WorldWideScience

Sample records for earthquake hazards program

  1. National Earthquake Hazards Program at a Crossroads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    The U.S.National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program, which turns 25 years old on 1 October 2003, is passing through two major transitions, which experts said either could weaken or strengthen the program. On 1 March, a federal government reorganization placed NEHRP's lead agency,the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA),within the new Department of Homeland Security (DHS). A number of earthquake scientists and engineers expressed concern that NEHRP, which already faces budgetary and organizational challenges, and lacks visibility,could end up being marginalized in the bureaucratic shuffle. Some experts, though,as well as agency officials, said they hope DHS will recognize synergies between dealing with earthquakes and terrorist attacks.

  2. 13 CFR 120.174 - Earthquake hazards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Earthquake hazards. 120.174... Applying to All Business Loans Requirements Imposed Under Other Laws and Orders § 120.174 Earthquake..., the construction must conform with the “National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program (“NEHRP...

  3. Assessing the Utility of and Improving USGS Earthquake Hazards Program Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomberg, J. S.; Scott, M.; Weaver, C. S.; Sherrod, B. L.; Bailey, D.; Gibbons, D.

    2010-12-01

    A major focus of the USGS Earthquake Hazards Program (EHP) has been the development and implementation of products and information meant to improve earthquake hazard assessment, mitigation and response for a myriad of users. Many of these products rely on the data and efforts of the EHP and its partner scientists who are building the Advanced National Seismic System (ANSS). We report on a project meant to assess the utility of many of these products and information, conducted collaboratively by EHP scientists and Pierce County Department of Emergency Management staff. We have conducted focus group listening sessions with members of the engineering, business, medical, media, risk management, and emergency response communities as well as participated in the planning and implementation of earthquake exercises in the Pacific Northwest. Thus far we have learned that EHP and ANSS products satisfy many of the needs of engineers and some planners, and information is widely used by media and the general public. However, some important communities do not use these products despite their intended application for their purposes, particularly county and local emergency management and business communities. We have learned that products need to convey more clearly the impact of earthquakes, in everyday terms. Users also want products (e.g. maps, forecasts, etc.) that can be incorporated into tools and systems they use regularly. Rather than simply building products and posting them on websites, products need to be actively marketed and training provided. We suggest that engaging users prior to and during product development will enhance their usage and effectiveness.

  4. Earthquake risk reduction in the United States: An assessment of selected user needs and recommendations for the National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    This Assessment was conducted to improve the National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program (NEHRP) by providing NEHRP agencies with information that supports their user-oriented setting of crosscutting priorities in the NEHRP strategic planning process. The primary objective of this Assessment was to take a ``snapshot`` evaluation of the needs of selected users throughout the major program elements of NEHRP. Secondary objectives were to conduct an assessment of the knowledge that exists (or is being developed by NEHRP) to support earthquake risk reduction, and to begin a process of evaluating how NEHRP is meeting user needs. An identification of NEHRP`s strengths also resulted from the effort, since those strengths demonstrate successful methods that may be useful to NEHRP in the future. These strengths are identified in the text, and many of them represent important achievements since the Earthquake Hazards Reduction Act was passed in 1977.

  5. Earthquake hazard evaluation for Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruettener, E.

    1995-01-01

    Earthquake hazard analysis is of considerable importance for Switzerland, a country with moderate seismic activity but high economic values at risk. The evaluation of earthquake hazard, i.e. the determination of return periods versus ground motion parameters, requires a description of earthquake occurrences in space and time. In this study the seismic hazard for major cities in Switzerland is determined. The seismic hazard analysis is based on historic earthquake records as well as instrumental data. The historic earthquake data show considerable uncertainties concerning epicenter location and epicentral intensity. A specific concept is required, therefore, which permits the description of the uncertainties of each individual earthquake. This is achieved by probability distributions for earthquake size and location. Historical considerations, which indicate changes in public earthquake awareness at various times (mainly due to large historical earthquakes), as well as statistical tests have been used to identify time periods of complete earthquake reporting as a function of intensity. As a result, the catalog is judged to be complete since 1878 for all earthquakes with epicentral intensities greater than IV, since 1750 for intensities greater than VI, since 1600 for intensities greater than VIII, and since 1300 for intensities greater than IX. Instrumental data provide accurate information about the depth distribution of earthquakes in Switzerland. In the Alps, focal depths are restricted to the uppermost 15 km of the crust, whereas below the northern Alpine foreland earthquakes are distributed throughout the entire crust (30 km). This depth distribution is considered in the final hazard analysis by probability distributions. (author) figs., tabs., refs

  6. Earthquake hazard assessment and small earthquakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reiter, L.

    1987-01-01

    The significance of small earthquakes and their treatment in nuclear power plant seismic hazard assessment is an issue which has received increased attention over the past few years. In probabilistic studies, sensitivity studies showed that the choice of the lower bound magnitude used in hazard calculations can have a larger than expected effect on the calculated hazard. Of particular interest is the fact that some of the difference in seismic hazard calculations between the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) studies can be attributed to this choice. The LLNL study assumed a lower bound magnitude of 3.75 while the EPRI study assumed a lower bound magnitude of 5.0. The magnitudes used were assumed to be body wave magnitudes or their equivalents. In deterministic studies recent ground motion recordings of small to moderate earthquakes at or near nuclear power plants have shown that the high frequencies of design response spectra may be exceeded. These exceedances became important issues in the licensing of the Summer and Perry nuclear power plants. At various times in the past particular concerns have been raised with respect to the hazard and damage potential of small to moderate earthquakes occurring at very shallow depths. In this paper a closer look is taken at these issues. Emphasis is given to the impact of lower bound magnitude on probabilistic hazard calculations and the historical record of damage from small to moderate earthquakes. Limited recommendations are made as to how these issues should be viewed

  7. Meeting of the Central and Eastern U.S. (CEUS) Earthquake Hazards Program October 28–29, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuttle, Martitia; Boyd, Oliver; McCallister, Natasha

    2013-01-01

    On October 28th and 29th, 2009, the U.S. Geological Survey Earthquake Hazards Program held a meeting of Central and Eastern United States investigators and interested parties in Memphis, Tennessee. The purpose of the meeting was to bring together the Central and Eastern United States earthquake-hazards community to present and discuss recent research results, to promote communication and collaboration, to garner input regarding future research priorities, to inform the community about research opportunities afforded by the 2010–2012 arrival of EarthScope/USArray in the central United States, and to discuss plans for the upcoming bicentennial of the 1811–1812 New Madrid earthquakes. The two-day meeting included several keynote speakers, oral and poster presentations by attendees, and breakout sessions. The meeting is summarized in this report and can be subdivided into four primary sections: (1) summaries of breakout discussion groups; (2) list of meeting participants; (3) submitted abstracts; and (4) slide presentations. The abstracts and slides are included “as submitted” by the meeting participants and have not been subject to any formal peer review process; information contained in these sections reflects the opinions of the presenter at the time of the meeting and does not constitute endorsement by the U.S. Geological Survey.

  8. Applications of research from the U.S. Geological Survey program, assessment of regional earthquake hazards and risk along the Wasatch Front, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gori, Paula L.

    1993-01-01

    INTERACTIVE WORKSHOPS: ESSENTIAL ELEMENTS OF THE EARTHQUAKE HAZARDS RESEARCH AND REDUCTION PROGRAM IN THE WASATCH FRONT, UTAH: Interactive workshops provided the forum and stimulus necessary to foster collaboration among the participants in the multidisciplinary, 5-yr program of earthquake hazards reduction in the Wasatch Front, Utah. The workshop process validated well-documented social science theories on the importance of interpersonal interaction, including interaction between researchers and users of research to increase the probability that research will be relevant to the user's needs and, therefore, more readily used. REDUCING EARTHQUAKE HAZARDS IN UTAH: THE CRUCIAL CONNECTION BETWEEN RESEARCHERS AND PRACTITIONERS: Complex scientific and engineering studies must be translated for and transferred to nontechnical personnel for use in reducing earthquake hazards in Utah. The three elements needed for effective translation, likelihood of occurrence, location, and severity of potential hazards, and the three elements needed for effective transfer, delivery, assistance, and encouragement, are described and illustrated for Utah. The importance of evaluating and revising earthquake hazard reduction programs and their components is emphasized. More than 30 evaluations of various natural hazard reduction programs and techniques are introduced. This report was prepared for research managers, funding sources, and evaluators of the Utah earthquake hazard reduction program who are concerned about effectiveness. An overview of the Utah program is provided for those researchers, engineers, planners, and decisionmakers, both public and private, who are committed to reducing human casualties, property damage, and interruptions of socioeconomic systems. PUBLIC PERCEPTIONS OF THE IMPLEMENTATION OF EARTHQUAKE MITIGATION POLICIES ALONG THE WASATCH FRONT IN UTAH: The earthquake hazard potential along the Wasatch Front in Utah has been well defined by a number of scientific and

  9. Global Earthquake Hazard Frequency and Distribution

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Global Earthquake Hazard Frequency and Distribution is a 2.5 minute grid utilizing Advanced National Seismic System (ANSS) Earthquake Catalog data of actual...

  10. The HayWired Earthquake Scenario—Earthquake Hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detweiler, Shane T.; Wein, Anne M.

    2017-04-24

    The HayWired scenario is a hypothetical earthquake sequence that is being used to better understand hazards for the San Francisco Bay region during and after an earthquake of magnitude 7 on the Hayward Fault. The 2014 Working Group on California Earthquake Probabilities calculated that there is a 33-percent likelihood of a large (magnitude 6.7 or greater) earthquake occurring on the Hayward Fault within three decades. A large Hayward Fault earthquake will produce strong ground shaking, permanent displacement of the Earth’s surface, landslides, liquefaction (soils becoming liquid-like during shaking), and subsequent fault slip, known as afterslip, and earthquakes, known as aftershocks. The most recent large earthquake on the Hayward Fault occurred on October 21, 1868, and it ruptured the southern part of the fault. The 1868 magnitude-6.8 earthquake occurred when the San Francisco Bay region had far fewer people, buildings, and infrastructure (roads, communication lines, and utilities) than it does today, yet the strong ground shaking from the earthquake still caused significant building damage and loss of life. The next large Hayward Fault earthquake is anticipated to affect thousands of structures and disrupt the lives of millions of people. Earthquake risk in the San Francisco Bay region has been greatly reduced as a result of previous concerted efforts; for example, tens of billions of dollars of investment in strengthening infrastructure was motivated in large part by the 1989 magnitude 6.9 Loma Prieta earthquake. To build on efforts to reduce earthquake risk in the San Francisco Bay region, the HayWired earthquake scenario comprehensively examines the earthquake hazards to help provide the crucial scientific information that the San Francisco Bay region can use to prepare for the next large earthquake, The HayWired Earthquake Scenario—Earthquake Hazards volume describes the strong ground shaking modeled in the scenario and the hazardous movements of

  11. Earthquake Hazard Analysis Methods: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sari, A. M.; Fakhrurrozi, A.

    2018-02-01

    One of natural disasters that have significantly impacted on risks and damage is an earthquake. World countries such as China, Japan, and Indonesia are countries located on the active movement of continental plates with more frequent earthquake occurrence compared to other countries. Several methods of earthquake hazard analysis have been done, for example by analyzing seismic zone and earthquake hazard micro-zonation, by using Neo-Deterministic Seismic Hazard Analysis (N-DSHA) method, and by using Remote Sensing. In its application, it is necessary to review the effectiveness of each technique in advance. Considering the efficiency of time and the accuracy of data, remote sensing is used as a reference to the assess earthquake hazard accurately and quickly as it only takes a limited time required in the right decision-making shortly after the disaster. Exposed areas and possibly vulnerable areas due to earthquake hazards can be easily analyzed using remote sensing. Technological developments in remote sensing such as GeoEye-1 provide added value and excellence in the use of remote sensing as one of the methods in the assessment of earthquake risk and damage. Furthermore, the use of this technique is expected to be considered in designing policies for disaster management in particular and can reduce the risk of natural disasters such as earthquakes in Indonesia.

  12. ASSESSMENT OF EARTHQUAKE HAZARDS ON WASTE LANDFILLS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zania, Varvara; Tsompanakis, Yiannis; Psarropoulos, Prodromos

    Earthquake hazards may arise as a result of: (a) transient ground deformation, which is induced due to seismic wave propagation, and (b) permanent ground deformation, which is caused by abrupt fault dislocation. Since the adequate performance of waste landfills after an earthquake is of outmost...... importance, the current study examines the impact of both types of earthquake hazards by performing efficient finite-element analyses. These took also into account the potential slip displacement development along the geosynthetic interfaces of the composite base liner. At first, the development of permanent...

  13. Deterministic Earthquake Hazard Assessment by Public Agencies in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mualchin, L.

    2005-12-01

    Even in its short recorded history, California has experienced a number of damaging earthquakes that have resulted in new codes and other legislation for public safety. In particular, the 1971 San Fernando earthquake produced some of the most lasting results such as the Hospital Safety Act, the Strong Motion Instrumentation Program, the Alquist-Priolo Special Studies Zone Act, and the California Department of Transportation (Caltrans') fault-based deterministic seismic hazard (DSH) map. The latter product provides values for earthquake ground motions based on Maximum Credible Earthquakes (MCEs), defined as the largest earthquakes that can reasonably be expected on faults in the current tectonic regime. For surface fault rupture displacement hazards, detailed study of the same faults apply. Originally, hospital, dam, and other critical facilities used seismic design criteria based on deterministic seismic hazard analyses (DSHA). However, probabilistic methods grew and took hold by introducing earthquake design criteria based on time factors and quantifying "uncertainties", by procedures such as logic trees. These probabilistic seismic hazard analyses (PSHA) ignored the DSH approach. Some agencies were influenced to adopt only the PSHA method. However, deficiencies in the PSHA method are becoming recognized, and the use of the method is now becoming a focus of strong debate. Caltrans is in the process of producing the fourth edition of its DSH map. The reason for preferring the DSH method is that Caltrans believes it is more realistic than the probabilistic method for assessing earthquake hazards that may affect critical facilities, and is the best available method for insuring public safety. Its time-invariant values help to produce robust design criteria that are soundly based on physical evidence. And it is the method for which there is the least opportunity for unwelcome surprises.

  14. Playing against nature: improving earthquake hazard mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, S. A.; Stein, J.

    2012-12-01

    The great 2011 Tohoku earthquake dramatically demonstrated the need to improve earthquake and tsunami hazard assessment and mitigation policies. The earthquake was much larger than predicted by hazard models, and the resulting tsunami overtopped coastal defenses, causing more than 15,000 deaths and $210 billion damage. Hence if and how such defenses should be rebuilt is a challenging question, because the defences fared poorly and building ones to withstand tsunamis as large as March's is too expensive,. A similar issue arises along the Nankai Trough to the south, where new estimates warning of tsunamis 2-5 times higher than in previous models raise the question of what to do, given that the timescale on which such events may occur is unknown. Thus in the words of economist H. Hori, "What should we do in face of uncertainty? Some say we should spend our resources on present problems instead of wasting them on things whose results are uncertain. Others say we should prepare for future unknown disasters precisely because they are uncertain". Thus society needs strategies to mitigate earthquake and tsunami hazards that make economic and societal sense, given that our ability to assess these hazards is poor, as illustrated by highly destructive earthquakes that often occur in areas predicted by hazard maps to be relatively safe. Conceptually, we are playing a game against nature "of which we still don't know all the rules" (Lomnitz, 1989). Nature chooses tsunami heights or ground shaking, and society selects the strategy to minimize the total costs of damage plus mitigation costs. As in any game of chance, we maximize our expectation value by selecting the best strategy, given our limited ability to estimate the occurrence and effects of future events. We thus outline a framework to find the optimal level of mitigation by balancing its cost against the expected damages, recognizing the uncertainties in the hazard estimates. This framework illustrates the role of the

  15. Global Positioning System data collection, processing, and analysis conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey Earthquake Hazards Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Jessica R.; Svarc, Jerry L.

    2017-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey Earthquake Science Center collects and processes Global Positioning System (GPS) data throughout the western United States to measure crustal deformation related to earthquakes and tectonic processes as part of a long‐term program of research and monitoring. Here, we outline data collection procedures and present the GPS dataset built through repeated temporary deployments since 1992. This dataset consists of observations at ∼1950 locations. In addition, this article details our data processing and analysis procedures, which consist of the following. We process the raw data collected through temporary deployments, in addition to data from continuously operating western U.S. GPS stations operated by multiple agencies, using the GIPSY software package to obtain position time series. Subsequently, we align the positions to a common reference frame, determine the optimal parameters for a temporally correlated noise model, and apply this noise model when carrying out time‐series analysis to derive deformation measures, including constant interseismic velocities, coseismic offsets, and transient postseismic motion.

  16. Washington Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, T. J.; Schelling, J.

    2012-12-01

    Washington State has participated in the National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program (NTHMP) since its inception in 1995. We have participated in the tsunami inundation hazard mapping, evacuation planning, education, and outreach efforts that generally characterize the NTHMP efforts. We have also investigated hazards of significant interest to the Pacific Northwest. The hazard from locally generated earthquakes on the Cascadia subduction zone, which threatens tsunami inundation in less than hour following a magnitude 9 earthquake, creates special problems for low-lying accretionary shoreforms in Washington, such as the spits of Long Beach and Ocean Shores, where high ground is not accessible within the limited time available for evacuation. To ameliorate this problem, we convened a panel of the Applied Technology Council to develop guidelines for construction of facilities for vertical evacuation from tsunamis, published as FEMA 646, now incorporated in the International Building Code as Appendix M. We followed this with a program called Project Safe Haven (http://www.facebook.com/ProjectSafeHaven) to site such facilities along the Washington coast in appropriate locations and appropriate designs to blend with the local communities, as chosen by the citizens. This has now been completed for the entire outer coast of Washington. In conjunction with this effort, we have evaluated the potential for earthquake-induced ground failures in and near tsunami hazard zones to help develop cost estimates for these structures and to establish appropriate tsunami evacuation routes and evacuation assembly areas that are likely to to be available after a major subduction zone earthquake. We intend to continue these geotechnical evaluations for all tsunami hazard zones in Washington.

  17. Probabilistic earthquake hazard analysis for Cairo, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badawy, Ahmed; Korrat, Ibrahim; El-Hadidy, Mahmoud; Gaber, Hanan

    2016-04-01

    Cairo is the capital of Egypt and the largest city in the Arab world and Africa, and the sixteenth largest metropolitan area in the world. It was founded in the tenth century (969 ad) and is 1046 years old. It has long been a center of the region's political and cultural life. Therefore, the earthquake risk assessment for Cairo has a great importance. The present work aims to analysis the earthquake hazard of Cairo as a key input's element for the risk assessment. The regional seismotectonics setting shows that Cairo could be affected by both far- and near-field seismic sources. The seismic hazard of Cairo has been estimated using the probabilistic seismic hazard approach. The logic tree frame work was used during the calculations. Epistemic uncertainties were considered into account by using alternative seismotectonics models and alternative ground motion prediction equations. Seismic hazard values have been estimated within a grid of 0.1° × 0.1 ° spacing for all of Cairo's districts at different spectral periods and four return periods (224, 615, 1230, and 4745 years). Moreover, the uniform hazard spectra have been calculated at the same return periods. The pattern of the contour maps show that the highest values of the peak ground acceleration is concentrated in the eastern zone's districts (e.g., El Nozha) and the lowest values at the northern and western zone's districts (e.g., El Sharabiya and El Khalifa).

  18. Earthquake Hazard and Risk in Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black Porto, N.; Nyst, M.

    2014-12-01

    Alaska is one of the most seismically active and tectonically diverse regions in the United States. To examine risk, we have updated the seismic hazard model in Alaska. The current RMS Alaska hazard model is based on the 2007 probabilistic seismic hazard maps for Alaska (Wesson et al., 2007; Boyd et al., 2007). The 2015 RMS model will update several key source parameters, including: extending the earthquake catalog, implementing a new set of crustal faults, updating the subduction zone geometry and reoccurrence rate. First, we extend the earthquake catalog to 2013; decluster the catalog, and compute new background rates. We then create a crustal fault model, based on the Alaska 2012 fault and fold database. This new model increased the number of crustal faults from ten in 2007, to 91 faults in the 2015 model. This includes the addition of: the western Denali, Cook Inlet folds near Anchorage, and thrust faults near Fairbanks. Previously the subduction zone was modeled at a uniform depth. In this update, we model the intraslab as a series of deep stepping events. We also use the best available data, such as Slab 1.0, to update the geometry of the subduction zone. The city of Anchorage represents 80% of the risk exposure in Alaska. In the 2007 model, the hazard in Alaska was dominated by the frequent rate of magnitude 7 to 8 events (Gutenberg-Richter distribution), and large magnitude 8+ events had a low reoccurrence rate (Characteristic) and therefore didn't contribute as highly to the overall risk. We will review these reoccurrence rates, and will present the results and impact to Anchorage. We will compare our hazard update to the 2007 USGS hazard map, and discuss the changes and drivers for these changes. Finally, we will examine the impact model changes have on Alaska earthquake risk. Consider risk metrics include average annual loss, an annualized expected loss level used by insurers to determine the costs of earthquake insurance (and premium levels), and the

  19. Earthquake Hazard for Aswan High Dam Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Awad

    2016-04-01

    Earthquake activity and seismic hazard analysis are important components of the seismic aspects for very essential structures such as major dams. The Aswan High Dam (AHD) created the second man-made reservoir in the world (Lake Nasser) and is constructed near urban areas pose a high-risk potential for downstream life and property. The Dam area is one of the seismically active regions in Egypt and is occupied with several cross faults, which are dominant in the east-west and north-south. Epicenters were found to cluster around active faults in the northern part of Lake and AHD location. The space-time distribution and the relation of the seismicity with the lake water level fluctuations were studied. The Aswan seismicity separates into shallow and deep seismic zones, between 0 and 14 and 14 and 30 km, respectively. These two seismic zones behave differently over time, as indicated by the seismicity rate, lateral extent, b-value, and spatial clustering. It is characterized by earthquake swarm sequences showing activation of the clustering-events over time and space. The effect of the North African drought (1982 to present) is clearly seen in the reservoir water level. As it decreased and left the most active fault segments uncovered, the shallow activity was found to be more sensitive to rapid discharging than to the filling. This study indicates that geology, topography, lineations in seismicity, offsets in the faults, changes in fault trends and focal mechanisms are closely related. No relation was found between earthquake activity and both-ground water table fluctuations and water temperatures measured in wells located around the Kalabsha area. The peak ground acceleration is estimated in the dam site based on strong ground motion simulation. This seismic hazard analyses have indicated that AHD is stable with the present seismicity. The earthquake epicenters have recently took place approximately 5 km west of the AHD structure. This suggests that AHD dam must be

  20. Earthquake Hazard and Risk in New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apel, E. V.; Nyst, M.; Fitzenz, D. D.; Molas, G.

    2014-12-01

    To quantify risk in New Zealand we examine the impact of updating the seismic hazard model. The previous RMS New Zealand hazard model is based on the 2002 probabilistic seismic hazard maps for New Zealand (Stirling et al., 2002). The 2015 RMS model, based on Stirling et al., (2012) will update several key source parameters. These updates include: implementation a new set of crustal faults including multi-segment ruptures, updating the subduction zone geometry and reccurrence rate and implementing new background rates and a robust methodology for modeling background earthquake sources. The number of crustal faults has increased by over 200 from the 2002 model, to the 2012 model which now includes over 500 individual fault sources. This includes the additions of many offshore faults in northern, east-central, and southwest regions. We also use the recent data to update the source geometry of the Hikurangi subduction zone (Wallace, 2009; Williams et al., 2013). We compare hazard changes in our updated model with those from the previous version. Changes between the two maps are discussed as well as the drivers for these changes. We examine the impact the hazard model changes have on New Zealand earthquake risk. Considered risk metrics include average annual loss, an annualized expected loss level used by insurers to determine the costs of earthquake insurance (and premium levels), and the loss exceedance probability curve used by insurers to address their solvency and manage their portfolio risk. We analyze risk profile changes in areas with large population density and for structures of economic and financial importance. New Zealand is interesting in that the city with the majority of the risk exposure in the country (Auckland) lies in the region of lowest hazard, where we don't have a lot of information about the location of faults and distributed seismicity is modeled by averaged Mw-frequency relationships on area sources. Thus small changes to the background rates

  1. Earthquake Hazard Assessment: an Independent Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kossobokov, Vladimir

    2016-04-01

    Seismic hazard assessment (SHA), from term-less (probabilistic PSHA or deterministic DSHA) to time-dependent (t-DASH) including short-term earthquake forecast/prediction (StEF), is not an easy task that implies a delicate application of statistics to data of limited size and different accuracy. Regretfully, in many cases of SHA, t-DASH, and StEF, the claims of a high potential and efficiency of the methodology are based on a flawed application of statistics and hardly suitable for communication to decision makers. The necessity and possibility of applying the modified tools of Earthquake Prediction Strategies, in particular, the Error Diagram, introduced by G.M. Molchan in early 1990ies for evaluation of SHA, and the Seismic Roulette null-hypothesis as a measure of the alerted space, is evident, and such a testing must be done in advance claiming hazardous areas and/or times. The set of errors, i.e. the rates of failure and of the alerted space-time volume, compared to those obtained in the same number of random guess trials permits evaluating the SHA method effectiveness and determining the optimal choice of the parameters in regard to specified cost-benefit functions. These and other information obtained in such a testing may supply us with a realistic estimate of confidence in SHA results and related recommendations on the level of risks for decision making in regard to engineering design, insurance, and emergency management. These basics of SHA evaluation are exemplified with a few cases of misleading "seismic hazard maps", "precursors", and "forecast/prediction methods".

  2. DOE Hazardous Waste Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eyman, L.D.; Craig, R.B.

    1985-01-01

    The goal of the DOE Hazardous Waste Program is to support the implementation and improvement of hazardous-chemical and mixed-radioactive-waste management such that public health, safety, and the environment are protected and DOE missions are effectively accomplished. The strategy for accomplishing this goal is to define the character and magnitude of hazardous wastes emanating from DOE facilities, determine what DOE resources are available to address these problems, define the regulatory and operational constraints, and develop programs and plans to resolve hazardous waste issues. Over the longer term the program will support the adaptation and application of technologies to meet hazardous waste management needs and to implement an integrated, DOE-wide hazardous waste management strategy. 1 reference, 1 figure

  3. Seismic hazard maps for earthquake-resistant construction designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohkawa, Izuru

    2004-01-01

    Based on the idea that seismic phenomena in Japan varying in different localities are to be reflected in designing specific nuclear facilities in specific site, the present research program started to make seismic hazard maps representing geographical distribution of seismic load factors. First, recent research data on historical earthquakes and materials on active faults in Japan have been documented. Differences in character due to different localities are expressed by dynamic load in consideration of specific building properties. Next, hazard evaluation corresponding to seismic-resistance factor is given as response index (spectrum) of an adequately selected building, for example a nuclear power station, with the help of investigation results of statistical analysis. (S. Ohno)

  4. How Can Museum Exhibits Enhance Earthquake and Tsunami Hazard Resiliency?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olds, S. E.

    2015-12-01

    Creating a natural disaster-ready community requires interoperating scientific, technical, and social systems. In addition to the technical elements that need to be in place, communities and individuals need to be prepared to react when a natural hazard event occurs. Natural hazard awareness and preparedness training and education often takes place through informal learning at science centers and formal k-12 education programs as well as through awareness raising via strategically placed informational tsunami warning signs and placards. Museums and science centers are influential in raising science literacy within a community, however can science centers enhance earthquake and tsunami resiliency by providing hazard science content and preparedness exhibits? Museum docents and informal educators are uniquely situated within the community. They are transmitters and translators of science information to broad audiences. Through interaction with the public, docents are well positioned to be informants of the knowledge beliefs, and feelings of science center visitors. They themselves are life-long learners, both constantly learning from the museum content around them and sharing this content with visitors. They are also members of a community where they live. In-depth interviews with museum informal educators and docents were conducted at a science center in coastal Pacific Northwest. This region has a potential to be struck by a great 9+ Mw earthquake and subsequent tsunami. During the interviews, docents described how they applied learning from natural hazard exhibits at a science visitor center to their daily lives. During the individual interviews, the museum docents described their awareness (knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors) of natural hazards where they live and work, the feelings evoked as they learned about their hazard vulnerability, the extent to which they applied this learning and awareness to their lives, such as creating an evacuation plan, whether

  5. USGS Earthquake Program GPS Use Case : Earthquake Early Warning

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-12

    USGS GPS receiver use case. Item 1 - High Precision User (federal agency with Stafford Act hazard alert responsibilities for earthquakes, volcanoes and landslides nationwide). Item 2 - Description of Associated GPS Application(s): The USGS Eart...

  6. Geotechnical hazards from large earthquakes and heavy rainfalls

    CERN Document Server

    Kazama, Motoki; Lee, Wei

    2017-01-01

    This book is a collection of papers presented at the International Workshop on Geotechnical Natural Hazards held July 12–15, 2014, in Kitakyushu, Japan. The workshop was the sixth in the series of Japan–Taiwan Joint Workshops on Geotechnical Hazards from Large Earthquakes and Heavy Rainfalls, held under the auspices of the Asian Technical Committee No. 3 on Geotechnology for Natural Hazards of the International Society for Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering. It was co-organized by the Japanese Geotechnical Society and the Taiwanese Geotechnical Society. The contents of this book focus on geotechnical and natural hazard-related issues in Asia such as earthquakes, tsunami, rainfall-induced debris flows, slope failures, and landslides. The book contains the latest information and mitigation technology on earthquake- and rainfall-induced geotechnical natural hazards. By dissemination of the latest state-of-the-art research in the area, the information contained in this book will help researchers, des...

  7. Lower bound earthquake magnitude for probabilistic seismic hazard evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCann, M.W. Jr.; Reed, J.W.

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a study that develops an engineering and seismological basis for selecting a lower-bound magnitude (LBM) for use in seismic hazard assessment. As part of a seismic hazard analysis the range of earthquake magnitudes that are included in the assessment of the probability of exceedance of ground motion must be defined. The upper-bound magnitude is established by earth science experts based on their interpretation of the maximum size of earthquakes that can be generated by a seismic source. The lower-bound or smallest earthquake that is considered in the analysis must also be specified. The LBM limits the earthquakes that are considered in assessing the probability that specified ground motion levels are exceeded. In the past there has not been a direct consideration of the appropriate LBM value that should be used in a seismic hazard assessment. This study specifically looks at the selection of a LBM for use in seismic hazard analyses that are input to the evaluation/design of nuclear power plants (NPPs). Topics addressed in the evaluation of a LBM are earthquake experience data at heavy industrial facilities, engineering characteristics of ground motions associated with small-magnitude earthquakes, probabilistic seismic risk assessments (seismic PRAs), and seismic margin evaluations. The results of this study and the recommendations concerning a LBM for use in seismic hazard assessments are discussed. (orig.)

  8. Roaming earthquakes in China highlight midcontinental hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mian; Wang, Hui

    2012-11-01

    Before dawn on 28 July 1976, a magnitude (M) 7.8 earthquake struck Tangshan, a Chinese industrial city only 150 kilometers from Beijing (Figure 1a). In a brief moment, the earthquake destroyed the entire city and killed more than 242,000 people [Chen et al., 1988]. More than 30 years have passed, and upon the ruins a new Tangshan city has been built. However, the memory of devastation remains fresh. For this reason, a sequence of recent small earthquakes in the Tangshan region, including an M 4.8 event on 28 May and an M 4.0 event on 18 June 2012, has caused widespread concerns and heated debate in China. In the science community, the debate is whether the recent Tangshan earthquakes are the aftershocks of the 1976 earthquake despite the long gap in time since the main shock or harbingers of a new period of active seismicity in Tangshan and the rest of North China, where seismic activity seems to fluctuate between highs and lows over periods of a few decades [Ma, 1989].

  9. Earthquake hazard zonation using peak ground acceleration (PGA) approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irwansyah, E; Winarko, E; Rasjid, Z E; Bekti, R D

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this research is to develop seismic hazard area zones in the building infrastructure of the Banda Aceh City Indonesia using peak ground acceleration (PGA) measured using global and local attenuation function. PGA is calculated using attenuation function that describes the correlation between the local ground movement intensity the earthquake magnitude and the distance from the earthquake's epicentre. The data used comes from the earthquake damage catalogue available from the Indonesia meteorology, climatology and geophysics agency (BMKG) with range from year 1973 – 2011. The research methodology consists of six steps, which is developing the grid, calculation of the distance from the epicentre to the centroid of the grid, calculation of PGA values, developing the computer application, plotting the PGA values to the centroid grid, and developing the earthquake hazard zones using kriging algorithm. The conclusion of this research is that the global attenuation function that was developed by [20] can be applied to calculate the PGA values in the city of Banda Aceh. Banda Aceh city in micro scale can be divided into three hazard zones which is low hazard zone with PGA value of 0.8767 gals up to 0.8780 gals, medium hazard zone with PGA values of 0.8781 up to 0.8793 gals and high hazard zone with PGA values of 0.8794 up to 0.8806 gals.

  10. Updated earthquake catalogue for seismic hazard analysis in Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Sarfraz; Waseem, Muhammad; Khan, Muhammad Asif; Ahmed, Waqas

    2018-03-01

    A reliable and homogenized earthquake catalogue is essential for seismic hazard assessment in any area. This article describes the compilation and processing of an updated earthquake catalogue for Pakistan. The earthquake catalogue compiled in this study for the region (quadrangle bounded by the geographical limits 40-83° N and 20-40° E) includes 36,563 earthquake events, which are reported as 4.0-8.3 moment magnitude (M W) and span from 25 AD to 2016. Relationships are developed between the moment magnitude and body, and surface wave magnitude scales to unify the catalogue in terms of magnitude M W. The catalogue includes earthquakes from Pakistan and neighbouring countries to minimize the effects of geopolitical boundaries in seismic hazard assessment studies. Earthquakes reported by local and international agencies as well as individual catalogues are included. The proposed catalogue is further used to obtain magnitude of completeness after removal of dependent events by using four different algorithms. Finally, seismicity parameters of the seismic sources are reported, and recommendations are made for seismic hazard assessment studies in Pakistan.

  11. Earthquake induced landslide hazard field observatory in the Avcilar peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigarre, Pascal; Coccia, Stella; Theoleyre, Fiona; Ergintav, Semih; Özel, Oguz; Yalçinkaya, Esref; Lenti, Luca; Martino, Salvatore; Gamba, Paolo; Zucca, Francesco; Moro, Marco

    2015-04-01

    SAR temporal series has been undertaken, providing global but accurate Identification and characterization of gravitational phenomena covering the aera. Evaluation of the resolution and identification of landslide hazard-related features using space multispectral/hyperspectral image data has been realized. Profit has been gained from a vast drilling and geological - geotechnical survey program undertaken by the Istanbul Metropolitan Area, to get important data to complete the geological model of the landslide as well as one deep borehole to set up permanent instrumentation on a quite large slow landslide, fully encircled by a dense building environment. The selected landslide was instrumented in 2014 with a real-time observational system including GPS, rainfall, piezometer and seismic monitoring. Objective of this permanent monitoring system is three folds: first to detect and quantify interaction between seismic motion, rainfall and mass movement, building a database opened to the scientific community in the future, second to help to calibrate dynamic numerical geomechanical simulations intending to study the sensitivity to seismic loading, and last but not least. Last but not least important geophysical field work has been conducted to assess seismic site effects already noticed during the 1999 earthquake .Data, metadata and main results are from now progressively compiled and formatted for appropriate integration in the cloud monitoring infrastructure for data sharing.

  12. Seismicity and seismic hazard in Sabah, East Malaysia from earthquake and geodetic data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilligan, A.; Rawlinson, N.; Tongkul, F.; Stephenson, R.

    2017-12-01

    While the levels of seismicity are low in most of Malaysia, the state of Sabah in northern Borneo has moderate levels of seismicity. Notable earthquakes in the region include the 1976 M6.2 Lahad Datu earthquake and the 2015 M6 Ranau earthquake. The recent Ranau earthquake resulted in the deaths of 18 people on Mt Kinabalu, an estimated 100 million RM ( US$23 million) damage to buildings, roads, and infrastructure from shaking, and flooding, reduced water quality, and damage to farms from landslides. Over the last 40 years the population of Sabah has increased to over four times what it was in 1976, yet seismic hazard in Sabah remains poorly understood. Using seismic and geodetic data we hope to better quantify the hazards posed by earthquakes in Sabah, and thus help to minimize risk. In order to do this we need to know about the locations of earthquakes, types of earthquakes that occur, and faults that are generating them. We use data from 15 MetMalaysia seismic stations currently operating in Sabah to develop a region-specific velocity model from receiver functions and a pre-existing surface wave model. We use this new velocity model to (re)locate earthquakes that occurred in Sabah from 2005-2016, including a large number of aftershocks from the 2015 Ranau earthquake. We use a probabilistic nonlinear earthquake location program to locate the earthquakes and then refine their relative locations using a double difference method. The recorded waveforms are further used to obtain moment tensor solutions for these earthquakes. Earthquake locations and moment tensor solutions are then compared with the locations of faults throughout Sabah. Faults are identified from high-resolution IFSAR images and subsequent fieldwork, with a particular focus on the Lahad Datau and Ranau areas. Used together, these seismic and geodetic data can help us to develop a new seismic hazard model for Sabah, as well as aiding in the delivery of outreach activities regarding seismic hazard

  13. 75 FR 50749 - Advisory Committee on Earthquake Hazards Reduction Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-17

    ... accommodate Committee business. The final agenda will be posted on the NEHRP Web site at http://nehrp.gov... of Technology, 365 Innovation Drive, Memphis, TN 38152-3115. Please note admittance instructions...: Trends and developments in the science and engineering of earthquake hazards reduction; The effectiveness...

  14. The 2016 Kumamoto Earthquakes: Cascading Geological Hazards and Compounding Risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsuichiro Goda

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available A sequence of two strike-slip earthquakes occurred on 14 and 16 April 2016 in the intraplate region of Kyushu Island, Japan, apart from subduction zones, and caused significant damage and disruption to the Kumamoto region. The analyses of regional seismic catalog and available strong motion recordings reveal striking characteristics of the events, such as migrating seismicity, earthquake surface rupture, and major foreshock-mainshock earthquake sequences. To gain valuable lessons from the events, a UK Earthquake Engineering Field Investigation Team (EEFIT was dispatched to Kumamoto, and earthquake damage surveys were conducted to relate observed earthquake characteristics to building and infrastructure damage caused by the earthquakes. The lessons learnt from the reconnaissance mission have important implications on current seismic design practice regarding the required seismic resistance of structures under multiple shocks and the seismic design of infrastructure subject to large ground deformation. The observations also highlight the consequences of cascading geological hazards on community resilience. To share the gathered damage data widely, geo-tagged photos are organized using Google Earth and the kmz file is made publicly available.

  15. Insights into earthquake hazard map performance from shaking history simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, S.; Vanneste, K.; Camelbeeck, T.; Vleminckx, B.

    2017-12-01

    Why recent large earthquakes caused shaking stronger than predicted by earthquake hazard maps is under debate. This issue has two parts. Verification involves how well maps implement probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA) ("have we built the map right?"). Validation asks how well maps forecast shaking ("have we built the right map?"). We explore how well a map can ideally perform by simulating an area's shaking history and comparing "observed" shaking to that predicted by a map generated for the same parameters. The simulations yield shaking distributions whose mean is consistent with the map, but individual shaking histories show large scatter. Infrequent large earthquakes cause shaking much stronger than mapped, as observed. Hence, PSHA seems internally consistent and can be regarded as verified. Validation is harder because an earthquake history can yield shaking higher or lower than that predicted while being consistent with the hazard map. The scatter decreases for longer observation times because the largest earthquakes and resulting shaking are increasingly likely to have occurred. For the same reason, scatter is much less for the more active plate boundary than for a continental interior. For a continental interior, where the mapped hazard is low, even an M4 event produces exceedances at some sites. Larger earthquakes produce exceedances at more sites. Thus many exceedances result from small earthquakes, but infrequent large ones may cause very large exceedances. However, for a plate boundary, an M6 event produces exceedance at only a few sites, and an M7 produces them in a larger, but still relatively small, portion of the study area. As reality gives only one history, and a real map involves assumptions about more complicated source geometries and occurrence rates, which are unlikely to be exactly correct and thus will contribute additional scatter, it is hard to assess whether misfit between actual shaking and a map — notably higher

  16. Up-to-date Probabilistic Earthquake Hazard Maps for Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaber, Hanan; El-Hadidy, Mahmoud; Badawy, Ahmed

    2018-04-01

    An up-to-date earthquake hazard analysis has been performed in Egypt using a probabilistic seismic hazard approach. Through the current study, we use a complete and homogenous earthquake catalog covering the time period between 2200 BC and 2015 AD. Three seismotectonic models representing the seismic activity in and around Egypt are used. A logic-tree framework is applied to allow for the epistemic uncertainty in the declustering parameters, minimum magnitude, seismotectonic setting and ground-motion prediction equations. The hazard analysis is performed for a grid of 0.5° × 0.5° in terms of types of rock site for the peak ground acceleration (PGA) and spectral acceleration at 0.2-, 0.5-, 1.0- and 2.0-s periods. The hazard is estimated for three return periods (72, 475 and 2475 years) corresponding to 50, 10 and 2% probability of exceedance in 50 years. The uniform hazard spectra for the cities of Cairo, Alexandria, Aswan and Nuwbia are constructed. The hazard maps show that the highest ground acceleration values are expected in the northeastern part of Egypt around the Gulf of Aqaba (PGA up to 0.4 g for return period 475 years) and in south Egypt around the city of Aswan (PGA up to 0.2 g for return period 475 years). The Western Desert of Egypt is characterized by the lowest level of hazard (PGA lower than 0.1 g for return period 475 years).

  17. Are seismic hazard assessment errors and earthquake surprises unavoidable?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kossobokov, Vladimir

    2013-04-01

    Why earthquake occurrences bring us so many surprises? The answer seems evident if we review the relationships that are commonly used to assess seismic hazard. The time-span of physically reliable Seismic History is yet a small portion of a rupture recurrence cycle at an earthquake-prone site, which makes premature any kind of reliable probabilistic statements about narrowly localized seismic hazard. Moreover, seismic evidences accumulated to-date demonstrate clearly that most of the empirical relations commonly accepted in the early history of instrumental seismology can be proved erroneous when testing statistical significance is applied. Seismic events, including mega-earthquakes, cluster displaying behaviors that are far from independent or periodic. Their distribution in space is possibly fractal, definitely, far from uniform even in a single segment of a fault zone. Such a situation contradicts generally accepted assumptions used for analytically tractable or computer simulations and complicates design of reliable methodologies for realistic earthquake hazard assessment, as well as search and definition of precursory behaviors to be used for forecast/prediction purposes. As a result, the conclusions drawn from such simulations and analyses can MISLEAD TO SCIENTIFICALLY GROUNDLESS APPLICATION, which is unwise and extremely dangerous in assessing expected societal risks and losses. For example, a systematic comparison of the GSHAP peak ground acceleration estimates with those related to actual strong earthquakes, unfortunately, discloses gross inadequacy of this "probabilistic" product, which appears UNACCEPTABLE FOR ANY KIND OF RESPONSIBLE SEISMIC RISK EVALUATION AND KNOWLEDGEABLE DISASTER PREVENTION. The self-evident shortcomings and failures of GSHAP appeals to all earthquake scientists and engineers for an urgent revision of the global seismic hazard maps from the first principles including background methodologies involved, such that there becomes: (a) a

  18. Integrating Real-time Earthquakes into Natural Hazard Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furlong, K. P.; Benz, H. M.; Whitlock, J. S.; Bittenbinder, A. N.; Bogaert, B. B.

    2001-12-01

    Natural hazard courses are playing an increasingly important role in college and university earth science curricula. Students' intrinsic curiosity about the subject and the potential to make the course relevant to the interests of both science and non-science students make natural hazards courses popular additions to a department's offerings. However, one vital aspect of "real-life" natural hazard management that has not translated well into the classroom is the real-time nature of both events and response. The lack of a way to entrain students into the event/response mode has made implementing such real-time activities into classroom activities problematic. Although a variety of web sites provide near real-time postings of natural hazards, students essentially learn of the event after the fact. This is particularly true for earthquakes and other events with few precursors. As a result, the "time factor" and personal responsibility associated with natural hazard response is lost to the students. We have integrated the real-time aspects of earthquake response into two natural hazard courses at Penn State (a 'general education' course for non-science majors, and an upper-level course for science majors) by implementing a modification of the USGS Earthworm system. The Earthworm Database Management System (E-DBMS) catalogs current global seismic activity. It provides earthquake professionals with real-time email/cell phone alerts of global seismic activity and access to the data for review/revision purposes. We have modified this system so that real-time response can be used to address specific scientific, policy, and social questions in our classes. As a prototype of using the E-DBMS in courses, we have established an Earthworm server at Penn State. This server receives national and global seismic network data and, in turn, transmits the tailored alerts to "on-duty" students (e-mail, pager/cell phone notification). These students are responsible to react to the alarm

  19. Awareness and understanding of earthquake hazards at school

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraò, Angela; Peruzza, Laura; Barnaba, Carla; Bragato, Pier Luigi

    2014-05-01

    Schools have a fundamental role in broadening the understanding of natural hazard and risks and in building the awareness in the community. Recent earthquakes in Italy and worldwide, have clearly demonstrated that the poor perception of seismic hazards diminishes the effectiveness of mitigation countermeasures. Since years the Seismology's department of OGS is involved in education projects and public activities to raise awareness about earthquakes. Working together with teachers we aim at developing age-appropriate curricula to improve the student's knowledge about earthquakes, seismic safety, and seismic risk reduction. Some examples of education activities we performed during the last years are here presented. We show our experience with the primary and intermediate schools where, through hands-on activities, we explain the earthquake phenomenon and its effects to kids, but we illustrate also some teaching interventions for high school students. During the past years we lectured classes, we led laboratory and field activities, and we organized summer stages for selected students. In the current year we are leading a project aimed at training high school students on seismic safety through a multidisciplinary approach that involves seismologists, engineers and experts of safety procedures. To combine the objective of dissemination of earthquake culture, also through the knowledge of the past seismicity, with that of a safety culture, we use innovative educational techniques and multimedia resources. Students and teachers, under the guidance of an expert seismologist, organize a combination of hands-on activities for understanding earthquakes in the lab through cheap tools and instrumentations At selected schools we provided the low cost seismometers of the QuakeCatcher network (http://qcn.stanford.edu) for recording earthquakes, and we trained teachers to use such instruments in the lab and to analyze recorded data. Within the same project we are going to train

  20. Making the Handoff from Earthquake Hazard Assessments to Effective Mitigation Measures (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Applegate, D.

    2010-12-01

    This year has witnessed a barrage of large earthquakes worldwide with the resulting damages ranging from inconsequential to truly catastrophic. We cannot predict when earthquakes will strike, but we can build communities that are resilient to strong shaking as well as to secondary hazards such as landslides and liquefaction. The contrasting impacts of the magnitude-7 earthquake that struck Haiti in January and the magnitude-8.8 event that struck Chile in April underscore the difference that mitigation and preparedness can make. In both cases, millions of people were exposed to severe shaking, but deaths in Chile were measured in the hundreds rather than the hundreds of thousands that perished in Haiti. Numerous factors contributed to these disparate outcomes, but the most significant is the presence of strong building codes in Chile and their total absence in Haiti. The financial cost of the Chilean earthquake still represents an unacceptably high percentage of that nation’s gross domestic product, a reminder that life safety is the paramount, but not the only, goal of disaster risk reduction measures. For building codes to be effective, both in terms of lives saved and economic cost, they need to reflect the hazard as accurately as possible. As one of four federal agencies that make up the congressionally mandated National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program (NEHRP), the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) develops national seismic hazard maps that form the basis for seismic provisions in model building codes through the Federal Emergency Management Agency and private-sector practitioners. This cooperation is central to NEHRP, which both fosters earthquake research and establishes pathways to translate research results into implementation measures. That translation depends on the ability of hazard-focused scientists to interact and develop mutual trust with risk-focused engineers and planners. Strengthening that interaction is an opportunity for the next generation

  1. Recent research in earth structure, earthquake and mine seismology, and seismic hazard evaluation in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Wright, C

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available of earthquakes, earthquake hazard and earth structure in South Africa was prepared for the centennial handbook of the Interna- tional Association of Seismology and the Physics of the Earth?s Interior(IASPEI).3 Referencestothesescompletedinthelastfour...

  2. A global probabilistic tsunami hazard assessment from earthquake sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Gareth; Griffin, Jonathan; Lovholt, Finn; Glimsdal, Sylfest; Harbitz, Carl; Thio, Hong Kie; Lorito, Stefano; Basili, Roberto; Selva, Jacopo; Geist, Eric L.; Baptista, Maria Ana

    2017-01-01

    Large tsunamis occur infrequently but have the capacity to cause enormous numbers of casualties, damage to the built environment and critical infrastructure, and economic losses. A sound understanding of tsunami hazard is required to underpin management of these risks, and while tsunami hazard assessments are typically conducted at regional or local scales, globally consistent assessments are required to support international disaster risk reduction efforts, and can serve as a reference for local and regional studies. This study presents a global-scale probabilistic tsunami hazard assessment (PTHA), extending previous global-scale assessments based largely on scenario analysis. Only earthquake sources are considered, as they represent about 80% of the recorded damaging tsunami events. Globally extensive estimates of tsunami run-up height are derived at various exceedance rates, and the associated uncertainties are quantified. Epistemic uncertainties in the exceedance rates of large earthquakes often lead to large uncertainties in tsunami run-up. Deviations between modelled tsunami run-up and event observations are quantified, and found to be larger than suggested in previous studies. Accounting for these deviations in PTHA is important, as it leads to a pronounced increase in predicted tsunami run-up for a given exceedance rate.

  3. Assessing Lay Understanding of Common Presentations of Earthquake Hazard Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, K. J.; Krantz, D. H.

    2010-12-01

    The Working Group on California Earthquake Probabilities (WGCEP) includes, in its introduction to earthquake rupture forecast maps, the assertion that "In daily living, people are used to making decisions based on probabilities -- from the flip of a coin (50% probability of heads) to weather forecasts (such as a 30% chance of rain) to the annual chance of being killed by lightning (about 0.0003%)." [3] However, psychology research identifies a large gap between lay and expert perception of risk for various hazards [2], and cognitive psychologists have shown in numerous studies [1,4-6] that people neglect, distort, misjudge, or misuse probabilities, even when given strong guidelines about the meaning of numerical or verbally stated probabilities [7]. The gap between lay and expert use of probability needs to be recognized more clearly by scientific organizations such as WGCEP. This study undertakes to determine how the lay public interprets earthquake hazard information, as presented in graphical map form by the Uniform California Earthquake Rupture Forecast (UCERF), compiled by the WGCEP and other bodies including the USGS and CGS. It also explores alternate ways of presenting hazard data, to determine which presentation format most effectively translates information from scientists to public. Participants both from California and from elsewhere in the United States are included, to determine whether familiarity -- either with the experience of an earthquake, or with the geography of the forecast area -- affects people's ability to interpret an earthquake hazards map. We hope that the comparisons between the interpretations by scientific experts and by different groups of laypeople will both enhance theoretical understanding of factors that affect information transmission and assist bodies such as the WGCEP in their laudable attempts to help people prepare themselves and their communities for possible natural hazards. [1] Kahneman, D & Tversky, A (1979). Prospect

  4. Protection of the human race against natural hazards (asteroids, comets, volcanoes, earthquakes)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Joseph V.

    1985-10-01

    Although we justifiably worry about the danger of nuclear war to civilization, and perhaps even to survival of the human race, we tend to consider natural hazards (e.g., comets, asteroids, volcanoes, earthquakes) as unavoidable acts of God. In any human lifetime, a truly catastrophic natural event is very unlikely, but ultimately one will occur. For the first time in human history we have sufficient technical skills to begin protection of Earth from some natural hazards. We could decide collectively throughout the world to reassign resources: in particular, reduction of nuclear and conventional weapons to a less dangerous level would allow concomitant increase of international programs for detection and prevention of natural hazards. Worldwide cooperation to mitigate natural hazards might help psychologically to lead us away from the divisive bickering that triggers wars. Future generations could hail us as pioneers of peace and safety rather than curse us as agents of death and destruction.

  5. Probabilistic liquefaction hazard analysis at liquefied sites of 1956 Dunaharaszti earthquake, in Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Győri, Erzsébet; Gráczer, Zoltán; Tóth, László; Bán, Zoltán; Horváth, Tibor

    2017-04-01

    Liquefaction potential evaluations are generally made to assess the hazard from specific scenario earthquakes. These evaluations may estimate the potential in a binary fashion (yes/no), define a factor of safety or predict the probability of liquefaction given a scenario event. Usually the level of ground shaking is obtained from the results of PSHA. Although it is determined probabilistically, a single level of ground shaking is selected and used within the liquefaction potential evaluation. In contrary, the fully probabilistic liquefaction potential assessment methods provide a complete picture of liquefaction hazard, namely taking into account the joint probability distribution of PGA and magnitude of earthquake scenarios; both of which are key inputs in the stress-based simplified methods. Kramer and Mayfield (2007) has developed a fully probabilistic liquefaction potential evaluation method using a performance-based earthquake engineering (PBEE) framework. The results of the procedure are the direct estimate of the return period of liquefaction and the liquefaction hazard curves in function of depth. The method combines the disaggregation matrices computed for different exceedance frequencies during probabilistic seismic hazard analysis with one of the recent models for the conditional probability of liquefaction. We have developed a software for the assessment of performance-based liquefaction triggering on the basis of Kramer and Mayfield method. Originally the SPT based probabilistic method of Cetin et al. (2004) was built-in into the procedure of Kramer and Mayfield to compute the conditional probability however there is no professional consensus about its applicability. Therefore we have included not only Cetin's method but Idriss and Boulanger (2012) SPT based moreover Boulanger and Idriss (2014) CPT based procedures into our computer program. In 1956, a damaging earthquake of magnitude 5.6 occurred in Dunaharaszti, in Hungary. Its epicenter was located

  6. Seismic Hazard characterization study using an earthquake source with Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Analysis (PSHA) method in the Northern of Sumatra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yahya, A.; Palupi, M. I. R.; Suharsono

    2016-01-01

    Sumatra region is one of the earthquake-prone areas in Indonesia because it is lie on an active tectonic zone. In 2004 there is earthquake with a moment magnitude of 9.2 located on the coast with the distance 160 km in the west of Nanggroe Aceh Darussalam and triggering a tsunami. These events take a lot of casualties and material losses, especially in the Province of Nanggroe Aceh Darussalam and North Sumatra. To minimize the impact of the earthquake disaster, a fundamental assessment of the earthquake hazard in the region is needed. Stages of research include the study of literature, collection and processing of seismic data, seismic source characterization and analysis of earthquake hazard by probabilistic methods (PSHA) used earthquake catalog from 1907 through 2014. The earthquake hazard represented by the value of Peak Ground Acceleration (PGA) and Spectral Acceleration (SA) in the period of 0.2 and 1 second on bedrock that is presented in the form of a map with a return period of 2475 years and the earthquake hazard curves for the city of Medan and Banda Aceh. (paper)

  7. Echo-sounding method aids earthquake hazard studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    1995-01-01

    Dramatic examples of catastrophic damage from an earthquake occurred in 1989, when the M 7.1 Lorna Prieta rocked the San Francisco Bay area, and in 1994, when the M 6.6 Northridge earthquake jolted southern California. The surprising amount and distribution of damage to private property and infrastructure emphasizes the importance of seismic-hazard research in urbanized areas, where the potential for damage and loss of life is greatest. During April 1995, a group of scientists from the U.S. Geological Survey and the University of Tennessee, using an echo-sounding method described below, is collecting data in San Antonio Park, California, to examine the Monte Vista fault which runs through this park. The Monte Vista fault in this vicinity shows evidence of movement within the last 10,000 years or so. The data will give them a "picture" of the subsurface rock deformation near this fault. The data will also be used to help locate a trench that will be dug across the fault by scientists from William Lettis & Associates.

  8. Turning the rumor of May 11, 2011 earthquake prediction In Rome, Italy, into an information day on earthquake hazard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amato, A.; Cultrera, G.; Margheriti, L.; Nostro, C.; Selvaggi, G.; INGVterremoti Team

    2011-12-01

    A devastating earthquake had been predicted for May 11, 2011 in Rome. This prediction was never released officially by anyone, but it grew up in the Internet and was amplified by media. It was erroneously ascribed to Raffaele Bendandi, an Italian self-taught natural scientist who studied planetary motions. Indeed, around May 11, 2011, a planetary alignment was really expected and this contributed to give credibility to the earthquake prediction among people. During the previous months, INGV was overwhelmed with requests for information about this supposed prediction by Roman inhabitants and tourists. Given the considerable mediatic impact of this expected earthquake, INGV decided to organize an Open Day in its headquarter in Rome for people who wanted to learn more about the Italian seismicity and the earthquake as natural phenomenon. The Open Day was preceded by a press conference two days before, in which we talked about this prediction, we presented the Open Day, and we had a scientific discussion with journalists about the earthquake prediction and more in general on the real problem of seismic risk in Italy. About 40 journalists from newspapers, local and national tv's, press agencies and web news attended the Press Conference and hundreds of articles appeared in the following days, advertising the 11 May Open Day. The INGV opened to the public all day long (9am - 9pm) with the following program: i) meetings with INGV researchers to discuss scientific issues; ii) visits to the seismic monitoring room, open 24h/7 all year; iii) guided tours through interactive exhibitions on earthquakes and Earth's deep structure; iv) lectures on general topics from the social impact of rumors to seismic risk reduction; v) 13 new videos on channel YouTube.com/INGVterremoti to explain the earthquake process and give updates on various aspects of seismic monitoring in Italy; vi) distribution of books and brochures. Surprisingly, more than 3000 visitors came to visit INGV

  9. SEISRISK II; a computer program for seismic hazard estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, Bernice; Perkins, D.M.

    1982-01-01

    The computer program SEISRISK II calculates probabilistic ground motion values for use in seismic hazard mapping. SEISRISK II employs a model that allows earthquakes to occur as points within source zones and as finite-length ruptures along faults. It assumes that earthquake occurrences have a Poisson distribution, that occurrence rates remain constant during the time period considered, that ground motion resulting from an earthquake is a known function of magnitude and distance, that seismically homogeneous source zones are defined, that fault locations are known, that fault rupture lengths depend on magnitude, and that earthquake rates as a function of magnitude are specified for each source. SEISRISK II calculates for each site on a grid of sites the level of ground motion that has a specified probability of being exceeded during a given time period. The program was designed to process a large (essentially unlimited) number of sites and sources efficiently and has been used to produce regional and national maps of seismic hazard.}t is a substantial revision of an earlier program SEISRISK I, which has never been documented. SEISRISK II runs considerably [aster and gives more accurate results than the earlier program and in addition includes rupture length and acceleration variability which were not contained in the original version. We describe the model and how it is implemented in the computer program and provide a flowchart and listing of the code.

  10. Overestimation of the earthquake hazard along the Himalaya: constraints in bracketing of medieval earthquakes from paleoseismic studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Shreya; Malik, Javed N.

    2017-12-01

    The Himalaya is one of the most seismically active regions of the world. The occurrence of several large magnitude earthquakes viz. 1905 Kangra earthquake (Mw 7.8), 1934 Bihar-Nepal earthquake (Mw 8.2), 1950 Assam earthquake (Mw 8.4), 2005 Kashmir (Mw 7.6), and 2015 Gorkha (Mw 7.8) are the testimony to ongoing tectonic activity. In the last few decades, tremendous efforts have been made along the Himalayan arc to understand the patterns of earthquake occurrences, size, extent, and return periods. Some of the large magnitude earthquakes produced surface rupture, while some remained blind. Furthermore, due to the incompleteness of the earthquake catalogue, a very few events can be correlated with medieval earthquakes. Based on the existing paleoseismic data certainly, there exists a complexity to precisely determine the extent of surface rupture of these earthquakes and also for those events, which occurred during historic times. In this paper, we have compiled the paleo-seismological data and recalibrated the radiocarbon ages from the trenches excavated by previous workers along the entire Himalaya and compared earthquake scenario with the past. Our studies suggest that there were multiple earthquake events with overlapping surface ruptures in small patches with an average rupture length of 300 km limiting Mw 7.8-8.0 for the Himalayan arc, rather than two or three giant earthquakes rupturing the whole front. It has been identified that the large magnitude Himalayan earthquakes, such as 1905 Kangra, 1934 Bihar-Nepal, and 1950 Assam, that have occurred within a time frame of 45 years. Now, if these events are dated, there is a high possibility that within the range of ±50 years, they may be considered as the remnant of one giant earthquake rupturing the entire Himalayan arc. Therefore, leading to an overestimation of seismic hazard scenario in Himalaya.

  11. Source modeling of the 2015 Mw 7.8 Nepal (Gorkha) earthquake sequence: Implications for geodynamics and earthquake hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, D. E.; Yeck, W. L.; Barnhart, W. D.; Schulte-Pelkum, V.; Bergman, E.; Adhikari, L. B.; Dixit, A.; Hough, S. E.; Benz, H. M.; Earle, P. S.

    2017-09-01

    The Gorkha earthquake on April 25th, 2015 was a long anticipated, low-angle thrust-faulting event on the shallow décollement between the India and Eurasia plates. We present a detailed multiple-event hypocenter relocation analysis of the Mw 7.8 Gorkha Nepal earthquake sequence, constrained by local seismic stations, and a geodetic rupture model based on InSAR and GPS data. We integrate these observations to place the Gorkha earthquake sequence into a seismotectonic context and evaluate potential earthquake hazard. Major results from this study include (1) a comprehensive catalog of calibrated hypocenters for the Gorkha earthquake sequence; (2) the Gorkha earthquake ruptured a 150 × 60 km patch of the Main Himalayan Thrust (MHT), the décollement defining the plate boundary at depth, over an area surrounding but predominantly north of the capital city of Kathmandu (3) the distribution of aftershock seismicity surrounds the mainshock maximum slip patch; (4) aftershocks occur at or below the mainshock rupture plane with depths generally increasing to the north beneath the higher Himalaya, possibly outlining a 10-15 km thick subduction channel between the overriding Eurasian and subducting Indian plates; (5) the largest Mw 7.3 aftershock and the highest concentration of aftershocks occurred to the southeast the mainshock rupture, on a segment of the MHT décollement that was positively stressed towards failure; (6) the near surface portion of the MHT south of Kathmandu shows no aftershocks or slip during the mainshock. Results from this study characterize the details of the Gorkha earthquake sequence and provide constraints on where earthquake hazard remains high, and thus where future, damaging earthquakes may occur in this densely populated region. Up-dip segments of the MHT should be considered to be high hazard for future damaging earthquakes.

  12. St. Louis area earthquake hazards mapping project; seismic and liquefaction hazard maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, Chris H.; Bauer, Robert A.; Chung, Jae-won; Rogers, David; Pierce, Larry; Voigt, Vicki; Mitchell, Brad; Gaunt, David; Williams, Robert; Hoffman, David; Hempen, Gregory L.; Steckel, Phyllis; Boyd, Oliver; Watkins, Connor M.; Tucker, Kathleen; McCallister, Natasha

    2016-01-01

    We present probabilistic and deterministic seismic and liquefaction hazard maps for the densely populated St. Louis metropolitan area that account for the expected effects of surficial geology on earthquake ground shaking. Hazard calculations were based on a map grid of 0.005°, or about every 500 m, and are thus higher in resolution than any earlier studies. To estimate ground motions at the surface of the model (e.g., site amplification), we used a new detailed near‐surface shear‐wave velocity model in a 1D equivalent‐linear response analysis. When compared with the 2014 U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Seismic Hazard Model, which uses a uniform firm‐rock‐site condition, the new probabilistic seismic‐hazard estimates document much more variability. Hazard levels for upland sites (consisting of bedrock and weathered bedrock overlain by loess‐covered till and drift deposits), show up to twice the ground‐motion values for peak ground acceleration (PGA), and similar ground‐motion values for 1.0 s spectral acceleration (SA). Probabilistic ground‐motion levels for lowland alluvial floodplain sites (generally the 20–40‐m‐thick modern Mississippi and Missouri River floodplain deposits overlying bedrock) exhibit up to twice the ground‐motion levels for PGA, and up to three times the ground‐motion levels for 1.0 s SA. Liquefaction probability curves were developed from available standard penetration test data assuming typical lowland and upland water table levels. A simplified liquefaction hazard map was created from the 5%‐in‐50‐year probabilistic ground‐shaking model. The liquefaction hazard ranges from low (60% of area expected to liquefy) in the lowlands. Because many transportation routes, power and gas transmission lines, and population centers exist in or on the highly susceptible lowland alluvium, these areas in the St. Louis region are at significant potential risk from seismically induced liquefaction and associated

  13. Quantitative estimation of time-variable earthquake hazard by using fuzzy set theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deyi, Feng; Ichikawa, M.

