyo, Subagyo; Ditto Haryana, Yohanes

    2010-05-01

    Earthquakes are among the most horrible events of nature due to unexpected occurrence, for which no spiritual means are available for protection. The only way of preserving life and property is applying earthquake-resistant construction methods. Ancient Greek architects of public buildings applied steel clamps embedded in lead casing to hold together columns and masonry walls during frequent earthquakes in the Aegean region. Elastic steel provided strength, while plastic lead casing absorbed minor shifts of blocks without fracturing rigid stone. Romans invented concrete and built all sizes of buildings as a single, unflexible unit. Masonry surrounding and decorating concrete core of the wall did not bear load. Concrete resisted minor shaking, yielding only to forces higher than fracture limits. Roman building traditions survived the Dark Ages and 12th century Crusader castles erected in earthquake-prone Syria survive until today in reasonably good condition. Concrete and steel clamping persisted side-by-side in the Roman Empire. Concrete was used for cheap construction as compared to building of masonry. Applying lead-encased steel increased costs, and was avoided whenever possible. Columns of the various forums in Italian Pompeii mostly lack steel fittings despite situated in well-known earthquake-prone area. Whether frequent recurrence of earthquakes in the Naples region was known to inhabitants of Pompeii might be a matter of debate. Seemingly the shock of the AD 62 earthquake was not enough to apply well-known protective engineering methods throughout the reconstruction of the city before the AD 79 volcanic catastrophe. An independent engineering tradition developed on the island of Java (Indonesia). The mortar-less construction technique of 8-9th century Hindu masonry shrines around Yogyakarta would allow scattering of blocks during earthquakes. To prevent dilapidation an intricate mortise-and-tenon system was carved into adjacent faces of blocks. Only the

  2. Assessment of Structural Resistance of building 4862 to Earthquake and Tornado Forces [SEC 1 and 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    METCALF, I.L.

    1999-01-01

    This report presents the results of work done for Hanford Engineering Laboratory under contract Y213-544-12662. LATA performed an assessment of building 4862 resistance to earthquake and tornado forces

  3. Assessment of Structural Resistance of building 4862 to Earthquake and Tornado Forces [SEC 1 and 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    METCALF, I.L.

    1999-12-06

    This report presents the results of work done for Hanford Engineering Laboratory under contract Y213-544-12662. LATA performed an assessment of building 4862 resistance to earthquake and tornado forces.

  4. Seismic-resistant design of nuclear power stations in Japan, earthquake country. Lessons learned from Chuetsu-oki earthquake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irikura, Kojiro

    2008-01-01

    The new assessment (back-check) of earthquake-proof safety was being conducted at Kashiwazaki-Kariwa Nuclear Power Plants, Tokyo Electric Co. in response to a request based on the guideline for reactor evaluation for seismic-resistant design code, revised in 2006, when the 2007 Chuetsu-oki Earthquake occurred and brought about an unexpectedly huge tremor in this area, although the magnitude of the earthquake was only 6.8 but the intensity of earthquake motion exceeded 2.5-fold more than supposed. This paper introduces how and why the guideline for seismic-resistant design of nuclear facilities was revised in 2006, the outline of the Chuetsu-oki Earthquake, and preliminary findings and lessons learned from the Earthquake. The paper specifically discusses on (1) how we may specify in advance geologic active faults as has been overlooked this time, (2) how we can make adequate models for seismic origin from which we can extract its characteristics, and (3) how the estimation of strong ground motion simulation may be possible for ground vibration level of a possibly overlooked fault. (S. Ohno)

  5. Unbonded Prestressed Columns for Earthquake Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    Modern structures are able to survive significant shaking caused by earthquakes. By implementing unbonded post-tensioned tendons in bridge columns, the damage caused by an earthquake can be significantly lower than that of a standard reinforced concr...

  6. The utilization of brick walls for resisting earthquake in building technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarigan, J.; Benedicta, C.

    2018-03-01

    Many structures in Indonesia use reinforced concrete frames with brick walls as their infill. Commonly, the engineers consider brick walls as the partitions and count them as the non-structural elements in the structure design. However, brick walls are capable of resisting earthquake by yielding high stiffness to the structure in case the brick walls are integrated well with the frames. It will reduce the non-structural destructions that happen to structures which is one of the most frequently impacts in the earthquake. This paper will take the effects of applying brick walls as the structural elements up by comparing it with the structure using brick walls as the partitions. The modeling of the brick walls uses the equivalent spectrum method meanwhile the seismic analysis uses the respon spectrum method. The utilization of brick walls can cause the decrement of the natural period to 42%. It also reduce the structure displacements to 53% in X-direction and 67% in Y-direction and the story drifts to 57% in X-direction and 71% in Y-direction. Otherwise, it causes the increment of the base shear only up to 3% in X-direction and 7% in Y-direction.

  7. Earthquake engineering for nuclear facilities

    CERN Document Server

    Kuno, Michiya

    2017-01-01

    This book is a comprehensive compilation of earthquake- and tsunami-related technologies and knowledge for the design and construction of nuclear facilities. As such, it covers a wide range of fields including civil engineering, architecture, geotechnical engineering, mechanical engineering, and nuclear engineering, for the development of new technologies providing greater resistance against earthquakes and tsunamis. It is crucial both for students of nuclear energy courses and for young engineers in nuclear power generation industries to understand the basics and principles of earthquake- and tsunami-resistant design of nuclear facilities. In Part I, "Seismic Design of Nuclear Power Plants", the design of nuclear power plants to withstand earthquakes and tsunamis is explained, focusing on buildings, equipment's, and civil engineering structures. In Part II, "Basics of Earthquake Engineering", fundamental knowledge of earthquakes and tsunamis as well as the dynamic response of structures and foundation ground...

  8. Analytical investigations of the earthquake resistance of the support base of an oil-gas platform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glagovskii, V. B.; Kassirova, N. A.; Turchina, O. A.; Finagenov, O. M.; Tsirukhin, N. A. [JSC ' VNIIG im. B. E. Vedeneeva' (Russian Federation)

    2012-01-15

    In designing stationary oil-gas recovery platforms on the continental shelf, the need arises to compute the estimated strength of their support base during seismic events. This paper is devoted to this estimation. The paper examines a structure consisting of the superstructure of an oil-gas platform and its gravity-type base. It is possible to install earthquake-insulating supports between them. Calculations performed for the design earthquake indicated that the design of the gravity base can resist a seismic effect without special additional measures. During the maximum design earthquake, moreover, significant stresses may develop in the zone of base where the columns are connected to the upper slab of the caisson. In that case, the earthquake insulation considered for the top of the platform becomes critical.

  9. Analytical investigations of the earthquake resistance of the support base of an oil-gas platform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glagovskii, V. B.; Kassirova, N. A.; Turchina, O. A.; Finagenov, O. M.; Tsirukhin, N. A.

    2012-01-01

    In designing stationary oil-gas recovery platforms on the continental shelf, the need arises to compute the estimated strength of their support base during seismic events. This paper is devoted to this estimation. The paper examines a structure consisting of the superstructure of an oil-gas platform and its gravity-type base. It is possible to install earthquake-insulating supports between them. Calculations performed for the design earthquake indicated that the design of the gravity base can resist a seismic effect without special additional measures. During the maximum design earthquake, moreover, significant stresses may develop in the zone of base where the columns are connected to the upper slab of the caisson. In that case, the earthquake insulation considered for the top of the platform becomes critical.

  10. Earthquake-proof support structures for the recycling pump in FBR type reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakagawa, Masaki; Shigeta, Masayuki.

    1984-01-01

    Purpose: To improve the earthquake proofness of the recycling pump for use in FBR type reactors upon earthquake by reducing the vibration response of the pump. Constitution: The outer casing of a recycle pump suspended into liquid sodium is extended to the portion that penetrates a reactor core support structures. Support structures surrounding the outer side of the recycling pump are disposed with a gap not restraining the free thermal deformations of the recycling pump to the inside of the partition wall structures and the portion of the recycling pump penetrating the reator core support structures, to integrate the support structures with the reactor core support structures. Accordingly, there are no interferences between the recycling pump and the support structures with respect to the thermal deformations that change gradually with time. Upon vibrating under the rapidly changing external forces of earthquakes, however, the pressure resulted to the liquid in the gap due to the vibrations of the recycling pump is transmitted with no escape to the support structures, the recycling pump and the support structures integrally resist the vibrations thereby enabling to reduce the vibrations in the recycling pumps. (Horiuchi, T.)

  11. A STUDY ON THE EARTHQUAKE RESPONSE AND EARTHQUAKE RESISTANT DESIGN METHOD OF AN OPEN TYPE WHARF WITH PNEUMATIC CAISSONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oishi, Masahiko; Nagao, Takashi; Shigeki, Kouji; Ouchi, Masatoshi; Sato, Yuske; Kinomiya, Osamu

    Seismic response of an open type wharf with pneumatic caisson was clarified using a dynamic finite element method. As a result, rocking behavior of caisson foundations were observed and applicability of a frame model analysis to the earthquake resistant design of a wharf was suggested. Authors proposed the framework of earthquake resistant design method of the wharf including the evaluation method of response acceleration of the wharf.

  12. Earthquake resistance of residual heat removed (RHR) pump for pressurized water reactors (PWR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uga, Takeo; Shiraki, K.; Honma, T.; Matsubayashi, H.; Inazuka, H.

    1980-01-01

    The present paper deals with the earthquake resistance of the residual heat removed (RHR) pump of single stage double volute type, which is one of the structurally simplest pumps used for pressurized water reactors (PWR). The results of the study can be summarized as follows: (1) Any trouble which can give effect on the functions of the pump at earthquake does not become a problem so long as each part of the pump is of aseismatically rigid structure. (2) Aseismatic tolerance test in the pump's operating condition has shown that the earthquake resistance of the pump at its location has a tolerance about five times the dynamic design acceleration. (3) The pump is provided with an impeller-casing wear ring at the pressure boundary between the suction side pressure and discharge side pressure. This wear ring acts as an underwater bearing when the pump is in operation, and improves the vibration characteristics, particularly damping ratio, of the pump shaft to a great extent to make the pump more aseismatic. (4) In the evaluation of the underwater bearing characteristics of the wear ring, the evaluation accuracy of the vibration characteristics of the pump shaft can be improved by taking into consideration the pressure loss in the wear ring part from the head of the single stage of the pump due to the rotation of the impeller. (author)

  13. Characteristic behavior of underground and semi-underground structure at earthquake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawada, Yoshihiro; Komada, Hiroya

    1985-01-01

    An appropriate earthquake-resistant repository design is required to ensure the safety of the radioactive wastes (shallow or deep ground disposal of low- and high-level wastes, respectively). It is particularly important to understand the propagation characteristics of seismic waves and the behaviors of underground hollow structures at the time of an earthquake. This report deals with seismologic observations of rock beds and undergound structures. The maximum acceleration deep under the ground is found to be about 1/2 - 1/3 of that at the ground surface or along the rock bed in the horizontal direction and about 1/1 - 1/2 in the longitudinal direction. A large attenuation cannot be expected in shallow ground. The decrease in displacement amplitude is small compared to that in acceleration. The attenuation effect is larger for a small earthquake and at a short hypocentral distance. The attenuation factor reaches a maximum at a depth of several tens of meters. The seismic spectrum under the ground is flatter than that at the surface. The maximum acceleration along the side wall of a cavity is almost the same as that in the surrounding rock bed. An underground cavity shows complicated phase characteristics at the time of a small earthquake at a short hypocentral distance. (Nogami, K.)

  14. Post-earthquake fire resistance of steel buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jelinek, T.; Zania, V.; Giuliani, Luisa

    2017-01-01

    -resistant steel frame to post-earthquake fires (PEFs) is investigated and compared with the response of the undamaged frame exposed to fire only, by means of numerical analyses performed using a commercial finite element software. The frame considered as a case study is not insulated against fire...

  15. Self-Centering Seismic Lateral Force Resisting Systems: High Performance Structures for the City of Tomorrow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan Brent Chancellor

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Structures designed in accordance with even the most modern buildings codes are expected to sustain damage during a severe earthquake; however; these structures are expected to protect the lives of the occupants. Damage to the structure can require expensive repairs; significant business downtime; and in some cases building demolition. If damage occurs to many structures within a city or region; the regional and national economy may be severely disrupted. To address these shortcomings with current seismic lateral force resisting systems and to work towards more resilient; sustainable cities; a new class of seismic lateral force resisting systems that sustains little or no damage under severe earthquakes has been developed. These new seismic lateral force resisting systems reduce or prevent structural damage to nonreplaceable structural elements by softening the structural response elastically through gap opening mechanisms. To dissipate seismic energy; friction elements or replaceable yielding energy dissipation elements are also included. Post-tensioning is often used as a part of these systems to return the structure to a plumb; upright position (self-center after the earthquake has passed. This paper summarizes the state-of-the art for self-centering seismic lateral force resisting systems and outlines current research challenges for these systems.

  16. Electrical resistivity variations associated with earthquakes on the san andreas fault.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzella, A; Morrison, H F

    1974-09-06

    A 24 percent precursory change in apparent electrical resistivity was observed before a magnitude 3.9 earthquake of strike-slip nature on the San Andreas fault in central California. The experimental configuration and numerical calculations suggest that the change is associated with a volume at depth rather than some near-surface phenomenon. The character and duration of the precursor period agree well with those of other earthquake studies and support a dilatant earthquake mechanism model.

  17. High-resolution electrical resistivity and aeromagnetic imaging reveal the causative fault of the 2009 Mw 6.0 Karonga, Malawi earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolawole, F.; Atekwana, E. A.; Laó-Dávila, D. A.; Abdelsalam, M. G.; Chindandali, P. R.; Salima, J.; Kalindekafe, L.

    2018-05-01

    Seismic events of varying magnitudes have been associated with ruptures along unknown or incompletely mapped buried faults. The 2009 Mw 6.0 Karonga, Malawi earthquake caused a surface rupture length of 14-18 km along a single W-dipping fault [St. Mary Fault (SMF)] on the hanging wall of the North Basin of the Malawi Rift. Prior to this earthquake, there was no known surface expression or knowledge of the presence of this fault. Although the earthquake damage zone is characterized by surface ruptures and coseismic liquefaction-induced sand blows, the origin of the causative fault and the near-surface structure of the rupture zone are not known. We used high-resolution aeromagnetic and electrical resistivity data to elucidate the relationship between surface rupture locations and buried basement structures. We also acquired electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) profiles along and across the surface rupture zone to image the near-surface structure of the damaged zone. We applied mathematical derivative filters to the aeromagnetic data to enhance basement structures underlying the rupture zone and surrounding areas. Although several magnetic lineaments are visible in the basement, mapped surface ruptures align with a single 37 km long, 148°-162°—striking magnetic lineament, and is interpreted as the ruptured normal fault. Inverted ERT profiles reveal three regional geoelectric layers which consist of 15 m thick layer of discontinuous zones of high and low resistivity values, underlain by a 27 m thick zone of high electrical resistivity (up to 100 Ω m) and a basal layer of lower resistivity (1.0-6.0 Ω m) extending from 42 m depth downwards (the maximum achieved depth of investigation). The geoelectric layers are truncated by a zone of electrical disturbance (electrical mélange) coinciding with areas of coseismic surface rupturing and sediment liquefaction along the ruptured. Our study shows that the 2009 Karonga earthquake was associated with the partial

  18. Experimental study of structural response to earthquakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clough, R.W.; Bertero, V.V.; Bouwkamp, J.G.; Popov, E.P.

    1975-01-01

    The objectives, methods, and some of the principal results obtained from experimental studies of the behavior of structures subjected to earthquakes are described. Although such investigations are being conducted in many laboratories throughout the world, the information presented deals specifically with projects being carried out at the Earthquake Engineering Research Center (EERC) of the University of California, Berkeley. A primary purpose of these investigations is to obtain detailed information on the inelastic response mechanisms in typical structural systems so that the experimentally observed performance can be compared with computer generated analytical predictions. Only by such comparisons can the mathematical models used in dynamic nonlinear analyses be verified and improved. Two experimental procedures for investigating earthquake structural response are discussed: the earthquake simulator facility which subjects the base of the test structure to acceleration histories similar to those recorded in actual earthquakes, and systems of hydraulic rams which impose specified displacement histories on the test components, equivalent to motions developed in structures subjected to actual'quakes. The general concept and performance of the 20ft square EERC earthquake simulator is described, and the testing of a two story concrete frame building is outlined. Correlation of the experimental results with analytical predictions demonstrates that satisfactory agreement can be obtained only if the mathematical model incorporates a stiffness deterioration mechanism which simulates the cracking and other damage suffered by the structure

  19. Earthquakes resistance of the CEA/Cadarache facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    The Cadarache Center presents three nuclear types installations: experimental reactors, fuel cycle research laboratories, radioactive wastes processing and wastes encapsulation or solidification. The evolution of the standards in the seismic risks domain, led to a new assessment of these installations earthquakes resistance. This report takes stock on the situation at the end of the year 2000. (A.L.B.)

  20. The Road to Total Earthquake Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frohlich, Cliff

    Cinna Lomnitz is possibly the most distinguished earthquake seismologist in all of Central and South America. Among many other credentials, Lomnitz has personally experienced the shaking and devastation that accompanied no fewer than five major earthquakes—Chile, 1939; Kern County, California, 1952; Chile, 1960; Caracas,Venezuela, 1967; and Mexico City, 1985. Thus he clearly has much to teach someone like myself, who has never even actually felt a real earthquake.What is this slim book? The Road to Total Earthquake Safety summarizes Lomnitz's May 1999 presentation at the Seventh Mallet-Milne Lecture, sponsored by the Society for Earthquake and Civil Engineering Dynamics. His arguments are motivated by the damage that occurred in three earthquakes—Mexico City, 1985; Loma Prieta, California, 1989; and Kobe, Japan, 1995. All three quakes occurred in regions where earthquakes are common. Yet in all three some of the worst damage occurred in structures located a significant distance from the epicenter and engineered specifically to resist earthquakes. Some of the damage also indicated that the structures failed because they had experienced considerable rotational or twisting motion. Clearly, Lomnitz argues, there must be fundamental flaws in the usually accepted models explaining how earthquakes generate strong motions, and how we should design resistant structures.

  1. Impact- and earthquake- proof roof structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shohara, Ryoichi.

    1990-01-01

    Building roofs are constituted with roof slabs, an earthquake proof layer at the upper surface thereof and an impact proof layer made of iron-reinforced concrete disposed further thereover. Since the roofs constitute an earthquake proof structure loading building dampers on the upper surface of the slabs by the concrete layer, seismic inputs of earthquakes to the buildings can be moderated and the impact-proof layer is formed, to ensure the safety to external conditions such as earthquakes or falling accidents of airplane in important facilities such as reactor buildings. (T.M.)

  2. Study on evaluating method for earthquake resisting performance of steel piers; Kosei kyokyaku no taishinsei ni kansuru kenkyu kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isoe, A.; Hashimoto, Y.; Morimoto, C.; Sakoda, H.; Ishige, T.; Yoshikawa, T.; Kishida, K. [Kawasaki Heavy Industries, Ltd., Kobe (Japan)

    1998-12-20

    After the shock of Hyogoken Nanbu Earthquake in 1995, protection against level 2 earthquake becomes important subject for civil structures. Subsequently plastic design methods for steel piers have been studied and rapidly introduced. The authors developed a method to evaluate the earthquake resisting performance of a steel pier with a single mass model. This model is useful for design because of its simplicity but on the other hand it can not consider the effects of piers` interaction in space. To include this effect in an analysis a simple 3 dimensional calculation model of box-column pier is developed. (author)

  3. The earthquake problem in engineering design: generating earthquake design basis information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, R.D.

    1987-01-01

    Designing earthquake resistant structures requires certain design inputs specific to the seismotectonic status of the region, in which a critical facility is to be located. Generating these inputs requires collection of earthquake related information using present day techniques in seismology and geology, and processing the collected information to integrate it to arrive at a consolidated picture of the seismotectonics of the region. The earthquake problem in engineering design has been outlined in the context of a seismic design of nuclear power plants vis a vis current state of the art techniques. The extent to which the accepted procedures of assessing seismic risk in the region and generating the design inputs have been adherred to determine to a great extent the safety of the structures against future earthquakes. The document is a step towards developing an aproach for generating these inputs, which form the earthquake design basis. (author)

  4. Earthquake simulation, actual earthquake monitoring and analytical methods for soil-structure interaction investigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, H T [Seismic Center, Electric Power Research Institute, Palo Alto, CA (United States)

    1988-07-01

    Approaches for conducting in-situ soil-structure interaction experiments are discussed. High explosives detonated under the ground can generate strong ground motion to induce soil-structure interaction (SSI). The explosive induced data are useful in studying the dynamic characteristics of the soil-structure system associated with the inertial aspect of the SSI problem. The plane waves generated by the explosives cannot adequately address the kinematic interaction associated with actual earthquakes because of he difference in wave fields and their effects. Earthquake monitoring is ideal for obtaining SSI data that can address all aspects of the SSI problem. The only limitation is the level of excitation that can be obtained. Neither the simulated earthquake experiments nor the earthquake monitoring experiments can have exact similitude if reduced scale test structures are used. If gravity effects are small, reasonable correlations between the scaled model and the prototype can be obtained provided that input motion can be scaled appropriately. The key product of the in-situ experiments is the data base that can be used to qualify analytical methods for prototypical applications. (author)

  5. Evaluation of soil-structure interaction for structures subjected to earthquake loading with different types of foundation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elwi Mohammed

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available However though the structures are supported on soil, most of the designers do not consider the soil structure interaction and its subsequent effect on structure during an earthquake. Different soil properties can affect seismic waves as they pass through a soil layer. When a structure is subjected to an earthquake excitation, it interacts the foundation and soil, and thus changes the motion of the ground. It means that the movement of the whole ground structure system is influenced by type of soil as well as by the type of structure. Tall buildings are supposed to be of engineered construction in sense that they might have been analyzed and designed to meet the provision of relevant codes of practice and building bye-laws. IS 1893: 2002 “Criteria for Earthquake Resistant Design of Structures” gives response spectrum for different types of soil such as hard, medium and soft. An attempt has been made in this paper to study the effect of Soil-structure interaction on multi storeyed buildings with various foundation systems. Also to study the response of buildings subjected to seismic forces with Rigid and Flexible foundations. Multi storeyed buildings with fixed and flexible support subjected to seismic forces were analyzed under different soil conditions like hard, medium and soft. The buildings were analyzed by Response spectrum method using software SAP2000. The response of building frames such as Lateral deflection, Story drift, Base shear, Axial force and Column moment values for all building frames were presented in this paper.

  6. EARTHQUAKE RESEARCH PROBLEMS OF NUCLEAR POWER GENERATORS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Housner, G. W.; Hudson, D. E.

    1963-10-15

    Earthquake problems associated with the construction of nuclear power generators require a more extensive and a more precise knowledge of earthquake characteristics and the dynamic behavior of structures than was considered necessary for ordinary buildings. Economic considerations indicate the desirability of additional research on the problems of earthquakes and nuclear reactors. The nature of these earthquake-resistant design problems is discussed and programs of research are recommended. (auth)

  7. Earthquake and welded structures 5: Earthquake damages and anti-earthquake measures of oil storage tanks; 5 kikenbutsu chozo tank no jishin higai to taishin taisaku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawano, K. [Chiyoda Chemical Engineering and Construction Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-09-05

    The result of field investigation carried out on the state of damages of 236 hazardous material storage tanks out of 687 caused by the Hyogoken Nambu Earthquake in 1995 is introduced together with the cases of damage and the description of the countermeasures. The events of inclination and settlement of tank bodies were confirmed in 44% among those investigated in particular with tanks having a capacity of less than 1000kl and as for the basement and ground settlement, the fact that sand spouted as a result of their fluidization was witnessed as much as 81% among those investigated and the area surrounding tanks was roughly agreed with the area where ground crack appeared. A great number of other damages such as cracking of preventive seals against rain water, breakdown of oil defense banks and so forth were also confirmed. In the latter half of the report, aseismatic standards of old and new regulations as well as on the new criterion concerning the outdoor storage tank body, its basement and ground are tabulated and 4 items of anti-earthquake measures such as the final structural check up with regard to an earthquake exceeding the designed permissible stress, consolidation of tank body structure on the basis of the revised seismic coefficient method, assurance of the steadfast basement, prevention of the elevated platform from falling down and strengthening of water-proof seals and oil defense banks are enumerated in accordance with the report of investigation and examination on the resistibility of hazardous material storage equipment against the earthquake. 3 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  8. Revision of Sustainable Criteria of Concrete Walls for Earthquake-Resistant Housing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alcocer S.M.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The seismic performance of low-rise housing has been noticeably inadequate during the most recent earthquakes occurred in Latin American countries. Moreover, the literature review revealed that some traditional techniques do not contribute to building sustainable housing. In the last decade, construction of concrete walls housing has become a preferred choice because of the speed of construction and availability of materials in most of these countries. Aimed at improving seismic design methods for this type of construction, an extensive analytical and experimental program was carried out. The experimental program included quasi-static and shaking-table tests of 47 walls with different height-to-length ratios and walls with openings. Variables studied were type of concrete, web steel ratio and type of web reinforcement. The paper presents and discusses the main results of the research program and evaluates the technical and environmental feasibility for using concrete walls for sustainable and earthquake-resistant housing. Performance of concrete walls housing is assessed in terms of key environmental and earthquake-resistant requirements. It was found that concrete wall housing is not only safe under earthquakes and easily adaptable to climate, but also it stimulates environmental conservation and promotes reducing the costs of construction, operation and maintenance.

  9. Fan-structure wave as a source of earthquake instability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarasov, Boris

    2015-04-01

    Today frictional shear resistance along pre-existing faults is considered to be the lower limit on rock shear strength at confined compression corresponding to the seismogenic layer. This determines the lithospheric strength and the primary earthquake mechanism associated with frictional stick-slip instability on pre-existing faults. This paper introduces a recently identified shear rupture mechanism providing a paradoxical feature of hard rocks - the possibility of shear rupture propagation through the highly confined intact rock mass at shear stress levels significantly less than frictional strength. In the new mechanism the rock failure, associated with consecutive creation of small slabs (known as 'domino-blocks') from the intact rock in the rupture tip, is driven by a fan-shaped domino structure representing the rupture head. The fan-head combines such unique features as: extremely low shear resistance (below the frictional strength), self-sustaining stress intensification in the rupture tip (providing easy formation of new domino-blocks), and self-unbalancing conditions in the fan-head (making the failure process inevitably spontaneous and violent). An important feature of the fan-mechanism is the fact that for the initial formation of the fan-structure an enhanced local shear stress is required, however, after completion of the fan-structure it can propagate as a dynamic wave through intact rock mass at shear stresses below the frictional strength. Paradoxically low shear strength of pristine rocks provided by the fan-mechanism determines the lower limit of the lithospheric strength and favours the generation of new faults in pristine rocks in preference to frictional stick-slip instability along pre-existing faults. The new approach reveals an alternative role of pre-existing faults in earthquake activity: they represent local stress concentrates in pristine rock adjoining the fault where special conditions for the fan-mechanism nucleation are created

  10. Structural damages of L'Aquila (Italy earthquake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Kaplan

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available On 6 April 2009 an earthquake of magnitude 6.3 occurred in L'Aquila city, Italy. In the city center and surrounding villages many masonry and reinforced concrete (RC buildings were heavily damaged or collapsed. After the earthquake, the inspection carried out in the region provided relevant results concerning the quality of the materials, method of construction and the performance of the structures. The region was initially inhabited in the 13th century and has many historic structures. The main structural materials are unreinforced masonry (URM composed of rubble stone, brick, and hollow clay tile. Masonry units suffered the worst damage. Wood flooring systems and corrugated steel roofs are common in URM buildings. Moreover, unconfined gable walls, excessive wall thicknesses without connection with each other are among the most common deficiencies of poorly constructed masonry structures. These walls caused an increase in earthquake loads. The quality of the materials and the construction were not in accordance with the standards. On the other hand, several modern, non-ductile concrete frame buildings have collapsed. Poor concrete quality and poor reinforcement detailing caused damage in reinforced concrete structures. Furthermore, many structural deficiencies such as non-ductile detailing, strong beams-weak columns and were commonly observed. In this paper, reasons why the buildings were damaged in the 6 April 2009 earthquake in L'Aquila, Italy are given. Some suggestions are made to prevent such disasters in the future.

  11. Ultimate limit states of steel containment vessel under earthquake loadings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akiyama, Hiroshi; Yuhara, Tetsuo; Shimizu, Seiichi; Hayashi, Kazutoshi; Takahashi, Tadao.

    1986-01-01

    The limit state induced by buckling of cylindrical steel structures under earthquake loadings was investigated from the standpoint of energy concept. A number of the buckling test of cylindrical steel shell structures has been made, which showed that they have a stable load-displacement relation and adequate deformation capacities beyond the buckling. The authors are proposing that the energy input imparted by strong earthquakes to buckled structures and the deformation capacity in post-buckling are suitable indices for seismic resistance of the cylindrical steel shell structures because the buckling does not cause the structure immediately to collapse in the case of such repeated loading as earthquake motions. The purpose of this study is to investigate the energy input to buckled cylindrical steel structures with an increase in the intensity of earthquake motions. A series of nonlinear dynamic analyses were performed under various types of earthquake records by using a hysteresis loop, including buckling, which was derived from the buckling tests. The limit state could be defined as the state in which the deformation of and the energy input into buckled structures increase divergently when the intensity of the earthquake excitation exceeds a certain value. The results obtained in this paper are intended to be adopted to the limit state in the post-buckling region to evaluate the margin of safety against the buckling resistance of cylindrical steel structures under strong earthquake loadings. (author)

  12. Fundamental principles of earthquake resistance calculation to be reflected in the next generation regulations

    OpenAIRE

    Mkrtychev Oleg; Dzhinchvelashvili Guram

    2016-01-01

    The article scrutinizes the pressing issues of regulation in the domain of seismic construction. The existing code of rules SNIP II-7-81* “Construction in seismic areas” provides that earthquake resistance calculation be performed on two levels of impact: basic safety earthquake (BSE) and maximum considered earthquake (MCE). However, the very nature of such calculation cannot be deemed well-founded and contradicts the fundamental standards of foreign countries. The authors of the article have...

  13. THEORETICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF STRUCTURES SUBJECTED TO EARTHQUAKES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soubirou, A.

    1967-12-31

    The object of the study was the investigation of the behaviour of structures subject to earthquakes. After .describing and analysing seismic movements, useful concepts for earthquake-proofing structures are lintroduced. Then, the dynamic behaviour of systems with n degrees of freedom was studied in order to evolve the theoretical computation of seismic behaviour, a typical application being reticulated structures. The next stage was showing the computational procedure for seismic spectra and the natural frequencies of buildings, an attempt being made to define earthquake-proofing criteria for a special type of reinforced-concrete construction. . The last matter dealt with is elastoplastic behaviour of structures, a study of increasingly growing importance.

  14. Probabilistic analysis of the torsional effects on the tall building resistance due to earthquake even

    Science.gov (United States)

    Králik, Juraj; Králik, Juraj

    2017-07-01

    The paper presents the results from the deterministic and probabilistic analysis of the accidental torsional effect of reinforced concrete tall buildings due to earthquake even. The core-column structural system was considered with various configurations in plane. The methodology of the seismic analysis of the building structures in Eurocode 8 and JCSS 2000 is discussed. The possibilities of the utilization the LHS method to analyze the extensive and robust tasks in FEM is presented. The influence of the various input parameters (material, geometry, soil, masses and others) is considered. The deterministic and probability analysis of the seismic resistance of the structure was calculated in the ANSYS program.

  15. Earthquake response analysis considering structure-soil-structure interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiomi, T.; Takahashi, K.; Oguro, E.

    1981-01-01

    This paper proposes a numerical method of earthquake response analysis considering the structure-soil-structure interaction between two adjacent buildings. In this paper an analytical study is presented in order to show some typical features of coupling effects of two reactor buildings of the BWR-type nuclear power plant. The technical approach is a kind of substructure method, which at first evaluates the compliance properties with the foundation-soil-foundation interaction and then uses the compliance in determining seismic responses of two super-structures during earthquake motions. For this purpose, it is assumed that the soil medium is an elastic half space for modeling and that the rigidity of any type of structures such as piping facilities connecting the adjacent buildings is negligible. The technical approach is mainly based on the following procedures. Supersturcture stiffness is calculated by using the method which has been developed in our laboratory based on the Thin-Wall Beam Theory. Soil stiffness is expressed by a matrix with 12 x 12 elements as a function of frequency, which is calculated using the soil compliance functions proposed in Dr. Tajimi's Theory. These stiffness values may be expressed by complex numbers for modeling the damping mechanism of superstructures. We can solve eigenvalue problems with frequency dependent stiffness and the large-scale matrix using our method which is based on condensing the matrix to the suitable size by Rayleigh-Ritz method. Earthquake responses can be solved in the frequency domain by Fourier Transform. (orig./RW)

  16. Seismic response and resistance capacity of 'as built' WWER 440-230 NPP Kozloduy: Verification of the results by experiments and real earthquake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sachanski, S.

    1993-01-01

    Although Kozloduy NPP units 1 and 2 were not designed for earthquakes they have withstood successfully the Vrancea Earthquake in 1977 with sire peak ground acceleration of 83 sm/s 2 . Both units as well as units 3 and 4 were later recalculated for maximum peak acceleration of 0.1 g. According to values calculated by two-dimensional model, in 1980 reactor buildings had sufficient earthquake resistance capacity for the accepted design seismic excitation. The non symmetric design of WWER-440 structures in plan and elevation, the large eccentricity between the center of rigidities and masses as well as technological connections between the separate substructures and units led to complicated space response and rotational effects which cannot be calculated by two-dimensional models. Three dimensional detailed 'as built' mathematical models were established and verified by series of experiments and real earthquake for: detailed analysis of 'as built' structural response, comparing the results of two and three dimensional models, detailed analyses of seismic safety margins

  17. Soil structure interactions of eastern U.S. type earthquakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang Chen; Serhan, S.

    1991-01-01

    Two types of earthquakes have occurred in the eastern US in the past. One of them was the infrequent major events such as the 1811-1812 New Madrid Earthquakes, or the 1886 Charleston Earthquake. The other type was the frequent shallow earthquakes with high frequency, short duration and high accelerations. Two eastern US nuclear power plants, V.C Summer and Perry, went through extensive licensing effort to obtain fuel load licenses after this type of earthquake was recorded on sites and exceeded the design bases beyond 10 hertz region. This paper discusses the soil-structure interactions of the latter type of earthquakes

  18. The role of post-earthquake structural safety in pre-earthquake retrof in decision: guidelines and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bazzurro, P.; Telleen, K.; Maffei, J.; Yin, J.; Cornell, C.A.

    2009-01-01

    Critical structures such as hospitals, police stations, local administrative office buildings, and critical lifeline facilities, are expected to be operational immediately after earthquakes. Any rational decision about whether these structures are strong enough to meet this goal or whether pre-empitive retrofitting is needed cannot be made without an explicit consideration of post-earthquake safety and functionality with respect to aftershocks. Advanced Seismic Assessment Guidelines offer improvement over previous methods for seismic evaluation of buildings where post-earthquake safety and usability is a concern. This new method allows engineers to evaluate the like hood that a structure may have restricted access or no access after an earthquake. The building performance is measured in terms of the post-earthquake occupancy classifications Green Tag, Yellow Tag, and Red Tag, defining these performance levels quantitatively, based on the structure's remaining capacity to withstand aftershocks. These color-coded placards that constitute an established practice in US could be replaced by the standard results of inspections (A to E) performed by the Italian Dept. of Civil Protection after an event. The article also shows some applications of these Guidelines to buildings of the largest utility company in California, Pacific Gas and Electric Company (PGE). [it

  19. Earthquake engineering and structural dynamics studies at Bhabha Atomic Research Centre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reddy, G.R.; Parulekar, Y.M.; Sharma, A.; Dubey, P.N.; Vaity, K.N.; Kukreja, Mukhesh; Vaze, K.K.; Ghosh, A.K.; Kushwaha, H.S.

    2007-01-01

    Earthquake Engineering and structural Dynamics has gained the attention of many researchers throughout the world and extensive research work is performed. Linear behaviour of structures, systems and components (SSCs) subjected to earthquake/dynamic loading is clearly understood. However, nonlinear behaviour of SSCs subjected to earthquake/dynamic loading need to be understood clearly and design methods need to be validated experimentally. In view of this, three major areas in earthquake engineering and structural dynamics identified for research includes: design and development of passive devices to control the seismic/dynamic response of SSCs, nonlinear behaviour of piping systems subjected to earthquake loading and nonlinear behavior of RCC structures under seismic excitation or dynamic loading. BARC has performed extensive work and also being continued in the above-identified areas. The work performed is helping for clearer understanding of nonlinear behavior of SSCs as well as in developing new schemes, methodologies and devices to control the earthquake response of SSCs. (author)

  20. Earthquake analysis of structures including structure-soil interaction by a substructure method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chopra, A.K.; Guttierrez, J.A.

    1977-01-01

    A general substructure method for analysis of response of nuclear power plant structures to earthquake ground motion, including the effects of structure-soil interaction, is summarized. The method is applicable to complex structures idealized as finite element systems and the soil region treated as either a continuum, for example as a viscoelastic halfspace, or idealized as a finite element system. The halfspace idealization permits reliable analysis for sites where essentially similar soils extend to large depths and there is no rigid boundary such as soil-rock interface. For sites where layers of soft soil are underlain by rock at shallow depth, finite element idealization of the soil region is appropriate; in this case, the direct and substructure methods would lead to equivalent results but the latter provides the better alternative. Treating the free field motion directly as the earthquake input in the substructure method eliminates the deconvolution calculations and the related assumption -regarding type and direction of earthquake waves- required in the direct method. The substructure method is computationally efficient because the two substructures-the structure and the soil region- are analyzed separately; and, more important, it permits taking advantage of the important feature that response to earthquake ground motion is essentially contained in the lower few natural modes of vibration of the structure on fixed base. For sites where essentially similar soils extend to large depths and there is no obvious rigid boundary such as a soil-rock interface, numerical results for earthquake response of a nuclear reactor structure are presented to demonstrate that the commonly used finite element method may lead to unacceptable errors; but the substructure method leads to reliable results

  1. Rocking motion of structures under earthquakes. Overturning of 2-DOF system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Koichi; Watanabe, Tetsuya; Tanaka, Kihachiro; Tomoda, Akinori

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, huge earthquakes happen, for example, The South Hyogo prefecture Earthquake in 1995, The Mid Niigata Prefecture Earthquake in 2004, The Iwate-Miyagi Nairiku Earthquake in 2008. In The Niigataken Chuetsu-oki Earthquake in 2007, hundreds of drums fell down and water spilled out. A lot of studies about rocking behavior of rigid body had been performed from 1960's. However, these studies were only for a specific condition of the structure size or input vibration characteristics. Therefore, generalizes fall condition for earthquake is required. This paper deals with the analytical and the experimental study of the rocking vibration of 1-DOF rocking system, 2-DOF vibration-rocking system and 2-DOF rocking system under earthquakes. In this study, the equation of motion for each rocking systems are developed. The numerical model of 2-DOF rocking system is evaluated by free rocking experiment. In this paper, 'Overturning Map' which can distinguish whether structures falls or not is proposed. The overturning map of each rocking systems excited by the artificial earthquake wave calculated from the design spectrum is shown. As the result, overturning condition of structures is clarified. (author)

  2. Elements of earthquake engineering and structural dynamics. 2. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filiatrault, A.

    2002-01-01

    This book is written for practising engineers, senior undergraduate and junior structural-engineering students, and university educators. Its main goal is to provide basic knowledge to structural engineers who have no previous knowledge about earthquake engineering and structural dynamics. Earthquake engineering is a multidisciplinary science. This book is not limited to structural analysis and design. The basics of other relevant topics (such as geology, seismology, and geotechnical engineering) are also covered to ensure that structural engineers can interact efficiently with other specialists during a construction project in a seismic zone

  3. Earthquake Damping Device for Steel Frame

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamri Ramli, Mohd; Delfy, Dezoura; Adnan, Azlan; Torman, Zaida

    2018-04-01

    Structures such as buildings, bridges and towers are prone to collapse when natural phenomena like earthquake occurred. Therefore, many design codes are reviewed and new technologies are introduced to resist earthquake energy especially on building to avoid collapse. The tuned mass damper is one of the earthquake reduction products introduced on structures to minimise the earthquake effect. This study aims to analyse the effectiveness of tuned mass damper by experimental works and finite element modelling. The comparisons are made between these two models under harmonic excitation. Based on the result, it is proven that installing tuned mass damper will reduce the dynamic response of the frame but only in several input frequencies. At the highest input frequency applied, the tuned mass damper failed to reduce the responses. In conclusion, in order to use a proper design of damper, detailed analysis must be carried out to have sufficient design based on the location of the structures with specific ground accelerations.

  4. Common floor system vertical earthquake-proof structure for reactor equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morishita, Masaki.

    1996-01-01

    In an LMFBR type reactor, a reactor container, a recycling pump and a heat exchanger are disposed on a common floor. Vertical earthquake-proof devices which can be stretched only in vertical direction formed by laminating large-sized bellevilles are disposed on a concrete wall at the circumference of each of reactor equipments. A common floor is placed on all of the vertical earthquake-proof devices to support the entire earthquake-proof structure simultaneously. If each of reactor equipments is loaded on the common floor and the common floor is entirely supported against earthquakes altogether, since the movement of each of the reactor equipments loaded on the common floor is identical, relative dislocation is not exerted on the main pipelines which connect the equipments. In addition, since the entire earthquake structure has a flat common floor and each of the reactor equipments is suspended to minimize the distance between a gravitational center and a support point, locking vibration is less caused to the horizontal earthquake. (N.H.)

  5. Observation of earthquake in the neighborhood of a large underground cavity. The Izu-Hanto-Toho-Oki earthquake, June 29, 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komada, H; Hayashi, M [Central Research Inst. of Electric Power Industry, Abiko, Chiba (Japan). Civil Engineering Lab.

    1980-12-01

    Studies on the earthquake resistance design of underground site for such large important structures as nuclear power plants, high-level radioactive waste repositories, LNG tanks, petroleum tanks, big power transmission installations and compressed air energy storage installations have been examined at our research institute. The observations of earthquake have been examined at Shiroyama underground hydroelectric power station since July 1976 as one of the demonstration of the earthquake resistance, and the first report was already published. After the time accelerometers and dynamic strain meters were additionally installed. Good acceleration waves and dynamic strain waves of the Izu-Hanto-Toho-Oki Earthquake, June 29, 1980 were observed at Shiroyama site, at which the hypocentral distance is 77 km and the intensity scale is about 4. In this report, the characteristic of the oscillation wave in the neighborhood of underground cavity and the relationships among accelerations, velocities, deformations and dynamic strains are studied in detail on the above earthquake data.

  6. Parallel Earthquake Simulations on Large-Scale Multicore Supercomputers

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Xingfu

    2011-01-01

    Earthquakes are one of the most destructive natural hazards on our planet Earth. Hugh earthquakes striking offshore may cause devastating tsunamis, as evidenced by the 11 March 2011 Japan (moment magnitude Mw9.0) and the 26 December 2004 Sumatra (Mw9.1) earthquakes. Earthquake prediction (in terms of the precise time, place, and magnitude of a coming earthquake) is arguably unfeasible in the foreseeable future. To mitigate seismic hazards from future earthquakes in earthquake-prone areas, such as California and Japan, scientists have been using numerical simulations to study earthquake rupture propagation along faults and seismic wave propagation in the surrounding media on ever-advancing modern computers over past several decades. In particular, ground motion simulations for past and future (possible) significant earthquakes have been performed to understand factors that affect ground shaking in populated areas, and to provide ground shaking characteristics and synthetic seismograms for emergency preparation and design of earthquake-resistant structures. These simulation results can guide the development of more rational seismic provisions for leading to safer, more efficient, and economical50pt]Please provide V. Taylor author e-mail ID. structures in earthquake-prone regions.

  7. Electrical resistivity anomaly observed in and around the epicentral area prior to the T'angshan Earthquake of 1976

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chao, Y L; Ch' ien, F Y

    1978-07-01

    Before the T'angshan earthquake, magnitude 7.8 on 28 July 1976, 9 of the 14 resistivity stations located within the region of Peking, Tientsin, and T'angshan recorded gradual decreases in apparent electrical resistivity for a period of 2 to 3 years. The anomalous region as deduced from the records of these nine stations has a semimajor axis of about 150 km surrounding the epicenter, and yet two of the stations located very close to the epicenter recorded rapidly decreasing apparent resistivity anomaly during a period of more than two months immediately before the earthquake. From results of some field measurements in situ of the apparent resistivity-decrease due to compression of rock or soil layers near the earth's surface, the linear compressional strain of shallow layers in and around the epicentral area was estimated to be about 3 x 10/sup -5/. Compressional strain of much the same order of magnitude was observed by base line survey before the T'angshan earthquake.

  8. Earthquake analysis of structures including structure-soil interaction by a substructure method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chopra, A.K.; Guttierrez, J.A.

    1977-01-01

    A general substructure method for analysis of response of nuclear power plant structures to earthquake ground motion, including the effects of structure-soil interaction, is summarized. The method is applicable to complex structures idealized as finite element systems and the soil region treated as either a continuum, for example as a viscoelastic halfspace, or idealized as a finite element system. The halfspace idealization permits reliable analysis for sites where essentially similar soils extend to large depths and there is no rigid boundary such as soil-rock interface. For sites where layers of soft soil are underlain by rock at shallow depth, finite element idealization of the soil region is appropriate; in this case, the direct and substructure methods would lead to equivalent results but the latter provides the better alternative. Treating the free field motion directly as the earthquake input in the substructure eliminates the deconvolution calculations and the related assumption-regarding type and direction of earthquake waves-required in the direct method. (Auth.)

  9. Shock Absorbers Save Structures and Lives during Earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    With NASA funding, North Tonawanda, New York-based Taylor Devices Inc. developed fluidic shock absorbers to safely remove the fuel and electrical connectors from the space shuttles during launch. The company is now employing the technology as seismic dampers to protect structures from earthquakes. To date, 550 buildings and bridges have the dampers, and not a single one has suffered damage in the wake of an earthquake.

  10. Does Modern Ideology of Earthquake Engineering Ensure the Declared Levels of Damage of Structures at Earthquakes?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabrichidze, G.

    2011-01-01

    The basic position of the modern ideology of earthquake engineering is based on the idea that a structure should be designed so that it suffers almost no damage at an earthquake, the occurrence of which is most probable in the given area during the lifetime of the structure. This statement is essentially based on the so-called Performance Based Design, the ideology of the 21 s t century. In the article at tenton is focused on the fact that the modern ideology of earthquake engineering assigns structures to a dangerous zone in which their behavior is defined by processes of damage and destruction of materials, which is a nonequilibrium process and demands application of special refined methods of research. In such conditions use of ratios that correspond to static conditions of loading to describe the process of damage of materials appears to be unfounded. The article raises the question of the necessity of working out a new mathematical model of behavior of materials and structures at rapid intensive impact. (authors)

  11. Monitoring shallow resistivity changes prior to the 12 May 2008 M 8.0 Wenchuan earthquake on the Longmen Shan tectonic zone, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jun; Xie, Tao; Li, Mei; Wang, Yali; Ren, Yuexia; Gao, Shude; Wang, Lanwei; Zhao, Jialiu

    2016-04-01

    An active source measurement of shallow resistivity using fixed-electrode quasi-Schlumberger arrays has been conducted at Pixian, Jiangyou and Wudu stations on the Longmen Shan tectonic zone in western China, with the hope of detecting earthquake-associated changes. For the duration of the monitoring experiment, a gradual decrease of apparent resistivity of up to 6.7% several years prior to the 12 May 2008 M 8.0 Wenchuan earthquake had been recorded clearly at Pixian station, approximately 35 km from the epicenter. The change of apparent resistivity was monitored with a fixed Schlumberger array of AB/MN spacings of 736 m/226 m in the direction of N57.5°E, giving precisions in measured daily averages of 0.16% or less. A coseismic resistivity drop of up to 5.3% was observed at Jiangyou station, using a Schlumberger array of AB/MN spacings of 710 m/90 m in the direction of N10°E. No fluctuation of resistivity was detected at Wudu station at the time of the Wenchuan mainshock. While the focus of this paper is on monitoring or tracking resistivity variations prior to, during, and after the Wenchuan earthquake, we also aim to compare resistivity records of the Wenchuan earthquake to those of the M 7.8 Tangshan and M 7.2 Songpan earthquakes of 1976. Attempts to explain the observed resistivity variations have been made. The results show that the resistivity variations observed at all three stations are in approximate agreement with resistivity-stress behavior deduced from in situ experiments, focal mechanisms, a simplified dynamical model, static stress analyses, and field investigations from along the Longmen Shan fault zone.

  12. Estimation of failure probability on real structure utilized by earthquake observation data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsubara, Masayoshi

    1995-01-01

    The objective of this report is to propose the procedure which estimates the structural response on a real structure by utilizing earthquake observation data using Neural network system. We apply the neural network system to estimate the ground motion of the site by enormous earthquake data published from Japan Meteorological Agency. The proposed procedure has some possibility to estimate the correlation between earthquake and response adequately. (author)

  13. Error evaluation of inelastic response spectrum method for earthquake design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paz, M.; Wong, J.

    1981-01-01

    Two-story, four-story and ten-story shear building-type frames subjected to earthquake excitaion, were analyzed at several levels of their yield resistance. These frames were subjected at their base to the motion recorded for north-south component of the 1940 El Centro earthquake, and to an artificial earthquake which would produce the response spectral charts recommended for design. The frames were first subjected to 25% or 50% of the intensity level of these earthquakes. The resulting maximum relative displacement for each story of the frames was assumed to be yield resistance for the subsequent analyses at 100% of intensity for the excitation. The frames analyzed were uniform along their height with the stiffness adjusted as to result in 0.20 seconds of the fundamental period for the two-story frame, 0.40 seconds for the four-story frame and 1.0 seconds for the ten-story frame. Results of the study provided the following conclusions: (1) The percentage error in floor displacement for linear behavior was less than 10%; (2) The percentage error in floor displacement for inelastic behavior (elastoplastic) could be as high as 100%; (3) In most of the cases analyzed, the error increased with damping in the system; (4) As a general rule, the error increased as the modal yield resistance decreased; (5) The error was lower for the structures subjected to the 1940 E1 Centro earthquake than for the same structures subjected to an artificial earthquake which was generated from the response spectra for design. (orig./HP)

  14. SAFETY OF PASSIVE HOUSES SUBJECTED TO EARTHQUAKE, FINAL REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vojko Kilar

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available he topic researched within the applied project. "Safety of passive houses subjected to earthquake" stemmed from two otherwise quite unrelated fields, i.e. seismic resistance and energy efficiency that in European countries do not frequently appear together. Just in Slovenia these two fields join each other, so identifying the problem and establishment of research right in Slovenia represents uniqueness and specificity. The majority of Slovenia is situated in area of moderate seismic risk. In order to ensure adequate mechanical resistance and stability of structures constructed in such area, the consideration of seismic effects is required by law. In Slovenia the number of passive houses and energy efficient buildings increases rapidly. However, for the time being the structural solutions that have been developed and broadly applied mainly in the areas with low seismicity (where the structural control to vertical static loads is sufficient are used. In earthquake-prone areas also adequate resistance to dynamic seismic effects have to be assured.

  15. Seismic response analysis of Wolsung NPP structure and equipment subjected to scenario earthquakes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, In Kil; Ahn, Seong Moon; Choun, Young Sun; Seo, Jeong Moon

    2005-03-15

    The standard response spectrum proposed by US NRC has been used as a design earthquake for the design of Korean nuclear power plant structures. However, it does not reflect the characteristic of seismological and geological of Korea. In this study, the seismic response analysis of Wolsung NPP structure and equipment were performed. Three types of input motions, artificial time histories that envelop the US NRC Regulatory Guide 1.60 spectrum and the probability based scenario earthquake spectra developed for the Korean NPP site and a typical near-fault earthquake recorded at thirty sites, were used as input motions. The acceleration, displacement and shear force responses of Wolsung containment structure due to the design earthquake were larger than those due to the other input earthquakes. But, considering displacement response increases abruptly as Wolsung NPP structure does nonlinear behavior, the reassessment of the seismic safety margin based on the displacement is necessary if the structure does nonlinear behavior; although it has adequate the seismic safety margin within elastic limit. Among the main safety-related devices, electrical cabinet and pump showed the large responses on the scenario earthquake which has the high frequency characteristic. This has great effects of the seismic capacity of the main devices installed inside of the building. This means that the design earthquake is not so conservative for the safety of the safety related nuclear power plant equipments.

  16. Seismic response analysis of Wolsung NPP structure and equipment subjected to scenario earthquakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, In Kil; Ahn, Seong Moon; Choun, Young Sun; Seo, Jeong Moon

    2005-03-01

    The standard response spectrum proposed by US NRC has been used as a design earthquake for the design of Korean nuclear power plant structures. However, it does not reflect the characteristic of seismological and geological of Korea. In this study, the seismic response analysis of Wolsung NPP structure and equipment were performed. Three types of input motions, artificial time histories that envelop the US NRC Regulatory Guide 1.60 spectrum and the probability based scenario earthquake spectra developed for the Korean NPP site and a typical near-fault earthquake recorded at thirty sites, were used as input motions. The acceleration, displacement and shear force responses of Wolsung containment structure due to the design earthquake were larger than those due to the other input earthquakes. But, considering displacement response increases abruptly as Wolsung NPP structure does nonlinear behavior, the reassessment of the seismic safety margin based on the displacement is necessary if the structure does nonlinear behavior; although it has adequate the seismic safety margin within elastic limit. Among the main safety-related devices, electrical cabinet and pump showed the large responses on the scenario earthquake which has the high frequency characteristic. This has great effects of the seismic capacity of the main devices installed inside of the building. This means that the design earthquake is not so conservative for the safety of the safety related nuclear power plant equipments

  17. Fault Structural Control on Earthquake Strong Ground Motions: The 2008 Wenchuan Earthquake as an Example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Zhang, Dongli; Li, Xiaojun; Huang, Bei; Zheng, Wenjun; Wang, Yuejun

    2018-02-01

    Continental thrust faulting earthquakes pose severe threats to megacities across the world. Recent events show the possible control of fault structures on strong ground motions. The seismogenic structure of the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake is associated with high-angle listric reverse fault zones. Its peak ground accelerations (PGAs) show a prominent feature of fault zone amplification: the values within the 30- to 40-km-wide fault zone block are significantly larger than those on both the hanging wall and the footwall. The PGA values attenuate asymmetrically: they decay much more rapidly in the footwall than in the hanging wall. The hanging wall effects can be seen on both the vertical and horizontal components of the PGAs, with the former significantly more prominent than the latter. All these characteristics can be adequately interpreted by upward extrusion of the high-angle listric reverse fault zone block. Through comparison with a low-angle planar thrust fault associated with the 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake, we conclude that different fault structures might have controlled different patterns of strong ground motion, which should be taken into account in seismic design and construction.

  18. Maximum credible earthquake (MCE) magnitude of structures affecting the Ujung Lemahabang site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soerjodibroto, M.

    1997-01-01

    This report analyse the geological structures in/around Muria Peninsula that might originating potential earthquake hazard toward the selected site for NPP, Ujung Lemahabang (ULA). Analysis was focused on the Lasem fault and AF-1/AF-4 offshore faults that are considered as the determinant structures affecting the seismicity of ULA (Nira, 1979, Newjec, 1994). Methods for estimating the MCE of the structures include maximum historical earthquake, and relationship between the length of the fault and the magnitude of earthquake originating from the known structure (Tocher, Iida, Matsuda, Wells and Coopersmith). The MCE magnitude estimating by these method for earthquake originating along the Lasem and AF-1/AF-4 faults vary from 2,1M to 7,0M. Comparison between the result of historical data and fault-magnitude relationship, however, suggest a MCE magnitude of Ms=7,0M for both fault zones. (author)

  19. Maximum credible earthquake (MCE) magnitude of structures affecting the Ujung Lemahabang site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soerjodibroto, M [National Atomic Energy Agency, Jakarta (Indonesia)

    1997-03-01

    This report analyse the geological structures in/around Muria Peninsula that might originating potential earthquake hazard toward the selected site for NPP, Ujung Lemahabang (ULA). Analysis was focused on the Lasem fault and AF-1/AF-4 offshore faults that are considered as the determinant structures affecting the seismicity of ULA (Nira, 1979, Newjec, 1994). Methods for estimating the MCE of the structures include maximum historical earthquake, and relationship between the length of the fault and the magnitude of earthquake originating from the known structure (Tocher, Iida, Matsuda, Wells and Coopersmith). The MCE magnitude estimating by these method for earthquake originating along the Lasem and AF-1/AF-4 faults vary from 2,1M to 7,0M. Comparison between the result of historical data and fault-magnitude relationship, however, suggest a MCE magnitude of Ms=7,0M for both fault zones. (author)

  20. Study of structures vulnerability with respect to near and distant earthquakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopes, E.

    1998-06-01

    Today, according to the fundamental safety rules edited by the French institute of nuclear protection and safety (IPSN), para-seismic structures must be dimensioned in order to withstand the probable near and distant earthquakes. Classical dimensioning tools, like the linear analysis of the elastic response spectrum of an oscillator, show that nearby earthquakes are more damaging for structures. However, experience feedback seems to demonstrate the contrary. The aim of this study is to make a comparison between the damaging effects of nearby and distant earthquakes. Thus, other comparison criteria were defined in order to take into account new parameters and to fit with the experience feedback. In a first part, the difference between nearby and distant earthquakes is explained. Then, after a presentation of the limits of the existing dimensioning tools, the new calculation means are defined and presented with their results. These new methods take into account the inelastic property of the structures. (J.S.)

  1. Direct methods of soil-structure interaction analysis for earthquake loadings (V)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, J. B.; Choi, J. S.; Lee, J. J.; Park, D. U. [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-07-15

    Methodologies of SSI analysis for earthquake loadings have been reviewed. Based on the finite method incorporating infinite element technique for the unbounded exterior region, a computer program for the nonlinear seismic analysis named as 'KIESSI' has been developed. The computer program has been verified using a free-field site-response problem. Post-correlation analysis for the Hualien FVT after backfill and the blind prediction of earthquake responses have been carried out utilizing the developed computer program. The earthquake response analyses for three LSST structures (Hualien, Lotung and Tepsco structure) have also been performed and compared with the measured data.

  2. Response of base isolated structure during strong ground motions beyond design earthquakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yabana, Shuichi; Ishida, Katsuhiko; Shiojiri, Hiroo

    1991-01-01

    In Japan, some base isolated structures for fast breeder reactors (FBR) are tried to design. When a base isolated structure are designed, the relative displacement of isolators are generally limited so sa to be remain in linear state of those during design earthquakes. But to estimate safety margin of a base isolated structure, the response of that until the failure must be obtained experimentally to analytically during strong ground motions of beyond design earthquake. The aim of this paper is to investigate the response of a base isolated structure when the stiffness of the isolators hardens and to simulate the response during strong ground motions of beyond design earthquakes. The optimum characteristics of isolators, with which the margin of the structure are increased, are discussed. (author)

  3. Monitoring Seismic Velocity Change to Explore the Earthquake Seismogenic Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, C. F.; Wen, S.; Chen, C.

    2017-12-01

    Studying spatial-temporal variations of subsurface velocity structures is still a challenge work, but it can provide important information not only on geometry of a fault, but also the rheology change induced from the strong earthquake. In 1999, a disastrous Chi-Chi earthquake (Mw7.6; Chi-Chi EQ) occurred in central Taiwan and caused great impacts on Taiwan's society. Therefore, the major objective of this research is to investigate whether the rheology change of fault can be associated with seismogenic process before strong earthquake. In addition, after the strike of the Chi-Chi EQ, whether the subsurface velocity structure resumes to its steady state is another issue in this study. Therefore, for the above purpose, we have applied a 3D tomographic technique to obtain P- and S-wave velocity structures in central Taiwan using travel time data provided by the Central Weather Bureau (CWB). One major advantage of this method is that we can include out-of-network data to improve the resolution of velocity structures at deeper depths in our study area. The results show that the temporal variations of Vp are less significant than Vs (or Vp/Vs ratio), and Vp is not prominent perturbed before and after the occurrence of the Chi-Chi EQ. However, the Vs (or Vp/Vs ratio) structure in the source area demonstrates significant spatial-temporal difference before and after the mainshock. From the results, before the mainshock, Vs began to decrease (Vp/Vs ratio was increased as well) at the hanging wall of Chelungpu fault, which may be induced by the increasing density of microcracks and fluid. But in the vicinities of Chi-Chi Earthquake's source area, Vs was increasing (Vp/Vs ratio was also decreased). This phenomenon may be owing to the closing of cracks or migration of fluid. Due to the different physical characteristics around the source area, strong earthquake may be easily nucleated at the junctional zone. Our findings suggest that continuously monitoring the Vp and Vs (or

  4. Structural factors controlling inter-plate coupling and earthquake rupture process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodaira, S.

