WorldWideScience

Sample records for earthenware

  1. Determination of arsenic leaching from glazed and non-glazed Turkish traditional earthenware

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henden, Emur, E-mail: emur.henden@ege.edu.tr; Cataloglu, Rengin; Aksuner, Nur

    2011-07-01

    Glazed and non-glazed earthenware is traditionally and widely used in Turkey and most of the Mediterranean and the Middle East countries for cooking and conservation of foodstuff. Acid-leaching tests have been carried out to determine whether the use of glazed and non-glazed earthenware may constitute a human health hazard risk to the consumers. Earthenware was leached with 4% acetic acid and 1% citric acid solutions, and arsenic in the leachates was measured using hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry. Arsenic concentrations in the leach solution of non-glazed potteries varied from 30.9 to 800 {mu}g L{sup -1}, while the glazed potteries varied generally from below the limit of detection (0.5 {mu}g L{sup -1}) to 30.6 {mu}g L{sup -1}, but in one poorly glazed series it reached to 110 {mu}g L{sup -1}. Therefore, the risk of arsenic poisoning by poorly glazed and non-glazed potteries is high enough to be of concern. It appears that this is the first study reporting arsenic release from earthenware into food. - Research highlights: {yields} Non-glazed and poorly glazed earthenware may cause a serious arsenic release into food, and drinking water. {yields} Good glazing can avoid or greatly reduce arsenic leaching into food. {yields} Leaching of arsenic from earthenware may cause serious health risk. {yields} This is a pioneering work showing arsenic risk due to earthenware.

  2. The white epidemic and the asepsis of refined earthenware in Belle Epoque Sao Paulo

    OpenAIRE

    Rafael de Abreu e Souza

    2013-01-01

    The article examines Brazilian refined earthenwares known as faianca fina (fine faience) and relates ideas about its production to the contextual backdrop of hygienist discourses in the city of Sao Paulo in the early twentieth century. Based on an analysis of glaze components, moisture expansion processes, and technological aspects of the production of earthenware recovered from the Petybon archeological site, it is suggested that the establishment of factories and the production and consumpt...

  3. [Environmental lead poisoning from lead-glazed earthenware used for storing drinks].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabouraud, S; Coppéré, B; Rousseau, C; Testud, F; Pulce, C; Tholly, F; Blanc, M; Culoma, F; Facchin, A; Ninet, J; Chambon, P; Medina, B; Descotes, J

    2009-12-01

    Current unusual environmental sources of lead exposure mainly include traditional medicines, either ayurvedic remedies or others, traditional cosmetics (kohl, surma), and the use of traditional earthenware, for storage or cooking. We report two cases of lead poisoning in adults initially identified by paroxysmal abdominal pain or anemia. In both cases, the environmental investigation evidenced one main source of lead exposure, namely a lead-glazed earthenware jug in which a drink was stored, "kefir" in the first case, and "kombucha" tea in the second one. It is recommended to search for lead intoxication in patients with unexplained anemia. Environmental sources of lead can be multiple. Their relative importance has to be ranked during the environmental investigation and among these, lead-glazed earthenware must be considered as a source of high lead exposure when drinks are stored inside and thus can soak.

  4. Comparing terracotta and earthenware for multiple functionalities in microbial fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winfield, Jonathan; Greenman, John; Huson, David; Ieropoulos, Ioannis

    2013-12-01

    The properties of earthenware and terracotta were investigated in terms of structural integrity and ion conductivity, in two microbial fuel cell (MFC) designs. Parameters such as wall thickness (4, 8, 18 mm), porosity and cathode hydration were analysed. During the early stages of operation (2 weeks), the more porous earthenware lost anolyte quickly and was unstable between feeding compared to terracotta. Three weeks later MFCs of all thicknesses were more stable and could sustain longer periods of power production without maintenance. In all cases, the denser terracotta produced higher open circuit voltage; however, earthenware the more porous and less iron-rich of the two, proved to be the better material for power production, to the extent that the thickest wall (18 mm) MFC produced 15 % higher power than the thinnest wall (4 mm) terracotta. After 6 weeks of operation, the influence of wall thickness was less exaggerated and power output was comparable between the 4 and 8 mm ceramic membranes. Cylindrical earthenware MFCs produced significantly higher current (75 %) and power (33 %) than terracotta MFCs. A continuous dripping mode of cathode hydration produced threefold higher power than when MFCs were submerged in water, perhaps because of a short-circuiting effect through the material. This shows a significant improvement in terms of biosystems engineering, since a previously high-maintenance half-cell, is now shown to be virtually self-sufficient.