    1989-11-01

    In this paper, the various methods of fuzzy set theory, called fuzzy mathematics, have been applied to the quantitative estimation of the time-variable earthquake hazard. The results obtained consist of the following. (1) Quantitative estimation of the earthquake hazard on the basis of seismicity data. By using some methods of fuzzy mathematics, seismicity patterns before large earthquakes can be studied more clearly and more quantitatively, highly active periods in a given region and quiet periods of seismic activity before large earthquakes can be recognized, similarities in temporal variation of seismic activity and seismic gaps can be examined and, on the other hand, the time-variable earthquake hazard can be assessed directly on the basis of a series of statistical indices of seismicity. Two methods of fuzzy clustering analysis, the method of fuzzy similarity, and the direct method of fuzzy pattern recognition, have been studied is particular. One method of fuzzy clustering analysis is based on fuzzy netting, and another is based on the fuzzy equivalent relation. (2) Quantitative estimation of the earthquake hazard on the basis of observational data for different precursors. The direct method of fuzzy pattern recognition has been applied to research on earthquake precursors of different kinds. On the basis of the temporal and spatial characteristics of recognized precursors, earthquake hazards in different terms can be estimated. This paper mainly deals with medium-short-term precursors observed in Japan and China.

  14. GUI program to compute probabilistic seismic hazard analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Jin Soo; Chi, H. C.; Cho, J. C.; Park, J. H.; Kim, K. G.; Im, I. S.

    2005-12-01

    The first stage of development of program to compute probabilistic seismic hazard is completed based on Graphic User Interface (GUI). The main program consists of three part - the data input processes, probabilistic seismic hazard analysis and result output processes. The first part has developed and others are developing now in this term. The probabilistic seismic hazard analysis needs various input data which represent attenuation formulae, seismic zoning map, and earthquake event catalog. The input procedure of previous programs based on text interface take a much time to prepare the data. The data cannot be checked directly on screen to prevent input erroneously in existing methods. The new program simplifies the input process and enable to check the data graphically in order to minimize the artificial error within the limits of the possibility

  15. GUI program to compute probabilistic seismic hazard analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Jin Soo; Chi, H. C.; Cho, J. C.; Park, J. H.; Kim, K. G.; Im, I. S.

    2006-12-01

    The development of program to compute probabilistic seismic hazard is completed based on Graphic User Interface(GUI). The main program consists of three part - the data input processes, probabilistic seismic hazard analysis and result output processes. The probabilistic seismic hazard analysis needs various input data which represent attenuation formulae, seismic zoning map, and earthquake event catalog. The input procedure of previous programs based on text interface take a much time to prepare the data. The data cannot be checked directly on screen to prevent input erroneously in existing methods. The new program simplifies the input process and enable to check the data graphically in order to minimize the artificial error within limits of the possibility

  16. Department of Energy Natural Phenomena Hazards Mitigation program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, R.C.

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents a summary of past and present accomplishments of the Natural Phenomena Hazards Program that has been ongoing at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory since 1975. The Natural Phenomena covered includes earthquake; winds, hurricanes, and tornadoes; flooding and precipitation; lightning; and volcanic events. The work is organized into four major areas (1) Policy, requirements, standards, and guidance, (2) Technical support, research and development, (3) Technology transfer, and (4) Oversight

  17. Assessment of earthquake-induced tsunami hazard at a power plant site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, A.K.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a study of the tsunami hazard due to submarine earthquakes at a power plant site on the east coast of India. The paper considers various sources of earthquakes from the tectonic information, and records of past earthquakes and tsunamis. Magnitude-frequency relationship for earthquake occurrence rate and a simplified model for tsunami run-up height as a function of earthquake magnitude and the distance between the source and site have been developed. Finally, considering equal likelihood of generation of earthquakes anywhere on each of the faults, the tsunami hazard has been evaluated and presented as a relationship between tsunami height and its mean recurrence interval (MRI). Probability of exceedence of a certain wave height in a given period of time is also presented. These studies will be helpful in making an estimate of the tsunami-induced flooding potential at the site

  18. Seismic Hazard Assessment for a Characteristic Earthquake Scenario: Probabilistic-Deterministic Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    mouloud, Hamidatou

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this paper is to analyze the seismic activity and the statistical treatment of seismicity catalog the Constantine region between 1357 and 2014 with 7007 seismic event. Our research is a contribution to improving the seismic risk management by evaluating the seismic hazard in the North-East Algeria. In the present study, Earthquake hazard maps for the Constantine region are calculated. Probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA) is classically performed through the Cornell approach by using a uniform earthquake distribution over the source area and a given magnitude range. This study aims at extending the PSHA approach to the case of a characteristic earthquake scenario associated with an active fault. The approach integrates PSHA with a high-frequency deterministic technique for the prediction of peak and spectral ground motion parameters in a characteristic earthquake. The method is based on the site-dependent evaluation of the probability of exceedance for the chosen strong-motion parameter. We proposed five sismotectonique zones. Four steps are necessary: (i) identification of potential sources of future earthquakes, (ii) assessment of their geological, geophysical and geometric, (iii) identification of the attenuation pattern of seismic motion, (iv) calculation of the hazard at a site and finally (v) hazard mapping for a region. In this study, the procedure of the earthquake hazard evaluation recently developed by Kijko and Sellevoll (1992) is used to estimate seismic hazard parameters in the northern part of Algeria.

  19. Assessment of earthquake-induced landslides hazard in El Salvador after the 2001 earthquakes using macroseismic analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Eliana; Violante, Crescenzo; Giunta, Giuseppe; Ángel Hernández, Miguel

    2016-04-01

    Two strong earthquakes and a number of smaller aftershocks struck El Salvador in the year 2001. The January 13 2001 earthquake, Mw 7.7, occurred along the Cocos plate, 40 km off El Salvador southern coast. It resulted in about 1300 deaths and widespread damage, mainly due to massive landsliding. Two of the largest earthquake-induced landslides, Las Barioleras and Las Colinas (about 2x105 m3) produced major damage to buildings and infrastructures and 500 fatalities. A neighborhood in Santa Tecla, west of San Salvador, was destroyed. The February 13 2001 earthquake, Mw 6.5, occurred 40 km east-southeast of San Salvador. This earthquake caused over 300 fatalities and triggered several landslides over an area of 2,500 km2 mostly in poorly consolidated volcaniclastic deposits. The La Leona landslide (5-7x105 m3) caused 12 fatalities and extensive damage to the Panamerican Highway. Two very large landslides of 1.5 km3 and 12 km3 produced hazardous barrier lakes at Rio El Desague and Rio Jiboa, respectively. More than 16.000 landslides occurred throughout the country after both quakes; most of them occurred in pyroclastic deposits, with a volume less than 1x103m3. The present work aims to define the relationship between the above described earthquake intensity, size and areal distribution of induced landslides, as well as to refine the earthquake intensity in sparsely populated zones by using landslide effects. Landslides triggered by the 2001 seismic sequences provided useful indication for a realistic seismic hazard assessment, providing a basis for understanding, evaluating, and mapping the hazard and risk associated with earthquake-induced landslides.

  20. Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Assessment for Himalayan-Tibetan Region from Historical and Instrumental Earthquake Catalogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, M. Moklesur; Bai, Ling; Khan, Nangyal Ghani; Li, Guohui

    2018-02-01

    The Himalayan-Tibetan region has a long history of devastating earthquakes with wide-spread casualties and socio-economic damages. Here, we conduct the probabilistic seismic hazard analysis by incorporating the incomplete historical earthquake records along with the instrumental earthquake catalogs for the Himalayan-Tibetan region. Historical earthquake records back to more than 1000 years ago and an updated, homogenized and declustered instrumental earthquake catalog since 1906 are utilized. The essential seismicity parameters, namely, the mean seismicity rate γ, the Gutenberg-Richter b value, and the maximum expected magnitude M max are estimated using the maximum likelihood algorithm assuming the incompleteness of the catalog. To compute the hazard value, three seismogenic source models (smoothed gridded, linear, and areal sources) and two sets of ground motion prediction equations are combined by means of a logic tree on accounting the epistemic uncertainties. The peak ground acceleration (PGA) and spectral acceleration (SA) at 0.2 and 1.0 s are predicted for 2 and 10% probabilities of exceedance over 50 years assuming bedrock condition. The resulting PGA and SA maps show a significant spatio-temporal variation in the hazard values. In general, hazard value is found to be much higher than the previous studies for regions, where great earthquakes have actually occurred. The use of the historical and instrumental earthquake catalogs in combination of multiple seismogenic source models provides better seismic hazard constraints for the Himalayan-Tibetan region.

  1. Baseline geophysical data for hazard management in coastal areas in relation to earthquakes and tsunamis

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Murthy, K.S.R.

    is another factor for some of the intraplate earthquakes in the South Indian Shield, which includes the Eastern and Western Continental Margins of India. Baseline geophysical data for hazard management in coastal areas in relation to earthquakes... surge. Keywords Hazard management, marine geophysical data, geomorphology and tsunami surge, coastal seismicity Date received: 7 August 2015; accepted: 15 October 2015 CSIR – National Institute of Oceanography, Visakhapatnam, India Corresponding author...

  2. FEMA Hazard Mitigation Grants Program Summary - API

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The Hazard Mitigation Grant Program (HMGP, CFDA Number: 97.039) provides grants to States and local governments to implement long-term hazard mitigation measures...

  3. FEMA Hazard Mitigation Grants Program Summary

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The Hazard Mitigation Grant Program (HMGP, CFDA Number: 97.039) provides grants to States and local governments to implement long-term hazard mitigation measures...

  4. Cascading hazards: Understanding triggering relations between wet tropical cyclones, landslides, and earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wdowinski, S.; Peng, Z.; Ferrier, K.; Lin, C. H.; Hsu, Y. J.; Shyu, J. B. H.

    2017-12-01

    Earthquakes, landslides, and tropical cyclones are extreme hazards that pose significant threats to human life and property. Some of the couplings between these hazards are well known. For example, sudden, widespread landsliding can be triggered by large earthquakes and by extreme rainfall events like tropical cyclones. Recent studies have also shown that earthquakes can be triggered by erosional unloading over 100-year timescales. In a NASA supported project, titled "Cascading hazards: Understanding triggering relations between wet tropical cyclones, landslides, and earthquake", we study triggering relations between these hazard types. The project focuses on such triggering relations in Taiwan, which is subjected to very wet tropical storms, landslides, and earthquakes. One example for such triggering relations is the 2009 Morakot typhoon, which was the wettest recorded typhoon in Taiwan (2850 mm of rain in 100 hours). The typhoon caused widespread flooding and triggered more than 20,000 landslides, including the devastating Hsiaolin landslide. Six months later, the same area was hit by the 2010 M=6.4 Jiashian earthquake near Kaohsiung city, which added to the infrastructure damage induced by the typhoon and the landslides. Preliminary analysis of temporal relations between main-shock earthquakes and the six wettest typhoons in Taiwan's past 50 years reveals similar temporal relations between M≥5 events and wet typhoons. Future work in the project will include remote sensing analysis of landsliding, seismic and geodetic monitoring of landslides, detection of microseismicity and tremor activities, and mechanical modeling of crustal stress changes due to surface unloading.

  5. Scenario-based earthquake hazard and risk assessment for Baku (Azerbaijan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Babayev

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A rapid growth of population, intensive civil and industrial building, land and water instabilities (e.g. landslides, significant underground water level fluctuations, and the lack of public awareness regarding seismic hazard contribute to the increase of vulnerability of Baku (the capital city of the Republic of Azerbaijan to earthquakes. In this study, we assess an earthquake risk in the city determined as a convolution of seismic hazard (in terms of the surface peak ground acceleration, PGA, vulnerability (due to building construction fragility, population features, the gross domestic product per capita, and landslide's occurrence, and exposure of infrastructure and critical facilities. The earthquake risk assessment provides useful information to identify the factors influencing the risk. A deterministic seismic hazard for Baku is analysed for four earthquake scenarios: near, far, local, and extreme events. The seismic hazard models demonstrate the level of ground shaking in the city: PGA high values are predicted in the southern coastal and north-eastern parts of the city and in some parts of the downtown. The PGA attains its maximal values for the local and extreme earthquake scenarios. We show that the quality of buildings and the probability of their damage, the distribution of urban population, exposure, and the pattern of peak ground acceleration contribute to the seismic risk, meanwhile the vulnerability factors play a more prominent role for all earthquake scenarios. Our results can allow elaborating strategic countermeasure plans for the earthquake risk mitigation in the Baku city.

  6. Composite Earthquake Catalog of the Yellow Sea for Seismic Hazard Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, S. Y.; Kim, K. H.; LI, Z.; Hao, T.

    2017-12-01

    The Yellow Sea (a.k.a West Sea in Korea) is an epicontinental and semi-closed sea located between Korea and China. Recent earthquakes in the Yellow Sea including, but not limited to, the Seogyuckryulbi-do (1 April 2014, magnitude 5.1), Heuksan-do (21 April 2013, magnitude 4.9), Baekryung-do (18 May 2013, magnitude 4.9) earthquakes, and the earthquake swarm in the Boryung offshore region in 2013, remind us of the seismic hazards affecting east Asia. This series of earthquakes in the Yellow Sea raised numerous questions. Unfortunately, both governments have trouble in monitoring seismicity in the Yellow Sea because earthquakes occur beyond their seismic networks. For example, the epicenters of the magnitude 5.1 earthquake in the Seogyuckryulbi-do region in 2014 reported by the Korea Meteorological Administration and China Earthquake Administration differed by approximately 20 km. This illustrates the difficulty with seismic monitoring and locating earthquakes in the region, despite the huge effort made by both governments. Joint effort is required not only to overcome the limits posed by political boundaries and geographical location but also to study seismicity and the underground structures responsible. Although the well-established and developing seismic networks in Korea and China have provided unprecedented amount and quality of seismic data, high quality catalog is limited to the recent 10s of years, which is far from major earthquake cycle. It is also noticed the earthquake catalog from either country is biased to its own and cannot provide complete picture of seismicity in the Yellow Sea. In order to understand seismic hazard and tectonics in the Yellow Sea, a composite earthquake catalog has been developed. We gathered earthquake information during last 5,000 years from various sources. There are good reasons to believe that some listings account for same earthquake, but in different source parameters. We established criteria in order to provide consistent

  7. Long Aftershock Sequences within Continents and Implications for Earthquake Hazard Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, S. A.; Liu, M.

    2014-12-01

    Recent seismicity in the Tangshan region in North China has prompted concern about a repetition of the 1976 M7.8 earthquake that destroyed the city, killing more than 242,000 people. However, the decay of seismicity there implies that the recent earthquakes are probably aftershocks of the 1976 event. This 37-year sequence is an example of the phenomenon that aftershock sequences within continents are often significantly longer than the typical 10 years at plate boundaries. The long sequence of aftershocks in continents is consistent with a simple friction-based model predicting that the length of aftershock sequences varies inversely with the rate at which faults are loaded. Hence the slowly-deforming continents tend to have aftershock sequences significantly longer than at rapidly-loaded plate boundaries. This effect has two consequences for hazard assessment. First, within the heavily populated continents that are typically within plate interiors, assessments of earthquake hazards rely significantly on the assumption that the locations of small earthquakes shown by the short historical record reflect continuing deformation that will cause future large earthquakes. This assumption would lead to overestimation of the hazard in presently active areas and underestimation elsewhere, if some of these small events are aftershocks. Second, successful attempts to remove aftershocks from catalogs used for hazard assessment would underestimate the hazard, because much of the hazard is due to the aftershocks, and the declustering algorithms implicitly assume short aftershock sequences and thus do not remove long-duration ones.

  8. The earthquake of January 13, 1915 and the seismic hazard of the area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scarascia Mugnozza, Gabriele; Hailemikael, Salomon; Martini, Guido

    2015-01-01

    The January 13, 1915, magnitude 7.0 Marsica Earthquake devastated the Fucino basin and surroundings, causing about 30,000 casualties and entirely destroying several towns, among which the major municipality of the area, the town of Avezzano. In this paper, we briefly review the main characteristics of the earthquake and its effects on the environment. Furthermore, based on the Italian building code and ongoing seismic microzonation investigations, we describe the seismic hazard of the area struck by the earthquake in terms of both probabilistic seismic hazard assessment and contribution of site effects on the seismic hazard estimate. All the studies confirm the very high level of seismic hazard of the Fucino territory [it

  9. Earthquake induced landslide hazard: a multidisciplinary field observatory in the Marmara SUPERSITE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigarré, Pascal

    2014-05-01

    Earthquake-triggered landslides have an increasing disastrous impact in seismic regions due to the fast growing urbanization and infrastructures. Just considering disasters from the last fifteen years, among which the 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake, the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake, and the 2011 Tohoku earthquake, these events generated tens of thousands of coseismic landslides. Those resulted in amazing death toll and considerable damages, affecting the regional landscape including its hydrological main features. Despite a strong impetus in research during past decades, knowledge on those geohazards is still fragmentary, while databases of high quality observational data are lacking. These phenomena call for further collaborative researches aiming eventually to enhance preparedness and crisis management. As one of the three SUPERSITE concept FP7 projects dealing with long term high level monitoring of major natural hazards at the European level, the MARSITE project gathers research groups in a comprehensive monitoring activity developed in the Sea of Marmara Region, one of the most densely populated parts of Europe and rated at high seismic risk level since the 1999 Izmit and Duzce devastating earthquakes. Besides the seismic threat, landslides in Turkey and in this region constitute an important source of loss. The 1999 Earthquake caused extensive landslides while tsunami effects were observed during the post-event surveys in several places along the coasts of the Izmit bay. The 6th Work Package of MARSITE project gathers 9 research groups to study earthquake-induced landslides focusing on two sub-regional areas of high interest. First, the Cekmece-Avcilar peninsula, located westwards of Istanbul, is a highly urbanized concentrated landslide prone area, showing high susceptibility to both rainfalls while affected by very significant seismic site effects. Second, the off-shore entrance of the Izmit Gulf, close to the termination of the surface rupture of the 1999 earthquake

  10. Earthquake hazard in Northeast India – A seismic microzonation ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    microzonation approach with typical case studies from .... the other hand, Guwahati city represents a case of well-formed basin with ... earthquake prone regions towards developing its ... tonic network and the observed seismicity has been.

  11. The Wenchuan, China M8.0 Earthquake: A Lesson and Implication for Seismic Hazard Mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Z.

    2008-12-01

    The Wenchuan, China M8.0 earthquake caused great damage and huge casualty. 69,197 people were killed, 374,176 people were injured, and 18,341 people are still missing. The estimated direct economic loss is about 126 billion U.S. dollar. The Wenchuan earthquake again demonstrated that earthquake does not kill people, but the built environments and induced hazards, landslides in particular, do. Therefore, it is critical to strengthen the built environments, such buildings and bridges, and to mitigate the induced hazards in order to avoid such disaster. As a part of the so-called North-South Seismic Zone in China, the Wenchuan earthquake occurred along the Longmen Shan thrust belt which forms a boundary between the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and the Sichuan basin, and there is a long history (~4,000 years) of seismicity in the area. The historical records show that the area experienced high intensity (i.e., greater than IX) in the past several thousand years. In other words, the area is well-known to have high seismic hazard because of its tectonic setting and seismicity. However, only intensity VII (0.1 to 0.15g PGA) has been considered for seismic design for the built environments in the area. This was one of the main reasons that so many building collapses, particularly the school buildings, during the Wenchuan earthquake. It is clear that the seismic design (i.e., the design ground motion or intensity) is not adequate in the Wenchuan earthquake stricken area. A lesson can be learned from the Wenchuan earthquake on the seismic hazard and risk assessment. A lesson can also be learned from this earthquake on seismic hazard mitigation and/or seismic risk reduction.

  12. Tsunami hazard assessments with consideration of uncertain earthquakes characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepulveda, I.; Liu, P. L. F.; Grigoriu, M. D.; Pritchard, M. E.

    2017-12-01

    The uncertainty quantification of tsunami assessments due to uncertain earthquake characteristics faces important challenges. First, the generated earthquake samples must be consistent with the properties observed in past events. Second, it must adopt an uncertainty propagation method to determine tsunami uncertainties with a feasible computational cost. In this study we propose a new methodology, which improves the existing tsunami uncertainty assessment methods. The methodology considers two uncertain earthquake characteristics, the slip distribution and location. First, the methodology considers the generation of consistent earthquake slip samples by means of a Karhunen Loeve (K-L) expansion and a translation process (Grigoriu, 2012), applicable to any non-rectangular rupture area and marginal probability distribution. The K-L expansion was recently applied by Le Veque et al. (2016). We have extended the methodology by analyzing accuracy criteria in terms of the tsunami initial conditions. Furthermore, and unlike this reference, we preserve the original probability properties of the slip distribution, by avoiding post sampling treatments such as earthquake slip scaling. Our approach is analyzed and justified in the framework of the present study. Second, the methodology uses a Stochastic Reduced Order model (SROM) (Grigoriu, 2009) instead of a classic Monte Carlo simulation, which reduces the computational cost of the uncertainty propagation. The methodology is applied on a real case. We study tsunamis generated at the site of the 2014 Chilean earthquake. We generate earthquake samples with expected magnitude Mw 8. We first demonstrate that the stochastic approach of our study generates consistent earthquake samples with respect to the target probability laws. We also show that the results obtained from SROM are more accurate than classic Monte Carlo simulations. We finally validate the methodology by comparing the simulated tsunamis and the tsunami records for

  13. St. Louis Area Earthquake Hazards Mapping Project - A Progress Report-November 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karadeniz, D.; Rogers, J.D.; Williams, R.A.; Cramer, C.H.; Bauer, R.A.; Hoffman, D.; Chung, J.; Hempen, G.L.; Steckel, P.H.; Boyd, O.L.; Watkins, C.M.; McCallister, N.S.; Schweig, E.

    2009-01-01

    St. Louis has experienced minor earthquake damage at least 12 times in the past 200 years. Because of this history and its proximity to known active earthquake zones, the St. Louis Area Earthquake Hazards Mapping Project (SLAEHMP) is producing digital maps that show variability of earthquake hazards, including liquefaction and ground shaking, in the St. Louis area. The maps will be available free via the internet. Although not site specific enough to indicate the hazard at a house-by-house resolution, they can be customized by the user to show specific areas of interest, such as neighborhoods or transportation routes. Earthquakes currently cannot be predicted, but scientists can estimate how strongly the ground is likely to shake as the result of an earthquake. Earthquake hazard maps provide one way of conveying such estimates. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), which produces earthquake hazard maps for the Nation, is working with local partners to develop detailed maps for urban areas vulnerable to strong ground shaking. These partners, which along with the USGS comprise the SLAEHMP, include the Missouri University of Science and Technology-Rolla (Missouri S&T), Missouri Department of Natural Resources (MDNR), Illinois State Geological Survey (ISGS), Saint Louis University, Missouri State Emergency Management Agency, and URS Corporation. Preliminary hazard maps covering a test portion of the 29-quadrangle St. Louis study area have been produced and are currently being evaluated by the SLAEHMP. A USGS Fact Sheet summarizing this project was produced and almost 1000 copies have been distributed at several public outreach meetings and field trips that have featured the SLAEHMP (Williams and others, 2007). In addition, a USGS website focusing on the SLAEHMP, which provides links to project results and relevant earthquake hazard information, can be found at: http://earthquake.usgs.gov/regional/ceus/urban_map/st_louis/index.php. This progress report summarizes the

  14. Aftereffects of Subduction-Zone Earthquakes: Potential Tsunami Hazards along the Japan Sea Coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minoura, Koji; Sugawara, Daisuke; Yamanoi, Tohru; Yamada, Tsutomu

    2015-10-01

    The 2011 Tohoku-Oki Earthquake is a typical subduction-zone earthquake and is the 4th largest earthquake after the beginning of instrumental observation of earthquakes in the 19th century. In fact, the 2011 Tohoku-Oki Earthquake displaced the northeast Japan island arc horizontally and vertically. The displacement largely changed the tectonic situation of the arc from compressive to tensile. The 9th century in Japan was a period of natural hazards caused by frequent large-scale earthquakes. The aseismic tsunamis that inflicted damage on the Japan Sea coast in the 11th century were related to the occurrence of massive earthquakes that represented the final stage of a period of high seismic activity. Anti-compressive tectonics triggered by the subduction-zone earthquakes induced gravitational instability, which resulted in the generation of tsunamis caused by slope failing at the arc-back-arc boundary. The crustal displacement after the 2011 earthquake infers an increased risk of unexpected local tsunami flooding in the Japan Sea coastal areas.

  15. Near real-time aftershock hazard maps for earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCloskey, J.; Nalbant, S. S.

    2009-04-01

    Stress interaction modelling is routinely used to explain the spatial relationships between earthquakes and their aftershocks. On 28 October 2008 a M6.4 earthquake occurred near the Pakistan-Afghanistan border killing several hundred and causing widespread devastation. A second M6.4 event occurred 12 hours later 20km to the south east. By making some well supported assumptions concerning the source event and the geometry of any likely triggered event it was possible to map those areas most likely to experience further activity. Using Google earth, it would further have been possible to identify particular settlements in the source area which were particularly at risk and to publish their locations globally within about 3 hours of the first earthquake. Such actions could have significantly focused the initial emergency response management. We argue for routine prospective testing of such forecasts and dialogue between social and physical scientists and emergency response professionals around the practical application of these techniques.

  16. USGS GNSS Applications to Earthquake Disaster Response and Hazard Mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudnut, K. W.; Murray, J. R.; Minson, S. E.

    2015-12-01

    Rapid characterization of earthquake rupture is important during a disaster because it establishes which fault ruptured and the extent and amount of fault slip. These key parameters, in turn, can augment in situ seismic sensors for identifying disruption to lifelines as well as localized damage along the fault break. Differential GNSS station positioning, along with imagery differencing, are important methods for augmenting seismic sensors. During response to recent earthquakes (1989 Loma Prieta, 1992 Landers, 1994 Northridge, 1999 Hector Mine, 2010 El Mayor - Cucapah, 2012 Brawley Swarm and 2014 South Napa earthquakes), GNSS co-seismic and post-seismic observations proved to be essential for rapid earthquake source characterization. Often, we find that GNSS results indicate key aspects of the earthquake source that would not have been known in the absence of GNSS data. Seismic, geologic, and imagery data alone, without GNSS, would miss important details of the earthquake source. That is, GNSS results provide important additional insight into the earthquake source properties, which in turn help understand the relationship between shaking and damage patterns. GNSS also adds to understanding of the distribution of slip along strike and with depth on a fault, which can help determine possible lifeline damage due to fault offset, as well as the vertical deformation and tilt that are vitally important for gravitationally driven water systems. The GNSS processing work flow that took more than one week 25 years ago now takes less than one second. Formerly, portable receivers needed to be set up at a site, operated for many hours, then data retrieved, processed and modeled by a series of manual steps. The establishment of continuously telemetered, continuously operating high-rate GNSS stations and the robust automation of all aspects of data retrieval and processing, has led to sub-second overall system latency. Within the past few years, the final challenges of

  17. Monitoring Geologic Hazards and Vegetation Recovery in the Wenchuan Earthquake Region Using Aerial Photography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenwang Li

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available On 12 May 2008, the 8.0-magnitude Wenchuan earthquake occurred in Sichuan Province, China, triggering thousands of landslides, debris flows, and barrier lakes, leading to a substantial loss of life and damage to the local environment and infrastructure. This study aimed to monitor the status of geologic hazards and vegetation recovery in a post-earthquake disaster area using high-resolution aerial photography from 2008 to 2011, acquired from the Center for Earth Observation and Digital Earth (CEODE, Chinese Academy of Sciences. The distribution and range of hazards were identified in 15 large, representative geologic hazard areas triggered by the Wenchuan earthquake. After conducting an overlay analysis, the variations of these hazards between successive years were analyzed to reflect the geologic hazard development and vegetation recovery. The results showed that in the first year after the Wenchuan earthquake, debris flows occurred frequently with high intensity. Resultantly, with the source material becoming less available and the slope structure stabilizing, the intensity and frequency of debris flows gradually decreased with time. The development rate of debris flows between 2008 and 2011 was 3% per year. The lithology played a dominant role in the formation of debris flows, and the topography and hazard size in the earthquake affected area also had an influence on the debris flow development process. Meanwhile, the overall geologic hazard area decreased at 12% per year, and the vegetation recovery on the landslide mass was 15% to 20% per year between 2008 and 2011. The outcomes of this study provide supporting data for ecological recovery as well as debris flow control and prevention projects in hazard-prone areas.

  18. Studying geodesy and earthquake hazard in and around the New Madrid Seismic Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Oliver Salz; Magistrale, Harold

    2011-01-01

    Workshop on New Madrid Geodesy and the Challenges of Understanding Intraplate Earthquakes; Norwood, Massachusetts, 4 March 2011 Twenty-six researchers gathered for a workshop sponsored by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and FM Global to discuss geodesy in and around the New Madrid seismic zone (NMSZ) and its relation to earthquake hazards. The group addressed the challenge of reconciling current geodetic measurements, which show low present-day surface strain rates, with paleoseismic evidence of recent, relatively frequent, major earthquakes in the region. The workshop presentations and conclusions will be available in a forthcoming USGS open-file report (http://pubs.usgs.gov).

  19. The wicked problem of earthquake hazard in developing countries: the example of Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steckler, M. S.; Akhter, S. H.; Stein, S.; Seeber, L.

    2017-12-01

    Many developing nations in earthquake-prone areas confront a tough problem: how much of their limited resources to use mitigating earthquake hazards? This decision is difficult because it is unclear when an infrequent major earthquake may happen, how big it could be, and how much harm it may cause. This issue faces nations with profound immediate needs and ongoing rapid urbanization. Earthquake hazard mitigation in Bangladesh is a wicked problem. It is the world's most densely populated nation, with 160 million people in an area the size of Iowa. Complex geology and sparse data make assessing a possibly-large earthquake hazard difficult. Hence it is hard to decide how much of the limited resources available should be used for earthquake hazard mitigation, given other more immediate needs. Per capita GDP is $1200, so Bangladesh is committed to economic growth and resources are needed to address many critical challenges and hazards. In their subtropical environment, rural Bangladeshis traditionally relied on modest mud or bamboo homes. Their rapidly growing, crowded capital, Dhaka, is filled with multistory concrete buildings likely to be vulnerable to earthquakes. The risk is compounded by the potential collapse of services and accessibility after a major temblor. However, extensive construction as the population shifts from rural to urban provides opportunity for earthquake-risk reduction. While this situation seems daunting, it is not hopeless. Robust risk management is practical, even for developing nations. It involves recognizing uncertainties and developing policies that should give a reasonable outcome for a range of the possible hazard and loss scenarios. Over decades, Bangladesh has achieved a thousandfold reduction in risk from tropical cyclones by building shelters and setting up a warning system. Similar efforts are underway for earthquakes. Smart investments can be very effective, even if modest. Hence, we suggest strategies consistent with high

  20. An Arduino project to record ground motion and to learn on earthquake hazard at high school

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraò, Angela; Barnaba, Carla; Clocchiatti, Marco; Zuliani, David

    2015-04-01

    Through a multidisciplinary work that integrates Technology education with Earth Sciences, we implemented an educational program to raise the students' awareness of seismic hazard and to disseminate good practices of earthquake safety. Using free software and low-cost open hardware, the students of a senior class of the high school Liceo Paschini in Tolmezzo (NE Italy) implemented a seismograph using the Arduino open-source electronics platform and the ADXL345 sensors to emulate a low cost seismometer (e.g. O-NAVI sensor of the Quake-Catcher Network, http://qcn.stanford.edu). To accomplish their task the students were addressed to use the web resources for technical support and troubleshooting. Shell scripts, running on local computers under Linux OS, controlled the process of recording and display data. The main part of the experiment was documented using the DokuWiki style. Some propaedeutic lessons in computer sciences and electronics were needed to build up the necessary skills of the students and to fill in the gap of their background knowledge. In addition lectures by seismologists and laboratory activity allowed the class to exploit different aspects of the physics of the earthquake and particularly of the seismic waves, and to become familiar with the topics of seismic hazard through an inquiry-based learning. The Arduino seismograph achieved can be used for educational purposes and it can display tremors on the local network of the school. For sure it can record the ground motion due to a seismic event that can occur in the area, but further improvements are necessary for a quantitative analysis of the recorded signals.

  1. An Earthquake Education Program with Parent Participation for Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulay, Hulya

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of the earthquake education program which was prepared for 5 to 6 year old children and to draw attention to the importance of parent participation. The earthquake education program was applied to 93 children and 31 parents in the province of Denizli situated in the first degree seismic zone…

  2. Original earthquake design basis in light of recent seismic hazard studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrovski, D.

    1993-01-01

    For the purpose of conceiving the framework within which efforts have been made in the eastern countries to construct earthquake resistant nuclear power plants, a review of the development and application of the seismic zoning map of USSR is given. The normative values of seismic intensity and acceleration are discussed from the aspect of recent probabilistic seismic hazard studies. To that effect, presented briefly in this paper is the methodology of probabilistic seismic hazard analysis. (author)

  3. Earthquake Prediction Research In Iceland, Applications For Hazard Assessments and Warnings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefansson, R.

    Earthquake prediction research in Iceland, applications for hazard assessments and warnings. The first multinational earthquake prediction research project in Iceland was the Eu- ropean Council encouraged SIL project of the Nordic countries, 1988-1995. The path selected for this research was to study the physics of crustal processes leading to earth- quakes. It was considered that small earthquakes, down to magnitude zero, were the most significant for this purpose, because of the detailed information which they pro- vide both in time and space. The test area for the project was the earthquake prone region of the South Iceland seismic zone (SISZ). The PRENLAB and PRENLAB-2 projects, 1996-2000 supported by the European Union were a direct continuation of the SIL project, but with a more multidisciplinary approach. PRENLAB stands for "Earthquake prediction research in a natural labo- ratory". The basic objective was to advance our understanding in general on where, when and how dangerous NH10earthquake motion might strike. Methods were devel- oped to study crustal processes and conditions, by microearthquake information, by continuous GPS, InSAR, theoretical modelling, fault mapping and paleoseismology. New algorithms were developed for short term warnings. A very useful short term warning was issued twice in the year 2000, one for a sudden start of an eruption in Volcano Hekla February 26, and the other 25 hours before a second (in a sequence of two) magnitude 6.6 (Ms) earthquake in the South Iceland seismic zone in June 21, with the correct location and approximate size. A formal short term warning, although not going to the public, was also issued before a magnitude 5 earthquake in November 1998. In the presentation it will be shortly described what these warnings were based on. A general hazard assessmnets was presented in scientific journals 10-15 years ago assessing within a few kilometers the location of the faults of the two 2000 earthquakes and suggesting

  4. Comparision of the different probability distributions for earthquake hazard assessment in the North Anatolian Fault Zone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yilmaz, Şeyda, E-mail: seydayilmaz@ktu.edu.tr; Bayrak, Erdem, E-mail: erdmbyrk@gmail.com [Karadeniz Technical University, Trabzon (Turkey); Bayrak, Yusuf, E-mail: bayrak@ktu.edu.tr [Ağrı İbrahim Çeçen University, Ağrı (Turkey)

    2016-04-18

    In this study we examined and compared the three different probabilistic distribution methods for determining the best suitable model in probabilistic assessment of earthquake hazards. We analyzed a reliable homogeneous earthquake catalogue between a time period 1900-2015 for magnitude M ≥ 6.0 and estimated the probabilistic seismic hazard in the North Anatolian Fault zone (39°-41° N 30°-40° E) using three distribution methods namely Weibull distribution, Frechet distribution and three-parameter Weibull distribution. The distribution parameters suitability was evaluated Kolmogorov-Smirnov (K-S) goodness-of-fit test. We also compared the estimated cumulative probability and the conditional probabilities of occurrence of earthquakes for different elapsed time using these three distribution methods. We used Easyfit and Matlab software to calculate these distribution parameters and plotted the conditional probability curves. We concluded that the Weibull distribution method was the most suitable than other distribution methods in this region.

  5. Pattern recognition methodologies and deterministic evaluation of seismic hazard: A strategy to increase earthquake preparedness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peresan, Antonella; Panza, Giuliano F.; Gorshkov, Alexander I.; Aoudia, Abdelkrim

    2001-05-01

    Several algorithms, structured according to a general pattern-recognition scheme, have been developed for the space-time identification of strong events. Currently, two of such algorithms are applied to the Italian territory, one for the recognition of earthquake-prone areas and the other, namely CN algorithm, for earthquake prediction purposes. These procedures can be viewed as independent experts, hence they can be combined to better constrain the alerted seismogenic area. We examine here the possibility to integrate CN intermediate-term medium-range earthquake predictions, pattern recognition of earthquake-prone areas and deterministic hazard maps, in order to associate CN Times of Increased Probability (TIPs) to a set of appropriate scenarios of ground motion. The advantage of this procedure mainly consists in the time information provided by predictions, useful to increase preparedness of safety measures and to indicate a priority for detailed seismic risk studies to be performed at a local scale. (author)

  6. History of Modern Earthquake Hazard Mapping and Assessment in California Using a Deterministic or Scenario Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mualchin, Lalliana

    2011-03-01

    Modern earthquake ground motion hazard mapping in California began following the 1971 San Fernando earthquake in the Los Angeles metropolitan area of southern California. Earthquake hazard assessment followed a traditional approach, later called Deterministic Seismic Hazard Analysis (DSHA) in order to distinguish it from the newer Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Analysis (PSHA). In DSHA, seismic hazard in the event of the Maximum Credible Earthquake (MCE) magnitude from each of the known seismogenic faults within and near the state are assessed. The likely occurrence of the MCE has been assumed qualitatively by using late Quaternary and younger faults that are presumed to be seismogenic, but not when or within what time intervals MCE may occur. MCE is the largest or upper-bound potential earthquake in moment magnitude, and it supersedes and automatically considers all other possible earthquakes on that fault. That moment magnitude is used for estimating ground motions by applying it to empirical attenuation relationships, and for calculating ground motions as in neo-DSHA (Z uccolo et al., 2008). The first deterministic California earthquake hazard map was published in 1974 by the California Division of Mines and Geology (CDMG) which has been called the California Geological Survey (CGS) since 2002, using the best available fault information and ground motion attenuation relationships at that time. The California Department of Transportation (Caltrans) later assumed responsibility for printing the refined and updated peak acceleration contour maps which were heavily utilized by geologists, seismologists, and engineers for many years. Some engineers involved in the siting process of large important projects, for example, dams and nuclear power plants, continued to challenge the map(s). The second edition map was completed in 1985 incorporating more faults, improving MCE's estimation method, and using new ground motion attenuation relationships from the latest published

  7. Seismic hazard in Hawaii: High rate of large earthquakes and probabilistics ground-motion maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, F.W.; Frankel, A.D.; Mueller, C.S.; Wesson, R.L.; Okubo, P.G.

    2001-01-01

    The seismic hazard and earthquake occurrence rates in Hawaii are locally as high as that near the most hazardous faults elsewhere in the United States. We have generated maps of peak ground acceleration (PGA) and spectral acceleration (SA) (at 0.2, 0.3 and 1.0 sec, 5% critical damping) at 2% and 10% exceedance probabilities in 50 years. The highest hazard is on the south side of Hawaii Island, as indicated by the MI 7.0, MS 7.2, and MI 7.9 earthquakes, which occurred there since 1868. Probabilistic values of horizontal PGA (2% in 50 years) on Hawaii's south coast exceed 1.75g. Because some large earthquake aftershock zones and the geometry of flank blocks slipping on subhorizontal decollement faults are known, we use a combination of spatially uniform sources in active flank blocks and smoothed seismicity in other areas to model seismicity. Rates of earthquakes are derived from magnitude distributions of the modem (1959-1997) catalog of the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory's seismic network supplemented by the historic (1868-1959) catalog. Modern magnitudes are ML measured on a Wood-Anderson seismograph or MS. Historic magnitudes may add ML measured on a Milne-Shaw or Bosch-Omori seismograph or MI derived from calibrated areas of MM intensities. Active flank areas, which by far account for the highest hazard, are characterized by distributions with b slopes of about 1.0 below M 5.0 and about 0.6 above M 5.0. The kinked distribution means that large earthquake rates would be grossly under-estimated by extrapolating small earthquake rates, and that longer catalogs are essential for estimating or verifying the rates of large earthquakes. Flank earthquakes thus follow a semicharacteristic model, which is a combination of background seismicity and an excess number of large earthquakes. Flank earthquakes are geometrically confined to rupture zones on the volcano flanks by barriers such as rift zones and the seaward edge of the volcano, which may be expressed by a magnitude

  8. Earthquake and volcano hazard notices: An economic evaluation of changes in risk perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernknopf, R.L.; Brookshire, D.S.; Thayer, M.A.

    1990-01-01

    Earthquake and volcano hazard notices were issued for the Mammoth Lakes, California area by the U.S. Geological Survey under the authority granted by the Disaster Relief Act of 1974. The effects on investment, recretion visitation, and risk perceptionsare explored. The hazard notices did not affect recreation visitation, although investment was affected. A perceived loss in the market value of homes was documented. Risk perceptions were altered for property owners. Communication of the probability of an event over time would enhance hazard notices as a policy instrument and would mitigate unnecessary market perturbations. ?? 1990.

  9. The Global Seismic Hazard Assessment Program (GSHAP - 1992/1999

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Giardini

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available The United Nations, recognizing natural disasters as a major threat to human life and development, designed the 1990-1999 period as the International Decade for Natural Disaster Reduction (UN/IDNDR; UN Res. 42/169/ 1987. Among the IDNDR Demonstration Projects is the Global Seismic Hazard Assessment Program (GSHAP, launched in 1992 by the International Lithosphere Program (ILP and implemented in the 1992-1999 period. In order to mitigate the risk associated to the recurrence of earthquakes, the GSHAP promoted a regionally coordinated, homogeneous approach to seismic hazard evaluation. To achieve a global dimension, the GSHAP established initially a mosaic of regions and multinational test areas, then expanded to cover whole continents and finally the globe. The GSHAP Global Map of Seismic Hazard integrates the results obtained in the regional areas and depicts Peak-Ground-Acceleration (PGA with 10% chance of exceedance in 50 years, corresponding to a return period of 475 years. All regional results and the Global Map of Seismic Hazard are published in 1999 and available on the GSHAP homepage on http://seismo.ethz.ch/GSHAP/.

  10. Scenario earthquake hazards for the Long Valley Caldera-Mono Lake area, east-central California (ver. 2.0, January 2018)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Rui; Branum, David M.; Wills, Chris J.; Hill, David P.

    2014-06-30

    As part of the U.S. Geological Survey’s (USGS) multi-hazards project in the Long Valley Caldera-Mono Lake area, the California Geological Survey (CGS) developed several earthquake scenarios and evaluated potential seismic hazards, including ground shaking, surface fault rupture, liquefaction, and landslide hazards associated with these earthquake scenarios. The results of these analyses can be useful in estimating the extent of potential damage and economic losses because of potential earthquakes and also for preparing emergency response plans.The Long Valley Caldera-Mono Lake area has numerous active faults. Five of these faults or fault zones are considered capable of producing magnitude ≥6.7 earthquakes according to the Uniform California Earthquake Rupture Forecast, Version 2 (UCERF 2) developed by the 2007 Working Group on California Earthquake Probabilities (WGCEP) and the USGS National Seismic Hazard Mapping Program. These five faults are the Fish Slough, Hartley Springs, Hilton Creek, Mono Lake, and Round Valley Faults. CGS developed earthquake scenarios for these five faults in the study area and for the White Mountains Fault Zone to the east of the study area.In this report, an earthquake scenario is intended to depict the potential consequences of significant earthquakes. A scenario earthquake is not necessarily the largest or most damaging earthquake possible on a recognized fault. Rather it is both large enough and likely enough that emergency planners should consider it in regional emergency response plans. In particular, the ground motion predicted for a given scenario earthquake does not represent a full probabilistic hazard assessment, and thus it does not provide the basis for hazard zoning and earthquake-resistant building design.Earthquake scenarios presented here are based on fault geometry and activity data developed by the WGCEP, and are consistent with the 2008 Update of the United States National Seismic Hazard Maps (NSHM). Alternatives

  11. Unify a hazardous materials/waste program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carson, H.T.

    1988-01-01

    Efficiently managing a hazardous materials/waste program in a multi-facility, multi-product corporation is a major challenge. This paper describes several methods to help unify a program and gain maximum efficiency of manpower and to minimize risk

  12. Dynamic evaluation of seismic hazard and risks based on the Unified Scaling Law for Earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kossobokov, V. G.; Nekrasova, A.

    2016-12-01

    We continue applying the general concept of seismic risk analysis in a number of seismic regions worldwide by constructing seismic hazard maps based on the Unified Scaling Law for Earthquakes (USLE), i.e. log N(M,L) = A + B•(6 - M) + C•log L, where N(M,L) is the expected annual number of earthquakes of a certain magnitude M within an seismically prone area of linear dimension L, A characterizes the average annual rate of strong (M = 6) earthquakes, B determines the balance between magnitude ranges, and C estimates the fractal dimension of seismic locus in projection to the Earth surface. The parameters A, B, and C of USLE are used to assess, first, the expected maximum magnitude in a time interval at a seismically prone cell of a uniform grid that cover the region of interest, and then the corresponding expected ground shaking parameters. After a rigorous testing against the available seismic evidences in the past (e.g., the historically reported macro-seismic intensity or paleo data), such a seismic hazard map is used to generate maps of specific earthquake risks for population, cities, and infrastructures. The hazard maps for a given territory change dramatically, when the methodology is applied to a certain size moving time window, e.g. about a decade long for an intermediate-term regional assessment or exponentially increasing intervals for a daily local strong aftershock forecasting. The of dynamical seismic hazard and risks assessment is illustrated by applications to the territory of Greater Caucasus and Crimea and the two-year series of aftershocks of the 11 October 2008 Kurchaloy, Chechnya earthquake which case-history appears to be encouraging for further systematic testing as potential short-term forecasting tool.

  13. Initiation process of earthquakes and its implications for seismic hazard reduction strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanamori, H

    1996-04-30

    For the average citizen and the public, "earthquake prediction" means "short-term prediction," a prediction of a specific earthquake on a relatively short time scale. Such prediction must specify the time, place, and magnitude of the earthquake in question with sufficiently high reliability. For this type of prediction, one must rely on some short-term precursors. Examinations of strain changes just before large earthquakes suggest that consistent detection of such precursory strain changes cannot be expected. Other precursory phenomena such as foreshocks and nonseismological anomalies do not occur consistently either. Thus, reliable short-term prediction would be very difficult. Although short-term predictions with large uncertainties could be useful for some areas if their social and economic environments can tolerate false alarms, such predictions would be impractical for most modern industrialized cities. A strategy for effective seismic hazard reduction is to take full advantage of the recent technical advancements in seismology, computers, and communication. In highly industrialized communities, rapid earthquake information is critically important for emergency services agencies, utilities, communications, financial companies, and media to make quick reports and damage estimates and to determine where emergency response is most needed. Long-term forecast, or prognosis, of earthquakes is important for development of realistic building codes, retrofitting existing structures, and land-use planning, but the distinction between short-term and long-term predictions needs to be clearly communicated to the public to avoid misunderstanding.

  14. Earthquake Hazard in the New Madrid Seismic Zone Remains a Concern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankel, A.D.; Applegate, D.; Tuttle, M.P.; Williams, R.A.

    2009-01-01

    There is broad agreement in the scientific community that a continuing concern exists for a major destructive earthquake in the New Madrid seismic zone. Many structures in Memphis, Tenn., St. Louis, Mo., and other communities in the central Mississippi River Valley region are vulnerable and at risk from severe ground shaking. This assessment is based on decades of research on New Madrid earthquakes and related phenomena by dozens of Federal, university, State, and consulting earth scientists. Considerable interest has developed recently from media reports that the New Madrid seismic zone may be shutting down. These reports stem from published research using global positioning system (GPS) instruments with results of geodetic measurements of strain in the Earth's crust. Because of a lack of measurable strain at the surface in some areas of the seismic zone over the past 14 years, arguments have been advanced that there is no buildup of stress at depth within the New Madrid seismic zone and that the zone may no longer pose a significant hazard. As part of the consensus-building process used to develop the national seismic hazard maps, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) convened a workshop of experts in 2006 to evaluate the latest findings in earthquake hazards in the Eastern United States. These experts considered the GPS data from New Madrid available at that time that also showed little to no ground movement at the surface. The experts did not find the GPS data to be a convincing reason to lower the assessment of earthquake hazard in the New Madrid region, especially in light of the many other types of data that are used to construct the hazard assessment, several of which are described here.

  15. Analyses of computer programs for the probabilistic estimation of design earthquake and seismological characteristics of the Korean Peninsula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Gi Hwa

    1997-11-01

    The purpose of the present study is to develop predictive equations from simulated motions which are adequate for the Korean Peninsula and analyze and utilize the computer programs for the probabilistic estimation of design earthquakes. In part I of the report, computer programs for the probabilistic estimation of design earthquake are analyzed and applied to the seismic hazard characterizations in the Korean Peninsula. In part II of the report, available instrumental earthquake records are analyzed to estimate earthquake source characteristics and medium properties, which are incorporated into simulation process. And earthquake records are simulated by using the estimated parameters. Finally, predictive equations constructed from the simulation are given in terms of magnitude and hypocentral distances

  16. Subduction zone and crustal dynamics of western Washington; a tectonic model for earthquake hazards evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Dal; Villaseñor, Antonio; Benz, Harley

    1999-01-01

    The Cascadia subduction zone is extremely complex in the western Washington region, involving local deformation of the subducting Juan de Fuca plate and complicated block structures in the crust. It has been postulated that the Cascadia subduction zone could be the source for a large thrust earthquake, possibly as large as M9.0. Large intraplate earthquakes from within the subducting Juan de Fuca plate beneath the Puget Sound region have accounted for most of the energy release in this century and future such large earthquakes are expected. Added to these possible hazards is clear evidence for strong crustal deformation events in the Puget Sound region near faults such as the Seattle fault, which passes through the southern Seattle metropolitan area. In order to understand the nature of these individual earthquake sources and their possible interrelationship, we have conducted an extensive seismotectonic study of the region. We have employed P-wave velocity models developed using local earthquake tomography as a key tool in this research. Other information utilized includes geological, paleoseismic, gravity, magnetic, magnetotelluric, deformation, seismicity, focal mechanism and geodetic data. Neotectonic concepts were tested and augmented through use of anelastic (creep) deformation models based on thin-plate, finite-element techniques developed by Peter Bird, UCLA. These programs model anelastic strain rate, stress, and velocity fields for given rheological parameters, variable crust and lithosphere thicknesses, heat flow, and elevation. Known faults in western Washington and the main Cascadia subduction thrust were incorporated in the modeling process. Significant results from the velocity models include delineation of a previously studied arch in the subducting Juan de Fuca plate. The axis of the arch is oriented in the direction of current subduction and asymmetrically deformed due to the effects of a northern buttress mapped in the velocity models. This

  17. Great earthquakes along the Western United States continental margin: implications for hazards, stratigraphy and turbidite lithology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. H. Nelson

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available We summarize the importance of great earthquakes (Mw ≳ 8 for hazards, stratigraphy of basin floors, and turbidite lithology along the active tectonic continental margins of the Cascadia subduction zone and the northern San Andreas Transform Fault by utilizing studies of swath bathymetry visual core descriptions, grain size analysis, X-ray radiographs and physical properties. Recurrence times of Holocene turbidites as proxies for earthquakes on the Cascadia and northern California margins are analyzed using two methods: (1 radiometric dating (14C method, and (2 relative dating, using hemipelagic sediment thickness and sedimentation rates (H method. The H method provides (1 the best estimate of minimum recurrence times, which are the most important for seismic hazards risk analysis, and (2 the most complete dataset of recurrence times, which shows a normal distribution pattern for paleoseismic turbidite frequencies. We observe that, on these tectonically active continental margins, during the sea-level highstand of Holocene time, triggering of turbidity currents is controlled dominantly by earthquakes, and paleoseismic turbidites have an average recurrence time of ~550 yr in northern Cascadia Basin and ~200 yr along northern California margin. The minimum recurrence times for great earthquakes are approximately 300 yr for the Cascadia subduction zone and 130 yr for the northern San Andreas Fault, which indicates both fault systems are in (Cascadia or very close (San Andreas to the early window for another great earthquake.

    On active tectonic margins with great earthquakes, the volumes of mass transport deposits (MTDs are limited on basin floors along the margins. The maximum run-out distances of MTD sheets across abyssal-basin floors along active margins are an order of magnitude less (~100 km than on passive margins (~1000 km. The great earthquakes along the Cascadia and northern California margins

  18. Geophysical surveying in the Sacramento Delta for earthquake hazard assessment and measurement of peat thickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, M. S.; Kundariya, N.; Hayashi, K.; Srinivas, A.; Burnham, M.; Oikawa, P.

    2017-12-01

    Near surface geophysical surveys were conducted in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta for earthquake hazard assessment and to provide estimates of peat thickness for use in carbon models. Delta islands have experienced 3-8 meters of subsidence during the past century due to oxidation and compaction of peat. Projected sea level rise over the next century will contribute to an ongoing landward shift of the freshwater-saltwater interface, and increase the risk of flooding due to levee failure or overtopping. Seismic shear wave velocity (VS) was measured in the upper 30 meters to determine Uniform Building Code (UBC)/ National Earthquake Hazard Reduction Program (NEHRP) site class. Both seismic and ground penetrating radar (GPR) methods were employed to estimate peat thickness. Seismic surface wave surveys were conducted at eight sites on three islands and GPR surveys were conducted at two of the sites. Combined with sites surveyed in 2015, the new work brings the total number of sites surveyed in the Delta to twenty.Soil boreholes were made at several locations using a hand auger, and peat thickness ranged from 2.1 to 5.5 meters. Seismic surveys were conducted using the multichannel analysis of surface wave (MASW) method and the microtremor array method (MAM). On Bouldin Island, VS of the surficial peat layer was 32 m/s at a site with pure peat and 63 m/s at a site peat with higher clay and silt content. Velocities at these sites reached a similar value, about 125 m/s, at a depth of 10 m. GPR surveys were performed at two sites on Sherman Island using 100 MHz antennas, and indicated the base of the peat layer at a depth of about 4 meters, consistent with nearby auger holes.The results of this work include VS depth profiles and UBC/NEHRP site classifications. Seismic and GPR methods may be used in a complementary fashion to estimate peat thickness. The seismic surface wave method is a relatively robust method and more effective than GPR in many areas with high clay

  19. Disaggregated seismic hazard and the elastic input energy spectrum: An approach to design earthquake selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Martin Colby

    1998-12-01

    The design earthquake selection problem is fundamentally probabilistic. Disaggregation of a probabilistic model of the seismic hazard offers a rational and objective approach that can identify the most likely earthquake scenario(s) contributing to hazard. An ensemble of time series can be selected on the basis of the modal earthquakes derived from the disaggregation. This gives a useful time-domain realization of the seismic hazard, to the extent that a single motion parameter captures the important time-domain characteristics. A possible limitation to this approach arises because most currently available motion prediction models for peak ground motion or oscillator response are essentially independent of duration, and modal events derived using the peak motions for the analysis may not represent the optimal characterization of the hazard. The elastic input energy spectrum is an alternative to the elastic response spectrum for these types of analyses. The input energy combines the elements of amplitude and duration into a single parameter description of the ground motion that can be readily incorporated into standard probabilistic seismic hazard analysis methodology. This use of the elastic input energy spectrum is examined. Regression analysis is performed using strong motion data from Western North America and consistent data processing procedures for both the absolute input energy equivalent velocity, (Vsbea), and the elastic pseudo-relative velocity response (PSV) in the frequency range 0.5 to 10 Hz. The results show that the two parameters can be successfully fit with identical functional forms. The dependence of Vsbea and PSV upon (NEHRP) site classification is virtually identical. The variance of Vsbea is uniformly less than that of PSV, indicating that Vsbea can be predicted with slightly less uncertainty as a function of magnitude, distance and site classification. The effects of site class are important at frequencies less than a few Hertz. The regression

  20. The seismic project of the National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppenheimer, D.H.; Bittenbinder, A.N.; Bogaert, B.M.; Buland, R.P.; Dietz, L.D.; Hansen, R.A.; Malone, S.D.; McCreery, C.S.; Sokolowski, T.J.; Whitmore, P.M.; Weaver, C.S.

    2005-01-01

    In 1997, the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), and the five western States of Alaska, California, Hawaii, Oregon, and Washington joined in a partnership called the National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program (NTHMP) to enhance the quality and quantity of seismic data provided to the NOAA tsunami warning centers in Alaska and Hawaii. The NTHMP funded a seismic project that now provides the warning centers with real-time seismic data over dedicated communication links and the Internet from regional seismic networks monitoring earthquakes in the five western states, the U.S. National Seismic Network in Colorado, and from domestic and global seismic stations operated by other agencies. The goal of the project is to reduce the time needed to issue a tsunami warning by providing the warning centers with high-dynamic range, broadband waveforms in near real time. An additional goal is to reduce the likelihood of issuing false tsunami warnings by rapidly providing to the warning centers parametric information on earthquakes that could indicate their tsunamigenic potential, such as hypocenters, magnitudes, moment tensors, and shake distribution maps. New or upgraded field instrumentation was installed over a 5-year period at 53 seismic stations in the five western states. Data from these instruments has been integrated into the seismic network utilizing Earthworm software. This network has significantly reduced the time needed to respond to teleseismic and regional earthquakes. Notably, the West Coast/Alaska Tsunami Warning Center responded to the 28 February 2001 Mw 6.8 Nisqually earthquake beneath Olympia, Washington within 2 minutes compared to an average response time of over 10 minutes for the previous 18 years. ?? Springer 2005.

  1. Crustal structure and Seismic Hazard studies in Nigeria from ambient noise and earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadiri, U. A.

    2016-12-01

    The crust, upper Mantle and seismic hazard studies have been carried out in Nigeria using noise and earthquake data. The data were acquired from stations in Nigeria and international Agencies. Firstly, known depths of sediments in the Lower Benue Trough (LBT) were collected from wells; Resonance frequency (Fo) and average shear-wave velocities (Vs) were then computed using Matlab. Secondly, average velocities were estimated from noise cross-correlation along seismic stations. Thirdly, the moho depths beneath Ife, Kaduna and Nsukka stations were estimated, as well as Vp/Vs ratio using 2009 earthquake with epicenter in Nigeria. Finally, Statistical and Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Assessment (PSHA) were used to compute seismic hazard parameters in Nigeria and its surroundings. The results showed that, soils on the LBT with average shear wave velocity of about 5684m/s would experience more amplification in case of an earthquake, compared to the basement complex in Nigeria. The Vs beneath the seismic stations in Nigeria were also estimated as 288m/s, 1019m/s, 940.6m/s and 255.02m/s in Ife, Nsukka, Awka, and Abakaliki respectively. The average velocity along the station paths was 4.5km/secs, and the Vp, Vs for depths 100-500km profile in parts of South West Nigeria increased from about 5.83-6.42Km/sec and 3.48-6.31km/s respectively with Vp/Vs ratio decreasing from 1.68 to 1.02. Statistical analysis revealed a trend of increasing earthquake occurrence along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge and tending to West African region. The analysis of PSHA shows the likelihood of earthquakes with different magnitudes occurring in Nigeria and other parts West Africa in future. This work is aimed at addressing critical issues regarding sites effect characterization, improved earthquake location and robust seismic hazards assessment for planning in the choice of sites for critical facilities in Nigeria. Keywords: Sediment thickness, Resonance Frequency, Average Velocity, Seismic Hazard, Nigeria

  2. Development of uniform hazard response spectra for rock sites considering line and point sources of earthquakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, A.K.; Kushwaha, H.S.

    2001-12-01

    Traditionally, the seismic design basis ground motion has been specified by normalised response spectral shapes and peak ground acceleration (PGA). The mean recurrence interval (MRI) used to computed for PGA only. It is shown that the MRI associated with such response spectra are not the same at all frequencies. The present work develops uniform hazard response spectra i.e. spectra having the same MRI at all frequencies for line and point sources of earthquakes by using a large number of strong motion accelerograms recorded on rock sites. Sensitivity of the number of the results to the changes in various parameters has also been presented. This work is an extension of an earlier work for aerial sources of earthquakes. These results will help to determine the seismic hazard at a given site and the associated uncertainities. (author)

  3. Application of High Performance Computing to Earthquake Hazard and Disaster Estimation in Urban Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muneo Hori

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Integrated earthquake simulation (IES is a seamless simulation of analyzing all processes of earthquake hazard and disaster. There are two difficulties in carrying out IES, namely, the requirement of large-scale computation and the requirement of numerous analysis models for structures in an urban area, and they are solved by taking advantage of high performance computing (HPC and by developing a system of automated model construction. HPC is a key element in developing IES, as it needs to analyze wave propagation and amplification processes in an underground structure; a model of high fidelity for the underground structure exceeds a degree-of-freedom larger than 100 billion. Examples of IES for Tokyo Metropolis are presented; the numerical computation is made by using K computer, the supercomputer of Japan. The estimation of earthquake hazard and disaster for a given earthquake scenario is made by the ground motion simulation and the urban area seismic response simulation, respectively, for the target area of 10,000 m × 10,000 m.

  4. Seismic hazard assessment based on the Unified Scaling Law for Earthquakes: the Greater Caucasus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nekrasova, A.; Kossobokov, V. G.

    2015-12-01

    Losses from natural disasters continue to increase mainly due to poor understanding by majority of scientific community, decision makers and public, the three components of Risk, i.e., Hazard, Exposure, and Vulnerability. Contemporary Science is responsible for not coping with challenging changes of Exposures and their Vulnerability inflicted by growing population, its concentration, etc., which result in a steady increase of Losses from Natural Hazards. Scientists owe to Society for lack of knowledge, education, and communication. In fact, Contemporary Science can do a better job in disclosing Natural Hazards, assessing Risks, and delivering such knowledge in advance catastrophic events. We continue applying the general concept of seismic risk analysis in a number of seismic regions worldwide by constructing regional seismic hazard maps based on the Unified Scaling Law for Earthquakes (USLE), i.e. log N(M,L) = A - B•(M-6) + C•log L, where N(M,L) is the expected annual number of earthquakes of a certain magnitude M within an seismically prone area of linear dimension L. The parameters A, B, and C of USLE are used to estimate, first, the expected maximum magnitude in a time interval at a seismically prone cell of a uniform grid that cover the region of interest, and then the corresponding expected ground shaking parameters including macro-seismic intensity. After a rigorous testing against the available seismic evidences in the past (e.g., the historically reported macro-seismic intensity), such a seismic hazard map is used to generate maps of specific earthquake risks (e.g., those based on the density of exposed population). The methodology of seismic hazard and risks assessment based on USLE is illustrated by application to the seismic region of Greater Caucasus.

  5. Great earthquakes along the Western United States continental margin: implications for hazards, stratigraphy and turbidite lithology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, C. H.; Gutiérrez Pastor, J.; Goldfinger, C.; Escutia, C.

    2012-11-01

    We summarize the importance of great earthquakes (Mw ≳ 8) for hazards, stratigraphy of basin floors, and turbidite lithology along the active tectonic continental margins of the Cascadia subduction zone and the northern San Andreas Transform Fault by utilizing studies of swath bathymetry visual core descriptions, grain size analysis, X-ray radiographs and physical properties. Recurrence times of Holocene turbidites as proxies for earthquakes on the Cascadia and northern California margins are analyzed using two methods: (1) radiometric dating (14C method), and (2) relative dating, using hemipelagic sediment thickness and sedimentation rates (H method). The H method provides (1) the best estimate of minimum recurrence times, which are the most important for seismic hazards risk analysis, and (2) the most complete dataset of recurrence times, which shows a normal distribution pattern for paleoseismic turbidite frequencies. We observe that, on these tectonically active continental margins, during the sea-level highstand of Holocene time, triggering of turbidity currents is controlled dominantly by earthquakes, and paleoseismic turbidites have an average recurrence time of ~550 yr in northern Cascadia Basin and ~200 yr along northern California margin. The minimum recurrence times for great earthquakes are approximately 300 yr for the Cascadia subduction zone and 130 yr for the northern San Andreas Fault, which indicates both fault systems are in (Cascadia) or very close (San Andreas) to the early window for another great earthquake. On active tectonic margins with great earthquakes, the volumes of mass transport deposits (MTDs) are limited on basin floors along the margins. The maximum run-out distances of MTD sheets across abyssal-basin floors along active margins are an order of magnitude less (~100 km) than on passive margins (~1000 km). The great earthquakes along the Cascadia and northern California margins cause seismic strengthening of the sediment, which

  6. FORESHOCKS AND TIME-DEPENDENT EARTHQUAKE HAZARD ASSESSMENT IN SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Lucile M.