    2007-05-01

    Recent availability of a large number of ocean bottom seismographs (OBSs), a large volume of air-gun array and a long streamer cable for academics provide several new findings of lithospheric scale structures in subduction seismogenic zones. JAMSTEC has acquired long-offset seismic data using a super-densely deploy OBS (i.e. 1 - 5 km spacing OBSs along 100 - 500 km long profiles) in the Nankai seismogeinc zone, SW. Japan, since 1999. Long-offset multichannel seismic (MCS) data by a two-ship experiment, as well as conventional 2D MCS data, have been also acquired at a part of the profiles. Some of those profiles have been designed as combined onshore - offshore profiles for imaging a land-ocean transition zone. One of the most striking findings is an image of several scales of subducted seamounts/ridges in the Nankai trough seismogenic zone. We detected the subducted seamount/ridges, which are 50 - 100 km wide, distributing from near trough axis to ~ 40 km deep beneath the Japanese island. From a point of seismogenic process, an important aspect is that those structures are strongly correlated with slip zones of magnitude 8-class earthquakes, i.e.; subducted seamounts/ridge control the rupture propagations. Moreover, the most recent seismic study crossing the segmentation boundary between M=8 class earthquakes detected a high seismic velocity body forming a strongly coupled patch at the segmentation boundary. The numerical simulation incorporating all those structures explained the historic rupture patterns, and shows the occurrence of a giant earthquake along the entire Nankai trough, a distance of over 600 km long (Mw=8.7). The growth processes of a rupture revealed from the simulation are; 1) prior to the giant earthquake, a small slow event (or earthquake) occurs near the segmentation boundary, 2) this accelerates a very slow slip (slower than the plate convergent rate), at the strong patch, which reduces a degree of coupling, 3) then a rupture easily propagates

  5. Earthquake response analysis of embedded reactor building considering soil-structure separation and nonlinearity of soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichikawa, T.; Hayashi, Y.; Nakai, S.

    1987-01-01

    In the earthquake response analysis for a rigid and massive structure as a nuclear reactor building, it is important to estimate the effect of soil-structure interaction (SSI) appropriately. In case of strong earthquakes, the nonlinearity, such as the wall-ground separation, the base mat uplift of sliding, makes the behavior of the soil-structure system complex. But, if the nuclear reactor building is embedded in a relatively soft ground with surface layer, the wall-ground separation plays the most important role in the response of soil-structure system. Because, it is expected that the base uplift and slide would be less significant due to the effect of the embedment, and the wall-ground friction is usually neglected in design. But, the nonlinearity of ground may have some effect on the wall-ground separation and the response of the structure. These problems have been studied by use of FEM. Others used joint elements between the ground and the structure which does not resist tensile force. Others studied the effect of wall-ground separation with non-tension springs. But the relationship between the ground condition and the effect of the separation has not been clarified yet. To clarify the effect the analyses by FE model and lumped mass model (sway-rocking model) are performed and compared. The key parameter is the ground profile, namely the stiffness of the side soil

  6. Structural and physical property characterization in the Wenchuan earthquake Fault Scientific Drilling project — hole 1 (WFSD-1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haibing; Xu, Zhiqin; Niu, Yixiong; Kong, Guangsheng; Huang, Yao; Wang, Huan; Si, Jialiang; Sun, Zhiming; Pei, Junling; Gong, Zheng; Chevalier, Marie-Luce; Liu, Dongliang

    2014-04-01

    The Wenchuan earthquake Fault Scientific Drilling project (WFSD) started right after the 2008 Mw 7.9 Wenchuan earthquake to investigate its faulting mechanism. Hole 1 (WFSD-1) reached the Yingxiu-Beichuan fault (YBF), and core samples were recovered from 32 to 1201.15 m-depth. Core investigation and a suite of geophysical downhole logs (including P-wave velocity, natural gamma ray, self-potential, resistivity, density, porosity, temperature, magnetic susceptibility and ultrasound borehole images) were acquired in WFSD-1. Integrated studies of cores and logs facilitate qualitative and quantitative comparison of the structures and physical properties of rocks. Logging data revealed that the geothermal gradient of the volcanic Pengguan complex (above 585.75 m) is 1.85 °C/100 m, while that of the sedimentary Xujiahe Formation (below 585.75 m) is 2.15 °C/100 m. In general, natural gamma ray, resistivity, density, porosity, P-wave velocity and magnetic susceptibility primarily depend on the rock lithology. All major fault zones are characterized by high magnetic susceptibility, low density and high porosity, with mostly low resistivity, high natural gamma ray and sound wave velocity. The high magnetic susceptibility values most likely result from the transformation of magnetic minerals by frictional heating due to the earthquake. The YBF exposed in WFSD-1 can be subdivided into five different parts based on different logging responses, each of them corresponding to certain fault-rocks. The high gamma radiation, porosity and P-wave velocity, as well as low resistivity and temperature anomalies indicate that the Wenchuan earthquake fault zone is located at 585.75-594.5 m-depth, with an average inclination and dip angle of N305° and 71°, respectively. The fact that the fracture directions in the hanging wall and footwall are different suggests that their stress field direction is completely different, implying that the upper Pengguan complex may not be local.

  7. Basic earthquake engineering from seismology to analysis and design

    CERN Document Server

    Sucuoğlu, Halûk

    2014-01-01

    This book provides senior undergraduate students, master students and structural engineers who do not have a background in the field with core knowledge of structural earthquake engineering that will be invaluable in their professional lives. The basics of seismotectonics, including the causes, magnitude, and intensity of earthquakes, are first explained. Then the book introduces basic elements of seismic hazard analysis and presents the concept of a seismic hazard map for use in seismic design. Subsequent chapters cover key aspects of the response analysis of simple systems and building struc­tures to earthquake ground motions, design spectrum, the adoption of seismic analysis procedures in seismic design codes, seismic design principles and seismic design of reinforced concrete structures. Helpful worked examples on seismic analysis of linear, nonlinear and base isolated buildings, earthquake-resistant design of frame and frame-shear wall systems are included, most of which can be solved using a hand calcu...

  8. Seismic hazard maps for earthquake-resistant construction designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohkawa, Izuru

    2004-01-01

    Based on the idea that seismic phenomena in Japan varying in different localities are to be reflected in designing specific nuclear facilities in specific site, the present research program started to make seismic hazard maps representing geographical distribution of seismic load factors. First, recent research data on historical earthquakes and materials on active faults in Japan have been documented. Differences in character due to different localities are expressed by dynamic load in consideration of specific building properties. Next, hazard evaluation corresponding to seismic-resistance factor is given as response index (spectrum) of an adequately selected building, for example a nuclear power station, with the help of investigation results of statistical analysis. (S. Ohno)

  9. Seismic damage to structures in the M s6.5 Ludian earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hao; Xie, Quancai; Dai, Boyang; Zhang, Haoyu; Chen, Hongfu

    2016-03-01

    On 3 August 2014, the Ludian earthquake struck northwest Yunnan Province with a surface wave magnitude of 6.5. This moderate earthquake unexpectedly caused high fatalities and great economic loss. Four strong motion stations were located in the areas with intensity V, VI, VII and IX, near the epicentre. The characteristics of the ground motion are discussed herein, including 1) ground motion was strong at a period of less than 1.4 s, which covered the natural vibration period of a large number of structures; and 2) the release energy was concentrated geographically. Based on materials collected during emergency building inspections, the damage patterns of adobe, masonry, timber frame and reinforced concrete (RC) frame structures in areas with different intensities are summarised. Earthquake damage matrices of local buildings are also given for fragility evaluation and earthquake damage prediction. It is found that the collapse ratios of RC frame and confined masonry structures based on the new design code are significantly lower than non-seismic buildings. However, the RC frame structures still failed to achieve the `strong column, weak beam' design target. Traditional timber frame structures with a light infill wall showed good aseismic performance.

  10. Hardware-software system for simulating and analyzing earthquakes applied to civil structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. P. Amezquita-Sanchez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of recent strong earthquakes, the incessant worldwide movements of tectonic plates and the continuous ambient vibrations caused by traffic and wind have increased the interest of researchers in improving the capacity of energy dissipation to avoid damages to civil structures. Experimental testing of structural systems is essential for the understanding of physical behaviors and the building of appropriate analytic models in order to expose difficulties that may not have been considered in analytical studies. This paper presents a hardware-software system for exciting, monitoring and analyzing simultaneously a structure under earthquake signals and other types of signals in real-time. Effectiveness of the proposed system has been validated by experimental case studies and has been found to be a useful tool in the analysis of earthquake effects on structures.

  11. Nuclear power plant design resistance to earthquakes. Pt. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    The rule specifies the standards to be met by the architectural design for building structures in order to ensure that they will not collapse during an earthquake. Building structures including the sub-structures covered by the rule are understood as buildings and building sections made of steel-reinforced concrete, prestressed concrete, steel and masoury (brickwork). They include i.a. crane tracks and gantries. For reactor safety containment buildings constructed of steel, steel-reinforced concrete or prestressed concrete, this rule applies for the calculation of section size. (orig./HP) [de

  12. Fault Zone Resistivity Structure and Monitoring at the Taiwan Chelungpu Drilling Project (TCDP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Wen Chiang

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The Taiwan Chelungpu-fault drilling project (TCDP has undertaken scientific drilling and directly sampled the sub-surface rupture of the 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake. Audio-magnetotelluric (AMT measurements were used to investigate electrical resistivity structure at the TCDP site from 2004 - 2006. These data show a geoelectric strike direction of N15°E to N30°E. Inversion and forward modeling of the AMT data were used to generate a 1-D resistivity model that has a prominent low resistivity zone (< 10 ohm-m between depths of 1100 and 1500 m. When combined with porosity measurements, theAMT measurements imply that the ground water has a resistivity of 0.55 ohm-m at the depth of the fault zone.

  13. Earthquake response analyses of soil-structure system considering kinematic interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murakami, H.; Yokono, K.; Miura, S.; Ishii, K.

    1985-01-01

    Improvement of soil-structure interaction analysis has been one of major concerns in earthquake engineering field, especially in nuclear industries, to evaluate the safety of structure accurately under earthquake events. This research aims to develop a rational analytical tool which considers effect of the 'kinematic interaction' satisfactory with a proposed simple low-pass filter. In this paper, first the effect of the kinematic interaction is investigated based on earthquake response analysis of a reactor building using the practical design models: the spring-mass-dashpot system and the 'lattice model', in which a building and soil medium are modeled by a system of lumped masses. Next, the filter is developed based on parametrical studies with various sizes of depth and width of foundations embedded in two-layers soil, which represents more general soil condition in practical designs compared with a homogeneous soil medium. (orig.)

  14. Rehabilitation and retrofitting of RC nuclear facilities against earthquake with FRP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukherjee, Abhijit

    2011-01-01

    Reinforced concrete construction is very common in nuclear facilities. Natural calamities such as earthquakes, overloading and corrosion are some factors that can severely reduce the capacity and life of these structures unless they are rehabilitated, or more preferably retrofitted. Recent developments in the field of fiber reinforced polymers (FRPs) have resulted in the development of highly efficient construction materials. The FRPs are unaffected by electro-mechanical deterioration and can resist corrosive effects of acids, alkalis, salts and similar aggregates under a wide range of temperatures. This novel technique of rehabilitation is very effective and fast for earthquake affected structures and retrofitting of structures against future earthquakes. In the present paper important developments in this field from its origin to the recent times have been presented. (author)

  15. Response spectra for differential motion of structures supports during earthquakes in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed I.S. Elmasry

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Differential motions of ground supports of stiff structures with large plan dimensions and separate foundations under earthquakes were studied by researchers during the last few decades. Such a type of structural response was previously underestimated. The importance of studying such a response comes up from the fact that usually the structures affected are of strategic importance such as bridges. During their expected life, structures may experience vibrations excited by ground waves of short wavelengths during near-source earthquakes, or during amplified earthquake signals, during explosions, or during vibrations induced from nearby strong vibration sources. This is the case when the differential motion of supports becomes considerable. This paper aims to review the effects of seismic signal variations along the structures dimensions with emphasis on Egypt as a case study. The paper shows some patterns of the damage imposed by such differential motion. A replication of the differential motion in the longitudinal direction is applied on a frame bridge model. The resulting straining actions show the necessity for considering the differential motion of supports in the design of special structures in Egypt. Finally, response spectra for the differential motion of supports, based on the available data from previous earthquakes in Egypt, is derived and proposed for designers to include in the design procedure when accounting for such type of structural response, and especially in long-span bridges.

  16. Influence of intensity parameters of earthquake on response of reinforced concrete structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherian, Ciby Jacob; Madhavan Pillai, T. M.; Sajith, A. S.

    2018-03-01

    Earthquake is one of the most frightening and destructive phenomena of nature. The destructive capacity of an earthquake depends on various parameters. Without characterising earthquake time history data to the required intensity parameters, its effect on structures cannot be predicted. The influence of intensity parameter of earthquake on the destructive capacity of a structure is essential in the vibration control scenario also. In the present paper, three reinforced concrete (RC) framed structures with natural frequencies 4.688 Hz, 1.762 Hz, 1.661 Hz are used to investigate the influence between the intensity measures and the response. 20 ground motion time history data were selected with predominant frequency ranging from 1 Hz to 12.5 Hz. Some available intensity measures were used to characterise this data. 3D model of the structure was analysed in ETABSUL 13.1.3 software with diaphragm rigidity at floor level. Modal analysis was used to find the modes and corresponding time periods. Linear time history analysis was done for the three models for all the ground motion data. It is noted that four intensity parameters namely predominant frequency, Peak Ground Acceleration, Velocity Spectrum Intensity, Housner Intensity has an appreciable influence on the response.

  17. Development of advanced earthquake resistant performance verification on reinforced concrete underground structure. Pt. 2. Verification of the ground modeling methods applied to non-linear soil-structure interaction analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawai, Tadashi; Kanatani, Mamoru; Ohtomo, Keizo; Matsui, Jun; Matsuo, Toyofumi

    2003-01-01

    In order to develop an advanced verification method for earthquake resistant performance on reinforced concrete underground structures, the applicability of two different types of soil modeling methods in numerical analysis were verified through non-linear dynamic numerical simulations of the large shaking table tests conducted using the model comprised of free-field ground or soils and a reinforced concrete two-box culvert structure system. In these simulations, the structure was modeled by a beam type element having a tri-linear curve of the relations between curvature and flexural moment. The soil was modeled by the Ramberg-Osgood model as well as an elasto-plastic constitutive model. The former model only employs non-linearity of shear modulus regarding strain and initial stress conditions, whereas the latter can express non-linearity of shear modulus caused by changes of mean effective stress during ground excitation and dilatancy of ground soil. Therefore the elasto-plastic constitutive model could precisely simulate the vertical acceleration and displacement response on ground surface, which were produced by the soil dilations during a shaking event of a horizontal base input in the model tests. In addition, the model can explain distinctive dynamic earth pressure acting on the vertical walls of the structure which was also confirmed to be related to the soil dilations. However, since both these modeling methods could express the shear force on the upper slab surface of the model structure, which plays the predominant role on structural deformation, these modeling methods were applicable equally to the evaluation of seismic performance similar to the model structure of this study. (author)

  18. Structural preconditions of West Bohemia earthquake swarms

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Novotný, Miroslav; Špičák, Aleš; Weinlich, F. H.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 34, č. 4 (2013), s. 491-519 ISSN 0169-3298 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LM2010008 Institutional support: RVO:67985530 Keywords : West Bohemia earthquake swarm s * depth-recursive refraction tomography * CEL09 refraction profile Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure Impact factor: 5.112, year: 2013

  19. Analysis of a Frame-Shear Wall Concrete Structure by Using Base Isolation and Evaluation of Structure-Soil Interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. I. Polat

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A base isolation system is a type of earthquake-resistant structure design approach based on the principle of reducing a structure’s earthquake response rather than increasing the structure’s earthquake resistance capacity. Seismic base isolated structures have the ability to make large displacements relative to the level of insulation elements. This means that a large structure performs very small displacements between floors during an earthquake and exhibits a rigid body behavior. At this point, the earthquake forces acting on the structure decrease along with the floors. In this article a school building composed of frame-shear wall is resolved primarily with the traditional fixed base structure system, mode shapes are found and periods are obtained. For earthquake response analysis, earthquake loads are distributed to the floors using the equivalent seismic load method and structural elements experiencing capacity problems are found. Then, using the earthquake record, larger failure of cross sections and capacity problems are obtained compared to the first method. In the second stage, the same structure is dissolved again by placing the lead core rubber base isolators between the base and the vertical structural members. The periods of structures under earthquake load have increased significantly by utilizing base isolation, as a result of that spectral accelerations decreased. Thus, large decreases in the shear forces acting to the structure are determined and failures of cross sections are removed.

  20. Shaking Table Tests on the Seismic Behavior of Steel Frame Structures Subjected to Various Earthquake Ground Motions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, In Kil; Kim, Min Kyu; Choun, Young Sun; Seo, Jeong Moon

    2004-05-01

    The standard response spectrum proposed by US NRC has been used as a design earthquake for the design of Korean nuclear power plant structures. Recent large earthquakes occurred in near-fault zone have done significant damage and loss of life to earthquake area. A survey on some of the Quaternary fault segments near the Korean nuclear power plants is ongoing. If the faults are confirmed as active ones, it will be necessary to reevaluate the seismic safety of the nuclear power plants located near the fault. In this study, the shaking table tests of three steel frame structures were performed. Three types of input motions, artificial time histories that envelop the US NRC Regulatory Guide 1.60 spectrum and the probability based scenario earthquake spectra developed for the Korean nuclear power plant site and a typical near-fault earthquake recorded at Chi-Chi earthquake, were used as input motions. The acceleration and displacement responses of the structure due to the design earthquake were larger than those due to the other input earthquakes. It seems that the design earthquake for the Korean nuclear power plants is conservative, and that the near-fault earthquake and scenario earthquake are not so damageable for the nuclear power plant structures, because the fundamental frequencies of the nuclear power plant structures are generally greater than 5 Hz. The high frequency ground motions that appeared in the scenario earthquake can be more damageable for the equipment installed on the high floors in a building. This means that the design earthquake is not so conservative for the safety of the safety related nuclear power plant equipment

  1. SEISMIC PERFORMANCE OF MOMENT-RESISTING CONCRETE FRAMES SUBJECTED TO EARTHQUAKE EXCITATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FADZLI MOHAMED NAZRI

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, moment-resisting concrete frames (MRCFs were designed based on Eurocodes 2 and 8, which indicate the seismic provisions and requirements for building design and construction. This study aims to investigate the damage measure of MRCFs subjected to earthquake excitation by pushover analysis (POA and incremental dynamic analysis (IDA. In POA, inverted triangular lateral load and uniform lateral load patterns were used to produce a base shear–drift curve. In IDA, seven far-field and seven near-field ground motion records were selected to establish the base shear–drift relationship. Structural response and damage measures were examined by the performance-based seismic design limit states. Vision 2000 proposed four performance states, namely, fully operational, operational, life safety (LS, and near collapse. The results showed that the designed structures have low stiffness because all MRCFs failed to meet the LS limit state. The base shear–drift relationship produced a higher demand in IDA than in POA. In POA, the lateral uniform load pattern produced higher demand than the lateral inverted triangular load pattern. In IDA, the farfield effect produced higher demand than the near-field effect. POA approximated IDA accurately at the elastic stage, but the approximation failed after the yield point.

  2. Earthquake response of inelastic structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parulekar, Y.M.; Vaity, K.N.; Reddy, .R.; Vaze, K.K.; Kushwaha, H.S.

    2004-01-01

    The most commonly used method in the seismic analysis of structures is the response spectrum method. For seismic re-evaluation of existing facilities elastic response spectrum method cannot be used directly as large deformation above yield may be observed under Safe Shutdown Earthquake (SSE). The plastic deformation, i.e. hysteretic characteristics of various elements of the structure cause dissipation of energy. Hence the values of damping given by the code, which does not account hysteretic energy dissipation cannot be directly used. In this paper, appropriate damping values are evaluated for 5-storey, 10-storey and 15-storey shear beam structures, which deform beyond their yield limit. Linear elastic analysis is performed for the same structures using these damping values and the storey forces are compared with those obtained using inelastic time history analysis. A damping model, which relates ductility of the structure and damping, is developed. Using his damping model, a practical structure is analysed and results are compared with inelastic time history analysis and the comparison is found to be good

  3. Relocation and Seismogenic Structure of the 1998 Zhangbei-Shangyi Earthquake Sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Z.

    2002-05-01

    An earthquake of magnitude 6.2 occurred in the Zhangbei-Shangyi region in the northern China on January 10, 1998. The earthquake was about 180km to the northwest of the Beijing City and was felt at Beijing. This earthquake is the largest event since the 1976 great Tangshan earthquake of magnitude 7.8 in the northern China. Historically seismicity in the Zhangbei-Shangyi region was very low. In the epicentral area no active fault constituting the seismogenic geological features capable of generating moderate earthquakes like this earthquake has been found before the earthquake. Nor surface faulting has been observed after the earthquake. Field geological investigation after the earthquake found two conjugate surface features trending NNE-NE and NNW-WNW. Because of the geometry of the seismic network the hypocentral distribution of the Zhangbei-Shangyi earthquake sequence given by routine location exhibited no any preferable orientation feature. In this study the Zhangbei-Shangyi earthquake and its aftershocks with magnitude equal or lager than 3.0 were relocated using both the master event relative relocation algorithm and the double-difference earthquake relocation algorithm (Waldhauser, 2000). Both algorithms gave consistent results within accuracy limits. The epicenter of the main shock was 41.15­aN and 114.46­aE, which was located 4km apart from the macro-epicenter of this event. The focal depth of the main shock was 15 km. The epicenters of aftershocks of this earthquake sequence distribute in a nearly vertical plane and its vicinity with orientation N20­aE. The results of relocation for the Zhangbei-Shangyi earthquake sequence clearly indicate that the seismogenic structure of this event is a N20­aE striking fault with right-lateral reverse slip, and that the occurrence of the Zhangbei-Shangyi earthquake is tectonically driven by the horizontal and oriented ENE compression stress, same as that of the stress field in northern China.

  4. The ordered network structure and prediction summary for M ≥ 7 earthquakes in Xinjiang region of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Men, Ke-Pei; Zhao, Kai

    2014-01-01

    M ≥ 7 earthquakes have showed an obvious commensurability and orderliness in Xinjiang of China and its adjacent region since 1800. The main orderly values are 30 a x k (k = 1, 2, 3), 11 ∝ 12 a, 41 ∝ 43 a, 18 ∝ 19 a, and 5 ∝ 6 a. In the guidance of the information forecasting theory of Wen-Bo Weng, based on previous research results, combining ordered network structure analysis with complex network technology, we focus on the prediction summary of M ≥ 7 earthquakes by using the ordered network structure, and add new information to further optimize network, hence construct the 2D- and 3D-ordered network structure of M ≥ 7 earthquakes. In this paper, the network structure revealed fully the regularity of seismic activity of M ≥ 7 earthquakes in the study region during the past 210 years. Based on this, the Karakorum M7.1 earthquake in 1996, the M7.9 earthquake on the frontier of Russia, Mongol, and China in 2003, and two Yutian M7.3 earthquakes in 2008 and 2014 were predicted successfully. At the same time, a new prediction opinion is presented that the future two M ≥ 7 earthquakes will probably occur around 2019-2020 and 2025-2026 in this region. The results show that large earthquake occurred in defined region can be predicted. The method of ordered network structure analysis produces satisfactory results for the mid-and-long term prediction of M ≥ 7 earthquakes.

  5. Seismic resistance design of nuclear power plant building structures in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitano, Takehito

    1997-01-01

    Japan is one of the countries where earthquakes occur most frequently in the world and has incurred a lot of disasters in the past. Therefore, the seismic resistance design of a nuclear power plant plays a very important role in Japan. This report describes the general method of seismic resistance design of a nuclear power plant giving examples of PWR and BWR type reactor buildings in Japan. Nuclear facilities are classified into three seismic classes and is designed according to the corresponding seismic class in Japan. Concerning reactor buildings, the short-term allowable stress design is applied for the S1 seismic load and it is confirmed that the structures have a safety margin against the S2 seismic load. (J.P.N.)

  6. Seismic resistance design of nuclear power plant building structures in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kitano, Takehito [Kansai Electric Power Co., Inc., Osaka (Japan)

    1997-03-01

    Japan is one of the countries where earthquakes occur most frequently in the world and has incurred a lot of disasters in the past. Therefore, the seismic resistance design of a nuclear power plant plays a very important role in Japan. This report describes the general method of seismic resistance design of a nuclear power plant giving examples of PWR and BWR type reactor buildings in Japan. Nuclear facilities are classified into three seismic classes and is designed according to the corresponding seismic class in Japan. Concerning reactor buildings, the short-term allowable stress design is applied for the S1 seismic load and it is confirmed that the structures have a safety margin against the S2 seismic load. (J.P.N.)

  7. Development of rational design technique for frame steel structure combining seismic resistance and economic performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Motoki; Morishita, Kunihiro; Shimono, Masaki; Chuman, Yasuharu; Okafuji, Takashi; Monaka, Toshiaki

    2015-01-01

    Anti-seismic designs have been applied to plant support steel frames for years. Today, a rational structure that further improves seismic resistance and ensures economic performance is required in response to an increase of seismic load on the assumption of predicted future massive earthquakes. For satisfying this requirement, a steel frame design method that combines a steel frame weight minimizing method, which enables economic design through simultaneous minimization of multiple steel frame materials, and a seismic response control design technology that improves seismic resistance has been established. Its application in the design of real structures has been promoted. This paper gives an overview of this design technology and presents design examples to which this design technology is applied. (author)

  8. Prediction of Global and Localized Damage and Future Reliability for RC Structures subject to Earthquakes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Köyluoglu, H.U.; Nielsen, Søren R.K.; Cakmak, A.S.

    1997-01-01

    the arrival of the first earthquake from non-destructive vibration tests or via structural analysis. The previous excitation and displacement response time series is employed for the identification of the instantaneous softening using an ARMA model. The hysteresis parameters are updated after each earthquake....... The proposed model is next generalized for the MDOF system. Using the adapted models for the structure and the global damage state, the global damage in a future earthquake can then be estimated when a suitable earthquake model is applied. The performance of the model is illustrated on RC frames which were...

  9. Prediction of Global and Localized Damage and Future Reliability for RC Structures subject to Earthquakes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Köyluoglu, H.U.; Nielsen, Søren R.K.; Cakmak, A.S.

    1994-01-01

    the arrival of the first earthquake from non-destructive vibration tests or via structural analysis. The previous excitation and displacement response time series is employed for the identification of the instantaneous softening using an ARMA model. The hysteresis parameters are updated after each earthquake....... The proposed model is next generalized for the MDOF system. Using the adapted models for the structure and the global damage state, the global damage in a future earthquake can then be estimated when a suitable earthquake model is applied. The performance of the model is illustrated on RC frames which were...

  10. Analysis of a school building damaged by the 2015 Ranau earthquake Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takano, Shugo; Saito, Taiki

    2017-10-01

    On June 5th, 2015 a severe earthquake with a moment Magnitude of 6.0 occurred in Ranau, Malaysia. Depth of the epicenter is 10 km. Due to the earthquake, many facilities were damaged and 18 people were killed due to rockfalls [1]. Because the British Standard (BS) is adopted as a regulation for built buildings in Malaysia, the seismic force is not considered in the structural design. Therefore, the seismic resistance of Malaysian buildings is unclear. To secure the human life and building safety, it is important to grasp seismic resistance of the building. The objective of this study is to evaluate the seismic resistance of the existing buildings in Malaysia built by the British Standard. A school building that was damaged at the Ranau earthquake is selected as the target building. The building is a four story building and the ground floor is designed to be a parking space for the staff. The structural types are infill masonries where main frame is configured by reinforced concrete columns and beams and brick is installed inside the frame as walls. Analysis is performed using the STERA_3D software that is the software to analyze the seismic performance of buildings developed by one of the authors. Firstly, the natural period of the building is calculated and compared with the result of micro-tremor measurement. Secondly, the nonlinear push-over analysis was conducted to evaluate the horizontal load bearing capacity of the building. Thirdly, the earthquake response analysis was conducted using the time history acceleration data measured at the Ranau earthquake by the seismograph installed at Kota Kinabalu. By comparing the results of earthquake response analysis and the actual damage of the building, the reason that caused damage to the building is clarified.

  11. Direct methods of soil-structure interaction analysis for earthquake loadings (IV)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, J B; Kim, D S; Choi, J S; Kwon, K C; Kim, Y J; Lee, H J; Kim, S B; Kim, D K [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-07-15

    Methodologies of SSI analysis for earthquake loadings have been reviewed. Based on the finite element method incorporating infinite element technique for the unbounded exterior region, a computer program for the nonlinear seismic analysis named as 'KIESSI-QK' has been developed. The computer program has been verified using a free-field site-response problem. The Hualien FVT stochastic finite element analysis after backfill and the blind prediction of earthquake responses have been carried out utilizing the developed computer program. The earthquake response analysis for the LSST structure has also been performed and compared with the measured data.

  12. Direct methods of soil-structure interaction analysis for earthquake loadings (IV)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, J. B.; Kim, D. S.; Choi, J. S.; Kwon, K. C.; Kim, Y. J.; Lee, H. J.; Kim, S. B.; Kim, D. K. [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-07-15

    Methodologies of SSI analysis for earthquake loadings have been reviewed. Based on the finite element method incorporating infinite element technique for the unbounded exterior region, a computer program for the nonlinear seismic analysis named as 'KIESSI-QK' has been developed. The computer program has been verified using a free-field site-response problem. The Hualien FVT stochastic finite element analysis after backfill and the blind prediction of earthquake responses have been carried out utilizing the developed computer program. The earthquake response analysis for the LSST structure has also been performed and compared with the measured data.

  13. Latur earthquake and its impact on the aseismic design of structures in India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basu, P C [Atomic Energy Regulatory Board (India)

    1995-07-01

    The Latur earthquake occurred on September 30, 1995. The epicentre was located near the Killari village of Latur District which is situated in the stable continental region of Southern Peninsular India. The earthquake caused a wide range of damage though its magnitude (MS) was 6.4. Intensive damage survey was carried out and a number of geophysical and seismological studies had been undertaken. It has been concluded from the results, available so far from these studies, that the hypocentre of the earthquake was on the lineament dipping NW-SE. The rock matrix in the hypocentral region was weakened due to the presence of fluid and rupture of this weak region caused the event. The ground motion produced by the earthquake was of complex nature comprising of horizontal and vertical component. The ground acceleration in the epicentral region was estimated as 0.2 g. Latur earthquake raised several issues with respect to aseismic design of structures in India which need further deliberation. These issues are related to seismic zoning of India, determination of design basis ground motion, design/detailing of structures, etc. (author)

  14. Latur earthquake and its impact on the aseismic design of structures in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basu, P.C.

    1995-01-01

    The Latur earthquake occurred on September 30, 1995. The epicentre was located near the Killari village of Latur District which is situated in the stable continental region of Southern Peninsular India. The earthquake caused a wide range of damage though its magnitude (MS) was 6.4. Intensive damage survey was carried out and a number of geophysical and seismological studies had been undertaken. It has been concluded from the results, available so far from these studies, that the hypocentre of the earthquake was on the lineament dipping NW-SE. The rock matrix in the hypocentral region was weakened due to the presence of fluid and rupture of this weak region caused the event. The ground motion produced by the earthquake was of complex nature comprising of horizontal and vertical component. The ground acceleration in the epicentral region was estimated as 0.2 g. Latur earthquake raised several issues with respect to aseismic design of structures in India which need further deliberation. These issues are related to seismic zoning of India, determination of design basis ground motion, design/detailing of structures, etc. (author)

  15. Fundamental principles of earthquake resistance calculation to be reflected in the next generation regulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mkrtychev Oleg

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article scrutinizes the pressing issues of regulation in the domain of seismic construction. The existing code of rules SNIP II-7-81* “Construction in seismic areas” provides that earthquake resistance calculation be performed on two levels of impact: basic safety earthquake (BSE and maximum considered earthquake (MCE. However, the very nature of such calculation cannot be deemed well-founded and contradicts the fundamental standards of foreign countries. The authors of the article have identified the main problems of the conceptual foundation underlying the current regulation. The first and foremost step intended to overcome the discrepancy in question is renunciation of the K1 damage tolerance factor when calculating the BSE. The second measure to be taken is implementing the response spectrum method of calculation, but the β spectral curve of the dynamic response factor must be replaced by a spectrum of worst-case accelerograms for this particular structure or a spectrum of simulated accelerograms obtained for the specific construction site. Application of the response spectrum method when calculating the MCE impact level makes it possible to proceed into the frequency domain and to eventually obtain spectra of the accelerograms. As a result we get to know the response of the building to some extent, i.e. forces, the required reinforcement, and it can be checked whether the conditions of the ultimate limit state apply. Then, the elements under the most intense load are excluded from the design model the way it is done in case of progressive collapse calculations, because the assumption is that these elements are destroyed locally by seismic load. This procedure is based on the already existing design practices of progressive collapse calculation.

  16. Structure and composition of the plate-boundary slip zone for the 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chester, Frederick M; Rowe, Christie; Ujiie, Kohtaro; Kirkpatrick, James; Regalla, Christine; Remitti, Francesca; Moore, J Casey; Toy, Virginia; Wolfson-Schwehr, Monica; Bose, Santanu; Kameda, Jun; Mori, James J; Brodsky, Emily E; Eguchi, Nobuhisa; Toczko, Sean

    2013-12-06

    The mechanics of great subduction earthquakes are influenced by the frictional properties, structure, and composition of the plate-boundary fault. We present observations of the structure and composition of the shallow source fault of the 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake and tsunami from boreholes drilled by the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Expedition 343 and 343T. Logging-while-drilling and core-sample observations show a single major plate-boundary fault accommodated the large slip of the Tohoku-Oki earthquake rupture, as well as nearly all the cumulative interplate motion at the drill site. The localization of deformation onto a limited thickness (less than 5 meters) of pelagic clay is the defining characteristic of the shallow earthquake fault, suggesting that the pelagic clay may be a regionally important control on tsunamigenic earthquakes.

  17. Earthquake countermeasure work on water intake structure based on post-construction shear reinforcement method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satou, Yoshihito; Wani, Masaaki; Wachi, Takamitsu

    2017-01-01

    Hamaoka Nuclear Power Station set up 'earthquake motion as the base for remodeling work' by referring to the strong earthquake fault model assumed by the 'Study meeting for Nankai Trough's mega thrust earthquake model' of the Cabinet Office. Based on this earthquake, it implemented seismic countermeasure work using ceramic fixing type post-construction shear reinforcement bars by targeting the Unit 4 water intake tank screen room. This construction work was carried out in a short period of about nine months due to a restriction in the drainage period of the water intake tank. Thanks to the improvement of process control, such as adoption of a two-shift (day and night) system, this work was completed. On the other hand, the quality of construction was secured by adopting a drilling machine with a resistance sensor at the time of drilling and plastic grout at the time of grout filling, as well as through quality inspection based on Construction Technology Review and Certification. (A.O.)

  18. Earthquake-resistant performance investigation for rural buildings in Zhongxiang area, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Jingya

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available We carried out a census of the rural residential buildings of Zhongxiang area’s 17 towns. Next, we conducted a sample survey in four townships: Huji, Shipai, Zhangji, and Jiuli. According to the census and sample survey data of the rural residence buildings, we evaluated the quality and earthquake-resistant performance of the rural buildings for the various local rural residential structural types. The results showed that there are four main factors affecting the seismic performance of the local rural residences: (1 Foundations are not made appropriately (such as by compaction or some other fill but are built directly in the farming soil. (2 Seismic measures are not completely implemented. Structure construction measures are not in place at the junction of the vertical and horizontal wall. The vertical wall joints are not the result of the same masonry techniques as the horizontal joints. There are no lintels above the door and window openings, or if there are any, the length of the lintels is less than 240 mm. (3 The brick masonry wall has low strength. The greatest housing wall mortar strength is between M0. 4–1.5, much lower than the strength of the brick. (4 The building material and construction quality are poor. The quality of the mortar masonry wall is poor. The cracks between the bricks are uneven, even in the seams.

  19. Earthquake protection of essential civil and industrial equipments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourrier, P.; Le Breton, F.; Thevenot, A.

    1986-01-01

    This document presents the principal reflexions concerning seismic engineering applications for equipment and the difference of the non-employment towards these structures. The notion of essential equipment is then pointed out as well as the main particularities of equipment considered as structures. Finally, this document illustrates a few pathological examples encountered after an earthquake, and presents some equipments of a nuclear power plant which to resist an increased safety seism [fr

  20. The growth of geological structures by repeated earthquakes, 1, conceptual framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, G.C.P.; Stein, R.S.; Rundle, J.B.

    1988-01-01

    In many places, earthquakes with similar characteristics have been shown to recur. If this is common, then relatively small deformations associated with individual earthquake cycles should accumulate over time to create geological structures. It is shown that existing models developed to describe leveling line changes associated with the seismic cycle can be adapted to explain geological features associated with a fault. In these models an elastic layer containing the fault overlies a viscous half-space with a different density. Fault motion associated with an earthquake results in immediate deformation followed by a long period of readjustment as stresses relax in the viscous layer and isostatic equilibrium is restored. The flexural rigidity of the crust (or the apparent elastic thickness) provides the main control of the width of a structure. The loading due to erosion and deposition of sediment determines the ratio of uplift to subsidence between the two sides of the fault. -Authors

  1. The 2016 Kumamoto Earthquakes: Cascading Geological Hazards and Compounding Risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsuichiro Goda

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available A sequence of two strike-slip earthquakes occurred on 14 and 16 April 2016 in the intraplate region of Kyushu Island, Japan, apart from subduction zones, and caused significant damage and disruption to the Kumamoto region. The analyses of regional seismic catalog and available strong motion recordings reveal striking characteristics of the events, such as migrating seismicity, earthquake surface rupture, and major foreshock-mainshock earthquake sequences. To gain valuable lessons from the events, a UK Earthquake Engineering Field Investigation Team (EEFIT was dispatched to Kumamoto, and earthquake damage surveys were conducted to relate observed earthquake characteristics to building and infrastructure damage caused by the earthquakes. The lessons learnt from the reconnaissance mission have important implications on current seismic design practice regarding the required seismic resistance of structures under multiple shocks and the seismic design of infrastructure subject to large ground deformation. The observations also highlight the consequences of cascading geological hazards on community resilience. To share the gathered damage data widely, geo-tagged photos are organized using Google Earth and the kmz file is made publicly available.

  2. Earthquake response characteristics of large structure 'JOYO' deeply embedded in quaternary ground, (3)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yajima, Hiroshi; Sawada, Yoshihiro; Hanada, Kazutake; Sawada, Makoto.

    1987-01-01

    In order to examine aseismicity of embedded structure and to clarify embedment effect, earthquake observations of the large structure 'JOYO' are carried out which is deeply embedded in quaternary ground, and the results are summarized as follows. (1) Amplification factors of horizontal component in ground surface is about 3 to 4 times against the bedrock. Contrastively on the structure, any amplification is not observed at the underground portion, however, little amplification exists at the ground portion of structure. (2) Transfer function of structure has several predominant peaks at frequencies of 4.3 Hz and 8.0 Hz which are well coincided with values obtained from force excitation tests. It is shown that transfer function between basement and ground surface is similar to that between ground of same level to basement and ground surface, suggesting the behavior of basement to be able to estimate by these under ground earthquake motion. (3) According to earthquake motion analysis using S-R models, without regard to consider or not the side ground stiffness, the calculated response values do not so much differ in each model and mostly correspond with observation data, provided that the underground earthquake motion at same level to basement is used as a input wave. Consequently, the behavior of these deeply embedded structure is subject to setting method of input wave rather than modeling method, and it is very useful in design that the most simple model without side ground stiffness can roughly represent the embedment effect. (author)

  3. Earthquake resistant design of nuclear facilities with limited radioactive inventory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-10-01

    This document comprises the essential elements of an earthquake resistant design code for nuclear facilities with limited radioactive inventory. The purpose of the document is the enhancement of seismic safety for such facilities without the necessity to resort to complicated and sophisticated methodologies which are often associated with and borrowed from nuclear power plant analysis and design. The first two sections are concerned with the type of facility for which the document is applicable and the radiological consideration for accident conditions. The principles of facility classification and item categorization as a function of the potential radiological consequences of failure are given in section 3. The design basis ground motion is evaluated in sections 4-6 using a simplified but conservative approach which also includes considerations for the underlying soil characteristics. Sections 7 and 8 specify the principles of seismic design of building structures and equipment using two methods, called the equivalent static and simplified dynamic approach. Considerations for the detailing of equipment and piping and those other than for lateral load calculations, such as sloshing effects, are given in the subsequent sections. Several appendices are given for illustration of the principles presented in the text. Finally, a design tree diagram is included to facilitate the user's task of making the appropriate selections. (author)

  4. Two-dimensional joint inversion of Magnetotelluric and local earthquake data: Discussion on the contribution to the solution of deep subsurface structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirci, İsmail; Dikmen, Ünal; Candansayar, M. Emin

    2018-02-01

    Joint inversion of data sets collected by using several geophysical exploration methods has gained importance and associated algorithms have been developed. To explore the deep subsurface structures, Magnetotelluric and local earthquake tomography algorithms are generally used individually. Due to the usage of natural resources in both methods, it is not possible to increase data quality and resolution of model parameters. For this reason, the solution of the deep structures with the individual usage of the methods cannot be fully attained. In this paper, we firstly focused on the effects of both Magnetotelluric and local earthquake data sets on the solution of deep structures and discussed the results on the basis of the resolving power of the methods. The presence of deep-focus seismic sources increase the resolution of deep structures. Moreover, conductivity distribution of relatively shallow structures can be solved with high resolution by using MT algorithm. Therefore, we developed a new joint inversion algorithm based on the cross gradient function in order to jointly invert Magnetotelluric and local earthquake data sets. In the study, we added a new regularization parameter into the second term of the parameter correction vector of Gallardo and Meju (2003). The new regularization parameter is enhancing the stability of the algorithm and controls the contribution of the cross gradient term in the solution. The results show that even in cases where resistivity and velocity boundaries are different, both methods influence each other positively. In addition, the region of common structural boundaries of the models are clearly mapped compared with original models. Furthermore, deep structures are identified satisfactorily even with using the minimum number of seismic sources. In this paper, in order to understand the future studies, we discussed joint inversion of Magnetotelluric and local earthquake data sets only in two-dimensional space. In the light of these

  5. Earthquakes and Earthquake Engineering. LC Science Tracer Bullet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buydos, John F., Comp.

    An earthquake is a shaking of the ground resulting from a disturbance in the earth's interior. Seismology is the (1) study of earthquakes; (2) origin, propagation, and energy of seismic phenomena; (3) prediction of these phenomena; and (4) investigation of the structure of the earth. Earthquake engineering or engineering seismology includes the…

  6. Investigation of 1-D crustal velocity structure beneath Izmir Gulf and surroundings by using local earthquakes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polat, Orhan, E-mail: orhan.polat@deu.edu.tr [Dokuz Eylul University, Faculty of Engineering, Geophysical Engineering Department, Izmir (Turkey); Özer, Çaglar, E-mail: caglar.ozer@deu.edu.tr [Dokuz Eylul University, Faculty of Engineering, Geophysical Engineering Department, Izmir (Turkey); Dokuz Eylul University, The Graduate School of Natural and Applied Sciences, Department of Geophysical Engineering, Izmir-Turkey (Turkey)

    2016-04-18

    In this study; we examined one dimensional crustal velocity structure of Izmir gulf and surroundings. We used nearly one thousand high quality (A and B class) earthquake data which recorded by Disaster and Emergency Management Presidency (AFAD) [1], Bogazici University (BU-KOERI) [2] and National Observatory of Athens (NOA) [3,4]. We tried several synthetic tests to understand power of new velocity structure, and examined phase residuals, RMS values and shifting tests. After evaluating these tests; we decided one dimensional velocity structure and minimum 1-D P wave velocities, hypocentral parameter and earthquake locations from VELEST algorithm. Distribution of earthquakes was visibly improved by using new minimum velocity structure.

  7. Investigation of 1-D crustal velocity structure beneath Izmir Gulf and surroundings by using local earthquakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polat, Orhan; Özer, Çaglar

    2016-01-01

    In this study; we examined one dimensional crustal velocity structure of Izmir gulf and surroundings. We used nearly one thousand high quality (A and B class) earthquake data which recorded by Disaster and Emergency Management Presidency (AFAD) [1], Bogazici University (BU-KOERI) [2] and National Observatory of Athens (NOA) [3,4]. We tried several synthetic tests to understand power of new velocity structure, and examined phase residuals, RMS values and shifting tests. After evaluating these tests; we decided one dimensional velocity structure and minimum 1-D P wave velocities, hypocentral parameter and earthquake locations from VELEST algorithm. Distribution of earthquakes was visibly improved by using new minimum velocity structure.

  8. Novel Techniques for Seismic Performance of High Rise Structures in 21st Century: State-Of-The Art Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, R.; Naringe, A.; Kalyana Rama, J. S.

    2018-03-01

    Natural disasters like earthquakes are causing catastrophic failure for various structures in and around the world because of its unpredictable nature. Even in India, almost 80% of, India’s capital, Delhi’s buildings are not earthquake resistant. If at all there is a moderate earthquake in Delhi, millions of lives and huge of property will be lost. There are many places in India including four metropolitan cities, in which majority of high rise buildings are not earthquake resistant. It is important to account for damage caused by earthquakes, incorporating suitable resistant techniques for the safeguard of the people. The present study deals with highlighting the novel techniques adopted in the recent past to make the structures earthquake resistant. Performance based design is one such approach where in performance of structure is given the utmost importance unlike the existing standards. Lateral load resisting systems like chevron braces, knee braces in combination with aluminium shear links are found to reduce the impact of earthquake on the structures w.r.t its drift. It is also observed that the use of economical and feasible passive and active control vibration systems like dampers, isolation techniques led to revolutionary changes in the overall performance of high rise.

  9. Earthquake resistant countermeasures for pipelines in Tokyo gas F.T.R.L.; Etude menee par l'institut de recherches de Tokyo gas et portant sur les mesures antisismiques applicables aux canalisations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobayashi, M.; Hosokawa, N.; Watanabe, T. [Tokyo Gas Fundamental Technology Research Lab. (Japan)

    2000-07-01

    Taking 'damage factor', 'ground response', 'soil pipe interaction', and 'deformability of pipes' as its four key concerns, Tokyo Gas F.T.R.L. is working to clarify the behavior of pipelines during strong earthquakes and improve their earthquake resistance to increase safety levels. In specific terms, Tokyo Gas F.T.R.L. has sought to contribute to earthquake resistance by, for example, conducting pipeline damage forecasts, FEM dynamic response analyses to quantify ground amplification, empirical and analytic studies of forces acting on pipelines, various vibration tests, and tests to determine the deforming behavior of pipes. A further important concern given the limited resources available is the prioritization of the pipes to be made more earthquake resistant. Ultimately, these studies should contribute to more rational and effective seismic design of pipelines and improvement of earthquake resistance both in the case of existing and new facilities and equipment. (authors)

  10. Application of Incremental Dynamic Analysis (IDA) Method for Studying the Dynamic Behavior of Structures During Earthquakes

    OpenAIRE

    Javanpour, M.; Zarfam, P.

    2017-01-01

    Prediction of existing buildings’ vulnerability by future earthquakes is one of the most essential topics in structural engineering. Modeling steel structures is a giant step in determining the damage caused by the earthquake, as such structures are increasingly being used in constructions. Hence, two same-order steel structures with two types of structural systems were selected (coaxial moment frames and moment frame). In most cases, a specific structure needs to satisfy several functional l...

  11. Earthquake-proof supporting structure in reactor vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakurai, Akio; Sekine, Katsuhisa; Madokoro, Manabu; Katoono, Shin-ichi; Konno, Mutsuo; Suzuki, Takuro.

    1990-01-01

    Conventional earthquake-proof structure comprises a vessel vibration stopper integrated to a reactor vessel, powder for restricting the horizontal displacements, a safety vessel surrounds the outer periphery of the reactor vessel and a safety vessel vibration stopper integrated therewith, which are fixed to buildings. However, there was a problem that a great amount of stresses are generated in the base of the reactor vessel vibration stopper due to reaction of the powders which restrict thermal expansion. In order to remarkably reduce the reaction of the powers, powders are charged into a spaces formed between each of the reactor vessel vibration stopper, the safety vessel vibration stopper and the flexible member disposed between them. According to this constitution, the reactor vessel vibration stopper does not undergo a great reaction of the powers upon thermal expansion of the reactor vessel to moderate the generated stresses, maintain the strength and provide earthquake-proof supporting function. (N.H.)

  12. Innovative Technologies for the Protection of Historical Structures against Earthquakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuat Aras

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to represent innovative technologies and strategies to preserve the cultural heritage structures against earthquake effect. In particular, the application of fibre reinforced polymers and structural control systems are explained. Suitability of the strategies to architectural, historical and structural features and reversibility aspects are evaluated. As a case study the application of these strategies to a historical building in Istanbul is discussed.

  13. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptom Structure in Chinese Adolescents Exposed to a Deadly Earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li; Long, Di; Li, Zhongquan; Armour, Cherie

    2011-01-01

    This present study examined the structure of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms in a large sample of Chinese adolescents exposed to a deadly earthquake. A total of 2,800 middle school students aged 12 to 18 years participated in the study 6 months after the "Wenchuan Earthquake". Results of confirmatory factor analysis…

  14. Performance of masonry structures during earthquake-2005 in kashmir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Javed, M.

    2008-01-01

    The Kashmir earthquake of October 8th, 2005 was one of the deadliest earthquakes according to the number of fatalities in the history of indo-Pakistan subcontinent. More than 70,000 people were killed, mainly due to collapse of masonry buildings being widely used in Kashmir and Northern Pakistan. Major causes of damages/ collapse of masonry buildings were: poor quality of mortar, undressed stones, flexible roofs not bonded to supporting walls, lateral thrust from inclined roofs, unbraced parapet and gable walls, non-anchored infilled walls, wide openings without surrounding reinforcement, heavy roofs resting on poor quality masonry walls, etc. A critical review of damages to masonry structures is presented in the paper along with measures that need to be taken in future construction. In order to minimize the losses in masonry structures in case of future seismic activities, strategies such as loss assessment are discuss, a part of which has already been taken as a research project by the authors. (author)

  15. Earthquake Risk Mitigation in the Tokyo Metropolitan area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, N.; Sakai, S.; Kasahara, K.; Nakagawa, S.; Nanjo, K.; Panayotopoulos, Y.; Tsuruoka, H.

    2010-12-01

    Seismic disaster risk mitigation in urban areas constitutes a challenge through collaboration of scientific, engineering, and social-science fields. Examples of collaborative efforts include research on detailed plate structure with identification of all significant faults, developing dense seismic networks; strong ground motion prediction, which uses information on near-surface seismic site effects and fault models; earthquake resistant and proof structures; and cross-discipline infrastructure for effective risk mitigation just after catastrophic events. Risk mitigation strategy for the next greater earthquake caused by the Philippine Sea plate (PSP) subducting beneath the Tokyo metropolitan area is of major concern because it caused past mega-thrust earthquakes, such as the 1703 Genroku earthquake (magnitude M8.0) and the 1923 Kanto earthquake (M7.9) which had 105,000 fatalities. A M7 or greater (M7+) earthquake in this area at present has high potential to produce devastating loss of life and property with even greater global economic repercussions. The Central Disaster Management Council of Japan estimates that the M7+ earthquake will cause 11,000 fatalities and 112 trillion yen (about 1 trillion US$) economic loss. This earthquake is evaluated to occur with a probability of 70% in 30 years by the Earthquake Research Committee of Japan. In order to mitigate disaster for greater Tokyo, the Special Project for Earthquake Disaster Mitigation in the Tokyo Metropolitan Area (2007-2011) was launched in collaboration with scientists, engineers, and social-scientists in nationwide institutions. The results that are obtained in the respective fields will be integrated until project termination to improve information on the strategy assessment for seismic risk mitigation in the Tokyo metropolitan area. In this talk, we give an outline of our project as an example of collaborative research on earthquake risk mitigation. Discussion is extended to our effort in progress and

  16. Physics-Based Hazard Assessment for Critical Structures Near Large Earthquake Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchings, L.; Mert, A.; Fahjan, Y.; Novikova, T.; Golara, A.; Miah, M.; Fergany, E.; Foxall, W.

    2017-09-01

    We argue that for critical structures near large earthquake sources: (1) the ergodic assumption, recent history, and simplified descriptions of the hazard are not appropriate to rely on for earthquake ground motion prediction and can lead to a mis-estimation of the hazard and risk to structures; (2) a physics-based approach can address these issues; (3) a physics-based source model must be provided to generate realistic phasing effects from finite rupture and model near-source ground motion correctly; (4) wave propagations and site response should be site specific; (5) a much wider search of possible sources of ground motion can be achieved computationally with a physics-based approach; (6) unless one utilizes a physics-based approach, the hazard and risk to structures has unknown uncertainties; (7) uncertainties can be reduced with a physics-based approach, but not with an ergodic approach; (8) computational power and computer codes have advanced to the point that risk to structures can be calculated directly from source and site-specific ground motions. Spanning the variability of potential ground motion in a predictive situation is especially difficult for near-source areas, but that is the distance at which the hazard is the greatest. The basis of a "physical-based" approach is ground-motion syntheses derived from physics and an understanding of the earthquake process. This is an overview paper and results from previous studies are used to make the case for these conclusions. Our premise is that 50 years of strong motion records is insufficient to capture all possible ranges of site and propagation path conditions, rupture processes, and spatial geometric relationships between source and site. Predicting future earthquake scenarios is necessary; models that have little or no physical basis but have been tested and adjusted to fit available observations can only "predict" what happened in the past, which should be considered description as opposed to prediction

  17. Seismogeodetic monitoring techniques for tsunami and earthquake early warning and rapid assessment of structural damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haase, J. S.; Bock, Y.; Saunders, J. K.; Goldberg, D.; Restrepo, J. I.

    2016-12-01

    As part of an effort to promote the use of NASA-sponsored Earth science information for disaster risk reduction, real-time high-rate seismogeodetic data are being incorporated into early warning and structural monitoring systems. Seismogeodesy combines seismic acceleration and GPS displacement measurements using a tightly-coupled Kalman filter to provide absolute estimates of seismic acceleration, velocity and displacement. Traditionally, the monitoring of earthquakes and tsunamis has been based on seismic networks for estimating earthquake magnitude and slip, and tide gauges and deep-ocean buoys for direct measurement of tsunami waves. Real-time seismogeodetic observations at subduction zones allow for more robust and rapid magnitude and slip estimation that increase warning time in the near-source region. A NASA-funded effort to utilize GPS and seismogeodesy in NOAA's Tsunami Warning Centers in Alaska and Hawaii integrates new modules for picking, locating, and estimating magnitudes and moment tensors for earthquakes into the USGS earthworm environment at the TWCs. In a related project, NASA supports the transition of this research to seismogeodetic tools for disaster preparedness, specifically by implementing GPS and low-cost MEMS accelerometers for structural monitoring in partnership with earthquake engineers. Real-time high-rate seismogeodetic structural monitoring has been implemented on two structures. The first is a parking garage at the Autonomous University of Baja California Faculty of Medicine in Mexicali, not far from the rupture of the 2011 Mw 7.2 El Mayor Cucapah earthquake enabled through a UCMexus collaboration. The second is the 8-story Geisel Library at University of California, San Diego (UCSD). The system has also been installed for several proof-of-concept experiments at the UCSD Network for Earthquake Engineering Simulation (NEES) Large High Performance Outdoor Shake Table. We present MEMS-based seismogeodetic observations from the 10 June

  18. Structure-specific selection of earthquake ground motions for the reliable design and assessment of structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katsanos, E. I.; Sextos, A. G.

    2018-01-01

    A decision support process is presented to accommodate selecting and scaling of earthquake motions as required for the time domain analysis of structures. Code-compatible suites of seismic motions are provided being, at the same time, prequalified through a multi-criterion approach to induce...... was subjected to numerous suites of motions that were highly ranked according to both the proposed approach (δsv–sc) and the conventional one (δconv), that is commonly used for earthquake records selection and scaling. The findings from numerous linear response history analyses reveal the superiority...

  19. Structural Dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Du Gi

    2005-08-01

    This book introduces summary of structural dynamics, the reason of learning of structural dynamics, single-degree of freedom system, simple harmonic vibration and application, numerical analysis method, such as time domain and frequency domain and nonlinear system, multi-degree of freedom system random vibration over discrete distribution, continuous distribution and extreme value distribution, circumstance vibration, earth quake vibration, including input earthquake, and earthquake-resistant design and capacity spectrum method, wind oscillation wave vibration, vibration control and maintenance control.

  20. Historic Eastern Canadian earthquakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asmis, G.J.K.; Atchinson, R.J.

    1981-01-01

    Nuclear power plants licensed in Canada have been designed to resist earthquakes: not all plants, however, have been explicitly designed to the same level of earthquake induced forces. Understanding the nature of strong ground motion near the source of the earthquake is still very tentative. This paper reviews historical and scientific accounts of the three strongest earthquakes - St. Lawrence (1925), Temiskaming (1935), Cornwall (1944) - that have occurred in Canada in 'modern' times, field studies of near-field strong ground motion records and their resultant damage or non-damage to industrial facilities, and numerical modelling of earthquake sources and resultant wave propagation to produce accelerograms consistent with the above historical record and field studies. It is concluded that for future construction of NPP's near-field strong motion must be explicitly considered in design

  1. Stochastic analysis of the earthquake response of structures with a view to soil-structure interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauer, J.

    1980-01-01

    Thesis dealing with the analysis of earthquake response of structures. In order to achieve a reliable risk assessment, the results of the seismic risk analysis have to be seen in an overall view together with the results of stochastic vibrational analyses, and the data on maximum supportable stresses of the structure. Taking into account stochastic seismic focus models and calculation methods is of special significance in this connection. Based upon well-known seismic risk assessment models, the calculation of the annual probability for exceeding the acceleration level is carried out also considering the length of the failure zone, assuming that the energy released during an earthquake is uniformly, distributed over this fracture zone. The strong influence of local parameters on the annual exceeding probability is shown by a sensitivity analysis. (orig./RW) [de

  2. Seismogenic structures of the 2006 ML4.0 Dangan Island earthquake offshore Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Shaohong; Cao, Jinghe; Sun, Jinlong; Lv, Jinshui; Xu, Huilong; Zhang, Xiang; Wan, Kuiyuan; Fan, Chaoyan; Zhou, Pengxiang

    2018-02-01

    The northern margin of the South China Sea, as a typical extensional continental margin, has relatively strong intraplate seismicity. Compared with the active zones of Nanao Island, Yangjiang, and Heyuan, seismicity in the Pearl River Estuary is relatively low. However, a ML4.0 earthquake in 2006 occurred near Dangan Island (DI) offshore Hong Kong, and this site was adjacent to the source of the historical M5.8 earthquake in 1874. To reveal the seismogenic mechanism of intraplate earthquakes in DI, we systematically analyzed the structural characteristics in the source area of the 2006 DI earthquake using integrated 24-channel seismic profiles, onshore-offshore wide-angle seismic tomography, and natural earthquake parameters. We ascertained the locations of NW- and NE-trending faults in the DI sea and found that the NE-trending DI fault mainly dipped southeast at a high angle and cut through the crust with an obvious low-velocity anomaly. The NW-trending fault dipped southwest with a similar high angle. The 2006 DI earthquake was adjacent to the intersection of the NE- and NW-trending faults, which suggested that the intersection of the two faults with different strikes could provide a favorable condition for the generation and triggering of intraplate earthquakes. Crustal velocity model showed that the high-velocity anomaly was imaged in the west of DI, but a distinct entity with low-velocity anomaly in the upper crust and high-velocity anomaly in the lower crust was found in the south of DI. Both the 1874 and 2006 DI earthquakes occurred along the edge of the distinct entity. Two vertical cross-sections nearly perpendicular to the strikes of the intersecting faults revealed good spatial correlations between the 2006 DI earthquake and the low to high speed transition in the distinct entity. This result indicated that the transitional zone might be a weakly structural body that can store strain energy and release it as a brittle failure, resulting in an earthquake

  3. Structural variation along the southwestern Nankai seismogenic zone related to various earthquake phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakanishi, A.; Shimomura, N.; Kodaira, S.; Obana, K.; Takahashi, T.; Yamamoto, Y.; Sato, T.; Kashiwase, K.; Fujimori, H.; Kaneda, Y.; Mochizuki, K.; Kato, A.; Iidaka, T.; Kurashimo, E.; Shinohara, M.; Takeda, T.; Shiomi, K.

    2011-12-01

    In the Nankai Trough subduction seismogenic zone, the Nankai and Tonankai earthquakes had often occurred simultaneously, and caused a great event. In order to reduce a great deal of damage to coastal area from both strong ground motion and tsunami generation, it is necessary to understand rupture synchronization and segmentation of the Nankai megathrust earthquake. For a precise estimate of the rupture area of the Nankai megathrust event, it is important to know the geometry of the subducting Philippine Sea plate and deep subduction structure along the Nankai Trough. To obtain the deep subduction structure of the coseismic rupture area of the Nankai earthquake in 1946 off Shikoku area, the large-scale high-resolution wide-angle seismic study was conducted in 2009 and 2010. In this study, 201 and 200 ocean bottom seismographs were deployed off the Shikoku Island and the Kii channel respectively. A tuned airgun system (7800 cu. in.) shot every 200m along 13 profiles. Airgun shots were also recorded along an onshore seismic profile (prepared by ERI, univ. of Tokyo and NIED) prolonged from the offshore profile off the Kii Peninsula. Long-term observation was conducted for ~9 months by 21 OBSs off the Shikoku area and 20 OBSs off the Kii channel.This research is part of 'Research concerning Interaction Between the Tokai, Tonankai and Nankai Earthquakes' funded by Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, Japan. Structural images of the overriding plate indicate the old accreted sediments (the Cretaceous-Tertiary accretionary prism) with the velocity greater than 6km/s extend seaward from off the Shikoku to the Hyuga-nada. Moreover, the young accreted sediments become relatively thinner eastward from off the cape Ashizuri to Muroto. These structural variations might be related to the different rupture pattern of the Nankai event. Structural image of the deep low frequency earthquakes and tremors is shown by using the airgun shots recorded at onshore

  4. Effects of deep basins on structural collapse during large subduction earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marafi, Nasser A.; Eberhard, Marc O.; Berman, Jeffrey W.; Wirth, Erin A.; Frankel, Arthur

    2017-01-01

    Deep sedimentary basins are known to increase the intensity of ground motions, but this effect is implicitly considered in seismic hazard maps used in U.S. building codes. The basin amplification of ground motions from subduction earthquakes is particularly important in the Pacific Northwest, where the hazard at long periods is dominated by such earthquakes. This paper evaluates the effects of basins on spectral accelerations, ground-motion duration, spectral shape, and structural collapse using subduction earthquake recordings from basins in Japan that have similar depths as the Puget Lowland basin. For three of the Japanese basins and the Puget Lowland basin, the spectral accelerations were amplified by a factor of 2 to 4 for periods above 2.0 s. The long-duration subduction earthquakes and the effects of basins on spectral shape combined, lower the spectral accelerations at collapse for a set of building archetypes relative to other ground motions. For the hypothetical case in which these motions represent the entire hazard, the archetypes would need to increase up to 3.3 times its strength to compensate for these effects.