  5. The white epidemic and the asepsis of refined earthenware in Belle Époque São Paulo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Rafael de Abreu E

    2012-12-01

    The article examines Brazilian refined earthenwares known as faiança fina (fine faience) and relates ideas about its production to the contextual backdrop of hygienist discourses in the city of São Paulo in the early twentieth century. Based on an analysis of glaze components, moisture expansion processes, and technological aspects of the production of earthenware recovered from the Petybon archeological site, it is suggested that the establishment of factories and the production and consumption of white ceramics in the city of São Paulo were partially a consequence of the vigorous hygienization policies and modernity projects then advocated by São Paulo's elites.

  6. Portuguese tin-glazed earthenware from the 16th century: A spectroscopic characterization of pigments, glazes and pastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vieira Ferreira, L.F., E-mail: LuisFilipeVF@ist.utl.pt [CQFM – Centro de Química-Física Molecular and IN-Institute of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade Técnica de Lisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Ferreira Machado, I. [CQFM – Centro de Química-Física Molecular and IN-Institute of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade Técnica de Lisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Department of Technology and Design, School of Technology and Management, Polytechnic Institute of Portalegre, P-7300-110 Portalegre (Portugal); Ferraria, A.M. [CQFM – Centro de Química-Física Molecular and IN-Institute of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade Técnica de Lisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Casimiro, T.M. [Instituto de Arqueologia e Paleociências da Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Departamento de História, Avenida de Berna 26-C, 1069-061 Lisboa (Portugal); Colomban, Ph. [Laboratoire de Dynamique, Interaction et Réactivité, UMR7075 CNRS-Université Pierre et Marie-Curie, Paris 6, 4 Place Jussieu, C49 batF, 75252 Paris Cedex 05 (France)

    2013-11-15

    Sherds representative of the Portuguese faience production of the early-16th century from the “Mata da Machada” kiln and from an archaeological excavation on a small urban site in the city of Aveiro (from late 15th to early 16th century) were studied with the use of non-invasive spectroscopies, namely: ground state diffuse reflectance absorption (GSDR), micro-Raman, Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) and proton induced X-ray (PIXE). These results were compared with the ones obtained for two Spanish productions, from Valencia and Seville, both from same period (late 15th century and 16th century), since it is well know that Portugal imported significant quantities of those goods from Spain at that time. The obtained results evidence a clear similarity in the micro-Raman spectrum in the glaze and clays of Portuguese pottery produced at “Mata da Machada” and sherds found at the mediaeval house of Homem Cristo Filho (HCF) street at Aveiro. The blue pigment in the sample from the household of Aveiro is a cobalt oxide that exists in the silicate glassy matrix in small amounts, which did not allow the formation of detectable cobalt silicate microcrystals. White glaze from Mata da Machada and Aveiro evidence tin oxide micro-Raman signatures superimposed on the bending and stretching bands of SiO{sub 2}. All these are quite different from the Spanish products under study (Seville and Valencia), pointing to an earlier production of tin glaze earthenware in Portugal than the mid 16th century, as commonly assumed.

