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Sample records for earthquake resistant engineering

  1. Earthquake engineering for nuclear facilities

    CERN Document Server

    Kuno, Michiya

    2017-01-01

    This book is a comprehensive compilation of earthquake- and tsunami-related technologies and knowledge for the design and construction of nuclear facilities. As such, it covers a wide range of fields including civil engineering, architecture, geotechnical engineering, mechanical engineering, and nuclear engineering, for the development of new technologies providing greater resistance against earthquakes and tsunamis. It is crucial both for students of nuclear energy courses and for young engineers in nuclear power generation industries to understand the basics and principles of earthquake- and tsunami-resistant design of nuclear facilities. In Part I, "Seismic Design of Nuclear Power Plants", the design of nuclear power plants to withstand earthquakes and tsunamis is explained, focusing on buildings, equipment's, and civil engineering structures. In Part II, "Basics of Earthquake Engineering", fundamental knowledge of earthquakes and tsunamis as well as the dynamic response of structures and foundation ground...

  2. Engineering works for increasing earthquake resistance of Hamaoka nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oonishi, Yoshihiro; Kondou, Makoto; Hattori, Kazushi

    2007-01-01

    The improvement works of the ground of outdoor piping and duct system of Hamaoka-3, one of engineering works for increasing earthquake resistance of the plant, are reported. The movable outdoor piping systems were moved. SJ method, one of the high-pressure jet mixing method, improved the ground between the duct and the unmoved light oil tank on the western side, and the environmental ground. The other places were improved by the concrete replacement works. The results of ground treated by SJ method showed the high quality of stiffness and continuity. Outline of engineering works, execution of concrete replacement works, the high-pressure jet mixing method, SJ method, the quality control and treatment of the generated mud by SJ method are reported. A seismic response analysis, execution facilities, construction planning, working diagram, improvement work conditions of three methods, and steps of SJ method are illustrated. (S.Y.)

  3. Encyclopedia of earthquake engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Kougioumtzoglou, Ioannis; Patelli, Edoardo; Au, Siu-Kui

    2015-01-01

    The Encyclopedia of Earthquake Engineering is designed to be the authoritative and comprehensive reference covering all major aspects of the science of earthquake engineering, specifically focusing on the interaction between earthquakes and infrastructure. The encyclopedia comprises approximately 265 contributions. Since earthquake engineering deals with the interaction between earthquake disturbances and the built infrastructure, the emphasis is on basic design processes important to both non-specialists and engineers so that readers become suitably well-informed without needing to deal with the details of specialist understanding. The content of this encyclopedia provides technically inclined and informed readers about the ways in which earthquakes can affect our infrastructure and how engineers would go about designing against, mitigating and remediating these effects. The coverage ranges from buildings, foundations, underground construction, lifelines and bridges, roads, embankments and slopes. The encycl...

  4. Advancing Integrated STEM Learning through Engineering Design: Sixth-Grade Students' Design and Construction of Earthquake Resistant Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    English, Lyn D.; King, Donna; Smeed, Joanna

    2017-01-01

    As part of a 3-year longitudinal study, 136 sixth-grade students completed an engineering-based problem on earthquakes involving integrated STEM learning. Students employed engineering design processes and STEM disciplinary knowledge to plan, sketch, then construct a building designed to withstand earthquake damage, taking into account a number of…

  5. Earthquake resistant design of structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Chang Geun; Kim, Gyu Seok; Lee, Dong Geun

    1990-02-01

    This book tells of occurrence of earthquake and damage analysis of earthquake, equivalent static analysis method, application of equivalent static analysis method, dynamic analysis method like time history analysis by mode superposition method and direct integration method, design spectrum analysis considering an earthquake-resistant design in Korea. Such as analysis model and vibration mode, calculation of base shear, calculation of story seismic load and combine of analysis results.

  6. Computational methods in earthquake engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Plevris, Vagelis; Lagaros, Nikos

    2017-01-01

    This is the third book in a series on Computational Methods in Earthquake Engineering. The purpose of this volume is to bring together the scientific communities of Computational Mechanics and Structural Dynamics, offering a wide coverage of timely issues on contemporary Earthquake Engineering. This volume will facilitate the exchange of ideas in topics of mutual interest and can serve as a platform for establishing links between research groups with complementary activities. The computational aspects are emphasized in order to address difficult engineering problems of great social and economic importance. .

  7. Earthquakes and Earthquake Engineering. LC Science Tracer Bullet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buydos, John F., Comp.

    An earthquake is a shaking of the ground resulting from a disturbance in the earth's interior. Seismology is the (1) study of earthquakes; (2) origin, propagation, and energy of seismic phenomena; (3) prediction of these phenomena; and (4) investigation of the structure of the earth. Earthquake engineering or engineering seismology includes the…

  8. The Challenge of Centennial Earthquakes to Improve Modern Earthquake Engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saragoni, G. Rodolfo

    2008-01-01

    The recent commemoration of the centennial of the San Francisco and Valparaiso 1906 earthquakes has given the opportunity to reanalyze their damages from modern earthquake engineering perspective. These two earthquakes plus Messina Reggio Calabria 1908 had a strong impact in the birth and developing of earthquake engineering. The study of the seismic performance of some up today existing buildings, that survive centennial earthquakes, represent a challenge to better understand the limitations of our in use earthquake design methods. Only Valparaiso 1906 earthquake, of the three considered centennial earthquakes, has been repeated again as the Central Chile, 1985, Ms = 7.8 earthquake. In this paper a comparative study of the damage produced by 1906 and 1985 Valparaiso earthquakes is done in the neighborhood of Valparaiso harbor. In this study the only three centennial buildings of 3 stories that survived both earthquakes almost undamaged were identified. Since for 1985 earthquake accelerogram at El Almendral soil conditions as well as in rock were recoded, the vulnerability analysis of these building is done considering instrumental measurements of the demand. The study concludes that good performance of these buildings in the epicentral zone of large earthquakes can not be well explained by modern earthquake engineering methods. Therefore, it is recommended to use in the future of more suitable instrumental parameters, such as the destructiveness potential factor, to describe earthquake demand

  9. Modern earthquake engineering offshore and land-based structures

    CERN Document Server

    Jia, Junbo

    2017-01-01

    This book addresses applications of earthquake engineering for both offshore and land-based structures. It is self-contained as a reference work and covers a wide range of topics, including topics related to engineering seismology, geotechnical earthquake engineering, structural engineering, as well as special contents dedicated to design philosophy, determination of ground motions, shock waves, tsunamis, earthquake damage, seismic response of offshore and arctic structures, spatial varied ground motions, simplified and advanced seismic analysis methods, sudden subsidence of offshore platforms, tank liquid impacts during earthquakes, seismic resistance of non-structural elements, and various types of mitigation measures, etc. The target readership includes professionals in offshore and civil engineering, officials and regulators, as well as researchers and students in this field.

  10. The earthquake problem in engineering design: generating earthquake design basis information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, R.D.

    1987-01-01

    Designing earthquake resistant structures requires certain design inputs specific to the seismotectonic status of the region, in which a critical facility is to be located. Generating these inputs requires collection of earthquake related information using present day techniques in seismology and geology, and processing the collected information to integrate it to arrive at a consolidated picture of the seismotectonics of the region. The earthquake problem in engineering design has been outlined in the context of a seismic design of nuclear power plants vis a vis current state of the art techniques. The extent to which the accepted procedures of assessing seismic risk in the region and generating the design inputs have been adherred to determine to a great extent the safety of the structures against future earthquakes. The document is a step towards developing an aproach for generating these inputs, which form the earthquake design basis. (author)

  11. Designing an Earthquake-Resistant Building

    Science.gov (United States)

    English, Lyn D.; King, Donna T.

    2016-01-01

    How do cross-bracing, geometry, and base isolation help buildings withstand earthquakes? These important structural design features involve fundamental geometry that elementary school students can readily model and understand. The problem activity, Designing an Earthquake-Resistant Building, was undertaken by several classes of sixth- grade…

  12. Basic earthquake engineering from seismology to analysis and design

    CERN Document Server

    Sucuoğlu, Halûk

    2014-01-01

    This book provides senior undergraduate students, master students and structural engineers who do not have a background in the field with core knowledge of structural earthquake engineering that will be invaluable in their professional lives. The basics of seismotectonics, including the causes, magnitude, and intensity of earthquakes, are first explained. Then the book introduces basic elements of seismic hazard analysis and presents the concept of a seismic hazard map for use in seismic design. Subsequent chapters cover key aspects of the response analysis of simple systems and building struc­tures to earthquake ground motions, design spectrum, the adoption of seismic analysis procedures in seismic design codes, seismic design principles and seismic design of reinforced concrete structures. Helpful worked examples on seismic analysis of linear, nonlinear and base isolated buildings, earthquake-resistant design of frame and frame-shear wall systems are included, most of which can be solved using a hand calcu...

  13. Low cost earthquake resistant ferrocement small house

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saleem, M.A.; Ashraf, M.; Ashraf, M.

    2008-01-01

    The greatest humanitarian challenge faced even today after one year of Kashmir Hazara earthquake is that of providing shelter. Currently on the globe one in seven people live in a slum or refugee camp. The earthquake of October 2005 resulted in a great loss of life and property. This research work is mainly focused on developing a design of small size, low cost and earthquake resistant house. Ferrocement panels are recommended as the main structural elements with lightweight truss roofing system. Earthquake resistance is ensured by analyzing the structure on ETABS for a seismic activity of zone 4. The behavior of structure is found satisfactory under the earthquake loading. An estimate of cost is also presented which shows that it is an economical solution. (author)

  14. Assessment of Structural Resistance of building 4862 to Earthquake and Tornado Forces [SEC 1 and 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    METCALF, I.L.

    1999-01-01

    This report presents the results of work done for Hanford Engineering Laboratory under contract Y213-544-12662. LATA performed an assessment of building 4862 resistance to earthquake and tornado forces

  15. Assessment of Structural Resistance of building 4862 to Earthquake and Tornado Forces [SEC 1 and 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    METCALF, I.L.

    1999-12-06

    This report presents the results of work done for Hanford Engineering Laboratory under contract Y213-544-12662. LATA performed an assessment of building 4862 resistance to earthquake and tornado forces.

  16. Performance evaluation recommendations of nuclear power plants outdoor significant civil structures earthquake resistance. Performance evaluation examples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-06-01

    The Japan Society of Civil Engineers has updated performance evaluation recommendations of nuclear power plants outdoor significant civil structures earthquake resistance in June 2005. Based on experimental and analytical considerations, analytical seismic models of soils for underground structures, effects of vertical motions on time-history dynamic analysis and shear fracture of reinforced concretes by cyclic loadings have been incorporated in new recommendations. This document shows outdoor civil structures earthquake resistance and endurance performance evaluation examples based on revised recommendations. (T. Tanaka)

  17. Evaluation of earthquake resistance design for underground structures of nuclear power plant, (1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tohma, Junichi; Kokusho, Kenji; Iwatate, Takahiro; Ohtomo, Keizo

    1986-01-01

    As to earthquake resistant design of underground civil engineering structures related with emergency cooling water system of nuclear power plant, it is required these structures must maintain the function of great important their own facilities during earthquakes, especially for design earthquake motion. In this study, shaft pipline, pit and duct for cooling sea water facilities were chosen as typical underground structures, and the authors deal with the seismic design method for calculation of the principal sectional force in these structures generated by design earthquake motion. Especially, comparative investigations concerned with response displacement method versus dynamic analysis methods (lumped mass analysis and finite element analysis) are discussed. (author)

  18. Real-time earthquake monitoring using a search engine method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jie; Zhang, Haijiang; Chen, Enhong; Zheng, Yi; Kuang, Wenhuan; Zhang, Xiong

    2014-12-04

    When an earthquake occurs, seismologists want to use recorded seismograms to infer its location, magnitude and source-focal mechanism as quickly as possible. If such information could be determined immediately, timely evacuations and emergency actions could be undertaken to mitigate earthquake damage. Current advanced methods can report the initial location and magnitude of an earthquake within a few seconds, but estimating the source-focal mechanism may require minutes to hours. Here we present an earthquake search engine, similar to a web search engine, that we developed by applying a computer fast search method to a large seismogram database to find waveforms that best fit the input data. Our method is several thousand times faster than an exact search. For an Mw 5.9 earthquake on 8 March 2012 in Xinjiang, China, the search engine can infer the earthquake's parameters in <1 s after receiving the long-period surface wave data.

  19. Elements of earthquake engineering and structural dynamics. 2. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filiatrault, A.

    2002-01-01

    This book is written for practising engineers, senior undergraduate and junior structural-engineering students, and university educators. Its main goal is to provide basic knowledge to structural engineers who have no previous knowledge about earthquake engineering and structural dynamics. Earthquake engineering is a multidisciplinary science. This book is not limited to structural analysis and design. The basics of other relevant topics (such as geology, seismology, and geotechnical engineering) are also covered to ensure that structural engineers can interact efficiently with other specialists during a construction project in a seismic zone

  20. Unbonded Prestressed Columns for Earthquake Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    Modern structures are able to survive significant shaking caused by earthquakes. By implementing unbonded post-tensioned tendons in bridge columns, the damage caused by an earthquake can be significantly lower than that of a standard reinforced concr...

  1. Living with earthquakes - development and usage of earthquake-resistant construction methods in European and Asian Antiquity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kázmér, Miklós; Major, Balázs; Hariyadi, Agus; Pramumijoyo, Subagyo; Ditto Haryana, Yohanes

    2010-05-01

    Earthquakes are among the most horrible events of nature due to unexpected occurrence, for which no spiritual means are available for protection. The only way of preserving life and property is applying earthquake-resistant construction methods. Ancient Greek architects of public buildings applied steel clamps embedded in lead casing to hold together columns and masonry walls during frequent earthquakes in the Aegean region. Elastic steel provided strength, while plastic lead casing absorbed minor shifts of blocks without fracturing rigid stone. Romans invented concrete and built all sizes of buildings as a single, unflexible unit. Masonry surrounding and decorating concrete core of the wall did not bear load. Concrete resisted minor shaking, yielding only to forces higher than fracture limits. Roman building traditions survived the Dark Ages and 12th century Crusader castles erected in earthquake-prone Syria survive until today in reasonably good condition. Concrete and steel clamping persisted side-by-side in the Roman Empire. Concrete was used for cheap construction as compared to building of masonry. Applying lead-encased steel increased costs, and was avoided whenever possible. Columns of the various forums in Italian Pompeii mostly lack steel fittings despite situated in well-known earthquake-prone area. Whether frequent recurrence of earthquakes in the Naples region was known to inhabitants of Pompeii might be a matter of debate. Seemingly the shock of the AD 62 earthquake was not enough to apply well-known protective engineering methods throughout the reconstruction of the city before the AD 79 volcanic catastrophe. An independent engineering tradition developed on the island of Java (Indonesia). The mortar-less construction technique of 8-9th century Hindu masonry shrines around Yogyakarta would allow scattering of blocks during earthquakes. To prevent dilapidation an intricate mortise-and-tenon system was carved into adjacent faces of blocks. Only the

  2. Earthquake engineering development before and after the March 4, 1977, Vrancea, Romania earthquake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Georgescu, E.-S.

    2002-01-01

    At 25 years since the of the Vrancea earthquake of March, 4th 1977, we can analyze in an open and critical way its impact on the evolution of earthquake engineering codes and protection policies in Romania. The earthquake (M G-R = 7.2; M w = 7.5), produced 1,570 casualties and more than 11,300 injured persons (90% of the victims in Bucharest), seismic losses were estimated at more then USD 2 billions. The 1977 earthquake represented a significant episode of XXth century in seismic zones of Romania and neighboring countries. The INCERC seismic record of March 4, 1977 put, for the first time, in evidence the spectral content of long period seismic motions of Vrancea earthquakes, the duration, the number of cycles and values of actual accelerations, with important effects of overloading upon flexible structures. The seismic coefficients k s , the spectral curve (the dynamic coefficient β r ) and the seismic zonation map, the requirements in the antiseismic design norms were drastically, changed while the microzonation maps of the time ceased to be used, and the specific Vrancea earthquake recurrence was reconsidered based on hazard studies Thus, the paper emphasises: - the existing engineering knowledge, earthquake code and zoning maps requirements until 1977 as well as seismology and structural lessons since 1977; - recent aspects of implementing of the Earthquake Code P.100/1992 and harmonization with Eurocodes, in conjunction with the specific of urban and rural seismic risk and enforcing policies on strengthening of existing buildings; - a strategic view of disaster prevention, using earthquake scenarios and loss assessments, insurance, earthquake education and training; - the need of a closer transfer of knowledge between seismologists, engineers and officials in charge with disaster prevention public policies. (author)

  3. Performance evaluation recommendations and manuals of nuclear power plants outdoor significant civil structures earthquake resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-06-01

    Performance evaluation recommendations and manuals of nuclear power plants outdoor significant civil structures earthquake resistance have been updated in June 2005 by the Japan Society of Civil Engineers. Based on experimental and analytical considerations on the recommendations of May 2002, analytical seismic models of soils for underground structures, effects of vertical motions on time-history dynamic analysis and shear fracture of reinforced concretes by cyclic loadings have been evaluated and incorporated in new recommendations. (T. Tanaka)

  4. Performance evaluation recommendations of nuclear power plants outdoor significant civil structures earthquake resistance. Technical documentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-06-01

    The Japan Society of Civil Engineers has updated performance evaluation recommendations of nuclear power plants outdoor significant civil structures earthquake resistance in June 2005. Experimental and analytical considerations on the seismic effects evaluation criteria, such as analytical seismic models of soils for underground structures, effects of vertical motions on time-history dynamic analysis and shear fracture of reinforced concretes by cyclic loadings, were shown in this document and incorporated in new recommendations. (T. Tanaka)

  5. Introduction: seismology and earthquake engineering in Central and South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa, A.F.

    1983-01-01

    Reports the state-of-the-art in seismology and earthquake engineering that is being advanced in Central and South America. Provides basic information on seismological station locations in Latin America and some of the programmes in strong-motion seismology, as well as some of the organizations involved in these activities.-from Author

  6. Earthquakes resistance of the CEA/Cadarache facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    The Cadarache Center presents three nuclear types installations: experimental reactors, fuel cycle research laboratories, radioactive wastes processing and wastes encapsulation or solidification. The evolution of the standards in the seismic risks domain, led to a new assessment of these installations earthquakes resistance. This report takes stock on the situation at the end of the year 2000. (A.L.B.)

  7. Post-earthquake fire resistance of steel buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jelinek, T.; Zania, V.; Giuliani, Luisa

    2017-01-01

    -resistant steel frame to post-earthquake fires (PEFs) is investigated and compared with the response of the undamaged frame exposed to fire only, by means of numerical analyses performed using a commercial finite element software. The frame considered as a case study is not insulated against fire...

  8. Engineering Seismic Base Layer for Defining Design Earthquake Motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Nozomu

    2008-01-01

    Engineer's common sense that incident wave is common in a widespread area at the engineering seismic base layer is shown not to be correct. An exhibiting example is first shown, which indicates that earthquake motion at the ground surface evaluated by the analysis considering the ground from a seismic bedrock to a ground surface simultaneously (continuous analysis) is different from the one by the analysis in which the ground is separated at the engineering seismic base layer and analyzed separately (separate analysis). The reason is investigated by several approaches. Investigation based on eigen value problem indicates that the first predominant period in the continuous analysis cannot be found in the separate analysis, and predominant period at higher order does not match in the upper and lower ground in the separate analysis. The earthquake response analysis indicates that reflected wave at the engineering seismic base layer is not zero, which indicates that conventional engineering seismic base layer does not work as expected by the term ''base''. All these results indicate that wave that goes down to the deep depths after reflecting in the surface layer and again reflects at the seismic bedrock cannot be neglected in evaluating the response at the ground surface. In other words, interaction between the surface layer and/or layers between seismic bedrock and engineering seismic base layer cannot be neglected in evaluating the earthquake motion at the ground surface

  9. Enhanced Earthquake-Resistance on the High Level Radioactive Waste Canister

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Youngchul; Yoon, Chanhoon; Lee, Jeaowan; Kim, Jinsup; Choi, Heuijoo

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, the earthquake-resistance type buffer was developed with the method protecting safely about the earthquake. The main parameter having an effect on the earthquake-resistant performance was analyzed and the earthquake-proof type buffer material was designed. The shear analysis model was developed and the performance of the earthquake-resistance buffer material was evaluated. The dynamic behavior of the radioactive waste disposal canister was analyzed in case the earthquake was generated. In the case, the disposal canister gets the serious damage. In this paper, the earthquake-resistance buffer material was developed in order to prevent this damage. By putting the buffer in which the density is small between the canister and buffer, the earthquake-resistant performance was improved about 80%

  10. PROSPECTS OF ESTABLISHING EARTHQUAKE RESISTANT BUILDINGS FROM TUBE CONCRETE CONSTRUCTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdujafar I. Akaev

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Objectives The aim of the research is to find optimal design solutions for the erection of buildings that will ensure their reliability and durability, compliance with environmental requirements, fire resistance and earthquake resistance. In this regard, the task is to determine the advantages and prospects of erecting earthquake resistant buildings from tube concrete constructions, since they are distinct in constructive, technological and economic efficiency when are used as vertical load-bearing struts of high-rise buildings. Method The technique for calculating the strength of normal sections of eccentrically-compressed tube concrete elements uses a nonlinear deformation model, taking into account the joint operation of the steel shell and the concrete core under the conditions of triaxial compression. Results In the article the review of the newest world experience of using tube concrete as vertical load-bearing structures for public facilities from the standpoint of earthquake resistant construction is given. The international practices of public facility construction ranging in height from 100 to 600 m with the use of tube concrete technology, including regions with dangerous natural and man-made conditions, have been studied. The structural, operational and technological advantages and disadvantages of tube concrete technology are analysed. Methods for calculating the strength of concrete tube elements in the case of central compression are considered: according to the so-called deformation theory, the state of total destruction of both concrete and tube fluidity attained at maximum pressure are indicated by the beginning of "tube flow on the longitudinal axis". The advantages and disadvantages of both methods are shown. Factors constraining the introduction and wider application of tube concrete constructions in Russia are considered. Conclusion While the advantages of concrete tube constructions in their extensive

  11. Current earthquake engineering practice for Japanese nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofmayer, C.H.; Park, Y.J.; Costello, J.F.

    1992-01-01

    This paper provides a brief overview of seismic research being conducted in Japan and describes USNRC efforts to understand Japanese seismic practice. Current earthquake engineering practice for Japanese nuclear power plants is descried in JEAG 4601-1987, ''Technical Guidelines for Aseismic Design of Nuclear Power Plants.'' The USNRC has sponsored BNL to translate this document into English. Efforts are underway to study and understand JEAG 4601-1987 and make the translation more readily available in the United States

  12. Does Modern Ideology of Earthquake Engineering Ensure the Declared Levels of Damage of Structures at Earthquakes?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabrichidze, G.

    2011-01-01

    The basic position of the modern ideology of earthquake engineering is based on the idea that a structure should be designed so that it suffers almost no damage at an earthquake, the occurrence of which is most probable in the given area during the lifetime of the structure. This statement is essentially based on the so-called Performance Based Design, the ideology of the 21 s t century. In the article at tenton is focused on the fact that the modern ideology of earthquake engineering assigns structures to a dangerous zone in which their behavior is defined by processes of damage and destruction of materials, which is a nonequilibrium process and demands application of special refined methods of research. In such conditions use of ratios that correspond to static conditions of loading to describe the process of damage of materials appears to be unfounded. The article raises the question of the necessity of working out a new mathematical model of behavior of materials and structures at rapid intensive impact. (authors)

  13. Analysis of the Earthquake-Resistant Design Approach for Buildings in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carrillo Julián

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of new codes for earthquake-resistant structures has made possible to guarantee a better performance of buildings, when they are subjected to seismic actions. Therefore, it is convenient that current codes for design of building become conceptually transparent when defining the strength modification factors and assessing maximum lateral displacements, so that the design process can be clearly understood by structural engineers. The aim of this study is to analyze the transparency of earthquake-resistant design approach for buildings in Mexico by means of a critical review of the factors for strength modification and displacement amplification. The approach of building design codes in US is also analyzed. It is concluded that earthquake-resistant design in Mexico have evolved in refinement and complexity. It is also demonstrated that the procedure prescribed by such design codes allows the assessment of the design strengths and displacements in a more rational way, in accordance not only with the present stage of knowledge but also with the contemporary tendencies in building codes. In contrast, the procedures used in US codes may not provide a clear view for seismic response assessment of buildings.

  14. On ethics and the earthquake resistant interior design of buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurol, Yonca

    2014-03-01

    The most common tectonic quality of modern structures, such as frame systems, is their flexibility; they are open for change. Although this characteristic is a big advantage in comparison to the inflexible masonry structures of the past, it might also create some serious problems, such as e.g. the lack of safety in the event of an earthquake, if the flexibility is not used consciously by architects and interior designers. This article attempts to define and establish some rules for the interior design of buildings with reinforced concrete frame systems. The rules for making subtractions from these structures and extending them by making additions to them are contained within this article. The main objective of this article is to derive some ethical values from these rules. Thus, the conclusion of the article focuses on the derivation of some ethical values for achieving earthquake resistant interior design of buildings with reinforced concrete frame systems.

  15. A STUDY ON THE EARTHQUAKE RESPONSE AND EARTHQUAKE RESISTANT DESIGN METHOD OF AN OPEN TYPE WHARF WITH PNEUMATIC CAISSONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oishi, Masahiko; Nagao, Takashi; Shigeki, Kouji; Ouchi, Masatoshi; Sato, Yuske; Kinomiya, Osamu

    Seismic response of an open type wharf with pneumatic caisson was clarified using a dynamic finite element method. As a result, rocking behavior of caisson foundations were observed and applicability of a frame model analysis to the earthquake resistant design of a wharf was suggested. Authors proposed the framework of earthquake resistant design method of the wharf including the evaluation method of response acceleration of the wharf.

  16. The HayWired earthquake scenario—Engineering implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detweiler, Shane T.; Wein, Anne M.

    2018-04-18

    The HayWired Earthquake Scenario—Engineering Implications is the second volume of U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Scientific Investigations Report 2017–5013, which describes the HayWired scenario, developed by USGS and its partners. The scenario is a hypothetical yet scientifically realistic earthquake sequence that is being used to better understand hazards for the San Francisco Bay region during and after a magnitude-7 earthquake (mainshock) on the Hayward Fault and its aftershocks.Analyses in this volume suggest that (1) 800 deaths and 16,000 nonfatal injuries result from shaking alone, plus property and direct business interruption losses of more than $82 billion from shaking, liquefaction, and landslides; (2) the building code is designed to protect lives, but even if all buildings in the region complied with current building codes, 0.4 percent could collapse, 5 percent could be unsafe to occupy, and 19 percent could have restricted use; (3) people expect, prefer, and would be willing to pay for greater resilience of buildings; (4) more than 22,000 people could require extrication from stalled elevators, and more than 2,400 people could require rescue from collapsed buildings; (5) the average east-bay resident could lose water service for 6 weeks, some for as long as 6 months; (6) older steel-frame high-rise office buildings and new reinforced-concrete residential buildings in downtown San Francisco and Oakland could be unusable for as long as 10 months; (7) about 450 large fires could result in a loss of residential and commercial building floor area equivalent to more than 52,000 single-family homes and cause property (building and content) losses approaching $30 billion; and (8) combining earthquake early warning (ShakeAlert) with “drop, cover, and hold on” actions could prevent as many as 1,500 nonfatal injuries out of 18,000 total estimated nonfatal injuries from shaking and liquefaction hazards.

  17. Earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    An earthquake happens when two blocks of the earth suddenly slip past one another. Earthquakes strike suddenly, violently, and without warning at any time of the day or night. If an earthquake occurs in a populated area, it may cause ...

  18. Introduction: seismology and earthquake engineering in Mexico and Central and South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa, A.F.

    1982-01-01

    The results from seismological studies that are used by the engineering community are just one of the benefits obtained from research aimed at mitigating the earthquake hazard. In this issue of Earthquake Information Bulletin current programs in seismology and earthquake engineering, seismic networks, future plans and some of the cooperative programs with different internation organizations are described by Latin-American seismologists. The article describes the development of seismology in Latin America and the seismological interest of the OAS. -P.N.Chroston

  19. 10 CFR Appendix S to Part 50 - Earthquake Engineering Criteria for Nuclear Power Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Earthquake Engineering Criteria for Nuclear Power Plants S... FACILITIES Pt. 50, App. S Appendix S to Part 50—Earthquake Engineering Criteria for Nuclear Power Plants... nuclear power plant structures, systems, and components important to safety to withstand the effects of...

  20. Engineering aspects of earthquake risk mitigation: Lessons from management of recent earthquakes, and consequential mudflows and landslides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The Proceedings contain 30 selected presentations given at the Second and Third UNDRO/USSR Training Seminars: Engineering Aspects of Earthquake Risk Assessment and Mitigation of Losses, held in Dushanbe, October 1988; and Lessons from Management of Recent Earthquakes, and Consequential Mudflows and Landslides, held in Moscow, October 1989. The annexes to the document provide information on the participants, the work programme and the resolution adopted at each of the seminars. Refs, figs and tabs

  1. Building configuration and seismic design: The architecture of earthquake resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, C.; Reitherman, R.; Whitaker, D.

    1981-05-01

    The architecture of a building in relation to its ability to withstand earthquakes was determined. Aspects of round motion which are significant to building behavior are discussed. Results of a survey of configuration decisions that affect the performance of buildings with a focus on the architectural aspects of configuration design are provided. Configuration derivation, building type as it relates to seismic design, and seismic design, and seismic issues in the design process are examined. Case studies of the Veterans' Administration Hospital in Loma Linda, California, and the Imperial Hotel in Tokyo, Japan, are presented. The seismic design process is described paying special attention to the configuration issues. The need is stressed for guidelines, codes, and regulations to ensure design solutions that respect and balance the full range of architectural, engineering, and material influences on seismic hazards.

  2. Seismic hazard maps for earthquake-resistant construction designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohkawa, Izuru

    2004-01-01

    Based on the idea that seismic phenomena in Japan varying in different localities are to be reflected in designing specific nuclear facilities in specific site, the present research program started to make seismic hazard maps representing geographical distribution of seismic load factors. First, recent research data on historical earthquakes and materials on active faults in Japan have been documented. Differences in character due to different localities are expressed by dynamic load in consideration of specific building properties. Next, hazard evaluation corresponding to seismic-resistance factor is given as response index (spectrum) of an adequately selected building, for example a nuclear power station, with the help of investigation results of statistical analysis. (S. Ohno)

  3. Seismic-resistant design of nuclear power stations in Japan, earthquake country. Lessons learned from Chuetsu-oki earthquake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irikura, Kojiro

    2008-01-01

    The new assessment (back-check) of earthquake-proof safety was being conducted at Kashiwazaki-Kariwa Nuclear Power Plants, Tokyo Electric Co. in response to a request based on the guideline for reactor evaluation for seismic-resistant design code, revised in 2006, when the 2007 Chuetsu-oki Earthquake occurred and brought about an unexpectedly huge tremor in this area, although the magnitude of the earthquake was only 6.8 but the intensity of earthquake motion exceeded 2.5-fold more than supposed. This paper introduces how and why the guideline for seismic-resistant design of nuclear facilities was revised in 2006, the outline of the Chuetsu-oki Earthquake, and preliminary findings and lessons learned from the Earthquake. The paper specifically discusses on (1) how we may specify in advance geologic active faults as has been overlooked this time, (2) how we can make adequate models for seismic origin from which we can extract its characteristics, and (3) how the estimation of strong ground motion simulation may be possible for ground vibration level of a possibly overlooked fault. (S. Ohno)

  4. Earthquake engineering and structural dynamics studies at Bhabha Atomic Research Centre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reddy, G.R.; Parulekar, Y.M.; Sharma, A.; Dubey, P.N.; Vaity, K.N.; Kukreja, Mukhesh; Vaze, K.K.; Ghosh, A.K.; Kushwaha, H.S.

    2007-01-01

    Earthquake Engineering and structural Dynamics has gained the attention of many researchers throughout the world and extensive research work is performed. Linear behaviour of structures, systems and components (SSCs) subjected to earthquake/dynamic loading is clearly understood. However, nonlinear behaviour of SSCs subjected to earthquake/dynamic loading need to be understood clearly and design methods need to be validated experimentally. In view of this, three major areas in earthquake engineering and structural dynamics identified for research includes: design and development of passive devices to control the seismic/dynamic response of SSCs, nonlinear behaviour of piping systems subjected to earthquake loading and nonlinear behavior of RCC structures under seismic excitation or dynamic loading. BARC has performed extensive work and also being continued in the above-identified areas. The work performed is helping for clearer understanding of nonlinear behavior of SSCs as well as in developing new schemes, methodologies and devices to control the earthquake response of SSCs. (author)

  5. Fundamental principles of earthquake resistance calculation to be reflected in the next generation regulations

    OpenAIRE

    Mkrtychev Oleg; Dzhinchvelashvili Guram

    2016-01-01

    The article scrutinizes the pressing issues of regulation in the domain of seismic construction. The existing code of rules SNIP II-7-81* “Construction in seismic areas” provides that earthquake resistance calculation be performed on two levels of impact: basic safety earthquake (BSE) and maximum considered earthquake (MCE). However, the very nature of such calculation cannot be deemed well-founded and contradicts the fundamental standards of foreign countries. The authors of the article have...

  6. Electrical resistivity variations associated with earthquakes on the san andreas fault.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzella, A; Morrison, H F

    1974-09-06

    A 24 percent precursory change in apparent electrical resistivity was observed before a magnitude 3.9 earthquake of strike-slip nature on the San Andreas fault in central California. The experimental configuration and numerical calculations suggest that the change is associated with a volume at depth rather than some near-surface phenomenon. The character and duration of the precursor period agree well with those of other earthquake studies and support a dilatant earthquake mechanism model.

  7. Building Infrastructure for Preservation and Publication of Earthquake Engineering Research Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislav Pejša

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to showcase the progress of the earthquake engineering community during a decade-long effort supported by the National Science Foundation in the George E. Brown Jr., Network for Earthquake Engineering Simulation (NEES. During the four years that NEES network operations have been headquartered at Purdue University, the NEEScomm management team has facilitated an unprecedented cultural change in the ways research is performed in earthquake engineering. NEES has not only played a major role in advancing the cyberinfrastructure required for transformative engineering research, but NEES research outcomes are making an impact by contributing to safer structures throughout the USA and abroad. This paper reflects on some of the developments and initiatives that helped instil change in the ways that the earthquake engineering and tsunami community share and reuse data and collaborate in general.

  8. Prevent recurrence of nuclear disaster (3). Agenda on nuclear safety from earthquake engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kameda, Hiroyuki; Takada, Tsuyoshi; Ebisawa, Katsumi; Nakamura, Susumu

    2012-01-01

    Based on results of activities of committee on seismic safety of nuclear power plants (NPPs) of Japan Association for Earthquake Engineering, which started activities after Chuetsu-oki earthquake and then experienced Great East Japan Earthquake, (under close collaboration with the committee of Atomic Energy Society of Japan started activities simultaneously), and taking account of further development of concept, agenda on nuclear safety were proposed from earthquake engineering. In order to prevent recurrence of nuclear disaster, individual technical issues of earthquake engineering and comprehensive issues of integration technology, multidisciplinary collaboration and establishment of technology governance based on them were of prime importance. This article described important problems to be solved; (1) technical issues and mission of seismic safety of NPPs, (2) decision making based on risk assessment - basis of technical governance, (3) framework of risk, design and regulation - framework of required technology governance, (4) technical issues of earthquake engineering for nuclear safety, (5) role of earthquake engineering in nuclear power risk communication and (6) importance of multidisciplinary collaboration. Responsibility of engineering would be attributed to establishment of technology governance, cultivation of individual technology and integration technology, and social communications. (T. Tanaka)

  9. Structural performance of the DOE's Idaho National Engineering Laboratory during the 1983 Borah Peak Earthquake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guenzler, R.C.; Gorman, V.W.

    1985-01-01

    The 1983 Borah Peak Earthquake (7.3 Richter magnitude) was the largest earthquake ever experienced by the DOE's Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). Reactor and plant facilities are generally located about 90 to 110 km (60 miles) from the epicenter. Several reactors were operating normally at the time of the earthquake. Based on detailed inspections, comparisons of measured accelerations with design levels, and instrumental seismograph information, it was concluded that the 1983 Borah Peak Earthquake created no safety problems for INEL reactors or other facilities. 10 references, 16 figures, 2 tables

  10. Revolutionising engineering education in the Middle East region to promote earthquake-disaster mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baytiyeh, Hoda; Naja, Mohamad K.

    2014-09-01

    Due to the high market demands for professional engineers in the Arab oil-producing countries, the appetite of Middle Eastern students for high-paying jobs and challenging careers in engineering has sharply increased. As a result, engineering programmes are providing opportunities for more students to enrol on engineering courses through lenient admission policies that do not compromise academic standards. This strategy has generated an influx of students who must be carefully educated to enhance their professional knowledge and social capital to assist in future earthquake-disaster risk-reduction efforts. However, the majority of Middle Eastern engineering students are unaware of the valuable acquired engineering skills and knowledge in building the resilience of their communities to earthquake disasters. As the majority of the countries in the Middle East are exposed to seismic hazards and are vulnerable to destructive earthquakes, engineers have become indispensable assets and the first line of defence against earthquake threats. This article highlights the contributions of some of the engineering innovations in advancing technologies and techniques for effective disaster mitigation and it calls for the incorporation of earthquake-disaster-mitigation education into academic engineering programmes in the Eastern Mediterranean region.

  11. Earthquake resistant design of nuclear facilities with limited radioactive inventory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-10-01

    This document comprises the essential elements of an earthquake resistant design code for nuclear facilities with limited radioactive inventory. The purpose of the document is the enhancement of seismic safety for such facilities without the necessity to resort to complicated and sophisticated methodologies which are often associated with and borrowed from nuclear power plant analysis and design. The first two sections are concerned with the type of facility for which the document is applicable and the radiological consideration for accident conditions. The principles of facility classification and item categorization as a function of the potential radiological consequences of failure are given in section 3. The design basis ground motion is evaluated in sections 4-6 using a simplified but conservative approach which also includes considerations for the underlying soil characteristics. Sections 7 and 8 specify the principles of seismic design of building structures and equipment using two methods, called the equivalent static and simplified dynamic approach. Considerations for the detailing of equipment and piping and those other than for lateral load calculations, such as sloshing effects, are given in the subsequent sections. Several appendices are given for illustration of the principles presented in the text. Finally, a design tree diagram is included to facilitate the user's task of making the appropriate selections. (author)

  12. The utilization of brick walls for resisting earthquake in building technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarigan, J.; Benedicta, C.

    2018-03-01

    Many structures in Indonesia use reinforced concrete frames with brick walls as their infill. Commonly, the engineers consider brick walls as the partitions and count them as the non-structural elements in the structure design. However, brick walls are capable of resisting earthquake by yielding high stiffness to the structure in case the brick walls are integrated well with the frames. It will reduce the non-structural destructions that happen to structures which is one of the most frequently impacts in the earthquake. This paper will take the effects of applying brick walls as the structural elements up by comparing it with the structure using brick walls as the partitions. The modeling of the brick walls uses the equivalent spectrum method meanwhile the seismic analysis uses the respon spectrum method. The utilization of brick walls can cause the decrement of the natural period to 42%. It also reduce the structure displacements to 53% in X-direction and 67% in Y-direction and the story drifts to 57% in X-direction and 71% in Y-direction. Otherwise, it causes the increment of the base shear only up to 3% in X-direction and 7% in Y-direction.

  13. Engineering geological aspect of Gorkha Earthquake 2015, Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhikari, Basanta Raj; Andermann, Christoff; Cook, Kristen

    2016-04-01

    Strong shaking by earthquake causes massif landsliding with severe effects on infrastructure and human lives. The distribution of landslides and other hazards are depending on the combination of earthquake and local characteristics which influence the dynamic response of hillslopes. The Himalayas are one of the most active mountain belts with several kilometers of relief and is very prone to catastrophic mass failure. Strong and shallow earthquakes are very common and cause wide spread collapse of hillslopes, increasing the background landslide rate by several magnitude. The Himalaya is facing many small and large earthquakes in the past i.e. earthquakes i.e. Bihar-Nepal earthquake 1934 (Ms 8.2); Large Kangra earthquake of 1905 (Ms 7.8); Gorkha earthquake 2015 (Mw 7.8). The Mw 7.9 Gorkha earthquake has occurred on and around the main Himalayan Thrust with a hypocentral depth of 15 km (GEER 2015) followed by Mw 7.3 aftershock in Kodari causing 8700+ deaths and leaving hundreds of thousands of homeless. Most of the 3000 aftershocks located by National Seismological Center (NSC) within the first 45 days following the Gorkha Earthquake are concentrated in a narrow 40 km-wide band at midcrustal to shallow depth along the strike of the southern slope of the high Himalaya (Adhikari et al. 2015) and the ground shaking was substantially lower in the short-period range than would be expected for and earthquake of this magnitude (Moss et al. 2015). The effect of this earthquake is very unique in affected areas by showing topographic effect, liquefaction and land subsidence. More than 5000 landslides were triggered by this earthquake (Earthquake without Frontiers, 2015). Most of the landslides are shallow and occurred in weathered bedrock and appear to have mobilized primarily as raveling failures, rock slides and rock falls. Majority of landslides are limited to a zone which runs east-west, approximately parallel the lesser and higher Himalaya. There are numerous cracks in

  14. Engineering insect-resistant crops: A review

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    dgeorge

    African Journal of Biotechnology ... Transgenic crops engineered for enhanced levels of resistance to insect ... this background that research work targeting other candidate genes such as ... nisms, and potential deleterious environmental effects. ... The global market value of biotech crops was esti- .... located in repeat 11.

  15. Analytical investigations of the earthquake resistance of the support base of an oil-gas platform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glagovskii, V. B.; Kassirova, N. A.; Turchina, O. A.; Finagenov, O. M.; Tsirukhin, N. A. [JSC ' VNIIG im. B. E. Vedeneeva' (Russian Federation)

    2012-01-15

    In designing stationary oil-gas recovery platforms on the continental shelf, the need arises to compute the estimated strength of their support base during seismic events. This paper is devoted to this estimation. The paper examines a structure consisting of the superstructure of an oil-gas platform and its gravity-type base. It is possible to install earthquake-insulating supports between them. Calculations performed for the design earthquake indicated that the design of the gravity base can resist a seismic effect without special additional measures. During the maximum design earthquake, moreover, significant stresses may develop in the zone of base where the columns are connected to the upper slab of the caisson. In that case, the earthquake insulation considered for the top of the platform becomes critical.

  16. Analytical investigations of the earthquake resistance of the support base of an oil-gas platform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glagovskii, V. B.; Kassirova, N. A.; Turchina, O. A.; Finagenov, O. M.; Tsirukhin, N. A.

    2012-01-01

    In designing stationary oil-gas recovery platforms on the continental shelf, the need arises to compute the estimated strength of their support base during seismic events. This paper is devoted to this estimation. The paper examines a structure consisting of the superstructure of an oil-gas platform and its gravity-type base. It is possible to install earthquake-insulating supports between them. Calculations performed for the design earthquake indicated that the design of the gravity base can resist a seismic effect without special additional measures. During the maximum design earthquake, moreover, significant stresses may develop in the zone of base where the columns are connected to the upper slab of the caisson. In that case, the earthquake insulation considered for the top of the platform becomes critical.

  17. Research and development of earthquake-resistant structure model for nuclear fuel facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uryu, Mitsuru; Terada, S.; Shioya, I. [and others

    1999-05-01

    It is important for a nuclear fuel facility to reduce an input intensity of earthquake on the upper part of the building. To study of a response of the building caused by earthquake, an earthquake-resistant structure model is constructed. The weight of the structure model is 90 ton, and is supported by multiple layers of natural ruber and steel. And a weight support device which is called 'softlanding' is also installed to prevent the structure model from loosing the function at excess deformation. The softlanding device consists of Teflon. Dynamic response characteristics of the structure model caused by sine wave and simulated seismic waves are measured and analyzed. Soil tests of the fourth geologic stratum on which the structure model is sited are made to confirm the safety of soil-structure interactions caused by earthquake. (M. Suetake)

  18. Road Surfaces And Earthquake Engineering: A Theoretical And Experimental Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pratico, Filippo Giammaria

    2008-01-01

    As is well known, road surfaces greatly affect vehicle-road interaction. As a consequence, road surfaces have a paramount influence on road safety and pavement management systems. On the other hand, earthquakes produce deformations able to modify road surface structure, properties and performance. In the light of these facts, the main goal of this paper has been confined into the modelling of road surface before, during and after the seismic event. The fundamentals of road surface texture theory have been stated in a general formulation. Models in the field of road profile generation and theoretical properties, before, during and after the earthquake, have been formulated and discussed. Practical applications can be hypothesised in the field of vehicle-road interaction as a result of road surface texture derived from deformations and accelerations caused by seismic or similar events

  19. Designing an Earthquake-Proof Art Museum: An Arts- and Engineering-Integrated Science Lesson

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carignan, Anastasia; Hussain, Mahjabeen

    2016-01-01

    In this practical arts-integrated science and engineering lesson, an inquiry-based approach was adopted to teach a class of fourth graders in a Midwest elementary school about the scientific concepts of plate tectonics and earthquakes. Lessons were prepared following the 5 E instructional model. Next Generation Science Standards (4-ESS3-2) and the…

  20. Nuclear power plant design resistance to earthquakes. Pt. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    The rule specifies the standards to be met by the architectural design for building structures in order to ensure that they will not collapse during an earthquake. Building structures including the sub-structures covered by the rule are understood as buildings and building sections made of steel-reinforced concrete, prestressed concrete, steel and masoury (brickwork). They include i.a. crane tracks and gantries. For reactor safety containment buildings constructed of steel, steel-reinforced concrete or prestressed concrete, this rule applies for the calculation of section size. (orig./HP) [de

  1. IAEA safety guides in the light of recent developments in earthquake engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gurpinar, A.

    1988-11-01

    The IAEA safety guides 50-SG-S1 and 50-SG-S2 emphasize on the determination of the design basis earthquake ground motion and earthquake resistant design considerations for nuclear power plants, respectively. Since the elaboration of these safety guides years have elapsed and a review of some of these concepts is necessary, taking into account the information collected and the technical developments. In this article, topics within the scope of these safety guides are discussed. In particular, the results of some recent research which may have a bearing on the nuclear industry are highlighted. Conclusions and recommendations are presented. 6 fig., 19 refs. (F.M.)

  2. Earthquake resistance test of full-scale glove box

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujita, T.; Ohtani, K.; Hayashi, M.; Kozeki, M.; Ide, T.; Sakuno, K.

    1989-01-01

    A glove box used at nuclear facilities must confine radioactive materials. High airtightness and negative internal pressure are used to prevent leaks. The allowable leakage rate of air is 0.1% vol/hr or less at the pre-service inspection. The negative pressure value is kept at - 30 mm H 2 O in normal operation. The glove box structural strength and its confinement reliability during an earthquake are major concerns. The verification of aseismic analysis methods and assumptions for a glove box are thus of great importance. Data on the dynamic behavior of giant glove boxes was recently obtained in large shaker experiments. This paper describes these experimental results and the appropriateness of aseismic analysis methods used in current design

  3. Revision of Sustainable Criteria of Concrete Walls for Earthquake-Resistant Housing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alcocer S.M.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The seismic performance of low-rise housing has been noticeably inadequate during the most recent earthquakes occurred in Latin American countries. Moreover, the literature review revealed that some traditional techniques do not contribute to building sustainable housing. In the last decade, construction of concrete walls housing has become a preferred choice because of the speed of construction and availability of materials in most of these countries. Aimed at improving seismic design methods for this type of construction, an extensive analytical and experimental program was carried out. The experimental program included quasi-static and shaking-table tests of 47 walls with different height-to-length ratios and walls with openings. Variables studied were type of concrete, web steel ratio and type of web reinforcement. The paper presents and discusses the main results of the research program and evaluates the technical and environmental feasibility for using concrete walls for sustainable and earthquake-resistant housing. Performance of concrete walls housing is assessed in terms of key environmental and earthquake-resistant requirements. It was found that concrete wall housing is not only safe under earthquakes and easily adaptable to climate, but also it stimulates environmental conservation and promotes reducing the costs of construction, operation and maintenance.

  4. Addressing earthquakes strong ground motion issues at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, I.G.; Silva, W.J.; Stark, C.L.; Jackson, S.; Smith, R.P.

    1991-01-01

    In the course of reassessing seismic hazards at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), several key issues have been raised concerning the effects of the earthquake source and site geology on potential strong ground motions that might be generated by a large earthquake. The design earthquake for the INEL is an approximate moment magnitude (M w ) 7 event that may occur on the southern portion of the Lemhi fault, a Basin and Range normal fault that is located on the northwestern boundary of the eastern Snake River Plain and the INEL, within 10 to 27 km of several major facilities. Because the locations of these facilities place them at close distances to a large earthquake and generally along strike of the causative fault, the effects of source rupture dynamics (e.g., directivity) could be critical in enhancing potential ground shaking at the INEL. An additional source issue that has been addressed is the value of stress drop to use in ground motion predictions. In terms of site geology, it has been questioned whether the interbedded volcanic stratigraphy beneath the ESRP and the INEL attenuates ground motions to a greater degree than a typical rock site in the western US. These three issues have been investigated employing a stochastic ground motion methodology which incorporates the Band-Limited-White-Noise source model for both a point source and finite fault, random vibration theory and an equivalent linear approach to model soil response

  5. Molecular research and genetic engineering of resistance to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper reviews the recent research progress on genetic methods of resistance, the status and existing problems, traditional breeding, the main resistance mechanism, molecular markers and genetic engineering of resistance genes. It is hoped that new breeding methods and new varieties resistant to Verticillium wilt will ...

  6. Earthquake resistance of residual heat removed (RHR) pump for pressurized water reactors (PWR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uga, Takeo; Shiraki, K.; Honma, T.; Matsubayashi, H.; Inazuka, H.

    1980-01-01

    The present paper deals with the earthquake resistance of the residual heat removed (RHR) pump of single stage double volute type, which is one of the structurally simplest pumps used for pressurized water reactors (PWR). The results of the study can be summarized as follows: (1) Any trouble which can give effect on the functions of the pump at earthquake does not become a problem so long as each part of the pump is of aseismatically rigid structure. (2) Aseismatic tolerance test in the pump's operating condition has shown that the earthquake resistance of the pump at its location has a tolerance about five times the dynamic design acceleration. (3) The pump is provided with an impeller-casing wear ring at the pressure boundary between the suction side pressure and discharge side pressure. This wear ring acts as an underwater bearing when the pump is in operation, and improves the vibration characteristics, particularly damping ratio, of the pump shaft to a great extent to make the pump more aseismatic. (4) In the evaluation of the underwater bearing characteristics of the wear ring, the evaluation accuracy of the vibration characteristics of the pump shaft can be improved by taking into consideration the pressure loss in the wear ring part from the head of the single stage of the pump due to the rotation of the impeller. (author)

  7. Earthquakes, Cities, and Lifelines: lessons integrating tectonics, society, and engineering in middle school Earth Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toke, N.; Johnson, A.; Nelson, K.

    2010-12-01

    Earthquakes are one of the most widely covered geologic processes by the media. As a result students, even at the middle school level, arrive in the classroom with preconceptions about the importance and hazards posed by earthquakes. Therefore earthquakes represent not only an attractive topic to engage students when introducing tectonics, but also a means to help students understand the relationships between geologic processes, society, and engineering solutions. Facilitating understanding of the fundamental connections between science and society is important for the preparation of future scientists and engineers as well as informed citizens. Here, we present a week-long lesson designed to be implemented in five one hour sessions with classes of ~30 students. It consists of two inquiry-based mapping investigations, motivational presentations, and short readings that describe fundamental models of plate tectonics, faults, and earthquakes. The readings also provide examples of engineering solutions such as the Alaskan oil pipeline which withstood multi-meter surface offset in the 2002 Denali Earthquake. The first inquiry-based investigation is a lesson on tectonic plates. Working in small groups, each group receives a different world map plotting both topography and one of the following data sets: GPS plate motion vectors, the locations and types of volcanoes, the location of types of earthquakes. Using these maps and an accompanying explanation of the data each group’s task is to map plate boundary locations. Each group then presents a ~10 minute summary of the type of data they used and their interpretation of the tectonic plates with a poster and their mapping results. Finally, the instructor will facilitate a class discussion about how the data types could be combined to understand more about plate boundaries. Using student interpretations of real data allows student misconceptions to become apparent. Throughout the exercise we record student preconceptions

  8. Study on evaluating method for earthquake resisting performance of steel piers; Kosei kyokyaku no taishinsei ni kansuru kenkyu kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isoe, A.; Hashimoto, Y.; Morimoto, C.; Sakoda, H.; Ishige, T.; Yoshikawa, T.; Kishida, K. [Kawasaki Heavy Industries, Ltd., Kobe (Japan)

    1998-12-20

    After the shock of Hyogoken Nanbu Earthquake in 1995, protection against level 2 earthquake becomes important subject for civil structures. Subsequently plastic design methods for steel piers have been studied and rapidly introduced. The authors developed a method to evaluate the earthquake resisting performance of a steel pier with a single mass model. This model is useful for design because of its simplicity but on the other hand it can not consider the effects of piers` interaction in space. To include this effect in an analysis a simple 3 dimensional calculation model of box-column pier is developed. (author)

  9. Probabilistic analysis of the torsional effects on the tall building resistance due to earthquake even

    Science.gov (United States)

    Králik, Juraj; Králik, Juraj

    2017-07-01

    The paper presents the results from the deterministic and probabilistic analysis of the accidental torsional effect of reinforced concrete tall buildings due to earthquake even. The core-column structural system was considered with various configurations in plane. The methodology of the seismic analysis of the building structures in Eurocode 8 and JCSS 2000 is discussed. The possibilities of the utilization the LHS method to analyze the extensive and robust tasks in FEM is presented. The influence of the various input parameters (material, geometry, soil, masses and others) is considered. The deterministic and probability analysis of the seismic resistance of the structure was calculated in the ANSYS program.

  10. A refined Frequency Domain Decomposition tool for structural modal monitoring in earthquake engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pioldi, Fabio; Rizzi, Egidio

    2017-07-01

    Output-only structural identification is developed by a refined Frequency Domain Decomposition ( rFDD) approach, towards assessing current modal properties of heavy-damped buildings (in terms of identification challenge), under strong ground motions. Structural responses from earthquake excitations are taken as input signals for the identification algorithm. A new dedicated computational procedure, based on coupled Chebyshev Type II bandpass filters, is outlined for the effective estimation of natural frequencies, mode shapes and modal damping ratios. The identification technique is also coupled with a Gabor Wavelet Transform, resulting in an effective and self-contained time-frequency analysis framework. Simulated response signals generated by shear-type frames (with variable structural features) are used as a necessary validation condition. In this context use is made of a complete set of seismic records taken from the FEMA P695 database, i.e. all 44 "Far-Field" (22 NS, 22 WE) earthquake signals. The modal estimates are statistically compared to their target values, proving the accuracy of the developed algorithm in providing prompt and accurate estimates of all current strong ground motion modal parameters. At this stage, such analysis tool may be employed for convenient application in the realm of Earthquake Engineering, towards potential Structural Health Monitoring and damage detection purposes.

  11. Earthquake strong ground motion studies at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, Ivan; Silva, W.; Darragh, R.; Stark, C.; Wright, D.; Jackson, S.; Carpenter, G.; Smith, R.; Anderson, D.; Gilbert, H.; Scott, D.

    1989-01-01

    Site-specific strong earthquake ground motions have been estimated for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory assuming that an event similar to the 1983 M s 7.3 Borah Peak earthquake occurs at epicentral distances of 10 to 28 km. The strong ground motion parameters have been estimated based on a methodology incorporating the Band-Limited-White-Noise ground motion model coupled with Random Vibration Theory. A 16-station seismic attenuation and site response survey utilizing three-component portable digital seismographs was also performed for a five-month period in 1989. Based on the recordings of regional earthquakes, the effects of seismic attenuation in the shallow crust and along the propagation path and local site response were evaluated. This data combined with a detailed geologic profile developed for each site based principally on borehole data, was used in the estimation of the strong ground motion parameters. The preliminary peak horizontal ground accelerations for individual sites range from approximately 0.15 to 0.35 g. Based on the authors analysis, the thick sedimentary interbeds (greater than 20 m) in the basalt section attenuate ground motions as speculated upon in a number of previous studies

  12. Principles for selecting earthquake motions in engineering design of large dams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krinitzsky, E.L.; Marcuson, William F.

    1983-01-01

    This report gives a synopsis of the various tools and techniques used in selecting earthquake ground motion parameters for large dams. It presents 18 charts giving newly developed relations for acceleration, velocity, and duration versus site earthquake intensity for near- and far-field hard and soft sites and earthquakes having magnitudes above and below 7. The material for this report is based on procedures developed at the Waterways Experiment Station. Although these procedures are suggested primarily for large dams, they may also be applicable for other facilities. Because no standard procedure exists for selecting earthquake motions in engineering design of large dams, a number of precautions are presented to guide users. The selection of earthquake motions is dependent on which one of two types of engineering analyses are performed. A pseudostatic analysis uses a coefficient usually obtained from an appropriate contour map; whereas, a dynamic analysis uses either accelerograms assigned to a site or specified respunse spectra. Each type of analysis requires significantly different input motions. All selections of design motions must allow for the lack of representative strong motion records, especially near-field motions from earthquakes of magnitude 7 and greater, as well as an enormous spread in the available data. Limited data must be projected and its spread bracketed in order to fill in the gaps and to assure that there will be no surprises. Because each site may have differing special characteristics in its geology, seismic history, attenuation, recurrence, interpreted maximum events, etc., as integrated approach gives best results. Each part of the site investigation requires a number of decisions. In some cases, the decision to use a 'least ork' approach may be suitable, simply assuming the worst of several possibilities and testing for it. Because there are no standard procedures to follow, multiple approaches are useful. For example, peak motions at

  13. Seismic ground motion modelling and damage earthquake scenarios: A bridge between seismologists and seismic engineers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panza, G.F.; Romanelli, F.; Vaccari. F.; . E-mails: Luis.Decanini@uniroma1.it; Fabrizio.Mollaioli@uniroma1.it)

    2002-07-01

    The input for the seismic risk analysis can be expressed with a description of 'roundshaking scenarios', or with probabilistic maps of perhaps relevant parameters. The probabilistic approach, unavoidably based upon rough assumptions and models (e.g. recurrence and attenuation laws), can be misleading, as it cannot take into account, with satisfactory accuracy, some of the most important aspects like rupture process, directivity and site effects. This is evidenced by the comparison of recent recordings with the values predicted by the probabilistic methods. We prefer a scenario-based, deterministic approach in view of the limited seismological data, of the local irregularity of the occurrence of strong earthquakes, and of the multiscale seismicity model, that is capable to reconcile two apparently conflicting ideas: the Characteristic Earthquake concept and the Self Organized Criticality paradigm. Where the numerical modeling is successfully compared with records, the synthetic seismograms permit the microzoning, based upon a set of possible scenario earthquakes. Where no recordings are available the synthetic signals can be used to estimate the ground motion without having to wait for a strong earthquake to occur (pre-disaster microzonation). In both cases the use of modeling is necessary since the so-called local site effects can be strongly dependent upon the properties of the seismic source and can be properly defined only by means of envelopes. The joint use of reliable synthetic signals and observations permits the computation of advanced hazard indicators (e.g. damaging potential) that take into account local soil properties. The envelope of synthetic elastic energy spectra reproduces the distribution of the energy demand in the most relevant frequency range for seismic engineering. The synthetic accelerograms can be fruitfully used for design and strengthening of structures, also when innovative techniques, like seismic isolation, are employed. For these

  14. Examining Science Teachers' Argumentation in a Teacher Workshop on Earthquake Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavlazoglu, Baki; Stuessy, Carol

    2018-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine changes in the quality of science teachers' argumentation as a result of their engagement in a teacher workshop on earthquake engineering emphasizing distributed learning approaches, which included concept mapping, collaborative game playing, and group lesson planning. The participants were ten high school science teachers from US high schools who elected to attend the workshop. To begin and end the teacher workshop, teachers in small groups engaged in concept mapping exercises with other teachers. Researchers audio-recorded individual teachers' argumentative statements about the inclusion of earthquake engineering concepts in their concept maps, which were then analyzed to reveal the quality of teachers' argumentation. Toulmin's argumentation model formed the framework for designing a classification schema to analyze the quality of participants' argumentative statements. While the analysis of differences in pre- and post-workshop concept mapping exercises revealed that the number of argumentative statements did not change significantly, the quality of participants' argumentation did increase significantly. As these differences occurred concurrently with distributed learning approaches used throughout the workshop, these results provide evidence to support distributed learning approaches in professional development workshop activities to increase the quality of science teachers' argumentation. Additionally, these results support the use of concept mapping as a cognitive scaffold to organize participants' knowledge, facilitate the presentation of argumentation, and as a research tool for providing evidence of teachers' argumentation skills.

  15. Fundamental principles of earthquake resistance calculation to be reflected in the next generation regulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mkrtychev Oleg

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article scrutinizes the pressing issues of regulation in the domain of seismic construction. The existing code of rules SNIP II-7-81* “Construction in seismic areas” provides that earthquake resistance calculation be performed on two levels of impact: basic safety earthquake (BSE and maximum considered earthquake (MCE. However, the very nature of such calculation cannot be deemed well-founded and contradicts the fundamental standards of foreign countries. The authors of the article have identified the main problems of the conceptual foundation underlying the current regulation. The first and foremost step intended to overcome the discrepancy in question is renunciation of the K1 damage tolerance factor when calculating the BSE. The second measure to be taken is implementing the response spectrum method of calculation, but the β spectral curve of the dynamic response factor must be replaced by a spectrum of worst-case accelerograms for this particular structure or a spectrum of simulated accelerograms obtained for the specific construction site. Application of the response spectrum method when calculating the MCE impact level makes it possible to proceed into the frequency domain and to eventually obtain spectra of the accelerograms. As a result we get to know the response of the building to some extent, i.e. forces, the required reinforcement, and it can be checked whether the conditions of the ultimate limit state apply. Then, the elements under the most intense load are excluded from the design model the way it is done in case of progressive collapse calculations, because the assumption is that these elements are destroyed locally by seismic load. This procedure is based on the already existing design practices of progressive collapse calculation.

  16. 2nd International Conference on Historic Earthquake-Resistant Timber Frames in the Mediterranean Area

    CERN Document Server

    Machado, José; Costa, Alfredo; Candeias, Paulo; Ruggieri, Nicola; Catarino, José

    2016-01-01

    This book presents a selection of the best papers from the HEaRT 2015 conference, held in Lisbon, Portugal, which provided a valuable forum for engineers and architects, researchers and educators to exchange views and findings concerning the technological history, construction features and seismic behavior of historical timber-framed walls in the Mediterranean countries. The topics covered are wide ranging and include historical aspects and examples of the use of timber-framed construction systems in response to earthquakes, such as the gaiola system in Portugal and the Bourbon system in southern Italy; interpretation of the response of timber-framed walls to seismic actions based on calculations and experimental tests; assessment of the effectiveness of repair and strengthening techniques, e.g., using aramid fiber wires or sheets; and modelling analyses. In addition, on the basis of case studies, a methodology is presented that is applicable to diagnosis, strengthening and improvement of seismic performance ...