  5. Performance-based plastic design of earthquake resistant reinforced concrete moment frames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Wen-Cheng

    Performance-Based Plastic Design (PBPD) method has been recently developed to achieve enhanced performance of earthquake resistant structures. The design concept uses pre-selected target drift and yield mechanism as performance criteria. The design base shear for selected hazard level is determined by equating the work needed to push the structure monotonically up to the target drift to the corresponding energy demand of an equivalent SDOF oscillator. This study presents development of the PBPD approach as applied to reinforced concrete special moment frame (RC SMF) structures. RC structures present special challenge because of their complex and degrading ("pinched") hysteretic behavior. In order to account for the degrading hysteretic behavior the 1-EMA 440 C2 factor approach was used in the process of determining the design base shear. Four baseline RC SMF (4, 8, 12 and 20-story) as used in the FEMA P695 were selected for this study. Those frames were redesigned by the PBPD approach. The baseline frames and the PBPD frames were subjected to extensive inelastic pushover and time-history analyses. The PBPD frames showed much improved response meeting all desired performance objectives, including the intended yield mechanisms and the target drifts. On the contrary, the baseline frames experienced large story drifts due to flexural yielding of the columns. The work-energy equation to determine design base shear can also be used to estimate seismic demands, called the energy spectrum method. In this approach the skeleton force-displacement (capacity) curve of the structure is converted into energy-displacement plot (Ec) which is superimposed over the corresponding energy demand plot ( Ed) for the specified hazard level to determine the expected peak displacement demands. In summary, this study shows that the PBPD approach can be successfully applied to RC moment frame structures as well, and that the responses of the example moment frames were much improved over those

  6. Seismic resistance of equipment and building service systems: review of earthquake damage design requirements, and research applications in the USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skjei, R.E.; Chakravartula, B.C.; Yanev, P.I.

    1979-01-01

    The history of earthquake damage and the resulting code design requirements for earthquake hazard mitigation for equipment in the USA is reviewed. Earthquake damage to essential service systems is summarized; observations for the 1964 Alaska and the 1971 San Fernando, California, earthquakes are stressed, and information from other events is included. USA building codes that reflect lessons learned from these earthquakes are discussed; brief summaries of widely used codes are presented. In conclusion there is a discussion of the desirability of adapting advanced technological concepts from the nuclear industry to equipment in conventional structures. (author)

  7. Sensitivity of Reliability Estimates in Partially Damaged RC Structures subject to Earthquakes, using Reduced Hysteretic Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iwankiewicz, R.; Nielsen, Søren R. K.; Skjærbæk, P. S.

    The subject of the paper is the investigation of the sensitivity of structural reliability estimation by a reduced hysteretic model for a reinforced concrete frame under an earthquake excitation.......The subject of the paper is the investigation of the sensitivity of structural reliability estimation by a reduced hysteretic model for a reinforced concrete frame under an earthquake excitation....

  8. Seismic reliability assessment methodology for CANDU concrete containment structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephens, M.J.; Nessim, M.A.; Hong, H.P.

    1995-05-01

    A study was undertaken to develop a reliability-based methodology for the assessment of existing CANDU concrete containment structures with respect to seismic loading. The focus of the study was on defining appropriate specified values and partial safety factors for earthquake loading and resistance parameters. Key issues addressed in the work were the identification of an approach to select design earthquake spectra that satisfy consistent safety levels, and the use of structure-specific data in the evaluation of structural resistance. (author). 23 refs., 9 tabs., 15 figs

  9. The HayWired Earthquake Scenario—Earthquake Hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detweiler, Shane T.; Wein, Anne M.

    2017-04-24

    The HayWired scenario is a hypothetical earthquake sequence that is being used to better understand hazards for the San Francisco Bay region during and after an earthquake of magnitude 7 on the Hayward Fault. The 2014 Working Group on California Earthquake Probabilities calculated that there is a 33-percent likelihood of a large (magnitude 6.7 or greater) earthquake occurring on the Hayward Fault within three decades. A large Hayward Fault earthquake will produce strong ground shaking, permanent displacement of the Earth’s surface, landslides, liquefaction (soils becoming liquid-like during shaking), and subsequent fault slip, known as afterslip, and earthquakes, known as aftershocks. The most recent large earthquake on the Hayward Fault occurred on October 21, 1868, and it ruptured the southern part of the fault. The 1868 magnitude-6.8 earthquake occurred when the San Francisco Bay region had far fewer people, buildings, and infrastructure (roads, communication lines, and utilities) than it does today, yet the strong ground shaking from the earthquake still caused significant building damage and loss of life. The next large Hayward Fault earthquake is anticipated to affect thousands of structures and disrupt the lives of millions of people. Earthquake risk in the San Francisco Bay region has been greatly reduced as a result of previous concerted efforts; for example, tens of billions of dollars of investment in strengthening infrastructure was motivated in large part by the 1989 magnitude 6.9 Loma Prieta earthquake. To build on efforts to reduce earthquake risk in the San Francisco Bay region, the HayWired earthquake scenario comprehensively examines the earthquake hazards to help provide the crucial scientific information that the San Francisco Bay region can use to prepare for the next large earthquake, The HayWired Earthquake Scenario—Earthquake Hazards volume describes the strong ground shaking modeled in the scenario and the hazardous movements of

  10. Pole placement algorithm for control of civil structures subjected to earthquake excitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikos Pnevmatikos

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the control algorithm for controlled civil structures subjected to earthquake excitation is thoroughly investigated. The objective of this work is the control of structures by means of the pole placement algorithm, in order to improve their response against earthquake actions. Successful application of the algorithm requires judicious placement of the closed-loop eigenvalues from the part of the designer. The pole placement algorithm was widely applied to control mechanical systems. In this paper, a modification in the mathematical background of the algorithm in order to be suitable for civil fixed structures is primarily presented. The proposed approach is demonstrated by numerical simulations for the control of both single and multi-degree of freedom systems subjected to seismic actions. Numerical results have shown that the control algorithm is efficient in reducing the response of building structures, with small amount of required control forces.

  11. Structures of Xishan village landslide in Li County, Sichuan, China, inferred from high-frequency receiver functions of local earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Z.; Chu, R.

    2017-12-01

    Teleseismic receiver function methods are widely used to study the deep structural information beneath the seismic station. However, teleseismic waveforms are difficult to extract the high-frequency receiver function, which are insufficient to constrain the shallow structure because of the inelastic attenuation effect of the earth. In this study, using the local earthquake waveforms collected from 3 broadband stations deployed on the Xishan village landslide in Li County in Sichuan Province, we used the high-frequency receiver function method to study the shallow structure beneath the landslide. We developed the Vp-k (Vp/Vs) staking method of receiver functions, and combined with the H-k stacking and waveform inversion methods of receiver functions to invert the landslide's thickness, S-wave velocity and average Vp/Vs ratio beneath these stations, and compared the thickness with the borehole results. Our results show small-scale lateral variety of velocity structure, a 78-143m/s lower S-wave velocity in the bottom layer and 2.4-3.1 Vp/Vs ratio in the landslide. The observed high Vp/Vs ratio and low S-wave velocity in the bottom layer of the landslide are consistent with low electrical resistivity and water-rich in the bottom layer, suggesting a weak shear strength and potential danger zone in landslide h1. Our study suggest that the local earthquake receiver function can obtain the shallow velocity structural information and supply some seismic constrains for the landslide catastrophe mitigation.

  12. Strength, functionality and beauty of university buildings in earthquake-prone countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    WADA, Akira

    2018-01-01

    Strength, functionality and beauty are the three qualities identifying well-designed architecture. For buildings in earthquake-prone countries such as Japan, emphasis on seismic safety frequently leads to the sacrifice of functionality and beauty. Therefore, it is important to develop new structural technologies that can ensure the seismic performance of a building without hampering the pursuit of functionality and beauty. The moment-resisting frame structures widely used for buildings in Japan are likely to experience weak-story collapse. Pin-supported walls, which can effectively enhance the structural story-by-story integrity of a building, were introduced to prevent such an unfavorable failure pattern in the seismic retrofit of an eleven-story building on a university campus in Tokyo, while also greatly aesthetically enhancing the façade of the building. The slight damage observed and monitoring records of the retrofitted building during the 2011 Tohoku earthquake in Japan demonstrate that the pin-supported walls worked as intended, protecting the building and guaranteeing the safety of its occupants during the earthquake. PMID:29434079

  13. Towards Coupling of Macroseismic Intensity with Structural Damage Indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouteva, Mihaela; Boshnakov, Krasimir

    2016-04-01

    Knowledge on basic data of ground motion acceleration time histories during earthquakes is essential to understanding the earthquake resistant behaviour of structures. Peak and integral ground motion parameters such as peak ground motion values (acceleration, velocity and displacement), measures of the frequency content of ground motion, duration of strong shaking and various intensity measures play important roles in seismic evaluation of existing facilities and design of new systems. Macroseismic intensity is an earthquake measure related to seismic hazard and seismic risk description. Having detailed ideas on the correlations between the earthquake damage potential and macroseismic intensity is an important issue in engineering seismology and earthquake engineering. Reliable earthquake hazard estimation is the major prerequisite to successful disaster risk management. The usage of advanced earthquake engineering approaches for structural response modelling is essential for reliable evaluation of the accumulated damages in the existing buildings and structures due to the history of seismic actions, occurred during their lifetime. Full nonlinear analysis taking into account single event or series of earthquakes and the large set of elaborated damage indices are suitable contemporary tools to cope with this responsible task. This paper presents some results on the correlation between observational damage states, ground motion parameters and selected analytical damage indices. Damage indices are computed on the base of nonlinear time history analysis of test reinforced structure, characterising the building stock of the Mediterranean region designed according the earthquake resistant requirements in mid XX-th century.

  14. Modeling and identification in structural dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Jayakumar, Paramsothy

    1987-01-01

    Analytical modeling of structures subjected to ground motions is an important aspect of fully dynamic earthquake-resistant design. In general, linear models are only sufficient to represent structural responses resulting from earthquake motions of small amplitudes. However, the response of structures during strong ground motions is highly nonlinear and hysteretic. System identification is an effective tool for developing analytical models from experimental data. Testing of full-scale prot...

  15. Overturning behaviour of nuclear power plant structures during earthquakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalal, J.S.; Perumalswami, P.R.

    1977-01-01

    Nuclear power plant structures are designed to withstand severe postulated seismic forces. Structures subjected to such forces may be found to ''overturn'', if the factor of safety is computed in the traditional way, treating these forces as static. This study considers the transient nature of the problem and draws distinction between rocking, tipping and overturning. Responses of typical nuclear power plant structures to earthquake motions are used to assess their overturning potential more realistically. Structures founded on both rock and soil are considered. It is demonstrated that the traditional factor of safety, when smaller than unity, indicates only minimal base rotations and not necessarily overturning. (auth.)

  16. Hysteretic Energy Demand in SDOF Structures Subjected to an Earthquake Excitation: Analytical and Empirical Results

    OpenAIRE

    Taner UÇAR; Onur MERTER

    2018-01-01

    In energy-based seismic design approach, earthquake ground motion is considered as an energy input to structures. The earthquake input energy is the total of energy components such as kinetic energy, damping energy, elastic strain energy and hysteretic energy, which contributes the most to structural damage. In literature, there are many empirical formulas based on the hysteretic model, damping ratio and ductility in order to estimate hysteretic energy, whereas they do not directly consider t...

  17. Response of base-isolated nuclear structures to extreme earthquake shaking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Manish, E-mail: mkumar2@buffalo.edu; Whittaker, Andrew S.; Constantinou, Michael C.

    2015-12-15

    Highlights: • Response-history analysis of nuclear structures base-isolated using lead–rubber bearings is performed. • Advanced numerical model of lead–rubber bearing is used to capture behavior under extreme earthquake shaking. • Results of response-history analysis obtained using simplified and advanced model of lead–rubber bearings are compared. • Heating of the lead core and variation in buckling load and axial stiffness affect the response. - Abstract: Seismic isolation using low damping rubber and lead–rubber bearings is a viable strategy for mitigating the effects of extreme earthquake shaking on safety-related nuclear structures. The mechanical properties of these bearings are not expected to change substantially in design basis shaking. However, under shaking more intense than design basis, the properties of the lead cores in lead–rubber bearings may degrade due to heating associated with energy dissipation, some bearings in an isolation system may experience net tension, and the compression and tension stiffness may be affected by the lateral displacement of the isolation system. The effects of intra-earthquake changes in mechanical properties on the response of base-isolated nuclear power plants (NPPs) are investigated using an advanced numerical model of a lead–rubber bearing that has been verified and validated, and implemented in OpenSees. A macro-model is used for response-history analysis of base-isolated NPPs. Ground motions are selected and scaled to be consistent with response spectra for design basis and beyond design basis earthquake shaking at the site of the Diablo Canyon Nuclear Generating Station. Ten isolation systems of two periods and five characteristic strengths are analyzed. The responses obtained using simplified and advanced isolator models are compared. Strength degradation due to heating of lead cores and changes in buckling load most significantly affect the response of the base-isolated NPP.

  18. Response of base-isolated nuclear structures to extreme earthquake shaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Manish; Whittaker, Andrew S.; Constantinou, Michael C.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Response-history analysis of nuclear structures base-isolated using lead–rubber bearings is performed. • Advanced numerical model of lead–rubber bearing is used to capture behavior under extreme earthquake shaking. • Results of response-history analysis obtained using simplified and advanced model of lead–rubber bearings are compared. • Heating of the lead core and variation in buckling load and axial stiffness affect the response. - Abstract: Seismic isolation using low damping rubber and lead–rubber bearings is a viable strategy for mitigating the effects of extreme earthquake shaking on safety-related nuclear structures. The mechanical properties of these bearings are not expected to change substantially in design basis shaking. However, under shaking more intense than design basis, the properties of the lead cores in lead–rubber bearings may degrade due to heating associated with energy dissipation, some bearings in an isolation system may experience net tension, and the compression and tension stiffness may be affected by the lateral displacement of the isolation system. The effects of intra-earthquake changes in mechanical properties on the response of base-isolated nuclear power plants (NPPs) are investigated using an advanced numerical model of a lead–rubber bearing that has been verified and validated, and implemented in OpenSees. A macro-model is used for response-history analysis of base-isolated NPPs. Ground motions are selected and scaled to be consistent with response spectra for design basis and beyond design basis earthquake shaking at the site of the Diablo Canyon Nuclear Generating Station. Ten isolation systems of two periods and five characteristic strengths are analyzed. The responses obtained using simplified and advanced isolator models are compared. Strength degradation due to heating of lead cores and changes in buckling load most significantly affect the response of the base-isolated NPP.

  19. Analog earthquakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofmann, R.B.

    1995-01-01

    Analogs are used to understand complex or poorly understood phenomena for which little data may be available at the actual repository site. Earthquakes are complex phenomena, and they can have a large number of effects on the natural system, as well as on engineered structures. Instrumental data close to the source of large earthquakes are rarely obtained. The rare events for which measurements are available may be used, with modfications, as analogs for potential large earthquakes at sites where no earthquake data are available. In the following, several examples of nuclear reactor and liquified natural gas facility siting are discussed. A potential use of analog earthquakes is proposed for a high-level nuclear waste (HLW) repository

  20. Recent research in earth structure, earthquake and mine seismology, and seismic hazard evaluation in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Wright, C

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available of earthquakes, earthquake hazard and earth structure in South Africa was prepared for the centennial handbook of the Interna- tional Association of Seismology and the Physics of the Earth?s Interior(IASPEI).3 Referencestothesescompletedinthelastfour...

  1. The guideline and practical procedures for earthquake-resistant design of nuclear power plants in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watabe, M.

    1985-01-01

    The Guideline for the aseismic design of nuclear reactor facilities, revised in 1981, is introduced. The basic philosophy entails structural integrity against a major earthquake, rigid structure for less deformation and foundation on rock. The classification of facilities is then explained. Some practical examples are tabulated. In the light of the above classifications, evaluation procedures for aseismic design are defined. Design basis earthquake ground motions, S1 and S2, are defined. S1 is the maximum possible earthquake ground motion, while S2 is the maximum credible one. The relation between active faults and S1, S2 motions is explained, seismic forces induced by S1 and S2 are expressed in terms of response spectra. Static seismic coefficient procedures are also applied to evaluate seismic forces, as a minimum guide-line based on dynamic analysis. Combinations of seismic forces and allowable limits are then explained. In the second part of the paper, seismic analysis for reactor buildings as a part of design practice is outlined. There are three major key points in practical aseismic design. The first one is input design earthquake motions, in which soil/foundation interaction problems are also included. In practice, ground motions at the free field rock surface have to be convoluted or deconvoluted to obtain base rock motions, which are applied to estimate input design earthquake motions by way of finite element analysis or a lumped mass lattice model. Also introduced is dynamic modelling of the reactor building with its non-linear behaviour represented by plastic deformation of reinforced concrete members as well as by uplift characteristics of foundations. Then an evaluation of aseismic safety is introduced. (author)

  2. A refined Frequency Domain Decomposition tool for structural modal monitoring in earthquake engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pioldi, Fabio; Rizzi, Egidio

    2017-07-01

    Output-only structural identification is developed by a refined Frequency Domain Decomposition ( rFDD) approach, towards assessing current modal properties of heavy-damped buildings (in terms of identification challenge), under strong ground motions. Structural responses from earthquake excitations are taken as input signals for the identification algorithm. A new dedicated computational procedure, based on coupled Chebyshev Type II bandpass filters, is outlined for the effective estimation of natural frequencies, mode shapes and modal damping ratios. The identification technique is also coupled with a Gabor Wavelet Transform, resulting in an effective and self-contained time-frequency analysis framework. Simulated response signals generated by shear-type frames (with variable structural features) are used as a necessary validation condition. In this context use is made of a complete set of seismic records taken from the FEMA P695 database, i.e. all 44 "Far-Field" (22 NS, 22 WE) earthquake signals. The modal estimates are statistically compared to their target values, proving the accuracy of the developed algorithm in providing prompt and accurate estimates of all current strong ground motion modal parameters. At this stage, such analysis tool may be employed for convenient application in the realm of Earthquake Engineering, towards potential Structural Health Monitoring and damage detection purposes.

  3. Relationship of the 2004 Mid-Niigata prefecture earthquake with geological structure. Evaluation of earthquake source fault in active folding zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoyagi, Yasuhira; Abe, Shintaro

    2007-01-01

    We compile the important points to evaluate earthquake source fault in active folding zone through a temporary aftershock observation of the 2004 Mid-Niigata Prefecture earthquake. The aftershock distribution shows spindle shape whose middle part is wide and both ends are narrow in NNE-SSW trending. The range of seismic activity corresponds well to the distribution of fold axes in this area, whose middle part is anticlinorium (some anticlines) and both ends are single anticline. In the middle part, the west dipping aftershock plane including the mainshock (M6.8) is located under the Higashiyama anticline. Another west dipping aftershock plane including the largest aftershock (M6.5) is located under the Tamugiyama and Komatsugura anticlines, and the east margin of the aftershock distribution corresponds well with Suwa-toge flexure. Therefore the present fold structure should have been formed by an accumulation of the same faults movement. In other words, it is important to refer the fold axes distribution pattern, especially with flexure, for the evaluation of earthquake source fault. In addition, we performed FEM analyses to investigate the relation of fold structure to the thickness of the sedimentary layer and the dip angle of the fault. Reverse fault movement forms asymmetric fold above the fault, which steeper slope is formed just above the upper end of the fault. As the sedimentary layer became thicker, anticline axis moved to hanging wall side in the fold structure. As the dip angle became smaller, the wavelength of the fold became longer and the fold structure grew highly asymmetric. Thus the shape of the fold structure is useful as an index to estimate the blind thrust below it. (author)

  4. Generation of Earthquake Ground Motion Considering Local Site Effects and Soil-Structure Interaction Analysis of Ancient Structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jae Kwan; Lee, J. S.; Yang, T. S.; Cho, J. R.; R, H. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-09-01

    In order to establish a correct correlation between them, mechanical characteristics of the ancient structures need to be investigated. Since sedimentary basins are preferred dwelling sites in ancient times, it is necessary to perform SSI analysis to derive correct correlation between the damage and ground motion intensity. Contents of Project are as follows: (1) Generation of stochastic earthquake ground motion considering source mechanism and site effects. (2) Analysis of seismic response of sedimentary basin. (3) Soil-structure interaction analysis of ancient structures (4) Investigation of dynamic response characteristics of ancient structure considering soil-structure interaction effects. A procedure is presented for generation of stochastic earthquake ground motion considering source mechanism and site effects. The simulation method proposed by Boore is used to generate the outcropping rock motion. The free field motion at the soil site is obtained by a convolution analysis. And for the study of wood structures, a nonlinear SDOF model is developed. The effects of soil-structure interaction on the behavior of the wood structures are found to be very minor. But the response can be significantly affected due to the intensity and frequency contents of the input motion. 13 refs., 6 tabs., 31 figs. (author)

  5. Sendai-Okura earthquake swarm induced by the 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake in the stress shadow of NE Japan: Detailed fault structure and hypocenter migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Keisuke; Hasegawa, Akira

    2018-05-01

    We investigated the distribution and migration of hypocenters of an earthquake swarm that occurred in Sendai-Okura (NE Japan) 15 days after the 2011 M9.0 Tohoku-Oki earthquake, despite the decrease in shear stress due to the static stress change. Hypocenters of 2476 events listed in the JMA catalogue were relocated based on the JMA unified catalogue data in conjunction with data obtained by waveform cross correlation. Hypocenter relocation was successful in delineating several thin planar structures, although the original hypocenters presented a cloud-like distribution. The hypocenters of this swarm event migrated along several planes from deeper to shallower levels rather than diffusing three-dimensionally. One of the nodal planes of the focal mechanisms was nearly parallel to the planar structure of the hypocenters, supporting the idea that each earthquake occurred by causing slip on parts of the same plane. The overall migration velocity of the hypocenters could be explained by the fluid diffusion model with a typical value of hydraulic diffusivity (0.15 m2/s); however, the occurrence of some burst-like activity with much higher migration velocity suggests the possibility that aseismic slip also contributed to triggering the earthquakes. We suggest that the 2011 Sendai-Okura earthquake swarm was generated as follows. (1) The 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake caused WNW-ESE extension in the focal region of the swarm, which accordingly reduced shear stress on the fault planes. However, the WNW-ESE extension allowed fluids to move upward from the S-wave reflectors in the mid-crust immediately beneath the focal region. (2) The fluids rising from the mid-crust intruded into several existing planes, which reduced their frictional strengths and caused the observed earthquake swarm. (3) The fluids, and accordingly, the hypocenters of the triggered earthquakes, migrated upward along the fault planes. It is possible that the fluids also triggered aseismic slip, which caused

  6. Wood-framed houses for earthquake zones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Klavs Feilberg

    Wood-framed houses with a sheathing are suitable for use in earthquake zones. The Direction describes a method of determining the earthquake forces in a house and shows how these forces can be resisted by diaphragm action in the walls, floors, and roof, of the house. An appendix explains how...

  7. Synergistic combination of systems for structural health monitoring and earthquake early warning for structural health prognosis and diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Stephen; Beck, James L.

    2012-04-01

    Earthquake early warning (EEW) systems are currently operating nationwide in Japan and are in beta-testing in California. Such a system detects an earthquake initiation using online signals from a seismic sensor network and broadcasts a warning of the predicted location and magnitude a few seconds to a minute or so before an earthquake hits a site. Such a system can be used synergistically with installed structural health monitoring (SHM) systems to enhance pre-event prognosis and post-event diagnosis of structural health. For pre-event prognosis, the EEW system information can be used to make probabilistic predictions of the anticipated damage to a structure using seismic loss estimation methodologies from performance-based earthquake engineering. These predictions can support decision-making regarding the activation of appropriate mitigation systems, such as stopping traffic from entering a bridge that has a predicted high probability of damage. Since the time between warning and arrival of the strong shaking is very short, probabilistic predictions must be rapidly calculated and the decision making automated for the mitigation actions. For post-event diagnosis, the SHM sensor data can be used in Bayesian updating of the probabilistic damage predictions with the EEW predictions as a prior. Appropriate Bayesian methods for SHM have been published. In this paper, we use pre-trained surrogate models (or emulators) based on machine learning methods to make fast damage and loss predictions that are then used in a cost-benefit decision framework for activation of a mitigation measure. A simple illustrative example of an infrastructure application is presented.

  8. Application of Incremental Dynamic Analysis (IDA Method for Studying the Dynamic Behavior of Structures During Earthquakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Javanpour

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Prediction of existing buildings’ vulnerability by future earthquakes is one of the most essential topics in structural engineering. Modeling steel structures is a giant step in determining the damage caused by the earthquake, as such structures are increasingly being used in constructions. Hence, two same-order steel structures with two types of structural systems were selected (coaxial moment frames and moment frame. In most cases, a specific structure needs to satisfy several functional levels. For this purpose, a method is required to determine the input request to the structures under possible earthquakes. Therefore, the Incremental Dynamic Analysis (IDA was preferred to the Push-Over non-linear static method for the analysis and design of the considered steel structures, due its accuracy and effect of higher modes at the same time intervals. OpenSees software was used to perform accurate nonlinear analysis of the steel structure. Two parameters (spectral acceleration and maximum ground acceleration were introduced to the modeled frames to compare the numerical correlations of seismic vulnerability obtained by two statistical methods based on the "log-normal distribution" and "logistics distribution", and finally, the parameters of displacement and drift were assessed after analysis.

  9. Analysis for the depth of underground resistivity structure by using MT method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuo, Koichi; Yokoi, Koichi; Negi, Tateyuki; Kasagi, Toshio; Takahashi, Takeharu; Teshima, Minoru

    2005-03-01

    was admitted, and the unexpected value was removed. The standard deviation was 10% or less except 320 Hz, 0.094 Hz and 0.00055 Hz. 7) Effect of earthquake was studied. Seismic amplitude was recalculated from earthquake magnitude and distance from the epicenter. As a result, resistivity did not change before and behind the earthquake, this means underground water and underground structure were stable. 8) Resistivity change of the long term was calculated by the moving average of 41 days. As a result, resistivity change similar with the outside temperature was observed at some frequency. It is uncertain that this cause was seasonal change of underground water or temperature characteristic of equipment. It is necessary to accumulate data to judge this cause. (author)

  10. Structure of the subducted Cocos Plate from locations of intermediate-depth earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomnitz, C.; Rodríguez-Padilla, L. D.; Castaños, H.

    2013-05-01

    Locations of 3,000 earthquakes of 40 to 300 km depth are used to define the 3-D structure of the subducted Cocos Plate under central and southern Mexico. Discrepancies between deep-seated lineaments and surface tectonics are described. Features of particular interest include: (1) a belt of moderate activity at 40 to 80 km depth that parallels the southern boundary of the Mexican Volcanic Plateau; (2) an offset of 150 km across the Isthmus of Tehuantepec where all seismic activity is displaced toward the northeast; (3) three nests of frequent, deep-seated events (80 to 300 km depth) under southern Veracruz, Chiapas and the coast of Mexico-Guatemala. The active subduction process is sharply delimited along a NW-SE lineament from the Yucatan Peninsula, of insignificant earthquake activity. The focal distribution of intermediate-depth earthquakes in south-central Mexico provides evidence of stepwise deepening of the subduction angle along the Trench, starting at 15 degrees under Michoacan-Guerrero to 45 degrees under NW Guatemala. Historical evidence suggests that the hazard to Mexico City from large intermediate-depth earthquakes may have been underestimated.

  11. Earthquake resistance test of full-scale glove box

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujita, T.; Ohtani, K.; Hayashi, M.; Kozeki, M.; Ide, T.; Sakuno, K.

    1989-01-01

    A glove box used at nuclear facilities must confine radioactive materials. High airtightness and negative internal pressure are used to prevent leaks. The allowable leakage rate of air is 0.1% vol/hr or less at the pre-service inspection. The negative pressure value is kept at - 30 mm H 2 O in normal operation. The glove box structural strength and its confinement reliability during an earthquake are major concerns. The verification of aseismic analysis methods and assumptions for a glove box are thus of great importance. Data on the dynamic behavior of giant glove boxes was recently obtained in large shaker experiments. This paper describes these experimental results and the appropriateness of aseismic analysis methods used in current design

  12. Seismotectonics of Taiwan Shoal region in northeastern SCS: Insights from crustal structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuiyuan, Wan; Jinlong, Sun; Shaohong, Xia; Xiaoling, Xie; Xiang, Zhang; Huilong, Xu; Jinghe, Cao

    2017-04-01

    A seismicity cluster and a great 16 September 1994 earthquake occur in the Taiwan Shoal region, outer rise of the Manila subduction zone. To understand what mechanisms control and generate the earthquake cluster, it is important to investigate the deep crustal structure of the Taiwan Shoal region. We present a 2-D seismic tomographic image of the crustal structure along the OBS2012 profile based on ocean bottom seismographic (OBS) data. The structure exhibits that a high velocity anomaly in the upper crust beneath the Taiwan Shoal is flanked by lower velocity anomalies. Based on the crustal structure, we study the 765 earthquakes, which occurred in the period 1991-2015. These epicenters, combined with the regional faults, and crustal structure, allow us to better understand the nature of the active tectonics in this region. The high velocity area is interpreted as representing stronger, defining major asperities where stress is concentrated corresponding to the location of the earthquake cluster. The earthquake cluster is influenced by the fault interactions. However, the 16 September 1994 earthquake is independents of the seismic activities but associated with the reactivation of the preexisting fault. In Taiwan region, the slab-pull was resisted by the exposed pre-collision accretionary prism and the resistive force caused the in-plane compressive stress accumulation. This condition may favor the triggering of future damaging earthquakes in this region. Key words: earthquake cluster; crustal structure; fault interactions; outer rise; Taiwan Shoal

  13. Distribution of large-earthquake input energy in viscous damped outrigger structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morales Beltran, M.G.; Turan, Gursoy; Yildirim, Umut

    2017-01-01

    This article provides an analytical framework to assess the distribution of seismic energy in outrigger structures equipped with viscous dampers. The principle of damped outriggers for seismic control applications lies on the assumption that the total earthquake energy will be absorbed by the

  14. Optimal placement of active braces by using PSO algorithm in near- and far-field earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastali, M.; Kheyroddin, A.; Samali, B.; Vahdani, R.

    2016-03-01

    One of the most important issues in tall buildings is lateral resistance of the load-bearing systems against applied loads such as earthquake, wind and blast. Dual systems comprising core wall systems (single or multi-cell core) and moment-resisting frames are used as resistance systems in tall buildings. In addition to adequate stiffness provided by the dual system, most tall buildings may have to rely on various control systems to reduce the level of unwanted motions stemming from severe dynamic loads. One of the main challenges to effectively control the motion of a structure is limitation in distributing the required control along the structure height optimally. In this paper, concrete shear walls are used as secondary resistance system at three different heights as well as actuators installed in the braces. The optimal actuator positions are found by using optimized PSO algorithm as well as arbitrarily. The control performance of buildings that are equipped and controlled using the PSO algorithm method placement is assessed and compared with arbitrary placement of controllers using both near- and far-field ground motions of Kobe and Chi-Chi earthquakes.

  15. Inelastic spectra to predict period elongation of structures under earthquake loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katsanos, Evangelos; Sextos, A.G.

    2015-01-01

    Period lengthening, exhibited by structures when subjected to strong ground motions, constitutes an implicit proxy of structural inelasticity and associated damage. However, the reliable prediction of the inelastic period is tedious and a multi-parametric task, which is related to both epistemic ...... for period lengthening as a function of Ry and Tel. These equations may be used in the framework of the earthquake record selection and scaling....

  16. Realization of Earthquake Vulnerability Analysis in Structure Scale with Fuzzy Logic Method in GIS: Kadikoy, Maltepe and Prince Islands Sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alper Şen

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The inadequate evaluation of geologic factors and unqualified and unplanned structuring play effective role in giant damage and loss of lives created by the earthquakes and faulty areas choice and structure construction cause building damages during the earthquake, thus it also causes giant loss of lives. Istanbul province and its immediate environment are located in north of North Anatolian Fault Zone having 1500 km length. Hence, it causes that the settlement’s Sea of Marmara coastal region is located in 1st seismic belt. The earthquake risk in Istanbul and related risk factors should be determined besides vulnerability and earthquake risk. A mathematical model has been created in geographic information systems for Kadıkoy, Maltepe and Prince Islands sub-provinces by using Fuzzy Logic method which is one of the artificial intelligence methods by considering 4 vulnerability parameters and earthquake vulnerability analysis have been made in this study. The used parameters are the location by fault line, geologic structure, building structure and the number of floors. The vulnerability grades emerged as a result of analysis have been studied and the distribution of buildings according to those levels have been presented via a thematic map. The pre-earthquake precautions should be determined for the study field by considering the vulnerability grades in case of any earthquake and the loss of life and property should be minimized.

  17. Creating a Global Building Inventory for Earthquake Loss Assessment and Risk Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaiswal, Kishor; Wald, David J.

    2008-01-01

    contribution of building stock, its relative vulnerability, and distribution are vital components for determining the extent of casualties during an earthquake. It is evident from large deadly historical earthquakes that the distribution of vulnerable structures and their occupancy level during an earthquake control the severity of human losses. For example, though the number of strong earthquakes in California is comparable to that of Iran, the total earthquake-related casualties in California during the last 100 years are dramatically lower than the casualties from several individual Iranian earthquakes. The relatively low casualties count in California is attributed mainly to the fact that more than 90 percent of the building stock in California is made of wood and is designed to withstand moderate to large earthquakes (Kircher, Seligson and others, 2006). In contrast, the 80 percent adobe and or non-engineered masonry building stock with poor lateral load resisting systems in Iran succumbs even for moderate levels of ground shaking. Consequently, the heavy death toll for the 2003 Bam, Iran earthquake, which claimed 31,828 lives (Ghafory-Ashtiany and Mousavi, 2005), is directly attributable to such poorly resistant construction, and future events will produce comparable losses unless practices change. Similarly, multistory, precast-concrete framed buildings caused heavy casualties in the 1988 Spitak, Armenia earthquake (Bertero, 1989); weaker masonry and reinforced-concrete framed construction designed for gravity loads with soft first stories dominated losses in the Bhuj, India earthquake of 2001 (Madabhushi and Haigh, 2005); and adobe and weak masonry dwellings in Peru controlled the death toll in the Peru earthquake of 2007 (Taucer, J. and others, 2007). Spence (2007) after conducting a brief survey of most lethal earthquakes since 1960 found that building collapses remains a major cause of earthquake mortality and unreinforced masonry buildings are one of the mos

  18. Implication of conjugate faulting in the earthquake brewing and originating process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, L.M. (Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge); Deng, Q.; Jiang, P.

    1980-03-01

    The earthquake sequence, precursory and geologo-structural background of the Haicheng, Tangshan, Songpan-Pingwu earthquakes are discussed in this article. All of these earthquakes occurred in a seismic zone controlled by the main boundary faults of an intraplate fault block. However, the fault plane of a main earthquake does not consist of the same faults, but is rather a related secondary fault. They formed altogether a conjugate shearing rupture zone under the action of a regional tectonic stress field. As to the earthquake sequence, the foreshocks and aftershocks might occur on the conjugate fault planes within an epicentral region rather than be limited to the fault plane of a main earthquake, such as the distribution of foreshocks and aftershocks of the Haicheng earthquake. The characteristics of the long-, medium-, and imminent-term earthquake precursory anomalies of the three mentioned earthquakes, especially the character of well-studies anomaly phenomena in electrical resistivity, radon emission, groundwater and animal behavior, have been investigated. The studies of these earthquake precursors show that they were distributed in an area rather more extensive than the epicentral region. Some fault zones in the conjugate fault network usually appeared as distributed belts or concentrated zones of earthquake precursory anomalies, and can be traced in the medium-long term precursory field, but seem more distinct in the short-imminent term precursory anomalous field. These characteristics can be explained by the rupture and sliding originating along the conjugate shear network and the concentration of stress in the regional stress field.

  19. Predicting Dynamic Response of Structures under Earthquake Loads Using Logical Analysis of Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayman Abd-Elhamed

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, logical analysis of data (LAD is used to predict the seismic response of building structures employing the captured dynamic responses. In order to prepare the data, computational simulations using a single degree of freedom (SDOF building model under different ground motion records are carried out. The selected excitation records are real and of different peak ground accelerations (PGA. The sensitivity of the seismic response in terms of displacements of floors to the variation in earthquake characteristics, such as soil class, characteristic period, and time step of records, peak ground displacement, and peak ground velocity, have also been considered. The dynamic equation of motion describing the building model and the applied earthquake load are presented and solved incrementally using the Runge-Kutta method. LAD then finds the characteristic patterns which lead to forecast the seismic response of building structures. The accuracy of LAD is compared to that of an artificial neural network (ANN, since the latter is the most known machine learning technique. Based on the conducted study, the proposed LAD model has been proven to be an efficient technique to learn, simulate, and blindly predict the dynamic response behaviour of building structures subjected to earthquake loads.

  20. Damping in building structures during earthquakes: test data and modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coats, D.W. Jr.

    1982-01-01

    A review and evaluation of the state-of-the-art of damping in building structures during earthquakes is presented. The primary emphasis is in the following areas: 1) the evaluation of commonly used mathematical techniques for incorporating damping effects in both simple and complex systems; 2) a compilation and interpretation of damping test data; and 3) an evaluation of structure testing methods, building instrumentation practices, and an investigation of rigid-body rotation effects on damping values from test data. A literature review provided the basis for evaluating mathematical techiques used to incorporate earthquake induced damping effects in simple and complex systems. A discussion on the effectiveness of damping, as a function of excitation type, is also included. Test data, from a wide range of sources, has been compiled and interpreted for buidings, nuclear power plant structures, piping, equipment, and isolated structural elements. Test methods used to determine damping and frequency parameters are discussed. In particular, the advantages and disadvantages associated with the normal mode and transfer function approaches are evaluated. Additionally, the effect of rigid-body rotations on damping values deduced from strong-motion building response records is investigated. A discussion of identification techniques typically used to determine building parameters (frequency and damping) from strong motion records is included. Finally, an analytical demonstration problem is presented to quantify the potential error in predicting fixed-base structural frequency and damping values from strong motion records, when rigid-body rotations are not properly accounted for

  1. Earthquake responses of a beam supported by a mechanical snubber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohmata, Kenichiro; Ishizu, Seiji.

    1989-01-01

    The mechanical snubber is an earthquakeproof device for piping systems under particular circumstances such as high temperature and radioactivity. It has nonlinearities in both load and frequency response. In this report, the resisting force characteristics of the snubber and earthquake responses of piping (a simply supported beam) which is supported by the snubber are simulated using Continuous System Simulation Language (CSSL). Digital simulations are carried out for various kinds of physical properties of the snubber. The restraint effect and the maximum resisting force of the snubber during earthquakes are discussed and compared with the case of an oil damper. The earthquake waves used here are E1 Centro N-S and Akita Harbour N-S (Nihonkai-Chubu earthquake). (author)

  2. ERDBEBEN, Structure Displacements and Forces Under Earthquake Conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandhuber, F.

    1977-01-01

    1 - Nature of physical problem solved: ERDBEBEN calculates the displacements and forces of a structure, excited by an earthquake. 2 - Method of solution: The mathematical method is the 'response spectrum modal analysis'. Before calculation, the user of ERDBEBEN has to idealize the structure with finite elements and to calculate its eigenfrequencies with the program NASTRAN (level 15). The superposition of the Eigen-forms will be done by the 'root mean square method'. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: The length of the arrays can be variable (parameter card). Only the number of the different types of finite elements cannot be more than 5. The program calculates the element forces only for beam and spring elements

  3. Parametric and Non-Parametric Vibration-Based Structural Identification Under Earthquake Excitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pentaris, Fragkiskos P.; Fouskitakis, George N.

    2014-05-01

    The problem of modal identification in civil structures is of crucial importance, and thus has been receiving increasing attention in recent years. Vibration-based methods are quite promising as they are capable of identifying the structure's global characteristics, they are relatively easy to implement and they tend to be time effective and less expensive than most alternatives [1]. This paper focuses on the off-line structural/modal identification of civil (concrete) structures subjected to low-level earthquake excitations, under which, they remain within their linear operating regime. Earthquakes and their details are recorded and provided by the seismological network of Crete [2], which 'monitors' the broad region of south Hellenic arc, an active seismic region which functions as a natural laboratory for earthquake engineering of this kind. A sufficient number of seismic events are analyzed in order to reveal the modal characteristics of the structures under study, that consist of the two concrete buildings of the School of Applied Sciences, Technological Education Institute of Crete, located in Chania, Crete, Hellas. Both buildings are equipped with high-sensitivity and accuracy seismographs - providing acceleration measurements - established at the basement (structure's foundation) presently considered as the ground's acceleration (excitation) and at all levels (ground floor, 1st floor, 2nd floor and terrace). Further details regarding the instrumentation setup and data acquisition may be found in [3]. The present study invokes stochastic, both non-parametric (frequency-based) and parametric methods for structural/modal identification (natural frequencies and/or damping ratios). Non-parametric methods include Welch-based spectrum and Frequency response Function (FrF) estimation, while parametric methods, include AutoRegressive (AR), AutoRegressive with eXogeneous input (ARX) and Autoregressive Moving-Average with eXogeneous input (ARMAX) models[4, 5

  4. EVALUATION OF SEISMIC PERFORMANCE OF RAMP TUNNEL STRUCTURE DURING LEVEL-2 EARTHQUAKE BY MASSIVE 3D NUMERICAL COMPUTATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Takemine; Ichimura, Tsuyoshi; Hori, Muneo; Dobashi, Hiroshi; Ohbo, Naoto

    Quasi non-linear 3D FEM earthquake response analysises with level-2 earthquake are conducted for a ramp tunnel structure of Tokyo metropolitan express way central circular line the Yamate tunnel. Large-scale numerical computation with solid elements is highly required for examination of seismic response of large tunnel in case of level-2 earthquake. The results are obtained as follows: i) In level-2 earthquake, stress concentration in ramp tunnel becomes great near geological interface between two layers of high impedance contrast. ii) The response is not obtained as a superposition of two-dimensional responses which is an assumption in conventional design methods because the distribution of displacements in the direction of tunnel axis at cross-section of ramp tunnel structure near geological interface does not linearly distribute. iii) Evaluation of stress in addition to section force is desirable for the correct evaluation of the three-dimensional response of tunnel structure.

  5. Ground Motion Characteristics of the 2015 Gorkha Earthquake, Survey of Damage to Stone Masonry Structures and Structural Field Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rishi Ram Parajuli

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available On April 25, 2015, a M7.8 earthquake rattled central Nepal; ground motion recorded in Kantipath, Kathmandu, 76.86 km east of the epicenter suggested that the low frequency component was dominant. We consider data from eight aftershocks following the Gorkha earthquake and analyze ground motion characteristics; we found that most of the ground motion records are dominated by low frequencies for events with a moment magnitude greater than 6. The Gorkha earthquake devastated hundreds of thousands of structures. In the countryside, and especially in rural mountainous areas, most of the buildings that collapsed were stone masonry constructions. Detailed damage assessments of stone masonry buildings in Harmi Gorkha had done, with an epicentral distance of about 17 km. Structures were categorized as large, medium and small depending on their plinth area size and number of stories. Most of the structures in the area were damaged; interestingly, all ridge-line structures were heavily damaged. Moreover, Schmidt hammer tests were undertaken to determine the compressive strength of stone masonry, brick masonry with mud mortar for normal buildings and historical monuments. The compressive strengths of stone and brick masonry were found to be 12.38 and 18.75 MPa, respectively. Historical structures constructed with special bricks had a compressive strength of 29.50 MPa. Pullout tests were also conducted to determine the stone masonry-mud mortar bond strength. The cohesive strength of mud mortar and the coefficient of friction were determined.

  6. Lateral structural variation within the overlying plate and its correlation to the Tonankai earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujie, G.; Nakanishi, A.; Park, J.; Obana, K.; Kodaira, S.; Kaneda, Y.

    2009-12-01

    Destructive interplate earthquakes have repeatedly occurred every 100-150 years beneath the Kumano-nada, off the Kii peninsula owing to the subduction of the Philippine Sea plate beneath the southwest Japan arc. The last great interplate earthquakes in this seismogenic subduction zone was the 1944 Tonankai earthquakes, and a number of coseismic slip distribution models derived from seismic and tsunami data show remarkable lateral variations along the trough axis. In 2006 and 2007, we conducted extensive wide-angle seismic refraction and reflection surveys in the entire rupture zone of the 1944 Tonankai earthquake. We designed two along-trough and two across-trench seismic survey lines and deployed a number of OBSs (Ocean Bottom Seismometers) with a spacing of 5km and fired an airgun array with a total volume of 200L at every 0.2km. The quality of the obtained wide-angle seismic record section is substantially good and we observed remarkable regional variation in the amplitude of refraction and reflection phases. For example, in some record sections, we can trace seismic signals up to the offset of more than 100 km, but in other sections, the airgun signals become dim at the offset of less than 30km. Such regional variation in the amplitude indicates the lateral variation of the seismic attenuation structure. For revealing lateral structural variation, we developed seismic structure models by the following approach. First, we applied the first arrival tomography for developing P-wave velocity structure models. Then, we imaged structural boundaries by the reflection traveltime mapping method. Finally, we developed seismic attenuation models by using raypaths and amplitude of first arrivals. Our seismic structure models showed remarkable along-trench structural variation. In the P-wave velocity models, we found a height on the subducting Philippine plate at the eastern end of the Kumano basin (south-east off Shima peninsula). In the western area (i.e. Kumano Basin

  7. Hazard-consistent response spectra in the Region of Murcia (Southeast Spain): comparison to earthquake-resistant provisions

    OpenAIRE

    Gaspar Escribano, Jorge M.; Benito Oterino, Belen; Garcia Mayordomo, Julian

    2008-01-01

    Hazard-consistent ground-motion characterisations of three representative sites located in the Region of Murcia (southeast Spain) are presented. This is the area where the last three damaging events in Spain occurred and there is a significant amount of data for comparing them with seismic hazard estimates and earthquake-resistant provisions. Results of a probabilistic seismic hazard analysis are used to derive uniform hazard spectra (UHS) for the 475-year return period, on rock and soil cond...

  8. Optimal design of base isolation and energy dissipation system for nuclear power plant structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Fulin

    1991-01-01

    This paper suggests the method of optimal design of base isolation and energy dissipation system for earthquake resistant nuclear power plant structures. This method is based on dynamic analysis, shaking table tests for a 1/4 scale model, and a great number of low cycle fatigue failure tests for energy dissipating elements. A set of calculation formulas for optimal design of structures with base isolation and energy dissipation system were introduced, which are able to be used in engineering design for earthquake resistant nuclear power plant structures or other kinds of structures. (author)

  9. Testing the structure of earthquake networks from multivariate time series of successive main shocks in Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chorozoglou, D.; Kugiumtzis, D.; Papadimitriou, E.

    2018-06-01

    The seismic hazard assessment in the area of Greece is attempted by studying the earthquake network structure, such as small-world and random. In this network, a node represents a seismic zone in the study area and a connection between two nodes is given by the correlation of the seismic activity of two zones. To investigate the network structure, and particularly the small-world property, the earthquake correlation network is compared with randomized ones. Simulations on multivariate time series of different length and number of variables show that for the construction of randomized networks the method randomizing the time series performs better than methods randomizing directly the original network connections. Based on the appropriate randomization method, the network approach is applied to time series of earthquakes that occurred between main shocks in the territory of Greece spanning the period 1999-2015. The characterization of networks on sliding time windows revealed that small-world structure emerges in the last time interval, shortly before the main shock.

  10. Geomagnetic anomalies - possible earthquake precursors - linked with 2004 significant seismic activity in Vrancea, Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enescu, D.

    2005-01-01

    The association between a precursory geomagnetic anomaly and a Vrancea earthquake of moderate-to-high magnitude (M W = 6.3) followed by weaker earthquakes (M W W ≤ 6.3 the conclusion of our earlier papers, i.e., that the great majority of Vrancea earthquakes of magnitudes 3.7 ≤ M W ≤5.0 were accompanied by observable precursory electromagnetic anomalies. Our works show that neither the precursor time nor the amplitude of the precursory magnetic anomaly can be linked reliably with the magnitude of the anticipated earthquake. Knowing the way electric resistivity varies ahead of an earthquake, we can assert that the earthquake-precursory growth in geomagnetic impedance is matched by an earthquake-precursory decrease of electric resistivity. (authors)

  11. The GIS and analysis of earthquake damage distribution of the 1303 Hongtong M=8 earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Meng-Tan; Jin, Xue-Shen; An, Wei-Ping; Lü, Xiao-Jian

    2004-07-01

    The geography information system of the 1303 Hongton M=8 earthquake has been established. Using the spatial analysis function of GIS, the spatial distribution characteristics of damage and isoseismal of the earthquake are studies. By comparing with the standard earthquake intensity attenuation relationship, the abnormal damage distribution of the earthquake is found, so the relationship of the abnormal distribution with tectonics, site condition and basin are analyzed. In this paper, the influence on the ground motion generated by earthquake source and the underground structures near source also are studied. The influence on seismic zonation, anti-earthquake design, earthquake prediction and earthquake emergency responding produced by the abnormal density distribution are discussed.

  12. Seismic soil structure interaction analysis for asymmetrical buildings supported on piled raft for the 2015 Nepal earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badry, Pallavi; Satyam, Neelima

    2017-01-01

    Seismic damage surveys and analyses conducted on modes of failure of structures during past earthquakes observed that the asymmetrical buildings show the most vulnerable effect throughout the course of failures (Wegner et al., 2009). Thus, all asymmetrical buildings significantly fails during the shaking events and it is really needed to focus on the accurate analysis of the building, including all possible accuracy in the analysis. Apart from superstructure geometry, the soil behavior during earthquake shaking plays a pivotal role in the building collapse (Chopra, 2012). Fixed base analysis where the soil is considered to be infinitely rigid cannot simulate the actual scenario of wave propagation during earthquakes and wave transfer mechanism in the superstructure (Wolf, 1985). This can be well explained in the soil structure interaction analysis, where the ground movement and structural movement can be considered with the equal rigor. In the present study the object oriented program has been developed in C++ to model the SSI system using the finite element methodology. In this attempt the seismic soil structure interaction analysis has been carried out for T, L and C types piled raft supported buildings in the recent 25th April 2015 Nepal earthquake (M = 7.8). The soil properties have been considered with the appropriate soil data from the Katmandu valley region. The effect of asymmetry of the building on the responses of the superstructure is compared with the author's research work. It has been studied/observed that the shape or geometry of the superstructure governs the response of the superstructure subjected to the same earthquake load.

  13. Electrical resistivity tomography for studying liquefaction induced by the May 2012 Emilia-Romagna earthquake (Mw = 6.1, northern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giocoli, A.; Quadrio, B.; Bellanova, J.; Lapenna, V.; Piscitelli, S.

    2014-04-01

    This work shows the result of an electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) survey carried out for imaging and characterizing the shallow subsurface affected by the coseismic effects of the Mw = 6.1 Emilia-Romagna (northern Italy) earthquake that occurred on 20 May 2012. The most characteristic coseismic effects were ground failure, lateral spreading and liquefaction that occurred extensively along the paleo-Reno River in the urban areas of San Carlo and Mirabello (southwestern portion of Ferrara Province). In total, six electrical resistivity tomographies were performed and calibrated with surface geological surveys, exploratory boreholes and aerial photo interpretations. This was one of first applications of the electrical resistivity tomography method in investigating coseismic liquefaction.

  14. Electrical resistivity tomography for studying liquefaction induced by the May 2012 Emilia-Romagna earthquake (Mw = 6.1, North Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giocoli, A.; Quadrio, B.; Bellanova, J.; Lapenna, V.; Piscitelli, S.

    2013-10-01

    This work shows the result of an Electrical Resistivity Tomography survey carried out for imaging and characterizing the shallow subsurface affected by the coseismic effects of the Mw = 6.1 Emilia-Romagna (North Italy) earthquake occurred on 20 May 2012. The most characteristic coseismic effects were ground failure, lateral spreading and liquefaction that occurred extensively along the paleo-Reno river in the urban areas of San Carlo, a hamlet of Sant'Agostino municipality, and of Mirabello (south-western portion of the Ferrara Province). Totally, six Electrical Resistivity Tomography were performed and calibrated with surface geological surveys, exploratory borehole and aerial photo interpretations. This was one of the first applications of the Electrical Resistivity Tomography method in investigating coseismic liquefaction.

  15. X-ray diffraction study on the evaluation of the damage of steel structures subjected to earthquake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaneta, Kiyoshi; Nishizawa, Hidekazu; Koshika, Norihide.

    1985-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the behavior of steel structures subjected to a strong earthquake and to evaluate the damage from a microscopic point of view. For this purpose, the authors have adopted two kinds of research techniques. The first is the ''ON-LINE EARTHQUAKE RESPONSE SIMULATION SYSTEM (ON-LINE SIMULATION SYSTEM)'', which is composed of an electro-hydrauric testing machine controled by a computer and a full scale specimen. Since a term of restoring force in the equation of motion is to be substituted by the actual reaction of a specimen under test, we can obtain the non-linear response of structure without any assumption about the hysteretic characteristics. Based on this method, the dynamic behavior of simple steel structures subjected to an intense earthquakes were simulated. The second technique is the ''X-RAY DIFFRACTION METHOD''. Although this method is usually regarded an experimental technique particular to the material science, we have realized the good applicability for the study of structural engineering. Because X-ray diffraction method is advantageous in investigating the microscopic behavior of steel member such as the plastic deformation and the low cycle fatigue. From the view point stated above, we have adopted this method for the evaluation of low cycle fatigue damage of steel member subjected to an earthquake. The experiment has been performed by radiating the X-ray at several stages of the ON-LINE SIMULATION. As has been expected, the X-ray diffraction patterns have changed in a regular manner depending on the degree of fatigue damage, and the results have shown a good possibility that the X-ray diffraction approach can offer a powerful tool for the detection of the earthquake damage of steel members. (author)

  16. Stochastic output error vibration-based damage detection and assessment in structures under earthquake excitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakellariou, J. S.; Fassois, S. D.

    2006-11-01

    A stochastic output error (OE) vibration-based methodology for damage detection and assessment (localization and quantification) in structures under earthquake excitation is introduced. The methodology is intended for assessing the state of a structure following potential damage occurrence by exploiting vibration signal measurements produced by low-level earthquake excitations. It is based upon (a) stochastic OE model identification, (b) statistical hypothesis testing procedures for damage detection, and (c) a geometric method (GM) for damage assessment. The methodology's advantages include the effective use of the non-stationary and limited duration earthquake excitation, the handling of stochastic uncertainties, the tackling of the damage localization and quantification subproblems, the use of "small" size, simple and partial (in both the spatial and frequency bandwidth senses) identified OE-type models, and the use of a minimal number of measured vibration signals. Its feasibility and effectiveness are assessed via Monte Carlo experiments employing a simple simulation model of a 6 storey building. It is demonstrated that damage levels of 5% and 20% reduction in a storey's stiffness characteristics may be properly detected and assessed using noise-corrupted vibration signals.

  17. Blind identification of the Millikan Library from earthquake data considering soil–structure interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghahari, S. F.; Abazarsa, F.; Avci, O.; Çelebi, Mehmet; Taciroglu, E.

    2016-01-01

    The Robert A. Millikan Library is a reinforced concrete building with a basement level and nine stories above the ground. Located on the campus of California Institute of Technology (Caltech) in Pasadena California, it is among the most densely instrumented buildings in the U.S. From the early dates of its construction, it has been the subject of many investigations, especially regarding soil–structure interaction effects. It is well accepted that the structure is significantly interacting with the surrounding soil, which implies that the true foundation input motions cannot be directly recorded during earthquakes because of inertial effects. Based on this limitation, input–output modal identification methods are not applicable to this soil–structure system. On the other hand, conventional output-only methods are typically based on the unknown input signals to be stationary whitenoise, which is not the case for earthquake excitations. Through the use of recently developed blind identification (i.e. output-only) methods, it has become possible to extract such information from only the response signals because of earthquake excitations. In the present study, we employ such a blind identification method to extract the modal properties of the Millikan Library. We present some modes that have not been identified from force vibration tests in several studies to date. Then, to quantify the contribution of soil–structure interaction effects, we first create a detailed Finite Element (FE) model using available information about the superstructure; and subsequently update the soil–foundation system's dynamic stiffnesses at each mode such that the modal properties of the entire soil–structure system agree well with those obtained via output-only modal identification.

  18. RECENT STRONG EARTHQUAKES IN CENTRAL ASIA: REGULAR TECTONOPHYSICAL FEATURES OF LOCATIONS IN THE STRUCTURE AND GEODYNAMICS OF THE LITHOSPHERE. PART 1. MAIN GEODYNAMIC FACTORS PREDETERMINING LOCATIONS OF STRONG EARTHQUAKES IN THE STRUCTURE OF THE LITHOSPHER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. I. Sherman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Studying locations of strong earthquakes (М≥8 in space and time in Central Asia has been among top prob-lems for many years and still remains challenging for international research teams. The authors propose a new ap-proach that requires changing the paradigm of earthquake focus – solid rock relations, while this paradigm is a basis for practically all known physical models of earthquake foci. This paper describes the first step towards developing a new concept of the seismic process, including generation of strong earthquakes, with reference to specific geodynamic features of the part of the study region wherein strong earthquakes were recorded in the past two centuries. Our analysis of the locations of М≥8 earthquakes shows that in the past two centuries such earthquakes took place in areas of the dynamic influence of large deep faults in the western regions of Central Asia. In the continental Asia, there is a clear submeridional structural boundary (95–105°E between the western and eastern regions, and this is a factor controlling localization of strong seismic events in the western regions. Obviously, the Indostan plate’s pressure from the south is an energy source for such events. The strong earthquakes are located in a relatively small part of the territory of Central Asia (i.e. the western regions, which is significantly different from its neighbouring areas at the north, east and west, as evidenced by its specific geodynamic parameters. (1 The crust is twice as thick in the western regions than in the eastern regions. (2 In the western regions, the block structures re-sulting from the crust destruction, which are mainly represented by lense-shaped forms elongated in the submeridio-nal direction, tend to dominate. (3 Active faults bordering large block structures are characterized by significant slip velocities that reach maximum values in the central part of the Tibetan plateau. Further northward, slip velocities decrease

  19. Crustal structure and fault geometry of the 2010 Haiti earthquake from temporary seismometer deployments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douilly, Roby; Haase, Jennifer S.; Ellsworth, William L.; Bouin, Marie‐Paule; Calais, Eric; Symithe, Steeve J.; Armbruster, John G.; Mercier de Lépinay, Bernard; Deschamps, Anne; Mildor, Saint‐Louis; Meremonte, Mark E.; Hough, Susan E.

    2013-01-01

    Haiti has been the locus of a number of large and damaging historical earthquakes. The recent 12 January 2010 Mw 7.0 earthquake affected cities that were largely unprepared, which resulted in tremendous losses. It was initially assumed that the earthquake ruptured the Enriquillo Plantain Garden fault (EPGF), a major active structure in southern Haiti, known from geodetic measurements and its geomorphic expression to be capable of producing M 7 or larger earthquakes. Global Positioning Systems (GPS) and Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) data, however, showed that the event ruptured a previously unmapped fault, the Léogâne fault, a north‐dipping oblique transpressional fault located immediately north of the EPGF. Following the earthquake, several groups installed temporary seismic stations to record aftershocks, including ocean‐bottom seismometers on either side of the EPGF. We use data from the complete set of stations deployed after the event, on land and offshore, to relocate all aftershocks from 10 February to 24 June 2010, determine a 1D regional crustal velocity model, and calculate focal mechanisms. The aftershock locations from the combined dataset clearly delineate the Léogâne fault, with a geometry close to that inferred from geodetic data. Its strike and dip closely agree with the global centroid moment tensor solution of the mainshock but with a steeper dip than inferred from previous finite fault inversions. The aftershocks also delineate a structure with shallower southward dip offshore and to the west of the rupture zone, which could indicate triggered seismicity on the offshore Trois Baies reverse fault. We use first‐motion focal mechanisms to clarify the relationship of the fault geometry to the triggered aftershocks.

  20. Earthquake prediction by Kina Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kianoosh, H.; Keypour, H.; Naderzadeh, A.; Motlagh, H.F.