  7. Portuguese tin-glazed earthenware from the 17th century. Part 1: pigments and glazes characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira Ferreira, L F; Casimiro, T M; Colomban, Ph

    2013-03-01

    Two sherds representative of the Portuguese faience production of the first and second halves of the 17th century were studied carefully with the use of non-invasive spectroscopies, namely: Ground State Diffuse Reflectance Absorption (GSDR), micro-Raman, Fourier-Transform Infrared (FT-IR), Laser Induced Luminescence (LIL) and Proton Induced X-ray (PIXE). These results were compared with the ones obtained for a Chinese Ming porcelain, Wanli period (16th/beginning of the 17th centuries), which served as an influence for the initial Lisbon's faience production. By combining information of the different non-destructive spectroscopic techniques used in this work, it was possible to conclude that: Co(3)O(4) (Co II and Co III) can be found in the silicate matrix and is the blue pigment in the "Especieiro" sample (1st half of the 17th C.). Cobalt olivine silicate (Co(2)SiO(4), Co II only) was clearly identified as the blue pigment in "Aranhões" sample (2nd half of the 17th C.) - 824 cm(-1) band in the micro-Raman-spectrum. Cobalt aluminate (CoAl(2)O(4), Co II only) is the blue pigment in the Wanli plate - 203 and 512 cm(-1) bands in the micro-Raman spectrum. The blue pigment in the 1st half 17th century of Lisbon's production was obtained by addition of a cobalt ore in low concentrations, which gives no specific Raman signature, because of complete dissolution in the glass. However, in most cases of the 2nd half 17th century, the Raman signature was quite evident, from a cobalt silicate. These findings point to the use of higher temperature kilns in the second case.

  8. A new method for measurement of the vitrification rate of earthenware texture by scanning electron microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Eun Jung; Kim, Su Kyeong; Han, Min Su; Lee, Eun Woo; Heo, Jun Su; Lee, Han Hyoung

    2013-08-01

    A new method for determining the vitrification rate of pottery depending on the firing temperature was devised using secondary electron images (SEI) of scanning electron microscope (SEM). Several tests were performed to establish the appropriate operating conditions of SEM and reproducibility as well as to examine the applicability of the method. The grayscale values converted from each pixel of SEI were used to determine the vitrification rate of pottery, which in our study were artificially fired specimens composed of three types of clay. A comparison between the vitrification rate value and appearance temperature of minerals shows that mullite formation starts at 1,100°C, during which the vitrification rate rapidly increases by over 10%. In consequence, the result presented here demonstrates that the new method can be applied to estimate the firing temperature of pottery.

  9. “Nothing Exists Except an Earthenware Pot”: Resisting Sovereignty on Robinson’s Island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James R. Martel

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this essay I would like to focus on “The Beast and the Sovereign”—and especially the Second Volume—as being something of an exception to Derrida’s usual hesitations about sovereignty. In other works, such as “Rogues”, Derrida displays a deep ambivalence about sovereignty insofar as for all of his condemnation of sovereign authority, he fears that what might replace it could be even worse (and, to be fair, he also sees positive aspects of sovereignty as well. In “The Beast and the Sovereign,” we find evidence of this ambivalence as well but here, Derrida comes a bit closer to the kind of position advocated by Walter Benjamin wherein sovereignty is an idolatrous practice of politics one which must not be eliminated so much as subverted. In particular, I focus on Derrida’s reading in Volume II of “Robinson Crusoe” as a text that both founds the sovereign subject and subverts it (by revealing its vulnerability, its fictional nature. In looking at how the book disappoints as much as it answers sovereign phantasms of authority and unity, I argue that Derrida transfers his own ambivalence about sovereignty to sovereignty itself, subverting and rupturing its central tenets in the process.

  10. Aluminum nitrate (Al(NO3)3) as defluoridating agent in drinking water soil pots (vessels of earthenware).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, R N; Yadav, Rajdeep

    2011-10-01

    Presence of fluoride in drinking water above (and sometimes even below) permissible limit (1.5 ppm according to WHO) leads to fluorosis. Aluminum salts are commonly used as coagulants in water treatments. Aluminum fluoride is less toxic than other fluorides. The concentration of fluoride was determined by the fluoride ion selective electrode method. In this study, Al (NO3)3 was incorporated in different amounts in soil and prepared soil pots by the mixture. It is observed that these soil pots remarkably decrease the concentration of fluoride in drinking water. Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm studies were also carried out.