  17. NGA-West 2 GMPE average site coefficients for use in earthquake-resistant design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borcherdt, Roger D.

    2015-01-01

    Site coefficients corresponding to those in tables 11.4–1 and 11.4–2 of Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other Structures published by the American Society of Civil Engineers (Standard ASCE/SEI 7-10) are derived from four of the Next Generation Attenuation West2 (NGA-W2) Ground-Motion Prediction Equations (GMPEs). The resulting coefficients are compared with those derived by other researchers and those derived from the NGA-West1 database. The derivation of the NGA-W2 average site coefficients provides a simple procedure to update site coefficients with each update in the Maximum Considered Earthquake Response MCER maps. The simple procedure yields average site coefficients consistent with those derived for site-specific design purposes. The NGA-W2 GMPEs provide simple scale factors to reduce conservatism in current simplified design procedures.

  18. 2001 Bhuj, India, earthquake engineering seismoscope recordings and Eastern North America ground-motion attenuation relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, C.H.; Kumar, A.

    2003-01-01

    Engineering seismoscope data collected at distances less than 300 km for the M 7.7 Bhuj, India, mainshock are compatible with ground-motion attenuation in eastern North America (ENA). The mainshock ground-motion data have been corrected to a common geological site condition using the factors of Joyner and Boore (2000) and a classification scheme of Quaternary or Tertiary sediments or rock. We then compare these data to ENA ground-motion attenuation relations. Despite uncertainties in recording method, geological site corrections, common tectonic setting, and the amount of regional seismic attenuation, the corrected Bhuj dataset agrees with the collective predictions by ENA ground-motion attenuation relations within a factor of 2. This level of agreement is within the dataset uncertainties and the normal variance for recorded earthquake ground motions.

  19. Engineering resistance against potato virus Y

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlugt, van der R.A.A.

    1993-01-01

    Potato virus Y is the type species of the potyvirus genus, the largest genus of the plant virus family Potyviridae. The virus causes serious problems in the cultivation of several Solanaceous crops and although certain poly- and monogenic resistances are available,

  20. Probability based high temperature engineering creep and structural fire resistance

    CERN Document Server

    Razdolsky, Leo

    2017-01-01

    This volume on structural fire resistance is for aerospace, structural, and fire prevention engineers; architects, and educators. It bridges the gap between prescriptive- and performance-based methods and simplifies very complex and comprehensive computer analyses to the point that the structural fire resistance and high temperature creep deformations will have a simple, approximate analytical expression that can be used in structural analysis and design. The book emphasizes methods of the theory of engineering creep (stress-strain diagrams) and mathematical operations quite distinct from those of solid mechanics absent high-temperature creep deformations, in particular the classical theory of elasticity and structural engineering. Dr. Razdolsky’s previous books focused on methods of computing the ultimate structural design load to the different fire scenarios. The current work is devoted to the computing of the estimated ultimate resistance of the structure taking into account the effect of high temperatur...

  1. Electrical resistivity anomaly observed in and around the epicentral area prior to the T'angshan Earthquake of 1976

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chao, Y L; Ch' ien, F Y

    1978-07-01

    Before the T'angshan earthquake, magnitude 7.8 on 28 July 1976, 9 of the 14 resistivity stations located within the region of Peking, Tientsin, and T'angshan recorded gradual decreases in apparent electrical resistivity for a period of 2 to 3 years. The anomalous region as deduced from the records of these nine stations has a semimajor axis of about 150 km surrounding the epicenter, and yet two of the stations located very close to the epicenter recorded rapidly decreasing apparent resistivity anomaly during a period of more than two months immediately before the earthquake. From results of some field measurements in situ of the apparent resistivity-decrease due to compression of rock or soil layers near the earth's surface, the linear compressional strain of shallow layers in and around the epicentral area was estimated to be about 3 x 10/sup -5/. Compressional strain of much the same order of magnitude was observed by base line survey before the T'angshan earthquake.

  2. Partial Prestress Concrete Beams Reinforced Concrete Column Joint Earthquake Resistant On Frame Structure Building

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astawa, M. D.; Kartini, W.; Lie, F. X. E.

    2018-01-01

    Floor Building that requires a large space such as for the meeting room, so it must remove the column in the middle of the room, then the span beam above the room will be long. If the beam of structural element with a span length reaches 15.00 m, then it is less effective and efficient using a regular Reinforced Concrete Beam because it requires a large section dimension, and will reduce the beauty of the view in terms of aesthetics of Architecture. In order to meet these criteria, in this design will use partial prestressing method with 400/600 mm section dimension, assuming the partial Prestressed Beam structure is still able to resist the lateral force of the earthquake. The design of the reinforcement has taken into account to resist the moment due to the gravitational load and lateral forces. The earthquake occurring on the frame structure of the building. In accordance with the provisions, the flexural moment capacity of the tendon is permitted only by 25% of the total bending moment on support of the beam, while the 75% will be charged to the reinforcing steel. Based on the analysis result, bring ini 1 (one) tendon contains 6 strand with diameter 15,2 mm. On the beam pedestal, requires 5D25 tensile reinforcement and 3D25 for the compression reinforcement, for shear reinforcement on the pedestal using Ø10-100 mm. Dimensional column section are 600/600 mm with longitudinal main reinforcement of 12D25, and transverse reinforcement Ø10-150. At the core of the beam-column joint, use the transversal reinforcement Ø10-100 mm. The moment of Column versus Beam Moment ∑Me > 1.2 Mg, with a value of 906.99 kNm > 832.25 kNm, qualify for ductility and Strong Columns-weak beam. Capacity of contribution bending moment of Strand Tendon’s is 23.95% from the total bending moment capacity of the beam, meaning in accordance with the provisions. Thus, the stability and ductility structure of Beam-Column joint is satisfy the requirements of SNI 2847: 2013 and ACI 318-11.

  3. State of the art of earthquake engineering in nuclear power plant design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schildknecht, P.O.

    1976-12-01

    A brief outline of definitions based on the USNRC, Seismic and Geologic Siting Criteria for Nuclear Power Plants, and on the plate tectonics and earthquake terminology is given. An introduction into plate tectonics and the associated earthquake phenomena is then presented. Ground motion characteristics are described in connection with the selection of design earthquakes. Mathematical methods of dynamic structural analyses are discussed for linear and nonlinear systems. Response analysis techniques for nuclear power plants are explained considering soil-structure interaction effects. (Auth.)

  4. Hazard-consistent response spectra in the Region of Murcia (Southeast Spain): comparison to earthquake-resistant provisions

    OpenAIRE

    Gaspar Escribano, Jorge M.; Benito Oterino, Belen; Garcia Mayordomo, Julian

    2008-01-01

    Hazard-consistent ground-motion characterisations of three representative sites located in the Region of Murcia (southeast Spain) are presented. This is the area where the last three damaging events in Spain occurred and there is a significant amount of data for comparing them with seismic hazard estimates and earthquake-resistant provisions. Results of a probabilistic seismic hazard analysis are used to derive uniform hazard spectra (UHS) for the 475-year return period, on rock and soil cond...

  5. Use of electrical resistivity technique for engineering site investigation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The presence of moderately thick (1.5 – 16.5m) clay has been established in this area; therefore the use of raft foundation and/or any other foundation that is commensurate with civil engineering standard is suggested for high rise structures. Keywords: bedrock integrity, transverse unit resistance, foundation. Global Journal ...

  6. RNAi technology extends its reach: Engineering plant resistance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RNA interference (RNAi) is a homology-dependent gene silencing technology that is initiated by double stranded RNA (dsRNA). It has emerged as a genetic tool for engineering plants resistance against prokaryotic pathogens such as virus and bacteria. Recent studies broaden the role of RNAi, and many successful ...

  7. Earthquake-resistant performance investigation for rural buildings in Zhongxiang area, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Jingya

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available We carried out a census of the rural residential buildings of Zhongxiang area’s 17 towns. Next, we conducted a sample survey in four townships: Huji, Shipai, Zhangji, and Jiuli. According to the census and sample survey data of the rural residence buildings, we evaluated the quality and earthquake-resistant performance of the rural buildings for the various local rural residential structural types. The results showed that there are four main factors affecting the seismic performance of the local rural residences: (1 Foundations are not made appropriately (such as by compaction or some other fill but are built directly in the farming soil. (2 Seismic measures are not completely implemented. Structure construction measures are not in place at the junction of the vertical and horizontal wall. The vertical wall joints are not the result of the same masonry techniques as the horizontal joints. There are no lintels above the door and window openings, or if there are any, the length of the lintels is less than 240 mm. (3 The brick masonry wall has low strength. The greatest housing wall mortar strength is between M0. 4–1.5, much lower than the strength of the brick. (4 The building material and construction quality are poor. The quality of the mortar masonry wall is poor. The cracks between the bricks are uneven, even in the seams.

  8. SEISMIC PERFORMANCE OF MOMENT-RESISTING CONCRETE FRAMES SUBJECTED TO EARTHQUAKE EXCITATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FADZLI MOHAMED NAZRI

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, moment-resisting concrete frames (MRCFs were designed based on Eurocodes 2 and 8, which indicate the seismic provisions and requirements for building design and construction. This study aims to investigate the damage measure of MRCFs subjected to earthquake excitation by pushover analysis (POA and incremental dynamic analysis (IDA. In POA, inverted triangular lateral load and uniform lateral load patterns were used to produce a base shear–drift curve. In IDA, seven far-field and seven near-field ground motion records were selected to establish the base shear–drift relationship. Structural response and damage measures were examined by the performance-based seismic design limit states. Vision 2000 proposed four performance states, namely, fully operational, operational, life safety (LS, and near collapse. The results showed that the designed structures have low stiffness because all MRCFs failed to meet the LS limit state. The base shear–drift relationship produced a higher demand in IDA than in POA. In POA, the lateral uniform load pattern produced higher demand than the lateral inverted triangular load pattern. In IDA, the farfield effect produced higher demand than the near-field effect. POA approximated IDA accurately at the elastic stage, but the approximation failed after the yield point.

  9. Current problems and subjects on numerical analysis of earthquake geotechnical engineering. For seamless analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Taiki

    2016-01-01

    There are continuum and discontinuum analyses in the evaluation of seismic stability of surrounding slope in nuclear power plant facility. However, we cannot rationally evaluate such seismic stability due to excessive conservative margin of the results by each analysis. If we can simulate the behavior from small to large deformation by hybridizing them, we can contribute not only to the rationalization of the slope stability evaluation but also the enhancement of evaluation precision in the numerical analysis. In this review, the previous numerical analyses and application cases of them in earthquake geotechnical engineering were classified into three categories, that is, continuum analysis, discontinuum one and the hybridizing process to identify their research themes. The present review has revealed that the research themes are the standardization of condition for conversion, construction of the technique to determine parameters related to conversion and the reasonable physical property set of DEM(Distinct Element Method) after conversion. Our future work will be development of a numerical analysis code hybridizing continuum and discontinuum analyses based on the identified research themes. (author)

  10. Analog earthquakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofmann, R.B.

    1995-01-01

    Analogs are used to understand complex or poorly understood phenomena for which little data may be available at the actual repository site. Earthquakes are complex phenomena, and they can have a large number of effects on the natural system, as well as on engineered structures. Instrumental data close to the source of large earthquakes are rarely obtained. The rare events for which measurements are available may be used, with modfications, as analogs for potential large earthquakes at sites where no earthquake data are available. In the following, several examples of nuclear reactor and liquified natural gas facility siting are discussed. A potential use of analog earthquakes is proposed for a high-level nuclear waste (HLW) repository

  11. The Road to Total Earthquake Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frohlich, Cliff

    Cinna Lomnitz is possibly the most distinguished earthquake seismologist in all of Central and South America. Among many other credentials, Lomnitz has personally experienced the shaking and devastation that accompanied no fewer than five major earthquakes—Chile, 1939; Kern County, California, 1952; Chile, 1960; Caracas,Venezuela, 1967; and Mexico City, 1985. Thus he clearly has much to teach someone like myself, who has never even actually felt a real earthquake.What is this slim book? The Road to Total Earthquake Safety summarizes Lomnitz's May 1999 presentation at the Seventh Mallet-Milne Lecture, sponsored by the Society for Earthquake and Civil Engineering Dynamics. His arguments are motivated by the damage that occurred in three earthquakes—Mexico City, 1985; Loma Prieta, California, 1989; and Kobe, Japan, 1995. All three quakes occurred in regions where earthquakes are common. Yet in all three some of the worst damage occurred in structures located a significant distance from the epicenter and engineered specifically to resist earthquakes. Some of the damage also indicated that the structures failed because they had experienced considerable rotational or twisting motion. Clearly, Lomnitz argues, there must be fundamental flaws in the usually accepted models explaining how earthquakes generate strong motions, and how we should design resistant structures.

  12. Development of k-300 concrete mix for earthquake-resistant Housing infrastructure in indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulkarnain, Fahrizal

    2018-03-01

    In determining the strength of K-300 concrete mix that is suitable for earthquake-resistant housing infrastructure, it is necessary to research the materials to be used for proper quality and quantity so that the mixture can be directly applied to the resident’s housing, in the quake zone. In the first stage, the examination/sieve analysis of the fine aggregate or sand, and the sieve analysis of the coarse aggregate or gravel will be carried out on the provided sample weighing approximately 40 kilograms. Furthermore, the specific gravity and absorbance of aggregates, the examination of the sludge content of aggregates passing the sieve no. 200, and finally, examination of the weight of the aggregate content. In the second stage, the planned concrete mix by means of the Mix Design K-300 is suitable for use in Indonesia, with implementation steps: Planning of the cement water factor (CWF), Planning of concrete free water (Liters / m3), Planning of cement quantity, Planning of minimum cement content, Planning of adjusted cement water factor, Planning of estimated aggregate composition, Planning of estimated weight of concrete content, Calculation of composition of concrete mixture, Calculation of mixed correction for various water content. Implementation of the above tests also estimates the correction of moisture content and the need for materials of mixture in kilograms for the K-300 mixture, so that the slump inspection result will be achieved in planned 8-12 cm. In the final stage, a compressive strength test of the K-300 experimental mixture is carried out, and subsequently the composition of the K-300 concrete mixture suitable for one sack of cement of 50 kg is obtained for the foundation of the proper dwelling. The composition is consists of use of Cement, Sand, Gravel, and Water.

  13. Using Resurrected Ancestral Proviral Proteins to Engineer Virus Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asunción Delgado

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Proviral factors are host proteins hijacked by viruses for processes essential for virus propagation such as cellular entry and replication. Pathogens and their hosts co-evolve. It follows that replacing a proviral factor with a functional ancestral form of the same protein could prevent viral propagation without fatally compromising organismal fitness. Here, we provide proof of concept of this notion. Thioredoxins serve as general oxidoreductases in all known cells. We report that several laboratory resurrections of Precambrian thioredoxins display substantial levels of functionality within Escherichia coli. Unlike E. coli thioredoxin, however, these ancestral thioredoxins are not efficiently recruited by the bacteriophage T7 for its replisome and therefore prevent phage propagation in E. coli. These results suggest an approach to the engineering of virus resistance. Diseases caused by viruses may have a devastating effect in agriculture. We discuss how the suggested approach could be applied to the engineering of plant virus resistance.

  14. Earthquake Resilient Bridge Columns Utilizing Damage Resistant Hybrid Fiber Reinforced Concrete

    OpenAIRE

    Trono, William Dean

    2014-01-01

    Modern reinforced concrete bridges are designed to avoid collapse and to prevent loss of life during earthquakes. To meet these objectives, bridge columns are typically detailed to form ductile plastic hinges when large displacements occur. California seismic design criteria acknowledges that damage such as concrete cover spalling and reinforcing bar yielding may occur in columns during a design-level earthquake. The seismic resilience of bridge columns can be improved through the use of a da...

  15. Scientific, Engineering, and Financial Factors of the 1989 Human-Triggered Newcastle Earthquake in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klose, C. D.

    2006-12-01

    This presentation emphasizes the dualism of natural resources exploitation and economic growth versus geomechanical pollution and risks of human-triggered earthquakes. Large-scale geoengineering activities, e.g., mining, reservoir impoundment, oil/gas production, water exploitation or fluid injection, alter pre-existing lithostatic stress states in the earth's crust and are anticipated to trigger earthquakes. Such processes of in- situ stress alteration are termed geomechanical pollution. Moreover, since the 19th century more than 200 earthquakes have been documented worldwide with a seismic moment magnitude of 4.5losses of triggered earthquakes. An hazard assessment, based on a geomechanical crust model, shows that only four deep coal mines were responsible for triggering this severe earthquake. A small-scale economic risk assessment identifies that the financial loss due to earthquake damage has reduced mining profits that have been re-invested in the Newcastle region for over two centuries beginning in 1801. Furthermore, large-scale economic risk assessment reveals that the financial loss is equivalent to 26% of the Australian Gross Domestic Product (GDP) growth in 1988/89. These costs account for 13% of the total costs of all natural disasters (e.g., flooding, drought, wild fires) and 94% of the costs of all earthquakes recorded in Australia between 1967 and 1999. In conclusion, the increasing number and size of geoengineering activities, such as coal mining near Newcastle or planned carbon dioxide Geosequestration initiatives, represent a growing hazard potential, which can negatively affect socio-economic growth and sustainable development. Finally, hazard and risk degrees, based on geomechanical-mathematical models, can be forecasted in space and over time for urban planning in order to prevent economic losses of human-triggered earthquakes in the future.

  16. Proceedings of the Regional Seminar on Earthquake Engineering (13th) Held in Istanbul, Turkey on 14-24 September 1987.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-09-01

    Earthquake Engineering Conference held in San Francisco in July 198 . It is an international collaboration programme disigned to mitigate the damage...i0 25 30 days Fig. Field data showing restoring Processes of life line os ystems. :j50 0i i i . . rH l o? 50- f- Kitchen fire sources J-0 Kerosene...and another, intermediate, narrow, lobby, serving as entrance, kitchen , a.s.o. As a matter of fact, statistics indicate that the ra- tio of 3 room

  17. Monitoring shallow resistivity changes prior to the 12 May 2008 M 8.0 Wenchuan earthquake on the Longmen Shan tectonic zone, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jun; Xie, Tao; Li, Mei; Wang, Yali; Ren, Yuexia; Gao, Shude; Wang, Lanwei; Zhao, Jialiu

    2016-04-01

    An active source measurement of shallow resistivity using fixed-electrode quasi-Schlumberger arrays has been conducted at Pixian, Jiangyou and Wudu stations on the Longmen Shan tectonic zone in western China, with the hope of detecting earthquake-associated changes. For the duration of the monitoring experiment, a gradual decrease of apparent resistivity of up to 6.7% several years prior to the 12 May 2008 M 8.0 Wenchuan earthquake had been recorded clearly at Pixian station, approximately 35 km from the epicenter. The change of apparent resistivity was monitored with a fixed Schlumberger array of AB/MN spacings of 736 m/226 m in the direction of N57.5°E, giving precisions in measured daily averages of 0.16% or less. A coseismic resistivity drop of up to 5.3% was observed at Jiangyou station, using a Schlumberger array of AB/MN spacings of 710 m/90 m in the direction of N10°E. No fluctuation of resistivity was detected at Wudu station at the time of the Wenchuan mainshock. While the focus of this paper is on monitoring or tracking resistivity variations prior to, during, and after the Wenchuan earthquake, we also aim to compare resistivity records of the Wenchuan earthquake to those of the M 7.8 Tangshan and M 7.2 Songpan earthquakes of 1976. Attempts to explain the observed resistivity variations have been made. The results show that the resistivity variations observed at all three stations are in approximate agreement with resistivity-stress behavior deduced from in situ experiments, focal mechanisms, a simplified dynamical model, static stress analyses, and field investigations from along the Longmen Shan fault zone.

  18. Special Issue "Impact of Natural Hazards on Urban Areas and Infrastructure" in the Bulletin of Earthquake Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostenaru Dan, M.

    2009-04-01

    mitigation will be presented. The session includes contributions showing methodological and modelling approaches from scientists in geophysical/seismological, hydrological, remote sensing, civil engineering, insurance, and urbanism, amongst other fields, as well as presentations from practitioners working on specific case studies, regarding analysis of recent events and their impact on cities as well as re-evaluation of past events from the point of view of long-time recovery. In 2005 it was called for: Most strategies for both preparedness and emergency management in case of disaster mitigation are related to urban planning. While natural, engineering and social sciences contribute to the evaluation of the impact of earthquakes and their secondary events (including tsunamis, earthquake triggered landslides, or fire), floods, landslides, high winds, and volcanic eruptions on urban areas, there are the instruments of urban planning which are to be employed for both visualisation as well as development and implementation of strategy concepts for pre- and postdisaster intervention. The evolution of natural systems towards extreme conditions is taken into consideration so far at it concerns the damaging impact on urban areas and infrastructure and the impact on the natural environment of interventions to reduce such damaging impact.

  19. Performance-based plastic design of earthquake resistant reinforced concrete moment frames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Wen-Cheng

    Performance-Based Plastic Design (PBPD) method has been recently developed to achieve enhanced performance of earthquake resistant structures. The design concept uses pre-selected target drift and yield mechanism as performance criteria. The design base shear for selected hazard level is determined by equating the work needed to push the structure monotonically up to the target drift to the corresponding energy demand of an equivalent SDOF oscillator. This study presents development of the PBPD approach as applied to reinforced concrete special moment frame (RC SMF) structures. RC structures present special challenge because of their complex and degrading ("pinched") hysteretic behavior. In order to account for the degrading hysteretic behavior the 1-EMA 440 C2 factor approach was used in the process of determining the design base shear. Four baseline RC SMF (4, 8, 12 and 20-story) as used in the FEMA P695 were selected for this study. Those frames were redesigned by the PBPD approach. The baseline frames and the PBPD frames were subjected to extensive inelastic pushover and time-history analyses. The PBPD frames showed much improved response meeting all desired performance objectives, including the intended yield mechanisms and the target drifts. On the contrary, the baseline frames experienced large story drifts due to flexural yielding of the columns. The work-energy equation to determine design base shear can also be used to estimate seismic demands, called the energy spectrum method. In this approach the skeleton force-displacement (capacity) curve of the structure is converted into energy-displacement plot (Ec) which is superimposed over the corresponding energy demand plot ( Ed) for the specified hazard level to determine the expected peak displacement demands. In summary, this study shows that the PBPD approach can be successfully applied to RC moment frame structures as well, and that the responses of the example moment frames were much improved over those

  20. EFFECT OF RECYCLE TIRE ISOLATOR AS EARTHQUAKE RESISTANCE SYSTEM FOR LOW RISE BUILDINGS IN MALAYSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SOW WEI JIE

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to investigate the effect of Recycle Tire Isolator (RTI as earthquake resistance system for low rise buildings in Malaysia. Most of the earthquake’s victims are due to the collapse of poorly designed concrete and masonry buildings. Therefore, an economical but reliable RTI is introduced to solve the problem in most of the developing countries such as Malaysia. This study focuses on the effect of RTI-5 (5 layers RTI in protecting three stories buildings. The vertical displacement of RTI-5 was determined through static compression test. The maximum vertical displacement of RTI-5 was obtained when the specimen was monotonically loaded to failure. Finite element analysis was carried out by using ANSYS V16.0 to model the RTI-5 and the results obtained were compared to the experimental results. The dynamic stiffness and damping ratio of RTI-5 were investigated through dynamic test. The behaviour of various thickness of RTI were examined and compared with Rubber Bearing (RB and Scrap Tire Rubber Pad (STRP.Total displacement of three stories buildings on fixed base and on base isolation were determined. The results from static compression test and finite element analysis showed that RTI-5 could sustain a vertical load of 380 kN with vertical deformation of 12.5 mm. It has been verified by finite element analysis (FEA where both of the results achieved close agreement in terms of vertical deformation. RTI-5 and STRP have similar vertical stiffness due to the employment of same material in fabrication. However, rubber bearing is stiffer than RTI-5 due to the present of embedded steel plates. Besides, RTI-4 is stiffer than RTI-5 due to the number of layers are lesser in RTI-4. The results of dynamic test shown that RTI-5 has higher damping ratio than RTI-4. In overall, total deformation at the top floor of the three stories building is reduced by 83% via implementation of RTI in the base of the building. It has been proven

  1. Implications of next generation attenuation ground motion prediction equations for site coefficients used in earthquake resistant design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borcherdt, Roger D.

    2014-01-01

    Proposals are developed to update Tables 11.4-1 and 11.4-2 of Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other Structures published as American Society of Civil Engineers Structural Engineering Institute standard 7-10 (ASCE/SEI 7–10). The updates are mean next generation attenuation (NGA) site coefficients inferred directly from the four NGA ground motion prediction equations used to derive the maximum considered earthquake response maps adopted in ASCE/SEI 7–10. Proposals include the recommendation to use straight-line interpolation to infer site coefficients at intermediate values of (average shear velocity to 30-m depth). The NGA coefficients are shown to agree well with adopted site coefficients at low levels of input motion (0.1 g) and those observed from the Loma Prieta earthquake. For higher levels of input motion, the majority of the adopted values are within the 95% epistemic-uncertainty limits implied by the NGA estimates with the exceptions being the mid-period site coefficient, Fv, for site class D and the short-period coefficient, Fa, for site class C, both of which are slightly less than the corresponding 95% limit. The NGA data base shows that the median value  of 913 m/s for site class B is more typical than 760 m/s as a value to characterize firm to hard rock sites as the uniform ground condition for future maximum considered earthquake response ground motion estimates. Future updates of NGA ground motion prediction equations can be incorporated easily into future adjustments of adopted site coefficients using procedures presented herein. 

  2. Molecular basis of glyphosate resistance: Different approaches through protein engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollegioni, Loredano; Schonbrunn, Ernst; Siehl, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Glyphosate (N-phosphonomethyl-glycine) is the most-used herbicide in the world: glyphosate-based formulations exhibit broad-spectrum herbicidal activity with minimal human and environmental toxicity. The extraordinary success of this simple small molecule is mainly due to the high specificity of glyphosate towards the plant enzyme enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase in the shikimate pathway leading to biosynthesis of aromatic amino acids. Starting in 1996, transgenic glyphosate-resistant plants were introduced thus allowing the application of the herbicide to the crop (post-emergence) to remove emerged weeds without crop damage. This review focuses on the evolution of mechanisms of resistance to glyphosate as obtained through natural diversity, the gene shuffling approach to molecular evolution, and a rational, structure-based approach to protein engineering. In addition, we offer rationale for the means by which the modifications made have had their intended effect. PMID:21668647

  3. Experimental Study on a Self-Centering Earthquake-Resistant Masonry Pier with a Structural Concrete Column

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lijun Niu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a slotting construction strategy to avoid shear behavior of multistory masonry buildings. The aspect ratio of masonry piers increases via slotting between spandrels and piers, so that the limit state of piers under an earthquake may be altered from shear to rocking. Rocking piers with a structural concrete column (SCC form a self-centering earthquake-resistant system. The in-plane lateral rocking behavior of masonry piers subjected to an axial force is predicted, and an experimental study is conducted on two full-scale masonry piers with an SCC, which consist of a slotting pier and an original pier. Meanwhile, a comparison of the rocking modes of masonry piers with an SCC and without an SCC was conducted in the paper. Experimental verification indicates that the slotting strategy achieves a change of failure modes from shear to rocking, and this resistant system with an SCC incorporates the self-centering and high energy dissipation properties. For the slotting pier, a lateral story drift ratio of 2.5% and a high displacement ductility of approximately 9.7 are obtained in the test, although the lateral strength decreased by 22.3% after slotting. The predicted lateral strength of the rocking pier with an SCC has a margin of error of 5.3%.

  4. [Engineering aspects of seismic behavior of health-care facilities: lessons from California earthquakes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutenberg, A

    1995-03-15

    The construction of health-care facilities is similar to that of other buildings. Yet the need to function immediately after an earthquake, the helplessness of the many patients and the high and continuous occupancy of these buildings, require that special attention be paid to their seismic performance. Here the lessons from the California experience are invaluable. In this paper the behavior of California hospitals during destructive earthquakes is briefly described. Adequate structural design and execution, and securing of nonstructural elements are required to ensure both safety of occupants, and practically uninterrupted functioning of equipment, mechanical and electrical services and other vital systems. Criteria for post-earthquake functioning are listed. In view of the hazards to Israeli hospitals, in particular those located along the Jordan Valley and the Arava, a program for the seismic evaluation of medical facilities should be initiated. This evaluation should consider the hazards from nonstructural elements, the safety of equipment and systems, and their ability to function after a severe earthquake. It should not merely concentrate on safety-related structural behavior.

  5. The guideline and practical procedures for earthquake-resistant design of nuclear power plants in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watabe, M.

    1985-01-01

    The Guideline for the aseismic design of nuclear reactor facilities, revised in 1981, is introduced. The basic philosophy entails structural integrity against a major earthquake, rigid structure for less deformation and foundation on rock. The classification of facilities is then explained. Some practical examples are tabulated. In the light of the above classifications, evaluation procedures for aseismic design are defined. Design basis earthquake ground motions, S1 and S2, are defined. S1 is the maximum possible earthquake ground motion, while S2 is the maximum credible one. The relation between active faults and S1, S2 motions is explained, seismic forces induced by S1 and S2 are expressed in terms of response spectra. Static seismic coefficient procedures are also applied to evaluate seismic forces, as a minimum guide-line based on dynamic analysis. Combinations of seismic forces and allowable limits are then explained. In the second part of the paper, seismic analysis for reactor buildings as a part of design practice is outlined. There are three major key points in practical aseismic design. The first one is input design earthquake motions, in which soil/foundation interaction problems are also included. In practice, ground motions at the free field rock surface have to be convoluted or deconvoluted to obtain base rock motions, which are applied to estimate input design earthquake motions by way of finite element analysis or a lumped mass lattice model. Also introduced is dynamic modelling of the reactor building with its non-linear behaviour represented by plastic deformation of reinforced concrete members as well as by uplift characteristics of foundations. Then an evaluation of aseismic safety is introduced. (author)

  6. Revolutionising Engineering Education in the Middle East Region to Promote Earthquake-Disaster Mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baytiyeh, Hoda; Naja, Mohamad K.

    2014-01-01

    Due to the high market demands for professional engineers in the Arab oil-producing countries, the appetite of Middle Eastern students for high-paying jobs and challenging careers in engineering has sharply increased. As a result, engineering programmes are providing opportunities for more students to enroll on engineering courses through lenient…

  7. Using Resurrected Ancestral Proviral Proteins to Engineer Virus Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, Asunción; Arco, Rocio; Ibarra-Molero, Beatriz; Sanchez-Ruiz, Jose M

    2017-05-09

    Proviral factors are host proteins hijacked by viruses for processes essential for virus propagation such as cellular entry and replication. Pathogens and their hosts co-evolve. It follows that replacing a proviral factor with a functional ancestral form of the same protein could prevent viral propagation without fatally compromising organismal fitness. Here, we provide proof of concept of this notion. Thioredoxins serve as general oxidoreductases in all known cells. We report that several laboratory resurrections of Precambrian thioredoxins display substantial levels of functionality within Escherichia coli. Unlike E. coli thioredoxin, however, these ancestral thioredoxins are not efficiently recruited by the bacteriophage T7 for its replisome and therefore prevent phage propagation in E. coli. These results suggest an approach to the engineering of virus resistance. Diseases caused by viruses may have a devastating effect in agriculture. We discuss how the suggested approach could be applied to the engineering of plant virus resistance. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The physical, chemical, and microscopic properties of masonry mortars from Alhambra Palace (Spain in reference to their earthquake resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanifi Binici

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Al-Andalus mortar is an ancient binding material (lime mortar that was used for centuries in numerous historical buildings in Al-Andalus, Granada (Spain. The physico-chemical and microscopic properties of Al-Andalus mortars in Granada were studied as part of an investigation into the mineral raw materials present in the territory of Spain. Scanning electron microscope and X-ray diffraction analyses of eight main types of mortars were performed to show the presence of calcite, gypsum, quartz, and muscovite minerals with organic fibers. Chemical analyses of the specimens showed that high SiO2+Al2O3+Fe2O3 contents yielded high values of hydraulicity and cementation indices. A significant result of this study was that mortars with high hydraulicity and cementation indices have high mechanical strengths. This characteristic may be the main reason for the earthquake resistance of the historical Alhambra Palace.

  9. Proliferation resistance design of a plutonium cycle (Proliferation Resistance Engineering Program: PREP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sorenson, R.J.; Roberts, F.P.; Clark, R.G.

    1979-01-19

    This document describes the proliferation resistance engineering concepts developed to counter the threat of proliferation of nuclear weapons in an International Fuel Service Center (IFSC). The basic elements of an International Fuel Service Center are described. Possible methods for resisting proliferation such as processing alternatives, close-coupling of facilities, process equipment layout, maintenance philosophy, process control, and process monitoring are discussed. Political and institutional issues in providing proliferation resistance for an International Fuel Service Center are analyzed. The conclusions drawn are (1) use-denial can provide time for international response in the event of a host nation takeover. Passive use-denial is more acceptable than active use-denial, and acceptability of active-denial concepts is highly dependent on sovereignty, energy dependence and economic considerations; (2) multinational presence can enhance proliferation resistance; and (3) use-denial must be nonprejudicial with balanced interests for governments and/or private corporations being served. Comparisons between an IFSC as a national facility, an IFSC with minimum multinational effect, and an IFSC with maximum multinational effect show incremental design costs to be less than 2% of total cost of the baseline non-PRE concept facility. The total equipment acquisition cost increment is estimated to be less than 2% of total baseline facility costs. Personnel costs are estimated to increase by less than 10% due to maximum international presence. 46 figures, 9 tables.

  10. Proliferation resistance design of a plutonium cycle (Proliferation Resistance Engineering Program: PREP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorenson, R.J.; Roberts, F.P.; Clark, R.G.

    1979-01-01

    This document describes the proliferation resistance engineering concepts developed to counter the threat of proliferation of nuclear weapons in an International Fuel Service Center (IFSC). The basic elements of an International Fuel Service Center are described. Possible methods for resisting proliferation such as processing alternatives, close-coupling of facilities, process equipment layout, maintenance philosophy, process control, and process monitoring are discussed. Political and institutional issues in providing proliferation resistance for an International Fuel Service Center are analyzed. The conclusions drawn are (1) use-denial can provide time for international response in the event of a host nation takeover. Passive use-denial is more acceptable than active use-denial, and acceptability of active-denial concepts is highly dependent on sovereignty, energy dependence and economic considerations; (2) multinational presence can enhance proliferation resistance; and (3) use-denial must be nonprejudicial with balanced interests for governments and/or private corporations being served. Comparisons between an IFSC as a national facility, an IFSC with minimum multinational effect, and an IFSC with maximum multinational effect show incremental design costs to be less than 2% of total cost of the baseline non-PRE concept facility. The total equipment acquisition cost increment is estimated to be less than 2% of total baseline facility costs. Personnel costs are estimated to increase by less than 10% due to maximum international presence. 46 figures, 9 tables

  11. Engineering Plants for Geminivirus Resistance with CRISPR/Cas9 System

    KAUST Repository

    Zaidi, Syed Shan-e-Ali; Mansoor, Shahid; Ali, Zahir; Tashkandi, Manal; Mahfouz, Magdy M.

    2016-01-01

    The CRISPR/Cas9 system is an efficient genome-editing platform for diverse eukaryotic species, including plants. Recent work harnessed CRISPR/Cas9 technology to engineer resistance to geminiviruses. Here, we discuss opportunities, emerging developments, and potential pitfalls for using this technology to engineer resistance against single and multiple geminivirus infections in plants.

  12. Engineering Plants for Geminivirus Resistance with CRISPR/Cas9 System

    KAUST Repository

    Zaidi, Syed Shan-e-Ali

    2016-02-14

    The CRISPR/Cas9 system is an efficient genome-editing platform for diverse eukaryotic species, including plants. Recent work harnessed CRISPR/Cas9 technology to engineer resistance to geminiviruses. Here, we discuss opportunities, emerging developments, and potential pitfalls for using this technology to engineer resistance against single and multiple geminivirus infections in plants.

  13. Stress corrosion cracking susceptibility of the earthquake resistant NOM B457 Mexican steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arganis J, C.R.

    1994-01-01

    The Mexican construction code was modified after the Mexico city 1985 earthquake, substituted the medium carbon reinforced steel NOM B6 by the new micro alloyed steel NOM B457 in 42 Kg/mm 2 grade. The present study reports the evaluation of the NOM B457 steel behavior in mortar with and without 2% wt. in chlorides and in Ca(OH) 2 saturated solutions. The results are compared with the NOM B6 steel behavior in the same conditions. The Stress Corrosion Cracking (SCC) is not present in all the conditions used in this study and there are not susceptibility potential range to SCC when the material is evaluated by electrochemical Tests, Constant Extension Rate Tests (CERT) and Constant Load Test at 80 % of yield stress. A susceptibility potential range to Hydrogen Induced Cracking (HIC) is detected, below -900 mV. vs Standard Calomel Electrode (SCE) by CERT at constant potential

  14. High-performance computing for structural mechanics and earthquake/tsunami engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Hori, Muneo; Ohsaki, Makoto

    2016-01-01

    Huge earthquakes and tsunamis have caused serious damage to important structures such as civil infrastructure elements, buildings and power plants around the globe.  To quantitatively evaluate such damage processes and to design effective prevention and mitigation measures, the latest high-performance computational mechanics technologies, which include telascale to petascale computers, can offer powerful tools. The phenomena covered in this book include seismic wave propagation in the crust and soil, seismic response of infrastructure elements such as tunnels considering soil-structure interactions, seismic response of high-rise buildings, seismic response of nuclear power plants, tsunami run-up over coastal towns and tsunami inundation considering fluid-structure interactions. The book provides all necessary information for addressing these phenomena, ranging from the fundamentals of high-performance computing for finite element methods, key algorithms of accurate dynamic structural analysis, fluid flows ...

  15. Seismic resistance of equipment and building service systems: review of earthquake damage design requirements, and research applications in the USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skjei, R.E.; Chakravartula, B.C.; Yanev, P.I.

    1979-01-01

    The history of earthquake damage and the resulting code design requirements for earthquake hazard mitigation for equipment in the USA is reviewed. Earthquake damage to essential service systems is summarized; observations for the 1964 Alaska and the 1971 San Fernando, California, earthquakes are stressed, and information from other events is included. USA building codes that reflect lessons learned from these earthquakes are discussed; brief summaries of widely used codes are presented. In conclusion there is a discussion of the desirability of adapting advanced technological concepts from the nuclear industry to equipment in conventional structures. (author)

  16. Organizational changes at Earthquakes & Volcanoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, David W.

    1992-01-01

    Primary responsibility for the preparation of Earthquakes & Volcanoes within the Geological Survey has shifted from the Office of Scientific Publications to the Office of Earthquakes, Volcanoes, and Engineering (OEVE). As a consequence of this reorganization, Henry Spall has stepepd down as Science Editor for Earthquakes & Volcanoes(E&V).

  17. DEPENDENCE OF DISTRIBUTION FUNCTION OF COMMERCIAL DAMAGES DUE TO POSSIBLE EARTHQUAKES ON THE CLASS OF SEISMIC RESISTANCE OF A BUILDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanzada R. Zajnulabidova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Objectives To determine the damage probability of earthquakes of different intensities on the example of a real projected railway station building having a framework design scheme based on the density function of damage distribution. Methods Uncertainty, always existing in nature, invalidates a deterministic approach to the assessment of territorial seismic hazards and, consequently, seismic risk. In this case, seismic risk assessment can be carried out on a probabilistic basis. Thus, the risk will always be there, but it must be minimised. The task of optimising the reinforcement costs is solved by using the density distribution function for seismic effects of varying intensity, taking into account the degree of building responsibility. Results The distribution functions of the expected damage for a building with a reinforced concrete frame located in a highly seismic region with a repetition of 9-point shocks every 500 years and 10-point shocks once every 5000 years are constructed. A significant effect of the seismic resistance class of a building on the form of the distribution functions is shown. For structures of a high seismic resistance class, not only is the seismic risk reduced, but also the variance of the expected damage. From the graphs obtained, it can be seen that the seismic resistance class significantly affects the damage distribution. At a probability of 0.997, the expected damage for a non-reinforced building will exceed 43%; for a reinforced one it is only 10%. It also follows from the graphs that the variance of the damage magnitude decreases with the growth of the seismic resistance class of the building. This fact is an additional incentive for investing in antiseismic reinforcement of buildings. Conclusion The study shows the expediency of working with the damage density distribution function when managing seismic risk. In this case, it becomes possible to strengthen the building with a specified probability of

  18. SELF-CONSOLIDATING CONCRETE USED IN THE MONOLITHIC CONSTRUCTION OF EARTHQUAKE-RESISTANT TALL BUILDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Aliev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. The development of high-strength concrete based on experience both with domestic and foreign concretes has led to the production of a self-consolidating concrete (SCC formula. Method. Raw materials sourced from the Chechen Republic were used in the SUBconcrete formula, based on materials having different classes of compressive strength as well as the incorporation of polycarboxylate as an additive. Results. An investigation was carried out on natural and technogenic raw materials from the Chechen Republic and other regions of the country. Compositions of high-grade SCC with a compressive strength of B100 and higher are achieved with an integrated approach using both natural and man-made raw materials. The formulae of the basic concrete reinforcing technology are examined together with their physico-mechanical properties. The results of the study of locally sourced concrete, as well as that purchased from "Pavlovskgranit" and OOO "Progress" for testing from the Republic of North Ossetia–Alania, are provided. Of the various manufacturers' cements investigated, the highest quality Portland cement CEM I 4.5N was selected from the Tula cement manufacturers in the town of Chiri-Yurt. The fillers used were microsilica sourced from the Novokuznetsk plant, inactivated MP-1 mineral powder produced in Kaluga and fly ash sourced from Nevinnomyssk. Conclusion. The results of the studies show that the raw material potential of our country allows for the production of self-consolidating concrete from class B 25 to B100 and higher for use in monolithic construction, including high-rise. The concrete compositions arrived at are characterised by their high physical and mechanical properties and can be used in high-rise concrete construction sites operating in earthquake-prone areas. 

  19. Selection of earthquake resistant design criteria for nuclear power plants: Methodology and technical cases: Dislocation models of near-source earthquake ground motion: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luco, J.E.

    1987-05-01

    The solutions available for a number of dynamic dislocation fault models are examined in an attempt at establishing some of the expected characteristics of earthquake ground motion in the near-source region. In particular, solutions for two-dimensional anti-plane shear and plane-strain models as well as for three-dimensional fault models in full space, uniform half-space and layered half-space media are reviewed

  20. Determination and Application of Comprehensive Specific Frictional Resistance in Heating Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanan Tian

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we analyze the deficiencies of specific frictional resistance in heating engineering. Based on economic specific frictional resistance, we put forward the concept of comprehensive specific frictional resistance, which considers the multiple factors of technology, economy, regulation modes, pipe segment differences, and medium pressure. Then, we establish a mathematical model of a heating network across its lifespan in order to develop a method for determining the comprehensive specific frictional resistance. Relevant conclusions can be drawn from the results. As an application, we have planned the heating engineering for Yangyuan County in China, which demonstrates the feasibility and superiority of the method.

  1. Market-implied spread for earthquake CAT bonds: financial implications of engineering decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damnjanovic, Ivan; Aslan, Zafer; Mander, John

    2010-12-01

    In the event of natural and man-made disasters, owners of large-scale infrastructure facilities (assets) need contingency plans to effectively restore the operations within the acceptable timescales. Traditionally, the insurance sector provides the coverage against potential losses. However, there are many problems associated with this traditional approach to risk transfer including counterparty risk and litigation. Recently, a number of innovative risk mitigation methods, termed alternative risk transfer (ART) methods, have been introduced to address these problems. One of the most important ART methods is catastrophe (CAT) bonds. The objective of this article is to develop an integrative model that links engineering design parameters with financial indicators including spread and bond rating. The developed framework is based on a four-step structural loss model and transformed survival model to determine expected excess returns. We illustrate the framework for a seismically designed bridge using two unique CAT bond contracts. The results show a nonlinear relationship between engineering design parameters and market-implied spread. © 2010 Society for Risk Analysis.

  2. Meteorite Impact "Earthquake" Features (Rock Liquefaction, Surface Wave Deformations, Seismites) from Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) and Geoelectric Complex Resistivity/Induced Polarization (IP) Measurements, Chiemgau (Alpine Foreland, Southeast Germany)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernstson, K.; Poßekel, J.

    2017-12-01

    Densely spaced GPR and complex resistivity measurements on a 30,000 square meters site in a region of enigmatic sinkhole occurrences in unconsolidated Quaternary sediments have featured unexpected and highlighting results from both a meteorite impact research and an engineering geology point of view. The GPR measurements and a complex resistivity/IP electrical imaging revealed extended subrosion depressions related with a uniformly but in various degrees of intensity deformed loamy and gravelly ground down to at least 10 m depth. Two principle observations could be made from both the GPR high-resolution measurements and the more integrating resistivity and IP soundings with both petrophysical evidences in good complement. Subrosion can be shown to be the result of prominent sandy-gravelly intrusions and extrusions typical of rock liquefaction processes well known to occur during strong earthquakes. Funnel-shaped structures with diameters up to 25 m near the surface and reaching down to the floating ground water level at 10 m depth were measured. GPR radargrams could trace prominent gravelly-material transport bottom-up within the funnels. Seen in both GPR tomography and resistivity/IP sections more or less the whole investigated area is overprinted by wavy deformations of the unconsolidated sediments with wavelengths of the order of 5 - 10 m and amplitudes up to half a meter, likewise down to 10 m depth. Substantial earthquakes are not known in this region. Hence, the observed heavy underground disorder is considered the result of the prominent earthquake shattering that must have occurred during the Holocene (Bronze Age/Celtic era) Chiemgau meteorite impact event that produced a 60 km x 30 km sized crater strewn field directly hosting the investigated site. Depending on depth and size of floating aquifers local concentrations of rock liquefaction and seismic surface waves (probably LOVE waves) to produce the wavy deformations could develop, when the big

  3. Seismic response and resistance capacity of 'as built' WWER 440-230 NPP Kozloduy: Verification of the results by experiments and real earthquake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sachanski, S.

    1993-01-01

    Although Kozloduy NPP units 1 and 2 were not designed for earthquakes they have withstood successfully the Vrancea Earthquake in 1977 with sire peak ground acceleration of 83 sm/s 2 . Both units as well as units 3 and 4 were later recalculated for maximum peak acceleration of 0.1 g. According to values calculated by two-dimensional model, in 1980 reactor buildings had sufficient earthquake resistance capacity for the accepted design seismic excitation. The non symmetric design of WWER-440 structures in plan and elevation, the large eccentricity between the center of rigidities and masses as well as technological connections between the separate substructures and units led to complicated space response and rotational effects which cannot be calculated by two-dimensional models. Three dimensional detailed 'as built' mathematical models were established and verified by series of experiments and real earthquake for: detailed analysis of 'as built' structural response, comparing the results of two and three dimensional models, detailed analyses of seismic safety margins

  4. Notification: Evaluation of Office of Pesticide Programs’ Genetically Engineered Corn Insect Resistance Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Project #OPE-FY15-0055, July 09, 2015. The EPA OIG plans to begin preliminary research on the EPA's ability to manage and prevent increased insect resistance to genetically engineered Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) corn.

  5. Chapter VIII. Contributions of propagation techniques and genetic modification to breeding - genetic engineering for disease resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genetic engineering offers an opportunity to develop flower bulb crops with resistance to fungal, viral, and bacterial pathogens. Several of the flower bulb crops, Lilium spp., Gladiolus, Zantedeschia, Muscari, Hyacinthus, Narcissus, Ornithogalum, Iris, and Alstroemeria, have been transformed with t...

  6. [Improving industrial microbial stress resistance by metabolic engineering: a review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Ruiyan; Li, Yin

    2010-09-01

    Metabolic engineering is a technologic platform for industrial strain improvement and aims not only at modifying microbial metabolic fluxes, but also improving the physiological performance of industrial microbes. Microbes will meet multiple stresses in industrial processes. Consequently, elicited gene responses might result in a decrease in overall cell fitness and the efficiency of biotransformation. Thus, it is crucial to develop robust and productive microbial strains that can be integrated into industrial-scale bioprocesses. In this review, we focus on the progress of these novel methods and strategies for engineering stress-tolerance phenotypes referring to rational metabolic engineering and inverse metabolic engineering in recent years. In addition, we also address problems existing in this area and future research needs of microbial physiological functionality engineering.

  7. Engineering resistance to plant viruses: Present status and future prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant viruses cause severe crop losses across the globe. Resistant cultivars together with pesticide application are commonly used to avoid the losses caused by plant viruses. However, very limited success has been achieved at diminishing the impact of plant viruses. Use of virus resistant plant is ...

  8. Examining the Relationship between Resistance to Change and Undergraduate Engineering Students' Environmental Knowledge and Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyehouse, Melissa; Weber, Nicole; Fang, Jun; Harris, Constance; David, Ray; Hua, Inez; Strobel, Johannes

    2017-01-01

    Engineering professional associations identified environmental sustainability as a key responsibility of the educated engineer. Data from national surveys of the general public demonstrate low environmental knowledge levels and a high level of resistance when it comes to environmental behavior. The purpose of this study was to examine the…

  9. High-resolution electrical resistivity and aeromagnetic imaging reveal the causative fault of the 2009 Mw 6.0 Karonga, Malawi earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolawole, F.; Atekwana, E. A.; Laó-Dávila, D. A.; Abdelsalam, M. G.; Chindandali, P. R.; Salima, J.; Kalindekafe, L.

    2018-05-01

    Seismic events of varying magnitudes have been associated with ruptures along unknown or incompletely mapped buried faults. The 2009 Mw 6.0 Karonga, Malawi earthquake caused a surface rupture length of 14-18 km along a single W-dipping fault [St. Mary Fault (SMF)] on the hanging wall of the North Basin of the Malawi Rift. Prior to this earthquake, there was no known surface expression or knowledge of the presence of this fault. Although the earthquake damage zone is characterized by surface ruptures and coseismic liquefaction-induced sand blows, the origin of the causative fault and the near-surface structure of the rupture zone are not known. We used high-resolution aeromagnetic and electrical resistivity data to elucidate the relationship between surface rupture locations and buried basement structures. We also acquired electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) profiles along and across the surface rupture zone to image the near-surface structure of the damaged zone. We applied mathematical derivative filters to the aeromagnetic data to enhance basement structures underlying the rupture zone and surrounding areas. Although several magnetic lineaments are visible in the basement, mapped surface ruptures align with a single 37 km long, 148°-162°—striking magnetic lineament, and is interpreted as the ruptured normal fault. Inverted ERT profiles reveal three regional geoelectric layers which consist of 15 m thick layer of discontinuous zones of high and low resistivity values, underlain by a 27 m thick zone of high electrical resistivity (up to 100 Ω m) and a basal layer of lower resistivity (1.0-6.0 Ω m) extending from 42 m depth downwards (the maximum achieved depth of investigation). The geoelectric layers are truncated by a zone of electrical disturbance (electrical mélange) coinciding with areas of coseismic surface rupturing and sediment liquefaction along the ruptured. Our study shows that the 2009 Karonga earthquake was associated with the partial

  10. Dealing with uncertainty in Earthquake Engineering: a discussion on the application of the Theory of Open Dynamical Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Quintana-Gallo, Patricio; Rebolledo, Rolando; Allan, George

    2013-01-01

    Earthquakes, as a natural phenomenon and their consequences upon structures, have been addressed from deterministic, pseudo-empirical and primary statistical-probabilistic points of view. In the latter approach, 'primary' is meant to suggest that randomness has been artificially introduced into the variables of investigation. An alternative view has been advanced by a number ofresearchers that have classified earthquakes as chaotic from an ontological perspective. Their arguments are founded ...

  11. Defeating Earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, R. S.

    2012-12-01

    The 2004 M=9.2 Sumatra earthquake claimed what seemed an unfathomable 228,000 lives, although because of its size, we could at least assure ourselves that it was an extremely rare event. But in the short space of 8 years, the Sumatra quake no longer looks like an anomaly, and it is no longer even the worst disaster of the Century: 80,000 deaths in the 2005 M=7.6 Pakistan quake; 88,000 deaths in the 2008 M=7.9 Wenchuan, China quake; 316,000 deaths in the M=7.0 Haiti, quake. In each case, poor design and construction were unable to withstand the ferocity of the shaken earth. And this was compounded by inadequate rescue, medical care, and shelter. How could the toll continue to mount despite the advances in our understanding of quake risk? The world's population is flowing into megacities, and many of these migration magnets lie astride the plate boundaries. Caught between these opposing demographic and seismic forces are 50 cities of at least 3 million people threatened by large earthquakes, the targets of chance. What we know for certain is that no one will take protective measures unless they are convinced they are at risk. Furnishing that knowledge is the animating principle of the Global Earthquake Model, launched in 2009. At the very least, everyone should be able to learn what his or her risk is. At the very least, our community owes the world an estimate of that risk. So, first and foremost, GEM seeks to raise quake risk awareness. We have no illusions that maps or models raise awareness; instead, earthquakes do. But when a quake strikes, people need a credible place to go to answer the question, how vulnerable am I, and what can I do about it? The Global Earthquake Model is being built with GEM's new open source engine, OpenQuake. GEM is also assembling the global data sets without which we will never improve our understanding of where, how large, and how frequently earthquakes will strike, what impacts they will have, and how those impacts can be lessened by

  12. Electrical resistivity tomography for studying liquefaction induced by the May 2012 Emilia-Romagna earthquake (Mw = 6.1, northern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giocoli, A.; Quadrio, B.; Bellanova, J.; Lapenna, V.; Piscitelli, S.

    2014-04-01

    This work shows the result of an electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) survey carried out for imaging and characterizing the shallow subsurface affected by the coseismic effects of the Mw = 6.1 Emilia-Romagna (northern Italy) earthquake that occurred on 20 May 2012. The most characteristic coseismic effects were ground failure, lateral spreading and liquefaction that occurred extensively along the paleo-Reno River in the urban areas of San Carlo and Mirabello (southwestern portion of Ferrara Province). In total, six electrical resistivity tomographies were performed and calibrated with surface geological surveys, exploratory boreholes and aerial photo interpretations. This was one of first applications of the electrical resistivity tomography method in investigating coseismic liquefaction.

  13. Electrical resistivity tomography for studying liquefaction induced by the May 2012 Emilia-Romagna earthquake (Mw = 6.1, North Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giocoli, A.; Quadrio, B.; Bellanova, J.; Lapenna, V.; Piscitelli, S.

    2013-10-01

    This work shows the result of an Electrical Resistivity Tomography survey carried out for imaging and characterizing the shallow subsurface affected by the coseismic effects of the Mw = 6.1 Emilia-Romagna (North Italy) earthquake occurred on 20 May 2012. The most characteristic coseismic effects were ground failure, lateral spreading and liquefaction that occurred extensively along the paleo-Reno river in the urban areas of San Carlo, a hamlet of Sant'Agostino municipality, and of Mirabello (south-western portion of the Ferrara Province). Totally, six Electrical Resistivity Tomography were performed and calibrated with surface geological surveys, exploratory borehole and aerial photo interpretations. This was one of the first applications of the Electrical Resistivity Tomography method in investigating coseismic liquefaction.

  14. CD44-engineered mesoporous silica nanoparticles for overcoming multidrug resistance in breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Xin; Liu, Ying; Wang, Shouju; Shi, Donghong; Zhou, Xianguang; Wang, Chunyan; Wu, Jiang; Zeng, Zhiyong; Li, Yanjun; Sun, Jing; Wang, Jiandong; Zhang, Longjiang; Teng, Zhaogang; Lu, Guangming

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • CD44-engineered mesoporous silica nanoparticles are synthesized. • The mechanism of CD44-engineered mesoporous silica nanoparticles is revealed. • This new delivery system increased the drug accumulation in vitro and in vivo. • This new delivery system offers an effective approach to treat multidrug resistance. - Abstract: Multidrug resistance is a major impediment for the successful chemotherapy in breast cancer. CD44 is over-expressed in multidrug resistant human breast cancer cells. CD44 monoclonal antibody exhibits anticancer potential by inhibiting proliferation and regulating P-glycoprotein-mediated drug efflux activity in multidrug resistant cells. Thereby, CD44 monoclonal antibody in combination with chemotherapeutic drug might be result in enhancing chemosensitivity and overcoming multidrug resistance. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of the CD44 monoclonal antibody functionalized mesoporous silica nanoparticles containing doxorubicin on human breast resistant cancer MCF-7 cells. The data showed that CD44-modified mesoporous silica nanoparticles increased cytotoxicity and enhanced the downregulation of P-glycoprotein in comparison to CD44 antibody. Moreover, CD44-engineered mesoporous silica nanoparticles provided active target, which promoted more cellular uptake of DOX in the resistant cells and more retention of DOX in tumor tissues than unengineered counterpart. Animal studies of the resistant breast cancer xenografts demonstrated that CD44-engineered drug delivery system remarkably induced apoptosis and inhibited the tumor growth. Our results indicated that the CD44-engineered mesoporous silica nanoparticle-based drug delivery system offers an effective approach to overcome multidrug resistance in human breast cancer

  15. The 2016 Kumamoto Earthquakes: Cascading Geological Hazards and Compounding Risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsuichiro Goda

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available A sequence of two strike-slip earthquakes occurred on 14 and 16 April 2016 in the intraplate region of Kyushu Island, Japan, apart from subduction zones, and caused significant damage and disruption to the Kumamoto region. The analyses of regional seismic catalog and available strong motion recordings reveal striking characteristics of the events, such as migrating seismicity, earthquake surface rupture, and major foreshock-mainshock earthquake sequences. To gain valuable lessons from the events, a UK Earthquake Engineering Field Investigation Team (EEFIT was dispatched to Kumamoto, and earthquake damage surveys were conducted to relate observed earthquake characteristics to building and infrastructure damage caused by the earthquakes. The lessons learnt from the reconnaissance mission have important implications on current seismic design practice regarding the required seismic resistance of structures under multiple shocks and the seismic design of infrastructure subject to large ground deformation. The observations also highlight the consequences of cascading geological hazards on community resilience. To share the gathered damage data widely, geo-tagged photos are organized using Google Earth and the kmz file is made publicly available.

  16. Historic Eastern Canadian earthquakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asmis, G.J.K.; Atchinson, R.J.

    1981-01-01

    Nuclear power plants licensed in Canada have been designed to resist earthquakes: not all plants, however, have been explicitly designed to the same level of earthquake induced forces. Understanding the nature of strong ground motion near the source of the earthquake is still very tentative. This paper reviews historical and scientific accounts of the three strongest earthquakes - St. Lawrence (1925), Temiskaming (1935), Cornwall (1944) - that have occurred in Canada in 'modern' times, field studies of near-field strong ground motion records and their resultant damage or non-damage to industrial facilities, and numerical modelling of earthquake sources and resultant wave propagation to produce accelerograms consistent with the above historical record and field studies. It is concluded that for future construction of NPP's near-field strong motion must be explicitly considered in design

  17. 2d electrical resistivity engineering and hydrogeologic ectrical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    userpc

    station. In the Wenner-Schlumberger method, the first step is to make all the possible measurements while ... generating 18, 16, 14, 12, 10 and 8 resistivity values respectively in .... strong tidal waves and storm, serves a habitat for crustaceous ...

  18. Engineering insect-resistant crops: A review | George | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Insect pests cause significant damage to crops world-wide. This is despite integrated pest management strategies combining such control measures as chemical control, use of resistant varieties and other measures. Other control measures such as use of genetically modified crops are being adopted. Transgenic crops ...

  19. Earthquake Engineering Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-11-01

    recovered from eql 3c 7 525 49% loose 79% dense 2 5/5/98 1 3 Nevada sand, ESB #2 3d 11 525 54% loose 80% dense 2 3/9/98 2.5 4 Nevada sand, ESB #2 3e...The pore pressure transducers used in the experiments were manufactured by Druck , and are widely used in centrifuge modelling. Typical

  20. Earthquake resistant countermeasures for pipelines in Tokyo gas F.T.R.L.; Etude menee par l'institut de recherches de Tokyo gas et portant sur les mesures antisismiques applicables aux canalisations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobayashi, M.; Hosokawa, N.; Watanabe, T. [Tokyo Gas Fundamental Technology Research Lab. (Japan)

    2000-07-01

    Taking 'damage factor', 'ground response', 'soil pipe interaction', and 'deformability of pipes' as its four key concerns, Tokyo Gas F.T.R.L. is working to clarify the behavior of pipelines during strong earthquakes and improve their earthquake resistance to increase safety levels. In specific terms, Tokyo Gas F.T.R.L. has sought to contribute to earthquake resistance by, for example, conducting pipeline damage forecasts, FEM dynamic response analyses to quantify ground amplification, empirical and analytic studies of forces acting on pipelines, various vibration tests, and tests to determine the deforming behavior of pipes. A further important concern given the limited resources available is the prioritization of the pipes to be made more earthquake resistant. Ultimately, these studies should contribute to more rational and effective seismic design of pipelines and improvement of earthquake resistance both in the case of existing and new facilities and equipment. (authors)

  1. Application of wear resistant spraying for diesel engine; Diesel kikan eno taimamo yosha no tekiyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kitajima, Y. [Mitsui Engineering and Shipbuliding Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1999-03-31

    Diesel engines used widely as propelling engines of ships have increasingly been provided with a high output and a high thermal efficiency; their structural members, particularly, the component parts for combustion chambers are therefore used under severe conditions, giving rise to the need of surface treatment and surface reforming of the members. Parts for marine diesel engines are huge, so that the technology applicable to the surface treatment and reforming are limited in point of facility and cost; therefore, most suitable is thermal spraying. This paper primarily discusses, among marine diesel engines, a 2-cycle low-speed engine with a 260-980mm bore used for the main engine of a merchant ship such as a container ship, bulk carrier or a tanker, and a 4-cycle medium-speed engine with a 300-420mm bore used for the main engine of a naval vessel; the paper explains the application status of a thermal spraying technology which is in progress to cope with the high output and high thermal efficiency of the diesel engines, explaining particularly the story of the development and the technological features of the wear resistant thermal spraying, which has been put to practical use, on the cylinder liner and the piston ring of the 4-cycle medium-speed engine. (NEDO)

  2. Automatic generation of smart earthquake-resistant building system: Hybrid system of base-isolation and building-connection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kasagi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available A base-isolated building may sometimes exhibit an undesirable large response to a long-duration, long-period earthquake ground motion and a connected building system without base-isolation may show a large response to a near-fault (rather high-frequency earthquake ground motion. To overcome both deficiencies, a new hybrid control system of base-isolation and building-connection is proposed and investigated. In this new hybrid building system, a base-isolated building is connected to a stiffer free wall with oil dampers. It has been demonstrated in a preliminary research that the proposed hybrid system is effective both for near-fault (rather high-frequency and long-duration, long-period earthquake ground motions and has sufficient redundancy and robustness for a broad range of earthquake ground motions.An automatic generation algorithm of this kind of smart structures of base-isolation and building-connection hybrid systems is presented in this paper. It is shown that, while the proposed algorithm does not work well in a building without the connecting-damper system, it works well in the proposed smart hybrid system with the connecting damper system.