    1985-01-01

    The probability that an earthquake in southern California (M greater than equivalent to 3. 0) will be followed by an earthquake of larger magnitude within 5 days and 10 km (i. e. , will be a foreshock) is 6 plus or minus 0. 5 per cent (1 S. D. ), and is not significantly dependent on the magnitude of the possible foreshock between M equals 3 and M equals 5. The probability that an earthquake will be followed by an M greater than equivalent to 5. 0 main shock, however, increases with magnitude of the foreshock from less than 1 per cent at M greater than equivalent to 3 to 6. 5 plus or minus 2. 5 per cent (1 S. D. ) at M greater than equivalent to 5. The main shock will most likely occur in the first hour after the foreshock, and the probability that a main shock will occur in the first hour decreases with elapsed time from the occurrence of the possible foreshock by approximately the inverse of time. Thus, the occurrence of an earthquake of M greater than equivalent to 3. 0 in southern California increases the earthquake hazard within a small space-time window several orders of magnitude above the normal background level.

  7. Pakistan’s Earthquake and Tsunami Hazards Potential Impact on Infrastructure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GEORGE PARARAS-CARAYANNIS

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Interaction of the Indian, Arabian and Eurasian tectonic plates has resulted in the formation of major active fault systems in South Asia. Compression along the tectonic boundaries results in thrust or reverse type of faulting and zones of crustal deformation characterized by high seismic activity and continuing Orogenesis. The more intense seismic activity occurs near regions of thrust faulting which is developing at the Himalayan foothills. In northern Pakistan, the Hindu Kush Mountains converge with the Karakoram Range to form a part of the Himalayan mountain system. Northern, western as well as southern Pakistan, Kashmir and northern India and Afghanistan are along such zones of high seismic activity. In Pakistan, most of the earthquakes occur in the north and western regions along the boundary of the Indian tectonic plate with the Iranian and Afghan micro-plates. The active zone extends from the Makran region in the southwest to the Hazara-Kashmir syntaxial bend in the north. Southwest Pakistan is vulnerable to both earthquake and tsunami hazards. In 2005, earthquakes devastated northern Pakistan and Kashmir and severely affected the cities of Muzaffarabad, Islamadad and Rawalpindi, causing severe destruction to the infrastructure of the northern region. A major earthquake along an extensive transform fault system in 1935 destroyed the city Quetta and the adjoining region. A major earthquake along the northern Arabian sea in 1945 generated a very destructive tsunami along the coasts of Baluchistan and Sindh Provinces. The region near Karachi is vulnerable as it is located near four major faults where destructive earthquakes and tsunamis have occurred in the past. Given Pakistan’s vulnerability and extensive infrastructure development in recent years, the present study reviews briefly the earthquake and tsunami risk factors and assesses the impact that such disasters can have on the country’s critical infrastructure - which includes

  8. Hazardous and mixed waste transportation program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hohnstreiter, G.F.; Glass, R.E.; McAllaster, M.E.; Nigrey, P.J.; Trennel, A.J.; Yoshimura, H.R.

    1993-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has developed a program to address the packaging needs associated with the transport of hazardous and mixed waste during the United States' Department of Energy (DOE) remediation efforts. The program addresses the technology needs associated with the transport of materials which have components that are radioactive and chemically hazardous. The mixed waste transportation activities focus on on-site specific applications of technology to the transport of hazardous and mixed wastes. These activities were identified at a series of DOE-sponsored workshops. These activities will be composed of the following: (1) packaging concepts, (2) chemical compatibility studies, and (3) systems studies. This paper will address activities in each of these areas. (J.P.N.)

  9. Hazardous and Mixed Waste Transportation Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hohnstreiter, G.F.; Glass, R.E.; McAllaster, M.E.; Nigrey, P.J.; Trennel, A.J.; Yoshimura, H.R.

    1991-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has developed a program to address the packaging needs associated with the transport of hazardous and mixed waste during the United States' Department of Energy (DOE) remediation efforts. The program addresses the technology needs associated with the transport of materials which have components that are radioactive and chemically hazardous. The mixed waste transportation activities focus on on-site specific applications of technology to the transport of hazardous and mixed wastes. These activities were identified at a series of DOE-sponsored workshops. These activities will be composed of the following: (1) packaging concepts, (2) chemical compatibility studies, and (3) systems studies. This paper will address activities in each of these areas

  10. Reducing Vulnerability of Ports and Harbors to Earthquake and Tsunami Hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Nathan J.; Good, James W.; Goodwin, Robert F.

    2002-01-01

    Recent scientific research suggests the Pacific Northwest could experience catastrophic earthquakes in the near future, both from distant and local sources, posing a significant threat to coastal communities. Damage could result from numerous earthquake-related hazards, such as severe ground shaking, soil liquefaction, landslides, land subsidence/uplift, and tsunami inundation. Because of their geographic location, ports and harbors are especially vulnerable to these hazards. Ports and harbors, however, are important components of many coastal communities, supporting numerous activities critical to the local and regional economy and possibly serving as vital post-event, response-recovery transportation links. A collaborative, multi-year initiative is underway to increase the resiliency of Pacific Northwest ports and harbors to earthquake and tsunami hazards, involving Oregon Sea Grant (OSG), Washington Sea Grant (WSG), the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Coastal Services Center (CSC), and the U.S. Geological Survey Center for Science Policy (CSP). Specific products of this research, planning, and outreach initiative include a regional stakeholder issues and needs assessment, a community-based mitigation planning process, a Geographic Information System (GIS) — based vulnerability assessment methodology, an educational web-site and a regional data archive. This paper summarizes these efforts, including results of two pilot port-harbor community projects, one in Yaquina Bay, Oregon and the other in Sinclair Inlet, Washington. Finally, plans are outlined for outreach to other port and harbor communities in the Pacific Northwest and beyond, using "getting started" workshops and a web-based tutorial.

  11. Earthquake shaking hazard estimates and exposure changes in the conterminous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaiswal, Kishor S.; Petersen, Mark D.; Rukstales, Kenneth S.; Leith, William S.

    2015-01-01

    A large portion of the population of the United States lives in areas vulnerable to earthquake hazards. This investigation aims to quantify population and infrastructure exposure within the conterminous U.S. that are subjected to varying levels of earthquake ground motions by systematically analyzing the last four cycles of the U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) National Seismic Hazard Models (published in 1996, 2002, 2008 and 2014). Using the 2013 LandScan data, we estimate the numbers of people who are exposed to potentially damaging ground motions (peak ground accelerations at or above 0.1g). At least 28 million (~9% of the total population) may experience 0.1g level of shaking at relatively frequent intervals (annual rate of 1 in 72 years or 50% probability of exceedance (PE) in 50 years), 57 million (~18% of the total population) may experience this level of shaking at moderately frequent intervals (annual rate of 1 in 475 years or 10% PE in 50 years), and 143 million (~46% of the total population) may experience such shaking at relatively infrequent intervals (annual rate of 1 in 2,475 years or 2% PE in 50 years). We also show that there is a significant number of critical infrastructure facilities located in high earthquake-hazard areas (Modified Mercalli Intensity ≥ VII with moderately frequent recurrence interval).

  12. Effects of Strike-Slip Fault Segmentation on Earthquake Energy and Seismic Hazard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madden, E. H.; Cooke, M. L.; Savage, H. M.; McBeck, J.

    2014-12-01

    Many major strike-slip faults are segmented along strike, including those along plate boundaries in California and Turkey. Failure of distinct fault segments at depth may be the source of multiple pulses of seismic radiation observed for single earthquakes. However, how and when segmentation affects fault behavior and energy release is the basis of many outstanding questions related to the physics of faulting and seismic hazard. These include the probability for a single earthquake to rupture multiple fault segments and the effects of segmentation on earthquake magnitude, radiated seismic energy, and ground motions. Using numerical models, we quantify components of the earthquake energy budget, including the tectonic work acting externally on the system, the energy of internal rock strain, the energy required to overcome fault strength and initiate slip, the energy required to overcome frictional resistance during slip, and the radiated seismic energy. We compare the energy budgets of systems of two en echelon fault segments with various spacing that include both releasing and restraining steps. First, we allow the fault segments to fail simultaneously and capture the effects of segmentation geometry on the earthquake energy budget and on the efficiency with which applied displacement is accommodated. Assuming that higher efficiency correlates with higher probability for a single, larger earthquake, this approach has utility for assessing the seismic hazard of segmented faults. Second, we nucleate slip along a weak portion of one fault segment and let the quasi-static rupture propagate across the system. Allowing fractures to form near faults in these models shows that damage develops within releasing steps and promotes slip along the second fault, while damage develops outside of restraining steps and can prohibit slip along the second fault. Work is consumed in both the propagation of and frictional slip along these new fractures, impacting the energy available

  13. Determining on-fault earthquake magnitude distributions from integer programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geist, Eric L.; Parsons, Thomas E.

    2018-01-01

    Earthquake magnitude distributions among faults within a fault system are determined from regional seismicity and fault slip rates using binary integer programming. A synthetic earthquake catalog (i.e., list of randomly sampled magnitudes) that spans millennia is first formed, assuming that regional seismicity follows a Gutenberg-Richter relation. Each earthquake in the synthetic catalog can occur on any fault and at any location. The objective is to minimize misfits in the target slip rate for each fault, where slip for each earthquake is scaled from its magnitude. The decision vector consists of binary variables indicating which locations are optimal among all possibilities. Uncertainty estimates in fault slip rates provide explicit upper and lower bounding constraints to the problem. An implicit constraint is that an earthquake can only be located on a fault if it is long enough to contain that earthquake. A general mixed-integer programming solver, consisting of a number of different algorithms, is used to determine the optimal decision vector. A case study is presented for the State of California, where a 4 kyr synthetic earthquake catalog is created and faults with slip ≥3 mm/yr are considered, resulting in >106  variables. The optimal magnitude distributions for each of the faults in the system span a rich diversity of shapes, ranging from characteristic to power-law distributions. 

  14. Hazard-consistent response spectra in the Region of Murcia (Southeast Spain): comparison to earthquake-resistant provisions

    OpenAIRE

    Gaspar Escribano, Jorge M.; Benito Oterino, Belen; Garcia Mayordomo, Julian

    2008-01-01

    Hazard-consistent ground-motion characterisations of three representative sites located in the Region of Murcia (southeast Spain) are presented. This is the area where the last three damaging events in Spain occurred and there is a significant amount of data for comparing them with seismic hazard estimates and earthquake-resistant provisions. Results of a probabilistic seismic hazard analysis are used to derive uniform hazard spectra (UHS) for the 475-year return period, on rock and soil cond...

  15. 2017 One‐year seismic‐hazard forecast for the central and eastern United States from induced and natural earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Mark D.; Mueller, Charles; Moschetti, Morgan P.; Hoover, Susan M.; Shumway, Allison; McNamara, Daniel E.; Williams, Robert; Llenos, Andrea L.; Ellsworth, William L.; Rubinstein, Justin L.; McGarr, Arthur F.; Rukstales, Kenneth S.

    2017-01-01

    We produce a one‐year 2017 seismic‐hazard forecast for the central and eastern United States from induced and natural earthquakes that updates the 2016 one‐year forecast; this map is intended to provide information to the public and to facilitate the development of induced seismicity forecasting models, methods, and data. The 2017 hazard model applies the same methodology and input logic tree as the 2016 forecast, but with an updated earthquake catalog. We also evaluate the 2016 seismic‐hazard forecast to improve future assessments. The 2016 forecast indicated high seismic hazard (greater than 1% probability of potentially damaging ground shaking in one year) in five focus areas: Oklahoma–Kansas, the Raton basin (Colorado/New Mexico border), north Texas, north Arkansas, and the New Madrid Seismic Zone. During 2016, several damaging induced earthquakes occurred in Oklahoma within the highest hazard region of the 2016 forecast; all of the 21 moment magnitude (M) ≥4 and 3 M≥5 earthquakes occurred within the highest hazard area in the 2016 forecast. Outside the Oklahoma–Kansas focus area, two earthquakes with M≥4 occurred near Trinidad, Colorado (in the Raton basin focus area), but no earthquakes with M≥2.7 were observed in the north Texas or north Arkansas focus areas. Several observations of damaging ground‐shaking levels were also recorded in the highest hazard region of Oklahoma. The 2017 forecasted seismic rates are lower in regions of induced activity due to lower rates of earthquakes in 2016 compared with 2015, which may be related to decreased wastewater injection caused by regulatory actions or by a decrease in unconventional oil and gas production. Nevertheless, the 2017 forecasted hazard is still significantly elevated in Oklahoma compared to the hazard calculated from seismicity before 2009.

  16. Have recent earthquakes exposed flaws in or misunderstandings of probabilistic seismic hazard analysis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanks, Thomas C.; Beroza, Gregory C.; Toda, Shinji

    2012-01-01

    In a recent Opinion piece in these pages, Stein et al. (2011) offer a remarkable indictment of the methods, models, and results of probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA). The principal object of their concern is the PSHA map for Japan released by the Japan Headquarters for Earthquake Research Promotion (HERP), which is reproduced by Stein et al. (2011) as their Figure 1 and also here as our Figure 1. It shows the probability of exceedance (also referred to as the “hazard”) of the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) intensity 6–lower (JMA 6–) in Japan for the 30-year period beginning in January 2010. JMA 6– is an earthquake-damage intensity measure that is associated with fairly strong ground motion that can be damaging to well-built structures and is potentially destructive to poor construction (HERP, 2005, appendix 5). Reiterating Geller (2011, p. 408), Stein et al. (2011, p. 623) have this to say about Figure 1: The regions assessed as most dangerous are the zones of three hypothetical “scenario earthquakes” (Tokai, Tonankai, and Nankai; see map). However, since 1979, earthquakes that caused 10 or more fatalities in Japan actually occurred in places assigned a relatively low probability. This discrepancy—the latest in a string of negative results for the characteristic model and its cousin the seismic-gap model—strongly suggest that the hazard map and the methods used to produce it are flawed and should be discarded. Given the central role that PSHA now plays in seismic risk analysis, performance-based engineering, and design-basis ground motions, discarding PSHA would have important consequences. We are not persuaded by the arguments of Geller (2011) and Stein et al. (2011) for doing so because important misunderstandings about PSHA seem to have conditioned them. In the quotation above, for example, they have confused important differences between earthquake-occurrence observations and ground-motion hazard calculations.

  17. Earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    An earthquake happens when two blocks of the earth suddenly slip past one another. Earthquakes strike suddenly, violently, and without warning at any time of the day or night. If an earthquake occurs in a populated area, it may cause ...

  18. Probabilistic seismic hazard assessments of Sabah, east Malaysia: accounting for local earthquake activity near Ranau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, Amin E.; Abir, Ismail A.; Ginsos, Hanteh; Abdel Hafiez, Hesham E.; Khan, Sohail

    2018-02-01

    Sabah state in eastern Malaysia, unlike most of the other Malaysian states, is characterized by common seismological activity; generally an earthquake of moderate magnitude is experienced at an interval of roughly every 20 years, originating mainly from two major sources, either a local source (e.g. Ranau and Lahad Dato) or a regional source (e.g. Kalimantan and South Philippines subductions). The seismicity map of Sabah shows the presence of two zones of distinctive seismicity, these zones are near Ranau (near Kota Kinabalu) and Lahad Datu in the southeast of Sabah. The seismicity record of Ranau begins in 1991, according to the international seismicity bulletins (e.g. United States Geological Survey and the International Seismological Center), and this short record is not sufficient for seismic source characterization. Fortunately, active Quaternary fault systems are delineated in the area. Henceforth, the seismicity of the area is thus determined as line sources referring to these faults. Two main fault systems are believed to be the source of such activities; namely, the Mensaban fault zone and the Crocker fault zone in addition to some other faults in their vicinity. Seismic hazard assessments became a very important and needed study for the extensive developing projects in Sabah especially with the presence of earthquake activities. Probabilistic seismic hazard assessments are adopted for the present work since it can provide the probability of various ground motion levels during expected from future large earthquakes. The output results are presented in terms of spectral acceleration curves and uniform hazard curves for periods of 500, 1000 and 2500 years. Since this is the first time that a complete hazard study has been done for the area, the output will be a base and standard for any future strategic plans in the area.

  19. Earthquake safety program at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freeland, G.E.

    1985-01-01

    Within three minutes on the morning of January 24, 1980, an earthquake and three aftershocks, with Richter magnitudes of 5.8, 5.1, 4.0, and 4.2, respectively, struck the Livermore Valley. Two days later, a Richter magnitude 5.4 earthquake occurred, which had its epicenter about 4 miles northwest of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). Although no one at the Lab was seriously injured, these earthquakes caused considerable damage and disruption. Masonry and concrete structures cracked and broke, trailers shifted and fell off their pedestals, office ceilings and overhead lighting fell, and bookcases overturned. The Laboratory was suddenly immersed in a site-wide program of repairing earthquake-damaged facilities, and protecting our many employees and the surrounding community from future earthquakes. Over the past five years, LLNL has spent approximately $10 million on its earthquake restoration effort for repairs and upgrades. The discussion in this paper centers upon the earthquake damage that occurred, the clean-up and restoration efforts, the seismic review of LLNL facilities, our site-specific seismic design criteria, computer-floor upgrades, ceiling-system upgrades, unique building seismic upgrades, geologic and seismologic studies, and seismic instrumentation. 10 references

  20. Physics-Based Hazard Assessment for Critical Structures Near Large Earthquake Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchings, L.; Mert, A.; Fahjan, Y.; Novikova, T.; Golara, A.; Miah, M.; Fergany, E.; Foxall, W.

    2017-09-01

    We argue that for critical structures near large earthquake sources: (1) the ergodic assumption, recent history, and simplified descriptions of the hazard are not appropriate to rely on for earthquake ground motion prediction and can lead to a mis-estimation of the hazard and risk to structures; (2) a physics-based approach can address these issues; (3) a physics-based source model must be provided to generate realistic phasing effects from finite rupture and model near-source ground motion correctly; (4) wave propagations and site response should be site specific; (5) a much wider search of possible sources of ground motion can be achieved computationally with a physics-based approach; (6) unless one utilizes a physics-based approach, the hazard and risk to structures has unknown uncertainties; (7) uncertainties can be reduced with a physics-based approach, but not with an ergodic approach; (8) computational power and computer codes have advanced to the point that risk to structures can be calculated directly from source and site-specific ground motions. Spanning the variability of potential ground motion in a predictive situation is especially difficult for near-source areas, but that is the distance at which the hazard is the greatest. The basis of a "physical-based" approach is ground-motion syntheses derived from physics and an understanding of the earthquake process. This is an overview paper and results from previous studies are used to make the case for these conclusions. Our premise is that 50 years of strong motion records is insufficient to capture all possible ranges of site and propagation path conditions, rupture processes, and spatial geometric relationships between source and site. Predicting future earthquake scenarios is necessary; models that have little or no physical basis but have been tested and adjusted to fit available observations can only "predict" what happened in the past, which should be considered description as opposed to prediction

  1. Semi-automated landform classification for hazard mapping of soil liquefaction by earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, Takayuki

    2018-05-01

    Soil liquefaction damages were caused by huge earthquake in Japan, and the similar damages are concerned in near future huge earthquake. On the other hand, a preparation of soil liquefaction risk map (soil liquefaction hazard map) is impeded by the difficulty of evaluation of soil liquefaction risk. Generally, relative soil liquefaction risk should be able to be evaluated from landform classification data by using experimental rule based on the relationship between extent of soil liquefaction damage and landform classification items associated with past earthquake. Therefore, I rearranged the relationship between landform classification items and soil liquefaction risk intelligibly in order to enable the evaluation of soil liquefaction risk based on landform classification data appropriately and efficiently. And I developed a new method of generating landform classification data of 50-m grid size from existing landform classification data of 250-m grid size by using digital elevation model (DEM) data and multi-band satellite image data in order to evaluate soil liquefaction risk in detail spatially. It is expected that the products of this study contribute to efficient producing of soil liquefaction hazard map by local government.

  2. Impact of Short-term Changes In Earthquake Hazard on Risk In Christchurch, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyst, M.

    2012-12-01

    The recent Mw 7.1, 4 September 2010 Darfield, and Mw 6.2, 22 February 2011 Christchurch, New Zealand earthquakes and the following aftershock activity completely changed the existing view on earthquake hazard of the Christchurch area. Not only have several faults been added to the New Zealand fault database, the main shocks were also followed by significant increases in seismicity due to high aftershock activity throughout the Christchurch region that is still on-going. Probabilistic seismic hazard assessment (PSHA) models take into account a stochastic event set, the full range of possible events that can cause damage or loss at a particular location. This allows insurance companies to look at their risk profiles via average annual losses (AAL) and loss-exceedance curves. The loss-exceedance curve is derived from the full suite of seismic events that could impact the insured exposure and plots the probability of exceeding a particular loss level over a certain period. Insurers manage their risk by focusing on a certain return period exceedance benchmark, typically between the 100 and 250 year return period loss level, and then reserve the amount of money needed to account for that return period loss level, their so called capacity. This component of risk management is not too sensitive to short-term changes in risk due to aftershock seismicity, as it is mostly dominated by longer-return period, larger magnitude, more damaging events. However, because the secondairy uncertainties are taken into account when calculating the exceedance probability, even the longer return period losses can still experience significant impact from the inclusion of time-dependent earthquake behavior. AAL is calculated by summing the product of the expected loss level and the annual rate for all events in the event set that cause damage or loss at a particular location. This relatively simple metric is an important factor in setting the annual premiums. By annualizing the expected losses

  3. Earthquake hazard assessment in the Zagros Orogenic Belt of Iran using a fuzzy rule-based model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farahi Ghasre Aboonasr, Sedigheh; Zamani, Ahmad; Razavipour, Fatemeh; Boostani, Reza

    2017-08-01

    Producing accurate seismic hazard map and predicting hazardous areas is necessary for risk mitigation strategies. In this paper, a fuzzy logic inference system is utilized to estimate the earthquake potential and seismic zoning of Zagros Orogenic Belt. In addition to the interpretability, fuzzy predictors can capture both nonlinearity and chaotic behavior of data, where the number of data is limited. In this paper, earthquake pattern in the Zagros has been assessed for the intervals of 10 and 50 years using fuzzy rule-based model. The Molchan statistical procedure has been used to show that our forecasting model is reliable. The earthquake hazard maps for this area reveal some remarkable features that cannot be observed on the conventional maps. Regarding our achievements, some areas in the southern (Bandar Abbas), southwestern (Bandar Kangan) and western (Kermanshah) parts of Iran display high earthquake severity even though they are geographically far apart.

  4. Navy Shipboard Hazardous Material Minimization Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bieberich, M.J. [Naval Surface Warfare Center, Annapolis, MD (United States). Carderock Div.; Robinson, P. [Life Cycle Engineering, Inc., Charleston, SC (United States); Chastain, B.

    1994-12-31

    The use of hazardous (and potentially hazardous) materials in shipboard cleaning applications has proliferated as new systems and equipments have entered the fleet to reside alongside existing equipments. With the growing environmental awareness (and additional, more restrictive regulations) at all levels/echelon commands of the DoD, the Navy has initiated a proactive program to undertake the minimization/elimination of these hazardous materials in order to eliminate HMs at the source. This paper will focus on the current Shipboard Hazardous Materials Minimization Program initiatives including the identification of authorized HM currently used onboard, identification of potential substitute materials for HM replacement, identification of new cleaning technologies and processes/procedures, and identification of technical documents which will require revision to eliminate the procurement of HMs into the federal supply system. Also discussed will be the anticipated path required to implement the changes into the fleet and automated decision processes (substitution algorithm) currently employed. The paper will also present the most recent technologies identified for approval or additional testing and analysis including: supercritical CO{sub 2} cleaning, high pressure blasting (H{sub 2}O + baking soda), aqueous and semi-aqueous cleaning materials and processes, solvent replacements and dedicated parts washing systems with internal filtering capabilities, automated software for solvent/cleaning process substitute selection. Along with these technological advances, data availability (from on-line databases and CDROM Database libraries) will be identified and discussed.

  5. A generic hazardous waste management training program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carter, R.J.; Karnofsky, B.

    1988-01-01

    The main purpose of this training program element is to familiarize personnel involved in hazardous waste management with the goals of RCRA and how they are to be achieved. These goals include: to protect health and the environment; to conserve valuable material and energy resources; to prohibit future open dumping on the land; to assure that hazardous waste management practices are conducted in a manner which protects human health and the environment; to insure that hazardous waste is properly managed thereby reducing the need for corrective actions in the future; to establish a national policy to reduce or eliminate the generation of hazardous waste, wherever feasible. Another objective of this progam element is to present a brief overview of the RCRA regulations and how they are implemented/enforced by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and each of the fifty states. This element also discusses where the RCRA regulations are published and how they are updated. In addition it details who is responsible for compliance with the regulations. Finally, this part of the training program provides an overview of the activities and materials that are regulated. 1 ref

  6. Rapid earthquake hazard and loss assessment for Euro-Mediterranean region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdik, Mustafa; Sesetyan, Karin; Demircioglu, Mine; Hancilar, Ufuk; Zulfikar, Can; Cakti, Eser; Kamer, Yaver; Yenidogan, Cem; Tuzun, Cuneyt; Cagnan, Zehra; Harmandar, Ebru

    2010-10-01

    The almost-real time estimation of ground shaking and losses after a major earthquake in the Euro-Mediterranean region was performed in the framework of the Joint Research Activity 3 (JRA-3) component of the EU FP6 Project entitled "Network of Research Infra-structures for European Seismology, NERIES". This project consists of finding the most likely location of the earthquake source by estimating the fault rupture parameters on the basis of rapid inversion of data from on-line regional broadband stations. It also includes an estimation of the spatial distribution of selected site-specific ground motion parameters at engineering bedrock through region-specific ground motion prediction equations (GMPEs) or physical simulation of ground motion. By using the Earthquake Loss Estimation Routine (ELER) software, the multi-level methodology developed for real time estimation of losses is capable of incorporating regional variability and sources of uncertainty stemming from GMPEs, fault finiteness, site modifications, inventory of physical and social elements subjected to earthquake hazard and the associated vulnerability relationships.

  7. Teamwork tools and activities within the hazard component of the Global Earthquake Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagani, M.; Weatherill, G.; Monelli, D.; Danciu, L.

    2013-05-01

    The Global Earthquake Model (GEM) is a public-private partnership aimed at supporting and fostering a global community of scientists and engineers working in the fields of seismic hazard and risk assessment. In the hazard sector, in particular, GEM recognizes the importance of local ownership and leadership in the creation of seismic hazard models. For this reason, over the last few years, GEM has been promoting different activities in the context of seismic hazard analysis ranging, for example, from regional projects targeted at the creation of updated seismic hazard studies to the development of a new open-source seismic hazard and risk calculation software called OpenQuake-engine (http://globalquakemodel.org). In this communication we'll provide a tour of the various activities completed, such as the new ISC-GEM Global Instrumental Catalogue, and of currently on-going initiatives like the creation of a suite of tools for the creation of PSHA input models. Discussion, comments and criticism by the colleagues in the audience will be highly appreciated.

  8. Neo-deterministic definition of earthquake hazard scenarios: a multiscale application to India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peresan, Antonella; Magrin, Andrea; Parvez, Imtiyaz A.; Rastogi, Bal K.; Vaccari, Franco; Cozzini, Stefano; Bisignano, Davide; Romanelli, Fabio; Panza, Giuliano F.; Ashish, Mr; Mir, Ramees R.

    2014-05-01

    The development of effective mitigation strategies requires scientifically consistent estimates of seismic ground motion; recent analysis, however, showed that the performances of the classical probabilistic approach to seismic hazard assessment (PSHA) are very unsatisfactory in anticipating ground shaking from future large earthquakes. Moreover, due to their basic heuristic limitations, the standard PSHA estimates are by far unsuitable when dealing with the protection of critical structures (e.g. nuclear power plants) and cultural heritage, where it is necessary to consider extremely long time intervals. Nonetheless, the persistence in resorting to PSHA is often explained by the need to deal with uncertainties related with ground shaking and earthquakes recurrence. We show that current computational resources and physical knowledge of the seismic waves generation and propagation processes, along with the improving quantity and quality of geophysical data, allow nowadays for viable numerical and analytical alternatives to the use of PSHA. The advanced approach considered in this study, namely the NDSHA (neo-deterministic seismic hazard assessment), is based on the physically sound definition of a wide set of credible scenario events and accounts for uncertainties and earthquakes recurrence in a substantially different way. The expected ground shaking due to a wide set of potential earthquakes is defined by means of full waveforms modelling, based on the possibility to efficiently compute synthetic seismograms in complex laterally heterogeneous anelastic media. In this way a set of scenarios of ground motion can be defined, either at national and local scale, the latter considering the 2D and 3D heterogeneities of the medium travelled by the seismic waves. The efficiency of the NDSHA computational codes allows for the fast generation of hazard maps at the regional scale even on a modern laptop computer. At the scenario scale, quick parametric studies can be easily

  9. Tsunami Hazard Assessment of Coastal South Africa Based on Mega-Earthquakes of Remote Subduction Zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kijko, Andrzej; Smit, Ansie; Papadopoulos, Gerassimos A.; Novikova, Tatyana

    2017-11-01

    After the mega-earthquakes and concomitant devastating tsunamis in Sumatra (2004) and Japan (2011), we launched an investigation into the potential risk of tsunami hazard to the coastal cities of South Africa. This paper presents the analysis of the seismic hazard of seismogenic sources that could potentially generate tsunamis, as well as the analysis of the tsunami hazard to coastal areas of South Africa. The subduction zones of Makran, South Sandwich Island, Sumatra, and the Andaman Islands were identified as possible sources of mega-earthquakes and tsunamis that could affect the African coast. Numerical tsunami simulations were used to investigate the realistic and worst-case scenarios that could be generated by these subduction zones. The simulated tsunami amplitudes and run-up heights calculated for the coastal cities of Cape Town, Durban, and Port Elizabeth are relatively small and therefore pose no real risk to the South African coast. However, only distant tsunamigenic sources were considered and the results should therefore be viewed as preliminary.

  10. Tsunami Hazard Assessment of Coastal South Africa Based on Mega-Earthquakes of Remote Subduction Zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kijko, Andrzej; Smit, Ansie; Papadopoulos, Gerassimos A.; Novikova, Tatyana

    2018-04-01

    After the mega-earthquakes and concomitant devastating tsunamis in Sumatra (2004) and Japan (2011), we launched an investigation into the potential risk of tsunami hazard to the coastal cities of South Africa. This paper presents the analysis of the seismic hazard of seismogenic sources that could potentially generate tsunamis, as well as the analysis of the tsunami hazard to coastal areas of South Africa. The subduction zones of Makran, South Sandwich Island, Sumatra, and the Andaman Islands were identified as possible sources of mega-earthquakes and tsunamis that could affect the African coast. Numerical tsunami simulations were used to investigate the realistic and worst-case scenarios that could be generated by these subduction zones. The simulated tsunami amplitudes and run-up heights calculated for the coastal cities of Cape Town, Durban, and Port Elizabeth are relatively small and therefore pose no real risk to the South African coast. However, only distant tsunamigenic sources were considered and the results should therefore be viewed as preliminary.

  11. CE-PA: A user's manual for determination of controlling earthquakes and development of seismic hazard information data base for the central and eastern United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Short, C.

    1995-05-01

    The CE-PA, Controlling Earthquake(s) through Probabilistic Analysis, software package developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is a research program used as part of a study performed for the US Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research Division Engineering project on Geosciences Issues in the revision of geological siting criteria. The objectives of this study were to explore ways on how to use results from probabilistic seismic hazard characterization (PSHC) to determine hazard-consistent scenario earthquakes and to develop design ground motion. The purpose of this document is to describe the CE-PA software to users. The software includes two operating system and process controllers plus several fortran routines and input decks. This manual gives an overview of the methodology to estimate controlling earthquakes in Section I. A descriptive overview of the procedures and the organization of the program modules used in CE-PA is provided in Section II. Section III contains four example executions with comments and a graphical display of each execution path, plus an overview of the directory/file structure. Section IV provides some general observations regarding the model

  12. Tectonic styles of future earthquakes in Italy as input data for seismic hazard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pondrelli, S.; Meletti, C.; Rovida, A.; Visini, F.; D'Amico, V.; Pace, B.

    2017-12-01

    In a recent elaboration of a new seismogenic zonation and hazard model for Italy, we tried to understand how many indications we have on the tectonic style of future earthquake/rupture. Using all available or recomputed seismic moment tensors for relevant seismic events (Mw starting from 4.5) of the last 100 yrs, first arrival focal mechanisms for less recent earthquakes and also geological data on past activated faults, we collected a database gathering a thousands of data all over the Italian peninsula and regions around it. After several summations of seismic moment tensors, over regular grids of different dimensions and different thicknesses of the seismogenic layer, we applied the same procedure to each of the 50 area sources that were designed in the seismogenic zonation. The results for several seismic zones are very stable, e.g. along the southern Apennines we expect future earthquakes to be mostly extensional, although in the outer part of the chain strike-slip events are possible. In the Northern part of the Apennines we also expect different, opposite tectonic styles for different hypocentral depths. In several zones, characterized by a low seismic moment release, defined for the study region using 1000 yrs of catalog, the next possible tectonic style of future earthquakes is less clear. It is worth to note that for some zones the possible greatest earthquake could be not represented in the available observations. We also add to our analysis the computation of the seismic release rate, computed using a distributed completeness, identified for single great events of the historical seismic catalog for Italy. All these information layers, overlapped and compared, may be used to characterize each new seismogenic zone.

  13. Estimate of airborne release of plutonium from Babcock and Wilcox plant as a result of severe wind hazard and earthquake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishima, J.; Schwendiman, L.C.; Ayer, J.E.

    1978-10-01

    As part of an interdisciplinary study to evaluate the potential radiological consequences of wind hazard and earthquake upon existing commercial mixed oxide fuel fabrication plants, the potential mass airborne releases of plutonium (source terms) from such events are estimated. The estimated souce terms are based upon the fraction of enclosures damaged to three levels of severity (crush, puncture penetrate, and loss of external filter, in order of decreasing severity), called damage ratio, and the airborne release if all enclosures suffered that level of damage. The discussion of damage scenarios and source terms is divided into wind hazard and earthquake scenarios in order of increasing severity. The largest airborne releases from the building were for cases involving the catastrophic collapse of the roof over the major production areas--wind hazard at 110 mph and earthquakes with peak ground accelerations of 0.20 to 0.29 g. Wind hazards at higher air velocities and earthquakes with higher ground acceleration do not result in significantly greater source terms. The source terms were calculated as additional mass of respirable particles released with time up to 4 days; and, under these assumptions, approximately 98% of the mass of material of concern is made airborne from 2 h to 4 days after the event. The overall building source terms from the damage scenarios evaluated are shown in a table. The contribution of individual areas to the overall building source term is presented in order of increasing severity for wind hazard and earthquake

  14. Coulomb Failure Stress Accumulation in Nepal After the 2015 Mw 7.8 Gorkha Earthquake: Testing Earthquake Triggering Hypothesis and Evaluating Seismic Hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, N.; Niu, F.

    2017-12-01

    A Mw 7.8 earthquake struck Gorkha, Nepal, on April 5, 2015, resulting in more than 8000 deaths and 3.5 million homeless. The earthquake initiated 70km west of Kathmandu and propagated eastward, rupturing an area of approximately 150km by 60km in size. However, the earthquake failed to fully rupture the locked fault beneath the Himalaya, suggesting that the region south of Kathmandu and west of the current rupture are still locked and a much more powerful earthquake might occur in future. Therefore, the seismic hazard of the unruptured region is of great concern. In this study, we investigated the Coulomb failure stress (CFS) accumulation on the unruptured fault transferred by the Gorkha earthquake and some nearby historical great earthquakes. First, we calculated the co-seismic CFS changes of the Gorkha earthquake on the nodal planes of 16 large aftershocks to quantitatively examine whether they were brought closer to failure by the mainshock. It is shown that at least 12 of the 16 aftershocks were encouraged by an increase of CFS of 0.1-3 MPa. The correspondence between the distribution of off-fault aftershocks and the increased CFS pattern also validates the applicability of the earthquake triggering hypothesis in the thrust regime of Nepal. With the validation as confidence, we calculated the co-seismic CFS change on the locked region imparted by the Gorkha earthquake and historical great earthquakes. A newly proposed ramp-flat-ramp-flat fault geometry model was employed, and the source parameters of historical earthquakes were computed with the empirical scaling relationship. A broad region south of the Kathmandu and west of the current rupture were shown to be positively stressed with CFS change roughly ranging between 0.01 and 0.5 MPa. The maximum of CFS increase (>1MPa) was found in the updip segment south of the current rupture, implying a high seismic hazard. Since the locked region may be additionally stressed by the post-seismic relaxation of the lower

  15. Seismological and geological investigation for earthquake hazard in the Greater Accra Metropolitan Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doku, M. S.

    2013-07-01

    A seismological and geological investigation for earthquake hazard in the Greater Accra Metropolitan Area was undertaken. The research was aimed at employing a methematical model to estimate the seismic stress for the study area by generating a complete, unified and harmonized earthquake catalogue spanning 1615 to 2012. Seismic events were souced from Leydecker, G. and P. Amponsah, (1986), Ambraseys and Adams, (1986), Amponsah (2008), Geological Survey Department, Accra, Ghana, Amponsah (2002), National Earthquake Information Service, United States Geological Survey, Denver, Colorado 80225, USA, the International Seismological Centre and the National Data Centre of the Ghana Atomic Energy Commission. Events occurring in the study area were used to create and Epicentral Intensity Map and a seismicity map of the study area after interpolation of missing seismic magnitudes. The least square method and the maximum likelihood estimation method were employed to evaluate b-values of 0.6 and 0.9 respectively for the study area. A thematic map of epicentral intensity superimposed on the geology of the study area was also developed to help understand the relationship between the virtually fractured, jointed and sheared geology and the seismic events. The results obtained are indicative of the fact that the stress level of GAMA has a telling effect on its seismicity and also the events are prevalents at fractured, jointed and sheared zones. (au)

  16. Java Programs for Using Newmark's Method and Simplified Decoupled Analysis to Model Slope Performance During Earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jibson, Randall W.; Jibson, Matthew W.

    2003-01-01

    Landslides typically cause a large proportion of earthquake damage, and the ability to predict slope performance during earthquakes is important for many types of seismic-hazard analysis and for the design of engineered slopes. Newmark's method for modeling a landslide as a rigid-plastic block sliding on an inclined plane provides a useful method for predicting approximate landslide displacements. Newmark's method estimates the displacement of a potential landslide block as it is subjected to earthquake shaking from a specific strong-motion record (earthquake acceleration-time history). A modification of Newmark's method, decoupled analysis, allows modeling landslides that are not assumed to be rigid blocks. This open-file report is available on CD-ROM and contains Java programs intended to facilitate performing both rigorous and simplified Newmark sliding-block analysis and a simplified model of decoupled analysis. For rigorous analysis, 2160 strong-motion records from 29 earthquakes are included along with a search interface for selecting records based on a wide variety of record properties. Utilities are available that allow users to add their own records to the program and use them for conducting Newmark analyses. Also included is a document containing detailed information about how to use Newmark's method to model dynamic slope performance. This program will run on any platform that supports the Java Runtime Environment (JRE) version 1.3, including Windows, Mac OSX, Linux, Solaris, etc. A minimum of 64 MB of available RAM is needed, and the fully installed program requires 400 MB of disk space.

  17. Kinematics, mechanics, and potential earthquake hazards for faults in Pottawatomie County, Kansas, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohlmacher, G.C.; Berendsen, P.

    2005-01-01

    Many stable continental regions have subregions with poorly defined earthquake hazards. Analysis of minor structures (folds and faults) in these subregions can improve our understanding of the tectonics and earthquake hazards. Detailed structural mapping in Pottawatomie County has revealed a suite consisting of two uplifted blocks aligned along a northeast trend and surrounded by faults. The first uplift is located southwest of the second. The northwest and southeast sides of these uplifts are bounded by northeast-trending right-lateral faults. To the east, both uplifts are bounded by north-trending reverse faults, and the first uplift is bounded by a north-trending high-angle fault to the west. The structural suite occurs above a basement fault that is part of a series of north-northeast-trending faults that delineate the Humboldt Fault Zone of eastern Kansas, an integral part of the Midcontinent Rift System. The favored kinematic model is a contractional stepover (push-up) between echelon strike-slip faults. Mechanical modeling using the boundary element method supports the interpretation of the uplifts as contractional stepovers and indicates that an approximately east-northeast maximum compressive stress trajectory is responsible for the formation of the structural suite. This stress trajectory suggests potential activity during the Laramide Orogeny, which agrees with the age of kimberlite emplacement in adjacent Riley County. The current stress field in Kansas has a N85??W maximum compressive stress trajectory that could potentially produce earthquakes along the basement faults. Several epicenters of seismic events (

  18. Evaluating earthquake hazards in the Los Angeles region; an earth-science perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziony, Joseph I.

    1985-01-01

    Potentially destructive earthquakes are inevitable in the Los Angeles region of California, but hazards prediction can provide a basis for reducing damage and loss. This volume identifies the principal geologically controlled earthquake hazards of the region (surface faulting, strong shaking, ground failure, and tsunamis), summarizes methods for characterizing their extent and severity, and suggests opportunities for their reduction. Two systems of active faults generate earthquakes in the Los Angeles region: northwest-trending, chiefly horizontal-slip faults, such as the San Andreas, and west-trending, chiefly vertical-slip faults, such as those of the Transverse Ranges. Faults in these two systems have produced more than 40 damaging earthquakes since 1800. Ninety-five faults have slipped in late Quaternary time (approximately the past 750,000 yr) and are judged capable of generating future moderate to large earthquakes and displacing the ground surface. Average rates of late Quaternary slip or separation along these faults provide an index of their relative activity. The San Andreas and San Jacinto faults have slip rates measured in tens of millimeters per year, but most other faults have rates of about 1 mm/yr or less. Intermediate rates of as much as 6 mm/yr characterize a belt of Transverse Ranges faults that extends from near Santa Barbara to near San Bernardino. The dimensions of late Quaternary faults provide a basis for estimating the maximum sizes of likely future earthquakes in the Los Angeles region: moment magnitude .(M) 8 for the San Andreas, M 7 for the other northwest-trending elements of that fault system, and M 7.5 for the Transverse Ranges faults. Geologic and seismologic evidence along these faults, however, suggests that, for planning and designing noncritical facilities, appropriate sizes would be M 8 for the San Andreas, M 7 for the San Jacinto, M 6.5 for other northwest-trending faults, and M 6.5 to 7 for the Transverse Ranges faults. The

  19. The 2012 Ferrara seismic sequence: Regional crustal structure, earthquake sources, and seismic hazard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malagnini, Luca; Herrmann, Robert B.; Munafò, Irene; Buttinelli, Mauro; Anselmi, Mario; Akinci, Aybige; Boschi, E.

    2012-10-01

    Inadequate seismic design codes can be dangerous, particularly when they underestimate the true hazard. In this study we use data from a sequence of moderate-sized earthquakes in northeast Italy to validate and test a regional wave propagation model which, in turn, is used to understand some weaknesses of the current design spectra. Our velocity model, while regionalized and somewhat ad hoc, is consistent with geophysical observations and the local geology. In the 0.02-0.1 Hz band, this model is validated by using it to calculate moment tensor solutions of 20 earthquakes (5.6 ≥ MW ≥ 3.2) in the 2012 Ferrara, Italy, seismic sequence. The seismic spectra observed for the relatively small main shock significantly exceeded the design spectra to be used in the area for critical structures. Observations and synthetics reveal that the ground motions are dominated by long-duration surface waves, which, apparently, the design codes do not adequately anticipate. In light of our results, the present seismic hazard assessment in the entire Pianura Padana, including the city of Milan, needs to be re-evaluated.

  20. Earthquake hazard analysis for the different regions in and around Ağrı

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bayrak, Erdem, E-mail: erdmbyrk@gmail.com; Yilmaz, Şeyda, E-mail: seydayilmaz@ktu.edu.tr [Karadeniz Technical University, Trabzon (Turkey); Bayrak, Yusuf, E-mail: bayrak@ktu.edu.tr [Ağrı İbrahim Çeçen University, Ağrı (Turkey)

    2016-04-18

    We investigated earthquake hazard parameters for Eastern part of Turkey by determining the a and b parameters in a Gutenberg–Richter magnitude–frequency relationship. For this purpose, study area is divided into seven different source zones based on their tectonic and seismotectonic regimes. The database used in this work was taken from different sources and catalogues such as TURKNET, International Seismological Centre (ISC), Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology (IRIS) and The Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey (TUBITAK) for instrumental period. We calculated the a value, b value, which is the slope of the frequency–magnitude Gutenberg–Richter relationship, from the maximum likelihood method (ML). Also, we estimated the mean return periods, the most probable maximum magnitude in the time period of t-years and the probability for an earthquake occurrence for an earthquake magnitude ≥ M during a time span of t-years. We used Zmap software to calculate these parameters. The lowest b value was calculated in Region 1 covered Cobandede Fault Zone. We obtain the highest a value in Region 2 covered Kagizman Fault Zone. This conclusion is strongly supported from the probability value, which shows the largest value (87%) for an earthquake with magnitude greater than or equal to 6.0. The mean return period for such a magnitude is the lowest in this region (49-years). The most probable magnitude in the next 100 years was calculated and we determined the highest value around Cobandede Fault Zone. According to these parameters, Region 1 covered the Cobandede Fault Zone and is the most dangerous area around the Eastern part of Turkey.

  1. Seismic‐hazard forecast for 2016 including induced and natural earthquakes in the central and eastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Mark D.; Mueller, Charles; Moschetti, Morgan P.; Hoover, Susan M.; Llenos, Andrea L.; Ellsworth, William L.; Michael, Andrew J.; Rubinstein, Justin L.; McGarr, Arthur F.; Rukstales, Kenneth S.

    2016-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has produced a one‐year (2016) probabilistic seismic‐hazard assessment for the central and eastern United States (CEUS) that includes contributions from both induced and natural earthquakes that are constructed with probabilistic methods using alternative data and inputs. This hazard assessment builds on our 2016 final model (Petersen et al., 2016) by adding sensitivity studies, illustrating hazard in new ways, incorporating new population data, and discussing potential improvements. The model considers short‐term seismic activity rates (primarily 2014–2015) and assumes that the activity rates will remain stationary over short time intervals. The final model considers different ways of categorizing induced and natural earthquakes by incorporating two equally weighted earthquake rate submodels that are composed of alternative earthquake inputs for catalog duration, smoothing parameters, maximum magnitudes, and ground‐motion models. These alternatives represent uncertainties on how we calculate earthquake occurrence and the diversity of opinion within the science community. In this article, we also test sensitivity to the minimum moment magnitude between M 4 and M 4.7 and the choice of applying a declustered catalog with b=1.0 rather than the full catalog with b=1.3. We incorporate two earthquake rate submodels: in the informed submodel we classify earthquakes as induced or natural, and in the adaptive submodel we do not differentiate. The alternative submodel hazard maps both depict high hazard and these are combined in the final model. Results depict several ground‐shaking measures as well as intensity and include maps showing a high‐hazard level (1% probability of exceedance in 1 year or greater). Ground motions reach 0.6g horizontal peak ground acceleration (PGA) in north‐central Oklahoma and southern Kansas, and about 0.2g PGA in the Raton basin of Colorado and New Mexico, in central Arkansas, and in

  2. Satellite Geodetic Constraints On Earthquake Processes: Implications of the 1999 Turkish Earthquakes for Fault Mechanics and Seismic Hazards on the San Andreas Fault

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilinger, Robert

    2005-01-01

    Our principal activities during the initial phase of this project include: 1) Continued monitoring of postseismic deformation for the 1999 Izmit and Duzce, Turkey earthquakes from repeated GPS survey measurements and expansion of the Marmara Continuous GPS Network (MAGNET), 2) Establishing three North Anatolian fault crossing profiles (10 sitedprofile) at locations that experienced major surface-fault earthquakes at different times in the past to examine strain accumulation as a function of time in the earthquake cycle (2004), 3) Repeat observations of selected sites in the fault-crossing profiles (2005), 4) Repeat surveys of the Marmara GPS network to continue to monitor postseismic deformation, 5) Refining block models for the Marmara Sea seismic gap area to better understand earthquake hazards in the Greater Istanbul area, 6) Continuing development of models for afterslip and distributed viscoelastic deformation for the earthquake cycle. We are keeping close contact with MIT colleagues (Brad Hager, and Eric Hetland) who are developing models for S. California and for the earthquake cycle in general (Hetland, 2006). In addition, our Turkish partners at the Marmara Research Center have undertaken repeat, micro-gravity measurements at the MAGNET sites and have provided us estimates of gravity change during the period 2003 - 2005.

  3. Impact of earthquake source complexity and land elevation data resolution on tsunami hazard assessment and fatality estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhammad, Ario; Goda, Katsuichiro

    2018-03-01

    This study investigates the impact of model complexity in source characterization and digital elevation model (DEM) resolution on the accuracy of tsunami hazard assessment and fatality estimation through a case study in Padang, Indonesia. Two types of earthquake source models, i.e. complex and uniform slip models, are adopted by considering three resolutions of DEMs, i.e. 150 m, 50 m, and 10 m. For each of the three grid resolutions, 300 complex source models are generated using new statistical prediction models of earthquake source parameters developed from extensive finite-fault models of past subduction earthquakes, whilst 100 uniform slip models are constructed with variable fault geometry without slip heterogeneity. The results highlight that significant changes to tsunami hazard and fatality estimates are observed with regard to earthquake source complexity and grid resolution. Coarse resolution (i.e. 150 m) leads to inaccurate tsunami hazard prediction and fatality estimation, whilst 50-m and 10-m resolutions produce similar results. However, velocity and momentum flux are sensitive to the grid resolution and hence, at least 10-m grid resolution needs to be implemented when considering flow-based parameters for tsunami hazard and risk assessments. In addition, the results indicate that the tsunami hazard parameters and fatality number are more sensitive to the complexity of earthquake source characterization than the grid resolution. Thus, the uniform models are not recommended for probabilistic tsunami hazard and risk assessments. Finally, the findings confirm that uncertainties of tsunami hazard level and fatality in terms of depth, velocity and momentum flux can be captured and visualized through the complex source modeling approach. From tsunami risk management perspectives, this indeed creates big data, which are useful for making effective and robust decisions.

  4. Sandia National Laboratories, California Hazardous Materials Management Program annual report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brynildson, Mark E.

    2011-02-01

    The annual program report provides detailed information about all aspects of the Sandia National Laboratories, California (SNL/CA) Hazardous Materials Management Program. It functions as supporting documentation to the SNL/CA Environmental Management System Program Manual. This program annual report describes the activities undertaken during the calender past year, and activities planned in future years to implement the Hazardous Materials Management Program, one of six programs that supports environmental management at SNL/CA.

  5. A consideration of hazards, earthquakes, aircraft crashes, explosions and fires in the safety of laboratories and plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doumenc, A.; Faure, J.; Mohammadioun, B.; Jacquet, P.

    1987-03-01

    Although laboratories and plants differ from nuclear reactors both in their characteristics and sitings, safety measures developed for the hazards of earthquakes, aircraft crashes, explosions and fires are very similar. These measures provide a satisfactory level of safety for these installations [fr

  6. Marine and land active-source seismic investigation of geothermal potential, tectonic structure, and earthquake hazards in Pyramid Lake, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eisses, A.; Kell, A.; Kent, G. [UNR; Driscoll, N. [UCSD; Karlin, R.; Baskin, R. [USGS; Louie, J. [UNR; Pullammanappallil, S. [Optim

    2016-08-01

    Amy Eisses, Annie M. Kell, Graham Kent, Neal W. Driscoll, Robert E. Karlin, Robert L. Baskin, John N. Louie, Kenneth D. Smith, Sathish Pullammanappallil, 2011, Marine and land active-source seismic investigation of geothermal potential, tectonic structure, and earthquake hazards in Pyramid Lake, Nevada: presented at American Geophysical Union Fall Meeting, San Francisco, Dec. 5-9, abstract NS14A-08.

  7. A preliminary assessment of earthquake ground shaking hazard at Yucca Mountain, Nevada and implications to the Las Vegas region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, I.G.; Green, R.K.; Sun, J.I. [Woodward-Clyde Federal Services, Oakland, CA (United States); Pezzopane, S.K. [Geological Survey, Denver, CO (United States); Abrahamson, N.A. [Abrahamson (Norm A.), Piedmont, CA (United States); Quittmeyer, R.C. [Woodward-Clyde Federal Services, Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    1996-12-31

    As part of early design studies for the potential Yucca Mountain nuclear waste repository, the authors have performed a preliminary probabilistic seismic hazard analysis of ground shaking. A total of 88 Quaternary faults within 100 km of the site were considered in the hazard analysis. They were characterized in terms of their probability o being seismogenic, and their geometry, maximum earthquake magnitude, recurrence model, and slip rate. Individual faults were characterized by maximum earthquakes that ranged from moment magnitude (M{sub w}) 5.1 to 7.6. Fault slip rates ranged from a very low 0.00001 mm/yr to as much as 4 mm/yr. An areal source zone representing background earthquakes up to M{sub w} 6 1/4 = 1/4 was also included in the analysis. Recurrence for these background events was based on the 1904--1994 historical record, which contains events up to M{sub w} 5.6. Based on this analysis, the peak horizontal rock accelerations are 0.16, 0.21, 0.28, and 0.50 g for return periods of 500, 1,000, 2,000, and 10,000 years, respectively. In general, the dominant contributor to the ground shaking hazard at Yucca Mountain are background earthquakes because of the low slip rates of the Basin and Range faults. A significant effect on the probabilistic ground motions is due to the inclusion of a new attenuation relation developed specifically for earthquakes in extensional tectonic regimes. This relation gives significantly lower peak accelerations than five other predominantly California-based relations used in the analysis, possibly due to the lower stress drops of extensional earthquakes compared to California events. Because Las Vegas is located within the same tectonic regime as Yucca Mountain, the seismic sources and path and site factors affecting the seismic hazard at Yucca Mountain also have implications to Las Vegas. These implications are discussed in this paper.

  8. A preliminary assessment of earthquake ground shaking hazard at Yucca Mountain, Nevada and implications to the Las Vegas region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, I.G.; Green, R.K.; Sun, J.I.; Pezzopane, S.K.; Abrahamson, N.A.; Quittmeyer, R.C.

    1996-01-01

    As part of early design studies for the potential Yucca Mountain nuclear waste repository, the authors have performed a preliminary probabilistic seismic hazard analysis of ground shaking. A total of 88 Quaternary faults within 100 km of the site were considered in the hazard analysis. They were characterized in terms of their probability o being seismogenic, and their geometry, maximum earthquake magnitude, recurrence model, and slip rate. Individual faults were characterized by maximum earthquakes that ranged from moment magnitude (M w ) 5.1 to 7.6. Fault slip rates ranged from a very low 0.00001 mm/yr to as much as 4 mm/yr. An areal source zone representing background earthquakes up to M w 6 1/4 = 1/4 was also included in the analysis. Recurrence for these background events was based on the 1904--1994 historical record, which contains events up to M w 5.6. Based on this analysis, the peak horizontal rock accelerations are 0.16, 0.21, 0.28, and 0.50 g for return periods of 500, 1,000, 2,000, and 10,000 years, respectively. In general, the dominant contributor to the ground shaking hazard at Yucca Mountain are background earthquakes because of the low slip rates of the Basin and Range faults. A significant effect on the probabilistic ground motions is due to the inclusion of a new attenuation relation developed specifically for earthquakes in extensional tectonic regimes. This relation gives significantly lower peak accelerations than five other predominantly California-based relations used in the analysis, possibly due to the lower stress drops of extensional earthquakes compared to California events. Because Las Vegas is located within the same tectonic regime as Yucca Mountain, the seismic sources and path and site factors affecting the seismic hazard at Yucca Mountain also have implications to Las Vegas. These implications are discussed in this paper

  9. 78 FR 43263 - Paperless Hazard Communications Pilot Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-19

    .... PHMSA-2013-0124, Notice No. 13-7] Paperless Hazard Communications Pilot Program AGENCY: Pipeline and...: PHMSA invites volunteers for a pilot program to evaluate the effectiveness of paperless hazard communications systems and comments on an information collection activity associated with the pilot program...

  10. A procedure for the determination of scenario earthquakes for seismic design based on probabilistic seismic hazard analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirose, Jiro; Muramatsu, Ken

    2002-03-01

    This report presents a study on the procedures for the determination of scenario earthquakes for seismic design of nuclear power plants (NPPs) based on probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA). In the recent years, the use of PSHA, which is a part of seismic probabilistic safety assessment (PSA), to determine the design basis earthquake motions for NPPs has been proposed. The identified earthquakes are called probability-based scenario earthquakes (PBSEs). The concept of PBSEs originates both from the study of US NRC and from Ishikawa and Kameda. The assessment of PBSEs is composed of seismic hazard analysis and identification of dominant earthquakes. The objectives of this study are to formulate the concept of PBSEs and to examine the procedures for determining the PBSEs for a domestic NPP site. This report consists of three parts, namely, procedures to compile analytical conditions for PBSEs, an assessment to identify PBSEs for a model site using the Ishikawa's concept and the examination of uncertainties involved in analytical conditions. The results obtained from the examination of PBSEs using Ishikawa's concept are as follows. (a) Since PBSEs are expressed by hazard-consistent magnitude and distance in terms of a prescribed reference probability, it is easy to obtain a concrete image of earthquakes that determine the ground response spectrum to be considered in the design of NPPs. (b) Source contribution factors provide the information on the importance of the earthquake source regions and/or active faults, and allows the selection of a couple of PBSEs based on their importance to the site. (c) Since analytical conditions involve uncertainty, sensitivity analyses on uncertainties that would affect seismic hazard curves and identification of PBSEs were performed on various aspects and provided useful insights for assessment of PBSEs. A result from this sensitivity analysis was that, although the difference in selection of attenuation equations led to a

  11. A Poisson method application to the assessment of the earthquake hazard in the North Anatolian Fault Zone, Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Türker, Tuğba, E-mail: tturker@ktu.edu.tr [Karadeniz Technical University, Department of Geophysics, Trabzon/Turkey (Turkey); Bayrak, Yusuf, E-mail: ybayrak@agri.edu.tr [Ağrı İbrahim Çeçen University, Ağrı/Turkey (Turkey)

    2016-04-18

    North Anatolian Fault (NAF) is one from the most important strike-slip fault zones in the world and located among regions in the highest seismic activity. The NAFZ observed very large earthquakes from the past to present. The aim of this study; the important parameters of Gutenberg-Richter relationship (a and b values) estimated and this parameters taking into account, earthquakes were examined in the between years 1900-2015 for 10 different seismic source regions in the NAFZ. After that estimated occurrence probabilities and return periods of occurring earthquakes in fault zone in the next years, and is being assessed with Poisson method the earthquake hazard of the NAFZ. The Region 2 were observed the largest earthquakes for the only historical period and hasn’t been observed large earthquake for the instrumental period in this region. Two historical earthquakes (1766, M{sub S}=7.3 and 1897, M{sub S}=7.0) are included for Region 2 (Marmara Region) where a large earthquake is expected in the next years. The 10 different seismic source regions are determined the relationships between the cumulative number-magnitude which estimated a and b parameters with the equation of LogN=a-bM in the Gutenberg-Richter. A homogenous earthquake catalog for M{sub S} magnitude which is equal or larger than 4.0 is used for the time period between 1900 and 2015. The database of catalog used in the study has been created from International Seismological Center (ISC) and Boğazici University Kandilli observation and earthquake research institute (KOERI). The earthquake data were obtained until from 1900 to 1974 from KOERI and ISC until from 1974 to 2015 from KOERI. The probabilities of the earthquake occurring are estimated for the next 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90 and 100 years in the 10 different seismic source regions. The highest earthquake occur probabilities in 10 different seismic source regions in the next years estimated that the region Tokat-Erzincan (Region 9) %99

  12. A Poisson method application to the assessment of the earthquake hazard in the North Anatolian Fault Zone, Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Türker, Tuğba; Bayrak, Yusuf

    2016-01-01

    North Anatolian Fault (NAF) is one from the most important strike-slip fault zones in the world and located among regions in the highest seismic activity. The NAFZ observed very large earthquakes from the past to present. The aim of this study; the important parameters of Gutenberg-Richter relationship (a and b values) estimated and this parameters taking into account, earthquakes were examined in the between years 1900-2015 for 10 different seismic source regions in the NAFZ. After that estimated occurrence probabilities and return periods of occurring earthquakes in fault zone in the next years, and is being assessed with Poisson method the earthquake hazard of the NAFZ. The Region 2 were observed the largest earthquakes for the only historical period and hasn’t been observed large earthquake for the instrumental period in this region. Two historical earthquakes (1766, M_S=7.3 and 1897, M_S=7.0) are included for Region 2 (Marmara Region) where a large earthquake is expected in the next years. The 10 different seismic source regions are determined the relationships between the cumulative number-magnitude which estimated a and b parameters with the equation of LogN=a-bM in the Gutenberg-Richter. A homogenous earthquake catalog for M_S magnitude which is equal or larger than 4.0 is used for the time period between 1900 and 2015. The database of catalog used in the study has been created from International Seismological Center (ISC) and Boğazici University Kandilli observation and earthquake research institute (KOERI). The earthquake data were obtained until from 1900 to 1974 from KOERI and ISC until from 1974 to 2015 from KOERI. The probabilities of the earthquake occurring are estimated for the next 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90 and 100 years in the 10 different seismic source regions. The highest earthquake occur probabilities in 10 different seismic source regions in the next years estimated that the region Tokat-Erzincan (Region 9) %99 with an earthquake

  13. Development of Probabilistic Design Basis Earthquake (DBE) Parameters for Moderate and High Hazard Facilities at INEEL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Payne, S. M.; Gorman, V. W.; Jensen, S. A.; Nitzel, M. E.; Russell, M. J.; Smith, R. P.

    2000-01-01

    Design Basis Earthquake (DBE) horizontal and vertical response spectra are developed for moderate and high hazard facilities or Performance Categories (PC) 3 and 4, respectively, at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The probabilistic DBE response spectra will replace the deterministic DBE response spectra currently in the U.S. Department of Energy Idaho Operations Office (DOE-ID) Architectural Engineering Standards that govern seismic design criteria for several facility areas at the INEEL. Probabilistic DBE response spectra are recommended to DOE Naval Reactors for use at the Naval Reactor Facility at INEEL. The site-specific Uniform Hazard Spectra (UHS) developed by URS Greiner Woodward Clyde Federal Services are used as the basis for developing the DBE response spectra. In 1999, the UHS for all INEEL facility areas were recomputed using more appropriate attenuation relationships for the Basin and Range province. The revised UHS have lower ground motions than those produced in the 1996 INEEL site-wide probabilistic ground motion study. The DBE response spectra were developed by incorporating smoothed broadened regions of the peak accelerations, velocities, and displacements defined by the site-specific UHS. Portions of the DBE response spectra were adjusted to ensure conservatism for the structural design process

  14. Safe-Taipei a Program Project for Strong Motions, Active Faults, and Earthquakes in the Taipei Metropolitan Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jeen-Hwa

    Strong collision between the Eurasian and Philippine Sea Plates causes high seismicity in the Taiwan region, which is often attacked by large earthquakes. Several cities, including three mega-cities, i.e., Taipei, Taichung, and Kaoshung, have been constructed on western Taiwan, where is lying on thick sediments. These cities, with a high-population density, are usually a regional center of culture, economics, and politics. Historically, larger-sized earthquakes, e.g. the 1935 Hsingchu—Taichung earthquake and the 1999 Chi—Chi earthquake, often caused serious damage on the cities. Hence, urban seismology must be one of the main subjects of Taiwan's seismological community. Since 2005, a program project, sponsored by Academia Sinica, has been launched to investigate seismological problems in the Taipei Metropolitan Area. This program project is performed during the 2005—2007 period. The core research subjects are: (1) the deployment of the Taipei Down-hole Seismic Array; (2) the properties of earthquakes and active faults in the area; (3) the seismogenic-zone structures, including the 3-D velocity and Q structures, of the area; (4) the characteristics of strong-motions and sites affects; and (5) strong-motion prediction. In addition to academic goals, the results obtained from the program project will be useful for seismic hazard mitigation not only for the area but also for others.

  15. GPS Imaging of Time-Variable Earthquake Hazard: The Hilton Creek Fault, Long Valley California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, W. C.; Blewitt, G.