  11. Portuguese tin-glazed earthenware from the 17th century. Part 2: A spectroscopic characterization of pigments, glazes and pastes of the three main production centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira Ferreira, L F; Ferreira, D P; Conceição, D S; Santos, L F; Pereira, M F C; Casimiro, T M; Ferreira Machado, I

    2015-01-01

    Sherds representative of the three Portuguese faience production centers of the 17th century - Lisbon, Coimbra and Vila Nova were studied with the use of mostly non-invasive spectroscopies, namely: ground state diffuse reflectance absorption (GSDR), micro-Raman, Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) and proton induced X-ray (PIXE) or X-ray fluorescence emission (XRF). X-ray diffraction (XRD) experiments were also performed. The obtained results evidence a clear similarity in the pastes of the pottery produced Vila Nova and some of the ceramic pastes from Lisbon, in accordance with documental sources that described the use of Lisbon clays by Vila Nova potters, at least since mid 17th century. Quartz and Gehlenite are the main components of the Lisbon's pastes, but differences between the ceramic pastes were detected pointing out to the use of several clay sources. The spectroscopic trend exhibited Coimbra's pottery is remarkably different, Quartz and Diopside being the major components of these pastes, enabling one to well define a pattern for these ceramic bodies. The blue pigment from the Lisbon samples is a cobalt oxide that exists in the silicate glassy matrix, which enables the formation of detectable cobalt silicate microcrystals in most productions of the second half of the 17th century. No micro-Raman cobalt blue signature could be detected in the Vila Nova and Coimbra blue glazes. This is in accordance with the lower kiln temperatures in these two production centers and with Co(2+) ions dispersed in the silicate matrix. In all cases the white glaze is obtained with the use of tin oxide. Hausmannite was detected as the manganese oxide mineral used to produce the purple glaze (wine color "vinoso") in Lisbon.

  12. an Ethiopian Traditional Fermented Cereal Beverage

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Effects of Technological Modifications on the Fermentation of Borde, an Ethiopian ... information on the effects of various process ... earthenware pot with plastic jar; 2) maize fermented ..... Yeast and mould colonies were counted on YGC.

  13. Cultural Resource Inventory and Evaluation of Rock Island Arsenal, Rock Island, Illinois.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-08-01

    villages, which supplied us with strawberries, blackberries, gooseberries, plums, apples, and nuts of different kinds. . .4 (1882). After the War of...stone. SHORELINE SURVEY (Fig. 25) Materials from the Fort Armstrong area comprised two clear- glazed , white-pasted earthenware sherds, one lead- glazed ...color-pasted stoneware (crockery) sherd, one lead- glazed , color-pasted earthenware sherd, one machine-made glass bottle base, three miscellaneous

  14. Tigela, café e xícara: diversidade formal e dinâmicas de consumo na produção das louças brancas da cidade de São Paulo no começo do século XX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael de Abreu e Souza

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to present ideas about the forms and volumes of the refined earthenwares produced, and consumed, in São Paulo city, during 1913 and 1937. For such, we analyze the Petybon archaeological collection, recovered from an urban archaeological site at the neighborhood of Lapa, Água Branca/Vila Romana region. We assume that the diversity of the refined earthenwares forms dialogue with the modernity projects thought to São Paulo, and the consumers demand whose many cultural practices had influenced the ceramic production by the Santa Catharina Pottery Factory and Matarazzo Factories United Industries.

  15. The problem of lead in mexican pottery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spielholtz, G I; Kaplan, F S

    1980-11-01

    Much public attention has been focused in the United States on utilitarian Mexican pottery as a source of lead poisoning. Our work demonstrates that, if a firing temperature of at least 1150 degrees is used, lead-glazed earthenware is made safe for the storage and preparation of foods. Examination by d.c. arc emission spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction shows that the lead then remains in crystalline form. An exchange-equilibrium for lead between solutions and earthenware material is postulated.