  3. Development of wear resistant ceramic coatings for diesel engine components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haselkorn, M.H. (Caterpillar, Inc., Peoria, IL (United States))

    1992-04-01

    Improved fuel economy and a reduction of emissions can be achieved by insulation of the combustion chamber components to reduce heat rejection. However, insulating the combustion chamber components will also increase the operating temperature of the piston ring/cylinder liner interface from approximately 150{degree}C to over 300{degree}C. Existing ring/liner materials can not withstand these higher operating temperatures and for this reason, new materials need to be developed for this critical tribological interface. The overall goal of this program is the development of piston ring/cylinder liner material pairs which would be able to provide the required friction and wear properties at these more severe operating conditions. More specifically, this program first selected, and then evaluated, potential d/wear resistant coatings which could be applied to either piston rings an or cylinder liners and provide, at 350{degree}C under lubricated conditions, coefficients of friction below 0.1 and wear rates of less than 25 {times} lO{sup {minus}6} mm/hour. The processes selected for applying the candidate wear resistant coatings to piston rings and/or cylinder liners were plasma spraying, chemical vapor, physical vapor and low temperature arc vapor deposition techniques as well as enameling techniques.

  4. Earthquake Risk Mitigation in the Tokyo Metropolitan area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, N.; Sakai, S.; Kasahara, K.; Nakagawa, S.; Nanjo, K.; Panayotopoulos, Y.; Tsuruoka, H.

    2010-12-01

    Seismic disaster risk mitigation in urban areas constitutes a challenge through collaboration of scientific, engineering, and social-science fields. Examples of collaborative efforts include research on detailed plate structure with identification of all significant faults, developing dense seismic networks; strong ground motion prediction, which uses information on near-surface seismic site effects and fault models; earthquake resistant and proof structures; and cross-discipline infrastructure for effective risk mitigation just after catastrophic events. Risk mitigation strategy for the next greater earthquake caused by the Philippine Sea plate (PSP) subducting beneath the Tokyo metropolitan area is of major concern because it caused past mega-thrust earthquakes, such as the 1703 Genroku earthquake (magnitude M8.0) and the 1923 Kanto earthquake (M7.9) which had 105,000 fatalities. A M7 or greater (M7+) earthquake in this area at present has high potential to produce devastating loss of life and property with even greater global economic repercussions. The Central Disaster Management Council of Japan estimates that the M7+ earthquake will cause 11,000 fatalities and 112 trillion yen (about 1 trillion US$) economic loss. This earthquake is evaluated to occur with a probability of 70% in 30 years by the Earthquake Research Committee of Japan. In order to mitigate disaster for greater Tokyo, the Special Project for Earthquake Disaster Mitigation in the Tokyo Metropolitan Area (2007-2011) was launched in collaboration with scientists, engineers, and social-scientists in nationwide institutions. The results that are obtained in the respective fields will be integrated until project termination to improve information on the strategy assessment for seismic risk mitigation in the Tokyo metropolitan area. In this talk, we give an outline of our project as an example of collaborative research on earthquake risk mitigation. Discussion is extended to our effort in progress and

  5. Creating a Global Building Inventory for Earthquake Loss Assessment and Risk Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaiswal, Kishor; Wald, David J.

    2008-01-01

    contribution of building stock, its relative vulnerability, and distribution are vital components for determining the extent of casualties during an earthquake. It is evident from large deadly historical earthquakes that the distribution of vulnerable structures and their occupancy level during an earthquake control the severity of human losses. For example, though the number of strong earthquakes in California is comparable to that of Iran, the total earthquake-related casualties in California during the last 100 years are dramatically lower than the casualties from several individual Iranian earthquakes. The relatively low casualties count in California is attributed mainly to the fact that more than 90 percent of the building stock in California is made of wood and is designed to withstand moderate to large earthquakes (Kircher, Seligson and others, 2006). In contrast, the 80 percent adobe and or non-engineered masonry building stock with poor lateral load resisting systems in Iran succumbs even for moderate levels of ground shaking. Consequently, the heavy death toll for the 2003 Bam, Iran earthquake, which claimed 31,828 lives (Ghafory-Ashtiany and Mousavi, 2005), is directly attributable to such poorly resistant construction, and future events will produce comparable losses unless practices change. Similarly, multistory, precast-concrete framed buildings caused heavy casualties in the 1988 Spitak, Armenia earthquake (Bertero, 1989); weaker masonry and reinforced-concrete framed construction designed for gravity loads with soft first stories dominated losses in the Bhuj, India earthquake of 2001 (Madabhushi and Haigh, 2005); and adobe and weak masonry dwellings in Peru controlled the death toll in the Peru earthquake of 2007 (Taucer, J. and others, 2007). Spence (2007) after conducting a brief survey of most lethal earthquakes since 1960 found that building collapses remains a major cause of earthquake mortality and unreinforced masonry buildings are one of the mos

  6. Earthquake prediction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ward, P.L.

    1978-01-01

    The state of the art of earthquake prediction is summarized, the possible responses to such prediction are examined, and some needs in the present prediction program and in research related to use of this new technology are reviewed. Three basic aspects of earthquake prediction are discussed: location of the areas where large earthquakes are most likely to occur, observation within these areas of measurable changes (earthquake precursors) and determination of the area and time over which the earthquake will occur, and development of models of the earthquake source in order to interpret the precursors reliably. 6 figures

  7. Engineering of Bacillus subtilis 168 for increased nisin resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Mette; Wangari, Romilda; Hansen, Egon Bech

    2009-01-01

    . Bacillus subtilis had been suggested as a potential host for the biosynthesis of nisin but was discarded due to its sensitivity to the lethal action of nisin. In this study, we have reevaluated the potential of B. subtilis as a host organism for the heterologous production of nisin. We applied...... transcriptome and proteome analyses of B. subtilis and identified eight genes upregulated in the presence of nisin. We demonstrated that the overexpression of some of these genes boosts the natural defenses of B. subtilis, which allows it to sustain higher levels of nisin in the medium. We also attempted...... to overcome the nisin sensitivity of B. subtilis by introducing the nisin resistance genes nisFEG and nisI from L. lactis under the control of a synthetic promoter library....

  8. Application of hordothionins and cecropin B for engineering bacterial disease resistance into plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Florack, D.

    1994-01-01

    Bacterial diseases can cause a drastic decrease of yield in certain crops. Breeding for bacterial disease resistance therefore is of utmost necessity. Up to now, traditional plant breeding was the only method to reach this goal. Recent developments in genetic engineering technology however

  9. Earthquake protection of essential civil and industrial equipments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourrier, P.; Le Breton, F.; Thevenot, A.

    1986-01-01

    This document presents the principal reflexions concerning seismic engineering applications for equipment and the difference of the non-employment towards these structures. The notion of essential equipment is then pointed out as well as the main particularities of equipment considered as structures. Finally, this document illustrates a few pathological examples encountered after an earthquake, and presents some equipments of a nuclear power plant which to resist an increased safety seism [fr

  10. Problems with geologic fault assessment in the safety analysis of earthquake-resistance for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Yasuhiro; Nakata, Takashi; Watanabe, Mitsuhisa

    2008-01-01

    The Niigata-ken Chuetsu-oki Earthquake, occurring on July 16, 2007 in Niigata-prefecture, Japan, the magnitude of which was only 6.8, brought about an unexpectedly huge tremor in the area of Kashiwazaki-Kariwa nuclear plants, Tokyo Electric Power Co. The present paper points out that the huge tremor they experienced could be within the scope of expectation if an adequate analysis was performed for the investigation results on acoustic seafloor exploration done during the 1980's and presented at application for go-ahead for construction of the nuclear reactor and also at the occasion of official safety analysis. The present examination demonstrates clearly the existence of active faults on a large scale in the hypocentral region of the earthquake in the offshore seabed. This fact might be of extremely serious nature and the authors recommend to learn what may be a cause of overlooking the existing fault. (S. Ohno)

  11. DEPENDENCE OF DISTRIBUTION FUNCTION OF COMMERCIAL DAMAGES DUE TO POSSIBLE EARTHQUAKES ON THE CLASS OF SEISMIC RESISTANCE OF A BUILDING

    OpenAIRE

    Hanzada R. Zajnulabidova; Alexander M. Uzdin; Tatiana M. Chirkst

    2017-01-01

    Abstract. Objectives To determine the damage probability of earthquakes of different intensities on the example of a real projected railway station building having a framework design scheme based on the density function of damage distribution. Methods Uncertainty, always existing in nature, invalidates a deterministic approach to the assessment of territorial seismic hazards and, consequently, seismic risk. In this case, seismic risk assessment can be carried out on a probabilistic basis. Thu...

  12. Treatment of a solid tumor using engineered drug-resistant immunocompetent cells and cytotoxic chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasgupta, Anindya; Shields, Jordan E; Spencer, H Trent

    2012-07-01

    Multimodal therapy approaches, such as combining chemotherapy agents with cellular immunotherapy, suffers from potential drug-mediated toxicity to immune effector cells. Overcoming such toxic effects of anticancer cellular products is a potential critical barrier to the development of combined therapeutic approaches. We are evaluating an anticancer strategy that focuses on overcoming such a barrier by genetically engineering drug-resistant variants of immunocompetent cells, thereby allowing for the coadministration of cellular therapy with cytotoxic chemotherapy, a method we refer to as drug-resistant immunotherapy (DRI). The strategy relies on the use of cDNA sequences that confer drug resistance and recombinant lentiviral vectors to transfer nucleic acid sequences into immunocompetent cells. In the present study, we evaluated a DRI-based strategy that incorporates the immunocompetent cell line NK-92, which has intrinsic antitumor properties, genetically engineered to be resistant to both temozolomide and trimetrexate. These immune effector cells efficiently lysed neuroblastoma cell lines, which we show are also sensitive to both chemotherapy agents. The antitumor efficacy of the DRI strategy was demonstrated in vivo, whereby neuroblastoma-bearing NOD/SCID/γ-chain knockout (NSG) mice treated with dual drug-resistant NK-92 cell therapy followed by dual cytotoxic chemotherapy showed tumor regression and significantly enhanced survival compared with animals receiving either nonengineered cell-based therapy and chemotherapy, immunotherapy alone, or chemotherapy alone. These data show there is a benefit to using drug-resistant cellular therapy when combined with cytotoxic chemotherapy approaches.

  13. Proposed Modifications to Engineering Design Guidelines Related to Resistivity Measurements and Spacecraft Charging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennison, J. R.; Swaminathan, Prasanna; Jost, Randy; Brunson, Jerilyn; Green, Nelson; Frederickson, A. Robb

    2005-01-01

    A key parameter in modeling differential spacecraft charging is the resistivity of insulating materials. This determines how charge will accumulate and redistribute across the spacecraft, as well as the time scale for charge transport and dissipation. Existing spacecraft charging guidelines recommend use of tests and imported resistivity data from handbooks that are based principally upon ASTM methods that are more applicable to classical ground conditions and designed for problems associated with power loss through the dielectric, than for how long charge can be stored on an insulator. These data have been found to underestimate charging effects by one to four orders of magnitude for spacecraft charging applications. A review is presented of methods to measure the resistive of highly insulating materials, including the electrometer-resistance method, the electrometer-constant voltage method, the voltage rate-of-change method and the charge storage method. This is based on joint experimental studies conducted at NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory and Utah State University to investigate the charge storage method and its relation to spacecraft charging. The different methods are found to be appropriate for different resistivity ranges and for different charging circumstances. A simple physics-based model of these methods allows separation of the polarization current and dark current components from long duration measurements of resistivity over day- to month-long time scales. Model parameters are directly related to the magnitude of charge transfer and storage and the rate of charge transport. The model largely explains the observed differences in resistivity found using the different methods and provides a framework for recommendations for the appropriate test method for spacecraft materials with different resistivities and applications. The proposed changes to the existing engineering guidelines are intended to provide design engineers more appropriate methods for

  14. Initiatives to Reduce Earthquake Risk of Developing Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, B. E.

    2008-12-01

    an earthquake- and tsunami-resistant structure in Sumatra to house a tsunami museum, a community training center, and offices of a local NGO that is preparing Padang for the next tsunami. This facility would be designed and built by a team of US and Indonesian academics, architects, engineers and students. Another initiative would launch a collaborative research program on school earthquake safety with the scientists and engineers from the US and the ten Islamic countries that comprise the Economic Cooperation Organization. Finally, GHI hopes to develop internet and satellite communication techniques that will allow earthquake risk managers in the US to interact with masons, government officials, engineers and architects in remote communities of vulnerable developing countries, closing the science and engineering divide.

  15. Influence of electrical resistivity and machining parameters on electrical discharge machining performance of engineering ceramics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Renjie; Liu, Yonghong; Diao, Ruiqiang; Xu, Chenchen; Li, Xiaopeng; Cai, Baoping; Zhang, Yanzhen

    2014-01-01

    Engineering ceramics have been widely used in modern industry for their excellent physical and mechanical properties, and they are difficult to machine owing to their high hardness and brittleness. Electrical discharge machining (EDM) is the appropriate process for machining engineering ceramics provided they are electrically conducting. However, the electrical resistivity of the popular engineering ceramics is higher, and there has been no research on the relationship between the EDM parameters and the electrical resistivity of the engineering ceramics. This paper investigates the effects of the electrical resistivity and EDM parameters such as tool polarity, pulse interval, and electrode material, on the ZnO/Al2O3 ceramic's EDM performance, in terms of the material removal rate (MRR), electrode wear ratio (EWR), and surface roughness (SR). The results show that the electrical resistivity and the EDM parameters have the great influence on the EDM performance. The ZnO/Al2O3 ceramic with the electrical resistivity up to 3410 Ω·cm can be effectively machined by EDM with the copper electrode, the negative tool polarity, and the shorter pulse interval. Under most machining conditions, the MRR increases, and the SR decreases with the decrease of electrical resistivity. Moreover, the tool polarity, and pulse interval affect the EWR, respectively, and the electrical resistivity and electrode material have a combined effect on the EWR. Furthermore, the EDM performance of ZnO/Al2O3 ceramic with the electrical resistivity higher than 687 Ω·cm is obviously different from that with the electrical resistivity lower than 687 Ω·cm, when the electrode material changes. The microstructure character analysis of the machined ZnO/Al2O3 ceramic surface shows that the ZnO/Al2O3 ceramic is removed by melting, evaporation and thermal spalling, and the material from the working fluid and the graphite electrode can transfer to the workpiece surface during electrical discharge

  16. EARTHQUAKE RESEARCH PROBLEMS OF NUCLEAR POWER GENERATORS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Housner, G. W.; Hudson, D. E.

    1963-10-15

    Earthquake problems associated with the construction of nuclear power generators require a more extensive and a more precise knowledge of earthquake characteristics and the dynamic behavior of structures than was considered necessary for ordinary buildings. Economic considerations indicate the desirability of additional research on the problems of earthquakes and nuclear reactors. The nature of these earthquake-resistant design problems is discussed and programs of research are recommended. (auth)

  17. Load and resistance factor design calibration to determine a resistance factor for the modification of the Kansas Department of Transportation-Engineering News Record formula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-01

    This report contains the results of a study describing the development of resistance factors for use : with the Kansas Department of Transportation (KDOT) Engineering News Record (ENR) formula for driven : piles. KDOT has verified driven pile resista...

  18. Historical earthquake research in Austria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammerl, Christa

    2017-12-01

    Austria has a moderate seismicity, and on average the population feels 40 earthquakes per year or approximately three earthquakes per month. A severe earthquake with light building damage is expected roughly every 2 to 3 years in Austria. Severe damage to buildings ( I 0 > 8° EMS) occurs significantly less frequently, the average period of recurrence is about 75 years. For this reason the historical earthquake research has been of special importance in Austria. The interest in historical earthquakes in the past in the Austro-Hungarian Empire is outlined, beginning with an initiative of the Austrian Academy of Sciences and the development of historical earthquake research as an independent research field after the 1978 "Zwentendorf plebiscite" on whether the nuclear power plant will start up. The applied methods are introduced briefly along with the most important studies and last but not least as an example of a recently carried out case study, one of the strongest past earthquakes in Austria, the earthquake of 17 July 1670, is presented. The research into historical earthquakes in Austria concentrates on seismic events of the pre-instrumental period. The investigations are not only of historical interest, but also contribute to the completeness and correctness of the Austrian earthquake catalogue, which is the basis for seismic hazard analysis and as such benefits the public, communities, civil engineers, architects, civil protection, and many others.

  19. 33 CFR 222.4 - Reporting earthquake effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reporting earthquake effects. 222..., DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE ENGINEERING AND DESIGN § 222.4 Reporting earthquake effects. (a) Purpose. This... significant earthquakes. It primarily concerns damage surveys following the occurrences of earthquakes. (b...

  20. CORRELATION BETWEEN BAMBOO UTILIZATION AS EARTHQUAKE RESISTANT HOME CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS WITH COMMUNITY BEHAVIOR IN MAINTAINING ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tineu Indrianeu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In 2009 Jayapura Village was hit by an earthquake with a strength of 7.3 on the Richter Scale. Many homes were damaged by the quake. The purpose of this study is to analyze the relationship between the utilization of bamboo as a home building material with environmental preservation behavior of Jayapura Village residents. The study population was 1,367 heads of households with a sample of 137 families. The method used in this research is using sequential mixed methods. The result of the research shows that there is a correlation between the two things which is indicated by the correlation value of 0,501 (medium correlation.

  1. Engineered reversal of drug resistance in cancer cells--metastases suppressor factors as change agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Vinod Kumar; Kumar, Akinchan; Mann, Anita; Aggarwal, Suruchi; Kumar, Maneesh; Roy, Sumitabho Deb; Pore, Subrata Kumar; Banerjee, Rajkumar; Mahesh Kumar, Jerald; Thakur, Ram Krishna; Chowdhury, Shantanu

    2014-01-01

    Building molecular correlates of drug resistance in cancer and exploiting them for therapeutic intervention remains a pressing clinical need. To identify factors that impact drug resistance herein we built a model that couples inherent cell-based response toward drugs with transcriptomes of resistant/sensitive cells. To test this model, we focused on a group of genes called metastasis suppressor genes (MSGs) that influence aggressiveness and metastatic potential of cancers. Interestingly, modeling of 84 000 drug response transcriptome combinations predicted multiple MSGs to be associated with resistance of different cell types and drugs. As a case study, on inducing MSG levels in a drug resistant breast cancer line resistance to anticancer drugs caerulomycin, camptothecin and topotecan decreased by more than 50-60%, in both culture conditions and also in tumors generated in mice, in contrast to control un-induced cells. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of engineered reversal of drug resistance in cancer cells based on a model that exploits inherent cellular response profiles.

  2. A global building inventory for earthquake loss estimation and risk management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaiswal, K.; Wald, D.; Porter, K.

    2010-01-01

    We develop a global database of building inventories using taxonomy of global building types for use in near-real-time post-earthquake loss estimation and pre-earthquake risk analysis, for the U.S. Geological Survey's Prompt Assessment of Global Earthquakes for Response (PAGER) program. The database is available for public use, subject to peer review, scrutiny, and open enhancement. On a country-by-country level, it contains estimates of the distribution of building types categorized by material, lateral force resisting system, and occupancy type (residential or nonresidential, urban or rural). The database draws on and harmonizes numerous sources: (1) UN statistics, (2) UN Habitat's demographic and health survey (DHS) database, (3) national housing censuses, (4) the World Housing Encyclopedia and (5) other literature. ?? 2010, Earthquake Engineering Research Institute.

  3. Fatigue resistance of engine-driven rotary nickel-titanium endodontic instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaves Craveiro de Melo, Marta; Guiomar de Azevedo Bahia, Maria; Lopes Buono, Vicente Tadeu

    2002-11-01

    A comparative study of the fatigue resistance of engine-driven nickel-titanium endodontic instruments was performed, aiming to access the influence of the cutting flute design and of the size of the files that reach the working length in curved canal shaping. Geometrical conditions similar to those found in practice were used. Series 29 #5 ProFile, together with #6 and #8 Quantec instruments, were tested in artificial canals with a 45-degree angle of curvature and 5-mm radius of curvature. It was observed that the size of the instrument, which determines the maximum strain amplitude during cyclic deformation, is the most important factor controlling fatigue resistance. The effect of heat sterilization on the fatigue resistance of the instruments was also examined. The results obtained indicate that the application of five sterilization procedures in dry heat increases the average number of cycles to failure of unused instruments by approximately 70%.

  4. Defect engineering of SrTiO3 thin films for resistive switching applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wicklein, Sebastian

    2013-01-01

    switching properties of SrTiO 3 was investigated by local conductivity AFM. Defect engineered SrTiO 3 depict variations of the resistive switching properties for different defect constellations within the system. More stable resistance switching was achieved for systems with an increased defect content. The mechanism of the resistance change was attributed to the rearrangement of oxygen vacancies within SrTiO 3 and a theory devised where the rearrangement of the oxygen vacancies causes a reversible transition of the oxide from p- to n-type. Whereas a p-type oxide depicts a high resistance and a n-type oxide a low resistance.

  5. Earthquake and ambient vibration monitoring of the steel-frame UCLA factor building

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, M.D.; Davis, P.M.; Safak, E.

    2005-01-01

    Dynamic property measurements of the moment-resisting steel-frame University of California, Los Angeles, Factor building are being made to assess how forces are distributed over the building. Fourier amplitude spectra have been calculated from several intervals of ambient vibrations, a 24-hour period of strong winds, and from the 28 March 2003 Encino, California (ML = 2.9), the 3 September 2002 Yorba Linda, California (ML = 4.7), and the 3 November 2002 Central Alaska (Mw = 7.9) earthquakes. Measurements made from the ambient vibration records show that the first-mode frequency of horizontal vibration is between 0.55 and 0.6 Hz. The second horizontal mode has a frequency between 1.6 and 1.9 Hz. In contrast, the first-mode frequencies measured from earthquake data are about 0.05 to 0.1 Hz lower than those corresponding to ambient vibration recordings indicating softening of the soil-structure system as amplitudes become larger. The frequencies revert to pre-earthquake levels within five minutes of the Yorba Linda earthquake. Shaking due to strong winds that occurred during the Encino earthquake dominates the frequency decrease, which correlates in time with the duration of the strong winds. The first shear wave recorded from the Encino and Yorba Linda earthquakes takes about 0.4 sec to travel up the 17-story building. ?? 2005, Earthquake Engineering Research Institute.

  6. Charles Darwin's earthquake reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galiev, Shamil

    2010-05-01

    problems which began to discuss only during the last time. Earthquakes often precede volcanic eruptions. According to Darwin, the earthquake-induced shock may be a common mechanism of the simultaneous eruptions of the volcanoes separated by long distances. In particular, Darwin wrote that ‘… the elevation of many hundred square miles of territory near Concepcion is part of the same phenomenon, with that splashing up, if I may so call it, of volcanic matter through the orifices in the Cordillera at the moment of the shock;…'. According to Darwin the crust is a system where fractured zones, and zones of seismic and volcanic activities interact. Darwin formulated the task of considering together the processes studied now as seismology and volcanology. However the difficulties are such that the study of interactions between earthquakes and volcanoes began only recently and his works on this had relatively little impact on the development of geosciences. In this report, we discuss how the latest data on seismic and volcanic events support the Darwin's observations and ideas about the 1835 Chilean earthquake. The material from researchspace. auckland. ac. nz/handle/2292/4474 is used. We show how modern mechanical tests from impact engineering and simple experiments with weakly-cohesive materials also support his observations and ideas. On the other hand, we developed the mathematical theory of the earthquake-induced catastrophic wave phenomena. This theory allow to explain the most important aspects the Darwin's earthquake reports. This is achieved through the simplification of fundamental governing equations of considering problems to strongly-nonlinear wave equations. Solutions of these equations are constructed with the help of analytic and numerical techniques. The solutions can model different strongly-nonlinear wave phenomena which generate in a variety of physical context. A comparison with relevant experimental observations is also presented.

  7. Investigation of the long term stability and corrosion resistance of engineering barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoyama, Eri; Tachikawa, Hirokazu; Shimizu, Akihiko

    2005-03-01

    The Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute submitted 'Second Progress Report on Research and Development for the Geological Disposal of HLW in Japan' to the Japanese government. This report contains investigations of the long term behavior of alteration of bentonite, and of the corrosion life time of overpack on the basis of experimental data and past research, assuming the ranging geological environment of Japan. However some subjects, such as the behavior of the bentonite and overpack under high pH conditions and the behavior of the engineering barrier with change of near-field environmental condition with time for promoting reliability have still been left. To take into account these conditions, expert committees composed of clay science and metal corrosion science experts were established in the Nuclear Safety Research Association and past research outcomes and the theory of safety assessment were investigated from the view points of long term stability and corrosion resistance of engineering barrier. (author)

  8. Investigation and technical reviews of the long term stability and corrosion resistance of engineering barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tachikawa, Hirokazu

    2004-03-01

    The Japan Nuclear Fuel Cycle Development Institute submitted 'Second Progress Report on Research and Development for the Geological Disposal of HLW in Japan' to the Japanese government. This report contains investigations of the long term behavior of alteration of bentonite, and of the corrosion life time of overpack on the basis of experimental data and past research, assuming the ranging geological environment of Japan. However some subjects, such as the behavior of the bentonite and overpack under high pH conditions and the behavior of the engineering barrier with change of near-field environmental condition with time for promoting reliability have still been left. To take into account these conditions, expert committees composed of clay science and metal corrosion science experts were established in the Nuclear Safety Research Association and past research outcomes and the theory of safety assessment were investigated and technically reviewed from the view points of long term stability and corrosion resistance of engineering buffer materials. (author)

  9. Engineering Plant Immunity: Using CRISPR/Cas9 to Generate Virus Resistance

    KAUST Repository

    Zaidi, Syed Shan-e-Ali

    2016-11-08

    Plant viruses infect many economically important crops, including wheat, cotton, maize, cassava, and other vegetables. These viruses pose a serious threat to agriculture worldwide, as decreases in cropland area per capita may cause production to fall short of that required to feed the increasing world population. Under these circumstances, conventional strategies can fail to control rapidly evolving and emerging plant viruses. Genome-engineering strategies have recently emerged as promising tools to introduce desirable traits in many eukaryotic species, including plants. Among these genome engineering technologies, the CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced palindromic repeats)/CRISPR-associated 9 (CRISPR/Cas9) system has received special interest because of its simplicity, efficiency, and reproducibility. Recent studies have used CRISPR/Cas9 to engineer virus resistance in plants, either by directly targeting and cleaving the viral genome, or by modifying the host plant genome to introduce viral immunity. Here, we briefly describe the biology of the CRISPR/Cas9 system and plant viruses, and how different genome engineering technologies have been used to target these viruses. We further describe the main findings from recent studies of CRISPR/Cas9-mediated viral interference and discuss how these findings can be applied to improve global agriculture. We conclude by pinpointing the gaps in our knowledge and the outstanding questions regarding CRISPR/Cas9-mediated viral immunity.

  10. Engineering Plant Immunity: Using CRISPR/Cas9 to Generate Virus Resistance

    KAUST Repository

    Zaidi, Syed Shan-e-Ali; Tashkandi, Manal; Mansoor, Shahid; Mahfouz, Magdy M.

    2016-01-01

    Plant viruses infect many economically important crops, including wheat, cotton, maize, cassava, and other vegetables. These viruses pose a serious threat to agriculture worldwide, as decreases in cropland area per capita may cause production to fall short of that required to feed the increasing world population. Under these circumstances, conventional strategies can fail to control rapidly evolving and emerging plant viruses. Genome-engineering strategies have recently emerged as promising tools to introduce desirable traits in many eukaryotic species, including plants. Among these genome engineering technologies, the CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced palindromic repeats)/CRISPR-associated 9 (CRISPR/Cas9) system has received special interest because of its simplicity, efficiency, and reproducibility. Recent studies have used CRISPR/Cas9 to engineer virus resistance in plants, either by directly targeting and cleaving the viral genome, or by modifying the host plant genome to introduce viral immunity. Here, we briefly describe the biology of the CRISPR/Cas9 system and plant viruses, and how different genome engineering technologies have been used to target these viruses. We further describe the main findings from recent studies of CRISPR/Cas9-mediated viral interference and discuss how these findings can be applied to improve global agriculture. We conclude by pinpointing the gaps in our knowledge and the outstanding questions regarding CRISPR/Cas9-mediated viral immunity.

  11. VS30 – A site-characterization parameter for use in building Codes, simplified earthquake resistant design, GMPEs, and ShakeMaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borcherdt, Roger D.

    2012-01-01

    VS30, defined as the average seismic shear-wave velocity from the surface to a depth of 30 meters, has found wide-spread use as a parameter to characterize site response for simplified earthquake resistant design as implemented in building codes worldwide. VS30 , as initially introduced by the author for the US 1994 NEHRP Building Code, provides unambiguous definitions of site classes and site coefficients for site-dependent response spectra based on correlations derived from extensive borehole logging and comparative ground-motion measurement programs in California. Subsequent use of VS30 for development of strong ground motion prediction equations (GMPEs) and measurement of extensive sets of VS borehole data have confirmed the previous empirical correlations and established correlations of SVS30 with VSZ at other depths. These correlations provide closed form expressions to predict S30 V at a large number of additional sites and further justify S30 V as a parameter to characterize site response for simplified building codes, GMPEs, ShakeMap, and seismic hazard mapping.

  12. Investigation of the relationship between ground and engineering ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In order to investigate possible ground motion amplification in earthquake resistant building design, relationship between the ground and engineering bedrock must be ensured. In order to provide this relation, structure, basic characteristics, and thickness of the ground are investigated. In this context, calculating ground ...

  13. Rapid estimation of the economic consequences of global earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaiswal, Kishor; Wald, David J.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) Prompt Assessment of Global Earthquakes for Response (PAGER) system, operational since mid 2007, rapidly estimates the most affected locations and the population exposure at different levels of shaking intensities. The PAGER system has significantly improved the way aid agencies determine the scale of response needed in the aftermath of an earthquake. For example, the PAGER exposure estimates provided reasonably accurate assessments of the scale and spatial extent of the damage and losses following the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake (Mw 7.9) in China, the 2009 L'Aquila earthquake (Mw 6.3) in Italy, the 2010 Haiti earthquake (Mw 7.0), and the 2010 Chile earthquake (Mw 8.8). Nevertheless, some engineering and seismological expertise is often required to digest PAGER's exposure estimate and turn it into estimated fatalities and economic losses. This has been the focus of PAGER's most recent development. With the new loss-estimation component of the PAGER system it is now possible to produce rapid estimation of expected fatalities for global earthquakes (Jaiswal and others, 2009). While an estimate of earthquake fatalities is a fundamental indicator of potential human consequences in developing countries (for example, Iran, Pakistan, Haiti, Peru, and many others), economic consequences often drive the responses in much of the developed world (for example, New Zealand, the United States, and Chile), where the improved structural behavior of seismically resistant buildings significantly reduces earthquake casualties. Rapid availability of estimates of both fatalities and economic losses can be a valuable resource. The total time needed to determine the actual scope of an earthquake disaster and to respond effectively varies from country to country. It can take days or sometimes weeks before the damage and consequences of a disaster can be understood both socially and economically. The objective of the U.S. Geological Survey's PAGER system is

  14. Accelerating risk reduction in Kathmandu Valley, Nepal: Theory-based mass-media intervention proven to increase knowledge of, belief in, and intent to support earthquake-resistant construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanquini, A.; Thapaliya, S. M.; Wood, M. M.; Hilley, G. E.

    2015-12-01

    Motivating people in rapidly urbanizing areas to take protective actions against natural disasters faces the challenge that these people often do not know what actions to take, do not believe that such actions are effective, and/or believe that the disaster will not happen to them within their lifetimes. Thus, finding demonstrated ways of motivating people to take protective action likely constitutes a grand challenge for natural disaster risk reduction and resiliency, because it may be one of the largest, lowest-cost sources of potential risk reduction in these situations. We developed a theory-based documentary film (hereafter, intervention) targeted at motivating retrofits of local school buildings, and tested its effectiveness in Kathmandu, Nepal, using a matched-pair clustered randomized controlled trial. The intervention features Nepalese who have strengthened their school buildings as role models to others at schools still in need of seismic work. It was tested at 16 Kathmandu Valley schools from November 2014 through March 2015. Schools were matched into 8 pairs, then randomly assigned to see either the intervention film or an attention placebo control film on an unrelated topic. Testing was completed just five weeks before the M 7.8 Gorkha earthquake struck central Nepal. When compared to the control schools, the schools whose community members saw the retrofit intervention film increased their knowledge of specific actions to take in support of earthquake-resistant construction, belief in the feasibility of making buildings earthquake-resistant, willingness to support seismic strengthening of the local school building, and likelihood to recommend to others that they build earthquake-resistant homes, which have all been shown to be precursors to taking self-protective action. This suggests that employing a mass-media intervention featuring community members who have already taken the desired action increases factors that may accelerate adoption of risk

  15. Defect engineering of SrTiO{sub 3} thin films for resistive switching applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wicklein, Sebastian

    2013-11-19

    lifetime spectroscopy. The role of extrinsic dopands such as Fe is shown to have more complicated effects on the SrTiO{sub 3} system than portrayed by theoretical considerations. The effect of defects on the resistive switching properties of SrTiO{sub 3} was investigated by local conductivity AFM. Defect engineered SrTiO{sub 3} depict variations of the resistive switching properties for different defect constellations within the system. More stable resistance switching was achieved for systems with an increased defect content. The mechanism of the resistance change was attributed to the rearrangement of oxygen vacancies within SrTiO{sub 3} and a theory devised where the rearrangement of the oxygen vacancies causes a reversible transition of the oxide from p- to n-type. Whereas a p-type oxide depicts a high resistance and a n-type oxide a low resistance.

  16. Connecting slow earthquakes to huge earthquakes

    OpenAIRE

    Obara, Kazushige; Kato, Aitaro

    2016-01-01

    Slow earthquakes are characterized by a wide spectrum of fault slip behaviors and seismic radiation patterns that differ from those of traditional earthquakes. However, slow earthquakes and huge megathrust earthquakes can have common slip mechanisms and are located in neighboring regions of the seismogenic zone. The frequent occurrence of slow earthquakes may help to reveal the physics underlying megathrust events as useful analogs. Slow earthquakes may function as stress meters because of th...

  17. Development of stress corrosion cracking resistant welds of 321 stainless steel by simple surface engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mankari, Kamal; Acharyya, Swati Ghosh

    2017-12-01

    We hereby report a simple surface engineering technique to make AISI grade 321 stainless steel (SS) welds resistant to stress corrosion cracking (SCC) in chloride environment. Heat exchanger tubes of AISI 321 SS, welded either by (a) laser beam welding (LBW) or by (b) metal inert gas welding (MIG) were used for the study. The welds had high magnitude of tensile residual stresses and had undergone SCC in chloride environment while in service. The welds were characterized using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Subsequently, the welded surfaces were subjected to buffing operation followed by determination of residual stress distribution and surface roughness by XRD and surface profilometer measurements respectively. The susceptibility of the welds to SCC was tested in buffed and un-buffed condition as per ASTM G-36 in boiling MgCl2 for 5 h and 10 h, followed by microstructural characterization by using optical microscope and FESEM. The results showed that the buffed surfaces (both welds and base material) were resistant to SCC even after 10 h of exposure to boiling MgCl2 whereas the un-buffed surfaces underwent severe SCC for the same exposure time. Buffing imparted high magnitude of compressive stresses on the surface of stainless steel together with reduction in its surface roughness and reduction in plastic strain on the surface which made the welded surface, resistant to chloride assisted SCC. Buffing being a very simple, portable and economic technique can be easily adapted by the designers as the last step of component fabrication to make 321 stainless steel welds resistant to chloride assisted SCC.

  18. Building with Earthquakes in Mind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangieri, Nicholas

    2016-04-01

    Earthquakes are some of the most elusive and destructive disasters humans interact with on this planet. Engineering structures to withstand earthquake shaking is critical to ensure minimal loss of life and property. However, the majority of buildings today in non-traditional earthquake prone areas are not built to withstand this devastating force. Understanding basic earthquake engineering principles and the effect of limited resources helps students grasp the challenge that lies ahead. The solution can be found in retrofitting existing buildings with proper reinforcements and designs to deal with this deadly disaster. The students were challenged in this project to construct a basic structure, using limited resources, that could withstand a simulated tremor through the use of an earthquake shake table. Groups of students had to work together to creatively manage their resources and ideas to design the most feasible and realistic type of building. This activity provided a wealth of opportunities for the students to learn more about a type of disaster they do not experience in this part of the country. Due to the fact that most buildings in New York City were not designed to withstand earthquake shaking, the students were able to gain an appreciation for how difficult it would be to prepare every structure in the city for this type of event.

  19. Earthquake prediction by Kina Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kianoosh, H.; Keypour, H.; Naderzadeh, A.; Motlagh, H.F.

    2005-01-01

    Earthquake prediction has been one of the earliest desires of the man. Scientists have worked hard to predict earthquakes for a long time. The results of these efforts can generally be divided into two methods of prediction: 1) Statistical Method, and 2) Empirical Method. In the first method, earthquakes are predicted using statistics and probabilities, while the second method utilizes variety of precursors for earthquake prediction. The latter method is time consuming and more costly. However, the result of neither method has fully satisfied the man up to now. In this paper a new method entitled 'Kiana Method' is introduced for earthquake prediction. This method offers more accurate results yet lower cost comparing to other conventional methods. In Kiana method the electrical and magnetic precursors are measured in an area. Then, the time and the magnitude of an earthquake in the future is calculated using electrical, and in particular, electrical capacitors formulas. In this method, by daily measurement of electrical resistance in an area we make clear that the area is capable of earthquake occurrence in the future or not. If the result shows a positive sign, then the occurrence time and the magnitude can be estimated by the measured quantities. This paper explains the procedure and details of this prediction method. (authors)

  20. Earthquake resistant measures of existing structures by TRTA; Eidan chikatetsu ni okeru kisetsu doboku kozobutsu no taishin taisaku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyata, N.

    1997-08-10

    Seismic countermeasures for the existing structures are introduced on the main item: reinforcement of open-cut tunnel RC center pillars as well as on reinforcement of rigid frame viaduct pillars and installation of a device for prevention of viaduct falling. First, for reinforcing open-cut tunnel center pillars, design was devised so as to be suitable to construction environment in the subway yard. Important reinforcement materials are steel and filling materials; SS and a self-leveling material for building construction were chosen. The following construction work procedures are explained based on the actual construction: removal of interior materials of existing pillars and measurement of the actual size, high pressure water washing, steel plate fabrication, plate delivery to the yard, installation of steel plates, filler filling, painting. Next, on reinforcement of viaduct pillars on the ground, the reinforcement design concept is basically same as in the open-cut tunnel. Points of difference in design and construction are explained. On the countermeasure for prevention of viaduct falling for girder bridges without the falling prevention, countermeasure investigation and design work or installation work are being carried out. Seismic resistance evaluation and design of existing bridges, and construction work are explained. 13 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Wood-framed houses for earthquake zones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Klavs Feilberg

    Wood-framed houses with a sheathing are suitable for use in earthquake zones. The Direction describes a method of determining the earthquake forces in a house and shows how these forces can be resisted by diaphragm action in the walls, floors, and roof, of the house. An appendix explains how...

  2. Engineering Hydrophobic Organosilica Nanoparticle-Doped Nanofibers for Enhanced and Fouling Resistant Membrane Distillation

    KAUST Repository

    Hammami, Mohamed Amen; Croissant, Jonas G.; Francis, Lijo; Alsaiari, Shahad K.; Anjum, Dalaver H.; Ghaffour, NorEddine; Khashab, Niveen M.

    2016-01-01

    Engineering and scaling-up new materials for better water desalination are imperative to find alternative fresh water sources to meet future demands. Herein, the fabrication of hydrophobic poly(ether imide) composite nanofiber membranes doped with novel ethylene-pentafluorophenylene-based periodic mesoporous organosilica nanoparticles is reported for enhanced and fouling resistant membrane distillation. Novel organosilica nanoparticles were homogeneously incorporated into electrospun nanofiber membranes depicting a proportional increase of hydrophobicity to the particle contents. Direct contact membrane distillation experiments on the organosilica-doped membrane with only 5% doping showed an increase of flux of 140% compared to commercial membranes. The high porosity of organosilica nanoparticles was further utilized to load the eugenol antimicrobial agent which produced a dramatic enhancement of the antibiofouling properties of the membrane of 70% after 24 h.

  3. Association nitrogen fixation of rice inoculated with ammonia resistant engineering strain (alcaligenes faecalis)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Ming; Zhang Wei; Lin Min

    1999-01-01

    It showed that Alcaligenes faecalis could produce plant hormone (IAA) in LW medium. The pot experiment results showed that inoculation with A1501 and A1513 could promote the growth and grain yield of rice. Comparison with the non-inoculation, the grain yield of rice treated with A1501 and A1513 increased by 8.5% and 10.3% respectively. And %Ndfa of rice shoot and grain estimated by 15 N-isotope dilution method was 9.00% and 11.5%, respectively, which was consistent with the increment of the total N(8.5% and 11.6%, respectively). The study indicated that ammonia resistant engineering strain A1513 had more stimulative effect on the growth of rice and grain yield than A1501

  4. Engineering Hydrophobic Organosilica Nanoparticle-Doped Nanofibers for Enhanced and Fouling Resistant Membrane Distillation

    KAUST Repository

    Hammami, Mohamed Amen

    2016-12-15

    Engineering and scaling-up new materials for better water desalination are imperative to find alternative fresh water sources to meet future demands. Herein, the fabrication of hydrophobic poly(ether imide) composite nanofiber membranes doped with novel ethylene-pentafluorophenylene-based periodic mesoporous organosilica nanoparticles is reported for enhanced and fouling resistant membrane distillation. Novel organosilica nanoparticles were homogeneously incorporated into electrospun nanofiber membranes depicting a proportional increase of hydrophobicity to the particle contents. Direct contact membrane distillation experiments on the organosilica-doped membrane with only 5% doping showed an increase of flux of 140% compared to commercial membranes. The high porosity of organosilica nanoparticles was further utilized to load the eugenol antimicrobial agent which produced a dramatic enhancement of the antibiofouling properties of the membrane of 70% after 24 h.

  5. Enhancing the Thermal Resistance of a Novel Acidobacteria-Derived Phytase by Engineering of Disulfide Bridges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Hao; Miao, Renyun; Liu, Tianhai; Cao, Xuelian; Wu, Xiang; Xie, Liyuan; Huang, Zhongqian; Peng, Weihong; Gan, Bingcheng

    2016-10-28

    A novel phytase of Acidobacteria was identified from a soil metagenome, cloned, overexpressed, and purified. It has low sequence similarity (phytases. At the optimum pH (2.5), the phytase shows an activity level of 1,792 μmol/min/mg at physiological temperature (37°C) and could retain 92% residual activity after 30 min, indicating the phytase is acidophilic and acidostable. However the phytase shows poor stability at high temperatures. To improve its thermal resistance, the enzyme was redesigned using Disulfide by Design 2.0, introducing four additional disulfide bridges. The half-life time of the engineered phytase at 60°C and 80°C, respectively, is 3.0× and 2.8× longer than the wild-type, and its activity and acidostability are not significantly affected.

  6. Study on vibration behaviors of engineered barrier system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikoshiba, Tadashi; Ogawa, Nobuyuki; Minowa, Chikahiro

    1998-01-01

    High-level radioactive wastes have been buried underground by packing into a strong sealed container made from carbon steel (over-pack) with buffer material (bentonite). The engineered barrier system constructed with an overpack and buffer materials must be resistant to earthquakes as well as invasion of groundwater for a long period. Therefore, seismic evaluation of barrier system for earthquakes is indispensable especially in Japan to keep its structural safety. Here, the effects of earthquake vibration on the engineered barrier systems were investigated experimentally. Random-wave vibration and practical seismic wave one were loaded for the systems and fundamental data were obtained. For the former vibration the response characteristics of both engineered barrier models constructed with overpack and bentonite were non-linear. For the latter one, the stress in bentonite was increased in proportion to the vibration level. (M.N.)

  7. The mechanism of earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Kunquan; Cao, Zexian; Hou, Meiying; Jiang, Zehui; Shen, Rong; Wang, Qiang; Sun, Gang; Liu, Jixing

    2018-03-01

    strength of crust rocks: The gravitational pressure can initiate the elasticity-plasticity transition in crust rocks. By calculating the depth dependence of elasticity-plasticity transition and according to the actual situation analysis, the behaviors of crust rocks can be categorized in three typical zones: elastic, partially plastic and fully plastic. As the proportion of plastic portion reaches about 10% in the partially plastic zone, plastic interconnection may occur and the variation of shear strength in rocks is mainly characterized by plastic behavior. The equivalent coefficient of friction for the plastic slip is smaller by an order of magnitude, or even less than that for brittle fracture, thus the shear strength of rocks by plastic sliding is much less than that by brittle breaking. Moreover, with increasing depth a number of other factors can further reduce the shear yield strength of rocks. On the other hand, since earthquake is a large-scale damage, the rock breaking must occur along the weakest path. Therefore, the actual fracture strength of rocks in a shallow earthquake is assuredly lower than the average shear strength of rocks as generally observed. The typical distributions of the average strength and actual fracture strength in crustal rocks varying with depth are schematically illustrated. (3) The conditions for earthquake occurrence and mechanisms of earthquake: An earthquake will lead to volume expansion, and volume expansion must break through the obstacle. The condition for an earthquake to occur is as follows: the tectonic force exceeds the sum of the fracture strength of rock, the friction force of fault boundary and the resistance from obstacles. Therefore, the shallow earthquake is characterized by plastic sliding of rocks that break through the obstacles. Accordingly, four possible patterns for shallow earthquakes are put forward. Deep-focus earthquakes are believed to result from a wide-range rock flow that breaks the jam. Both shallow

  8. Search Engine for Antimicrobial Resistance: A Cloud Compatible Pipeline and Web Interface for Rapidly Detecting Antimicrobial Resistance Genes Directly from Sequence Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Will; Baker, Kate S; Verner-Jeffreys, David; Baker-Austin, Craig; Ryan, Jim J; Maskell, Duncan; Pearce, Gareth

    2015-01-01

    Antimicrobial resistance remains a growing and significant concern in human and veterinary medicine. Current laboratory methods for the detection and surveillance of antimicrobial resistant bacteria are limited in their effectiveness and scope. With the rapidly developing field of whole genome sequencing beginning to be utilised in clinical practice, the ability to interrogate sequencing data quickly and easily for the presence of antimicrobial resistance genes will become increasingly important and useful for informing clinical decisions. Additionally, use of such tools will provide insight into the dynamics of antimicrobial resistance genes in metagenomic samples such as those used in environmental monitoring. Here we present the Search Engine for Antimicrobial Resistance (SEAR), a pipeline and web interface for detection of horizontally acquired antimicrobial resistance genes in raw sequencing data. The pipeline provides gene information, abundance estimation and the reconstructed sequence of antimicrobial resistance genes; it also provides web links to additional information on each gene. The pipeline utilises clustering and read mapping to annotate full-length genes relative to a user-defined database. It also uses local alignment of annotated genes to a range of online databases to provide additional information. We demonstrate SEAR's application in the detection and abundance estimation of antimicrobial resistance genes in two novel environmental metagenomes, 32 human faecal microbiome datasets and 126 clinical isolates of Shigella sonnei. We have developed a pipeline that contributes to the improved capacity for antimicrobial resistance detection afforded by next generation sequencing technologies, allowing for rapid detection of antimicrobial resistance genes directly from sequencing data. SEAR uses raw sequencing data via an intuitive interface so can be run rapidly without requiring advanced bioinformatic skills or resources. Finally, we show that SEAR

  9. Engineering Cellular Resistance to HIV-1 Infection In Vivo Using a Dual Therapeutic Lentiviral Vector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryan P Burke

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We described earlier a dual-combination anti-HIV type 1 (HIV-1 lentiviral vector (LVsh5/C46 that downregulates CCR5 expression of transduced cells via RNAi and inhibits HIV-1 fusion via cell surface expression of cell membrane-anchored C46 antiviral peptide. This combinatorial approach has two points of inhibition for R5-tropic HIV-1 and is also active against X4-tropic HIV-1. Here, we utilize the humanized bone marrow, liver, thymus (BLT mouse model to characterize the in vivo efficacy of LVsh5/C46 (Cal-1 vector to engineer cellular resistance to HIV-1 pathogenesis. Human CD34+ hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPC either nonmodified or transduced with LVsh5/C46 vector were transplanted to generate control and treatment groups, respectively. Control and experimental groups displayed similar engraftment and multilineage hematopoietic differentiation that included robust CD4+ T-cell development. Splenocytes isolated from the treatment group were resistant to both R5- and X4-tropic HIV-1 during ex vivo challenge experiments. Treatment group animals challenged with R5-tropic HIV-1 displayed significant protection of CD4+ T-cells and reduced viral load within peripheral blood and lymphoid tissues up to 14 weeks postinfection. Gene-marking and transgene expression were confirmed stable at 26 weeks post-transplantation. These data strongly support the use of LVsh5/C46 lentiviral vector in gene and cell therapeutic applications for inhibition of HIV-1 infection.

  10. Targeted introgression of a wheat stem rust resistance gene by DNA marker-assisted chromosome engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Zhixia; Klindworth, Daryl L; Friesen, Timothy L; Chao, Shiaoman; Jin, Yue; Cai, Xiwen; Xu, Steven S

    2011-04-01

    Chromosome engineering is a useful strategy for transfer of alien genes from wild relatives into modern crops. However, this strategy has not been extensively used for alien gene introgression in most crops due to low efficiency of conventional cytogenetic techniques. Here, we report an improved scheme of chromosome engineering for efficient elimination of a large amount of goatgrass (Aegilops speltoides) chromatin surrounding Sr39, a gene that provides resistance to multiple stem rust races, including Ug99 (TTKSK) in wheat. The wheat ph1b mutation, which promotes meiotic pairing between homoeologous chromosomes, was employed to induce recombination between wheat chromosome 2B and goatgrass 2S chromatin using a backcross scheme favorable for inducing and detecting the homoeologous recombinants with small goatgrass chromosome segments. Forty recombinants with Sr39 with reduced surrounding goatgrass chromatin were quickly identified from 1048 backcross progenies through disease screening and molecular marker analysis. Four of the recombinants carrying Sr39 with a minimal amount of goatgrass chromatin (2.87-9.15% of the translocated chromosomes) were verified using genomic in situ hybridization. Approximately 97% of the goatgrass chromatin was eliminated in one of the recombinants, in which a tiny goatgrass chromosome segment containing Sr39 was retained in the wheat genome. Localization of the goatgrass chromatin in the recombinants led to rapid development of three molecular markers tightly linked to Sr39. The new wheat lines and markers provide useful resources for the ongoing global effort to combat Ug99. This study has demonstrated great potential of chromosome engineering in genome manipulation for plant improvement.

  11. Engineering Silver Nanowire Networks: From Transparent Electrodes to Resistive Switching Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Haiwei; Wan, Tao; Qu, Bo; Cao, Fuyang; Lin, Qianru; Chen, Nan; Lin, Xi; Chu, Dewei

    2017-06-21

    Metal nanowires (NWs) networks with high conductance have shown potential applications in modern electronic components, especially the transparent electrodes over the past decade. In metal NW networks, the electrical connectivity of nanoscale NW junction can be modulated for various applications. In this work, silver nanowire (Ag NW) networks were selected to achieve the desired functions. The Ag NWs were first synthesized by a classic polyol process, and spin-coated on glass to fabricate transparent electrodes. The as-fabricated electrode showed a sheet resistance of 7.158 Ω □ -1 with an optical transmittance of 79.19% at 550 nm, indicating a comparable figure of merit (FOM, or Φ TC ) (13.55 × 10 -3 Ω -1 ). Then, two different post-treatments were designed to tune the Ag NWs for not only transparent electrode but also for threshold resistive switching (RS) application. On the one hand, the Ag NW film was mechanically pressed to significantly improve the conductance by reducing the junction resistance. On the other hand, an Ag@AgO x core-shell structure was deliberately designed by partial oxidation of Ag NWs through simple ultraviolet (UV)-ozone treatment. The Ag core can act as metallic interconnect and the insulating AgO x shell acts as a switching medium to provide a conductive pathway for Ag filament migration. By fabricating Ag/Ag@AgO x /Ag planar structure, a volatile threshold switching characteristic was observed and an on/off ratio of ∼100 was achieved. This work showed that through different post-treatments, Ag NW network can be engineered for diverse functions, transforming from transparent electrodes to RS devices.

  12. Earthquake Facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... North Dakota, and Wisconsin. The core of the earth was the first internal structural element to be identified. In 1906 R.D. Oldham discovered it from his studies of earthquake records. The inner core is solid, and the outer core is liquid and so does not transmit ...

  13. Understanding Earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Amanda; Gray, Ron

    2018-01-01

    December 26, 2004 was one of the deadliest days in modern history, when a 9.3 magnitude earthquake--the third largest ever recorded--struck off the coast of Sumatra in Indonesia (National Centers for Environmental Information 2014). The massive quake lasted at least 10 minutes and devastated the Indian Ocean. The quake displaced an estimated…

  14. Data base pertinent to earthquake design basis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, R.D.

    1988-01-01

    Mitigation of earthquake risk from impending strong earthquakes is possible provided the hazard can be assessed, and translated into appropriate design inputs. This requires defining the seismic risk problem, isolating the risk factors and quantifying risk in terms of physical parameters, which are suitable for application in design. Like all other geological phenomena, past earthquakes hold the key to the understanding of future ones. Quantificatio n of seismic risk at a site calls for investigating the earthquake aspects of the site region and building a data base. The scope of such investigations is il lustrated in Figure 1 and 2. A more detailed definition of the earthquake problem in engineering design is given elsewhere (Sharma, 1987). The present document discusses the earthquake data base, which is required to support a seismic risk evaluation programme in the context of the existing state of the art. (author). 8 tables, 10 figs., 54 refs

  15. 'HoneySweet' (C5), the first genetically engineered Plum pox virus-resistant plum (Prunus domestica L.) cultivar

    Science.gov (United States)

    ‘HoneySweet’ plum was released by the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, to provide U.S. growers and P. domestica plum breeders with a high fruit quality plum cultivar resistant to Plum pox virus (PPV). ‘HoneySweet’ was developed through genetic engineering utilizing the...

  16. Resistive Random Access Memory from Materials Development fnd Engineering to Novel Encryption and Neuromorphic Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckmann, Karsten

    Resistive random access memory (ReRAM or RRAM) is a novel form of non-volatile memory that is expected to play a major role in future computing and memory solutions. It has been shown that the resistance state of ReRAM devices can be precisely tuned by modulating switching voltages, by limiting peak current, and by adjusting the switching pulse properties. This enables the realization of novel applications such as memristive neuromorphic computing and neural network computing. I have developed two processes based on 100 and 300mm wafer platforms to demonstrate functional HfO2 based ReRAM devices. The first process is designed for a rapid materials engineering and device characterization, while the second is an advanced hybrid ReRAM/CMOS combination based on the IBM 65nm 10LPe process technology. The 100mm wafer efforts were used to show impacts of etch processes on ReRAM switching performance and the need for a rigorous structural evaluation of ReRAM devices before starting materials development. After an etch development, a bottom electrode comparison between the inert materials Pt, Ru and W was performed where Ru showed superior results with respect to yield and resilience against environmental impacts such as humidity over a 2-month period. A comparison of amorphous and crystalline devices showed no statistical difference in the performance with respect to random telegraph noise. This demonstrates, that the forming process fundamentally alters the crystallographic structure within and around the filament. The 300mm wafer development efforts were aimed towards implementing ReRAM in the FEOL, combined with CMOS, to yield a seamless process flow of 1 transistor 1 ReRAM structures (1T1R). This technology was customized with custom-developed tungsten metal 1 (M1) and dual tungsten/copper via 1 (V1) structures, within which the ReRAM stack is embedded. The ReRAM itself consists of an inert W bottom electrode, HfO2 based active switching layer, a Ti oxygen scavenger

  17. Explanation of earthquake response spectra

    OpenAIRE

    Douglas, John

    2017-01-01

    This is a set of five slides explaining how earthquake response spectra are derived from strong-motion records and simple models of structures and their purpose within seismic design and assessment. It dates from about 2002 and I have used it in various introductory lectures on engineering seismology.

  18. Engineering resistance against Tomato yellow leaf curl virus via the CRISPR/Cas9 system in tomato

    KAUST Repository

    Mahfouz, Magdy M.

    2017-12-22

    CRISPR/Cas systems confer molecular immunity against phages and conjugative plasmids in prokaryotes. Recently, CRISPR/Cas9 systems have been used to confer interference against eukaryotic viruses. Here, we engineered Nicotiana benthamiana and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) plants with the CRISPR/Cas9 system to confer immunity against the Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV). Targeting the TYLCV genome with Cas9-single guide RNA at the sequences encoding the coat protein (CP) or replicase (Rep) resulted in efficient virus interference, as evidenced by low accumulation of the TYLCV DNA genome in the transgenic plants. The CRISPR/Cas9-based immunity remained active across multiple generations in the N. benthamiana and tomato plants. Together, our results confirmed the efficiency of the CRISPR/Cas9 system for stable engineering of TYLCV resistance in N. benthamiana and tomato, and opens the possibilities of engineering virus resistance against single and multiple infectious viruses in other crops.

  19. Earthquake data base for Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rizescu, M.; Ghica, D.; Grecu, B.; Popa, M.; Borcia, I. S.

    2002-01-01

    A new earthquake database for Romania is being constructed, comprising complete earthquake information and being up-to-date, user-friendly and rapidly accessible. One main component of the database consists from the catalog of earthquakes occurred in Romania since 984 up to present. The catalog contains information related to locations and other source parameters, when available, and links to waveforms of important earthquakes. The other very important component is the 'strong motion database', developed for strong intermediate-depth Vrancea earthquakes where instrumental data were recorded. Different parameters to characterize strong motion properties as: effective peak acceleration, effective peak velocity, corner periods T c and T d , global response spectrum based intensities were computed and recorded into this database. Also, information on the recording seismic stations as: maps giving their positioning, photographs of the instruments and site conditions ('free-field or on buildings) are included. By the huge volume and quality of gathered data, also by its friendly user interface, the Romania earthquake data base provides a very useful tool for geosciences and civil engineering in their effort towards reducing seismic risk in Romania. (authors)

  20. Estudio experimental del Sistema de Albañilería Integral en la construcción de viviendas sismorresistentes. Experimental study of the Integral Masonry System in the construction of earthquake resistant houses

    OpenAIRE

    Bustamante Montoro, Rosa; Orta Rial, María Belén; Adell Argiles, Josep Maria

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the application of the Integral Masonry System (IMS) to the construction of earthquake resistant houses and its experimental study. To verify the security of this new type of building in seismic areas of the third world two prototypes have been tested, one with adobe and the other with hollow brick. In both cases it’s a two-story 6x6x6 m3 house built to scale 1/2. The tests are carried out at the Laboratory of Antiseismic Structures of the Departmen...

  1. CRISPR/Cas9 Editing of Murine Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells for Engineering Inflammation-Resistant Tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunger, Jonathan M; Zutshi, Ananya; Willard, Vincent P; Gersbach, Charles A; Guilak, Farshid

    2017-05-01

    Proinflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-1 (IL-1) are found in elevated levels in diseased or injured tissues and promote rapid tissue degradation while preventing stem cell differentiation. This study was undertaken to engineer inflammation-resistant murine induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) through deletion of the IL-1 signaling pathway and to demonstrate the utility of these cells for engineering replacements for diseased or damaged tissues. Targeted deletion of the IL-1 receptor type I (IL-1RI) gene in murine iPSCs was achieved using the RNA-guided, site-specific clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)/Cas9 genome engineering system. Clonal cell populations with homozygous and heterozygous deletions were isolated, and loss of receptor expression and cytokine signaling was confirmed by flow cytometry and transcriptional reporter assays, respectively. Cartilage was engineered from edited iPSCs and tested for its ability to resist IL-1-mediated degradation in gene expression, histologic, and biomechanical assays after a 3-day treatment with 1 ng/ml of IL-1α. Three of 41 clones isolated possessed the IL-1RI +/- genotype. Four clones possessed the IL-1RI -/- genotype, and flow cytometry confirmed loss of IL-1RI on the surface of these cells, which led to an absence of NF-κB transcription activation after IL-1α treatment. Cartilage engineered from homozygous null clones was resistant to cytokine-mediated tissue degradation. In contrast, cartilage derived from wild-type and heterozygous clones exhibited significant degradative responses, highlighting the need for complete IL-1 blockade. This work demonstrates proof-of-concept of the ability to engineer custom-designed stem cells that are immune to proinflammatory cytokines (i.e., IL-1) as a potential cell source for cartilage tissue engineering. © 2016, American College of Rheumatology.

  2. Ethanol from lignocellulose - Fermentation inhibitors, detoxification and genetic engineering of Saccharomyces cerevisiae for enhanced resistance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsson, Simona

    2000-07-01

    Ethanol can be produced from lignocellulose by first hydrolysing the material to sugars, and then fermenting the hydrolysate with the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Hydrolysis using dilute sulphuric acid has advantages over other methods, however, compounds which inhibit fermentation are generated during this kind of hydrolysis. The inhibitory effect of aliphatic acids, furans, and phenolic compounds was investigated. The generation of inhibitors during hydrolysis was studied using Norway spruce as raw material. It was concluded that the decrease in the fermentability coincided with increasing harshness of the hydrolysis conditions. The decrease in fermentability was not correlated solely to the content of aliphatic acids or furan derivatives. To increase the fermentability, detoxification is often employed. Twelve detoxification methods were compared with respect to the chemical composition of the hydrolysate and the fermentability after treatment. The most efficient detoxification methods were anion-exchange at pH 10.0, overliming and enzymatic detoxification with the phenol-oxidase laccase. Detailed analyses of ion exchange revealed that anion exchange and unspecific hydrophobic interactions greatly contributed to the detoxification effect, while cation exchange did not. The comparison of detoxification methods also showed that phenolic compounds are very important fermentation inhibitors, as their selective removal with laccase had a major positive effect on the fermentability. Selected compounds; aliphatic acids, furans and phenolic compounds, were characterised with respect to their inhibitory effect on ethanolic fermentation by S. cerevisiae. When aliphatic acids or furans were compared, the inhibitory effects were found to be in the same range, but the phenolic compounds displayed widely different inhibitory effects. The possibility of genetically engineering S. cerevisiae to achieve increased inhibitor resistance was explored by heterologous expression of

  3. 2-D Resistivity Assessment of Subsurface Characterization and its Engineering and Environmental Implications at SiLC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordiana, M. M.; Azwin, I. N.; Saad, Rosli; Jia, Teoh Ying; Anderson, A. B.; Tonnizam, Edy; Taqiuddin Zakaria, Muhamad

    2017-04-01

    The role of geophysics in Environmental Earth Sciences and Engineering is considered. In the developing era, geophysics has mainly contributed in investigation of new constructions such as tunnels, road, dams and high-rise buildings. This study was carried out to assess the foundation depths around a construction site in the Southern Industrial & Logistics Clusters (SiLC), Nusajaya, Johor using 2-D resistivity method. The 2-D resistivity method was carried out with a view to characterize different subsurface geological and to provide the engineering and environmental geophysical characterization of the study area. Measurements of eight 2-D resistivity profile using Pole-dipole array with 2 m minimum electrode spacing was taken with the use of ABEM Terrameter SAS4000 and ES10-64C selector. The results are presented as inversion model resistivity with the outline of the survey line. The inversion model resistivity from L1-L8 obtained is characterized by resistivity range of 1-8000 ohm-m. This range indicates the occurrence of silt, clay, sandy clay and sand whose ranges are; 10-100 ohm-m, 1-100 ohm-m, 100-800 ohm-m and 100-3000 ohm-m respectively. However, there was a boulder with range of >5000 ohm-m and saturated zone (1-20 ohm-m) which may indicate the weak zones of the study area. The 2-D resistivity method is not intended to replace borings, except in specific cases where information gathered would be sufficient to address the intended engineering and environmental purpose.