    2016-12-01

    The Hilton Creek Fault, in Long Valley, California is a down-to-the-east normal fault that bounds the eastern edge of the Sierra Nevada/Great Valley microplate, and lies half inside and half outside the magmatically active caldera. Despite the dense coverage with GPS networks, the rapid and time-variable surface deformation attributable to sporadic magmatic inflation beneath the resurgent dome makes it difficult to use traditional geodetic methods to estimate the slip rate of the fault. While geologic studies identify cumulative offset, constrain timing of past earthquakes, and constrain a Quaternary slip rate to within 1-5 mm/yr, it is not currently possible to use geologic data to evaluate how the potential for slip correlates with transient caldera inflation. To estimate time-variable seismic hazard of the fault we estimate its instantaneous slip rate from GPS data using a new set of algorithms for robust estimation of velocity and strain rate fields and fault slip rates. From the GPS time series, we use the robust MIDAS algorithm to obtain time series of velocity that are highly insensitive to the effects of seasonality, outliers and steps in the data. We then use robust imaging of the velocity field to estimate a gridded time variable velocity field. Then we estimate fault slip rate at each time using a new technique that forms ad-hoc block representations that honor fault geometries, network complexity, connectivity, but does not require labor-intensive drawing of block boundaries. The results are compared to other slip rate estimates that have implications for hazard over different time scales. Time invariant long term seismic hazard is proportional to the long term slip rate accessible from geologic data. Contemporary time-invariant hazard, however, may differ from the long term rate, and is estimated from the geodetic velocity field that has been corrected for the effects of magmatic inflation in the caldera using a published model of a dipping ellipsoidal

  16. 76 FR 61070 - Disaster Assistance; Hazard Mitigation Grant Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-03

    ...) to revise the categories of projects eligible for funding under the Hazard Mitigation Grant Program (HMGP). The NPRM proposed to define eligible mitigation activities under the HMGP to include minor flood... FEMA-2011-0004] RIN 1660-AA02;Formerly 3067-AC69 Disaster Assistance; Hazard Mitigation Grant Program...

  17. Program in change: shipment of hazardous materials at the INEL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reed, L.L.

    1984-01-01

    Positive measures such as education, control, and auditing ability should be incorporated into each hazardous material shipping program to assure compliance with regulations and the safe movement of hazardous materials. This paper discusses these and other pertinent components of a shipping program. 3 references

  18. New Multi-HAzard and MulTi-RIsk Assessment MethodS for Europe (MATRIX): A research program towards mitigating multiple hazards and risks in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, K. M.; Zschau, J.; Gasparini, P.; Modaressi, H.; Matrix Consortium

    2011-12-01

    Scientists, engineers, civil protection and disaster managers typically treat natural hazards and risks individually. This leads to the situation where the frequent causal relationships between the different hazards and risks, e.g., earthquakes and volcanos, or floods and landslides, are ignored. Such an oversight may potentially lead to inefficient mitigation planning. As part of their efforts to confront this issue, the European Union, under its FP7 program, is supporting the New Multi-HAzard and MulTi-RIsK Assessment MethodS for Europe or MATRIX project. The focus of MATRIX is on natural hazards, in particular earthquakes, landslides, volcanos, wild fires, storms and fluvial and coastal flooding. MATRIX will endeavour to develop methods and tools to tackle multi-type natural hazards and risks within a common framework, focusing on methodologies that are suited to the European context. The work will involve an assessment of current single-type hazard and risk assessment methodologies, including a comparison and quantification of uncertainties and harmonization of single-type methods, examining the consequence of cascade effects within a multi-hazard environment, time-dependent vulnerability, decision making and support for multi-hazard mitigation and adaption, and a series of test cases. Three test sites are being used to assess the methods developed within the project (Naples, Cologne, and the French West Indies), as well as a "virtual city" based on a comprehensive IT platform that will allow scenarios not represented by the test cases to be examined. In addition, a comprehensive dissemination program that will involve national platforms for disaster management, as well as various outreach activities, will be undertaken. The MATRIX consortium consists of ten research institutions (nine European and one Canadian), an end-user (i.e., one of the European national platforms for disaster reduction) and a partner from industry.

  19. Seismic Hazard Analysis based on Earthquake Vulnerability and Peak Ground Acceleration using Microseismic Method at Universitas Negeri Semarang

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulistiawan, H.; Supriyadi; Yulianti, I.

    2017-02-01

    Microseismic is a harmonic vibration of land that occurs continuously at a low frequency. The characteristics of microseismic represents the characteristics of the soil layer based on the value of its natural frequency. This paper presents the analysis of seismic hazard at Universitas Negeri Semarang using microseismic method. The data acquisition was done at 20 points with distance between points 300 m by using three component’s seismometer. The data was processed using Horizontal to Vertical Spectral Ratio (HVSR) method to obtain the natural frequency and amplification value. The value of the natural frequency and amplification used to determine the value of the earthquake vulnerability and peak ground acceleration (PGA). The result shows then the earthquake vulnerability value range from 0.2 to 7.5, while the value of the average peak ground acceleration (PGA) is in the range 10-24 gal. Therefore, the average peak ground acceleration equal to earthquake intensity IV MMI scale.

  20. Assessment of seismic hazard for NPP sites in France analysis of several aftershocks of November 8, 1983, Liege earthquake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammadioun, B.; Mohammadioun, G.; Bresson, A.

    1984-03-01

    Current French practice for assessing seismic hazard on the sites of nuclear facilities is outlined. The procedure calls for as rich and varied an assortment of actual earthquake recordings as can be procured, including earthquakes in France itself and in nearby countries, recorded by the CEA/IPSN's own staff. Following the November 8, 1983, Liege earthquake, suitably equipped, temporary recording stations were set up in the epicentral area in order to record its aftershocks. Ground motion time histories and response spectra were computed for several of these, and a quality factor Q was derived from these data for the most superficial sedimentary layers of the area. The values obtained show reasonable agreement with ones found for similar materials in other regions

  1. Hazardous materials transportation and emergency response programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joy, D.S.; Fore, C.S.

    1983-01-01

    This presentation consists of the following visual aids; (1) detailed routing capabilities of truck, rail, barge; (2) legislative data base for hazardous materials; and (3) emergency response of accident site Eddyville, Kentucky (airports in vicinity of Eddyville, KY)

  2. FEMA Hazard Mitigation Grant Program - Property Acquisitions

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — HMGP provides grants to states and local governments to implement long-term hazard mitigation measures after a major disaster declaration. The HMGP is one of three...

  3. Active tectonics of the Seattle fault and central Puget sound, Washington - Implications for earthquake hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, S.Y.; Dadisman, S.V.; Childs, J. R.; Stanley, W.D.

    1999-01-01

    We use an extensive network of marine high-resolution and conventional industry seismic-reflection data to constrain the location, shallow structure, and displacement rates of the Seattle fault zone and crosscutting high-angle faults in the Puget Lowland of western Washington. Analysis of seismic profiles extending 50 km across the Puget Lowland from Lake Washington to Hood Canal indicates that the west-trending Seattle fault comprises a broad (4-6 km) zone of three or more south-dipping reverse faults. Quaternary sediment has been folded and faulted along all faults in the zone but is clearly most pronounced along fault A, the northernmost fault, which forms the boundary between the Seattle uplift and Seattle basin. Analysis of growth strata deposited across fault A indicate minimum Quaternary slip rates of about 0.6 mm/yr. Slip rates across the entire zone are estimated to be 0.7-1.1 mm/yr. The Seattle fault is cut into two main segments by an active, north-trending, high-angle, strike-slip fault zone with cumulative dextral displacement of about 2.4 km. Faults in this zone truncate and warp reflections in Tertiary and Quaternary strata and locally coincide with bathymetric lineaments. Cumulative slip rates on these faults may exceed 0.2 mm/yr. Assuming no other crosscutting faults, this north-trending fault zone divides the Seattle fault into 30-40-km-long western and eastern segments. Although this geometry could limit the area ruptured in some Seattle fault earthquakes, a large event ca. A.D. 900 appears to have involved both segments. Regional seismic-hazard assessments must (1) incorporate new information on fault length, geometry, and displacement rates on the Seattle fault, and (2) consider the hazard presented by the previously unrecognized, north-trending fault zone.

  4. Seismic hazard review for the systematic evaluation program: a use of probability in decision making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reiter, L.; Jackson, R.E.

    1983-03-01

    This document presents the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Geosciences Branch review and recommendations with respect to earthquake ground motion considerations in the Systematic Evaluation Program (SEP) Phases I and II. It evaluates the probabilistic estimates presented in the 5-volume report entitled Seismic Hazard Analysis (NUREG/CR-1582) and compares and modifies them to take into account deterministic estimates. It presents the NRC's Geosciences Branch first approach to utilizing complex state-of-the-art probabilistic studies in an area where probabilistic criteria have not yet been set and where decisions for specific plants have been previously made in a non-probabilistic way

  5. Earthquake-induced crustal deformation and consequences for fault displacement hazard analysis of nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gürpinar, Aybars, E-mail: aybarsgurpinar2007@yahoo.com [Nuclear & Risk Consultancy, Anisgasse 4, 1221 Vienna (Austria); Serva, Leonello, E-mail: lserva@alice.it [Independent Consultant, Via dei Dauni 1, 00185 Rome (Italy); Livio, Franz, E-mail: franz.livio@uninsubria.it [Dipartimento di Scienza ed Alta Tecnologia, Università degli Studi dell’Insubria, Via Velleggio, 11, 22100 Como (Italy); Rizzo, Paul C., E-mail: paul.rizzo@rizzoasoc.com [RIZZO Associates, 500 Penn Center Blvd., Suite 100, Pittsburgh, PA 15235 (United States)

    2017-01-15

    Highlights: • A three-step procedure to incorporate coseismic deformation into PFDHA. • Increased scrutiny for faults in the area permanently deformed by future strong earthquakes. • These faults share with the primary structure the same time window for fault capability. • VGM variation may occur due to tectonism that has caused co-seismic deformation. - Abstract: Readily available interferometric data (InSAR) of the coseismic deformation field caused by recent seismic events clearly show that major earthquakes produce crustal deformation over wide areas, possibly resulting in significant stress loading/unloading of the crust. Such stress must be considered in the evaluation of seismic hazards of nuclear power plants (NPP) and, in particular, for the potential of surface slip (i.e., probabilistic fault displacement hazard analysis - PFDHA) on both primary and distributed faults. In this study, based on the assumption that slip on pre-existing structures can represent the elastic response of compliant fault zones to the permanent co-seismic stress changes induced by other major seismogenic structures, we propose a three-step procedure to address fault displacement issues and consider possible influence of surface faulting/deformation on vibratory ground motion (VGM). This approach includes: (a) data on the presence and characteristics of capable faults, (b) data on recognized and/or modeled co-seismic deformation fields and, where possible, (c) static stress transfer between source and receiving faults of unknown capability. The initial step involves the recognition of the major seismogenic structures nearest to the site and their characterization in terms of maximum expected earthquake and the time frame to be considered for determining their “capability” (as defined in the International Atomic Energy Agency - IAEA Specific Safety Guide SSG-9). Then a GIS-based buffer approach is applied to identify all the faults near the NPP, possibly influenced by

  6. Earthquake-induced crustal deformation and consequences for fault displacement hazard analysis of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gürpinar, Aybars; Serva, Leonello; Livio, Franz; Rizzo, Paul C.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A three-step procedure to incorporate coseismic deformation into PFDHA. • Increased scrutiny for faults in the area permanently deformed by future strong earthquakes. • These faults share with the primary structure the same time window for fault capability. • VGM variation may occur due to tectonism that has caused co-seismic deformation. - Abstract: Readily available interferometric data (InSAR) of the coseismic deformation field caused by recent seismic events clearly show that major earthquakes produce crustal deformation over wide areas, possibly resulting in significant stress loading/unloading of the crust. Such stress must be considered in the evaluation of seismic hazards of nuclear power plants (NPP) and, in particular, for the potential of surface slip (i.e., probabilistic fault displacement hazard analysis - PFDHA) on both primary and distributed faults. In this study, based on the assumption that slip on pre-existing structures can represent the elastic response of compliant fault zones to the permanent co-seismic stress changes induced by other major seismogenic structures, we propose a three-step procedure to address fault displacement issues and consider possible influence of surface faulting/deformation on vibratory ground motion (VGM). This approach includes: (a) data on the presence and characteristics of capable faults, (b) data on recognized and/or modeled co-seismic deformation fields and, where possible, (c) static stress transfer between source and receiving faults of unknown capability. The initial step involves the recognition of the major seismogenic structures nearest to the site and their characterization in terms of maximum expected earthquake and the time frame to be considered for determining their “capability” (as defined in the International Atomic Energy Agency - IAEA Specific Safety Guide SSG-9). Then a GIS-based buffer approach is applied to identify all the faults near the NPP, possibly influenced by

  7. Lessons from the conviction of the L'Aquila seven: The standard probabilistic earthquake hazard and risk assessment is ineffective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyss, Max

    2013-04-01

    An earthquake of M6.3 killed 309 people in L'Aquila, Italy, on 6 April 2011. Subsequently, a judge in L'Aquila convicted seven who had participated in an emergency meeting on March 30, assessing the probability of a major event to follow the ongoing earthquake swarm. The sentence was six years in prison, a combine fine of 2 million Euros, loss of job, loss of retirement rent, and lawyer's costs. The judge followed the prosecution's accusation that the review by the Commission of Great Risks had conveyed a false sense of security to the population, which consequently did not take their usual precautionary measures before the deadly earthquake. He did not consider the facts that (1) one of the convicted was not a member of the commission and had merrily obeyed orders to bring the latest seismological facts to the discussion, (2) another was an engineer who was not required to have any expertise regarding the probability of earthquakes, (3) and two others were seismologists not invited to speak to the public at a TV interview and a press conference. This exaggerated judgment was the consequence of an uproar in the population, who felt misinformed and even mislead. Faced with a population worried by an earthquake swarm, the head of the Italian Civil Defense is on record ordering that the population be calmed, and the vice head executed this order in a TV interview one hour before the meeting of the Commission by stating "the scientific community continues to tell me that the situation is favorable and that there is a discharge of energy." The first lesson to be learned is that communications to the public about earthquake hazard and risk must not be left in the hands of someone who has gross misunderstandings about seismology. They must be carefully prepared by experts. The more significant lesson is that the approach to calm the population and the standard probabilistic hazard and risk assessment, as practiced by GSHAP, are misleading. The later has been criticized as

  8. Coseismic Strain Steps of the 2008 Wenchuan Earthquake Indicate EW Extension of Tibetan Plateau and Increased Hazard South to Epicenter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, G.; Shen, X.; Tang, J.; Fukuda, Y.

    2008-12-01

    The 2008 Wenchuan earthquake (Ms8.0) occurred at the east edge of Tibetan Plateau. It is the biggest seismic disaster in China since the 1976 Tangshan earthquake. To determine the effects of the earthquake on the deformation field of Tibetan Plateau, we collect and analyze continuing strain data of three stations before and after the earthquake in Tibetan Plateau observed by capacitance-type bore-hole strainmeters (Chi, 1985). We collect strain data in NS, EW, NE-SW and NW-NS directions at each borehole. Then we deduce the co-seismic strain steps at time point 14:28 of May 12, 2008 (at this time point the earthquake occurred) with the data before and after the earthquake using the least squares method. Our observation shows that in Tibetan Plateau significant co-seismic strain steps are accompanied with the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake. Extension in EW direction is observed at interior and north Tibetan Plateau which indicates a rapid EW extension of the whole Plateau. Field investigation shows that the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake is a manifestation of eastward growth of the Tibetan Plateau (Dong et al., 2008). Eastwards growth of the Tibetan Plateau results naturally in the extension of the Plateau in EW direction. Our co-seismic strain observation agrees well with the conclusion from surface rupture investigation. The magnitude of co-seismic strain step equals to five times of average year extensional strain rate throughout the plateau interior. Shortening in SE- NW direction is observed at the east edge of the Plateau. As hints that the eastward extension of Tibetan Plateau is resisted by Sichuan rigid basin which increases the potential earthquake hazard around the observation station, manifests the declaration from co-seismic stress changes calculation (Persons et al., 2008). Our observed co-seismic strain steps are in total lager than theoretical calculations of dislocation theories which indicate that magnitude of the great earthquake should be bigger than 7.9. Due

  9. Department of Energy Hazardous Waste Remedial Actions Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franco, P.J.

    1989-01-01

    This paper discusses the hazardous waste remedial actions program (HAZWRAP) which manages approximately 200 hazardous waste projects. These projects include preliminary assessments, site inspections, and remedial investigation/feasibility studies. The author describes the procedures HAZWRAP follows to ensure quality. The discussion covers the quality assurance aspects of project management, project planning, site characterization, document control and technical teamwork

  10. Methodologies for the assessment of earthquake-triggered landslides hazard. A comparison of Logistic Regression and Artificial Neural Network models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Rodríguez, M. J.; Malpica, J. A.; Benito, B.

    2009-04-01

    In recent years, interest in landslide hazard assessment studies has increased substantially. They are appropriate for evaluation and mitigation plan development in landslide-prone areas. There are several techniques available for landslide hazard research at a regional scale. Generally, they can be classified in two groups: qualitative and quantitative methods. Most of qualitative methods tend to be subjective, since they depend on expert opinions and represent hazard levels in descriptive terms. On the other hand, quantitative methods are objective and they are commonly used due to the correlation between the instability factors and the location of the landslides. Within this group, statistical approaches and new heuristic techniques based on artificial intelligence (artificial neural network (ANN), fuzzy logic, etc.) provide rigorous analysis to assess landslide hazard over large regions. However, they depend on qualitative and quantitative data, scale, types of movements and characteristic factors used. We analysed and compared an approach for assessing earthquake-triggered landslides hazard using logistic regression (LR) and artificial neural networks (ANN) with a back-propagation learning algorithm. One application has been developed in El Salvador, a country of Central America where the earthquake-triggered landslides are usual phenomena. In a first phase, we analysed the susceptibility and hazard associated to the seismic scenario of the 2001 January 13th earthquake. We calibrated the models using data from the landslide inventory for this scenario. These analyses require input variables representing physical parameters to contribute to the initiation of slope instability, for example, slope gradient, elevation, aspect, mean annual precipitation, lithology, land use, and terrain roughness, while the occurrence or non-occurrence of landslides is considered as dependent variable. The results of the landslide susceptibility analysis are checked using landslide

  11. Building a Communication, Education, an Outreach Program for the ShakeAlert National Earthquake Early Warning Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeGroot, R. M.; Strauss, J. A.; Given, D. D.; Cochran, E. S.; Burkett, E. R.; Long, K.

    2016-12-01

    Earthquake Early Warning (EEW) systems can provide as much as tens of seconds of warning to people and automated systems before strong shaking arrives. The United States Geological Survey (USGS) and its partners are developing an EEW system for the West Coast of the United States. To be an integral part of successful implementation, EEW engagement programs and materials must integrate with and leverage broader earthquake risk programs. New methods and products for dissemination must be multidisciplinary, cost effective, and consistent with existing hazards education efforts. Our presentation outlines how the USGS and its partners will approach this effort in the context of the EEW system through the work of a multistate and multiagency committee that participates in the design, implementation, and evaluation of a portfolio of programs and products. This committee, referred to as the ShakeAlert Joint Committee for Communication, Education, and Outreach (ShakeAlert CEO), is working to identify, develop, and cultivate partnerships with EEW stakeholders including Federal, State, academic partners, private companies, policy makers, and local organizations. Efforts include developing materials, methods for delivery, and reaching stakeholders with information on EEW, earthquake preparedness, and emergency protective actions. It is essential to develop standards to ensure information communicated via the EEW alerts is consistent across the public and private sector and achieving a common understanding of what actions users take when they receive an EEW warning. The USGS and the participating states and agencies acknowledge that the implementation of EEW is a collective effort requiring the participation of hundreds of stakeholders committed to ensuring public accessibility.

  12. Investigation of tectonics and statistical analysis of earthquake hazard in Tange Sorkh dam

    OpenAIRE

    ZOLFAGHARI, Sayyed Yaghoub; RAFIEE, A.; HADI, S. M.R.; TAHERMANESH, R.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract. Today, most understood the importance of the risk of earthquakes with the intensification of the country's development, the rise in urbanization, the concentration of population and material and intellectual capital and increased vulnerability of the capital in the Iran seismic zone. Iran, as one of the most seismic countries in the world, in recent years has witnessed the devastating earthquake, for example can be pointed to earthquakes of Rudbar - Manjil, Bojnoord, Zir Kouh Ghaena...

  13. Earthquake induced liquefaction hazard, probability and risk assessment in the city of Kolkata, India: its historical perspective and deterministic scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nath, Sankar Kumar; Srivastava, Nishtha; Ghatak, Chitralekha; Adhikari, Manik Das; Ghosh, Ambarish; Sinha Ray, S. P.

    2018-01-01

    Liquefaction-induced ground failure is one amongst the leading causes of infrastructure damage due to the impact of large earthquakes in unconsolidated, non-cohesive, water saturated alluvial terrains. The city of Kolkata is located on the potentially liquefiable alluvial fan deposits of Ganga-Bramhaputra-Meghna Delta system with subsurface litho-stratigraphic sequence comprising of varying percentages of clay, cohesionless silt, sand, and gravel interbedded with decomposed wood and peat. Additionally, the region has moderately shallow groundwater condition especially in the post-monsoon seasons. In view of burgeoning population, there had been unplanned expansion of settlements in the hazardous geological, geomorphological, and hydrological conditions exposing the city to severe liquefaction hazard. The 1897 Shillong and 1934 Bihar-Nepal earthquakes both of M w 8.1 reportedly induced Modified Mercalli Intensity of IV-V and VI-VII respectively in the city reportedly triggering widespread to sporadic liquefaction condition with surface manifestation of sand boils, lateral spreading, ground subsidence, etc., thus posing a strong case for liquefaction potential analysis in the terrain. With the motivation of assessing seismic hazard, vulnerability, and risk of the city of Kolkata through a consorted federal funding stipulated for all the metros and upstart urban centers in India located in BIS seismic zones III, IV, and V with population more than one million, an attempt has been made here to understand the liquefaction susceptibility condition of Kolkata under the impact of earthquake loading employing modern multivariate techniques and also to predict deterministic liquefaction scenario of the city in the event of a probabilistic seismic hazard condition with 10% probability of exceedance in 50 years and a return period of 475 years. We conducted in-depth geophysical and geotechnical investigations in the city encompassing 435 km2 area. The stochastically

  14. Vulnerability assessment of archaeological sites to earthquake hazard: An indicator based method integrating spatial and temporal aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Despina Minos-Minopoulos

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Across the world, numerous sites of cultural heritage value are at risk from a variety of human-induced and natural hazards such as war and earthquakes. Here we present and test a novel indicator-based method for assessing the vulnerability of archaeological sites to earthquakes. Vulnerability is approached as a dynamic element assessed through a combination of spatial and temporal parameters. The spatial parameters examine the susceptibility of the sites to the secondary Earthquake Environmental Effects of ground liquefaction, landslides and tsunami and are expressed through the Spatial Susceptibility Index (SSi. Parameters of physical vulnerability, economic importance and visitors density examine the temporal vulnerability of the sites expressed through the Temporal Vulnerability Index (TVi. The equally weighted sum of the spatial and temporal indexes represents the total Archaeological Site Vulnerability Index (A.S.V.I.. The A.S.V.I method is applied at 16 archaeological sites across Greece, allowing an assessment of their vulnerability. This then allows the establishment of a regional and national priority list for considering future risk mitigation. Results indicate that i the majority of the sites have low to moderate vulnerability to earthquake hazard, ii Neratzia Fortress on Kos and Heraion on Samos are characterised as highly vulnerable and should be prioritised for further studies and mitigation measures, and iii the majority of the sites are susceptible to at least one Earthquake Environmental Effect and present relatively high physical vulnerability attributed to the existing limited conservation works. This approach highlights the necessity for an effective vulnerability assessment methodology within the existing framework of disaster risk management for cultural heritage.

  15. Impacting earthquake science and geoscience education: Educational programming to earthquake relocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrick, Tina Louise

    This dissertation is comprised of four studies: three related to research on geoscience education and another seismological study of the South Island of New Zealand. The geoscience education research is grounded in 10 years of data collection and its implications for best practices for recruitment and retention of underrepresented minority students into higher education in the geosciences. The seismological component contains results from the relocation of earthquakes from the 2009 Dusky Sound Mw 7.8 event, South Island, New Zealand. In recent years, many have cited a major concern that U.S. is not producing enough STEM graduates to fit the forecasted economic need. This situation is exacerbated by the fact that underrepresented minorities are becoming a growing portion of the population, and people in these groups enter STEM careers at rates much smaller than their proportion of the populations. Among the STEM disciplines the Geosciences are the worst at attracting young people from underrepresented minorities. This dissertation reports on results the Pathways program at the University of Texas at El Paso Pathways which sought to create a geoscience recruitment and training network in El Paso, Texas to increase the number of Hispanic Americans students to attain higher degrees and increase the awareness of the geosciences from 2002-2012. Two elements of the program were a summer program for high school students and an undergraduate research program conducted during the academic year, called PREP. Data collected from pre- and post-surveys from the summer program showed statistically significant positive changes in attitudes towards the geosciences. Longitudinal data shows a strong positive correlation of the program with retention of participants in the geoscience pipeline. Results from the undergraduate research program show that it produced far more women and minority geoscience professionals than national norms. Combination of the institutional data, focus

  16. 77 FR 47302 - South Dakota: Final Authorization of State Hazardous Waste Management Program Revisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-08

    ...: Final Authorization of State Hazardous Waste Management Program Revisions AGENCY: Environmental... EPA proposed to authorize South Dakota's State Hazardous waste management Program revisions published... to the hazardous waste program revisions submitted by South Dakota. The Agency published a Proposed...

  17. 77 FR 15273 - Oklahoma: Final Authorization of State Hazardous Waste Management Program Revision

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-15

    ...: Final Authorization of State Hazardous Waste Management Program Revision AGENCY: Environmental... hazardous waste management program. We authorized the following revisions: Oklahoma received authorization... its program revision in accordance with 40 CFR 271.21. The Oklahoma Hazardous Waste Management Act...

  18. Earthquake Scenarios Based Upon the Data and Methodologies of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Seismic Hazard Mapping Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rukstales, K. S.; Petersen, M. D.; Frankel, A. D.; Harmsen, S. C.; Wald, D. J.; Quitoriano, V. R.; Haller, K. M.

    2011-12-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) National Seismic Hazard Mapping Project (NSHMP) utilizes a database of over 500 faults across the conterminous United States to constrain earthquake source models for probabilistic seismic hazard maps. Additionally, the fault database is now being used to produce a suite of deterministic ground motions for earthquake scenarios that are based on the same fault source parameters and empirical ground motion prediction equations used for the probabilistic hazard maps. Unlike the calculated hazard map ground motions, local soil amplification is applied to the scenario calculations based on the best available Vs30 (average shear-wave velocity down to 30 meters) mapping, or in some cases using topographic slope as a proxy. Systematic outputs include all standard USGS ShakeMap products, including GIS, KML, XML, and HAZUS input files. These data are available from the ShakeMap web pages with a searchable archive. The scenarios are being produced within the framework of a geographic information system (GIS) so that alternative scenarios can readily be produced by altering fault source parameters, Vs30 soil amplification, as well as the weighting of ground motion prediction equations used in the calculations. The alternative scenarios can then be used for sensitivity analysis studies to better characterize uncertainty in the source model and convey this information to decision makers. By providing a comprehensive collection of earthquake scenarios based upon the established data and methods of the USGS NSHMP, we hope to provide a well-documented source of data which can be used for visualization, planning, mitigation, loss estimation, and research purposes.

  19. Hazardous Waste Remedial Actions Program annual progress report, FY 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-12-01

    The Hazardous Waste Remedial Actions Programs (HAZWRAP), a unit of Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., supports the Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Operations Office in broadly environmental areas, especially those relating to waste management and environmental restoration. HAZWRAP comprises six program areas, which are supported by central administrative and technical organizations. Existing programs deal with airborne hazardous substances, pollution prevention, remedial actions planning, environmental restoration, technology development, and information and data systems. HAZWRAP's mission to develop, promote, and apply-cost-effective hazardous waste management and environmental technologies to help solve national problems and concerns. HAZWRAP seeks to serve as integrator for hazardous waste and materials management across the federal government. It applies the unique combination of research and development (R D) capabilities, technologies, management expertise, and facilities in the Energy Systems complex to address problems of national importance. 24 figs., 10 tabs.

  20. Probabilistic Tsunami Hazard Analysis of the Pacific Coast of Mexico: Case Study Based on the 1995 Colima Earthquake Tsunami

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuhito Mori

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This study develops a novel computational framework to carry out probabilistic tsunami hazard assessment for the Pacific coast of Mexico. The new approach enables the consideration of stochastic tsunami source scenarios having variable fault geometry and heterogeneous slip that are constrained by an extensive database of rupture models for historical earthquakes around the world. The assessment focuses upon the 1995 Jalisco–Colima Earthquake Tsunami from a retrospective viewpoint. Numerous source scenarios of large subduction earthquakes are generated to assess the sensitivity and variability of tsunami inundation characteristics of the target region. Analyses of nine slip models along the Mexican Pacific coast are performed, and statistical characteristics of slips (e.g., coherent structures of slip spectra are estimated. The source variability allows exploring a wide range of tsunami scenarios for a moment magnitude (Mw 8 subduction earthquake in the Mexican Pacific region to conduct thorough sensitivity analyses and to quantify the tsunami height variability. The numerical results indicate a strong sensitivity of maximum tsunami height to major slip locations in the source and indicate major uncertainty at the first peak of tsunami waves.

  1. BASLIKO. A program for baseline-correction of earthquake-accelerograms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koschmieder, D.; Altes, J.

    1978-12-01

    In the following report a program for baseline-correction of earthquake-accelerograms is presented. By using this program errors in curves, which occur in using the chronographs and digitizers, are eliminated. (orig.) [de

  2. Program and plans of the U.S. Geological Survey for producing information needed in National Seismic hazards and risk assessment, fiscal years 1980-84

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hays, Walter W.

    1979-01-01

    In accordance with the provisions of the Earthquake Hazards Reduction Act of 1977 (Public Law 95-124), the U.S. Geological Survey has developed comprehensive plans for producing information needed to assess seismic hazards and risk on a national scale in fiscal years 1980-84. These plans are based on a review of the needs of Federal Government agencies, State and local government agencies, engineers and scientists engaged in consulting and research, professional organizations and societies, model code groups, and others. The Earthquake Hazards Reduction Act provided an unprecedented opportunity for participation in a national program by representatives of State and local governments, business and industry, the design professions, and the research community. The USGS and the NSF (National Science Foundation) have major roles in the national program. The ultimate goal of the program is to reduce losses from earthquakes. Implementation of USGS research in the Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program requires the close coordination of responsibility between Federal, State and local governments. The projected research plan in national seismic hazards and risk for fiscal years 1980-84 will be accomplished by USGS and non-USGS scientists and engineers. The latter group will participate through grants and contracts. The research plan calls for (1) national maps based on existing methods, (2) improved definition of earthquake source zones nationwide, (3) development of improved methodology, (4) regional maps based on the improved methodology, and (5) post-earthquake investigations. Maps and reports designed to meet the needs, priorities, concerns, and recommendations of various user groups will be the products of this research and provide the technical basis for improved implementation.

  3. 78 FR 19004 - Scientific Earthquake Studies Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-28

    ... Hazards Program. Focus topics for this meeting include induced seismicity, earthquake early warning and... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR U.S. Geological Survey [GX13GG009950000] Scientific Earthquake Studies... Law 106-503, the Scientific Earthquake Studies Advisory Committee (SESAC) will hold its next meeting...

  4. 75 FR 2159 - Scientific Earthquake Studies Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-14

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Earthquake Studies Advisory Committee... Scientific Earthquake Studies Advisory Committee (SESAC) will hold its next meeting at the U.S. Geological... participation in the National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program. The Committee will receive updates and...

  5. Special Issue "Impact of Natural Hazards on Urban Areas and Infrastructure" in the Bulletin of Earthquake Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostenaru Dan, M.

    2009-04-01

    This special issue includes selected papers on the topic of earthquake impact from the sessions held in 2004 in Nice, France and in 2005 in Vienna, Austria at the first and respectivelly the second European Geosciences Union General Assembly. Since its start in 1999, in the Hague, Netherlands, the hazard of earthquakes has been the most popular of the session. The respective calls in 2004 was for: Nature's forces including earthquakes, floods, landslides, high winds and volcanic eruptions can inflict losses to urban settlements and man-made structures such as infrastructure. In Europe, recent years have seen such significant losses from earthquakes in south and south-eastern Europe, floods in central Europe, and wind storms in western Europe. Meanwhile, significant progress has been made in understanding disasters. Several scientific fields contribute to a holistic approach in the evaluation of capacities, vulnerabilities and hazards, the main factors on mitigating urban disasters due to natural hazards. An important part of the session is devoted to assessment of earthquake shaking and loss scenarios, including both physical damage and human causalities. Early warning and rapid damage evaluation are of utmost importance for addressing the safety of many essential facilities, for emergency management of events and for disaster response. In case of earthquake occurrence strong motion networks, data processing and interpretation lead to preliminary estimation (scenarios) of geographical distribution of damages. Factual information on inflicted damage, like those obtained from shaking maps or aerial imagery permit a confrontation with simulation maps of damage in order to define a more accurate picture of the overall losses. Most recent developments towards quantitative and qualitative simulation of natural hazard impacts on urban areas, which provide decision-making support for urban disaster management, and success stories of and lessons learned from disaster

  6. The hazard map of ML6.6 0206 Meinong earthquake near Guanmiao and its Neotectonic implication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, L. H.; Shyu, J. B. H.; Huang, M. H.; Yang, K. M.; Le Beon, M.; Lee, Y. H.; Chuang, R.; Yi, D.

    2016-12-01

    The serious damage was occurred in SW Taiwan by ML 6.6 0206 Meinong earthquake. Based on InSAR result, 10 cm oval-raised surface deformation is 15 km away from its epicenter, and two obviously N-S trend sharp phase change nearby Guanmiao area. Our field investigation shows bulling damage and surface fracture are high related with the two sharp phase change. Here, we perform the detailed shallow underground geometry by using reflection seismic data, geologic data, and field hazard investigation. This N-S trend surface deformation may be induced by local shallow folding, while the huge uplift west of Guanmiao may be related with pure shear deformation of thick clayey Gutingkeng (GTK) Formation. Our results imply that not only a moderate lower crustal earthquake can trigger active structure at shallower depth, but also those minor shallow active structures are occurred serious damage and surface deformation.

  7. EG and G long-range hazardous waste program plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-02-01

    The purpose of this document is to develop and implement a program for safe, economic management of hazardous and radioactive mixed waste generated, transported, treated, stored, or disposed of by EG and G Idaho operated facilities. The initial part of this program involves identification and characterization of EG and G-generated hazardous and radioactive mixed waste, and activities for corrective action, including handling, packaging, and shipping of these wastes off site for treatment, storage, and/or disposal, or for interim remedial action. The documentation necessary for all areas of the plan is carefully defined, so as to ensure compliance, at every step, with the requisite orders and guidelines. A second part of this program calls for assessment, and possible development and implementation of a treatment, storage, and disposal (T/S/D) program for special hazardous and radioactive mixed wastes which cannot practically, economically, and safely be disposed of at off-site facilities. This segment of the plan addresses obtaining permits for the existing Waste Experimental Reduction Facility (WERF) incinerator and for the construction of an adjacent hazardous waste solidification facility and a storage area. The permitting and construction of a special hazardous waste treatment and storage facility is also explored. The report investigates permitting the Hazardous Waste Storage Facility (HWSF) as a permanent storage facility

  8. Time-dependent earthquake hazard evaluation in seismogenic systems using mixed Markov Chains: An application to the Japan area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, C.; Nava, F. A.; Lomnitz, C.

    2006-08-01

    A previous work introduced a new method for seismic hazard evaluation in a system (a geographic area with distinct, but related seismogenic regions) based on modeling the transition probabilities of states (patterns of presence or absence of seismicity, with magnitude greater or equal to a threshold magnitude Mr, in the regions of the system, during a time interval Δt) as a Markov chain. Application of this direct method to the Japan area gave very good results. Given that the most important limitation of the direct method is the relative scarcity of large magnitude events, we decided to explore the possibility that seismicity with magnitude M ≥ Mmr contains information about the future occurrence of earthquakes with M ≥ Mmr > Mmr. This mixed Markov chain method estimates the probabilities of occurrence of a system state for M ≥ MMr on the basis of the observed state for M ≥ Mmr in the previous Δt. Application of the mixed method to the area of Japan gives better hazard estimations than the direct method; in particular for large earthquakes. As part of this study, the problem of performance evaluation of hazard estimation methods is addressed, leading to the use of grading functions.

  9. Department of Energy Hazardous Waste Remedial Actions Program: An overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eyman, L.D.; Swiger, R.F.

    1988-01-01

    This paper describes the national Department of Energy (DOE) program for managing hazardous waste. An overview of the DOE Hazardous Waste Remedial Actions Program (HAZWRAP), including its mission, organizational structure, and major program elements, is given. The paper focuses on the contractor support role assigned to Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., through the establishment of the HAZWRAP Support Contractor Office (SCO). The major SCO programs are described, and the organization for managing the programs is discussed. The HAZWRAP SCO approaches to waste management planning and to technology research, development, and demonstration are presented. The role of the SCO in the DOE Environmental Restoration Program and the development of the DOE Waste Information network are reviewed. Also discussed is the DOE Work for Others Program, where waste management decentralized support, via interagency agreements between DOE and the Department of Defense and DOE and the Environmental Protection Agency, is provided for those sponsors planning remedial response actions. 2 refs

  10. 40 CFR 721.72 - Hazard communication program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., processed, or used in the employer's workplace, the employer must add the new information to the MSDS before... implement a written hazard communication program for the substance in each workplace. The written program... the workplace or for individual work areas. (2) The methods the employer will use to inform employees...

  11. Probabilistic tsunami hazard assessment based on the long-term evaluation of subduction-zone earthquakes along the Sagami Trough, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, K.; Fujiwara, H.; Nakamura, H.; Osada, M.; Ohsumi, T.; Morikawa, N.; Kawai, S.; Maeda, T.; Matsuyama, H.; Toyama, N.; Kito, T.; Murata, Y.; Saito, R.; Takayama, J.; Akiyama, S.; Korenaga, M.; Abe, Y.; Hashimoto, N.; Hakamata, T.

    2017-12-01

    For the forthcoming large earthquakes along the Sagami Trough where the Philippine Sea Plate is subducting beneath the northeast Japan arc, the Earthquake Research Committee(ERC) /Headquarters for Earthquake Research Promotion, Japanese government (2014a) assessed that M7 and M8 class earthquakes will occur there and defined the possible extent of the earthquake source areas. They assessed 70% and 0% 5% of the occurrence probability within the next 30 years (from Jan. 1, 2014), respectively, for the M7 and M8 class earthquakes. First, we set possible 10 earthquake source areas(ESAs) and 920 ESAs, respectively, for M8 and M7 class earthquakes. Next, we constructed 125 characterized earthquake fault models (CEFMs) and 938 CEFMs, respectively, for M8 and M7 class earthquakes, based on "tsunami receipt" of ERC (2017) (Kitoh et al., 2016, JpGU). All the CEFMs are allowed to have a large slip area for expression of fault slip heterogeneity. For all the CEFMs, we calculate tsunamis by solving a nonlinear long wave equation, using FDM, including runup calculation, over a nesting grid system with a minimum grid size of 50 meters. Finally, we re-distributed the occurrence probability to all CEFMs (Abe et al., 2014, JpGU) and gathered excess probabilities for variable tsunami heights, calculated from all the CEFMs, at every observation point along Pacific coast to get PTHA. We incorporated aleatory uncertainties inherent in tsunami calculation and earthquake fault slip heterogeneity. We considered two kinds of probabilistic hazard models; one is "Present-time hazard model" under an assumption that the earthquake occurrence basically follows a renewal process based on BPT distribution if the latest faulting time was known. The other is "Long-time averaged hazard model" under an assumption that earthquake occurrence follows a stationary Poisson process. We fixed our viewpoint, for example, on the probability that the tsunami height will exceed 3 meters at coastal points in next

  12. A Review of Hazard Anticipation Training Programs for Young Drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Catherine C; Goodwin, Arthur H; Pradhan, Anuj K; Romoser, Matthew R E; Williams, Allan F

    2015-07-01

    Poor hazard anticipation skills are a risk factor associated with high motor vehicle crash rates of young drivers. A number of programs have been developed to improve these skills. The purpose of this review was to assess the empirical literature on hazard anticipation training for young drivers. Studies were included if they (1) included an assessment of hazard anticipation training outcomes; (2) were published between January 1, 1980 and December 31, 2013 in an English language peer-reviewed journal or conference proceeding; and (3) included at least one group that uniquely comprised a cohort of participants aged anticipation outcomes but none investigated crash effects. Although there is promise in existing programs, future research should include long-term follow-up, evaluate crash outcomes, and assess the optimal timing of hazard anticipation training taking into account the age and experience level of young drivers. Copyright © 2015 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. All rights reserved.

  13. Widespread seismicity excitation following the 2011 M=9.0 Tohoku, Japan, earthquake and its implications for seismic hazard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toda, S.; Stein, R. S.; Lin, J.

    2011-12-01

    trench slope normal faults, the Kanto fragment beneath Tokyo, the Itoigawa-Shizuoka Tectonic Line, and several other major faults were brought significantly closer to failure. Elevated seismicity in these areas is evident and sustained higher than normal during the 4.5 months after the Tohoku earthquake. Since several faults are overdue and closer to the next failure, an urgent update of the probabilistic seismic hazard map incorporating the impact of the great Tohoku earthquake is required.

  14. 77 FR 59758 - Idaho: Incorporation by Reference of Approved State Hazardous Waste Management Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    ...: Incorporation by Reference of Approved State Hazardous Waste Management Program AGENCY: Environmental Protection..., (RCRA), allows the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to authorize State hazardous waste management... codification of the authorized Idaho hazardous waste management program and incorporates by reference...

  15. Hazardous Waste Remedial Actions Program: integrating waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petty, J.L.; Sharples, F.E.

    1986-01-01

    The Hazardous Waste Remedial Actions Program was established to integrate Defense Programs' activities in hazardous and mixed waste management. The Program currently provides centralized planning and technical support to the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Defense Programs. More direct project management responsibilities may be assumed in the future. The Program, under the direction of the ASDP's Office of Defense Waste and Transportation Management, interacts with numerous organizational entities of the Department. The Oak Ridge Operations Office has been designated as the Lead Field Office. The Program's four current components cover remedial action project identification and prioritization; technology adaptation; an informative system; and a strategy study for long-term, ''corporate'' project and facility planning

  16. Promise and problems in using stress triggering models for time-dependent earthquake hazard assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocco, M.

    2001-12-01

    Earthquake stress changes can promote failures on favorably oriented faults and modify the seismicity pattern over broad regions around the causative faults. Because the induced stress perturbations modify the rate of production of earthquakes, they alter the probability of seismic events in a specified time window. Comparing the Coulomb stress changes with the seismicity rate changes and aftershock patterns can statistically test the role of stress transfer in earthquake occurrence. The interaction probability may represent a further tool to test the stress trigger or shadow model. The probability model, which incorporate stress transfer, has the main advantage to include the contributions of the induced stress perturbation (a static step in its present formulation), the loading rate and the fault constitutive properties. Because the mechanical conditions of the secondary faults at the time of application of the induced load are largely unkown, stress triggering can only be tested on fault populations and not on single earthquake pairs with a specified time delay. The interaction probability can represent the most suitable tool to test the interaction between large magnitude earthquakes. Despite these important implications and the stimulating perspectives, there exist problems in understanding earthquake interaction that should motivate future research but at the same time limit its immediate social applications. One major limitation is that we are unable to predict how and if the induced stress perturbations modify the ratio between small versus large magnitude earthquakes. In other words, we cannot distinguish between a change in this ratio in favor of small events or of large magnitude earthquakes, because the interaction probability is independent of magnitude. Another problem concerns the reconstruction of the stressing history. The interaction probability model is based on the response to a static step; however, we know that other processes contribute to

  17. University program in hazardous chemical and radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parker, F.L.

    1987-01-01

    The three main functions of a university program are education, training, and research. At Vanderbilt University, there is a Solid and Hazardous Waste option in the Master of Science in Engineering Program. The two main foci are treatment of wastes and environmental transport and transformation of the wastes. Courses in Hazardous Waste Engineering and Radioactive Waste Disposal present a synoptic view of the field, including legal, economic, and institutional aspects as well as the requisite technical content. The training is accomplished for some of the students through the aegis of an internship program sponsored by the US Department of Energy. In the summer between the two academic years of the program, the study works at a facility where decontamination and/or decommissioning and/or remedial actions are taking place. Progress in understanding the movement, transformation, and fate of hazardous materials in the environment is so rapid that it will not be possible to be current in the field without participating in that discovery. Therefore, their students are studying these processes and contributing to new knowledge. Some recent examples are the study of safety factors implicit in assuming a saturated zone below a hazardous waste landfill when an unsaturated zone exists, application of probabilistic risk assessment to three National Priority List sites in Tennessee, and the explanation of why certain organics precede pH, conductivity and nitrates through a clay liner at a hazardous waste disposal site

  18. 78 FR 25678 - Georgia: Final Authorization of State Hazardous Waste Management Program Revisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-02

    ...: Final Authorization of State Hazardous Waste Management Program Revisions AGENCY: Environmental... of changes to its hazardous waste program under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA... Gwendolyn Gleaton, Permits and State Programs Section, RCRA Programs and Materials Management Branch, RCRA...

  19. 75 FR 45583 - New York: Incorporation by Reference of State Hazardous Waste Management Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-03

    ...: Incorporation by Reference of State Hazardous Waste Management Program AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency... authorized hazardous waste program which is set forth in the regulations entitled ``Approved State Hazardous Waste Management Programs'', New York's authorized hazardous waste program. EPA will incorporate by...

  20. 77 FR 59879 - Idaho: Incorporation by Reference of Approved State Hazardous Waste Management Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    ...: Incorporation by Reference of Approved State Hazardous Waste Management Program AGENCY: Environmental Protection... ``Approved State Hazardous Waste Management Programs,'' Idaho's authorized hazardous waste program. The EPA... Federal Register, the EPA is codifying and incorporating by reference the State's hazardous waste program...

  1. Hazard screening application guide. Safety Analysis Report Update Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1992-06-01

    The basic purpose of hazard screening is to group precesses, facilities, and proposed modifications according to the magnitude of their hazards so as to determine the need for and extent of follow on safety analysis. A hazard is defined as a material, energy source, or operation that has the potential to cause injury or illness in human beings. The purpose of this document is to give guidance and provide standard methods for performing hazard screening. Hazard screening is applied to new and existing facilities and processes as well as to proposed modifications to existing facilities and processes. The hazard screening process evaluates an identified hazards in terms of the effects on people, both on-site and off-site. The process uses bounding analyses with no credit given for mitigation of an accident with the exception of certain containers meeting DOT specifications. The process is restricted to human safety issues only. Environmental effects are addressed by the environmental program. Interfaces with environmental organizations will be established in order to share information.

  2. The analysis of historical seismograms: an important tool for seismic hazard assessment. Case histories from French and Italian earthquakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pino, N.A.

    2011-01-01

    Seismic hazard assessment relies on the knowledge of the source characteristics of past earthquakes. Unfortunately, seismic waveform analysis, representing the most powerful tool for the investigation of earthquake source parameters, is only possible for events occurred in the last 100-120 years, i.e., since seismographs with known response function were developed. Nevertheless, during this time significant earthquakes have been recorded by such instruments and today, also thanks to technological progress, these data can be recovered and analysed by means of modern techniques. In this paper, aiming at giving a general sketch of possible analyses and attainable results in historical seismogram studies, I briefly describe the major difficulties in processing the original waveforms and present a review of the results that I obtained from previous seismogram analysis of selected significant historical earthquakes occurred during the first decades of the 20. century, including (A) the December 28, 1908, Messina straits (southern Italy), (B) the June 11, 1909, Lambesc (southern France) - both of which are the strongest ever recorded instrumentally in their respective countries - and (C) the July 13, 1930, Irpinia (southern Italy) events. For these earthquakes, the major achievements are represented by the assessment of the seismic moment (A, B, C), the geometry and kinematics of faulting (B, C), the fault length and an approximate slip distribution (A, C). The source characteristics of the studied events have also been interpreted in the frame of the tectonic environment active in the respective region of interest. In spite of the difficulties inherent to the investigation of old seismic data, these results demonstrate the invaluable and irreplaceable role of historical seismogram analysis in defining the local seismo-genic potential and, ultimately, for assessing the seismic hazard. The retrieved information is crucial in areas where important civil engineering works

  3. Geological Deformations and Potential Hazards Triggered by the 01-12-2010 Haiti Earthquake: Insights from Google Earth Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doblas, M.; Benito, B.; Torres, Y.; Belizaire, D.; Dorfeuille, J.; Aretxabala, A.

    2013-05-01

    In this study we compare the different Google Earth imagery (GEI) available before and after the 01-12-2010 earthquake of Haiti and carry out a detailed analysis of the superficial seismic-related geological deformations in the following sites: 1) the capital Port-Au-Prince and other cities (Carrefour and Gresslier); 2) the mountainous area of the Massif de la Selle which is transected by the "Enriquillo-Plaintain-Garden" (EPG) interplate boundary-fault (that supposedly triggered the seism); 3) some of the most important river channels and their corresponding deltas (Momanche, Grise and Frorse). The initial results of our researches were published in March 2010 in a special web page created by the scientific community to try to mitigate the devastating effects of this catastrophe (http://supersites.earthobservations.org/haiti.php). Six types of superficial geological deformations triggered by the seismic event have been identified with the GEI: liquefaction structures, chaotic rupture zones, coastal and domal uplifts, river-delta turnovers, faults/ruptures and landslides. Potential geological hazards triggered by the Haiti earthquake include landslides, inundations, reactivation of active tectonic elements (e.g., fractures), river-delta turnovers, etc. We analyzed again the GEI after the rain period and, as expected, most of the geological deformations that we initially identified had been erased and/or modified by the water washout or buried by the sediments. In this sense the GEI constitutes an invaluable instrument in the analysis of seismic geological hazards: we still have the possibility to compare all the images before and after the seism that are recorded in its useful "time tool". These are in fact the only witnesses of most of the geological deformations triggered by the Haiti earthquake that remain stored in the virtual archives of the GEI. In fact a field trip to the area today would be useless as most of these structures have disappeared. We will show

  4. Development of direct multi-hazard susceptibility assessment method for post-earthquake reconstruction planning in Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavrouli, Olga; Rana, Sohel; van Westen, Cees; Zhang, Jianqiang

    2017-04-01

    After the devastating 2015 Gorkha earthquake in Nepal, reconstruction activities have been delayed considerably, due to many reasons, of a political, organizational and technical nature. Due to the widespread occurrence of co-seismic landslides, and the expectation that these may be aggravated or re-activated in future years during the intense monsoon periods, there is a need to evaluate for thousands of sites whether these are suited for reconstruction. In this evaluation multi-hazards, such as rockfall, landslides, debris flow, and flashfloods should be taken into account. The application of indirect knowledge-based, data-driven or physically-based approaches is not suitable due to several reasons. Physically-based models generally require a large number of parameters, for which data is not available. Data-driven, statistical methods, depend on historical information, which is less useful after the occurrence of a major event, such as an earthquake. Besides, they would lead to unacceptable levels of generalization, as the analysis is done based on rather general causal factor maps. The same holds for indirect knowledge-driven methods. However, location-specific hazards analysis is required using a simple method that can be used by many people at the local level. In this research, a direct scientific method was developed where local level technical people can easily and quickly assess the post-earthquake multi hazards following a decision tree approach, using an app on a smartphone or tablet. The methods assumes that a central organization, such as the Department of Soil Conservation and Watershed Management, generates spatial information beforehand that is used in the direct assessment at a certain location. Pre-earthquake, co-seismic and post-seismic landslide inventories are generated through the interpretation of Google Earth multi-temporal images, using anaglyph methods. Spatial data, such as Digital Elevation Models, land cover maps, and geological maps are

  5. Analysis of earthquake parameters to generate hazard maps by integrating AHP and GIS for Küçükçekmece region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Erden

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Definition of an earthquake includes parameters with respect to region of interest. Each of those parameters has different weights on the earthquake ground motion and effect. This study examines the weight of common parameters that have an influence on the effects of earthquakes. The Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP is used for factor weighting of each parameter and Geographic Information Systems (GIS are used for simulating the results of the AHP on a spatial environment. In this study, it is aimed to generate a hierarchical structure of the model for the simulation of an earthquake hazard map (EHM. The parameters of the EHM, which are selected by the criterion of non-correlated factors, are: topography, distance to epicenter, soil classification, liquefaction, and fault/focal mechanism. As a result of the study, weights of the parameters that affect the earthquake ground motion at the study area are determined and compared with a selected attenuation relation map.

  6. A procedure for assessing seismic hazard generated by Vrancea earthquakes and its application. III. A method for developing isoseismal and isoacceleration maps. Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enescu, D.; Enescu, B.D.

    2007-01-01

    A method for developing isoseismal and isoacceleration maps assumedly valid for future strong earthquakes (M GR > 6.7) is described as constituting the third stage of a procedure for assessing the seismic hazard generated by Vrancea earthquakes. The method relies on the results of the former two stages given by Enescu et al., and on further developments that are presented in this paper. Moreover, it is based on instrument recording data. Major earthquakes taking place in Vrancea (November 10, 1940 - M GR 7.4, March 4, 1977 - M GR = 7.2 and the strongest possible) were examined as a way to test the method. The method is also applied for an earthquake of magnitude M GR = 6.7. Given the successful results of the tests, the method can by used for predicting isoseismal and isoacceleration maps for future Vrancea earthquakes of various magnitudes M GR ≥ 6.7. (authors)

  7. Analysis on Two Typical Landslide Hazard Phenomena in The Wenchuan Earthquake by Field Investigations and Shaking Table Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changwei Yang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Based on our field investigations of landslide hazards in the Wenchuan earthquake, some findings can be reported: (1 the multi-aspect terrain facing empty isolated mountains and thin ridges reacted intensely to the earthquake and was seriously damaged; (2 the slope angles of most landslides was larger than 45°. Considering the above disaster phenomena, the reasons are analyzed based on shaking table tests of one-sided, two-sided and four-sided slopes. The analysis results show that: (1 the amplifications of the peak accelerations of four-sided slopes is stronger than that of the two-sided slopes, while that of the one-sided slope is the weakest, which can indirectly explain the phenomena that the damage is most serious; (2 the amplifications of the peak accelerations gradually increase as the slope angles increase, and there are two inflection points which are the point where the slope angle is 45° and where the slope angle is 50°, respectively, which can explain the seismic phenomenon whereby landslide hazards mainly occur on the slopes whose slope angle is bigger than 45°. The amplification along the slope strike direction is basically consistent, and the step is smooth.

  8. Observations and recommendations regarding landslide hazards related to the January 13, 2001 M-7.6 El Salvador earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jibson, Randall W.; Crone, Anthony J.

    2001-01-01

    The January 13, 2001 earthquake (M-7.6) off the coast of El Salvador triggered widespread damaging landslides in many parts of the El Salvador. In the aftermath of the earthquake, the Salvadoran government requested technical assistance through the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID); USAID, in turn, requested help from technical experts in landslide hazards from the U.S. Geological Survey. In response to that request, we arrived in El Salvador on January 31, 2001 and worked with USAID personnel and Salvadoran agency counterparts in visiting landslide sites and evaluating present and potential hazards. A preliminary, unofficial report was prepared at the end of our trip (February 9) to provide immediate information and assistance to interested agencies and parties. The current report is an updated and somewhat expanded version of that unofficial report. Because of the brief nature of this report, conclusions and recommendations contained herein should be considered tentative and may be revised in the future.

  9. Time-decreasing hazard and increasing time until the next earthquake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corral, Alvaro

    2005-01-01

    The existence of a slowly always decreasing probability density for the recurrence times of earthquakes in the stationary case implies that the occurrence of an event at a given instant becomes more unlikely as time since the previous event increases. Consequently, the expected waiting time to the next earthquake increases with the elapsed time, that is, the event moves away fast to the future. We have found direct empirical evidence of this counterintuitive behavior in two worldwide catalogs as well as in diverse regional catalogs. Universal scaling functions describe the phenomenon well

  10. USGS earthquake hazards program (EHP) GPS use case : earthquake early warning (EEW) and shake alert

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-30

    GPS Adjacent Band Workshop VI RTCA Inc., Washington D.C., 30 March 2017. USGS GPS receiver use case - Real-Time GPS for EEW -Continued: CRITICAL EFFECT - The GNSS component of the Shake Alert system augments the inertial sensors and is especial...

  11. Health and safety information program for hazardous materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Brien, M.P.; Fallon, N.J.; Kuehner, A.V.

    1979-01-01

    The system is used as a management tool in several safety and health programs. It is used to: trace the use of hazardous materials and to determine monitoring needs; inform the occupational physician of the potential health problems associated with materials ordered by a given individual; inform the fire and rescue group of hazardous materials in a given building; provide waste disposal recommendations to the hazardous waste management group; assist the hazardous materials shipping coordinator in identifying materials which are regulated by the Department of Transportation; and guide management decisions in the area of recognizing and rectifying unsafe conditions. The information system has been expanded from a manual effort to provide a brief description of health hazards of chemicals used at the lab to a computerized health and safety information system which serves the needs of all personnel who may encounter the material in the course of their work. The system has been designed to provide information needed to control the potential problems associated with a hazardous material up to the time that it is consumed in a given operation or is sent to the waste disposal facility

  12. A program PULSYN01 for wide-band simulation of source radiation from a finite earthquake source/fault

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gusev, A.A.

    2001-12-01

    The purpose of the program PULSYN01 is to apply a realistic wideband source-side input for calculation of earthquake ground motion. The source is represented as a grid of point subsources, and their seismic moment rate time functions are generated considering each of them as realizations (sample functions) of a non-stationary random process. The model is intended for use at receiver-to fault distances from far field to as small as 10-20% of the fault width. Combined with an adequate Green's function synthesizer, PULSUNT01 can be used for assessment of possible ground motion and seismic hazard in many ways, including scenario event simulation, parametric studies, and eventually stochastic hazard calculations

  13. The Southern California Earthquake Center/Undergraduate Studies in Earthquake Information Technology (SCEC/UseIT) Internship Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, S.; Jordan, T.

    2006-12-01

    Our undergraduate research program, SCEC/UseIT, an NSF Research Experience for Undergraduates site, provides software for earthquake researchers and educators, movies for outreach, and ways to strengthen the technical career pipeline. SCEC/UseIT motivates diverse undergraduates towards science and engineering careers through team-based research in the exciting field of earthquake information technology. UseIT provides the cross-training in computer science/information technology (CS/IT) and geoscience needed to make fundamental progress in earthquake system science. Our high and increasing participation of women and minority students is crucial given the nation"s precipitous enrollment declines in CS/IT undergraduate degree programs, especially among women. UseIT also casts a "wider, farther" recruitment net that targets scholars interested in creative work but not traditionally attracted to summer science internships. Since 2002, SCEC/UseIT has challenged 79 students in three dozen majors from as many schools with difficult, real-world problems that require collaborative, interdisciplinary solutions. Interns design and engineer open-source software, creating increasingly sophisticated visualization tools (see "SCEC-VDO," session IN11), which are employed by SCEC researchers, in new curricula at the University of Southern California, and by outreach specialists who make animated movies for the public and the media. SCEC-VDO would be a valuable tool for research-oriented professional development programs.

  14. 75 FR 60398 - California: Proposed Authorization of State Hazardous Waste Management Program Revision

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-30

    ...: Proposed Authorization of State Hazardous Waste Management Program Revision AGENCY: Environmental... its hazardous waste management program by November 1, 2010. ADDRESSES: Submit your comments... waste management program. EPA continues to have independent enforcement authority under RCRA sections...

  15. Directions of the US Geological Survey Landslide Hazards Reduction Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieczorek, G.F.

    1993-01-01

    The US Geological Survey (USGS) Landslide Hazards Reduction Program includes studies of landslide process and prediction, landslide susceptibility and risk mapping, landslide recurrence and slope evolution, and research application and technology transfer. Studies of landslide processes have been recently conducted in Virginia, Utah, California, Alaska, and Hawaii, Landslide susceptibility maps provide a very important tool for landslide hazard reduction. The effects of engineering-geologic characteristics of rocks, seismic activity, short and long-term climatic change on landslide recurrence are under study. Detailed measurement of movement and deformation has begun on some active landslides. -from Author

  16. Environmental Hazards Assessment Program. Quarterly report, July 1994--September 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The objectives of the Environmental Hazards Assessment Program (EHAP) stated in the proposal to DOE are as follows: Development of a holistic, national basis for risk assessment, risk management, and risk communication that recognizes the direct impact of environmental hazards on the health and well-being of all; development of a pool of talented scientist and experts in cleanup activities, especially in human health aspects; identification of needs and development of programs addressing the critical shortage of well-educated, highly-skilled technical and scientific personnel to address the health oriented aspects of environmental restoration and waste management. This is a progress report of the first quarter of the third year of the grant. It reports progress against these grant objectives and the Program Implementation Plan (published at the end of the first year of the grant)

  17. Environmental Hazards Assessment Program. Quarterly report, July--September 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-31

    This report describes activities and reports on progress for the first quarter (July--September) of the fourth year of the grant to support the Environmental Hazards Assessment Program (EHAP) at the Medical University of South Carolina. It reports progress against the grant objectives and the Program Implementation Plan published at the end of the first year of the grant. The objectives of EHAP stated in the proposal to DOE are to: (1) develop a holistic, national basis for risk assessment, risk management, and risk communication that recognizes the direct impact of environmental hazards on the health and well-being of all; (2) develop a pool of talented scientists and experts in cleanup activities, especially in human health aspects; and (3) identify needs and develop programs addressing the critical shortage of well-educated, highly-skilled technical and scientific personnel to address the health-oriented aspects of environmental restoration and waste management.

  18. AECB workshop on seismic hazard assessment in Southern Ontario. Program, list of participants and abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of the workshop was to review available geological and seismological data which could affect earthquake occurrence in southern Ontario and to develop a consensus on approaches that should be adopted for characterization of seismic hazard. The workshop was structured in technical sessions to focus presentations and discussions on four technical issues relevant to seismic hazard in southern Ontario, as follows: (1) The importance of geological and geophysical observations for the determination of seismic sources, (2) Methods and approaches which may be adopted for determining seismic sources based on integrated interpretations of geological and seismological information, (3) Methods and data which should be used for characterizing the seismicity parameters of seismic sources, and (4) Methods for assessment of vibratory ground motion hazard. This document presents a copy of the workshop program, the list of participants and extended abstracts received from speakers. It was distributed to the participants prior to the workshop. The abstracts were intended to provide advance information and to afford some basis for meaningful discussion and exchange of information

  19. AECB workshop on seismic hazard assessment in Southern Ontario. Program, list of participants and abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    The purpose of the workshop was to review available geological and seismological data which could affect earthquake occurrence in southern Ontario and to develop a consensus on approaches that should be adopted for characterization of seismic hazard. The workshop was structured in technical sessions to focus presentations and discussions on four technical issues relevant to seismic hazard in southern Ontario, as follows: (1) The importance of geological and geophysical observations for the determination of seismic sources, (2) Methods and approaches which may be adopted for determining seismic sources based on integrated interpretations of geological and seismological information, (3) Methods and data which should be used for characterizing the seismicity parameters of seismic sources, and (4) Methods for assessment of vibratory ground motion hazard. This document presents a copy of the workshop program, the list of participants and extended abstracts received from speakers. It was distributed to the participants prior to the workshop. The abstracts were intended to provide advance information and to afford some basis for meaningful discussion and exchange of information.

  20. Input parameters for the statistical seismic hazard assessment in central part of Romania territory using crustal earthquakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moldovan, A.I.; Bazacliu, O.; Popescu, E.

    2004-01-01

    The seismic hazard assessment in dense-populated geographical regions and subsequently the design of the strategic objectives (dams, nuclear power plants, etc.) are based on the knowledge of the seismicity parameters of the seismic sources which can generate ground motion amplitudes above the minimum level considered risky at the specific site and the way the seismic waves propagate between the focus and the site. The purpose of this paper is to provide a set of information required for a probabilistic assessment of the seismic hazard in the central Romanian territory relative to the following seismic sources: Fagaras zone (FC), Campulung zone (CP), and Transilvania zone (TD) all of them in the crust domain. Extremely vulnerable objectives are present in the central part of Romania, including cities of Pitesti and Sibiu and the 'Vidraru' dam. The analysis that we propose implies: (1) geometrical definition of the seismic sources, (2) estimation of the maximum possible magnitude, (3) estimation of the frequency - magnitude relationship and (4) estimation of the attenuation laws. As an example, the obtained input parameters are used to evaluate the seismic hazard distribution due to the crustal earthquakes applying the McGuire's procedure (1976). These preliminary results are in good agreement with the previous research based on deterministic approach (Radulian et al., 2000). (authors)

  1. 78 FR 23246 - Underground Injection Control Program; Hazardous Waste Injection Restrictions; Petition for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-18

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [FRL-9804-8] Underground Injection Control Program; Hazardous Waste Injection Restrictions; Petition for Exemption--Class I Hazardous Waste Injection; BASF... exemption to the land disposal Restrictions, under the 1984 Hazardous and Solid Waste [[Page 23247...