    2005-01-01

    Earthquake prediction has been one of the earliest desires of the man. Scientists have worked hard to predict earthquakes for a long time. The results of these efforts can generally be divided into two methods of prediction: 1) Statistical Method, and 2) Empirical Method. In the first method, earthquakes are predicted using statistics and probabilities, while the second method utilizes variety of precursors for earthquake prediction. The latter method is time consuming and more costly. However, the result of neither method has fully satisfied the man up to now. In this paper a new method entitled 'Kiana Method' is introduced for earthquake prediction. This method offers more accurate results yet lower cost comparing to other conventional methods. In Kiana method the electrical and magnetic precursors are measured in an area. Then, the time and the magnitude of an earthquake in the future is calculated using electrical, and in particular, electrical capacitors formulas. In this method, by daily measurement of electrical resistance in an area we make clear that the area is capable of earthquake occurrence in the future or not. If the result shows a positive sign, then the occurrence time and the magnitude can be estimated by the measured quantities. This paper explains the procedure and details of this prediction method. (authors)

  1. Learning Earthquake Design and Construction 20. How do Beam ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 10; Issue 6. Learning Earthquake Design and Construction – How do Beam–Column Joints in RC Buildings Resist Earthquakes? C V R Murty. Classroom Volume 10 Issue 6 June 2005 pp 82-85 ...

  2. The November 23, 1980 Irpinia earthquake (Terremoto Campano Lucano) observations of soil and soil-structure interaction effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerpinar, A.; Vardanega, C.; Ries, E.R.

    1981-01-01

    A catastrophe of major dimensions such as the November 23, 1980 Irpinia Earthquake (Terremoto Campano Lucano) should be examined from different points of view, e.g. geological engineering, architectural, rural and urban planning, socio-economical, so that the effects of future events can be mitigated to a certain extent. This paper covers a portion of the engineering lessons to be drawn from this event. These efforts have been directed to bring out cases and observations which may have significance in the siting and design of nuclear power plants. The Irpinia Earthquake caused widespread damage in a region of southern Italy which is developing in terms of industrial and transportation facilities. It was, therefore, possible to observe damage (or the lack of it) on a wide variety of structures, such as buildings, bridges, tunnels, roads and chimneys ranging in age from very old to very new. The seven-day field trip took place at the end of January 1981, about two months after the earthquake. With few sporadic exceptions, such as the hospital building in S. Angelo dei Lombardi, the damaged structures were untouched and reliable engineering observations on the damage patterns were possible. One of the most striking aspects of the earthquake was the extent of the damage caused to structures by soil failures or soil-structure interaction effects. This aspect, in particular, is addressed in this paper. (orig.)

  3. Automatic generation of smart earthquake-resistant building system: Hybrid system of base-isolation and building-connection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kasagi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available A base-isolated building may sometimes exhibit an undesirable large response to a long-duration, long-period earthquake ground motion and a connected building system without base-isolation may show a large response to a near-fault (rather high-frequency earthquake ground motion. To overcome both deficiencies, a new hybrid control system of base-isolation and building-connection is proposed and investigated. In this new hybrid building system, a base-isolated building is connected to a stiffer free wall with oil dampers. It has been demonstrated in a preliminary research that the proposed hybrid system is effective both for near-fault (rather high-frequency and long-duration, long-period earthquake ground motions and has sufficient redundancy and robustness for a broad range of earthquake ground motions.An automatic generation algorithm of this kind of smart structures of base-isolation and building-connection hybrid systems is presented in this paper. It is shown that, while the proposed algorithm does not work well in a building without the connecting-damper system, it works well in the proposed smart hybrid system with the connecting damper system.

  4. Earthquake and ambient vibration monitoring of the steel-frame UCLA factor building

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, M.D.; Davis, P.M.; Safak, E.

    2005-01-01

    Dynamic property measurements of the moment-resisting steel-frame University of California, Los Angeles, Factor building are being made to assess how forces are distributed over the building. Fourier amplitude spectra have been calculated from several intervals of ambient vibrations, a 24-hour period of strong winds, and from the 28 March 2003 Encino, California (ML = 2.9), the 3 September 2002 Yorba Linda, California (ML = 4.7), and the 3 November 2002 Central Alaska (Mw = 7.9) earthquakes. Measurements made from the ambient vibration records show that the first-mode frequency of horizontal vibration is between 0.55 and 0.6 Hz. The second horizontal mode has a frequency between 1.6 and 1.9 Hz. In contrast, the first-mode frequencies measured from earthquake data are about 0.05 to 0.1 Hz lower than those corresponding to ambient vibration recordings indicating softening of the soil-structure system as amplitudes become larger. The frequencies revert to pre-earthquake levels within five minutes of the Yorba Linda earthquake. Shaking due to strong winds that occurred during the Encino earthquake dominates the frequency decrease, which correlates in time with the duration of the strong winds. The first shear wave recorded from the Encino and Yorba Linda earthquakes takes about 0.4 sec to travel up the 17-story building. ?? 2005, Earthquake Engineering Research Institute.

  5. Reinforced concrete containment structures in high seismic zones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aziz, T.S.

    1977-01-01

    A new structural concept for reinforced concrete containment structures at sites where earthquake ground motions in terms of the Safe Shutdown Earthquake (SSE) exceeds 0.3 g is presented. The structural concept is based on: (1) an inner steel-lined concrete shell which houses the reactor and provides shielding and containment in the event of loss of coolant accident; (2) an outer annular concrete shell structure which houses auxiliary reactor equipment and safeguards systems. These shell structures are supported on a common foundation mat which is embedded in the subgrade. Under stipulated earthquake conditions the two shell structures interact to resist lateral inertia forces. Thus the annular structure which is not a pressure boundary acts as a lateral support for the inner containment shell. The concept is practical, economically feasible and new to practice. (Auth.)

  6. Overview of seismic resistant design of Indian Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, G.K.; Hawaldar, R.V.K.P.; Vinod Kumar

    2007-01-01

    Safe operation of a Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) is of utmost importance. NPPs consist of various Structure, System and Equipment (SS and E) that are designed to resist the forces generated due to a natural phenomenon like earthquake. An earthquake causes severe oscillatory ground motion of short duration. Seismic resistant design of SS and E calls for evaluation of effect of severe ground shaking for assuring the structural integrity and operability during and after the occurrence of earthquake event. Overall exercise is a multi-disciplinary approach. First of standardized 220 MWe design reactor is Narora Atomic Power Station. Seismic design was carried out as per state of art then, for the first time. The twelve 220 MWe reactors and two 540 MWe reactors designed since 1975 have been seismically qualified for the earthquake loads expected in the region. Seismic design of 700 MWe reactor is under advanced stage of finalization. Seismic re-evaluation of six numbers of old plants has been completed as per latest state of art. Over the years, expertise have been developed at Nuclear Power Corporation of India Limited, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, prominent educational institutes, research laboratories and engineering consultants in the country in the area of seismic design, analysis and shake table testing. (author)

  7. Earthquakes and Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Earthquakes are low-probability, high-consequence events. Though they may occur only once in the life of a school, they can have devastating, irreversible consequences. Moderate earthquakes can cause serious damage to building contents and non-structural building systems, serious injury to students and staff, and disruption of building operations.…

  8. Engineering works for increasing earthquake resistance of Hamaoka nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oonishi, Yoshihiro; Kondou, Makoto; Hattori, Kazushi

    2007-01-01

    The improvement works of the ground of outdoor piping and duct system of Hamaoka-3, one of engineering works for increasing earthquake resistance of the plant, are reported. The movable outdoor piping systems were moved. SJ method, one of the high-pressure jet mixing method, improved the ground between the duct and the unmoved light oil tank on the western side, and the environmental ground. The other places were improved by the concrete replacement works. The results of ground treated by SJ method showed the high quality of stiffness and continuity. Outline of engineering works, execution of concrete replacement works, the high-pressure jet mixing method, SJ method, the quality control and treatment of the generated mud by SJ method are reported. A seismic response analysis, execution facilities, construction planning, working diagram, improvement work conditions of three methods, and steps of SJ method are illustrated. (S.Y.)

  9. Three-dimensional seismic velocity structure and earthquake relocations at Katmai, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Rachel; Thurber, Clifford; Prejean, Stephanie G.; Bennington, Ninfa

    2014-01-01

    We invert arrival time data from local earthquakes occurring between September 2004 and May 2009 to determine the three-dimensional (3D) upper crustal seismic structure in the Katmai volcanic region. Waveforms for the study come from the Alaska Volcano Observatory's permanent network of 20 seismic stations in the area (predominantly single-component, short period instruments) plus a densely spaced temporary array of 11 broadband, 3-component stations. The absolute and relative arrival times are used in a double-difference seismic tomography inversion to solve for 3D P- and S-wave velocity models for an area encompassing the main volcanic centers. The relocated hypocenters provide insight into the geometry of seismogenic structures in the area, revealing clustering of events into four distinct zones associated with Martin, Mageik, Trident-Novarupta, and Mount Katmai. The seismic activity extends from about sea level to 2 km depth (all depths referenced to mean sea level) beneath Martin, is concentrated near 2 km depth beneath Mageik, and lies mainly between 2 and 4 km depth below Katmai and Trident-Novarupta. Many new features are apparent within these earthquake clusters. In particular, linear features are visible within all clusters, some associated with swarm activity, including an observation of earthquake migration near Trident in 2008. The final velocity model reveals a possible zone of magma storage beneath Mageik, but there is no clear evidence for magma beneath the Katmai-Novarupta area where the 1912 eruptive activity occurred, suggesting that the storage zone for that eruption may have largely been evacuated, or remnant magma has solidified.

  10. Assessment of soil-structure interaction on a 51-story building from the spectral ratio of earthquake recordings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Kun-Sung

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The soil-structure interaction (SSI can significantly alter the characteristics of recorded motions in buildings. The ratio of Fourier amplitude spectrum of the top-story accelerations to that of the foundation accelerations permits the identification of the natural frequency of the fixed-base building. In this study, records of the Chi-Chi earthquake and the 1226 Hengchun earthquake doublet from the structural array in a 51-story highrise building are used to obtain the dynamic characteristics of the buildings by the transfer function (TF method. As a result, the acceleration amplification of seismic excitation on the 47th storey of buildings is 4.24, in the horizontal component, from the Chi-Chi earthquake data greater than those of the 1226 Hengchun earthquake doublet with a value of 2.82 and 2.06, respectively. In addition, from the spectral ratio of the accelerations (47th floor/basement, together with the Fourier Amplitude Spectrum (FAS of the 47th floor and basement accelerations, it is noted that the peaks of the 47th floor FAS and the spectral ratio appear to coincide with each other from the records of 1226 Hengchun earthquake doublet, suggesting that there is no significant SSI effects in both the longitudinal and transverse directions.

  11. Imaging the Fine-Scale Structure of the San Andreas Fault in the Northern Gabilan Range with Explosion and Earthquake Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, H.; Thurber, C. H.; Zhang, H.; Wang, F.

    2014-12-01

    A number of geophysical studies have been carried out along the San Andreas Fault (SAF) in the Northern Gabilan Range (NGR) with the purpose of characterizing in detail the fault zone structure. Previous seismic research has revealed the complex structure of the crustal volume in the NGR region in two-dimensions (Thurber et al., 1996, 1997), and there has been some work on the three-dimensional (3D) structure at a coarser scale (Lin and Roecker, 1997). In our study we use earthquake body-wave arrival times and differential times (P and S) and explosion arrival times (only P) to image the 3D P- and S-wave velocity structure of the upper crust along the SAF in the NGR using double-difference (DD) tomography. The earthquake and explosion data types have complementary strengths - the earthquake data have good resolution at depth and resolve both Vp and Vs structure, although only where there are sufficient seismic rays between hypocenter and stations, whereas the explosions contribute very good near-surface resolution but for P waves only. The original dataset analyzed by Thurber et al. (1996, 1997) included data from 77 local earthquakes and 8 explosions. We enlarge the dataset with 114 more earthquakes that occurred in the study area, obtain improved S-wave picks using an automated picker, and include absolute and cross-correlation differential times. The inversion code we use is the algorithm tomoDD (Zhang and Thurber, 2003). We assess how the P and S velocity models and earthquake locations vary as we alter the inversion parameters and the inversion grid. The new inversion results show clearly the fine-scale structure of the SAF at depth in 3D, sharpening the image of the velocity contrast from the southwest side to the northeast side.

  12. On the modal characteristics of damaging structures subjected to earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlo Ponzo, Felice; Ditommaso, Rocco; Auletta, Gianluca; Iacovino, Chiara; Mossucca, Antonello; Nigro, Antonella; Nigro, Domenico

    2015-04-01

    Structural Health Monitoring, especially for structures located in seismic prone areas, has assumed a meaning of great importance in last years, for the possibility to make a more objective and more rapid estimation of the damage occurred on buildings after a seismic event. In the last years many researchers are working to set-up new methodologies for Non-destructive Damage Evaluation based on the variation of the dynamic behaviour of structures under seismic loads. The NDE methods for damage detection and evaluation can be classified into four levels, according to the specific criteria provided by the Rytter. Each level of identification is correlated with specific information related to monitored structure. In fact, by increasing the level it is possible to obtain more information about the state of the health of the structures, to know if damage occurred on the structures, to quantify and localize the damage and to evaluate its impact on the monitored structure. Several authors discussed on the possibility to use the mode shape curvature to localize damage on structural elements, for example, by applying the curvature-based method to frequency response function instead of mode shape, and demonstrated the potential of this approach by considering real data. Damage detection approach based on dynamic monitoring of structural properties over time has received a considerable attention in recent scientific literature. In earthquake engineering field, the recourse to experimental research is necessary to understand the mechanical behaviour of the various structural and non-structural components. In this paper a new methodology to detect and localize a possible damage occurred on a framed structure after an earthquake is presented and discussed. The main outcomes retrieved from many numerical non linear dynamic models of reinforced concrete framed structures characterized by 3, 5 and 8 floors with different geometric configurations and designed for gravity loads only

  13. Earthquake engineering development before and after the March 4, 1977, Vrancea, Romania earthquake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Georgescu, E.-S.

    2002-01-01

    At 25 years since the of the Vrancea earthquake of March, 4th 1977, we can analyze in an open and critical way its impact on the evolution of earthquake engineering codes and protection policies in Romania. The earthquake (M G-R = 7.2; M w = 7.5), produced 1,570 casualties and more than 11,300 injured persons (90% of the victims in Bucharest), seismic losses were estimated at more then USD 2 billions. The 1977 earthquake represented a significant episode of XXth century in seismic zones of Romania and neighboring countries. The INCERC seismic record of March 4, 1977 put, for the first time, in evidence the spectral content of long period seismic motions of Vrancea earthquakes, the duration, the number of cycles and values of actual accelerations, with important effects of overloading upon flexible structures. The seismic coefficients k s , the spectral curve (the dynamic coefficient β r ) and the seismic zonation map, the requirements in the antiseismic design norms were drastically, changed while the microzonation maps of the time ceased to be used, and the specific Vrancea earthquake recurrence was reconsidered based on hazard studies Thus, the paper emphasises: - the existing engineering knowledge, earthquake code and zoning maps requirements until 1977 as well as seismology and structural lessons since 1977; - recent aspects of implementing of the Earthquake Code P.100/1992 and harmonization with Eurocodes, in conjunction with the specific of urban and rural seismic risk and enforcing policies on strengthening of existing buildings; - a strategic view of disaster prevention, using earthquake scenarios and loss assessments, insurance, earthquake education and training; - the need of a closer transfer of knowledge between seismologists, engineers and officials in charge with disaster prevention public policies. (author)

  14. Numerical modeling of block structure dynamics: Application to the Vrancea region and study of earthquakes sequences in the synthetic catalogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soloviev, A.A.; Vorobieva, I.A.

    1995-08-01

    A seismically active region is represented as a system of absolutely rigid blocks divided by infinitely thin plane faults. The interaction of the blocks along the fault planes and with the underlying medium is viscous-elastic. The system of blocks moves as a consequence of prescribed motion of boundary blocks and the underlying medium. When for some part of a fault plane the stress surpasses a certain strength level a stress-drop (''a failure'') occurs. It can cause a failure for other parts of fault planes. The failures are considered as earthquakes. As a result of the numerical simulation a synthetic earthquake catalogue is produced. This procedure is applied for numerical modeling of dynamics of the block structure approximating the tectonic structure of the Vrancea region. By numerical experiments the values of the model parameters were obtained which supplied the synthetic earthquake catalog with the space distribution of epicenters close to the real distribution of the earthquake epicenters in the Vrancea region. The frequency-magnitude relations (Gutenberg-Richter curves) obtained for the synthetic and real catalogs have some common features. The sequences of earthquakes arising in the model are studied for some artificial structures. It is found that ''foreshocks'', ''main shocks'', and ''aftershocks'' could be detected among earthquakes forming the sequences. The features of aftershocks, foreshocks, and catalogs of main shocks are analysed. (author). 5 refs, 12 figs, 16 tabs

  15. Pounding effects during an earthquake, with and without consideration of soil‑structure interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela DOBRE

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The pounding between adjacent buildings can cause both architectural and structural damages. The paper presents some aspects related to the Vrancea seismic motions pattern, a review of observed damages after a strong earthquake due to pounding of buildings in Romania, a few causes of pounding, an analytical and numerical modeling study. For the behavior of buildings under structural pounding, an analysis with and without consideration of soil-structure interaction is done.

  16. The Science of Structural Revolutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William P. Graf

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A perspective on the very human process by which scientific paradigms change can help point the path forward in any science, or in an applied science, such as Structural Engineering. Understanding this process of change, we can examine earthquake engineering, seismic building codes and theories of structural engineering for earthquake loads. When we take this perspective, we recognize that Structural Engineering for earthquake resistance is in the midst of a number of revolutions, from paradigms embodied in current building codes in which earthquake demands are associated with forces, to a new paradigm in which earthquake demands are re-envisioned as resulting from structural displacements or drift. The new paradigm is embodied in the current national standard for the seismic rehabilitation of existing structures, ASCE 41 [2] and the emerging standards for performance-based earthquake engineering (PBEE. Associated with this is the shift from design oriented towards life-safety to design for a range of performance objectives, such as life-safety, damage reduction, or immediate occupancy. With this perspective, we further recognize deficiencies in research and development. We have failed to systematically use the experimental and computational tools we possess to fill in the gaps of scientific knowledge. We have not developed and deployed appropriate frameworks to collect and share ideas and results. As one example, the formulation of performance-based codes now outstrips the knowledge-base needed to ensure that structures designed by the new tools will meet their performance objectives.

  17. Van earthquakes (23 October 2011 and 9 November 2011) and performance of masonry and adobe structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güney, D.

    2012-11-01

    Earthquakes, which are unavoidable natural phenomena in Turkey, have often produced economic and social disaster. The latest destructive earthquakes happened in Van city. Van, Turkey, earthquakes with M = 7.2 occurred on 23 October 2011 at 13:41 (local time), whose epicenter was about 16 km north of Van (Tabanlı village) and M = 5.6 on 9 November 2011 epicentered near the town of Edremit south of Van in eastern Turkey and caused the loss of life and heavy damages. Both earthquakes killed 644 people and 2608 people were injured. Approximately 4000 buildings collapsed or were seriously damaged. The majority of the damaged structures were seismically insufficient, unreinforced masonry and adobe buildings in rural areas. In this paper, site surveys of the damaged masonry and adobe buildings are presented and the reasons for the caused damages are discussed in detail.

  18. Auto Correlation Analysis of Coda Waves from Local Earthquakes for Detecting Temporal Changes in Shallow Subsurface Structures: the 2011 Tohoku-Oki, Japan Earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakahara, Hisashi

    2015-02-01

    For monitoring temporal changes in subsurface structures I propose to use auto correlation functions of coda waves from local earthquakes recorded at surface receivers, which probably contain more body waves than surface waves. Use of coda waves requires earthquakes resulting in decreased time resolution for monitoring. Nonetheless, it may be possible to monitor subsurface structures in sufficient time resolutions in regions with high seismicity. In studying the 2011 Tohoku-Oki, Japan earthquake (Mw 9.0), for which velocity changes have been previously reported, I try to validate the method. KiK-net stations in northern Honshu are used in this analysis. For each moderate earthquake normalized auto correlation functions of surface records are stacked with respect to time windows in the S-wave coda. Aligning the stacked, normalized auto correlation functions with time, I search for changes in phases arrival times. The phases at lag times of <1 s are studied because changes at shallow depths are focused. Temporal variations in the arrival times are measured at the stations based on the stretching method. Clear phase delays are found to be associated with the mainshock and to gradually recover with time. The amounts of the phase delays are 10 % on average with the maximum of about 50 % at some stations. The deconvolution analysis using surface and subsurface records at the same stations is conducted for validation. The results show the phase delays from the deconvolution analysis are slightly smaller than those from the auto correlation analysis, which implies that the phases on the auto correlations are caused by larger velocity changes at shallower depths. The auto correlation analysis seems to have an accuracy of about several percent, which is much larger than methods using earthquake doublets and borehole array data. So this analysis might be applicable in detecting larger changes. In spite of these disadvantages, this analysis is still attractive because it can

  19. Three-dimensional magnetotelluric imaging of the 1997 Kagoshima earthquake doublet, Southwest Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asamori, K.; Makuuchi, A.; Umeda, K.

    2013-12-01

    The 1997 Kagoshima earthquake doublet struck on unrecognized active faults lacking clear surface expression where very few large earthquakes have occurred. Two shallow moderate earthquakes occurred in the northwestern part of Kagoshima province, on March 26 (Mw 6.1) and May 13 (Mw 6.0) in 1997, both followed by intensive aftershock sequences. Aftershock distribution of the 1997 earthquake doublet reflects complicated rupture process attributed to the geological (rheological) conditions and coupling of hydraulic pressure as well as tectonic shear stress. For advanced understanding of dynamic interactions between fluids and faulting, it is imperative to obtain three-dimensional (3-D) images of the electrical resistivity structure around the seismogenic faults. In this study, we conduct magnetotelluric (MT) soundings in and around the source region of the 1997 Kagoshima earthquake sequence and perform a 3-D inversion of wideband MT data above a depth of 30 km. MT stations were deployed around the aftershock area of the 1997 Kagoshima earthquake. All of 42 MT sites were set up in the land area. The data were collected using five component (three magnetic and two telluric components) wide-band MT instruments (Phoenix MTU-5 system) in February, 2013. The data were acquired in the frequency range from 0.000343 to 320 Hz. The recording duration ranged from 2 to 8 days. As the cultural noises severely affect the measurements, the time series analysis focused on the nocturnal data when there were fewer noise. A simultaneous remote reference measurement was carried out at the Sawauchi site (1300 km northeast of the study area). Using the remote reference technique (Gamble et al., 1979), we were able to reduce the unfavorable cultural noises. The observed apparent resistivity and phase data were inverted simultaneously using the 3-D inversion code of Sasaki (2004). In this inversion, the 3-D blocks were set up in the crust and upper mantle. These block size in the horizontal

  20. Building with Earthquakes in Mind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangieri, Nicholas

    2016-04-01

    Earthquakes are some of the most elusive and destructive disasters humans interact with on this planet. Engineering structures to withstand earthquake shaking is critical to ensure minimal loss of life and property. However, the majority of buildings today in non-traditional earthquake prone areas are not built to withstand this devastating force. Understanding basic earthquake engineering principles and the effect of limited resources helps students grasp the challenge that lies ahead. The solution can be found in retrofitting existing buildings with proper reinforcements and designs to deal with this deadly disaster. The students were challenged in this project to construct a basic structure, using limited resources, that could withstand a simulated tremor through the use of an earthquake shake table. Groups of students had to work together to creatively manage their resources and ideas to design the most feasible and realistic type of building. This activity provided a wealth of opportunities for the students to learn more about a type of disaster they do not experience in this part of the country. Due to the fact that most buildings in New York City were not designed to withstand earthquake shaking, the students were able to gain an appreciation for how difficult it would be to prepare every structure in the city for this type of event.

  1. Meteorite Impact "Earthquake" Features (Rock Liquefaction, Surface Wave Deformations, Seismites) from Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) and Geoelectric Complex Resistivity/Induced Polarization (IP) Measurements, Chiemgau (Alpine Foreland, Southeast Germany)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernstson, K.; Poßekel, J.

    2017-12-01

    Densely spaced GPR and complex resistivity measurements on a 30,000 square meters site in a region of enigmatic sinkhole occurrences in unconsolidated Quaternary sediments have featured unexpected and highlighting results from both a meteorite impact research and an engineering geology point of view. The GPR measurements and a complex resistivity/IP electrical imaging revealed extended subrosion depressions related with a uniformly but in various degrees of intensity deformed loamy and gravelly ground down to at least 10 m depth. Two principle observations could be made from both the GPR high-resolution measurements and the more integrating resistivity and IP soundings with both petrophysical evidences in good complement. Subrosion can be shown to be the result of prominent sandy-gravelly intrusions and extrusions typical of rock liquefaction processes well known to occur during strong earthquakes. Funnel-shaped structures with diameters up to 25 m near the surface and reaching down to the floating ground water level at 10 m depth were measured. GPR radargrams could trace prominent gravelly-material transport bottom-up within the funnels. Seen in both GPR tomography and resistivity/IP sections more or less the whole investigated area is overprinted by wavy deformations of the unconsolidated sediments with wavelengths of the order of 5 - 10 m and amplitudes up to half a meter, likewise down to 10 m depth. Substantial earthquakes are not known in this region. Hence, the observed heavy underground disorder is considered the result of the prominent earthquake shattering that must have occurred during the Holocene (Bronze Age/Celtic era) Chiemgau meteorite impact event that produced a 60 km x 30 km sized crater strewn field directly hosting the investigated site. Depending on depth and size of floating aquifers local concentrations of rock liquefaction and seismic surface waves (probably LOVE waves) to produce the wavy deformations could develop, when the big

  2. An Improved Multidimensional MPA Procedure for Bidirectional Earthquake Excitations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Presently, the modal pushover analysis procedure is extended to multidimensional analysis of structures subjected to multidimensional earthquake excitations. an improved multidimensional modal pushover analysis (IMMPA method is presented in the paper in order to estimate the response demands of structures subjected to bidirectional earthquake excitations, in which the unidirectional earthquake excitation applied on equivalent SDOF system is replaced by the direct superposition of two components earthquake excitations, and independent analysis in each direction is not required and the application of simplified superposition formulas is avoided. The strength reduction factor spectra based on superposition of earthquake excitations are discussed and compared with the traditional strength reduction factor spectra. The step-by-step procedure is proposed to estimate seismic demands of structures. Two examples are implemented to verify the accuracy of the method, and the results of the examples show that (1 the IMMPA method can be used to estimate the responses of structure subjected to bidirectional earthquake excitations. (2 Along with increase of peak of earthquake acceleration, structural response deviation estimated with the IMMPA method may also increase. (3 Along with increase of the number of total floors of structures, structural response deviation estimated with the IMMPA method may also increase.

  3. Preliminary earthquake locations in the Kenai Peninsula recorded by the MOOS Array and their relationship to structure in the 1964 great earthquake zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, J.; Abers, G. A.; Christensen, D. H.; Kim, Y.; Calkins, J. A.

    2011-12-01

    Earthquakes in subduction zones are mostly generated at the interface between the subducting and overlying plates. In 2006-2009, the MOOS (Multidisciplinary Observations Of Subduction) seismic array was deployed around the Kenai Peninsula, Alaska, consisting of 34 broadband seismometers recording for 1-3 years. This region spans the eastern end of the Aleutian megathrust that ruptured in the 1964 Mw 9.2 great earthquake, the second largest recorded earthquake, and ongoing seismicity is abundant. Here, we report an initial analysis of seismicity recorded by MOOS, in the context of preliminary imaging. There were 16,462 events detected in one year from initial STA/LTA signal detections and subsequent event associations from the MOOS Array. We manually reviewed them to eliminate distant earthquakes and noise, leaving 11,879 local earthquakes. To refine this catalog, an adaptive auto-regressive onset estimation algorithm was applied, doubling the original dataset and producing 20,659 P picks and 22,999 S picks for one month (September 2007). Inspection shows that this approach lead to almost negligible false alarms and many more events than hand picking. Within the well-sampled part of the array, roughly 200 km by 300 km, we locate 250% more earthquakes for one month than the permanent network catalog, or 10 earthquakes per day on this patch of the megathrust. Although the preliminary locations of earthquakes still show some scatter, we can see a concentration of events in a ~20-km-wide belt, part of which can be interpreted as seismogenic thrust zone. In conjunction with the seismicity study, we are imaging the plate interface with receiver functions. The main seismicity zone corresponds to the top of a low-velocity layer imaged in receiver functions, nominally attributed to the top of the downgoing plate. As we refine velocity models and apply relative relocation algorithms, we expect to improve the precision of the locations substantially. When combined with image

  4. Fiscal 2000 research report on the research on earthquake disaster prevention technology for industrial machinery systems; 2000 nendo sangyo kikai system no boshin bosai gijutsu no chosa kenkyu hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    Available technologies were extracted and technical problems were discussed in detail in connection with the above-named technology, and a technology development scenario was prepared. The study covered the subjects of an earthquake resistant disaster prevention system, ready for activation upon earthquake occurrence, with its structure designed to counter severe vibration; a real-time earthquake resistant disaster prevention system capable of ensuring system safety upon receiving earthquake occurrence information and of instantly collecting information on damage incurred; and an early restoration system to operate upon termination of earthquake. With the active utilization in mind of information technology now making a rapid progress, importance was stressed of a system under which earthquake information, disaster prevention networks, and information on the soil and geography would be linked to the database of the equipment involved. For research on the current state of earthquake disaster prevention technology, an on-site survey was conducted of the disaster prevention facilities now under construction in Hyogo Prefecture, and another survey was conducted of Shizuoka Prefecture's long-standing consideration of earthquake disaster prevention measures. Data were collected at the 5th Corporate Disaster Prevention Symposium held in San Jose, U.S. (NEDO)

  5. Earthquake casualty models within the USGS Prompt Assessment of Global Earthquakes for Response (PAGER) system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaiswal, Kishor; Wald, David J.; Earle, Paul S.; Porter, Keith A.; Hearne, Mike

    2011-01-01

    Since the launch of the USGS’s Prompt Assessment of Global Earthquakes for Response (PAGER) system in fall of 2007, the time needed for the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to determine and comprehend the scope of any major earthquake disaster anywhere in the world has been dramatically reduced to less than 30 min. PAGER alerts consist of estimated shaking hazard from the ShakeMap system, estimates of population exposure at various shaking intensities, and a list of the most severely shaken cities in the epicentral area. These estimates help government, scientific, and relief agencies to guide their responses in the immediate aftermath of a significant earthquake. To account for wide variability and uncertainty associated with inventory, structural vulnerability and casualty data, PAGER employs three different global earthquake fatality/loss computation models. This article describes the development of the models and demonstrates the loss estimation capability for earthquakes that have occurred since 2007. The empirical model relies on country-specific earthquake loss data from past earthquakes and makes use of calibrated casualty rates for future prediction. The semi-empirical and analytical models are engineering-based and rely on complex datasets including building inventories, time-dependent population distributions within different occupancies, the vulnerability of regional building stocks, and casualty rates given structural collapse.

  6. Turkish Compulsory Earthquake Insurance and "Istanbul Earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durukal, E.; Sesetyan, K.; Erdik, M.

    2009-04-01

    The city of Istanbul will likely experience substantial direct and indirect losses as a result of a future large (M=7+) earthquake with an annual probability of occurrence of about 2%. This paper dwells on the expected building losses in terms of probable maximum and average annualized losses and discusses the results from the perspective of the compulsory earthquake insurance scheme operational in the country. The TCIP system is essentially designed to operate in Turkey with sufficient penetration to enable the accumulation of funds in the pool. Today, with only 20% national penetration, and about approximately one-half of all policies in highly earthquake prone areas (one-third in Istanbul) the system exhibits signs of adverse selection, inadequate premium structure and insufficient funding. Our findings indicate that the national compulsory earthquake insurance pool in Turkey will face difficulties in covering incurring building losses in Istanbul in the occurrence of a large earthquake. The annualized earthquake losses in Istanbul are between 140-300 million. Even if we assume that the deductible is raised to 15%, the earthquake losses that need to be paid after a large earthquake in Istanbul will be at about 2.5 Billion, somewhat above the current capacity of the TCIP. Thus, a modification to the system for the insured in Istanbul (or Marmara region) is necessary. This may mean an increase in the premia and deductible rates, purchase of larger re-insurance covers and development of a claim processing system. Also, to avoid adverse selection, the penetration rates elsewhere in Turkey need to be increased substantially. A better model would be introduction of parametric insurance for Istanbul. By such a model the losses will not be indemnified, however will be directly calculated on the basis of indexed ground motion levels and damages. The immediate improvement of a parametric insurance model over the existing one will be the elimination of the claim processing

  7. High-performance computing for structural mechanics and earthquake/tsunami engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Hori, Muneo; Ohsaki, Makoto

    2016-01-01

    Huge earthquakes and tsunamis have caused serious damage to important structures such as civil infrastructure elements, buildings and power plants around the globe.  To quantitatively evaluate such damage processes and to design effective prevention and mitigation measures, the latest high-performance computational mechanics technologies, which include telascale to petascale computers, can offer powerful tools. The phenomena covered in this book include seismic wave propagation in the crust and soil, seismic response of infrastructure elements such as tunnels considering soil-structure interactions, seismic response of high-rise buildings, seismic response of nuclear power plants, tsunami run-up over coastal towns and tsunami inundation considering fluid-structure interactions. The book provides all necessary information for addressing these phenomena, ranging from the fundamentals of high-performance computing for finite element methods, key algorithms of accurate dynamic structural analysis, fluid flows ...

  8. Comparison of the Structurally Controlled Landslides Numerical Model Results to the M 7.2 2013 Bohol Earthquake Co-seismic Landslides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macario Galang, Jan Albert; Narod Eco, Rodrigo; Mahar Francisco Lagmay, Alfredo

    2015-04-01

    The M 7.2 October 15, 2013 Bohol earthquake is the most destructive earthquake to hit the Philippines since 2012. The epicenter was located in Sagbayan municipality, central Bohol and was generated by a previously unmapped reverse fault called the "Inabanga Fault". Its name, taken after the barangay (village) where the fault is best exposed and was first seen. The earthquake resulted in 209 fatalities and over 57 billion USD worth of damages. The earthquake generated co-seismic landslides most of which were related to fault structures. Unlike rainfall induced landslides, the trigger for co-seismic landslides happen without warning. Preparedness against this type of landslide therefore, relies heavily on the identification of fracture-related unstable slopes. To mitigate the impacts of co-seismic landslide hazards, morpho-structural orientations or discontinuity sets were mapped in the field with the aid of a 2012 IFSAR Digital Terrain Model (DTM) with 5-meter pixel resolution and software was then used to identify similar structures including measurement of their dip and dip directions. The chosen discontinuity sets were then keyed into Matterocking software to identify potential rock slide zones due to planar or wedged discontinuities. After identifying the structurally-controlled unstable slopes, the rock mass propagation extent of the possible rock slides was simulated using Conefall. The results were compared to a post-earthquake landslide inventory of 456 landslides. Out the total number of landslides identified from post-earthquake high-resolution imagery, 366 or 80% intersect the structural-controlled hazard areas of Bohol. The results show the potential of this method to identify co-seismic landslide hazard areas for disaster mitigation. Along with computer methods to simulate shallow landslides, and debris flow paths, located structurally-controlled unstable zones can be used to mark unsafe areas for settlement. The method can be further improved with the

  9. Antioptimization of earthquake exitation and response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Zuccaro

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a novel approach to predict the response of earthquake-excited structures. The earthquake excitation is expanded in terms of series of deterministic functions. The coefficients of the series are represented as a point in N-dimensional space. Each available ccelerogram at a certain site is then represented as a point in the above space, modeling the available fragmentary historical data. The minimum volume ellipsoid, containing all points, is constructed. The ellipsoidal models of uncertainty, pertinent to earthquake excitation, are developed. The maximum response of a structure, subjected to the earthquake excitation, within ellipsoidal modeling of the latter, is determined. This procedure of determining least favorable response was termed in the literature (Elishakoff, 1991 as an antioptimization. It appears that under inherent uncertainty of earthquake excitation, antioptimization analysis is a viable alternative to stochastic approach.

  10. Probabilistic Modeling of Seismic Risk Based Design for a Dual System Structure

    OpenAIRE

    Sidi, Indra Djati

    2017-01-01

    The dual system structure concept has gained popularity in the construction of high-rise buildings over the last decades. Meanwhile, earthquake engineering design provisions for buildings have moved from the uniform hazard concept to the uniform risk concept upon recognizing the uncertainties involved in the earthquake resistance of concrete structures. In this study, a probabilistic model for the evaluation of such risk is proposed for a dual system structure consisting of shear walls or cor...

  11. Characterizing the structural maturity of fault zones using high-resolution earthquake locations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrin, C.; Waldhauser, F.; Scholz, C. H.

    2017-12-01

    We use high-resolution earthquake locations to characterize the three-dimensional structure of active faults in California and how it evolves with fault structural maturity. We investigate the distribution of aftershocks of several recent large earthquakes that occurred on immature faults (i.e., slow moving and small cumulative displacement), such as the 1992 (Mw7.3) Landers and 1999 (Mw7.1) Hector Mine events, and earthquakes that occurred on mature faults, such as the 1984 (Mw6.2) Morgan Hill and 2004 (Mw6.0) Parkfield events. Unlike previous studies which typically estimated the width of fault zones from the distribution of earthquakes perpendicular to the surface fault trace, we resolve fault zone widths with respect to the 3D fault surface estimated from principal component analysis of local seismicity. We find that the zone of brittle deformation around the fault core is narrower along mature faults compared to immature faults. We observe a rapid fall off of the number of events at a distance range of 70 - 100 m from the main fault surface of mature faults (140-200 m fault zone width), and 200-300 m from the fault surface of immature faults (400-600 m fault zone width). These observations are in good agreement with fault zone widths estimated from guided waves trapped in low velocity damage zones. The total width of the active zone of deformation surrounding the main fault plane reach 1.2 km and 2-4 km for mature and immature faults, respectively. The wider zone of deformation presumably reflects the increased heterogeneity in the stress field along complex and discontinuous faults strands that make up immature faults. In contrast, narrower deformation zones tend to align with well-defined fault planes of mature faults where most of the deformation is concentrated. Our results are in line with previous studies suggesting that surface fault traces become smoother, and thus fault zones simpler, as cumulative fault slip increases.

  12. Numerical simulations (2D) on the influence of pre-existing local structures and seismic source characteristics in earthquake-volcano interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farías, Cristian; Galván, Boris; Miller, Stephen A.

    2017-09-01

    Earthquake triggering of hydrothermal and volcanic systems is ubiquitous, but the underlying processes driving these systems are not well-understood. We numerically investigate the influence of seismic wave interaction with volcanic systems simulated as a trapped, high-pressure fluid reservoir connected to a fluid-filled fault system in a 2-D poroelastic medium. Different orientations and earthquake magnitudes are studied to quantify dynamic and static stress, and pore pressure changes induced by a seismic event. Results show that although the response of the system is mainly dominated by characteristics of the radiated seismic waves, local structures can also play an important role on the system dynamics. The fluid reservoir affects the seismic wave front, distorts the static overpressure pattern induced by the earthquake, and concentrates the kinetic energy of the incoming wave on its boundaries. The static volumetric stress pattern inside the fault system is also affected by the local structures. Our results show that local faults play an important role in earthquake-volcanic systems dynamics by concentrating kinetic energy inside and acting as wave-guides that have a breakwater-like behavior. This generates sudden changes in pore pressure, volumetric expansion, and stress gradients. Local structures also influence the regional Coulomb yield function. Our results show that local structures affect the dynamics of volcanic and hydrothermal systems, and should be taken into account when investigating triggering of these systems from nearby or distant earthquakes.

  13. Seismic fragility analyses of nuclear power plant structures based on the recorded earthquake data in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Sung Gook; Joe, Yang Hee

    2005-01-01

    By nature, the seismic fragility analysis results will be considerably affected by the statistical data of design information and site-dependent ground motions. The engineering characteristics of small magnitude earthquake spectra recorded in the Korean peninsula during the last several years are analyzed in this paper. An improved method of seismic fragility analysis is evaluated by comparative analyses to verify its efficiency for practical application to nuclear power plant structures. The effects of the recorded earthquake on the seismic fragilities of Korean nuclear power plant structures are also evaluated from the comparative studies. Observing the obtained results, the proposed method is more efficient for the multi-modes structures. The case study results show that seismic fragility analysis based on the Newmark's spectra in Korea might over-estimate the seismic capacities of Korean facilities

  14. Seismic fragility analyses of nuclear power plant structures based on the recorded earthquake data in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Sung Gook [Department of Civil and Environmental System Engineering, University of Incheon, 177 Dohwa-dong, Nam-gu, Incheon 402-749 (Korea, Republic of)]. E-mail: sgcho@incheon.ac.kr; Joe, Yang Hee [Department of Civil and Environmental System Engineering, University of Incheon, 177 Dohwa-dong, Nam-gu, Incheon 402-749 (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-08-01

    By nature, the seismic fragility analysis results will be considerably affected by the statistical data of design information and site-dependent ground motions. The engineering characteristics of small magnitude earthquake spectra recorded in the Korean peninsula during the last several years are analyzed in this paper. An improved method of seismic fragility analysis is evaluated by comparative analyses to verify its efficiency for practical application to nuclear power plant structures. The effects of the recorded earthquake on the seismic fragilities of Korean nuclear power plant structures are also evaluated from the comparative studies. Observing the obtained results, the proposed method is more efficient for the multi-modes structures. The case study results show that seismic fragility analysis based on the Newmark's spectra in Korea might over-estimate the seismic capacities of Korean facilities.

  15. Component nuclear containment structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harstead, G.A.

    1979-01-01

    The invention described is intended for use primarily as a nuclear containment structure. Such structures are required to surround the nuclear steam supply system and to contain the effects of breaks in the nuclear steam supply system, or i.e. loss of coolant accidents. Nuclear containment structures are required to withstand internal pressure and temperatures which result from loss of coolant accidents, and to provide for radiation shielding during operation and during the loss of coolant accident, as well as to resist all other applied loads, such as earthquakes. The nuclear containment structure described herein is a composite nuclear containment structure, and is one which structurally combines two previous systems; namely, a steel vessel, and a lined concrete structure. The steel vessel provides strength to resist internal pressure and accommodate temperature increases, the lined concrete structure provides resistance to internal pressure by having a liner which will prevent leakage, and which is in contact with the concrete structure which provides the strength to resist the pressure

  16. Effects of topographic position and geology on shaking damage to residential wood-framed structures during the 2003 San Simeon earthquake, western San Luis obispo county, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCrink, T.P.; Wills, C.J.; Real, C.R.; Manson, M.W.

    2010-01-01

    A statistical evaluation of shaking damage to wood-framed houses caused by the 2003 M6.5 San Simeon earthquake indicates that both the rate and severity of damage, independent of structure type, are significantly greater on hilltops compared to hill slopes when underlain by Cretaceous or Tertiary sedimentary rocks. This increase in damage is interpreted to be the result of topographic amplification. An increase in the damage rate is found for all structures built on Plio-Pleistocene rocks independent of topographic position, and this is interpreted to be the result of amplified shaking caused by geologic site response. Damage rate and severity to houses built on Tertiary rocks suggest that amplification due to both topographic position and geologic site response may be occurring in these rocks, but effects from other topographic parameters cannot be ruled out. For all geologic and topographic conditions, houses with raised foundations are more frequently damaged than those with slab foundations. However, the severity of damage to houses on raised foundations is only significantly greater for those on hill slopes underlain by Tertiary rocks. Structures with some damage-resistant characteristics experienced greater damage severity on hilltops, suggesting a spectral response to topographic amplification. ?? 2010, Earthquake Engineering Research Institute.

  17. Liquefaction-induced lateral spreading in Oceano, California, during the 2003 San Simeon Earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzer, Thomas L.; Noce, Thomas E.; Bennett, Michael J.; Di Alessandro, Carola; Boatwright, John; Tinsley, John C.; Sell, Russell W.; Rosenberg, Lewis I.

    2004-01-01

    the 2003 damage was caused by lateral spreading in two separate areas, one near Norswing Drive and the other near Juanita Avenue. The areas coincided with areas with the highest liquefaction potential found in Oceano. Areas with site amplification conditions similar to those in Oceano are particularly vulnerable to earthquakes. Site amplification may cause shaking from distant earthquakes, which normally would not cause damage, to increase locally to damaging levels. The vulnerability in Oceano is compounded by the widespread distribution of highly liquefiable soils that will reliquefy when ground shaking is amplified as it was during the San Simeon earthquake. The experience in Oceano can be expected to repeat because the region has many active faults capable of generating large earthquakes. In addition, liquefaction and lateral spreading will be more extensive for moderate-size earthquakes that are closer to Oceano than was the 2003 San Simeon earthquake. Site amplification and liquefaction can be mitigated. Shaking is typically mitigated in California by adopting and enforcing up-to-date building codes. Although not a guarantee of safety, application of these codes ensures that the best practice is used in construction. Building codes, however, do not always require the upgrading of older structures to new code requirements. Consequently, many older structures may not be as resistant to earthquake shaking as new ones. For older structures, retrofitting is required to bring them up to code. Seismic provisions in codes also generally do not apply to nonstructural elements such as drywall, heating systems, and shelving. Frequently, nonstructural damage dominates the earthquake loss. Mitigation of potential liquefaction in Oceano presently is voluntary for existing buildings, but required by San Luis Obispo County for new construction. Multiple mitigation procedures are available to individual property owners. These procedures typically involve either

  18. Deterministic and Probabilistic Analysis of NPP Communication Bridge Resistance Due to Extreme Loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Králik Juraj

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the experiences from the deterministic and probability analysis of the reliability of communication bridge structure resistance due to extreme loads - wind and earthquake. On the example of the steel bridge between two NPP buildings is considered the efficiency of the bracing systems. The advantages and disadvantages of the deterministic and probabilistic analysis of the structure resistance are discussed. The advantages of the utilization the LHS method to analyze the safety and reliability of the structures is presented

  19. Accelerating risk reduction in Kathmandu Valley, Nepal: Theory-based mass-media intervention proven to increase knowledge of, belief in, and intent to support earthquake-resistant construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanquini, A.; Thapaliya, S. M.; Wood, M. M.; Hilley, G. E.

    2015-12-01

    Motivating people in rapidly urbanizing areas to take protective actions against natural disasters faces the challenge that these people often do not know what actions to take, do not believe that such actions are effective, and/or believe that the disaster will not happen to them within their lifetimes. Thus, finding demonstrated ways of motivating people to take protective action likely constitutes a grand challenge for natural disaster risk reduction and resiliency, because it may be one of the largest, lowest-cost sources of potential risk reduction in these situations. We developed a theory-based documentary film (hereafter, intervention) targeted at motivating retrofits of local school buildings, and tested its effectiveness in Kathmandu, Nepal, using a matched-pair clustered randomized controlled trial. The intervention features Nepalese who have strengthened their school buildings as role models to others at schools still in need of seismic work. It was tested at 16 Kathmandu Valley schools from November 2014 through March 2015. Schools were matched into 8 pairs, then randomly assigned to see either the intervention film or an attention placebo control film on an unrelated topic. Testing was completed just five weeks before the M 7.8 Gorkha earthquake struck central Nepal. When compared to the control schools, the schools whose community members saw the retrofit intervention film increased their knowledge of specific actions to take in support of earthquake-resistant construction, belief in the feasibility of making buildings earthquake-resistant, willingness to support seismic strengthening of the local school building, and likelihood to recommend to others that they build earthquake-resistant homes, which have all been shown to be precursors to taking self-protective action. This suggests that employing a mass-media intervention featuring community members who have already taken the desired action increases factors that may accelerate adoption of risk

  20. Armenian earthquake WWER-440 NNPs and Turkish early warning system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bektur, Y.

    1991-01-01

    On December 7, 1988 a severe earthquake occurred at Spitak, approximately 90-100 km far from the Armenian Nuclear Power Plant in Yerivan. Another one named Vrancea earthquake which occurred on 4 March, 1977. During this earthquake, the Kozloduj NPP (Bulgaria) was strongly damaged. Until this event, seismic loadings had received scant attention in the siting of WWER's. However after the Kozlodui damage Soviet designers changed their opinion. In this study, the seismicity of the Black Sea region and eastern Europe, seismic requirements for WWER's and the changes in plants for which to resistant against to the earthquake are given. During the earthquake radiation levels obtained by Turkish early warning system is also given

  1. The 11 May 2011 earthquake at Lorca (SE Spain viewed in a structural-tectonic context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. L. M. Vissers

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The Lorca earthquake of 11 May 2011 in the Betic Cordillera of SE Spain occurred almost exactly on the Alhama de Murcia fault, a marked fault that forms part of a NE-SW trending belt of faults and thrusts. The fault belt is reminiscent of a strike-slip corridor, but recent structural studies have provided clear evidence for reverse motions on these faults. Focal mechanisms of the main earthquake, but also of a foreshock, are strikingly consistent with structural observations on the Alhama de Murcia fault. This strengthens the conclusion that, rather than a strike-slip fault, the fault is at present a contractional fault with an oblique reverse sense of motion, presumably in response to the NW-directed motion of Africa with respect to Europe.

  2. Earthquake Ground Motion Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    Nonlinear analyses of soils, structures, and soil-structure systems offer the potential for more accurate characterization of geotechnical and structural response under strong earthquake shaking. The increasing use of advanced performance-based desig...

  3. Seismicity Pattern and Fault Structure in the Central Himalaya Seismic Gap Using Precise Earthquake Hypocenters and their Source Parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, M.; Ghosh, A.; Rai, S. S.

    2017-12-01

    The devastation brought on by the Mw 7.8 Gorkha earthquake in Nepal on 25 April 2015, reconditioned people to the high earthquake risk along the Himalayan arc. It is therefore imperative to learn from the Gorkha earthquake, and gain a better understanding of the state of stress in this fault regime, in order to identify areas that could produce the next devastating earthquake. Here, we focus on what is known as the "central Himalaya seismic gap". It is located in Uttarakhand, India, west of Nepal, where a large (> Mw 7.0) earthquake has not occurred for over the past 200 years [Rajendran, C.P., & Rajendran, K., 2005]. This 500 - 800 km long along-strike seismic gap has been poorly studied, mainly due to the lack of modern and dense instrumentation. It is especially concerning since it surrounds densely populated cities, such as New Delhi. In this study, we analyze a rich seismic dataset from a dense network consisting of 50 broadband stations, that operated between 2005 and 2012. We use the STA/LTA filter technique to detect earthquake phases, and the latest tools contributed to the Antelope software environment, to develop a large and robust earthquake catalog containing thousands of precise hypocentral locations, magnitudes, and focal mechanisms. By refining those locations in HypoDD [Waldhauser & Ellsworth, 2000] to form a tighter cluster of events using relative relocation, we can potentially illustrate fault structures in this region with high resolution. Additionally, using ZMAP [Weimer, S., 2001], we perform a variety of statistical analyses to understand the variability and nature of seismicity occurring in the region. Generating a large and consistent earthquake catalog not only brings to light the physical processes controlling the earthquake cycle in an Himalayan seismogenic zone, it also illustrates how stresses are building up along the décollment and the faults that stem from it. With this new catalog, we aim to reveal fault structure, study

  4. Post-earthquake building safety inspection: Lessons from the Canterbury, New Zealand, earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, J.; Jaiswal, Kishor; Gould, N.; Turner, F.; Lizundia, B.; Barnes, J.

    2013-01-01

    The authors discuss some of the unique aspects and lessons of the New Zealand post-earthquake building safety inspection program that was implemented following the Canterbury earthquake sequence of 2010–2011. The post-event safety assessment program was one of the largest and longest programs undertaken in recent times anywhere in the world. The effort engaged hundreds of engineering professionals throughout the country, and also sought expertise from outside, to perform post-earthquake structural safety inspections of more than 100,000 buildings in the city of Christchurch and the surrounding suburbs. While the building safety inspection procedure implemented was analogous to the ATC 20 program in the United States, many modifications were proposed and implemented in order to assess the large number of buildings that were subjected to strong and variable shaking during a period of two years. This note discusses some of the key aspects of the post-earthquake building safety inspection program and summarizes important lessons that can improve future earthquake response.

  5. Perception of earthquake risk in Taiwan: effects of gender and past earthquake experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kung, Yi-Wen; Chen, Sue-Huei

    2012-09-01

    This study explored how individuals in Taiwan perceive the risk of earthquake and the relationship of past earthquake experience and gender to risk perception. Participants (n= 1,405), including earthquake survivors and those in the general population without prior direct earthquake exposure, were selected and interviewed through a computer-assisted telephone interviewing procedure using a random sampling and stratification method covering all 24 regions of Taiwan. A factor analysis of the interview data yielded a two-factor structure of risk perception in regard to earthquake. The first factor, "personal impact," encompassed perception of threat and fear related to earthquakes. The second factor, "controllability," encompassed a sense of efficacy of self-protection in regard to earthquakes. The findings indicated prior earthquake survivors and females reported higher scores on the personal impact factor than males and those with no prior direct earthquake experience, although there were no group differences on the controllability factor. The findings support that risk perception has multiple components, and suggest that past experience (survivor status) and gender (female) affect the perception of risk. Exploration of potential contributions of other demographic factors such as age, education, and marital status to personal impact, especially for females and survivors, is discussed. Future research on and intervention program with regard to risk perception are suggested accordingly. © 2012 Society for Risk Analysis.

  6. The 2008 Wenchuan Earthquake and the Rise and Fall of Earthquake Prediction in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Q.; Wang, K.

    2009-12-01

    Regardless of the future potential of earthquake prediction, it is presently impractical to rely on it to mitigate earthquake disasters. The practical approach is to strengthen the resilience of our built environment to earthquakes based on hazard assessment. But this was not common understanding in China when the M 7.9 Wenchuan earthquake struck the Sichuan Province on 12 May 2008, claiming over 80,000 lives. In China, earthquake prediction is a government-sanctioned and law-regulated measure of disaster prevention. A sudden boom of the earthquake prediction program in 1966-1976 coincided with a succession of nine M > 7 damaging earthquakes in the densely populated region of the country and the political chaos of the Cultural Revolution. It climaxed with the prediction of the 1975 Haicheng earthquake, which was due mainly to an unusually pronounced foreshock sequence and the extraordinary readiness of some local officials to issue imminent warning and evacuation order. The Haicheng prediction was a success in practice and yielded useful lessons, but the experience cannot be applied to most other earthquakes and cultural environments. Since the disastrous Tangshan earthquake in 1976 that killed over 240,000 people, there have been two opposite trends in China: decreasing confidence in prediction and increasing emphasis on regulating construction design for earthquake resilience. In 1976, most of the seismic intensity XI areas of Tangshan were literally razed to the ground, but in 2008, many buildings in the intensity XI areas of Wenchuan did not collapse. Prediction did not save life in either of these events; the difference was made by construction standards. For regular buildings, there was no seismic design in Tangshan to resist any earthquake shaking in 1976, but limited seismic design was required for the Wenchuan area in 2008. Although the construction standards were later recognized to be too low, those buildings that met the standards suffered much less

  7. The Effect of Sonic Booms on Earthquake Warning Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurman, Gilead; Haering, Edward A, Jr.; Price, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    Several aerospace companies are designing quiet supersonic business jets for service over the United States. These aircraft have the potential to increase the occurrence of mild sonic booms across the country. This leads to interest among earthquake warning (EQW) developers and the general seismological community in characterizing the effect of sonic booms on seismic sensors in the field, their potential impact on EQW systems, and means of discriminating their signatures from those of earthquakes. The SonicBREWS project (Sonic Boom Resistant Earthquake Warning Systems) is a collaborative effort between Seismic Warning Systems, Inc. (SWS) and NASA Dryden Flight Research Center. This project aims to evaluate the effects of sonic booms on EQW sensors. The study consists of exposing high-sample-rate (1000 sps) triaxial accelerometers to sonic booms with overpressures ranging from 10 to 600 Pa in the free field and the built environment. The accelerometers record the coupling of the sonic boom to the ground and surrounding structures, while microphones record the acoustic wave above ground near the sensor. Sonic booms are broadband signals with more high-frequency content than earthquakes. Even a 1000 sps accelerometer will produce a significantly aliased record. Thus the observed peak ground velocity is strongly dependent on the sampling rate, and increases as the sampling rate is reduced. At 1000 sps we observe ground velocities that exceed those of P-waves from ML 3 earthquakes at local distances, suggesting that sonic booms are not negligible for EQW applications. We present the results of several experiments conducted under SonicBREWS showing the effects of typical-case low amplitude sonic booms and worst-case high amplitude booms. We show the effects of various sensor placements and sensor array geometries. Finally, we suggest possible avenues for discriminating sonic booms from earthquakes for the purposes of EQW.

  8. Strong motion duration and earthquake magnitude relationships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salmon, M.W.; Short, S.A.; Kennedy, R.P.

    1992-06-01

    Earthquake duration is the total time of ground shaking from the arrival of seismic waves until the return to ambient conditions. Much of this time is at relatively low shaking levels which have little effect on seismic structural response and on earthquake damage potential. As a result, a parameter termed ''strong motion duration'' has been defined by a number of investigators to be used for the purpose of evaluating seismic response and assessing the potential for structural damage due to earthquakes. This report presents methods for determining strong motion duration and a time history envelope function appropriate for various evaluation purposes, for earthquake magnitude and distance, and for site soil properties. There are numerous definitions of strong motion duration. For most of these definitions, empirical studies have been completed which relate duration to earthquake magnitude and distance and to site soil properties. Each of these definitions recognizes that only the portion of an earthquake record which has sufficiently high acceleration amplitude, energy content, or some other parameters significantly affects seismic response. Studies have been performed which indicate that the portion of an earthquake record in which the power (average rate of energy input) is maximum correlates most closely with potential damage to stiff nuclear power plant structures. Hence, this report will concentrate on energy based strong motion duration definitions

  9. Earthquakes - a danger to deep-lying repositories?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-03-01

    This booklet issued by the Swiss National Cooperative for the Disposal of Radioactive Waste NAGRA takes a look at geological factors concerning earthquakes and the safety of deep-lying repositories for nuclear waste. The geological processes involved in the occurrence of earthquakes are briefly looked at and the definitions for magnitude and intensity of earthquakes are discussed. Examples of damage caused by earthquakes are given. The earthquake situation in Switzerland is looked at and the effects of earthquakes on sub-surface structures and deep-lying repositories are discussed. Finally, the ideas proposed for deep-lying geological repositories for nuclear wastes are discussed

  10. Seismogenic Structure Beneath Décollement Inferred from 2009/11/5 ML 6.2 Mingjian Earthquake in Central Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Che-Min Lin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available One decade after the 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake, central Taiwan experienced more strong ground shaking [Central Weather Bureau (CWB, intensity VII] induced by a ML 6.2 earthquake on 5th November 2009. This earthquake occurred in the Mingjian Township of Nantou County, only 12 km southwest of the Chi-Chi earthquake epicenter. The broadband microearthquake monitoring network operated by the National Center for Research on Earthquake Engineering (NCREE observed numerous aftershocks in the five days following the mainshock. The relocated aftershocks and the mainshock focal mechanism indicated a NE-SW striking fault dipping 60¢X toward the northwest. This fault plane is inside the pre-Miocene basement and the rupture extends from the lower crust to 10 km depth just beneath the basal décollement of the thin-skinned model that is generally used to explain the regional tectonics in Taiwan. The fault plane is vertically symmetrical with the Chelungpu fault by the basal décollement. The NW-SE compressive stress of plate collision in Taiwan, as well as the deep tectonic background, resulted in the seismogenic structure of the Mingjian earthquake at this location.

  11. Flame-Resistant Composite Materials For Structural Members

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spears, Richard K.

    1995-01-01

    Matrix-fiber composite materials developed for structural members occasionally exposed to hot, corrosive gases. Integral ceramic fabric surface layer essential for resistance to flames and chemicals. Endures high temperature, impedes flame from penetrating to interior, inhibits diffusion of oxygen to interior where it degrades matrix resin, resists attack by chemicals, helps resist erosion, and provides additional strength. In original intended application, composite members replace steel structural members of rocket-launching structures that deteriorate under combined influences of atmosphere, spilled propellants, and rocket exhaust. Composites also attractive for other applications in which corrosion- and fire-resistant structural members needed.

  12. Earthquake Resilient Bridge Columns Utilizing Damage Resistant Hybrid Fiber Reinforced Concrete

    OpenAIRE

    Trono, William Dean

    2014-01-01

    Modern reinforced concrete bridges are designed to avoid collapse and to prevent loss of life during earthquakes. To meet these objectives, bridge columns are typically detailed to form ductile plastic hinges when large displacements occur. California seismic design criteria acknowledges that damage such as concrete cover spalling and reinforcing bar yielding may occur in columns during a design-level earthquake. The seismic resilience of bridge columns can be improved through the use of a da...

  13. Connecting slow earthquakes to huge earthquakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obara, Kazushige; Kato, Aitaro

    2016-07-15

    Slow earthquakes are characterized by a wide spectrum of fault slip behaviors and seismic radiation patterns that differ from those of traditional earthquakes. However, slow earthquakes and huge megathrust earthquakes can have common slip mechanisms and are located in neighboring regions of the seismogenic zone. The frequent occurrence of slow earthquakes may help to reveal the physics underlying megathrust events as useful analogs. Slow earthquakes may function as stress meters because of their high sensitivity to stress changes in the seismogenic zone. Episodic stress transfer to megathrust source faults leads to an increased probability of triggering huge earthquakes if the adjacent locked region is critically loaded. Careful and precise monitoring of slow earthquakes may provide new information on the likelihood of impending huge earthquakes. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  14. Children's emotional experience two years after an earthquake: An exploration of knowledge of earthquakes and associated emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raccanello, Daniela; Burro, Roberto; Hall, Rob

    2017-01-01

    We explored whether and how the exposure to a natural disaster such as the 2012 Emilia Romagna earthquake affected the development of children's emotional competence in terms of understanding, regulating, and expressing emotions, after two years, when compared with a control group not exposed to the earthquake. We also examined the role of class level and gender. The sample included two groups of children (n = 127) attending primary school: The experimental group (n = 65) experienced the 2012 Emilia Romagna earthquake, while the control group (n = 62) did not. The data collection took place two years after the earthquake, when children were seven or ten-year-olds. Beyond assessing the children's understanding of emotions and regulating abilities with standardized instruments, we employed semi-structured interviews to explore their knowledge of earthquakes and associated emotions, and a structured task on the intensity of some target emotions. We applied Generalized Linear Mixed Models. Exposure to the earthquake did not influence the understanding and regulation of emotions. The understanding of emotions varied according to class level and gender. Knowledge of earthquakes, emotional language, and emotions associated with earthquakes were, respectively, more complex, frequent, and intense for children who had experienced the earthquake, and at increasing ages. Our data extend the generalizability of theoretical models on children's psychological functioning following disasters, such as the dose-response model and the organizational-developmental model for child resilience, and provide further knowledge on children's emotional resources related to natural disasters, as a basis for planning educational prevention programs.