  4. Housing Damage Following Earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    An automobile lies crushed under the third story of this apartment building in the Marina District after the Oct. 17, 1989, Loma Prieta earthquake. The ground levels are no longer visible because of structural failure and sinking due to liquefaction. Sand and soil grains have faces that can cause friction as they roll and slide against each other, or even cause sticking and form small voids between grains. This complex behavior can cause soil to behave like a liquid under certain conditions such as earthquakes or when powders are handled in industrial processes. Mechanics of Granular Materials (MGM) experiments aboard the Space Shuttle use the microgravity of space to simulate this behavior under conditons that carnot be achieved in laboratory tests on Earth. MGM is shedding light on the behavior of fine-grain materials under low effective stresses. Applications include earthquake engineering, granular flow technologies (such as powder feed systems for pharmaceuticals and fertilizers), and terrestrial and planetary geology. Nine MGM specimens have flown on two Space Shuttle flights. Another three are scheduled to fly on STS-107. The principal investigator is Stein Sture of the University of Colorado at Boulder. Credit: J.K. Nakata, U.S. Geological Survey.

  5. Connecting slow earthquakes to huge earthquakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obara, Kazushige; Kato, Aitaro

    2016-07-15

    Slow earthquakes are characterized by a wide spectrum of fault slip behaviors and seismic radiation patterns that differ from those of traditional earthquakes. However, slow earthquakes and huge megathrust earthquakes can have common slip mechanisms and are located in neighboring regions of the seismogenic zone. The frequent occurrence of slow earthquakes may help to reveal the physics underlying megathrust events as useful analogs. Slow earthquakes may function as stress meters because of their high sensitivity to stress changes in the seismogenic zone. Episodic stress transfer to megathrust source faults leads to an increased probability of triggering huge earthquakes if the adjacent locked region is critically loaded. Careful and precise monitoring of slow earthquakes may provide new information on the likelihood of impending huge earthquakes. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  6. An asthma patient with steroid-resistant decrease in peak expiratory flow after the Great East Japan earthquake showing spontaneous recovery after 1 month.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanagimoto, Shintaro; Haida, Michiko; Suko, Matsunobu

    2012-01-01

    People living in Japan were affected in various ways after the Great East Japan earthquake of March 11, 2011. A 52-year-old female asthma patient not directly affected by the disaster experienced a decrease in peak expiratory flow (PEF) immediately after the earthquake. Despite increasing the inhaled and oral corticosteroid doses, her PEF did not recover. One month later, her PEF level abruptly returned to normal with minimal medications, which were previously ineffective, and the asthma-related symptoms vanished. The stabilization of her state of mind and actual social state seemed to be a part of the reason for the patient's recovery.

  7. Design and Performance Optimizations of Advanced Erosion-Resistant Low Conductivity Thermal Barrier Coatings for Rotorcraft Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Dongming; Miller, Robert A.; Kuczmarski, Maria A.

    2012-01-01

    Thermal barrier coatings will be more aggressively designed to protect gas turbine engine hot-section components in order to meet future rotorcraft engine higher fuel efficiency and lower emission goals. For thermal barrier coatings designed for rotorcraft turbine airfoil applications, further improved erosion and impact resistance are crucial for engine performance and durability, because the rotorcraft are often operated in the most severe sand erosive environments. Advanced low thermal conductivity and erosion-resistant thermal barrier coatings are being developed, with the current emphasis being placed on thermal barrier coating toughness improvements using multicomponent alloying and processing optimization approaches. The performance of the advanced thermal barrier coatings has been evaluated in a high temperature erosion burner rig and a laser heat-flux rig to simulate engine erosion and thermal gradient environments. The results have shown that the coating composition and architecture optimizations can effectively improve the erosion and impact resistance of the coating systems, while maintaining low thermal conductivity and cyclic oxidation durability

  8. Earthquake Early Warning Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Pei-Yang Lin

    2011-01-01

    Because of Taiwan’s unique geographical environment, earthquake disasters occur frequently in Taiwan. The Central Weather Bureau collated earthquake data from between 1901 and 2006 (Central Weather Bureau, 2007) and found that 97 earthquakes had occurred, of which, 52 resulted in casualties. The 921 Chichi Earthquake had the most profound impact. Because earthquakes have instant destructive power and current scientific technologies cannot provide precise early warnings in advance, earthquake ...

  9. Defect engineering: reduction effect of hydrogen atom impurities in HfO2-based resistive-switching memory devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seonghyun; Park, Jubong; Jung, Seungjae; Lee, Wootae; Shin, Jungho; Hwang, Hyunsang; Lee, Daeseok; Woo, Jiyong; Choi, Godeuni

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we propose a new and effective methodology for improving the resistive-switching performance of memory devices by high-pressure hydrogen annealing under ambient conditions. The reduction effect results in the uniform creation of oxygen vacancies that in turn enable forming-free operation and afford uniform switching characteristics. In addition, H + and mobile hydroxyl (OH − ) ions are generated, and these induce fast switching operation due to the higher mobility compared to oxygen ions. Defect engineering, specifically, the introduction of hydrogen atom impurities, improves the device performance for metal–oxide-based resistive-switching random access memory devices. (paper)

  10. Seismic resistance evaluation methods for foundation ground of nuclear power plant and for critical civil engineering structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    The Ground Integrity Subcommittee was established in September, 1979, in the Japan Society of Civil Engineers to systematize the relation among the survey, test, analysis, evaluation, design and construction of diverse geological features and grounds. The results were put in order in March, 1984. In this paper, the main results of examination by the Aseismatic Design Working Group consisted of three groups are reported. It was decided to evaluate the aseismatic capability of the foundation ground and surrounding slopes of reactor buildings and important outdoor structures so that the function of supporting buildings and installations is not impaired, and that influence is not exerted on the maintenance of the function of buildings and installations. The basic concept, design earthquake force and standard values for the evaluation of the aseismatic stability of the foundation ground and surrounding slopes of reactor buildings are described. The basic concept and the comparison of various methods of aseismatic calculation are reported regarding the evaluation of the aseismatic stability of important outdoor structures in civil engineering field. (Kako, I.)

  11. Identified EM Earthquake Precursors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Kenneth, II; Saxton, Patrick

    2014-05-01

    Many attempts have been made to determine a sound forecasting method regarding earthquakes and warn the public in turn. Presently, the animal kingdom leads the precursor list alluding to a transmission related source. By applying the animal-based model to an electromagnetic (EM) wave model, various hypotheses were formed, but the most interesting one required the use of a magnetometer with a differing design and geometry. To date, numerous, high-end magnetometers have been in use in close proximity to fault zones for potential earthquake forecasting; however, something is still amiss. The problem still resides with what exactly is forecastable and the investigating direction of EM. After a number of custom rock experiments, two hypotheses were formed which could answer the EM wave model. The first hypothesis concerned a sufficient and continuous electron movement either by surface or penetrative flow, and the second regarded a novel approach to radio transmission. Electron flow along fracture surfaces was determined to be inadequate in creating strong EM fields, because rock has a very high electrical resistance making it a high quality insulator. Penetrative flow could not be corroborated as well, because it was discovered that rock was absorbing and confining electrons to a very thin skin depth. Radio wave transmission and detection worked with every single test administered. This hypothesis was reviewed for propagating, long-wave generation with sufficient amplitude, and the capability of penetrating solid rock. Additionally, fracture spaces, either air or ion-filled, can facilitate this concept from great depths and allow for surficial detection. A few propagating precursor signals have been detected in the field occurring with associated phases using custom-built loop antennae. Field testing was conducted in Southern California from 2006-2011, and outside the NE Texas town of Timpson in February, 2013. The antennae have mobility and observations were noted for

  12. Interface Engineering with MoS2 -Pd Nanoparticles Hybrid Structure for a Low Voltage Resistive Switching Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xue-Feng; Tian, He; Zhao, Hai-Ming; Zhang, Tian-Yu; Mao, Wei-Quan; Qiao, Yan-Cong; Pang, Yu; Li, Yu-Xing; Yang, Yi; Ren, Tian-Ling

    2018-01-01

    Metal oxide-based resistive random access memory (RRAM) has attracted a lot of attention for its scalability, temperature robustness, and potential to achieve machine learning. However, a thick oxide layer results in relatively high program voltage while a thin one causes large leakage current and a small window. Owing to these fundamental limitations, by optimizing the oxide layer itself a novel interface engineering idea is proposed to reduce the programming voltage, increase the uniformity and on/off ratio. According to this idea, a molybdenum disulfide (MoS 2 )-palladium nanoparticles hybrid structure is used to engineer the oxide/electrode interface of hafnium oxide (HfO x )-based RRAM. Through its interface engineering, the set voltage can be greatly lowered (from -3.5 to -0.8 V) with better uniformity under a relatively thick HfO x layer (≈15 nm), and a 30 times improvement of the memory window can be obtained. Moreover, due to the atomic thickness of MoS 2 film and high transmittance of ITO, the proposed RRAM exhibits high transparency in visible light. As the proposed interface-engineering RRAM exhibits good transparency, low SET voltage, and a large resistive switching window, it has huge potential in data storage in transparent circuits and wearable electronics with relatively low supply voltage. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Earthquake design for controlled structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikos G. Pnevmatikos

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available An alternative design philosophy, for structures equipped with control devices, capable to resist an expected earthquake while remaining in the elastic range, is described. The idea is that a portion of the earthquake loading is under¬taken by the control system and the remaining by the structure which is designed to resist elastically. The earthquake forces assuming elastic behavior (elastic forces and elastoplastic behavior (design forces are first calculated ac¬cording to the codes. The required control forces are calculated as the difference from elastic to design forces. The maximum value of capacity of control devices is then compared to the required control force. If the capacity of the control devices is larger than the required control force then the control devices are accepted and installed in the structure and the structure is designed according to the design forces. If the capacity is smaller than the required control force then a scale factor, α, reducing the elastic forces to new design forces is calculated. The structure is redesigned and devices are installed. The proposed procedure ensures that the structure behaves elastically (without damage for the expected earthquake at no additional cost, excluding that of buying and installing the control devices.

  14. Earthquake Education in Prime Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Groot, R.; Abbott, P.; Benthien, M.

    2004-12-01

    Since 2001, the Southern California Earthquake Center (SCEC) has collaborated on several video production projects that feature important topics related to earthquake science, engineering, and preparedness. These projects have also fostered many fruitful and sustained partnerships with a variety of organizations that have a stake in hazard education and preparedness. The Seismic Sleuths educational video first appeared in the spring season 2001 on Discovery Channel's Assignment Discovery. Seismic Sleuths is based on a highly successful curriculum package developed jointly by the American Geophysical Union and The Department of Homeland Security Federal Emergency Management Agency. The California Earthquake Authority (CEA) and the Institute for Business and Home Safety supported the video project. Summer Productions, a company with a reputation for quality science programming, produced the Seismic Sleuths program in close partnership with scientists, engineers, and preparedness experts. The program has aired on the National Geographic Channel as recently as Fall 2004. Currently, SCEC is collaborating with Pat Abbott, a geology professor at San Diego State University (SDSU) on the video project Written In Stone: Earthquake Country - Los Angeles. Partners on this project include the California Seismic Safety Commission, SDSU, SCEC, CEA, and the Insurance Information Network of California. This video incorporates live-action demonstrations, vivid animations, and a compelling host (Abbott) to tell the story about earthquakes in the Los Angeles region. The Written in Stone team has also developed a comprehensive educator package that includes the video, maps, lesson plans, and other supporting materials. We will present the process that facilitates the creation of visually effective, factually accurate, and entertaining video programs. We acknowledge the need to have a broad understanding of the literature related to communication, media studies, science education, and

  15. Transient and Steady-state Tests of the Space Power Research Engine with Resistive and Motor Loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauch, Jeffrey S.; Kankam, M. David

    1995-01-01

    The NASA Lewis Research Center (LeRC) has been testing free-piston Stirling engine/linear alternators (FPSE/LA) to develop advanced power convertors for space-based electrical power generation. Tests reported herein were performed to evaluate the interaction and transient behavior of FPSE/LA-based power systems with typical user loads. Both resistive and small induction motor loads were tested with the space power research engine (SPRE) power system. Tests showed that the control system could maintain constant long term voltage and stable periodic operation over a large range of engine operating parameters and loads. Modest resistive load changes were shown to cause relatively large voltage and, therefore, piston and displacer amplitude excursions. Starting a typical small induction motor was shown to cause large and, in some cases, deleterious voltage transients. The tests identified the need for more effective controls, if FPSE/LAs are to be used for stand-alone power systems. The tests also generated a large body of transient dynamic data useful for analysis code validation.

  16. Transient and steady-state tests of the space power research engine with resistive and motor loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauch, Jeffrey S.; Kankam, M. David

    1995-01-01

    The NASA Lewis Research Center (LeRC) has been testing free-piston Stirling engine/linear alternators (FPSE/LA) to develop advanced power convertors for space-based electrical power generation. Tests reported herein were performed to evaluate the interaction and transient behavior of FPSE/LA-based power systems with typical user loads. Both resistive and small induction motor loads were tested with the space power research engine (SPRE) power system. Tests showed that the control system could maintain constant long term voltage and stable periodic operation over a large range of engine operating parameters and loads. Modest resistive load changes were shown to cause relatively large voltage and, therefore, piston and displacer amplitude excursions. Starting a typical small induction motor was shown to cause large and, in some cases, deleterious voltage transients. The tests identified the need for more effective controls, if FPSE/LAs are to be used for stand-alone power systems. The tests also generated a large body of transient dynamic data useful for analysis code validation.

  17. Impact of Fire Resistant Fuel Blends on Compression Ignition Engine Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    exhaust backpressure .  Emissions are sampled from an exhaust probe installed between the engine and exhaust system butterfly valve.  Crankcase...1  3.0  EFFECTS ON ENGINE PERFORMANCE...fuel as it is heated, effectively limiting oxygen available to combust with the fuel. The research program ended in 1987 without the FRF blend

  18. Stainless Steel Foil with Improved Creep-Resistance for Use in Primary Surface Recuperators for Gas Turbine Engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Browning, P.F.; Fitzpatrick, M.; Grubb, J.F.; Klug, R.C.; Maziasz, P.J.; Montague, J.P.; Painter, R.A.; Swindeman, R.W.

    1998-01-01

    Primary surface recuperators (PSRs) are compact heat-exchangers made from thin-foil type 347 austenitic stainless steel, which boost the efficiency of land-based gas turbine engines. Solar Turbines uses foil folded into a unique corrugated pattern to maximize the primary surface area for efficient heat transfer between hot exhaust gas on one side, and the compressor discharge air on the other side of the foil. Allegheny-Ludlum produces 0.003 - 0.0035 in. thick foil for a range of current turbine engines using PSRs that operate at up to 660 degrees C. Laboratory-scale processing modification experiments recently have demonstrated that dramatic improvements can be achieved in the creep resistance of such typical 347 stainless steel foils. The modified processing enables fine NbC carbide precipitates to develop during creep at 650-700 degrees C, which provides strength even with a fine grain size. Such improved creep-resistance is necessary for advanced turbine systems that will demand greater materials performance and reliability at higher operating conditions. The next challenges are to better understand the nature of the improved creep resistance in these 347 stainless steel foil, and to achieve similar improvements with scale-up to commercial foil production

  19. [Redo ascending aorta replacement using a homograft for graft infection caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus; report of an emergently air-transferred case just after Great East Japan Earthquake].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Ken; Uchida, Tetsuro; Yoshimura, Yukihiro; Kim, Cholsu; Maekawa, Yoshiyuki; Minagawa, Tadanori; Mizumoto, Masahiro; Yamashita, Atsushi; Sadahiro, Mitsuaki; Saiki, Yoshikatsu; Kawamoto, Shunsuke

    2012-10-01

    We describe a case of replacement with a cryopreserved homograft for graft infection. A 48-year-old man had been performed ascending aorta replacement using woven dacron graft for type A aortic dissection. Two months ago, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infection was suspected because of high-grade fever. Computed tomography (CT) scan revealed abscess formation around the prosthetic graft and redo operation using cryopreserved homograft was scheduled to avoid re-infection into mediastinum at Tohoku University Hospital, an institute cooperating with University of Tokyo tissue bank. However, Catastrophic Great East Japan Earthquake occurred the day before the scheduled date, and the patient could not have an operation at the institution. He was transferred to our hospital by helicopter. Then homograft was successfully implanted in ascending aorta after complete excision of infectious graft.

  20. Resistance to Sri Lankan Cassava Mosaic Virus (SLCMV) in Genetically Engineered Cassava cv. KU50 through RNA Silencing

    KAUST Repository

    Ntui, Valentine Otang

    2015-04-22

    Cassava ranks fifth among the starch producing crops of the world, its annual bioethanol yield is higher than for any other crop. Cassava cultivar KU50, the most widely grown cultivar for non-food purposes is susceptible to Sri Lankan cassava mosaic virus (SLCMV). The objective of this work was to engineer resistance to SLCMV by RNA interference (RNAi) in order to increase biomass yield, an important aspect for bioethanol production. Here, we produced transgenic KU50 lines expressing dsRNA homologous to the region between the AV2 and AV1 of DNA A of SLCMV. High level expression of dsRNA of SLCMV did not induce any growth abnormality in the transgenic plants. Transgenic lines displayed high levels of resistance to SLCMV compared to the wild-type plants and no virus load could be detected in uninoculated new leaves of the infected resistant lines after PCR amplification and RT-PCR analysis. The agronomic performance of the transgenic lines was unimpaired after inoculation with the virus as the plants presented similar growth when compared to the mock inoculated control plants and revealed no apparent reduction in the amount and weight of tubers produced. We show that the resistance is correlated with post-transcriptional gene silencing because of the production of transgene specific siRNA. The results demonstrate that transgenic lines exhibited high levels of resistance to SLCMV. This resistance coupled with the desirable yield components in the transgenic lines makes them better candidates for exploitation in the production of biomass as well as bioethanol.

  1. Resistance to Sri Lankan Cassava Mosaic Virus (SLCMV) in Genetically Engineered Cassava cv. KU50 through RNA Silencing

    KAUST Repository

    Ntui, Valentine Otang; Kong, Kynet; Khan, Raham Sher; Igawa, Tomoko; Janavi, Gnanaguru Janaky; Rabindran, Ramalingam; Nakamura, Ikuo; Mii, Masahiro

    2015-01-01

    Cassava ranks fifth among the starch producing crops of the world, its annual bioethanol yield is higher than for any other crop. Cassava cultivar KU50, the most widely grown cultivar for non-food purposes is susceptible to Sri Lankan cassava mosaic virus (SLCMV). The objective of this work was to engineer resistance to SLCMV by RNA interference (RNAi) in order to increase biomass yield, an important aspect for bioethanol production. Here, we produced transgenic KU50 lines expressing dsRNA homologous to the region between the AV2 and AV1 of DNA A of SLCMV. High level expression of dsRNA of SLCMV did not induce any growth abnormality in the transgenic plants. Transgenic lines displayed high levels of resistance to SLCMV compared to the wild-type plants and no virus load could be detected in uninoculated new leaves of the infected resistant lines after PCR amplification and RT-PCR analysis. The agronomic performance of the transgenic lines was unimpaired after inoculation with the virus as the plants presented similar growth when compared to the mock inoculated control plants and revealed no apparent reduction in the amount and weight of tubers produced. We show that the resistance is correlated with post-transcriptional gene silencing because of the production of transgene specific siRNA. The results demonstrate that transgenic lines exhibited high levels of resistance to SLCMV. This resistance coupled with the desirable yield components in the transgenic lines makes them better candidates for exploitation in the production of biomass as well as bioethanol.

  2. Report: EPA Needs Better Data, Plans and Tools to Manage Insect Resistance to Genetically Engineered Corn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Report #16-P-0194, June 1, 2016. Bt crops have reduced insecticide applications by 123 million pounds. The EPA can preserve this significant public benefit through enhanced monitoring and preparation to address insect resistance in Bt corn.

  3. Using mass-release of engineered insects to manage insecticide resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alphey, Nina; Coleman, Paul G.; Donnelly, Christl A.

    2006-01-01

    Transgenic crops expressing insecticidal toxins derived from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) are widely used to control insect pests. The benefits of such crops would be lost if resistance to the toxins spread to a significant proportion of the pest population. The main resistance management method, mandatory in the US, is the high-dose/refuge strategy, requiring nearby refuges of toxin-free crops, and the use of toxin doses sufficiently high to kill not only wild type insects but also insects heterozygous for a resistance allele, thereby rendering the resistance functionally recessive. We propose that mass-release of harmless toxin-sensitive insects could substantially delay or even reverse the spread of resistance. Mass-release of such insects is an integral part of RIDL, a genetics-based method of pest control related to the Sterile Insect Technique. We used a population genetic mathematical model to analyze the effects of releasing male insects homozygous for a female-specific dominant lethal genetic construct, and concluded that this RIDL strategy could form an effective component of a resistance management scheme for insecticidal plants and other toxins. (author)

  4. Using mass-release of engineered insects to manage insecticide resistance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alphey, Nina [University of Oxford (United Kingdom). Dept. of Zoology; Alphey, Luke [Oxitec Limited, Oxford (United Kingdom); Coleman, Paul G [London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine (United Kingdom). Dept. of Infectious and Tropical Diseases; Donnelly, Christl A [Imperial College Faculty of Medicine, London (United Kingdom). Dept. of Infectious Disease Epidemiology

    2006-07-01

    Transgenic crops expressing insecticidal toxins derived from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) are widely used to control insect pests. The benefits of such crops would be lost if resistance to the toxins spread to a significant proportion of the pest population. The main resistance management method, mandatory in the US, is the high-dose/refuge strategy, requiring nearby refuges of toxin-free crops, and the use of toxin doses sufficiently high to kill not only wild type insects but also insects heterozygous for a resistance allele, thereby rendering the resistance functionally recessive. We propose that mass-release of harmless toxin-sensitive insects could substantially delay or even reverse the spread of resistance. Mass-release of such insects is an integral part of RIDL, a genetics-based method of pest control related to the Sterile Insect Technique. We used a population genetic mathematical model to analyze the effects of releasing male insects homozygous for a female-specific dominant lethal genetic construct, and concluded that this RIDL strategy could form an effective component of a resistance management scheme for insecticidal plants and other toxins. (author)

  5. New geological perspectives on earthquake recurrence models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwartz, D.P.

    1997-01-01

    In most areas of the world the record of historical seismicity is too short or uncertain to accurately characterize the future distribution of earthquakes of different sizes in time and space. Most faults have not ruptured once, let alone repeatedly. Ultimately, the ability to correctly forecast the magnitude, location, and probability of future earthquakes depends on how well one can quantify the past behavior of earthquake sources. Paleoseismological trenching of active faults, historical surface ruptures, liquefaction features, and shaking-induced ground deformation structures provides fundamental information on the past behavior of earthquake sources. These studies quantify (a) the timing of individual past earthquakes and fault slip rates, which lead to estimates of recurrence intervals and the development of recurrence models and (b) the amount of displacement during individual events, which allows estimates of the sizes of past earthquakes on a fault. When timing and slip per event are combined with information on fault zone geometry and structure, models that define individual rupture segments can be developed. Paleoseismicity data, in the form of timing and size of past events, provide a window into the driving mechanism of the earthquake engine--the cycle of stress build-up and release

  6. Parallel Earthquake Simulations on Large-Scale Multicore Supercomputers

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Xingfu

    2011-01-01

    Earthquakes are one of the most destructive natural hazards on our planet Earth. Hugh earthquakes striking offshore may cause devastating tsunamis, as evidenced by the 11 March 2011 Japan (moment magnitude Mw9.0) and the 26 December 2004 Sumatra (Mw9.1) earthquakes. Earthquake prediction (in terms of the precise time, place, and magnitude of a coming earthquake) is arguably unfeasible in the foreseeable future. To mitigate seismic hazards from future earthquakes in earthquake-prone areas, such as California and Japan, scientists have been using numerical simulations to study earthquake rupture propagation along faults and seismic wave propagation in the surrounding media on ever-advancing modern computers over past several decades. In particular, ground motion simulations for past and future (possible) significant earthquakes have been performed to understand factors that affect ground shaking in populated areas, and to provide ground shaking characteristics and synthetic seismograms for emergency preparation and design of earthquake-resistant structures. These simulation results can guide the development of more rational seismic provisions for leading to safer, more efficient, and economical50pt]Please provide V. Taylor author e-mail ID. structures in earthquake-prone regions.

  7. Behaviour of masonry structures during the Bhuj earthquake of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A variety of masonry structures suffered damage during the recent Bhuj earthquake. Some of the traditional masonry structures had no earthquake resistant features and suffered considerable damage. This paper attempts to evaluate the behaviour of masonry structures based on the type of masonry used in places like Bhuj ...

  8. Learning Earthquake Design and Construction 20. How do Beam ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 10; Issue 6. Learning Earthquake Design and Construction – How do Beam–Column Joints in RC Buildings Resist Earthquakes? C V R Murty. Classroom Volume 10 Issue 6 June 2005 pp 82-85 ...

  9. Intermediate-term earthquake prediction and seismic zoning in Northern Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panza, G.F.; Orozova Stanishkova, I.; Costa, G.; Vaccari, F.

    1993-12-01

    The algorithm CN for intermediate earthquake prediction has been applied to an area in Northern Italy, which has been chosen according to a recently proposed seismotectonic model. Earthquakes with magnitude ≥ 5.4 occur in the area with a relevant frequency and their occurrence is predicted by algorithm CN. Therefore a seismic hazard analysis has been performed using a deterministic procedure, based on the computation of complete synthetic seismograms. The results are summarized in a map giving the distribution of peak ground acceleration, but the complete time series are available, which can be used by civil engineers in the design of new seismo-resistant constructions and in the retrofitting of the existing ones. This risk reduction action should be intensified in connection with warnings issued on the basis of the forward predictions made by CN. (author). Refs, 7 figs, 1 tab

  10. Consolidating Russia and Eurasia Antibiotic Resistance Data for 1992-2014 Using Search Engine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedenkov, Alexander; Shpinev, Vitaly; Suvorov, Nikolay; Sokolov, Evgeny; Riabenko, Evgeniy

    2016-01-01

    The World Health Organization recognizes the antibiotic resistance problem as a major health threat in the twenty first century. The paper describes an effort to fight it undertaken at the verge of two industries-healthcare and Data Science. One of the major difficulties in monitoring antibiotic resistance is low availability of comprehensive research data. Our aim is to develop a nation-wide antibiotic resistance database using Internet search and data processing algorithms using Russian language publications. An interdisciplinary team built an intelligent Internet search filter to locate all publicly available research data on antibiotic resistance in Russia and Eurasia countries, extracted it, and collated it for analysis. A database was constructed using data from 850 original studies conducted at 153 locations in 12 countries between 1992 and 2014. The studies contained susceptibility and resistance rates of 156 microorganisms to 157 antibiotic drugs. The applied search methodology was highly robust in that it yielded search precision of 58 vs. 20% in a typical Internet search. It allowed finding and collating within the database the following data items (among many others): publication details including title, source, date, authors, etc.; study details: time period, locations, research organization, therapy area, etc.; microorganisms and antibiotic drugs included in the study along with prevalence values of resistant and susceptible strains, and numbers of isolates. The next stage in project development will try to validate the data by matching it to major benchmark studies; in addition, a panel of experts will be convened to evaluate the outcomes. The work provides a supplementary tool to national surveillance systems in antibiotic resistance, and consolidates fragmented research data available for 12 countries for a period of more than 20 years.

  11. Earthquakes: hydrogeochemical precursors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingebritsen, Steven E.; Manga, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Earthquake prediction is a long-sought goal. Changes in groundwater chemistry before earthquakes in Iceland highlight a potential hydrogeochemical precursor, but such signals must be evaluated in the context of long-term, multiparametric data sets.

  12. Ground water and earthquakes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ts' ai, T H

    1977-11-01

    Chinese folk wisdom has long seen a relationship between ground water and earthquakes. Before an earthquake there is often an unusual change in the ground water level and volume of flow. Changes in the amount of particulate matter in ground water as well as changes in color, bubbling, gas emission, and noises and geysers are also often observed before earthquakes. Analysis of these features can help predict earthquakes. Other factors unrelated to earthquakes can cause some of these changes, too. As a first step it is necessary to find sites which are sensitive to changes in ground stress to be used as sensor points for predicting earthquakes. The necessary features are described. Recording of seismic waves of earthquake aftershocks is also an important part of earthquake predictions.

  13. Earthquake Damping Device for Steel Frame

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamri Ramli, Mohd; Delfy, Dezoura; Adnan, Azlan; Torman, Zaida

    2018-04-01

    Structures such as buildings, bridges and towers are prone to collapse when natural phenomena like earthquake occurred. Therefore, many design codes are reviewed and new technologies are introduced to resist earthquake energy especially on building to avoid collapse. The tuned mass damper is one of the earthquake reduction products introduced on structures to minimise the earthquake effect. This study aims to analyse the effectiveness of tuned mass damper by experimental works and finite element modelling. The comparisons are made between these two models under harmonic excitation. Based on the result, it is proven that installing tuned mass damper will reduce the dynamic response of the frame but only in several input frequencies. At the highest input frequency applied, the tuned mass damper failed to reduce the responses. In conclusion, in order to use a proper design of damper, detailed analysis must be carried out to have sufficient design based on the location of the structures with specific ground accelerations.

  14. Ionospheric earthquake precursors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulachenko, A.L.; Oraevskij, V.N.; Pokhotelov, O.A.; Sorokin, V.N.; Strakhov, V.N.; Chmyrev, V.M.

    1996-01-01

    Results of experimental study on ionospheric earthquake precursors, program development on processes in the earthquake focus and physical mechanisms of formation of various type precursors are considered. Composition of experimental cosmic system for earthquake precursors monitoring is determined. 36 refs., 5 figs

  15. Children's Ideas about Earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simsek, Canan Lacin

    2007-01-01

    Earthquake, a natural disaster, is among the fundamental problems of many countries. If people know how to protect themselves from earthquake and arrange their life styles in compliance with this, damage they will suffer will reduce to that extent. In particular, a good training regarding earthquake to be received in primary schools is considered…

  16. POST Earthquake Debris Management — AN Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Raju

    Every year natural disasters, such as fires, floods, earthquakes, hurricanes, landslides, tsunami, and tornadoes, challenge various communities of the world. Earthquakes strike with varying degrees of severity and pose both short- and long-term challenges to public service providers. Earthquakes generate shock waves and displace the ground along fault lines. These seismic forces can bring down buildings and bridges in a localized area and damage buildings and other structures in a far wider area. Secondary damage from fires, explosions, and localized flooding from broken water pipes can increase the amount of debris. Earthquake debris includes building materials, personal property, and sediment from landslides. The management of this debris, as well as the waste generated during the reconstruction works, can place significant challenges on the national and local capacities. Debris removal is a major component of every post earthquake recovery operation. Much of the debris generated from earthquake is not hazardous. Soil, building material, and green waste, such as trees and shrubs, make up most of the volume of earthquake debris. These wastes not only create significant health problems and a very unpleasant living environment if not disposed of safely and appropriately, but also can subsequently impose economical burdens on the reconstruction phase. In practice, most of the debris may be either disposed of at landfill sites, reused as materials for construction or recycled into useful commodities Therefore, the debris clearance operation should focus on the geotechnical engineering approach as an important post earthquake issue to control the quality of the incoming flow of potential soil materials. In this paper, the importance of an emergency management perspective in this geotechnical approach that takes into account the different criteria related to the operation execution is proposed by highlighting the key issues concerning the handling of the construction

  17. POST Earthquake Debris Management - AN Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Raju

    Every year natural disasters, such as fires, floods, earthquakes, hurricanes, landslides, tsunami, and tornadoes, challenge various communities of the world. Earthquakes strike with varying degrees of severity and pose both short- and long-term challenges to public service providers. Earthquakes generate shock waves and displace the ground along fault lines. These seismic forces can bring down buildings and bridges in a localized area and damage buildings and other structures in a far wider area. Secondary damage from fires, explosions, and localized flooding from broken water pipes can increase the amount of debris. Earthquake debris includes building materials, personal property, and sediment from landslides. The management of this debris, as well as the waste generated during the reconstruction works, can place significant challenges on the national and local capacities. Debris removal is a major component of every post earthquake recovery operation. Much of the debris generated from earthquake is not hazardous. Soil, building material, and green waste, such as trees and shrubs, make up most of the volume of earthquake debris. These wastes not only create significant health problems and a very unpleasant living environment if not disposed of safely and appropriately, but also can subsequently impose economical burdens on the reconstruction phase. In practice, most of the debris may be either disposed of at landfill sites, reused as materials for construction or recycled into useful commodities Therefore, the debris clearance operation should focus on the geotechnical engineering approach as an important post earthquake issue to control the quality of the incoming flow of potential soil materials. In this paper, the importance of an emergency management perspective in this geotechnical approach that takes into account the different criteria related to the operation execution is proposed by highlighting the key issues concerning the handling of the construction

  18. Identifying the changes of geo-engineering properties of dunites due to weathering utilizing electrical resistivity tomography (ERT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ündül, Ömer; Tuğrul, Atiye; Zarif, İ Halil; Özyalın, Şenol

    2015-01-01

    Weathering phenomena have an important role in many construction facilities with varying depths and grades. Due to the anisotropic and heterogeneous nature of weathering profiles of some rocks, uncertainities exist in determining the geo-engineering properties. Geo-electrical studies have been utilized to overcome such uncertainities for various subsurface conditions including the determination of boundaries between weathered and unweathered parts of different rock types.In this study, the electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) results were correlated with conventional methods in determining the effects of weathering on the geo-engineering properties of dunites. During the research, weathering grades were determined by field studies including discontinuity spacings, aperture and properties of fill materials. The detailed petrographical studies, determination of petrophysical properties (e.g. water absorption and effective porosity) and mechanical properties (e.g. unconfined compressive strength (UCS)) constitute the laboratory studies. ERT studies were carried out in a row of sixty electrodes with electrode spacings of 0.5 m utilizing a Wenner–Schlumberger configuration. According to the comparison of the inversion model sections with the weathering profiles obtained by field and laboratory studies it is concluded that the use of ERT with a Wenner–Schlumberger configuration supplies comparable data for wider subsurface areas from the view of weathering and its effect on geo-engineering properties of dunites. In addition, ERT techniques are very useful where conventional techniques are inadequate in determining the full weathering profile. (paper)

  19. Engineering HIV-resistant human CD4+ T cells with CXCR4-specific zinc-finger nucleases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig B Wilen

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available HIV-1 entry requires the cell surface expression of CD4 and either the CCR5 or CXCR4 coreceptors on host cells. Individuals homozygous for the ccr5Δ32 polymorphism do not express CCR5 and are protected from infection by CCR5-tropic (R5 virus strains. As an approach to inactivating CCR5, we introduced CCR5-specific zinc-finger nucleases into human CD4+ T cells prior to adoptive transfer, but the need to protect cells from virus strains that use CXCR4 (X4 in place of or in addition to CCR5 (R5X4 remains. Here we describe engineering a pair of zinc finger nucleases that, when introduced into human T cells, efficiently disrupt cxcr4 by cleavage and error-prone non-homologous DNA end-joining. The resulting cells proliferated normally and were resistant to infection by X4-tropic HIV-1 strains. CXCR4 could also be inactivated in ccr5Δ32 CD4+ T cells, and we show that such cells were resistant to all strains of HIV-1 tested. Loss of CXCR4 also provided protection from X4 HIV-1 in a humanized mouse model, though this protection was lost over time due to the emergence of R5-tropic viral mutants. These data suggest that CXCR4-specific ZFNs may prove useful in establishing resistance to CXCR4-tropic HIV for autologous transplant in HIV-infected individuals.

  20. Review: Potential biotechnological assets related to plant immunity modulation applicable in engineering disease-resistant crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Marilia Santos; Arraes, Fabrício Barbosa Monteiro; Campos, Magnólia de Araújo; Grossi-de-Sa, Maira; Fernandez, Diana; Cândido, Elizabete de Souza; Cardoso, Marlon Henrique; Franco, Octávio Luiz; Grossi-de-Sa, Maria Fátima

    2018-05-01

    This review emphasizes the biotechnological potential of molecules implicated in the different layers of plant immunity, including, pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP)-triggered immunity (PTI), effector-triggered susceptibility (ETS), and effector-triggered immunity (ETI) that can be applied in the development of disease-resistant genetically modified (GM) plants. These biomolecules are produced by pathogens (viruses, bacteria, fungi, oomycetes) or plants during their mutual interactions. Biomolecules involved in the first layers of plant immunity, PTI and ETS, include inhibitors of pathogen cell-wall-degrading enzymes (CWDEs), plant pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) and susceptibility (S) proteins, while the ETI-related biomolecules include plant resistance (R) proteins. The biomolecules involved in plant defense PTI/ETI responses described herein also include antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), pathogenesis-related (PR) proteins and ribosome-inhibiting proteins (RIPs), as well as enzymes involved in plant defensive secondary metabolite biosynthesis (phytoanticipins and phytoalexins). Moreover, the regulation of immunity by RNA interference (RNAi) in GM disease-resistant plants is also considered. Therefore, the present review does not cover all the classes of biomolecules involved in plant innate immunity that may be applied in the development of disease-resistant GM crops but instead highlights the most common strategies in the literature, as well as their advantages and disadvantages. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Can Prunus serotina be genetically engineered for reproductive sterility and insect pest resistance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying Wang; Paula M. Pijut

    2014-01-01

    Black cherry (Prunus serotina) is a valuable hardwood timber species, and its value highly depends on the wood quality which is often threatened by insect pests. Transgenic black cherry plants that are more resistant to cambial-mining insects may reduce the occurrence of gummosis and have great economic benefits to landowners and the forest products...

  2. Crowdsourced earthquake early warning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minson, Sarah E.; Brooks, Benjamin A.; Glennie, Craig L.; Murray, Jessica R.; Langbein, John O.; Owen, Susan E.; Heaton, Thomas H.; Iannucci, Robert A.; Hauser, Darren L.

    2015-01-01

    Earthquake early warning (EEW) can reduce harm to people and infrastructure from earthquakes and tsunamis, but it has not been implemented in most high earthquake-risk regions because of prohibitive cost. Common consumer devices such as smartphones contain low-cost versions of the sensors used in EEW. Although less accurate than scientific-grade instruments, these sensors are globally ubiquitous. Through controlled tests of consumer devices, simulation of an Mw (moment magnitude) 7 earthquake on California’s Hayward fault, and real data from the Mw 9 Tohoku-oki earthquake, we demonstrate that EEW could be achieved via crowdsourcing.

  3. Earthquake forecasting and warning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rikitake, T.

    1983-01-01

    This review briefly describes two other books on the same subject either written or partially written by Rikitake. In this book, the status of earthquake prediction efforts in Japan, China, the Soviet Union, and the United States are updated. An overview of some of the organizational, legal, and societal aspects of earthquake prediction in these countries is presented, and scientific findings of precursory phenomena are included. A summary of circumstances surrounding the 1975 Haicheng earthquake, the 1978 Tangshan earthquake, and the 1976 Songpan-Pingwu earthquake (all magnitudes = 7.0) in China and the 1978 Izu-Oshima earthquake in Japan is presented. This book fails to comprehensively summarize recent advances in earthquake prediction research.

  4. Biomimetic thermal barrier coating in jet engine to resist volcanic ash deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Wenjia; Major, Zsuzsanna; Schulz, Uwe; Muth, Tobias; Lavallée, Yan; Hess, Kai-Uwe; Dingwell, Donald B.

    2017-04-01

    The threat of volcanic ash to aviation safety is attracting extensive attention when several commercial jet aircraft were damaged after flying through volcanic ash clouds from the May 1980 eruptions of Mount St. Helen in Washington, U.S. and especially after the air traffic disruption in 2010 Eyjafjallajökull eruption. A major hazard presented by volcanic ash to aircraft is linked to the wetting and spreading of molten ash droplets on engine component surfaces. Due to the fact ash has a lower melting point, around 1100 °C, than the gas temperature in the hot section (between 1400 to 2000 °C), this cause the ash to melt and potentially stick to the internal components (e.g., combustor and turbine blades), this cause the ash to melt and potentially stick to the internal components of the engine creating, substantial damage or even engine failure after ingestion. Here, inspiring form the natural surface of lotus leaf (exhibiting extreme water repellency, known as 'lotus effect'), we firstly create the multifunctional surface thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) by producing a hierarchical structure with femtosecond laser pulses. In detail, we investigate the effect of one of primary femtosecond laser irradiation process parameter (scanning speed) on the hydrophobicity of water droplets onto the two kinds of TBCs fabricated by electron-beam physical vapor deposition (EB-PVD) and air plasma spray (APS), respectively as well as their corresponding to morphology. It is found that, comparison with the original surface (without femtosecond laser ablation), all of the irradiated samples demonstrate more significant hydrophobic properties due to nanostructuring. On the basis of these preliminary room-temperature results, the wettability of volcanic ash droplets will be analysed at the high temperature to constrain the potential impact of volcanic ash on the jet engines.

  5. Engineering the lodging resistance mechanism of post-Green Revolution rice to meet future demands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirano, Ko; Ordonio, Reynante Lacsamana; Matsuoka, Makoto

    2017-01-01

    Traditional breeding for high-yielding rice has been dependent on the widespread cultivation of gibberellin (GA)-deficient semi-dwarf varieties. Dwarfism lowers the "center of gravity" of the plant body, which increases resistance against lodging and enables plants to support high grain yield. Although this approach was successful in latter half of the 20th century in rice and wheat breeding, this may no longer be enough to sustain rice with even higher yields. This is because relying solely on the semi-dwarf trait is subject to certain limitations, making it necessary to use other important traits to reinforce it. In this review, we present an alternative approach to increase lodging resistance by improving the quality of the culm by identifying genes related to culm quality and introducing these genes into high-yielding rice cultivars through molecular breeding technique.

  6. Interpretation of 2D Resistivity with Engineering Characterisation of Subsurface Exploration in Nusajaya Johor, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akip Tan, S. N. Mohd; Dan, M. F. Md; Edy Tonnizam, M.; Saad, R.; Madun, A.; Hazreek, Z. A. M.

    2018-04-01

    2-D resistivity technique and pole-dipole array with spacing of 2 m electrode and total spacing of 80 m were adopted to map and characterize the shallow subsurface in a sedimentary area at Nusajaya, Johor. Geological field mapping and laboratory testing were conducted to determine weathering grades. Res2Dinv software was used to generate the inversion model resistivity. The result shows sandstone contains iron mineral (30-1000ohm-m) and weathered sandstone (500-1000 ohm-m). The lowest layer represents sandstone and siltstone with the highest range from 1500 through 5000 ohm-m. The weathering grade IV and V of sandstone in the actual profile indicates the range from 30 to 1000 ohm-m, whereas grade II and III in ground mass matched the higest range. Overall, the increase of weathering grade influenced both the physical properties and strength of rocks.

  7. Fatigue resistance of engine-driven rotary nickel-titanium instruments produced by new manufacturing methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambarini, Gianluca; Grande, Nicola Maria; Plotino, Gianluca; Somma, Francesco; Garala, Manish; De Luca, Massimo; Testarelli, Luca

    2008-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate whether cyclic fatigue resistance is increased for nickel-titanium instruments manufactured by using new processes. This was evaluated by comparing instruments produced by using the twisted method (TF; SybronEndo, Orange, CA) and those using the M-wire alloy (GTX; Dentsply Tulsa-Dental Specialties, Tulsa, OK) with instruments produced by a traditional NiTi grinding process (K3, SybronEndo). Tests were performed with a specific cyclic fatigue device that evaluated cycles to failure of rotary instruments inside curved artificial canals. Results indicated that size 06-25 TF instruments showed a significant increase (p 0.05) in the mean number of cycles to failure when compared with size 06-20 GT series X instruments. The new manufacturing process produced nickel-titanium rotary files (TF) significantly more resistant to fatigue than instruments produced with the traditional NiTi grinding process. Instruments produced with M-wire (GTX) were not found to be more resistant to fatigue than instruments produced with the traditional NiTi grinding process.

  8. The spatiotemporal system dynamics of acquired resistance in an engineered microecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datla, Udaya Sree; Mather, William H; Chen, Sheng; Shoultz, Isaac W; Täuber, Uwe C; Jones, Caroline N; Butzin, Nicholas C

    2017-11-22

    Great strides have been made in the understanding of complex networks; however, our understanding of natural microecologies is limited. Modelling of complex natural ecological systems has allowed for new findings, but these models typically ignore the constant evolution of species. Due to the complexity of natural systems, unanticipated interactions may lead to erroneous conclusions concerning the role of specific molecular components. To address this, we use a synthetic system to understand the spatiotemporal dynamics of growth and to study acquired resistance in vivo. Our system differs from earlier synthetic systems in that it focuses on the evolution of a microecology from a killer-prey relationship to coexistence using two different non-motile Escherichia coli strains. Using empirical data, we developed the first ecological model emphasising the concept of the constant evolution of species, where the survival of the prey species is dependent on location (distance from the killer) or the evolution of resistance. Our simple model, when expanded to complex microecological association studies under varied spatial and nutrient backgrounds may help to understand the complex relationships between multiple species in intricate natural ecological networks. This type of microecological study has become increasingly important, especially with the emergence of antibiotic-resistant pathogens.

  9. Developing an Internet Oriented Platform for Earthquake Engineering Application and Web-based Virtual Reality Simulation System for Seismic hazards: Towards Disaster Mitigation in Metropolises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Alaghehbandian

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the state of the art on risk communication to the public, with an emphasis on simulation of seismic hazards using VRML. Rapid growth computer technologies, especially the Internet provide human beings new measures to deal with engineering and social problems which were hard to solve in traditional ways. This paper presents a prototype of an application platform based on the Internet using VR (Virtual Reality for civil engineering considering building an information system of risk communication for seismic hazards and at the moment in the case of bridge structure.

  10. Utilization of steel bellows expansion joints to improve the earthquake resistance of pipelines and piping-systems; Einsatz von Stahlkompensatoren zur Erhoehung der Erdbebensicherheit von Rohrleitungen und Rohrsystemen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silbe, H. [IWK Regler und Kompensatoren GmbH, Berlin (Germany). Ingenieurbuero

    2001-07-01

    Seismic damages of lifelines could cause catastrophic consequences for life and environment. Defects in the gas system could be the reason for fires, the lack of water because of broken water pipes leads to problems in fire-fighting. The loss of potable water service could cause epidemics, further a preventing energy transmission and media service in hospitals could lead to difficulties in the medical treatment of victims. For instants during the Kobe 1995 earthquake, Kobe's water system sustained approximately 2000 breaks. The resulting lack of water contributed significantly to the fire problem due to the damages of Kobe's gas system. (orig.) [German] Erdbebenbedingte Schaeden an Versorgungsleitungen koennen katastrophale Folgen fuer Menschen und Umwelt hervorrufen. Defekte Gasleitungen koennen Ursache fuer Grossbraende sein, deren Bekaempfung durch zerstoerte Wasserversorgungsleitungen erschwert oder unmoeglich ist, eine unterbrochene Trinkwasserversorgung kann zu Epidemien fuehren, nicht zuletzt kann eine unterbrochene Energie- bzw. Medienversorgung in Krankenhaeusern zu Problemen bei der Versorgung von Verletzten fuehren. Das Wassernetz Kobes erfuhr beispielsweise infolge des Erdbebens 1995 mehr als 2000 Brueche. Wegen des zerstoerten Wasserversorgungsnetzes war eine Bekaempfung des Grossfeuers, hervorgerufen durch Brueche im Gasnetz, nicht moeglich. (orig.)

  11. Design basis earthquakes for critical industrial facilities and their characteristics, and the Southern Hyogo prefecture earthquake, 17 January 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shibata, Heki

    1998-12-01

    This paper deals with how to establish the concept of the design basis earthquake (DBE) for critical industrial facilities such as nuclear power plants in consideration of disasters such as the Southern Hyogo prefecture earthquake, the so-called Kobe earthquake in 1995. The author once discussed various DBEs at the 7th World Conference on Earthquake Engineering. At that time, the author assumed that the strongest effective PGA would be 0.7 G, and compared the values of accelerations of a structure obtained by various codes in Japan and other countries. The maximum PGA observed by an instrument at the Southern Hyogo prefecture earthquake in 1995 exceeded the previous assumption of the author, even though the results of the previous paper had been pessimistic. According to the experience of the Kobe event, the author will point out the necessity of the third earthquake S{sub s} adding to S{sub 1} and S{sub 2} of previous DBEs.

  12. Estimation of Natural Frequencies During Earthquakes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Rytter, A

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents two different recursive prediction error method (RPEM} implementations of multivariate Auto-Regressive Moving- Average (ARMAV) models for identification of a time variant civil engineering structure subject to an earthquake. The two techniques are tested on measurements made...

  13. Environmentally Friendly Solution to Ground Hazards in Design of Bridges in Earthquake Prone Areas Using Timber Piles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi, H.

    2015-12-01

    Bridges are major elements of infrastructure in all societies. Their safety and continued serviceability guaranties the transportation and emergency access in urban and rural areas. However, these important structures are subject to earthquake induced damages in structure and foundations. The basic approach to the proper support of foundations are a) distribution of imposed loads to foundation in a way they can resist those loads without excessive settlement and failure; b) modification of foundation ground with various available methods; and c) combination of "a" and "b". The engineers has to face the task of designing the foundations meeting all safely and serviceability criteria but sometimes when there are numerous environmental and financial constrains, the use of some traditional methods become inevitable. This paper explains the application of timber piles to improve ground resistance to liquefaction and to secure the abutments of short to medium length bridges in an earthquake/liquefaction prone area in Bohol Island, Philippines. The limitations of using the common ground improvement methods (i.e., injection, dynamic compaction) because of either environmental or financial concerns along with the abundance of timber in the area made the engineers to use a network of timber piles behind the backwalls of the bridge abutments. The suggested timber pile network is simulated by numerical methods and its safety is examined. The results show that the compaction caused by driving of the piles and bearing capacity provided by timbers reduce the settlement and lateral movements due to service and earthquake induced loads.

  14. Experimental study of structural response to earthquakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clough, R.W.; Bertero, V.V.; Bouwkamp, J.G.; Popov, E.P.

    1975-01-01

    The objectives, methods, and some of the principal results obtained from experimental studies of the behavior of structures subjected to earthquakes are described. Although such investigations are being conducted in many laboratories throughout the world, the information presented deals specifically with projects being carried out at the Earthquake Engineering Research Center (EERC) of the University of California, Berkeley. A primary purpose of these investigations is to obtain detailed information on the inelastic response mechanisms in typical structural systems so that the experimentally observed performance can be compared with computer generated analytical predictions. Only by such comparisons can the mathematical models used in dynamic nonlinear analyses be verified and improved. Two experimental procedures for investigating earthquake structural response are discussed: the earthquake simulator facility which subjects the base of the test structure to acceleration histories similar to those recorded in actual earthquakes, and systems of hydraulic rams which impose specified displacement histories on the test components, equivalent to motions developed in structures subjected to actual'quakes. The general concept and performance of the 20ft square EERC earthquake simulator is described, and the testing of a two story concrete frame building is outlined. Correlation of the experimental results with analytical predictions demonstrates that satisfactory agreement can be obtained only if the mathematical model incorporates a stiffness deterioration mechanism which simulates the cracking and other damage suffered by the structure

  15. Cyclic characteristics of earthquake time histories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, J.R. Jr; Shukla, D.K.; Kissenpfennig, J.F.

    1977-01-01

    From an engineering standpoint, an earthquake record may be characterized by a number of parameters, one of which is its 'cyclic characteristics'. The cyclic characteristics are most significant in fatigue analysis of structures and liquefaction analysis of soils where, in addition to the peak motion, cyclic buildup is significant. Whereas duration peak amplitude and response spectra for earthquakes have been studied extensively, the cyclic characteristics of earthquake records have not received an equivalent attention. Present procedures to define the cyclic characteristics are generally based upon counting the number of peaks at various amplitude ranges on a record. This paper presents a computer approach which describes a time history by an amplitude envelope and a phase curve. Using Fast Fourier Transform Techniques, an earthquake time history is represented as a projection along the x-axis of a rotating vector-the length the vector is given by the amplitude spectra-and the angle between the vector and x-axis is given by the phase curve. Thus one cycle is completed when the vector makes a full rotation. Based upon Miner's cumulative damage concept, the computer code automatically combines the cycles of various amplitudes to obtain the equivalent number of cycles of a given amplitude. To illustrate the overall results, the cyclic characteristics of several real and synthetic earthquake time histories have been studied and are presented in the paper, with the conclusion that this procedure provides a physical interpretation of the cyclic characteristics of earthquakes. (Auth.)

  16. Earthquakes trigger the loss of groundwater biodiversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galassi, Diana M. P.; Lombardo, Paola; Fiasca, Barbara; di Cioccio, Alessia; di Lorenzo, Tiziana; Petitta, Marco; di Carlo, Piero

    2014-09-01

    Earthquakes are among the most destructive natural events. The 6 April 2009, 6.3-Mw earthquake in L'Aquila (Italy) markedly altered the karstic Gran Sasso Aquifer (GSA) hydrogeology and geochemistry. The GSA groundwater invertebrate community is mainly comprised of small-bodied, colourless, blind microcrustaceans. We compared abiotic and biotic data from two pre-earthquake and one post-earthquake complete but non-contiguous hydrological years to investigate the effects of the 2009 earthquake on the dominant copepod component of the obligate groundwater fauna. Our results suggest that the massive earthquake-induced aquifer strain biotriggered a flushing of groundwater fauna, with a dramatic decrease in subterranean species abundance. Population turnover rates appeared to have crashed, no longer replenishing the long-standing communities from aquifer fractures, and the aquifer became almost totally deprived of animal life. Groundwater communities are notorious for their low resilience. Therefore, any major disturbance that negatively impacts survival or reproduction may lead to local extinction of species, most of them being the only survivors of phylogenetic lineages extinct at the Earth surface. Given the ecological key role played by the subterranean fauna as decomposers of organic matter and ``ecosystem engineers'', we urge more detailed, long-term studies on the effect of major disturbances to groundwater ecosystems.

  17. Earthquake casualty models within the USGS Prompt Assessment of Global Earthquakes for Response (PAGER) system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaiswal, Kishor; Wald, David J.; Earle, Paul S.; Porter, Keith A.; Hearne, Mike

    2011-01-01

    Since the launch of the USGS’s Prompt Assessment of Global Earthquakes for Response (PAGER) system in fall of 2007, the time needed for the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to determine and comprehend the scope of any major earthquake disaster anywhere in the world has been dramatically reduced to less than 30 min. PAGER alerts consist of estimated shaking hazard from the ShakeMap system, estimates of population exposure at various shaking intensities, and a list of the most severely shaken cities in the epicentral area. These estimates help government, scientific, and relief agencies to guide their responses in the immediate aftermath of a significant earthquake. To account for wide variability and uncertainty associated with inventory, structural vulnerability and casualty data, PAGER employs three different global earthquake fatality/loss computation models. This article describes the development of the models and demonstrates the loss estimation capability for earthquakes that have occurred since 2007. The empirical model relies on country-specific earthquake loss data from past earthquakes and makes use of calibrated casualty rates for future prediction. The semi-empirical and analytical models are engineering-based and rely on complex datasets including building inventories, time-dependent population distributions within different occupancies, the vulnerability of regional building stocks, and casualty rates given structural collapse.

  18. Development of wear resistant ceramic coatings for diesel engine components. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haselkorn, M.H. [Caterpillar, Inc., Peoria, IL (United States)

    1992-04-01

    Improved fuel economy and a reduction of emissions can be achieved by insulation of the combustion chamber components to reduce heat rejection. However, insulating the combustion chamber components will also increase the operating temperature of the piston ring/cylinder liner interface from approximately 150{degree}C to over 300{degree}C. Existing ring/liner materials can not withstand these higher operating temperatures and for this reason, new materials need to be developed for this critical tribological interface. The overall goal of this program is the development of piston ring/cylinder liner material pairs which would be able to provide the required friction and wear properties at these more severe operating conditions. More specifically, this program first selected, and then evaluated, potential d/wear resistant coatings which could be applied to either piston rings an or cylinder liners and provide, at 350{degree}C under lubricated conditions, coefficients of friction below 0.1 and wear rates of less than 25 {times} lO{sup {minus}6} mm/hour. The processes selected for applying the candidate wear resistant coatings to piston rings and/or cylinder liners were plasma spraying, chemical vapor, physical vapor and low temperature arc vapor deposition techniques as well as enameling techniques.

  19. Broadband Magnetotelluric Investigations of Crustal Resistivity Structure in North-Eastern Alberta: Implications for Engineered Geothermal Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liddell, M. V.; Unsworth, M. J.; Nieuwenhuis, G.

    2013-12-01

    Greenhouse gas emissions from hydrocarbon consumption produce profound changes in the global climate, and the implementation of alternative energy sources is needed. The oilsands industry in Alberta (Canada) is a major producer of greenhouse gases as natural gas is burnt to produce the heat required to extract and process bitumen. Geothermal energy could be utilized to provide this necessary heat and has the potential to reduce both financial costs and environmental impacts of the oilsands industry. In order to determine the geothermal potential the details of the reservoir must be understood. Conventional hydrothermal reservoirs have been detected using geophysical techniques such as magnetotellurics (MT) which measures the electrical conductivity of the Earth. However, in Northern Alberta the geothermal gradient is relatively low, and heat must be extracted from deep inside the basement rocks using Engineered Geothermal Systems (EGS) and therefore an alternative exploration technique is required. MT can be useful in this context as it can detect fracture zones and regions of elevated porosity. MT data were recorded near Fort McMurray with the goal of determining the geothermal potential by understanding the crustal resistivity structure beneath the Athabasca Oilsands. The MT data are being used to locate targets of significance for geothermal exploration such as regions of low resistivity in the basement rocks which can relate to in situ fluids or fracture zones which can facilitate efficient heat extraction or het transport. A total of 93 stations were collected ~500m apart on two profiles stretching 30 and 20km respectively. Signals were recorded using Phoenix Geophysics V5-2000 systems over frequency bands from 1000 to 0.001 Hz, corresponding to depths of penetration approximately 50m to 50km. Groom-Bailey tensor decomposition and phase tensor analysis shows a well defined geoelectric strike direction that varied along the profile from N60°E to N45

  20. Rationally engineered nanoparticles target multiple myeloma cells, overcome cell-adhesion-mediated drug resistance, and show enhanced efficacy in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiziltepe, T; Ashley, J D; Stefanick, J F; Qi, Y M; Alves, N J; Handlogten, M W; Suckow, M A; Navari, R M; Bilgicer, B

    2012-01-01

    In the continuing search for effective cancer treatments, we report the rational engineering of a multifunctional nanoparticle that combines traditional chemotherapy with cell targeting and anti-adhesion functionalities. Very late antigen-4 (VLA-4) mediated adhesion of multiple myeloma (MM) cells to bone marrow stroma confers MM cells with cell-adhesion-mediated drug resistance (CAM-DR). In our design, we used micellar nanoparticles as dynamic self-assembling scaffolds to present VLA-4-antagonist peptides and doxorubicin (Dox) conjugates, simultaneously, to selectively target MM cells and to overcome CAM-DR. Dox was conjugated to the nanoparticles through an acid-sensitive hydrazone bond. VLA-4-antagonist peptides were conjugated via a multifaceted synthetic procedure for generating precisely controlled number of targeting functionalities. The nanoparticles were efficiently internalized by MM cells and induced cytotoxicity. Mechanistic studies revealed that nanoparticles induced DNA double-strand breaks and apoptosis in MM cells. Importantly, multifunctional nanoparticles overcame CAM-DR, and were more efficacious than Dox when MM cells were cultured on fibronectin-coated plates. Finally, in a MM xenograft model, nanoparticles preferentially homed to MM tumors with ∼10 fold more drug accumulation and demonstrated dramatic tumor growth inhibition with a reduced overall systemic toxicity. Altogether, we demonstrate the disease driven engineering of a nanoparticle-based drug delivery system, enabling the model of an integrative approach in the treatment of MM

  1. Implementation of an industrial systems-engineering approach to reduce the incidence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muder, Robert R; Cunningham, Candace; McCray, Ellesha; Squier, Cheryl; Perreiah, Peter; Jain, Rajiv; Sinkowitz-Cochran, Ronda L; Jernigan, John A

    2008-08-01

    To measure the effectiveness of an industrial systems-engineering approach to a methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) prevention program. Before-after intervention study. An intensive care unit (ICU) and a surgical unit that was not an ICU in the Pittsburgh Veterans Administration hospital. All patients admitted to the study units. We implemented an MRSA infection control program that consisted of the following 4 elements: (1) the use of standard precautions for all patient contact, with emphasis on hand hygiene; (2) the use of contact precautions for interactions with patients known to be infected or colonized with MRSA; (3) the use of active surveillance cultures to identify patients who were asymptomatically colonized with MRSA; and (4) use of an industrial systems-engineering approach, the Toyota Production System, to facilitate consistent and reliable adherence to the infection control program. The rate of healthcare-associated MRSA infection in the surgical unit decreased from 1.56 infections per 1,000 patient-days in the 2 years before the intervention to 0.63 infections per 1,000 patient-days in the 4 years after the intervention (a 60% reduction; P = .003). The rate of healthcare-associated MRSA infection in the ICU decreased from 5.45 infections per 1,000 patient-days in the 2 years before to the intervention to 1.35 infections per 1,000 patient-days in the 3 years after the intervention (a 75% reduction; P = .001). The combined estimate for reduction in the incidence of infection after the intervention in the 2 units was 68% (95% confidence interval, 50%-79%; P systems-engineering approach can be adapted to facilitate consistent and reliable adherence to MRSA infection prevention practices in healthcare facilities.

  2. Earthquake at 40 feet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, G. J.

    1976-01-01

    The earthquake that struck the island of Guam on November 1, 1975, at 11:17 a.m had many unique aspects-not the least of which was the experience of an earthquake of 6.25 Richter magnitude while at 40 feet. My wife Bonnie, a fellow diver, Greg Guzman, and I were diving at Gabgab Beach in teh outer harbor of Apra Harbor, engaged in underwater phoyography when the earthquake struck. 

  3. Earthquakes and economic growth

    OpenAIRE

    Fisker, Peter Simonsen

    2012-01-01

    This study explores the economic consequences of earthquakes. In particular, it is investigated how exposure to earthquakes affects economic growth both across and within countries. The key result of the empirical analysis is that while there are no observable effects at the country level, earthquake exposure significantly decreases 5-year economic growth at the local level. Areas at lower stages of economic development suffer harder in terms of economic growth than richer areas. In addition,...

  4. The 2008 Wenchuan Earthquake and the Rise and Fall of Earthquake Prediction in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Q.; Wang, K.