  2. Surface-seismic imaging for nehrp soil profile classifications and earthquake hazards in urban areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, R.A.; Stephenson, W.J.; Odum, J.K.

    1998-01-01

    We acquired high-resolution seismic-refraction data on the ground surface in selected areas of the San Fernando Valley (SFV) to help explain the earthquake damage patterns and the variation in ground motion caused by the 17 January 1994 magnitude 6.7 Northridge earthquake. We used these data to determine the compressional- and shear-wave velocities (Vp and Vs) at 20 aftershock recording sites to 30-m depth ( V??s30, and V??p30). Two other sites, located next to boreholes with downhole Vp and Vs data, show that we imaged very similar seismic-vefocity structures in the upper 40 m. Overall, high site response appears to be associated with tow Vs in the near surface, but there can be a wide rangepf site amplifications for a given NEHRP soil type. The data suggest that for the SFV, if the V??s30 is known, we can determine whether the earthquake ground motion will be amplified above a factor of 2 relative to a local rock site.

  3. Approaches that use seismic hazard results to address topics of nuclear power plant seismic safety, with application to the Charleston earthquake issue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sewell, R.T.; McGuire, R.K.; Toro, G.R.; Stepp, J.C.; Cornell, C.A.

    1990-01-01

    Plant seismic safety indicators include seismic hazard at the SSE (safe shut-down earthquake) acceleration, seismic margin, reliability against core damage, and reliability against offsite consequences. This work examines the key role of hazard analysis in evaluating these indicators and in making rational decisions regarding plant safety. The paper outlines approaches that use seismic hazard results as a basis for plant seismic safety evaluation and applies one of these approaches to the Charleston earthquake issue. This approach compares seismic hazard results that account for the Charleston tectonic interpretation, using the EPRI-Seismicity Owners Group (SOG) methodology, with hazard results that are consistent with historical tectonic interpretations accepted in regulation. Based on hazard results for a set of 21 eastern U.S. nuclear power plant sites, the comparison shows that no systematic 'plant-to-plant' increase in hazard accompanies the Charleston hypothesis; differences in mean hazards for the two interpretations are generally insignificant relative to current uncertainties in seismic hazard. (orig.)

  4. Environmental Hazards Assessment Program annual report, [June 1992--June 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-01

    This report, the Environment Hazards Assessment Program (EHAP) Annual Report, is the second of three reports that document activities under the EHAP grant and details progress made during the first year of the grant. The first year was devoted to the development of a working program implementation plan. During the developmental process some key objectives were achieved such as developing a Doctor of Philosophy degree program in Environmental Studies at MUSC (Medical University of South Carolina) and conducting the first Crossroads of Humanity series Round Table Forum. The PIP (Program Implementation Program) details the objectives, management and budgetary basis for the overall management and control of the grant over the next four years, the yearly program plans provide the monthly and day-to-day programmatic and budgetary control by which the PIP was developed.

  5. Environmental Hazards Assessment Program annual report, [June 1992--June 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-10-01

    This report, the Environment Hazards Assessment Program (EHAP) Annual Report, is the second of three reports that document activities under the EHAP grant and details progress made during the first year of the grant. The first year was devoted to the development of a working program implementation plan. During the developmental process some key objectives were achieved such as developing a Doctor of Philosophy degree program in Environmental Studies at MUSC (Medical University of South Carolina) and conducting the first Crossroads of Humanity series Round Table Forum. The PIP (Program Implementation Program) details the objectives, management and budgetary basis for the overall management and control of the grant over the next four years, the yearly program plans provide the monthly and day-to-day programmatic and budgetary control by which the PIP was developed

  6. Tiechanshan-Tunghsiao anticline earthquake analysis: Implications for northwestern Taiwan potential carbon dioxide storage site seismic hazard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruey-Juin Rau

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We analyze the seismicity and earthquake focal mechanisms beneath the Tiechanshan-Tunghsiao (TCS-TH anticline over the last two decades for seismic hazard evaluation of a potential carbon dioxide storage site in northwestern Taiwan. Seismicity in the TCS-TH anticline indicates both spatial and temporal clustering at a depth range of 7 - 12 km. Thirteen 3.0 ≤ ML ≤ 5.2 earthquake focal mechanisms show a combination of thrust, strike-slip, and normal faulting mechanisms under the TCS-TH anticline. A 1992 ML 5.2 earthquake with a focal depth of ~10 km, the largest event ever recorded beneath the TCS-TH anticline during the last two decades, has a normal fault mechanism with the T-axis trending NNE-SSW and nodal planes oriented NNW-SSE, dipping either gently to the NNE or steeply to the SSW. Thrust fault mechanisms that occurred with mostly E-W or NWW-SEE striking P-axes and strike-slip faulting events indicate NWW-SEE striking P-axes and NNE-SSW trending T-axes, which are consistent with the regional plate convergence direction. For the strike-slip faulting events, if we take the N-S or NNW-SSE striking nodal planes as the fault planes, the strike-slip faults are sinistral motions and correspond to the Tapingting fault, which is a strike-slip fault reactivated from the inherited normal fault and intersects the Tiechanshan and Tunghsiao anticlines.

  7. Hazardous Waste Development, Demonstration, and Disposal (HAZWDDD) Program Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGinnis, C.P.; Eisenhower, B.M.; Reeves, M.E.; DePaoli, S.M.; Stinton, L.H.; Harrington, E.H.

    1989-02-01

    The objective of the Hazardous Waste Development, Demonstration and Disposal (HAZWDDD) Program Plan is to ensure that the needs for treatment and disposal of all its hazardous and mixed wastes have been identified and planned for. A multifaceted approach to developing and implementing this plan is given, including complete plans for each of the five installations, and an overall integrated plan is also described in this report. The HAZWDDD Plan accomplishes the following: (1) provides background and organizational information; (2) summarizes the 402 hazardous and mixed waste streams from the five installations by grouping them into 13 general waste categories; (3) presents current treatment, storage, and disposal capabilities within Energy Systems; (4) develops a management strategy by outlining critical issues, presents flow sheets describing management schemes for problem waste streams, and builds on the needs identified; (5) outlines specific activities needed to implement the strategy developed; and (6) presents schedule and budget requirements for the next decade. The HAZWDDD Program addresses current and future technical problems and regulatory issues and uncertainties. Because of the nature and magnitude of the problems in hazardous and mixed waste management, substantial funding will be required. 10 refs., 39 figs., 16 tabs

  8. Northwest Hazardous Waste Research, Development, and Demonstration Center: Program Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-02-01

    The Northwest Hazardous Waste Research, Development, and Demonstration Center was created as part of an ongoing federal effort to provide technologies and methods that protect human health and welfare and environment from hazardous wastes. The Center was established by the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA) to develop and adapt innovative technologies and methods for assessing the impacts of and remediating inactive hazardous and radioactive mixed-waste sites. The Superfund legislation authorized $10 million for Pacific Northwest Laboratory to establish and operate the Center over a 5-year period. Under this legislation, Congress authorized $10 million each to support research, development, and demonstration (RD and D) on hazardous and radioactive mixed-waste problems in Idaho, Montana, Oregon, and Washington, including the Hanford Site. In 1987, the Center initiated its RD and D activities and prepared this Program Plan that presents the framework within which the Center will carry out its mission. Section 1.0 describes the Center, its mission, objectives, organization, and relationship to other programs. Section 2.0 describes the Center's RD and D strategy and contains the RD and D objectives, priorities, and process to be used to select specific projects. Section 3.0 contains the Center's FY 1988 operating plan and describes the specific RD and D projects to be carried out and their budgets and schedules. 9 refs., 18 figs., 5 tabs

  9. Seismic hazard and seismic risk assessment based on the unified scaling law for earthquakes: Himalayas and adjacent regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nekrasova, A. K.; Kossobokov, V. G.; Parvez, I. A.

    2015-03-01

    For the Himalayas and neighboring regions, the maps of seismic hazard and seismic risk are constructed with the use of the estimates for the parameters of the unified scaling law for earthquakes (USLE), in which the Gutenberg-Richter law for magnitude distribution of seismic events within a given area is applied in the modified version with allowance for linear dimensions of the area, namely, log N( M, L) = A + B (5 - M) + C log L, where N( M, L) is the expected annual number of the earthquakes with magnitude M in the area with linear dimension L. The spatial variations in the parameters A, B, and C for the Himalayas and adjacent regions are studied on two time intervals from 1965 to 2011 and from 1980 to 2011. The difference in A, B, and C between these two time intervals indicates that seismic activity experiences significant variations on a scale of a few decades. With a global consideration of the seismic belts of the Earth overall, the estimates of coefficient A, which determines the logarithm of the annual average frequency of the earthquakes with a magnitude of 5.0 and higher in the zone with a linear dimension of 1 degree of the Earth's meridian, differ by a factor of 30 and more and mainly fall in the interval from -1.1 to 0.5. The values of coefficient B, which describes the balance between the number of earthquakes with different magnitudes, gravitate to 0.9 and range from less than 0.6 to 1.1 and higher. The values of coefficient C, which estimates the fractal dimension of the local distribution of epicenters, vary from 0.5 to 1.4 and higher. In the Himalayas and neighboring regions, the USLE coefficients mainly fall in the intervals of -1.1 to 0.3 for A, 0.8 to 1.3 for B, and 1.0 to 1.4 for C. The calculations of the local value of the expected peak ground acceleration (PGA) from the maximal expected magnitude provided the necessary basis for mapping the seismic hazards in the studied region. When doing this, we used the local estimates of the

  10. Unexpected earthquake hazard revealed by Holocene rupture on the Kenchreai Fault (central Greece): Implications for weak sub-fault shear zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copley, Alex; Grützner, Christoph; Howell, Andy; Jackson, James; Penney, Camilla; Wimpenny, Sam

    2018-03-01

    High-resolution elevation models, palaeoseismic trenching, and Quaternary dating demonstrate that the Kenchreai Fault in the eastern Gulf of Corinth (Greece) has ruptured in the Holocene. Along with the adjacent Pisia and Heraion Faults (which ruptured in 1981), our results indicate the presence of closely-spaced and parallel normal faults that are simultaneously active, but at different rates. Such a configuration allows us to address one of the major questions in understanding the earthquake cycle, specifically what controls the distribution of interseismic strain accumulation? Our results imply that the interseismic loading and subsequent earthquakes on these faults are governed by weak shear zones in the underlying ductile crust. In addition, the identification of significant earthquake slip on a fault that does not dominate the late Quaternary geomorphology or vertical coastal motions in the region provides an important lesson in earthquake hazard assessment.

  11. 75 FR 45489 - New York: Incorporation by Reference of State Hazardous Waste Management Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-03

    ...: Incorporation by Reference of State Hazardous Waste Management Program AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency... (EPA) to authorize States to operate their hazardous waste management programs in lieu of the Federal program. EPA uses the regulations entitled ``Approved State Hazardous Waste Management Programs'' to...

  12. Space-time behavior of continental intraplate earthquakes and implications for hazard assessment in China and the Central U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Seth; Liu, Mian; Luo, Gang; Wang, Hui

    2014-05-01

    much faster than it accumulates today, suggesting that they result from recent fault activation that releases prestored strain energy in the crust. If so, this earthquake sequence is similar to aftershocks in that the rates of energy release should decay with time and the sequence of earthquakes will eventually end. We use simple physical analysis and numerical simulations to show that the current New Madrid earthquake sequence is likely ending or has ended. Recognizing that mid-continental earthquakes have long aftershock sequences and complex spatiotemporal occurrences is critical to improve hazard assessments

  13. Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) of Natural External Hazards Including Earthquakes. Workshop Proceedings, Prague, Czech Republic, 17-20 June 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    The Fukushima Dai-ichi accident triggered discussions about the significance of external hazards and their treatment in safety analyses. In addition, stress tests results have shown vulnerabilities and potential of cliff-edge effects in plant responses to external hazards and have identified possibilities and priorities for improvements and safety measures' implementation at specific sites and designs. In order to address these issues and provide relevant conclusions and recommendations to CSNI and CNRA, the CSNI Working Group on Risk Assessment (WGRISK) directed, in cooperation with the CSNI Working Group on Integrity and Ageing of Components and Structures (WGIAGE), a workshop hosted by UJV Rez. The key objectives of the workshop were to collect information from the OECD member states on methods and approaches being used, and experience gained in probabilistic safety assessment of natural external hazards, as well as to support the fulfillment of the CSNI task on 'PSA of natural external hazards including earthquakes'. These objectives are described more in detail in the introduction in Chapter 1 of this report. The WGRISK activities preceding the workshop and leading to the decision to organize it are described in Chapter 2 of this report. The focus of the workshop was on external events PSA for nuclear power plants, including all modes of operation. The workshop scope was generally limited to external, natural hazards, including those hazards where the distinction between natural and man-made hazards is not sharp. The detailed information about the presentations, discussions, and results of the workshop is presented in Chapter 3 of this report. Some general conclusions were agreed on during the workshop, which are presented in the following paragraphs. - The lessons learned from the Fukushima Dai-ichi reactor accidents and related actions at the national, regional, and global level have emphasized the importance to assess risks associated (authors) with

  14. Summary of November 2010 meeting to evaluate turbidite data for constraining the recurrence parameters of great Cascadia earthquakes for the update of national seismic hazard maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankel, Arthur D.

    2011-01-01

    This report summarizes a meeting of geologists, marine sedimentologists, geophysicists, and seismologists that was held on November 18–19, 2010 at Oregon State University in Corvallis, Oregon. The overall goal of the meeting was to evaluate observations of turbidite deposits to provide constraints on the recurrence time and rupture extent of great Cascadia subduction zone (CSZ) earthquakes for the next update of the U.S. national seismic hazard maps (NSHM). The meeting was convened at Oregon State University because this is the major center for collecting and evaluating turbidite evidence of great Cascadia earthquakes by Chris Goldfinger and his colleagues. We especially wanted the participants to see some of the numerous deep sea cores this group has collected that contain the turbidite deposits. Great earthquakes on the CSZ pose a major tsunami, ground-shaking, and ground-failure hazard to the Pacific Northwest. Figure 1 shows a map of the Pacific Northwest with a model for the rupture zone of a moment magnitude Mw 9.0 earthquake on the CSZ and the ground shaking intensity (in ShakeMap format) expected from such an earthquake, based on empirical ground-motion prediction equations. The damaging effects of such an earthquake would occur over a wide swath of the Pacific Northwest and an accompanying tsunami would likely cause devastation along the Pacifc Northwest coast and possibly cause damage and loss of life in other areas of the Pacific. A magnitude 8 earthquake on the CSZ would cause damaging ground shaking and ground failure over a substantial area and could also generate a destructive tsunami. The recent tragic occurrence of the 2011 Mw 9.0 Tohoku-Oki, Japan, earthquake highlights the importance of having accurate estimates of the recurrence times and magnitudes of great earthquakes on subduction zones. For the U.S. national seismic hazard maps, estimating the hazard from the Cascadia subduction zone has been based on coastal paleoseismic evidence of great

  15. 75 FR 76633 - Oregon; Correction of Federal Authorization of the State's Hazardous Waste Management Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-09

    ...; Correction of Federal Authorization of the State's Hazardous Waste Management Program AGENCY: Environmental... its federally authorized RCRA Hazardous Waste Management Program. These authorized changes included... with Conditionally Exempt Small Quality Generators (CESQG) waste is subject to RCRA used oil management...

  16. 77 FR 65351 - Missouri: Authorization of State Hazardous Waste Management Program Revisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-26

    ...: Authorization of State Hazardous Waste Management Program Revisions AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA... Jackson-Johnson, Environmental Protection Agency, Waste Enforcement & Materials Management Branch, 11201... its hazardous waste program under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). EPA proposes to...

  17. Earthquake prediction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ward, P.L.

    1978-01-01

    The state of the art of earthquake prediction is summarized, the possible responses to such prediction are examined, and some needs in the present prediction program and in research related to use of this new technology are reviewed. Three basic aspects of earthquake prediction are discussed: location of the areas where large earthquakes are most likely to occur, observation within these areas of measurable changes (earthquake precursors) and determination of the area and time over which the earthquake will occur, and development of models of the earthquake source in order to interpret the precursors reliably. 6 figures

  18. An innovative assessment of the seismic hazard from Vrancea intermediate-depth earthquakes: Case studies in Romania and Bulgaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panza, G.F.; Cioflan, C.; Marmureanu, G.; Kouteva, M.; Paskaleva, I.; Romanelli, F.

    2002-02-01

    An advanced procedure for ground motion, capable of synthesizing the seismic ground motion from basic understanding of fault mechanism and seismic wave propagation, is applied to the case studies of Bucharest (Romania) and Russe, NE Bulgaria, exposed to the seismic hazard from Vrancea events. Synthetic seismic signals along representative geological cross sections in Bucharest and Russe and been computed and the energetic input spectra have been derived both from the synthetic signals and the few existing records. The theoretical signals are successfully compared with the available observations. The site response has been calculated for three recent, strong and intermediate-depth, Vrancea earthquakes: August 30, 1986 and May 30 and 31, 1990. The used approach differs significantly from today's engineering practice that relays upon rock-site hazard maps and applies the site correction at a later stage. The obtained results show that it is very useful to estimate the site effect via waveform modelling, considering simultaneously the geotechnical properties of the site, the position and geometry of the seismic source and the mechanical properties of the propagation medium. (author)

  19. Building a Communication, Education, an Outreach Program for the ShakeAlert National Earthquake Early Warning Program - Recommendations for Public Alerts Via Cell Phones

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeGroot, R. M.; Long, K.; Strauss, J. A.

    2017-12-01

    The United States Geological Survey (USGS) and its partners are developing the ShakeAlert Earthquake Early Warning System for the West Coast of the United States. To be an integral part of successful implementation, ShakeAlert engagement programs and materials must integrate with and leverage broader earthquake risk programs. New methods and products for dissemination must be multidisciplinary, cost effective, and consistent with existing hazards education and communication efforts. The ShakeAlert Joint Committee for Communication, Education, and Outreach (JCCEO), is identifying, developing, and cultivating partnerships with ShakeAlert stakeholders including Federal, State, academic partners, private companies, policy makers, and local organizations. Efforts include developing materials, methods for delivery, and reaching stakeholders with information on ShakeAlert, earthquake preparedness, and emergency protective actions. It is essential to develop standards to ensure information communicated via the alerts is consistent across the public and private sector and achieving a common understanding of what actions users take when they receive a ShakeAlert warning. In February 2017, the JCCEO convened the Warning Message Focus Group (WMFG) to provide findings and recommendations to the Alliance for Telecommunications Industry Solutions on the use of earthquake early warning message content standards for public alerts via cell phones. The WMFG represents communications, education, and outreach stakeholders from various sectors including ShakeAlert regional coordinators, industry, emergency managers, and subject matter experts from the social sciences. The group knowledge was combined with an in-depth literature review to ensure that all groups who could receive the message would be taken into account. The USGS and the participating states and agencies acknowledge that the implementation of ShakeAlert is a collective effort requiring the participation of hundreds of

  20. Deep-Sea Turbidites as Guides to Holocene Earthquake History at the Cascadia Subduction Zone—Alternative Views for a Seismic-Hazard Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atwater, Brian F.; Griggs, Gary B.

    2012-01-01

    This report reviews the geological basis for some recent estimates of earthquake hazards in the Cascadia region between southern British Columbia and northern California. The largest earthquakes to which the region is prone are in the range of magnitude 8-9. The source of these great earthquakes is the fault down which the oceanic Juan de Fuca Plate is being subducted or thrust beneath the North American Plate. Geologic evidence for their occurrence includes sedimentary deposits that have been observed in cores from deep-sea channels and fans. Earthquakes can initiate subaqueous slumps or slides that generate turbidity currents and which produce the sedimentary deposits known as turbidites. The hazard estimates reviewed in this report are derived mainly from deep-sea turbidites that have been interpreted as proxy records of great Cascadia earthquakes. The estimates were first published in 2008. Most of the evidence for them is contained in a monograph now in press. We have reviewed a small part of this evidence, chiefly from Cascadia Channel and its tributaries, all of which head offshore the Pacific coast of Washington State. According to the recent estimates, the Cascadia plate boundary ruptured along its full length in 19 or 20 earthquakes of magnitude 9 in the past 10,000 years; its northern third broke during these giant earthquakes only, and southern segments produced at least 20 additional, lesser earthquakes of Holocene age. The turbidite case for full-length ruptures depends on stratigraphic evidence for simultaneous shaking at the heads of multiple submarine canyons. The simultaneity has been inferred primarily from turbidite counts above a stratigraphic datum, sandy beds likened to strong-motion records, and radiocarbon ages adjusted for turbidity-current erosion. In alternatives proposed here, this turbidite evidence for simultaneous shaking is less sensitive to earthquake size and frequency than previously thought. Turbidites far below a channel

  1. Fragility analysis of flood protection structures in earthquake and flood prone areas around Cologne, Germany for multi-hazard risk assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyagunov, Sergey; Vorogushyn, Sergiy; Munoz Jimenez, Cristina; Parolai, Stefano; Fleming, Kevin; Merz, Bruno; Zschau, Jochen

    2013-04-01

    The work presents a methodology for fragility analyses of fluvial earthen dikes in earthquake and flood prone areas. Fragility estimates are being integrated into the multi-hazard (earthquake-flood) risk analysis being undertaken within the framework of the EU FP7 project MATRIX (New Multi-Hazard and Multi-Risk Assessment Methods for Europe) for the city of Cologne, Germany. Scenarios of probable cascading events due to the earthquake-triggered failure of flood protection dikes and the subsequent inundation of surroundings are analyzed for the area between the gauges Andernach and Düsseldorf along the Rhine River. Along this river stretch, urban areas are partly protected by earthen dikes, which may be prone to failure during exceptional floods and/or earthquakes. The seismic fragility of the dikes is considered in terms of liquefaction potential (factor of safety), estimated by the use of the simplified procedure of Seed and Idriss. It is assumed that initiation of liquefaction at any point throughout the earthen dikes' body corresponds to the failure of the dike and, therefore, this should be taken into account for the flood risk calculations. The estimated damage potential of such structures is presented as a two-dimensional surface (as a function of seismic hazard and water level). Uncertainties in geometrical and geotechnical dike parameters are considered within the framework of Monte Carlo simulations. Taking into consideration the spatial configuration of the existing flood protection system within the area under consideration, seismic hazard curves (in terms of PGA) are calculated for sites along the river segment of interest at intervals of 1 km. The obtained estimates are used to calculate the flood risk when considering the temporal coincidence of seismic and flood events. Changes in flood risk for the considered hazard cascade scenarios are quantified and compared to the single-hazard scenarios.

  2. Using hazard maps to identify and eliminate workplace hazards: a union-led health and safety training program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Joe; Collins, Michele; Devlin, John; Renner, Paul

    2012-01-01

    The Institute for Sustainable Work and Environment and the Utility Workers Union of America worked with a professional evaluator to design, implement, and evaluate the results of a union-led system of safety-based hazard identification program that trained workers to use hazard maps to identify workplace hazards and target them for elimination. The evaluation documented program implementation and impact using data collected from both qualitative interviews and an on-line survey from worker trainers, plant managers, and health and safety staff. Managers and workers reported that not only were many dangerous hazards eliminated as a result of hazard mapping, some of which were long-standing, difficult-to-resolve issues, but the evaluation also documented improved communication between union members and management that both workers and managers agreed resulted in better, more sustainable hazard elimination.

  3. 77 FR 29275 - Oklahoma: Incorporation by Reference of State Hazardous Waste Management Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-17

    ...: Incorporation by Reference of State Hazardous Waste Management Program AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency... ``Approved State Hazardous Waste Management Programs'', Oklahoma's authorized hazardous waste program. The... State regulations that are authorized and that the EPA will enforce under the Solid Waste Disposal Act...

  4. 76 FR 62303 - California: Final Authorization of State Hazardous Waste Management Program Revision

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-07

    ... State Hazardous Waste Management Program Revision AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION... the revisions to California's hazardous waste management program shall be effective at 1 p.m. on... implement the RCRA hazardous waste management program. EPA granted authorization for changes to California's...

  5. 75 FR 76691 - Oregon; Correction of Federal Authorization of the State's Hazardous Waste Management Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-09

    ...; Correction of Federal Authorization of the State's Hazardous Waste Management Program AGENCY: Environmental... to the State of Oregon's federally authorized RCRA hazardous waste management program. On January 7... changes the State of Oregon made to its federally authorized RCRA Hazardous Waste Management Program...

  6. 77 FR 46964 - Oklahoma: Incorporation by Reference of Approved State Hazardous Waste Management Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-07

    ...: Incorporation by Reference of Approved State Hazardous Waste Management Program AGENCY: Environmental Protection... Agency (EPA) to authorize States to operate their hazardous waste management programs in lieu of the Federal program. The EPA uses the regulations entitled ``Approved State Hazardous Waste Management...

  7. 75 FR 918 - Oregon: Final Authorization of State Hazardous Waste Management Program Revision

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-07

    ... Authorization of State Hazardous Waste Management Program Revision AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA... hazardous waste management program under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, as amended (RCRA). On... has decided that the revisions to the Oregon hazardous waste management program satisfy all of the...

  8. 77 FR 46994 - Oklahoma: Incorporation by Reference of State Hazardous Waste Management Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-07

    ...: Incorporation by Reference of State Hazardous Waste Management Program AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency... ``Approved State Hazardous Waste Management Programs'', Oklahoma's authorized hazardous waste program. The... State regulations that are authorized and that the EPA will enforce under the Solid Waste Disposal Act...

  9. 77 FR 29231 - Oklahoma: Incorporation by Reference of Approved State Hazardous Waste Management Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-17

    ...: Incorporation by Reference of Approved State Hazardous Waste Management Program AGENCY: Environmental Protection... Agency (EPA) to authorize States to operate their hazardous waste management programs in lieu of the Federal program. The EPA uses the regulations entitled ``Approved State Hazardous Waste Management...

  10. 76 FR 26616 - Wisconsin: Incorporation by Reference of Approved State Hazardous Waste Management Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-09

    ... Reference of Approved State Hazardous Waste Management Program AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA... (RCRA) allows EPA to authorize States to operate their hazardous waste management programs in lieu of the Federal program. EPA uses the regulations entitled ``Approved State Hazardous Waste Management...

  11. 77 FR 61326 - Indiana: Final Authorization of State Hazardous Waste Management Program Revision

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-09

    ...: Final Authorization of State Hazardous Waste Management Program Revision AGENCY: Environmental... RCRA hazardous waste management program. We granted authorization for changes to their program on... 202. Hazardous Waste Management July 30, 2003; 68 329 IAC 3.1-6-2(16); System; Identification and FR...

  12. 75 FR 36609 - Oklahoma: Incorporation by Reference of State Hazardous Waste Management Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-28

    ...: Incorporation by Reference of State Hazardous Waste Management Program AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency... ``Approved State Hazardous Waste Management Programs'', Oklahoma's authorized hazardous waste program. The... State regulations that are authorized and that the EPA will enforce under the Solid Waste Disposal Act...

  13. 76 FR 26681 - Wisconsin: Incorporation by Reference of Approved State Hazardous Waste Management Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-09

    ... of Approved State Hazardous Waste Management Program AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA... Hazardous Waste Management Programs,'' Wisconsin's authorized hazardous waste program. EPA will incorporate... that are authorized and that the EPA will enforce under the Solid Waste Disposal Act, commonly referred...

  14. 76 FR 37021 - Louisiana: Final Authorization of State Hazardous Waste Management Program Revision

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-24

    ...: Final Authorization of State Hazardous Waste Management Program Revision AGENCY: Environmental... implement its base Hazardous Waste Management Program. We granted authorization for changes to their program... opportunity to apply for final authorization to operate all aspects of their hazardous waste management...

  15. 75 FR 17332 - Idaho: Incorporation by Reference of Approved State Hazardous Waste Management Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-06

    ...: Incorporation by Reference of Approved State Hazardous Waste Management Program AGENCY: Environmental Protection... ``Approved State Hazardous Waste Management Programs,'' Idaho's authorized hazardous waste program. The EPA... regulations that are authorized and that the EPA will enforce under the Solid Waste Disposal Act, commonly...

  16. Review of earthquake hazard assessments of plant sites at Paducah, Kentucky and Portsmouth, Ohio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    Members of the US Geological Survey staff in Golden, Colorado, have reviewed the submissions of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) staff and of Risk Engineering, Inc. (REI) (Golden, Colorado) for seismic hazard estimates for Department of Energy facilities at Portsmouth, Ohio, and Paducah, Kentucky. We reviewed the historical seismicity and seismotectonics near the two sites, and general features of the LLNL and EPRI/SOG methodologies used by LLNL and Risk Engineering respectively, and also the separate Risk Engineering methodology used at Paducah. We discussed generic issues that affect the modeling of both sites, and performed alternative calculations to determine sensitivities of seismic hazard results to various assumptions and models in an attempt to assign reasonable bounding values of the hazard. In our studies we find that peak acceleration values of 0.08 g for Portsmouth and 0.32 g for Paducah represent central values of the, ground motions obtained at 1000-year return periods. Peak accelerations obtained in the LLNL and Risk Engineering studies have medians near these values (results obtained using the EPRI/SOG methodology appear low at both sites), and we believe that these medians are appropriate values for use in the evaluation of systems, structures, and components for seismic structural integrity and for the seismic design of new and improved systems, structures, and components at Portsmouth and Paducah.

  17. Review of earthquake hazard assessments of plant sites at Paducah, Kentucky, and Portsmouth, Ohio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-03-01

    Members of the US Geological Survey staff in Golden, Colorado, have reviewed the submissions of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) staff and of Risk Engineering, Inc. (REI) (Golden, Colorado) for seismic hazard estimates for Department of Energy facilities at Portsmouth, Ohio, and Paducah, Kentucky. We reviewed the historical seismicity and seismotectonics near the two sites, and general features of the LLNL and EPRI/SOG methodologies used by LLNL and Risk Engineering respectively, and also the separate Risk Engineering methodology used at Paducah. We discussed generic issues that affect the modeling of both sites, and performed alternative calculations to determine sensitivities of seismic hazard results to various assumptions and models in an attempt to assign reasonable bounding values of the hazard. In our studies we find that peak acceleration values of 0.08 g for Portsmouth and 0.32 g for Paducah represent central values of the ground motions obtained at 1000-year return periods. Peak accelerations obtained in the LLNL and Risk Engineering studies have medians near these values (results obtained using the EPRI/SOG methodology appear low at both sites), and we believe that these medians are appropriate values for use in the evaluation of systems, structures, and components for seismic structural integrity and for the seismic design of new and improved systems, structures, and components at Portsmouth and Paducah

  18. Review of earthquake hazard assessments of plant sites at Paducah, Kentucky and Portsmouth, Ohio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    Members of the US Geological Survey staff in Golden, Colorado, have reviewed the submissions of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) staff and of Risk Engineering, Inc. (REI) (Golden, Colorado) for seismic hazard estimates for Department of Energy facilities at Portsmouth, Ohio, and Paducah, Kentucky. We reviewed the historical seismicity and seismotectonics near the two sites, and general features of the LLNL and EPRI/SOG methodologies used by LLNL and Risk Engineering respectively, and also the separate Risk Engineering methodology used at Paducah. We discussed generic issues that affect the modeling of both sites, and performed alternative calculations to determine sensitivities of seismic hazard results to various assumptions and models in an attempt to assign reasonable bounding values of the hazard. In our studies we find that peak acceleration values of 0.08 g for Portsmouth and 0.32 g for Paducah represent central values of the, ground motions obtained at 1000-year return periods. Peak accelerations obtained in the LLNL and Risk Engineering studies have medians near these values (results obtained using the EPRI/SOG methodology appear low at both sites), and we believe that these medians are appropriate values for use in the evaluation of systems, structures, and components for seismic structural integrity and for the seismic design of new and improved systems, structures, and components at Portsmouth and Paducah

  19. Environmental Hazards Assessment Program. Quarterly report, April--June 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-07-31

    The objectives of this report are to: (1) develop a holistic, national basis for risk assessment, risk management, and risk communication that recognizes the direct impact of environmental hazards, both chemical and radiation, on the health and well-being of all; (2) develop a pool of talented scientists and experts in cleanup activities, especially in human health aspects; and (3) identify needs and develop programs addressing the critical shortage of well-educated, highly-skilled technical and scientific personnel to address the health oriented aspects of environmental restoration and waste management. This report describes the progress made this quarter in the following areas: public and professional outreach; science programs; clinical programs; and information support and access systems.

  20. Strategic crisis and risk communication during a prolonged natural hazard event: lessons learned from the Canterbury earthquake sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wein, A. M.; Potter, S.; Becker, J.; Doyle, E. E.; Jones, J. L.

    2015-12-01

    While communication products are developed for monitoring and forecasting hazard events, less thought may have been given to crisis and risk communication plans. During larger (and rarer) events responsible science agencies may find themselves facing new and intensified demands for information and unprepared for effectively resourcing communications. In a study of the communication of aftershock information during the 2010-12 Canterbury Earthquake Sequence (New Zealand), issues are identified and implications for communication strategy noted. Communication issues during the responses included reliability and timeliness of communication channels for immediate and short decision time frames; access to scientists by those who needed information; unfamiliar emergency management frameworks; information needs of multiple audiences, audience readiness to use the information; and how best to convey empathy during traumatic events and refer to other information sources about what to do and how to cope. Other science communication challenges included meeting an increased demand for earthquake education, getting attention on aftershock forecasts; responding to rumor management; supporting uptake of information by critical infrastructure and government and for the application of scientific information in complex societal decisions; dealing with repetitive information requests; addressing diverse needs of multiple audiences for scientific information; and coordinating communications within and outside the science domain. For a science agency, a communication strategy would consider training scientists in communication, establishing relationships with university scientists and other disaster communication roles, coordinating messages, prioritizing audiences, deliberating forecasts with community leaders, identifying user needs and familiarizing them with the products ahead of time, and practicing the delivery and use of information via scenario planning and exercises.

  1. Environmental Hazards Assessment Program quarterly report, January--March 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-04-30

    The objectives of the Environmental Hazards Assessment Program (EHAP) stated in the proposal to DOE are to: develop a holistic, national basis for risk assessment, risk management, and risk communication that recognizes the direct impact of environmental hazards on the health and well-being of all; develop a pool of talented scientists and experts in cleanup activities, especially in human health aspects; and identify needs and develop programs addressing the critical shortage of well-educated, highly-skilled technical and scientific personnel to address the health oriented aspects of environmental restoration and waste management. This report describes activities and reports on progress for the third quarter (January--March) of the third year of the grant. It reports progress against these grant objectives and the Program Implementation Plan published at the end of the first year of the grant. Questions, comments, or requests for further information concerning the activities under this grant can be forwarded to Jack Davis in the EHAP office of the Medical University of South Carolina at (803) 727-6450.

  2. How to eliminate non-damaging earthquakes from the results of a probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA)-A comprehensive procedure with site-specific application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kluegel, Jens-Uwe

    2009-01-01

    The results of probabilistic seismic hazard analyses are frequently presented in terms of uniform hazard spectra or hazard curves with spectral accelerations as the output parameter. The calculation process is based on the evaluation of the probability of exceedance of specified acceleration levels without consideration of the damaging effects of the causative earthquakes. The same applies to the empirical attenuation equations for spectral accelerations used in PSHA models. This makes interpreting and using the results in engineering or risk applications difficult. Uniform hazard spectra and the associated hazard curves may contain a significant amount of contributions of weak, low-energy earthquakes not able to damage the seismically designed structures of nuclear power plants. For the development of realistic engineering designs and for realistic seismic probabilistic risk assessments (seismic PRA) it is necessary to remove the contribution of non-damaging earthquakes from the results of a PSHA. A detailed procedure for the elimination of non-damaging earthquakes based on the CAV (Cumulative Absolute Velocity)-filtering approach was developed and applied to the results of the large-scale PEGASOS probabilistic seismic hazard study for the site of the Goesgen nuclear power plant. The procedure considers the full scope of epistemic uncertainty and aleatory variability present in the PEGASOS study. It involves the development of a set of empirical correlations for CAV and the subsequent development of a composite distribution for the probability of exceedance of the damaging threshold of 0.16 gs. Additionally, a method was developed to measure the difference in the damaging effects of earthquakes of different strengths by the ratio of a power function of ARIAS-intensity or, in the ideal case, by the ratio of the square roots of the associated strong motion durations. The procedure was applied for the update of the Goesgen seismic PRA and for the confirmation of a

  3. Evidence of a Large Triggered Event in the Nepal Himalaya Following the Gorkha Earthquake: Implications Toward Enhanced Seismic Hazard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Prantik

    2018-03-01

    A DC (double couple) constrained multiple point-source moment-tensor inversion is performed on the band-passed (0.008-0.10 Hz) displacement data of the 25 April (M w 7.8) 2015 Nepal mainshock, from 17 broadband stations in India. Our results reveal that the 25 April event (strike = 324°, dip = 14°, rake = 88°) ruptured the north-dipping main Himalayan thrust (MHT) at 16 km depth. We modeled the Coulomb failure stress changes (ΔCFS) produced by the slip on the fault plane of the 25 April Nepal mainshock. A strong correlation with occurrences of aftershocks and regions of increased positive ΔCFS is obtained below the aftershock zone of the 2015 Nepal mainshock. We notice that predicted ΔCFS at 16 km depth show a positive Coulomb stress of 0.06 MPa at the location of the 12 May 2015 event. These small modeled stress changes can lead to trigger events if the crust is already near to failure, but these small stresses can also advance the occurrence of future earthquakes. The main finding of our ΔCFS modeling implies that the 25 April event increased the Coulomb stress changes by 0.06 MPa at 16 km depth below the site of the 12 May event, and thus, this event can be termed as triggered. We propose that the seismic hazard in the Himalaya is not only caused by the mainshock slip on the MHT; rather, the occurrence of large triggered event on the MHT can also enhance our understanding of the seismic hazard in the Nepal Himalaya.

  4. Academia Sinica, TW E-science to Assistant Seismic Observations for Earthquake Research, Monitor and Hazard Reduction Surrounding the South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Bor-Shouh; Liu, Chun-Chi; Yen, Eric; Liang, Wen-Tzong; Lin, Simon C.; Huang, Win-Gee; Lee, Shiann-Jong; Chen, Hsin-Yen

    Experience from the 1994 giant Sumatra earthquake, seismic and tsunami hazard have been considered as important issues in the South China Sea and its surrounding region, and attracted many seismologist's interesting. Currently, more than 25 broadband seismic instruments are currently operated by Institute of Earth Sciences, Academia Sinica in northern Vietnam to study the geodynamic evolution of the Red river fracture zone and rearranged to distribute to southern Vietnam recently to study the geodynamic evolution and its deep structures of the South China Sea. Similar stations are planned to deploy in Philippines in near future. In planning, some high quality stations may be as permanent stations and added continuous GPS observations, and instruments to be maintained and operated by several cooperation institutes, for instance, Institute of Geophysics, Vietnamese Acadamy of Sciences and Technology in Vietnam and Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology in Philippines. Finally, those stations will be planed to upgrade as real time transmission stations for earthquake monitoring and tsunami warning. However, high speed data transfer within different agencies is always a critical issue for successful network operation. By taking advantage of both EGEE and EUAsiaGrid e-Infrastructure, Academia Sinica Grid Computing Centre coordinates researchers from various Asian countries to construct a platform to high performance data transfer for huge parallel computation. Efforts from this data service and a newly build earthquake data centre for data management may greatly improve seismic network performance. Implementation of Grid infrastructure and e-science issues in this region may assistant development of earthquake research, monitor and natural hazard reduction. In the near future, we will search for new cooperation continually from the surrounding countries of the South China Sea to install new seismic stations to construct a complete seismic network of the

  5. Arguing for a multi-hazard mapping program in Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batterson, Martin; Neil, Stapleton

    2010-05-01

    This poster describes efforts to implement a Provincial multi-hazard mapping program, and will explore the challenges associated with this process. Newfoundland and Labrador is on the eastern edge of North America, has a large land area (405,212 km2) and a small population (510,000; 2009 estimate). The province currently has no legislative framework to control development in hazardous areas, but recent landslides in the communities of Daniel's Harbour and Trout River, both of which forced the relocation of residents, emphasize the need for action. There are two factors which confirm the need for a natural hazard mapping program: the documented history of natural disasters, and the future potential impacts of climate change. Despite being relatively far removed from the impacts of earthquake and volcanic activity, Newfoundland and Labrador has a long history of natural disasters. Rockfall, landslide, avalanche and flood events have killed at least 176 people over the past 225 years, many in their own homes. Some of the fatalities resulted from the adjacency of homes to places of employment, and of communities and roads to steep slopes. Others were likely the result of chance, and were thus unavoidable. Still others were the result of poor planning, albeit unwitting. Increasingly however, aesthetics have replaced pragmatism as a selection criterion for housing developments, with residential construction being contemplated for many coastal areas. The issue is exacerbated by the impacts of climate change, which while not a universal bane for the Province, will likely result in rising sea level and enhanced coastal erosion. Much of the Province's coastline is receding at up to 30 cm (and locally higher) per year. Sea level is anticipated to rise by 70cm to over 100 cm by 2099, based on IPCC predictions, plus the effects of enhanced ice sheet melting, plus (or minus) continued local isostatic adjustment. The history of geological disasters, coupled with pressures on

  6. 77 FR 15966 - Ohio: Final Authorization of State Hazardous Waste Management Program Revision

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-19

    ... Hazardous Waste Management Program Revision AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Final..., 1989 (54 FR 27170) to implement the RCRA hazardous waste management program. We granted authorization... Combustors; Final Rule, Checklist 198, February 14, 2002 (67 FR 6968); Hazardous Waste Management System...

  7. 76 FR 18927 - Oklahoma: Final Authorization of State Hazardous Waste Management Program Revision

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-06

    ...: Final Authorization of State Hazardous Waste Management Program Revision AGENCY: Environmental... hazardous waste management program. We authorized the following revisions: Oklahoma received authorization... accordance with 40 CFR 271.21. The Oklahoma Hazardous Waste Management Act (``OHWMA'') provides the ODEQ with...

  8. 76 FR 6561 - North Carolina: Final Authorization of State Hazardous Waste Management Program Revisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-07

    ... Carolina: Final Authorization of State Hazardous Waste Management Program Revisions AGENCY: Environmental... December 31, 1984 (49 FR 48694) to implement its base hazardous waste management program. EPA granted... XV are from the North Carolina Hazardous Waste Management Rules 15A NCAC 13A, effective April 23...

  9. 76 FR 56708 - Ohio: Final Authorization of State Hazardous Waste Management Program Revision

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-14

    ... Hazardous Waste Management Program Revision AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed..., 1989 (54 FR 27170) to implement the RCRA hazardous waste management program. We granted authorization... December 7, 2004. Waste Combustors; Final Rule; Checklist 198. Hazardous Waste Management March 13, 2002...

  10. 77 FR 3224 - New Mexico: Incorporation by Reference of State Hazardous Waste Management Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-23

    ... Mexico: Incorporation by Reference of State Hazardous Waste Management Program AGENCY: Environmental... entitled ``Approved State Hazardous Waste Management Programs,'' New Mexico's authorized hazardous waste... of the State regulations that are authorized and that the EPA will enforce under the Solid Waste...

  11. 78 FR 25579 - Georgia: Final Authorization of State Hazardous Waste Management Program Revisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-02

    ...: Final Authorization of State Hazardous Waste Management Program Revisions AGENCY: Environmental... adopted these requirements by reference at Georgia Hazardous Waste Management Rule 391-3-11-.07(1), EPA... authorization of changes to its hazardous waste program under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA...

  12. 76 FR 6564 - Florida: Final Authorization of State Hazardous Waste Management Program Revisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-07

    ... hazardous pharmaceutical waste to the list of wastes that may be managed under the Universal Waste rule...: Final Authorization of State Hazardous Waste Management Program Revisions AGENCY: Environmental... authorization of the changes to its hazardous waste program under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act...

  13. Slip in the 2010-2011 Canterbury Earthquakes, New Zealand and implications for future seismic hazard in Christchurch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, J. R.; Nissen, E.; England, P. C.; Jackson, J. A.; Lamb, S.; Li, Z.; Oehlers, M.; Parsons, B. E.

    2011-12-01

    crustal block with strain accommodated elsewhere around its boundaries. The fault parameters derived from the satellite observations of both the Darfield and Christchurch events reveal a 15-km-long gap in fault slip south-west of Christchurch which presents a continuing seismic hazard if a further unknown fault structure should exist there. The identification of such possible structures in the vicinity of the city is now a priority as the current gap has a similar length to the rupture in the 2011 Christchurch earthquake. Wallace, L. M., J. Beavan, R. McCaffrey, K. Berryman, and P. Denys, Balancing the plate motion budget in the South Island, New Zealand using GPS, geological and seismological datas, Geophysics Journal International, 168, 332-352, doi:10.1111/j.1365-246X.2006.03183.x, 2007.

  14. Martin Marietta Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant comprehensive earthquake emergency management program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    Recognizing the value of a proactive, integrated approach to earthquake preparedness planning, Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. initiated a contract in June 1989 with Murray State University, Murray, Kentucky, to develop a comprehensive earthquake management program for their Gaseous Diffusion Plant in Paducah, Kentucky. The overall purpose of the program is to mitigate the loss of life and property in the event of a major destructive earthquake. The program includes four distinct (yet integrated) components: an emergency management plan, with emphasis on the catastrophic earthquake; an Emergency Operations Center Duty Roster Manual; an Integrated Automated Emergency Management Information System (IAEMIS); and a series of five training program modules. The PLAN itself is comprised of four separate volumes: Volume I -- Chapters 1--3; Volume II -- Chapters 4--6, Volume III -- Chapter 7, and Volume IV -- 23 Appendices. The EOC Manual (which includes 15 mutual aid agreements) is designated as Chapter 7 in the PLAN and is a ''stand alone'' document numbered as Volume III. This document, Volume I, provides an introduction, summary and recommendations, and the emergency operations center direction and control

  15. Martin Marietta Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant comprehensive earthquake emergency management program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    Recognizing the value of a proactive, integrated approach to earthquake preparedness planning, Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. initiated a contract in June 1989 with Murray State University, Murray, Kentucky, to develop a comprehensive earthquake management program for their Gaseous Diffusion Plant in Paducah, Kentucky (PGDP -- Subcontract No. 19P-JV649V). The overall purpose of the program is to mitigate the loss of life and property in the event of a major destructive earthquake. The program includes four distinct (yet integrated) components: an emergency management plan, with emphasis on the catastrophic earthquake; an Emergency Operations Center Duty Roster Manual; an Integrated Automated Emergency Management Information System (IAEMIS); and a series of five training program modules. The PLAN itself is comprised of four separate volumes: Volume I -- Chapters 1--3; Volume II -- Chapters 4--6, Volume III -- Chapter 7, and Volume IV -- 23 Appendices. The EOC Manual (which includes 15 mutual aid agreements) is designated as Chapter 7 in the PLAN and is a ''stand alone'' document numbered as Volume III. This document, Volume II, discusses methodology, engineering and environmental analyses, and operational procedures

  16. Martin Marietta Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant comprehensive earthquake emergency management program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    Recognizing the value of a proactive, integrated approach to earthquake preparedness planning, Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc, initiated a contract in June 1989 with Murray State University, Murray, Kentucky, to develop a comprehensive earthquake management program for their Gaseous Diffusion Plant in Paducah, Kentucky (PGDP--Subcontract No. 19P-JV649V). The overall purpose of the program is to mitigate the loss of life and property in the event of a major destructive earthquake. The program includes four distinct (yet integrated) components: (1) an emergency management plan, with emphasis on the catas trophic earthquake, (2) an Emergency Operations Center Duty Roster Manual, (3) an Integrated Automated Emergency Management Information System (IAEMIS), and (4) a series of five training program modules. The PLAN itself is comprised of four separate volumes: Volume I--Chapters 1--3; Volume II--Chapters 4--6, Volume III--Chapter 7, and Volume IV--23 Appendices. The EOC Manual (which includes 15 mutual aid agreements) is designated as Chapter 7 in the PLAN and is a ''stand alone'' document numbered as Volume III. This document, Volume IV contains the appendices to this report

  17. Martin Marietta Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant comprehensive earthquake emergency management program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    Recognizing the value of a proactive, integrated approach to earthquake preparedness planning, Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. initiated a contract in June 1989 with Murray State University, Murray, Kentucky, to develop a comprehensive earthquake management program for their Gaseous Diffusion Plant in Paducah, Kentucky (PGDP -- Subcontract No. 19P-JV649V). The overall purpose of the program is to mitigate the loss of life and property in the event of a major destructive earthquake. The program includes four distinct (yet integrated) components: (1) an emergency management plan with emphasis on the catas trophic earthquake; (2) an Emergency Operations Center Duty Roster Manual; (3) an Integrated Automated Emergency Management Information System (IAEMIS); and (4) a series of five training program modules. The PLAN itself is comprised of four separate volumes: Volume I -- Chapters 1--3; Volume II -- Chapters 4--6; Volume III -- Chapter 7; and Volume IV -- 23 Appendices. The EOC Manual (which includes 15 mutual aid agreements) is designated as Chapter 7 in the PLAN and is this document numbered as Volume III

  18. 76 FR 6594 - Florida: Final Authorization of State Hazardous Waste Management Program Revisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-07

    ...: Final Authorization of State Hazardous Waste Management Program Revisions AGENCY: Environmental... of the changes to its hazardous waste program under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA... and State Programs Section, RCRA Programs and Materials Management Branch, RCRA Division, U.S...

  19. 77 FR 60963 - Tennessee: Final Authorization of State Hazardous Waste Management Program Revisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-05

    ...: Final Authorization of State Hazardous Waste Management Program Revisions AGENCY: Environmental... of the changes to its hazardous waste program under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA... Johnson, Permits and State Programs Section, RCRA Programs and Materials Management Branch, RCRA Division...

  20. Aftershock Duration of the 1976 Ms 7.8 Tangshan Earthquake: Implication for the Seismic Hazard Model with a Sensitivity Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Q.; Shi, B.

    2011-12-01

    The disaster of the Ms 7.8 earthquake occurred in Tangshan, China, on July 28th 1976 caused at least 240,000 deaths. The mainshock was followed by two largest aftershocks, the Ms 7.1 occurred after 15 hr later of the mainshock, and the Ms 6.9 occurred on 15 November. The aftershock sequence is lasting to date, making the regional seismic activity rate around the Tangshan main fault much higher than that of before the main event. If these aftershocks are involved in the local main event catalog for the PSHA calculation purpose, the resultant seismic hazard calculation will be overestimated in this region and underestimated in other place. However, it is always difficult to accurately determine the time duration of aftershock sequences and identifies the aftershocks from main event catalog for seismologist. In this study, by using theoretical inference and empirical relation given by Dieterich, we intended to derive the plausible time length of aftershock sequences of the Ms 7.8 Tangshan earthquake. The aftershock duration from log-log regression approach gives us about 120 years according to the empirical Omori's relation. Based on Dietrich approach, it has been claimed that the aftershock duration is a function of remote shear stressing rate, normal stress acting on the fault plane, and fault frictional constitutive parameters. In general, shear stressing rate could be estimated in three ways: 1. Shear stressing rate could be written as a function of static stress drop and a mean earthquake recurrence time. In this case, the time length of aftershock sequences is about 70-100 years. However, since the recurrence time inherits a great deal of uncertainty. 2. Ziv and Rubin derived a general function between shear stressing rate, fault slip speed and fault width with a consideration that aftershock duration does not scale with mainshock magnitude. Therefore, from Ziv's consideration, the aftershock duration is about 80 years. 3. Shear stressing rate is also can be

  1. The evaluation of the earthquake hazard using the exponential distribution method for different seismic source regions in and around Ağrı

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bayrak, Yusuf, E-mail: ybayrak@agri.edu.tr [Ağrı İbrahim Çeçen University, Ağrı/Turkey (Turkey); Türker, Tuğba, E-mail: tturker@ktu.edu.tr [Karadeniz Technical University, Department of Geophysics, Trabzon/Turkey (Turkey)

    2016-04-18

    The aim of this study; were determined of the earthquake hazard using the exponential distribution method for different seismic sources of the Ağrı and vicinity. A homogeneous earthquake catalog has been examined for 1900-2015 (the instrumental period) with 456 earthquake data for Ağrı and vicinity. Catalog; Bogazici University Kandilli Observatory and Earthquake Research Institute (Burke), National Earthquake Monitoring Center (NEMC), TUBITAK, TURKNET the International Seismological Center (ISC), Seismological Research Institute (IRIS) has been created using different catalogs like. Ağrı and vicinity are divided into 7 different seismic source regions with epicenter distribution of formed earthquakes in the instrumental period, focal mechanism solutions, and existing tectonic structures. In the study, the average magnitude value are calculated according to the specified magnitude ranges for 7 different seismic source region. According to the estimated calculations for 7 different seismic source regions, the biggest difference corresponding with the classes of determined magnitudes between observed and expected cumulative probabilities are determined. The recurrence period and earthquake occurrence number per year are estimated of occurring earthquakes in the Ağrı and vicinity. As a result, 7 different seismic source regions are determined occurrence probabilities of an earthquake 3.2 magnitude, Region 1 was greater than 6.7 magnitude, Region 2 was greater than than 4.7 magnitude, Region 3 was greater than 5.2 magnitude, Region 4 was greater than 6.2 magnitude, Region 5 was greater than 5.7 magnitude, Region 6 was greater than 7.2 magnitude, Region 7 was greater than 6.2 magnitude. The highest observed magnitude 7 different seismic source regions of Ağrı and vicinity are estimated 7 magnitude in Region 6. Region 6 are determined according to determining magnitudes, occurrence years of earthquakes in the future years, respectively, 7.2 magnitude was in 158

  2. Environmental hazards assessment program. Quarterly report, July 1996--September 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    On June 23, 1992, the United States Department of Energy (DOE) signed Assistance Instrument Number DE-FG01-92EW50625 with the Medical University of South Carolina (MUSC) to support the Environmental Hazards Assessment Program (EHAP). Dr. James B. Edwards, President of the Medical University of South Carolina, suggested, open-quotes Good health is not the result of good doctoring but the result of a healthy society in a healthy, economic, political and biological environment.close quotes To further good health, it is appropriate that an educational institution such as MUSC utilize grant funds to help people from all walks of life understand better what truly does affect human health, what does not, and why

  3. NASA Applied Sciences Disasters Program Support for the September 2017 Mexico Earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasscoe, M. T.; Kirschbaum, D.; Torres-Perez, J. L.; Yun, S. H.; Owen, S. E.; Hua, H.; Fielding, E. J.; Liang, C.; Bekaert, D. P.; Osmanoglu, B.; Amini, R.; Green, D. S.; Murray, J. J.; Stough, T.; Struve, J. C.; Seepersad, J.; Thompson, V.

    2017-12-01

    The 8 September M 8.1 Tehuantepec and 19 September M 7.1 Puebla earthquakes were among the largest earthquakes recorded in Mexico. These two events caused widespread damage, affecting several million people and causing numerous casualties. A team of event coordinators in the NASA Applied Sciences Program activated soon after these devastating earthquakes in order to support decision makers in Mexico, using NASA modeling and international remote sensing capabilities to generate decision support products to aid in response and recovery. The NASA Disasters Program promotes the use of Earth observations to improve the prediction of, preparation for, response to, and recovery from natural and technological disasters. For these two events, the Disasters Program worked with Mexico's space agency (Agencia Espacial Mexico, AEM) and the National Center for Prevention of Disasters (Centro Nacional de Prevención de Desastres, CENAPRED) to generate products to support response, decision-making, and recovery. Products were also provided to academic partners, technical institutions, and field responders to support response. In addition, the Program partnered with the US Geological Survey (USGS), Office of Foreign Disaster Assistance (OFDA), and other partners in order to provide information to federal and domestic agencies that were supporting event response. Leveraging the expertise of investigators at NASA Centers, products such as landslide susceptibility maps, precipitation models, and radar based damage assessments and surface deformation maps were generated and used by AEM, CENAPRED, and others during the event. These were used by AEM in collaboration with other government agencies in Mexico to make appropriate decisions for mapping damage, rescue and recovery, and informing the population regarding areas prone to potential risk. We will provide an overview of the response activities and data products generated in support of the earthquake response, partnerships with

  4. Coulomb Stress Change and Seismic Hazard of Rift Zones in Southern Tibet after the 2015 Mw7.8 Nepal Earthquake and Its Mw7.3 Aftershock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Z.; Zha, X.; Lu, Z.

    2015-12-01

    In southern Tibet (30~34N, 80~95E), many north-trending rifts, such as Yadong-Gulu and Lunggar rifts, are characterized by internally drained graben or half-graben basins bounded by active normal faults. Some developed rifts have become a portion of important transportation lines in Tibet, China. Since 1976, eighty-seven >Mw5.0 earthquakes have happened in the rift regions, and fifty-five events have normal faulting focal mechanisms according to the GCMT catalog. These rifts and normal faults are associated with both the EW-trending extension of the southern Tibet and the convergence between Indian and Tibet. The 2015 Mw7.8 Nepal great earthquake and its Mw7.3 aftershock occurred at the main Himalayan Thrust zone and caused tremendous damages in Kathmandu region. Those earthquakes will lead to significant viscoelastic deformation and stress changes in the southern Tibet in the future. To evaluate the seismic hazard in the active rift regions in southern Tibet, we modeled the slip distribution of the 2015 Nepal great earthquakes using the InSAR displacement field from the ALOS-2 satellite SAR data, and calculated the Coulomb failure stress (CFS) on these active normal faults in the rift zones. Because the estimated CFS depends on the geometrical parameters of receiver faults, it is necessary to get the accurate fault parameters in the rift zones. Some historical earthquakes have been studied using the field data, teleseismic data and InSAR observations, but results are in not agreement with each other. In this study, we revaluated the geometrical parameters of seismogenic faults occurred in the rift zones using some high-quality coseismic InSAR observations and teleseismic body-wave data. Finally, we will evaluate the seismic hazard in the rift zones according to the value of the estimated CFS and aftershock distribution.

  5. Department of Energy hazardous waste remedial actions program: Quality assurance program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horne, T.E.

    1988-01-01

    This paper describes the Quality Assurance Program developed for the Hazardous Waste Remedial Actions Program Support Contractor Office (HAZWRAP SCO). Key topics discussed include an overview of the HAZWRAP SCO mission and organization, the basic quality assurance program requirements and the requirements for the control of quality for the Department of Energy and Work for Others hazardous waste management programs, and the role of ensuring quality through the project team concept for the management of remedial response actions. The paper focuses on planning for quality assurance for this remedial waste management process from preliminary assessments of remedial sites to feasibility studies. Some observations concerning the control of quality during the implementation of remedial actions are presented. (2 refs.)

  6. Sandia National Laboratories, California Hazardous Materials Management Program annual report : February 2009.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brynildson, Mark E.

    2009-02-01

    The annual program report provides detailed information about all aspects of the Sandia National Laboratories, California (SNL/CA) Hazardous Materials Management Program. It functions as supporting documentation to the SNL/CA Environmental anagement ystem Program Manual. This program annual report describes the activities undertaken during the past year, and activities planned in future years to implement the Hazardous Materials Management Program, one of six programs that supports environmental management at SNL/CA.

  7. The revaluation of the macroseismic effects of March 4, 1977 earthquake in the frame of the new seismic hazard assessment methodologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pantea, A.; Constantin, Angela; Anghel, M.

    2002-01-01

    To increase the earthquakes resistance of structure the design norms and construction require the best knowledge of seismic hazard parameters and using the new methodologies of seismic hazard assessment. One of these parameters is seismic intensity of the earthquakes occurred on the whole territory analyzed during as long as possible time interval for which data are available, especially for the strongest of them. For Romanian territory the strongest and the best known from the point of view of the macroseismic effects is the March 4, 1977 earthquake. Seismology by itself, without geophysics (solid earth physics), geology, geography, and geodesy, cannot fully, comprehensively, validly assess seismic hazards. Among those who have understood seismic hazard assessment as the result of cooperation between geosciences as a whole and seismology, one may quote Bune, 1978; Pantea et al., 2002, etc. Assessing seismic hazards is a complex undertaking, for it draws on a vast amount of knowledge in numerous sectors of geosciences, particularly solid earth physics as a branch of geophysics that also includes seismology, tectonic physics, gravimetry, geomagnetism, geochronology, etc.. It involves processing the results of complex geophysical, seismologic, tectonic, and geologic studies. To get a picture of, and understand, the laws that govern seismogenesis, one has to know what the relations are among the measured physical quantities indicating the properties of the rocks (whether gravimetric, magnetometric, electrometric, seismometric, or others), the dynamics of tectonic structures, as well as the nature and geological characteristics. Geophysics can be relied upon to determine the deep internal structure of the earth that geological methods are unable to reveal. Geophysics, and implicitly seismology, can help resolve the problem by: 1. Identifying the areas of the seismic sources and their characteristics, including focal depth, M max [Bune, 1978], and the recurrence chart

  8. 78 FR 32161 - Oklahoma: Final Authorization of State Hazardous Waste Management Program Revision

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-29

    ... Authorization of State Hazardous Waste Management Program Revision AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA... waste management program. We authorized the following revisions: Oklahoma received authorization for... authorization of its program revision in accordance with 40 CFR 271.21. The Oklahoma Hazardous Waste Management...

  9. 76 FR 6594 - North Carolina: Final Authorization of State Hazardous Waste Management Program Revisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-07

    ... Carolina: Final Authorization of State Hazardous Waste Management Program Revisions AGENCY: Environmental... authorization of the changes to its hazardous waste program under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act... Section, RCRA Programs and Materials Management Branch, RCRA Division, U.S. Environmental Protection...

  10. 77 FR 60919 - Tennessee: Final Authorization of State Hazardous Waste Management Program Revisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-05

    ...: Final Authorization of State Hazardous Waste Management Program Revisions AGENCY: Environmental..., Division of Solid Waste Management, 5th Floor, L & C Tower, 401 Church Street, Nashville, Tennessee 37243... RCRA hazardous waste management program. We granted authorization for changes to Tennessee's program on...

  11. Earthquake engineering programs at the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokarz, F.J.

    1980-01-01

    Information is presented concerning assessments of current seismic design methods; systematic evaluation program for older operating reactors; seismic vulnerability of fuel reprocessing facilities; and advisability of seismic scram

  12. Large LOCA-earthquake combination probability assessment - Load combination program. Project 1 summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, S; Streit, R D; Chou, C K

    1980-01-01

    This report summarizes work performed for the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) by the Load Combination Program at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory to establish a technical basis for the NRC to use in reassessing its requirement that earthquake and large loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) loads be combined in the design of nuclear power plants. A systematic probabilistic approach is used to treat the random nature of earthquake and transient loading to estimate the probability of large LOCAs that are directly and indirectly induced by earthquakes. A large LOCA is defined in this report as a double-ended guillotine break of the primary reactor coolant loop piping (the hot leg, cold leg, and crossover) of a pressurized water reactor (PWR). Unit 1 of the Zion Nuclear Power Plant, a four-loop PWR-1, is used for this study. To estimate the probability of a large LOCA directly induced by earthquakes, only fatigue crack growth resulting from the combined effects of thermal, pressure, seismic, and other cyclic loads is considered. Fatigue crack growth is simulated with a deterministic fracture mechanics model that incorporates stochastic inputs of initial crack size distribution, material properties, stress histories, and leak detection probability. Results of the simulation indicate that the probability of a double-ended guillotine break, either with or without an earthquake, is very small (on the order of 10{sup -12}). The probability of a leak was found to be several orders of magnitude greater than that of a complete pipe rupture. A limited investigation involving engineering judgment of a double-ended guillotine break indirectly induced by an earthquake is also reported. (author)

  13. Large LOCA-earthquake combination probability assessment - Load combination program. Project 1 summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, S.; Streit, R.D.; Chou, C.K.