  16. The Trade Name Translator (TNT) Subsystem of the Hazardous Materials Management System: Description and User Instructions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-04-01

    find, e.g., : or coating produces quite a lengthy listing, since there are and (keyword name) Searches the group of about 60,000 records in records...mensions, such as solder. Does not apply to items such as soap, beeswax , or buffiing compound. BT *Bottle A glass, plastic, or earthenware container

  17. K. Ohiri-Danso', E. Amcvorl, L.A. Andoh1 and K. Jones2

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and plastic vessels compared to earthenware vessels although the differences were not statistically significant (p<0. 05). ... structural challcngc for successive governments. ... sumption of energy in relation to the availability, ... ylene sheets to prevent contamination from the ...... als like clay, aluminium, concrete, plastics, iron.

  18. Using Clay as a Learning Resource for Teaching the History of Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Angelis, Joseph M.

    Construction of laboratory equipment from earthenware clay uses art as a way to incorporate the element of science history into an Introductory Physical Science (IPS) unit on distillation. Classroom techniques for working with clay to construct distilling apparatus are outlined. Other supplementary material from the arts, including slide…

  19. The Bandini-Cota Adobe, Prado Dam, Riverside County, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-11-01

    in some variant of English common bond (Figure 10). In plan view, the drawing suggests alterna - ting patterns of two headers and one stretcher...N9); the glaze has a bluish tinge, also N9. I $b 57 L1 Mexican Lead Glazed Earthenware This ware is the loza corriente of contemporary usage, the

  20. Let's Make Pots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sicuranza, Linda

    2001-01-01

    Describes a project for high school chemistry students that links science with art: making glazed ceramic pots. Includes materials list, base glaze recipe, step-by-step procedures for setting up a lab, and the time frame involved. Text for students covers the history of earthenware pottery, fundamentals of working with clay, description of the…

  1. Comprehensive Study on Ceramic Membranes for Low-Cost Microbial Fuel Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasternak, Grzegorz; Greenman, John; Ieropoulos, Ioannis

    2016-01-08

    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) made with different types of ceramic membranes were investigated to find a low-cost alternative to commercially available proton exchange membranes. The MFCs operated with fresh human urine as the fuel. Pyrophyllite and earthenware produced the best performance to reach power densities of 6.93 and 6.85 W m(-3), respectively, whereas mullite and alumina achieved power densities of 4.98 and 2.60 W m(-3), respectively. The results indicate the dependence of bio-film growth and activity on the type of ceramic membrane applied. The most favourable conditions were created in earthenware MFCs. The performance of the ceramic membranes was related to their physical and chemical properties determined by environmental scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The cost of mullite, earthenware, pyrophyllite and alumina was estimated to be 13.61, 4.14, 387.96 and 177.03 GBP m(-2), respectively. The results indicate that earthenware and mullite are good substitutes for commercially available proton exchange membranes, which makes the MFC technology accessible in developing countries.

  2. Cultural Resources Survey of the White Castle Revetment Item, Iberville, Parish, Louisiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-03-06

    Quebec. Barber, Edwin Atlee 1902 Pottery and Porcelain of the United States. G.P. Putman , New York. Barton, Kenneth James 1981 Coarse Earthenwares from...Plantation Experiences of Joseph and Lavinia Erwin, 1807-1836. Louisiana Historical Quarterly 27: 343-478. rty, Linda H. 1)82 Classification and

  3. Let's Make Pots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sicuranza, Linda

    2001-01-01

    Describes a project for high school chemistry students that links science with art: making glazed ceramic pots. Includes materials list, base glaze recipe, step-by-step procedures for setting up a lab, and the time frame involved. Text for students covers the history of earthenware pottery, fundamentals of working with clay, description of the…

  4. PENGARUH MANAJEMEN LABA TERHADAP RASIO KEUANGAN PRODUK INDUSTRI KREATIF KERAMIK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Nyoman Normal