  15. Prediction of Global Damage and Reliability Based Upon Sequential Identification and Updating of RC Structures Subject to Earthquakes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren R.K.; Skjærbæk, P. S.; Köylüoglu, H. U.

    The paper deals with the prediction of global damage and future structural reliability with special emphasis on sensitivity, bias and uncertainty of these predictions dependent on the statistically equivalent realizations of the future earthquake. The predictions are based on a modified Clough......-Johnston single-degree-of-freedom (SDOF) oscillator with three parameters which are calibrated to fit the displacement response and the damage development in the past earthquake....

  16. The MW 7.0 Haiti Earthquake of January 12, 2010: USGS/EERI Advance Reconnaissance Team Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberhard, Marc O.; Baldridge, Steven; Marshall, Justin; Mooney, Walter; Rix, Glenn J.

    2010-01-01

    soils (for example, lithology, stiffness, density, and thickness) made it difficult for us to quantitatively assess the role of ground-motion amplification in the widespread damage. Buildings The Haitian Ministry of Statistics and Informatics reported that one-story buildings represent 73 percent of the building inventory. Most ordinary, one-story houses have roofs made of sheet metal (82 percent), whereas most multistory houses and apartments have roofs made of concrete (71 percent). Walls made of concrete/block/stone predominate both in ordinary houses and apartments. It appears that the widespread damage to residences and commercial and government buildings was attributable to a great extent to the lack of earthquake-resistant design. In many cases, the structural types, member dimensions, and detailing practices were inadequate to resist strong ground motions. These vulnerabilities may have been exacerbated by poor construction practices. Reinforced concrete frames with concrete block masonry infill appeared to perform particularly poorly. Structures with light (timber or sheet metal) roofs performed better compared to structures with concrete roofs and slabs. The seismic performance of some buildings was adequate, and some of the damaged buildings appeared to have had low deformation demands. These observations suggest that structures designed and constructed with adequate stiffness and reinforcing details would have resisted the earthquake without being damaged severely. A damage survey of 107 buildings in downtown Port-au-Prince indicated that 28 percent had collapsed and another 33 percent were damaged enough to require repairs. A similar survey of 52 buildings in Leogane found that 62 percent had collapsed and another 31 percent required repairs. Bridges There was no evidence of bridge collapses attributable to the earthquake. Most bridges in Port-au-Prince are simple box culverts consisting of box girders 2.0 to 2.

  17. Rupture, waves and earthquakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uenishi, Koji

    2017-01-01

    Normally, an earthquake is considered as a phenomenon of wave energy radiation by rupture (fracture) of solid Earth. However, the physics of dynamic process around seismic sources, which may play a crucial role in the occurrence of earthquakes and generation of strong waves, has not been fully understood yet. Instead, much of former investigation in seismology evaluated earthquake characteristics in terms of kinematics that does not directly treat such dynamic aspects and usually excludes the influence of high-frequency wave components over 1 Hz. There are countless valuable research outcomes obtained through this kinematics-based approach, but "extraordinary" phenomena that are difficult to be explained by this conventional description have been found, for instance, on the occasion of the 1995 Hyogo-ken Nanbu, Japan, earthquake, and more detailed study on rupture and wave dynamics, namely, possible mechanical characteristics of (1) rupture development around seismic sources, (2) earthquake-induced structural failures and (3) wave interaction that connects rupture (1) and failures (2), would be indispensable.

  18. New geological perspectives on earthquake recurrence models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwartz, D.P.

    1997-01-01

    In most areas of the world the record of historical seismicity is too short or uncertain to accurately characterize the future distribution of earthquakes of different sizes in time and space. Most faults have not ruptured once, let alone repeatedly. Ultimately, the ability to correctly forecast the magnitude, location, and probability of future earthquakes depends on how well one can quantify the past behavior of earthquake sources. Paleoseismological trenching of active faults, historical surface ruptures, liquefaction features, and shaking-induced ground deformation structures provides fundamental information on the past behavior of earthquake sources. These studies quantify (a) the timing of individual past earthquakes and fault slip rates, which lead to estimates of recurrence intervals and the development of recurrence models and (b) the amount of displacement during individual events, which allows estimates of the sizes of past earthquakes on a fault. When timing and slip per event are combined with information on fault zone geometry and structure, models that define individual rupture segments can be developed. Paleoseismicity data, in the form of timing and size of past events, provide a window into the driving mechanism of the earthquake engine--the cycle of stress build-up and release

  19. Modeling, Forecasting and Mitigating Extreme Earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail-Zadeh, A.; Le Mouel, J.; Soloviev, A.

    2012-12-01

    Recent earthquake disasters highlighted the importance of multi- and trans-disciplinary studies of earthquake risk. A major component of earthquake disaster risk analysis is hazards research, which should cover not only a traditional assessment of ground shaking, but also studies of geodetic, paleoseismic, geomagnetic, hydrological, deep drilling and other geophysical and geological observations together with comprehensive modeling of earthquakes and forecasting extreme events. Extreme earthquakes (large magnitude and rare events) are manifestations of complex behavior of the lithosphere structured as a hierarchical system of blocks of different sizes. Understanding of physics and dynamics of the extreme events comes from observations, measurements and modeling. A quantitative approach to simulate earthquakes in models of fault dynamics will be presented. The models reproduce basic features of the observed seismicity (e.g., the frequency-magnitude relationship, clustering of earthquakes, occurrence of extreme seismic events). They provide a link between geodynamic processes and seismicity, allow studying extreme events, influence of fault network properties on seismic patterns and seismic cycles, and assist, in a broader sense, in earthquake forecast modeling. Some aspects of predictability of large earthquakes (how well can large earthquakes be predicted today?) will be also discussed along with possibilities in mitigation of earthquake disasters (e.g., on 'inverse' forensic investigations of earthquake disasters).

  20. Connecting slow earthquakes to huge earthquakes

    OpenAIRE

    Obara, Kazushige; Kato, Aitaro

    2016-01-01

    Slow earthquakes are characterized by a wide spectrum of fault slip behaviors and seismic radiation patterns that differ from those of traditional earthquakes. However, slow earthquakes and huge megathrust earthquakes can have common slip mechanisms and are located in neighboring regions of the seismogenic zone. The frequent occurrence of slow earthquakes may help to reveal the physics underlying megathrust events as useful analogs. Slow earthquakes may function as stress meters because of th...

  1. The mechanism of earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Kunquan; Cao, Zexian; Hou, Meiying; Jiang, Zehui; Shen, Rong; Wang, Qiang; Sun, Gang; Liu, Jixing

    2018-03-01

    strength of crust rocks: The gravitational pressure can initiate the elasticity-plasticity transition in crust rocks. By calculating the depth dependence of elasticity-plasticity transition and according to the actual situation analysis, the behaviors of crust rocks can be categorized in three typical zones: elastic, partially plastic and fully plastic. As the proportion of plastic portion reaches about 10% in the partially plastic zone, plastic interconnection may occur and the variation of shear strength in rocks is mainly characterized by plastic behavior. The equivalent coefficient of friction for the plastic slip is smaller by an order of magnitude, or even less than that for brittle fracture, thus the shear strength of rocks by plastic sliding is much less than that by brittle breaking. Moreover, with increasing depth a number of other factors can further reduce the shear yield strength of rocks. On the other hand, since earthquake is a large-scale damage, the rock breaking must occur along the weakest path. Therefore, the actual fracture strength of rocks in a shallow earthquake is assuredly lower than the average shear strength of rocks as generally observed. The typical distributions of the average strength and actual fracture strength in crustal rocks varying with depth are schematically illustrated. (3) The conditions for earthquake occurrence and mechanisms of earthquake: An earthquake will lead to volume expansion, and volume expansion must break through the obstacle. The condition for an earthquake to occur is as follows: the tectonic force exceeds the sum of the fracture strength of rock, the friction force of fault boundary and the resistance from obstacles. Therefore, the shallow earthquake is characterized by plastic sliding of rocks that break through the obstacles. Accordingly, four possible patterns for shallow earthquakes are put forward. Deep-focus earthquakes are believed to result from a wide-range rock flow that breaks the jam. Both shallow

  2. Estudio experimental del Sistema de Albañilería Integral en la construcción de viviendas sismorresistentes. Experimental study of the Integral Masonry System in the construction of earthquake resistant houses

    OpenAIRE

    Bustamante Montoro, Rosa; Orta Rial, María Belén; Adell Argiles, Josep Maria

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the application of the Integral Masonry System (IMS) to the construction of earthquake resistant houses and its experimental study. To verify the security of this new type of building in seismic areas of the third world two prototypes have been tested, one with adobe and the other with hollow brick. In both cases it’s a two-story 6x6x6 m3 house built to scale 1/2. The tests are carried out at the Laboratory of Antiseismic Structures of the Departmen...

  3. Probabilistic safety analysis of earth retaining structures during earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grivas, D. A.; Souflis, C.

    1982-07-01

    A procedure is presented for determining the probability of failure of Earth retaining structures under static or seismic conditions. Four possible modes of failure (overturning, base sliding, bearing capacity, and overall sliding) are examined and their combined effect is evaluated with the aid of combinatorial analysis. The probability of failure is shown to be a more adequate measure of safety than the customary factor of safety. As Earth retaining structures may fail in four distinct modes, a system analysis can provide a single estimate for the possibility of failure. A Bayesian formulation of the safety retaining walls is found to provide an improved measure for the predicted probability of failure under seismic loading. The presented Bayesian analysis can account for the damage incurred to a retaining wall during an earthquake to provide an improved estimate for its probability of failure during future seismic events.

  4. Auto correlation analysis of coda waves from local earthquakes for detecting temporal changes in shallow subsurface structures - The 2011 Tohoku-Oki, Japan, earthquake -

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakahara, H.

    2013-12-01

    For monitoring temporal changes in subsurface structures, I propose to use auto correlation functions of coda waves from local earthquakes recorded at surface receivers, which probably contain more body waves than surface waves. Because the use of coda waves requires earthquakes, time resolution for monitoring decreases. But at regions with high seismicity, it may be possible to monitor subsurface structures in sufficient time resolutions. Studying the 2011 Tohoku-Oki (Mw 9.0), Japan, earthquake for which velocity changes have been already reported by previous studies, I try to validate the method. KiK-net stations in northern Honshu are used in the analysis. For each moderate earthquake, normalized auto correlation functions of surface records are stacked with respect to time windows in S-wave coda. Aligning the stacked normalized auto correlation functions with time, I search for changes in arrival times of phases. The phases at lag times of less than 1s are studied because changes at shallow depths are focused. Based on the stretching method, temporal variations in the arrival times are measured at the stations. Clear phase delays are found to be associated with the mainshock and to gradually recover with time. Amounts of the phase delays are in the order of 10% on average with the maximum of about 50% at some stations. For validation, the deconvolution analysis using surface and subsurface records at the same stations are conducted. The results show that the phase delays from the deconvolution analysis are slightly smaller than those from the auto correlation analysis, which implies that the phases on the auto correlations are caused by larger velocity changes at shallower depths. The auto correlation analysis seems to have an accuracy of about several percents, which is much larger than methods using earthquake doublets and borehole array data. So this analysis might be applicable to detect larger changes. In spite of these disadvantages, this analysis is

  5. Earthquake recurrence models fail when earthquakes fail to reset the stress field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tormann, Thessa; Wiemer, Stefan; Hardebeck, Jeanne L.

    2012-01-01

    Parkfield's regularly occurring M6 mainshocks, about every 25 years, have over two decades stoked seismologists' hopes to successfully predict an earthquake of significant size. However, with the longest known inter-event time of 38 years, the latest M6 in the series (28 Sep 2004) did not conform to any of the applied forecast models, questioning once more the predictability of earthquakes in general. Our study investigates the spatial pattern of b-values along the Parkfield segment through the seismic cycle and documents a stably stressed structure. The forecasted rate of M6 earthquakes based on Parkfield's microseismicity b-values corresponds well to observed rates. We interpret the observed b-value stability in terms of the evolution of the stress field in that area: the M6 Parkfield earthquakes do not fully unload the stress on the fault, explaining why time recurrent models fail. We present the 1989 M6.9 Loma Prieta earthquake as counter example, which did release a significant portion of the stress along its fault segment and yields a substantial change in b-values.

  6. ON STRUCTURED AND DIFFUSE SEISMICITY, STIFFNESS OF EARTHQUAKE FOCI, AND NONLINEARITY OF MAGNITUDE RECURRENCE GRAPHS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgeny G. Bugaev

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Geological, geophysical and seismogeological studies are now conducted in a more detail and thus provide for determining seismic sources with higher accuracy, from the first meters to first dozens of meters [Waldhauser, Schaff, 2008]. It is now possible to consider uncertainty ellipses of earthquake hypocenters, that are recorded in the updated Earthquake Catalogue, as surfaces of earthquake focus generators. In our article, it is accepted that a maximum horizontal size of an uncertainty ellipse corresponds to an area of a focus generator, and seismic events are thus classified into two groups, earthquakes with nonstiff and stiff foci. Criteria of such a classification are two limits of elastic strain and brittle strain in case of uniaxial (3⋅10–5 or omnidirectional (10–6 compression. The criteria are established from results of analyses of parameters of seismic dislocations and earthquake foci with regard to studies of surface parameters and deformation parameters of fault zones. It is recommendable that the uniaxial compression criterion shall be applied to zones of interaction between tectonic plates, and the unilateral compression criterion shall be applied to low active (interplate areas. Sample cases demonstrate the use of data sets on nonstiff and stiff foci for separate evaluation of magnitude reoccurrence curves, analyses of structured and dissipated seismicity, review of the physical nature of nonlinearity of recurrence curves and conditions of preparation of strong earthquakes. Changes of parameters of the recurrence curves with changes of data collection square areas are considered. Reviewed are changes of parameters of the recurrence curves during preparation for the Japan major earthquake of 11 March 2011 prior to and after the major shock. It is emphasized that it is important to conduct even more detailed geological and geophysical studies and to improve precision and sensitivity of local seismological monitoring networks

  7. An Improved Multidimensional MPA Procedure for Bidirectional Earthquake Excitations

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Feng; Sun, Jian-Gang; Zhang, Ning

    2014-01-01

    Presently, the modal pushover analysis procedure is extended to multidimensional analysis of structures subjected to multidimensional earthquake excitations. an improved multidimensional modal pushover analysis (IMMPA) method is presented in the paper in order to estimate the response demands of structures subjected to bidirectional earthquake excitations, in which the unidirectional earthquake excitation applied on equivalent SDOF system is replaced by the direct superposition of two compone...

  8. Seismotectonics of the Taiwan Shoal region in the northeastern South China Sea: Insights from the crustal structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Kuiyuan; Sun, Jinlong; Xu, Huilong; Xie, Xiaoling; Xia, Shaohong; Zhang, Xiang; Cao, Jinghe; Zhao, Fang; Fan, Chaoyan

    2018-02-01

    A cluster of earthquakes occurred in the Taiwan Shoal region on the outer rise of the Manila Trench. Although most were of small to medium magnitudes, one strong earthquake occurred on September 16, 1994. Several previous studies have provided important information to progress our understanding of this single earthquake. However, little is currently known about the earthquake cluster, and it is necessary to investigate the deep crustal structure of the Taiwan Shoal region to understand the mechanisms involved in controlling and generating it. This study presents a two-dimensional seismic tomographic image of the crustal structure along the OBS2012 profile based on ocean-bottom seismograph (OBS) data, which exhibits a high-velocity anomaly flanked by low-velocity anomalies in the upper crust beneath the Taiwan Shoal. In this study, 765 earthquakes (Richter magnitude ML > 1.5) occurring between 1991 and 2015 were studied and analyses of earthquake epicenters, regional faults, and the crustal structure provides an improved understanding of the nature of active tectonics in this region. Results of analyses indicate firstly that the high-velocity area represents major asperities that correspond to the location of the earthquake cluster and where stress is concentrated. It is also depicted that the earthquake cluster was influenced by fault interactions. However, the September 1994 earthquake occurred independently of these seismic activities and was associated with reactivation of a preexisting fault. It is also determined that slab pull is resisted by the exposed precollision accretionary prism, and the resistive force is causing accumulation of inplane compressive-stress. This may trigger a future damaging earthquake in the Taiwan Shoal region.

  9. Earthquake response analysis of a base isolated building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazda, T.; Shiojiri, H.; Sawada, Y.; Harada, O.; Kawai, N.; Ontsuka, S.

    1989-01-01

    Recently, the seismic isolation has become one of the popular methods in the design of important structures or equipments against the earthquakes. However, it is desired to accumulate the demonstration data on reliability of seismically isolated structures and to establish the analysis methods of those structures. Based on the above recognition, the vibration tests of a base isolated building were carried out in Tsukuba Science City. After that, many earthquake records have been obtained at the building. In order to examine the validity of numerical models, earthquake response analyses have been executed by using both lumped mass model, and finite element model

  10. Technical features of steel structure construction by Kawasaki Steel; Kawasaki Seitetsu no kokozo gijutsu no tokucho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaneko, T.; Urata, I.; Okata, S. [Kawasaki Steel Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-03-01

    In the steel structure technology of Kawasaki Steel, the joint technique (e.g., welding) is added to them while developing or improving the products that meet the social needs as a material supplier. Moreover, the execution technique that manufactures materials or constructs them as an integrated structure, the structural analysis that conforms to the function and application of a structure, and the design technique on dynamic properties or durability such as earthquake resistance, fatigue, and corrosion resistance are synthetically expanded for engineering. In this paper, a building steel frame, non-residence building, bridge, and harbor structure as steel structure in the building and construction fields were described for each structure genre. The structural technology of a building steel frame is summarized to the products of pillar materials. An earthquake brace, using a dead soft steel, with high earthquake energy absorption capability and a damping wall were also developed. The design and execution technique of a large roof was systematized. The exchange technique of a road bridge RC floor and the technique of an unstiffened suspension bridge for pipeline were developed. A new technique was also developed for a suspension monorail track and offshore structure. 30 refs., 5 figs.

  11. Seismic fragility analyses of nuclear power plant structures based on the recorded earthquake data in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joe, Yang Hee; Cho, Sung Gook

    2003-01-01

    This paper briefly introduces an improved method for evaluating seismic fragilities of components of nuclear power plants in Korea. Engineering characteristics of small magnitude earthquake spectra recorded in the Korean peninsula during the last several years are also discussed in this paper. For the purpose of evaluating the effects of the recorded earthquake on the seismic fragilities of Korean nuclear power plant structures, several cases of comparative studies have been performed. The study results show that seismic fragility analysis based on the Newmark's spectra in Korea might over-estimate the seismic capacities of Korean facilities. (author)

  12. Shallow geological structures triggered during the Mw 6.4 Meinong earthquake, southwestern Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryline Le Béon

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Meinong earthquake generated up to ~10 cm surface displacement located 10 - 35 km west of the epicenter and monitored by InSAR and GPS. In addition to coseismic deformation related to the deep earthquake source, InSAR revealed three sharp surface displacement gradients. One of them is extensional and is inconsistent with the westward interseismic shortening of ~45 mm yr-1 in this region. The gradient sharpness suggests slip triggering on shallow structures, some of which were not well documented before. To characterize these shallow structures, we investigated potential surface ruptures in the field. Sets of ~NS tension cracks distributed over 25 - 300 m width, with cumulative extension in the same order as InSAR observations, were found along 5.5 km distance along the extensional gradient and are interpreted as surface rupture. We build two E-W regional balanced cross-sections, based on surface geology, subsurface data, and coseismic and interseismic geodetic data. From the Coastal Plain to the east edge of the coseismic deformation area, we propose a series of three active west-dipping backthrusts: the Houchiali fault, the Napalin-Pitou backthrust, and the Lungchuan backthrust. They all root on the 3.5 - 4.0 km deep Tainan detachment located near the base of the 3-km-thick Gutingkeng mudstone. Further east, the detachment would ramp down to ~7 km depth. Coseismic surface deformation measurements suggest that, in addition to the deeper (15 - 20 km main rupture plane, mostly the ramp, the Lungchuan backthrust, and the Tainan detachment were activated during or right after the earthquake. Local extension is considered as transient deformation at the west edge of the shallow main slip zone.

  13. Assessment of liquefaction potential during earthquakes by arias intensity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayen, R.E.; Mitchell, J.K.

    1997-01-01

    An Arias intensity approach to assess the liquefaction potential of soil deposits during earthquakes is proposed, using an energy-based measure of the severity of earthquake-shaking recorded on seismograms of the two horizontal components of ground motion. Values representing the severity of strong motion at depth in the soil column are associated with the liquefaction resistance of that layer, as measured by in situ penetration testing (SPT, CPT). This association results in a magnitude-independent boundary that envelopes initial liquefaction of soil in Arias intensity-normalized penetration resistance space. The Arias intensity approach is simple to apply and has proven to be highly reliable in assessing liquefaction potential. The advantages of using Arias intensity as a measure of earthquake-shaking severity in liquefaction assessment are: Arias intensity is derived from integration of the entire seismogram wave form, incorporating both the amplitude and duration elements of ground motion; all frequencies of recorded motion are considered; and Arias intensity is an appropriate measure to use when evaluating field penetration test methodologies that are inherently energy-based. Predictor equations describing the attenuation of Arias intensity as a function of earthquake magnitude and source distance are presented for rock, deep-stiff alluvium, and soft soil sites.

  14. Testing earthquake source inversion methodologies

    KAUST Repository

    Page, Morgan T.

    2011-01-01

    Source Inversion Validation Workshop; Palm Springs, California, 11-12 September 2010; Nowadays earthquake source inversions are routinely performed after large earthquakes and represent a key connection between recorded seismic and geodetic data and the complex rupture process at depth. The resulting earthquake source models quantify the spatiotemporal evolution of ruptures. They are also used to provide a rapid assessment of the severity of an earthquake and to estimate losses. However, because of uncertainties in the data, assumed fault geometry and velocity structure, and chosen rupture parameterization, it is not clear which features of these source models are robust. Improved understanding of the uncertainty and reliability of earthquake source inversions will allow the scientific community to use the robust features of kinematic inversions to more thoroughly investigate the complexity of the rupture process and to better constrain other earthquakerelated computations, such as ground motion simulations and static stress change calculations.

  15. Introduction to structural and mechanical failure modes for nuclear power facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reed, J.W.

    1991-01-01

    The three papers presented in this section discuss the types of information (i.e., dynamic tests, earthquake experience and analytical data) which are used in predicting the capacity of structures and equipment in nuclear power plants to resist earthquakes. The background and motivation for discussing these three types of information is presented in this paper as an introduction to the papers which follow in this section

  16. Kinematics of the 2015 San Ramon, California earthquake swarm: Implications for fault zone structure and driving mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Lian; Bürgmann, Roland; Shelly, David R.; Johnson, Christopher W.; Taira, Taka'aki

    2018-05-01

    Earthquake swarms represent a sudden increase in seismicity that may indicate a heterogeneous fault-zone, the involvement of crustal fluids and/or slow fault slip. Swarms sometimes precede major earthquake ruptures. An earthquake swarm occurred in October 2015 near San Ramon, California in an extensional right step-over region between the northern Calaveras Fault and the Concord-Mt. Diablo fault zone, which has hosted ten major swarms since 1970. The 2015 San Ramon swarm is examined here from 11 October through 18 November using template matching analysis. The relocated seismicity catalog contains ∼4000 events with magnitudes between - 0.2 structure with several sets of en échelon fault orientations. The migration of events along the three planar structures indicates a complex fluid and faulting interaction processes. We searched for correlations between seismic activity and tidal stresses and found some suggestive features, but nothing that we can be confident is statistically significant.

  17. Retrospective analysis of the Spitak earthquake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K. Tovmassian

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available Based on the retrospective analysis of numerous data and studies of the Spitak earthquake the present work at- tempts to shed light on different aspects of that catastrophic seismic event which occurred in Northern Arme- nia on December 7, 1988. The authors follow a chronological order of presentation, namely: changes in geo- sphere, atmosphere, biosphere during the preparation of the Spitak earthquake, foreshocks, main shock, after- shocks, focal mechanisms, historical seismicity; seismotectonic position of the source, strong motion records, site effects; the macroseismic effect, collapse of buildings and structures; rescue activities; earthquake conse- quences; and the lessons of the Spitak earthquake.

  18. Modal-space reference-model-tracking fuzzy control of earthquake excited structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kwan-Soon; Ok, Seung-Yong

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes an adaptive modal-space reference-model-tracking fuzzy control technique for the vibration control of earthquake-excited structures. In the proposed approach, the fuzzy logic is introduced to update optimal control force so that the controlled structural response can track the desired response of a reference model. For easy and practical implementation, the reference model is constructed by assigning the target damping ratios to the first few dominant modes in modal space. The numerical simulation results demonstrate that the proposed approach successfully achieves not only the adaptive fault-tolerant control system against partial actuator failures but also the robust performance against the variations of the uncertain system properties by redistributing the feedback control forces to the available actuators.

  19. Spatial Relationships between Deep-focus Earthquakes and Structural Heterogeneities within the Subducting Slabs of the Western Pacific Subduction Zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, M.; Kiser, E.; Niu, F.

    2016-12-01

    The nature of deep-focus earthquakes with depths greater than 300 km has long been controversial. Mechanisms that may promote brittle deformation at such depths include dehydration embrittlement, phase transformational faulting, and thermal runaway instabilities. Of these, the most commonly referenced mechanism—phase transformational faulting—involves the breakdown of metastable olivine within the core of a cold subducting slab. Seismic observations of the metastable olivine wedge, as well as its spatial relationship to deep-focus seismicity, are limited. Classical 1-D ray-theory based tomography images indicate that deep-focus hypocenters coincide with the highest wave speed anomalies within the slab, traditionally viewed as the slab's cold core. However, our latest full waveform tomography images of the Kuril, Japan, and Izu-Bonin slabs show systematically deep-focus earthquakes located near the top of high wave speed regions, with hypocentral or centroid locations determined by EHB, global CMT, or JMA. In order to reduce location bias in global CMT solutions due to unmodeled 3-D structure, we relocate tens of deep-focus earthquakes within the new 3-D structural model based on a full wavefield modeling code SPECFEM3D_GLOBE, with seismic waves simulated to the shortest period of 9 seconds. We also determine the centroid locations of high-frequency energy (0.8 Hz-2 Hz) from back-projection results of several large earthquakes to understand how rupture propagates within the slab. The spatial correlations between the 3-D wave speed model and high-precision centroid locations from both long period and high frequency seismic waves further indicate that the deep-focus earthquakes occur and propagate near the top of the subducting slab. We will discuss the constraints that these relationships place on the mechanism of deep-focus earthquakes.

  20. Stigma in science: the case of earthquake prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joffe, Helene; Rossetto, Tiziana; Bradley, Caroline; O'Connor, Cliodhna

    2018-01-01

    This paper explores how earthquake scientists conceptualise earthquake prediction, particularly given the conviction of six earthquake scientists for manslaughter (subsequently overturned) on 22 October 2012 for having given inappropriate advice to the public prior to the L'Aquila earthquake of 6 April 2009. In the first study of its kind, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 17 earthquake scientists and the transcribed interviews were analysed thematically. The scientists primarily denigrated earthquake prediction, showing strong emotive responses and distancing themselves from earthquake 'prediction' in favour of 'forecasting'. Earthquake prediction was regarded as impossible and harmful. The stigmatisation of the subject is discussed in the light of research on boundary work and stigma in science. The evaluation reveals how mitigation becomes the more favoured endeavour, creating a normative environment that disadvantages those who continue to pursue earthquake prediction research. Recommendations are made for communication with the public on earthquake risk, with a focus on how scientists portray uncertainty. © 2018 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2018.

  1. Guidelines for nuclear plant response to an earthquake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-12-01

    Guidelines have been developed to assist nuclear plant personnel in the preparation of earthquake response procedures for nuclear power plants. The objectives of the earthquake response procedures are to determine (1) the immediate effects of an earthquake on the physical condition of the nuclear power plant, (2) if shutdown of the plant is appropriate based on the observed damage to the plant or because the OBE has been exceeded, and (3) the readiness of the plant to resume operation following shutdown due to an earthquake. Readiness of a nuclear power plant to restart is determined on the basis of visual inspections of nuclear plant equipment and structures, and the successful completion of surveillance tests which demonstrate that the limiting conditions for operation as defined in the plant Technical Specifications are met. The guidelines are based on information obtained from a review of earthquake response procedures from numerous US and foreign nuclear power plants, interviews with nuclear plant operations personnel, and a review of reports of damage to industrial equipment and structures in actual earthquakes. 7 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs

  2. Resistive field structures for semiconductor devices and uses therof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinella, Matthew; DasGupta, Sandeepan; Kaplar, Robert; Baca, Albert G.

    2017-09-12

    The present disclosure relates to resistive field structures that provide improved electric field profiles when used with a semiconductor device. In particular, the resistive field structures provide a uniform electric field profile, thereby enhancing breakdown voltage and improving reliability. In example, the structure is a field cage that is configured to be resistive, in which the potential changes significantly over the distance of the cage. In another example, the structure is a resistive field plate. Using these resistive field structures, the characteristics of the electric field profile can be independently modulated from the physical parameters of the semiconductor device. Additional methods and architectures are described herein.

  3. Geological structure of Osaka basin and characteristic distributions of structural damage caused by earthquake; Osaka bonchi kozo to shingai tokusei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakagawa, K; Shiono, K; Inoue, N; Senda, S [Osaka City University, Osaka (JP. Faculty of Science); Ryoki, K [Osaka Polytechnic Collage, Osaka (Japan); Shichi, R [Nagoya University, Nagoya (Japan). Faculty of Science

    1996-05-01

    The paper investigates relations between the damage caused by the Hyogo-ken Nanbu earthquake and the deep underground structures. A characteristic of the earthquake damage distribution is that the damage concentrated near faults. Most of the damages were seen on the side of faults` relatively falling rather than right above the faults and of their slightly slanting to the seaside. Distribution like this seems to be closely related to underground structures. Therefore, a distribution map of the depth of basement granite in Osaka sedimentary basin was drawn, referring to the data on basement rock depth obtained from the distribution map of gravity anomaly and the result of the survey using the air gun reflection method. Moreover, cubic underground structures were determined by 3-D gravity analysis. The result was concluded as follows: when observing the M7 zone of the low land, in particular, where the damage was great from an aspect of gravity anomaly, the basement rock below the zone declined near the cliff toward the sea, which indicates a great possibility of its being a fault. There is a high possibility that the zone suffered mostly from the damage caused by focusing by refraction and total reflection of seismic wave rays. 3 refs., 8 figs.

  4. Report on planning of input earthquake vibration for design of vibration controlling structure, in the Tokai Works, Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uryu, Mitsuru; Shinohara, Takaharu; Terada, Shuji; Yamazaki, Toshihiko; Nakayama, Kazuhiko; Kondo, Toshinari; Hosoya, Hisashi

    1997-05-01

    When adopting a vibration controlling structure for a nuclear facility building, it is necessary to evaluate a little longer frequency vibration properly. Although various evaluation methods are proposed, there is no finished method. And, to the earthquake itself to investigate, some factors such as effect of surface wave, distant great earthquake, and so on must be considered, and further various evaluations and investigations are required. Here is reported on an evaluation method of the input earthquake vibration for vibration controlling design establishing on adoption of the vibration controlling structure using a vibration control device comprising of laminated rubber and lead damper for the buildings of reprocessing facility in Tokai Works. The input earthquake vibration for vibration controlling design shown in this report is to be adopted for a vibration controlling facility buildings in the Tokai Works. (G.K.)

  5. Earthquake Facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... North Dakota, and Wisconsin. The core of the earth was the first internal structural element to be identified. In 1906 R.D. Oldham discovered it from his studies of earthquake records. The inner core is solid, and the outer core is liquid and so does not transmit ...

  6. Seismic analysis of rack structures for fuel cycle facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mochio, Takashi; Morooka, Akihiko; Ito, Takashi.

    1987-01-01

    A concept of remote maintenance using in large remote cell and rack system structure, which is now under development at high active liquid waste vitrification facility of PNC and West Germany reprocessing plant WA-350, has been adopted to reduce the radiation exposure and increase the operating efficiency. The operation of a highly efficient remote maintenance system sometimes requires the rack structures to be fairly flexible, because of the large number of loose connections and/or gapped supports and the low number of rack frames. This means that there is a possibility of severe damage occurring due to large amplitude responses during a strong earthquake. Therefore, it is very important to estimate the earthquake-resistance capacity of rack structures, including process equipment, to earthquake excitation. This paper presents an outline of a new computer code ''FRACK'' to analyze the nonlinear seismic response of a rack structure developed as a first stage in the rack system seismic research program. (author)

  7. Sensing the earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bichisao, Marta; Stallone, Angela

    2017-04-01

    Making science visual plays a crucial role in the process of building knowledge. In this view, art can considerably facilitate the representation of the scientific content, by offering a different perspective on how a specific problem could be approached. Here we explore the possibility of presenting the earthquake process through visual dance. From a choreographer's point of view, the focus is always on the dynamic relationships between moving objects. The observed spatial patterns (coincidences, repetitions, double and rhythmic configurations) suggest how objects organize themselves in the environment and what are the principles underlying that organization. The identified set of rules is then implemented as a basis for the creation of a complex rhythmic and visual dance system. Recently, scientists have turned seismic waves into sound and animations, introducing the possibility of "feeling" the earthquakes. We try to implement these results into a choreographic model with the aim to convert earthquake sound to a visual dance system, which could return a transmedia representation of the earthquake process. In particular, we focus on a possible method to translate and transfer the metric language of seismic sound and animations into body language. The objective is to involve the audience into a multisensory exploration of the earthquake phenomenon, through the stimulation of the hearing, eyesight and perception of the movements (neuromotor system). In essence, the main goal of this work is to develop a method for a simultaneous visual and auditory representation of a seismic event by means of a structured choreographic model. This artistic representation could provide an original entryway into the physics of earthquakes.

  8. Understanding dynamic friction through spontaneously evolving laboratory earthquakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubino, V; Rosakis, A J; Lapusta, N

    2017-06-29

    Friction plays a key role in how ruptures unzip faults in the Earth's crust and release waves that cause destructive shaking. Yet dynamic friction evolution is one of the biggest uncertainties in earthquake science. Here we report on novel measurements of evolving local friction during spontaneously developing mini-earthquakes in the laboratory, enabled by our ultrahigh speed full-field imaging technique. The technique captures the evolution of displacements, velocities and stresses of dynamic ruptures, whose rupture speed range from sub-Rayleigh to supershear. The observed friction has complex evolution, featuring initial velocity strengthening followed by substantial velocity weakening. Our measurements are consistent with rate-and-state friction formulations supplemented with flash heating but not with widely used slip-weakening friction laws. This study develops a new approach for measuring local evolution of dynamic friction and has important implications for understanding earthquake hazard since laws governing frictional resistance of faults are vital ingredients in physically-based predictive models of the earthquake source.

  9. Seismic and Restoration Assessment of Monumental Masonry Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panagiotis G. Asteris

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Masonry structures are complex systems that require detailed knowledge and information regarding their response under seismic excitations. Appropriate modelling of a masonry structure is a prerequisite for a reliable earthquake-resistant design and/or assessment. However, modelling a real structure with a robust quantitative (mathematical representation is a very difficult, complex and computationally-demanding task. The paper herein presents a new stochastic computational framework for earthquake-resistant design of masonry structural systems. The proposed framework is based on the probabilistic behavior of crucial parameters, such as material strength and seismic characteristics, and utilizes fragility analysis based on different failure criteria for the masonry material. The application of the proposed methodology is illustrated in the case of a historical and monumental masonry structure, namely the assessment of the seismic vulnerability of the Kaisariani Monastery, a byzantine church that was built in Athens, Greece, at the end of the 11th to the beginning of the 12th century. Useful conclusions are drawn regarding the effectiveness of the intervention techniques used for the reduction of the vulnerability of the case-study structure, by means of comparison of the results obtained.

  10. Seismic and Restoration Assessment of Monumental Masonry Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asteris, Panagiotis G.; Douvika, Maria G.; Apostolopoulou, Maria; Moropoulou, Antonia

    2017-01-01

    Masonry structures are complex systems that require detailed knowledge and information regarding their response under seismic excitations. Appropriate modelling of a masonry structure is a prerequisite for a reliable earthquake-resistant design and/or assessment. However, modelling a real structure with a robust quantitative (mathematical) representation is a very difficult, complex and computationally-demanding task. The paper herein presents a new stochastic computational framework for earthquake-resistant design of masonry structural systems. The proposed framework is based on the probabilistic behavior of crucial parameters, such as material strength and seismic characteristics, and utilizes fragility analysis based on different failure criteria for the masonry material. The application of the proposed methodology is illustrated in the case of a historical and monumental masonry structure, namely the assessment of the seismic vulnerability of the Kaisariani Monastery, a byzantine church that was built in Athens, Greece, at the end of the 11th to the beginning of the 12th century. Useful conclusions are drawn regarding the effectiveness of the intervention techniques used for the reduction of the vulnerability of the case-study structure, by means of comparison of the results obtained. PMID:28767073

  11. Tutorial on earthquake rotational effects: historical examples

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kozák, Jan

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 99, 2B (2009), s. 998-1010 ISSN 0037-1106 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30120515 Keywords : rotational seismic models * earthquake rotational effects * historical earthquakes Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure Impact factor: 1.860, year: 2009

  12. The Crustal Structure of the North-South Earthquake Belt in China Revealed from Deep Seismic Soundings and Gravity Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yang; Guo, Lianghui; Shi, Lei; Li, Yonghua

    2018-01-01

    The North-South earthquake belt (NSEB) is one of the major earthquake regions in China. The studies of crustal structure play a great role in understanding tectonic evolution and in evaluating earthquake hazards in this region. However, some fundamental crustal parameters, especially crustal interface structure, are not clear in this region. In this paper, we reconstructed the crustal interface structure around the NSEB based on both the deep seismic sounding (DSS) data and the gravity data. We firstly reconstructed the crustal structure of crystalline basement (interface G), interface between upper and lower crusts (interface C) and Moho in the study area by compiling the results of 38 DSS profiles published previously. Then, we forwardly calculated the gravity anomalies caused by the interfaces G and C, and then subtracted them from the complete Bouguer gravity anomalies, yielding the regional gravity anomalies mainly due to the Moho interface. We then utilized a lateral-variable density interface inversion technique with constraints of the DSS data to invert the regional anomalies for the Moho depth model in the study area. The reliability of our Moho depth model was evaluated by comparing with other Moho depth models derived from other gravity inversion technique and receiver function analysis. Based on our Moho depth model, we mapped the crustal apparent density distribution in the study area for better understanding the geodynamics around the NSEB.

  13. Structure and tectonics of the Main Himalayan Thrust and associated faults from recent earthquake and seismic imaging studies using the NAMASTE array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karplus, M. S.; Pant, M.; Velasco, A. A.; Nabelek, J.; Kuna, V. M.; Sapkota, S. N.; Ghosh, A.; Mendoza, M.; Adhikari, L. B.; Klemperer, S. L.

    2017-12-01

    The India-Eurasia collision zone presents a significant earthquake hazard, as demonstrated by the recent, devastating April 25, 2015 M=7.8 Gorkha earthquake and the following May 12, 2015 M=7.3 earthquake. Important questions remain, including distinguishing possible geometries of the Main Himalayan Thrust (MHT), the role of other regional faults, the crustal composition and role of fluids in faulting, and the details of the rupture process, including structural causes and locations of rupture segmentation both along-strike and down-dip. These recent earthquakes and their aftershocks provide a unique opportunity to learn more about this collision zone. In June 2015, funded by NSF, we deployed the Nepal Array Measuring Aftershock Seismicity Trailing Earthquake (NAMASTE) array of 46 seismic stations distributed across eastern and central Nepal, spanning the region with most of the aftershocks. This array remained in place for 11 months from June 2015 to May 2016. We combine new results from this aftershock network in Nepal with previous geophysical and geological studies across the Himalaya to derive a new understanding of the tectonics of the Himalaya and southern Tibet in Nepal and surrounding countries. We focus on structure and composition of the Main Himalayan Thrust and compare this continent-continent subduction megathrust with megathrusts in other subduction zones.

  14. Implications of next generation attenuation ground motion prediction equations for site coefficients used in earthquake resistant design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borcherdt, Roger D.

    2014-01-01

    Proposals are developed to update Tables 11.4-1 and 11.4-2 of Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other Structures published as American Society of Civil Engineers Structural Engineering Institute standard 7-10 (ASCE/SEI 7–10). The updates are mean next generation attenuation (NGA) site coefficients inferred directly from the four NGA ground motion prediction equations used to derive the maximum considered earthquake response maps adopted in ASCE/SEI 7–10. Proposals include the recommendation to use straight-line interpolation to infer site coefficients at intermediate values of (average shear velocity to 30-m depth). The NGA coefficients are shown to agree well with adopted site coefficients at low levels of input motion (0.1 g) and those observed from the Loma Prieta earthquake. For higher levels of input motion, the majority of the adopted values are within the 95% epistemic-uncertainty limits implied by the NGA estimates with the exceptions being the mid-period site coefficient, Fv, for site class D and the short-period coefficient, Fa, for site class C, both of which are slightly less than the corresponding 95% limit. The NGA data base shows that the median value  of 913 m/s for site class B is more typical than 760 m/s as a value to characterize firm to hard rock sites as the uniform ground condition for future maximum considered earthquake response ground motion estimates. Future updates of NGA ground motion prediction equations can be incorporated easily into future adjustments of adopted site coefficients using procedures presented herein. 

  15. Network similarity and statistical analysis of earthquake seismic data

    OpenAIRE

    Deyasi, Krishanu; Chakraborty, Abhijit; Banerjee, Anirban

    2016-01-01

    We study the structural similarity of earthquake networks constructed from seismic catalogs of different geographical regions. A hierarchical clustering of underlying undirected earthquake networks is shown using Jensen-Shannon divergence in graph spectra. The directed nature of links indicates that each earthquake network is strongly connected, which motivates us to study the directed version statistically. Our statistical analysis of each earthquake region identifies the hub regions. We cal...

  16. NRIAG's Effort to Mitigate Earthquake Disasters in Egypt Using GPS and Seismic Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, Salah

    It has been estimated that, during historical time more than 50 million people have lost their lives in earthquakes during ground shaking, such as soil amplification and/or liquefaction, landslides and tsunamis or its immediate aftereffects, as fires. The distribution of population takes generally no account of earthquake risk, at least on a large scale. An earthquake may be large but not destructive, on the other hand, an earthquake may be destructive but not large. The absence of correlation is due to the fact that, great number of other factors entering into consideration: first of all, the location of the earthquake in relation to populated areas, also soil conditions and building constructions. Soil liquefaction has been identified as the underlying phenomenon for many ground failures, settlements and lateral spreads, which are a major cause of damage to soil structures and building foundations in many events. Egypt is suffered a numerous of destructive earthquakes as well as Kalabsha earthquake (1981, Mag 5.4) near Aswan city and the High dam, Dahshour earthquake (1992, Mag 5.9) near Cairo city and Aqaba earthquake (1995, Mag 7.2). As the category of earthquake damage includes all the phenomena related to the direct and indirect damages, the Egyptian authorities do a great effort to mitigate the earthquake disasters. The seismicity especially at the zones of high activity is investigated in details in order to obtain the active source zones not only by the Egyptian National Seismic Network (ENSN) but also by the local seismic networks at, Aswan, Hurghada, Aqaba, Abu Dabbab and Dabbaa. On the other hand the soil condition, soil amplification, soil structure interaction, liquefaction and seismic hazard are carried out in particular the urbanized areas and the region near the source zones. All these parameters are integrated to obtain the Egyptian building code which is valid to construct buildings resist damages and consequently mitigate the earthquake

  17. Environmentally Friendly Solution to Ground Hazards in Design of Bridges in Earthquake Prone Areas Using Timber Piles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi, H.

    2015-12-01

    Bridges are major elements of infrastructure in all societies. Their safety and continued serviceability guaranties the transportation and emergency access in urban and rural areas. However, these important structures are subject to earthquake induced damages in structure and foundations. The basic approach to the proper support of foundations are a) distribution of imposed loads to foundation in a way they can resist those loads without excessive settlement and failure; b) modification of foundation ground with various available methods; and c) combination of "a" and "b". The engineers has to face the task of designing the foundations meeting all safely and serviceability criteria but sometimes when there are numerous environmental and financial constrains, the use of some traditional methods become inevitable. This paper explains the application of timber piles to improve ground resistance to liquefaction and to secure the abutments of short to medium length bridges in an earthquake/liquefaction prone area in Bohol Island, Philippines. The limitations of using the common ground improvement methods (i.e., injection, dynamic compaction) because of either environmental or financial concerns along with the abundance of timber in the area made the engineers to use a network of timber piles behind the backwalls of the bridge abutments. The suggested timber pile network is simulated by numerical methods and its safety is examined. The results show that the compaction caused by driving of the piles and bearing capacity provided by timbers reduce the settlement and lateral movements due to service and earthquake induced loads.

  18. Where was the 1898 Mare Island Earthquake? Insights from the 2014 South Napa Earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hough, S. E.

    2014-12-01

    The 2014 South Napa earthquake provides an opportunity to reconsider the Mare Island earthquake of 31 March 1898, which caused severe damage to buildings at a Navy yard on the island. Revising archival accounts of the 1898 earthquake, I estimate a lower intensity magnitude, 5.8, than the value in the current Uniform California Earthquake Rupture Forecast (UCERF) catalog (6.4). However, I note that intensity magnitude can differ from Mw by upwards of half a unit depending on stress drop, which for a historical earthquake is unknowable. In the aftermath of the 2014 earthquake, there has been speculation that apparently severe effects on Mare Island in 1898 were due to the vulnerability of local structures. No surface rupture has ever been identified from the 1898 event, which is commonly associated with the Hayward-Rodgers Creek fault system, some 10 km west of Mare Island (e.g., Parsons et al., 2003). Reconsideration of detailed archival accounts of the 1898 earthquake, together with a comparison of the intensity distributions for the two earthquakes, points to genuinely severe, likely near-field ground motions on Mare Island. The 2014 earthquake did cause significant damage to older brick buildings on Mare Island, but the level of damage does not match the severity of documented damage in 1898. The high intensity files for the two earthquakes are more over spatially shifted, with the centroid of the 2014 distribution near the town of Napa and that of the 1898 distribution near Mare Island, east of the Hayward-Rodgers Creek system. I conclude that the 1898 Mare Island earthquake was centered on or near Mare Island, possibly involving rupture of one or both strands of the Franklin fault, a low-slip-rate fault sub-parallel to the Rodgers Creek fault to the west and the West Napa fault to the east. I estimate Mw5.8 assuming an average stress drop; data are also consistent with Mw6.4 if stress drop was a factor of ≈3 lower than average for California earthquakes. I

  19. Proposal on data collection for an international earthquake experience data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masopust, R.

    2001-01-01

    Earthquake experience data was recognized as an efficient basis for verification of seismic adequacy of equipment installed on NPPs. This paper is meant to initiate a database setup in order to use the seismic experience to establish the generic seismic resistance of NPPs equipment applicable namely to the Middle and East European countries. Such earthquake experience database should be then compared to the already existing and well-known SQUG-GIP database. To set up such an operational earthquake database will require an important amount of effort. It must be understood that this goal can be achieved only based on a long term permanent activities and coordinated cooperation of various institutions. (author)

  20. Current status of JRR-3. After the 3.11 earthquake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arai, Masaji; Murayama, Yoji; Wada, Shigeru

    2012-01-01

    JRR-3 at Tokai site of JAEA was in its regular maintenance period, when the Great East Japan Earthquake was taken place on 11th March 2011. The reactor building with their solid foundations and the equipment important to safety survived the earthquake without serious damage and no radioactive leakage has been occurred. Recovery work is planned to be completed by the end of this March. At the same time, check and test of the integrity of all components and seismic assessment to show resistance with the 3.11 earthquake have been carried out. JRR-3 will restart its operation after completing above mentioned procedures. (author)

  1. The 11 May 2011 earthquake at Lorca (SE Spain) viewed in a structural-tectonic context

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vissers, R.L.M.; Meijninger, B.M.L.

    2011-01-01

    The Lorca earthquake of 11 May 2011 in the Betic Cordillera of SE Spain occurred almost exactly on the Alhama de Murcia fault, a marked fault that forms part of a NE-SW trending belt of faults and thrusts. The fault belt is reminiscent of a strike-slip corridor, but recent structural studies have

  2. Bridge seismic retrofit measures considering subduction zone earthquakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-01

    Over the years, earthquakes have exposed the vulnerability of reinforced concrete structures under : seismic loads. The recent occurrence of highly devastating earthquakes near instrumented regions, e.g. 2010 Maule, Chile : and 2011 Tohoku, Japan, ha...

  3. Earthquake free design of pipe lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurihara, Chizuko; Sakurai, Akio

    1974-01-01

    Long structures such as cooling sea water pipe lines of nuclear power plants have a wide range of extent along the ground surface, and are incurred by not only the inertia forces but also forces due to ground deformations or the seismic wave propagation during earthquakes. Since previous reports indicated the earthquake free design of underground pipe lines, it is discussed in this report on behaviors of pipe lines on the ground during earthquakes and is proposed the aseismic design of pipe lines considering the effects of both inertia forces and ground deformations. (author)

  4. Earthquake behavior at deep underground observed by three-dimensional array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komada, Hiroya; Sawada, Yoshihiro; Aoyama, Shigeo.

    1989-01-01

    The earthquake observation has been carried out using an eight point three-dimensional array between on-ground and the depth of about 400 m at Hosokura Mine in Miyagi prefecture, for the purpose of obtaining the basic datum on the characteristics of the seismic waves for the earthquake resistance design of the deep underground disposal facility of high level waste. The following results ware obtained. (1) The maximum accelerations at the underground are damped to about 60 % of those at on-ground horizontal and to about 70 % vertical. (2) Although the frequency characteristics of the seismic waves varies for each earthquake, the transfer characteristics of seismic waves from deep underground to on-ground is the same for each earthquake. (3) The horizontal dirrections of seismic wave incidence are similar to the directions from epicenters of each earthquake. The vertical directions of seismic wave incidence are in the range of about 3deg to 35deg from vertical line. (author)

  5. Fault Branching and Long-Term Earthquake Rupture Scenario for Strike-Slip Earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klinger, Y.; CHOI, J. H.; Vallage, A.

    2017-12-01

    Careful examination of surface rupture for large continental strike-slip earthquakes reveals that for the majority of earthquakes, at least one major branch is involved in the rupture pattern. Often, branching might be either related to the location of the epicenter or located toward the end of the rupture, and possibly related to the stopping of the rupture. In this work, we examine large continental earthquakes that show significant branches at different scales and for which ground surface rupture has been mapped in great details. In each case, rupture conditions are described, including dynamic parameters, past earthquakes history, and regional stress orientation, to see if the dynamic stress field would a priori favor branching. In one case we show that rupture propagation and branching are directly impacted by preexisting geological structures. These structures serve as pathways for the rupture attempting to propagate out of its shear plane. At larger scale, we show that in some cases, rupturing a branch might be systematic, hampering possibilities for the development of a larger seismic rupture. Long-term geomorphology hints at the existence of a strong asperity in the zone where the rupture branched off the main fault. There, no evidence of throughgoing rupture could be seen along the main fault, while the branch is well connected to the main fault. This set of observations suggests that for specific configurations, some rupture scenarios involving systematic branching are more likely than others.

  6. Centrality in earthquake multiplex networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotfi, Nastaran; Darooneh, Amir Hossein; Rodrigues, Francisco A.

    2018-06-01

    Seismic time series has been mapped as a complex network, where a geographical region is divided into square cells that represent the nodes and connections are defined according to the sequence of earthquakes. In this paper, we map a seismic time series to a temporal network, described by a multiplex network, and characterize the evolution of the network structure in terms of the eigenvector centrality measure. We generalize previous works that considered the single layer representation of earthquake networks. Our results suggest that the multiplex representation captures better earthquake activity than methods based on single layer networks. We also verify that the regions with highest seismological activities in Iran and California can be identified from the network centrality analysis. The temporal modeling of seismic data provided here may open new possibilities for a better comprehension of the physics of earthquakes.

  7. GIS BASED SYSTEM FOR POST-EARTHQUAKE CRISIS MANAGMENT USING CELLULAR NETWORK

    OpenAIRE

    Raeesi, M.; Sadeghi-Niaraki, A.

    2013-01-01

    Earthquakes are among the most destructive natural disasters. Earthquakes happen mainly near the edges of tectonic plates, but they may happen just about anywhere. Earthquakes cannot be predicted. Quick response after disasters, like earthquake, decreases loss of life and costs. Massive earthquakes often cause structures to collapse, trapping victims under dense rubble for long periods of time. After the earthquake and destroyed some areas, several teams are sent to find the location of the d...

  8. The research of suspen-dome structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Shengyuan

    2017-09-01

    After overcoming the shortcomings of single-layer latticed shell and cable dome structure, the suspen-dome was developed by inheriting the advantages of them, and it was recognized and applied as a new type of prestressed force large span space structure. Based on the analysis of the background and mechanical principle, the researches of suspen-dome are reviewed, including form-finding analysis, the analysis of static force and stability, the dynamic behaviors and the earthquake resistant behavior, the analysis of prestressing force and optimization design, and the research status of the design of the fir-resistant performance etc. This thesis summarizes the methods of various researches, being a reference for further structural performance research and structural engineering application.

  9. Degree of coupling in high-rise mixed shear walls structures

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    assessment of the structural behaviour of coupled shear wall bents in mixed shear wall ... efficient lateral load resisting system against wind and earthquake effects. .... can be obtained from the second derivative of equation (11) which must be ...

  10. Comparison of Structurally Controlled Landslide Hazard Simulation to the Co-seismic Landslides Caused by the M 7.2 2013 Bohol Earthquake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galang, J. A. M. B.; Eco, R. C.; Lagmay, A. M. A.

    2014-12-01

    The M_w 7.2 October 15, 2013 Bohol earthquake is one of the more destructive earthquake to hit the Philippines in the 21st century. The epicenter was located in Sagbayan municipality, central Bohol and was generated by a previously unmapped reverse fault called the "Inabanga Fault". The earthquake resulted in 209 fatalities and over 57 million USD worth of damages. The earthquake generated co-seismic landslides most of which were related to fault structures. Unlike rainfall induced landslides, the trigger for co-seismic landslides happen without warning. Preparations for this type of landslides rely heavily on the identification of fracture-related slope instability. To mitigate the impacts of co-seismic landslide hazards, morpho-structural orientations of discontinuity sets were mapped using remote sensing techniques with the aid of a Digital Terrain Model (DTM) obtained in 2012. The DTM used is an IFSAR derived image with a 5-meter pixel resolution and approximately 0.5 meter vertical accuracy. Coltop 3D software was then used to identify similar structures including measurement of their dip and dip directions. The chosen discontinuity sets were then keyed into Matterocking software to identify potential rock slide zones due to planar or wedged discontinuities. After identifying the structurally-controlled unstable slopes, the rock mass propagation extent of the possible rock slides was simulated using Conefall. Separately, a manually derived landslide inventory has been performed using post-earthquake satellite images and LIDAR. The results were compared to the landslide inventory which identified at least 873 landslides. Out of the 873 landslides identified through the inventory, 786 or 90% intersect the simulated structural-controlled landslide hazard areas of Bohol. The results show the potential of this method to identify co-seismic landslide hazard areas for disaster mitigation. Along with computer methods to simulate shallow landslides, and debris flow

  11. Structure of the Koyna-Warna Seismic Zone, Maharashtra, India: A possible model for large induced earthquakes elsewhere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catchings, Rufus D.; Dixit, M.M.; Goldman, Mark R.; Kumar, S.

    2015-01-01

    The Koyna-Warna area of India is one of the best worldwide examples of reservoir-induced seismicity, with the distinction of having generated the largest known induced earthquake (M6.3 on 10 December 1967) and persistent moderate-magnitude (>M5) events for nearly 50 years. Yet, the fault structure and tectonic setting that has accommodated the induced seismicity is poorly known, in part because the seismic events occur beneath a thick sequence of basalt layers. On the basis of the alignment of earthquake epicenters over an ~50 year period, lateral variations in focal mechanisms, upper-crustal tomographic velocity images, geophysical data (aeromagnetic, gravity, and magnetotelluric), geomorphic data, and correlation with similar structures elsewhere, we suggest that the Koyna-Warna area lies within a right step between northwest trending, right-lateral faults. The sub-basalt basement may form a local structural depression (pull-apart basin) caused by extension within the step-over zone between the right-lateral faults. Our postulated model accounts for the observed pattern of normal faulting in a region that is dominated by north-south directed compression. The right-lateral faults extend well beyond the immediate Koyna-Warna area, possibly suggesting a more extensive zone of seismic hazards for the central India area. Induced seismic events have been observed many places worldwide, but relatively large-magnitude induced events are less common because critically stressed, preexisting structures are a necessary component. We suggest that releasing bends and fault step-overs like those we postulate for the Koyna-Warna area may serve as an ideal tectonic environment for generating moderate- to large- magnitude induced (reservoir, injection, etc.) earthquakes.

  12. Probabilistic assessment of steel moment frames incremental collapse (ordinary, intermediate and special under earthquake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kourosh Mehdizadeh

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Building collapse is a level of the structure performance in which the amount of financial and life loss is maximized, so this event could be the worst incident in the construction. Regarding to the possibility of destructive earthquakes in different parts of the world, detailed assessment of the structure's collapse has been one of the major challenges of the structural engineering. In this regard, offering models based on laboratory studies, considering the effective parameters and appropriate earthquakes could be a step towards achieving this goal. In this research, a five-story steel structure with a system of ordinary, intermediate and special moment frame (low, intermediate and high ductility has been designed based on the local regulations. In this study, the effect of resistance and stiffness deterioration of the structural elements based on the results of the laboratory models have been considered and the ductility role in the collapse capacity of steel moment frames has been investigated as probabilistic matter. For this purpose, incremental dynamic analysis has been done under 50 pairs of earthquake records proposing FEMA P695 instruction and fragility curves of various performance levels are developed. Results showed higher collapse capacity of special moment steel frame than the intermediate and ordinary moment frames. In the 50 percent probability level, the collapse capacity of special moment frame increased 34 % compared to the intermediate moment frame and 66 % to the ordinary moment frame. Also, the results showed that for different collapse spectral accelerations, the use of special moment frame instead of intermediate and ordinary moment frames reduces the collapse probability to 30 and 50 % respectively.

  13. Initiatives to Reduce Earthquake Risk of Developing Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, B. E.

    2008-12-01

    an earthquake- and tsunami-resistant structure in Sumatra to house a tsunami museum, a community training center, and offices of a local NGO that is preparing Padang for the next tsunami. This facility would be designed and built by a team of US and Indonesian academics, architects, engineers and students. Another initiative would launch a collaborative research program on school earthquake safety with the scientists and engineers from the US and the ten Islamic countries that comprise the Economic Cooperation Organization. Finally, GHI hopes to develop internet and satellite communication techniques that will allow earthquake risk managers in the US to interact with masons, government officials, engineers and architects in remote communities of vulnerable developing countries, closing the science and engineering divide.

  14. Earthquake location in island arcs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engdahl, E.R.; Dewey, J.W.; Fujita, K.

    1982-01-01

    A comprehensive data set of selected teleseismic P-wave arrivals and local-network P- and S-wave arrivals from large earthquakes occurring at all depths within a small section of the central Aleutians is used to examine the general problem of earthquake location in island arcs. Reference hypocenters for this special data set are determined for shallow earthquakes from local-network data and for deep earthquakes from combined local and teleseismic data by joint inversion for structure and location. The high-velocity lithospheric slab beneath the central Aleutians may displace hypocenters that are located using spherically symmetric Earth models; the amount of displacement depends on the position of the earthquakes with respect to the slab and on whether local or teleseismic data are used to locate the earthquakes. Hypocenters for trench and intermediate-depth events appear to be minimally biased by the effects of slab structure on rays to teleseismic stations. However, locations of intermediate-depth events based on only local data are systematically displaced southwards, the magnitude of the displacement being proportional to depth. Shallow-focus events along the main thrust zone, although well located using only local-network data, are severely shifted northwards and deeper, with displacements as large as 50 km, by slab effects on teleseismic travel times. Hypocenters determined by a method that utilizes seismic ray tracing through a three-dimensional velocity model of the subduction zone, derived by thermal modeling, are compared to results obtained by the method of joint hypocenter determination (JHD) that formally assumes a laterally homogeneous velocity model over the source region and treats all raypath anomalies as constant station corrections to the travel-time curve. The ray-tracing method has the theoretical advantage that it accounts for variations in travel-time anomalies within a group of events distributed over a sizable region of a dipping, high

  15. Using Linear Spectral Method when Calculating Seismic Resistance of Large-Capacity Vertical Steel Tanks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarasenko Alexandr

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is aimed at determining the possibility of applying the simplified method proposed by the authors to calculate the tank seismic resistance in compliance with current regulations and scientific provisions. The authors propose a highly detailed numerical model for a common oil storage tank RVSPK-50000 that enables static operational loads and dynamic action of earthquakes to be calculated. Within the modal analysis the natural oscillation frequencies in the range of 0-10 Hz were calculated; the results are given for the first ten modes. The model takes into account the effect of impulsive and convective components of hydrodynamic pressure during earthquakes. Within the spectral analysis by generalized response spectra was calculated a general stress-strain state of a structure during earthquakes of 7, 8, 9 intensity degrees on the MSK-64 scale for a completely filled up, a half-filled up to the mark of 8.5 m and an empty RVSPK-50000 tank. The developed finite element model can be used to perform calculations of seismic resistance by the direct dynamic method, which will give further consideration to the impact of individual structures (floating roof, support posts, adjoined elements of added stiffness on the general stress-strain state of a tank.