    1980-01-01

    This report summarizes work performed for the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) by the Load Combination Program at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory to establish a technical basis for the NRC to use in reassessing its requirement that earthquake and large loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) loads be combined in the design of nuclear power plants. A systematic probabilistic approach is used to treat the random nature of earthquake and transient loading to estimate the probability of large LOCAs that are directly and indirectly induced by earthquakes. A large LOCA is defined in this report as a double-ended guillotine break of the primary reactor coolant loop piping (the hot leg, cold leg, and crossover) of a pressurized water reactor (PWR). Unit 1 of the Zion Nuclear Power Plant, a four-loop PWR-1, is used for this study. To estimate the probability of a large LOCA directly induced by earthquakes, only fatigue crack growth resulting from the combined effects of thermal, pressure, seismic, and other cyclic loads is considered. Fatigue crack growth is simulated with a deterministic fracture mechanics model that incorporates stochastic inputs of initial crack size distribution, material properties, stress histories, and leak detection probability. Results of the simulation indicate that the probability of a double-ended guillotine break, either with or without an earthquake, is very small (on the order of 10 -12 ). The probability of a leak was found to be several orders of magnitude greater than that of a complete pipe rupture. A limited investigation involving engineering judgment of a double-ended guillotine break indirectly induced by an earthquake is also reported. (author)

  14. 75 FR 50932 - Massachusetts: Final Authorization of State Hazardous Waste Management Program Revisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-18

    ...: Final Authorization of State Hazardous Waste Management Program Revisions AGENCY: Environmental...-1990. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Robin Biscaia, RCRA Waste Management Section, Office of Site... final [[Page 50933

  15. 77 FR 26755 - Underground Injection Control Program; Hazardous Waste Injection Restrictions; Petition for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-07

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [FRL-9669-6] Underground Injection Control Program; Hazardous Waste Injection Restrictions; Petition for Exemption--Class I Hazardous Waste Injection; Diamond... reissuance of an exemption to the land disposal Restrictions, under the 1984 Hazardous and Solid Waste...

  16. 76 FR 55908 - Underground Injection Control Program; Hazardous Waste Injection Restrictions; Petition for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-09

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [FRL-9461-5] Underground Injection Control Program; Hazardous Waste Injection Restrictions; Petition for Exemption--Class I Hazardous Waste Injection; Great Lakes... of an exemption to the land disposal restrictions, under the 1984 Hazardous and Solid Waste...

  17. 76 FR 42125 - Underground Injection Control Program; Hazardous Waste Injection Restrictions; Petition for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-18

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [FRL-9440-3] Underground Injection Control Program; Hazardous Waste Injection Restrictions; Petition for Exemption--Class I Hazardous Waste Injection; ConocoPhillips... Restrictions, under the 1984 Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act...

  18. 76 FR 36129 - Underground Injection Control Program; Hazardous Waste Injection Restrictions; Petition for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-21

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [FRL-9321-3] Underground Injection Control Program; Hazardous Waste Injection Restrictions; Petition for Exemption--Class I Hazardous Waste Injection; ExxonMobil... disposal Restrictions, under the 1984 Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments to the Resource Conservation and...

  19. 78 FR 76294 - Underground Injection Control Program; Hazardous Waste Injection Restrictions; Petition for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-17

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [FRL-9904-21-OW] Underground Injection Control Program; Hazardous Waste Injection Restrictions; Petition for Exemption--Class I Hazardous Waste Injection; Mosaic... Restrictions, under the 1984 Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act...

  20. 75 FR 60457 - Underground Injection Control Program Hazardous Waste Injection Restrictions; Petition for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-30

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [FRL-9208-4] Underground Injection Control Program Hazardous Waste Injection Restrictions; Petition for Exemption--Class I Hazardous Waste Injection Dow Chemical Company (DOW... 1984 Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act have been...

  1. 78 FR 42776 - Underground Injection Control Program; Hazardous Waste Injection Restrictions; Petition for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-17

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [FRL9834-8] Underground Injection Control Program; Hazardous Waste Injection Restrictions; Petition for Exemption--Class I Hazardous Waste Injection; Blanchard Refining... disposal Restrictions, under the 1984 Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments to the Resource Conservation and...

  2. 77 FR 52717 - Underground Injection Control Program; Hazardous Waste Injection Restrictions; Petition for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-30

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [FRL-9724-1] Underground Injection Control Program; Hazardous Waste Injection Restrictions; Petition for Exemption--Class I Hazardous Waste Injection; Cornerstone... exemption to the land disposal Restrictions, under the 1984 Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments to the...

  3. NATURAL HAZARD ASSESSMENT OF SW MYANMAR - A CONTRIBUTION OF REMOTE SENSING AND GIS METHODS TO THE DETECTION OF AREAS VULNERABLE TO EARTHQUAKES AND TSUNAMI / CYCLONE FLOODING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Pararas-Carayannis

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Myanmar, formerly Burma, is vulnerable to several natural hazards, such as earthquakes, cyclones, floods, tsunamis and landslides. The present study focuses on geomorphologic and geologic investigations of the south-western region of the country, based on satellite data (Shuttle Radar Topography Mission-SRTM, MODIS and LANDSAT. The main objective is to detect areas vulnerable to inundation by tsunami waves and cyclone surges. Since the region is also vulnerable to earthquake hazards, it is also important to identify seismotectonic patterns, the location of major active faults, and local site conditions that may enhance ground motions and earthquake intensities. As illustrated by this study, linear, topographic features related to subsurface tectonic features become clearly visible on SRTM-derived morphometric maps and on LANDSAT imagery. The GIS integrated evaluation of LANDSAT and SRTM data helps identify areas most susceptible to flooding and inundation by tsunamis and storm surges. Additionally, land elevation maps help identify sites greater than 10 m in elevation height, that would be suitable for the building of protective tsunami/cyclone shelters.

  4. An innovative view to the seismic hazard from strong Vrancea intermediate-depth earthquakes: the case studies of Bucharest (Romania) and Russe (Bulgaria)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panza, G.F.; Cioflan, C.; Marmureanu, G.; Kouteva, M.; Paskaleva, I.; Romanelli, F.

    2003-04-01

    An advanced procedure for ground motion modelling, capable of synthesizing the seismic ground motion from basic understanding of fault mechanism and seismic wave propagation, is applied to compute seismic signals at Bucharest (Romania) and Russe, NE Bulgaria, due to the seismic hazard from intermediate-depth Vrancea earthquakes. The theoretically obtained signals are successfully compared with the available observations. For both case studies site response estimates along selected geological cross sections are provided for three recent, strong and intermediate-depth, Vrancea earthquakes: August 30, 1986 and May 30 and 31, 1990. The applied ground motion modelling technique has proved that it is possible to investigate the local effects, taking into account both the seismic source and the propagation path effects. The computation of realistic seismic input, utilising the huge amount of geological, geophysical and geotechnical data, already available, goes well beyond the conventional deterministic approach and gives an economically valid scientific tool for seismic microzonation. (author)

  5. Estimated airborne release of plutonium from the 102 Building at the General Electric Vallecitos Nuclear Center, Vallecitos, California, as a result of postulated damage from severe wind and earthquake hazard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishima, J.; Ayer, J.E.; Hays, I.D.

    1980-12-01

    This report estimates the potential airborne releases of plutonium as a consequence of various severities of earthquake and wind hazard postulated for the 102 Building at the General Electric Vallecitos Nuclear Center in California. The releases are based on damage scenarios developed by other specialists. The hazard severities presented range up to a nominal velocity of 230 mph for wind hazard and are in excess of 0.8 g linear acceleration for earthquakes. The consequences of thrust faulting are considered. The approaches and factors used to estimate the releases are discussed. Release estimates range from 0.003 to 3 g Pu

  6. Comparison of Structurally Controlled Landslide Hazard Simulation to the Co-seismic Landslides Caused by the M 7.2 2013 Bohol Earthquake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galang, J. A. M. B.; Eco, R. C.; Lagmay, A. M. A.

    2014-12-01

    The M_w 7.2 October 15, 2013 Bohol earthquake is one of the more destructive earthquake to hit the Philippines in the 21st century. The epicenter was located in Sagbayan municipality, central Bohol and was generated by a previously unmapped reverse fault called the "Inabanga Fault". The earthquake resulted in 209 fatalities and over 57 million USD worth of damages. The earthquake generated co-seismic landslides most of which were related to fault structures. Unlike rainfall induced landslides, the trigger for co-seismic landslides happen without warning. Preparations for this type of landslides rely heavily on the identification of fracture-related slope instability. To mitigate the impacts of co-seismic landslide hazards, morpho-structural orientations of discontinuity sets were mapped using remote sensing techniques with the aid of a Digital Terrain Model (DTM) obtained in 2012. The DTM used is an IFSAR derived image with a 5-meter pixel resolution and approximately 0.5 meter vertical accuracy. Coltop 3D software was then used to identify similar structures including measurement of their dip and dip directions. The chosen discontinuity sets were then keyed into Matterocking software to identify potential rock slide zones due to planar or wedged discontinuities. After identifying the structurally-controlled unstable slopes, the rock mass propagation extent of the possible rock slides was simulated using Conefall. Separately, a manually derived landslide inventory has been performed using post-earthquake satellite images and LIDAR. The results were compared to the landslide inventory which identified at least 873 landslides. Out of the 873 landslides identified through the inventory, 786 or 90% intersect the simulated structural-controlled landslide hazard areas of Bohol. The results show the potential of this method to identify co-seismic landslide hazard areas for disaster mitigation. Along with computer methods to simulate shallow landslides, and debris flow

  7. Introduction: seismology and earthquake engineering in Mexico and Central and South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa, A.F.

    1982-01-01

    The results from seismological studies that are used by the engineering community are just one of the benefits obtained from research aimed at mitigating the earthquake hazard. In this issue of Earthquake Information Bulletin current programs in seismology and earthquake engineering, seismic networks, future plans and some of the cooperative programs with different internation organizations are described by Latin-American seismologists. The article describes the development of seismology in Latin America and the seismological interest of the OAS. -P.N.Chroston

  8. 78 FR 43842 - State of Kansas; Authorization of State Hazardous Waste Management Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-22

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 271 [EPA-R07-RCRA-2013-0447; FRL-9833-6] State of Kansas; Authorization of State Hazardous Waste Management Program AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency... its hazardous waste program under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). EPA proposes to...

  9. 78 FR 70255 - West Virginia: Final Authorization of State Hazardous Waste Management Program Revisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-25

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 271 [EPA-R03-RCRA-2013-0571; FRL-9903-07-Region 3] West Virginia: Final Authorization of State Hazardous Waste Management Program Revisions AGENCY... final authorization of revisions to its hazardous waste program under the Resource Conservation and...

  10. 78 FR 15299 - New York: Final Authorization of State Hazardous Waste Management Program Revision

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-11

    ...: Final Authorization of State Hazardous Waste Management Program Revision AGENCY: Environmental... Waste program as addressed by the federal used oil management regulations that were published on..., New York Codes, Rules and Regulations (6 NYCRR), Volume A-2A, Hazardous Waste Management System...

  11. 77 FR 13200 - Texas: Final Authorization of State Hazardous Waste Management Program Revision

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-06

    ... Authorization of State Hazardous Waste Management Program Revision AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA... December 26, 1984 (49 FR 48300), to implement its Base Hazardous Waste Management Program. This... Waste 53478, September Annotated Sections Management facilities. 8, 2005. 5.103 and 5.105 (Checklist 210...

  12. 78 FR 15338 - New York: Final Authorization of State Hazardous Waste Management Program Revisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-11

    ... authorization of changes to its hazardous waste program under the Solid Waste Disposal Act, as amended, commonly... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 271 [EPA-R02-RCRA-2013-0144; FRL-9693-3] New York: Final Authorization of State Hazardous Waste Management Program Revisions AGENCY: Environmental...

  13. 75 FR 81187 - South Dakota: Final Authorization of State Hazardous Waste Management Program Revision

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-27

    ...: Final Authorization of State Hazardous Waste Management Program Revision AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed Rule. SUMMARY: The Solid Waste Disposal Act, as amended, commonly... Agency (EPA) to authorize states to operate their hazardous waste management programs in lieu of the...

  14. 77 FR 47797 - Arkansas: Final Authorization of State Hazardous Waste Management Program Revisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-10

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 271 [EPA-R06-RCRA-2010-0307; FRL-9713-2] Arkansas: Final Authorization of State Hazardous Waste Management Program Revisions AGENCY: Environmental... authorization of the changes to its hazardous waste program under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act...

  15. 76 FR 19004 - Oklahoma: Final Authorization of State Hazardous Waste Management Program Revisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-06

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 271 [EPA-R06-RCRA-2010-0307; FRL-9290-9] Oklahoma: Final Authorization of State Hazardous Waste Management Program Revisions AGENCY: Environmental... authorization of the changes to its hazardous waste program under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act...

  16. 78 FR 32223 - Oklahoma: Final Authorization of State Hazardous Waste Management Program Revisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-29

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 271 [EPA-R06-RCRA-2012-0821; 9817-5] Oklahoma: Final Authorization of State Hazardous Waste Management Program Revisions AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA... changes to its hazardous waste program under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). EPA...

  17. 77 FR 38566 - Louisiana: Final Authorization of State Hazardous Waste Management Program Revisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-28

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 271 [EPA--R06-RCRA-2012-0367; FRL-9692-6] Louisiana: Final Authorization of State Hazardous Waste Management Program Revisions AGENCY: Environmental... authorization of the changes to its hazardous waste program under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act...

  18. 78 FR 54200 - Virginia: Final Authorization of State Hazardous Waste Management Program Revisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-03

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 271 [EPA-R03-RCRA-2012-0294; FRL-9900-37-Region3] Virginia: Final Authorization of State Hazardous Waste Management Program Revisions AGENCY: Environmental... of revisions to its hazardous waste program under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA...

  19. 76 FR 37048 - Louisiana; Final Authorization of State Hazardous Waste Management Program Revisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-24

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 271 [EPA-R06-RCRA-2010-0307; FRL-9323-8] Louisiana; Final Authorization of State Hazardous Waste Management Program Revisions AGENCY: Environmental... authorization of the changes to its hazardous waste program under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act...

  20. 77 FR 15343 - Oklahoma: Final Authorization of State Hazardous Waste Management Program Revisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-15

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 271 [EPA-R06-RCRA-2012-0054; FRL-9647-8] Oklahoma: Final Authorization of State Hazardous Waste Management Program Revisions AGENCY: Environmental... authorization of the changes to its hazardous waste program under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act...

  1. Proceedings of the Department of Energy Defense Programs hazardous and mixed waste minimization workshop: Hazardous Waste Remedial Actions Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-09-01

    The first workshop on hazardous and mixed waste minimization was held in Las Vegas, Nevada, on July 26--28, 1988. The objective of this workshop was to establish an interchange between DOE headquarters (DOE-HQ) DP, Operations Offices, and contractors of waste minimization strategies and successes. The first day of the workshop began with presentations stressing the importance of establishing a waste minimization program at each site as required by RCRA, the land ban restrictions, and the decrease in potential liabilities associated with waste disposal. Discussions were also centered on pending legislation which would create an Office of Waste Reduction in the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The Waste Minimization and Avoidance Study was initiated by DOE as an addition to the long-term productivity study to address the issues of evolving requirements facing RCRA waste management activities at the DP sites, to determine how major operations will be affected by these requirements, and to determine the available strategies and options for waste minimization and avoidance. Waste minimization was defined in this study as source reduction and recycling

  2. Global Seismic Hazard Assessment Program (GSHAP in continental Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. C. Bhatia

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available The regional hazard mapping for the whole Eastern Asia was coordinated by the SSB Regional Centre in Beijing, originating from the expansion of the test area initially established in the border region of China-India-Nepal-Myanmar- Bangla Dash, in coordination with the other Regional Centres (JIPE, Moscow, and AGSO, Canberra and with the direct assistance of the USGS. All Eastern Asian countries have participated directly in this regional effort, with the addition of Japan, for which an existing national hazard map was incorporated. The regional hazard depicts the expected peak ground acceleration with 10% exceedance probability in 50 years.

  3. Guidance document on practices to model and implement Earthquake hazards in extended PSA (final version). Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decker, K.; Hirata, K.; Groudev, P.

    2016-01-01

    The current report provides guidance for the assessment of seismo-tectonic hazards in level 1 and 2 PSA. The objective is to review existing guidance, identify methodological challenges, and to propose novel guidance on key issues. Guidance for the assessment of vibratory ground motion and fault capability comprises the following: - listings of data required for the hazard assessment and methods to estimate data quality and completeness; - in-depth discussion of key input parameters required for hazard models; - discussions on commonly applied hazard assessment methodologies; - references to recent advances of science and technology. Guidance on the assessment of correlated or coincident hazards comprises of chapters on: - screening of correlated hazards; - assessment of correlated hazards (natural and man-made); - assessment of coincident hazards. (authors)

  4. Implementation of equity in resource allocation for regional earthquake risk mitigation using two-stage stochastic programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolfaghari, Mohammad R; Peyghaleh, Elnaz

    2015-03-01

    This article presents a new methodology to implement the concept of equity in regional earthquake risk mitigation programs using an optimization framework. It presents a framework that could be used by decisionmakers (government and authorities) to structure budget allocation strategy toward different seismic risk mitigation measures, i.e., structural retrofitting for different building structural types in different locations and planning horizons. A two-stage stochastic model is developed here to seek optimal mitigation measures based on minimizing mitigation expenditures, reconstruction expenditures, and especially large losses in highly seismically active countries. To consider fairness in the distribution of financial resources among different groups of people, the equity concept is incorporated using constraints in model formulation. These constraints limit inequity to the user-defined level to achieve the equity-efficiency tradeoff in the decision-making process. To present practical application of the proposed model, it is applied to a pilot area in Tehran, the capital city of Iran. Building stocks, structural vulnerability functions, and regional seismic hazard characteristics are incorporated to compile a probabilistic seismic risk model for the pilot area. Results illustrate the variation of mitigation expenditures by location and structural type for buildings. These expenditures are sensitive to the amount of available budget and equity consideration for the constant risk aversion. Most significantly, equity is more easily achieved if the budget is unlimited. Conversely, increasing equity where the budget is limited decreases the efficiency. The risk-return tradeoff, equity-reconstruction expenditures tradeoff, and variation of per-capita expected earthquake loss in different income classes are also presented. © 2015 Society for Risk Analysis.

  5. Evaluation of potential surface rupture and review of current seismic hazards program at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This report summarizes the authors review and evaluation of the existing seismic hazards program at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The report recommends that the original program be augmented with a probabilistic analysis of seismic hazards involving assignment of weighted probabilities of occurrence to all potential sources. This approach yields a more realistic evaluation of the likelihood of large earthquake occurrence particularly in regions where seismic sources may have recurrent intervals of several thousand years or more. The report reviews the locations and geomorphic expressions of identified fault lines along with the known displacements of these faults and last know occurrence of seismic activity. Faults are mapped and categorized into by their potential for actual movement. Based on geologic site characterization, recommendations are made for increased seismic monitoring; age-dating studies of faults and geomorphic features; increased use of remote sensing and aerial photography for surface mapping of faults; the development of a landslide susceptibility map; and to develop seismic design standards for all existing and proposed facilities at LANL

  6. Standarized radiological hazard analysis for a broad based operational safety program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wadman, W.W. III; Andrews, L.L.

    1992-01-01

    The Radiological hazard Analysis (RHA) Manual provides a methodology and detailed guidance for systematic analysis of radiological hazards over a broad spectrum of program functions, housed in a wide variety of facilities. Radiological programs at LANL include: research and experimentation; routine materials operations; production; non-destructive examination or testing; isotope and machine produced radiations; chemistry; and metallurgy. The RHA permits uniform evaluation of hazard types over a range of several orders of magnitude of hazard severity. The results are used to estimate risk, evaluate types and level or resource allocations, identify deficiencies, and plan corrective actions for safe working environments. 2 refs

  7. Standardized radiological hazard analysis for a broad based operational safety program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wadman, W. III; Andrews, L.

    1992-01-01

    The Radiological Hazard Analysis (RHA) Manual provides a methodology and detailed guidance for systematic analysis of radiological hazards over a broad spectrum of program functions, housed in a wide variety of facilities. Radiological programs at LANL include: research and experimentation routine materials operations; production; non-destructive examination or testing; isotope and machine produced radiations; chemistry; and metallurgy. The RHA permits uniform evaluation of hazard types over a range of several orders of magnitude of hazard severity. The results are used to estimate risk, evaluate types and level of resource allocations, identify deficiencies, and plan corrective actions for safe working environments. (author)

  8. State-of-the-Art for Assessing Earthquake Hazards in the United States. Report 25. Parameters for Specifying Intensity-Related Earthquake Ground Motions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-09-01

    and Sponheuer, W. 1969. Scale of Seismic Intensity: Proc. Fourth World Conf. on Earthquake Engineering, Santiago, Chile . Murphy, J. R., and O’Brien, L...Predom V/H el, V/I Vel V/H Displ V/H sec VIH Period Period Predom Accel cm/sec Vel cm Disp .05 Dur sec sec Period S11 2 0.48 MODIFIED MERCALLI INTENSITY...0.1 0. 0.16 142.20 Long. Vert Hor Vert Ratio Ratio Vert Ratio Vert r io Du r atio Predom Predom VIH Acce V/H Vel V /H Dspi V H sec 1, H Period Period

  9. Performance of USGS one-year earthquake hazard map for natural and induced seismicity in the central and eastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, E. M.; Stein, S.; Spencer, B. D.; Salditch, L.; Petersen, M. D.; McNamara, D. E.

    2017-12-01

    Seismicity in the central United States has dramatically increased since 2008 due to the injection of wastewater produced by oil and gas extraction. In response, the USGS created a one-year probabilistic hazard model and map for 2016 to describe the increased hazard posed to the central and eastern United States. Using the intensity of shaking reported to the "Did You Feel It?" system during 2016, we assess the performance of this model. Assessing the performance of earthquake hazard maps for natural and induced seismicity is conceptually similar but has practical differences. Maps that have return periods of hundreds or thousands of years— as commonly used for natural seismicity— can be assessed using historical intensity data that also span hundreds or thousands of years. Several different features stand out when assessing the USGS 2016 seismic hazard model for the central and eastern United States from induced and natural earthquakes. First, the model can be assessed as a forecast in one year, because event rates are sufficiently high to permit evaluation with one year of data. Second, because these models are projections from the previous year thus implicitly assuming that fluid injection rates remain the same, misfit may reflect changes in human activity. Our results suggest that the model was very successful by the metric implicit in probabilistic hazard seismic assessment: namely, that the fraction of sites at which the maximum shaking exceeded the mapped value is comparable to that expected. The model also did well by a misfit metric that compares the spatial patterns of predicted and maximum observed shaking. This was true for both the central and eastern United States as a whole, and for the region within it with the highest amount of seismicity, Oklahoma and its surrounding area. The model performed least well in northern Texas, over-stating hazard, presumably because lower oil and gas prices and regulatory action reduced the water injection volume

  10. The 2011 Mineral, Virginia, earthquake and its significance for seismic hazards in eastern North America: overview and synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, J. Wright; Chapman, Martin C.; Green, Russell A.

    2015-01-01

    The 23 August 2011 Mw (moment magnitude) 5.7 ± 0.1, Mineral, Virginia, earthquake was the largest and most damaging in the central and eastern United States since the 1886 Mw 6.8–7.0, Charleston, South Carolina, earthquake. Seismic data indicate that the earthquake rupture occurred on a southeast-dipping reverse fault and consisted of three subevents that progressed northeastward and updip. U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) "Did You Feel It?" intensity reports from across the eastern United States and southeastern Canada, rockfalls triggered at distances to 245 km, and regional groundwater-level changes are all consistent with efficient propagation of high-frequency seismic waves (∼1 Hz and higher) in eastern North America due to low attenuation.

  11. The exposure of Sydney (Australia) to earthquake-generated tsunamis, storms and sea level rise: a probabilistic multi-hazard approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dall'Osso, F; Dominey-Howes, D; Moore, C; Summerhayes, S; Withycombe, G

    2014-12-10

    Approximately 85% of Australia's population live along the coastal fringe, an area with high exposure to extreme inundations such as tsunamis. However, to date, no Probabilistic Tsunami Hazard Assessments (PTHA) that include inundation have been published for Australia. This limits the development of appropriate risk reduction measures by decision and policy makers. We describe our PTHA undertaken for the Sydney metropolitan area. Using the NOAA NCTR model MOST (Method for Splitting Tsunamis), we simulate 36 earthquake-generated tsunamis with annual probabilities of 1:100, 1:1,000 and 1:10,000, occurring under present and future predicted sea level conditions. For each tsunami scenario we generate a high-resolution inundation map of the maximum water level and flow velocity, and we calculate the exposure of buildings and critical infrastructure. Results indicate that exposure to earthquake-generated tsunamis is relatively low for present events, but increases significantly with higher sea level conditions. The probabilistic approach allowed us to undertake a comparison with an existing storm surge hazard assessment. Interestingly, the exposure to all the simulated tsunamis is significantly lower than that for the 1:100 storm surge scenarios, under the same initial sea level conditions. The results have significant implications for multi-risk and emergency management in Sydney.

  12. Earthquake scenario and probabilistic ground-shaking hazard maps for the Albuquerque-Belen-Santa Fe, New Mexico, corridor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, I.; Olig, S.; Dober, M.; Silva, W.; Wright, D.; Thomas, P.; Gregor, N.; Sanford, A.; Lin, K.-W.; Love, D.

    2004-01-01

    New Mexico's population is concentrated along the corridor that extends from Belen in the south to Española in the north and includes Albuquerque and Santa Fe. The Rio Grande rift, which encompasses the corridor, is a major tectonically, volcanically, and seismically active continental rift in the western U.S. Although only one large earthquake (moment magnitude (M) ≥ 6) has possibly occurred in the New Mexico portion of the rift since 1849, paleoseismic data indicate that prehistoric surface-faulting earthquakes of M 6.5 and greater have occurred on aver- age every 400 yrs on many faults throughout the Rio Grande rift.

  13. Hazardous materials management and control program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory - environmental protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eisenhower, B.M.; Oakes, T.W.

    1982-01-01

    In the Federal Register of May 19, 1980, the US Environmental Protection Agency promulgated final hazardous waste regulations according to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) of 1976. The major substantive portions of these regulations went into effect on November 19, 1980, and established a federal program to provide comprehensive regulation of hazardous waste from its generation to its disposal. In an effort to comply with these regulations, a Hazardous Materials Management and Control Program was established at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The program is administered by two Hazardous Materials Coordinators, who together with various support groups, ensure that all hazardous materials and wastes are handled in such a manner that all personnel, the general public, and the environment are adequately protected

  14. LOCAL SITE CONDITIONS INFLUENCING EARTHQUAKE INTENSITIES AND SECONDARY COLLATERAL IMPACTS IN THE SEA OF MARMARA REGION - Application of Standardized Remote Sensing and GIS-Methods in Detecting Potentially Vulnerable Areas to Earthquakes, Tsunamis and Other Hazards.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Pararas-Carayannis

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The destructive earthquake that struck near the Gulf of Izmit along the North Anatolian fault in Northwest Turkey on August 17, 1999, not only generated a local tsunami that was destructive at Golcuk and other coastal cities in the eastern portion of the enclosed Sea of Marmara, but was also responsible for extensive damage from collateral hazards such as subsidence, landslides, ground liquefaction, soil amplifications, compaction and underwater slumping of unconsolidated sediments. This disaster brought attention in the need to identify in this highly populated region, local conditions that enhance earthquake intensities, tsunami run-up and other collateral disaster impacts. The focus of the present study is to illustrate briefly how standardized remote sensing techniques and GIS-methods can help detect areas that are potentially vulnerable, so that disaster mitigation strategies can be implemented more effectively. Apparently, local site conditions exacerbate earthquake intensities and collateral disaster destruction in the Marmara Sea region. However, using remote sensing data, the causal factors can be determined systematically. With proper evaluation of satellite imageries and digital topographic data, specific geomorphologic/topographic settings that enhance disaster impacts can be identified. With a systematic GIS approach - based on Digital Elevation Model (DEM data - geomorphometric parameters that influence the local site conditions can be determined. Digital elevation data, such as SRTM (Shuttle Radar Topography Mission, with 90m spatial resolution and ASTER-data with 30m resolution, interpolated up to 15 m is readily available. Areas with the steepest slopes can be identified from slope gradient maps. Areas with highest curvatures susceptible to landslides can be identified from curvature maps. Coastal areas below the 10 m elevation susceptible to tsunami inundation can be clearly delineated. Height level maps can also help locate

  15. Challenges to communicate risks of human-caused earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klose, C. D.

    2014-12-01

    The awareness of natural hazards has been up-trending in recent years. In particular, this is true for earthquakes, which increase in frequency and magnitude in regions that normally do not experience seismic activity. In fact, one of the major concerns for many communities and businesses is that humans today seem to cause earthquakes due to large-scale shale gas production, dewatering and flooding of mines and deep geothermal power production. Accordingly, without opposing any of these technologies it should be a priority of earth scientists who are researching natural hazards to communicate earthquake risks. This presentation discusses the challenges that earth scientists are facing to properly communicate earthquake risks, in light of the fact that human-caused earthquakes are an environmental change affecting only some communities and businesses. Communication channels may range from research papers, books and class room lectures to outreach events and programs, popular media events or even social media networks.

  16. Integrated Program of Multidisciplinary Education and Research in Mechanics and Physics of Earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapusta, N.

    2011-12-01

    Studying earthquake source processes is a multidisciplinary endeavor involving a number of subjects, from geophysics to engineering. As a solid mechanician interested in understanding earthquakes through physics-based computational modeling and comparison with observations, I need to educate and attract students from diverse areas. My CAREER award has provided the crucial support for the initiation of this effort. Applying for the award made me to go through careful initial planning in consultation with my colleagues and administration from two divisions, an important component of the eventual success of my path to tenure. Then, the long-term support directed at my program as a whole - and not a specific year-long task or subject area - allowed for the flexibility required for a start-up of a multidisciplinary undertaking. My research is directed towards formulating realistic fault models that incorporate state-of-the-art experimental studies, field observations, and analytical models. The goal is to compare the model response - in terms of long-term fault behavior that includes both sequences of simulated earthquakes and aseismic phenomena - with observations, to identify appropriate constitutive laws and parameter ranges. CAREER funding has enabled my group to develop a sophisticated 3D modeling approach that we have used to understand patterns of seismic and aseismic fault slip on the Sunda megathrust in Sumatra, investigate the effect of variable hydraulic properties on fault behavior, with application to Chi-Chi and Tohoku earthquake, create a model of the Parkfield segment of the San Andreas fault that reproduces both long-term and short-term features of the M6 earthquake sequence there, and design experiments with laboratory earthquakes, among several other studies. A critical ingredient in this research program has been the fully integrated educational component that allowed me, on the one hand, to expose students from different backgrounds to the

  17. Earthquake Emergency Education in Dushanbe, Tajikistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohadjer, Solmaz; Bendick, Rebecca; Halvorson, Sarah J.; Saydullaev, Umed; Hojiboev, Orifjon; Stickler, Christine; Adam, Zachary R.

    2010-01-01

    We developed a middle school earthquake science and hazards curriculum to promote earthquake awareness to students in the Central Asian country of Tajikistan. These materials include pre- and post-assessment activities, six science activities describing physical processes related to earthquakes, five activities on earthquake hazards and mitigation…

  18. 78 FR 35054 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Program to Prevent Smoking in Hazardous Areas (Pertains to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-11

    ...; Program to Prevent Smoking in Hazardous Areas (Pertains to Underground Coal Mines) AGENCY: Mine Safety and... carrying smoking materials, matches, or lighters underground and to prevent smoking in hazardous areas... Act), 30 U.S.C. 877(c), and 30 CFR 75.1702 prohibits persons from smoking or carrying smoking...

  19. A review on earthquake and tsunami hazards of the Sumatran plate boundary: Observing expected and unexpected events after the Aceh-Andaman Mw 9.15 event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natawidjaja, D.

    2013-12-01

    The 600-km Mentawai megathrust had produced two giant historical earthquakes generating big tsunamies in 1797 and 1833. The SuGAr (Sumatran GPS continuous Array) network, first deployed in 2002, shows that the subduction interface underlying Mentawai Islands and the neighboring Nias section in the north are fully locked, thus confirming their potential hazards. Outreach activities to warn people about earthquake and tsunamies had been started since 4 months prior to the 26 December 2004 in Aceh-Andaman earthquake (Mw 9.15). Later in March 2005, the expected megathrust earthquake (Mw 8.7) hit Nias-Simelue area and killed about 2000 people, releasing the accumulated strain since the previous 1861 event (~Mw 8.5). After then many Mw 7s and smaller events occured in Sumatra, filling areas between and around two giant ruptures and heighten seismicities in neighboring areas. In March 2007, the twin earthquake disaster (Mw 6.3 and Mw 6.4) broke two consecutive segments of the transcurrent Sumatran fault in the Singkarak lake area. Only six month later, in September 2007, the rapid-fire-failures of three consecutive megathrust patches (Mw 8.5, Mw 7.9 and Mw 7.0) ruptured a 250-km-section of the southern part of the Mentawai. It was a big surprise since this particular section is predicted as a very-low coupled section from modelling the SuGAr data, and hence, bypassing the more potential fully coupled section of the Mentawai in between the 2005 and 2007 ruptures. In September 2009, a rare unexpected event (Mw 7.6) suddenly ruptured an intracrustal fault in the subducted slab down under Padang City and killed about 500 people. Padang had been in preparation for the next tsunami but not for strong shakes from near by major earthquake. This event seems to have remotely triggered another Mw 6.7 on the Sumatran fault near kerinci Lake, a few hundred kilometers south of Padang, in less than a day. Just a year later, in November 2010, again an unexpected large slow-slip event of

  20. Far field tsunami simulations of the 1755 Lisbon earthquake: Implications for tsunami hazard to the U.S. East Coast and the Caribbean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkan, R.; ten Brink, Uri S.; Lin, J.

    2009-01-01

    The great Lisbon earthquake of November 1st, 1755 with an estimated moment magnitude of 8.5-9.0 was the most destructive earthquake in European history. The associated tsunami run-up was reported to have reached 5-15??m along the Portuguese and Moroccan coasts and the run-up was significant at the Azores and Madeira Island. Run-up reports from a trans-oceanic tsunami were documented in the Caribbean, Brazil and Newfoundland (Canada). No reports were documented along the U.S. East Coast. Many attempts have been made to characterize the 1755 Lisbon earthquake source using geophysical surveys and modeling the near-field earthquake intensity and tsunami effects. Studying far field effects, as presented in this paper, is advantageous in establishing constraints on source location and strike orientation because trans-oceanic tsunamis are less influenced by near source bathymetry and are unaffected by triggered submarine landslides at the source. Source location, fault orientation and bathymetry are the main elements governing transatlantic tsunami propagation to sites along the U.S. East Coast, much more than distance from the source and continental shelf width. Results of our far and near-field tsunami simulations based on relative amplitude comparison limit the earthquake source area to a region located south of the Gorringe Bank in the center of the Horseshoe Plain. This is in contrast with previously suggested sources such as Marqu??s de Pombal Fault, and Gulf of C??diz Fault, which are farther east of the Horseshoe Plain. The earthquake was likely to be a thrust event on a fault striking ~ 345?? and dipping to the ENE as opposed to the suggested earthquake source of the Gorringe Bank Fault, which trends NE-SW. Gorringe Bank, the Madeira-Tore Rise (MTR), and the Azores appear to have acted as topographic scatterers for tsunami energy, shielding most of the U.S. East Coast from the 1755 Lisbon tsunami. Additional simulations to assess tsunami hazard to the U.S. East

  1. Earthquake Education in Prime Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Groot, R.; Abbott, P.; Benthien, M.

    2004-12-01

    Since 2001, the Southern California Earthquake Center (SCEC) has collaborated on several video production projects that feature important topics related to earthquake science, engineering, and preparedness. These projects have also fostered many fruitful and sustained partnerships with a variety of organizations that have a stake in hazard education and preparedness. The Seismic Sleuths educational video first appeared in the spring season 2001 on Discovery Channel's Assignment Discovery. Seismic Sleuths is based on a highly successful curriculum package developed jointly by the American Geophysical Union and The Department of Homeland Security Federal Emergency Management Agency. The California Earthquake Authority (CEA) and the Institute for Business and Home Safety supported the video project. Summer Productions, a company with a reputation for quality science programming, produced the Seismic Sleuths program in close partnership with scientists, engineers, and preparedness experts. The program has aired on the National Geographic Channel as recently as Fall 2004. Currently, SCEC is collaborating with Pat Abbott, a geology professor at San Diego State University (SDSU) on the video project Written In Stone: Earthquake Country - Los Angeles. Partners on this project include the California Seismic Safety Commission, SDSU, SCEC, CEA, and the Insurance Information Network of California. This video incorporates live-action demonstrations, vivid animations, and a compelling host (Abbott) to tell the story about earthquakes in the Los Angeles region. The Written in Stone team has also developed a comprehensive educator package that includes the video, maps, lesson plans, and other supporting materials. We will present the process that facilitates the creation of visually effective, factually accurate, and entertaining video programs. We acknowledge the need to have a broad understanding of the literature related to communication, media studies, science education, and

  2. Asia-Pacific Region Global Earthquake and Volcanic Eruption Risk Management (G-EVER) project and a next-generation real-time volcano hazard assessment system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takarada, S.

    2012-12-01

    The first Workshop of Asia-Pacific Region Global Earthquake and Volcanic Eruption Risk Management (G-EVER1) was held in Tsukuba, Ibaraki Prefecture, Japan from February 23 to 24, 2012. The workshop focused on the formulation of strategies to reduce the risks of disasters worldwide caused by the occurrence of earthquakes, tsunamis, and volcanic eruptions. More than 150 participants attended the workshop. During the workshop, the G-EVER1 accord was approved by the participants. The Accord consists of 10 recommendations like enhancing collaboration, sharing of resources, and making information about the risks of earthquakes and volcanic eruptions freely available and understandable. The G-EVER Hub website (http://g-ever.org) was established to promote the exchange of information and knowledge among the Asia-Pacific countries. Several G-EVER Working Groups and Task Forces were proposed. One of the working groups was tasked to make the next-generation real-time volcano hazard assessment system. The next-generation volcano hazard assessment system is useful for volcanic eruption prediction, risk assessment, and evacuation at various eruption stages. The assessment system is planned to be developed based on volcanic eruption scenario datasets, volcanic eruption database, and numerical simulations. Defining volcanic eruption scenarios based on precursor phenomena leading up to major eruptions of active volcanoes is quite important for the future prediction of volcanic eruptions. Compiling volcanic eruption scenarios after a major eruption is also important. A high quality volcanic eruption database, which contains compilations of eruption dates, volumes, and styles, is important for the next-generation volcano hazard assessment system. The volcanic eruption database is developed based on past eruption results, which only represent a subset of possible future scenarios. Hence, different distributions from the previous deposits are mainly observed due to the differences in

  3. Outreach to the Public on Earthquake and Tsunami Safety with Limited Human Resources: Train the Trainers Pilot Program in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez Ruiz, W.; Vanacore, E. A.; Gomez, G.; Martinez Colon, J. F.; Perez, F.; Baez-Sanchez, G.; Flores Hots, V. E.; Lopez, A. M.; Huerfano, V.; Figueroa, J. M.

    2017-12-01

    Given the limited human resources available to interact directly with the public and disseminate information on earthquake and tsunami safety, the Puerto Rico Seismic Network has developed the Train the Trainers course, designed exclusively for emergency management officers (EMOs). This three-day training course provides a complete package of educational tools that will allow EMOs to present standard conferences, and lectures, with the appropriate and accurate information for different audiences on earthquake and tsunami hazard and safety. Here we present preliminary observations and lessons learned from the pilot program that was offered in July 2017 to 20 EMOs from the twelve Puerto Rico Emergency Management Agency (PREMA) zones and two students from the University of Puerto Rico Mayaguez. To ensure sufficient preparation, the training course provided evaluation tools including written and practical exams that participants were required to score 80% or more to complete the training successfully. Of the 20 EMO participants, 18 EMOs passed the final exam. Preliminary analysis of the pre-test scores and the post-test scores, show a score improvement between 8% to 46% amongst the participants. These 18 participants will receive a certificate as well as tools and resources to offer earthquakes and tsunamis conferences for up to two years across Puerto Rico and its outlying islands. To ensure that the pilot participants will provide conferences to the public PRSN required a signed commitment to give at least 5 conferences in one year from each participant and PRSN will monitor the participants for the next two years to evaluate the efficacy of the program. However, based on the preliminary data this program appears to be an effective method to increase the amount of outreach professionals on the Island.

  4. Hazardous-waste landfill research, US EPA (United States Environmental Protection Agency) program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schomaker, N.B.

    1988-08-01

    The Land Pollution Control Division (LPCD), Hazardous Waste Engineering Research Lab. (HWERL), U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, in Cincinnati, Ohio, has responsibility for research in solid- and hazardous-waste management with respect to land disposal of wastes. To fulfill the responsibility, the LPCD is developing concepts and is documenting the environmental effects of various waste-disposal practices; and is collecting data necessary to support implementation of disposal guidelines mandated by the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments of 1984 (HSWA). This paper presents an overview of the land-disposal research associated with the LPCD hazardous waste program plan and will report the current status of work in the following categorical areas: Hazardous-waste facilities - landfills and surface impoundments; Non-Hazardous waste facilities; and Technology transfer.

  5. Slope instabilities triggered by the 2011 Lorca earthquake (M{sub w} 5.1): a comparison and revision of hazard assessments of earthquake-triggered landslides in Murcia; Inestabilidades de ladera provocadas por el terremoto de Lorca de 2011 (Mw 5,1): comparacion y revision de estudios de peligrosidad de movimientos de ladera por efecto sismico en Murcia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez-Peces, M. J.; Garcia-Mayordomo, J.; Martinez-Diaz, J. J.; Tsige, M.

    2012-11-01

    The Lorca basin has been the object of recent research aimed at studying the phenomenon of earthquake induced landslides and their assessment within the context of different seismic scenarios, bearing in mind the influence of soil and topographical amplification effects. Nevertheless, it was not until the Lorca earthquakes of 11 May 2011 that it became possible to adopt a systematic approach to the problem. We provide here an inventory of slope instabilities triggered by the Lorca earthquakes comprising 100 cases, mainly small rock and soil falls (1 to 100 m{sup 3}). The distribution of these instabilities is compared to two different earthquake-triggered landslide hazard maps: one considering the occurrence of the most probable earthquake for a 475-yr return period in the Lorca basin (M{sub w} = 5.0), which was previously published on the basis of a low-resolution digital elevation model (DEM), and a second one matching the occurrence of the M{sub w} = 5.1 2011 Lorca earthquake, which was undertaken using a higher resolution DEM. The most frequent Newmark displacement values related to the slope failures triggered by the 2011 Lorca earthquakes are smaller than 2 cm in both hazard scenarios and coincide with areas where significant soil and topographical seismic amplification effects have occurred.

  6. Environmentally Friendly Solution to Ground Hazards in Design of Bridges in Earthquake Prone Areas Using Timber Piles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi, H.

    2015-12-01

    Bridges are major elements of infrastructure in all societies. Their safety and continued serviceability guaranties the transportation and emergency access in urban and rural areas. However, these important structures are subject to earthquake induced damages in structure and foundations. The basic approach to the proper support of foundations are a) distribution of imposed loads to foundation in a way they can resist those loads without excessive settlement and failure; b) modification of foundation ground with various available methods; and c) combination of "a" and "b". The engineers has to face the task of designing the foundations meeting all safely and serviceability criteria but sometimes when there are numerous environmental and financial constrains, the use of some traditional methods become inevitable. This paper explains the application of timber piles to improve ground resistance to liquefaction and to secure the abutments of short to medium length bridges in an earthquake/liquefaction prone area in Bohol Island, Philippines. The limitations of using the common ground improvement methods (i.e., injection, dynamic compaction) because of either environmental or financial concerns along with the abundance of timber in the area made the engineers to use a network of timber piles behind the backwalls of the bridge abutments. The suggested timber pile network is simulated by numerical methods and its safety is examined. The results show that the compaction caused by driving of the piles and bearing capacity provided by timbers reduce the settlement and lateral movements due to service and earthquake induced loads.

  7. [Environmental Hazards Assessment Program annual report, June 1992--June 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-06-01

    This report contains the script from a videotaped dialogue concerning a hypothetical hazardous waste/community health risk scenario presented as a Round Table Forum. Various issues are explored, ranging from the scientific and technical aspects of environmental studies and remedial action, to public information and community involvement, to the economic impact on local communities. The roles of the media, local government and federal and state agencies are examined as well as sources for funding. In an attempt to gauge audience response and reaction, evaluation cards were distributed, and the comments and recommendations are included here

  8. Fossil landscapes and youthful seismogenic sources in the central Apennines: excerpts from the 24 August 2016, Amatrice earthquake and seismic hazard implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianluca Valensise

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available We show and discuss the similarities among the 2016 Amatrice (Mw 6.0, 1997 Colfiorito-Sellano (Mw 6.0-5.6 and 2009 L’Aquila (Mw 6.3 earthquakes. They all occurred along the crest of the central Apennines and were caused by shallow dipping faults between 3 and 10 km depth, as shown by their characteristic InSAR signature. We contend that these earthquakes delineate a seismogenic style that is characteristic of this portion of the central Apennines, where the upward propagation of seismogenic faults is hindered by the presence of pre-existing regional thrusts. This leads to an effective decoupling between the deeper seismogenic portion of the upper crust and its uppermost 3 km.The decoupling implies that active faults mapped at the surface do not connect with the seismogenic sources, and that their evolution may be controlled by passive readjustments to coseismic strains or even by purely gravitational motions. Seismic hazard analyses and estimates based on such faults should hence be considered with great caution as they may be all but representative of the true seismogenic potential.

  9. Oak Ridge National Laboratory program plan for certification of nonradioactive hazardous waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-05-01

    This document describes Oak Ridge National Laboratory's (ORNL) Program for Certification of Nonradioactive Hazardous Waste (Program). The Program establishes the criteria that will be used by all ORNL divisions, offices, and programs for unrestricted release of hazardous waste to off-site commercial facilities. The certification process meets the requirements given in the Performance Objective for Certification of Non-Radioactive Hazardous Waste. The Program Plan has two main elements: (A) Establishing Radioactive Materials Management Areas (RMMAs). At ORNL, RMMAs are (1) Contamination Areas, High Contamination Areas, and Airborne Radioactivity Areas, (2) Radiological Buffer Areas established for contamination control, and (3) areas posted to prevent loss of control of activated items. (B) Certifying that hazardous waste originating in an RMMA is suitable for commercial treatment, storage, or disposal by process knowledge, surface contamination surveys, sampling and analysis, or a combination of these techniques. If process knowledge is insufficient, the hazardous waste must undergo sampling and analysis in addition to surface contamination surveys. This Program will reduce the impact to current ORNL operations by using current radiological area boundaries and existing plans and procedures to the greatest extent possible. New or revised procedures will be developed as necessary to implement this Program

  10. Success in transmitting hazard science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, J. G.; Garside, T.

    2010-12-01

    Money motivates mitigation. An example of success in communicating scientific information about hazards, coupled with information about available money, is the follow-up action by local governments to actually mitigate. The Nevada Hazard Mitigation Planning Committee helps local governments prepare competitive proposals for federal funds to reduce risks from natural hazards. Composed of volunteers with expertise in emergency management, building standards, and earthquake, flood, and wildfire hazards, the committee advises the Nevada Division of Emergency Management on (1) the content of the State’s hazard mitigation plan and (2) projects that have been proposed by local governments and state agencies for funding from various post- and pre-disaster hazard mitigation programs of the Federal Emergency Management Agency. Local governments must have FEMA-approved hazard mitigation plans in place before they can receive this funding. The committee has been meeting quarterly with elected and appointed county officials, at their offices, to encourage them to update their mitigation plans and apply for this funding. We have settled on a format that includes the county’s giving the committee an overview of its infrastructure, hazards, and preparedness. The committee explains the process for applying for mitigation grants and presents the latest information that we have about earthquake hazards, including locations of nearby active faults, historical seismicity, geodetic strain, loss-estimation modeling, scenarios, and documents about what to do before, during, and after an earthquake. Much of the county-specific information is available on the web. The presentations have been well received, in part because the committee makes the effort to go to their communities, and in part because the committee is helping them attract federal funds for local mitigation of not only earthquake hazards but also floods (including canal breaches) and wildfires, the other major concerns in

  11. The California Hazards Institute

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rundle, J. B.; Kellogg, L. H.; Turcotte, D. L.

    2006-12-01

    California's abundant resources are linked with its natural hazards. Earthquakes, landslides, wildfires, floods, tsunamis, volcanic eruptions, severe storms, fires, and droughts afflict the state regularly. These events have the potential to become great disasters, like the San Francisco earthquake and fire of 1906, that overwhelm the capacity of society to respond. At such times, the fabric of civic life is frayed, political leadership is tested, economic losses can dwarf available resources, and full recovery can take decades. A patchwork of Federal, state and local programs are in place to address individual hazards, but California lacks effective coordination to forecast, prevent, prepare for, mitigate, respond to, and recover from, the harmful effects of natural disasters. Moreover, we do not know enough about the frequency, size, time, or locations where they may strike, nor about how the natural environment and man-made structures would respond. As California's population grows and becomes more interdependent, even moderate events have the potential to trigger catastrophes. Natural hazards need not become natural disasters if they are addressed proactively and effectively, rather than reactively. The University of California, with 10 campuses distributed across the state, has world-class faculty and students engaged in research and education in all fields of direct relevance to hazards. For that reason, the UC can become a world leader in anticipating and managing natural hazards in order to prevent loss of life and property and degradation of environmental quality. The University of California, Office of the President, has therefore established a new system-wide Multicampus Research Project, the California Hazards Institute (CHI), as a mechanism to research innovative, effective solutions for California. The CHI will build on the rich intellectual capital and expertise of the Golden State to provide the best available science, knowledge and tools for

  12. Headquarters Air Force Logistics Command guidance manual for hazardous waste minimization (PACER REDUCE): Hazardous Waste Remedial Actions Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, L.W.; Weeter, D.; Roth, J.A.; Debelak, K.A.; Bowers, A.R.

    1988-09-01

    This manual provides guidance for the Air Force Logistics Command (AFLC) Waste Minimization Program, called PACER REDUCE, and applies to all AFLC installations and personel who are responsible for implementing and monitoring activities relating to PACER REDUCE. This guidance for waste minimization provides management and technical approaches for assessing potential waste reduction techniques and for making informed decisions concerning industrial process and waste stream management. Such actions will assist in achieving regulatory compliance with the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 as updated by the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments of 1984. 37 refs., 14 figs., 22 tabs

  13. Decision making based on analysis of benefit versus costs of preventive retrofit versus costs of repair after earthquake hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostenaru Dan, M.

    2012-04-01

    In this presentation interventions on seismically vulnerable early reinforced concrete skeleton buildings, from the interwar time, at different performance levels, from avoiding collapse up to assuring immediate post-earthquake functionality are considered. Between these two poles there are degrees of damage depending on the performance aim set. The costs of the retrofit and post-earthquake repair differ depending on the targeted performance. Not only an earthquake has impact on a heritage building, but also the retrofit measure, for example on its appearance or its functional layout. This way criteria of the structural engineer, the investor, the architect/conservator/urban planner and the owner/inhabitants from the neighbourhood are considered for taking a benefit-cost decision. Benefit-cost analysis based decision is an element in a risk management process. A solution must be found on how much change to accept for retrofit and how much repairable damage to take into account. There are two impact studies. Numerical simulation was run for the building typology considered for successive earthquakes, selected in a deterministic way (1977, 1986 and two for 1991 from Vrancea, Romania and respectively 1978 Thessaloniki, Greece), considering also the case when retrofit is done between two earthquakes. The typology of buildings itself was studied not only for Greece and Romania, but for numerous European countries, including Italy. The typology was compared to earlier reinforced concrete buildings, with Hennebique system, in order to see to which amount these can belong to structural heritage and to shape the criteria of the architect/conservator. Based on the typology study two model buildings were designed, and for one of these different retrofit measures (side walls, structural walls, steel braces, steel jacketing) were considered, while for the other one of these retrofit techniques (diagonal braces, which permits adding also active measures such as energy

  14. [Environmental Hazards Assessment Program annual report, June 1992--June 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The Medical University of South Carolina (MUSC) and the University of Charleston, South Carolina (UCSC) propose to offer the degree of Master of Science in Environmental Studies. The proposed starting date is August 1994. The purpose of this interdisciplinary program is to offer nationally and internationally recognized graduate level training in the areas of environmental policy, science, and health risk assessment. Special emphasis will be placed on human health. Included in this proposal are a needs assessment for environmental science professionals along with employment projections and salary expectations. The Environmental Science program is described and its relationship to other programs within MUSC and UCSC, as well as its relation to similar programs at other institutions are examined. Enrollment is discussed, admission requirements and standards outlined, and the curriculum is described. Academic and physical resources are examined and estimated costs are given

  15. DOE Hazardous Waste Remedial Actions Program: Annual report, FY 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eyman, L.D.

    1987-05-01

    The activities of HAZWRAP for the past fiscal year were organized into seven principal areas: technical analysis and technology transfer; regulatory analysis; strategic planning;information systems; program administration; technology adaptation; and technology demonstration. The scope, major FY 1986 accomplishments, and future directions for each of these areas are described in the following sections of this report. Listings of reports produced through the SCO are given in Appendixes A and B for the current year and since the program started, respectively

  16. REITP3-Hazard evaluation program for heat release based on thermochemical calculation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akutsu, Yoshiaki.; Tamura, Masamitsu. [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). School of Engineering; Kawakatsu, Yuichi. [Oji Paper Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Wada, Yuji. [National Institute for Resources and Environment, Tsukuba (Japan); Yoshida, Tadao. [Hosei University, Tokyo (Japan). College of Engineering

    1999-06-30

    REITP3-A hazard evaluation program for heat release besed on thermochemical calculation has been developed by modifying REITP2 (Revised Estimation of Incompatibility from Thermochemical Properties{sup 2)}. The main modifications are as follows. (1) Reactants are retrieved from the database by chemical formula. (2) As products are listed in an external file, the addition of products and change in order of production can be easily conducted. (3) Part of the program has been changed by considering its use on a personal computer or workstation. These modifications will promote the usefulness of the program for energy hazard evaluation. (author)

  17. Hazardous waste management programs; Florida: authorization for interim authorization phase I--Environmental Protection Agency. Notice of final determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-05-07

    The State of Florida has applied for interim Authorization Phase I. EPA has reviewed Florida's application for Phase I and has determined that Florida's hazardous waste program is substantially equivalent to the Federal program covered by Phase I. The State of Florida is, hereby, granted Interim Authorization for Phase I to operate the State 's hazardous waste program, in lieu of the Federal program.

  18. Deterministic seismic hazard macrozonation of India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The sesismotectonic map of the study area was prepared by considering the faults, lineaments and the shear zones which are associated with earthquakes of magnitude 4 and above. A new program was developed in MATLAB for smoothing of the point sources. For assessing the seismic hazard, the study area was divided ...

  19. The USAID Office of U.S. Foreign Disaster Assistance: Using Disaster Risk Reduction Programs to Increase Community Resiliency to Geologic Hazards and Promote Sustained Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayberry, G. C.

    2009-12-01

    The U.S. Agency for International Development’s (USAID) Office of U.S. Foreign Disaster Assistance (OFDA) supports several geologic-hazard related projects that help reduce the impact of geologic disasters by utilizing advances in science to monitor hazards and mitigate their effects. OFDA’s main responsibility is to rapidly respond to disasters, but OFDA also supports disaster risk reduction activities that aim to ultimately decrease the need for external responders and help to sustain development efforts by lessening the impact of potential disasters and strengthening at-risk community’s resiliency. One of OFDA’s success stories in geologic hazard risk reduction is the Volcano Disaster Assistance Program (VDAP). Following the deadly 1985 eruption of Nevado del Ruiz volcano in Colombia that killed about 25,000 people, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and OFDA formed the VDAP team to provide technical assistance worldwide when potentially dangerous volcanoes show signs of unrest. VDAP also provides technical assistance for capacity-building projects at foreign observatories in order to strengthen their volcano monitoring networks and better prepare them for future activity. VDAP has deployed to 24 major crises in the past 23 years and helped to build infrastructure in 12 countries. They have helped their local counterparts save tens of thousands of lives, and hundreds of millions of dollars in property. Several factors contribute to VDAP’s success: sustained technical assistance allows VDAP to build upon previous efforts, working in the background with counterparts promotes independence, and addressing response and capacity-building needs leads to sustained development among counterpart agencies. Some of the lessons learned from VDAP will be parlayed into the newly formed OFDA-USGS Earthquake Disaster Assistance Team (EDAT), which will provide technical assistance to scientists shortly after large earthquakes occur in foreign countries so that they can

  20. Environmental hazards assessment program. Annual report, July 1, 1994--June 30, 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This report describes activities and reports on progress for the third year of the DOE grant to support the Environmental Hazards Assessment Program (EHAP). It reports progress against grant objectives and the Program Implementation Plan published at the end of the first year of the grant. As the program has evolved, more projects have been funded and many existing projects have become more complex. Thus, to accomplish better the objectives over the years and retain a solid focus on the total mission, we have reorganized the grant effort from three to five majoe elements: Public and professional outreach; Clinical programs; Science programs; Information systems; and, Program management

  1. Environmental hazards assessment program. Annual report, July 1, 1994--June 30, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-07-31

    This report describes activities and reports on progress for the third year of the DOE grant to support the Environmental Hazards Assessment Program (EHAP). It reports progress against grant objectives and the Program Implementation Plan published at the end of the first year of the grant. As the program has evolved, more projects have been funded and many existing projects have become more complex. Thus, to accomplish better the objectives over the years and retain a solid focus on the total mission, we have reorganized the grant effort from three to five majoe elements: Public and professional outreach; Clinical programs; Science programs; Information systems; and, Program management.

  2. Active Labor Market Programs and Reservation Wages: Its a Hazard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Kenneth Lykke

    Using a randomized controlled trial, this paper shows that positive earnings effects of labor market programs might be driven by an employment and/or a wage effect. The findings of this paper suggest that treated individuals in a high-intense scheme are more prone to have lowered short- term...

  3. Scientists Engage South Carolina Community in Earthquake Education and Preparedness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, C.; Beutel, E.; Jaume', S.; Levine, N.; Doyle, B.

    2008-12-01

    Scientists at the College of Charleston are working with the state of South Carolina's Emergency Management Division to increase awareness and understanding of earthquake hazards throughout South Carolina. As part of this mission, the SCEEP (South Carolina Earthquake Education and Preparedness) program was formed at the College of Charleston to promote earthquake research, outreach, and education in the state of South Carolina. Working with local, regional, state and federal offices, SCEEP has developed education programs for everyone from professional hazard management teams to formal and informal educators. SCEEP also works with the media to ensure accurate reporting of earthquake and other hazard information and to increase the public's understanding of earthquake science and earthquake seismology. As part of this program, we have developed a series of activities that can be checked out by educators for use in their classrooms and in informal education venues. These activities are designed to provide educators with the information and tools they lack to adequately, informatively, and enjoyably teach about earthquake and earth science. The toolkits contain seven activities meeting a variety of National Education Standards, not only in Science, but also in Geography, Math, Social Studies, Arts Education, History and Language Arts - providing a truly multidisciplinary toolkit for educators. The activities provide information on earthquake myths, seismic waves, elastic rebound, vectors, liquefaction, location of an epicenter, and then finally South Carolina earthquakes. The activities are engaging and inquiry based, implementing proven effective strategies for peaking learners' interest in scientific phenomena. All materials are provided within the toolkit and so it is truly check and go. While the SCEEP team has provided instructions and grade level suggestions for implementing the activity in an educational setting, the educator has full reign on what to showcase

  4. Introduction to Plate Boundaries and Natural Hazards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duarte, João C.; Schellart, Wouter P.

    2016-01-01

    A great variety of natural hazards occur on Earth, including earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, tsunamis, landslides, floods, fires, tornadoes, hurricanes, and avalanches. The most destructive of these hazards, earthquakes, tsunamis, and volcanic eruptions, are mostly associated with tectonic plate

  5. [Environmental Hazards Assessment Program annual report, June 1992--June 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McMillan, J.

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of the summer undergraduate internship program for research in environmental studies is to provide an opportunity for well-qualified students to undertake an original research project as an apprentice to an active research scientist in basic environmental research. Ten students from throughout the midwestern and eastern areas of the country were accepted into the program. These students selected projects in the areas of marine sciences, biostatistics and epidemiology, and toxicology. The research experience for all these students and their mentors was very positive. The seminars were well attended and the students showed their interest in the presentations and environmental sciences as a whole by presenting the speakers with thoughtful and intuitive questions. This report contains the research project written presentations prepared by the student interns

  6. Ionospheric earthquake precursors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulachenko, A.L.; Oraevskij, V.N.; Pokhotelov, O.A.; Sorokin, V.N.; Strakhov, V.N.; Chmyrev, V.M.

    1996-01-01

    Results of experimental study on ionospheric earthquake precursors, program development on processes in the earthquake focus and physical mechanisms of formation of various type precursors are considered. Composition of experimental cosmic system for earthquake precursors monitoring is determined. 36 refs., 5 figs

  7. Extending the ISC-GEM Global Earthquake Instrumental Catalogue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Giacomo, Domenico; Engdhal, Bob; Storchak, Dmitry; Villaseñor, Antonio; Harris, James

    2015-04-01

    After a 27-month project funded by the GEM Foundation (www.globalquakemodel.org), in January 2013 we released the ISC-GEM Global Instrumental Earthquake Catalogue (1900 2009) (www.isc.ac.uk/iscgem/index.php) as a special product to use for seismic hazard studies. The new catalogue was necessary as improved seismic hazard studies necessitate that earthquake catalogues are homogeneous (to the largest extent possible) over time in their fundamental parameters, such as location and magnitude. Due to time and resource limitation, the ISC-GEM catalogue (1900-2009) included earthquakes selected according to the following time-variable cut-off magnitudes: Ms=7.5 for earthquakes occurring before 1918; Ms=6.25 between 1918 and 1963; and Ms=5.5 from 1964 onwards. Because of the importance of having a reliable seismic input for seismic hazard studies, funding from GEM and two commercial companies in the US and UK allowed us to start working on the extension of the ISC-GEM catalogue both for earthquakes that occurred beyond 2009 and for earthquakes listed in the International Seismological Summary (ISS) which fell below the cut-off magnitude of 6.25. This extension is part of a four-year program that aims at including in the ISC-GEM catalogue large global earthquakes that occurred before the beginning of the ISC Bulletin in 1964. In this contribution we present the updated ISC GEM catalogue, which will include over 1000 more earthquakes that occurred in 2010 2011 and several hundreds more between 1950 and 1959. The catalogue extension between 1935 and 1949 is currently underway. The extension of the ISC-GEM catalogue will also be helpful for regional cross border seismic hazard studies as the ISC-GEM catalogue should be used as basis for cross-checking the consistency in location and magnitude of those earthquakes listed both in the ISC GEM global catalogue and regional catalogues.

  8. The Great 1787 Earthquake (M 8.6) and Tsunami along The Mexican Subduction Zone - History, Geology and Tsunami Hazard Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez-Herrera, M. T.; Lagos, M.; Goguitchaichvili, A.; Machain-Castillo, M. L.; Caballero, M.; Ruiz-Fernandez, A. C.; Suarez, G.; Ortuño, M.

    2017-12-01

    The 1787 great earthquake (M 8.6) triggered a deadly tsunami that poured over the coast of Oaxaca, Guerrero, and Chiapas, along more than 500 km of the Mexican Pacific coast and up to 6 km inland. This tsunami, according with historical documents, destroyed mostly farmlands and livestock, and damaged few villages since the density of population was sparse at the time. We report first on geological evidence from the Corralero lagoon and adjacent coastal plain that seem in agreement with historical accounts. The deposit left by the 1787 tsunami can be traced along a transect of cores and test pits from the coastline and up to 1.6 km inland. The test pits showed an anomalous sand layer that was deposited in a single event in the swales of a series of beach ridges. The anomalous layer is almost continuous along the transect, about a 1000 m-long, and is formed of coarse to medium sand, at variable depths, with variable thickness, and pinching up with the distance from the coastline. We used stratigraphy, grain size, microfossils (foraminifera and diatoms), magnetic susceptibility and anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility proxies to reveal the nature of this anomalous sand layer. Stratigraphy, abrupt contacts, and magnetic properties support a sudden and rapid event, consisting of sands transported most probably by an extreme sea-wave far inland. Furthermore, based on the accounts of the 1787 earthquake (M 8.6) and tsunami, and estimates from 210Pb sedimentation rates, we suggest that this is the tsunami deposit left by the 1787 event. Tsunami modeling will further enhance the hazard and risk assessment of this area in Mexico.

  9. Investigating potential seismic hazard in the Gulf of Gökova (South Eastern Aegean Sea) deduced from recent shallow earthquake activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rontogianni, S.; Konstantinou, K. I.; Evangelidis, C.; Melis, N. S.

    2011-12-01

    concentrated to the south of the Gulf. The seismic activity moves at greater depths from the west to the inner part of the Gulf, from ~5 km to ~15 km. These observations indicate that the activity of the Datça fault has not been decelerated as previously proposed, but contrary there is a probable connection between GTF and the Fault of Kos. The fact that this is a 40° dipping fault, buried under thick 2.5 km sediment deposits, increases the possibility that a large earthquake could trigger a sediment landslide. Since the Gulf is quite narrow (~25 km N-S width), its expected effects could be devastating for the area. Further analysis of the major earthquake mechanisms is scheduled to be done, in order to investigate the potential hazard arising from this major fault.