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this research is determine the influence of earning management to financial ratio ceramics creative industry product. The research results shew that the earning management that applied by over production can increase financial ratio ceramics creative industry product, that is : a The liquidity aspect (quick ratio 5,33% for earthenware, 1,00% for stoneware,  0,67% for castle mass, 2,00% for glazur, and 0,33% for prothotype, b The profitability aspect (profit margin 2,89% for earthenware,  2,31% for stoneware, 0,18% forcastle mass,  1,65% for glazur,  and 0,41% for prothotype, c The solvability aspect (time interest earned 1,31 times for earthenware,  1,16 times for stoneware,  0,02 times for castle mass,  0,71 times for glazur, and 0,15 times for prothotype, and d The valuation aspect (earning peer share Rp 707,23 for earthenware,  Rp 812,63 for stoneware,  Rp 319,12 for castle mass,  Rp 44,69 for glazur, and Rp 8,21 for prothotipe. Its contrary, the earning management can decrease activity aspect (turnover inventory ceramics creative industry product (earthenware, stoneware, castle mass, glazur, and prothotype, these are  3,8 times,  6,47 times,  5,27 times,  8,11 times, and 11,90 times.

  5. Identification of the provenience of Majolica from sites in the Caribbean using neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olin, J.S.; Sayre, E.V.

    1975-01-01

    Tin-enamelled earthenware pottery from five early Spanish Colonial sites in the Dominican Republic and Venezuela were sampled and analyzed by neutron activation analysis in an attempt to determine whether these sherds had a common source. The tentative conclusion was that although several sources were indicated for the specimens analyzed the overall similarity in composition indicated that these sources were probably closely related. (JSR)

  6. Cannon Reservoir Human Ecology Project. Volume 2. An Analysis of Historical Ceramics from the Central Salt River Valley of Northeast Missouri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    kaolin clay in a feldspathic colors were tixed by refiring at a lower temperature than flux (pectunse or china stone), which yields a translucent...potteries until the 1890s (Ketchum 1983:13). formula, standard to this day, consists of paste-bone ash (6 parts), china stone (4 parts), kaolin (3.5...of sulphur - whitewares. We believe, however, that earthenware and otis oils to dissolve gold or to retain it in suspension, porcelain vessels decorated

  7. The use of recycled paper processing residues in making porous brick with reduced thermal conductivity

    OpenAIRE

    SÜTÇÜ, Mücahit; AKKURT, Sedat

    2009-01-01

    Production of porous and light-weight bricks with reduced thermal conductivity and acceptable compressive strength is accomplished. Paper processing residues were used as an additive to an earthenware brick to produce the pores. SEM-EDS, XRD, XRF and TG-DTA analysis of the paper waste and brick raw material were performed. Mixtures containing brick raw materials and the paper waste were prepared at different proportions (up to 30 wt%). The granulated powder mixtures were compressed in a hydra...

  8. Innovation of Embedding Eggshell to Enhance Physical-Mechanical-Thermal Properties in Fired Clay Bricks via Extrusion Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tangboriboon Nuchnapa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Eggshell functioned as a bio-filler and sintering aid added into earthenware clay compounds to make fire clay bricks via extrusion process. The main composition of eggshell is calcium carbonate (CaCO3 while the main composition of earthenware is aluminosilcate (Al2O3.2SiO2.2H2O and other oxide compounds. Calcium carbonate in eggshell can react to chemical substances in earthenware clay compound to form calcium alumnosilicate or anorthite and wollastonite or calcium silicate phase formation of the fired clay bricks. Adding 20%wt eggshell powder into clay bricks and fired at 1000°C for 5 hrs., affects to the physical-mechanical-thermal properties, i.e. high compressive strength and hardness, good thermal expansion coefficient, good true density, and low water absorption. In general, the theoretical compressive strength, hardness, and water absorption of desired refractory are more than 7.0 MPa, 6.0 HV, and less than 25%wt, respectively. Therefore, the obtained fired clay bricks added eggshell powder and fired at 1000°C for 5 hrs., are potential for use as bricks for construction and thermal insulation.