  16. Earthquake damage to underground facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pratt, H.R.; Hustrulid, W.A.; Stephenson, D.E.

    1978-11-01

    The potential seismic risk for an underground nuclear waste repository will be one of the considerations in evaluating its ultimate location. However, the risk to subsurface facilities cannot be judged by applying intensity ratings derived from the surface effects of an earthquake. A literature review and analysis were performed to document the damage and non-damage due to earthquakes to underground facilities. Damage from earthquakes to tunnels, s, and wells and damage (rock bursts) from mining operations were investigated. Damage from documented nuclear events was also included in the study where applicable. There are very few data on damage in the subsurface due to earthquakes. This fact itself attests to the lessened effect of earthquakes in the subsurface because mines exist in areas where strong earthquakes have done extensive surface damage. More damage is reported in shallow tunnels near the surface than in deep mines. In mines and tunnels, large displacements occur primarily along pre-existing faults and fractures or at the surface entrance to these facilities.Data indicate vertical structures such as wells and shafts are less susceptible to damage than surface facilities. More analysis is required before seismic criteria can be formulated for the siting of a nuclear waste repository

  17. Modeling fast and slow earthquakes at various scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ide, Satoshi

    2014-01-01

    Earthquake sources represent dynamic rupture within rocky materials at depth and often can be modeled as propagating shear slip controlled by friction laws. These laws provide boundary conditions on fault planes embedded in elastic media. Recent developments in observation networks, laboratory experiments, and methods of data analysis have expanded our knowledge of the physics of earthquakes. Newly discovered slow earthquakes are qualitatively different phenomena from ordinary fast earthquakes and provide independent information on slow deformation at depth. Many numerical simulations have been carried out to model both fast and slow earthquakes, but problems remain, especially with scaling laws. Some mechanisms are required to explain the power-law nature of earthquake rupture and the lack of characteristic length. Conceptual models that include a hierarchical structure over a wide range of scales would be helpful for characterizing diverse behavior in different seismic regions and for improving probabilistic forecasts of earthquakes.

  18. Thermal infrared anomalies of several strong earthquakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Congxin; Zhang, Yuansheng; Guo, Xiao; Hui, Shaoxing; Qin, Manzhong; Zhang, Ying

    2013-01-01

    In the history of earthquake thermal infrared research, it is undeniable that before and after strong earthquakes there are significant thermal infrared anomalies which have been interpreted as preseismic precursor in earthquake prediction and forecasting. In this paper, we studied the characteristics of thermal radiation observed before and after the 8 great earthquakes with magnitude up to Ms7.0 by using the satellite infrared remote sensing information. We used new types of data and method to extract the useful anomaly information. Based on the analyses of 8 earthquakes, we got the results as follows. (1) There are significant thermal radiation anomalies before and after earthquakes for all cases. The overall performance of anomalies includes two main stages: expanding first and narrowing later. We easily extracted and identified such seismic anomalies by method of "time-frequency relative power spectrum." (2) There exist evident and different characteristic periods and magnitudes of thermal abnormal radiation for each case. (3) Thermal radiation anomalies are closely related to the geological structure. (4) Thermal radiation has obvious characteristics in abnormal duration, range, and morphology. In summary, we should be sure that earthquake thermal infrared anomalies as useful earthquake precursor can be used in earthquake prediction and forecasting.

  19. The ordered network structure of M {>=} 6 strong earthquakes and its prediction in the Jiangsu-South Yellow Sea region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Men, Ke-Pei [Nanjing Univ. of Information Science and Technology (China). College of Mathematics and Statistics; Cui, Lei [California Univ., Santa Barbara, CA (United States). Applied Probability and Statistics Dept.

    2013-05-15

    The the Jiangsu-South Yellow Sea region is one of the key seismic monitoring defence areas in the eastern part of China. Since 1846, M {>=} 6 strong earthquakes have showed an obvious commensurability and orderliness in this region. The main orderly values are 74 {proportional_to} 75 a, 57 {proportional_to} 58 a, 11 {proportional_to} 12 a, and 5 {proportional_to} 6 a, wherein 74 {proportional_to} 75 a and 57 {proportional_to} 58 a with an outstanding predictive role. According to the information prediction theory of Wen-Bo Weng, we conceived the M {>=} 6 strong earthquake ordered network structure in the South Yellow Sea and the whole region. Based on this, we analyzed and discussed the variation of seismicity in detail and also made a trend prediction of M {>=} 6 strong earthquakes in the future. The results showed that since 1998 it has entered into a new quiet episode which may continue until about 2042; and the first M {>=} 6 strong earthquake in the next active episode will probably occur in 2053 pre and post, with the location likely in the sea area of the South Yellow Sea; also, the second and the third ones or strong earthquake swarm in the future will probably occur in 2058 and 2070 pre and post. (orig.)

  20. The shallow sedimentary and structural deformation in the southern Longmen Shan: constraints on the seismotectonics of the 2013 Lushan Mw6.7 Earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, R.; Xu, X.; He, D.; Suppe, J.

    2017-12-01

    On April 20, 2013, an unexpected Mw 6.7 earthquake occurred in Lushan County at the southern Longmen Shan, the eastern margin of the Tibetan Plateau. After this Lushan earthquake, whether the seismogenic fault is a high-angle or low-angle fault? The structural characteristics, attribution, and the seismotectonic model of this earthquake have many debates and problems. In this study, a high-resolution seismic reflection profile was combined with near-surface geological data, earthquake relocation and geodetic measurements, and a recent deep artificial seismic reflection profile to identify the active fault and seismotectonics of this earthquake. Three-dimensional imaging of the aftershocks was used to identify two planar faults that together form a y-shape (f1 and f2). Seismic interpretations suggest that the seismogenic fault f1 is a typical basement blind fault that did not penetrate into the overlying Mesozoic and Cenozoic units, and it is not a Shuangshi-Dachuan fault (F4) or the frontal Dayi buried fault (F6). Geodetic measurements suggest that the coseismic deformation is consistent with the geometry and kinematics of shear fault-bend folding (FBF). The history of tectonic evolution since the Paleozoic in Longmen Shan area also referred. There are three major detachments control the structural deformation of the upper crust in the Longmen Shan and Western Sichuan Basin, resulting in multiple superimposed deformation events. Deep seismic data indicate the syndepositional nature of fault f1 a preexisting normal fault older than the Triassic, which underwent positive inversion tectonics during the Late Cenozoic. A thrust fault f3 converges with f1 at a depth of approximately12 km with an accumulated slip 3.6 km. This 2013 Lushan earthquake triggered by blind faults is a hidden earthquake. Since the Late Cenozoic, with the strong and on-going compression of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau to the Sichuan Basin, the early-period normal faults were activated after

  1. Earthquake response observation of isolated buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harada, O.; Kawai, N.; Ishii, T.; Sawada, Y.; Shiojiri, H.; Mazda, T.

    1989-01-01

    Base isolation system is expected to be a technology for a rational design of FBR plant. In order to apply this system to important structures, accumulation of verification data is necessary. From this point of view, the vibration test and the earthquake response observation of the actual isolated building using laminated rubber bearings and elasto-plastic steel dampers were conducted for the purpose of investigating its dynamic behavior and of proving the reliability of the base isolation system. Since September in 1986, more than thirty earthquakes have been observed. This paper presents the results of the earthquake response observation

  2. The USGS Earthquake Notification Service (ENS): Customizable notifications of earthquakes around the globe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wald, Lisa A.; Wald, David J.; Schwarz, Stan; Presgrave, Bruce; Earle, Paul S.; Martinez, Eric; Oppenheimer, David

    2008-01-01

    At the beginning of 2006, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Earthquake Hazards Program (EHP) introduced a new automated Earthquake Notification Service (ENS) to take the place of the National Earthquake Information Center (NEIC) "Bigquake" system and the various other individual EHP e-mail list-servers for separate regions in the United States. These included northern California, southern California, and the central and eastern United States. ENS is a "one-stop shopping" system that allows Internet users to subscribe to flexible and customizable notifications for earthquakes anywhere in the world. The customization capability allows users to define the what (magnitude threshold), the when (day and night thresholds), and the where (specific regions) for their notifications. Customization is achieved by employing a per-user based request profile, allowing the notifications to be tailored for each individual's requirements. Such earthquake-parameter-specific custom delivery was not possible with simple e-mail list-servers. Now that event and user profiles are in a structured query language (SQL) database, additional flexibility is possible. At the time of this writing, ENS had more than 114,000 subscribers, with more than 200,000 separate user profiles. On a typical day, more than 188,000 messages get sent to a variety of widely distributed users for a wide range of earthquake locations and magnitudes. The purpose of this article is to describe how ENS works, highlight the features it offers, and summarize plans for future developments.

  3. A global building inventory for earthquake loss estimation and risk management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaiswal, K.; Wald, D.; Porter, K.

    2010-01-01

    We develop a global database of building inventories using taxonomy of global building types for use in near-real-time post-earthquake loss estimation and pre-earthquake risk analysis, for the U.S. Geological Survey's Prompt Assessment of Global Earthquakes for Response (PAGER) program. The database is available for public use, subject to peer review, scrutiny, and open enhancement. On a country-by-country level, it contains estimates of the distribution of building types categorized by material, lateral force resisting system, and occupancy type (residential or nonresidential, urban or rural). The database draws on and harmonizes numerous sources: (1) UN statistics, (2) UN Habitat's demographic and health survey (DHS) database, (3) national housing censuses, (4) the World Housing Encyclopedia and (5) other literature. ?? 2010, Earthquake Engineering Research Institute.

  4. Earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    An earthquake happens when two blocks of the earth suddenly slip past one another. Earthquakes strike suddenly, violently, and without warning at any time of the day or night. If an earthquake occurs in a populated area, it may cause ...

  5. Shake Table Test for the Collapse Investigation of a Typical Multi-Story Reinforced Concrete Frame Structure in the Meizoseismal Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weixiao Xu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available According to statistics from past earthquakes, it is observed that multi-story reinforced concrete (RC frames represent a large proportion of the structural failures or collapses in seismic events. Hence, research on seismic collapse mechanisms and risks of RC frame structures subjected to extreme earthquakes is of foremost importance. Both experimental and numerical studies have been substantially carried out in this field. In order to represent an actual process of structural damage in an actual seismic event and provide a calibration test for numerical studies, a shake table collapse test of a typical multi-story RC frame structural model, which is scaled from a nearly collapsed building in the 2010 Ms 7.1 Yushu earthquake in China, was performed. Both the test and earthquake field investigation indicate that severe damage mainly occurred at the column ends. As dual structural systems, i.e., systems combining frames and additional members that mainly carry seismic loading, could be a better way to solve the unexpected damage mechanism of RC frames, a practical stiffness iteration design method based on the nonlinear static analysis to obtain the optimal stiffness demanding of the lateral load-resisting members in each story is proposed. This approach aims to control the structural deformation pattern along the height. The outcome of this study provides some intrinsic understanding of the inherent collapse mechanisms of similar RC frames during strong earthquakes. It also offers a practical design method to improve the seismic collapse resistance of RC frames.

  6. Earthquakes of Garhwal Himalaya region of NW Himalaya, India: A study of relocated earthquakes and their seismogenic source and stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    R, A. P.; Paul, A.; Singh, S.

    2017-12-01

    Since the continent-continent collision 55 Ma, the Himalaya has accommodated 2000 km of convergence along its arc. The strain energy is being accumulated at a rate of 37-44 mm/yr and releases at time as earthquakes. The Garhwal Himalaya is located at the western side of a Seismic Gap, where a great earthquake is overdue atleast since 200 years. This seismic gap (Central Seismic Gap: CSG) with 52% probability for a future great earthquake is located between the rupture zones of two significant/great earthquakes, viz. the 1905 Kangra earthquake of M 7.8 and the 1934 Bihar-Nepal earthquake of M 8.0; and the most recent one, the 2015 Gorkha earthquake of M 7.8 is in the eastern side of this seismic gap (CSG). The Garhwal Himalaya is one of the ideal locations of the Himalaya where all the major Himalayan structures and the Himalayan Seimsicity Belt (HSB) can ably be described and studied. In the present study, we are presenting the spatio-temporal analysis of the relocated local micro-moderate earthquakes, recorded by a seismicity monitoring network, which is operational since, 2007. The earthquake locations are relocated using the HypoDD (double difference hypocenter method for earthquake relocations) program. The dataset from July, 2007- September, 2015 have been used in this study to estimate their spatio-temporal relationships, moment tensor (MT) solutions for the earthquakes of M>3.0, stress tensors and their interactions. We have also used the composite focal mechanism solutions for small earthquakes. The majority of the MT solutions show thrust type mechanism and located near the mid-crustal-ramp (MCR) structure of the detachment surface at 8-15 km depth beneath the outer lesser Himalaya and higher Himalaya regions. The prevailing stress has been identified to be compressional towards NNE-SSW, which is the direction of relative plate motion between the India and Eurasia continental plates. The low friction coefficient estimated along with the stress inversions

  7. Design basis earthquakes for critical industrial facilities and their characteristics, and the Southern Hyogo prefecture earthquake, 17 January 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shibata, Heki

    1998-12-01

    This paper deals with how to establish the concept of the design basis earthquake (DBE) for critical industrial facilities such as nuclear power plants in consideration of disasters such as the Southern Hyogo prefecture earthquake, the so-called Kobe earthquake in 1995. The author once discussed various DBEs at the 7th World Conference on Earthquake Engineering. At that time, the author assumed that the strongest effective PGA would be 0.7 G, and compared the values of accelerations of a structure obtained by various codes in Japan and other countries. The maximum PGA observed by an instrument at the Southern Hyogo prefecture earthquake in 1995 exceeded the previous assumption of the author, even though the results of the previous paper had been pessimistic. According to the experience of the Kobe event, the author will point out the necessity of the third earthquake S{sub s} adding to S{sub 1} and S{sub 2} of previous DBEs.

  8. <> earthquakes: a growing contribution to the Catalogue of Strong Italian Earthquakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Guidoboni

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available The particular structure of the research into historical seismology found in this catalogue has allowed a lot of information about unknown seismic events to be traced. This new contribution to seismologic knowledge mainly consists in: i the retrieval and organisation within a coherent framework of documentary evidence of earthquakes that took place between the Middle Ages and the sixteenth century; ii the improved knowledge of seismic events, even destructive events, which in the past had been "obscured" by large earthquakes; iii the identification of earthquakes in "silent" seismic areas. The complex elements to be taken into account when dealing with unknown seismic events have been outlined; much "new" information often falls into one of the following categories: simple chronological errors relative to other well-known events; descriptions of other natural phenomena, though defined in texts as "earthquakes" (landslides, hurricanes, tornadoes, etc.; unknown tremors belonging to known seismic periods; tremors that may be connected with events which have been catalogued under incorrect dates and with very approximate estimates of location and intensity. This proves that this was not a real seismic "silence" but a research vacuum.

  9. The Challenge of Centennial Earthquakes to Improve Modern Earthquake Engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saragoni, G. Rodolfo

    2008-01-01

    The recent commemoration of the centennial of the San Francisco and Valparaiso 1906 earthquakes has given the opportunity to reanalyze their damages from modern earthquake engineering perspective. These two earthquakes plus Messina Reggio Calabria 1908 had a strong impact in the birth and developing of earthquake engineering. The study of the seismic performance of some up today existing buildings, that survive centennial earthquakes, represent a challenge to better understand the limitations of our in use earthquake design methods. Only Valparaiso 1906 earthquake, of the three considered centennial earthquakes, has been repeated again as the Central Chile, 1985, Ms = 7.8 earthquake. In this paper a comparative study of the damage produced by 1906 and 1985 Valparaiso earthquakes is done in the neighborhood of Valparaiso harbor. In this study the only three centennial buildings of 3 stories that survived both earthquakes almost undamaged were identified. Since for 1985 earthquake accelerogram at El Almendral soil conditions as well as in rock were recoded, the vulnerability analysis of these building is done considering instrumental measurements of the demand. The study concludes that good performance of these buildings in the epicentral zone of large earthquakes can not be well explained by modern earthquake engineering methods. Therefore, it is recommended to use in the future of more suitable instrumental parameters, such as the destructiveness potential factor, to describe earthquake demand

  10. Shallow moonquakes - How they compare with earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Y.

    1980-01-01

    Of three types of moonquakes strong enough to be detectable at large distances - deep moonquakes, meteoroid impacts and shallow moonquakes - only shallow moonquakes are similar in nature to earthquakes. A comparison of various characteristics of moonquakes with those of earthquakes indeed shows a remarkable similarity between shallow moonquakes and intraplate earthquakes: (1) their occurrences are not controlled by tides; (2) they appear to occur in locations where there is evidence of structural weaknesses; (3) the relative abundances of small and large quakes (b-values) are similar, suggesting similar mechanisms; and (4) even the levels of activity may be close. The shallow moonquakes may be quite comparable in nature to intraplate earthquakes, and they may be of similar origin.

  11. The 2012 Ferrara seismic sequence: Regional crustal structure, earthquake sources, and seismic hazard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malagnini, Luca; Herrmann, Robert B.; Munafò, Irene; Buttinelli, Mauro; Anselmi, Mario; Akinci, Aybige; Boschi, E.

    2012-10-01

    Inadequate seismic design codes can be dangerous, particularly when they underestimate the true hazard. In this study we use data from a sequence of moderate-sized earthquakes in northeast Italy to validate and test a regional wave propagation model which, in turn, is used to understand some weaknesses of the current design spectra. Our velocity model, while regionalized and somewhat ad hoc, is consistent with geophysical observations and the local geology. In the 0.02-0.1 Hz band, this model is validated by using it to calculate moment tensor solutions of 20 earthquakes (5.6 ≥ MW ≥ 3.2) in the 2012 Ferrara, Italy, seismic sequence. The seismic spectra observed for the relatively small main shock significantly exceeded the design spectra to be used in the area for critical structures. Observations and synthetics reveal that the ground motions are dominated by long-duration surface waves, which, apparently, the design codes do not adequately anticipate. In light of our results, the present seismic hazard assessment in the entire Pianura Padana, including the city of Milan, needs to be re-evaluated.

  12. DEPENDENCE OF DISTRIBUTION FUNCTION OF COMMERCIAL DAMAGES DUE TO POSSIBLE EARTHQUAKES ON THE CLASS OF SEISMIC RESISTANCE OF A BUILDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanzada R. Zajnulabidova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Objectives To determine the damage probability of earthquakes of different intensities on the example of a real projected railway station building having a framework design scheme based on the density function of damage distribution. Methods Uncertainty, always existing in nature, invalidates a deterministic approach to the assessment of territorial seismic hazards and, consequently, seismic risk. In this case, seismic risk assessment can be carried out on a probabilistic basis. Thus, the risk will always be there, but it must be minimised. The task of optimising the reinforcement costs is solved by using the density distribution function for seismic effects of varying intensity, taking into account the degree of building responsibility. Results The distribution functions of the expected damage for a building with a reinforced concrete frame located in a highly seismic region with a repetition of 9-point shocks every 500 years and 10-point shocks once every 5000 years are constructed. A significant effect of the seismic resistance class of a building on the form of the distribution functions is shown. For structures of a high seismic resistance class, not only is the seismic risk reduced, but also the variance of the expected damage. From the graphs obtained, it can be seen that the seismic resistance class significantly affects the damage distribution. At a probability of 0.997, the expected damage for a non-reinforced building will exceed 43%; for a reinforced one it is only 10%. It also follows from the graphs that the variance of the damage magnitude decreases with the growth of the seismic resistance class of the building. This fact is an additional incentive for investing in antiseismic reinforcement of buildings. Conclusion The study shows the expediency of working with the damage density distribution function when managing seismic risk. In this case, it becomes possible to strengthen the building with a specified probability of

  13. Structural Biology Meets Drug Resistance: An Overview on Multidrug Resistance Transporters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaheen, Aqsa; Iqbal, Mazhar; Mirza, Osman

    2017-01-01

    . Research on the underlying causes of multidrug resistance in cancerous cells and later on in infectious bacteria revealed the involvement of integral membrane transporters, capable of recognizing a broad range of structurally different molecules as substrates and exporting them from the cell using cellular...... superfamilies, viz., ATP-binding cassette superfamily, major facilitator superfamily and resistance nodulation division superfamily are presented. Further, the future role of structural biology in improving our understanding of drug-transporter interactions and in designing novel inhibitors against MDR pump...... century, mankind has become aware and confronted with the emergence of antibiotic-resistant pathogens. In parallel to the failure of antibiotic therapy against infectious pathogens, there had been continuous reports of cancerous cells not responding to chemotherapy with increase in the duration of therapy...

  14. Soft-sediment deformation in New Zealand: Structures resulting from the 2010/11 Christchurch earthquakes and comparison with Pleistocene sediments of the Taupo Volcanic Zone (TVZ)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholz, C.; Downs, D. T.; Gravley, D.; Quigley, M.; Rowland, J. V.

    2011-12-01

    The distinction between seismites and other event-related soft-sediment deformation is a challenging problem. Recognition and interpretation is aided by comparison of recent examples produced during known seismic events and those generated experimentally. Seismites are important features, once recognized in a rock, for interpretations of paleotectonic environment, tectonic relationships of sediments in basins, sedimentary facies analysis, evaluation of earthquake frequency and hazard and consequent land managment. Two examples of soft-sediment deformation, potentially generated through ground shaking and associated liquefaction, are described from within the TVZ: 1) Near Matata on the western margin of the Whakatane Graben. This location has a complicated en-echelon fault history and large earthquakes occur from time to time (e.g., 1987 ML6.3 Edgecumbe event). The structures occur in ~550 ka volcanic sediments, and represent soft-sediment deformation within stratigraphically-bounded layers. Based on paleoenvironment, appearance, and diagnostic criteria described by other authors (Sims 1975; Hempton and Dewey 1983), we interpret these features to have formed by ground shaking related to an earthquake and/or possibly accompanying large volcanic eruptions, rather than by slope failure. 2) Near Taupo, 3 km from the active Kaiapo fault. Lakeward dipping, nearly horizontal lacustrine sediments overlay Taupo Ignimbrite (1.8 ka). At one outcrop the lake beds have subsided into the underlying substrate resulting in kidney-shaped features. These structures formed as a result of liquefaction of the underlying substrate, which may have been caused by ground shaking related to either seismic or volcanic activity. However, inferred time relationships are more consistent with seismic-induced ground shaking. We compare and contrast the form and geometry of the above structures with seismites generated during the recent Christchurch earthquakes (Sep. 2010 and Feb. 2011). Hempton, M

  15. Links Between Earthquake Characteristics and Subducting Plate Heterogeneity in the 2016 Pedernales Ecuador Earthquake Rupture Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, L.; Mori, J. J.

    2016-12-01

    The collision between the Indian and Eurasian plates formed the Himalayas, the largest orogenic belt on the Earth. The entire region accommodates shallow earthquakes, while intermediate-depth earthquakes are concentrated at the eastern and western Himalayan syntaxis. Here we investigate the focal depths, fault plane solutions, and source rupture process for three earthquake sequences, which are located at the western, central and eastern regions of the Himalayan orogenic belt. The Pamir-Hindu Kush region is located at the western Himalayan syntaxis and is characterized by extreme shortening of the upper crust and strong interaction of various layers of the lithosphere. Many shallow earthquakes occur on the Main Pamir Thrust at focal depths shallower than 20 km, while intermediate-deep earthquakes are mostly located below 75 km. Large intermediate-depth earthquakes occur frequently at the western Himalayan syntaxis about every 10 years on average. The 2015 Nepal earthquake is located in the central Himalayas. It is a typical megathrust earthquake that occurred on the shallow portion of the Main Himalayan Thrust (MHT). Many of the aftershocks are located above the MHT and illuminate faulting structures in the hanging wall with dip angles that are steeper than the MHT. These observations provide new constraints on the collision and uplift processes for the Himalaya orogenic belt. The Indo-Burma region is located south of the eastern Himalayan syntaxis, where the strike of the plate boundary suddenly changes from nearly east-west at the Himalayas to nearly north-south at the Burma Arc. The Burma arc subduction zone is a typical oblique plate convergence zone. The eastern boundary is the north-south striking dextral Sagaing fault, which hosts many shallow earthquakes with focal depth less than 25 km. In contrast, intermediate-depth earthquakes along the subduction zone reflect east-west trending reverse faulting.

  16. Midbroken Reinforced Concrete Shear Frames Due to Earthquakes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Köylüoglu, H. U.; Cakmak, A. S.; Nielsen, Søren R. K.

    A non-linear hysteretic model for the response and local damage analyses of reinforced concrete shear frames subject to earthquake excitation is proposed, and, the model is applied to analyse midbroken reinforced concrete (RC) structures due to earthquake loads. Each storey of the shear frame...

  17. Earthquakes: no danger for deep underground nuclear waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-03-01

    On the Earth, the continental plates are steadily moving. Principally at the plate boundaries such shifts produce stresses which are released in form of earthquakes. The highest the built-up energy, the more violent will be the shaking. Earthquakes accompany mankind from very ancient times on and they disturb the population. Till now nobody is able to predict where and when they will take place. But on the Earth there are regions where, due to their geological situation, the occurrence of earthquakes is more probable than elsewhere. The impact of a very strong earthquake on the structures at the Earth surface depends on several factors. Besides the ground structure, the density of buildings, construction style and materials used play an important role. Construction-related technical measures can improve the safety of buildings and, together with a correct behaviour of the people concerned, save many lives. Earthquakes are well known in Switzerland. Here, the stresses are due to the collision of the African and European continental plates that created the Alps. The impact of earthquake is more limited in the underground than at the Earth surface. There is no danger for deep underground repositories

  18. Spatial Distribution of earthquakes off the coast of Fukushima Two Years after the M9 Earthquake: the Southern Area of the 2011 Tohoku Earthquake Rupture Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, T.; Nakahigashi, K.; Shinohara, M.; Mochizuki, K.; Shiobara, H.

    2014-12-01

    Huge earthquakes cause vastly stress field change around the rupture zones, and many aftershocks and other related geophysical phenomenon such as geodetic movements have been observed. It is important to figure out the time-spacious distribution during the relaxation process for understanding the giant earthquake cycle. In this study, we pick up the southern rupture area of the 2011 Tohoku earthquake (M9.0). The seismicity rate keeps still high compared with that before the 2011 earthquake. Many studies using ocean bottom seismometers (OBSs) have been doing since soon after the 2011 Tohoku earthquake in order to obtain aftershock activity precisely. Here we show one of the studies at off the coast of Fukushima which is located on the southern part of the rupture area caused by the 2011 Tohoku earthquake. We deployed 4 broadband type OBSs (BBOBSs) and 12 short-period type OBSs (SOBS) in August 2012. Other 4 BBOBSs attached with absolute pressure gauges and 20 SOBSs were added in November 2012. We recovered 36 OBSs including 8 BBOBSs in November 2013. We selected 1,000 events in the vicinity of the OBS network based on a hypocenter catalog published by the Japan Meteorological Agency, and extracted the data after time corrections caused by each internal clock. Each P and S wave arrival times, P wave polarity and maximum amplitude were picked manually on a computer display. We assumed one dimensional velocity structure based on the result from an active source experiment across our network, and applied time corrections every station for removing ambiguity of the assumed structure. Then we adopted a maximum-likelihood estimation technique and calculated the hypocenters. The results show that intensive activity near the Japan Trench can be seen, while there was a quiet seismic zone between the trench zone and landward high activity zone.

  19. Reinforced concrete containment structures in high seismic zones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aziz, T.S.

    1977-01-01

    A new structural concept for reinforced concrete containment structures at sites where earthquake ground motions in terms of the Safe Shutdown Earthquake (SSE) exceeds 0.3 g is presented. The structural concept is based on: (1) an inner steel-lined concrete shell which houses the reactor and provides shielding and containment in the event of loss of coolant accident; (2) an outer annular concrete shell structure which houses auxilary reactor equipment and safeguards systems. These shell structures are supported on a common foundation mat which is embeded in the subgrade. Under stipulated earthquake conditions the two shell structures interact to resist lateral inertia forces. Thus the annular structure which is not a pressure boundary acts as a lateral support for the inner containment shell. The concept is practical, economically feasible and new to practice. An integrated configuration which includes the interior shell, the annular structure and the subgrade is analyzed for several static and dynamic loading conditions. The analysis is done using a finite difference solution scheme for the static loading conditions. A semi-analytical three-dimensional finite element scheme combined with a Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) algorithm is used for the dynamic loading conditions. The effects of cracking of the containment structure due to pressurization in conjunction with earthquake loading are discussed. Analytical results for both the finite difference and the finite element schemes are presented and the sensitivity of the results to changes in the input parameters is studied. General recommendations are given for plant configurations where high seismic loading is a major design consideration

  20. Earthquake prediction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ward, P.L.

    1978-01-01

    The state of the art of earthquake prediction is summarized, the possible responses to such prediction are examined, and some needs in the present prediction program and in research related to use of this new technology are reviewed. Three basic aspects of earthquake prediction are discussed: location of the areas where large earthquakes are most likely to occur, observation within these areas of measurable changes (earthquake precursors) and determination of the area and time over which the earthquake will occur, and development of models of the earthquake source in order to interpret the precursors reliably. 6 figures

  1. FDM simulation of earthquakes off western Kyushu, Japan, using a land-ocean unified 3D structure model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Taro; Takenaka, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Takeshi; Hara, Tatsuhiko

    2017-07-01

    Seismic activity occurred off western Kyushu, Japan, at the northern end of the Okinawa Trough on May 6, 2016 (14:11 JST), 22 days after the onset of the 2016 Kumamoto earthquake sequence. The area is adjacent to the Beppu-Shimabara graben where the 2016 Kumamoto earthquake sequence occurred. In the area off western Kyushu, a M7.1 earthquake also occurred on November 14, 2015 (5:51 JST), and a tsunami with a height of 0.3 m was observed. In order to better understand these seismic activity and tsunamis, it is necessary to study the sources of, and strong motions due to, earthquakes in the area off western Kyushu. For such studies, validation of synthetic waveforms is important because of the presence of the oceanic water layer and thick sediments in the source area. We show the validation results for synthetic waveforms through nonlinear inversion analyses of small earthquakes ( M5). We use a land-ocean unified 3D structure model, 3D HOT finite-difference method ("HOT" stands for Heterogeneity, Ocean layer and Topography) and a multi-graphic processing unit (GPU) acceleration to simulate the wave propagations. We estimate the first-motion augmented moment tensor (FAMT) solution based on both the long-period surface waves and short-period body waves. The FAMT solutions systematically shift landward by about 13 km, on average, from the epicenters determined by the Japan Meteorological Agency. The synthetics provide good reproductions of the observed full waveforms with periods of 10 s or longer. On the other hand, for waveforms with shorter periods (down to 4 s), the later surface waves are not reproduced well, while the first parts of the waveforms (comprising P- and S-waves) are reproduced to some extent. These results indicate that the current 3D structure model around Kyushu is effective for generating full waveforms, including surface waves with periods of about 10 s or longer. Based on these findings, we analyze the 2015 M7.1 event using the cross

  2. Short presentation on some researches activities about near field earthquakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donald, John

    2002-01-01

    The major hazard posed by earthquakes is often thought to be due to moderate to large magnitude events. However, there have been many cases where earthquakes of moderate and even small magnitude have caused very significant destruction when they have coincided with population centres. Even though the area of intense ground shaking caused by such events is generally small, the epicentral motions can be severe enough to cause damage even in well-engineered structures. Two issues are addressed here, the first being the identification of the minimum earthquake magnitude likely to cause damage to engineered structures and the limits of the near-field for small-to-moderate magnitude earthquakes. The second issue addressed is whether features of near-field ground motions such as directivity, which can significantly enhance the destructive potential, occur in small-to-moderate magnitude events. The accelerograms from the 1986 San Salvador (El Salvador) earthquake indicate that it may be non conservative to assume that near-field directivity effects only need to be considered for earthquakes of moment magnitude M 6.5 and greater. (author)

  3. Global building inventory for earthquake loss estimation and risk management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaiswal, Kishor; Wald, David; Porter, Keith

    2010-01-01

    We develop a global database of building inventories using taxonomy of global building types for use in near-real-time post-earthquake loss estimation and pre-earthquake risk analysis, for the U.S. Geological Survey’s Prompt Assessment of Global Earthquakes for Response (PAGER) program. The database is available for public use, subject to peer review, scrutiny, and open enhancement. On a country-by-country level, it contains estimates of the distribution of building types categorized by material, lateral force resisting system, and occupancy type (residential or nonresidential, urban or rural). The database draws on and harmonizes numerous sources: (1) UN statistics, (2) UN Habitat’s demographic and health survey (DHS) database, (3) national housing censuses, (4) the World Housing Encyclopedia and (5) other literature.

  4. Reliability analysis of service water system under earthquake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Yu; Qian Xiaoming; Lu Xuefeng; Wang Shengfei; Niu Fenglei

    2013-01-01

    Service water system is one of the important safety systems in nuclear power plant, whose failure probability is always gained by system reliability analysis. The probability of equipment failure under the earthquake is the function of the peak acceleration of earthquake motion, while the occurrence of earthquake is of randomicity, thus the traditional fault tree method in current probability safety assessment is not powerful enough to deal with such case of conditional probability problem. An analysis frame was put forward for system reliability evaluation in seismic condition in this paper, in which Monte Carlo simulation was used to deal with conditional probability problem. Annual failure probability of service water system was calculated, and failure probability of 1.46X10 -4 per year was obtained. The analysis result is in accordance with the data which indicate equipment seismic resistance capability, and the rationality of the model is validated. (authors)

  5. Strong ground motion prediction using virtual earthquakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denolle, M A; Dunham, E M; Prieto, G A; Beroza, G C

    2014-01-24

    Sedimentary basins increase the damaging effects of earthquakes by trapping and amplifying seismic waves. Simulations of seismic wave propagation in sedimentary basins capture this effect; however, there exists no method to validate these results for earthquakes that have not yet occurred. We present a new approach for ground motion prediction that uses the ambient seismic field. We apply our method to a suite of magnitude 7 scenario earthquakes on the southern San Andreas fault and compare our ground motion predictions with simulations. Both methods find strong amplification and coupling of source and structure effects, but they predict substantially different shaking patterns across the Los Angeles Basin. The virtual earthquake approach provides a new approach for predicting long-period strong ground motion.

  6. Earthquake-induced soft-sediment deformation structures in Late Pleistocene lacustrine deposits of Issyk-Kul lake (Kyrgyzstan)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gladkov, A. S.; Lobova, E. U.; Deev, E. V.; Korzhenkov, A. M.; Mazeika, J. V.; Abdieva, S. V.; Rogozhin, E. A.; Rodkin, M. V.; Fortuna, A. B.; Charimov, T. A.; Yudakhin, A. S.

    2016-10-01

    This paper discusses the composition and distribution of soft-sediment deformation structures induced by liquefaction in Late Pleistocene lacustrine terrace deposits on the southern shore of Issyk-Kul Lake in the northern Tien Shan mountains of Kyrgyzstan. The section contains seven deformed beds grouped in two intervals. Five deformed beds in the upper interval contain load structures (load casts and flame structures), convolute lamination, ball-and-pillow structures, folds and slumps. Deformation patterns indicate that a seismic trigger generated a multiple slump on a gentle slope. The dating of overlying subaerial deposits suggests correlation between the deformation features and strong earthquakes in the Late Pleistocene.

  7. Regional two-dimensional magnetotelluric profile in West Bohemia/Vogtland reveals deep conductive channel into the earthquake swarm region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Gerard; Weckmann, Ute; Pek, Josef; Kováčiková, Světlana; Klanica, Radek

    2018-03-01

    The West Bohemia/Vogtland region, characterized by the intersection of the Eger (Ohře) Rift and the Mariánské Lázně fault, is a geodynamically active area exhibiting repeated occurrence of earthquake swarms, massive CO2 emanations and mid Pleistocene volcanism. The Eger Rift is the only known intra-continental region in Europe where such deep seated, active lithospheric processes currently take place. We present an image of electrical resistivity obtained from two-dimensional inversion of magnetotelluric (MT) data acquired along a regional profile crossing the Eger Rift. At the near surface, the Cheb basin and the aquifer feeding the mofette fields of Bublák and Hartoušov have been imaged as part of a region of very low resistivity. The most striking resistivity feature, however, is a deep reaching conductive channel which extends from the surface into the lower crust spatially correlated with the hypocentres of the seismic events of the Nový Kostel Focal Zone. This channel has been interpreted as imaging a pathway from a possible mid-crustal fluid reservoir to the surface. The resistivity model reinforces the relation between the fluid circulation along deep-reaching faults and the generation of the earthquakes. Additionally, a further conductive channel has been revealed to the south of the profile. This other feature could be associated to fossil hydrothermal alteration related to Mýtina and/or Neualbenreuth Maar structures or alternatively could be the signature of a structure associated to the suture between the Saxo-Thuringian and Teplá-Barrandian zones, whose surface expression is located only a few kilometres away.

  8. New Insights on the Uncertainties in Finite-Fault Earthquake Source Inversion

    KAUST Repository

    Razafindrakoto, Hoby

    2015-04-01

    New Insights on the Uncertainties in Finite-Fault Earthquake Source Inversion Hoby Njara Tendrisoa Razafindrakoto Earthquake source inversion is a non-linear problem that leads to non-unique solutions. The aim of this dissertation is to understand the uncertainty and reliability in earthquake source inversion, as well as to quantify variability in earthquake rupture models. The source inversion is performed using a Bayesian inference. This technique augments optimization approaches through its ability to image the entire solution space which is consistent with the data and prior information. In this study, the uncertainty related to the choice of source-time function and crustal structure is investigated. Three predefined analytical source-time functions are analyzed; isosceles triangle, Yoffe with acceleration time of 0.1 and 0.3 s. The use of the isosceles triangle as source-time function is found to bias the finite-fault source inversion results. It accelerates the rupture to propagate faster compared to that of the Yoffe function. Moreover, it generates an artificial linear correlation between parameters that does not exist for the Yoffe source-time functions. The effect of inadequate knowledge of Earth’s crustal structure in earthquake rupture models is subsequently investigated. The results show that one-dimensional structure variability leads to parameters resolution changes, with a broadening of the posterior 5 PDFs and shifts in the peak location. These changes in the PDFs of kinematic parameters are associated with the blurring effect of using incorrect Earth structure. As an application to real earthquake, finite-fault source models for the 2009 L’Aquila earthquake are examined using one- and three-dimensional crustal structures. One- dimensional structure is found to degrade the data fitting. However, there is no significant effect on the rupture parameters aside from differences in the spatial slip extension. Stable features are maintained for both

  9. Experience database of Romanian facilities subjected to the last three Vrancea earthquakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The scope of this research project is to use the past seismic experience of similar components from power and industrial facilities to establish the generic seismic resistance of nuclear power plant safe shutdown equipment. The first part of the project provide information about the Vrancea. earthquakes which affect the Romanian territory and also the Kozloduy NPP site as a background of the investigations of the seismic performance of mechanical and electrical equipment in the industrial facilities. This project has the following, objectives: collect and process all available seismic information about Vrancea earthquakes; perform probabilistic hazard analysis of the Vrancea earthquakes; determine attenuation low, correlation between the focal depth, earthquake power, soil conditions and frequency characteristics of the seismic ground motion; investigate and collect information regarding seismic behavior during the 1977, 1986 and 1990 earthquakes of mechanical and electrical components from industrial facilities. The seismic database used for the analysis of the Vrancea earthquakes includes digitized triaxial records as follows: March 4, 1977 - I station, Aug, 30 1986 - 42 stations, May 1990 - 54 stations. A catalogue of the Vrancea earthquakes occurred during the period 1901-1994, is presented as well

  10. Earthquake behavior of steel cushion-implemented reinforced concrete frames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özkaynak, Hasan

    2018-04-01

    The earthquake performance of vulnerable structures can be increased by the implementation of supplementary energy-dissipative metallic elements. The main aim of this paper is to describe the earthquake behavior of steel cushion-implemented reinforced concrete frames (SCI-RCFR) in terms of displacement demands and energy components. Several quasi-static experiments were performed on steel cushions (SC) installed in reinforced concrete (RC) frames. The test results served as the basis of the analytical models of SCs and a bare reinforced concrete frame (B-RCFR). These models were integrated in order to obtain the resulting analytical model of the SCI-RCFR. Nonlinear-time history analyses (NTHA) were performed on the SCI-RCFR under the effects of the selected earthquake data set. According to the NTHA, SC application is an effective technique for increasing the seismic performance of RC structures. The main portion of the earthquake input energy was dissipated through SCs. SCs succeeded in decreasing the plastic energy demand on structural elements by almost 50% at distinct drift levels.

  11. The arrangement of the seismic design method of the underground facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanai, Kenji; Horita, Masakuni; Dewa, Katsuyuki; Gouke, Mitsuo

    2002-03-01

    Earthquake resistance for the underground structure is higher than the ground structure. Therefore, the case of examining the earthquake resistance of underground structure was little. However, it carries out the research on the aseismic designing method of underground structure, since the tunnel was struck by Hyogo-ken Nanbu Earthquake, and it has obtained a much knowledge. However, an object of the most study was behavior at earthquake of the comparatively shallow underground structure in the alluvial plain board, and it not carry out the examination on behavior at earthquake of underground structure in the deep rock mass. In the meantime, underground disposal facility of the high level radioactive waste constructs in the deep underground, and it carries out the operation in these tunnels. In addition, it has made almost the general process of including from the construction start to the backfilling to be about 60 years (Japan Nuclear Fuel Cycle Development Institute, 1999). During these periods, it is necessary to also consider the earthquake resistance as underground structure from the viewpoint of the safety of facilities. Then, it extracted future problem as one of the improvement of the basis information for the decision of the safety standard and guideline of the country on earthquake-resistant design of the underground disposal facility, while it carried out investigation and arrangement of earthquake-resistant design cases, guidelines and analysis method on existing underground structure, etc. And, the research items for the earthquake resistance assessment of underground structure as case study of the underground research laboratory. (author)

  12. Digital Recording and Non-Destructive Techniques for the Understanding of Structural Performance for Rehabilitating Historic Structures at the Kathmandu Valley after Gorkha Earthquake 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, S.; Reina Ortiz, M.; Gutland, M.; Napolitano, R.; Morris, I. M.; Santana Quintero, M.; Erochko, J.; Kawan, S.; Shrestha, R. G.; Awal, P.; Suwal, S.; Duwal, S.; Maharjan, D. K.

    2017-08-01

    On 25 April 2015, the Gorkha earthquake of magnitude 7.8, severely damaged the cultural heritage sites of Nepal. In particular, the seven monument zones of the Kathmandu Valley World Heritage Site suffered extensive damage. Out of 195 surveyed monuments, 38 have completely collapsed and 157 partially damaged (DoA, 2015). In particular, the world historic city of Bhaktapur was heavily affected by the earthquake. There is, in general, a lack of knowledge regarding the traditional construction technology used in many of the most important temple monuments in Bhaktapur. To address this limitation and to assist in reconstruction and rehabilitation of the area, this study documents the existing condition of different historic structures in the Kathmandu Valley. In particular, the Nyatapola Temple is studied in detail. To record and document the condition of this temple, a combination of laser scanning and terrestrial and aerial photogrammetry are used. By also including evaluation of the temple and its supporting plinth structure using non-destructive evaluation techniques like geo-radar and micro-tremor dynamic analysis, this study will form the basis of a structural analysis study to assess the anticipated future seismic performance of the Nyatapola Temple.

  13. Passive containment system in high earthquake motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleimola, F.W.; Falls, O.B. Jr.

    1977-01-01

    High earthquake motion necessitates major design modifications in the complex of plant structures, systems and components in a nuclear power plant. Distinctive features imposed by seismic category, safety class and quality classification requirements for the high seismic ground acceleration loadings significantly reflect in plant costs. The design features in the Passive Containment System (PCS) responding to high earthquake ground motion are described

  14. Investigation on Transmission and Substation Facilities of Sichuan Power Grid in Wenchuan Earthquake

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Yongqing; Li Guangfan; Li Peng; Zhu Quanjun; Yuan Dalu; Wang Chengyu; Li Jinzhong; Huang Huang; Li Lixin; Zhang Xinghai; Liu Jingmin

    2009-01-01

    @@ On May 12,2008,an earthquake of Ms 8.0 hit the area around Wenchuan County,Sichuan Province,China.It has been one of the most destructive earthquakes since the founding of P.R.China in 1949.The quake caused not only tremendous loss of life and wealth,but also severe damage to transmission and substation facilities.After the disaster,an expert group from China Electric Power Research Institute (CEPRI)was sent for on-site investigation.This paper is a summary of the investigation,in which suggestions for electric equipment to resist earthquake disasters are also proponed.

  15. Re-centering variable friction device for vibration control of structures subjected to near-field earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozbulut, Osman E.; Hurlebaus, Stefan

    2011-11-01

    This paper proposes a re-centering variable friction device (RVFD) for control of civil structures subjected to near-field earthquakes. The proposed hybrid device has two sub-components. The first sub-component of this hybrid device consists of shape memory alloy (SMA) wires that exhibit a unique hysteretic behavior and full recovery following post-transformation deformations. The second sub-component of the hybrid device consists of variable friction damper (VFD) that can be intelligently controlled for adaptive semi-active behavior via modulation of its voltage level. In general, installed SMA devices have the ability to re-center structures at the end of the motion and VFDs can increase the energy dissipation capacity of structures. The full realization of these devices into a singular, hybrid form which complements the performance of each device is investigated in this study. A neuro-fuzzy model is used to capture rate- and temperature-dependent nonlinear behavior of the SMA components of the hybrid device. An optimal fuzzy logic controller (FLC) is developed to modulate voltage level of VFDs for favorable performance in a RVFD hybrid application. To obtain optimal controllers for concurrent mitigation of displacement and acceleration responses, tuning of governing fuzzy rules is conducted by a multi-objective heuristic optimization. Then, numerical simulation of a multi-story building is conducted to evaluate the performance of the hybrid device. Results show that a re-centering variable friction device modulated with a fuzzy logic control strategy can effectively reduce structural deformations without increasing acceleration response during near-field earthquakes.

  16. The Christchurch earthquake stroke incidence study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Teddy Y; Cheung, Jeanette; Cole, David; Fink, John N

    2014-03-01

    We examined the impact of major earthquakes on acute stroke admissions by a retrospective review of stroke admissions in the 6 weeks following the 4 September 2010 and 22 February 2011 earthquakes. The control period was the corresponding 6 weeks in the previous year. In the 6 weeks following the September 2010 earthquake there were 97 acute stroke admissions, with 79 (81.4%) ischaemic infarctions. This was similar to the 2009 control period which had 104 acute stroke admissions, of whom 80 (76.9%) had ischaemic infarction. In the 6 weeks following the February 2011 earthquake, there were 71 stroke admissions, and 61 (79.2%) were ischaemic infarction. This was less than the 96 strokes (72 [75%] ischaemic infarction) in the corresponding control period. None of the comparisons were statistically significant. There was also no difference in the rate of cardioembolic infarction from atrial fibrillation between the study periods. Patients admitted during the February 2011 earthquake period were less likely to be discharged directly home when compared to the control period (31.2% versus 46.9%, p=0.036). There was no observable trend in the number of weekly stroke admissions between the 2 weeks leading to and 6 weeks following the earthquakes. Our results suggest that severe psychological stress from earthquakes did not influence the subsequent short term risk of acute stroke, but the severity of the earthquake in February 2011 and associated civil structural damages may have influenced the pattern of discharge for stroke patients. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Heat resistant/radiation resistant cable and incore structure test device for FBR type reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanimoto, Hajime; Shiono, Takeo; Sato, Yoshimi; Ito, Kazumi; Sudo, Shigeaki; Saito, Shin-ichi; Mitsui, Hisayasu.

    1995-01-01

    A heat resistant/radiation resistant coaxial cable of the present invention comprises an insulation layer, an outer conductor and a protection cover in this order on an inner conductor, in which the insulation layer comprises thermoplastic polyimide. In the same manner, a heat resistant/radiation resistant power cable has an insulation layer comprising thermoplastic polyimide on a conductor, and is provided with a protection cover comprising braid of alamide fibers at the outer circumference of the insulation layer. An incore structure test device for an FBR type reactor comprises the heat resistant/radiation resistant coaxial cable and/or the power cable. The thermoplastic polyimide can be extrusion molded, and has excellent radiation resistant by the extrusion, as well as has high dielectric withstand voltage, good flexibility and electric characteristics at high temperature. The incore structure test device for the FBR type reactor of the present invention comprising such a cable has excellent reliability and durability. (T.M.)

  18. Application of laser scanning technique in earthquake protection of Istanbul's historical heritage buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çaktı, Eser; Ercan, Tülay; Dar, Emrullah

    2017-04-01

    Istanbul's vast historical and cultural heritage is under constant threat of earthquakes. Historical records report repeated damages to the city's landmark buildings. Our efforts towards earthquake protection of several buildings in Istanbul involve earthquake monitoring via structural health monitoring systems, linear and non-linear structural modelling and analysis in search of past and future earthquake performance, shake-table testing of scaled models and non-destructive testing. More recently we have been using laser technology in monitoring structural deformations and damage in five monumental buildings which are Hagia Sophia Museum and Fatih, Sultanahmet, Süleymaniye and Mihrimah Sultan Mosques. This presentation is about these efforts with special emphasis on the use of laser scanning in monitoring of edifices.

  19. Improving the Earthquake Resilience of Buildings The worst case approach

    CERN Document Server

    Takewaki, Izuru; Fujita, Kohei

    2013-01-01

    Engineers are always interested in the worst-case scenario. One of the most important and challenging missions of structural engineers may be to narrow the range of unexpected incidents in building structural design. Redundancy, robustness and resilience play an important role in such circumstances. Improving the Earthquake Resilience of Buildings: The worst case approach discusses the importance of worst-scenario approach for improved earthquake resilience of buildings and nuclear reactor facilities. Improving the Earthquake Resilience of Buildings: The worst case approach consists of two parts. The first part deals with the characterization and modeling of worst or critical ground motions on inelastic structures and the related worst-case scenario in the structural design of ordinary simple building structures. The second part of the book focuses on investigating the worst-case scenario for passively controlled and base-isolated buildings. This allows for detailed consideration of a range of topics includin...

  20. Evidence for Ancient Mesoamerican Earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovach, R. L.; Garcia, B.

    2001-12-01

    Evidence for past earthquake damage at Mesoamerican ruins is often overlooked because of the invasive effects of tropical vegetation and is usually not considered as a casual factor when restoration and reconstruction of many archaeological sites are undertaken. Yet the proximity of many ruins to zones of seismic activity would argue otherwise. Clues as to the types of damage which should be soughtwere offered in September 1999 when the M = 7.5 Oaxaca earthquake struck the ruins of Monte Alban, Mexico, where archaeological renovations were underway. More than 20 structures were damaged, 5 of them seriously. Damage features noted were walls out of plumb, fractures in walls, floors, basal platforms and tableros, toppling of columns, and deformation, settling and tumbling of walls. A Modified Mercalli Intensity of VII (ground accelerations 18-34 %b) occurred at the site. Within the diffuse landward extension of the Caribbean plate boundary zone M = 7+ earthquakes occur with repeat times of hundreds of years arguing that many Maya sites were subjected to earthquakes. Damage to re-erected and reinforced stelae, walls, and buildings were witnessed at Quirigua, Guatemala, during an expedition underway when then 1976 M = 7.5 Guatemala earthquake on the Motagua fault struck. Excavations also revealed evidence (domestic pttery vessels and skeleton of a child crushed under fallen walls) of an ancient earthquake occurring about the teim of the demise and abandonment of Quirigua in the late 9th century. Striking evidence for sudden earthquake building collapse at the end of the Mayan Classic Period ~A.D. 889 was found at Benque Viejo (Xunantunich), Belize, located 210 north of Quirigua. It is argued that a M = 7.5 to 7.9 earthquake at the end of the Maya Classic period centered in the vicinity of the Chixoy-Polochic and Motagua fault zones cound have produced the contemporaneous earthquake damage to the above sites. As a consequences this earthquake may have accelerated the

  1. 3. General principles of assessing seismic resistance of technological equipment of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    The evaluation of the seismic resistance of technological equipment is performed by computation, experimental trial, possibly by combining both methods. Existing and prepared standards in the field of seismic resistance of nuclear power plants are mentioned. Accelerograms and response spectra of design-basis earhtquake and maximum credible earthquake serve as the basic data for evaluating seismic resistance. The nuclear power plant in Mochovce will be the first Czechoslovak nuclear power plant with so-called partially seismic design. The problem of dynamic interaction of technological equipment and nuclear power plant systems with a bearing structure is discussed. (E.F.)

  2. Nondestructive evaluation of dissipative behavior of reinforced concrete structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luong, M.P. [Ecole Polytechnique, LMS, CNRS, 91 - Palaiseau (France)

    2001-07-01

    Current technological developments tend toward increased exploitation of materials strengths and toward tackling extreme loads and environmental actions such as offshore structures subject to wind and wave loading, or buildings in seismic area. Concrete is widely used as a construction material because of its high strength-cost ratio in many applications. Experience of earthquakes and laboratory tests has shown that well designed and detailed reinforced concrete is suitable for earthquake resistant structures. The most severe likely earthquake can be survived if the members are sufficiently ductile to absorb and dissipate seismic energy by inelastic deformation. This requires a designer to assess realistically the acceptable levels of strength and to ensure adequate dissipation. This paper proposes the use of infrared thermography as a nondestructive, noncontact and real-time technique to examine diverse mechanisms of dissipation and to illustrate the onset of damage process, stress concentration and heat dissipation localization in loaded zone. In addition, this technique can be used as a nondestructive method for evaluating the fatigue limit of concrete structure subject to repeated loading.

  3. Nondestructive evaluation of dissipative behavior of reinforced concrete structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luong, M.P.

    2001-01-01

    Current technological developments tend toward increased exploitation of materials strengths and toward tackling extreme loads and environmental actions such as offshore structures subject to wind and wave loading, or buildings in seismic area. Concrete is widely used as a construction material because of its high strength-cost ratio in many applications. Experience of earthquakes and laboratory tests has shown that well designed and detailed reinforced concrete is suitable for earthquake resistant structures. The most severe likely earthquake can be survived if the members are sufficiently ductile to absorb and dissipate seismic energy by inelastic deformation. This requires a designer to assess realistically the acceptable levels of strength and to ensure adequate dissipation. This paper proposes the use of infrared thermography as a nondestructive, noncontact and real-time technique to examine diverse mechanisms of dissipation and to illustrate the onset of damage process, stress concentration and heat dissipation localization in loaded zone. In addition, this technique can be used as a nondestructive method for evaluating the fatigue limit of concrete structure subject to repeated loading

  4. Numerical modeling of liquefaction-induced failure of geo-structures subjected to earthquakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rapti, Ioanna

    2016-01-01

    The increasing importance of performance-based earthquake engineering analysis points out the necessity to assess quantitatively the risk of liquefaction. In this extreme scenario of soil liquefaction, devastating consequences are observed, e.g. excessive settlements, lateral spreading and slope instability. The present PhD thesis discusses the global dynamic response and interaction of an earth structure-foundation system, so as to determine quantitatively the collapse mechanism due to foundation's soil liquefaction. As shear band generation is a potential earthquake-induced failure mode in such structures, the FE mesh dependency of results of dynamic analyses is thoroughly investigated and an existing regularization method is evaluated. The open-source FE software developed by EDF R and D, called Code-Aster, is used for the numerical simulations, while soil behavior is represented by the ECP constitutive model, developed at Centrale-Supelec. Starting from a simplified model of 1D SH wave propagation in a soil column with coupled hydro-mechanical nonlinear behavior, the effect of seismic hazard and soil's permeability on liquefaction is assessed. Input ground motion is a key component for soil liquefaction apparition, as long duration of main shock can lead to important nonlinearity and extended soil liquefaction. Moreover, when a variation of permeability as function of liquefaction state is considered, changes in the dissipation phase of excess pore water pressure and material behavior are observed, which do not follow a single trend. The effect of a regularization method with enhanced kinematics approach, called first gradient of dilation model, on 1D SH wave propagation is studied through an analytical solution. Deficiencies of the use of this regularization method are observed and discussed, e.g. spurious waves apparition in the soil's seismic response. Next, a 2D embankment-type model is simulated and its dynamic response is evaluated in dry, fully drained

  5. Computational methods in earthquake engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Plevris, Vagelis; Lagaros, Nikos

    2017-01-01

    This is the third book in a series on Computational Methods in Earthquake Engineering. The purpose of this volume is to bring together the scientific communities of Computational Mechanics and Structural Dynamics, offering a wide coverage of timely issues on contemporary Earthquake Engineering. This volume will facilitate the exchange of ideas in topics of mutual interest and can serve as a platform for establishing links between research groups with complementary activities. The computational aspects are emphasized in order to address difficult engineering problems of great social and economic importance. .

  6. Resistivity characterisation of Hakone volcano, Central Japan, by three-dimensional magnetotelluric inversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimura, Ryokei; Ogawa, Yasuo; Yukutake, Yohei; Kanda, Wataru; Komori, Shogo; Hase, Hideaki; Goto, Tada-nori; Honda, Ryou; Harada, Masatake; Yamazaki, Tomoya; Kamo, Masato; Kawasaki, Shingo; Higa, Tetsuya; Suzuki, Takeshi; Yasuda, Yojiro; Tani, Masanori; Usui, Yoshiya

    2018-04-01

    On 29 June 2015, a small phreatic eruption occurred at Hakone volcano, Central Japan, forming several vents in the Owakudani geothermal area on the northern slope of the central cones. Intense earthquake swarm activity and geodetic signals corresponding to the 2015 eruption were also observed within the Hakone caldera. To complement these observations and to characterise the shallow resistivity structure of Hakone caldera, we carried out a three-dimensional inversion of magnetotelluric measurement data acquired at 64 sites across the region. We utilised an unstructured tetrahedral mesh for the inversion code of the edge-based finite element method to account for the steep topography of the region during the inversion process. The main features of the best-fit three-dimensional model are a bell-shaped conductor, the bottom of which shows good agreement with the upper limit of seismicity, beneath the central cones and the Owakudani geothermal area, and several buried bowl-shaped conductive zones beneath the Gora and Kojiri areas. We infer that the main bell-shaped conductor represents a hydrothermally altered zone that acts as a cap or seal to resist the upwelling of volcanic fluids. Enhanced volcanic activity may cause volcanic fluids to pass through the resistive body surrounded by the altered zone and thus promote brittle failure within the resistive body. The overlapping locations of the bowl-shaped conductors, the buried caldera structures and the presence of sodium-chloride-rich hot springs indicate that the conductors represent porous media saturated by high-salinity hot spring waters. The linear clusters of earthquake swarms beneath the Kojiri area may indicate several weak zones that formed due to these structural contrasts.[Figure not available: see fulltext.