  10. Quality Assurance Program Plan for the Hazardous Materials Transportation and Packaging Program. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calihan, T.W. III; Votaw, E.F.

    1995-05-01

    This QAPP covers only the implementation accomplished through Level I and II manuals. It covers the quality affecting activities identified in USDOE orders (both HQ and Richland Operations Office), US DOT, US EPA, and NRC regulations, IAEA guidelines, and the WHC manuals. It covers activities related to hazardous materials transportation performed on and off the Hanford site under the jurisdictional authority of WHC. (Hazardous materials include radioactive, hazardous waste, and mixed waste.)

  11. Quality Assurance Program Plan for the Hazardous Materials Transportation and Packaging Program. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calihan, T.W. III; Votaw, E.F.

    1995-01-01

    This QAPP covers only the implementation accomplished through Level I and II manuals. It covers the quality affecting activities identified in USDOE orders (both HQ and Richland Operations Office), US DOT, US EPA, and NRC regulations, IAEA guidelines, and the WHC manuals. It covers activities related to hazardous materials transportation performed on and off the Hanford site under the jurisdictional authority of WHC. (Hazardous materials include radioactive, hazardous waste, and mixed waste.)

  12. Hazard-to-Risk: High-Performance Computing Simulations of Large Earthquake Ground Motions and Building Damage in the Near-Fault Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miah, M.; Rodgers, A. J.; McCallen, D.; Petersson, N. A.; Pitarka, A.

    2017-12-01

    We are running high-performance computing (HPC) simulations of ground motions for large (magnitude, M=6.5-7.0) earthquakes in the near-fault region (steel moment frame buildings throughout the near-fault domain. For ground motions, we are using SW4, a fourth order summation-by-parts finite difference time-domain code running on 10,000-100,000's of cores. Earthquake ruptures are generated using the Graves and Pitarka (2017) method. We validated ground motion intensity measurements against Ground Motion Prediction Equations. We considered two events (M=6.5 and 7.0) for vertical strike-slip ruptures with three-dimensional (3D) basin structures, including stochastic heterogeneity. We have also considered M7.0 scenarios for a Hayward Fault rupture scenario which effects the San Francisco Bay Area and northern California using both 1D and 3D earth structure. Dynamic, inelastic response of canonical buildings is computed with the NEVADA, a nonlinear, finite-deformation finite element code. Canonical buildings include 3-, 9-, 20- and 40-story steel moment frame buildings. Damage potential is tracked by the peak inter-story drift (PID) ratio, which measures the maximum displacement between adjacent floors of the building and is strongly correlated with damage. PID ratios greater 1.0 generally indicate non-linear response and permanent deformation of the structure. We also track roof displacement to identify permanent deformation. PID (damage) for a given earthquake scenario (M, slip distribution, hypocenter) is spatially mapped throughout the SW4 domain with 1-2 km resolution. Results show that in the near fault region building damage is correlated with peak ground velocity (PGV), while farther away (> 20 km) it is better correlated with peak ground acceleration (PGA). We also show how simulated ground motions have peaks in the response spectra that shift to longer periods for larger magnitude events and for locations of forward directivity, as has been reported by

  13. [Environmental Hazards Assessment Program annual report, June 1992--June 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voit, E.O.

    1993-01-01

    It is becoming increasingly clear that human health is intricately related to our chemical and physical surroundings. Recognizing the interdependence between health and environment, the Medical University of South Carolina has begun to implement a graduate program in Environmental Risk Assessment. While the infrastructure for such a program had been in place for quite a while, providing education in biostatistics, epidemiology, and mathematical modeling, specific courses in risk assessment were not available. To expedite the educational process in this area, the Department of Biometry and Epidemiology offered the course Special Topics in Risk Analysis in the Spring semester of 1993. This course was intended as an introduction for graduate students, but one faculty and one postdoctoral fellow also enrolled. The course was organized in the form of a seminar, with students or faculty presenting selected materials from the literature that covered some of the central issues in risk analysis. The presentations were subsequently written up as reports and revised according to suggestions by the instructor. This technical report comprises the presentations and reflects what has been learned in the course Special Topics in Risk Analysis. It also may serve as an easy to read introduction to the complex area of risk analysis. By the very nature of the course and this report, most of the presented material is not original. It does not necessarily reflect the authors' or the editor's opinion and is not intended for citation. Nonetheless, the students and the instructor have paid attention to citing relevant literature in order to enable the reader to trace ideas back to the original sources. As an Appendix, this volume contains the course syllabus as well as hand-out material that the students prepared independently and that has not been edited or revised

  14. Hazardous Waste Development, Demonstration, and Disposal (HAZWDDD) program plan: Executive summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGinnis, C.P.; Eisenhower, B.M.; Reeves, M.E.; DePaoli, S.M.; Stinton, L.H.; Harrington, E.H.

    1989-02-01

    The Hazardous Waste Development, Demonstration, and Disposal (HAZWDDD) Program Plan provides a strategy for management of hazardous and mixed wastes generated by the five Department of Energy (DOE) installations managed by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (Energy Systems). This integrated corporate plan is based on the individual installation plans, which identify waste streams, facility capabilities, problem wastes, future needs, and funding needs. Using this information, the corporate plan identifies common concerns and technology/facility needs over the next 10 years. The overall objective of this corporate plan is to ensure that treatment, storage, and disposal (TSD) needs for all hazardous and mixed wastes generated by Energy Systems installations have been identified and planned for. Specific objectives of the program plan are to (1) identify all hazardous and mixed waste streams; (2) identify hazardous and mixed waste TSD requirements; (3) identify any unresolved technical issues preventing implementation of the strategy; (4) develop schedules for studies, demonstrations, and facilities to resolve the issues; and (5) define the interfaces with the Low-Level Waste Disposal Development and Demonstration (LLWDDD) Program. 10 refs., 7 figs

  15. The plan to coordinate NEHRP post-earthquake investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzer, Thomas L.; Borcherdt, Roger D.; Comartin, Craig D.; Hanson, Robert D.; Scawthorn, Charles R.; Tierney, Kathleen; Youd, T. Leslie

    2003-01-01

    This is the plan to coordinate domestic and foreign post-earthquake investigations supported by the National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program (NEHRP). The plan addresses coordination of both the NEHRP agencies—Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), National Science Foundation (NSF), and U. S. Geological Survey (USGS)—and their partners. The plan is a framework for both coordinating what is going to be done and identifying responsibilities for post-earthquake investigations. It does not specify what will be done. Coordination is addressed in various time frames ranging from hours to years after an earthquake. The plan includes measures for (1) gaining rapid and general agreement on high-priority research opportunities, and (2) conducting the data gathering and fi eld studies in a coordinated manner. It deals with identifi cation, collection, processing, documentation, archiving, and dissemination of the results of post-earthquake work in a timely manner and easily accessible format.

  16. [After the Great East Japan Earthquake : suicide prevention and a gatekeeper program].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otsuka, Kotaro; Sakai, Akio; Nakamura, Hikaru; Akahira, Mitsuko

    2014-01-01

    When considering approaches to mental health in areas affected by the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake, as well as the resulting tsunami and Fukushima nuclear power plant accident, it is not sufficient to focus interventions solely on individuals experiencing mental health issues. The situation demands a comprehensive approach that includes programs that target improvements to mental health literacy among residents in areas affected by the disaster, the rebuilding of relationships between residents themselves, collaboration with recovery and support activities, and mental health support for people participating in recovery and support efforts. From a medium- to long-term perspective, suicide prevention is an important issue. Comprehensive suicide prevention efforts are being promoted in areas of Iwate Prefecture affected by the disaster. In suicide prevention programs, it is crucial to foster the development of human resources in the local community. In order to expand community supports, it is necessary to provide education on ways of supporting those affected by a disaster to local medical personnel, people staffing inquiry and consultation offices, and people in fields related to mental health. Suicide prevention and disaster relief efforts are both approaches that target people in difficulty, and they share commonalities in principles, systems, and approaches to human resource development. "Mental health first aid" is a program developed in Australia that defines methods of early intervention by non-professionals who encounter someone experiencing a mental health problem. The mental health first aid-based gatekeeper training program of the Japanese government's Cabinet Office, which the author's research team helped to develop, allows participants to obtain the knowledge and skills required of gatekeepers. In 2012, a module for disaster-affected areas was developed and added to the program, with additional content that provides program participants with the

  17. Geotechnical approach for occupational safety risk analysis of critical slope in open pit mining as implication for earthquake hazard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munirwansyah; Irsyam, Masyhur; Munirwan, Reza P.; Yunita, Halida; Zulfan Usrina, M.

    2018-05-01

    Occupational safety and health (OSH) is a planned effort to prevent accidents and diseases caused by work. In conducting mining activities often occur work accidents caused by unsafe field conditions. In open mine area, there is often a slump due to unstable slopes, which can disrupt the activities and productivity of mining companies. Based on research on stability of open pit slopes conducted by Febrianti [8], the Meureubo coal mine located in Aceh Barat district, on the slope of mine was indicated unsafe slope conditions, it will be continued research on OSH for landslide which is to understand the stability of the excavation slope and the shape of the slope collapse. Plaxis software was used for this research. After analyzing the slope stability and the effect of landslide on OSH with Job Safety Analysis (JSA) method, to identify the hazard to work safety, risk management analysis will be conducted to classified hazard level and its handling technique. This research aim is to know the level of risk of work accident at the company and its prevention effort. The result of risk analysis research is very high-risk value that is > 350 then the activity must be stopped until the risk can be reduced to reach the risk value limit < 20 which is allowed or accepted.

  18. 75 FR 43478 - Rhode Island: Final Authorization of State Hazardous Waste Management Program Revisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-26

    ...: Final Authorization of State Hazardous Waste Management Program Revisions AGENCY: Environmental.... Mail: Robin Biscaia, RCRA Waste Management Section, Office of Site Remediation and Restoration (OSRR 07... Delivery or Courier: Deliver your comments to: Robin Biscaia, RCRA Waste Management Section, Office of Site...

  19. 75 FR 51392 - New York: Incorporation by Reference of State Hazardous Waste Management Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-20

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 272 [EPA-R02-RCRA-2010-0249; FRL-9178-8] New York: Incorporation by Reference of State Hazardous Waste Management Program Correction In rule document 2010-18927 beginning on page 45489 in the issue of Tuesday, August 3, 2010, make the following correction: Appendix A...

  20. Peer monitoring, social ties and moral hazard in group lending programs : Evidence from Eritrea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermes, N; Lensink, R; Mehrteab, HT

    In this paper, we investigate the impact of monitoring and social ties on moral hazard behavior within group lending programs. Our study is based on data from an extensive questionnaire held in Eritrea among participants of 102 groups. We separately analyze the impact of group leaders and other

  1. 75 FR 5258 - Hazardous Materials Transportation; Registration and Fee Assessment Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-02

    ...) train public sector hazardous materials emergency response employees to respond to accidents and... officers, and 500,000 emergency medical services (EMS) providers. Due to the high turnover rates of... planning grants; A new $4,000,000 grant program for non-profit hazmat employee organizations to train...

  2. 75 FR 35720 - Massachusetts: Final Authorization of State Hazardous Waste Management Program Revisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-23

    ...: Final Authorization of State Hazardous Waste Management Program Revisions AGENCY: Environmental...: Robin Biscaia, RCRA Waste Management Section, Office of Site Remediation and Restoration (OSRR 07-1... Courier: Deliver your comments to: Robin Biscaia, RCRA Waste Management Section, Office of Site...

  3. The Hazardous Material Technician Apprenticeship Program at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steiner, S.D.

    1987-07-01

    This document describes an apprenticeship training program for hazardous material technician. This entry-level category is achieved after approximately 216 hours of classroom and on-the-job training. Procedures for evaluating performance include in-class testing, use of on-the-job checks, and the assignment of an apprentice mentor for each trainee

  4. 78 FR 79654 - Vermont: Proposed Authorization of State Hazardous Waste Management Program Revisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-31

    ...] Vermont: Proposed Authorization of State Hazardous Waste Management Program Revisions AGENCY... Docket ID No. EPA-R01- RCRA-2013-0554, by mail to Sharon Leitch, RCRA Waste Management and UST Section..., RCRA Waste Management and UST Section, Office of Site Remediation and Restoration (OSRR07-1), US EPA...

  5. Environmental Hazards Assessment Program annual report, July 1, 1993--June 30, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-08-17

    On June 23, 1992, the US Department of Energy (DOE) signed Assistance Instrument Number DE-FG01-92EW50625 with the Medical University of South Carolina (MUSC) to support the Environmental Hazards Assessment Program (EHAP). The objectives of the EHAP program stated in the proposal to DOE are to: (1) Develop a holistic, national basis for risk assessment, risk management, and risk communication which recognizes the direct impact of environmental hazards on the health and well-being of all. (2) Develop a pool of talented scientists and experts in cleanup activities, especially in human health aspects; and (3) Identify needs and develop programs addressing the critical shortage of well-educated, highly-skilled technical and scientific personnel to address the health oriented aspects of environmental restoration and waste management. This report describes activities and reports on progress for the second year of the grant.

  6. Environmental Hazards Assessment Program annual report, July 1, 1993--June 30, 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    On June 23, 1992, the US Department of Energy (DOE) signed Assistance Instrument Number DE-FG01-92EW50625 with the Medical University of South Carolina (MUSC) to support the Environmental Hazards Assessment Program (EHAP). The objectives of the EHAP program stated in the proposal to DOE are to: (1) Develop a holistic, national basis for risk assessment, risk management, and risk communication which recognizes the direct impact of environmental hazards on the health and well-being of all. (2) Develop a pool of talented scientists and experts in cleanup activities, especially in human health aspects; and (3) Identify needs and develop programs addressing the critical shortage of well-educated, highly-skilled technical and scientific personnel to address the health oriented aspects of environmental restoration and waste management. This report describes activities and reports on progress for the second year of the grant

  7. Environmental Hazards Assessment Program: Annual report, July 1, 1995--June 30, 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The objectives of the Environmental Hazards Assessment Program (EHAP) are to: (1) develop a holistic, national basis for risk assessment, risk management, and risk communication that recognizes the direct impact of environmental hazards on the health and well-being of all; (2) develop a pool of talented scientists and experts in cleanup activities, especially in human health aspects; and (3) identify needs and develop programs addressing the critical shortage of well-educated, highly-skilled technical and scientific personnel to address the health-oriented aspects of environmental restoration and waste management. This report describes activities and reports on progress for the fourth year of the grant. It reports progress against these grant objectives and the Program Implementation Plan

  8. Regional relationships among earthquake magnitude scales. Seismic safety margins research program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, D.H.; Bernreuter, D.L.

    1980-09-01

    The seismic body-wave magnitude m b of an earthquake is strongly affected by regional variations in the Q structure, composition, and physical state within the earth. Therefore, because of differences in attenuation of P-waves between the western and eastern United States, a problem arises when comparing m b 's for the two regions. A regional m b magnitude bias exists which, depending on where the earthquake occurs and where the P-waves are recorded, can lead to magnitude errors as large as one-third unit. There is also a significant difference between m b and M L values for earthquakes in the western United States. An empirical link between the m b of an eastern U.S. earthquake and the M L of an equivalent western earthquake is given y M L = 0.57 + 0.92(m b ) East . This result is important when comparing ground motion between the two regions and for choosing a set of real western U.S. earthquake records to represent eastern earthquakes. (author)

  9. Compliance of SLAC's Laser Safety Program with OSHA Requirements for the Control of Hazardous Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woods, M.

    2009-01-01

    SLAC's COHE program requires compliance with OSHA Regulation 29CFR1910.147, 'The control of hazardous energy (lockout/tagout)'. This regulation specifies lockout/tagout requirements during service and maintenance of equipment in which the unexpected energization or start up of the equipment, or release of stored energy, could cause injury to workers. Class 3B and Class 4 laser radiation must be considered as hazardous energy (as well as electrical energy in associated equipment, and other non-beam energy hazards) in laser facilities, and therefore requires careful COHE consideration. This paper describes how COHE is achieved at SLAC to protect workers against unexpected Class 3B or Class 4 laser radiation, independent of whether the mode of operation is normal, service, or maintenance

  10. Geological and Seismological Analysis of the 13 February 2001 Mw 6.6 El Salvador Earthquake: Evidence for Surface Rupture and Implications for Seismic Hazard

    OpenAIRE

    Canora Catalán, Carolina; Martínez Díaz, José J.; Villamor Pérez, María Pilar; Berryman, K.R.; Álvarez Gómez, José Antonio; Pullinger, Carlos; Capote del Villar, Ramón

    2010-01-01

    The El Salvador earthquake of 13 February 2001 (Mw 6.6) caused tectonic rupture on the El Salvador fault zone (ESFZ). Right-lateral strike-slip surface rupture of the east–west trending fault zone had a maximum surface displacement of 0.60 m. No vertical component was observed. The earthquake resulted in widespread landslides in the epicentral area, where bedrock is composed of volcanic sediments, tephra, and weak ignimbrites. In the aftermath of the earthquake, widespread dama...

  11. Coseismic and postseismic deformation associated with the 2016 Mw 7.8 Kaikoura earthquake, New Zealand: fault movement investigation and seismic hazard analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Zhongshan; Huang, Dingfa; Yuan, Linguo; Hassan, Abubakr; Zhang, Lupeng; Yang, Zhongrong

    2018-04-01

    The 2016 moment magnitude (Mw) 7.8 Kaikoura earthquake demonstrated that multiple fault segments can undergo rupture during a single seismic event. Here, we employ Global Positioning System (GPS) observations and geodetic modeling methods to create detailed images of coseismic slip and postseismic afterslip associated with the Kaikoura earthquake. Our optimal geodetic coseismic model suggests that rupture not only occurred on shallow crustal faults but also to some extent at the Hikurangi subduction interface. The GPS-inverted moment release during the earthquake is equivalent to a Mw 7.9 event. The near-field postseismic deformation is mainly derived from right-lateral strike-slip motions on shallow crustal faults. The afterslip did not only significantly extend northeastward on the Needles fault but also appeared at the plate interface, slowly releasing energy over the past 6 months, equivalent to a Mw 7.3 earthquake. Coulomb stress changes induced by coseismic deformation exhibit complex patterns and diversity at different depths, undoubtedly reflecting multi-fault rupture complexity associated with the earthquake. The Coulomb stress can reach several MPa during coseismic deformation, which can explain the trigger mechanisms of afterslip in two high-slip regions and the majority of aftershocks. Based on the deformation characteristics of the Kaikoura earthquake, interseismic plate coverage, and historical earthquakes, we conclude that Wellington is under higher seismic threat after the earthquake and great attention should be paid to potential large earthquake disasters in the near future.[Figure not available: see fulltext.

  12. Mathematical models for estimating earthquake casualties and damage cost through regression analysis using matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urrutia, J D; Bautista, L A; Baccay, E B

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop mathematical models for estimating earthquake casualties such as death, number of injured persons, affected families and total cost of damage. To quantify the direct damages from earthquakes to human beings and properties given the magnitude, intensity, depth of focus, location of epicentre and time duration, the regression models were made. The researchers formulated models through regression analysis using matrices and used α = 0.01. The study considered thirty destructive earthquakes that hit the Philippines from the inclusive years 1968 to 2012. Relevant data about these said earthquakes were obtained from Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology. Data on damages and casualties were gathered from the records of National Disaster Risk Reduction and Management Council. This study will be of great value in emergency planning, initiating and updating programs for earthquake hazard reduction in the Philippines, which is an earthquake-prone country.

  13. Accessing northern California earthquake data via Internet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanowicz, Barbara; Neuhauser, Douglas; Bogaert, Barbara; Oppenheimer, David

    The Northern California Earthquake Data Center (NCEDC) provides easy access to central and northern California digital earthquake data. It is located at the University of California, Berkeley, and is operated jointly with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in Menlo Park, Calif., and funded by the University of California and the National Earthquake Hazard Reduction Program. It has been accessible to users in the scientific community through Internet since mid-1992.The data center provides an on-line archive for parametric and waveform data from two regional networks: the Northern California Seismic Network (NCSN) operated by the USGS and the Berkeley Digital Seismic Network (BDSN) operated by the Seismographic Station at the University of California, Berkeley.

  14. Process hazards analysis (PrHA) program, bridging accident analyses and operational safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richardson, J.A.; McKernan, S.A.; Vigil, M.J.

    2003-01-01

    Recently the Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) for the Plutonium Facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory, Technical Area 55 (TA-55) was revised and submitted to the US. Department of Energy (DOE). As a part of this effort, over seventy Process Hazards Analyses (PrHAs) were written and/or revised over the six years prior to the FSAR revision. TA-55 is a research, development, and production nuclear facility that primarily supports US. defense and space programs. Nuclear fuels and material research; material recovery, refining and analyses; and the casting, machining and fabrication of plutonium components are some of the activities conducted at TA-35. These operations involve a wide variety of industrial, chemical and nuclear hazards. Operational personnel along with safety analysts work as a team to prepare the PrHA. PrHAs describe the process; identi fy the hazards; and analyze hazards including determining hazard scenarios, their likelihood, and consequences. In addition, the interaction of the process to facility systems, structures and operational specific protective features are part of the PrHA. This information is rolled-up to determine bounding accidents and mitigating systems and structures. Further detailed accident analysis is performed for the bounding accidents and included in the FSAR. The FSAR is part of the Documented Safety Analysis (DSA) that defines the safety envelope for all facility operations in order to protect the worker, the public, and the environment. The DSA is in compliance with the US. Code of Federal Regulations, 10 CFR 830, Nuclear Safety Management and is approved by DOE. The DSA sets forth the bounding conditions necessary for the safe operation for the facility and is essentially a 'license to operate.' Safely of day-to-day operations is based on Hazard Control Plans (HCPs). Hazards are initially identified in the PrI-IA for the specific operation and act as input to the HCP. Specific protective features important to worker

  15. Topical Hazard Evaluation Program of Candidate Insect Repellent AI3- 39053a

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-05-01

    StudyNo. 75-51-O 71-R7 Mnay 19R71 12 PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) William T. Huebsam, SGT, U.S.A.; Maurice H. Weeks 1I8. TYPE Of REPORT 13b TIME COVERED 114...ARMY u.S. AUT ENVIVIf[NNIAL HYGINE AMIdT ASCROELN PROVING GROUND. MARYLAND M1蚉 HSHB-MO-T TOPICAL HAZARD EVALUATION PROGRAM OF CANDIDATE INSECT

  16. Building the Southern California Earthquake Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, T. H.; Henyey, T.; McRaney, J. K.

    2004-12-01

    Kei Aki was the founding director of the Southern California Earthquake Center (SCEC), a multi-institutional collaboration formed in 1991 as a Science and Technology Center (STC) under the National Science Foundation (NSF) and the U. S. Geological Survey (USGS). Aki and his colleagues articulated a system-level vision for the Center: investigations by disciplinary working groups would be woven together into a "Master Model" for Southern California. In this presentation, we will outline how the Master-Model concept has evolved and how SCEC's structure has adapted to meet scientific challenges of system-level earthquake science. In its first decade, SCEC conducted two regional imaging experiments (LARSE I & II); published the "Phase-N" reports on (1) the Landers earthquake, (2) a new earthquake rupture forecast for Southern California, and (3) new models for seismic attenuation and site effects; it developed two prototype "Community Models" (the Crustal Motion Map and Community Velocity Model) and, perhaps most important, sustained a long-term, multi-institutional, interdisciplinary collaboration. The latter fostered pioneering numerical simulations of earthquake ruptures, fault interactions, and wave propagation. These accomplishments provided the impetus for a successful proposal in 2000 to reestablish SCEC as a "stand alone" center under NSF/USGS auspices. SCEC remains consistent with the founders' vision: it continues to advance seismic hazard analysis through a system-level synthesis that is based on community models and an ever expanding array of information technology. SCEC now represents a fully articulated "collaboratory" for earthquake science, and many of its features are extensible to other active-fault systems and other system-level collaborations. We will discuss the implications of the SCEC experience for EarthScope, the USGS's program in seismic hazard analysis, NSF's nascent Cyberinfrastructure Initiative, and other large collaboratory programs.

  17. ARMA models for earthquake ground motions. Seismic Safety Margins Research Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Mark K.; Kwiatkowski, Jan W.; Nau, Robert F.; Oliver, Robert M.; Pister, Karl S.

    1981-02-01

    This report contains an analysis of four major California earthquake records using a class of discrete linear time-domain processes commonly referred to as ARMA (Autoregressive/Moving-Average) models. It has been possible to analyze these different earthquakes, identify the order of the appropriate ARMA model(s), estimate parameters and test the residuals generated by these models. It has also been possible to show the connections, similarities and differences between the traditional continuous models (with parameter estimates based on spectral analyses) and the discrete models with parameters estimated by various maximum likelihood techniques applied to digitized acceleration data in the time domain. The methodology proposed in this report is suitable for simulating earthquake ground motions in the time domain and appears to be easily adapted to serve as inputs for nonlinear discrete time models of structural motions. (author)

  18. Medical University of South Carolina Environmental Hazards Assessment Program. Deliverables: Volume 3, Annual report, July 1, 1993--June 30, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-08-18

    This reference is concerned with the Crossroads of Humanity workshop which is part of the Environmental Hazards Assessment Program at the Medical University of South Carolina. This workshop was held during the month of June and July 1994. Topics discussed include: Perceived Risk Advisory Committee Meeting, surveys of public opinion about hazardous and radioactive materials, genetics,antibodies, and regulatory agencies.

  19. The 2008 Wenchuan Earthquake and the Rise and Fall of Earthquake Prediction in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Q.; Wang, K.

    2009-12-01

    Regardless of the future potential of earthquake prediction, it is presently impractical to rely on it to mitigate earthquake disasters. The practical approach is to strengthen the resilience of our built environment to earthquakes based on hazard assessment. But this was not common understanding in China when the M 7.9 Wenchuan earthquake struck the Sichuan Province on 12 May 2008, claiming over 80,000 lives. In China, earthquake prediction is a government-sanctioned and law-regulated measure of disaster prevention. A sudden boom of the earthquake prediction program in 1966-1976 coincided with a succession of nine M > 7 damaging earthquakes in the densely populated region of the country and the political chaos of the Cultural Revolution. It climaxed with the prediction of the 1975 Haicheng earthquake, which was due mainly to an unusually pronounced foreshock sequence and the extraordinary readiness of some local officials to issue imminent warning and evacuation order. The Haicheng prediction was a success in practice and yielded useful lessons, but the experience cannot be applied to most other earthquakes and cultural environments. Since the disastrous Tangshan earthquake in 1976 that killed over 240,000 people, there have been two opposite trends in China: decreasing confidence in prediction and increasing emphasis on regulating construction design for earthquake resilience. In 1976, most of the seismic intensity XI areas of Tangshan were literally razed to the ground, but in 2008, many buildings in the intensity XI areas of Wenchuan did not collapse. Prediction did not save life in either of these events; the difference was made by construction standards. For regular buildings, there was no seismic design in Tangshan to resist any earthquake shaking in 1976, but limited seismic design was required for the Wenchuan area in 2008. Although the construction standards were later recognized to be too low, those buildings that met the standards suffered much less

  20. Temporal and spatial distributions of precursory seismicity rate changes in the Thailand-Laos-Myanmar border region: implication for upcoming hazardous earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puangjaktha, Prayot; Pailoplee, Santi

    2018-01-01

    To study the prospective areas of upcoming strong-to-major earthquakes, i.e., M w ≥ 6.0, a catalog of seismicity in the vicinity of the Thailand-Laos-Myanmar border region was generated and then investigated statistically. Based on the successful investigations of previous works, the seismicity rate change (Z value) technique was applied in this study. According to the completeness earthquake dataset, eight available case studies of strong-to-major earthquakes were investigated retrospectively. After iterative tests of the characteristic parameters concerning the number of earthquakes ( N) and time window ( T w ), the values of 50 and 1.2 years, respectively, were found to reveal an anomalous high Z-value peak (seismic quiescence) prior to the occurrence of six out of the eight major earthquake events studied. In addition, the location of the Z-value anomalies conformed fairly well to the epicenters of those earthquakes. Based on the investigation of correlation coefficient and the stochastic test of the Z values, the parameters used here ( N = 50 events and T w = 1.2 years) were suitable to determine the precursory Z value and not random phenomena. The Z values of this study and the frequency-magnitude distribution b values of a previous work both highlighted the same prospective areas that might generate an upcoming major earthquake: (i) some areas in the northern part of Laos and (ii) the eastern part of Myanmar.

  1. The USGS Earthquake Notification Service (ENS): Customizable notifications of earthquakes around the globe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wald, Lisa A.; Wald, David J.; Schwarz, Stan; Presgrave, Bruce; Earle, Paul S.; Martinez, Eric; Oppenheimer, David

    2008-01-01

    At the beginning of 2006, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Earthquake Hazards Program (EHP) introduced a new automated Earthquake Notification Service (ENS) to take the place of the National Earthquake Information Center (NEIC) "Bigquake" system and the various other individual EHP e-mail list-servers for separate regions in the United States. These included northern California, southern California, and the central and eastern United States. ENS is a "one-stop shopping" system that allows Internet users to subscribe to flexible and customizable notifications for earthquakes anywhere in the world. The customization capability allows users to define the what (magnitude threshold), the when (day and night thresholds), and the where (specific regions) for their notifications. Customization is achieved by employing a per-user based request profile, allowing the notifications to be tailored for each individual's requirements. Such earthquake-parameter-specific custom delivery was not possible with simple e-mail list-servers. Now that event and user profiles are in a structured query language (SQL) database, additional flexibility is possible. At the time of this writing, ENS had more than 114,000 subscribers, with more than 200,000 separate user profiles. On a typical day, more than 188,000 messages get sent to a variety of widely distributed users for a wide range of earthquake locations and magnitudes. The purpose of this article is to describe how ENS works, highlight the features it offers, and summarize plans for future developments.

  2. Chemical inventory control program for mixed and hazardous waste facilities at SRS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ades, M.J.; Vincent, A.M. III.

    1997-01-01

    Mixed Waste (MW) and Hazardous Waste (HW) are being stored at the Savannah River Site (SRS) pending onsite and/or offsite treatment and disposal. The inventory control for these wastes has recently been brought under Technical Safety Requirements (TSR) in accordance with DOE Order 5480.22. With the TSRs was the question of the degree of rigor with which the inventory is to be tracked, considering that the variety of chemicals present, or that could be present, numbers in the hundreds. This paper describes the graded approach program to track Solid Waste (SW) inventories relative to TSRs. The approach uses a ratio of the maximum anticipated chemical inventory to the permissible inventory in accordance with Emergency Response Planning Guideline (ERPG) limits for on- and off-site receptors. A specific threshold ratio can then be determined. The chemicals above this threshold ratio are to be included in the chemical inventory control program. The chemicals that fall below the threshold ratio are managed in accordance with existing practice per State and RCRA hazardous materials requirements. Additionally, the facilities are managed in accordance with process safety management principles, specifically using process hazards analyses, which provides safety assurance for even the small quantities that may be excluded from the formal inventory control program. The method yields a practical approach to chemical inventory control, while maintaining appropriate chemical safety margins. The resulting number of specific chemicals that require inclusion in a rigorous inventory control program is greatly reduced by about 80%, thereby resulting in significant reduction in chemical data management while preserving appropriate safety margins

  3. Validation of a solid-fluid interaction computer program for the earthquake analysis of nuclear power reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubois, J.; Descleve, P.; Dupont, Y.

    1978-01-01

    This paper evaluates a numerical method for the analysis of the mechanical response of nuclear reactor components composed of steel structures and fluids, during normal or accidental conditions. The method consists of computing the mode shapes and frequencies of the coupled system, with the assumption of small acoustic movements and incompressibility for the fluid. The paper validates the theory and its implementation in the computer program NOVAX (axisymmetric geometry, non axisymmetric loads and response for earthquake response studies) by comparison with known theoretical and experimental results. (author)

  4. Hazardous waste landfill research: U. S. E. P. A. (United States Environmental Protection Agency) Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schomaker, N.B.

    1984-06-01

    The hazardous waste land disposal research program is collecting data necessary to support implementation of disposal guidelines mandated by the 'Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976' (RCRA) PL 94-580. This program relating to the categorical areas of landfills, surface impoundments, and underground mines encompasses state-of-the-art documents, laboratory analysis, economic assessment, bench and pilot studies, and full-scale field verification studies. Over the next five years the research will be reported as Technical Resource Documents in support of the RCRA Guidance Documents. These documents will be used to provide guidance for conducting the review and evaluation of land disposal permit applications. This paper will present an overview of this program and will report the current status of the work.

  5. Studies of crustal structure, seismic precursors to volcanic eruptions and earthquake hazard in the eastern provinces of the Democratic Republic of Congo

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mavonga, T

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, civil wars in the eastern provinces of the Democratic Republic of Congo have caused massive social disruptions, which have been exacerbated by volcanic and earthquake disasters. Seismic data were gathered and analysed as part...

  6. Real-time earthquake data feasible

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, Susan

    Scientists agree that early warning devices and monitoring of both Hurricane Hugo and the Mt. Pinatubo volcanic eruption saved thousands of lives. What would it take to develop this sort of early warning and monitoring system for earthquake activity?Not all that much, claims a panel assigned to study the feasibility, costs, and technology needed to establish a real-time earthquake monitoring (RTEM) system. The panel, drafted by the National Academy of Science's Committee on Seismology, has presented its findings in Real-Time Earthquake Monitoring. The recently released report states that “present technology is entirely capable of recording and processing data so as to provide real-time information, enabling people to mitigate somewhat the earthquake disaster.” RTEM systems would consist of two parts—an early warning system that would give a few seconds warning before severe shaking, and immediate postquake information within minutes of the quake that would give actual measurements of the magnitude. At this time, however, this type of warning system has not been addressed at the national level for the United States and is not included in the National Earthquake Hazard Reduction Program, according to the report.

  7. Hazardous Waste Remedial Actions Program requirements for quality control of analytical data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, M.S.; Zolyniak, J.W.

    1988-08-01

    The Hazardous Waste Remedial Action Program (HAZWRAP) is involved in performing field investigations and sample analysis pursuant to the NCP for the Department of Energy and other federal agencies. The purpose of this document is to specify the requirements for the control of the accuracy, precision and completeness of the samples, and data from the point of collection through analysis. The requirements include data reduction and reporting of the resulting environmentally related data. Because every instance and concern may not be addressed in this document, HAZWRAP subcontractors are encouraged to discuss any questions with the HAZWRAP Project Manager hereafter identified as the Project Manager

  8. Analysis of the matrix structure of the Nuclear Weapons Complex waste minimization and hazard reduction program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Churnetski, S.R.

    1991-01-01

    Two of the primary goals of this program in waste minimization that the major waste problems facing the Nuclear Weapons Complex (NWC) are being addressed systematically and to prevent duplication of effort by forming an integrated approach across the complex. Production, disposal, and the hazards of both the wastes and the in-process chemicals used were to be studied. The eight waste streams chosen (electroplating, miscellaneous, mixed, plutonium, polymers, solvents, tritium, and uranium) were deemed to be the most serious problems facing the Nuclear Weapons Complex

  9. Revised Draft Hanford Site Solid (Radioactive and Hazardous) Waste Program Environmental Impact Statement, Richland, Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    This ''Revised Draft Hanford Site Solid (Radioactive and Hazardous) Waste Program Environmental Impact Statement'' (HSW EIS) covers three primary aspects of waste management at Hanford--waste treatment, storage, and disposal. It also addresses four kinds of solid waste--low-level waste (LLW), mixed (radioactive and chemically hazardous) low-level waste (MLLW), transuranic (TRU) waste, and immobilized low-activity waste (ILAW). It fundamentally asks the question: how should we manage the waste we have now and will have in the future? This EIS analyzes the impacts of the LLW, MLLW, TRU waste, and ILAW we currently have in storage, will generate, or expect to receive at Hanford. The HSW EIS is intended to help us determine what specific facilities we will continue to use, modify, or construct to treat, store, and dispose of these wastes (Figure S.1). Because radioactive and chemically hazardous waste management is a complex, technical, and difficult subject, we have made every effort to minimize the use of acronyms (making an exception for our four waste types listed above), use more commonly understood words, and provide the ''big picture'' in this summary. An acronym list, glossary of terms, and conversions for units of measure are provided in a readers guide in Volume 1 of this EIS

  10. Hazardous materials emergency response training program at Texas A ampersand M University

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stirling, A.G.

    1989-01-01

    The Texas Engineering Extension Service (TEEX) as the engineering vocational training arm of the Texas A ampersand M University system has conducted oil-spill, hazardous-material, and related safety training for industry since 1976 and fire suppression training since 1931. In 1987 TEEX conducted training for some 66,000 persons, of which some 6000 were in hazardous-materials safety training and 22,000 in fire suppression or related fields. Various laws and regulations exist relative to employee training at an industrial facility, such as the Hazard Communication Act, the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA or more commonly Superfund), the Community Right to Know Law, and the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA), Titles I and III. The TEEX programs developed on the foundation emphasize the hands-on approach (60% field exercises) to provide a comprehensive training curriculum resulting in regulatory compliance, an effective emergency response capability, a prepared community, and a safe work environment

  11. The O3E program: Innovative educational and communication tools for better face natural hazards and emergencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berenguer, Jean Luc; Solarino, Stefano; Corboulex, Françoise; Ponzone, Monica; Cremonini, Roberto; Eva, Claudio; Eva, Elena; Ferretti, Gabriele; Leputh, Jessica; Barroux, Emmanuel; Sornette, Anne; Luyet, Vincent; Bosset, Henry

    2010-05-01

    As dramatically reminded during the last days by the Haiti disaster, earthquakes are traumatic events as storms or floods. They cause more damages when population don't have the knowledge of these phenomena and doesn't know how to deal with it. Presently, it's not possible to predict an earthquakes or extreme meteorological events. Preparation stay the best and efficient way to save life. Education and training are two essential ingredients to help the population to perceive the scientific information formerly confined in the laboratories, in particular in the domain of the environmental risk. The "O3E" innovative Project (European Observatory for Education and Environment) is established after 10 years (1997-2007) of regional, national and international programs ("Sismos of the Schools", "Rinamed Medocc"), and from Italian and Swiss experiences concerning environment tools for education. This project with cooperation between scientists of France, Italy and Switzerland, is born to promote a responsible behavior of young citizens by means of scientific information about natural risks. ARGAL (Agency for Geological Risk in the Latin Arc - France) operates the administrative and technical coordination. The first innovative output of O3E is the creation of a school network in the Alpine and Mediterranean areas equipped with environmental sensors installed direct into the educational buildings. The data by seismometers, weather stations, river's flows and soil moisture, recorded in the schools and processed by the students, are collected on dedicated servers and then made available through a internet platform to the entire educational community. By means of coordinated activities of critical analysis of data, their comparison with the information available through other media, the awareness about the importance of knowledge and evaluation of reliable data about their own territory is promoted. This equipment's network "O3E," is the starting point of many other activities

  12. Hazardous Materials Pharmacies - A Vital Component of a Robust P2 Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCarter, S.

    2006-01-01

    Integrating pollution prevention (P2) into the Department of Energy Integrated Safety Management (ISM) - Environmental Management System (EMS) approach, required by DOE Order 450.1, leads to an enhanced ISM program at large and complex installations and facilities. One of the building blocks to integrating P2 into a comprehensive environmental and safety program is the control and tracking of the amounts, types, and flow of hazardous materials used on a facility. Hazardous materials pharmacies (typically called HazMarts) provide a solid approach to resolving this issue through business practice changes that reduce use, avoid excess, and redistribute surplus. If understood from concept to implementation, the HazMart is a powerful tool for reducing pollution at the source, tracking inventory storage, controlling usage and flow, and summarizing data for reporting requirements. Pharmacy options can range from a strict, single control point for all hazardous materials to a virtual system, where the inventory is user controlled and reported over a common system. Designing and implementing HazMarts on large, diverse installations or facilities present a unique set of issues. This is especially true of research and development (R and D) facilities where the chemical use requirements are extensive and often classified. There are often multiple sources of supply; a wide variety of chemical requirements; a mix of containers ranging from small ampoules to large bulk storage tanks; and a wide range of tools used to track hazardous materials, ranging from simple purchase inventories to sophisticated tracking software. Computer systems are often not uniform in capacity, capability, or operating systems, making it difficult to use a server-based unified tracking system software. Each of these issues has a solution or set of solutions tied to fundamental business practices. Each requires an understanding of the problem at hand, which, in turn, requires good communication among all

  13. Characterization of hazardous waste residuals from Environmental Restoration Program activities at DOE installations: Waste management implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazaro, M.A.; Esposito, M.P.

    1995-01-01

    Investigators at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), with support from associates at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), have assembled an inventory of the types and volumes of radioactive, toxic or hazardous, and mixed waste likely to be generated over the next 30 years as the US Department of Energy (DOE) implements its nationwide Environmental Restoration (ER) Program. The inventory and related analyses are being considered for integration into DOE's Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS) covering the potential environmental impacts and risks associated with alternative management practices and programs for wastes generated from routine operations. If this happens, the ER-generated waste could be managed under a set of alternatives considered under the PEIS and selected at the end of the current National Environmental Policy Act process

  14. Overview of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Hazardous Air Pollutant Early Reduction Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laznow, J.; Daniel, J.

    1992-01-01

    Under provision of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 Title III, the EPA has proposed a regulation (Early Reduction Program) to allow a six-year compliance extension from Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT) standards for sources that voluntarily reduce emissions of Hazardous Air Pollutants (HAPs) by 90% or more (95% or more for particulates) from a base year of 1987 or later. The emission reduction must be made before the applicable MACT standard is proposed for the source category or be subject to an enforceable commitment to achieve the reduction by January 1, 1994 for sources subject to MACT standards prior to 1994. The primary purpose of this program is to encourage reduction of HAPs emissions sooner than otherwise required. Industry would be allowed additional time in evaluating emission reduction options and developing more cost-effective compliance strategies, although, under strict guidelines to ensure actual, significant and verifiable emission reductions occur

  15. Proposed performance standards for the Agricultural Hazardous Occupations Order certification training program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, B F; Field, W E; Tormoehlen, R

    2007-07-01

    The performance standards that accompany Gearing Up for Safety, the agricultural production safety training curriculum for youth, were designed to meet the certification testing requirements of the Agricultural Hazardous Occupations Order (AgHOs) certification training program. The AgHOs requires that certain youth who are older than 13 and younger than 16 years of age complete a prescribed training program before being eligible for employment on farms to perform certain tasks considered hazardous. These training resources will be available for implementation and can be accessed by contacting the second author. To our knowledge, up until this time, few, if any, standardized testing procedures or instruments have had the necessary psychometric evidence to support use of the resulting scores to assess the readiness of youth to meet the basic certification requirements contained in the AgHOs. This article describes the rationale, methods, and key findings from a standard-setting session held to establish minimum passing scores for a proposed testing process. The test will be used as a component of the Gearing Up for Safety certification process for youth workers seeking employment to perform job functions as specified under the AgHOs. Readers may be able to apply this standardized testing process, or similarly accepted processes, to other or future testing and certification projects involving agricultural safety and health.

  16. Remote Sensing and Geographic Information Systems (GIS Contribution to the Inventory of Infrastructure Susceptible to Earthquake and Flooding Hazards in North-Eastern Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioanna Papadopoulou

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available For civil protection reasons there is a strong need to improve the inventory of areas that are more vulnerable to earthquake ground motions or to earthquake-related secondary effects, such as landslides, liquefaction or soil amplifications. The use of remote sensing and Geographic Information Systems (GIS methods along with the related geo-databases can assist local and national authorities to be better prepared and organized. Remote sensing and GIS techniques are investigated in north-eastern Greece in order to contribute to the systematic, standardized inventory of those areas that are more susceptible to earthquake ground motions, to earthquake-related secondary effects and to tsunami-waves. Knowing areas with aggregated occurrence of causal (“negative” factors influencing earthquake shock and, thus, the damage intensity, this knowledge can be integrated into disaster preparedness and mitigation measurements. The evaluation of satellite imageries, digital topographic data and open source geodata contributes to the acquisition of the specific tectonic, geologic and geomorphologic settings influencing local site conditions in an area and, thus, estimate possible damage to be suffered.

  17. [Environmental Hazards Assessment Program annual report, June 1992--June 1993]. Summer undergraduate research program: Environmental studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McMillan, J. [ed.

    1993-12-01

    The purpose of the summer undergraduate internship program for research in environmental studies is to provide an opportunity for well-qualified students to undertake an original research project as an apprentice to an active research scientist in basic environmental research. Ten students from throughout the midwestern and eastern areas of the country were accepted into the program. These students selected projects in the areas of marine sciences, biostatistics and epidemiology, and toxicology. The research experience for all these students and their mentors was very positive. The seminars were well attended and the students showed their interest in the presentations and environmental sciences as a whole by presenting the speakers with thoughtful and intuitive questions. This report contains the research project written presentations prepared by the student interns.

  18. [The hazards of reconstruction: anthropology of dwelling and social health risk in the L'Aquila (Central Italy) post-earthquake].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciccozzi, Antonello

    2016-01-01

    Even starting from the purpose of restoring the damage caused by a natural disaster, the post-earthquake reconstructions imply the risk of triggering a set of social disasters that may affect the public health sphere. In the case of the L'Aquila earthquake this risk seems to emerge within the urban planning on two levels of dwelling: at a landscape level, where there has been a change in the shape of the city towards a sprawling-sprinkling process; at an architectural level, on the problematic relationship between the politics and the poetics of cultural heritage protection and the goal to get restoration works capable to ensure the citizens seismic safety.

  19. The 2016 Central Italy Earthquake: an Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amato, A.

    2016-12-01

    citizens and media, through interviews, social media, participation to radio and TV programs; a press conference was organized on the same day of the earthquake; the INGVterremoti social media platform released tens of articles on the seismicity, historical events, seismic hazard, updates on the ongoing research, with a positive feedback from media and citizens.

  20. OMG Earthquake! Can Twitter improve earthquake response?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earle, P. S.; Guy, M.; Ostrum, C.; Horvath, S.; Buckmaster, R. A.

    2009-12-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is investigating how the social networking site Twitter, a popular service for sending and receiving short, public, text messages, can augment its earthquake response products and the delivery of hazard information. The goal is to gather near real-time, earthquake-related messages (tweets) and provide geo-located earthquake detections and rough maps of the corresponding felt areas. Twitter and other social Internet technologies are providing the general public with anecdotal earthquake hazard information before scientific information has been published from authoritative sources. People local to an event often publish information within seconds via these technologies. In contrast, depending on the location of the earthquake, scientific alerts take between 2 to 20 minutes. Examining the tweets following the March 30, 2009, M4.3 Morgan Hill earthquake shows it is possible (in some cases) to rapidly detect and map the felt area of an earthquake using Twitter responses. Within a minute of the earthquake, the frequency of “earthquake” tweets rose above the background level of less than 1 per hour to about 150 per minute. Using the tweets submitted in the first minute, a rough map of the felt area can be obtained by plotting the tweet locations. Mapping the tweets from the first six minutes shows observations extending from Monterey to Sacramento, similar to the perceived shaking region mapped by the USGS “Did You Feel It” system. The tweets submitted after the earthquake also provided (very) short first-impression narratives from people who experienced the shaking. Accurately assessing the potential and robustness of a Twitter-based system is difficult because only tweets spanning the previous seven days can be searched, making a historical study impossible. We have, however, been archiving tweets for several months, and it is clear that significant limitations do exist. The main drawback is the lack of quantitative information

  1. Leveraging geodetic data to reduce losses from earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Jessica R.; Roeloffs, Evelyn A.; Brooks, Benjamin A.; Langbein, John O.; Leith, William S.; Minson, Sarah E.; Svarc, Jerry L.; Thatcher, Wayne R.

    2018-04-23

    Seismic hazard assessments that are based on a variety of data and the best available science, coupled with rapid synthesis of real-time information from continuous monitoring networks to guide post-earthquake response, form a solid foundation for effective earthquake loss reduction. With this in mind, the Earthquake Hazards Program (EHP) of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Natural Hazards Mission Area (NHMA) engages in a variety of undertakings, both established and emergent, in order to provide high quality products that enable stakeholders to take action in advance of and in response to earthquakes. Examples include the National Seismic Hazard Model (NSHM), development of tools for improved situational awareness such as earthquake early warning (EEW) and operational earthquake forecasting (OEF), research about induced seismicity, and new efforts to advance comprehensive subduction zone science and monitoring. Geodetic observations provide unique and complementary information directly relevant to advancing many aspects of these efforts (fig. 1). EHP scientists have long leveraged geodetic data for a range of influential studies, and they continue to develop innovative observation and analysis methods that push the boundaries of the field of geodesy as applied to natural hazards research. Given the ongoing, rapid improvement in availability, variety, and precision of geodetic measurements, considering ways to fully utilize this observational resource for earthquake loss reduction is timely and essential. This report presents strategies, and the underlying scientific rationale, by which the EHP could achieve the following outcomes: The EHP is an authoritative source for the interpretation of geodetic data and its use for earthquake loss reduction throughout the United States and its territories.The USGS consistently provides timely, high quality geodetic data to stakeholders.Significant earthquakes are better characterized by incorporating geodetic data into USGS

  2. Development of optimization-based probabilistic earthquake scenarios for the city of Tehran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolfaghari, M. R.; Peyghaleh, E.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the methodology and practical example for the application of optimization process to select earthquake scenarios which best represent probabilistic earthquake hazard in a given region. The method is based on simulation of a large dataset of potential earthquakes, representing the long-term seismotectonic characteristics in a given region. The simulation process uses Monte-Carlo simulation and regional seismogenic source parameters to generate a synthetic earthquake catalogue consisting of a large number of earthquakes, each characterized with magnitude, location, focal depth and fault characteristics. Such catalogue provides full distributions of events in time, space and size; however, demands large computation power when is used for risk assessment, particularly when other sources of uncertainties are involved in the process. To reduce the number of selected earthquake scenarios, a mixed-integer linear program formulation is developed in this study. This approach results in reduced set of optimization-based probabilistic earthquake scenario, while maintaining shape of hazard curves and full probabilistic picture by minimizing the error between hazard curves driven by full and reduced sets of synthetic earthquake scenarios. To test the model, the regional seismotectonic and seismogenic characteristics of northern Iran are used to simulate a set of 10,000-year worth of events consisting of some 84,000 earthquakes. The optimization model is then performed multiple times with various input data, taking into account probabilistic seismic hazard for Tehran city as the main constrains. The sensitivity of the selected scenarios to the user-specified site/return period error-weight is also assessed. The methodology could enhance run time process for full probabilistic earthquake studies like seismic hazard and risk assessment. The reduced set is the representative of the contributions of all possible earthquakes; however, it requires far less

  3. Environmental Hazards Assessment Program. Volume 4: Annual report, July 1, 1993--June 30, 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The Medical University of South Carolina's (MUSC) vision is to become the premier national resource for medical information and for environmental/health risk assessment. A key component to the success of the many missions of the Environmental Hazards Assessment Program (EHAP) is timely access to large volumes of data. The significant growth in the number of environmental/health information systems that has occurred over the past few years has made data access challenging. This study documents the results of the needs assessment effort conducted to determine the information access and processing requirements of EHAP. The following topics are addressed in this report: immunological consequences of beryllium exposure; assessment of genetic risks to environmental diseases; low dose-rate radiation health effects; environmental risk perception in defined populations; information support and access systems; and environmental medicine and risk communication: curriculum and a professional support network-Department of Family Medicine

  4. Environmental Hazards Assessment Program. Volume 4: Annual report, July 1, 1993--June 30, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-09-01

    The Medical University of South Carolina`s (MUSC) vision is to become the premier national resource for medical information and for environmental/health risk assessment. A key component to the success of the many missions of the Environmental Hazards Assessment Program (EHAP) is timely access to large volumes of data. The significant growth in the number of environmental/health information systems that has occurred over the past few years has made data access challenging. This study documents the results of the needs assessment effort conducted to determine the information access and processing requirements of EHAP. The following topics are addressed in this report: immunological consequences of beryllium exposure; assessment of genetic risks to environmental diseases; low dose-rate radiation health effects; environmental risk perception in defined populations; information support and access systems; and environmental medicine and risk communication: curriculum and a professional support network-Department of Family Medicine.

  5. Hotspots, Lifelines, and the Safrr Haywired Earthquake Sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratliff, J. L.; Porter, K.

    2014-12-01

    Though California has experienced many large earthquakes (San Francisco, 1906; Loma Prieta, 1989; Northridge, 1994), the San Francisco Bay Area has not had a damaging earthquake for 25 years. Earthquake risk and surging reliance on smartphones and the Internet to handle everyday tasks raise the question: is an increasingly technology-reliant Bay Area prepared for potential infrastructure impacts caused by a major earthquake? How will a major earthquake on the Hayward Fault affect lifelines (roads, power, water, communication, etc.)? The U.S. Geological Survey Science Application for Risk Reduction (SAFRR) program's Haywired disaster scenario, a hypothetical two-year earthquake sequence triggered by a M7.05 mainshock on the Hayward Fault, addresses these and other questions. We explore four geographic aspects of lifeline damage from earthquakes: (1) geographic lifeline concentrations, (2) areas where lifelines pass through high shaking or potential ground-failure zones, (3) areas with diminished lifeline service demand due to severe building damage, and (4) areas with increased lifeline service demand due to displaced residents and businesses. Potential mainshock lifeline vulnerability and spatial demand changes will be discerned by superimposing earthquake shaking, liquefaction probability, and landslide probability damage thresholds with lifeline concentrations and with large-capacity shelters. Intersecting high hazard levels and lifeline clusters represent potential lifeline susceptibility hotspots. We will also analyze possible temporal vulnerability and demand changes using an aftershock shaking threshold. The results of this analysis will inform regional lifeline resilience initiatives and response and recovery planning, as well as reveal potential redundancies and weaknesses for Bay Area lifelines. Identified spatial and temporal hotspots can provide stakeholders with a reference for possible systemic vulnerability resulting from an earthquake sequence.

  6. New Science Applications Within the U.S. National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, R. I.; Eble, M. C.; Forson, C. K.; Horrillo, J. J.; Nicolsky, D.

    2017-12-01

    The U.S. National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program (NTHMP) is a collaborative State and Federal program which supports consistent and cost effective tsunami preparedness and mitigation activities at a community level. The NTHMP is developing a new five-year Strategic Plan based on the 2017 Tsunami Warning, Education, and Research Act as well as recommendations the 2017 NTHMP External Review Panel. Many NTHMP activities are based on the best available scientific methods through the NTHMP Mapping and Modeling Subcommittee (MMS). The primary activities for the MMS member States are to characterize significant tsunami sources, numerically model those sources, and create tsunami inundation maps for evacuation planning. This work remains a focus for many unmapped coastlines. With the lessons learned from the 2004 Indian Ocean and 2011 Tohoku Japan tsunamis, where both immediate risks and long-term recovery issues where recognized, the NTHMP MMS is expanding efforts into other areas that address community resilience. Tsunami evacuation modeling based on both pedestrian and vehicular modes of transportation are being developed by NTHMP States. Products include tools for the public to create personal evacuation maps. New tsunami response planning tools are being developed for both maritime and coastal communities. Maritime planning includes tsunami current-hazard maps for in-harbor and offshore response activities. Multi-tiered tsunami evacuation plans are being developed in some states to address local- versus distant-source tsunamis, as well as real-time evacuation plans, or "playbooks," for distant-source tsunamis forecasted to be less than the worst-case flood event. Products to assist community mitigation and recovery are being developed at a State level. Harbor Improvement Reports, which evaluate the impacts of currents, sediment, and debris on harbor infrastructure, include direct mitigation activities for Local Hazard Mitigation Plans. Building code updates in the

  7. 76 FR 36879 - Minnesota: Final Authorization of State Hazardous Waste Management Program Revision

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-23

    ... Treatment Subcategories for Radioactively Contaminated Cadmium-, Mercury-, and Silver- Containing Batteries..., 1998 (63 FR 28556) Land Disposal Restrictions Phase IV; Hazardous Soils Treatment Standards and..., October 22, 1998 (63 FR 56710) Hazardous Remediation Waste Management Requirements (HWIR-Media), Checklist...

  8. A program optimization system for the cleanup of DOE hazardous waste sites an application to FY 1990 funding decisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merkhofer, M.W.; Jenni, K.E.; Cotton, T.A.; Lehr, J.C.; Longo, T.P.

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes a formal system used by the Department of Energy (DOE) as an aid for allocating funds for cleaning up hazardous waste sites. The system, called the Program Optimization System (POS), is based on multiattribute utility analysis and was developed for DOE's Hazardous Waste and Remedial Actions Division (HWRAD). HWRAD has responsibility for recommending environmental restoration (ER) activities to the Assistant Secretary of Energy. Recently, the POS was used to analyze and recommend funding levels for FY 1990 cleanup activities at DOE defense program facilities

  9. 76 FR 2618 - Minnesota: Final Authorization of State Hazardous Waste Management Program Revision

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-14

    ... Contaminated Cadmium-, Mercury-, and Silver-Containing Batteries Checklist 201. Hazardous Waste Management June... Restrictions May 26, 1998, 63 MR 7045.1390; Phase IV; Hazardous Soils FR 28556. Effective June 22, Treatment...); Effective February 14, 2005. Hazardous Remediation Waste November 30, MR 7001.0060; Management Requirements...

  10. 75 FR 43409 - Rhode Island: Final Authorization of State Hazardous Waste Management Program Revisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-26

    ...--Statistical Methods for Evaluating Ground-Water Monitoring Data from Hazardous Waste Facilities, 53 FR 39720... Refining Primary and Secondary Oil/Water/Solids Separation Sludge Listings, 56 FR 21955, May 13, 1991: Rule... handle hazardous sludges as hazardous wastes when they leave the zero discharge unit. Whether this...

  11. Historical earthquake research in Austria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammerl, Christa

    2017-12-01

    Austria has a moderate seismicity, and on average the population feels 40 earthquakes per year or approximately three earthquakes per month. A severe earthquake with light building damage is expected roughly every 2 to 3 years in Austria. Severe damage to buildings ( I 0 > 8° EMS) occurs significantly less frequently, the average period of recurrence is about 75 years. For this reason the historical earthquake research has been of special importance in Austria. The interest in historical earthquakes in the past in the Austro-Hungarian Empire is outlined, beginning with an initiative of the Austrian Academy of Sciences and the development of historical earthquake research as an independent research field after the 1978 "Zwentendorf plebiscite" on whether the nuclear power plant will start up. The applied methods are introduced briefly along with the most important studies and last but not least as an example of a recently carried out case study, one of the strongest past earthquakes in Austria, the earthquake of 17 July 1670, is presented. The research into historical earthquakes in Austria concentrates on seismic events of the pre-instrumental period. The investigations are not only of historical interest, but also contribute to the completeness and correctness of the Austrian earthquake catalogue, which is the basis for seismic hazard analysis and as such benefits the public, communities, civil engineers, architects, civil protection, and many others.

  12. Seismic imaging beneath an InSAR anomaly in eastern Washington State: Shallow faulting associated with an earthquake swarm in a low-hazard area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, William J.; Odum, Jackson K.; Wicks, Chuck; Pratt, Thomas L.; Blakely, Richard J.

    2016-01-01

    In 2001, a rare swarm of small, shallow earthquakes beneath the city of Spokane, Washington, caused ground shaking as well as audible booms over a five‐month period. Subsequent Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) data analysis revealed an area of surface uplift in the vicinity of the earthquake swarm. To investigate the potential faults that may have caused both the earthquakes and the topographic uplift, we collected ∼3  km of high‐resolution seismic‐reflection profiles to image the upper‐source region of the swarm. The two profiles reveal a complex deformational pattern within Quaternary alluvial, fluvial, and flood deposits, underlain by Tertiary basalts and basin sediments. At least 100 m of arching on a basalt surface in the upper 500 m is interpreted from both the seismic profiles and magnetic modeling. Two west‐dipping faults deform Quaternary sediments and project to the surface near the location of the Spokane fault defined from modeling of the InSAR data.

  13. Use of earthquake experience data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eder, S.J.; Eli, M.W.

    1991-01-01

    At many of the older existing US Department of Energy (DOE) facilities, the need has arisen for evaluation guidelines for natural phenomena hazard assessment. The effect of a design basis earthquake at most of these facilities is one of the main concerns. Earthquake experience data can provide a basis for the needed seismic evaluation guidelines, resulting in an efficient screening evaluation methodology for several of the items that are in the scope of the DOE facility reviews. The experience-based screening evaluation methodology, when properly established and implemented by trained engineers, has proven to result in sufficient safety margins and focuses on real concerns via facility walkdowns, usually at costs much less than the alternative options of analysis and testing. This paper summarizes a program that is being put into place to establish uniform seismic evaluation guidelines and criteria for evaluation of existing DOE facilities. The intent of the program is to maximize use of past experience, in conjunction with a walkdown screening evaluation process

  14. Probabilistic Tsunami Hazard Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thio, H. K.; Ichinose, G. A.; Somerville, P. G.; Polet, J.

    2006-12-01

    The recent tsunami disaster caused by the 2004 Sumatra-Andaman earthquake has focused our attention to the hazard posed by large earthquakes that occur under water, in particular subduction zone earthquakes, and the tsunamis that they generate. Even though these kinds of events are rare, the very large loss of life and material destruction caused by this earthquake warrant a significant effort towards the mitigation of the tsunami hazard. For ground motion hazard, Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Analysis (PSHA) has become a standard practice in the evaluation and mitigation of seismic hazard to populations in particular with respect to structures, infrastructure and lifelines. Its ability to condense the complexities and variability of seismic activity into a manageable set of parameters greatly facilitates the design of effective seismic resistant buildings but also the planning of infrastructure projects. Probabilistic Tsunami Hazard Analysis (PTHA) achieves the same goal for hazards posed by tsunami. There are great advantages of implementing such a method to evaluate the total risk (seismic and tsunami) to coastal communities. The method that we have developed is based on the traditional PSHA and therefore completely consistent with standard seismic practice. Because of the strong dependence of tsunami wave heights on bathymetry, we use a full waveform tsunami waveform computation in lieu of attenuation relations that are common in PSHA. By pre-computing and storing the tsunami waveforms at points along the coast generated for sets of subfaults that comprise larger earthquake faults, we can efficiently synthesize tsunami waveforms for any slip distribution on those faults by summing the individual subfault tsunami waveforms (weighted by their slip). This efficiency make it feasible to use Green's function summation in lieu of attenuation relations to provide very accurate estimates of tsunami height for probabilistic calculations, where one typically computes

  15. Comparability between NQA-1 and the QA programs for analytical laboratories within the nuclear industry and EPA hazardous waste laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    English, S.L.; Dahl, D.R.

    1989-01-01

    There is increasing cooperation between the Department of Energy (DOE), Department of Defense (DOD), and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in the activities associated with monitoring and clean-up of hazardous wastes. Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) examined the quality assurance/quality control programs that the EPA requires of the private sector when performing routine analyses of hazardous wastes to confirm how or if the requirements correspond with PNL's QA program based upon NQA-1. This paper presents the similarities and differences between NQA-1 and the QA program identified in ASTM-C1009-83, Establishing a QA Program for Analytical Chemistry Laboratories within the Nuclear Industry; EPA QAMS-005/80, Interim Guidelines and Specifications for Preparing Quality Assurance Project Plans, which is referenced in Statements of Work for CERCLA analytical activities; and Chapter 1 of SW-846, which is used in analyses of RCRA samples. The EPA QA programs for hazardous waste analyses are easily encompassed within an already established NQA-1 QA program. A few new terms are introduced and there is an increased emphasis upon the QC/verification, but there are many of the same basic concepts in all the programs

  16. Estimated airborne release of radionuclides from the Battelle Memorial Institute Columbus Laboratories JN-1b building at the West Jefferson site as a result of postulated damage from severe wind and earthquake hazard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishima, J.; Ayer, J.E.