    2009-12-01

    Regardless of the future potential of earthquake prediction, it is presently impractical to rely on it to mitigate earthquake disasters. The practical approach is to strengthen the resilience of our built environment to earthquakes based on hazard assessment. But this was not common understanding in China when the M 7.9 Wenchuan earthquake struck the Sichuan Province on 12 May 2008, claiming over 80,000 lives. In China, earthquake prediction is a government-sanctioned and law-regulated measure of disaster prevention. A sudden boom of the earthquake prediction program in 1966-1976 coincided with a succession of nine M > 7 damaging earthquakes in the densely populated region of the country and the political chaos of the Cultural Revolution. It climaxed with the prediction of the 1975 Haicheng earthquake, which was due mainly to an unusually pronounced foreshock sequence and the extraordinary readiness of some local officials to issue imminent warning and evacuation order. The Haicheng prediction was a success in practice and yielded useful lessons, but the experience cannot be applied to most other earthquakes and cultural environments. Since the disastrous Tangshan earthquake in 1976 that killed over 240,000 people, there have been two opposite trends in China: decreasing confidence in prediction and increasing emphasis on regulating construction design for earthquake resilience. In 1976, most of the seismic intensity XI areas of Tangshan were literally razed to the ground, but in 2008, many buildings in the intensity XI areas of Wenchuan did not collapse. Prediction did not save life in either of these events; the difference was made by construction standards. For regular buildings, there was no seismic design in Tangshan to resist any earthquake shaking in 1976, but limited seismic design was required for the Wenchuan area in 2008. Although the construction standards were later recognized to be too low, those buildings that met the standards suffered much less

  5. Geomagnetic anomalies - possible earthquake precursors - linked with 2004 significant seismic activity in Vrancea, Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enescu, D.

    2005-01-01

    The association between a precursory geomagnetic anomaly and a Vrancea earthquake of moderate-to-high magnitude (M W = 6.3) followed by weaker earthquakes (M W W ≤ 6.3 the conclusion of our earlier papers, i.e., that the great majority of Vrancea earthquakes of magnitudes 3.7 ≤ M W ≤5.0 were accompanied by observable precursory electromagnetic anomalies. Our works show that neither the precursor time nor the amplitude of the precursory magnetic anomaly can be linked reliably with the magnitude of the anticipated earthquake. Knowing the way electric resistivity varies ahead of an earthquake, we can assert that the earthquake-precursory growth in geomagnetic impedance is matched by an earthquake-precursory decrease of electric resistivity. (authors)

  6. Market applications of Resistivity, Induced Polarisation, Magnetic Resonance and Electromagnetic methods for Groundwater Investigations, Mining Exploration, Environmental and Engineering Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, J.

    2012-12-01

    The Manufacturers of geophysical instruments have been facing these past decades the fast evolution of the electronics and of the computer sciences. More automatisms have been introduced into the equipment and into the processing and interpretation software which may let believe that conducting geophysical surveys requires less understanding of the method and less experience than in the past. Hence some misunderstandings in the skills that are needed to make the geophysical results well integrated among the global information which the applied geologist needs to acquire to be successful in his applications. Globally, the demand in geophysical investigation goes towards more penetration depth, requiring more powerful transmitters, and towards a better resolution, requiring more data such as in 3D analysis. Budgets aspects strongly suggest a high efficiency in the field associated to high speed data processing. The innovation is required in all aspects of geophysics to fit with the market needs, including new technological (instruments, software) and methodological (methods, procedures, arrays) developments. The structures in charge of the geophysical work can be public organisations (institutes, ministries, geological surveys,…) or can come from the private sector (large companies, sub-contractors, consultants, …), each one of them getting their own constraints in the field work and in the processing and interpretation phases. In the applications concerning Groundwater investigations, Mining Exploration, Environmental and Engineering surveys, examples of data and their interpretation presently carried out all around the world will be presented for DC Resistivity (Vertical Electrical Sounding, 2D, 3D Resistivity Imaging, Resistivity Monitoring), Induced Polarisation (Time Domain 2D, 3D arrays for mining and environmental), Magnetic Resonance Sounding (direct detection and characterisation of groundwater) and Electromagnetic (multi-component and multi

  7. Cooperative earthquake research between the United States and the People's Republic of China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russ, D.P.; Johnson, L.E.

    1986-01-01

    This paper describes cooperative research by scientists of the US and the People's Republic of China (PRC) which has resulted in important new findings concerning the fundamental characteristics of earthquakes and new insight into mitigating earthquake hazards. There have been over 35 projects cooperatively sponsored by the Earthquake Studies Protocol in the past 5 years. The projects are organized into seven annexes, including investigations in earthquake prediction, intraplate faults and earthquakes, earthquake engineering and hazards investigation, deep crustal structure, rock mechanics, seismology, and data exchange. Operational earthquake prediction experiments are currently being developed at two primary sites: western Yunnan Province near the town of Xiaguan, where there are several active faults, and the northeast China plain, where the devastating 1976 Tangshan earthquake occurred.

  8. Genetic Engineering of a Radiation-Resistant Bacterium for Biodegradation of Mixed Wastes. Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lidstrom, Mary E.

    2003-01-01

    Aqueous mixed low level wastes (MLLW) containing radionuclides, solvents, and/or heavy metals represent a serious current and future problem for DOE environmental management and cleanup. In order to provide low-cost treatment alternatives under mild conditions for such contained wastes, we have proposed to use the radiation-resistant bacterium, Deinococcus radiodurans. This project has focused on developing D. radiodurans strains for dual purpose processes: cometabolic treatment of haloorganics and other solvents and removal of heavy metals from waste streams in an above-ground reactor system. The characteristics of effective treatment strains that must be attained are: (a) high biodegradative and metal binding activity; (b) stable treatment characteristics in the absence of selection and in the presence of physiological stress; (c) survival and activity under harsh chemical conditions, including radiation. The result of this project has been a suite of strains with high biodegradative capabilities that are candidates for pilot stage treatment systems. In addition, we have determined how to create conditions to precipitate heavy metals on the surface of the bacterium, as the first step towards creating dual-use treatment strains for contained mixed wastes of importance to the DOE. Finally, we have analyzed stress response in this bacterium, to create the foundation for developing treatment processes that maximize degradation while optimizing survival under high stress conditions

  9. Crevice corrosion resistance of Ni-Cr-Mo alloys as engineered barriers in nuclear waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hornus, E. C.; Carranza, R. M.; Giordano, C. M.; Rodríguez, M. A.; Rebak, R. B.

    2013-01-01

    The crevice corrosion re passivation potential was determined by the Potentiodynamic- Galvanostatic-Potentiodynamic (PD-GS-PD) method. Alloys 625, C-22, C-22HS and HYBRID-BC1 were used. Specimens contained 24 artificially creviced spots formed by a ceramic washer (crevice former) wrapped with a PTFE tape. Crevice corrosion tests were performed in 0,1 mol/L and 1 mol/L NaCl solutions at temperatures between 20 and 90ºC, and CaCl2 5 mol/L solution at temperatures between 20 and 117°C. The crevice corrosion resistance of the alloys increased in the following order: 625 < C-22 < C-22HS < HYBRID-BC1. The repassivation potential (ECO) showed the following relationship with temperature (T) and chloride concentration ([Cl-]) ECO = (A + B T) log [Cl-] + C T + D; where A, B, C and D are constants. At temperatures above 90°C, ECO for alloy 625 stabilized at a minimum value of -0.26 VSCE (author)

  10. Engineering cherry rootstocks with resistance to Prunus necrotic ring spot virus through RNAi-mediated silencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Guo-qing; Sink, Kenneth C; Walworth, Aaron E; Cook, Meridith A; Allison, Richard F; Lang, Gregory A

    2013-08-01

    Prunus necrotic ringspot virus (PNRSV) is a major pollen-disseminated ilarvirus that adversely affects many Prunus species. In this study, an RNA interference (RNAi) vector pART27-PNRSV containing an inverted repeat (IR) region of PNRSV was transformed into two hybrid (triploid) cherry rootstocks, 'Gisela 6' (GI 148-1) and 'Gisela 7'(GI 148-8)', which are tolerant and sensitive, respectively, to PNRSV infection. One year after inoculation with PNRSV plus Prune Dwarf Virus, nontransgenic 'Gisela 6' exhibited no symptoms but a significant PNRSV titre, while the transgenic 'Gisela 6' had no symptoms and minimal PNRSV titre. The nontransgenic 'Gisela 7' trees died, while the transgenic 'Gisela 7' trees survived. These results demonstrate the RNAi strategy is useful for developing viral resistance in fruit rootstocks, and such transgenic rootstocks may have potential to enhance production of standard, nongenetically modified fruit varieties while avoiding concerns about transgene flow and exogenous protein production that are inherent for transformed fruiting genotypes. © 2013 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. RNAi-mediated resistance to whitefly (Bemisia tabaci) in genetically engineered lettuce (Lactuca sativa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Abdulrazak B; Monteiro, Tatiane R; Cabral, Glaucia B; Aragão, Francisco J L

    2017-10-01

    RNA interference (RNAi)-based transgenic technologies have evolved as potent biochemical tools for silencing specific genes of plant pathogens and pests. The approach has been demonstrated to be useful in silencing genes in insect species. Here, we report on the successful construction of RNAi-based plasmid containing an interfering cassette designed to generate dsRNAs that target a novel v-ATPase transcript in whitefly (Bemisia tabaci), an important agricultural pest in tropical and sub-tropical regions. The presence of the transgene was confirmed in T 0 and T 1 generations of transgenic lettuce lines, segregating in a Mendelian fashion. Seven lines were infested with whiteflies and monitored over a period of 32 days. Analysis of mortality showed that within five days of feeding, insects on transgenic plants showed a mortality rate of 83.8-98.1%. In addition, a reduced number of eggs (95 fold less) was observed in flies feeding on transgenic lettuce plants than insects on control lines. Quantitative reverse transcription PCR showed decreased expression level of endogenous v-ATPase gene in whiteflies feeding on transgenic plants. This technology is a foundation for the production of whitefly-resistant commercial crops, improving agricultural sustainability and food security, reducing the use of more environmentally aggressive methods of pest control.

  12. OMG Earthquake! Can Twitter improve earthquake response?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earle, P. S.; Guy, M.; Ostrum, C.; Horvath, S.; Buckmaster, R. A.

    2009-12-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is investigating how the social networking site Twitter, a popular service for sending and receiving short, public, text messages, can augment its earthquake response products and the delivery of hazard information. The goal is to gather near real-time, earthquake-related messages (tweets) and provide geo-located earthquake detections and rough maps of the corresponding felt areas. Twitter and other social Internet technologies are providing the general public with anecdotal earthquake hazard information before scientific information has been published from authoritative sources. People local to an event often publish information within seconds via these technologies. In contrast, depending on the location of the earthquake, scientific alerts take between 2 to 20 minutes. Examining the tweets following the March 30, 2009, M4.3 Morgan Hill earthquake shows it is possible (in some cases) to rapidly detect and map the felt area of an earthquake using Twitter responses. Within a minute of the earthquake, the frequency of “earthquake” tweets rose above the background level of less than 1 per hour to about 150 per minute. Using the tweets submitted in the first minute, a rough map of the felt area can be obtained by plotting the tweet locations. Mapping the tweets from the first six minutes shows observations extending from Monterey to Sacramento, similar to the perceived shaking region mapped by the USGS “Did You Feel It” system. The tweets submitted after the earthquake also provided (very) short first-impression narratives from people who experienced the shaking. Accurately assessing the potential and robustness of a Twitter-based system is difficult because only tweets spanning the previous seven days can be searched, making a historical study impossible. We have, however, been archiving tweets for several months, and it is clear that significant limitations do exist. The main drawback is the lack of quantitative information

  13. Overview of seismic resistant design of Indian Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, G.K.; Hawaldar, R.V.K.P.; Vinod Kumar

    2007-01-01

    Safe operation of a Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) is of utmost importance. NPPs consist of various Structure, System and Equipment (SS and E) that are designed to resist the forces generated due to a natural phenomenon like earthquake. An earthquake causes severe oscillatory ground motion of short duration. Seismic resistant design of SS and E calls for evaluation of effect of severe ground shaking for assuring the structural integrity and operability during and after the occurrence of earthquake event. Overall exercise is a multi-disciplinary approach. First of standardized 220 MWe design reactor is Narora Atomic Power Station. Seismic design was carried out as per state of art then, for the first time. The twelve 220 MWe reactors and two 540 MWe reactors designed since 1975 have been seismically qualified for the earthquake loads expected in the region. Seismic design of 700 MWe reactor is under advanced stage of finalization. Seismic re-evaluation of six numbers of old plants has been completed as per latest state of art. Over the years, expertise have been developed at Nuclear Power Corporation of India Limited, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, prominent educational institutes, research laboratories and engineering consultants in the country in the area of seismic design, analysis and shake table testing. (author)

  14. National Earthquake Hazards Program at a Crossroads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    The U.S.National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program, which turns 25 years old on 1 October 2003, is passing through two major transitions, which experts said either could weaken or strengthen the program. On 1 March, a federal government reorganization placed NEHRP's lead agency,the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA),within the new Department of Homeland Security (DHS). A number of earthquake scientists and engineers expressed concern that NEHRP, which already faces budgetary and organizational challenges, and lacks visibility,could end up being marginalized in the bureaucratic shuffle. Some experts, though,as well as agency officials, said they hope DHS will recognize synergies between dealing with earthquakes and terrorist attacks.

  15. Lessons learned from the 1994 Northridge Earthquake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eli, M.W.; Sommer, S.C.

    1995-01-01

    Southern California has a history of major earthquakes and also has one of the largest metropolitan areas in the United States. The 1994 Northridge Earthquake challenged the industrial facilities and lifetime infrastructure in the northern Los Angeles (LA) area. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) sent a team of engineers to conduct an earthquake damage investigation in the Northridge area, on a project funded jointly by the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) and the United States Department of Energy (USDOE). Many of the structures, systems, and components (SSCs) and lifelines that suffered damage are similar to those found in nuclear power plants and in USDOE facilities. Lessons learned from these experiences can have some applicability at commercial nuclear power plants

  16. Earthquakes and Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Earthquakes are low-probability, high-consequence events. Though they may occur only once in the life of a school, they can have devastating, irreversible consequences. Moderate earthquakes can cause serious damage to building contents and non-structural building systems, serious injury to students and staff, and disruption of building operations.…

  17. Bam Earthquake in Iran

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    Following their request for help from members of international organisations, the permanent Mission of the Islamic Republic of Iran has given the following bank account number, where you can donate money to help the victims of the Bam earthquake. Re: Bam earthquake 235 - UBS 311264.35L Bubenberg Platz 3001 BERN

  18. Tradable Earthquake Certificates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woerdman, Edwin; Dulleman, Minne

    2018-01-01

    This article presents a market-based idea to compensate for earthquake damage caused by the extraction of natural gas and applies it to the case of Groningen in the Netherlands. Earthquake certificates give homeowners a right to yearly compensation for both property damage and degradation of living

  19. Prediction of strong earthquake motions on rock surface using evolutionary process models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kameda, H.; Sugito, M.

    1984-01-01

    Stochastic process models are developed for prediction of strong earthquake motions for engineering design purposes. Earthquake motions with nonstationary frequency content are modeled by using the concept of evolutionary processes. Discussion is focused on the earthquake motions on bed rocks which are important for construction of nuclear power plants in seismic regions. On this basis, two earthquake motion prediction models are developed, one (EMP-IB Model) for prediction with given magnitude and epicentral distance, and the other (EMP-IIB Model) to account for the successive fault ruptures and the site location relative to the fault of great earthquakes. (Author) [pt

  20. Armenian earthquake WWER-440 NNPs and Turkish early warning system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bektur, Y.

    1991-01-01

    On December 7, 1988 a severe earthquake occurred at Spitak, approximately 90-100 km far from the Armenian Nuclear Power Plant in Yerivan. Another one named Vrancea earthquake which occurred on 4 March, 1977. During this earthquake, the Kozloduj NPP (Bulgaria) was strongly damaged. Until this event, seismic loadings had received scant attention in the siting of WWER's. However after the Kozlodui damage Soviet designers changed their opinion. In this study, the seismicity of the Black Sea region and eastern Europe, seismic requirements for WWER's and the changes in plants for which to resistant against to the earthquake are given. During the earthquake radiation levels obtained by Turkish early warning system is also given

  1. Turkish Compulsory Earthquake Insurance and "Istanbul Earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durukal, E.; Sesetyan, K.; Erdik, M.

    2009-04-01

    The city of Istanbul will likely experience substantial direct and indirect losses as a result of a future large (M=7+) earthquake with an annual probability of occurrence of about 2%. This paper dwells on the expected building losses in terms of probable maximum and average annualized losses and discusses the results from the perspective of the compulsory earthquake insurance scheme operational in the country. The TCIP system is essentially designed to operate in Turkey with sufficient penetration to enable the accumulation of funds in the pool. Today, with only 20% national penetration, and about approximately one-half of all policies in highly earthquake prone areas (one-third in Istanbul) the system exhibits signs of adverse selection, inadequate premium structure and insufficient funding. Our findings indicate that the national compulsory earthquake insurance pool in Turkey will face difficulties in covering incurring building losses in Istanbul in the occurrence of a large earthquake. The annualized earthquake losses in Istanbul are between 140-300 million. Even if we assume that the deductible is raised to 15%, the earthquake losses that need to be paid after a large earthquake in Istanbul will be at about 2.5 Billion, somewhat above the current capacity of the TCIP. Thus, a modification to the system for the insured in Istanbul (or Marmara region) is necessary. This may mean an increase in the premia and deductible rates, purchase of larger re-insurance covers and development of a claim processing system. Also, to avoid adverse selection, the penetration rates elsewhere in Turkey need to be increased substantially. A better model would be introduction of parametric insurance for Istanbul. By such a model the losses will not be indemnified, however will be directly calculated on the basis of indexed ground motion levels and damages. The immediate improvement of a parametric insurance model over the existing one will be the elimination of the claim processing

  2. Earthquake risk assessment of building structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellingwood, Bruce R.

    2001-01-01

    During the past two decades, probabilistic risk analysis tools have been applied to assess the performance of new and existing building structural systems. Structural design and evaluation of buildings and other facilities with regard to their ability to withstand the effects of earthquakes requires special considerations that are not normally a part of such evaluations for other occupancy, service and environmental loads. This paper reviews some of these special considerations, specifically as they pertain to probability-based codified design and reliability-based condition assessment of existing buildings. Difficulties experienced in implementing probability-based limit states design criteria for earthquake are summarized. Comparisons of predicted and observed building damage highlight the limitations of using current deterministic approaches for post-earthquake building condition assessment. The importance of inherent randomness and modeling uncertainty in forecasting building performance is examined through a building fragility assessment of a steel frame with welded connections that was damaged during the Northridge Earthquake of 1994. The prospects for future improvements in earthquake-resistant design procedures based on a more rational probability-based treatment of uncertainty are examined

  3. Development of advanced earthquake resistant performance verification on reinforced concrete underground structure. Pt. 2. Verification of the ground modeling methods applied to non-linear soil-structure interaction analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawai, Tadashi; Kanatani, Mamoru; Ohtomo, Keizo; Matsui, Jun; Matsuo, Toyofumi

    2003-01-01

    In order to develop an advanced verification method for earthquake resistant performance on reinforced concrete underground structures, the applicability of two different types of soil modeling methods in numerical analysis were verified through non-linear dynamic numerical simulations of the large shaking table tests conducted using the model comprised of free-field ground or soils and a reinforced concrete two-box culvert structure system. In these simulations, the structure was modeled by a beam type element having a tri-linear curve of the relations between curvature and flexural moment. The soil was modeled by the Ramberg-Osgood model as well as an elasto-plastic constitutive model. The former model only employs non-linearity of shear modulus regarding strain and initial stress conditions, whereas the latter can express non-linearity of shear modulus caused by changes of mean effective stress during ground excitation and dilatancy of ground soil. Therefore the elasto-plastic constitutive model could precisely simulate the vertical acceleration and displacement response on ground surface, which were produced by the soil dilations during a shaking event of a horizontal base input in the model tests. In addition, the model can explain distinctive dynamic earth pressure acting on the vertical walls of the structure which was also confirmed to be related to the soil dilations. However, since both these modeling methods could express the shear force on the upper slab surface of the model structure, which plays the predominant role on structural deformation, these modeling methods were applicable equally to the evaluation of seismic performance similar to the model structure of this study. (author)

  4. Earthquake responses of a beam supported by a mechanical snubber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohmata, Kenichiro; Ishizu, Seiji.

    1989-01-01

    The mechanical snubber is an earthquakeproof device for piping systems under particular circumstances such as high temperature and radioactivity. It has nonlinearities in both load and frequency response. In this report, the resisting force characteristics of the snubber and earthquake responses of piping (a simply supported beam) which is supported by the snubber are simulated using Continuous System Simulation Language (CSSL). Digital simulations are carried out for various kinds of physical properties of the snubber. The restraint effect and the maximum resisting force of the snubber during earthquakes are discussed and compared with the case of an oil damper. The earthquake waves used here are E1 Centro N-S and Akita Harbour N-S (Nihonkai-Chubu earthquake). (author)

  5. Earthquakes, November-December 1977

    Science.gov (United States)

    Person, W.J.

    1978-01-01

    Two major earthquakes occurred in the last 2 months of the year. A magnitude 7.0 earthquake struck San Juan Province, Argentina, on November 23, causing fatalities and damage. The second major earthquake was a magnitude 7.0 in the Bonin Islands region, an unpopulated area. On December 19, Iran experienced a destructive earthquake, which killed over 500.

  6. Earthquakes, September-October 1986

    Science.gov (United States)

    Person, W.J.

    1987-01-01

    There was one great earthquake (8.0 and above) during this reporting period in the South Pacific in the Kermadec Islands. There were no major earthquakes (7.0-7.9) but earthquake-related deaths were reported in Greece and in El Salvador. There were no destrcutive earthquakes in the United States.

  7. Earthquake hazard assessment and small earthquakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reiter, L.

    1987-01-01

    The significance of small earthquakes and their treatment in nuclear power plant seismic hazard assessment is an issue which has received increased attention over the past few years. In probabilistic studies, sensitivity studies showed that the choice of the lower bound magnitude used in hazard calculations can have a larger than expected effect on the calculated hazard. Of particular interest is the fact that some of the difference in seismic hazard calculations between the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) studies can be attributed to this choice. The LLNL study assumed a lower bound magnitude of 3.75 while the EPRI study assumed a lower bound magnitude of 5.0. The magnitudes used were assumed to be body wave magnitudes or their equivalents. In deterministic studies recent ground motion recordings of small to moderate earthquakes at or near nuclear power plants have shown that the high frequencies of design response spectra may be exceeded. These exceedances became important issues in the licensing of the Summer and Perry nuclear power plants. At various times in the past particular concerns have been raised with respect to the hazard and damage potential of small to moderate earthquakes occurring at very shallow depths. In this paper a closer look is taken at these issues. Emphasis is given to the impact of lower bound magnitude on probabilistic hazard calculations and the historical record of damage from small to moderate earthquakes. Limited recommendations are made as to how these issues should be viewed

  8. Ultimate limit states of steel containment vessel under earthquake loadings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akiyama, Hiroshi; Yuhara, Tetsuo; Shimizu, Seiichi; Hayashi, Kazutoshi; Takahashi, Tadao.

    1986-01-01

    The limit state induced by buckling of cylindrical steel structures under earthquake loadings was investigated from the standpoint of energy concept. A number of the buckling test of cylindrical steel shell structures has been made, which showed that they have a stable load-displacement relation and adequate deformation capacities beyond the buckling. The authors are proposing that the energy input imparted by strong earthquakes to buckled structures and the deformation capacity in post-buckling are suitable indices for seismic resistance of the cylindrical steel shell structures because the buckling does not cause the structure immediately to collapse in the case of such repeated loading as earthquake motions. The purpose of this study is to investigate the energy input to buckled cylindrical steel structures with an increase in the intensity of earthquake motions. A series of nonlinear dynamic analyses were performed under various types of earthquake records by using a hysteresis loop, including buckling, which was derived from the buckling tests. The limit state could be defined as the state in which the deformation of and the energy input into buckled structures increase divergently when the intensity of the earthquake excitation exceeds a certain value. The results obtained in this paper are intended to be adopted to the limit state in the post-buckling region to evaluate the margin of safety against the buckling resistance of cylindrical steel structures under strong earthquake loadings. (author)

  9. Sun, Moon and Earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolvankar, V. G.

    2013-12-01

    During a study conducted to find the effect of Earth tides on the occurrence of earthquakes, for small areas [typically 1000km X1000km] of high-seismicity regions, it was noticed that the Sun's position in terms of universal time [GMT] shows links to the sum of EMD [longitude of earthquake location - longitude of Moon's foot print on earth] and SEM [Sun-Earth-Moon angle]. This paper provides the details of this relationship after studying earthquake data for over forty high-seismicity regions of the world. It was found that over 98% of the earthquakes for these different regions, examined for the period 1973-2008, show a direct relationship between the Sun's position [GMT] and [EMD+SEM]. As the time changes from 00-24 hours, the factor [EMD+SEM] changes through 360 degree, and plotting these two variables for earthquakes from different small regions reveals a simple 45 degree straight-line relationship between them. This relationship was tested for all earthquakes and earthquake sequences for magnitude 2.0 and above. This study conclusively proves how Sun and the Moon govern all earthquakes. Fig. 12 [A+B]. The left-hand figure provides a 24-hour plot for forty consecutive days including the main event (00:58:23 on 26.12.2004, Lat.+3.30, Long+95.980, Mb 9.0, EQ count 376). The right-hand figure provides an earthquake plot for (EMD+SEM) vs GMT timings for the same data. All the 376 events including the main event faithfully follow the straight-line curve.

  10. Proposal on data collection for an international earthquake experience data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masopust, R.

    2001-01-01

    Earthquake experience data was recognized as an efficient basis for verification of seismic adequacy of equipment installed on NPPs. This paper is meant to initiate a database setup in order to use the seismic experience to establish the generic seismic resistance of NPPs equipment applicable namely to the Middle and East European countries. Such earthquake experience database should be then compared to the already existing and well-known SQUG-GIP database. To set up such an operational earthquake database will require an important amount of effort. It must be understood that this goal can be achieved only based on a long term permanent activities and coordinated cooperation of various institutions. (author)

  11. Klebsiella pneumoniae Carbapenemase-2 (KPC-2), Substitutions at Ambler Position Asp179, and Resistance to Ceftazidime-Avibactam: Unique Antibiotic-Resistant Phenotypes Emerge from β-Lactamase Protein Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Melissa D; Winkler, Marisa L; Taracila, Magdalena A; Page, Malcolm G; Desarbre, Eric; Kreiswirth, Barry N; Shields, Ryan K; Nguyen, Minh-Hong; Clancy, Cornelius; Spellberg, Brad; Papp-Wallace, Krisztina M; Bonomo, Robert A

    2017-10-31

    The emergence of Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemases (KPCs), β-lactamases that inactivate "last-line" antibiotics such as imipenem, represents a major challenge to contemporary antibiotic therapies. The combination of ceftazidime (CAZ) and avibactam (AVI), a potent β-lactamase inhibitor, represents an attempt to overcome this formidable threat and to restore the efficacy of the antibiotic against Gram-negative bacteria bearing KPCs. CAZ-AVI-resistant clinical strains expressing KPC variants with substitutions in the Ω-loop are emerging. We engineered 19 KPC-2 variants bearing targeted mutations at amino acid residue Ambler position 179 in Escherichia coli and identified a unique antibiotic resistance phenotype. We focus particularly on the CAZ-AVI resistance of the clinically relevant Asp179Asn variant. Although this variant demonstrated less hydrolytic activity, we demonstrated that there was a prolonged period during which an acyl-enzyme intermediate was present. Using mass spectrometry and transient kinetic analysis, we demonstrated that Asp179Asn "traps" β-lactams, preferentially binding β-lactams longer than AVI owing to a decreased rate of deacylation. Molecular dynamics simulations predict that (i) the Asp179Asn variant confers more flexibility to the Ω-loop and expands the active site significantly; (ii) the catalytic nucleophile, S70, is shifted more than 1.5 Å and rotated more than 90°, altering the hydrogen bond networks; and (iii) E166 is displaced by 2 Å when complexed with ceftazidime. These analyses explain the increased hydrolytic profile of KPC-2 and suggest that the Asp179Asn substitution results in an alternative complex mechanism leading to CAZ-AVI resistance. The future design of novel β-lactams and β-lactamase inhibitors must consider the mechanistic basis of resistance of this and other threatening carbapenemases. IMPORTANCE Antibiotic resistance is emerging at unprecedented rates and threatens to reach crisis levels. One key

  12. GEM - The Global Earthquake Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolka, A.

    2009-04-01

    Over 500,000 people died in the last decade due to earthquakes and tsunamis, mostly in the developing world, where the risk is increasing due to rapid population growth. In many seismic regions, no hazard and risk models exist, and even where models do exist, they are intelligible only by experts, or available only for commercial purposes. The Global Earthquake Model (GEM) answers the need for an openly accessible risk management tool. GEM is an internationally sanctioned public private partnership initiated by the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) which will establish an authoritative standard for calculating and communicating earthquake hazard and risk, and will be designed to serve as the critical instrument to support decisions and actions that reduce earthquake losses worldwide. GEM will integrate developments on the forefront of scientific and engineering knowledge of earthquakes, at global, regional and local scale. The work is organized in three modules: hazard, risk, and socio-economic impact. The hazard module calculates probabilities of earthquake occurrence and resulting shaking at any given location. The risk module calculates fatalities, injuries, and damage based on expected shaking, building vulnerability, and the distribution of population and of exposed values and facilities. The socio-economic impact module delivers tools for making educated decisions to mitigate and manage risk. GEM will be a versatile online tool, with open source code and a map-based graphical interface. The underlying data will be open wherever possible, and its modular input and output will be adapted to multiple user groups: scientists and engineers, risk managers and decision makers in the public and private sectors, and the public-at- large. GEM will be the first global model for seismic risk assessment at a national and regional scale, and aims to achieve broad scientific participation and independence. Its development will occur in a

  13. Incorporating human-triggered earthquake risks into energy and water policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klose, C. D.; Seeber, L.; Jacob, K. H.

    2010-12-01

    A comprehensive understanding of earthquake risks in urbanized regions requires an accurate assessment of both urban vulnerabilities and hazards from earthquakes, including ones whose timing might be affected by human activities. Socioeconomic risks associated with human-triggered earthquakes are often misconstrued and receive little scientific, legal, and public attention. Worldwide, more than 200 damaging earthquakes, associated with industrialization and urbanization, were documented since the 20th century. Geomechanical pollution due to large-scale geoengineering activities can advance the clock of earthquakes, trigger new seismic events or even shot down natural background seismicity. Activities include mining, hydrocarbon production, fluid injections, water reservoir impoundments and deep-well geothermal energy production. This type of geohazard has impacts on human security on a regional and national level. Some planned or considered future engineering projects raise particularly strong concerns about triggered earthquakes, such as for instance, sequestration of carbon dioxide by injecting it deep underground and large-scale natural gas production in the Marcellus shale in the Appalacian basin. Worldwide examples of earthquakes are discussed, including their associated losses of human life and monetary losses (e.g., 1989 Newcastle and Volkershausen earthquakes, 2001 Killari earthquake, 2006 Basel earthquake, 2010 Wenchuan earthquake). An overview is given on global statistics of human-triggered earthquakes, including depths and time delay of triggering. Lastly, strategies are described, including risk mitigation measures such as urban planning adaptations and seismic hazard mapping.

  14. Earthquake Ground Motion Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    Nonlinear analyses of soils, structures, and soil-structure systems offer the potential for more accurate characterization of geotechnical and structural response under strong earthquake shaking. The increasing use of advanced performance-based desig...

  15. 1988 Spitak Earthquake Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 1988 Spitak Earthquake database is an extensive collection of geophysical and geological data, maps, charts, images and descriptive text pertaining to the...

  16. Soil/Structure Interactions in Earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramey, G. W.; Moore, R. K.; Yoo, C. H.; Bush, Thomas D., Jr.; Stallings, J. M.

    1986-01-01

    In effort to improve design of Earthquake-resistant structures, mathematical study undertaken to simulate interactions among soil, foundation, and superstructure during various kinds of vibrational excitation. System modeled as three lumped masses connected vertically by springs, with lowest mass connected to horizontal vibrator (representing ground) through springs and dashpot. Behavior of springs described by elastic or elastoplastic force/deformation relationships. Relationships used to approximate nonlinear system behavior and soil/foundation-interface behavior.

  17. Electromagnetic Manifestation of Earthquakes

    OpenAIRE

    Uvarov Vladimir

    2017-01-01

    In a joint analysis of the results of recording the electrical component of the natural electromagnetic field of the Earth and the catalog of earthquakes in Kamchatka in 2013, unipolar pulses of constant amplitude associated with earthquakes were identified, whose activity is closely correlated with the energy of the electromagnetic field. For the explanation, a hypothesis about the cooperative character of these impulses is proposed.

  18. Electromagnetic Manifestation of Earthquakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uvarov Vladimir

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In a joint analysis of the results of recording the electrical component of the natural electromagnetic field of the Earth and the catalog of earthquakes in Kamchatka in 2013, unipolar pulses of constant amplitude associated with earthquakes were identified, whose activity is closely correlated with the energy of the electromagnetic field. For the explanation, a hypothesis about the cooperative character of these impulses is proposed.

  19. Metabolic engineering of geranic acid in maize to achieve fungal resistance is compromised by novel glycosylation patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ting; Stoopen, Geert; Yalpani, Nasser; Vervoort, Jacques; de Vos, Ric; Voster, Alessandra; Verstappen, Francel W A; Bouwmeester, Harro J; Jongsma, Maarten A

    2011-07-01

    Many terpenoids are known to have antifungal properties and overexpression of these compounds in crops is a potential tool in disease control. In this study, 15 different mono- and sesquiterpenoids were tested in vitro against two major pathogenic fungi of maize (Zea mays), Colletotrichum graminicola and Fusarium graminearum. Among all tested terpenoids, geranic acid showed very strong inhibitory activity against both fungi (MICLippia dulcis under the control of a ubiquitin promoter. The volatile and non-volatile metabolite profiles of leaves from transgenic and control lines were compared. The headspaces collected from intact seedlings of transgenic and control plants were not significantly different, although detached leaves of transgenic plants emitted 5-fold more geranyl acetate compared to control plants. Non-targeted LC-MS profiling and LC-MS-MS identification of extracts from maize leaves revealed that the major significantly different non-volatile compounds were 2 geranic acid derivatives, a geraniol dihexose and 4 different types of hydroxyl-geranic acid-hexoses. A geranic acid glycoside was the most abundant, and identified by NMR as geranoyl-6-O-malonyl-β-d-glucopyranoside with an average concentration of 45μM. Fungal bioassays with C. graminicola and F. graminearum did not reveal an effect of these changes in secondary metabolite composition on plant resistance to either fungus. The results demonstrate that metabolic engineering of geraniol into geranic acid can rely on the existing default pathway, but branching glycosylation pathways must be controlled to achieve accumulation of the aglycones. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Use of earthquake experience data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eder, S.J.; Eli, M.W.

    1991-01-01

    At many of the older existing US Department of Energy (DOE) facilities, the need has arisen for evaluation guidelines for natural phenomena hazard assessment. The effect of a design basis earthquake at most of these facilities is one of the main concerns. Earthquake experience data can provide a basis for the needed seismic evaluation guidelines, resulting in an efficient screening evaluation methodology for several of the items that are in the scope of the DOE facility reviews. The experience-based screening evaluation methodology, when properly established and implemented by trained engineers, has proven to result in sufficient safety margins and focuses on real concerns via facility walkdowns, usually at costs much less than the alternative options of analysis and testing. This paper summarizes a program that is being put into place to establish uniform seismic evaluation guidelines and criteria for evaluation of existing DOE facilities. The intent of the program is to maximize use of past experience, in conjunction with a walkdown screening evaluation process

  1. Engineering resistance against viroid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viroids, the smallest infectious agents endowed with autonomous replication, are tiny single-stranded circular RNAs (~250-400 nt) without protein-coding ability that, despite their simplicity, infect and often cause disease in herbaceous and woody plants of economic relevance. To mitigate the result...

  2. Genetic engineering of a radiation-resistant bacterium for biodegradation of mixed wastes. 1998 annual progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lidstrom, M.E.

    1998-01-01

    'Because of their tolerance to very high levels of ionizing radiation, members of the genus Deinococcus have received considerable attention over the past years. The type species of the genus, Deinococcus radiodurans, has been studied extensively in several labs. Although researchers are only beginning to understand the mechanisms by which this Gram-positive bacterium is able to repair massive DNA damage after radiation dosages as high as 5 Mrad, it has become evident that its recombination machinery has several unique characteristics (1--4). The aim of the present studies is to engineer D. radiodurans into a detoxifier for bioremediation of complex waste mixtures, containing heavy metals, halo-organics and radionuclides, making use of its ability to be biologically active in environments where they will be exposed to high levels of radiation. For that purpose, the authors aim to clone and express several broad spectrum oxygenases and heavy metal resistance determinants, and test survival and activities of these strains in artificial mixtures of contaminants, designed to simulate DOE mixed waste streams. This report summarizes work after 0.5 year of a 3-year project. The initial studies have focused on the development of an insertional expression system for D. radiodurans R1. This effort has involved two parts, namely: (1) promoter analysis, and (2) development of insertion systems. Several studies have shown that the expression signals used by D. radiodurans differ considerably from those found in other bacteria. Although D. radiodurans contains a typical eubacterial RNA polymerase core enzyme (based on TBLASTN searches on the genome sequence), Escherichia coli promoters are not recognized in D. radiodurans and vice versa (5). To expand the basic understanding of the requirements for transcription, and to optimize expression of (heterologous) genes, they will follow two strategies. First, a promoter-probe vector is being developed for the selection of promoter

  3. A Hybrid Ground-Motion Prediction Equation for Earthquakes in Western Alberta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spriggs, N.; Yenier, E.; Law, A.; Moores, A. O.

    2015-12-01

    Estimation of ground-motion amplitudes that may be produced by future earthquakes constitutes the foundation of seismic hazard assessment and earthquake-resistant structural design. This is typically done by using a prediction equation that quantifies amplitudes as a function of key seismological variables such as magnitude, distance and site condition. In this study, we develop a hybrid empirical prediction equation for earthquakes in western Alberta, where evaluation of seismic hazard associated with induced seismicity is of particular interest. We use peak ground motions and response spectra from recorded seismic events to model the regional source and attenuation attributes. The available empirical data is limited in the magnitude range of engineering interest (M>4). Therefore, we combine empirical data with a simulation-based model in order to obtain seismologically informed predictions for moderate-to-large magnitude events. The methodology is two-fold. First, we investigate the shape of geometrical spreading in Alberta. We supplement the seismic data with ground motions obtained from mining/quarry blasts, in order to gain insights into the regional attenuation over a wide distance range. A comparison of ground-motion amplitudes for earthquakes and mining/quarry blasts show that both event types decay at similar rates with distance and demonstrate a significant Moho-bounce effect. In the second stage, we calibrate the source and attenuation parameters of a simulation-based prediction equation to match the available amplitude data from seismic events. We model the geometrical spreading using a trilinear function with attenuation rates obtained from the first stage, and calculate coefficients of anelastic attenuation and site amplification via regression analysis. This provides a hybrid ground-motion prediction equation that is calibrated for observed motions in western Alberta and is applicable to moderate-to-large magnitude events.

  4. Nowcasting Earthquakes and Tsunamis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rundle, J. B.; Turcotte, D. L.

    2017-12-01

    The term "nowcasting" refers to the estimation of the current uncertain state of a dynamical system, whereas "forecasting" is a calculation of probabilities of future state(s). Nowcasting is a term that originated in economics and finance, referring to the process of determining the uncertain state of the economy or market indicators such as GDP at the current time by indirect means. We have applied this idea to seismically active regions, where the goal is to determine the current state of a system of faults, and its current level of progress through the earthquake cycle (http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/2016EA000185/full). Advantages of our nowcasting method over forecasting models include: 1) Nowcasting is simply data analysis and does not involve a model having parameters that must be fit to data; 2) We use only earthquake catalog data which generally has known errors and characteristics; and 3) We use area-based analysis rather than fault-based analysis, meaning that the methods work equally well on land and in subduction zones. To use the nowcast method to estimate how far the fault system has progressed through the "cycle" of large recurring earthquakes, we use the global catalog of earthquakes, using "small" earthquakes to determine the level of hazard from "large" earthquakes in the region. We select a "small" region in which the nowcast is to be made, and compute the statistics of a much larger region around the small region. The statistics of the large region are then applied to the small region. For an application, we can define a small region around major global cities, for example a "small" circle of radius 150 km and a depth of 100 km, as well as a "large" earthquake magnitude, for example M6.0. The region of influence of such earthquakes is roughly 150 km radius x 100 km depth, which is the reason these values were selected. We can then compute and rank the seismic risk of the world's major cities in terms of their relative seismic risk

  5. The MW 7.0 Haiti Earthquake of January 12, 2010: USGS/EERI Advance Reconnaissance Team Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberhard, Marc O.; Baldridge, Steven; Marshall, Justin; Mooney, Walter; Rix, Glenn J.

    2010-01-01

    Executive Summary A field reconnaissance in Haiti by a five-member team with expertise in seismology and earthquake engineering has revealed a number of factors that led to catastrophic losses of life and property during the January 12, 2010, Mw 7.0 earthquake. The field study was conducted from January 26 to February 3, 2010, and included investigations in Port-au-Prince and the heavily damaged communities to the west, including Leogane, Grand Goave, Petite Goave, and Oliver. Seismology Despite recent seismic quiescence, Haiti has suffered similar devastating earthquakes in the historical past (1701, 1751, 1770 and 1860). Despite this knowledge of historical seismicity, Haiti had no seismograph stations during the main earthquake, so it is impossible to estimate accurately the intensity of ground motions. Nonetheless, the wide range of buildings damaged by the January 12, 2010, earthquake suggests that the ground motions contained seismic energy over a wide range of frequencies. Another earthquake of similar magnitude could strike at any time on the eastern end of the Enriquillo Fault, directly to the south of Port-au-Prince. Reconstruction must take this hazard into account. The four portable seismographs installed by the team recorded a series of small aftershocks. As expected, the ground motions recorded at a hard-rock site contained a greater proportion of high frequencies than the motions recorded at a soil site. Two of the stations continue to monitor seismic activity. A thorough field investigation of the mapped Enriquillo Fault south of the city of Leogane failed to find any evidence of surface faulting. This led the team to conclude that the earthquake was unlikely to have produced any surface rupture in the study area. Geotechnical Aspects Soil liquefaction, landslides and rockslides in cut slopes, and road embankment failures contributed to extensive damage in Port-au-Prince and elsewhere. A lack of detailed knowledge of the physical conditions of the

  6. Indoor radon and earthquake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saghatelyan, E.; Petrosyan, L.; Aghbalyan, Yu.; Baburyan, M.; Araratyan, L.

    2004-01-01

    For the first time on the basis of the Spitak earthquake of December 1988 (Armenia, December 1988) experience it is found out that the earthquake causes intensive and prolonged radon splashes which, rapidly dispersing in the open space of close-to-earth atmosphere, are contrastingly displayed in covered premises (dwellings, schools, kindergartens) even if they are at considerable distance from the earthquake epicenter, and this multiplies the radiation influence on the population. The interval of splashes includes the period from the first fore-shock to the last after-shock, i.e. several months. The area affected by radiation is larger vs. Armenia's territory. The scale of this impact on population is 12 times higher than the number of people injured in Spitak, Leninakan and other settlements (toll of injured - 25 000 people, radiation-induced diseases in people - over 300 000). The influence of radiation directly correlates with the earthquake force. Such a conclusion is underpinned by indoor radon monitoring data for Yerevan since 1987 (120 km from epicenter) 5450 measurements and multivariate analysis with identification of cause-and-effect linkages between geo dynamics of indoor radon under stable and conditions of Earth crust, behavior of radon in different geological mediums during earthquakes, levels of room radon concentrations and effective equivalent dose of radiation impact of radiation dose on health and statistical data on public health provided by the Ministry of Health. The following hitherto unexplained facts can be considered as consequences of prolonged radiation influence on human organism: long-lasting state of apathy and indifference typical of the population of Armenia during the period of more than a year after the earthquake, prevalence of malignant cancer forms in disaster zones, dominating lung cancer and so on. All urban territories of seismically active regions are exposed to the threat of natural earthquake-provoked radiation influence

  7. Post-earthquake building safety inspection: Lessons from the Canterbury, New Zealand, earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, J.; Jaiswal, Kishor; Gould, N.; Turner, F.; Lizundia, B.; Barnes, J.

    2013-01-01

    The authors discuss some of the unique aspects and lessons of the New Zealand post-earthquake building safety inspection program that was implemented following the Canterbury earthquake sequence of 2010–2011. The post-event safety assessment program was one of the largest and longest programs undertaken in recent times anywhere in the world. The effort engaged hundreds of engineering professionals throughout the country, and also sought expertise from outside, to perform post-earthquake structural safety inspections of more than 100,000 buildings in the city of Christchurch and the surrounding suburbs. While the building safety inspection procedure implemented was analogous to the ATC 20 program in the United States, many modifications were proposed and implemented in order to assess the large number of buildings that were subjected to strong and variable shaking during a period of two years. This note discusses some of the key aspects of the post-earthquake building safety inspection program and summarizes important lessons that can improve future earthquake response.

  8. Quantification of social contributions to earthquake mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Main, I. G.; NicBhloscaidh, M.; McCloskey, J.; Pelling, M.; Naylor, M.

    2013-12-01

    Death tolls in earthquakes, which continue to grow rapidly, are the result of complex interactions between physical effects, such as strong shaking, and the resilience of exposed populations and supporting critical infrastructures and institutions. While it is clear that the social context in which the earthquake occurs has a strong effect on the outcome, the influence of this context can only be exposed if we first decouple, as much as we can, the physical causes of mortality from our consideration. (Our modelling assumes that building resilience to shaking is a social factor governed by national wealth, legislation and enforcement and governance leading to reduced levels of corruption.) Here we attempt to remove these causes by statistically modelling published mortality, shaking intensity and population exposure data; unexplained variance from this physical model illuminates the contribution of socio-economic factors to increasing earthquake mortality. We find that this variance partitions countries in terms of basic socio-economic measures and allows the definition of a national vulnerability index identifying both anomalously resilient and anomalously vulnerable countries. In many cases resilience is well correlated with GDP; people in the richest countries are unsurprisingly safe from even the worst shaking. However some low-GDP countries rival even the richest in resilience, showing that relatively low cost interventions can have a positive impact on earthquake resilience and that social learning between these countries might facilitate resilience building in the absence of expensive engineering interventions.

  9. Timbered masonry for earthquake resistance in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Dutu, A.; Gomes Ferreira, J.; Guerreiro, L.; Branco, F.; Gonçalves, A. M.

    2012-01-01

    Europe is a continent that is subject to significant seismic activity. Thus, the buildings’ seismic behaviour must be analysed, including not only the new structures, designed under more rigorous codes, but also older ones. This article examines a traditional type of building that uses timber frame/masonry, which is found in Portugal, Turkey, France, England, Greece, Romania, Italy, Spain, Germany and Scandinavia. Although the structures differ in terms of construction details, their struc...

  10. Timbered masonry for earthquake resistance in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Dutu, A.; Gomes Ferreira, J.; Guerreiro, L.; Branco, F.; Gonçalves, A. M.

    2012-01-01

    Europe is a continent that is subject to significant seismic activity. Thus, the buildings’ seismic behaviour must be analysed, including not only the new structures, designed under more rigorous codes, but also older ones. This article examines a traditional type of building that uses timber frame/masonry, which is found in Portugal, Turkey, France, England, Greece, Romania, Italy, Spain, Germany and Scandinavia. Although the structures differ in terms of construction details, their str...

  11. Timbered masonry for earthquake resistance in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dutu, A.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Europe is a continent that is subject to significant seismic activity. Thus, the buildings’ seismic behaviour must be analysed, including not only the new structures, designed under more rigorous codes, but also older ones. This article examines a traditional type of building that uses timber frame/masonry, which is found in Portugal, Turkey, France, England, Greece, Romania, Italy, Spain, Germany and Scandinavia. Although the structures differ in terms of construction details, their structural system is basically the same: the wooden structural system bears mainly the horizontal loads while the masonry supports the gravity loads. The study includes a brief report on the seismicity of each country where this traditional type of building made of timbered framed masonry is found, together with the description of these buildings’ constructive systems.

    Europa es un continente que está sujeto a una significativa actividad sísmica. Por esta razón, se debe analizar el comportamiento sísmico, no sólo de las nuevas estructuras, diseñadas sobre la base de códigos más exigentes, sino también de los diversos tipos de estructuras antiguas. En este artículo se analizan las estructuras constituidas por mampostería y madera, que se pueden encontrar en Portugal, Turquía, Francia, Inglaterra, Grecia, Rumania, Italia, España, Alemania y Escandinavia. Aunque estas estructuras presentan diferencias en cuanto a detalles constructivos, su sistema estructural es idéntico: el sistema estructural de madera absorbe principalmente las cargas horizontales, mientras que la mampostería garantiza la resistencia a la acción de la gravedad. El estudio presentado incluye un breve informe acerca de la sismicidad de los países en que existe el tipo de construcción mencionado, conjuntamente con la descripción de los sistemas constructivos específicos de cada país.

  12. Lower bound earthquake magnitude for probabilistic seismic hazard evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCann, M.W. Jr.; Reed, J.W.

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a study that develops an engineering and seismological basis for selecting a lower-bound magnitude (LBM) for use in seismic hazard assessment. As part of a seismic hazard analysis the range of earthquake magnitudes that are included in the assessment of the probability of exceedance of ground motion must be defined. The upper-bound magnitude is established by earth science experts based on their interpretation of the maximum size of earthquakes that can be generated by a seismic source. The lower-bound or smallest earthquake that is considered in the analysis must also be specified. The LBM limits the earthquakes that are considered in assessing the probability that specified ground motion levels are exceeded. In the past there has not been a direct consideration of the appropriate LBM value that should be used in a seismic hazard assessment. This study specifically looks at the selection of a LBM for use in seismic hazard analyses that are input to the evaluation/design of nuclear power plants (NPPs). Topics addressed in the evaluation of a LBM are earthquake experience data at heavy industrial facilities, engineering characteristics of ground motions associated with small-magnitude earthquakes, probabilistic seismic risk assessments (seismic PRAs), and seismic margin evaluations. The results of this study and the recommendations concerning a LBM for use in seismic hazard assessments are discussed. (orig.)

  13. Short presentation on some researches activities about near field earthquakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donald, John

    2002-01-01

    The major hazard posed by earthquakes is often thought to be due to moderate to large magnitude events. However, there have been many cases where earthquakes of moderate and even small magnitude have caused very significant destruction when they have coincided with population centres. Even though the area of intense ground shaking caused by such events is generally small, the epicentral motions can be severe enough to cause damage even in well-engineered structures. Two issues are addressed here, the first being the identification of the minimum earthquake magnitude likely to cause damage to engineered structures and the limits of the near-field for small-to-moderate magnitude earthquakes. The second issue addressed is whether features of near-field ground motions such as directivity, which can significantly enhance the destructive potential, occur in small-to-moderate magnitude events. The accelerograms from the 1986 San Salvador (El Salvador) earthquake indicate that it may be non conservative to assume that near-field directivity effects only need to be considered for earthquakes of moment magnitude M 6.5 and greater. (author)

  14. Observation of earthquake in the neighborhood of a large underground cavity. The Izu-Hanto-Toho-Oki earthquake, June 29, 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komada, H; Hayashi, M [Central Research Inst. of Electric Power Industry, Abiko, Chiba (Japan). Civil Engineering Lab.

    1980-12-01

    Studies on the earthquake resistance design of underground site for such large important structures as nuclear power plants, high-level radioactive waste repositories, LNG tanks, petroleum tanks, big power transmission installations and compressed air energy storage installations have been examined at our research institute. The observations of earthquake have been examined at Shiroyama underground hydroelectric power station since July 1976 as one of the demonstration of the earthquake resistance, and the first report was already published. After the time accelerometers and dynamic strain meters were additionally installed. Good acceleration waves and dynamic strain waves of the Izu-Hanto-Toho-Oki Earthquake, June 29, 1980 were observed at Shiroyama site, at which the hypocentral distance is 77 km and the intensity scale is about 4. In this report, the characteristic of the oscillation wave in the neighborhood of underground cavity and the relationships among accelerations, velocities, deformations and dynamic strains are studied in detail on the above earthquake data.

  15. Earthquake number forecasts testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagan, Yan Y.

    2017-10-01

    We study the distributions of earthquake numbers in two global earthquake catalogues: Global Centroid-Moment Tensor and Preliminary Determinations of Epicenters. The properties of these distributions are especially required to develop the number test for our forecasts of future seismic activity rate, tested by the Collaboratory for Study of Earthquake Predictability (CSEP). A common assumption, as used in the CSEP tests, is that the numbers are described by the Poisson distribution. It is clear, however, that the Poisson assumption for the earthquake number distribution is incorrect, especially for the catalogues with a lower magnitude threshold. In contrast to the one-parameter Poisson distribution so widely used to describe earthquake occurrences, the negative-binomial distribution (NBD) has two parameters. The second parameter can be used to characterize the clustering or overdispersion of a process. We also introduce and study a more complex three-parameter beta negative-binomial distribution. We investigate the dependence of parameters for both Poisson and NBD distributions on the catalogue magnitude threshold and on temporal subdivision of catalogue duration. First, we study whether the Poisson law can be statistically rejected for various catalogue subdivisions. We find that for most cases of interest, the Poisson distribution can be shown to be rejected statistically at a high significance level in favour of the NBD. Thereafter, we investigate whether these distributions fit the observed distributions of seismicity. For this purpose, we study upper statistical moments of earthquake numbers (skewness and kurtosis) and compare them to the theoretical values for both distributions. Empirical values for the skewness and the kurtosis increase for the smaller magnitude threshold and increase with even greater intensity for small temporal subdivision of catalogues. The Poisson distribution for large rate values approaches the Gaussian law, therefore its skewness

  16. Implication of conjugate faulting in the earthquake brewing and originating process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, L.M. (Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge); Deng, Q.; Jiang, P.

    1980-03-01

    The earthquake sequence, precursory and geologo-structural background of the Haicheng, Tangshan, Songpan-Pingwu earthquakes are discussed in this article. All of these earthquakes occurred in a seismic zone controlled by the main boundary faults of an intraplate fault block. However, the fault plane of a main earthquake does not consist of the same faults, but is rather a related secondary fault. They formed altogether a conjugate shearing rupture zone under the action of a regional tectonic stress field. As to the earthquake sequence, the foreshocks and aftershocks might occur on the conjugate fault planes within an epicentral region rather than be limited to the fault plane of a main earthquake, such as the distribution of foreshocks and aftershocks of the Haicheng earthquake. The characteristics of the long-, medium-, and imminent-term earthquake precursory anomalies of the three mentioned earthquakes, especially the character of well-studies anomaly phenomena in electrical resistivity, radon emission, groundwater and animal behavior, have been investigated. The studies of these earthquake precursors show that they were distributed in an area rather more extensive than the epicentral region. Some fault zones in the conjugate fault network usually appeared as distributed belts or concentrated zones of earthquake precursory anomalies, and can be traced in the medium-long term precursory field, but seem more distinct in the short-imminent term precursory anomalous field. These characteristics can be explained by the rupture and sliding originating along the conjugate shear network and the concentration of stress in the regional stress field.

  17. ESTIMATION OF AMPLIFICATION FACTOR IN EARTHQUAKE ENGINEERING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazarov Yuriy Pavlovich

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The authors are the developers of Odyssey Software (Eurosoft Co. for the analysis of seismological data and computing of seismic loads and their parameters. While communicating with the users of the software, the authors have revealed some uncertainty about both understanding of the term "amplification factor (AF" and calculation of the amplification factor using various methods. In this article, a simple example shows that the determination of the amplification factor as the ratio of the acceleration’s spectrum to the maximal acceleration is derived from the classical definition of AF in the form of the ratio of maximal dynamic displacement to the displacement by the action of static load. Deterministic and probabilistic ap-proaches for the calculating of the AF were discussed. There was an example of AFs calculation and their envelopes for translational and rotational components of seismic impact by using Odyssey Software.

  18. Rupture, waves and earthquakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uenishi, Koji

    2017-01-01

    Normally, an earthquake is considered as a phenomenon of wave energy radiation by rupture (fracture) of solid Earth. However, the physics of dynamic process around seismic sources, which may play a crucial role in the occurrence of earthquakes and generation of strong waves, has not been fully understood yet. Instead, much of former investigation in seismology evaluated earthquake characteristics in terms of kinematics that does not directly treat such dynamic aspects and usually excludes the influence of high-frequency wave components over 1 Hz. There are countless valuable research outcomes obtained through this kinematics-based approach, but "extraordinary" phenomena that are difficult to be explained by this conventional description have been found, for instance, on the occasion of the 1995 Hyogo-ken Nanbu, Japan, earthquake, and more detailed study on rupture and wave dynamics, namely, possible mechanical characteristics of (1) rupture development around seismic sources, (2) earthquake-induced structural failures and (3) wave interaction that connects rupture (1) and failures (2), would be indispensable.

  19. Testing earthquake source inversion methodologies

    KAUST Repository

    Page, Morgan T.; Mai, Paul Martin; Schorlemmer, Danijel

    2011-01-01

    Source Inversion Validation Workshop; Palm Springs, California, 11-12 September 2010; Nowadays earthquake source inversions are routinely performed after large earthquakes and represent a key connection between recorded seismic and geodetic data

  20. Earthquakes; May-June 1982

    Science.gov (United States)

    Person, W.J.

    1982-01-01

    There were four major earthquakes (7.0-7.9) during this reporting period: two struck in Mexico, one in El Salvador, and one in teh Kuril Islands. Mexico, El Salvador, and China experienced fatalities from earthquakes.

  1. Load and resistance factor design calibration to determine a resistance factor for the modification of the Kansas Department of Transportation-Engineering News Record formula : [technical summary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-01

    The Kansas Department of Transportation (KDOT) has, in recent years, used a : variation of the Engineering News Record (ENR) formula to determine the capacity of : piles in the field. It was a concern that the KDOT-ENR formula was under-predicting : ...

  2. Sensing the earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bichisao, Marta; Stallone, Angela

    2017-04-01

    Making science visual plays a crucial role in the process of building knowledge. In this view, art can considerably facilitate the representation of the scientific content, by offering a different perspective on how a specific problem could be approached. Here we explore the possibility of presenting the earthquake process through visual dance. From a choreographer's point of view, the focus is always on the dynamic relationships between moving objects. The observed spatial patterns (coincidences, repetitions, double and rhythmic configurations) suggest how objects organize themselves in the environment and what are the principles underlying that organization. The identified set of rules is then implemented as a basis for the creation of a complex rhythmic and visual dance system. Recently, scientists have turned seismic waves into sound and animations, introducing the possibility of "feeling" the earthquakes. We try to implement these results into a choreographic model with the aim to convert earthquake sound to a visual dance system, which could return a transmedia representation of the earthquake process. In particular, we focus on a possible method to translate and transfer the metric language of seismic sound and animations into body language. The objective is to involve the audience into a multisensory exploration of the earthquake phenomenon, through the stimulation of the hearing, eyesight and perception of the movements (neuromotor system). In essence, the main goal of this work is to develop a method for a simultaneous visual and auditory representation of a seismic event by means of a structured choreographic model. This artistic representation could provide an original entryway into the physics of earthquakes.

  3. Turkish Children's Ideas about Earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simsek, Canan Lacin

    2007-01-01

    Earthquake, a natural disaster, is among the fundamental problems of many countries. If people know how to protect themselves from earthquake and arrange their life styles in compliance with this, damage they will suffer will reduce to that extent. In particular, a good training regarding earthquake to be received in primary schools is considered…

  4. Earthquakes, May-June 1991

    Science.gov (United States)

    Person, W.J.

    1992-01-01

    One major earthquake occurred during this reporting period. This was a magntidue 7.1 in Indonesia (Minahassa Peninsula) on June 20. Earthquake-related deaths were reported in the Western Caucasus (Georgia, USSR) on May 3 and June 15. One earthquake-related death was also reported El Salvador on June 21. 

  5. The 1976 Tangshan earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Wang

    1979-01-01

    The Tangshan earthquake of 1976 was one of the largest earthquakes in recent years. It occurred on July 28 at 3:42 a.m, Beijing (Peking) local time, and had magnitude 7.8, focal depth of 15 kilometers, and an epicentral intensity of XI on the New Chinese Seismic Intensity Scale; it caused serious damage and loss of life in this densely populated industrial city. Now, with the help of people from all over China, the city of Tangshan is being rebuild. 

  6. [Earthquakes in El Salvador].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Ville de Goyet, C

    2001-02-01

    The Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) has 25 years of experience dealing with major natural disasters. This piece provides a preliminary review of the events taking place in the weeks following the major earthquakes in El Salvador on 13 January and 13 February 2001. It also describes the lessons that have been learned over the last 25 years and the impact that the El Salvador earthquakes and other disasters have had on the health of the affected populations. Topics covered include mass-casualties management, communicable diseases, water supply, managing donations and international assistance, damages to the health-facilities infrastructure, mental health, and PAHO's role in disasters.

  7. The Alaska earthquake, March 27, 1964: lessons and conclusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckel, Edwin B.

    1970-01-01

    One of the greatest earthquakes of all time struck south-central Alaska on March 27, 1964. Strong motion lasted longer than for most recorded earthquakes, and more land surface was dislocated, vertically and horizontally, than by any known previous temblor. Never before were so many effects on earth processes and on the works of man available for study by scientists and engineers over so great an area. The seismic vibrations, which directly or indirectly caused most of the damage, were but surface manifestations of a great geologic event-the dislocation of a huge segment of the crust along a deeply buried fault whose nature and even exact location are still subjects for speculation. Not only was the land surface tilted by the great tectonic event beneath it, with resultant seismic sea waves that traversed the entire Pacific, but an enormous mass of land and sea floor moved several tens of feet horizontally toward the Gulf of Alaska. Downslope mass movements of rock, earth, and snow were initiated. Subaqueous slides along lake shores and seacoasts, near-horizontal movements of mobilized soil (“landspreading”), and giant translatory slides in sensitive clay did the most damage and provided the most new knowledge as to the origin, mechanics, and possible means of control or avoidance of such movements. The slopes of most of the deltas that slid in 1964, and that produced destructive local waves, are still as steep or steeper than they were before the earthquake and hence would be unstable or metastable in the event of another great earthquake. Rockslide avalanches provided new evidence that such masses may travel on cushions of compressed air, but a widely held theory that glaciers surge after an earthquake has not been substantiated. Innumerable ground fissures, many of them marked by copious emissions of water, caused much damage in towns and along transportation routes. Vibration also consolidated loose granular materials. In some coastal areas, local

  8. Earthquake Culture: A Significant Element in Earthquake Disaster Risk Assessment and Earthquake Disaster Risk Management

    OpenAIRE

    Ibrion, Mihaela

    2018-01-01

    This book chapter brings to attention the dramatic impact of large earthquake disasters on local communities and society and highlights the necessity of building and enhancing the earthquake culture. Iran was considered as a research case study and fifteen large earthquake disasters in Iran were investigated and analyzed over more than a century-time period. It was found that the earthquake culture in Iran was and is still conditioned by many factors or parameters which are not integrated and...