  7. POST Earthquake Debris Management - AN Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Raju

    Every year natural disasters, such as fires, floods, earthquakes, hurricanes, landslides, tsunami, and tornadoes, challenge various communities of the world. Earthquakes strike with varying degrees of severity and pose both short- and long-term challenges to public service providers. Earthquakes generate shock waves and displace the ground along fault lines. These seismic forces can bring down buildings and bridges in a localized area and damage buildings and other structures in a far wider area. Secondary damage from fires, explosions, and localized flooding from broken water pipes can increase the amount of debris. Earthquake debris includes building materials, personal property, and sediment from landslides. The management of this debris, as well as the waste generated during the reconstruction works, can place significant challenges on the national and local capacities. Debris removal is a major component of every post earthquake recovery operation. Much of the debris generated from earthquake is not hazardous. Soil, building material, and green waste, such as trees and shrubs, make up most of the volume of earthquake debris. These wastes not only create significant health problems and a very unpleasant living environment if not disposed of safely and appropriately, but also can subsequently impose economical burdens on the reconstruction phase. In practice, most of the debris may be either disposed of at landfill sites, reused as materials for construction or recycled into useful commodities Therefore, the debris clearance operation should focus on the geotechnical engineering approach as an important post earthquake issue to control the quality of the incoming flow of potential soil materials. In this paper, the importance of an emergency management perspective in this geotechnical approach that takes into account the different criteria related to the operation execution is proposed by highlighting the key issues concerning the handling of the construction

  8. Update earthquake risk assessment in Cairo, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badawy, Ahmed; Korrat, Ibrahim; El-Hadidy, Mahmoud; Gaber, Hanan

    2017-07-01

    The Cairo earthquake (12 October 1992; m b = 5.8) is still and after 25 years one of the most painful events and is dug into the Egyptians memory. This is not due to the strength of the earthquake but due to the accompanied losses and damages (561 dead; 10,000 injured and 3000 families lost their homes). Nowadays, the most frequent and important question that should rise is "what if this earthquake is repeated today." In this study, we simulate the same size earthquake (12 October 1992) ground motion shaking and the consequent social-economic impacts in terms of losses and damages. Seismic hazard, earthquake catalogs, soil types, demographics, and building inventories were integrated into HAZUS-MH to produce a sound earthquake risk assessment for Cairo including economic and social losses. Generally, the earthquake risk assessment clearly indicates that "the losses and damages may be increased twice or three times" in Cairo compared to the 1992 earthquake. The earthquake risk profile reveals that five districts (Al-Sahel, El Basateen, Dar El-Salam, Gharb, and Madinat Nasr sharq) lie in high seismic risks, and three districts (Manshiyat Naser, El-Waily, and Wassat (center)) are in low seismic risk level. Moreover, the building damage estimations reflect that Gharb is the highest vulnerable district. The analysis shows that the Cairo urban area faces high risk. Deteriorating buildings and infrastructure make the city particularly vulnerable to earthquake risks. For instance, more than 90 % of the estimated buildings damages are concentrated within the most densely populated (El Basateen, Dar El-Salam, Gharb, and Madinat Nasr Gharb) districts. Moreover, about 75 % of casualties are in the same districts. Actually, an earthquake risk assessment for Cairo represents a crucial application of the HAZUS earthquake loss estimation model for risk management. Finally, for mitigation, risk reduction, and to improve the seismic performance of structures and assure life safety

  9. Earthquake swarms reveal submarine magma unrest induced by distant mega-earthquakes: Andaman Sea region

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Špičák, Aleš; Vaněk, Jiří

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 116, February (2016), s. 155-163 ISSN 1367-9120 Institutional support: RVO:67985530 Keywords : earthquake swarms * magma migration * submarine volcanic arc Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure Impact factor: 2.335, year: 2016

  10. Evaluation of Soil-Structure Interaction on the Seismic Response of Liquid Storage Tanks under Earthquake Ground Motions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Farajian

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Soil-structure interaction (SSI could affect the seismic response of structures. Since liquid storage tanks are vital structures and must continue their operation under severe earthquakes, their seismic behavior should be studied. Accordingly, the seismic response of two types of steel liquid storage tanks (namely, broad and slender, with aspect ratios of height to radius equal to 0.6 and 1.85 founded on half-space soil is scrutinized under different earthquake ground motions. For a better comparison, the six considered ground motions are classified, based on their pulse-like characteristics, into two groups, named far and near fault ground motions. To model the liquid storage tanks, the simplified mass-spring model is used and the liquid is modeled as two lumped masses known as sloshing and impulsive, and the interaction of fluid and structure is considered using two coupled springs and dashpots. The SSI effect, also, is considered using a coupled spring and dashpot. Additionally, four types of soils are used to consider a wide variety of soil properties. To this end, after deriving the equations of motion, MATLAB programming is employed to obtain the time history responses. Results show that although the SSI effect leads to a decrease in the impulsive displacement, overturning moment, and normalized base shear, the sloshing (or convective displacement is not affected by such effects due to its long period.

  11. Construction and design defects in the residential buildings and observed earthquake damage types in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    M. T. Cogurcu

    2015-01-01

    Turkey is situated in a very active earthquake region. In the last century, several earthquakes resulted in thousands of deaths and enormous economic losses. In 1999, the Kocaeli earthquake had an approximate death toll of more than 20 000, and in 2011 the Van earthquake killed 604 people. In general, Turkish residential buildings have reinforced concrete structural systems. These reinforced concrete structures have several deficiencies, such as low concrete quality, non-sei...

  12. The study of earthquakes in the hundred years following the Lisbon earthquake of 1755

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Oldroyd, D. R.; Amador, F.; Kozák, Jan; Carneiro, A.; Pinto, M.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 26, č. 2 (2007), s. 321-370 ISSN 0736-623X Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30120515 Keywords : 1755 Lisbon earthquake * post-Lisbon seismology * seismic waves Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure

  13. Learning Earthquake Design and Construction–23. Why are ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    RC shafts around the elevator core of buildings also act as shear walls, and should be taken advantage of to resist earthquake forces. Reinforcement Bars in RC Walls: Steel reinforcing bars are to be provided in walls in regularly spaced vertical and. ______ .AAAAA~ ______ __. RESONANCE I November 2005 v V V V V v ...

  14. Rapid estimation of the economic consequences of global earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaiswal, Kishor; Wald, David J.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) Prompt Assessment of Global Earthquakes for Response (PAGER) system, operational since mid 2007, rapidly estimates the most affected locations and the population exposure at different levels of shaking intensities. The PAGER system has significantly improved the way aid agencies determine the scale of response needed in the aftermath of an earthquake. For example, the PAGER exposure estimates provided reasonably accurate assessments of the scale and spatial extent of the damage and losses following the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake (Mw 7.9) in China, the 2009 L'Aquila earthquake (Mw 6.3) in Italy, the 2010 Haiti earthquake (Mw 7.0), and the 2010 Chile earthquake (Mw 8.8). Nevertheless, some engineering and seismological expertise is often required to digest PAGER's exposure estimate and turn it into estimated fatalities and economic losses. This has been the focus of PAGER's most recent development. With the new loss-estimation component of the PAGER system it is now possible to produce rapid estimation of expected fatalities for global earthquakes (Jaiswal and others, 2009). While an estimate of earthquake fatalities is a fundamental indicator of potential human consequences in developing countries (for example, Iran, Pakistan, Haiti, Peru, and many others), economic consequences often drive the responses in much of the developed world (for example, New Zealand, the United States, and Chile), where the improved structural behavior of seismically resistant buildings significantly reduces earthquake casualties. Rapid availability of estimates of both fatalities and economic losses can be a valuable resource. The total time needed to determine the actual scope of an earthquake disaster and to respond effectively varies from country to country. It can take days or sometimes weeks before the damage and consequences of a disaster can be understood both socially and economically. The objective of the U.S. Geological Survey's PAGER system is

  15. High frequency, high amplitude and low energy earthquake study of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernero, R.M.; Lee, A.J.H.; Sobel, P.A.

    1988-01-01

    Nuclear power plants are designed for a seismic input spectrum based on U.S. acceleration time histories. However, data recorded near several earthquakes, mostly in the Eastern U.S., are richer in high frequency energy. This paper focuses on the evaluation of one of these events, i.e., the 1986 Ohio earthquake approximately 10 miles from the Perry nuclear power plant. The Perry Seismic Category I structures were reanalyzed using the in-structure recorded earthquake motions. The calculated in-structure response spectra and recorded response spectra have the same general trends, which shows the buildings are capable of responding to high frequency earthquake motion. Dynamic stresses calculated using the Ohio earthquake recorded motions are substantially lower than the design stresses. The seismic qualification of a wide sample of equipment was reassessed using the Ohio earthquake recorded motions and the margins were found to be larger than one. The 1986 Ohio earthquake was also shown to possess much lower energy content and ductility demand than the design spectra. For the Perry case, the seismic design was shown to have adequate safety margins to accommodate the 1986 Ohio earthquake, even though the design spectra were exceeded at about 20 Hz. The NRC is evaluating the need to generically modify design spectra in light of the recent high frequency recordings. (orig.)

  16. The characteristic of the building damage from historical large earthquakes in Kyoto

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiyama, Akihito

    2016-04-01

    The Kyoto city, which is located in the northern part of Kyoto basin in Japan, has a long history of >1,200 years since the city was initially constructed. The city has been a populated area with many buildings and the center of the politics, economy and culture in Japan for nearly 1,000 years. Some of these buildings are now subscribed as the world's cultural heritage. The Kyoto city has experienced six damaging large earthquakes during the historical period: i.e., in 976, 1185, 1449, 1596, 1662, and 1830. Among these, the last three earthquakes which caused severe damage in Kyoto occurred during the period in which the urban area had expanded. These earthquakes are considered to be inland earthquakes which occurred around the Kyoto basin. The damage distribution in Kyoto from historical large earthquakes is strongly controlled by ground condition and earthquakes resistance of buildings rather than distance from estimated source fault. Therefore, it is necessary to consider not only the strength of ground shaking but also the condition of building such as elapsed years since the construction or last repair in order to more accurately and reliably estimate seismic intensity distribution from historical earthquakes in Kyoto. The obtained seismic intensity map would be helpful for reducing and mitigating disaster from future large earthquakes.

  17. Earthquake safety program at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freeland, G.E.

    1985-01-01

    Within three minutes on the morning of January 24, 1980, an earthquake and three aftershocks, with Richter magnitudes of 5.8, 5.1, 4.0, and 4.2, respectively, struck the Livermore Valley. Two days later, a Richter magnitude 5.4 earthquake occurred, which had its epicenter about 4 miles northwest of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). Although no one at the Lab was seriously injured, these earthquakes caused considerable damage and disruption. Masonry and concrete structures cracked and broke, trailers shifted and fell off their pedestals, office ceilings and overhead lighting fell, and bookcases overturned. The Laboratory was suddenly immersed in a site-wide program of repairing earthquake-damaged facilities, and protecting our many employees and the surrounding community from future earthquakes. Over the past five years, LLNL has spent approximately $10 million on its earthquake restoration effort for repairs and upgrades. The discussion in this paper centers upon the earthquake damage that occurred, the clean-up and restoration efforts, the seismic review of LLNL facilities, our site-specific seismic design criteria, computer-floor upgrades, ceiling-system upgrades, unique building seismic upgrades, geologic and seismologic studies, and seismic instrumentation. 10 references

  18. Earthquakes - a danger to deep-lying repositories?; erdbeben: eine gefahr fuer tiefenlager?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-03-15

    This booklet issued by the Swiss National Cooperative for the Disposal of Radioactive Waste NAGRA takes a look at geological factors concerning earthquakes and the safety of deep-lying repositories for nuclear waste. The geological processes involved in the occurrence of earthquakes are briefly looked at and the definitions for magnitude and intensity of earthquakes are discussed. Examples of damage caused by earthquakes are given. The earthquake situation in Switzerland is looked at and the effects of earthquakes on sub-surface structures and deep-lying repositories are discussed. Finally, the ideas proposed for deep-lying geological repositories for nuclear wastes are discussed.

  19. Lithospheric Structure of the Incoming Nazca Plate Adjacent to the 2014 Iquique Earthquake Rupture Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, E. K.; Trehu, A. M.; Davenport, K. K.; Roland, E. C.

    2017-12-01

    The 2014 Iquique Mw 8.1 earthquake occurred within a 500-km long segment of the Peru-Chile subduction zone that had not experienced a significant earthquake since 1877. This event did not fill the entire seismic gap and details of the deformation, along with local gravity anomalies, point to a geologic control on slip behavior. To better constrain along-strike changes in geologic or morphologic features and the correlation with earthquake rupture, the 2016 PICTURES (Pisagua-Iquique Crustal Tomography to Understand the Region of the Earthquake Source) experiment collected multichannel seismic (MCS) and ocean bottom seismometer (OBS) data from across the deformation front and incoming Nazca plate within the area of the 2014 earthquake. Here, we provide a first look at MCS reflection data from this experiment that images the Nazca plate along an uninterrupted 170 km line perpendicular to the region of greatest slip, acquired using the R/V Langseth's 12.5 km streamer and 6600 cc gun array. We summarize structural features of the incoming oceanic lithosphere and present a preliminary 2D velocity model that spans the Nazca outer rise to the trench along the Iquique Ridge (IR). The IR represents a broad, high oceanic feature (HOF) that roughly spans the entire seismic gap. The source of buoyancy and reduced seismic velocities of the IR swell are thought to be produced by isostatically compensated, overthickened crust or anomalously low density mantle due to heating or serpentinization, and we explore these two hypotheses using our preliminary velocity model. Past outer rise deformation modeling suggests a significant bending moment and vertical force at the trench axis, a source for broad, homogenous coupling as the HOF converges the margin. However, decreased incoming sediment and rough topography associated with numerous large seamounts may also lead to a thin subduction channel, influencing heterogeneous rupture behavior. Seaward of the Iquique 2014 event, our initial

  20. Earthquake Culture: A Significant Element in Earthquake Disaster Risk Assessment and Earthquake Disaster Risk Management

    OpenAIRE

    Ibrion, Mihaela

    2018-01-01

    This book chapter brings to attention the dramatic impact of large earthquake disasters on local communities and society and highlights the necessity of building and enhancing the earthquake culture. Iran was considered as a research case study and fifteen large earthquake disasters in Iran were investigated and analyzed over more than a century-time period. It was found that the earthquake culture in Iran was and is still conditioned by many factors or parameters which are not integrated and...

  1. Failure behavior of concrete pile and super-structure dynamic response as a result of soil liquefaction during earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneda, Shogo; Hayashi, Kazuhiro; Hachimori, Wataru; Tamura, Shuji; Saito, Taiki

    2017-10-01

    In past earthquake disasters, numerous building structure piles were damaged by soil liquefaction occurring during the earthquake. Damage to these piles, because they are underground, is difficult to find. The authors aim to develop a monitoring method of pile damage based on superstructure dynamic response. This paper investigated the relationship between the damage of large cross section cementitious piles and the dynamic response of the super structure using a centrifuge test apparatus. A dynamic specimen used simple cross section pile models consisting of aluminum rod and mortar, a saturated soil (Toyoura sand) of a relative density of 40% and a super structure model of a natural period of 0.63sec. In the shaking table test under a 50G field (length scale of 1/50), excitation was a total of 3 motions scaled from the Rinkai wave at different amplitudes. The maximum acceleration of each of the excitations was 602gal, 336gal and 299gal. The centrifuge test demonstrated the liquefaction of saturated soil and the failure behavior of piles. In the test result, the damage of piles affected the predominant period of acceleration response spectrum on the footing of the superstructure.

  2. State of the art of earthquake engineering in nuclear power plant design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schildknecht, P.O.

    1976-12-01

    A brief outline of definitions based on the USNRC, Seismic and Geologic Siting Criteria for Nuclear Power Plants, and on the plate tectonics and earthquake terminology is given. An introduction into plate tectonics and the associated earthquake phenomena is then presented. Ground motion characteristics are described in connection with the selection of design earthquakes. Mathematical methods of dynamic structural analyses are discussed for linear and nonlinear systems. Response analysis techniques for nuclear power plants are explained considering soil-structure interaction effects. (Auth.)

  3. The 2012 Mw5.6 earthquake in Sofia seismogenic zone - is it a slow earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raykova, Plamena; Solakov, Dimcho; Slavcheva, Krasimira; Simeonova, Stela; Aleksandrova, Irena

    2017-04-01

    very low rupture velocity. The low rupture velocity can mean slow-faulting, which brings to slow release of accumulated seismic energy. The slow release energy does principally little to moderate damages. Additionally wave form of the earthquake shows low frequency content of P-waves (the maximum P-wave is at 1.19 Hz) and the specific P- wave displacement spectral is characterise with not expressed spectrum plateau and corner frequency. These and other signs suggest us to the conclusion, that the 2012 Mw5.6 earthquake can be considered as types of slow earthquake, like a low frequency quake. The study is based on data from Bulgarian seismological network (NOTSSI), the local network (LSN) deployed around Kozloduy NPP and System of Accelerographs for Seismic Monitoring of Equipment and Structures (SASMES) installed in the Kozloduy NPP. NOTSSI jointly with LSN and SASMES provide reliable information for multiple studies on seismicity in regional scale.

  4. Evaluation and summary of seismic response of above ground nuclear power plant piping to strong motion earthquakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevenson, J.D.

    1985-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to summarize the observations and experience which has been developed relative to the seismic behavior of above-ground, building-supported, industrial type piping (similar to piping used in nuclear power plants) in strong motion earthquakes. The paper also contains observations regarding the response of piping in experimental tests which attempted to excite the piping to failure. Appropriate conclusions regarding the behavior of such piping in large earthquakes and recommendations as to future design of such piping to resist earthquake motion damage are presented based on observed behavior in large earthquakes and simulated shake table testing

  5. Seismic response of the EBR-II to the Mt. Borah earthquake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gale, J.G.; Lehto, W.K.

    1985-01-01

    On October 28, 1983, an earthquake of magnitude 7.3 occurred in the mountains of central Idaho at a distance of 114-km from the ANL-West site. The earthquake tripped the seismic sensors in the EBR-II reactor shutdown system causing a reactor scram. Visual and operability checks of structures, components, and systems showed no indication of damage or system abnormalities and reactor restart was initiated. As a result of the earthquake, questions arose as to the magnitude of the actual stress levels in critical components and what value of ground acceleration could be experienced without damage to reactor structures. EBR-II was designed prior to implementation of present day requirements for seismic qualification and appropriate analyses had not been conducted. A lumped-mass, finite element model of the primary tank, support structure, and the reactor was generated and analyzed using the response spectrum technique. The analysis showed that the stress levels in the primary tank system were very low during the Mount Borah earthquake and that the system could experience seismic loadings three to four times those of the Mount Borah earthquake without exceeding yield stresses in any of the components

  6. Structural performance of the DOE's Idaho National Engineering Laboratory during the 1983 Borah Peak Earthquake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guenzler, R.C.; Gorman, V.W.

    1985-01-01

    The 1983 Borah Peak Earthquake (7.3 Richter magnitude) was the largest earthquake ever experienced by the DOE's Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). Reactor and plant facilities are generally located about 90 to 110 km (60 miles) from the epicenter. Several reactors were operating normally at the time of the earthquake. Based on detailed inspections, comparisons of measured accelerations with design levels, and instrumental seismograph information, it was concluded that the 1983 Borah Peak Earthquake created no safety problems for INEL reactors or other facilities. 10 references, 16 figures, 2 tables

  7. 2D Modelling of the Gorkha earthquake through the joint exploitation of Sentinel 1-A DInSAR measurements and geological, structural and seismological information

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Novellis, Vincenzo; Castaldo, Raffaele; Solaro, Giuseppe; De Luca, Claudio; Pepe, Susi; Bonano, Manuela; Casu, Francesco; Zinno, Ivana; Manunta, Michele; Lanari, Riccardo; Tizzani, Pietro

    2016-04-01

    A Mw 7.8 earthquake struck Nepal on 25 April 2015 at 06:11:26 UTC, killing more than 9,000 people, injuring more than 23,000 and producing extensive damages. The main seismic event, known as the Gorkha earthquake, had its epicenter localized at ~82 km NW of the Kathmandu city and the hypocenter at a depth of approximately 15 km. After the main shock event, about 100 aftershocks occurred during the following months, propagating toward the south-east direction; in particular, the most energetic shocks were the Mw 6.7 and Mw 7.3 occurred on 26 April and 12 May, respectively. In this study, we model the causative fault of the earthquake by jointly exploiting surface deformation retrieved by the DInSAR measurements collected through the Sentinel 1-A (S1A) space-borne sensor and the available geological, structural and seismological information. We first exploit the analytical solution performing a back-analysis of the ground deformation detected by the first co-seismic S1A interferogram, computed by exploiting the 17/04/2015 and 29/04/2015 SAR acquisitions and encompassing the main earthquake and some aftershocks, to search for the location and geometry of the fault plane. Starting from these findings and by benefiting from the available geological, structural and seismological data, we carry out a Finite Element (FE)-based 2D modelling of the causative fault, in order to evaluate the impact of the geological structures activated during the seismic event on the distribution of the ground deformation field. The obtained results show that the causative fault has a rather complex compressive structure, dipping northward, formed by segments with different dip angles: 6° the deep segment and 60° the shallower one. Therefore, although the hypocenters of the main shock and most of the more energetic aftershocks are located along the deeper plane, corresponding to a segment of the Main Himalayan Thrust (MHT), the FE solution also indicates the contribution of the shallower

  8. NGA-West 2 GMPE average site coefficients for use in earthquake-resistant design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borcherdt, Roger D.

    2015-01-01

    Site coefficients corresponding to those in tables 11.4–1 and 11.4–2 of Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other Structures published by the American Society of Civil Engineers (Standard ASCE/SEI 7-10) are derived from four of the Next Generation Attenuation West2 (NGA-W2) Ground-Motion Prediction Equations (GMPEs). The resulting coefficients are compared with those derived by other researchers and those derived from the NGA-West1 database. The derivation of the NGA-W2 average site coefficients provides a simple procedure to update site coefficients with each update in the Maximum Considered Earthquake Response MCER maps. The simple procedure yields average site coefficients consistent with those derived for site-specific design purposes. The NGA-W2 GMPEs provide simple scale factors to reduce conservatism in current simplified design procedures.

  9. The disastrous Calabro-Messinese 1908 earthquake: the 100-year anniversary

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kozák, Jan

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 50, č. 3 (2008), s. 170-175 ISSN 1392-110X Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30120515 Keywords : significant historical earthquakes * 1908 Calabrian earthquake * seismicity of the Messina Strait Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure

  10. Introduction to the focus section on the 2015 Gorkha, Nepal, earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hough, Susan E.

    2015-01-01

    It has long been recognized that Nepal faces high earthquake hazard, with the most recent large (Mw>7.5) events in 1833 and 1934. When the 25 April 2015Mw 7.8 Gorkha earthquake struck, it appeared initially to be a realization of worst fears. In spite of its large magnitude and proximity to the densely populated Kathmandu valley, however, the level of damage was lower than anticipated, with most vernacular structures within the valley experiencing little or no structural damage. Outside the valley, catastrophic damage did occur in some villages, associated with the high vulnerability of stone masonry construction and, in many cases, landsliding. The unexpected observations from this expected earthquake provide an urgent impetus to understand the event itself and to better characterize hazard from future large Himalayan earthquakes. Toward this end, articles in this special focus section present and describe available data sets and initial results that better illuminate and interpret the earthquake and its effects.

  11. Communicating Earthquake Preparedness: The Influence of Induced Mood, Perceived Risk, and Gain or Loss Frames on Homeowners' Attitudes Toward General Precautionary Measures for Earthquakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marti, Michèle; Stauffacher, Michael; Matthes, Jörg; Wiemer, Stefan

    2018-04-01

    Despite global efforts to reduce seismic risk, actual preparedness levels remain universally low. Although earthquake-resistant building design is the most efficient way to decrease potential losses, its application is not a legal requirement across all earthquake-prone countries and even if, often not strictly enforced. Risk communication encouraging homeowners to take precautionary measures is therefore an important means to enhance a country's earthquake resilience. Our study illustrates that specific interactions of mood, perceived risk, and frame type significantly affect homeowners' attitudes toward general precautionary measures for earthquakes. The interdependencies of the variables mood, risk information, and frame type were tested in an experimental 2 × 2 × 2 design (N = 156). Only in combination and not on their own, these variables effectively influence attitudes toward general precautionary measures for earthquakes. The control variables gender, "trait anxiety" index, and alteration of perceived risk adjust the effect. Overall, the group with the strongest attitudes toward general precautionary actions for earthquakes are homeowners with induced negative mood who process high-risk information and gain-framed messages. However, the conditions comprising induced negative mood, low-risk information and loss-frame and induced positive mood, low-risk information and gain-framed messages both also significantly influence homeowners' attitudes toward general precautionary measures for earthquakes. These results mostly confirm previous findings in the field of health communication. For practitioners, our study emphasizes that carefully compiled communication measures are a powerful means to encourage precautionary attitudes among homeowners, especially for those with an elevated perceived risk. © 2017 Society for Risk Analysis.

  12. Upper crustal stress and seismotectonics of the Garhwal Himalaya using small-to-moderate earthquakes: Implications to the local structures and free fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasath, R. Arun; Paul, Ajay; Singh, Sandeep

    2017-03-01

    The work presents new focal-mechanism data of small-to-moderate (3.0 ⩾ ML ⩽ 5.0) upper crustal earthquakes for the Garhwal Himalaya from a local seismic network installed in July 2007. Majority of the epicenters of these earthquakes are located close to the Main Central Thrust (MCT) zone. We retrieved Moment Tensor (MT) solutions of 26 earthquakes by waveform inversion. The MT results and 11 small-to-moderate earthquakes from the published records are used for stress inversions. The MT solutions reveal dominatingly thrust mechanisms with few strike slip earthquakes near Chamoli. The seismic cross sections illustrate that, these earthquakes are located around the Mid-Crustal-Ramp (MCR) in the detachment. The optimally oriented faults from stress inversions suggest that, the seismogenic fault in this region is similar to a fault plane having dip angle between 12 and 25 degrees, which is compatible with the dip angle of the MCR (∼16°) in this region. P-axes and the maximum horizontal compressive stress are NE-SW oriented; the direction of the relative motion of Indian plate with respect to the Eurasian plate. The Friction Coefficient estimated from stress inversions show that the Chamoli region having low friction in comparison to the overall values. The free fluids trapped beneath the detachment are penetrating into the local faults, hence, decreasing the frictional strength and altering the prevailing stress conditions of the surroundings. The present study reveals that the MCR structure is seismogenically active and producing the small-moderate earthquakes in the region, while the MCT is probably dormant at present.

  13. Earthquake Preparedness Among Japanese Hemodialysis Patients in Prefectures Heavily Damaged by the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugisawa, Hidehiro; Shimizu, Yumiko; Kumagai, Tamaki; Sugisaki, Hiroaki; Ohira, Seiji; Shinoda, Toshio

    2017-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the factors related to earthquake preparedness in Japanese hemodialysis patients. We focused on three aspects of the related factors: health condition factors, social factors, and the experience of disasters. A mail survey of all the members of the Japan Association of Kidney Disease Patients in three Japanese prefectures (N = 4085) was conducted in March, 2013. We obtained 1841 valid responses for analysis. The health factors covered were: activities of daily living (ADL), mental distress, primary renal diseases, and the duration of dialysis. The social factors were: socioeconomic status, family structure, informational social support, and the provision of information regarding earthquake preparedness from dialysis facilities. The results show that the average percentage of participants that had met each criterion of earthquake preparedness in 2013 was 53%. Hemodialysis patients without disabled ADL, without mental distress, and requiring longer periods of dialysis, were likely to meet more of the earthquake preparedness criteria. Hemodialysis patients who had received informational social support from family or friends, had lived with spouse and children in comparison to living alone, and had obtained information regarding earthquake preparedness from dialysis facilities, were also likely to meet more of the earthquake preparedness criteria. © 2017 International Society for Apheresis, Japanese Society for Apheresis, and Japanese Society for Dialysis Therapy.

  14. Earthquake activity along the Himalayan orogenic belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, L.; Mori, J. J.

    2017-12-01

    The collision between the Indian and Eurasian plates formed the Himalayas, the largest orogenic belt on the Earth. The entire region accommodates shallow earthquakes, while intermediate-depth earthquakes are concentrated at the eastern and western Himalayan syntaxis. Here we investigate the focal depths, fault plane solutions, and source rupture process for three earthquake sequences, which are located at the western, central and eastern regions of the Himalayan orogenic belt. The Pamir-Hindu Kush region is located at the western Himalayan syntaxis and is characterized by extreme shortening of the upper crust and strong interaction of various layers of the lithosphere. Many shallow earthquakes occur on the Main Pamir Thrust at focal depths shallower than 20 km, while intermediate-deep earthquakes are mostly located below 75 km. Large intermediate-depth earthquakes occur frequently at the western Himalayan syntaxis about every 10 years on average. The 2015 Nepal earthquake is located in the central Himalayas. It is a typical megathrust earthquake that occurred on the shallow portion of the Main Himalayan Thrust (MHT). Many of the aftershocks are located above the MHT and illuminate faulting structures in the hanging wall with dip angles that are steeper than the MHT. These observations provide new constraints on the collision and uplift processes for the Himalaya orogenic belt. The Indo-Burma region is located south of the eastern Himalayan syntaxis, where the strike of the plate boundary suddenly changes from nearly east-west at the Himalayas to nearly north-south at the Burma Arc. The Burma arc subduction zone is a typical oblique plate convergence zone. The eastern boundary is the north-south striking dextral Sagaing fault, which hosts many shallow earthquakes with focal depth less than 25 km. In contrast, intermediate-depth earthquakes along the subduction zone reflect east-west trending reverse faulting.

  15. Weak tidal correlation of NW-Bohemia/Vogtland earthquake swarms

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fischer, Tomáš; Kalenda, Pavel; Skalský, Lumír

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 424, č. 3-4 (2006), s. 259-269 ISSN 0040-1951 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA3012308 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30460519 Keywords : Earth tides * earthquake swarm * triggered earthquakes Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure Impact factor: 1.675, year: 2006

  16. Comparison of the Efficiency of Tuned Mass and Tuned Liquid Dampers at High-Rise Structures under Near and Far Fault Earthquakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed Rahman Shokrgozar

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Tuned mass and tuned liquid dampers are most common passive control systems that used for decrease of seismic responses of buildings. In this study, the performance of high-rise buildings with TM and TL dampers are evaluated under seven near-fault and seven far-fault earthquakes. For this purpose, a twenty-four stories steel moment frame building has been considered and the time history dynamic analyses are performed for both of controlled and uncontrolled states. Moreover, this building has been also modelled with five various mass, stiffness and damping ratios.The results have been shown that decreasing the structural responses at tall buildings against near-fault earthquakes are more than far-fault earthquakes due to the effect of higher modes. Furthermore, the tuned mass damper has better performance at decreasing of the responses in comparison of tuned liquid dampers.

  17. Experimental investigation into the seismic behavior of nuclear power plant shear wall structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kenneally, R.M.; Burns, J.J. Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Nuclear power plant structures are designed to resist large earthquakes. However, as new data are obtained on earthquake activity throughout the United States, plant design earthquake levels have increased. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission is sponsoring an analytical-experimental research program to obtain information on the strucutral response of nuclear power plant shear wall strucutres subjected to earthquake motions within and beyond their design basis. Using different size scale models constructed with microconcrete and prototypical concrete this research has demonstrated consistent results for measured values of stiffness at load levels within the design basis. Furthermore, the values are well below the theoretical stiffnesses calculated from an uncracked cross-section strength-of-materials approach. Current program emphasis is to assess the credibility of previous experimental work by beginning to resolve the 'stiffness difference' issue. (orig.)

  18. Report on design and technical standard planning of vibration controlling structure on the buildings, in the Tokai Reprocessing Facility, Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uryu, Mitsuru; Terada, Shuji; Shinohara, Takaharu; Yamazaki, Toshihiko; Nakayama, Kazuhiko; Kondo, Toshinari; Hosoya, Hisashi

    1997-10-01

    The Tokai reprocessing facility buildings are constituted by a lower foundation, vibration controlling layers, and upper structure. At the vibration controlling layer, a laminated rubber aiming support of the building load and extension of the eigenfrequency and a damper aiming absorption of earthquake energy are provided. Of course, the facility buildings are directly supported at the arenaceous shale (Taga Layer) of the Miocene in the Neogene confirmed to the stablest ground, as well the buildings with high vibration resistant importance in Japan. This report shows that when the vibration controlling structure is adopted for the reprocessing facility buildings where such high vibration resistance is required, reduction of input acceleration for equipments and pipings can be achieved and the earthquake resistant safety can also be maintained with sufficient tolerance and reliability. (G.K.)

  19. Holocene surface-rupturing earthquakes along the Yadong Cross Structure (Himalaya)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferry, M. A.; Roth, T.; Jean-Francois, R.; Cattin, R.

    2017-12-01

    The Himalayan Arc accommodates 2 cm/yr of shortening from the India-Eurasia collision, mostly along the Main Himalayan Thust. Perpendicularly to the main structures, regional cross structures formed by en échelon grabens and half-grabens mark Quaternary extension from central Tibet to the Himalayas. The Yadong-Gulu Rift system is the most striking one with a total length of 500 km. Its southernmost segment -the 100-km-long Yadong half-graben- entrenches through the Himalayas and forms a 500-to-1500-m-deep asymmetric basin. The average basin surface elevation of 4500 m contrasts with high reliefs of the Jomolhari range that reach 7326 m. They are separated by the N15 Yadong normal fault (also called Jomolhari Fault System, JFS) that forms spectacular triangular facets and affects glacial landforms. Though observed as early as the 1980s, offset moraines were never studied in detail in terms of measured displacement or age determination. Recent efforts from paleoclimate studies yielded a high-resolution framework to identify the various stages of Holocene glacial advances and associated moraine formation. These landforms display specific geomorphometric features recognized regionally (ELA, rugosity, crest freshness) that allow correlating across the various glacial valleys within the Yadong Rift and across similar settings in western Bhutan and eastern Nepal. This serves as a robust basis to place our moraine sequence within the Holocene paleoclimatic record and propose formation ages. By combining satellite images from Sentinel-2 (10 m, visible and NIR), Pléiades (0.5 m, visible) and a Pléiades-derived tri-stereo photogrammetric DEM (1 m), we map the fault trace and affected landforms in details and extract topographic profiles to measure vertical offsets. Paleoclimatic age constraints yield age-vs-displacement measurements along the whole 100-km-long JFS and define a chronology of Holocene deformation events. Within the limits of our observations, we conclude

  20. Construction and design defects in the residential buildings and observed earthquake damage types in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cogurcu, M. T.

    2015-04-01

    Turkey is situated in a very active earthquake region. In the last century, several earthquakes resulted in thousands of deaths and enormous economic losses. In 1999, the Kocaeli earthquake had an approximate death toll of more than 20 000, and in 2011 the Van earthquake killed 604 people. In general, Turkish residential buildings have reinforced concrete structural systems. These reinforced concrete structures have several deficiencies, such as low concrete quality, non-seismic steel detailing and inappropriate structural systems including several architectural irregularities. In this study, the general characteristics of Turkish building stock and the deficiencies observed in structural systems are explained, and illustrative figures are given with reference to the Turkish Earthquake Code 2007. The poor concrete quality, lack of lateral or transverse reinforcement in beam-column joints and column confinement zones, high stirrup spacings, under-reinforced columns and over-reinforced beams are the primary causes of failures. Other deficiencies include weak-column-stronger-beam formations, insufficient seismic joint separations, soft-story or weak-story irregularities and short columns. Similar construction and design mistakes are also observed in other countries situated on active earthquake belts. Existing buildings still have these undesirable characteristics, and so to prepare for future earthquakes they must be rehabilitated.

  1. Earthquake Ground Motion Measures for Seismic Response Evaluation of Structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, In-Kil; Ahn, Seong-Moon; Choun, Young-Sun; Seo, Jeong-Moon

    2007-03-15

    This study used the assessment results of failure criteria - base shear, story drift, top acceleration and top displacement - for a PSC containment building subjected to 30 sets of near-fault ground motions to evaluate the earthquake ground motion intensity measures. Seven intensity measures, peak ground acceleration(PGA), peak ground velocity(PGV), spectral acceleration(Sa), velocity(Sv), spectrum intensity for acceleration(SIa), velocity(SIv) and displacement(SId), were used to represent alternative ground motion. The regression analyses of the failure criteria for a PSC containment building were carried out to evaluate a proper intensity measure by using two regression models and seven ground motion parameters. The regression analysis results demonstrate the correlation coefficients of the failure criteria in terms of the candidate IM. From the results, spectral acceleration(Sa) is estimated as the best parameter for a evaluation of the structural safety for a seismic PSA.

  2. Support motions for mechanical components during earthquakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadjian, A.H.

    1979-01-01

    The functioning of mechanical and other equipment during and after earthquakes may not only be necessary to avoid catastrophic consequences, such as in nuclear facilities, but also to guarantee the adequate functioning of emergency facilities (hospitals and fire stations, for example) that are necessary to cope with the aftermath of an earthquake. The state-of-the-art methods used for prescribing support motions to equipment in structures is reviewed from the elementary to the more complex. Also reviewed are the justifications for the uncoupling of the equipment from the structure for purposes of analysis, and the impacts that uncertainties in the total process may have on equipment design. (author)

  3. A Hybrid Ground-Motion Prediction Equation for Earthquakes in Western Alberta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spriggs, N.; Yenier, E.; Law, A.; Moores, A. O.

    2015-12-01

    Estimation of ground-motion amplitudes that may be produced by future earthquakes constitutes the foundation of seismic hazard assessment and earthquake-resistant structural design. This is typically done by using a prediction equation that quantifies amplitudes as a function of key seismological variables such as magnitude, distance and site condition. In this study, we develop a hybrid empirical prediction equation for earthquakes in western Alberta, where evaluation of seismic hazard associated with induced seismicity is of particular interest. We use peak ground motions and response spectra from recorded seismic events to model the regional source and attenuation attributes. The available empirical data is limited in the magnitude range of engineering interest (M>4). Therefore, we combine empirical data with a simulation-based model in order to obtain seismologically informed predictions for moderate-to-large magnitude events. The methodology is two-fold. First, we investigate the shape of geometrical spreading in Alberta. We supplement the seismic data with ground motions obtained from mining/quarry blasts, in order to gain insights into the regional attenuation over a wide distance range. A comparison of ground-motion amplitudes for earthquakes and mining/quarry blasts show that both event types decay at similar rates with distance and demonstrate a significant Moho-bounce effect. In the second stage, we calibrate the source and attenuation parameters of a simulation-based prediction equation to match the available amplitude data from seismic events. We model the geometrical spreading using a trilinear function with attenuation rates obtained from the first stage, and calculate coefficients of anelastic attenuation and site amplification via regression analysis. This provides a hybrid ground-motion prediction equation that is calibrated for observed motions in western Alberta and is applicable to moderate-to-large magnitude events.

  4. Earthquake response of heavily damaged historical masonry mosques after restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altunışık, Ahmet Can; Fuat Genç, Ali

    2017-10-01

    Restoration works have been accelerated substantially in Turkey in the last decade. Many historical buildings, mosques, minaret, bridges, towers and structures have been restored. With these restorations an important issue arises, namely how restoration work affects the structure. For this reason, we aimed to investigate the restoration effect on the earthquake response of a historical masonry mosque considering the openings on the masonry dome. For this purpose, we used the Hüsrev Pasha Mosque, which is located in the Ortakapı district in the old city of Van, Turkey. The region of Van is in an active seismic zone; therefore, earthquake analyses were performed in this study. Firstly a finite element model of the mosque was constructed considering the restoration drawings and 16 window openings on the dome. Then model was constructed with eight window openings. Structural analyses were performed under dead load and earthquake load, and the mode superposition method was used in analyses. Maximum displacements, maximum-minimum principal stresses and shear stresses are given with contours diagrams. The results are analyzed according to Turkish Earthquake Code (TEC, 2007) and compared between 8 and 16 window openings cases. The results show that reduction of the window openings affected the structural behavior of the mosque positively.

  5. Lessons learned from the total evacuation of a hospital after the 2016 Kumamoto Earthquake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanagawa, Youichi; Kondo, Hisayoshi; Okawa, Takashi; Ochi, Fumio

    The 2016 Kumamoto Earthquakes were a series of earthquakes that included a foreshock earthquake (magnitude 6.2) on April 14 and a main shock (magnitude 7.0) on April 16, 2016. A number of hospitals in Kumamoto were severely damaged by the two major earthquakes and required total evacuation. The authors retrospectively analyzed the activity data of the Disaster Medical Assistance Teams using the Emergency Medical Information System records to investigate the cases in which the total evacuation of a hospital was attempted following the 2016 Kumamoto Earthquake. Total evacuation was attempted at 17 hospitals. The evacuation of one of these hospitals was canceled. Most of the hospital buildings were more than 20 years old. The danger of collapse was the most frequent reason for evacuation. Various transportation methods were employed, some of which involved the Japan Ground Self-Defense Force; no preventable deaths occurred during transportation. The hospitals must now be renovated to improve their earthquake resistance. The coordinated and combined use of military and civilian resources is beneficial and can significantly reduce human suffering in large-scale disasters.

  6. Structural heterogeneities in the source area of the Mw 7.9 2008 Wenchuan Earthquake, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Z.; Fukao, Y.; Pei, S.

    2008-12-01

    The Mw 7.9 Wenchuan Earthquake occurred on May 12, 2008 (06:28:01 UTC) in the Longmen-Shan fault zone at the eastern margin of Tibet and adjacent to the Sichuan foreland basin, where as much as 9 m of coseismic slip was observed. This is the most significant earthquake to have struck China since the 1976 Tangshan Earthquake (Mw 7.6). Chinese authorities estimated more than 69,000 people were killed and 374,176 injured. About 1,485,000 people were forced into temporary shelters (http://www.gov.cn). The coseismic faulting zone coincides roughly with this aftershock distribution. The extent of the great damage may have resulted from the variation of crustal structures along the tectonic thrust faulting and strike slipping zone, causing significant coseismic displacement and acceleration on a regional scale. For a better understanding of what may have triggered this earthquake and how the rupture proceeded after the initiation, we conducted an investigation of the seismic structure in the Wenchuan earthquake source area. A large number of arrival time data of P and Pn, S and Sn phases from local earthquakes were collected and inverted jointly for the three-dimensional P- and S-wave velocity (Vp and Vs) models. The Poisson's ratio model was then calculated from these velocity models. The overall patterns of Vp and Vs anomalies are similar to each other at any of these three depths. The Sichuan Basin is a distinct entity in tomographic images, anomalously slow at 13 km depth and anomalously fast at 20 km depth, in sharp contrast to the anomalies on the mountain side across the Longmen-Shan fault zone. The area of the fault zone is characterized in general by high Vp and Vs anomalies at a depth of 13 km, although a low Vp and Vs anomaly patch is present in the middle of a total fault length of 300 km. At depths around 20 km, low Vp and Vs anomalies dominate on the mountain side including its eastern margin, where the shallower (˜13 km) and deeper (˜30 km) depths are

  7. Comparison of the inelastic response of steel building frames to strong earthquake and underground nuclear explosion ground motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, R.C.; Tokarz, F.J.

    1976-01-01

    Analytic studies were made of the adequacy of simulating earthquake effects at the Nevada Test Site for structural testing purposes. It is concluded that underground nuclear explosion ground motion will produce inelastic behavior and damage comparable to that produced by strong earthquakes. The generally longer duration of earthquakes compared with underground nuclear explosions does not appear to significantly affect the structural behavior of the building frames considered. A comparison of maximum ductility ratios, maximum story drifts, and maximum displacement indicate similar structural behavior for both types of ground motion. Low yield (10 - kt) underground nuclear explosions are capable of producing inelastic behavior in large structures. Ground motion produced by underground nuclear explosions can produce inelastic earthquake-like effects in large structures and could be used for testing large structures in the inelastic response regime. The Nevada Test Site is a feasible earthquake simulator for testing large structures

  8. Cyclic characteristics of earthquake time histories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, J.R. Jr; Shukla, D.K.; Kissenpfennig, J.F.

    1977-01-01

    From an engineering standpoint, an earthquake record may be characterized by a number of parameters, one of which is its 'cyclic characteristics'. The cyclic characteristics are most significant in fatigue analysis of structures and liquefaction analysis of soils where, in addition to the peak motion, cyclic buildup is significant. Whereas duration peak amplitude and response spectra for earthquakes have been studied extensively, the cyclic characteristics of earthquake records have not received an equivalent attention. Present procedures to define the cyclic characteristics are generally based upon counting the number of peaks at various amplitude ranges on a record. This paper presents a computer approach which describes a time history by an amplitude envelope and a phase curve. Using Fast Fourier Transform Techniques, an earthquake time history is represented as a projection along the x-axis of a rotating vector-the length the vector is given by the amplitude spectra-and the angle between the vector and x-axis is given by the phase curve. Thus one cycle is completed when the vector makes a full rotation. Based upon Miner's cumulative damage concept, the computer code automatically combines the cycles of various amplitudes to obtain the equivalent number of cycles of a given amplitude. To illustrate the overall results, the cyclic characteristics of several real and synthetic earthquake time histories have been studied and are presented in the paper, with the conclusion that this procedure provides a physical interpretation of the cyclic characteristics of earthquakes. (Auth.)

  9. Structural control on the Tohoku earthquake rupture process investigated by 3D FEM, tsunami and geodetic data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, F; Trasatti, E; Lorito, S; Piromallo, C; Piatanesi, A; Ito, Y; Zhao, D; Hirata, K; Lanucara, P; Cocco, M

    2014-07-09

    The 2011 Tohoku earthquake (Mw = 9.1) highlighted previously unobserved features for megathrust events, such as the large slip in a relatively limited area and the shallow rupture propagation. We use a Finite Element Model (FEM), taking into account the 3D geometrical and structural complexities up to the trench zone, and perform a joint inversion of tsunami and geodetic data to retrieve the earthquake slip distribution. We obtain a close spatial correlation between the main deep slip patch and the local seismic velocity anomalies, and large shallow slip extending also to the North coherently with a seismically observed low-frequency radiation. These observations suggest that the friction controlled the rupture, initially confining the deeper rupture and then driving its propagation up to the trench, where it spreads laterally. These findings are relevant to earthquake and tsunami hazard assessment because they may help to detect regions likely prone to rupture along the megathrust, and to constrain the probability of high slip near the trench. Our estimate of ~40 m slip value around the JFAST (Japan Trench Fast Drilling Project) drilling zone contributes to constrain the dynamic shear stress and friction coefficient of the fault obtained by temperature measurements to ~0.68 MPa and ~0.10, respectively.

  10. Recovering from the ShakeOut earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wein, Anne; Johnson, Laurie; Bernknopf, Richard

    2011-01-01

    Recovery from an earthquake like the M7.8 ShakeOut Scenario will be a major endeavor taking many years to complete. Hundreds of Southern California municipalities will be affected; most lack recovery plans or previous disaster experience. To support recovery planning this paper 1) extends the regional ShakeOut Scenario analysis into the recovery period using a recovery model, 2) localizes analyses to identify longer-term impacts and issues in two communities, and 3) considers the regional context of local recovery.Key community insights about preparing for post-disaster recovery include the need to: geographically diversify city procurement; set earthquake mitigation priorities for critical infrastructure (e.g., airport), plan to replace mobile homes with earthquake safety measures, consider post-earthquake redevelopment opportunities ahead of time, and develop post-disaster recovery management and governance structures. This work also showed that communities with minor damages are still sensitive to regional infrastructure damages and their potential long-term impacts on community recovery. This highlights the importance of community and infrastructure resilience strategies as well.

  11. Earthquake Disaster of Yogyakarta and Central Java, and Disaster Reduction, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutikno Sutikno

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper discussed on earthquake disaster and its reduction of Yogyakarta and Central Java, Indonesia. The study area is located at relatively a short distance from subduction zone of India-Australian and Eurasian plates. Geologically this area is characterized by fault and graben structure, and geomorphologically is composed of block mountain, karsts topography and fluvio-volcanic plain. Aim of this paper is to evaluate the spatial distribution of the damage area, the environmental impacts, and to discuss the risk reduction of earthquake disaster scientifically and practically. In this paper to determine the hazard susceptibility zone and their environmental impact used geologic, geomorphologic, land use map, remote sensing image interpretation, and field observation. Discussion on the earthquake disaster risk reduction based on the hazard susceptibility and the characteristic of the human settlement and facilities. The result of this study shows that: i.the high damage area associate with distribution of the fault structures and the lithology; ii. mass-movement, lowering of groundwater, rising new springs, liquefaction, cracking of rocks and land surface; iii. structural non structural efforts are used for earthquake disaster reduction.

  12. Weak tidal correlation of NW-Bohemia/Vogtland earthquake swarms

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fischer, Tomáš; Kalenda, Pavel; Skalský, Lumír

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 424, č. 3-4 (2006), s. 259-269 ISSN 0040-1951 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA3012308 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30120515; CEZ:AV0Z30460519 Keywords : Earth tides * earthquake swarm * triggered earthquakes Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure Impact factor: 1.675, year: 2006

  13. Earthquake potential revealed by tidal influence on earthquake size-frequency statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ide, Satoshi; Yabe, Suguru; Tanaka, Yoshiyuki

    2016-11-01

    The possibility that tidal stress can trigger earthquakes is long debated. In particular, a clear causal relationship between small earthquakes and the phase of tidal stress is elusive. However, tectonic tremors deep within subduction zones are highly sensitive to tidal stress levels, with tremor rate increasing at an exponential rate with rising tidal stress. Thus, slow deformation and the possibility of earthquakes at subduction plate boundaries may be enhanced during periods of large tidal stress. Here we calculate the tidal stress history, and specifically the amplitude of tidal stress, on a fault plane in the two weeks before large earthquakes globally, based on data from the global, Japanese, and Californian earthquake catalogues. We find that very large earthquakes, including the 2004 Sumatran, 2010 Maule earthquake in Chile and the 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake in Japan, tend to occur near the time of maximum tidal stress amplitude. This tendency is not obvious for small earthquakes. However, we also find that the fraction of large earthquakes increases (the b-value of the Gutenberg-Richter relation decreases) as the amplitude of tidal shear stress increases. The relationship is also reasonable, considering the well-known relationship between stress and the b-value. This suggests that the probability of a tiny rock failure expanding to a gigantic rupture increases with increasing tidal stress levels. We conclude that large earthquakes are more probable during periods of high tidal stress.

  14. Simulated earthquake ground motions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanmarcke, E.H.; Gasparini, D.A.

    1977-01-01

    The paper reviews current methods for generating synthetic earthquake ground motions. Emphasis is on the special requirements demanded of procedures to generate motions for use in nuclear power plant seismic response analysis. Specifically, very close agreement is usually sought between the response spectra of the simulated motions and prescribed, smooth design response spectra. The features and capabilities of the computer program SIMQKE, which has been widely used in power plant seismic work are described. Problems and pitfalls associated with the use of synthetic ground motions in seismic safety assessment are also pointed out. The limitations and paucity of recorded accelerograms together with the widespread use of time-history dynamic analysis for obtaining structural and secondary systems' response have motivated the development of earthquake simulation capabilities. A common model for synthesizing earthquakes is that of superposing sinusoidal components with random phase angles. The input parameters for such a model are, then, the amplitudes and phase angles of the contributing sinusoids as well as the characteristics of the variation of motion intensity with time, especially the duration of the motion. The amplitudes are determined from estimates of the Fourier spectrum or the spectral density function of the ground motion. These amplitudes may be assumed to be varying in time or constant for the duration of the earthquake. In the nuclear industry, the common procedure is to specify a set of smooth response spectra for use in aseismic design. This development and the need for time histories have generated much practical interest in synthesizing earthquakes whose response spectra 'match', or are compatible with a set of specified smooth response spectra

  15. Earthquake Tests of Reinforced Concrete Frames

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjærbæk, P. S.; Nielsen, Søren R.K.; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning

    1997-01-01

    the equilibrium state. Afterwards the test structure is subjected to the three strong ground motion oscillations where the two first sequences are followed by a free decay test. No free decay test was performed after the third earthquake due to collapse of the test structure during the third strong motion...

  16. Earthquake Tests of Reinforced Concrete Frames

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjærbæk, P. S.; Nielsen, Søren R.K.; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning

    1996-01-01

    the equilibrium state. Afterwards the test structure is subjected to the three strong ground motion oscillations where the two first sequences are followed by a free decay test. No free decay test was performed after the third earthquake due to collapse of the test structure during the third strong motion...

  17. Sensitivity of broad-band ground-motion simulations to earthquake source and Earth structure variations: an application to the Messina Straits (Italy)

    KAUST Repository

    Imperatori, W.; Mai, Paul Martin

    2012-01-01

    We find that ground-motion variability associated to differences in crustal models is constant and becomes important at intermediate and long periods. On the other hand, source-induced ground-motion variability is negligible at long periods and strong at intermediate-short periods. Using our source-modelling approach and the three different 1-D structural models, we investigate shaking levels for the 1908 Mw 7.1 Messina earthquake adopting a recently proposed model for fault geometry and final slip. Our simulations suggest that peak levels in Messina and Reggio Calabria must have reached 0.6-0.7 g during this earthquake.

  18. Time history nonlinear earthquake response analysis considering materials and geometrical nonlinearity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, T.; Yoshikawa, K.; Takaoka, E.; Nakazawa, M.; Shikama, Y.

    2002-01-01

    A time history nonlinear earthquake response analysis method was proposed and applied to earthquake response prediction analysis for a Large Scale Seismic Test (LSST) Program in Hualien, Taiwan, in which a 1/4 scale model of a nuclear reactor containment structure was constructed on sandy gravel layer. In the analysis both of strain-dependent material nonlinearity, and geometrical nonlinearity by base mat uplift, were considered. The 'Lattice Model' for the soil-structure interaction model was employed. An earthquake record on soil surface at the site was used as control motion, and deconvoluted to the input motion of the analysis model at GL-52 m with 300 Gal of maximum acceleration. The following two analyses were considered: (A) time history nonlinear, (B) equivalent linear, and the advantage of time history nonlinear earthquake response analysis method is discussed

  19. POST Earthquake Debris Management — AN Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Raju

    Every year natural disasters, such as fires, floods, earthquakes, hurricanes, landslides, tsunami, and tornadoes, challenge various communities of the world. Earthquakes strike with varying degrees of severity and pose both short- and long-term challenges to public service providers. Earthquakes generate shock waves and displace the ground along fault lines. These seismic forces can bring down buildings and bridges in a localized area and damage buildings and other structures in a far wider area. Secondary damage from fires, explosions, and localized flooding from broken water pipes can increase the amount of debris. Earthquake debris includes building materials, personal property, and sediment from landslides. The management of this debris, as well as the waste generated during the reconstruction works, can place significant challenges on the national and local capacities. Debris removal is a major component of every post earthquake recovery operation. Much of the debris generated from earthquake is not hazardous. Soil, building material, and green waste, such as trees and shrubs, make up most of the volume of earthquake debris. These wastes not only create significant health problems and a very unpleasant living environment if not disposed of safely and appropriately, but also can subsequently impose economical burdens on the reconstruction phase. In practice, most of the debris may be either disposed of at landfill sites, reused as materials for construction or recycled into useful commodities Therefore, the debris clearance operation should focus on the geotechnical engineering approach as an important post earthquake issue to control the quality of the incoming flow of potential soil materials. In this paper, the importance of an emergency management perspective in this geotechnical approach that takes into account the different criteria related to the operation execution is proposed by highlighting the key issues concerning the handling of the construction

  20. A combined multibody and finite element approach for dynamic interaction analysis of high-speed train and railway structure including post-derailment behavior during an earthquake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanabe, M; Wakui, H; Sogabe, M; Matsumoto, N; Tanabe, Y

    2010-01-01

    A combined multibody and finite element approach is given to solve the dynamic interaction of a Shinkansen train (high-speed train in Japan) and the railway structure including post-derailment during an earthquake effectively. The motion of the train is expressed in multibody dynamics. Efficient mechanical models to express interactions between wheel and track structure including post-derailment are given. Rail and track elements expressed in multibody dynamics and FEM are given to solve contact problems between wheel and long railway components effectively. The motion of a railway structure is modeled with various finite elements and rail and track elements. The computer program has been developed for the dynamic interaction analysis of a Shinkansen train and railway structure including post derailment during an earthquake. Numerical examples are demonstrated.

  1. The 2012 Earthquake: AN Abacus of Surveys and Interventions in Mantua Churches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fregonese, L.; Campera, A.; Scala, B.; Adami, A.

    2017-05-01

    building to resist the seismic stress because badly maintained. These two possibilities conditioned the repair choices applied on the churches. The interventions regard different techniques which were optimized not only to be applied on buildings damaged by the earthquake but also on those that gradually show the necessity of accommodation measures. It is important, in order not to miss the operational experience gained in these years, to maximize the economic resources deployed by focusing the results achieved and verify if the followed path has been consistent and, if not, adjust the direction followed. In summary, the solutions adopted are for example: ties and anchor elements, repair works on vaults with mesh and plaster, repair works on vaults with addiction of lightweight ribs; repair works on cracked vaults with wood, steel wedges and injections of natural hydraulic lime, filling in the gaps of the masonry structure to reduce vulnerabilities.

  2. Earthquake accelerations estimation for construction calculating with different responsibility degrees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolgaya, A.A.; Uzdin, A.M.; Indeykin, A.V.

    1993-01-01

    The investigation object is the design amplitude of accelerograms, which are used in the evaluation of seismic stability of responsible structures, first and foremost, NPS. The amplitude level is established depending on the degree of responsibility of the structure and on the prevailing period of earthquake action on the construction site. The investigation procedure is based on statistical analysis of 310 earthquakes. At the first stage of statistical data-processing we established the correlation dependence of both the mathematical expectation and root-mean-square deviation of peak acceleration of the earthquake on its prevailing period. At the second stage the most suitable law of acceleration distribution about the mean was chosen. To determine of this distribution parameters, we specified the maximum conceivable acceleration, the excess of which is not allowed. Other parameters of distribution are determined according to statistical data. At the third stage the dependencies of design amplitude on the prevailing period of seismic effect for different structures and equipment were established. The obtained data made it possible to recommend to fix the level of safe-shutdown (SSB) and operating basis earthquakes (OBE) for objects of various responsibility categories when designing NPS. (author)

  3. CONCIDERATION OF FOUNDATION AND SEISMIC CONDITIONS OF AREA IN ANALYSIS OF SEISMIC RESISTANCE OF REACTOR COMPARTMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SEDIN V. L.

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement. Providing of safe exploitation of nuclear power plants, as well as a safety of staff and environment is a very important problem. A distinct feature of this problem is a necessity to provide not only a strength of structures, but also a safe functioning of all systems that control nuclear process. In particular, the influence of earthquake should be considered on constructions of buildings and structures of nuclear and thermal power plant, taking into account soil-structure interaction. According to IAEA’s SSD-9 recommendations, a risk of vibration of soil should be analyzed for each NPP connected with earthquakes soil that means researches, including general, detailed and microseismic zoning of the area works. One of the distinctive features of the considered problem is an evaluation of the seismicity of area and getting the response spectrum on the free surface. Purpose. Determination of seismic resistance of buildings of high category of safety with the example of the reactor compartment of Zaporoghskaya NPP including the soil structure interaction. Conclusion The seismicity assessment of the area and obtaining of response specters on free surface was made during research and analysis of seismic resistance of buildings of high category of safety including the effects of foundation and structures. The method of modeling of the equivalent dynamic characteristics of the base was considered during the research in seismic impacts.

  4. Earthquake, GIS and multimedia. The 1883 Casamicciola earthquake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rebuffat

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available A series of multimedia monographs concerning the main seismic events that have affected the Italian territory are in the process of being produced for the Documental Integrated Multimedia Project (DIMP started by the Italian National Seismic Survey (NSS. The purpose of the project is to reconstruct the historical record of earthquakes and promote an earthquake public education. Producing the monographs. developed in ARC INFO and working in UNIX. involved designing a special filing and management methodology to integrate heterogeneous information (images, papers, cartographies, etc.. This paper describes the possibilities of a GIS (Geographic Information System in the filing and management of documental information. As an example we present the first monograph on the 1883 Casamicciola earthquake. on the island of Ischia (Campania, Italy. This earthquake is particularly interesting for the following reasons: I historical-cultural context (first destructive seismic event after the unification of Italy; 2 its features (volcanic earthquake; 3 the socioeconomic consequences caused at such an important seaside resort.

  5. LLL/DOR seismic conservatism of operating plants project. Interm report on Task II.1.3: soil-structure interaction. Deconvolution of the June 7, 1975, Ferndale Earthquake at the Humboldt Bay Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maslenikov, O.R.; Smith, P.D.

    1978-01-01

    The Ferndale Earthquake of June 7, 1975, provided a unique opportunity to study the accuracy of seismic soil-structure interaction methods used in the nuclear industry because, other than this event, there have been no cases of significant earthquakes for which moderate motions of nuclear plants have been recorded. Future studies are planned which will evaluate the soil-structure interaction methodology further, using increasingly complex methods as required. The first step in this task was to perform deconvolution and soil-structure interaction analyses for the effects of the Ferndale earthquake at the Humboldt Bay Power Plant site. The deconvolution analyses of bedrock motions performed are compared as well as additional studies on analytical sensitivity

  6. OMG Earthquake! Can Twitter improve earthquake response?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earle, P. S.; Guy, M.; Ostrum, C.; Horvath, S.; Buckmaster, R. A.

    2009-12-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is investigating how the social networking site Twitter, a popular service for sending and receiving short, public, text messages, can augment its earthquake response products and the delivery of hazard information. The goal is to gather near real-time, earthquake-related messages (tweets) and provide geo-located earthquake detections and rough maps of the corresponding felt areas. Twitter and other social Internet technologies are providing the general public with anecdotal earthquake hazard information before scientific information has been published from authoritative sources. People local to an event often publish information within seconds via these technologies. In contrast, depending on the location of the earthquake, scientific alerts take between 2 to 20 minutes. Examining the tweets following the March 30, 2009, M4.3 Morgan Hill earthquake shows it is possible (in some cases) to rapidly detect and map the felt area of an earthquake using Twitter responses. Within a minute of the earthquake, the frequency of “earthquake” tweets rose above the background level of less than 1 per hour to about 150 per minute. Using the tweets submitted in the first minute, a rough map of the felt area can be obtained by plotting the tweet locations. Mapping the tweets from the first six minutes shows observations extending from Monterey to Sacramento, similar to the perceived shaking region mapped by the USGS “Did You Feel It” system. The tweets submitted after the earthquake also provided (very) short first-impression narratives from people who experienced the shaking. Accurately assessing the potential and robustness of a Twitter-based system is difficult because only tweets spanning the previous seven days can be searched, making a historical study impossible. We have, however, been archiving tweets for several months, and it is clear that significant limitations do exist. The main drawback is the lack of quantitative information

  7. Resistance to fracture of carbon weldable structural steel with ferrite-pearlite and widmanstaetten structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulyaev, A.P.; Guzovskaya, M.A.

    1977-01-01

    Consideration is given to mechanical properties of St3 steel with varying ferritic-peartilic and widmanstaetten structures typical of a weld seam and adjacent zones. It has been found that mechanical properties determined at static tension are sensitive to structure variation in the limits under study. A considerable difference has been detected during impact tests CT 50 , asub(p)). The highest resistance to breakage is observed for the steel with a fine-grain ferritic-pearlitic structure (T 50 =-10 deg C, asub(p)=4.3 kgxm/cm 2 ). The enlargement of such a structure enhances transition temperature (T 50 =+20 deg C) and reduces resistance to crack development (asub(p)2.4 kgxm/cm 2 ). The appearance of widmanstaetten zones in the fine-grain structure leads also to a higher T 50 , up to +10 deg C, and at a completely widmanstaetten structure T 50 =+25 deg C. An especially unfavorable effect on the resistance of steel to breakage is produced by structure nonuniformity, i.e. accumulation of loop-like pearlitic and ferritic zones

  8. Coseismic Strain Steps of the 2008 Wenchuan Earthquake Indicate EW Extension of Tibetan Plateau and Increased Hazard South to Epicenter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, G.; Shen, X.; Tang, J.; Fukuda, Y.