    1981-11-01

    The potential airborne releases of radionuclides (source terms) that could result from wind and earthquake dmage are estimated for the Battelle Memorial Institute Columbus Laboratories JN-1b Building at the West Jefferson site in Ohio. The estimated source terms are based on the damage to barriers containing the radionuclides, the inventory of radionuclides at risk, and the fraction of the inventory made airborne as a result of the loss of containment. In an attempt to provide a realistic range of potential source terms that include most of the normal operating conditions, a best estimate bounded by upper and lower limits is calculated by combining the upper-bound, best-estimate, and lower-bound inventories-at-risk with an airborne release factor (upper-bound, best-estimate, and lower-bound if possible) for the situation. The factors used to evaluate the fractional airborne release of materials and the exchange rates between enclosed and exterior atmospheres are discussed. The postulated damage and source terms are discussed for wind and earthquake hazard scenarios in order of their increasing severity

  17. Reliability of lifeline networks under seismic hazard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selcuk, A. Sevtap; Yuecemen, M. Semih

    1999-01-01

    Lifelines, such as pipelines, transportation, communication and power transmission systems, are networks which extend spatially over large geographical regions. The quantification of the reliability (survival probability) of a lifeline under seismic threat requires attention, as the proper functioning of these systems during or after a destructive earthquake is vital. In this study, a lifeline is idealized as an equivalent network with the capacity of its elements being random and spatially correlated and a comprehensive probabilistic model for the assessment of the reliability of lifelines under earthquake loads is developed. The seismic hazard that the network is exposed to is described by a probability distribution derived by using the past earthquake occurrence data. The seismic hazard analysis is based on the 'classical' seismic hazard analysis model with some modifications. An efficient algorithm developed by Yoo and Deo (Yoo YB, Deo N. A comparison of algorithms for terminal pair reliability. IEEE Transactions on Reliability 1988; 37: 210-215) is utilized for the evaluation of the network reliability. This algorithm eliminates the CPU time and memory capacity problems for large networks. A comprehensive computer program, called LIFEPACK is coded in Fortran language in order to carry out the numerical computations. Two detailed case studies are presented to show the implementation of the proposed model

  18. 75 FR 8239 - School Food Safety Program Based on Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point Principles (HACCP...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-24

    ... (HACCP); Approval of Information Collection Request AGENCY: Food and Nutrition Service, USDA. ACTION... Safety Program Based on Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point Principles (HACCP) was published on... must be based on the (HACCP) system established by the Secretary of Agriculture. The food safety...

  19. Medical University of South Carolina Environmental Hazards Assessment Program. Deliverables: Volume 2, Annual report, July 1, 1993--June 30, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-08-18

    This reference is concerned with the Crossroads of Humanity workshop which is part of the Environmental Hazards Assessment Program at the Medical University of South Carolina. This workshop was held during the months of June and July 1994. Topics discussed include: Radioactive contamination, aging, medical ethics, and environmental risk analysis.

  20. Sand-Venting in the M5.7 Earthquake 3 Jan 2017 and in the Much Larger Penultimate Liquefaction Event with their Sedimentary Setting in an Upstream Valley of the Ganges-Brahmaputra Delta: Implications for Earthquake Hazard

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHugh, C.; Seeber, L.; Akhter, S. H.; Schenck, R. J.; Steckler, M. S.; Kumar, B.; Rajapara, H.; Shovon, A. K.; Singhvi, A. K.

    2017-12-01

    The Ganges-Brahmaputra Delta (GBD) is near the cusp between Sunda subduction and Himalayan collision. Abundant water and fertile sediment support a huge population, but large earthquakes along these broad convergence boundaries have repeatedly caused widespread liquefaction and destruction. The 3 Jan 2017 M5.7 32 km deep (USGS) Ambassa (Tripura, India) earthquake accommodated down-dip extension of the Indian slab where it subducts eastward from the GBD below Burma. This is typical for current seismicity below and east of the GBD, although much larger and shallower thrust earthquakes are anticipated based on GPS. Generally, reported effects in the broad mesoseismal area seem consistent with hypocenter depth and the assigned max MMI V (USGS), but we found surprisingly intense damage and many liquefaction sites in the alluvial northern portion of the Dolai valley in Bangladesh, 36 km NNW of the epicenter. We trenched three liquefaction sites and completed a profile of ten 50m deep wells across the 5 km wide alluvial valley. Fluvial channel sands alternate with overbank silt/clay and organic clay layers suggesting frequent changes in river course, consistent with rapid post glacial sea-level rise, transgression, high-stand aggradation and differential tectonic uplift. The Dolai is one of several short low-relief synclinal valleys in the fold belt draining northward into the Sylhet Basin (NE part of the GBD) where they meet westward drainage richer in sediment. Rapid aggradation by this cross-drainage may have a damming effect and account for the current lacustrine/marshy conditions characteristic of the northern end of these synclinal valleys. Organic rich beds derived from such conditions could encourage overpressure and raise liquefaction potential. The 1.5 m deep trenches revealed fractures and clastic dykes <15 mm wide that fed the 2017 sand vents. Their orientations were N-S, subparallel to the valley and nearby river-banks and at high angle to the fold axes

  1. Report on the Aseismic Slip, Tremor, and Earthquakes Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomberg, Joan; Roeloffs, Evelyn; Trehu, Anne; Dragert, Herb; Meertens, Charles

    2008-01-01

    This report summarizes the discussions and information presented during the workshop on Aseismic Slip, Tremor, and Earthquakes. Workshop goals included improving coordination among those involved in conducting research related to these phenomena, assessing the implications for earthquake hazard assessment, and identifying ways to capitalize on the education and outreach opportunities presented by these phenomena. Research activities of focus included making, disseminating, and analyzing relevant measurements; the relationships among tremor, aseismic or 'slow-slip', and earthquakes; and discovering the underlying causative physical processes. More than 52 participants contributed to the workshop, held February 25-28, 2008 in Sidney, British Columbia. The workshop was sponsored by the U.S. Geological Survey, the National Science Foundation?s Earthscope Program and UNAVCO Consortium, and the Geological Survey of Canada. This report has five parts. In the first part, we integrate the information exchanged at the workshop as it relates to advancing our understanding of earthquake generation and hazard. In the second part, we summarize the ideas and concerns discussed in workshop working groups on Opportunities for Education and Outreach, Data and Instrumentation, User and Public Needs, and Research Coordination. The third part presents summaries of the oral presentations. The oral presentations are grouped as they were at the workshop in the categories of phenomenology, underlying physical processes, and implications for earthquake hazards. The fourth part contains the meeting program and the fifth part lists the workshop participants. References noted in parentheses refer to the authors of presentations made at the workshop, and published references are noted in square brackets and listed in the Reference section. Appendix A contains abstracts of all participant presentations and posters, which also have been posted online, along with presentations and author contact

  2. Implications of the World Trade Center Health Program (WTCHP) for the public health response to the Great East Japan Earthquake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crane, Michael A.; Cho, Hyunje G.; Landrigan, Phillip J.

    2014-01-01

    The attacks on the World Trade Center (WTC) on September 11, 2001 resulted in a serious burden of physical and mental illness for the 50,000 rescue workers that responded to 9/11 as well as the 400,000 residents and workers in the surrounding areas of New York City. The Zadroga Act of 2010 established the WTC Health Program (WTCHP) to provide monitoring and treatment of WTC exposure-related conditions and health surveillance for the responder and survivor populations. Several reports have highlighted the applicability of insights gained from the WTCHP to the public health response to the Great East Japan Earthquake. Optimal exposure monitoring processes and attention to the welfare of vulnerable exposed sub-groups are critical aspects of the response to both incidents. The ongoing mental health care concerns of 9/11 patients accentuate the need for accessible and appropriately skilled mental health care in Fukushima. Active efforts to demonstrate transparency and to promote community involvement in the public health response will be highly important in establishing successful long-term monitoring and treatment programs for the exposed populations in Fukushima. (author)

  3. An Optimization Approach for Hazardous Waste Management Problem under Stochastic Programming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abass, S.A.; Abdallah, A.S.; Gomaa, M.A.

    2008-01-01

    Hazardous waste is the waste which, due to their nature and quantity, is potentially hazardous to human health and/or the environment. This kind of waste requires special disposal techniques to eliminate or reduce thc hazardous. Hazardous waste management (HWM) problem is concerned in the basic with the disposal method. hi this paper we focus on incineration as an effective to dispose the waste. For this type of disposal, there arc air pollution standards imposed by the government. We will propose an optimization model satisfied the air pollution standards and based on the model of Emek and Kara with using random variable coefficients in the constraint

  4. Public perceptions of a rip current hazard education program: "Break the Grip of the Rip!"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houser, Chris; Trimble, Sarah; Brander, Robert; Brewster, B. Chris; Dusek, Greg; Jones, Deborah; Kuhn, John

    2017-07-01

    Rip currents pose a major global beach hazard; estimates of annual rip-current-related deaths in the United States alone range from 35 to 100 per year. Despite increased social research into beach-goer experience, little is known about levels of rip current knowledge within the general population. This study describes the results of an online survey to determine the extent of rip current knowledge across the United States, with the aim of improving and enhancing existing beach safety education material. Results suggest that the US-based Break the Grip of the Rip!® campaign has been successful in educating the public about rip current safety directly or indirectly, with the majority of respondents able to provide an accurate description of how to escape a rip current. However, the success of the campaign is limited by discrepancies between personal observations at the beach and rip forecasts that are broadcasted for a large area and time. It was the infrequent beach user that identified the largest discrepancies between the forecast and their observations. Since infrequent beach users also do not seek out lifeguards or take the same precautions as frequent beach users, it is argued that they are also at greatest risk of being caught in a dangerous situation. Results of this study suggest a need for the national campaign to provide greater focus on locally specific and verified rip forecasts and signage in coordination with lifeguards, but not at the expense of the successful national awareness program.

  5. Building a Co-Created Citizen Science Program with Community Members Neighboring a Hazardous Waste Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez-Andreotta, M.; Brusseau, M. L. L.; Artiola, J. F.; Maier, R. M.; Gandolfi, A. J.

    2015-12-01

    A research project that is only expert-driven may ignore the role of local knowledge in research, often gives low priority to the development of a comprehensive strategy to engage the community, and may not deliver the results of the study to the community in an effective way. To date, only a limited number of co-created citizen science projects, where community members are involved in most or all steps of the scientific process, have been initiated at contaminated sites and even less in conjunction with risk communication. Gardenroots: The Dewey-Humboldt AZ Garden Project was a place-based, co-created citizen science project where community members and researchers together: defined the question for study, developed hypotheses, collected environmental samples, disseminated results broadly, translated the results into action, and posed new research questions. This co-created environmental research project produced new data and addressed an additional exposure route (consumption of vegetables grown in soils with elevated arsenic levels) that was not being evaluated in the current site assessment. Furthermore, co-producing science led to both individual learning and social-ecological outcomes. This approach illustrates the benefits of a co-created citizen-science program in addressing the complex problems that arise in communities neighboring a hazardous waste sites. Such a project increased the community's involvement in regional environmental assessment and decision-making, which has the potential to help mitigate environmental exposures and thereby reduce associated risks.

  6. Development of methodology and computer programs for the ground response spectrum and the probabilistic seismic hazard analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Joon Kyoung [Semyung Univ., Research Institute of Industrial Science and Technol , Jecheon (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-12-15

    Objective of this study is to investigate and develop the methodologies and corresponding computer codes, compatible to the domestic seismological and geological environments, for estimating ground response spectrum and probabilistic seismic hazard. Using the PSHA computer program, the Cumulative Probability Functions(CPDF) and Probability Functions (PDF) of the annual exceedence have been investigated for the analysis of the uncertainty space of the annual probability at ten interested seismic hazard levels (0.1 g to 0.99 g). The cumulative provability functions and provability functions of the annual exceedence have been also compared to those results from the different input parameter spaces.

  7. Applicability of federal and state hazardous waste regulatory programs to waste chemical weapons and chemical warfare agents.; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haffenden, R.; Kimmell, T.

    2002-01-01

    This report reviews federal and state hazardous waste regulatory programs that govern the management of chemical weapons or chemical warfare agents. It addresses state programs in the eight states with chemical weapon storage facilities managed by the U.S. Army: Alabama, Arkansas, Colorado, Indiana, Kentucky, Maryland, Oregon, and Utah. It also includes discussions on 32 additional states or jurisdictions with known or suspected chemical weapons or chemical warfare agent presence (e.g., disposal sites containing chemical agent identification sets): Alaska, Arizona, California, Florida, Georgia, Hawaii, Idaho, Illinois, Iowa, Kansas, Louisiana, Massachusetts, Michigan, Mississippi, Missouri, Nebraska, Nevada, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, North Carolina, Ohio, Pennsylvania, South Carolina, South Dakota, Tennessee, Texas, the U.S. Virgin Islands, Virginia, Washington, Washington, D.C., and Wyoming. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) hazardous waste programs are reviewed to determine whether chemical weapons or chemical warfare agents are listed hazardous wastes or otherwise defined or identified as hazardous wastes. Because the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) military munitions rule specifically addresses the management of chemical munitions, this report also indicates whether a state has adopted the rule and whether the resulting state regulations have been authorized by EPA. Many states have adopted parts or all of the EPA munitions rule but have not yet received authorization from EPA to implement the rule. In these cases, the states may enforce the adopted munitions rule provisions under state law, but these provisions are not federally enforceable

  8. Developing an Internet Oriented Platform for Earthquake Engineering Application and Web-based Virtual Reality Simulation System for Seismic hazards: Towards Disaster Mitigation in Metropolises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Alaghehbandian

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the state of the art on risk communication to the public, with an emphasis on simulation of seismic hazards using VRML. Rapid growth computer technologies, especially the Internet provide human beings new measures to deal with engineering and social problems which were hard to solve in traditional ways. This paper presents a prototype of an application platform based on the Internet using VR (Virtual Reality for civil engineering considering building an information system of risk communication for seismic hazards and at the moment in the case of bridge structure.

  9. 77 FR 38530 - Louisiana: Final Authorization of State Hazardous Waste Management Program Revision

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-28

    ...- 2, 108.E.2 Comment, 108.F intro, 108.F.2, 108.Gintro, 108.G.2, 4105.A.2, 4105.A.2, 4105.A.2.b, 4105... Business Regulatory Enforcement Fairness Act of 1996, generally provides that before a rule may take effect..., Confidential business information, Hazardous waste, Hazardous waste transportation, Indian lands...

  10. 77 FR 65314 - Missouri: Final Authorization of State Hazardous Waste Management Program Revisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-26

    ... application, subject to the limitations of the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments of 1984 (HSWA). New... RCRA Cluster XI NESHAPS: Final Standards for 65 FR 42292, 07/10/ 10 CSR 25- Hazardous Air Pollutants 00... 66 FR 35087, 7/ *10 CSR 25- Checklist 188. 03/01. 7.7270(2)(D)6 is excluded from the authorization...

  11. Computational Approach for Improving Three-Dimensional Sub-Surface Earth Structure for Regional Earthquake Hazard Simulations in the San Francisco Bay Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodgers, A. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-09-25

    In our Exascale Computing Project (ECP) we seek to simulate earthquake ground motions at much higher frequency than is currently possible. Previous simulations in the SFBA were limited to 0.5-1 Hz or lower (Aagaard et al. 2008, 2010), while we have recently simulated the response to 5 Hz. In order to improve confidence in simulated ground motions, we must accurately represent the three-dimensional (3D) sub-surface material properties that govern seismic wave propagation over a broad region. We are currently focusing on the San Francisco Bay Area (SFBA) with a Cartesian domain of size 120 x 80 x 35 km, but this area will be expanded to cover a larger domain. Currently, the United States Geologic Survey (USGS) has a 3D model of the SFBA for seismic simulations. However, this model suffers from two serious shortcomings relative to our application: 1) it does not fit most of the available low frequency (< 1 Hz) seismic waveforms from moderate (magnitude M 3.5-5.0) earthquakes; and 2) it is represented with much lower resolution than necessary for the high frequency simulations (> 5 Hz) we seek to perform. The current model will serve as a starting model for full waveform tomography based on 3D sensitivity kernels. This report serves as the deliverable for our ECP FY2017 Quarter 4 milestone to FY 2018 “Computational approach to developing model updates”. We summarize the current state of 3D seismic simulations in the SFBA and demonstrate the performance of the USGS 3D model for a few selected paths. We show the available open-source waveform data sets for model updates, based on moderate earthquakes recorded in the region. We present a plan for improving the 3D model utilizing the available data and further development of our SW4 application. We project how the model could be improved and present options for further improvements focused on the shallow geotechnical layers using dense passive recordings of ambient and human-induced noise.

  12. The implementation of medical monitoring programs following potentially hazardous exposures: a medico-legal perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vearrier, David; Greenberg, Michael I

    2017-11-01

    approach is inconsistent with the targeted approach advocated by the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry and the United States Preventive Services Task Force and the bulk of the peer-reviewed medical literature. Medical monitoring in legal contexts: Numerous medical monitoring actions have been litigated. Legal rationales for allowing medical monitoring claims often incorporate some of the scientific criteria for the appropriateness of monitoring programs. In the majority of cases in which plaintiffs were awarded medical monitoring relief, plaintiffs were required to demonstrate both that the condition for which medical monitoring was sought could be detected early, and that early detection and treatment will improve morbidity and mortality. However, the treatment of medical monitoring claims varies significantly depending upon jurisdiction. Examples of large-scale, comprehensive medical monitoring programs: Large-scale, comprehensive medical monitoring programs have been implemented, such as the Fernald Medical Monitoring Program and the World Trade Center Health Program, both of which exceeded the scope of medical monitoring typically recommended in the peer-reviewed medical literature and the courts. The Fernald program sought to prevent death and disability due to non-exposure-related conditions in a manner similar to general preventive medicine. The World Trade Center Health Program provides comprehensive medical care for World Trade Center responders and may be viewed as a large-scale, federally--funded research effort, which distinguishes it from medical monitoring in a medico-legal context. Synthesis of public health approaches to medical monitoring: Medical monitoring may be indicated following a hazardous exposure in limited circumstances. General causation for a specific adverse health effect must be either established by scientific consensus through a formal causal analysis using a framework such as the Bradford-Hill criteria. The exposure must be

  13. A method to assess collision hazard of falling rock due to slope collapse application of DEM on modeling of earthquake triggered slope failure for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakase, Hitoshi; Cao, Guoqiang; Tabei, Kazuto; Tochigi, Hitoshi; Matsushima, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    Risk evaluation of slope failure against nuclear power plants, which is induced by unexpectedly large earthquakes, has been urgent need for disaster prevention measures. Specially, for risk evaluation of slope failure, understanding of information such as traveling distances, collision velocities, and collision energies is very important. Discrete Element Method (DEM) such as particle simulation method contributes important role on predicting the detailed behavior of slope failure physics. In this study, instead of accurately predicting the complicated behavior of sliding and falling for each rock, we introduce the DEM modeling to evaluate the average traveling distance of collapsed rocks and its statistical variability. First, we conduct the validation test of the proposed DEM model on the basis of reconstruction of experiment results. Next, we conducted the parametric studies to examine sensitivities of important parameters. Finally, validity of the proposed method is evaluated and its applicability and technical assignments are also discussed. (author)

  14. Seismic hazard assessment of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ghafory-Ashtiany

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available The development of the new seismic hazard map of Iran is based on probabilistic seismic hazard computation using the historical earthquakes data, geology, tectonics, fault activity and seismic source models in Iran. These maps have been prepared to indicate the earthquake hazard of Iran in the form of iso-acceleration contour lines, and seismic hazard zoning, by using current probabilistic procedures. They display the probabilistic estimates of Peak Ground Acceleration (PGA for the return periods of 75 and 475 years. The maps have been divided into intervals of 0.25 degrees in both latitudinal and longitudinal directions to calculate the peak ground acceleration values at each grid point and draw the seismic hazard curves. The results presented in this study will provide the basis for the preparation of seismic risk maps, the estimation of earthquake insurance premiums, and the preliminary site evaluation of critical facilities.

  15. The Y-12 Plant No Rad-Added Program for off-site shipment of nonradioactive hazardous waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, K.H.; Mattie, B.K.; Williams, J.L.; Jacobs, D.G.; Roberts, K.A.

    1994-01-01

    On May 17, 1991, the US Department of Energy (DOE) issued a directive for DOE operations to cease off-site shipments of non-radioactive hazardous waste pending further clarification and approvals. A DOE Performance Objective for Certification of Non-Radioactive Hazardous Waste was issued in November 1991. In response to these directives, the Waste Management Division of Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, with assistance from Roy F. Weston, Inc., has developed a No Rad-Added Program to provide small programmatic guidance and a set of procedures, approved by DOE, which will permit hazardous waste to be shipped from the Y-12 Plant to commercial treatment, storage, or disposal facilities after ensuring and certifying that hazardous waste has no radioactivity added as a result of DOE operations. There are serious legal and financial consequences of shipping waste containing radioactivity to an off-site facility not licensed to receive radioactive materials. Therefore, this program is designed with well-defined responsibilities and stringent documentation requirements

  16. Nowcasting Earthquakes and Tsunamis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rundle, J. B.; Turcotte, D. L.

    2017-12-01

    The term "nowcasting" refers to the estimation of the current uncertain state of a dynamical system, whereas "forecasting" is a calculation of probabilities of future state(s). Nowcasting is a term that originated in economics and finance, referring to the process of determining the uncertain state of the economy or market indicators such as GDP at the current time by indirect means. We have applied this idea to seismically active regions, where the goal is to determine the current state of a system of faults, and its current level of progress through the earthquake cycle (http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/2016EA000185/full). Advantages of our nowcasting method over forecasting models include: 1) Nowcasting is simply data analysis and does not involve a model having parameters that must be fit to data; 2) We use only earthquake catalog data which generally has known errors and characteristics; and 3) We use area-based analysis rather than fault-based analysis, meaning that the methods work equally well on land and in subduction zones. To use the nowcast method to estimate how far the fault system has progressed through the "cycle" of large recurring earthquakes, we use the global catalog of earthquakes, using "small" earthquakes to determine the level of hazard from "large" earthquakes in the region. We select a "small" region in which the nowcast is to be made, and compute the statistics of a much larger region around the small region. The statistics of the large region are then applied to the small region. For an application, we can define a small region around major global cities, for example a "small" circle of radius 150 km and a depth of 100 km, as well as a "large" earthquake magnitude, for example M6.0. The region of influence of such earthquakes is roughly 150 km radius x 100 km depth, which is the reason these values were selected. We can then compute and rank the seismic risk of the world's major cities in terms of their relative seismic risk

  17. Use of a Novel Visual Metaphor Measure (PRISM) to Evaluate School Children's Perceptions of Natural Hazards, Sources of Hazard Information, Hazard Mitigation Organizations, and the Effectiveness of Future Hazard Education Programs in Dominica, Eastern Car

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parham, Martin; Day, Simon; Teeuw, Richard; Solana, Carmen; Sensky, Tom

    2015-04-01

    This project aims to study the development of understanding of natural hazards (and of hazard mitigation) from the age of 11 to the age of 15 in secondary school children from 5 geographically and socially different schools on Dominica, through repeated interviews with the students and their teachers. These interviews will be coupled with a structured course of hazard education in the Geography syllabus; the students not taking Geography will form a control group. To avoid distortion of our results arising from the developing verbalization and literacy skills of the students over the 5 years of the project, we have adapted the PRISM tool used in clinical practice to assess patient perceptions of illness and treatment (Buchi & Sensky, 1999). This novel measure is essentially non-verbal, and uses spatial positions of moveable markers ("object" markers) on a board, relative to a fixed marker that represents the subject's "self", as a visual metaphor for the importance of the object to the subject. The subjects also explain their reasons for placing the markers as they have, to provide additional qualitative information. The PRISM method thus produces data on the perceptions measured on the board that can be subjected to statistical analysis, and also succinct qualitative data about each subject. Our study will gather data on participants' perceptions of different natural hazards, different sources of information about these, and organizations or individuals to whom they would go for help in a disaster, and investigate how these vary with geographical and social factors. To illustrate the method, which is generalisable, we present results from our initial interviews of the cohort of 11 year olds whom we will follow through their secondary school education. Büchi, S., & Sensky, T. (1999). PRISM: Pictorial Representation of Illness and Self Measure: a brief nonverbal measure of illness impact and therapeutic aid in psychosomatic medicine. Psychosomatics, 40(4), 314-320.

  18. 78 FR 33986 - Indiana: Final Authorization of State Hazardous Waste Management Program Revision

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-06

    ... Coating of Automobiles and Light-Duty Trucks, Checklist 205, April 26, 2004 (69 FR 22601) Hazardous Waste--Nonwastewaters From Production of Dyes, Pigments and Food, Drug and Cosmetic Colorants; Mass Loadings-Based...

  19. Information requirements for the Department of Energy Defense Programs' hazardous and mixed wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herron, S.A.

    1987-01-01

    This document contains viewgraphs from a presentation made to the DOE Low-Level Waste Management Conference in Denver, Colorado. The presentation described information and data base systems that describe hazardous and mixed waste treatment, storage, and disposal

  20. Earthquake Catalogue of the Caucasus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godoladze, T.; Gok, R.; Tvaradze, N.; Tumanova, N.; Gunia, I.; Onur, T.

    2016-12-01

    The Caucasus has a documented historical catalog stretching back to the beginning of the Christian era. Most of the largest historical earthquakes prior to the 19th century are assumed to have occurred on active faults of the Greater Caucasus. Important earthquakes include the Samtskhe earthquake of 1283 (Ms˜7.0, Io=9); Lechkhumi-Svaneti earthquake of 1350 (Ms˜7.0, Io=9); and the Alaverdi earthquake of 1742 (Ms˜6.8, Io=9). Two significant historical earthquakes that may have occurred within the Javakheti plateau in the Lesser Caucasus are the Tmogvi earthquake of 1088 (Ms˜6.5, Io=9) and the Akhalkalaki earthquake of 1899 (Ms˜6.3, Io =8-9). Large earthquakes that occurred in the Caucasus within the period of instrumental observation are: Gori 1920; Tabatskuri 1940; Chkhalta 1963; Racha earthquake of 1991 (Ms=7.0), is the largest event ever recorded in the region; Barisakho earthquake of 1992 (M=6.5); Spitak earthquake of 1988 (Ms=6.9, 100 km south of Tbilisi), which killed over 50,000 people in Armenia. Recently, permanent broadband stations have been deployed across the region as part of the various national networks (Georgia (˜25 stations), Azerbaijan (˜35 stations), Armenia (˜14 stations)). The data from the last 10 years of observation provides an opportunity to perform modern, fundamental scientific investigations. In order to improve seismic data quality a catalog of all instrumentally recorded earthquakes has been compiled by the IES (Institute of Earth Sciences/NSMC, Ilia State University) in the framework of regional joint project (Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Turkey, USA) "Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Assessment (PSHA) in the Caucasus. The catalogue consists of more then 80,000 events. First arrivals of each earthquake of Mw>=4.0 have been carefully examined. To reduce calculation errors, we corrected arrivals from the seismic records. We improved locations of the events and recalculate Moment magnitudes in order to obtain unified magnitude

  1. Medical University of South Carolina Environmental Hazards Assessment Program. Volume 5: Annual report, July 1, 1993--June 30, 1994 deliverables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-09-01

    The Medical University of South Carolina`s vision is to become the premier national resource for medical information and for environmental/health risk assessment. A key component to the success of the many missions of the Environmental Hazards Assessment Program (EHAP) is timely access to large volumes of data. This study documents the results of the needs assessment effort conducted to determine the information access and processing requirement of EHAP. The following topics are addressed in this report: environmental medicine and risk communication: curriculum and a professional support network-Department of Family Medicine; environmental hazards assessment and education program in pharmacy graduate education in risk assessment; and graduate education risk assessment.

  2. Initiatives to Reduce Earthquake Risk of Developing Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, B. E.

    2008-12-01

    The seventeen-year-and-counting history of the Palo Alto-based nonprofit organization GeoHazards International (GHI) is the story of many initiatives within a larger initiative to increase the societal impact of geophysics and civil engineering. GHI's mission is to reduce death and suffering due to earthquakes and other natural hazards in the world's most vulnerable communities through preparedness, mitigation and advocacy. GHI works by raising awareness in these communities about their risk and about affordable methods to manage it, identifying and strengthening institutions in these communities to manage their risk, and advocating improvement in natural disaster management. Some of GHI's successful initiatives include: (1) creating an earthquake scenario for Quito, Ecuador that describes in lay terms the consequences for that city of a probable earthquake; (2) improving the curricula of Pakistani university courses about seismic retrofitting; (3) training employees of the Public Works Department of Delhi, India on assessing the seismic vulnerability of critical facilities such as a school, a hospital, a police headquarters, and city hall; (4) assessing the vulnerability of the Library of Tibetan Works and Archives in Dharamsala, India; (5) developing a seismic hazard reduction plan for a nonprofit organization in Kathmandu, Nepal that works to manage Nepal's seismic risk; and (6) assisting in the formulation of a resolution by the Council of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) to promote school earthquake safety among OECD member countries. GHI's most important resource, in addition to its staff and Board of Trustees, is its members and volunteer advisors, who include some of the world's leading earth scientists, earthquake engineers, urban planners and architects, from the academic, public, private and nonprofit sectors. GHI is planning several exciting initiatives in the near future. One would oversee the design and construction of

  3. Final Hanford Site Solid (Radioactive and Hazardous) Waste Program Environmental Impact Statement Richland, Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collins, M.S.; Borgstrom, C.M.

    2004-01-01

    The Hanford Site Solid (Radioactive and Hazardous) Waste Program Environmental Impact Statement (HSW EIS) provides environmental and technical information concerning U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) proposed waste management practices at the Hanford Site. The HSW EIS updates analyses of environmental consequences from previous documents and provides evaluations for activities that may be implemented consistent with the Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (WM PEIS) Records of Decision (RODs). Waste types considered in the HSW EIS include operational low-level radioactive waste (LLW), mixed low-level waste (MLLW), immobilized low-activity waste (ILAW), and transuranic (TRU) waste (including TRU mixed waste). MLLW contains chemically hazardous components in addition to radionuclides. Alternatives for management of these wastes at the Hanford Site, including the alternative of No Action, are analyzed in detail. The LLW, MLLW, and TRU waste alternatives are evaluated for a range of waste volumes, representing quantities of waste that could be managed at the Hanford Site. A single maximum forecast volume is evaluated for ILAW. The No Action Alternative considers continuation of ongoing waste management practices at the Hanford Site and ceasing some operations when the limits of existing capabilities are reached. The No Action Alternative provides for continued storage of some waste types. The other alternatives evaluate expanded waste management practices including treatment and disposal of most wastes. The potential environmental consequences of the alternatives are generally similar. The major differences occur with respect to the consequences of disposal versus continued storage and with respect to the range of waste volumes managed under the alternatives. DOE's preferred alternative is to dispose of LLW, MLLW, and ILAW in a single, modular, lined facility near PUREX on Hanford's Central Plateau; to treat MLLW using a combination of onsite and

  4. Checking of seismic and tsunami hazard for coastal NPP of Chinese continent after Fukushima nuclear accident

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chang Xiangdong; Zhou Bengang; Zhao Lianda

    2013-01-01

    A checking on seismic and tsunami hazard for coastal nuclear power plant (NPP) of Chinese continent has been made after Japanese Fukushima nuclear accident caused by earthquake tsunami.The results of the checking are introduced briefly in this paper,including the evaluations of seismic and tsunami hazard in NPP siting period,checking results on seismic and tsunami hazard.Because Chinese coastal area belongs to the continental shelf and far from the boundary of plate collision,the tsunami hazard is not significant for coastal area of Chinese continent.However,the effect from tsunami still can' t be excluded absolutely since calculated result of Manila trench tsunami source although the tsunami wave is lower than water level from storm surge.The research about earthquake tsunami will continue in future.The tsunami warning system and emergency program of NPP will be established based on principle of defense in depth in China.

  5. Modeling, Forecasting and Mitigating Extreme Earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail-Zadeh, A.; Le Mouel, J.; Soloviev, A.

    2012-12-01

    Recent earthquake disasters highlighted the importance of multi- and trans-disciplinary studies of earthquake risk. A major component of earthquake disaster risk analysis is hazards research, which should cover not only a traditional assessment of ground shaking, but also studies of geodetic, paleoseismic, geomagnetic, hydrological, deep drilling and other geophysical and geological observations together with comprehensive modeling of earthquakes and forecasting extreme events. Extreme earthquakes (large magnitude and rare events) are manifestations of complex behavior of the lithosphere structured as a hierarchical system of blocks of different sizes. Understanding of physics and dynamics of the extreme events comes from observations, measurements and modeling. A quantitative approach to simulate earthquakes in models of fault dynamics will be presented. The models reproduce basic features of the observed seismicity (e.g., the frequency-magnitude relationship, clustering of earthquakes, occurrence of extreme seismic events). They provide a link between geodynamic processes and seismicity, allow studying extreme events, influence of fault network properties on seismic patterns and seismic cycles, and assist, in a broader sense, in earthquake forecast modeling. Some aspects of predictability of large earthquakes (how well can large earthquakes be predicted today?) will be also discussed along with possibilities in mitigation of earthquake disasters (e.g., on 'inverse' forensic investigations of earthquake disasters).

  6. 75 FR 66388 - Scientific Earthquake Studies Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-28

    ..., including the multi-hazards demonstration project and earthquake early warning prototype development. The... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR U.S. Geological Survey [USGS-GX11GG009950000] Scientific Earthquake... Public Law 106-503, the Scientific Earthquake Studies Advisory Committee (SESAC) will hold its next...

  7. 78 FR 64973 - Scientific Earthquake Studies Advisory Committee (SESAC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-30

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Geological Survey [GX14GG009950000] Scientific Earthquake Studies... Public Law 106-503, the Scientific Earthquake Studies Advisory Committee (SESAC) will hold its next... Survey (USGS) on matters relating to the USGS's participation in the National Earthquake Hazards...

  8. Hazard function theory for nonstationary natural hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read, L.; Vogel, R. M.

    2015-12-01

    Studies from the natural hazards literature indicate that many natural processes, including wind speeds, landslides, wildfires, precipitation, streamflow and earthquakes, show evidence of nonstationary behavior such as trends in magnitudes through time. Traditional probabilistic analysis of natural hazards based on partial duration series (PDS) generally assumes stationarity in the magnitudes and arrivals of events, i.e. that the probability of exceedance is constant through time. Given evidence of trends and the consequent expected growth in devastating impacts from natural hazards across the world, new methods are needed to characterize their probabilistic behavior. The field of hazard function analysis (HFA) is ideally suited to this problem because its primary goal is to describe changes in the exceedance probability of an event over time. HFA is widely used in medicine, manufacturing, actuarial statistics, reliability engineering, economics, and elsewhere. HFA provides a rich theory to relate the natural hazard event series (x) with its failure time series (t), enabling computation of corresponding average return periods and reliabilities associated with nonstationary event series. This work investigates the suitability of HFA to characterize nonstationary natural hazards whose PDS magnitudes are assumed to follow the widely applied Poisson-GP model. We derive a 2-parameter Generalized Pareto hazard model and demonstrate how metrics such as reliability and average return period are impacted by nonstationarity and discuss the implications for planning and design. Our theoretical analysis linking hazard event series x, with corresponding failure time series t, should have application to a wide class of natural hazards.

  9. An Improved Multi-Objective Programming with Augmented ε-Constraint Method for Hazardous Waste Location-Routing Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hao; Solvang, Wei Deng

    2016-05-31

    Hazardous waste location-routing problems are of importance due to the potential risk for nearby residents and the environment. In this paper, an improved mathematical formulation is developed based upon a multi-objective mixed integer programming approach. The model aims at assisting decision makers in selecting locations for different facilities including treatment plants, recycling plants and disposal sites, providing appropriate technologies for hazardous waste treatment, and routing transportation. In the model, two critical factors are taken into account: system operating costs and risk imposed on local residents, and a compensation factor is introduced to the risk objective function in order to account for the fact that the risk level imposed by one type of hazardous waste or treatment technology may significantly vary from that of other types. Besides, the policy instruments for promoting waste recycling are considered, and their influence on the costs and risk of hazardous waste management is also discussed. The model is coded and calculated in Lingo optimization solver, and the augmented ε-constraint method is employed to generate the Pareto optimal curve of the multi-objective optimization problem. The trade-off between different objectives is illustrated in the numerical experiment.

  10. An Improved Multi-Objective Programming with Augmented ε-Constraint Method for Hazardous Waste Location-Routing Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Yu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Hazardous waste location-routing problems are of importance due to the potential risk for nearby residents and the environment. In this paper, an improved mathematical formulation is developed based upon a multi-objective mixed integer programming approach. The model aims at assisting decision makers in selecting locations for different facilities including treatment plants, recycling plants and disposal sites, providing appropriate technologies for hazardous waste treatment, and routing transportation. In the model, two critical factors are taken into account: system operating costs and risk imposed on local residents, and a compensation factor is introduced to the risk objective function in order to account for the fact that the risk level imposed by one type of hazardous waste or treatment technology may significantly vary from that of other types. Besides, the policy instruments for promoting waste recycling are considered, and their influence on the costs and risk of hazardous waste management is also discussed. The model is coded and calculated in Lingo optimization solver, and the augmented ε-constraint method is employed to generate the Pareto optimal curve of the multi-objective optimization problem. The trade-off between different objectives is illustrated in the numerical experiment.

  11. Analog earthquakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofmann, R.B.

    1995-01-01

    Analogs are used to understand complex or poorly understood phenomena for which little data may be available at the actual repository site. Earthquakes are complex phenomena, and they can have a large number of effects on the natural system, as well as on engineered structures. Instrumental data close to the source of large earthquakes are rarely obtained. The rare events for which measurements are available may be used, with modfications, as analogs for potential large earthquakes at sites where no earthquake data are available. In the following, several examples of nuclear reactor and liquified natural gas facility siting are discussed. A potential use of analog earthquakes is proposed for a high-level nuclear waste (HLW) repository

  12. EARTHQUAKE RESEARCH PROBLEMS OF NUCLEAR POWER GENERATORS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Housner, G. W.; Hudson, D. E.

    1963-10-15

    Earthquake problems associated with the construction of nuclear power generators require a more extensive and a more precise knowledge of earthquake characteristics and the dynamic behavior of structures than was considered necessary for ordinary buildings. Economic considerations indicate the desirability of additional research on the problems of earthquakes and nuclear reactors. The nature of these earthquake-resistant design problems is discussed and programs of research are recommended. (auth)

  13. USBI Booster Production Company's Hazardous Waste Management Program at the Kennedy Space Center, FL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venuto, Charles

    1987-01-01

    In response to the hazardous-waste generating processes associated with the launch of the Space Shuttle, a hazardous waste management plan has been developed. It includes waste recycling, product substitution, waste treatment, and waste minimization at the source. Waste material resulting from the preparation of the nonmotor segments of the solid rocket boosters include waste paints (primer, topcoats), waste solvents (methylene chloride, freon, acetone, toluene), waste inorganic compounds (aluminum anodizing compound, fixer), and others. Ways in which these materials are contended with at the Kennedy Space Center are discussed.

  14. Fault tectonics and earthquake hazards in parts of southern California. [penninsular ranges, Garlock fault, Salton Trough area, and western Mojave Desert

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merifield, P. M. (Principal Investigator); Lamar, D. L.; Gazley, C., Jr.; Lamar, J. V.; Stratton, R. H.

    1976-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Four previously unknown faults were discovered in basement terrane of the Peninsular Ranges. These have been named the San Ysidro Creek fault, Thing Valley fault, Canyon City fault, and Warren Canyon fault. In addition fault gouge and breccia were recognized along the San Diego River fault. Study of features on Skylab imagery and review of geologic and seismic data suggest that the risk of a damaging earthquake is greater along the northwestern portion of the Elsinore fault than along the southeastern portion. Physiographic indicators of active faulting along the Garlock fault identifiable in Skylab imagery include scarps, linear ridges, shutter ridges, faceted ridges, linear valleys, undrained depressions and offset drainage. The following previously unrecognized fault segments are postulated for the Salton Trough Area: (1) An extension of a previously known fault in the San Andreas fault set located southeast of the Salton Sea; (2) An extension of the active San Jacinto fault zone along a tonal change in cultivated fields across Mexicali Valley ( the tonal change may represent different soil conditions along opposite sides of a fault). For the Skylab and LANDSAT images studied, pseudocolor transformations offer no advantages over the original images in the recognition of faults in Skylab and LANDSAT images. Alluvial deposits of different ages, a marble unit and iron oxide gossans of the Mojave Mining District are more readily differentiated on images prepared from ratios of individual bands of the S-192 multispectral scanner data. The San Andreas fault was also made more distinct in the 8/2 and 9/2 band ratios by enhancement of vegetation differences on opposite sides of the fault. Preliminary analysis indicates a significant earth resources potential for the discrimination of soil and rock types, including mineral alteration zones. This application should be actively pursued.

  15. A Case Study of Geologic Hazards Affecting School Buildings: Evaluating Seismic Structural Vulnerability and Landslide Hazards at Schools in Aizawl, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perley, M. M.; Guo, J.

    2016-12-01

    India's National School Safety Program (NSSP) aims to assess all government schools in earthquake prone regions of the country. To supplement the Mizoram State Government's recent survey of 141 government schools, we screened an additional 16 private and 4 government schools for structural vulnerabilities due to earthquakes, as well as landslide hazards, in Mizoram's capital of Aizawl. We developed a geomorphologically derived landslide susceptibility matrix, which was cross-checked with Aizawl Municipal Corporation's landslide hazard map (provided by Lettis Consultants International), to determine the geologic hazards at each school. Our research indicates that only 7% of the 22 assessed school buildings are located within low landslide hazard zones; 64% of the school buildings, with approximately 9,500 students, are located within very high or high landslide hazard zones. Rapid Visual Screening (RVS) was used to determine the structural earthquake vulnerability of each school building. RVS is an initial vulnerability assessment procedure used to inventory and rank buildings that may be hazardous during an earthquake. Our study indicates that all of the 22 assessed school buildings have a damageability rating of Grade 3 or higher on the 5-grade EMS scale, suggesting a significant vulnerability and potential for damage in buildings, ranging from widespread cracking of columns and beam column joints to collapse. Additionally, 86% of the schools we visited had reinforced concrete buildings constructed before Aizawl's building regulations were passed in 2007, which can be assumed to lack appropriate seismic reinforcement. Using our findings, we will give recommendations to the Government of Mizoram to prevent unnecessary loss of life by minimizing each school's landslide risk and ensuring schools are earthquake-resistant.

  16. 77 FR 47779 - Arkansas: Final Authorization of State Hazardous Waste Management Program Revision

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-10

    ... Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Direct final rule. SUMMARY: Arkansas has applied to the EPA for Final..., Arkansas Department of Pollution Control and Ecology (ADPC&E), revised its Regulation Number 23 from one of... Ecology Commission Regulation Number 23 (Hazardous Waste Management), adopted on April 25, 2008 and April...

  17. 76 FR 31971 - New Agency Information Collection Activity Under OMB Review: Security Program for Hazardous...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-02

    ... Carrier Division will be producing a voluntary security-related training course for the Hazmat motor... voluntary security-related training course to the Hazardous Materials (Hazmat) motor carrier and shipper... using appropriate automated, electronic, mechanical, or other technological collection techniques or...

  18. 78 FR 54178 - Virginia: Final Authorization of State Hazardous Waste Management Program Revisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-03

    ... XIX Academic Laboratories 73 FR 72912, 9 VAC Sec. Sec. 20- Generator Standards, Revision December 1... 17, 60-18, 20-60-261 A, Hazardous Constituents, 2010. 20-60-268 A. Revision Checklist 225. Academic... steps to eliminate drafting errors and ambiguity, minimize potential litigation, and provide a clear...

  19. Household Hazardous Waste Disposal Project. Summary Report. Metro Toxicant Program Report No. 1A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridgley, Susan M.; Galvin, David V.

    The Household Hazardous Waste Disposal Project was established as an interagency effort to reduce the level of toxicants entering the environment by developing a control plan for the safe disposal of small quantities of household chemicals. This summary report provides an overview of the aspects of this problem that were examined, and the steps…

  20. 77 FR 5755 - Request for Proposals: 2012 Hazardous Fuels Woody Biomass Utilization Grant Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-06

    ... Agriculture (USDA), Forest Service, State and Private Forestry (S&PF), Technology Marketing Unit, located at... activities, wildfire hazardous fuel treatments, insect and disease mitigation, forest management due to... business to receive Federal, State or private funding. DATES: Thursday, March 1, 2012, Application Deadline...

  1. Y-12 site-specific earthquake response analysis and soil liquefaction assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, S.B.; Hunt, R.J.; Manrod, W.E. III.

    1995-01-01

    A site-specific earthquake response analysis and soil liquefaction assessment were performed for the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. The main purpose of these studies was to use the results of the analyses for evaluating the safety of the performance category -1, -2, and -3 facilities against the natural phenomena seismic hazards. Earthquake response was determined for seven (7), one dimensional soil columns (Fig. 12) using two horizontal components of the PC-3 design basis 2000-year seismic event. The computer program SHAKE 91 (Ref. 7) was used to calculate the absolute response accelerations on top of ground (soil/weathered shale) and rock outcrop. The SHAKE program has been validated for horizontal response calculations at periods less than 2.0 second at several sites and consequently is widely accepted in the geotechnical earthquake engineering area for site response analysis

  2. Estimated airborne release of plutonium from Atomics International's Nuclear Materials Development Facility in the Santa Susana site, California, as a result of postulated damage from severe wind and earthquake hazard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishima, J.; Ayer, J.E.

    1981-09-01

    The potential mass of airborne releases of plutonium (source term) that could result from wind and seismic damage is estimated for the Atomics International Company's Nuclear Materials Development Facility (NMDF) at the Santa Susana site in California. The postulated source terms will be useful as the basis for estimating the potential dose to the maximum exposed individual by inhalation and to the total population living within a prescribed radius of the site. The respirable fraction of airborne particles is thus the principal concern. The estimated source terms are based on the damage ratio, and the potential airborne releases if all enclosures suffer particular levels of damage. In an attempt to provide a realistic range of potential source terms that include most of the normal processing conditions, a best estimate bounded by upper and lower limits is provided. The range of source terms is calculated by combining a high best estimate and a low damage ratio, based on a fraction of enclosures suffering crush or perforation, with the airborne release from enclosures based upon an upper limit, average, and lower limit inventory of dispersible materials at risk. Two throughput levels are considered. The factors used to evaluate the fractional airborne release of materials and the exchange rates between enclosed and exterior atmospheres are discussed. The postulated damage and source terms are discussed for wind and earthquake hazard scenarios in order of their increasing severity

  3. The NHV rehabilitation services program improves long-term physical functioning in survivors of the 2008 Sichuan earthquake: a longitudinal quasi experiment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia Zhang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Long-term disability following natural disasters significantly burdens survivors and the impacted society. Nevertheless, medical rehabilitation programming has been historically neglected in disaster relief planning. 'NHV' is a rehabilitation services program comprised of non-governmental organizations (NGOs (N, local health departments (H, and professional rehabilitation volunteers (V which aims to improve long-term physical functioning in survivors of the 2008 Sichuan earthquake. We aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of the NHV program. METHODS/FINDINGS: 510 of 591 enrolled earthquake survivors participated in this longitudinal quasi-experimental study (86.3%. The early intervention group (NHV-E consisted of 298 survivors who received institutional-based rehabilitation (IBR followed by community-based rehabilitation (CBR; the late intervention group (NHV-L was comprised of 101 survivors who began rehabilitation one year later. The control group of 111 earthquake survivors did not receive IBR/CBR. Physical functioning was assessed using the Barthel Index (BI. Data were analyzed with a mixed-effects Tobit regression model. Physical functioning was significantly increased in the NHV-E and NHV-L groups at follow-up but not in the control group after adjustment for gender, age, type of injury, and time to measurement. We found significant effects of both NHV (11.14, 95% CI 9.0-13.3 and sponaneaous recovery (5.03; 95% CI 1.73-8.34. The effect of NHV-E (11.3, 95% CI 9.0-13.7 was marginally greater than that of NHV-L (10.7, 95% CI 7.9-13.6. It could, however, not be determined whether specific IBR or CBR program components were effective since individual component exposures were not evaluated. CONCLUSION: Our analysis shows that the NHV improved the long-term physical functioning of Sichuan earthquake survivors with disabling injuries. The comprehensive rehabilitation program benefitted the individual and society, rehabilitation services

  4. The NHV rehabilitation services program improves long-term physical functioning in survivors of the 2008 Sichuan earthquake: a longitudinal quasi experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xia; Reinhardt, Jan D; Gosney, James E; Li, Jianan

    2013-01-01

    Long-term disability following natural disasters significantly burdens survivors and the impacted society. Nevertheless, medical rehabilitation programming has been historically neglected in disaster relief planning. 'NHV' is a rehabilitation services program comprised of non-governmental organizations (NGOs) (N), local health departments (H), and professional rehabilitation volunteers (V) which aims to improve long-term physical functioning in survivors of the 2008 Sichuan earthquake. We aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of the NHV program. 510 of 591 enrolled earthquake survivors participated in this longitudinal quasi-experimental study (86.3%). The early intervention group (NHV-E) consisted of 298 survivors who received institutional-based rehabilitation (IBR) followed by community-based rehabilitation (CBR); the late intervention group (NHV-L) was comprised of 101 survivors who began rehabilitation one year later. The control group of 111 earthquake survivors did not receive IBR/CBR. Physical functioning was assessed using the Barthel Index (BI). Data were analyzed with a mixed-effects Tobit regression model. Physical functioning was significantly increased in the NHV-E and NHV-L groups at follow-up but not in the control group after adjustment for gender, age, type of injury, and time to measurement. We found significant effects of both NHV (11.14, 95% CI 9.0-13.3) and sponaneaous recovery (5.03; 95% CI 1.73-8.34). The effect of NHV-E (11.3, 95% CI 9.0-13.7) was marginally greater than that of NHV-L (10.7, 95% CI 7.9-13.6). It could, however, not be determined whether specific IBR or CBR program components were effective since individual component exposures were not evaluated. Our analysis shows that the NHV improved the long-term physical functioning of Sichuan earthquake survivors with disabling injuries. The comprehensive rehabilitation program benefitted the individual and society, rehabilitation services in China, and international rehabilitation

  5. Tsunami hazard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-08-15

    Tohoku Earthquake Tsunami on 11 March, 2011 has led the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant to a serious accident, which highlighted a variety of technical issues such as a very low design tsunami height and insufficient preparations in case a tsunami exceeding the design tsunami height. Lessons such as to take measures to be able to maintain the important safety features of the facility for tsunamis exceeding design height and to implement risk management utilizing Probabilistic Safety Assessment are shown. In order to implement the safety assessment on nuclear power plants across Japan accordingly to the back-fit rule, Nuclear Regulatory Commission will promulgate/execute the New Safety Design Criteria in July 2013. JNES has positioned the 'enhancement of probabilistic tsunami hazard assessment' as highest priority issue and implemented in order to support technically the Nuclear Regulatory Authority in formulating the new Safety Design Criteria. Findings of the research had reflected in the 'Technical Review Guidelines for Assessing Design Tsunami Height based on tsunami hazards'. (author)

  6. Tsunami hazard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    Tohoku Earthquake Tsunami on 11 March, 2011 has led the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant to a serious accident, which highlighted a variety of technical issues such as a very low design tsunami height and insufficient preparations in case a tsunami exceeding the design tsunami height. Lessons such as to take measures to be able to maintain the important safety features of the facility for tsunamis exceeding design height and to implement risk management utilizing Probabilistic Safety Assessment are shown. In order to implement the safety assessment on nuclear power plants across Japan accordingly to the back-fit rule, Nuclear Regulatory Commission will promulgate/execute the New Safety Design Criteria in July 2013. JNES has positioned the 'enhancement of probabilistic tsunami hazard assessment' as highest priority issue and implemented in order to support technically the Nuclear Regulatory Authority in formulating the new Safety Design Criteria. Findings of the research had reflected in the 'Technical Review Guidelines for Assessing Design Tsunami Height based on tsunami hazards'. (author)

  7. An information infrastructure for earthquake science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, T. H.; Scec/Itr Collaboration

    2003-04-01

    The Southern California Earthquake Center (SCEC), in collaboration with the San Diego Supercomputer Center, the USC Information Sciences Institute,IRIS, and the USGS, has received a large five-year grant from the NSF's ITR Program and its Geosciences Directorate to build a new information infrastructure for earthquake science. In many respects, the SCEC/ITR Project presents a microcosm of the IT efforts now being organized across the geoscience community, including the EarthScope initiative. The purpose of this presentation is to discuss the experience gained by the project thus far and lay out the challenges that lie ahead; our hope is to encourage cross-discipline collaboration in future IT advancements. Project goals have been formulated in terms of four "computational pathways" related to seismic hazard analysis (SHA). For example, Pathway 1 involves the construction of an open-source, object-oriented, and web-enabled framework for SHA computations that can incorporate a variety of earthquake forecast models, intensity-measure relationships, and site-response models, while Pathway 2 aims to utilize the predictive power of wavefield simulation in modeling time-dependent ground motion for scenario earthquakes and constructing intensity-measure relationships. The overall goal is to create a SCEC "community modeling environment" or collaboratory that will comprise the curated (on-line, documented, maintained) resources needed by researchers to develop and use these four computational pathways. Current activities include (1) the development and verification of the computational modules, (2) the standardization of data structures and interfaces needed for syntactic interoperability, (3) the development of knowledge representation and management tools, (4) the construction SCEC computational and data grid testbeds, and (5) the creation of user interfaces for knowledge-acquisition, code execution, and visualization. I will emphasize the increasing role of standardized

  8. Minutes from Department of Energy/Hazardous Waste Remedial Actions Program research and development technology needs assessment review meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    On November 1--2, 1988, representatives of the Department of Energy (DOE) Headquarters, DOE Operations Offices, DOE contractors, and the Hazardous Waste Remedial Actions Program met in Salt Lake City, Utah, to select and prioritize candidate waste problems in need of research and development. The information gained will be used in planning for future research and development tasks and in restructuring current research activities to address the priority needs. All Operations Offices were represented by DOE staff and by contractor delegates from the area. This document summarizes the results of the meeting and lists the priority waste problems established

  9. Medical University of South Carolina Environmental Hazards Assessment Program. Volume 6: Annual report, July 1, 1993--June 30, 1994 deliverables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-09-01

    The Medical University of South Carolina`s vision is to become the premier national resource for medical information and for environmental/health risk assessment. A key component to the success of the many missions of the Environmental Hazards Assessment Program (EHAP) is timely access to large volumes of data. This study documents the results of the needs assessment effort conducted to determine the information access and processing requirements of EHAP. This report addresses the Department of Environmental Health Science, education and training initiative.

  10. Earthquake forewarning in the Cascadia region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomberg, Joan S.; Atwater, Brian F.; Beeler, Nicholas M.; Bodin, Paul; Davis, Earl; Frankel, Arthur; Hayes, Gavin P.; McConnell, Laura; Melbourne, Tim; Oppenheimer, David H.; Parrish, John G.; Roeloffs, Evelyn A.; Rogers, Gary D.; Sherrod, Brian; Vidale, John; Walsh, Timothy J.; Weaver, Craig S.; Whitmore, Paul M.

    2015-08-10

    This report, prepared for the National Earthquake Prediction Evaluation Council (NEPEC), is intended as a step toward improving communications about earthquake hazards between information providers and users who coordinate emergency-response activities in the Cascadia region of the Pacific Northwest. NEPEC charged a subcommittee of scientists with writing this report about forewarnings of increased probabilities of a damaging earthquake. We begin by clarifying some terminology; a “prediction” refers to a deterministic statement that a particular future earthquake will or will not occur. In contrast to the 0- or 100-percent likelihood of a deterministic prediction, a “forecast” describes the probability of an earthquake occurring, which may range from >0 to processes or conditions, which may include Increased rates of M>4 earthquakes on the plate interface north of the Mendocino region 

  11. Data base pertinent to earthquake design basis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, R.D.

    1988-01-01

    Mitigation of earthquake risk from impending strong earthquakes is possible provided the hazard can be assessed, and translated into appropriate design inputs. This requires defining the seismic risk problem, isolating the risk factors and quantifying risk in terms of physical parameters, which are suitable for application in design. Like all other geological phenomena, past earthquakes hold the key to the understanding of future ones. Quantificatio n of seismic risk at a site calls for investigating the earthquake aspects of the site region and building a data base. The scope of such investigations is il lustrated in Figure 1 and 2. A more detailed definition of the earthquake problem in engineering design is given elsewhere (Sharma, 1987). The present document discusses the earthquake data base, which is required to support a seismic risk evaluation programme in the context of the existing state of the art. (author). 8 tables, 10 figs., 54 refs

  12. Systematic Evaluation Program (SEP) at Rocky Flats Plant: An overview of practical management issues for evaluation of natural phenomena hazards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badwan, F.M.

    1993-01-01

    Many of the buildings at the Rocky Flats Plant were designed and built before modern standards were developed, including standards for protection against extreme natural phenomenon such as tornadoes, earthquakes, and floods. The purpose of the SEP is to establish an integrated approach to assessing the design adequacy of specific high and moderate hazard Rocky Flats facilities from a safety perspective and to establish a basis for defining any needed facility improvements. The SEP is to be carried out in three Phases. In Phase 1, topics to be evaluated and an evaluation plan for each topic were developed. Any differences between Current Design Requirements (CDR) or acceptance criteria and the design of existing facilities, will be identified during Phase 2 and assessed using an integrated systematic approach during Phase 3. The integrated assessment performed during Phase 3 provides a process for evaluating the differences between existing facility design and CDRs so that decisions on corrective actions can be made on the basis of relative risk reduction and cost effectiveness. These efforts will ensure that a balanced and integrated level of safety is achieved for long-term operation of these buildings. Through appropriate selection of topics and identification of the structures, systems, and components to be evaluated, the SEP will address outstanding design issues related to the prevention and mitigation of design basis accidents, including those arising from natural phenomena. The objective of the SEP is not to bring these buildings into strict compliance with current requirements, but rather to ensure that an adequate level of safety is achieved in an economical fashion

  13. Advancing Understanding of Earthquakes by Drilling an Eroding Convergent Margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Huene, R.; Vannucchi, P.; Ranero, C. R.

    2010-12-01

    A program of IODP with great societal relevance is sampling and instrumenting the seismogenic zone. The zone generates great earthquakes that trigger tsunamis, and submarine slides thereby endangering coastal communities containing over sixty percent of the earth’s population. To asses and mitigate this endangerment it is urgent to advance understanding of fault dynamics that allows more timely anticipation of hazardous seismicity. Seismogenesis on accreting and eroding convergent plate boundaries apparently differ because of dissimilar materials along the interplate fault. As the history of instrumentally recorded earthquakes expands the difference becomes clearer. The more homogeneous clay, silt and sand subducted at accreting margins is associated with great earthquakes (M 9) whereas the fragmented upper plate rock that can dominate subducted material along an eroding margin plate interface is associated with many tsunamigenic earthquakes (Bilek, 2010). Few areas have been identified where the seismogenic zone can be reached with scientific drilling. In IODP accreting margins are studied on the NanTroSeize drill transect off Japan where the ultimate drilling of the seismogenic interface may occur by the end of IODP. The eroding Costa Rica margin will be studied in CRISP where a drill program will begin in 2011. The Costa Rican geophysical site survey will be complete with acquisition and processing of 3D seismic data in 2011 but the entire drilling will not be accomplished in IODP. It is appropriate that the accreting margin study be accomplished soon considering the indications of a pending great earthquake that will affect a country that has devoted enormous resources to IODP. However, understanding the erosional end-member is scientifically as important to an understanding of fault mechanics. Transoceanic tsunamis affect the entire Pacific rim where most subduction zones are eroding margins. The Costa Rican subduction zone is less complex operationally and

  14. [Environmental Hazards Assessment Program annual report, June 1992--June 1993]. South Carolina ETV Socratic Dialog II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-06-01

    This report contains the script from a videotaped dialogue concerning a hypothetical hazardous waste/community health risk scenario presented as a Round Table Forum. Various issues are explored, ranging from the scientific and technical aspects of environmental studies and remedial action, to public information and community involvement, to the economic impact on local communities. The roles of the media, local government and federal and state agencies are examined as well as sources for funding. In an attempt to gauge audience response and reaction, evaluation cards were distributed, and the comments and recommendations are included here.

  15. Modeling fault rupture hazard for the proposed repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coppersmith, K.J.; Youngs, R.R.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper as part of the Electric Power Research Institute's High Level Waste program, the authors have developed a preliminary probabilistic model for assessing the hazard of fault rupture to the proposed high level waste repository at Yucca Mountain. The model is composed of two parts: the earthquake occurrence model that describes the three-dimensional geometry of earthquake sources and the earthquake recurrence characteristics for all sources in the site vicinity; and the rupture model that describes the probability of coseismic fault rupture of various lengths and amounts of displacement within the repository horizon 350 m below the surface. The latter uses empirical data from normal-faulting earthquakes to relate the rupture dimensions and fault displacement amounts to the magnitude of the earthquake. using a simulation procedure, we allow for earthquake occurrence on all of the earthquake sources in the site vicinity, model the location and displacement due to primary faults, and model the occurrence of secondary faulting in conjunction with primary faulting

  16. Reassessment of seismic hazards at the Los Alamos National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, I.G.; Hemphill-Haley, M.A.; Kelson, K.I.; Gardner, J.N.; House, L.S.

    1991-01-01

    A comprehensive seismic hazards evaluation program has been initiated at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) to update the current seismic design criteria. In part, this program has been motivated by recent studies which suggest that faults of the nearby Pajarito fault system may be capable of generating a large magnitude earthquake (M > 7). The specific objectives of this program are to: (1) characterize the tectonic setting of the LANL area; (2) characterize the nature, amount, and timing of late Quaternary fault displacements; (3) reevaluate the recorded seismicity in the LANL region to allow for the evaluation of seismogenic faults and the tectonic state of stress; (4) characterize the subsurface geologic conditions beneath the LANL required for the estimation of strong ground motions and site response; (5) estimate potential strong ground shaking both deterministically and probabilistically; and (6) develop the appropriate seismic design criteria. The approach and initial results of this seismic hazards program are described in this paper

  17. Technical summary of groundwater quality protection program at Savannah River Plant. Volume 1. Site geohydrology, and solid and hazardous wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christensen, E.J.; Gordon, D.E.

    1983-12-01

    The program for protecting the quality of groundwater underlying the Savannah River Plant (SRP) is described in this technical summary report. The report is divided into two volumes. Volume I contains a discussion of the general site geohydrology and of both active and inactive sites used for disposal of solid and hazardous wastes. Volume II includes a discussion of radioactive waste disposal. Most information contained in these two volumes is current as of December 1983. The groundwater quality protection program has several elements which, taken collectively, are designed to achieve three major goals. These goals are to evaluate the impact on groundwater quality as a result of SRP operations, to restore or protect groundwater quality by taking corrective action as necessary, and to ensure disposal of waste materials in accordance with regulatory guidelines

  18. The Provence earthquake 11 June 1909. Macro seismie observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levret, A.; Goula, X.

    1988-03-01

    Since 1975 in order to be in conformity with the requirements of the French nuclear program, a review of historical seismicity was undertaken in France. The assessment of seismic hazard for the safety of nuclear plants is in fact based upon a seismotectonic approach which needs to take into account the macroseismic data of the reference earthquake. The discovery of an unpublished document (SPIESS 1914) containing a very detailed description of the effects of the 11th june 1909 Provence earthquake at 809 points in the epicentral area (geological and topographical characteristics, description of the buildings and the damage incurred, as well as the description of each seismic shock felt and the direction of ground motion), has made it possible, among other things, to draw up an isoseismal map and to correlate local variations in intensity with the geological and topographical features [fr

  19. The Disconnection of Physical Reconstruction and Living Mode Restoration amongst Resettled Rural Households: A Case Study on The 2008 Sichuan Earthquake Recovery Program, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, L.; Aitchison, J. C.; Hussey, K.

    2017-12-01

    Population resettlement has been a customary strategy to protect people's lives following natural disasters. While there is plenty research evaluating the consequences of population resettlement programs, evidence of its long-term effects on post-disaster recovery is lacking. Using data from 60 in-depth household interviews, two focus group discussions and field observations, this research examines the recovery among resettled rural households in the 2008 Sichuan earthquake-impacted areas. Results suggest that most households considered themselves worse-off after being resettled, and a large proportion of the resettled population is struggling to meet their basic needs as their living expenses are barely covered by income. This research highlights two original findings: First, the resettled rural households have not recovered from impacts of the earthquake in spite of living in a secure place. Second, the unachieved restoration of familiar living mode amongst the resettled largely contributes to this perception, which is further attributed to the lagging restitution of agricultural assets and the absence of off-job opportunities at the resettled communities. Completing mature recovery is subject to the availability of these resources. Resettlement and reconstruction practice should not be isolated from the consideration of restoring previous livelihood assets and replenishing new income-generating activities. This enables restoration of a familiar living mode for the relocated population in which they are able to recover and develop with their own ability in post-disaster life. Findings in this research can be translated to recovery practice involving rural circumstances in disaster-prone areas. Future work will include the post-earthquake population resettlement programs in Nepal and New Zealand for a comparative study on the effects of these practices in different countries.

  20. Vrancea earthquakes. Courses for specific actions to mitigate seismic risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marmureanu, Gheorghe; Marmureanu, Alexandru

    2005-01-01

    Earthquakes in the Carpathian-Pannonian region are confined to the crust, except the Vrancea zone, where earthquakes with focal depth down to 200 Km occur. For example, the ruptured area migrated from 150 km to 180 km (November 10,1940, M w = 7.7) from 90 km to 110 km (March 4, 1977, M w 7.4),