  9. Evaluation of soil-structure interaction for structures subjected to earthquake loading with different types of foundation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elwi Mohammed

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available However though the structures are supported on soil, most of the designers do not consider the soil structure interaction and its subsequent effect on structure during an earthquake. Different soil properties can affect seismic waves as they pass through a soil layer. When a structure is subjected to an earthquake excitation, it interacts the foundation and soil, and thus changes the motion of the ground. It means that the movement of the whole ground structure system is influenced by type of soil as well as by the type of structure. Tall buildings are supposed to be of engineered construction in sense that they might have been analyzed and designed to meet the provision of relevant codes of practice and building bye-laws. IS 1893: 2002 “Criteria for Earthquake Resistant Design of Structures” gives response spectrum for different types of soil such as hard, medium and soft. An attempt has been made in this paper to study the effect of Soil-structure interaction on multi storeyed buildings with various foundation systems. Also to study the response of buildings subjected to seismic forces with Rigid and Flexible foundations. Multi storeyed buildings with fixed and flexible support subjected to seismic forces were analyzed under different soil conditions like hard, medium and soft. The buildings were analyzed by Response spectrum method using software SAP2000. The response of building frames such as Lateral deflection, Story drift, Base shear, Axial force and Column moment values for all building frames were presented in this paper.

  10. Fluvial gravel stabilization by net-spinning Hydropsychid caddisflies: exploring the magnitude and geographic scope of ecosystem engineering effect and evaluating resistance to anthropogenic stresses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, M.; Albertson, L.; Sklar, L. S.; Tumolo, B.; Mclaughlin, M. K.

    2017-12-01

    Several studies have demonstrated the substantial effects that organisms can have on earth surface processes. Known as ecosystem engineers, in streams these organisms maintain, modify, or create physical habitat structure by influencing fluvial processes such as gravel movement, fine sediment deposition and bank erosion. However, the ecology of ecosystem engineers and the magnitude of ecosystem engineering effects in a world increasingly influence by anthropogenically-driven changes is not well understood. Here we present a synthesis of research findings on the potential gravel stabilization effects of Hydropsychid caddisflies, a globally distributed group of net-spinning insects that live in the benthic substrate of most freshwater streams. Hydropsychid caddisflies act as ecosystem engineers because these silk structures can fundamentally alter sediment transport conditions, including sediment stability and flow currents. The silk nets spun by these insects attach gravel grains to one another, increasing the shear stress required to initiate grain entrainment. In a series of independent laboratory experiments, we investigate the gravel size fractions most affected by these silk attachments. We also investigate the role of anthropogenic environmental stresses on ecosystem engineering potential by assessing the impact of two common stressors, high fine sediment loads and stream drying, on silk structures. Finally, an extensive field survey of grain size and Hydropsychid caddisfly population densities informs a watershed-scale network model of Hydropsychid caddisfly gravel stabilizing potential. Our findings provide some of the first evidence that caddisfly silk may be a biological structure that is resilient to various forms of human-mediated stress and that the effects of animal ecosystem engineers are underappreciated as an agent of resistance and recovery for aquatic communities experiencing changes in sediment loads and hydrologic regimes.

  11. Review of the seismic risk in the design of civil engineering of nuclear installations excepted the long term storage of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This guide aims to define, for the nuclear installations excepted the long term storage of radioactive wastes, from site data, the design specifications of earthquake resistant civil engineering and the possible methods for: the determination of the seismic response of the buildings, taking into account the interactions with the materials and the evaluation of the associated strains to size the installation; the determination of seismic displacements to be considered to size the materials. (A.L.B.)

  12. Improving the Earthquake Resilience of Buildings The worst case approach

    CERN Document Server

    Takewaki, Izuru; Fujita, Kohei

    2013-01-01

    Engineers are always interested in the worst-case scenario. One of the most important and challenging missions of structural engineers may be to narrow the range of unexpected incidents in building structural design. Redundancy, robustness and resilience play an important role in such circumstances. Improving the Earthquake Resilience of Buildings: The worst case approach discusses the importance of worst-scenario approach for improved earthquake resilience of buildings and nuclear reactor facilities. Improving the Earthquake Resilience of Buildings: The worst case approach consists of two parts. The first part deals with the characterization and modeling of worst or critical ground motions on inelastic structures and the related worst-case scenario in the structural design of ordinary simple building structures. The second part of the book focuses on investigating the worst-case scenario for passively controlled and base-isolated buildings. This allows for detailed consideration of a range of topics includin...

  13. Engineering resistance against Tomato yellow leaf curl virus via the CRISPR/Cas9 system in tomato

    KAUST Repository

    Mahfouz, Magdy M.; Tashkandi, Manal; Ali, Zahir; Aljedaani, Fatimah R.; Shami, Ashwag

    2017-01-01

    CRISPR/Cas systems confer molecular immunity against phages and conjugative plasmids in prokaryotes. Recently, CRISPR/Cas9 systems have been used to confer interference against eukaryotic viruses. Here, we engineered Nicotiana benthamiana and tomato

  14. Fighting and preventing post-earthquake fires in nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Xuefeng; Zhang Xin

    2011-01-01

    Nuclear power plant post-earthquake fires will cause not only personnel injury, severe economic loss, but also serious environmental pollution. For the moment, nuclear power is in a position of rapid development in China. Considering the earthquake-prone characteristics of our country, it is of great engineering importance to investigate the nuclear power plant post-earthquake fires. This article analyzes the cause, influential factors and development characteristics of nuclear power plant post-earthquake fires in details, and summarizes the three principles should be followed in fighting and preventing nuclear power plant post-earthquake fires, such as solving problems in order of importance and urgency, isolation prior to prevention, immediate repair and regular patrol. Three aspects were pointed out that should be paid attention in fighting and preventing post-earthquake fires. (authors)

  15. The EM Earthquake Precursor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, K. B., II; Saxton, P. T.

    2013-12-01

    Many attempts have been made to determine a sound forecasting method regarding earthquakes and warn the public in turn. Presently, the animal kingdom leads the precursor list alluding to a transmission related source. By applying the animal-based model to an electromagnetic (EM) wave model, various hypotheses were formed, but the most interesting one required the use of a magnetometer with a differing design and geometry. To date, numerous, high-end magnetometers have been in use in close proximity to fault zones for potential earthquake forecasting; however, something is still amiss. The problem still resides with what exactly is forecastable and the investigating direction of EM. After the 1989 Loma Prieta Earthquake, American earthquake investigators predetermined magnetometer use and a minimum earthquake magnitude necessary for EM detection. This action was set in motion, due to the extensive damage incurred and public outrage concerning earthquake forecasting; however, the magnetometers employed, grounded or buried, are completely subject to static and electric fields and have yet to correlate to an identifiable precursor. Secondly, there is neither a networked array for finding any epicentral locations, nor have there been any attempts to find even one. This methodology needs dismissal, because it is overly complicated, subject to continuous change, and provides no response time. As for the minimum magnitude threshold, which was set at M5, this is simply higher than what modern technological advances have gained. Detection can now be achieved at approximately M1, which greatly improves forecasting chances. A propagating precursor has now been detected in both the field and laboratory. Field antenna testing conducted outside the NE Texas town of Timpson in February, 2013, detected three strong EM sources along with numerous weaker signals. The antenna had mobility, and observations were noted for recurrence, duration, and frequency response. Next, two

  16. Simulated earthquake ground motions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanmarcke, E.H.; Gasparini, D.A.

    1977-01-01

    The paper reviews current methods for generating synthetic earthquake ground motions. Emphasis is on the special requirements demanded of procedures to generate motions for use in nuclear power plant seismic response analysis. Specifically, very close agreement is usually sought between the response spectra of the simulated motions and prescribed, smooth design response spectra. The features and capabilities of the computer program SIMQKE, which has been widely used in power plant seismic work are described. Problems and pitfalls associated with the use of synthetic ground motions in seismic safety assessment are also pointed out. The limitations and paucity of recorded accelerograms together with the widespread use of time-history dynamic analysis for obtaining structural and secondary systems' response have motivated the development of earthquake simulation capabilities. A common model for synthesizing earthquakes is that of superposing sinusoidal components with random phase angles. The input parameters for such a model are, then, the amplitudes and phase angles of the contributing sinusoids as well as the characteristics of the variation of motion intensity with time, especially the duration of the motion. The amplitudes are determined from estimates of the Fourier spectrum or the spectral density function of the ground motion. These amplitudes may be assumed to be varying in time or constant for the duration of the earthquake. In the nuclear industry, the common procedure is to specify a set of smooth response spectra for use in aseismic design. This development and the need for time histories have generated much practical interest in synthesizing earthquakes whose response spectra 'match', or are compatible with a set of specified smooth response spectra

  17. What is a surprise earthquake? The example of the 2002, San Giuliano (Italy event

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mucciarelli

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Both in scientific literature and in the mass media, some earthquakes are defined as «surprise earthquakes». Based on his own judgment, probably any geologist, seismologist or engineer may have his own list of past «surprise earthquakes». This paper tries to quantify the underlying individual perception that may lead a scientist to apply such a definition to a seismic event. The meaning is different, depending on the disciplinary approach. For geologists, the Italian database of seismogenic sources is still too incomplete to allow for a quantitative estimate of the subjective degree of belief. For seismologists, quantification is possible defining the distance between an earthquake and its closest previous neighbor. Finally, for engineers, the San Giuliano quake could not be considered a surprise, since probabilistic site hazard estimates reveal that the change before and after the earthquake is just 4%.

  18. Ground Motion Prediction for Great Interplate Earthquakes in Kanto Basin Considering Variation of Source Parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekiguchi, H.; Yoshimi, M.; Horikawa, H.

    2011-12-01

    Broadband ground motions are estimated in the Kanto sedimentary basin which holds Tokyo metropolitan area inside for anticipated great interplate earthquakes along surrounding plate boundaries. Possible scenarios of great earthquakes along Sagami trough are modeled combining characteristic properties of the source area and adequate variation in source parameters in order to evaluate possible ground motion variation due to next Kanto earthquake. South to the rupture area of the 2011 Tohoku earthquake along the Japan trench, we consider possible M8 earthquake. The ground motions are computed with a four-step hybrid technique. We first calculate low-frequency ground motions at the engineering basement. We then calculate higher-frequency ground motions at the same position, and combine the lower- and higher-frequency motions using a matched filter. We finally calculate ground motions at the surface by computing the response of the alluvium-diluvium layers to the combined motions at the engineering basement.

  19. Investigation of the relationship between earthquakes and indoor radon concentrations at a building in Gyeongju, Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae Wook Kim

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This article measured and analyzed the indoor radon concentrations at one university building in Gyeongju, Republic of Korea, to investigate if there is any relationship between earthquakes and indoor radon concentration. Since 12 September 2016, when two 5.1 and 5.8 magnitude earthquakes occurred, hundreds of aftershocks affected Gyeongju until January 2017. The measurements were made at the ground floor of the Energy Engineering Hall of Dongguk University in Gyeongju over a period between February 2016 and January 2017. The measurements were made with an RAD7 detector on the basis of the US Environmental Protection Agency measurement protocol. Each measurement was continuously made every 30 minutes over the measurement period every month. Among earthquakes with 2.0 or greater magnitude, the earthquakes whose occurrence timings fell into the measurement periods were screened for further analysis. We observed similar spike-like patterns between the indoor radon concentration distributions and earthquakes: a sudden increase in the peak indoor radon concentration 1–4 days before an earthquake, gradual decrease before the earthquake, and sudden drop on the day of the earthquake if the interval between successive earthquakes was moderately longer, for example, 3 days in this article. Keywords: Earthquakes, Gyeongju, Indoor Radon Concentration, RAD7, Radon Anomaly

  20. The HayWired Earthquake Scenario—Earthquake Hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detweiler, Shane T.; Wein, Anne M.

    2017-04-24

    The HayWired scenario is a hypothetical earthquake sequence that is being used to better understand hazards for the San Francisco Bay region during and after an earthquake of magnitude 7 on the Hayward Fault. The 2014 Working Group on California Earthquake Probabilities calculated that there is a 33-percent likelihood of a large (magnitude 6.7 or greater) earthquake occurring on the Hayward Fault within three decades. A large Hayward Fault earthquake will produce strong ground shaking, permanent displacement of the Earth’s surface, landslides, liquefaction (soils becoming liquid-like during shaking), and subsequent fault slip, known as afterslip, and earthquakes, known as aftershocks. The most recent large earthquake on the Hayward Fault occurred on October 21, 1868, and it ruptured the southern part of the fault. The 1868 magnitude-6.8 earthquake occurred when the San Francisco Bay region had far fewer people, buildings, and infrastructure (roads, communication lines, and utilities) than it does today, yet the strong ground shaking from the earthquake still caused significant building damage and loss of life. The next large Hayward Fault earthquake is anticipated to affect thousands of structures and disrupt the lives of millions of people. Earthquake risk in the San Francisco Bay region has been greatly reduced as a result of previous concerted efforts; for example, tens of billions of dollars of investment in strengthening infrastructure was motivated in large part by the 1989 magnitude 6.9 Loma Prieta earthquake. To build on efforts to reduce earthquake risk in the San Francisco Bay region, the HayWired earthquake scenario comprehensively examines the earthquake hazards to help provide the crucial scientific information that the San Francisco Bay region can use to prepare for the next large earthquake, The HayWired Earthquake Scenario—Earthquake Hazards volume describes the strong ground shaking modeled in the scenario and the hazardous movements of

  1. Small Buildings in Earthquake Areas. Educational Building Digest 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooij, D.

    This booklet is intended for builders and others who actually construct small buildings in earthquake areas and not for professionally qualified architects or engineers. In outline form with sketches the following topics are discussed: general construction and design principles; foundations; earth walls; brick, block, and stone walls; timber frame…

  2. 75 FR 50749 - Advisory Committee on Earthquake Hazards Reduction Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-17

    ... accommodate Committee business. The final agenda will be posted on the NEHRP Web site at http://nehrp.gov... of Technology, 365 Innovation Drive, Memphis, TN 38152-3115. Please note admittance instructions...: Trends and developments in the science and engineering of earthquake hazards reduction; The effectiveness...

  3. Hysteresis behavior of seismic isolators in earthquakes near a fault ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Seismic performance and appropriate design of structures located near the faults has always been a major concern of design engineers. Because during an earthquake; the effects of plasticity will make differences in characteristics of near field records. These pulsed movements at the beginning of records will increase the ...

  4. Fracture analysis of concrete gravity dam under earthquake induced ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    Fracture analysis of concrete gravity dam under earthquake induced loads. 1. ABBAS MANSOURI;. 2 ... 1 Civil Engineering, Islamic Azad University (South Branch of Tehran)Tehran, Iran ..... parameter has on the results of numerical calculations. In this analysis ... with the help of Abaqus software (Abaqus theory manual ...

  5. Klebsiella pneumoniae Carbapenemase-2 (KPC-2, Substitutions at Ambler Position Asp179, and Resistance to Ceftazidime-Avibactam: Unique Antibiotic-Resistant Phenotypes Emerge from β-Lactamase Protein Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa D. Barnes

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemases (KPCs, β-lactamases that inactivate “last-line” antibiotics such as imipenem, represents a major challenge to contemporary antibiotic therapies. The combination of ceftazidime (CAZ and avibactam (AVI, a potent β-lactamase inhibitor, represents an attempt to overcome this formidable threat and to restore the efficacy of the antibiotic against Gram-negative bacteria bearing KPCs. CAZ-AVI-resistant clinical strains expressing KPC variants with substitutions in the Ω-loop are emerging. We engineered 19 KPC-2 variants bearing targeted mutations at amino acid residue Ambler position 179 in Escherichia coli and identified a unique antibiotic resistance phenotype. We focus particularly on the CAZ-AVI resistance of the clinically relevant Asp179Asn variant. Although this variant demonstrated less hydrolytic activity, we demonstrated that there was a prolonged period during which an acyl-enzyme intermediate was present. Using mass spectrometry and transient kinetic analysis, we demonstrated that Asp179Asn “traps” β-lactams, preferentially binding β-lactams longer than AVI owing to a decreased rate of deacylation. Molecular dynamics simulations predict that (i the Asp179Asn variant confers more flexibility to the Ω-loop and expands the active site significantly; (ii the catalytic nucleophile, S70, is shifted more than 1.5 Å and rotated more than 90°, altering the hydrogen bond networks; and (iii E166 is displaced by 2 ÅÅ when complexed with ceftazidime. These analyses explain the increased hydrolytic profile of KPC-2 and suggest that the Asp179Asn substitution results in an alternative complex mechanism leading to CAZ-AVI resistance. The future design of novel β-lactams and β-lactamase inhibitors must consider the mechanistic basis of resistance of this and other threatening carbapenemases.

  6. Learning Earthquake Design and Construction–23. Why are ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    RC shafts around the elevator core of buildings also act as shear walls, and should be taken advantage of to resist earthquake forces. Reinforcement Bars in RC Walls: Steel reinforcing bars are to be provided in walls in regularly spaced vertical and. ______ .AAAAA~ ______ __. RESONANCE I November 2005 v V V V V v ...

  7. Impact of acoustic impedance and flow resistance on the power output capacity of the regenerators in travelling-wave thermoacoustic engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Zhibin; Jaworski, Artur J.

    2010-01-01

    This paper considers the role of acoustic impedance, flow resistance, configuration and geometrical dimensions of regenerators on the power produced in travelling-wave thermoacoustic engines. The effects are modelled assuming a pure travelling-wave and ideal gas, which allows defining a pair of dimensionless factors based on the 'net' acoustic power production. Based on the analysis provided, the acoustic power flow in the regenerators is investigated numerically. It is shown that impedance essentially reflects the proportion between the acoustic power produced from heat energy through the thermoacoustic processes and the acoustic power dissipated by viscous and thermal-relaxation effects in the regenerators. Viscous resistance of the regenerator mainly determines the magnitude of the volumetric velocity and then affects the magnitude of acoustic impedance. High impedance and high volumetric velocity are both required in the regenerators for high power engines. The results also show that the optimum transverse dimension of the gas passage exists, but depends on the local acoustic impedance. In principle, it is possible to obtain an optimum combination between these two parameters.

  8. Engineering metal-binding sites of bacterial CusF to enhance Zn/Cd accumulation and resistance by subcellular targeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Pengli; Yuan, Jinhong; Zhang, Hui; Deng, Xin; Ma, Mi; Zhang, Haiyan

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • mCusF is specifically targeted to different subcellular compartments in Arabidopsis. • Plants expressing vacuole-targeted mCusF exhibit strongest Zn resistance. • All transgenic lines accumulate more Zn under Zn exposure. • All transgenic lines enhance root-to-shoot translocation of Cd. • Metal homeostasis is improved in mCusF plants under Cd exposure. - Abstract: The periplasmic protein CusF acts as a metallochaperone to mediate Cu resistance in Escherichia coli. CusF does not contain cysteine residues and barely binds to divalent cations. Here, we addressed effects of cysteine-substitution mutant (named as mCusF) of CusF on zinc/cadmium (Zn/Cd) accumulation and resistance. We targeted mCusF to different subcellular compartments in Arabidopsis. We found that plants expressing vacuole-targeted mCusF were more resistant to excess Zn than WT and plants with cell wall-targeted or cytoplasmic mCusF. Under long-term exposure to excess Zn, all transgenic lines accumulated more Zn (up to 2.3-fold) in shoots than the untransformed plants. Importantly, plants with cytoplasmic mCusF showed higher efficiency of Zn translocation from root to shoot than plants with secretory pathway-targeted-mCusF. Furthermore, the transgenic lines exhibited enhanced resistance to Cd and significant increase in root-to-shoot Cd translocation. We also found all transgenic plants greatly improved manganese (Mn) and iron (Fe) homeostasis under Cd exposure. Our results demonstrate heterologous expression of mCusF could be used to engineer a new phytoremediation strategy for Zn/Cd and our finding also deepen our insights into mechanistic basis for relieving Cd toxicity in plants through proper root/shoot partitioning mechanism and homeostatic accumulation of Mn and Fe.

  9. Engineering metal-binding sites of bacterial CusF to enhance Zn/Cd accumulation and resistance by subcellular targeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Pengli; Yuan, Jinhong [Key Laboratory of Plant Resources, Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100093 (China); Zhang, Hui [Key Laboratory of Plant Molecular Physiology, Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100093 (China); Deng, Xin [Department of Chemistry and Institute for Biophysical Dynamics, The University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Ma, Mi [Key Laboratory of Plant Resources, Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100093 (China); Zhang, Haiyan, E-mail: hyz@ibcas.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Plant Resources, Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100093 (China)

    2016-01-25

    Highlights: • mCusF is specifically targeted to different subcellular compartments in Arabidopsis. • Plants expressing vacuole-targeted mCusF exhibit strongest Zn resistance. • All transgenic lines accumulate more Zn under Zn exposure. • All transgenic lines enhance root-to-shoot translocation of Cd. • Metal homeostasis is improved in mCusF plants under Cd exposure. - Abstract: The periplasmic protein CusF acts as a metallochaperone to mediate Cu resistance in Escherichia coli. CusF does not contain cysteine residues and barely binds to divalent cations. Here, we addressed effects of cysteine-substitution mutant (named as mCusF) of CusF on zinc/cadmium (Zn/Cd) accumulation and resistance. We targeted mCusF to different subcellular compartments in Arabidopsis. We found that plants expressing vacuole-targeted mCusF were more resistant to excess Zn than WT and plants with cell wall-targeted or cytoplasmic mCusF. Under long-term exposure to excess Zn, all transgenic lines accumulated more Zn (up to 2.3-fold) in shoots than the untransformed plants. Importantly, plants with cytoplasmic mCusF showed higher efficiency of Zn translocation from root to shoot than plants with secretory pathway-targeted-mCusF. Furthermore, the transgenic lines exhibited enhanced resistance to Cd and significant increase in root-to-shoot Cd translocation. We also found all transgenic plants greatly improved manganese (Mn) and iron (Fe) homeostasis under Cd exposure. Our results demonstrate heterologous expression of mCusF could be used to engineer a new phytoremediation strategy for Zn/Cd and our finding also deepen our insights into mechanistic basis for relieving Cd toxicity in plants through proper root/shoot partitioning mechanism and homeostatic accumulation of Mn and Fe.

  10. Earthquake hazard evaluation for Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruettener, E.

    1995-01-01

    Earthquake hazard analysis is of considerable importance for Switzerland, a country with moderate seismic activity but high economic values at risk. The evaluation of earthquake hazard, i.e. the determination of return periods versus ground motion parameters, requires a description of earthquake occurrences in space and time. In this study the seismic hazard for major cities in Switzerland is determined. The seismic hazard analysis is based on historic earthquake records as well as instrumental data. The historic earthquake data show considerable uncertainties concerning epicenter location and epicentral intensity. A specific concept is required, therefore, which permits the description of the uncertainties of each individual earthquake. This is achieved by probability distributions for earthquake size and location. Historical considerations, which indicate changes in public earthquake awareness at various times (mainly due to large historical earthquakes), as well as statistical tests have been used to identify time periods of complete earthquake reporting as a function of intensity. As a result, the catalog is judged to be complete since 1878 for all earthquakes with epicentral intensities greater than IV, since 1750 for intensities greater than VI, since 1600 for intensities greater than VIII, and since 1300 for intensities greater than IX. Instrumental data provide accurate information about the depth distribution of earthquakes in Switzerland. In the Alps, focal depths are restricted to the uppermost 15 km of the crust, whereas below the northern Alpine foreland earthquakes are distributed throughout the entire crust (30 km). This depth distribution is considered in the final hazard analysis by probability distributions. (author) figs., tabs., refs

  11. A study on the resistance switching of Ag2Se and Ta2O5 heterojunctions using structural engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Tae Sung; Lee, Nam Joo; Abbas, Haider; Hu, Quanli; Yoon, Tae-Sik; Lee, Hyun Ho; Le Shim, Ee; Kang, Chi Jung

    2018-01-01

    The resistive random access memory (RRAM) devices with heterostuctures have been investigated due to cycling stability, nonlinear switching, complementary resistive switching and self-compliance. The heterostructured devices can modulate the resistive switching (RS) behavior appropriately by bilayer structure with a variety of materials. In this study, the bipolar resistive switching characteristics of the bilayer structures composed of Ta2O5 and Ag2Se, which are transition-metal oxide (TMO) and silver chalcogenide, were investigated. The bilayer devices of Ta2O5 deposited on Ag2Se (Ta2O5/Ag2Se) and Ag2Se deposited on Ta2O5 (Ag2Se/Ta2O5) were fabricated for investigation of the RS characteristics by stacking sequence of Ta2O5 and Ag2Se. All operating voltages were applied to the Ag top electrode with the Pt bottom electrode grounded. The Ta2O5/Ag2Se device showed that a negative voltage sweep switched the device from high resistance state (HRS) to low resistance state (LRS) and a positive voltage sweep switched the device from LRS to HRS. On the contrary, for the Ag2Se/Ta2O5 device a positive voltage sweep switched the device from HRS to LRS, and a negative voltage sweep switched it from LRS to HRS. The polarity dependence of RS was attributed to the stacking sequence of Ta2O5 and Ag2Se. In addition, the combined heterostructured device of both bilayer stacks, Ta2O5/Ag2Se and Ag2Se/Ta2O5, exhibited the complementary switching characteristics. By using threshold switching devices, sneak path leakage can be reduced without additional selectors. The bilayer heterostructures of Ta2O5 and Ag2Se have various advantages such as self-compliance, reproducibility and forming-free stable RS. It confirms the possible applications of TMO and silver chalcogenide heterostructures in RRAM.

  12. Real-Time Earthquake Monitoring with Spatio-Temporal Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittier, J. C.; Nittel, S.; Subasinghe, I.

    2017-10-01

    With live streaming sensors and sensor networks, increasingly large numbers of individual sensors are deployed in physical space. Sensor data streams are a fundamentally novel mechanism to deliver observations to information systems. They enable us to represent spatio-temporal continuous phenomena such as radiation accidents, toxic plumes, or earthquakes almost as instantaneously as they happen in the real world. Sensor data streams discretely sample an earthquake, while the earthquake is continuous over space and time. Programmers attempting to integrate many streams to analyze earthquake activity and scope need to write code to integrate potentially very large sets of asynchronously sampled, concurrent streams in tedious application code. In previous work, we proposed the field stream data model (Liang et al., 2016) for data stream engines. Abstracting the stream of an individual sensor as a temporal field, the field represents the Earth's movement at the sensor position as continuous. This simplifies analysis across many sensors significantly. In this paper, we undertake a feasibility study of using the field stream model and the open source Data Stream Engine (DSE) Apache Spark(Apache Spark, 2017) to implement a real-time earthquake event detection with a subset of the 250 GPS sensor data streams of the Southern California Integrated GPS Network (SCIGN). The field-based real-time stream queries compute maximum displacement values over the latest query window of each stream, and related spatially neighboring streams to identify earthquake events and their extent. Further, we correlated the detected events with an USGS earthquake event feed. The query results are visualized in real-time.

  13. Earthquake likelihood model testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schorlemmer, D.; Gerstenberger, M.C.; Wiemer, S.; Jackson, D.D.; Rhoades, D.A.

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTIONThe Regional Earthquake Likelihood Models (RELM) project aims to produce and evaluate alternate models of earthquake potential (probability per unit volume, magnitude, and time) for California. Based on differing assumptions, these models are produced to test the validity of their assumptions and to explore which models should be incorporated in seismic hazard and risk evaluation. Tests based on physical and geological criteria are useful but we focus on statistical methods using future earthquake catalog data only. We envision two evaluations: a test of consistency with observed data and a comparison of all pairs of models for relative consistency. Both tests are based on the likelihood method, and both are fully prospective (i.e., the models are not adjusted to fit the test data). To be tested, each model must assign a probability to any possible event within a specified region of space, time, and magnitude. For our tests the models must use a common format: earthquake rates in specified “bins” with location, magnitude, time, and focal mechanism limits.Seismology cannot yet deterministically predict individual earthquakes; however, it should seek the best possible models for forecasting earthquake occurrence. This paper describes the statistical rules of an experiment to examine and test earthquake forecasts. The primary purposes of the tests described below are to evaluate physical models for earthquakes, assure that source models used in seismic hazard and risk studies are consistent with earthquake data, and provide quantitative measures by which models can be assigned weights in a consensus model or be judged as suitable for particular regions.In this paper we develop a statistical method for testing earthquake likelihood models. A companion paper (Schorlemmer and Gerstenberger 2007, this issue) discusses the actual implementation of these tests in the framework of the RELM initiative.Statistical testing of hypotheses is a common task and a

  14. Engineering Enzyme Stability and Resistance to an Organic Cosolvent by Modification of Residues in the Access Tunnel

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Koudeláková, T.; Chaloupková, R.; Březovský, J.; Prokop, Z.; Šebestová, E.; Hesseler, M.; Khabiri, Morteza; Plevaka, M.; Kulik, D.; Kutá-Smatanová, Ivana; Řezáčová, Pavlína; Ettrich, Rüdiger; Bornscheuer, U.T.; Damborský, J.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 52, č. 7 (2013), s. 1959-1963 ISSN 1433-7851 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC06010 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 ; RVO:68378050 Keywords : directed evolution * enzyme catalysis * enzymes * protein engineering * protein stability Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry; EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology (UMG-J) Impact factor: 11.336, year: 2013

  15. Geophysical Anomalies and Earthquake Prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, D. D.

    2008-12-01

    Finding anomalies is easy. Predicting earthquakes convincingly from such anomalies is far from easy. Why? Why have so many beautiful geophysical abnormalities not led to successful prediction strategies? What is earthquake prediction? By my definition it is convincing information that an earthquake of specified size is temporarily much more likely than usual in a specific region for a specified time interval. We know a lot about normal earthquake behavior, including locations where earthquake rates are higher than elsewhere, with estimable rates and size distributions. We know that earthquakes have power law size distributions over large areas, that they cluster in time and space, and that aftershocks follow with power-law dependence on time. These relationships justify prudent protective measures and scientific investigation. Earthquake prediction would justify exceptional temporary measures well beyond those normal prudent actions. Convincing earthquake prediction would result from methods that have demonstrated many successes with few false alarms. Predicting earthquakes convincingly is difficult for several profound reasons. First, earthquakes start in tiny volumes at inaccessible depth. The power law size dependence means that tiny unobservable ones are frequent almost everywhere and occasionally grow to larger size. Thus prediction of important earthquakes is not about nucleation, but about identifying the conditions for growth. Second, earthquakes are complex. They derive their energy from stress, which is perniciously hard to estimate or model because it is nearly singular at the margins of cracks and faults. Physical properties vary from place to place, so the preparatory processes certainly vary as well. Thus establishing the needed track record for validation is very difficult, especially for large events with immense interval times in any one location. Third, the anomalies are generally complex as well. Electromagnetic anomalies in particular require

  16. Effect of temperature on the crevice corrosion resistance of Ni-Cr-Mo alloys as engineered barriers in nuclear waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hornus, Edgard C.; Rodríguez, Martin A.

    2011-01-01

    Ni-Cr-Mo alloys offer an outstanding corrosion resistance in a wide variety of highly corrosive environments. Alloys 625, C-22, C-22HS and Hybrid-BC1 are considered among candidates as engineered barriers of nuclear repositories. The objective of the present work was to assess the effect of temperature on the crevice corrosion resistance of these alloys. The crevice corrosion re-passivation potential (E CO ) of the tested alloys was determined by the Potentiodynamic-Galvanostatic-Potentiodynamic (PD-GS-PD) method. Alloy Hybrid-BC1 was the most resistant to chloride-induced crevice corrosion, followed by alloys C-22HS, C-22 and 625. E CO showed a linear decrease with temperature. There is a temperature above which E CO does not decrease anymore, reaching a minimum value. This E CO value is a strong parameter for assessing the localized corrosion susceptibility of a material in a long term timescale, since it is independent of temperature, chloride concentration and geometrical variables such as crevicing mechanism, crevice gap and type of crevice formers. (author) [es

  17. Potentials of cooled EGR and water injection for knock resistance and fuel consumption improvements of gasoline engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bozza, Fabio; De Bellis, Vincenzo; Teodosio, Luigi

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • 1D simulation of a turbocharged VVA engine under knock limited operation. • Description of turbulence, combustion and knock by phenomenological models. • Comparison of EGR and ported water injection at high load for knock mitigation and fuel economy. • Virtual calibration of engine control parameters by a 1D model. - Abstract: It is well known that the downsizing philosophy allows the improvement of the brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) at part load operation for spark ignition (SI) engines. On the other hand, the BSFC is penalized at high load because of the knock occurrence and of further limitations on the turbine inlet temperature (TIT). Knock control forces the adoption of a late combustion phasing, causing a deterioration of the thermodynamic efficiency, while the TIT control requires the enrichment of the air-to-fuel ratio (A/F), with additional BSFC drawbacks. In this work, two promising techniques are investigated by a 1D approach with the aim of improving the fuel economy of a turbocharged SI engine at full load knock-limited operation. The first technique is the recirculation of low-pressure cooled exhaust gas (EGR), while the second is the injection of liquid water at the intake ports. Proper “in-house developed” sub-models are used to describe the turbulence, combustion and knock phenomena. The effects of the above techniques are studied in six operating points at full load and different speeds for various A/F levels and inert content, by varying the EGR rate and water-to-fuel ratio. The presented results highlight that both the solutions involve significant BSFC improvements, especially in the operating conditions at medium engine speeds. In fact, the introduction of inert gas in the cylinder contributes to reduce the knock tendency, resulting in the possibility to advance the combustion phasing and reduce, or even avoid, the mixture over-fuelling. The heat subtracted by the water evaporation enhances the above effects

  18. The HayWired Earthquake Scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detweiler, Shane T.; Wein, Anne M.

    2017-04-24

    ForewordThe 1906 Great San Francisco earthquake (magnitude 7.8) and the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake (magnitude 6.9) each motivated residents of the San Francisco Bay region to build countermeasures to earthquakes into the fabric of the region. Since Loma Prieta, bay-region communities, governments, and utilities have invested tens of billions of dollars in seismic upgrades and retrofits and replacements of older buildings and infrastructure. Innovation and state-of-the-art engineering, informed by science, including novel seismic-hazard assessments, have been applied to the challenge of increasing seismic resilience throughout the bay region. However, as long as people live and work in seismically vulnerable buildings or rely on seismically vulnerable transportation and utilities, more work remains to be done.With that in mind, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and its partners developed the HayWired scenario as a tool to enable further actions that can change the outcome when the next major earthquake strikes. By illuminating the likely impacts to the present-day built environment, well-constructed scenarios can and have spurred officials and citizens to take steps that change the outcomes the scenario describes, whether used to guide more realistic response and recovery exercises or to launch mitigation measures that will reduce future risk.The HayWired scenario is the latest in a series of like-minded efforts to bring a special focus onto the impacts that could occur when the Hayward Fault again ruptures through the east side of the San Francisco Bay region as it last did in 1868. Cities in the east bay along the Richmond, Oakland, and Fremont corridor would be hit hardest by earthquake ground shaking, surface fault rupture, aftershocks, and fault afterslip, but the impacts would reach throughout the bay region and far beyond. The HayWired scenario name reflects our increased reliance on the Internet and telecommunications and also alludes to the

  19. Pain after earthquake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angeletti Chiara

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction On 6 April 2009, at 03:32 local time, an Mw 6.3 earthquake hit the Abruzzi region of central Italy causing widespread damage in the City of L Aquila and its nearby villages. The earthquake caused 308 casualties and over 1,500 injuries, displaced more than 25,000 people and induced significant damage to more than 10,000 buildings in the L'Aquila region. Objectives This observational retrospective study evaluated the prevalence and drug treatment of pain in the five weeks following the L'Aquila earthquake (April 6, 2009. Methods 958 triage documents were analysed for patients pain severity, pain type, and treatment efficacy. Results A third of pain patients reported pain with a prevalence of 34.6%. More than half of pain patients reported severe pain (58.8%. Analgesic agents were limited to available drugs: anti-inflammatory agents, paracetamol, and weak opioids. Reduction in verbal numerical pain scores within the first 24 hours after treatment was achieved with the medications at hand. Pain prevalence and characterization exhibited a biphasic pattern with acute pain syndromes owing to trauma occurring in the first 15 days after the earthquake; traumatic pain then decreased and re-surged at around week five, owing to rebuilding efforts. In the second through fourth week, reports of pain occurred mainly owing to relapses of chronic conditions. Conclusions This study indicates that pain is prevalent during natural disasters, may exhibit a discernible pattern over the weeks following the event, and current drug treatments in this region may be adequate for emergency situations.

  20. Normalising corporate counterinsurgency: Engineering consent, managing resistance and greening destruction around the Hambach coal mine and beyond

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dunlap, A.A.

    2018-01-01

    The German Rhineland is home to the world's largest opencast lignite coal mine and human-made hole – the Hambach mine. Over the last seven years, RWE, the mine operator, has faced an increase in militant resistance, culminating in the occupation of the Hambacher Forest and acts of civil disobedience

  1. The Antibiotic Resistant Target Seeker (ARTS), an exploration engine for antibiotic cluster prioritization and novel drug target discovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alanjary, Mohammad; Kronmiller, Brent; Adamek, Martina

    2017-01-01

    and identifying gene clusters for compounds active against specific and novel targets. Here we introduce the 'Antibiotic Resistant Target Seeker' (ARTS) available at https://arts.ziemertlab.com. ARTS allows for specific and efficient genome mining for antibiotics with interesting and novel targets. The aim...

  2. Fault lubrication during earthquakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Toro, G; Han, R; Hirose, T; De Paola, N; Nielsen, S; Mizoguchi, K; Ferri, F; Cocco, M; Shimamoto, T

    2011-03-24

    The determination of rock friction at seismic slip rates (about 1 m s(-1)) is of paramount importance in earthquake mechanics, as fault friction controls the stress drop, the mechanical work and the frictional heat generated during slip. Given the difficulty in determining friction by seismological methods, elucidating constraints are derived from experimental studies. Here we review a large set of published and unpublished experiments (∼300) performed in rotary shear apparatus at slip rates of 0.1-2.6 m s(-1). The experiments indicate a significant decrease in friction (of up to one order of magnitude), which we term fault lubrication, both for cohesive (silicate-built, quartz-built and carbonate-built) rocks and non-cohesive rocks (clay-rich, anhydrite, gypsum and dolomite gouges) typical of crustal seismogenic sources. The available mechanical work and the associated temperature rise in the slipping zone trigger a number of physicochemical processes (gelification, decarbonation and dehydration reactions, melting and so on) whose products are responsible for fault lubrication. The similarity between (1) experimental and natural fault products and (2) mechanical work measures resulting from these laboratory experiments and seismological estimates suggests that it is reasonable to extrapolate experimental data to conditions typical of earthquake nucleation depths (7-15 km). It seems that faults are lubricated during earthquakes, irrespective of the fault rock composition and of the specific weakening mechanism involved.

  3. Do Earthquakes Shake Stock Markets?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Susana; Karali, Berna

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines how major earthquakes affected the returns and volatility of aggregate stock market indices in thirty-five financial markets over the last twenty years. Results show that global financial markets are resilient to shocks caused by earthquakes even if these are domestic. Our analysis reveals that, in a few instances, some macroeconomic variables and earthquake characteristics (gross domestic product per capita, trade openness, bilateral trade flows, earthquake magnitude, a tsunami indicator, distance to the epicenter, and number of fatalities) mediate the impact of earthquakes on stock market returns, resulting in a zero net effect. However, the influence of these variables is market-specific, indicating no systematic pattern across global capital markets. Results also demonstrate that stock market volatility is unaffected by earthquakes, except for Japan.

  4. Engineering cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) for resistance to cotton leaf curl disease using viral truncated AC1 DNA sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashmi, Jamil A; Zafar, Yusuf; Arshad, Muhammad; Mansoor, Shahid; Asad, Shaheen

    2011-04-01

    Several important biological processes are performed by distinct functional domains found on replication-associated protein (Rep) encoded by AC1 of geminiviruses. Two truncated forms of replicase (tAC1) gene, capable of expressing only the N-terminal 669 bp (5'AC1) and C-terminal 783 bp (3'AC1) nucleotides cloned under transcriptional control of the CaMV35S were introduced into cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) using LBA4404 strain of Agrobacterium tumefaciens to make use of an interference strategy for impairing cotton leaf curl virus (CLCuV) infection in transgenic cotton. Compared with nontransformed control, we observed that transgenic cotton plants overexpressing either N-terminal (5'AC1) or C-terminal (3'AC1) sequences confer resistance to CLCuV by inhibiting replication of viral genomic and β satellite DNA components. Molecular analysis by Northern blot hybridization revealed high transgene expression in early and late growth stages associated with inhibition of CLCuV replication. Of the eight T(1) transgenic lines tested, six had delayed and minor symptoms as compared to nontransformed control lines which developed disease symptoms after 2-3 weeks of whitefly-mediated viral delivery. Virus biological assay and growth of T(2) plants proved that transgenic cotton plants overexpressing 5'- and 3'AC1 displayed high resistance level up to 72, 81%, respectively, as compared to non-transformed control plants following inoculation with viruliferous whiteflies giving significantly high cotton seed yield. Progeny analysis of these plants by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), Southern blotting and virus biological assay showed stable transgene, integration, inheritance and cotton leaf curl disease (CLCuD) resistance in two of the eight transgenic lines having single or two transgene insertions. Transgenic cotton expressing partial AC1 gene of CLCuV can be used as virus resistance source in cotton breeding programs aiming to improve virus resistance in cotton crop.

  5. Error evaluation of inelastic response spectrum method for earthquake design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paz, M.; Wong, J.

    1981-01-01

    Two-story, four-story and ten-story shear building-type frames subjected to earthquake excitaion, were analyzed at several levels of their yield resistance. These frames were subjected at their base to the motion recorded for north-south component of the 1940 El Centro earthquake, and to an artificial earthquake which would produce the response spectral charts recommended for design. The frames were first subjected to 25% or 50% of the intensity level of these earthquakes. The resulting maximum relative displacement for each story of the frames was assumed to be yield resistance for the subsequent analyses at 100% of intensity for the excitation. The frames analyzed were uniform along their height with the stiffness adjusted as to result in 0.20 seconds of the fundamental period for the two-story frame, 0.40 seconds for the four-story frame and 1.0 seconds for the ten-story frame. Results of the study provided the following conclusions: (1) The percentage error in floor displacement for linear behavior was less than 10%; (2) The percentage error in floor displacement for inelastic behavior (elastoplastic) could be as high as 100%; (3) In most of the cases analyzed, the error increased with damping in the system; (4) As a general rule, the error increased as the modal yield resistance decreased; (5) The error was lower for the structures subjected to the 1940 E1 Centro earthquake than for the same structures subjected to an artificial earthquake which was generated from the response spectra for design. (orig./HP)

  6. Probabilistic assessment of steel moment frames incremental collapse (ordinary, intermediate and special under earthquake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kourosh Mehdizadeh

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Building collapse is a level of the structure performance in which the amount of financial and life loss is maximized, so this event could be the worst incident in the construction. Regarding to the possibility of destructive earthquakes in different parts of the world, detailed assessment of the structure's collapse has been one of the major challenges of the structural engineering. In this regard, offering models based on laboratory studies, considering the effective parameters and appropriate earthquakes could be a step towards achieving this goal. In this research, a five-story steel structure with a system of ordinary, intermediate and special moment frame (low, intermediate and high ductility has been designed based on the local regulations. In this study, the effect of resistance and stiffness deterioration of the structural elements based on the results of the laboratory models have been considered and the ductility role in the collapse capacity of steel moment frames has been investigated as probabilistic matter. For this purpose, incremental dynamic analysis has been done under 50 pairs of earthquake records proposing FEMA P695 instruction and fragility curves of various performance levels are developed. Results showed higher collapse capacity of special moment steel frame than the intermediate and ordinary moment frames. In the 50 percent probability level, the collapse capacity of special moment frame increased 34 % compared to the intermediate moment frame and 66 % to the ordinary moment frame. Also, the results showed that for different collapse spectral accelerations, the use of special moment frame instead of intermediate and ordinary moment frames reduces the collapse probability to 30 and 50 % respectively.

  7. 1964 Great Alaska Earthquake: a photographic tour of Anchorage, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoms, Evan E.; Haeussler, Peter J.; Anderson, Rebecca D.; McGimsey, Robert G.

    2014-01-01

    , and small-scale maps, as well as links to slideshows of additional photographs and Google Street View™ scenes. Buildings in Anchorage that were severely damaged, sites of major landslides, and locations of post-earthquake engineering responses are highlighted. The web map can be used online as a virtual tour or in a physical self-guided tour using a web-enabled Global Positioning System (GPS) device. This publication serves the purpose of committing most of the content of the web map to a single distributable document. As such, some of the content differs from the online version.

  8. The severity of an earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    1997-01-01

    The severity of an earthquake can be expressed in terms of both intensity and magnitude. However, the two terms are quite different, and they are often confused. Intensity is based on the observed effects of ground shaking on people, buildings, and natural features. It varies from place to place within the disturbed region depending on the location of the observer with respect to the earthquake epicenter. Magnitude is related to the amount of seismic energy released at the hypocenter of the earthquake. It is based on the amplitude of the earthquake waves recorded on instruments

  9. An electrochemical engineering technique to improve the corrosion resistance of some structural materials in lead-alloy coolants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tacica, M.; Andrei, V.; Rusu, O.; Coaca, E.; Minca, M.; Florea, S.; Oncioiu, G.

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to present some conclusions resulted from the literature studies referring to the materials potential to be used in Lead Fast Reactors (LFR), and the results obtained in the surface engineering field which can be used in our institute in order to obtain materials with appropriate properties for their use in LFR. In this context, the paper presents some preliminary results obtained in Surface Analysis Laboratory of INR Pitesti and research works in progress referring to: controlled modification of AISI 316 L surface by electrochemical plasma treatment (carburization, nitrocarburizings); electrodeposition of some protective thin-films based on Ni and Al obtained from ionic liquids; development of some procedures related to the activities involved in the behaviour evaluation, in LFR specific conditions, for material samples subjected to treatments by surface engineering techniques using the LEad COrrosion TEsting LOop (LECOTELO) test bench. The superficial structures obtained have been characterized by metallographic microscopy, X-Ray Photoemission Spectroscopy (XPS), Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS); the electrochemical techniques were used to evaluate the corrosion behaviour. The preliminary results have shown that the used electrochemical surface engineering techniques are appropriate in order to improve the mechanical properties and corrosion behaviour of AISI 316 L steel. (authors)

  10. Engineered Sulfur‐Resistant Catalyst System with an Assisted Regeneration Strategy for Lean‐Burn Methane Combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallinen, Kauko; Maunula, Teuvo; Suvanto, Mika

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Catalytic combustion of methane, the main component of natural gas, is a challenge under lean‐burn conditions and at low temperatures owing to sulfur poisoning of the Pd‐rich catalyst. This paper introduces a more sulfur‐resistant catalyst system that can be regenerated during operation. The developed catalyst system lowers the barrier that has restrained the use of liquefied natural gas as a fuel in energy production. PMID:29780434

  11. Earthquake vulnerability assessment of buildings of ward no. 8 of Haldwani-Kathgodam Municipal Corporation, Uttarakhand, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bora, Kritika; Pande, Ravindra K.

    2017-07-01

    "Earthquake does not kill people; it is the building which kills people". Earthquake is a sudden event below the surface of the earth which results in vertical and horizontal waves that causes destruction. The main aim of this research is to bring into light the unplanned and non-engineered construction practices growing in the Urban areas. Lack of space and continuous migration from hills has resulted in Multistorey construction. The present study is based on primary data collection through Rapid Visual Screening for the assessment of vulnerability of buildings. "Haldwani-Kathgodam being a new Municipal Corporation located in the foot hills of Himalayas is facing same problem. The seismic zonation brings this area into zone 4 of damage risk. Therefore an assessment to estimate the risk of the built up environment is important. This paper presents a systematic and useful way of assessing physical vulnerability of buildings. The present paper will show how the growing pressure on urban area tends to make the built up environment vulnerable towards seismic activities. The challenge today is to make our living environment safe for living. The day by day growing population pressure on urban area as a migration trend in developing countries is leading to high rise building, no planning and reckless construction. For the sake of saving some money people usually do not take the approval from structural engineer. This unplanned and haphazard construction proves non-resistant towards earthquake and brings lives and properties to death and a stand still. The total no. of household in the current study area is 543 whereas the total population is 2497 (2011). The recent formation of Himalayas makes the area more sensitive towards seismic event. The closeness to the Main Boundary thrust brings it to zone 4 in the Seismic Zonation of India i.e., High Damage Risk Zone

  12. Foreshocks, aftershocks, and earthquake probabilities: Accounting for the landers earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Lucile M.

    1994-01-01

    The equation to determine the probability that an earthquake occurring near a major fault will be a foreshock to a mainshock on that fault is modified to include the case of aftershocks to a previous earthquake occurring near the fault. The addition of aftershocks to the background seismicity makes its less probable that an earthquake will be a foreshock, because nonforeshocks have become more common. As the aftershocks decay with time, the probability that an earthquake will be a foreshock increases. However, fault interactions between the first mainshock and the major fault can increase the long-term probability of a characteristic earthquake on that fault, which will, in turn, increase the probability that an event is a foreshock, compensating for the decrease caused by the aftershocks.

  13. Geotechnical hazards from large earthquakes and heavy rainfalls

    CERN Document Server

    Kazama, Motoki; Lee, Wei

    2017-01-01

    This book is a collection of papers presented at the International Workshop on Geotechnical Natural Hazards held July 12–15, 2014, in Kitakyushu, Japan. The workshop was the sixth in the series of Japan–Taiwan Joint Workshops on Geotechnical Hazards from Large Earthquakes and Heavy Rainfalls, held under the auspices of the Asian Technical Committee No. 3 on Geotechnology for Natural Hazards of the International Society for Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering. It was co-organized by the Japanese Geotechnical Society and the Taiwanese Geotechnical Society. The contents of this book focus on geotechnical and natural hazard-related issues in Asia such as earthquakes, tsunami, rainfall-induced debris flows, slope failures, and landslides. The book contains the latest information and mitigation technology on earthquake- and rainfall-induced geotechnical natural hazards. By dissemination of the latest state-of-the-art research in the area, the information contained in this book will help researchers, des...

  14. USGS response to an urban earthquake, Northridge '94

    Science.gov (United States)

    Updike, Randall G.; Brown, William M.; Johnson, Margo L.; Omdahl, Eleanor M.; Powers, Philip S.; Rhea, Susan; Tarr, Arthur C.

    1996-01-01

    The urban centers of our Nation provide our people with seemingly unlimited employment, social, and cultural opportunities as a result of the complex interactions of a diverse population embedded in an highly-engineered environment. Catastrophic events in one or more of the natural earth systems which underlie or envelop urban environment can have radical effects on the integrity and survivability of that environment. Earthquakes have for centuries been the source of cataclysmic events on cities throughout the world. Unlike many other earth processes, the effects of major earthquakes transcend all political, social, and geomorphic boundaries and can have decided impact on cities tens to hundreds of kilometers from the epicenter. In modern cities, where buildings, transportation corridors, and lifelines are complexly interrelated, the life, economic, and social vulnerabilities in the face of a major earthquake can be particularly acute.

  15. Thickness independent reduced forming voltage in oxygen engineered HfO{sub 2} based resistive switching memories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharath, S. U., E-mail: sharath@oxide.tu-darmstadt.de; Kurian, J.; Komissinskiy, P.; Hildebrandt, E.; Alff, L. [Institute of Materials Science, Technische Universität Darmstadt, 64287 Darmstadt (Germany); Bertaud, T.; Walczyk, C.; Calka, P. [IHP, Im Technologiepark 25, 15236 Frankfurt Oder (Germany); Schroeder, T. [IHP, Im Technologiepark 25, 15236 Frankfurt Oder (Germany); Brandenburgische Technische Universität, Konrad-Zuse-Strasse 1, 03046 Cottbus (Germany)

    2014-08-18

    The conducting filament forming voltage of stoichiometric hafnium oxide based resistive switching layers increases linearly with layer thickness. Using strongly reduced oxygen deficient hafnium oxide thin films grown on polycrystalline TiN/Si(001) substrates, the thickness dependence of the forming voltage is strongly suppressed. Instead, an almost constant forming voltage of about 3 V is observed up to 200 nm layer thickness. This effect suggests that filament formation and switching occurs for all samples in an oxidized HfO{sub 2} surface layer of a few nanometer thickness while the highly oxygen deficient thin film itself merely serves as a oxygen vacancy reservoir.

  16. Global building inventory for earthquake loss estimation and risk management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaiswal, Kishor; Wald, David; Porter, Keith

    2010-01-01

    We develop a global database of building inventories using taxonomy of global building types for use in near-real-time post-earthquake loss estimation and pre-earthquake risk analysis, for the U.S. Geological Survey’s Prompt Assessment of Global Earthquakes for Response (PAGER) program. The database is available for public use, subject to peer review, scrutiny, and open enhancement. On a country-by-country level, it contains estimates of the distribution of building types categorized by material, lateral force resisting system, and occupancy type (residential or nonresidential, urban or rural). The database draws on and harmonizes numerous sources: (1) UN statistics, (2) UN Habitat’s demographic and health survey (DHS) database, (3) national housing censuses, (4) the World Housing Encyclopedia and (5) other literature.

  17. Reliability analysis of service water system under earthquake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Yu; Qian Xiaoming; Lu Xuefeng; Wang Shengfei; Niu Fenglei

    2013-01-01

    Service water system is one of the important safety systems in nuclear power plant, whose failure probability is always gained by system reliability analysis. The probability of equipment failure under the earthquake is the function of the peak acceleration of earthquake motion, while the occurrence of earthquake is of randomicity, thus the traditional fault tree method in current probability safety assessment is not powerful enough to deal with such case of conditional probability problem. An analysis frame was put forward for system reliability evaluation in seismic condition in this paper, in which Monte Carlo simulation was used to deal with conditional probability problem. Annual failure probability of service water system was calculated, and failure probability of 1.46X10 -4 per year was obtained. The analysis result is in accordance with the data which indicate equipment seismic resistance capability, and the rationality of the model is validated. (authors)

  18. Generation of earthquake signals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kjell, G.

    1994-01-01

    Seismic verification can be performed either as a full scale test on a shaker table or as numerical calculations. In both cases it is necessary to have an earthquake acceleration time history. This report describes generation of such time histories by filtering white noise. Analogue and digital filtering methods are compared. Different methods of predicting the response spectrum of a white noise signal filtered by a band-pass filter are discussed. Prediction of both the average response level and the statistical variation around this level are considered. Examples with both the IEEE 301 standard response spectrum and a ground spectrum suggested for Swedish nuclear power stations are included in the report

  19. Earthquakes Threaten Many American Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Nancy E.

    2010-01-01

    Millions of U.S. children attend schools that are not safe from earthquakes, even though they are in earthquake-prone zones. Several cities and states have worked to identify and repair unsafe buildings, but many others have done little or nothing to fix the problem. The reasons for ignoring the problem include political and financial ones, but…

  20. Make an Earthquake: Ground Shaking!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savasci, Funda

    2011-01-01

    The main purposes of this activity are to help students explore possible factors affecting the extent of the damage of earthquakes and learn the ways to reduce earthquake damages. In these inquiry-based activities, students have opportunities to develop science process skills and to build an understanding of the relationship among science,…

  1. Rewiring the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) transcription circuit: Engineering a recombination-resistant genome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yount, Boyd; Roberts, Rhonda S.; Lindesmith, Lisa; Baric, Ralph S.

    2006-08-01

    Live virus vaccines provide significant protection against many detrimental human and animal diseases, but reversion to virulence by mutation and recombination has reduced appeal. Using severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus as a model, we engineered a different transcription regulatory circuit and isolated recombinant viruses. The transcription network allowed for efficient expression of the viral transcripts and proteins, and the recombinant viruses replicated to WT levels. Recombinant genomes were then constructed that contained mixtures of the WT and mutant regulatory circuits, reflecting recombinant viruses that might occur in nature. Although viable viruses could readily be isolated from WT and recombinant genomes containing homogeneous transcription circuits, chimeras that contained mixed regulatory networks were invariantly lethal, because viable chimeric viruses were not isolated. Mechanistically, mixed regulatory circuits promoted inefficient subgenomic transcription from inappropriate start sites, resulting in truncated ORFs and effectively minimize viral structural protein expression. Engineering regulatory transcription circuits of intercommunicating alleles successfully introduces genetic traps into a viral genome that are lethal in RNA recombinant progeny viruses. regulation | systems biology | vaccine design

  2. Earthquake Catalogue of the Caucasus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godoladze, T.; Gok, R.; Tvaradze, N.; Tumanova, N.; Gunia, I.; Onur, T.

    2016-12-01

    The Caucasus has a documented historical catalog stretching back to the beginning of the Christian era. Most of the largest historical earthquakes prior to the 19th century are assumed to have occurred on active faults of the Greater Caucasus. Important earthquakes include the Samtskhe earthquake of 1283 (Ms˜7.0, Io=9); Lechkhumi-Svaneti earthquake of 1350 (Ms˜7.0, Io=9); and the Alaverdi earthquake of 1742 (Ms˜6.8, Io=9). Two significant historical earthquakes that may have occurred within the Javakheti plateau in the Lesser Caucasus are the Tmogvi earthquake of 1088 (Ms˜6.5, Io=9) and the Akhalkalaki earthquake of 1899 (Ms˜6.3, Io =8-9). Large earthquakes that occurred in the Caucasus within the period of instrumental observation are: Gori 1920; Tabatskuri 1940; Chkhalta 1963; Racha earthquake of 1991 (Ms=7.0), is the largest event ever recorded in the region; Barisakho earthquake of 1992 (M=6.5); Spitak earthquake of 1988 (Ms=6.9, 100 km south of Tbilisi), which killed over 50,000 people in Armenia. Recently, permanent broadband stations have been deployed across the region as part of the various national networks (Georgia (˜25 stations), Azerbaijan (˜35 stations), Armenia (˜14 stations)). The data from the last 10 years of observation provides an opportunity to perform modern, fundamental scientific investigations. In order to improve seismic data quality a catalog of all instrumentally recorded earthquakes has been compiled by the IES (Institute of Earth Sciences/NSMC, Ilia State University) in the framework of regional joint project (Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Turkey, USA) "Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Assessment (PSHA) in the Caucasus. The catalogue consists of more then 80,000 events. First arrivals of each earthquake of Mw>=4.0 have been carefully examined. To reduce calculation errors, we corrected arrivals from the seismic records. We improved locations of the events and recalculate Moment magnitudes in order to obtain unified magnitude

  3. Engineering human T cells for resistance to methotrexate and mycophenolate mofetil as an in vivo cell selection strategy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahesh Jonnalagadda

    Full Text Available Gene transfer and drug selection systems that enforce ongoing transgene expression in vitro and in vivo which are compatible with human pharmaceutical drugs are currently underdeveloped. Here, we report on the utility of incorporating human enzyme muteins that confer resistance to the lymphotoxic/immunosuppressive drugs methotrexate (MTX and mycophenolate mofetil (MMF in a multicistronic lentiviral vector for in vivo T lymphocyte selection. We found that co-expression of human dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR(FS; L22F, F31S and inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase II (IMPDH2(IY; T333I, S351Y conferred T cell resistance to the cytocidal and anti-proliferative effects of these drugs at concentrations that can be achieved clinically (up to 0.1 µM MTX and 1.0 µM MPA. Furthermore, using a immunodeficient mouse model that supports the engraftment of central memory derived human T cells, in vivo selection studies demonstrate that huEGFRt(+DHFR(FS+IMPDH2(IY+ T cells could be enriched following adoptive transfer either by systemic administration of MTX alone (4.4 -fold, MMF alone (2.9-fold, or combined MTX and MMF (4.9-fold. These findings demonstrate the utility of both DHFR(FS/MTX and IMPDH2(IY/MMF for in vivo selection of lentivirally transduced human T cells. Vectors incorporating these muteins in combination with other therapeutic transgenes may facilitate the selective engraftment of therapeutically active cells in recipients.

  4. Engineering human T cells for resistance to methotrexate and mycophenolate mofetil as an in vivo cell selection strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonnalagadda, Mahesh; Brown, Christine E; Chang, Wen-Chung; Ostberg, Julie R; Forman, Stephen J; Jensen, Michael C

    2013-01-01

    Gene transfer and drug selection systems that enforce ongoing transgene expression in vitro and in vivo which are compatible with human pharmaceutical drugs are currently underdeveloped. Here, we report on the utility of incorporating human enzyme muteins that confer resistance to the lymphotoxic/immunosuppressive drugs methotrexate (MTX) and mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) in a multicistronic lentiviral vector for in vivo T lymphocyte selection. We found that co-expression of human dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR(FS); L22F, F31S) and inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase II (IMPDH2(IY); T333I, S351Y) conferred T cell resistance to the cytocidal and anti-proliferative effects of these drugs at concentrations that can be achieved clinically (up to 0.1 µM MTX and 1.0 µM MPA). Furthermore, using a immunodeficient mouse model that supports the engraftment of central memory derived human T cells, in vivo selection studies demonstrate that huEGFRt(+)DHFR(FS+)IMPDH2(IY+) T cells could be enriched following adoptive transfer either by systemic administration of MTX alone (4.4 -fold), MMF alone (2.9-fold), or combined MTX and MMF (4.9-fold). These findings demonstrate the utility of both DHFR(FS)/MTX and IMPDH2(IY)/MMF for in vivo selection of lentivirally transduced human T cells. Vectors incorporating these muteins in combination with other therapeutic transgenes may facilitate the selective engraftment of therapeutically active cells in recipients.

  5. Defence against earthquakes: a red thread of history

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guidoboni, Emanuela

    2015-01-01

    This note gives a short overview from the ancient world down to the end of the eighteenth century (before engineering began as a science, that is) on the idea of “housing safety” and earthquakes. The idea varies, but persists throughout the cultural and economic contexts of history’s changing societies, and in relation to class and lifestyle. Historical research into earthquakes in Italy from the ancient world to the twentieth century has shown how variable the idea actually is, as emerges from theoretical treatises, practical wisdom and projects drawn up in the wake of destructive events. In the seventeenth century the theoretical interpretation of earthquakes began to swing towards a mechanistic view of the Earth, affecting how the effects and propagation of earthquakes were observed. Strong earthquakes continued to occur and cause damage, and after yet another seismic disaster – Umbria 1751 – new building techniques were advocated. The attempt was to make house walls bind more solidly by special linking of the wooden structure of floors and roof beams. Following the massive seismic crisis of February-March 1783, which left central and southern Calabria in ruins, a new house was proposed, called 'baraccata': it was a wooden structure filled in with light materials. This was actually already to be founding the ancient Mediterranean basin (including Pompei); but only at that time was it perfected, proposed by engineers and circulated as an important building innovation. At the end of the eighteenth century town planners came to the fore in the search for safe housing. They suggested new regular shapes, broad grid-plan streets with a specific view to achieving housing safety and ensuring an escape route in case of earthquake. Such rules and regulations were then abandoned or lost, proving that it is not enough to try out [it

  6. Testing earthquake source inversion methodologies

    KAUST Repository

    Page, Morgan T.

    2011-01-01

    Source Inversion Validation Workshop; Palm Springs, California, 11-12 September 2010; Nowadays earthquake source inversions are routinely performed after large earthquakes and represent a key connection between recorded seismic and geodetic data and the complex rupture process at depth. The resulting earthquake source models quantify the spatiotemporal evolution of ruptures. They are also used to provide a rapid assessment of the severity of an earthquake and to estimate losses. However, because of uncertainties in the data, assumed fault geometry and velocity structure, and chosen rupture parameterization, it is not clear which features of these source models are robust. Improved understanding of the uncertainty and reliability of earthquake source inversions will allow the scientific community to use the robust features of kinematic inversions to more thoroughly investigate the complexity of the rupture process and to better constrain other earthquakerelated computations, such as ground motion simulations and static stress change calculations.