    2008-12-01

    The 2008 Wenchuan earthquake (Ms8.0) occurred at the east edge of Tibetan Plateau. It is the biggest seismic disaster in China since the 1976 Tangshan earthquake. To determine the effects of the earthquake on the deformation field of Tibetan Plateau, we collect and analyze continuing strain data of three stations before and after the earthquake in Tibetan Plateau observed by capacitance-type bore-hole strainmeters (Chi, 1985). We collect strain data in NS, EW, NE-SW and NW-NS directions at each borehole. Then we deduce the co-seismic strain steps at time point 14:28 of May 12, 2008 (at this time point the earthquake occurred) with the data before and after the earthquake using the least squares method. Our observation shows that in Tibetan Plateau significant co-seismic strain steps are accompanied with the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake. Extension in EW direction is observed at interior and north Tibetan Plateau which indicates a rapid EW extension of the whole Plateau. Field investigation shows that the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake is a manifestation of eastward growth of the Tibetan Plateau (Dong et al., 2008). Eastwards growth of the Tibetan Plateau results naturally in the extension of the Plateau in EW direction. Our co-seismic strain observation agrees well with the conclusion from surface rupture investigation. The magnitude of co-seismic strain step equals to five times of average year extensional strain rate throughout the plateau interior. Shortening in SE- NW direction is observed at the east edge of the Plateau. As hints that the eastward extension of Tibetan Plateau is resisted by Sichuan rigid basin which increases the potential earthquake hazard around the observation station, manifests the declaration from co-seismic stress changes calculation (Persons et al., 2008). Our observed co-seismic strain steps are in total lager than theoretical calculations of dislocation theories which indicate that magnitude of the great earthquake should be bigger than 7.9. Due

  9. Earthquake Early Warning Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Pei-Yang Lin

    2011-01-01

    Because of Taiwan’s unique geographical environment, earthquake disasters occur frequently in Taiwan. The Central Weather Bureau collated earthquake data from between 1901 and 2006 (Central Weather Bureau, 2007) and found that 97 earthquakes had occurred, of which, 52 resulted in casualties. The 921 Chichi Earthquake had the most profound impact. Because earthquakes have instant destructive power and current scientific technologies cannot provide precise early warnings in advance, earthquake ...

  10. INVESTIGATION OF THERMAL BEHAVIOR OF MULTILAYERED FIRE RESISTANT STRUCTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. GUOBYS

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents experimental and numerical investigations of thermal behavior under real fire conditions of new generation multilayered fire resistant structure (fire door, dimensions H × W × D: 2090 × 980 × 52 mm combining high strength and fire safety. This fire door consists of two steel sheets (thickness 1.5 and 0.7 mm with stone wool ( = 33 kg/m3, k = 0.037 W/mK, E = 5000 N/m2,  = 0.2 insulating layer in between. One surface of the structure was heated in fire furnace for specified period of time of 60 min. Temperature and deformation of opposite surface were measured from outside at selected measuring points during fire resistance test. Results are presented as temperature-time and thermal deformation-time graphs. Experimental results were compared with numerical temperature field simulation results obtained from SolidWorks®Simulation software. Numerical results were found to be in good agreement with experimental data. The percent differences between door temperatures from simulation and fire resistance test don’t exceed 8%. This shows that thermal behaviour of such multilayered structures can be investigated numerically, thus avoiding costly and time-consuming fire resistance tests. It is established that investigated structure should be installed in a way that places thicker steel sheet closer to the potential heat source than thinner one. It is also obtained that stone wool layer of higher density should be used to improve fire resistance of the structure.

  11. Actions at Kashiwazaki Kariwa Nuclear Power Station after the Niigataken Chuetsu-oki earthquake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orita, Shuichi

    2009-01-01

    'The Niigataken Chuetsu-oki Earthquake in 2007' occurred on July 16, 2007, and seismic motions beyond those of the design basis earthquake were recorded at Kashiwazaki Kariwa nuclear power station located near the epicenter. After the earthquake, inspections and seismic response analyses have been being performed to grasp seismic induced impacts on structures, systems and components (SSCs). In addition, re-definition of design basis earthquake, upgrading, management against disasters have been also being conducted. (author)

  12. Lessons learned from the 1994 Northridge Earthquake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eli, M.W.; Sommer, S.C.

    1995-01-01

    Southern California has a history of major earthquakes and also has one of the largest metropolitan areas in the United States. The 1994 Northridge Earthquake challenged the industrial facilities and lifetime infrastructure in the northern Los Angeles (LA) area. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) sent a team of engineers to conduct an earthquake damage investigation in the Northridge area, on a project funded jointly by the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) and the United States Department of Energy (USDOE). Many of the structures, systems, and components (SSCs) and lifelines that suffered damage are similar to those found in nuclear power plants and in USDOE facilities. Lessons learned from these experiences can have some applicability at commercial nuclear power plants

  13. Twitter earthquake detection: Earthquake monitoring in a social world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earle, Paul S.; Bowden, Daniel C.; Guy, Michelle R.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is investigating how the social networking site Twitter, a popular service for sending and receiving short, public text messages, can augment USGS earthquake response products and the delivery of hazard information. Rapid detection and qualitative assessment of shaking events are possible because people begin sending public Twitter messages (tweets) with in tens of seconds after feeling shaking. Here we present and evaluate an earthquake detection procedure that relies solely on Twitter data. A tweet-frequency time series constructed from tweets containing the word "earthquake" clearly shows large peaks correlated with the origin times of widely felt events. To identify possible earthquakes, we use a short-term-average, long-term-average algorithm. When tuned to a moderate sensitivity, the detector finds 48 globally-distributed earthquakes with only two false triggers in five months of data. The number of detections is small compared to the 5,175 earthquakes in the USGS global earthquake catalog for the same five-month time period, and no accurate location or magnitude can be assigned based on tweet data alone. However, Twitter earthquake detections are not without merit. The detections are generally caused by widely felt events that are of more immediate interest than those with no human impact. The detections are also fast; about 75% occur within two minutes of the origin time. This is considerably faster than seismographic detections in poorly instrumented regions of the world. The tweets triggering the detections also provided very short first-impression narratives from people who experienced the shaking.

  14. First-passage Probability Estimation of an Earthquake Response of Seismically Isolated Containment Buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahm, Dae-Gi; Park, Kwan-Soon; Koh, Hyun-Moo

    2008-01-01

    The awareness of a seismic hazard and risk is being increased rapidly according to the frequent occurrences of the huge earthquakes such as the 2008 Sichuan earthquake which caused about 70,000 confirmed casualties and a 20 billion U.S. dollars economic loss. Since an earthquake load contains various uncertainties naturally, the safety of a structural system under an earthquake excitation has been assessed by probabilistic approaches. In many structural applications for a probabilistic safety assessment, it is often regarded that the failure of a system will occur when the response of the structure firstly crosses the limit barrier within a specified interval of time. The determination of such a failure probability is usually called the 'first-passage problem' and has been extensively studied during the last few decades. However, especially for the structures which show a significant nonlinear dynamic behavior, an effective and accurate method for the estimation of such a failure probability is not fully established yet. In this study, we presented a new approach to evaluate the first-passage probability of an earthquake response of seismically isolated structures. The proposed method is applied to the seismic isolation system for the containment buildings of a nuclear power plant. From the numerical example, we verified that the proposed method shows accurate results with more efficient computational efforts compared to the conventional approaches

  15. Fault geometry and earthquake mechanics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. J. Andrews

    1994-06-01

    Full Text Available Earthquake mechanics may be determined by the geometry of a fault system. Slip on a fractal branching fault surface can explain: 1 regeneration of stress irregularities in an earthquake; 2 the concentration of stress drop in an earthquake into asperities; 3 starting and stopping of earthquake slip at fault junctions, and 4 self-similar scaling of earthquakes. Slip at fault junctions provides a natural realization of barrier and asperity models without appealing to variations of fault strength. Fault systems are observed to have a branching fractal structure, and slip may occur at many fault junctions in an earthquake. Consider the mechanics of slip at one fault junction. In order to avoid a stress singularity of order 1/r, an intersection of faults must be a triple junction and the Burgers vectors on the three fault segments at the junction must sum to zero. In other words, to lowest order the deformation consists of rigid block displacement, which ensures that the local stress due to the dislocations is zero. The elastic dislocation solution, however, ignores the fact that the configuration of the blocks changes at the scale of the displacement. A volume change occurs at the junction; either a void opens or intense local deformation is required to avoid material overlap. The volume change is proportional to the product of the slip increment and the total slip since the formation of the junction. Energy absorbed at the junction, equal to confining pressure times the volume change, is not large enongh to prevent slip at a new junction. The ratio of energy absorbed at a new junction to elastic energy released in an earthquake is no larger than P/µ where P is confining pressure and µ is the shear modulus. At a depth of 10 km this dimensionless ratio has th value P/µ= 0.01. As slip accumulates at a fault junction in a number of earthquakes, the fault segments are displaced such that they no longer meet at a single point. For this reason the

  16. Ground water and earthquakes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ts' ai, T H

    1977-11-01

    Chinese folk wisdom has long seen a relationship between ground water and earthquakes. Before an earthquake there is often an unusual change in the ground water level and volume of flow. Changes in the amount of particulate matter in ground water as well as changes in color, bubbling, gas emission, and noises and geysers are also often observed before earthquakes. Analysis of these features can help predict earthquakes. Other factors unrelated to earthquakes can cause some of these changes, too. As a first step it is necessary to find sites which are sensitive to changes in ground stress to be used as sensor points for predicting earthquakes. The necessary features are described. Recording of seismic waves of earthquake aftershocks is also an important part of earthquake predictions.

  17. Probability based high temperature engineering creep and structural fire resistance

    CERN Document Server

    Razdolsky, Leo

    2017-01-01

    This volume on structural fire resistance is for aerospace, structural, and fire prevention engineers; architects, and educators. It bridges the gap between prescriptive- and performance-based methods and simplifies very complex and comprehensive computer analyses to the point that the structural fire resistance and high temperature creep deformations will have a simple, approximate analytical expression that can be used in structural analysis and design. The book emphasizes methods of the theory of engineering creep (stress-strain diagrams) and mathematical operations quite distinct from those of solid mechanics absent high-temperature creep deformations, in particular the classical theory of elasticity and structural engineering. Dr. Razdolsky’s previous books focused on methods of computing the ultimate structural design load to the different fire scenarios. The current work is devoted to the computing of the estimated ultimate resistance of the structure taking into account the effect of high temperatur...

  18. 1983 Borah Peak earthquake and INEL structural performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorman, V.W.; Guenzler, R.C.

    1983-12-01

    At 8:06 a.m. Mountain Daylight Time on October 28, 1983 an earthquake registering 7.3 on the Richter Magnitude scale occurred about 30 km northwest of the town of Mackay, in central Idaho. This report describes the event and associated effects and the responses of facilities at Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), located approximately 100 km. from the epicenter, to ground motion. 21 references, 36 figures, 5 tables

  19. 2014 mainshock-aftershock activity versus earthquake swarms in West\

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jakoubková, Hana; Horálek, Josef; Fischer, T.

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 175, č. 1 (2018), s. 109-131 ISSN 0033-4553 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP210/12/2336; GA MŠk(CZ) LM2015079 Institutional support: RVO:67985530 Keywords : West Bohemia/Vogtland * earthquake swarms * mainshock-aftershock sequence * total seismic moment * statistical characteristics of earthquake activities Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure Impact factor: 1.591, year: 2016

  20. Prevalence and predictors of stress disorders following two earthquakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Kang Chuan; Ruo Yao, Zhao; Zhen Yu, Shi; Xu Dong, Zhao; Jian Zhong, Yang; Edwards, Jason Glen; Edwards, Glen David

    2013-09-01

    Studies about stress disorders following a disaster have mainly been based on single-event trauma with little emphasis on multiple traumas. This study investigated the prevalence and predictors of stress disorders following two earthquakes in China. Subjects were randomly sampled from 11 villages in rural China. A total of 624 subjects were administered with the 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12), Symptom Checklist -90-R (SCL-90-R), Coping Style Scale and Social Support Rating Scale. This was followed by a structural clinical interview using the Chinese translation of the Structured Clinical Interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM)-IV-TR axis 1 disorders (SCID-I-P) for acute stress disorder (ASD) and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The prevalence of ASD and PTSD was 15% and 29%, respectively. Regression analysis indicated that high intensity of trauma exposure, lower educational level, subjective feeling of economic status and psychological stress after the first earthquake significantly predicted the outcome of PTSD. The study suggested that the prevalence of stress disorders in two earthquakes were higher than that experienced in a single disaster. The intensity of trauma exposure, low educational level, bad subjective feeling of economic status, and psychological stress after the first earthquake could be used to identify survivors at risk of developing PTSD in two earthquakes.

  1. Localizing Submarine Earthquakes by Listening to the Water Reverberations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, J.; Zhan, Z.; Wu, W.

    2017-12-01

    Mid-Ocean Ridge (MOR) earthquakes generally occur far from any land based station and are of moderate magnitude, making it complicated to detect and in most cases, locate accurately. This limits our understanding of how MOR normal and transform faults move and the manner in which they slip. Different from continental events, seismic records from earthquakes occurring beneath the ocean floor show complex reverberations caused by P-wave energy trapped in the water column that are highly dependent of the source location and the efficiency to which energy propagated to the near-source surface. These later arrivals are commonly considered to be only a nuisance as they might sometimes interfere with the primary arrivals. However, in this study, we take advantage of the wavefield's high sensitivity to small changes in the seafloor topography and the present-day availability of worldwide multi-beam bathymetry to relocate submarine earthquakes by modeling these water column reverberations in teleseismic signals. Using a three-dimensional hybrid method for modeling body wave arrivals, we demonstrate that an accurate hypocentral location of a submarine earthquake (<5 km) can be achieved if the structural complexities near the source region are appropriately accounted for. This presents a novel way of studying earthquake source properties and will serve as a means to explore the influence of physical fault structure on the seismic behavior of transform faults.

  2. Experimental work and know-how transfer in the framework of the individual project 'Earthquake investigations on the HDR reactor'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corvin, P.; Metz, K.

    1976-03-01

    In the framework of investigations to determine the earthquake resistance of nuclear power plant, carried out by the Applied Nucleonics Company on the HDR reactor in Grosswelzheim/Main, theoretical fundamentals and experimental test procedures in the sense of know-how transfer were elaborated. This enables the corresponding German institutions to carry out similar investigations on their own. In addition ANC carried out safety control measures during the investigations in order to prevent structural damage to the HDR reactor and neighbouring buildings. (orig.) 891 HP [de

  3. Earthquake impact on settlements: the role of urban and structural morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostenaru Dan, M.; Armas, I.

    2015-10-01

    This study is aimed to create an alternative to the classical GIS representation of the impact of earthquake hazards on urban areas. To accomplish this, the traditional map was revised, so that it can cope with contemporary innovative ways of planning, namely strategic planning. As in the theory of fractals, the building dimension and the urban neighbourhood dimension are addressed as different geographic scales between which lessons for decisions can be learned through regression. The interaction between the two scales is useful when looking for alternatives, for the completion of a GIS analysis, and in choosing the landmarks, which, in the case of hazards, become strategic elements in strategic planning. A methodology to innovate mapping as a digital means for analysing and visualising the impact of hazards is proposed. This method relies on concepts from various geography, urban planning, structural engineering and architecture approaches related to disaster management. The method has been tested at the building scale for the N-S Boulevard in Bucharest, Romania, called Magheru. At the urban scale, an incident database has been created, in which the case study for the building level can be mapped. The paper presented is part of a larger research work, which addresses decision making using the framework shown here. The main value of the paper is in proposing a conceptual framework to deconstruct the map for digital earthquake disaster impact analysis and representation. The originality of the concept consists in the representation of elements at different scales considered to be of different levels of importance in the urban tissue, according to the analysis to be performed on them.

  4. Resistance and Security Index of Networks: Structural Information Perspective of Network Security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Angsheng; Hu, Qifu; Liu, Jun; Pan, Yicheng

    2016-06-03

    Recently, Li and Pan defined the metric of the K-dimensional structure entropy of a structured noisy dataset G to be the information that controls the formation of the K-dimensional structure of G that is evolved by the rules, order and laws of G, excluding the random variations that occur in G. Here, we propose the notion of resistance of networks based on the one- and two-dimensional structural information of graphs. Given a graph G, we define the resistance of G, written , as the greatest overall number of bits required to determine the code of the module that is accessible via random walks with stationary distribution in G, from which the random walks cannot escape. We show that the resistance of networks follows the resistance law of networks, that is, for a network G, the resistance of G is , where and are the one- and two-dimensional structure entropies of G, respectively. Based on the resistance law, we define the security index of a network G to be the normalised resistance of G, that is, . We show that the resistance and security index are both well-defined measures for the security of the networks.

  5. Resistance and Security Index of Networks: Structural Information Perspective of Network Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Angsheng; Hu, Qifu; Liu, Jun; Pan, Yicheng

    2016-01-01

    Recently, Li and Pan defined the metric of the K-dimensional structure entropy of a structured noisy dataset G to be the information that controls the formation of the K-dimensional structure of G that is evolved by the rules, order and laws of G, excluding the random variations that occur in G. Here, we propose the notion of resistance of networks based on the one- and two-dimensional structural information of graphs. Given a graph G, we define the resistance of G, written , as the greatest overall number of bits required to determine the code of the module that is accessible via random walks with stationary distribution in G, from which the random walks cannot escape. We show that the resistance of networks follows the resistance law of networks, that is, for a network G, the resistance of G is , where and are the one- and two-dimensional structure entropies of G, respectively. Based on the resistance law, we define the security index of a network G to be the normalised resistance of G, that is, . We show that the resistance and security index are both well-defined measures for the security of the networks. PMID:27255783

  6. Resistance and Security Index of Networks: Structural Information Perspective of Network Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Angsheng; Hu, Qifu; Liu, Jun; Pan, Yicheng

    2016-06-01

    Recently, Li and Pan defined the metric of the K-dimensional structure entropy of a structured noisy dataset G to be the information that controls the formation of the K-dimensional structure of G that is evolved by the rules, order and laws of G, excluding the random variations that occur in G. Here, we propose the notion of resistance of networks based on the one- and two-dimensional structural information of graphs. Given a graph G, we define the resistance of G, written , as the greatest overall number of bits required to determine the code of the module that is accessible via random walks with stationary distribution in G, from which the random walks cannot escape. We show that the resistance of networks follows the resistance law of networks, that is, for a network G, the resistance of G is , where and are the one- and two-dimensional structure entropies of G, respectively. Based on the resistance law, we define the security index of a network G to be the normalised resistance of G, that is, . We show that the resistance and security index are both well-defined measures for the security of the networks.

  7. Special Pattern of Hydraulic Dissipation System used for Isolation of Bridges against Earthquakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanel Dorel Scheaua

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The construction sector experienced a constant evolution over time, so that today structures can be made to withstand earthquakes of considerable magnitude. This can be achieved by using various methods to counteract the direct earthquake destructive action on the construction. The methods consist of using insulation systems or earthquake energy dissipation devices that have occurred in time, being in constant development and improvement. In this paper it is presented a model of a hydraulic dissipation device as an assembly of a linear motor with fluid, which can be mounted to the structural frame of a bridge, in order to take some of the earthquake energy when it occurs, so that the bridge superstructure is protected against from high magnitude damages

  8. Analysis of the Earthquake Impact towards water-based fire extinguishing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J.; Hur, M.; Lee, K.

    2015-09-01

    Recently, extinguishing system installed in the building when the earthquake occurred at a separate performance requirements. Before the building collapsed during the earthquake, as a function to maintain a fire extinguishing. In particular, the automatic sprinkler fire extinguishing equipment, such as after a massive earthquake without damage to piping also must maintain confidentiality. In this study, an experiment installed in the building during the earthquake, the water-based fire extinguishing saw grasp the impact of the pipe. Experimental structures for water-based fire extinguishing seismic construction step by step, and then applied to the seismic experiment, the building appears in the extinguishing of the earthquake response of the pipe was measured. Construction of acceleration caused by vibration being added to the size and the size of the displacement is measured and compared with the data response of the pipe from the table, thereby extinguishing water piping need to enhance the seismic analysis. Define the seismic design category (SDC) for the four groups in the building structure with seismic criteria (KBC2009) designed according to the importance of the group and earthquake seismic intensity. The event of a real earthquake seismic analysis of Category A and Category B for the seismic design of buildings, the current fire-fighting facilities could have also determined that the seismic performance. In the case of seismic design categories C and D are installed in buildings to preserve the function of extinguishing the required level of seismic retrofit design is determined.

  9. Crustal structure and Seismic Hazard studies in Nigeria from ambient noise and earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadiri, U. A.

    2016-12-01

    The crust, upper Mantle and seismic hazard studies have been carried out in Nigeria using noise and earthquake data. The data were acquired from stations in Nigeria and international Agencies. Firstly, known depths of sediments in the Lower Benue Trough (LBT) were collected from wells; Resonance frequency (Fo) and average shear-wave velocities (Vs) were then computed using Matlab. Secondly, average velocities were estimated from noise cross-correlation along seismic stations. Thirdly, the moho depths beneath Ife, Kaduna and Nsukka stations were estimated, as well as Vp/Vs ratio using 2009 earthquake with epicenter in Nigeria. Finally, Statistical and Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Assessment (PSHA) were used to compute seismic hazard parameters in Nigeria and its surroundings. The results showed that, soils on the LBT with average shear wave velocity of about 5684m/s would experience more amplification in case of an earthquake, compared to the basement complex in Nigeria. The Vs beneath the seismic stations in Nigeria were also estimated as 288m/s, 1019m/s, 940.6m/s and 255.02m/s in Ife, Nsukka, Awka, and Abakaliki respectively. The average velocity along the station paths was 4.5km/secs, and the Vp, Vs for depths 100-500km profile in parts of South West Nigeria increased from about 5.83-6.42Km/sec and 3.48-6.31km/s respectively with Vp/Vs ratio decreasing from 1.68 to 1.02. Statistical analysis revealed a trend of increasing earthquake occurrence along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge and tending to West African region. The analysis of PSHA shows the likelihood of earthquakes with different magnitudes occurring in Nigeria and other parts West Africa in future. This work is aimed at addressing critical issues regarding sites effect characterization, improved earthquake location and robust seismic hazards assessment for planning in the choice of sites for critical facilities in Nigeria. Keywords: Sediment thickness, Resonance Frequency, Average Velocity, Seismic Hazard, Nigeria

  10. Development of damage probability matrices based on Greek earthquake damage data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eleftheriadou, Anastasia K.; Karabinis, Athanasios I.

    2011-03-01

    A comprehensive study is presented for empirical seismic vulnerability assessment of typical structural types, representative of the building stock of Southern Europe, based on a large set of damage statistics. The observational database was obtained from post-earthquake surveys carried out in the area struck by the September 7, 1999 Athens earthquake. After analysis of the collected observational data, a unified damage database has been created which comprises 180,945 damaged buildings from/after the near-field area of the earthquake. The damaged buildings are classified in specific structural types, according to the materials, seismic codes and construction techniques in Southern Europe. The seismic demand is described in terms of both the regional macroseismic intensity and the ratio α g/ a o, where α g is the maximum peak ground acceleration (PGA) of the earthquake event and a o is the unique value PGA that characterizes each municipality shown on the Greek hazard map. The relative and cumulative frequencies of the different damage states for each structural type and each intensity level are computed in terms of damage ratio. Damage probability matrices (DPMs) and vulnerability curves are obtained for specific structural types. A comparison analysis is fulfilled between the produced and the existing vulnerability models.

  11. Advancing Integrated STEM Learning through Engineering Design: Sixth-Grade Students' Design and Construction of Earthquake Resistant Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    English, Lyn D.; King, Donna; Smeed, Joanna

    2017-01-01

    As part of a 3-year longitudinal study, 136 sixth-grade students completed an engineering-based problem on earthquakes involving integrated STEM learning. Students employed engineering design processes and STEM disciplinary knowledge to plan, sketch, then construct a building designed to withstand earthquake damage, taking into account a number of…

  12. Landslides triggered by the 1946 Ancash earthquake, Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kampherm, T. S.; Evans, S. G.; Valderrama Murillo, P.

    2009-04-01

    The 1946 M7.3 Ancash Earthquake triggered a large number of landslides in an epicentral area that straddled the Continental Divide of South America in the Andes of Peru. A small number of landslides were described in reconnaissance reports by E. Silgado and Arnold Heim published shortly after the earthquake, but further details of the landslides triggered by the earthquake have not been reported since. Utilising field traverses, aerial photograph interpretation and GIS, our study mapped 45 landslides inferred to have been triggered by the event. 83% were rock avalanches involving Cretaceous limestones interbedded with shales. The five largest rock/debris avalanches occurred at Rio Llama (est. vol. 37 M m3), Suytucocha (est. vol., 13.5 Mm3), Quiches (est. vol. 10.5 Mm3 ), Pelagatos (est. vol. 8 Mm3), and Shundoy (est. vol. 8 Mm3). The Suytucocha, Quiches, and Pelagatos landslides were reported by Silgado and Heim. Rock slope failure was most common on slopes with a southwest aspect, an orientation corresponding to the regional dip direction of major planar structures in the Andean foreland belt (bedding planes and thrust faults). In valleys oriented transverse to the NW-SE structural grain of the epicentral area, south-westerly dipping bedding planes combined with orthogonal joint sets to form numerous wedge failures. Many initial rock slope failures were transformed into rock/debris avalanches by the entrainment of colluvium in their path. At Acobamba, a rock avalanche that transformed into a debris avalanche (est. vol. 4.3 Mm3) overwhelmed a village resulting in the deaths of 217 people. The cumulative volume-frequency plot shows a strong power law relation below a marked rollover, similar in form to that derived for landslides triggered by the 1994 Northridge Earthquake. The total volume of the 45 landslides is approximately 93 Mm3. The data point for the Ancash Earthquake plots near the regression line calculated by Keefer (1994), and modified by Malamud et al

  13. Housing Damage Following Earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    An automobile lies crushed under the third story of this apartment building in the Marina District after the Oct. 17, 1989, Loma Prieta earthquake. The ground levels are no longer visible because of structural failure and sinking due to liquefaction. Sand and soil grains have faces that can cause friction as they roll and slide against each other, or even cause sticking and form small voids between grains. This complex behavior can cause soil to behave like a liquid under certain conditions such as earthquakes or when powders are handled in industrial processes. Mechanics of Granular Materials (MGM) experiments aboard the Space Shuttle use the microgravity of space to simulate this behavior under conditons that carnot be achieved in laboratory tests on Earth. MGM is shedding light on the behavior of fine-grain materials under low effective stresses. Applications include earthquake engineering, granular flow technologies (such as powder feed systems for pharmaceuticals and fertilizers), and terrestrial and planetary geology. Nine MGM specimens have flown on two Space Shuttle flights. Another three are scheduled to fly on STS-107. The principal investigator is Stein Sture of the University of Colorado at Boulder. Credit: J.K. Nakata, U.S. Geological Survey.

  14. Defence against earthquakes: a red thread of history

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guidoboni, Emanuela

    2015-01-01

    This note gives a short overview from the ancient world down to the end of the eighteenth century (before engineering began as a science, that is) on the idea of “housing safety” and earthquakes. The idea varies, but persists throughout the cultural and economic contexts of history’s changing societies, and in relation to class and lifestyle. Historical research into earthquakes in Italy from the ancient world to the twentieth century has shown how variable the idea actually is, as emerges from theoretical treatises, practical wisdom and projects drawn up in the wake of destructive events. In the seventeenth century the theoretical interpretation of earthquakes began to swing towards a mechanistic view of the Earth, affecting how the effects and propagation of earthquakes were observed. Strong earthquakes continued to occur and cause damage, and after yet another seismic disaster – Umbria 1751 – new building techniques were advocated. The attempt was to make house walls bind more solidly by special linking of the wooden structure of floors and roof beams. Following the massive seismic crisis of February-March 1783, which left central and southern Calabria in ruins, a new house was proposed, called 'baraccata': it was a wooden structure filled in with light materials. This was actually already to be founding the ancient Mediterranean basin (including Pompei); but only at that time was it perfected, proposed by engineers and circulated as an important building innovation. At the end of the eighteenth century town planners came to the fore in the search for safe housing. They suggested new regular shapes, broad grid-plan streets with a specific view to achieving housing safety and ensuring an escape route in case of earthquake. Such rules and regulations were then abandoned or lost, proving that it is not enough to try out [it

  15. Mental health in L'Aquila after the earthquake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Stratta

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: In the present work we describe the mental health condition of L'Aquila population in the aftermath of the earthquake in terms of structural, process and outcome perspectives. METHOD: Literature revision of the published reports on the L'Aquila earthquake has been performed. RESULTS: Although important psychological distress has been reported by the population, capacity of resilience can be observed. However if resilient mechanisms intervened in immediate aftermath of the earthquake, important dangers are conceivable in the current medium-long-term perspective due to the long-lasting alterations of day-to-day life and the disruption of social networks that can be well associated with mental health problems. CONCLUSIONS: In a condition such as an earthquake, the immediate physical, medical, and emergency rescue needs must be addressed initially. However training first responders to identify psychological distress symptoms would be important for mental health triage in the field.

  16. Foreshocks, aftershocks, and earthquake probabilities: Accounting for the landers earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Lucile M.

    1994-01-01

    The equation to determine the probability that an earthquake occurring near a major fault will be a foreshock to a mainshock on that fault is modified to include the case of aftershocks to a previous earthquake occurring near the fault. The addition of aftershocks to the background seismicity makes its less probable that an earthquake will be a foreshock, because nonforeshocks have become more common. As the aftershocks decay with time, the probability that an earthquake will be a foreshock increases. However, fault interactions between the first mainshock and the major fault can increase the long-term probability of a characteristic earthquake on that fault, which will, in turn, increase the probability that an event is a foreshock, compensating for the decrease caused by the aftershocks.

  17. Simplified Analytical Methods to Analyze Lock Gates Submitted to Ship Collisions and Earthquakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buldgen Loic

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents two simplified analytical methods to analyze lock gates submitted to two different accidental loads. The case of an impact involving a vessel is first investigated. In this situation, the resistance of the struck gate is evaluated by assuming a local and a global deforming mode. The super-element method is used in the first case, while an equivalent beam model is simultaneously introduced to capture the overall bending motion of the structure. The second accidental load considered in this paper is the seismic action, for which an analytical method is presented to evaluate the total hydrodynamic pressure applied on a lock gate during an earthquake, due account being taken of the fluid-structure interaction. For each of these two actions, numerical validations are presented and the analytical results are compared to finite-element solutions.

  18. The effect of earthquake on architecture geometry with non-parallel system irregularity configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teddy, Livian; Hardiman, Gagoek; Nuroji; Tudjono, Sri

    2017-12-01

    Indonesia is an area prone to earthquake that may cause casualties and damage to buildings. The fatalities or the injured are not largely caused by the earthquake, but by building collapse. The collapse of the building is resulted from the building behaviour against the earthquake, and it depends on many factors, such as architectural design, geometry configuration of structural elements in horizontal and vertical plans, earthquake zone, geographical location (distance to earthquake center), soil type, material quality, and construction quality. One of the geometry configurations that may lead to the collapse of the building is irregular configuration of non-parallel system. In accordance with FEMA-451B, irregular configuration in non-parallel system is defined to have existed if the vertical lateral force-retaining elements are neither parallel nor symmetric with main orthogonal axes of the earthquake-retaining axis system. Such configuration may lead to torque, diagonal translation and local damage to buildings. It does not mean that non-parallel irregular configuration should not be formed on architectural design; however the designer must know the consequence of earthquake behaviour against buildings with irregular configuration of non-parallel system. The present research has the objective to identify earthquake behaviour in architectural geometry with irregular configuration of non-parallel system. The present research was quantitative with simulation experimental method. It consisted of 5 models, where architectural data and model structure data were inputted and analyzed using the software SAP2000 in order to find out its performance, and ETAB2015 to determine the eccentricity occurred. The output of the software analysis was tabulated, graphed, compared and analyzed with relevant theories. For areas of strong earthquake zones, avoid designing buildings which wholly form irregular configuration of non-parallel system. If it is inevitable to design a

  19. Aseismatic supporting structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogasawara, Hideo; Tachi, Yasuo

    1988-01-01

    As one of the large subjects for putting FBRs to practical use, the increase of the economical efficiency is pointed out, and for this purpose, the reduction of the construction cost by the simplification of system and the rationalization of equipment structures becomes an important target of development. The operational condition of FBR cooling system is high temperature above 500 deg C at core exit, and low pressure below 6 kg-cm 2 g. Consequently, the effect of earthquake load in the structural strength design is relatively large, accordingly the reduction of earthquake load is effective from the viewpoint of structural rationalization. Hitachi Ltd. considered that earthquake isolation is an effective means to reduce earthquake response, and has examined the effect and feasibility of introducing earthquake isolation into FBR plants for three years from 1984. In this study, the mechanical characteristics and endurance of the system suitable to the earthquake isolation of FBRs were examined, the effect of reducing earthquake response by earthquake isolation was grasped, and the effect of plant rationalization brought about by the reduction of earthquake input was examined. The summary of these studies is shown. (Kako, I.)

  20. Earthquake forecasting and warning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rikitake, T.

    1983-01-01

    This review briefly describes two other books on the same subject either written or partially written by Rikitake. In this book, the status of earthquake prediction efforts in Japan, China, the Soviet Union, and the United States are updated. An overview of some of the organizational, legal, and societal aspects of earthquake prediction in these countries is presented, and scientific findings of precursory phenomena are included. A summary of circumstances surrounding the 1975 Haicheng earthquake, the 1978 Tangshan earthquake, and the 1976 Songpan-Pingwu earthquake (all magnitudes = 7.0) in China and the 1978 Izu-Oshima earthquake in Japan is presented. This book fails to comprehensively summarize recent advances in earthquake prediction research.

  1. Applicability of soil-structure interaction analysis methods for earthquake loadings (V)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, S. P.; Ko, H. M.; Kim, J. K.; Yoon, J. Y.; Chin, B. M.; Yang, T. S.; Park, J. Y.; Cho, J. R.; Ryu, H.

    1997-07-01

    The ultimate goals of this research are to cultivate the capability of accurate 551 analysis and to develop the effective soil-structure interaction analysis method and computer program by comparing analysis results obtained in Lotung/Hualien lS5T project. In this research, the scope of this study is to establish the method of soil-structure interaction analysis using hyperlement and to develop a computer program of 551 analysis, to do parametric study for the comprehension of the characteristics and the applicability of hyper elements and to verify the validity and the applicability of this method(or program) through the analysis of seismic response of Hualien lS5T project. In this study, we verified the validity and the efficiency of the soil-structure interaction analysis method using hyper elements and developed computer programs using hyper elements. Based on the I-dimensional wave propagation theory, we developed a computer program of free-field analysis considering the primary non-lineriry of seismic responses. And using this program, we computed the effective ground earthquake motions of soil regions. The computer programs using hyper elements can treat non-homogeneity of soil regions very easily and perform the analysis quickly by the usage of the analytical solutions in horizontal direction. 50 this method would be very efficient and practical method

  2. Ground-motion modeling of the 1906 San Francisco earthquake, part I: Validation using the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aagaard, Brad T.; Brocher, T.M.; Dolenc, D.; Dreger, D.; Graves, R.W.; Harmsen, S.; Hartzell, S.; Larsen, S.; Zoback, M.L.

    2008-01-01

    We compute ground motions for the Beroza (1991) and Wald et al. (1991) source models of the 1989 magnitude 6.9 Loma Prieta earthquake using four different wave-propagation codes and recently developed 3D geologic and seismic velocity models. In preparation for modeling the 1906 San Francisco earthquake, we use this well-recorded earthquake to characterize how well our ground-motion simulations reproduce the observed shaking intensities and amplitude and durations of recorded motions throughout the San Francisco Bay Area. All of the simulations generate ground motions consistent with the large-scale spatial variations in shaking associated with rupture directivity and the geologic structure. We attribute the small variations among the synthetics to the minimum shear-wave speed permitted in the simulations and how they accommodate topography. Our long-period simulations, on average, under predict shaking intensities by about one-half modified Mercalli intensity (MMI) units (25%-35% in peak velocity), while our broadband simulations, on average, under predict the shaking intensities by one-fourth MMI units (16% in peak velocity). Discrepancies with observations arise due to errors in the source models and geologic structure. The consistency in the synthetic waveforms across the wave-propagation codes for a given source model suggests the uncertainty in the source parameters tends to exceed the uncertainty in the seismic velocity structure. In agreement with earlier studies, we find that a source model with slip more evenly distributed northwest and southeast of the hypocenter would be preferable to both the Beroza and Wald source models. Although the new 3D seismic velocity model improves upon previous velocity models, we identify two areas needing improvement. Nevertheless, we find that the seismic velocity model and the wave-propagation codes are suitable for modeling the 1906 earthquake and scenario events in the San Francisco Bay Area.

  3. Lithospheric Structure, Crustal Kinematics, and Earthquakes in North China: An Integrated Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, M.; Yang, Y.; Sandvol, E.; Chen, Y.; Wang, L.; Zhou, S.; Shen, Z.; Wang, Q.

    2007-12-01

    The North China block (NCB) is geologically part of the Archaean Sino-Korean craton. But unusual for a craton, it was thermally rejuvenated since late Mesozoic, and experienced widespread extension and volcanism through much of the Cenozoic. Today, the NCB is characterized by strong internal deformation and seismicity, including the 1976 Tangshan earthquake that killed ~250,000 people. We have started a multidisciplinary study to image the lithospheric and upper mantle structure using seismological methods, to delineate crustal kinematics and deformation via studies of neotectonics and space geodesy, and to investigate the driving forces, the stress states and evolution, and seismicity using geodynamic modeling. Both seismic imaging and GPS results indicate that the Ordos plateau, which is the western part of the NCB and a relic of the Sino-Korean craton, has been encroached around its southern margins by mantle flow and thus is experiencing active cratonic destruction. Some of the mantle flow may be driven by the Indo-Asian collision, although the cause of the broad mantle upwelling responsible for the Mesozoic thinning of the NCB lithosphere remains uncertain. At present, crustal deformation in the NCB is largely driven by gravitational spreading of the expanding Tibetan Plateau. Internal deformation within the NCB is further facilitated by the particular tectonic boundary conditions around the NCB, and the large lateral contrasts of lithospheric strength and rheology. Based on the crustal kinematics and lithospheric structure, we have developed a preliminary geodynamic model for stress states and strain energy in the crust of the NCB. The predicted long-term strain energy distribution is comparable with the spatial pattern of seismic energy release in the past 2000 years. We are exploring the cause of the spatiotemporal occurrence of large earthquakes in the NCB, especially the apparent migration of seismicity from the Weihe-Shanxi grabens around the Ordos to

  4. Ionospheric earthquake precursors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulachenko, A.L.; Oraevskij, V.N.; Pokhotelov, O.A.; Sorokin, V.N.; Strakhov, V.N.; Chmyrev, V.M.

    1996-01-01

    Results of experimental study on ionospheric earthquake precursors, program development on processes in the earthquake focus and physical mechanisms of formation of various type precursors are considered. Composition of experimental cosmic system for earthquake precursors monitoring is determined. 36 refs., 5 figs

  5. The study of elastio-plastic seismic analysis for rigid-frame structures

    OpenAIRE

    陳, 珉; 青木, 徹彦

    2000-01-01

    Elastic and elastio-plastic earthquake-resistant analysis of frame construction is mainly studied in this paper. In elastic stage, response and vibrated characteristics of symmetrical and unsymmetrical structure are investigated by comparing the results of plane and space analysis. The effect of approaching angle of seismic wave to vibrated characteristics of structure under different column/beam rate are discussed. In elastio-plastic stage, four kinds of plastic mode with different plastic p...

  6. Evaluation of earthquake vibration on aseismic design of nuclear power plant judging from recent earthquakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dan, Kazuo

    2006-01-01

    The Regulatory Guide for Aseismic Design of Nuclear Reactor Facilities was revised on 19 th September, 2006. Six factors for evaluation of earthquake vibration are considered on the basis of the recent earthquakes. They are 1) evaluation of earthquake vibration by method using fault model, 2) investigation and approval of active fault, 3) direct hit earthquake, 4) assumption of the short active fault as the hypocentral fault, 5) locality of the earthquake and the earthquake vibration and 6) remaining risk. A guiding principle of revision required new evaluation method of earthquake vibration using fault model, and evaluation of probability of earthquake vibration. The remaining risk means the facilities and people get into danger when stronger earthquake than the design occurred, accordingly, the scattering has to be considered at evaluation of earthquake vibration. The earthquake belt of Hyogo-Nanbu earthquake and strong vibration pulse in 1995, relation between length of surface earthquake fault and hypocentral fault, and distribution of seismic intensity of off Kushiro in 1993 are shown. (S.Y.)

  7. Explanation of earthquake response spectra

    OpenAIRE

    Douglas, John

    2017-01-01

    This is a set of five slides explaining how earthquake response spectra are derived from strong-motion records and simple models of structures and their purpose within seismic design and assessment. It dates from about 2002 and I have used it in various introductory lectures on engineering seismology.

  8. Comparison of two large earthquakes: the 2008 Sichuan Earthquake and the 2011 East Japan Earthquake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otani, Yuki; Ando, Takayuki; Atobe, Kaori; Haiden, Akina; Kao, Sheng-Yuan; Saito, Kohei; Shimanuki, Marie; Yoshimoto, Norifumi; Fukunaga, Koichi

    2012-01-01

    Between August 15th and 19th, 2011, eight 5th-year medical students from the Keio University School of Medicine had the opportunity to visit the Peking University School of Medicine and hold a discussion session titled "What is the most effective way to educate people for survival in an acute disaster situation (before the mental health care stage)?" During the session, we discussed the following six points: basic information regarding the Sichuan Earthquake and the East Japan Earthquake, differences in preparedness for earthquakes, government actions, acceptance of medical rescue teams, earthquake-induced secondary effects, and media restrictions. Although comparison of the two earthquakes was not simple, we concluded that three major points should be emphasized to facilitate the most effective course of disaster planning and action. First, all relevant agencies should formulate emergency plans and should supply information regarding the emergency to the general public and health professionals on a normal basis. Second, each citizen should be educated and trained in how to minimize the risks from earthquake-induced secondary effects. Finally, the central government should establish a single headquarters responsible for command, control, and coordination during a natural disaster emergency and should centralize all powers in this single authority. We hope this discussion may be of some use in future natural disasters in China, Japan, and worldwide.

  9. Identified EM Earthquake Precursors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Kenneth, II; Saxton, Patrick

    2014-05-01

    Many attempts have been made to determine a sound forecasting method regarding earthquakes and warn the public in turn. Presently, the animal kingdom leads the precursor list alluding to a transmission related source. By applying the animal-based model to an electromagnetic (EM) wave model, various hypotheses were formed, but the most interesting one required the use of a magnetometer with a differing design and geometry. To date, numerous, high-end magnetometers have been in use in close proximity to fault zones for potential earthquake forecasting; however, something is still amiss. The problem still resides with what exactly is forecastable and the investigating direction of EM. After a number of custom rock experiments, two hypotheses were formed which could answer the EM wave model. The first hypothesis concerned a sufficient and continuous electron movement either by surface or penetrative flow, and the second regarded a novel approach to radio transmission. Electron flow along fracture surfaces was determined to be inadequate in creating strong EM fields, because rock has a very high electrical resistance making it a high quality insulator. Penetrative flow could not be corroborated as well, because it was discovered that rock was absorbing and confining electrons to a very thin skin depth. Radio wave transmission and detection worked with every single test administered. This hypothesis was reviewed for propagating, long-wave generation with sufficient amplitude, and the capability of penetrating solid rock. Additionally, fracture spaces, either air or ion-filled, can facilitate this concept from great depths and allow for surficial detection. A few propagating precursor signals have been detected in the field occurring with associated phases using custom-built loop antennae. Field testing was conducted in Southern California from 2006-2011, and outside the NE Texas town of Timpson in February, 2013. The antennae have mobility and observations were noted for

  10. On anti-earthquake design procedure of equipment and pipings in near future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibata, H.

    1981-01-01

    The requirement of anti-earthquake design of nuclear power plants is getting severe year by year. The author will try to discuss how to control its severity and how to find a proper design procedure for licensing of new plants under such severe requirements. On the other hand we suffered from the enormous volumes of documents. To decrease such volumes, the format of documents should be standardized as well as the design procedure standardization. Starting from this point, we need the research and development on the following subjects: i) Standardization of design procedure. ii) Standardization of document. iii) Establishment of standard review procedure using computer. iv) Standardization of earthquake-resistant designed equipment. v) Standardization of anti-earthquake design procedure of piping systems. vi) Introducing margin evaluation procedure to design procedure. vii) Introducing proving test procedure of active component to design procedure. viii) Establishment of evaluation of human reliability in design, fabrication, inspection procedures. ix) Establishment of the proper relation of seismic trigger level and post-earthquake design procedures. (orig./HP)

  11. Reliability-based design code calibration for concrete containment structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, B.K.; Cho, H.N.; Chang, S.P.

    1991-01-01

    In this study, a load combination criteria for design and a probability-based reliability analysis were proposed on the basis of a FEM-based random vibration analysis. The limit state model defined for the study is a serviceability limit state of the crack failure that causes the emission of radioactive materials, and the results are compared with the case of strength limit state. More accurate reliability analyses under various dynamic loads such as earthquake loads were made possible by incorporating the FEM and random vibration theory, which is different from the conventional reliability analysis method. The uncertainties in loads and resistance available in Korea and the references were adapted to the situation of Korea, and especially in case of earthquake, the design earthquake was assessed based on the available data for the probabilistic description of earthquake ground acceleration in the Korea peninsula. The SAP V-2 is used for a three-dimensional finite element analysis of concrete containment structure, and the reliability analysis is carried out by modifying HRAS reliability analysis program for this study. (orig./GL)

  12. Fracture resistance enhancement of layered structures by multiple cracks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goutianos, Stergios; Sørensen, Bent F.

    2016-01-01

    A theoretical model is developed to test if the fracture resistance of a layered structure can be increased by introducing weak layers changing the cracking mechanism. An analytical model, based on the J integral, predicts a linear dependency between the number of cracks and the steady state...... fracture resistance. A finite element cohesive zone model, containing two cracking planes for simplicity, is used to check the theoretical model and its predictions. It is shown that for a wide range of cohesive law parameters, the numerical predictions agree well quantitatively with the theoretical model....... Thus, it is possible to enhance considerably the fracture resistance of a structure by adding weak layers....

  13. Estimation of Natural Frequencies During Earthquakes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Rytter, A

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents two different recursive prediction error method (RPEM} implementations of multivariate Auto-Regressive Moving- Average (ARMAV) models for identification of a time variant civil engineering structure subject to an earthquake. The two techniques are tested on measurements made...

  14. Structural load combinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, H.; Reich, M.; Ellingwood, B.; Shinozuka, M.

    1986-01-01

    This paper presents the latest results of the program entitled, ''Probability Based Load Combinations For Design of Category I Structures''. In FY 85, a probability-based reliability analysis method has been developed to evaluate safety of shear wall structures. The shear walls are analyzed using stick models with beam elements and may be subjected to dead load, live load and in-plane earthquake. Both shear and flexure limit states are defined analytically. The limit state probabilities can be evaluated on the basis of these limit states. Utilizing the reliability analysis method mentioned above, load combinations for the design of shear wall structures have been established. The proposed design criteria are in the load and resistance factor design (LRFD) format. In this study, the resistance factors for shear and flexure and load factors for dead and live loads are preassigned, while the load factor for SSE is determined for a specified target limit state probability of 1.0 x 10 -6 or 1.0 x 10 -5 during a lifetime of 40 years

  15. Permanently enhanced dynamic triggering probabilities as evidenced by two M ≥ 7.5 earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomberg, Joan S.

    2013-01-01

    The 2012 M7.7 Haida Gwaii earthquake radiated waves that likely dynamically triggered the 2013M7.5 Craig earthquake, setting two precedents. First, the triggered earthquake is the largest dynamically triggered shear failure event documented to date. Second, the events highlight a connection between geologic structure, sedimentary troughs that act as waveguides, and triggering probability. The Haida Gwaii earthquake excited extraordinarily large waves within and beyond the Queen Charlotte Trough, which propagated well into mainland Alaska and likely triggering the Craig earthquake along the way. Previously, focusing and associated dynamic triggering have been attributed to unpredictable source effects. This case suggests that elevated dynamic triggering probabilities may exist along the many structures where sedimentary troughs overlie major faults, such as subduction zones’ accretionary prisms and transform faults’ axial valleys. Although data are sparse, I find no evidence of accelerating seismic activity in the vicinity of the Craig rupture between it and the Haida Gwaii earthquake.

  16. Regional relationships among earthquake magnitude scales. Seismic safety margins research program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, D.H.; Bernreuter, D.L.

    1980-09-01

    The seismic body-wave magnitude m b of an earthquake is strongly affected by regional variations in the Q structure, composition, and physical state within the earth. Therefore, because of differences in attenuation of P-waves between the western and eastern United States, a problem arises when comparing m b 's for the two regions. A regional m b magnitude bias exists which, depending on where the earthquake occurs and where the P-waves are recorded, can lead to magnitude errors as large as one-third unit. There is also a significant difference between m b and M L values for earthquakes in the western United States. An empirical link between the m b of an eastern U.S. earthquake and the M L of an equivalent western earthquake is given y M L = 0.57 + 0.92(m b ) East . This result is important when comparing ground motion between the two regions and for choosing a set of real western U.S. earthquake records to represent eastern earthquakes. (author)

  17. Twitter earthquake detection: earthquake monitoring in a social world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel C. Bowden

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS is investigating how the social networking site Twitter, a popular service for sending and receiving short, public text messages, can augment USGS earthquake response products and the delivery of hazard information. Rapid detection and qualitative assessment of shaking events are possible because people begin sending public Twitter messages (tweets with in tens of seconds after feeling shaking. Here we present and evaluate an earthquake detection procedure that relies solely on Twitter data. A tweet-frequency time series constructed from tweets containing the word “earthquake” clearly shows large peaks correlated with the origin times of widely felt events. To identify possible earthquakes, we use a short-term-average, long-term-average algorithm. When tuned to a moderate sensitivity, the detector finds 48 globally-distributed earthquakes with only two false triggers in five months of data. The number of detections is small compared to the 5,175 earthquakes in the USGS global earthquake catalog for the same five-month time period, and no accurate location or magnitude can be assigned based on tweet data alone. However, Twitter earthquake detections are not without merit. The detections are generally caused by widely felt events that are of more immediate interest than those with no human impact. The detections are also fast; about 75% occur within two minutes of the origin time. This is considerably faster than seismographic detections in poorly instrumented regions of the world. The tweets triggering the detections also provided very short first-impression narratives from people who experienced the shaking.

  18. Results of the Regional Earthquake Likelihood Models (RELM) test of earthquake forecasts in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ya-Ting; Turcotte, Donald L; Holliday, James R; Sachs, Michael K; Rundle, John B; Chen, Chien-Chih; Tiampo, Kristy F

    2011-10-04

    The Regional Earthquake Likelihood Models (RELM) test of earthquake forecasts in California was the first competitive evaluation of forecasts of future earthquake occurrence. Participants submitted expected probabilities of occurrence of M ≥ 4.95 earthquakes in 0.1° × 0.1° cells for the period 1 January 1, 2006, to December 31, 2010. Probabilities were submitted for 7,682 cells in California and adjacent regions. During this period, 31 M ≥ 4.95 earthquakes occurred in the test region. These earthquakes occurred in 22 test cells. This seismic activity was dominated by earthquakes associated with the M = 7.2, April 4, 2010, El Mayor-Cucapah earthquake in northern Mexico. This earthquake occurred in the test region, and 16 of the other 30 earthquakes in the test region could be associated with it. Nine complete forecasts were submitted by six participants. In this paper, we present the forecasts in a way that allows the reader to evaluate which forecast is the most "successful" in terms of the locations of future earthquakes. We conclude that the RELM test was a success and suggest ways in which the results can be used to improve future forecasts.

  19. Recorded motions of the 6 April 2009 Mw 6.3 L'Aquila, Italy, earthquake and implications for building structural damage: Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celebi, M.; Bazzurro, P.; Chiaraluce, L.; Clemente, P.; Decanini, L.; Desortis, A.; Ellsworth, W.; Gorini, A.; Kalkan, E.; Marcucci, S.; Milana, G.; Mollaioli, F.; Olivieri, M.; Paolucci, R.; Rinaldis, D.; Rovelli, A.; Sabetta, F.; Stephens, C.

    2010-01-01

    The normal-faulting earthquake of 6 April 2009 in the Abruzzo Region of central Italy caused heavy losses of life and substantial damage to centuriesold buildings of significant cultural importance and to modern reinforcedconcrete- framed buildings with hollow masonry infill walls. Although structural deficiencies were significant and widespread, the study of the characteristics of strong motion data from the heavily affected area indicated that the short duration of strong shaking may have spared many more damaged buildings from collapsing. It is recognized that, with this caveat of shortduration shaking, the infill walls may have played a very important role in preventing further deterioration or collapse of many buildings. It is concluded that better new or retrofit construction practices that include reinforcedconcrete shear walls may prove helpful in reducing risks in such seismic areas of Italy, other Mediterranean countries, and even in United States, where there are large inventories of deficient structures. ?? 2010, Earthquake Engineering Research Institute.

  20. Solar eruptions - soil radon - earthquakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saghatelyan, E.; Petrosyan, L.; Aghbalyan, Yu.; Baburyan, M.; Araratyan, L.

    2004-01-01

    For the first time a new natural phenomenon was established: a contrasting increase in the soil radon level under the influence of solar flares. Such an increase is one of geochemical indicators of earthquakes. Most researchers consider this a phenomenon of exclusively terrestrial processes. Investigations regarding the link of earthquakes to solar activity carried out during the last decade in different countries are based on the analysis of statistical data ΣΕ (t) and W (t). As established, the overall seismicity of the Earth and its separate regions depends of an 11-year long cycle of solar activity. Data provided in the paper based on experimental studies serve the first step on the way of experimental data on revealing cause-and-reason solar-terrestrials bonds in a series s olar eruption-lithosphere radon-earthquakes . They need further collection of experimental data. For the first time, through radon constituent of terrestrial radiation objectification has been made of elementary lattice of the Hartmann's network contoured out by bio location method. As found out, radon concentration variations in Hartmann's network nodes determine the dynamics of solar-terrestrial relationships. Of the three types of rapidly running processes conditioned by solar-terrestrial bonds earthquakes are attributed to rapidly running destructive processes that occur in the most intense way at the juncture of tectonic massifs, along transformed and deep failures. The basic factors provoking the earthquakes are both magnetic-structural effects and a long-term (over 5 months) bombing of the surface of lithosphere by highly energetic particles of corpuscular solar flows, this being approved by photometry. As a result of solar flares that occurred from 29 October to 4 November 2003, a sharply contrasting increase in soil radon was established which is an earthquake indicator on the territory of Yerevan City. A month and a half later, earthquakes occurred in San-Francisco, Iran, Turkey

  1. A Geodynamic Study of Active Crustal Deformation and Earthquakes in North China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Y.; Liu, M.

    2005-12-01

    North China is part of the Archaean Sino-Korean craton, yet today it is a region of intense crustal deformation and earthquakes, including 21 M >=7.0 events since 512 AD. More than half of the large events occurred within the Fen-Wei rift system surrounding the stable Ordos plateau; the largest events (M >=7.3) show a sequential southward migration along the rift. However, since 1695 the Fen-Wei rift has became seismically dormant, while seismicity seems having shifted eastward to the North China plain, marked by the 1996 Tangshan earthquake (M=7.8). We have developed a 3D viscoelastic geodynamic model to study the cause of seismicity and its spatial-temporal pattern in North China. Constrained by crustal kinematics from GPS and neotectonic data, the model shows high deviatoric stress in the North China crust, resulting mainly from compression of the expanding Tibetan Plateau and resistance from the stable Siberian block. Within North China seismicity is largely controlled by lateral heterogeneity of lithospheric structures, which explains the concentration of seismicity in the Fen-Wei rift. Our results show that stress triggering may have contributed to the sequential migration of large events along the rift, and the release and migration of stress and strain energy from these large events may partially explain the intense seismicity in the North China plain in the past 300 years. Comparing the predicted long-term spatial pattern of strain energy with seismic energy release provides some insights of potential earthquake risks in North China.

  2. Earthquake Rupture at Focal Depth, Part I: Structure and Rupture of the Pretorius Fault, TauTona Mine, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heesakkers, V.; Murphy, S.; Reches, Z.

    2011-12-01

    We analyze the structure of the Archaean Pretorius fault in TauTona mine, South Africa, as well as the rupture-zone that recently reactivated it. The analysis is part of the Natural Earthquake Laboratory in South African Mines (NELSAM) project that utilizes the access to 3.6 km depth provided by the mining operations. The Pretorius fault is a ~10 km long, oblique-strike-slip fault with displacement of up to 200 m that crosscuts fine to very coarse grain quartzitic rocks in TauTona mine. We identify here three structural zones within the fault-zone: (1) an outer damage zone, ~100 m wide, of brittle deformation manifested by multiple, widely spaced fractures and faults with slip up to 3 m; (2) an inner damage zone, 25-30 m wide, with high density of anastomosing conjugate sets of fault segments and fractures, many of which carry cataclasite zones; and (3) a dominant segment, with a cataclasite zone up to 50 cm thick that accommodated most of the Archaean slip of the Pretorius fault, and is regarded as the `principal slip zone' (PSZ). This fault-zone structure indicates that during its Archaean activity, the Pretorius fault entered the mature fault stage in which many slip events were localized along a single, PSZ. The mining operations continuously induce earthquakes, including the 2004, M2.2 event that rejuvenated the Pretorius fault in the NELSAM project area. Our analysis of the M2.2 rupture-zone shows that (1) slip occurred exclusively along four, pre-existing large, quasi-planer segments of the ancient fault-zone; (2) the slipping segments contain brittle cataclasite zones up to 0.5 m thick; (3) these segments are not parallel to each other; (4) gouge zones, 1-5 mm thick, composed of white `rock-flour' formed almost exclusively along the cataclasite-host rock contacts of the slipping segments; (5) locally, new, fresh fractures branched from the slipping segments and propagated in mixed shear-tensile mode; (6) the maximum observed shear displacement is 25 mm in

  3. Near-surface structural model for deformation associated with the February 7, 1812, New Madrid, Missouri, earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odum, J.K.; Stephenson, W.J.; Shedlock, K.M.; Pratt, T.L.

    1998-01-01

    The February 7, 1812, New Madrid, Missouri, earthquake (M [moment magnitude] 8) was the third and final large-magnitude event to rock the northern Mississippi Embayment during the winter of 1811-1812. Although ground shaking was so strong that it rang church bells, stopped clocks, buckled pavement, and rocked buildings up and down the eastern seaboard, little coseismic surface deformation exists today in the New Madrid area. The fault(s) that ruptured during this event have remained enigmatic. We have integrated geomorphic data documenting differential surficial deformation (supplemented by historical accounts of surficial deformation and earthquake-induced Mississippi River waterfalls and rapids) with the interpretation of existing and recently acquired seismic reflection data, to develop a tectonic model of the near-surface structures in the New Madrid, Missouri, area. This model consists of two primary components: a northnorthwest-trending thrust fault and a series of northeast-trending, strike-slip, tear faults. We conclude that the Reelfoot fault is a thrust fault that is at least 30 km long. We also infer that tear faults in the near surface partitioned the hanging wall into subparallel blocks that have undergone differential displacement during episodes of faulting. The northeast-trending tear faults bound an area documented to have been uplifted at least 0.5 m during the February 7, 1812, earthquake. These faults also appear to bound changes in the surface density of epicenters that are within the modern seismicity, which is occurring in the stepover zone of the left-stepping right-lateral strike-slip fault system of the modern New Madrid seismic zone.

  4. Earthquakes, September-October 1986

    Science.gov (United States)

    Person, W.J.

    1987-01-01

    There was one great earthquake (8.0 and above) during this reporting period in the South Pacific in the Kermadec Islands. There were no major earthquakes (7.0-7.9) but earthquake-related deaths were reported in Greece and in El Salvador. There were no destrcutive earthquakes in the United States.

  5. Cooperative earthquake research between the United States and the People's Republic of China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russ, D.P.; Johnson, L.E.

    1986-01-01

    This paper describes cooperative research by scientists of the US and the People's Republic of China (PRC) which has resulted in important new findings concerning the fundamental characteristics of earthquakes and new insight into mitigating earthquake hazards. There have been over 35 projects cooperatively sponsored by the Earthquake Studies Protocol in the past 5 years. The projects are organized into seven annexes, including investigations in earthquake prediction, intraplate faults and earthquakes, earthquake engineering and hazards investigation, deep crustal structure, rock mechanics, seismology, and data exchange. Operational earthquake prediction experiments are currently being developed at two primary sites: western Yunnan Province near the town of Xiaguan, where there are several active faults, and the northeast China plain, where the devastating 1976 Tangshan earthquake occurred.

  6. Global Compilation of InSAR Earthquake Source Models: Comparisons with Seismic Catalogues and the Effects of 3D Earth Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weston, J. M.; Ferreira, A. M.; Funning, G. J.

    2010-12-01

    should map epicentral locations accurately, this allows us to obtain a first independent estimate of epicentral location errors in the seismic catalogues. InSAR depths are systematically shallower than those in the EHB catalogue with differences of 5-10km; we discuss the possible reasons for these differences, which allow us to place constraints on the accuracy of both ICMT and EHB depth determinations. Finally, we carry out long-period surface-wave CMT inversions using four different 3D global tomographic models and two different forward modelling techniques to assess the effect of inaccurate wave propagation formulations a