  7. Slope earthquake stability

    CERN Document Server

    Changwei, Yang; Jing, Lian; Wenying, Yu; Jianjing, Zhang

    2017-01-01

    This book begins with the dynamic characteristics of the covering layerbedrock type slope, containing monitoring data of the seismic array, shaking table tests, numerical analysis and theoretical derivation. Then it focuses on the landslide mechanism and assessment method. It also proposes a model that assessing the hazard area based on the field investigations. Many questions, exercises and solutions are given. Researchers and engineers in the field of Geotechnical Engineering and Anti-seismic Engineering can benefit from it.

  8. THE ROLE OF IRON IN Deinococcus radiodurans ENGINEERED FOR GROWTH ON TOLUENE AND THE ROLE OF MANGANESE IN THE EXTREME RADIATION RESISTANCE PHENOTYPE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan Brim; Elena K. Gaidamakova; Vera Y. Matrosova; Min Zhai; Amudhan Venkateswaran; Marina Omelchenko; Kira S. Makarova; Lawrence P. Wackett; James K. Fredrickson; Michael J. Daly

    2004-01-01

    Toluene and other fuel hydrocarbons are commonly found in association with radionuclides at numerous Department of Energy (DOE) sites, frequently occurring together with Cr(VI) and other heavy metals. In this study, the extremely radiation resistant bacterium Deinococcus radiodurans was engineered for complete toluene mineralization by cloned expression of tod and xyl genes of Pseudomonas putida. The recombinant Tod/Xyl strain showed significant incorporation of carbon from the toluene aromatic ring into cellular macromolecules and carbon dioxide, in the absence or presence of chronic radiation. We have shown that intracellular iron concentrations in wild-type D. radiodurans in minimal medium are exceptionally low and not sufficient to support growth on toluene using Fe-dependent oxygenases cloned from P. putida. Introducing the fur mutation into D. radiodurans increased intracellular Fe levels, and imparted on the engineered strain the ability to grow on meta-toluate as the sole carbon and energy source. The organism's native Cr(VI) reduction capabilities were facilitated by toluene when present as the sole carbon and energy source in natural sediment analogues of DOE contaminated environments. The engineered bacteria were able to oxidize toluene under both minimal and complex nutrient conditions, which is important since both conditions have environmental equivalents in the context of bioremediation processes. As such, the Tod/Xyl strain is providing a model for understanding the role of Fe and reduction of metals coupled to organic contaminant oxidation in aerobic radionuclide contaminated sediments. We have shown that D. radiodurans contains high intracellular manganese levels, and that Mn restriction sensitizes cells to irradiation. We propose that the unusually high Mn/Fe ratio of D. radiodurans facilitates survival by quenching oxidative stress during recovery.

  9. THE ROLE OF IRON IN Deinococcus radiodurans ENGINEERED FOR GROWTH ON TOLUENE AND THE ROLE OF MANGANESE IN THE EXTREME RADIATION RESISTANCE PHENOTYPE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hassan Brim; Elena K. Gaidamakova; Vera Y. Matrosova; Min Zhai; Amudhan Venkateswaran; Marina Omelchenko; Kira S. Makarova; Lawrence P. Wackett; James K. Fredrickson; Michael J. Daly

    2004-03-17

    Toluene and other fuel hydrocarbons are commonly found in association with radionuclides at numerous Department of Energy (DOE) sites, frequently occurring together with Cr(VI) and other heavy metals. In this study, the extremely radiation resistant bacterium Deinococcus radiodurans was engineered for complete toluene mineralization by cloned expression of tod and xyl genes of Pseudomonas putida. The recombinant Tod/Xyl strain showed significant incorporation of carbon from the toluene aromatic ring into cellular macromolecules and carbon dioxide, in the absence or presence of chronic radiation. We have shown that intracellular iron concentrations in wild-type D. radiodurans in minimal medium are exceptionally low and not sufficient to support growth on toluene using Fe-dependent oxygenases cloned from P. putida. Introducing the fur mutation into D. radiodurans increased intracellular Fe levels, and imparted on the engineered strain the ability to grow on meta-toluate as the sole carbon and energy source. The organism's native Cr(VI) reduction capabilities were facilitated by toluene when present as the sole carbon and energy source in natural sediment analogues of DOE contaminated environments. The engineered bacteria were able to oxidize toluene under both minimal and complex nutrient conditions, which is important since both conditions have environmental equivalents in the context of bioremediation processes. As such, the Tod/Xyl strain is providing a model for understanding the role of Fe and reduction of metals coupled to organic contaminant oxidation in aerobic radionuclide contaminated sediments. We have shown that D. radiodurans contains high intracellular manganese levels, and that Mn restriction sensitizes cells to irradiation. We propose that the unusually high Mn/Fe ratio of D. radiodurans facilitates survival by quenching oxidative stress during recovery.

  10. Earthquake behavior at deep underground observed by three-dimensional array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komada, Hiroya; Sawada, Yoshihiro; Aoyama, Shigeo.

    1989-01-01

    The earthquake observation has been carried out using an eight point three-dimensional array between on-ground and the depth of about 400 m at Hosokura Mine in Miyagi prefecture, for the purpose of obtaining the basic datum on the characteristics of the seismic waves for the earthquake resistance design of the deep underground disposal facility of high level waste. The following results ware obtained. (1) The maximum accelerations at the underground are damped to about 60 % of those at on-ground horizontal and to about 70 % vertical. (2) Although the frequency characteristics of the seismic waves varies for each earthquake, the transfer characteristics of seismic waves from deep underground to on-ground is the same for each earthquake. (3) The horizontal dirrections of seismic wave incidence are similar to the directions from epicenters of each earthquake. The vertical directions of seismic wave incidence are in the range of about 3deg to 35deg from vertical line. (author)

  11. The CATDAT damaging earthquakes database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. E. Daniell

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The global CATDAT damaging earthquakes and secondary effects (tsunami, fire, landslides, liquefaction and fault rupture database was developed to validate, remove discrepancies, and expand greatly upon existing global databases; and to better understand the trends in vulnerability, exposure, and possible future impacts of such historic earthquakes.

    Lack of consistency and errors in other earthquake loss databases frequently cited and used in analyses was a major shortcoming in the view of the authors which needed to be improved upon.

    Over 17 000 sources of information have been utilised, primarily in the last few years, to present data from over 12 200 damaging earthquakes historically, with over 7000 earthquakes since 1900 examined and validated before insertion into the database. Each validated earthquake includes seismological information, building damage, ranges of social losses to account for varying sources (deaths, injuries, homeless, and affected, and economic losses (direct, indirect, aid, and insured.

    Globally, a slightly increasing trend in economic damage due to earthquakes is not consistent with the greatly increasing exposure. The 1923 Great Kanto ($214 billion USD damage; 2011 HNDECI-adjusted dollars compared to the 2011 Tohoku (>$300 billion USD at time of writing, 2008 Sichuan and 1995 Kobe earthquakes show the increasing concern for economic loss in urban areas as the trend should be expected to increase. Many economic and social loss values not reported in existing databases have been collected. Historical GDP (Gross Domestic Product, exchange rate, wage information, population, HDI (Human Development Index, and insurance information have been collected globally to form comparisons.

    This catalogue is the largest known cross-checked global historic damaging earthquake database and should have far-reaching consequences for earthquake loss estimation, socio-economic analysis, and the global

  12. The CATDAT damaging earthquakes database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniell, J. E.; Khazai, B.; Wenzel, F.; Vervaeck, A.

    2011-08-01

    The global CATDAT damaging earthquakes and secondary effects (tsunami, fire, landslides, liquefaction and fault rupture) database was developed to validate, remove discrepancies, and expand greatly upon existing global databases; and to better understand the trends in vulnerability, exposure, and possible future impacts of such historic earthquakes. Lack of consistency and errors in other earthquake loss databases frequently cited and used in analyses was a major shortcoming in the view of the authors which needed to be improved upon. Over 17 000 sources of information have been utilised, primarily in the last few years, to present data from over 12 200 damaging earthquakes historically, with over 7000 earthquakes since 1900 examined and validated before insertion into the database. Each validated earthquake includes seismological information, building damage, ranges of social losses to account for varying sources (deaths, injuries, homeless, and affected), and economic losses (direct, indirect, aid, and insured). Globally, a slightly increasing trend in economic damage due to earthquakes is not consistent with the greatly increasing exposure. The 1923 Great Kanto (214 billion USD damage; 2011 HNDECI-adjusted dollars) compared to the 2011 Tohoku (>300 billion USD at time of writing), 2008 Sichuan and 1995 Kobe earthquakes show the increasing concern for economic loss in urban areas as the trend should be expected to increase. Many economic and social loss values not reported in existing databases have been collected. Historical GDP (Gross Domestic Product), exchange rate, wage information, population, HDI (Human Development Index), and insurance information have been collected globally to form comparisons. This catalogue is the largest known cross-checked global historic damaging earthquake database and should have far-reaching consequences for earthquake loss estimation, socio-economic analysis, and the global reinsurance field.

  13. Evaluation and summary of seismic response of above ground nuclear power plant piping to strong motion earthquakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevenson, J.D.

    1985-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to summarize the observations and experience which has been developed relative to the seismic behavior of above-ground, building-supported, industrial type piping (similar to piping used in nuclear power plants) in strong motion earthquakes. The paper also contains observations regarding the response of piping in experimental tests which attempted to excite the piping to failure. Appropriate conclusions regarding the behavior of such piping in large earthquakes and recommendations as to future design of such piping to resist earthquake motion damage are presented based on observed behavior in large earthquakes and simulated shake table testing

  14. Towards forming-free resistive switching in oxygen engineered HfO{sub 2−x}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharath, S. U., E-mail: sharath@oxide.tu-darmstadt.de; Kurian, J.; Hildebrandt, E.; Alff, L. [Institute of Materials Science, Technische Universität Darmstadt, Alarich-Weiss-Strasse 2, 64287 Darmstadt (Germany); Bertaud, T.; Walczyk, C.; Calka, P.; Zaumseil, P.; Sowinska, M.; Walczyk, D. [IHP, Im Technologiepark 25, 15236 Frankfurt Oder (Germany); Gloskovskii, A. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Notkestrasse 85, 22607 Hamburg (Germany); Schroeder, T. [IHP, Im Technologiepark 25, 15236 Frankfurt Oder (Germany); Brandenburgische Technische Universität, Konrad-Zuse-Strasse 1, 03046 Cottbus (Germany)

    2014-02-10

    We have investigated the resistive switching behavior in stoichiometric HfO{sub 2} and oxygen-deficient HfO{sub 2−x} thin films grown on TiN electrodes using reactive molecular beam epitaxy. Oxygen defect states were controlled by the flow of oxygen radicals during thin film growth. Hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy confirmed the presence of sub-stoichiometric hafnium oxide and defect states near the Fermi level. The oxygen deficient HfO{sub 2−x} thin films show bipolar switching with an electroforming occurring at low voltages and low operating currents, paving the way for almost forming-free devices for low-power applications.

  15. Stacking fault density as engineering criterion for resistance to radiation swelling of alloys' FCC- and BCC-lattice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheltov, Yu.V.; Ageev, V.S.; Kolesnikov, Yu.G.

    1990-01-01

    The experimental data on influence of Mn, Cr, Ni, P, B, Ce alloying in austenitic and simultaneously Nb, V, B alloying in ferritic steels and also heat treatment on stacking fault density (SFD) are represented. In all cases besides influence of Cr in austenitic steel the increase of SFD is shown. The decrease of radiation swelling of industrial steels at the increase of their SFD, measured by X-rays, was studied. The tendency of increase of relative radiation swelling change at SFD increase at relative fluence rise is verified. It is shown that SFD may be a perspective proximate characteristics of choice of radiation-resistant steel melts within one steel quality. 14 refs.; 4 figs. (author)

  16. Gas and Dust Phenomena of Mega-earthquakes and the Cause

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Z.

    2013-12-01

    dense natural (methane) gas suddenly escaped from deep crust traps along deep fault zones. References Yue, ZQ, 2009. The source of energy power directly causing the May 12 Wenchuan Earthquake: Huge extremely pressurized natural gases trapped in deep Longmen Shan faults. News Journal of China Society of Rock Mechanics and Engineering, 86 (2009 (2)), 45-50. Yue, ZQ, 2010. Features and mechanism of coseismic surface ruptures by Wenchuan Earthquake. in Rock Stress and Earthquake, edited by Furen Xie, Taylor & Francis Group, London, ISBN 978-0-415-60165-8, 761-768. Yue, ZQ, 2013a. Natural gas eruption mechanism for earthquake landslides: illustrated with comparison between Donghekou and Papandayan Rockslide-debris flows. in Earthquake-induced Landslides, K. Ugai et al. (eds.), Springer-Verlage Berlin, Chapter 51: pp. 485-494 Yue ZQ, 2013b. On incorrectness in elastic rebound theory for cause of earthquakes. Paper No. S20-003 of Session S20, Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Fracture, June 16-21, Beijing. Yue ZQ, 2013c. On nature of earthquakes with cause of compressed methane gas expansion and migration in crustal rocks, in Proceedings of Fifth Biot Conference on Poromechanics in Memory of Karl von Terzaghi (1883-1963), July 10-12, Vienna, edited by C. Hellmich et al, @ASCE, pp. 507-516.

  17. Leveraging geodetic data to reduce losses from earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Jessica R.; Roeloffs, Evelyn A.; Brooks, Benjamin A.; Langbein, John O.; Leith, William S.; Minson, Sarah E.; Svarc, Jerry L.; Thatcher, Wayne R.

    2018-04-23

    analysis systems.Collaborate on research, development, and operation of affordable, high-precision seafloor geodetic methods that improve earthquake forecasting and event response.Advance computational techniques and instrumentation to enable use of strategies like repeat-pass imagery and low-cost geodetic sensors for earthquake response, monitoring, and research.Engage stakeholders and collaborate with partner institutions to foster operational and research objectives and to safeguard the continued health of geodetic infrastructure upon which we mutually depend.Maintaining a vibrant internal research program provides the foundation by which the EHP can remain an effective and trusted source for earthquake science. Exploiting abundant new data sources, evaluating and assimilating the latest science, and pursuing novel avenues of investigation are means to fulfilling the EHP’s core responsibilities and realizing the important scientific advances envisioned by its scientists. Central to the success of such a research program is engaging personnel with a breadth of competencies and a willingness and ability to adapt these to the program’s evolving priorities, enabling current staff to expand their skills and responsibilities, and planning holistically to meet shared workforce needs. In parallel, collaboration with external partners to support scientific investigations that complement ongoing internal research enables the EHP to strengthen earthquake information products by incorporating alternative perspectives and approaches and to study topics and geographic regions that cannot be adequately covered internally.With commensurate support from technical staff who possess diverse skills, including engineering, information technology, and proficiency in quantitative analysis combined with basic geophysical knowledge, the EHP can achieve the geodetic outcomes identified in this document.

  18. The role of post-earthquake structural safety in pre-earthquake retrof in decision: guidelines and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bazzurro, P.; Telleen, K.; Maffei, J.; Yin, J.; Cornell, C.A.

    2009-01-01

    Critical structures such as hospitals, police stations, local administrative office buildings, and critical lifeline facilities, are expected to be operational immediately after earthquakes. Any rational decision about whether these structures are strong enough to meet this goal or whether pre-empitive retrofitting is needed cannot be made without an explicit consideration of post-earthquake safety and functionality with respect to aftershocks. Advanced Seismic Assessment Guidelines offer improvement over previous methods for seismic evaluation of buildings where post-earthquake safety and usability is a concern. This new method allows engineers to evaluate the like hood that a structure may have restricted access or no access after an earthquake. The building performance is measured in terms of the post-earthquake occupancy classifications Green Tag, Yellow Tag, and Red Tag, defining these performance levels quantitatively, based on the structure's remaining capacity to withstand aftershocks. These color-coded placards that constitute an established practice in US could be replaced by the standard results of inspections (A to E) performed by the Italian Dept. of Civil Protection after an event. The article also shows some applications of these Guidelines to buildings of the largest utility company in California, Pacific Gas and Electric Company (PGE). [it

  19. Assessment of liquefaction potential during earthquakes by arias intensity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayen, R.E.; Mitchell, J.K.

    1997-01-01

    An Arias intensity approach to assess the liquefaction potential of soil deposits during earthquakes is proposed, using an energy-based measure of the severity of earthquake-shaking recorded on seismograms of the two horizontal components of ground motion. Values representing the severity of strong motion at depth in the soil column are associated with the liquefaction resistance of that layer, as measured by in situ penetration testing (SPT, CPT). This association results in a magnitude-independent boundary that envelopes initial liquefaction of soil in Arias intensity-normalized penetration resistance space. The Arias intensity approach is simple to apply and has proven to be highly reliable in assessing liquefaction potential. The advantages of using Arias intensity as a measure of earthquake-shaking severity in liquefaction assessment are: Arias intensity is derived from integration of the entire seismogram wave form, incorporating both the amplitude and duration elements of ground motion; all frequencies of recorded motion are considered; and Arias intensity is an appropriate measure to use when evaluating field penetration test methodologies that are inherently energy-based. Predictor equations describing the attenuation of Arias intensity as a function of earthquake magnitude and source distance are presented for rock, deep-stiff alluvium, and soft soil sites.

  20. Earthquake Emergency Education in Dushanbe, Tajikistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohadjer, Solmaz; Bendick, Rebecca; Halvorson, Sarah J.; Saydullaev, Umed; Hojiboev, Orifjon; Stickler, Christine; Adam, Zachary R.

    2010-01-01

    We developed a middle school earthquake science and hazards curriculum to promote earthquake awareness to students in the Central Asian country of Tajikistan. These materials include pre- and post-assessment activities, six science activities describing physical processes related to earthquakes, five activities on earthquake hazards and mitigation…

  1. Determination of Design Basis Earthquake ground motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Muneaki

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes principle of determining of Design Basis Earthquake following the Examination Guide, some examples on actual sites including earthquake sources to be considered, earthquake response spectrum and simulated seismic waves. In sppendix of this paper, furthermore, seismic safety review for N.P.P designed before publication of the Examination Guide was summarized with Check Basis Earthquake. (J.P.N.)

  2. Determination of Design Basis Earthquake ground motion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kato, Muneaki [Japan Atomic Power Co., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-03-01

    This paper describes principle of determining of Design Basis Earthquake following the Examination Guide, some examples on actual sites including earthquake sources to be considered, earthquake response spectrum and simulated seismic waves. In sppendix of this paper, furthermore, seismic safety review for N.P.P designed before publication of the Examination Guide was summarized with Check Basis Earthquake. (J.P.N.)

  3. Physics of Earthquake Rupture Propagation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Shiqing; Fukuyama, Eiichi; Sagy, Amir; Doan, Mai-Linh

    2018-05-01

    A comprehensive understanding of earthquake rupture propagation requires the study of not only the sudden release of elastic strain energy during co-seismic slip, but also of other processes that operate at a variety of spatiotemporal scales. For example, the accumulation of the elastic strain energy usually takes decades to hundreds of years, and rupture propagation and termination modify the bulk properties of the surrounding medium that can influence the behavior of future earthquakes. To share recent findings in the multiscale investigation of earthquake rupture propagation, we held a session entitled "Physics of Earthquake Rupture Propagation" during the 2016 American Geophysical Union (AGU) Fall Meeting in San Francisco. The session included 46 poster and 32 oral presentations, reporting observations of natural earthquakes, numerical and experimental simulations of earthquake ruptures, and studies of earthquake fault friction. These presentations and discussions during and after the session suggested a need to document more formally the research findings, particularly new observations and views different from conventional ones, complexities in fault zone properties and loading conditions, the diversity of fault slip modes and their interactions, the evaluation of observational and model uncertainties, and comparison between empirical and physics-based models. Therefore, we organize this Special Issue (SI) of Tectonophysics under the same title as our AGU session, hoping to inspire future investigations. Eighteen articles (marked with "this issue") are included in this SI and grouped into the following six categories.

  4. Radon observation for earthquake prediction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wakita, Hiroshi [Tokyo Univ. (Japan)

    1998-12-31

    Systematic observation of groundwater radon for the purpose of earthquake prediction began in Japan in late 1973. Continuous observations are conducted at fixed stations using deep wells and springs. During the observation period, significant precursory changes including the 1978 Izu-Oshima-kinkai (M7.0) earthquake as well as numerous coseismic changes were observed. At the time of the 1995 Kobe (M7.2) earthquake, significant changes in chemical components, including radon dissolved in groundwater, were observed near the epicentral region. Precursory changes are presumably caused by permeability changes due to micro-fracturing in basement rock or migration of water from different sources during the preparation stage of earthquakes. Coseismic changes may be caused by seismic shaking and by changes in regional stress. Significant drops of radon concentration in groundwater have been observed after earthquakes at the KSM site. The occurrence of such drops appears to be time-dependent, and possibly reflects changes in the regional stress state of the observation area. The absence of radon drops seems to be correlated with periods of reduced regional seismic activity. Experience accumulated over the two past decades allows us to reach some conclusions: 1) changes in groundwater radon do occur prior to large earthquakes; 2) some sites are particularly sensitive to earthquake occurrence; and 3) the sensitivity changes over time. (author)

  5. Seismic experience in power and industrial facilities as it relates to small magnitude earthquakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swan, S.W.; Horstman, N.G.

    1987-01-01

    The data base on the performance of power and industrial facilities in small magnitude earthquakes (M = 4.0 - 5.5) is potentially very large. In California alone many earthquakes in this magnitude range occur every year, often near industrial areas. In 1986 for example, in northern California alone, there were 76 earthquakes between Richter magnitude 4.0 and 5.5. Experience has shown that the effects of small magnitude earthquakes are seldom significant to well-engineered facilities. (The term well-engineered is here defined to include most modern industrial installations, as well as power plants and substations.) Therefore detailed investigations of small magnitude earthquakes are normally not considered worthwhile. The purpose of this paper is to review the tendency toward seismic damage of equipment installations representative of nuclear power plant safety systems. Estimates are made of the thresholds of seismic damage to certain types of equipment in terms of conventional means of measuring the damage potential of an earthquake. The objective is to define thresholds of damage that can be correlated with Richter magnitude. In this manner an earthquake magnitude might be chosen below which damage to nuclear plant safety systems is not considered credible

  6. A Virtual Tour of the 1868 Hayward Earthquake in Google EarthTM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lackey, H. G.; Blair, J. L.; Boatwright, J.; Brocher, T.

    2007-12-01

    The 1868 Hayward earthquake has been overshadowed by the subsequent 1906 San Francisco earthquake that destroyed much of San Francisco. Nonetheless, a modern recurrence of the 1868 earthquake would cause widespread damage to the densely populated Bay Area, particularly in the east Bay communities that have grown up virtually on top of the Hayward fault. Our concern is heightened by paleoseismic studies suggesting that the recurrence interval for the past five earthquakes on the southern Hayward fault is 140 to 170 years. Our objective is to build an educational web site that illustrates the cause and effect of the 1868 earthquake drawing on scientific and historic information. We will use Google EarthTM software to visually illustrate complex scientific concepts in a way that is understandable to a non-scientific audience. This web site will lead the viewer from a regional summary of the plate tectonics and faulting system of western North America, to more specific information about the 1868 Hayward earthquake itself. Text and Google EarthTM layers will include modeled shaking of the earthquake, relocations of historic photographs, reconstruction of damaged buildings as 3-D models, and additional scientific data that may come from the many scientific studies conducted for the 140th anniversary of the event. Earthquake engineering concerns will be stressed, including population density, vulnerable infrastructure, and lifelines. We will also present detailed maps of the Hayward fault, measurements of fault creep, and geologic evidence of its recurrence. Understanding the science behind earthquake hazards is an important step in preparing for the next significant earthquake. We hope to communicate to the public and students of all ages, through visualizations, not only the cause and effect of the 1868 earthquake, but also modern seismic hazards of the San Francisco Bay region.

  7. 9th Structural Engineering Convention 2014

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    The book presents research papers presented by academicians, researchers, and practicing structural engineers from India and abroad in the recently held Structural Engineering Convention (SEC) 2014 at Indian Institute of Technology Delhi during 22 – 24 December 2014. The book is divided into three volumes and encompasses multidisciplinary areas within structural engineering, such as earthquake engineering and structural dynamics, structural mechanics, finite element methods, structural vibration control, advanced cementitious and composite materials, bridge engineering, and soil-structure interaction. Advances in Structural Engineering is a useful reference material for structural engineering fraternity including undergraduate and postgraduate students, academicians, researchers and practicing engineers.

  8. Precisely locating the Klamath Falls, Oregon, earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qamar, A.; Meagher, K.L.

    1993-01-01

    The Klamath Falls earthquakes on September 20, 1993, were the largest earthquakes centered in Oregon in more than 50 yrs. Only the magnitude 5.75 Milton-Freewater earthquake in 1936, which was centered near the Oregon-Washington border and felt in an area of about 190,000 sq km, compares in size with the recent Klamath Falls earthquakes. Although the 1993 earthquakes surprised many local residents, geologists have long recognized that strong earthquakes may occur along potentially active faults that pass through the Klamath Falls area. These faults are geologically related to similar faults in Oregon, Idaho, and Nevada that occasionally spawn strong earthquakes

  9. Response and recovery lessons from the 2010-2011 earthquake sequence in Canterbury, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierepiekarz, Mark; Johnston, David; Berryman, Kelvin; Hare, John; Gomberg, Joan S.; Williams, Robert A.; Weaver, Craig S.

    2014-01-01

    The impacts and opportunities that result when low-probability moderate earthquakes strike an urban area similar to many throughout the US were vividly conveyed in a one-day workshop in which social and Earth scientists, public officials, engineers, and an emergency manager shared their experiences of the earthquake sequence that struck the city of Christchurch and surrounding Canterbury region of New Zealand in 2010-2011. Without question, the earthquake sequence has had unprecedented impacts in all spheres on New Zealand society, locally to nationally--10% of the country's population was directly impacted and losses total 8-10% of their GDP. The following paragraphs present a few lessons from Christchurch.

  10. Ground motion following selection of SRS design basis earthquake and associated deterministic approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-03-01

    This report summarizes the results of a deterministic assessment of earthquake ground motions at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The purpose of this study is to assist the Environmental Sciences Section of the Savannah River Laboratory in reevaluating the design basis earthquake (DBE) ground motion at SRS during approaches defined in Appendix A to 10 CFR Part 100. This work is in support of the Seismic Engineering Section's Seismic Qualification Program for reactor restart

  11. Application of Incremental Dynamic Analysis (IDA) Method for Studying the Dynamic Behavior of Structures During Earthquakes

    OpenAIRE

    Javanpour, M.; Zarfam, P.

    2017-01-01

    Prediction of existing buildings’ vulnerability by future earthquakes is one of the most essential topics in structural engineering. Modeling steel structures is a giant step in determining the damage caused by the earthquake, as such structures are increasingly being used in constructions. Hence, two same-order steel structures with two types of structural systems were selected (coaxial moment frames and moment frame). In most cases, a specific structure needs to satisfy several functional l...

  12. Factors Contributing to the Catastrophe in Mexico City During the Earthquake of September 19, 1985

    OpenAIRE

    Beck, James L.; Hall, John F.

    1986-01-01

    The extensive damage to high‐rise buildings in Mexico City during the September 19, 1985 earthquake is primarily due to the intensity of the ground shaking exceeding what was previously considered credible for the city by Mexican engineers. There were two major factors contributing to the catastrophe, resonance in the sediments of an ancient lake that once existed in the Valley of Mexico, and the long duration of shaking compared with other coastal earthquakes in the last 50 years. Both of th...

  13. Ionospheric phenomena before strong earthquakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Silina

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available A statistical analysis of several ionospheric parameters before earthquakes with magnitude M > 5.5 located less than 500 km from an ionospheric vertical sounding station is performed. Ionospheric effects preceding "deep" (depth h > 33 km and "crust" (h 33 km earthquakes were analysed separately. Data of nighttime measurements of the critical frequencies foF2 and foEs, the frequency fbEs and Es-spread at the middle latitude station Dushanbe were used. The frequencies foF2 and fbEs are proportional to the square root of the ionization density at heights of 300 km and 100 km, respectively. It is shown that two days before the earthquakes the values of foF2 averaged over the morning hours (00:00 LT–06:00 LT and of fbEs averaged over the nighttime hours (18:00 LT–06:00 LT decrease; the effect is stronger for the "deep" earthquakes. Analysing the coefficient of semitransparency which characterizes the degree of small-scale turbulence, it was shown that this value increases 1–4 days before "crust" earthquakes, and it does not change before "deep" earthquakes. Studying Es-spread which manifests itself as diffuse Es track on ionograms and characterizes the degree of large-scale turbulence, it was found that the number of Es-spread observations increases 1–3 days before the earthquakes; for "deep" earthquakes the effect is more intensive. Thus it may be concluded that different mechanisms of energy transfer from the region of earthquake preparation to the ionosphere occur for "deep" and "crust" events.

  14. Demonstration of pb-PSHA with Ras-Elhekma earthquake, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsayed Fergany

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this work is to: (1 argue for the importance of a physically-based probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (pb-PSHA methodology and show examples to support the argument from recent events, (2 demonstrate the methodology with the ground motion simulations of May 28, 1998, Mw = 5.5 Ras-Elhekma earthquake, north Egypt. The boundaries for the possible rupture parameters that may have been identified prior to the 1998 Ras-Elhekma earthquake were estimated. A range of simulated ground-motions for the Ras-Elhekma earthquake was “predicted” for frequency 0.5–25 Hz at three sites, where the large earthquake was recorded, with average epicentral distances of 220 km. The best rupture model of the 1998 Ras-Elhekma earthquake was identified by calculated the goodness of fit between observed and synthesized records at sites FYM, HAG, and KOT. We used the best rupture scenario of the 1998 earthquake to synthesize the ground motions at interested sites where the main shock was not recorded. Based on the good fit of simulated and observed seismograms, we concluded that this methodology can provide realistic ground motion of an earthquake and highly recommended for engineering purposes in advance or foregoing large earthquakes at non record sites. We propose that there is a need for this methodology for good-representing the true hazard with reducing uncertainties.

  15. A study on generation of simulated earthquake ground motion for seismic design of nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichiki, Tadaharu; Matsumoto, Takuji; Kitada, Yoshio; Osaki, Yorihiko; Kanda, Jun; Masao, Toru.

    1985-01-01

    The aseismatic design of nuclear power generation facilities carried out in Japan at present must conform to the ''Guideline for aseismatic design examination regarding power reactor facilities'' decided by the Atomic Energy Commission in 1978. In this guideline, the earthquake motion used for the analysis of dynamic earthquake response is to be given in the form of the magnitude determined on the basis of the investigation of historical earthquakes and active faults around construction sites and the response spectra corresponding to the distance from epicenters. Accordingly when the analysis of dynamic earthquake response is actually carried out, the simulated earthquake motion made in conformity with these set up response spectra is used as the input earthquake motion for the design. For the purpose of establishing the techniques making simulated earthquake motion which is more appropriate and rational from engineering viewpoint, the research was carried out, and the results are summarized in this paper. The techniques for making simulated earthquake motion, the response of buildings and the response spectra of floors are described. (Kako, I.)

  16. Global earthquake casualties due to secondary effects: A quantitative analysis for improving rapid loss analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marano, K.D.; Wald, D.J.; Allen, T.I.

    2010-01-01

    This study presents a quantitative and geospatial description of global losses due to earthquake-induced secondary effects, including landslide, liquefaction, tsunami, and fire for events during the past 40 years. These processes are of great importance to the US Geological Survey's (USGS) Prompt Assessment of Global Earthquakes for Response (PAGER) system, which is currently being developed to deliver rapid earthquake impact and loss assessments following large/significant global earthquakes. An important question is how dominant are losses due to secondary effects (and under what conditions, and in which regions)? Thus, which of these effects should receive higher priority research efforts in order to enhance PAGER's overall assessment of earthquakes losses and alerting for the likelihood of secondary impacts? We find that while 21.5% of fatal earthquakes have deaths due to secondary (non-shaking) causes, only rarely are secondary effects the main cause of fatalities. The recent 2004 Great Sumatra-Andaman Islands earthquake is a notable exception, with extraordinary losses due to tsunami. The potential for secondary hazards varies greatly, and systematically, due to regional geologic and geomorphic conditions. Based on our findings, we have built country-specific disclaimers for PAGER that address potential for each hazard (Earle et al., Proceedings of the 14th World Conference of the Earthquake Engineering, Beijing, China, 2008). We will now focus on ways to model casualties from secondary effects based on their relative importance as well as their general predictability. ?? Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2009.

  17. Current status of JRR-3. After the 3.11 earthquake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arai, Masaji; Murayama, Yoji; Wada, Shigeru

    2012-01-01

    JRR-3 at Tokai site of JAEA was in its regular maintenance period, when the Great East Japan Earthquake was taken place on 11th March 2011. The reactor building with their solid foundations and the equipment important to safety survived the earthquake without serious damage and no radioactive leakage has been occurred. Recovery work is planned to be completed by the end of this March. At the same time, check and test of the integrity of all components and seismic assessment to show resistance with the 3.11 earthquake have been carried out. JRR-3 will restart its operation after completing above mentioned procedures. (author)

  18. Investigation on Transmission and Substation Facilities of Sichuan Power Grid in Wenchuan Earthquake

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Yongqing; Li Guangfan; Li Peng; Zhu Quanjun; Yuan Dalu; Wang Chengyu; Li Jinzhong; Huang Huang; Li Lixin; Zhang Xinghai; Liu Jingmin

    2009-01-01

    @@ On May 12,2008,an earthquake of Ms 8.0 hit the area around Wenchuan County,Sichuan Province,China.It has been one of the most destructive earthquakes since the founding of P.R.China in 1949.The quake caused not only tremendous loss of life and wealth,but also severe damage to transmission and substation facilities.After the disaster,an expert group from China Electric Power Research Institute (CEPRI)was sent for on-site investigation.This paper is a summary of the investigation,in which suggestions for electric equipment to resist earthquake disasters are also proponed.

  19. Memory window engineering of Ta2O5-x oxide-based resistive switches via incorporation of various insulating frames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ah Rahm; Baek, Gwang Ho; Kim, Tae Yoon; Ko, Won Bae; Yang, Seung Mo; Kim, Jongmin; Im, Hyun Sik; Hong, Jin Pyo

    2016-07-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) stackable memory frames, including nano-scaled crossbar arrays, are one of the most reliable building blocks to meet the demand of high-density non-volatile memory electronics. However, their utilization has the disadvantage of introducing issues related to sneak paths, which can negatively impact device performance. We address the enhancement of complementary resistive switching (CRS) features via the incorporation of insulating frames as a generic approach to extend their use; here, a Pt/Ta2O5-x/Ta/Ta2O5-x/Pt frame is chosen as the basic CRS cell. The incorporation of Ta/Ta2O5-x/Ta or Pt/amorphous TaN/Pt insulting frames into the basic CRS cell ensures the appreciably advanced memory features of CRS cells including higher on/off ratios, improved read margins, and increased selectivity without reliability degradation. Experimental observations identified that a suitable insulating frame is crucial for adjusting the abrupt reset events of the switching element, thereby facilitating the enhanced electrical characteristics of CRS cells that are suitable for practical applications.

  20. The characteristic of the building damage from historical large earthquakes in Kyoto

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiyama, Akihito

    2016-04-01

    The Kyoto city, which is located in the northern part of Kyoto basin in Japan, has a long history of >1,200 years since the city was initially constructed. The city has been a populated area with many buildings and the center of the politics, economy and culture in Japan for nearly 1,000 years. Some of these buildings are now subscribed as the world's cultural heritage. The Kyoto city has experienced six damaging large earthquakes during the historical period: i.e., in 976, 1185, 1449, 1596, 1662, and 1830. Among these, the last three earthquakes which caused severe damage in Kyoto occurred during the period in which the urban area had expanded. These earthquakes are considered to be inland earthquakes which occurred around the Kyoto basin. The damage distribution in Kyoto from historical large earthquakes is strongly controlled by ground condition and earthquakes resistance of buildings rather than distance from estimated source fault. Therefore, it is necessary to consider not only the strength of ground shaking but also the condition of building such as elapsed years since the construction or last repair in order to more accurately and reliably estimate seismic intensity distribution from historical earthquakes in Kyoto. The obtained seismic intensity map would be helpful for reducing and mitigating disaster from future large earthquakes.

  1. The Pocatello Valley, Idaho, earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, A. M.; Langer, C.J.; Bucknam, R.C.

    1975-01-01

    A Richter magnitude 6.3 earthquake occurred at 8:31 p.m mountain daylight time on March 27, 1975, near the Utah-Idaho border in Pocatello Valley. The epicenter of the main shock was located at 42.094° N, 112.478° W, and had a focal depth of 5.5 km. This earthquake was the largest in the continental United States since the destructive San Fernando earthquake of February 1971. The main shock was preceded by a magnitude 4.5 foreshock on March 26. 

  2. The threat of silent earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervelli, Peter

    2004-01-01

    Not all earthquakes shake the ground. The so-called silent types are forcing scientists to rethink their understanding of the way quake-prone faults behave. In rare instances, silent earthquakes that occur along the flakes of seaside volcanoes may cascade into monstrous landslides that crash into the sea and trigger towering tsunamis. Silent earthquakes that take place within fault zones created by one tectonic plate diving under another may increase the chance of ground-shaking shocks. In other locations, however, silent slip may decrease the likelihood of destructive quakes, because they release stress along faults that might otherwise seem ready to snap.

  3. USGS Earthquake Program GPS Use Case : Earthquake Early Warning

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-12

    USGS GPS receiver use case. Item 1 - High Precision User (federal agency with Stafford Act hazard alert responsibilities for earthquakes, volcanoes and landslides nationwide). Item 2 - Description of Associated GPS Application(s): The USGS Eart...

  4. EARTHQUAKE-INDUCED DEFORMATION STRUCTURES AND RELATED TO EARTHQUAKE MAGNITUDES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savaş TOPAL

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Earthquake-induced deformation structures which are called seismites may helpful to clasify the paleoseismic history of a location and to estimate the magnitudes of the potention earthquakes in the future. In this paper, seismites were investigated according to the types formed in deep and shallow lake sediments. Seismites are observed forms of sand dikes, introduced and fractured gravels and pillow structures in shallow lakes and pseudonodules, mushroom-like silts protruding laminites, mixed layers, disturbed varved lamination and loop bedding in deep lake sediments. Earthquake-induced deformation structures, by benefiting from previous studies, were ordered according to their formations and earthquake magnitudes. In this order, the lowest eartquake's record is loop bedding and the highest one is introduced and fractured gravels in lacustrine deposits.

  5. Twitter earthquake detection: Earthquake monitoring in a social world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earle, Paul S.; Bowden, Daniel C.; Guy, Michelle R.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is investigating how the social networking site Twitter, a popular service for sending and receiving short, public text messages, can augment USGS earthquake response products and the delivery of hazard information. Rapid detection and qualitative assessment of shaking events are possible because people begin sending public Twitter messages (tweets) with in tens of seconds after feeling shaking. Here we present and evaluate an earthquake detection procedure that relies solely on Twitter data. A tweet-frequency time series constructed from tweets containing the word "earthquake" clearly shows large peaks correlated with the origin times of widely felt events. To identify possible earthquakes, we use a short-term-average, long-term-average algorithm. When tuned to a moderate sensitivity, the detector finds 48 globally-distributed earthquakes with only two false triggers in five months of data. The number of detections is small compared to the 5,175 earthquakes in the USGS global earthquake catalog for the same five-month time period, and no accurate location or magnitude can be assigned based on tweet data alone. However, Twitter earthquake detections are not without merit. The detections are generally caused by widely felt events that are of more immediate interest than those with no human impact. The detections are also fast; about 75% occur within two minutes of the origin time. This is considerably faster than seismographic detections in poorly instrumented regions of the world. The tweets triggering the detections also provided very short first-impression narratives from people who experienced the shaking.

  6. Risk Assessment of Genetically Engineered Maize Resistant to Diabrotica spp.: Influence on Above-Ground Arthropods in the Czech Republic.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdeňka Svobodová

    Full Text Available Transgenic maize MON88017, expressing the Cry3Bb1 toxin from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt maize, confers resistance to corn rootworms (Diabrotica spp. and provides tolerance to the herbicide glyphosate. However, prior to commercialization, substantial assessment of potential effects on non-target organisms within agroecosystems is required. The MON88017 event was therefore evaluated under field conditions in Southern Bohemia in 2009-2011, to detect possible impacts on the above-ground arthropod species. The study compared MON88017, its near-isogenic non-Bt hybrid DK315 (treated or not treated with the soil insecticide Dursban 10G and two non-Bt reference hybrids (KIPOUS and PR38N86. Each hybrid was grown on five 0.5 ha plots distributed in a 14-ha field with a Latin square design. Semiquantitative ELISA was used to verify Cry3Bb1 toxin levels in the Bt maize. The species spectrum of non-target invertebrates changed during seasons and was affected by weather conditions. The thrips Frankliniella occidentalis was the most abundant species in all three successive years. The next most common species were aphids Rhopalosiphum padi and Metopolophium dirhodum. Frequently observed predators included Orius spp. and several species within the Coccinellidae. Throughout the three-year study, analysis of variance indicated some significant differences (P<0.05. Multivariate analysis showed that the abundance and diversity of plant dwelling insects was similar in maize with the same genetic background, for both Bt (MON88017 and non-Bt (DK315 untreated or insecticide treated. KIPOUS and PR38N86 showed some differences in species abundance relative to the Bt maize and its near-isogenic hybrid. However, the effect of management regime on arthropod community was insignificant and accounted only for a negligible portion of the variability.

  7. Review of the seismic risk in the design of civil engineering of nuclear installations excepted the long term storage of radioactive wastes; Prise en compte du risque sismique a la conception des ouvrages de genie civil d'installations nucleaires de base a l'exception des stockages a long terme des dechets radioactifs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    This guide aims to define, for the nuclear installations excepted the long term storage of radioactive wastes, from site data, the design specifications of earthquake resistant civil engineering and the possible methods for: the determination of the seismic response of the buildings, taking into account the interactions with the materials and the evaluation of the associated strains to size the installation; the determination of seismic displacements to be considered to size the materials. (A.L.B.)

  8. Extreme value statistics and thermodynamics of earthquakes. Large earthquakes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lavenda, B. [Camerino Univ., Camerino, MC (Italy); Cipollone, E. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, S. Maria di Galeria, RM (Italy). National Centre for Research on Thermodynamics

    2000-06-01

    A compound Poisson process is used to derive a new shape parameter which can be used to discriminate between large earthquakes and aftershocks sequences. Sample exceedance distributions of large earthquakes are fitted to the Pareto tail and the actual distribution of the maximum to the Frechet distribution, while the sample distribution of aftershocks are fitted to a Beta distribution and the distribution of the minimum to the Weibull distribution for the smallest value. The transition between initial sample distributions and asymptotic extreme value distributions show that self-similar power laws are transformed into non scaling exponential distributions so that neither self-similarity nor the Gutenberg-Richter law can be considered universal. The energy-magnitude transformation converts the Frechet distribution into the Gumbel distribution, originally proposed by Epstein and Lomnitz, and not the Gompertz distribution as in the Lomnitz-Adler and Lomnitz generalization of the Gutenberg-Richter law. Numerical comparison is made with the Lomnitz-Adler and Lomnitz analysis using the same catalogue of Chinese earthquakes. An analogy is drawn between large earthquakes and high energy particle physics. A generalized equation of state is used to transform the Gamma density into the order-statistic Frechet distribution. Earthquake temperature and volume are determined as functions of the energy. Large insurance claims based on the Pareto distribution, which does not have a right endpoint, show why there cannot be a maximum earthquake energy.

  9. Does knowledge signify protection? The SEISMOPOLIS centre for improvement of behavior in case of an earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dandoulaki, M.; Kourou, A.; Panoutsopoulou, M.

    2009-04-01

    It is vastly accepted that earthquake education is the way to earthquake protection. Nonetheless experience demonstrates that knowing what to do does not necessarily result in a better behaviour in case of a real earthquake. A research project titled: "Seismopolis" - "Pilot integrated System for Public Familiarization with Earthquakes and Information on Earthquake Protection" aimed at the improvement of the behaviour of people through an appropriate amalgamation of knowledge transfer and virtually experiencing an earthquake situation. Seismopolis combines well established education means such as books and leaflets with new technologies like earthquake simulation and virtual reality. It comprises a series of 5 main spaces that the visitor passes one-by-one. Space 1. Reception and introductory information. Visitors are given fundamental information on earthquakes and earthquake protection, as well as on the appropriate behaviour in case of an earthquake. Space 2. Earthquake simulation room Visitors experience an earthquake in a room. A typical kitchen is set on a shake table area (3m x 6m planar triaxial shake table) and is shaken in both horizontal and vertical directions by introducing seismographs of real or virtual earthquakes. Space 3. Virtual reality room Visitors may have the opportunity to virtually move around in the building or in the city after an earthquake disaster and take action as in a real-life situation, wearing stereoscopic glasses and using navigation tools. Space 4. Information and resources library Visitors are offered the opportunity to know more about earthquake protection. A series of means are available for this, some developed especially for Seismopolis (3 books, 2 Cds, a website and an interactive table game). Space 5. De-briefing area Visitors may be subjected to a pedagogical and psychological evaluation at the end of their visit and offered support if needed. For the evaluation of the "Seismopolis" Centre, a pilot application of the

  10. Importance of weak minerals on earthquake mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneki, S.; Hirono, T.

    2017-12-01

    The role of weak minerals such as smectite and talc on earthquake mechanics is one of the important issues, and has been debated for recent several decades. Traditionally weak minerals in fault have been reported to weaken fault strength causing from its low frictional resistance. Furthermore, velocity-strengthening behavior of such weak mineral (talc) is considered to responsible for fault creep (aseismic slip) in the San Andreas fault. In contrast, recent studies reported that large amount of weak smectite in the Japan Trench could facilitate gigantic seismic slip during the 2011 Tohoku-oki earthquake. To investigate the role of weak minerals on rupture propagation process and magnitude of slip, we focus on the frictional properties of carbonaceous materials (CMs), which is the representative weak materials widely distributed in and around the convergent boundaries. Field observation and geochemical analyses revealed that graphitized CMs-layer is distributed along the slip surface of a fossil plate-subduction fault. Laboratory friction experiments demonstrated that pure quartz, bulk mixtures with bituminous coal (1 wt.%), and quartz with layered coal samples exhibited almost similar frictional properties (initial, yield, and dynamic friction). However, mixtures of quartz (99 wt.%) and layered graphite (1 wt.%) showed significantly lower initial and yield friction coefficient (0.31 and 0.50, respectively). Furthermore, the stress ratio S, defined as (yield stress-initial stress)/(initial stress-dynamic stress), increased in layered graphite samples (1.97) compared to quartz samples (0.14). Similar trend was observed in smectite-rich fault gouge. By referring the reported results of dynamic rupture propagation simulation using S ratio of 1.4 (typical value for the Japan Trench) and 2.0 (this study), we confirmed that higher S ratio results in smaller slip distance by approximately 20 %. On the basis of these results, we could conclude that weak minerals have lower

  11. Engineering HIV-1-resistant T-cells from short-hairpin RNA-expressing hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells in humanized BLT mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gene-Errol E Ringpis

    Full Text Available Down-regulation of the HIV-1 coreceptor CCR5 holds significant potential for long-term protection against HIV-1 in patients. Using the humanized bone marrow/liver/thymus (hu-BLT mouse model which allows investigation of human hematopoietic stem/progenitor cell (HSPC transplant and immune system reconstitution as well as HIV-1 infection, we previously demonstrated stable inhibition of CCR5 expression in systemic lymphoid tissues via transplantation of HSPCs genetically modified by lentiviral vector transduction to express short hairpin RNA (shRNA. However, CCR5 down-regulation will not be effective against existing CXCR4-tropic HIV-1 and emergence of resistant viral strains. As such, combination approaches targeting additional steps in the virus lifecycle are required. We screened a panel of previously published shRNAs targeting highly conserved regions and identified a potent shRNA targeting the R-region of the HIV-1 long terminal repeat (LTR. Here, we report that human CD4(+ T-cells derived from transplanted HSPC engineered to co-express shRNAs targeting CCR5 and HIV-1 LTR are resistant to CCR5- and CXCR4- tropic HIV-1-mediated depletion in vivo. Transduction with the combination vector suppressed CXCR4- and CCR5- tropic viral replication in cell lines and peripheral blood mononuclear cells in vitro. No obvious cytotoxicity or interferon response was observed. Transplantation of combination vector-transduced HSPC into hu-BLT mice resulted in efficient engraftment and subsequent stable gene marking and CCR5 down-regulation in human CD4(+ T-cells within peripheral blood and systemic lymphoid tissues, including gut-associated lymphoid tissue, a major site of robust viral replication, for over twelve weeks. CXCR4- and CCR5- tropic HIV-1 infection was effectively inhibited in hu-BLT mouse spleen-derived human CD4(+ T-cells ex vivo. Furthermore, levels of gene-marked CD4(+ T-cells in peripheral blood increased despite systemic infection with either

  12. 1983 Borah Peak earthquake and INEL structural performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorman, V.W.; Guenzler, R.C.

    1983-12-01

    At 8:06 a.m. Mountain Daylight Time on October 28, 1983 an earthquake registering 7.3 on the Richter Magnitude scale occurred about 30 km northwest of the town of Mackay, in central Idaho. This report describes the event and associated effects and the responses of facilities at Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), located approximately 100 km. from the epicenter, to ground motion. 21 references, 36 figures, 5 tables

  13. Knock Resistance and Fine Particle Emissions for Several Biomass-Derived Oxygenates in a Direct-Injection Spark-Ignition Engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ratcliff, Matthew A.; Burton, Jonathan; Sindler, Petr; Christensen, Earl; Fouts, Lisa; Chupka, Gina M.; McCormick, Robert L.

    2016-04-01

    Several high octane number oxygenates that could be derived from biomass were blended with gasoline and examined for performance properties and their impact on knock resistance and fine particle emissions in a single cylinder direct-injection spark-ignition engine. The oxygenates included ethanol, isobutanol, anisole, 4-methylanisole, 2-phenylethanol, 2,5-dimethyl furan, and 2,4-xylenol. These were blended into a summertime blendstock for oxygenate blending at levels ranging from 10 to 50 percent by volume. The base gasoline, its blends with p-xylene and p-cymene, and high-octane racing gasoline were tested as controls. Relevant gasoline properties including research octane number (RON), motor octane number, distillation curve, and vapor pressure were measured. Detailed hydrocarbon analysis was used to estimate heat of vaporization and particulate matter index (PMI). Experiments were conducted to measure knock-limited spark advance and particulate matter (PM) emissions. The results show a range of knock resistances that correlate well with RON. Molecules with relatively low boiling point and high vapor pressure had little effect on PM emissions. In contrast, the aromatic oxygenates caused significant increases in PM emissions (factors of 2 to 5) relative to the base gasoline. Thus, any effect of their oxygen atom on increasing local air-fuel ratio was outweighed by their low vapor pressure and high double-bond equivalent values. For most fuels and oxygenate blend components, PMI was a good predictor of PM emissions. However, the high boiling point, low vapor pressure oxygenates 2-phenylethanol and 2,4-xylenol produced lower PM emissions than predicted by PMI. This was likely because they did not fully evaporate and combust, and instead were swept into the lube oil.

  14. Centrality in earthquake multiplex networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotfi, Nastaran; Darooneh, Amir Hossein; Rodrigues, Francisco A.

    2018-06-01

    Seismic time series has been mapped as a complex network, where a geographical region is divided into square cells that represent the nodes and connections are defined according to the sequence of earthquakes. In this paper, we map a seismic time series to a temporal network, described by a multiplex network, and characterize the evolution of the network structure in terms of the eigenvector centrality measure. We generalize previous works that considered the single layer representation of earthquake networks. Our results suggest that the multiplex representation captures better earthquake activity than methods based on single layer networks. We also verify that the regions with highest seismological activities in Iran and California can be identified from the network centrality analysis. The temporal modeling of seismic data provided here may open new possibilities for a better comprehension of the physics of earthquakes.

  15. Earthquake Triggering in the September 2017 Mexican Earthquake Sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fielding, E. J.; Gombert, B.; Duputel, Z.; Huang, M. H.; Liang, C.; Bekaert, D. P.; Moore, A. W.; Liu, Z.; Ampuero, J. P.

    2017-12-01

    Southern Mexico was struck by four earthquakes with Mw > 6 and numerous smaller earthquakes in September 2017, starting with the 8 September Mw 8.2 Tehuantepec earthquake beneath the Gulf of Tehuantepec offshore Chiapas and Oaxaca. We study whether this M8.2 earthquake triggered the three subsequent large M>6 quakes in southern Mexico to improve understanding of earthquake interactions and time-dependent risk. All four large earthquakes were extensional despite the the subduction of the Cocos plate. The traditional definition of aftershocks: likely an aftershock if it occurs within two rupture lengths of the main shock soon afterwards. Two Mw 6.1 earthquakes, one half an hour after the M8.2 beneath the Tehuantepec gulf and one on 23 September near Ixtepec in Oaxaca, both fit as traditional aftershocks, within 200 km of the main rupture. The 19 September Mw 7.1 Puebla earthquake was 600 km away from the M8.2 shock, outside the standard aftershock zone. Geodetic measurements from interferometric analysis of synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) and time-series analysis of GPS station data constrain finite fault total slip models for the M8.2, M7.1, and M6.1 Ixtepec earthquakes. The early M6.1 aftershock was too close in time and space to the M8.2 to measure with InSAR or GPS. We analyzed InSAR data from Copernicus Sentinel-1A and -1B satellites and JAXA ALOS-2 satellite. Our preliminary geodetic slip model for the M8.2 quake shows significant slip extended > 150 km NW from the hypocenter, longer than slip in the v1 finite-fault model (FFM) from teleseismic waveforms posted by G. Hayes at USGS NEIC. Our slip model for the M7.1 earthquake is similar to the v2 NEIC FFM. Interferograms for the M6.1 Ixtepec quake confirm the shallow depth in the upper-plate crust and show centroid is about 30 km SW of the NEIC epicenter, a significant NEIC location bias, but consistent with cluster relocations (E. Bergman, pers. comm.) and with Mexican SSN location. Coulomb static stress

  16. Permeability, storage and hydraulic diffusivity controlled by earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodsky, E. E.; Fulton, P. M.; Xue, L.

    2016-12-01

    Earthquakes can increase permeability in fractured rocks. In the farfield, such permeability increases are attributed to seismic waves and can last for months after the initial earthquake. Laboratory studies suggest that unclogging of fractures by the transient flow driven by seismic waves is a viable mechanism. These dynamic permeability increases may contribute to permeability enhancement in the seismic clouds accompanying hydraulic fracking. Permeability enhancement by seismic waves could potentially be engineered and the experiments suggest the process will be most effective at a preferred frequency. We have recently observed similar processes inside active fault zones after major earthquakes. A borehole observatory in the fault that generated the M9.0 2011 Tohoku earthquake reveals a sequence of temperature pulses during the secondary aftershock sequence of an M7.3 aftershock. The pulses are attributed to fluid advection by a flow through a zone of transiently increased permeability. Directly after the M7.3 earthquake, the newly damaged fault zone is highly susceptible to further permeability enhancement, but ultimately heals within a month and becomes no longer as sensitive. The observation suggests that the newly damaged fault zone is more prone to fluid pulsing than would be expected based on the long-term permeability structure. Even longer term healing is seen inside the fault zone of the 2008 M7.9 Wenchuan earthquake. The competition between damage and healing (or clogging and unclogging) results in dynamically controlled permeability, storage and hydraulic diffusivity. Recent measurements of in situ fault zone architecture at the 1-10 meter scale suggest that active fault zones often have hydraulic diffusivities near 10-2 m2/s. This uniformity is true even within the damage zone of the San Andreas fault where permeability and storage increases balance each other to achieve this value of diffusivity over a 400 m wide region. We speculate that fault zones

  17. Tweeting Earthquakes using TensorFlow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casarotti, E.; Comunello, F.; Magnoni, F.

    2016-12-01

    The use of social media is emerging as a powerful tool for disseminating trusted information about earthquakes. Since 2009, the Twitter account @INGVterremoti provides constant and timely details about M2+ seismic events detected by the Italian National Seismic Network, directly connected with the seismologists on duty at Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV). Currently, it updates more than 150,000 followers. Nevertheless, since it provides only the manual revision of seismic parameters, the timing (approximately between 10 and 20 minutes after an event) has started to be under evaluation. Undeniably, mobile internet, social network sites and Twitter in particular require a more rapid and "real-time" reaction. During the last 36 months, INGV tested the tweeting of the automatic detection of M3+ earthquakes, studying the reliability of the information both in term of seismological accuracy that from the point of view of communication and social research. A set of quality parameters (i.e. number of seismic stations, gap, relative error of the location) has been recognized to reduce false alarms and the uncertainty of the automatic detection. We present an experiment to further improve the reliability of this process using TensorFlow™ (an open source software library originally developed by researchers and engineers working on the Google Brain Team within Google's Machine Intelligence research organization).

  18. The GIS and analysis of earthquake damage distribution of the 1303 Hongtong M=8 earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Meng-Tan; Jin, Xue-Shen; An, Wei-Ping; Lü, Xiao-Jian

    2004-07-01

    The geography information system of the 1303 Hongton M=8 earthquake has been established. Using the spatial analysis function of GIS, the spatial distribution characteristics of damage and isoseismal of the earthquake are studies. By comparing with the standard earthquake intensity attenuation relationship, the abnormal damage distribution of the earthquake is found, so the relationship of the abnormal distribution with tectonics, site condition and basin are analyzed. In this paper, the influence on the ground motion generated by earthquake source and the underground structures near source also are studied. The influence on seismic zonation, anti-earthquake design, earthquake prediction and earthquake emergency responding produced by the abnormal density distribution are discussed.

  19. Mapping Tectonic Stress Using Earthquakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnold, Richard; Townend, John; Vignaux, Tony

    2005-01-01

    An earthquakes occurs when the forces acting on a fault overcome its intrinsic strength and cause it to slip abruptly. Understanding more specifically why earthquakes occur at particular locations and times is complicated because in many cases we do not know what these forces actually are, or indeed what processes ultimately trigger slip. The goal of this study is to develop, test, and implement a Bayesian method of reliably determining tectonic stresses using the most abundant stress gauges available - earthquakes themselves.Existing algorithms produce reasonable estimates of the principal stress directions, but yield unreliable error bounds as a consequence of the generally weak constraint on stress imposed by any single earthquake, observational errors, and an unavoidable ambiguity between the fault normal and the slip vector.A statistical treatment of the problem can take into account observational errors, combine data from multiple earthquakes in a consistent manner, and provide realistic error bounds on the estimated principal stress directions.We have developed a realistic physical framework for modelling multiple earthquakes and show how the strong physical and geometrical constraints present in this problem allow inference to be made about the orientation of the principal axes of stress in the earth's crust

  20. Swedish earthquakes and acceleration probabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slunga, R.

    1979-03-01

    A method to assign probabilities to ground accelerations for Swedish sites is described. As hardly any nearfield instrumental data is available we are left with the problem of interpreting macroseismic data in terms of acceleration. By theoretical wave propagation computations the relation between seismic strength of the earthquake, focal depth, distance and ground accelerations are calculated. We found that most Swedish earthquake of the area, the 1904 earthquake 100 km south of Oslo, is an exception and probably had a focal depth exceeding 25 km. For the nuclear power plant sites an annual probability of 10 -5 has been proposed as interesting. This probability gives ground accelerations in the range 5-20 % for the sites. This acceleration is for a free bedrock site. For consistency all acceleration results in this study are given for bedrock sites. When applicating our model to the 1904 earthquake and assuming the focal zone to be in the lower crust we get the epicentral acceleration of this earthquake to be 5-15 % g. The results above are based on an analyses of macrosismic data as relevant instrumental data is lacking. However, the macroseismic acceleration model deduced in this study gives epicentral ground acceleration of small Swedish earthquakes in agreement with existent distant instrumental data. (author)

  1. Large earthquakes and creeping faults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Ruth A.

    2017-01-01

    Faults are ubiquitous throughout the Earth's crust. The majority are silent for decades to centuries, until they suddenly rupture and produce earthquakes. With a focus on shallow continental active-tectonic regions, this paper reviews a subset of faults that have a different behavior. These unusual faults slowly creep for long periods of time and produce many small earthquakes. The presence of fault creep and the related microseismicity helps illuminate faults that might not otherwise be located in fine detail, but there is also the question of how creeping faults contribute to seismic hazard. It appears that well-recorded creeping fault earthquakes of up to magnitude 6.6 that have occurred in shallow continental regions produce similar fault-surface rupture areas and similar peak ground shaking as their locked fault counterparts of the same earthquake magnitude. The behavior of much larger earthquakes on shallow creeping continental faults is less well known, because there is a dearth of comprehensive observations. Computational simulations provide an opportunity to fill the gaps in our understanding, particularly of the dynamic processes that occur during large earthquake rupture and arrest.

  2. Earthquake damage to underground facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pratt, H.R.; Hustrulid, W.A.; Stephenson, D.E.

    1978-11-01

    The potential seismic risk for an underground nuclear waste repository will be one of the considerations in evaluating its ultimate location. However, the risk to subsurface facilities cannot be judged by applying intensity ratings derived from the surface effects of an earthquake. A literature review and analysis were performed to document the damage and non-damage due to earthquakes to underground facilities. Damage from earthquakes to tunnels, s, and wells and damage (rock bursts) from mining operations were investigated. Damage from documented nuclear events was also included in the study where applicable. There are very few data on damage in the subsurface due to earthquakes. This fact itself attests to the lessened effect of earthquakes in the subsurface because mines exist in areas where strong earthquakes have done extensive surface damage. More damage is reported in shallow tunnels near the surface than in deep mines. In mines and tunnels, large displacements occur primarily along pre-existing faults and fractures or at the surface entrance to these facilities.Data indicate vertical structures such as wells and shafts are less susceptible to damage than surface facilities. More analysis is required before seismic criteria can be formulated for the siting of a nuclear waste repository

  3. Global earthquake fatalities and population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzer, Thomas L.; Savage, James C.

    2013-01-01

    Modern global earthquake fatalities can be separated into two components: (1) fatalities from an approximately constant annual background rate that is independent of world population growth and (2) fatalities caused by earthquakes with large human death tolls, the frequency of which is dependent on world population. Earthquakes with death tolls greater than 100,000 (and 50,000) have increased with world population and obey a nonstationary Poisson distribution with rate proportional to population. We predict that the number of earthquakes with death tolls greater than 100,000 (50,000) will increase in the 21st century to 8.7±3.3 (20.5±4.3) from 4 (7) observed in the 20th century if world population reaches 10.1 billion in 2100. Combining fatalities caused by the background rate with fatalities caused by catastrophic earthquakes (>100,000 fatalities) indicates global fatalities in the 21st century will be 2.57±0.64 million if the average post-1900 death toll for catastrophic earthquakes (193,000) is assumed.

  4. The Effect of Sonic Booms on Earthquake Warning Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurman, Gilead; Haering, Edward A, Jr.; Price, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    Several aerospace companies are designing quiet supersonic business jets for service over the United States. These aircraft have the potential to increase the occurrence of mild sonic booms across the country. This leads to interest among earthquake warning (EQW) developers and the general seismological community in characterizing the effect of sonic booms on seismic sensors in the field, their potential impact on EQW systems, and means of discriminating their signatures from those of earthquakes. The SonicBREWS project (Sonic Boom Resistant Earthquake Warning Systems) is a collaborative effort between Seismic Warning Systems, Inc. (SWS) and NASA Dryden Flight Research Center. This project aims to evaluate the effects of sonic booms on EQW sensors. The study consists of exposing high-sample-rate (1000 sps) triaxial accelerometers to sonic booms with overpressures ranging from 10 to 600 Pa in the free field and the built environment. The accelerometers record the coupling of the sonic boom to the ground and surrounding structures, while microphones record the acoustic wave above ground near the sensor. Sonic booms are broadband signals with more high-frequency content than earthquakes. Even a 1000 sps accelerometer will produce a significantly aliased record. Thus the observed peak ground velocity is strongly dependent on the sampling rate, and increases as the sampling rate is reduced. At 1000 sps we observe ground velocities that exceed those of P-waves from ML 3 earthquakes at local distances, suggesting that sonic booms are not negligible for EQW applications. We present the results of several experiments conducted under SonicBREWS showing the effects of typical-case low amplitude sonic booms and worst-case high amplitude booms. We show the effects of various sensor placements and sensor array geometries. Finally, we suggest possible avenues for discriminating sonic booms from earthquakes for the purposes of EQW.

  5. Corrosion resistance of cast irons and titanium alloys as reference engineered metal barriers for use in basalt geologic storage: a literature assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charlot, L.A.; Westerman, R.E.

    1981-07-01

    A survey and assessment of the literature on the corrosion resistance of cast irons and low-alloy titanium are presented. Selected engineering properties of cast iron and titanium are briefly described; however, the corrosion resistance of cast iron and titanium in aqueous solutions or in soils and their use in a basalt repository are emphasized. In evaluating the potential use of cast iron and titanium as structural barrier materials for long-lived nuclear waste packages, it is assumed that titanium has the general corrosion resistance to be used in relatively thin cross sections whereas the cost and availability of cast iron allows its use even in very thick cross sections. Based on this assumption, the survey showed that: The uniform corrosion of low-alloy titanium in a basalt environment is expected to be extremely low. A linear extrapolation of general corrosion rates with an added corrosion allowance suggests that a 3.2- to 6.4-mm-thick wall may have a life of 1000 yr. Pitting and crevice corrosion are not likely corrosion modes in basalt ground waters. It is also unlikely that stress corrosion cracking (SCC) will occur in the commercially pure (CP) titanium alloy or in palladiumor molybdenum-alloyed titanium materials. Low-alloy cast irons may be used as barrier metals if the environment surrounding the metal keeps the alloy in the passive range. The solubility of the corrosion product and the semipermeable nature of the oxide film allow significant uniform corrosion over long time periods. A linear extrapolation of high-temperature corrosion rates on carbon steels and corrosion rates of cast irons in soils gives an estimated metal penetration of 51 to 64 mm after 1000 yr. A corrosion allowance of 3 to 5 times that suggests that an acceptable cast iron wall may be from 178 to 305 mm thick. Although they cannot be fully assessed, pitting and crevice corrosion should not affect cast iron due to the ground-water chemistry of basalt

  6. Disaster mitigation science for Earthquakes and Tsunamis -For resilience society against natural disasters-

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneda, Y.; Takahashi, N.; Hori, T.; Kawaguchi, K.; Isouchi, C.; Fujisawa, K.

    2017-12-01

    Destructive natural disasters such as earthquakes and tsunamis have occurred frequently in the world. For instance, 2004 Sumatra Earthquake in Indonesia, 2008 Wenchuan Earthquake in China, 2010 Chile Earthquake and 2011 Tohoku Earthquake in Japan etc., these earthquakes generated very severe damages. For the reduction and mitigation of damages by destructive natural disasters, early detection of natural disasters and speedy and proper evacuations are indispensable. And hardware and software developments/preparations for reduction and mitigation of natural disasters are quite important. In Japan, DONET as the real time monitoring system on the ocean floor is developed and deployed around the Nankai trough seismogenic zone southwestern Japan. So, the early detection of earthquakes and tsunamis around the Nankai trough seismogenic zone will be expected by DONET. The integration of the real time data and advanced simulation researches will lead to reduce damages, however, in the resilience society, the resilience methods will be required after disasters. Actually, methods on restorations and revivals are necessary after natural disasters. We would like to propose natural disaster mitigation science for early detections, evacuations and restorations against destructive natural disasters. This means the resilience society. In natural disaster mitigation science, there are lots of research fields such as natural science, engineering, medical treatment, social science and literature/art etc. Especially, natural science, engineering and medical treatment are fundamental research fields for natural disaster mitigation, but social sciences such as sociology, geography and psychology etc. are very important research fields for restorations after natural disasters. Finally, to realize and progress disaster mitigation science, human resource cultivation is indispensable. We already carried out disaster mitigation science under `new disaster mitigation research project on Mega

  7. International Civil and Infrastructure Engineering Conference 2013

    CERN Document Server

    Yusoff, Marina; Ismail, Zulhabri; Amin, Norliyati; Fadzil, Mohd

    2014-01-01

    The special focus of this proceedings is to cover the areas of infrastructure engineering and sustainability management. The state-of-the art information in infrastructure and sustainable issues in engineering covers earthquake, bioremediation, synergistic management, timber engineering, flood management and intelligent transport systems. It provides precise information with regards to innovative research development in construction materials and structures in addition to a compilation of interdisciplinary finding combining nano-materials and engineering.

  8. International Civil and Infrastructure Engineering Conference 2014

    CERN Document Server

    Yusoff, Marina; Alisibramulisi, Anizahyati; Amin, Norliyati; Ismail, Zulhabri

    2015-01-01

    The special focus of this proceedings is to cover the areas of infrastructure engineering and sustainability management. The state-of-the art information in infrastructure and sustainable issues in engineering covers earthquake, bioremediation, synergistic management, timber engineering, flood management and intelligent transport systems. It provides precise information with regards to innovative research development in construction materials and structures in addition to a compilation of interdisciplinary finding combining nano-materials and engineering.

  9. Twitter earthquake detection: earthquake monitoring in a social world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel C. Bowden

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS is investigating how the social networking site Twitter, a popular service for sending and receiving short, public text messages, can augment USGS earthquake response products and the delivery of hazard information. Rapid detection and qualitative assessment of shaking events are possible because people begin sending public Twitter messages (tweets with in tens of seconds after feeling shaking. Here we present and evaluate an earthquake detection procedure that relies solely on Twitter data. A tweet-frequency time series constructed from tweets containing the word “earthquake” clearly shows large peaks correlated with the origin times of widely felt events. To identify possible earthquakes, we use a short-term-average, long-term-average algorithm. When tuned to a moderate sensitivity, the detector finds 48 globally-distributed earthquakes with only two false triggers in five months of data. The number of detections is small compared to the 5,175 earthquakes in the USGS global earthquake catalog for the same five-month time period, and no accurate location or magnitude can be assigned based on tweet data alone. However, Twitter earthquake detections are not without merit. The detections are generally caused by widely felt events that are of more immediate interest than those with no human impact. The detections are also fast; about 75% occur within two minutes of the origin time. This is considerably faster than seismographic detections in poorly instrumented regions of the world. The tweets triggering the detections also provided very short first-impression narratives from people who experienced the shaking.

  10. Dynamic role and importance of surrogate species for assessing potential adverse environmental impacts of genetically engineered insect-resistant plants on non-target organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wach, Michael; Hellmich, Richard L; Layton, Raymond; Romeis, Jörg; Gadaleta, Patricia G

    2016-08-01

    Surrogate species have a long history of use in research and regulatory settings to understand the potentially harmful effects of toxic substances including pesticides. More recently, surrogate species have been used to evaluate the potential effects of proteins contained in genetically engineered insect resistant (GEIR) crops. Species commonly used in GEIR crop testing include beneficial organisms such as honeybees, arthropod predators, and parasitoids. The choice of appropriate surrogates is influenced by scientific factors such as the knowledge of the mode of action and the spectrum of activity as well as societal factors such as protection goals that assign value to certain ecosystem services such as pollination or pest control. The primary reasons for using surrogates include the inability to test all possible organisms, the restrictions on using certain organisms in testing (e.g., rare, threatened, or endangered species), and the ability to achieve greater sensitivity and statistical power by using laboratory testing of certain species. The acceptance of surrogate species data can allow results from one region to be applied or "transported" for use in another region. On the basis of over a decade of using surrogate species to evaluate potential effects of GEIR crops, it appears that the current surrogates have worked well to predict effects of GEIR crops that have been developed (Carstens et al. GM Crops Food 5:1-5, 2014), and it is expected that they should work well to predict effects of future GEIR crops based on similar technologies.

  11. Earthquake Prediction in a Big Data World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kossobokov, V. G.

    2016-12-01

    The digital revolution started just about 15 years ago has already surpassed the global information storage capacity of more than 5000 Exabytes (in optimally compressed bytes) per year. Open data in a Big Data World provides unprecedented opportunities for enhancing studies of the Earth System. However, it also opens wide avenues for deceptive associations in inter- and transdisciplinary data and for inflicted misleading predictions based on so-called "precursors". Earthquake prediction is not an easy task that implies a delicate application of statistics. So far, none of the proposed short-term precursory signals showed sufficient evidence to be used as a reliable precursor of catastrophic earthquakes. Regretfully, in many cases of seismic hazard assessment (SHA), from term-less to time-dependent (probabilistic PSHA or deterministic DSHA), and short-term earthquake forecasting (StEF), the claims of a high potential of the method are based on a flawed application of statistics and, therefore, are hardly suitable for communication to decision makers. Self-testing must be done in advance claiming prediction of hazardous areas and/or times. The necessity and possibility of applying simple tools of Earthquake Prediction Strategies, in particular, Error Diagram, introduced by G.M. Molchan in early 1990ies, and Seismic Roulette null-hypothesis as a metric of the alerted space, is evident. The set of errors, i.e. the rates of failure and of the alerted space-time volume, can be easily compared to random guessing, which comparison permits evaluating the SHA method effectiveness and determining the optimal choice of parameters in regard to a given cost-benefit function. These and other information obtained in such a simple testing may supply us with a realistic estimates of confidence and accuracy of SHA predictions and, if reliable but not necessarily perfect, with related recommendations on the level of risks for decision making in regard to engineering design, insurance

  12. Evidence for Ancient Mesoamerican Earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovach, R. L.; Garcia, B.

    2001-12-01

    Evidence for past earthquake damage at Mesoamerican ruins is often overlooked because of the invasive effects of tropical vegetation and is usually not considered as a casual factor when restoration and reconstruction of many archaeological sites are undertaken. Yet the proximity of many ruins to zones of seismic activity would argue otherwise. Clues as to the types of damage which should be soughtwere offered in September 1999 when the M = 7.5 Oaxaca earthquake struck the ruins of Monte Alban, Mexico, where archaeological renovations were underway. More than 20 structures were damaged, 5 of them seriously. Damage features noted were walls out of plumb, fractures in walls, floors, basal platforms and tableros, toppling of columns, and deformation, settling and tumbling of walls. A Modified Mercalli Intensity of VII (ground accelerations 18-34 %b) occurred at the site. Within the diffuse landward extension of the Caribbean plate boundary zone M = 7+ earthquakes occur with repeat times of hundreds of years arguing that many Maya sites were subjected to earthquakes. Damage to re-erected and reinforced stelae, walls, and buildings were witnessed at Quirigua, Guatemala, during an expedition underway when then 1976 M = 7.5 Guatemala earthquake on the Motagua fault struck. Excavations also revealed evidence (domestic pttery vessels and skeleton of a child crushed under fallen walls) of an ancient earthquake occurring about the teim of the demise and abandonment of Quirigua in the late 9th century. Striking evidence for sudden earthquake building collapse at the end of the Mayan Classic Period ~A.D. 889 was found at Benque Viejo (Xunantunich), Belize, located 210 north of Quirigua. It is argued that a M = 7.5 to 7.9 earthquake at the end of the Maya Classic period centered in the vicinity of the Chixoy-Polochic and Motagua fault zones cound have produced the contemporaneous earthquake damage to the above sites. As a consequences this earthquake may have accelerated the

  13. Comparison of two large earthquakes: the 2008 Sichuan Earthquake and the 2011 East Japan Earthquake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otani, Yuki; Ando, Takayuki; Atobe, Kaori; Haiden, Akina; Kao, Sheng-Yuan; Saito, Kohei; Shimanuki, Marie; Yoshimoto, Norifumi; Fukunaga, Koichi

    2012-01-01

    Between August 15th and 19th, 2011, eight 5th-year medical students from the Keio University School of Medicine had the opportunity to visit the Peking University School of Medicine and hold a discussion session titled "What is the most effective way to educate people for survival in an acute disaster situation (before the mental health care stage)?" During the session, we discussed the following six points: basic information regarding the Sichuan Earthquake and the East Japan Earthquake, differences in preparedness for earthquakes, government actions, acceptance of medical rescue teams, earthquake-induced secondary effects, and media restrictions. Although comparison of the two earthquakes was not simple, we concluded that three major points should be emphasized to facilitate the most effective course of disaster planning and action. First, all relevant agencies should formulate emergency plans and should supply information regarding the emergency to the general public and health professionals on a normal basis. Second, each citizen should be educated and trained in how to minimize the risks from earthquake-induced secondary effects. Finally, the central government should establish a single headquarters responsible for command, control, and coordination during a natural disaster emergency and should centralize all powers in this single authority. We hope this discussion may be of some use in future natural disasters in China, Japan, and worldwide.

  14. Do earthquakes exhibit self-organized criticality?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Xiaosong; Ma Jin; Du Shuming

    2004-01-01

    If earthquakes are phenomena of self-organized criticality (SOC), statistical characteristics of the earthquake time series should be invariant after the sequence of events in an earthquake catalog are randomly rearranged. In this Letter we argue that earthquakes are unlikely phenomena of SOC because our analysis of the Southern California Earthquake Catalog shows that the first-return-time probability P M (T) is apparently changed after the time series is rearranged. This suggests that the SOC theory should not be used to oppose the efforts of earthquake prediction

  15. Earthquake, GIS and multimedia. The 1883 Casamicciola earthquake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rebuffat

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available A series of multimedia monographs concerning the main seismic events that have affected the Italian territory are in the process of being produced for the Documental Integrated Multimedia Project (DIMP started by the Italian National Seismic Survey (NSS. The purpose of the project is to reconstruct the historical record of earthquakes and promote an earthquake public education. Producing the monographs. developed in ARC INFO and working in UNIX. involved designing a special filing and management methodology to integrate heterogeneous information (images, papers, cartographies, etc.. This paper describes the possibilities of a GIS (Geographic Information System in the filing and management of documental information. As an example we present the first monograph on the 1883 Casamicciola earthquake. on the island of Ischia (Campania, Italy. This earthquake is particularly interesting for the following reasons: I historical-cultural context (first destructive seismic event after the unification of Italy; 2 its features (volcanic earthquake; 3 the socioeconomic consequences caused at such an important seaside resort.

  16. Extreme value statistics and thermodynamics of earthquakes: large earthquakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. H. Lavenda

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available A compound Poisson process is used to derive a new shape parameter which can be used to discriminate between large earthquakes and aftershock sequences. Sample exceedance distributions of large earthquakes are fitted to the Pareto tail and the actual distribution of the maximum to the Fréchet distribution, while the sample distribution of aftershocks are fitted to a Beta distribution and the distribution of the minimum to the Weibull distribution for the smallest value. The transition between initial sample distributions and asymptotic extreme value distributions shows that self-similar power laws are transformed into nonscaling exponential distributions so that neither self-similarity nor the Gutenberg-Richter law can be considered universal. The energy-magnitude transformation converts the Fréchet distribution into the Gumbel distribution, originally proposed by Epstein and Lomnitz, and not the Gompertz distribution as in the Lomnitz-Adler and Lomnitz generalization of the Gutenberg-Richter law. Numerical comparison is made with the Lomnitz-Adler and Lomnitz analysis using the same Catalogue of Chinese Earthquakes. An analogy is drawn between large earthquakes and high energy particle physics. A generalized equation of state is used to transform the Gamma density into the order-statistic Fréchet distribution. Earthquaketemperature and volume are determined as functions of the energy. Large insurance claims based on the Pareto distribution, which does not have a right endpoint, show why there cannot be a maximum earthquake energy.

  17. Laboratory generated M -6 earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaskey, Gregory C.; Kilgore, Brian D.; Lockner, David A.; Beeler, Nicholas M.

    2014-01-01

    We consider whether mm-scale earthquake-like seismic events generated in laboratory experiments are consistent with our understanding of the physics of larger earthquakes. This work focuses on a population of 48 very small shocks that are foreshocks and aftershocks of stick–slip events occurring on a 2.0 m by 0.4 m simulated strike-slip fault cut through a large granite sample. Unlike the larger stick–slip events that rupture the entirety of the simulated fault, the small foreshocks and aftershocks are contained events whose properties are controlled by the rigidity of the surrounding granite blocks rather than characteristics of the experimental apparatus. The large size of the experimental apparatus, high fidelity sensors, rigorous treatment of wave propagation effects, and in situ system calibration separates this study from traditional acoustic emission analyses and allows these sources to be studied with as much rigor as larger natural earthquakes. The tiny events have short (3–6 μs) rise times and are well modeled by simple double couple focal mechanisms that are consistent with left-lateral slip occurring on a mm-scale patch of the precut fault surface. The repeatability of the experiments indicates that they are the result of frictional processes on the simulated fault surface rather than grain crushing or fracture of fresh rock. Our waveform analysis shows no significant differences (other than size) between the M -7 to M -5.5 earthquakes reported here and larger natural earthquakes. Their source characteristics such as stress drop (1–10 MPa) appear to be entirely consistent with earthquake scaling laws derived for larger earthquakes.

  18. Awareness and understanding of earthquake hazards at school

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraò, Angela; Peruzza, Laura; Barnaba, Carla; Bragato, Pier Luigi

    2014-05-01

    Schools have a fundamental role in broadening the understanding of natural hazard and risks and in building the awareness in the community. Recent earthquakes in Italy and worldwide, have clearly demonstrated that the poor perception of seismic hazards diminishes the effectiveness of mitigation countermeasures. Since years the Seismology's department of OGS is involved in education projects and public activities to raise awareness about earthquakes. Working together with teachers we aim at developing age-appropriate curricula to improve the student's knowledge about earthquakes, seismic safety, and seismic risk reduction. Some examples of education activities we performed during the last years are here presented. We show our experience with the primary and intermediate schools where, through hands-on activities, we explain the earthquake phenomenon and its effects to kids, but we illustrate also some teaching interventions for high school students. During the past years we lectured classes, we led laboratory and field activities, and we organized summer stages for selected students. In the current year we are leading a project aimed at training high school students on seismic safety through a multidisciplinary approach that involves seismologists, engineers and experts of safety procedures. To combine the objective of dissemination of earthquake culture, also through the knowledge of the past seismicity, with that of a safety culture, we use innovative educational techniques and multimedia resources. Students and teachers, under the guidance of an expert seismologist, organize a combination of hands-on activities for understanding earthquakes in the lab through cheap tools and instrumentations At selected schools we provided the low cost seismometers of the QuakeCatcher network (http://qcn.stanford.edu) for recording earthquakes, and we trained teachers to use such instruments in the lab and to analyze recorded data. Within the same project we are going to train

  19. [Medical rescue of China National Earthquake Disaster Emergency Search and Rescue Team in Lushan earthquake].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ya-hua; Yang, Hui-ning; Liu, Hui-liang; Wang, Fan; Hu, Li-bin; Zheng, Jing-chen

    2013-05-01

    To summarize and analyze the medical mission of China National Earthquake Disaster Emergency Search and Rescue Team (CNESAR) in Lushan earthquake, to promote the medical rescue effectiveness incorporated with search and rescue. Retrospective analysis of medical work data by CNESAR from April 21th, 2013 to April 27th during Lushan earthquake rescue, including the medical staff dispatch and the wounded case been treated. The reasonable medical corps was composed by 22 members, including 2 administrators, 11 doctors [covering emergency medicine, orthopedics (joints and limbs, spinal), obstetrics and gynecology, gastroenterology, cardiology, ophthalmology, anesthesiology, medical rescue, health epidemic prevention, clinical laboratory of 11 specialties], 1 ultrasound technician, 5 nurses, 1 pharmacist, 1 medical instrument engineer and 1 office worker for propaganda. There were two members having psychological consultants qualifications. The medical work were carried out in seven aspects, including medical care assurance for the CNESAR members, first aid cooperation with search and rescue on site, clinical work in refugees' camp, medical round service for scattered village people, evacuation for the wounded, mental intervention, and the sanitary and anti-epidemic work. The medical work covered 24 small towns, and medical staff established 3 medical clinics at Taiping Town, Shuangshi Town of Lushan County and Baoxing County. Medical rescue, mental intervention for the old and kids, and sanitary and anti-epidemic were performed at the above sites. The medical corps had successful evacuated 2 severe wounded patients and treated the wounded over thousands. Most of the wounded were soft tissue injuries, external injury, respiratory tract infections, diarrhea, and heat stroke. Compared with the rescue action in 2008 Wenchuan earthquake, the aggregation and departure of rescue team in Lushan earthquake, the traffic control order in disaster area, the self-aid and buddy aid

  20. Understanding dynamic friction through spontaneously evolving laboratory earthquakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubino, V; Rosakis, A J; Lapusta, N

    2017-06-29

    Friction plays a key role in how ruptures unzip faults in the Earth's crust and release waves that cause destructive shaking. Yet dynamic friction evolution is one of the biggest uncertainties in earthquake science. Here we report on novel measurements of evolving local friction during spontaneously developing mini-earthquakes in the laboratory, enabled by our ultrahigh speed full-field imaging technique. The technique captures the evolution of displacements, velocities and stresses of dynamic ruptures, whose rupture speed range from sub-Rayleigh to supershear. The observed friction has complex evolution, featuring initial velocity strengthening followed by substantial velocity weakening. Our measurements are consistent with rate-and-state friction formulations supplemented with flash heating but not with widely used slip-weakening friction laws. This study develops a new approach for measuring local evolution of dynamic friction and has important implications for understanding earthquake hazard since laws governing frictional resistance of faults are vital ingredients in physically-based predictive models of the earthquake source.

  1. The music of earthquakes and Earthquake Quartet #1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, Andrew J.

    2013-01-01

    Earthquake Quartet #1, my composition for voice, trombone, cello, and seismograms, is the intersection of listening to earthquakes as a seismologist and performing music as a trombonist. Along the way, I realized there is a close relationship between what I do as a scientist and what I do as a musician. A musician controls the source of the sound and the path it travels through their instrument in order to make sound waves that we hear as music. An earthquake is the source of waves that travel along a path through the earth until reaching us as shaking. It is almost as if the earth is a musician and people, including seismologists, are metaphorically listening and trying to understand what the music means.

  2. A numerical simulation strategy on occupant evacuation behaviors and casualty prediction in a building during earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shuang; Yu, Xiaohui; Zhang, Yanjuan; Zhai, Changhai

    2018-01-01

    Casualty prediction in a building during earthquakes benefits to implement the economic loss estimation in the performance-based earthquake engineering methodology. Although after-earthquake observations reveal that the evacuation has effects on the quantity of occupant casualties during earthquakes, few current studies consider occupant movements in the building in casualty prediction procedures. To bridge this knowledge gap, a numerical simulation method using refined cellular automata model is presented, which can describe various occupant dynamic behaviors and building dimensions. The simulation on the occupant evacuation is verified by a recorded evacuation process from a school classroom in real-life 2013 Ya'an earthquake in China. The occupant casualties in the building under earthquakes are evaluated by coupling the building collapse process simulation by finite element method, the occupant evacuation simulation, and the casualty occurrence criteria with time and space synchronization. A case study of casualty prediction in a building during an earthquake is provided to demonstrate the effect of occupant movements on casualty prediction.

  3. Toward real-time regional earthquake simulation of Taiwan earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S.; Liu, Q.; Tromp, J.; Komatitsch, D.; Liang, W.; Huang, B.

    2013-12-01

    We developed a Real-time Online earthquake Simulation system (ROS) to simulate regional earthquakes in Taiwan. The ROS uses a centroid moment tensor solution of seismic events from a Real-time Moment Tensor monitoring system (RMT), which provides all the point source parameters including the event origin time, hypocentral location, moment magnitude and focal mechanism within 2 minutes after the occurrence of an earthquake. Then, all of the source parameters are automatically forwarded to the ROS to perform an earthquake simulation, which is based on a spectral-element method (SEM). We have improved SEM mesh quality by introducing a thin high-resolution mesh layer near the surface to accommodate steep and rapidly varying topography. The mesh for the shallow sedimentary basin is adjusted to reflect its complex geometry and sharp lateral velocity contrasts. The grid resolution at the surface is about 545 m, which is sufficient to resolve topography and tomography data for simulations accurate up to 1.0 Hz. The ROS is also an infrastructural service, making online earthquake simulation feasible. Users can conduct their own earthquake simulation by providing a set of source parameters through the ROS webpage. For visualization, a ShakeMovie and ShakeMap are produced during the simulation. The time needed for one event is roughly 3 minutes for a 70 sec ground motion simulation. The ROS is operated online at the Institute of Earth Sciences, Academia Sinica (http://ros.earth.sinica.edu.tw/). Our long-term goal for the ROS system is to contribute to public earth science outreach and to realize seismic ground motion prediction in real-time.

  4. Experience database of Romanian facilities subjected to the last three Vrancea earthquakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The scope of this research project is to use the past seismic experience of similar components from power and industrial facilities to establish the generic seismic resistance of nuclear power plant safe shutdown equipment. The first part of the project provide information about the Vrancea. earthquakes which affect the Romanian territory and also the Kozloduy NPP site as a background of the investigations of the seismic performance of mechanical and electrical equipment in the industrial facilities. This project has the following, objectives: collect and process all available seismic information about Vrancea earthquakes; perform probabilistic hazard analysis of the Vrancea earthquakes; determine attenuation low, correlation between the focal depth, earthquake power, soil conditions and frequency characteristics of the seismic ground motion; investigate and collect information regarding seismic behavior during the 1977, 1986 and 1990 earthquakes of mechanical and electrical components from industrial facilities. The seismic database used for the analysis of the Vrancea earthquakes includes digitized triaxial records as follows: March 4, 1977 - I station, Aug, 30 1986 - 42 stations, May 1990 - 54 stations. A catalogue of the Vrancea earthquakes occurred during the period 1901-1994, is presented as well

  5. Book review: Earthquakes and water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekins, Barbara A.

    2012-01-01

    It is really nice to see assembled in one place a discussion of the documented and hypothesized hydrologic effects of earthquakes. The book is divided into chapters focusing on particular hydrologic phenomena including liquefaction, mud volcanism, stream discharge increases, groundwater level, temperature and chemical changes, and geyser period changes. These hydrologic effects are inherently fascinating, and the large number of relevant publications in the past decade makes this summary a useful milepost. The book also covers hydrologic precursors and earthquake triggering by pore pressure. A natural need to limit the topics covered resulted in the omission of tsunamis and the vast literature on the role of fluids and pore pressure in frictional strength of faults. Regardless of whether research on earthquake-triggered hydrologic effects ultimately provides insight into the physics of earthquakes, the text provides welcome common ground for interdisciplinary collaborations between hydrologists and seismologists. Such collaborations continue to be crucial for investigating hypotheses about the role of fluids in earthquakes and slow slip. 

  6. Engineered Resistant-Starch (ERS) Diet Shapes Colon Microbiota Profile in Parallel with the Retardation of Tumor Growth in In Vitro and In Vivo Pancreatic Cancer Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panebianco, Concetta; Adamberg, Kaarel; Adamberg, Signe; Saracino, Chiara; Jaagura, Madis; Kolk, Kaia; Di Chio, Anna Grazia; Graziano, Paolo; Vilu, Raivo; Pazienza, Valerio

    2017-01-01

    Background/aims: Pancreatic cancer (PC) is ranked as the fourth leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Despite recent advances in treatment options, a modest impact on the outcome of the disease is observed so far. We have previously demonstrated that short-term fasting cycles have the potential to improve the efficacy of chemotherapy against PC. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of an engineered resistant-starch (ERS) mimicking diet on the growth of cancer cell lines in vitro, on the composition of fecal microbiota, and on tumor growth in an in vivo pancreatic cancer mouse xenograft model. Materials and Methods: BxPC-3, MIA PaCa-2 and PANC-1 cells were cultured in the control, and in the ERS-mimicking diet culturing condition, to evaluate tumor growth and proliferation pathways. Pancreatic cancer xenograft mice were subjected to an ERS diet to assess tumor volume and weight as compared to mice fed with a control diet. The composition and activity of fecal microbiota were further analyzed in growth experiments by isothermal microcalorimetry. Results: Pancreatic cancer cells cultured in an ERS diet-mimicking medium showed decreased levels of phospho-ERK1/2 (extracellular signal-regulated kinase proteins) and phospho-mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin) levels, as compared to those cultured in standard medium. Consistently, xenograft pancreatic cancer mice subjected to an ERS diet displayed significant retardation in tumor growth. In in vitro growth experiments, the fecal microbial cultures from mice fed with an ERS diet showed enhanced growth on residual substrates, higher production of formate and lactate, and decreased amounts of propionate, compared to fecal microbiota from mice fed with the control diet. Conclusion: A positive effect of the ERS diet on composition and metabolism of mouse fecal microbiota shown in vitro is associated with the decrease of tumor progression in the in vivo PC xenograft mouse model. These results suggest that

  7. Global Earthquake Hazard Frequency and Distribution

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Global Earthquake Hazard Frequency and Distribution is a 2.5 minute grid utilizing Advanced National Seismic System (ANSS) Earthquake Catalog data of actual...

  8. Extreme value distribution of earthquake magnitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zi, Jun Gan; Tung, C. C.

    1983-07-01

    Probability distribution of maximum earthquake magnitude is first derived for an unspecified probability distribution of earthquake magnitude. A model for energy release of large earthquakes, similar to that of Adler-Lomnitz and Lomnitz, is introduced from which the probability distribution of earthquake magnitude is obtained. An extensive set of world data for shallow earthquakes, covering the period from 1904 to 1980, is used to determine the parameters of the probability distribution of maximum earthquake magnitude. Because of the special form of probability distribution of earthquake magnitude, a simple iterative scheme is devised to facilitate the estimation of these parameters by the method of least-squares. The agreement between the empirical and derived probability distributions of maximum earthquake magnitude is excellent.

  9. Earthquake disaster simulation of civil infrastructures from tall buildings to urban areas

    CERN Document Server

    Lu, Xinzheng

    2017-01-01

    Based on more than 12 years of systematic investigation on earthquake disaster simulation of civil infrastructures, this book covers the major research outcomes including a number of novel computational models, high performance computing methods and realistic visualization techniques for tall buildings and urban areas, with particular emphasize on collapse prevention and mitigation in extreme earthquakes, earthquake loss evaluation and seismic resilience. Typical engineering applications to several tallest buildings in the world (e.g., the 632 m tall Shanghai Tower and the 528 m tall Z15 Tower) and selected large cities in China (the Beijing Central Business District, Xi'an City, Taiyuan City and Tangshan City) are also introduced to demonstrate the advantages of the proposed computational models and techniques. The high-fidelity computational model developed in this book has proven to be the only feasible option to date for earthquake-induced collapse simulation of supertall buildings that are higher than 50...

  10. Earthquake: Game-based learning for 21st century STEM education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Abigail Christine

    To play is to learn. A lack of empirical research within game-based learning literature, however, has hindered educational stakeholders to make informed decisions about game-based learning for 21st century STEM education. In this study, I modified a research and development (R&D) process to create a collaborative-competitive educational board game illuminating elements of earthquake engineering. I oriented instruction- and game-design principles around 21st century science education to adapt the R&D process to develop the educational game, Earthquake. As part of the R&D, I evaluated Earthquake for empirical evidence to support the claim that game-play results in student gains in critical thinking, scientific argumentation, metacognitive abilities, and earthquake engineering content knowledge. I developed Earthquake with the aid of eight focus groups with varying levels of expertise in science education research, teaching, administration, and game-design. After developing a functional prototype, I pilot-tested Earthquake with teacher-participants (n=14) who engaged in semi-structured interviews after their game-play. I analyzed teacher interviews with constant comparison methodology. I used teachers' comments and feedback from content knowledge experts to integrate game modifications, implementing results to improve Earthquake. I added player roles, simplified phrasing on cards, and produced an introductory video. I then administered the modified Earthquake game to two groups of high school student-participants (n = 6), who played twice. To seek evidence documenting support for my knowledge claim, I analyzed videotapes of students' game-play using a game-based learning checklist. My assessment of learning gains revealed increases in all categories of students' performance: critical thinking, metacognition, scientific argumentation, and earthquake engineering content knowledge acquisition. Players in both student-groups improved mostly in critical thinking, having

  11. PRECURSORS OF EARTHQUAKES: VLF SIGNALSIONOSPHERE IONOSPHERE RELATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa ULAS

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available lot of people have died because of earthquakes every year. Therefore It is crucial to predict the time of the earthquakes reasonable time before it had happed. This paper presents recent information published in the literature about precursors of earthquakes. The relationships between earthquakes and ionosphere are targeted to guide new researches in order to study further to find novel prediction methods.

  12. Fault geometry and earthquake mechanics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. J. Andrews

    1994-06-01

    Full Text Available Earthquake mechanics may be determined by the geometry of a fault system. Slip on a fractal branching fault surface can explain: 1 regeneration of stress irregularities in an earthquake; 2 the concentration of stress drop in an earthquake into asperities; 3 starting and stopping of earthquake slip at fault junctions, and 4 self-similar scaling of earthquakes. Slip at fault junctions provides a natural realization of barrier and asperity models without appealing to variations of fault strength. Fault systems are observed to have a branching fractal structure, and slip may occur at many fault junctions in an earthquake. Consider the mechanics of slip at one fault junction. In order to avoid a stress singularity of order 1/r, an intersection of faults must be a triple junction and the Burgers vectors on the three fault segments at the junction must sum to zero. In other words, to lowest order the deformation consists of rigid block displacement, which ensures that the local stress due to the dislocations is zero. The elastic dislocation solution, however, ignores the fact that the configuration of the blocks changes at the scale of the displacement. A volume change occurs at the junction; either a void opens or intense local deformation is required to avoid material overlap. The volume change is proportional to the product of the slip increment and the total slip since the formation of the junction. Energy absorbed at the junction, equal to confining pressure times the volume change, is not large enongh to prevent slip at a new junction. The ratio of energy absorbed at a new junction to elastic energy released in an earthquake is no larger than P/µ where P is confining pressure and µ is the shear modulus. At a depth of 10 km this dimensionless ratio has th value P/µ= 0.01. As slip accumulates at a fault junction in a number of earthquakes, the fault segments are displaced such that they no longer meet at a single point. For this reason the

  13. Historical earthquake investigations in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Makropoulos

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The active tectonics of the area of Greece and its seismic activity have always been present in the country?s history. Many researchers, tempted to work on Greek historical earthquakes, have realized that this is a task not easily fulfilled. The existing catalogues of strong historical earthquakes are useful tools to perform general SHA studies. However, a variety of supporting datasets, non-uniformly distributed in space and time, need to be further investigated. In the present paper, a review of historical earthquake studies in Greece is attempted. The seismic history of the country is divided into four main periods. In each one of them, characteristic examples, studies and approaches are presented.

  14. Crowdsourcing earthquake damage assessment using remote sensing imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuart Gill

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the evolution of recent work on using crowdsourced analysis of remote sensing imagery, particularly high-resolution aerial imagery, to provide rapid, reliable assessments of damage caused by earthquakes and potentially other disasters. The initial effort examined online imagery taken after the 2008 Wenchuan, China, earthquake. A more recent response to the 2010 Haiti earthquake led to the formation of an international consortium: the Global Earth Observation Catastrophe Assessment Network (GEO-CAN. The success of GEO-CAN in contributing to the official damage assessments made by the Government of Haiti, the United Nations, and the World Bank led to further development of a web-based interface. A current initiative in Christchurch, New Zealand, is underway where remote sensing experts are analyzing satellite imagery, geotechnical engineers are marking liquefaction areas, and structural engineers are identifying building damage. The current site includes online training to improve the accuracy of the assessments and make it possible for even novice users to contribute to the crowdsourced solution. The paper discusses lessons learned from these initiatives and presents a way forward for using crowdsourced remote sensing as a tool for rapid assessment of damage caused by natural disasters around the world.

  15. Distinguishing megathrust from intraplate earthquakes using lacustrine turbidites (Laguna Lo Encañado, Central Chile)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Daele, Maarten; Araya-Cornejo, Cristian; Pille, Thomas; Meyer, Inka; Kempf, Philipp; Moernaut, Jasper; Cisternas, Marco

    2017-04-01

    triggered by megathrust earthquakes. These findings are an important step forward in the interpretation of lacustrine turbidites in subduction settings, and will eventually improve hazard assessments based on such paleoseismic records in the study area, and in other subduction zones. References Howarth et al., 2014. Lake sediments record high intensity shaking that provides insight into the location and rupture length of large earthquakes on the Alpine Fault, New Zealand. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 403, 340-351. Lomnitz, 1960. A study of the Maipo Valley earthquakes of September 4, 1958, Second World Conference on Earthquake Engineering, Tokyo and Kyoto, Japan, pp. 501-520. Sepulveda et al., 2008. New Findings on the 1958 Las Melosas Earthquake Sequence, Central Chile: Implications for Seismic Hazard Related to Shallow Crustal Earthquakes in Subduction Zones. Journal of Earthquake Engineering 12, 432-455. Van Daele et al., 2015. A comparison of the sedimentary records of the 1960 and 2010 great Chilean earthquakes in 17 lakes: Implications for quantitative lacustrine palaeoseismology. Sedimentology 62, 1466-1496.

  16. Fault failure with moderate earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, M. J. S.; Linde, A. T.; Gladwin, M. T.; Borcherdt, R. D.

    1987-12-01

    High resolution strain and tilt recordings were made in the near-field of, and prior to, the May 1983 Coalinga earthquake ( ML = 6.7, Δ = 51 km), the August 4, 1985, Kettleman Hills earthquake ( ML = 5.5, Δ = 34 km), the April 1984 Morgan Hill earthquake ( ML = 6.1, Δ = 55 km), the November 1984 Round Valley earthquake ( ML = 5.8, Δ = 54 km), the January 14, 1978, Izu, Japan earthquake ( ML = 7.0, Δ = 28 km), and several other smaller magnitude earthquakes. These recordings were made with near-surface instruments (resolution 10 -8), with borehole dilatometers (resolution 10 -10) and a 3-component borehole strainmeter (resolution 10 -9). While observed coseismic offsets are generally in good agreement with expectations from elastic dislocation theory, and while post-seismic deformation continued, in some cases, with a moment comparable to that of the main shock, preseismic strain or tilt perturbations from hours to seconds (or less) before the main shock are not apparent above the present resolution. Precursory slip for these events, if any occurred, must have had a moment less than a few percent of that of the main event. To the extent that these records reflect general fault behavior, the strong constraint on the size and amount of slip triggering major rupture makes prediction of the onset times and final magnitudes of the rupture zones a difficult task unless the instruments are fortuitously installed near the rupture initiation point. These data are best explained by an inhomogeneous failure model for which various areas of the fault plane have either different stress-slip constitutive laws or spatially varying constitutive parameters. Other work on seismic waveform analysis and synthetic waveforms indicates that the rupturing process is inhomogeneous and controlled by points of higher strength. These models indicate that rupture initiation occurs at smaller regions of higher strength which, when broken, allow runaway catastrophic failure.

  17. Modeling, Forecasting and Mitigating Extreme Earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail-Zadeh, A.; Le Mouel, J.; Soloviev, A.

    2012-12-01

    Recent earthquake disasters highlighted the importance of multi- and trans-disciplinary studies of earthquake risk. A major component of earthquake disaster risk analysis is hazards research, which should cover not only a traditional assessment of ground shaking, but also studies of geodetic, paleoseismic, geomagnetic, hydrological, deep drilling and other geophysical and geological observations together with comprehensive modeling of earthquakes and forecasting extreme events. Extreme earthquakes (large magnitude and rare events) are manifestations of complex behavior of the lithosphere structured as a hierarchical system of blocks of different sizes. Understanding of physics and dynamics of the extreme events comes from observations, measurements and modeling. A quantitative approach to simulate earthquakes in models of fault dynamics will be presented. The models reproduce basic features of the observed seismicity (e.g., the frequency-magnitude relationship, clustering of earthquakes, occurrence of extreme seismic events). They provide a link between geodynamic processes and seismicity, allow studying extreme events, influence of fault network properties on seismic patterns and seismic cycles, and assist, in a broader sense, in earthquake forecast modeling. Some aspects of predictability of large earthquakes (how well can large earthquakes be predicted today?) will be also discussed along with possibilities in mitigation of earthquake disasters (e.g., on 'inverse' forensic investigations of earthquake disasters).

  18. 13 CFR 120.174 - Earthquake hazards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Earthquake hazards. 120.174... Applying to All Business Loans Requirements Imposed Under Other Laws and Orders § 120.174 Earthquake..., the construction must conform with the “National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program (“NEHRP...

  19. The ShakeOut Earthquake Scenario - A Story That Southern Californians Are Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Suzanne; Cox, Dale; Jones, Lucile; Bernknopf, Richard; Goltz, James; Hudnut, Kenneth; Mileti, Dennis; Ponti, Daniel; Porter, Keith; Reichle, Michael; Seligson, Hope; Shoaf, Kimberley; Treiman, Jerry; Wein, Anne

    2008-01-01

    The question is not if but when southern California will be hit by a major earthquake - one so damaging that it will permanently change lives and livelihoods in the region. How severe the changes will be depends on the actions that individuals, schools, businesses, organizations, communities, and governments take to get ready. To help prepare for this event, scientists of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) have changed the way that earthquake scenarios are done, uniting a multidisciplinary team that spans an unprecedented number of specialties. The team includes the California Geological Survey, Southern California Earthquake Center, and nearly 200 other partners in government, academia, emergency response, and industry, working to understand the long-term impacts of an enormous earthquake on the complicated social and economic interactions that sustain southern California society. This project, the ShakeOut Scenario, has applied the best current scientific understanding to identify what can be done now to avoid an earthquake catastrophe. More information on the science behind this project will be available in The ShakeOut Scenario (USGS Open-File Report 2008-1150; http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2008/1150/). The 'what if?' earthquake modeled in the ShakeOut Scenario is a magnitude 7.8 on the southern San Andreas Fault. Geologists selected the details of this hypothetical earthquake by considering the amount of stored strain on that part of the fault with the greatest risk of imminent rupture. From this, seismologists and computer scientists modeled the ground shaking that would occur in this earthquake. Engineers and other professionals used the shaking to produce a realistic picture of this earthquake's damage to buildings, roads, pipelines, and other infrastructure. From these damages, social scientists projected casualties, emergency response, and the impact of the scenario earthquake on southern California's economy and society. The earthquake, its damages, and

  20. THE GREAT SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA SHAKEOUT: Earthquake Science for 22 Million People

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, L.; Cox, D.; Perry, S.; Hudnut, K.; Benthien, M.; Bwarie, J.; Vinci, M.; Buchanan, M.; Long, K.; Sinha, S.; Collins, L.

    2008-12-01

    Earthquake science is being communicated to and used by the 22 million residents of southern California to improve resiliency to future earthquakes through the Great Southern California ShakeOut. The ShakeOut began when the USGS partnered with the California Geological Survey, Southern California Earthquake Center and many other organizations to bring 300 scientists and engineers together to formulate a comprehensive description of a plausible major earthquake, released in May 2008, as the ShakeOut Scenario, a description of the impacts and consequences of a M7.8 earthquake on the Southern San Andreas Fault (USGS OFR2008-1150). The Great Southern California ShakeOut was a week of special events featuring the largest earthquake drill in United States history. The ShakeOut drill occurred in houses, businesses, and public spaces throughout southern California at 10AM on November 13, 2008, when southern Californians were asked to pretend that the M7.8 scenario earthquake had occurred and to practice actions that could reduce the impact on their lives. Residents, organizations, schools and businesses registered to participate in the drill through www.shakeout.org where they could get accessible information about the scenario earthquake and share ideas for better reparation. As of September 8, 2008, over 2.7 million confirmed participants had been registered. The primary message of the ShakeOut is that what we do now, before a big earthquake, will determine what our lives will be like after. The goal of the ShakeOut has been to change the culture of earthquake preparedness in southern California, making earthquakes a reality that are regularly discussed. This implements the sociological finding that 'milling,' discussing a problem with loved ones, is a prerequisite to taking action. ShakeOut milling is taking place at all levels from individuals and families, to corporations and governments. Actions taken as a result of the ShakeOut include the adoption of earthquake

  1. Radon as an earthquake precursor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Planinic, J.; Radolic, V.; Vukovic, B.

    2004-01-01

    Radon concentrations in soil gas were continuously measured by the LR-115 nuclear track detectors during a four-year period. Seismic activities, as well as barometric pressure, rainfall and air temperature were also observed. The influence of meteorological parameters on temporal radon variations was investigated, and a respective equation of the multiple regression was derived. The earthquakes with magnitude ≥3 at epicentral distances ≤200 km were recognized by means of radon anomaly. Empirical equations between earthquake magnitude, epicentral distance and precursor time were examined, and respective constants were determined

  2. Radon as an earthquake precursor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Planinic, J. E-mail: planinic@pedos.hr; Radolic, V.; Vukovic, B

    2004-09-11

    Radon concentrations in soil gas were continuously measured by the LR-115 nuclear track detectors during a four-year period. Seismic activities, as well as barometric pressure, rainfall and air temperature were also observed. The influence of meteorological parameters on temporal radon variations was investigated, and a respective equation of the multiple regression was derived. The earthquakes with magnitude {>=}3 at epicentral distances {<=}200 km were recognized by means of radon anomaly. Empirical equations between earthquake magnitude, epicentral distance and precursor time were examined, and respective constants were determined.

  3. Earthquake location in island arcs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engdahl, E.R.; Dewey, J.W.; Fujita, K.

    1982-01-01

    A comprehensive data set of selected teleseismic P-wave arrivals and local-network P- and S-wave arrivals from large earthquakes occurring at all depths within a small section of the central Aleutians is used to examine the general problem of earthquake location in island arcs. Reference hypocenters for this special data set are determined for shallow earthquakes from local-network data and for deep earthquakes from combined local and teleseismic data by joint inversion for structure and location. The high-velocity lithospheric slab beneath the central Aleutians may displace hypocenters that are located using spherically symmetric Earth models; the amount of displacement depends on the position of the earthquakes with respect to the slab and on whether local or teleseismic data are used to locate the earthquakes. Hypocenters for trench and intermediate-depth events appear to be minimally biased by the effects of slab structure on rays to teleseismic stations. However, locations of intermediate-depth events based on only local data are systematically displaced southwards, the magnitude of the displacement being proportional to depth. Shallow-focus events along the main thrust zone, although well located using only local-network data, are severely shifted northwards and deeper, with displacements as large as 50 km, by slab effects on teleseismic travel times. Hypocenters determined by a method that utilizes seismic ray tracing through a three-dimensional velocity model of the subduction zone, derived by thermal modeling, are compared to results obtained by the method of joint hypocenter determination (JHD) that formally assumes a laterally homogeneous velocity model over the source region and treats all raypath anomalies as constant station corrections to the travel-time curve. The ray-tracing method has the theoretical advantage that it accounts for variations in travel-time anomalies within a group of events distributed over a sizable region of a dipping, high

  4. People's perspectives and expectations on preparedness against earthquakes: Tehran case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahangiri, Katayoun; Izadkhah, Yasamin Ostovar; Montazeri, Ali; Hosseinip, Mahmood

    2010-06-01

    , Discussion: A participatory approach to earthquake-preparedness planning is recommended. This would ensure that program planners use methods, tools, media, and educational materials that are compatible with the culture, needs, and skills of the local communities. The findings of this study also reveal methods and tools that the local community considers to be most effective for earthquake-preparedness planning and management. The development of an earthquake-resistance and a safe community requires a high level of collaboration between broadcasting organizations, seismologists, experts in the disaster- preparedness field, as well as the local community. This will allow for timely planning, development, and dissemination of essential information to all stakeholders including the local communities. ‎

  5. Dancing Earthquake Science Assists Recovery from the Christchurch Earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egan, Candice J.; Quigley, Mark C.

    2015-01-01

    The 2010-2012 Christchurch (Canterbury) earthquakes in New Zealand caused loss of life and psychological distress in residents throughout the region. In 2011, student dancers of the Hagley Dance Company and dance professionals choreographed the performance "Move: A Seismic Journey" for the Christchurch Body Festival that explored…

  6. The Southern California Earthquake Center/Undergraduate Studies in Earthquake Information Technology (SCEC/UseIT) Internship Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, S.; Jordan, T.

    2006-12-01

    Our undergraduate research program, SCEC/UseIT, an NSF Research Experience for Undergraduates site, provides software for earthquake researchers and educators, movies for outreach, and ways to strengthen the technical career pipeline. SCEC/UseIT motivates diverse undergraduates towards science and engineering careers through team-based research in the exciting field of earthquake information technology. UseIT provides the cross-training in computer science/information technology (CS/IT) and geoscience needed to make fundamental progress in earthquake system science. Our high and increasing participation of women and minority students is crucial given the nation"s precipitous enrollment declines in CS/IT undergraduate degree programs, especially among women. UseIT also casts a "wider, farther" recruitment net that targets scholars interested in creative work but not traditionally attracted to summer science internships. Since 2002, SCEC/UseIT has challenged 79 students in three dozen majors from as many schools with difficult, real-world problems that require collaborative, interdisciplinary solutions. Interns design and engineer open-source software, creating increasingly sophisticated visualization tools (see "SCEC-VDO," session IN11), which are employed by SCEC researchers, in new curricula at the University of Southern California, and by outreach specialists who make animated movies for the public and the media. SCEC-VDO would be a valuable tool for research-oriented professional development programs.

  7. Earthquake Warning Performance in Vallejo for the South Napa Earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurman, G.; Price, M.

    2014-12-01

    In 2002 and 2003, Seismic Warning Systems, Inc. installed first-generation QuakeGuardTM earthquake warning devices at all eight fire stations in Vallejo, CA. These devices are designed to detect the P-wave of an earthquake and initiate predetermined protective actions if the impending shaking is estimated at approximately Modifed Mercalli Intensity V or greater. At the Vallejo fire stations the devices were set up to sound an audio alert over the public address system and to command the equipment bay doors to open. In August 2014, after more than 11 years of operating in the fire stations with no false alarms, the five units that were still in use triggered correctly on the MW 6.0 South Napa earthquake, less than 16 km away. The audio alert sounded in all five stations, providing fire fighters with 1.5 to 2.5 seconds of warning before the arrival of the S-wave, and the equipment bay doors opened in three of the stations. In one station the doors were disconnected from the QuakeGuard device, and another station lost power before the doors opened completely. These problems highlight just a small portion of the complexity associated with realizing actionable earthquake warnings. The issues experienced in this earthquake have already been addressed in subsequent QuakeGuard product generations, with downstream connection monitoring and backup power for critical systems. The fact that the fire fighters in Vallejo were afforded even two seconds of warning at these epicentral distances results from the design of the QuakeGuard devices, which focuses on rapid false positive rejection and ground motion estimates. We discuss the performance of the ground motion estimation algorithms, with an emphasis on the accuracy and timeliness of the estimates at close epicentral distances.

  8. Artificial earthquake generation for nuclear power plant design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, A.C.Y.; Chen, C.

    1977-01-01

    The time history method has been one of the analytical tools applied in the seismic resistant design of nuclear power plants. The time histories used are required to be consistent with the specified design Spectra. Since the spectra of recorded strong motion earthquake or conventionally generated artificial time history have local peaks and valleys, iteration procedures must be applied to generate the artificial time history with desired spectra. The paper describes a detailed method for generating a time history which is consistent with a specified design spectra. There are several advantages of this method described herein. First of all, frequency content of the time history is well under control. Secondly, if one wishes to generate the three components of an earthquake at one site, the inherent nature of this method will make the correlations among these three components to simulate closely the actual recorded time histories. Thirdly, a single time history can be generated to match a spectra for different damping values. (auth.)

  9. Engineering models for catastrophe risk and their application to insurance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Weimin

    2002-06-01

    Internationally earthquake insurance, like all other insurance (fire, auto), adopted actuarial approach in the past, which is, based on historical loss experience to determine insurance rate. Due to the fact that earthquake is a rare event with severe consequence, irrational determination of premium rate and lack of understanding scale of potential loss led to many insurance companies insolvent after Northridge earthquake in 1994. Along with recent advances in earth science, computer science and engineering, computerized loss estimation methodologies based on first principles have been developed to the point that losses from destructive earthquakes can be quantified with reasonable accuracy using scientific modeling techniques. This paper intends to introduce how engineering models can assist to quantify earthquake risk and how insurance industry can use this information to manage their risk in the United States and abroad.

  10. The network construction of CSELF for earthquake monitoring and its preliminary observation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, J.; Zhao, G.; Chen, X.; Bing, H.; Wang, L.; Zhan, Y.; Xiao, Q.; Dong, Z.

    2017-12-01

    . There shows observation data since the network set up. We get some EM field spectrum variations and the apparent resistivity changes of different frequencies with time on observatories. They show some regular and irregular changes. This study is supported by The ELF Engineering Project of China (15212Z0000001), National Natural Science Foundation of China (41674081) etc.

  11. Chaotic behaviour in the non-linear optimal control of unilaterally contacting building systems during earthquakes

    CERN Document Server

    Liolios, A

    2003-01-01

    The paper presents a new numerical approach for a non-linear optimal control problem arising in earthquake civil engineering. This problem concerns the elastoplastic softening-fracturing unilateral contact between neighbouring buildings during earthquakes when Coulomb friction is taken into account under second-order instabilizing effects. So, the earthquake response of the adjacent structures can appear instabilities and chaotic behaviour. The problem formulation presented here leads to a set of equations and inequalities, which is equivalent to a dynamic hemivariational inequality in the way introduced by Panagiotopoulos [Hemivariational Inequalities. Applications in Mechanics and Engineering, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1993]. The numerical procedure is based on an incremental problem formulation and on a double discretization, in space by the finite element method and in time by the Wilson-theta method. The generally non-convex constitutive contact laws are piecewise linearized, and in each time-step a non-c...

  12. Earthquake predictions using seismic velocity ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherburne, R. W.

    1979-01-01

    Since the beginning of modern seismology, seismologists have contemplated predicting earthquakes. The usefulness of earthquake predictions to the reduction of human and economic losses and the value of long-range earthquake prediction to planning is obvious. Not as clear are the long-range economic and social impacts of earthquake prediction to a speicifc area. The general consensus of opinion among scientists and government officials, however, is that the quest of earthquake prediction is a worthwhile goal and should be prusued with a sense of urgency. 

  13. Measuring the size of an earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spence, W.; Sipkin, S.A.; Choy, G.L.

    1989-01-01

    Earthquakes range broadly in size. A rock-burst in an Idaho silver mine may involve the fracture of 1 meter of rock; the 1965 Rat Island earthquake in the Aleutian arc involved a 650-kilometer length of the Earth's crust. Earthquakes can be even smaller and even larger. If an earthquake is felt or causes perceptible surface damage, then its intensity of shaking can be subjectively estimated. But many large earthquakes occur in oceanic areas or at great focal depths and are either simply not felt or their felt pattern does not really indicate their true size.

  14. Earthquakes-Rattling the Earth's Plumbing System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sneed, Michelle; Galloway, Devin L.; Cunningham, William L.

    2003-01-01

    Hydrogeologic responses to earthquakes have been known for decades, and have occurred both close to, and thousands of miles from earthquake epicenters. Water wells have become turbid, dry or begun flowing, discharge of springs and ground water to streams has increased and new springs have formed, and well and surface-water quality have become degraded as a result of earthquakes. Earthquakes affect our Earth’s intricate plumbing system—whether you live near the notoriously active San Andreas Fault in California, or far from active faults in Florida, an earthquake near or far can affect you and the water resources you depend on.

  15. Summary of earthquake experience database

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    Strong-motion earthquakes frequently occur throughout the Pacific Basin, where power plants or industrial facilities are included in the affected areas. By studying the performance of these earthquake-affected (or database) facilities, a large inventory of various types of equipment installations can be compiled that have experienced substantial seismic motion. The primary purposes of the seismic experience database are summarized as follows: to determine the most common sources of seismic damage, or adverse effects, on equipment installations typical of industrial facilities; to determine the thresholds of seismic motion corresponding to various types of seismic damage; to determine the general performance of equipment during earthquakes, regardless of the levels of seismic motion; to determine minimum standards in equipment construction and installation, based on past experience, to assure the ability to withstand anticipated seismic loads. To summarize, the primary assumption in compiling an experience database is that the actual seismic hazard to industrial installations is best demonstrated by the performance of similar installations in past earthquakes

  16. Using Smartphones to Detect Earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Q.; Allen, R. M.

    2012-12-01

    We are using the accelerometers in smartphones to record earthquakes. In the future, these smartphones may work as a supplement network to the current traditional network for scientific research and real-time applications. Given the potential number of smartphones, and small separation of sensors, this new type of seismic dataset has significant potential provides that the signal can be separated from the noise. We developed an application for android phones to record the acceleration in real time. These records can be saved on the local phone or transmitted back to a server in real time. The accelerometers in the phones were evaluated by comparing performance with a high quality accelerometer while located on controlled shake tables for a variety of tests. The results show that the accelerometer in the smartphone can reproduce the characteristic of the shaking very well, even the phone left freely on the shake table. The nature of these datasets is also quite different from traditional networks due to the fact that smartphones are moving around with their owners. Therefore, we must distinguish earthquake signals from other daily use. In addition to the shake table tests that accumulated earthquake records, we also recorded different human activities such as running, walking, driving etc. An artificial neural network based approach was developed to distinguish these different records. It shows a 99.7% successful rate of distinguishing earthquakes from the other typical human activities in our database. We are now at the stage ready to develop the basic infrastructure for a smartphone seismic network.

  17. Fractal and chaotic laws on seismic dissipated energy in an energy system of engineering structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yu-Hong; Nie, Yong-An; Yan, Zong-Da; Wu, Guo-You

    1998-09-01

    Fractal and chaotic laws of engineering structures are discussed in this paper, it means that the intrinsic essences and laws on dynamic systems which are made from seismic dissipated energy intensity E d and intensity of seismic dissipated energy moment I e are analyzed. Based on the intrinsic characters of chaotic and fractal dynamic system of E d and I e, three kinds of approximate dynamic models are rebuilt one by one: index autoregressive model, threshold autoregressive model and local-approximate autoregressive model. The innate laws, essences and systematic error of evolutional behavior I e are explained over all, the short-term behavior predictability and long-term behavior probability of which are analyzed in the end. That may be valuable for earthquake-resistant theory and analysis method in practical engineering structures.

  18. Solar eruptions - soil radon - earthquakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saghatelyan, E.; Petrosyan, L.; Aghbalyan, Yu.; Baburyan, M.; Araratyan, L.

    2004-01-01

    For the first time a new natural phenomenon was established: a contrasting increase in the soil radon level under the influence of solar flares. Such an increase is one of geochemical indicators of earthquakes. Most researchers consider this a phenomenon of exclusively terrestrial processes. Investigations regarding the link of earthquakes to solar activity carried out during the last decade in different countries are based on the analysis of statistical data ΣΕ (t) and W (t). As established, the overall seismicity of the Earth and its separate regions depends of an 11-year long cycle of solar activity. Data provided in the paper based on experimental studies serve the first step on the way of experimental data on revealing cause-and-reason solar-terrestrials bonds in a series s olar eruption-lithosphere radon-earthquakes . They need further collection of experimental data. For the first time, through radon constituent of terrestrial radiation objectification has been made of elementary lattice of the Hartmann's network contoured out by bio location method. As found out, radon concentration variations in Hartmann's network nodes determine the dynamics of solar-terrestrial relationships. Of the three types of rapidly running processes conditioned by solar-terrestrial bonds earthquakes are attributed to rapidly running destructive processes that occur in the most intense way at the juncture of tectonic massifs, along transformed and deep failures. The basic factors provoking the earthquakes are both magnetic-structural effects and a long-term (over 5 months) bombing of the surface of lithosphere by highly energetic particles of corpuscular solar flows, this being approved by photometry. As a result of solar flares that occurred from 29 October to 4 November 2003, a sharply contrasting increase in soil radon was established which is an earthquake indicator on the territory of Yerevan City. A month and a half later, earthquakes occurred in San-Francisco, Iran, Turkey

  19. Earthquake Hazard Assessment: an Independent Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kossobokov, Vladimir

    2016-04-01

    Seismic hazard assessment (SHA), from term-less (probabilistic PSHA or deterministic DSHA) to time-dependent (t-DASH) including short-term earthquake forecast/prediction (StEF), is not an easy task that implies a delicate application of statistics to data of limited size and different accuracy. Regretfully, in many cases of SHA, t-DASH, and StEF, the claims of a high potential and efficiency of the methodology are based on a flawed application of statistics and hardly suitable for communication to decision makers. The necessity and possibility of applying the modified tools of Earthquake Prediction Strategies, in particular, the Error Diagram, introduced by G.M. Molchan in early 1990ies for evaluation of SHA, and the Seismic Roulette null-hypothesis as a measure of the alerted space, is evident, and such a testing must be done in advance claiming hazardous areas and/or times. The set of errors, i.e. the rates of failure and of the alerted space-time volume, compared to those obtained in the same number of random guess trials permits evaluating the SHA method effectiveness and determining the optimal choice of the parameters in regard to specified cost-benefit functions. These and other information obtained in such a testing may supply us with a realistic estimate of confidence in SHA results and related recommendations on the level of risks for decision making in regard to engineering design, insurance, and emergency management. These basics of SHA evaluation are exemplified with a few cases of misleading "seismic hazard maps", "precursors", and "forecast/prediction methods".

  20. New Empirical Earthquake Source‐Scaling Laws

    KAUST Repository

    Thingbaijam, Kiran Kumar S.

    2017-12-13

    We develop new empirical scaling laws for rupture width W, rupture length L, rupture area A, and average slip D, based on a large database of rupture models. The database incorporates recent earthquake source models in a wide magnitude range (M 5.4–9.2) and events of various faulting styles. We apply general orthogonal regression, instead of ordinary least-squares regression, to account for measurement errors of all variables and to obtain mutually self-consistent relationships. We observe that L grows more rapidly with M compared to W. The fault-aspect ratio (L/W) tends to increase with fault dip, which generally increases from reverse-faulting, to normal-faulting, to strike-slip events. At the same time, subduction-inter-face earthquakes have significantly higher W (hence a larger rupture area A) compared to other faulting regimes. For strike-slip events, the growth of W with M is strongly inhibited, whereas the scaling of L agrees with the L-model behavior (D correlated with L). However, at a regional scale for which seismogenic depth is essentially fixed, the scaling behavior corresponds to the W model (D not correlated with L). Self-similar scaling behavior with M − log A is observed to be consistent for all the cases, except for normal-faulting events. Interestingly, the ratio D/W (a proxy for average stress drop) tends to increase with M, except for shallow crustal reverse-faulting events, suggesting the possibility of scale-dependent stress drop. The observed variations in source-scaling properties for different faulting regimes can be interpreted in terms of geological and seismological factors. We find substantial differences between our new scaling relationships and those of previous studies. Therefore, our study provides critical updates on source-scaling relations needed in seismic–tsunami-hazard analysis and engineering applications.