  9. Treasure of the Snow-covered Highland

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Tibet, known as the“roof of the world”, has long been a destination of pilgrims from around the globe for its unique and mysterious culture. And antiquities and relics excavated from this area, which are testament to the Tibetans’ diligence and intelligence, have been an abundant resource of the famous Tibetan culture. About 50,000 years ago , the ancestors of the Tibetans entered the Stone Age. The pottery shown in picture one, a monkey-faced sculpture excavated in Qu Gong, is the remains of the decorative part of a large piece of earthenware. It illustrates the widespread idea that the monkey

  10. A Study of Ceramic Sculptor Ichiga Numata― Problems about his Position in Japanese Art History and the Term of “Ceramic Sculpture” ―

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    At present, the figurative art with earthenware is called “Tocho(Ceramic Sculpture)”, artists of “Tocho” are called “Tocho-ka”, and the “Tocho” exhibition is called “Tocho-ten” in Japan. However, it has not yet been closely discussed about the first user of those terms, or the time when those terms came to be generally used and applied to the definition of “Tocho”. Ichiga Numata (1873-1954) is placed with “father of the Tocho” or “the originator of the Tocho” as the person credited with the s...

  11. On some experiments of heat transfer On some experiments of heat transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. P. Murgai

    1954-04-01

    Full Text Available This note describes the results of some experiments on the heat transfer, in an earthenware vessel, used for storing and cooling water in the summer season, and depending for its cooling effect on the evaporative loss. This vessel makes a good approach to a human body; all covered with sweat, and lends itself to an alternative method of measurement of the parameters, in the basic equation of the heat balance of the human body. The results obtained are comparable to those of Brunt, got by observations on human beings.

  12. Exposición a plomo en niños de 6 a 12 años de edad Lead exposure in children from 6 to 12 years old

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Jiménez-Gutiérrez

    1999-11-01

    was filled out and venous blood samples were taken. Lead levels were measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Statistical analysis consisted of comparison of means using Student’s t test and ANOVA. Multiple linear regression was used for multivariate analysis. Logarithmic transformation of lead blood levels were used to account for their non-normal distribution. Results. Geometric means for private and public schools were: GM=8.76 µg/dl, 95% CI=9.1-10.5; GM=11.5 µg/dl, 95% CI=9.4-13.5. Lead levels were higher among children from public schools who are male, between 6 and 8 years of age, in first and second grade, whose mothers have a profession, who use glazed earthenware utensils, and who live near glazed earthenware shops or factories. Conclusions. Exposure predictors of lead blood levels are: being between 6 and 8 years of age, having a professional mother, using glazed earthenware utensils, living near glazed earthenware shops or factories, and studying the second grade of elementary school.

  13. High-Quality 3d Models and Their Use in a Cultural Heritage Conservation Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucci, G.; Bonora, V.; Conti, A.; Fiorini, L.

    2017-08-01

    Cultural heritage digitization and 3D modelling processes are mainly based on laser scanning and digital photogrammetry techniques to produce complete, detailed and photorealistic three-dimensional surveys: geometric as well as chromatic aspects, in turn testimony of materials, work techniques, state of preservation, etc., are documented using digitization processes. The paper explores the topic of 3D documentation for conservation purposes; it analyses how geomatics contributes in different steps of a restoration process and it presents an overview of different uses of 3D models for the conservation and enhancement of the cultural heritage. The paper reports on the project to digitize the earthenware frieze of the Ospedale del Ceppo in Pistoia (Italy) for 3D documentation, restoration work support, and digital and physical reconstruction and integration purposes. The intent to design an exhibition area suggests new ways to take advantage of 3D data originally acquired for documentation and scientific purposes.

  14. Laboratory evaluation of Brazilian Mesocyclops (Copepoda: Cyclopidae) for mosquito control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, B H; Cabral, C P; Sleigh, A C; Brown, M D; Ribeiro, Z M; Vasconcelos, A W

    1992-07-01

    In laboratory tests, four different strains of Mesocyclops aspericornis (Daday) collected in or near Fortaleza, Brazil, showed potential as biological control agents of Aedes aegypti (L.) mosquito larvae but were not as effective against Anopheles or Culex. In contrast, the larger M. longisetus (Thiebaud), collected at Fortaleza, killed 100% of Ae. aegypti and Anopheles farauti (Laveran) (No. 1) at larval densities of 200/liter and Culex quinquefasciatus (Say) at 25/liter. In cage simulations with Ae. aegypti and Mesocyclops, both copepod species eliminated all immatures in earthenware pots by week 3. Owing to the lack of replacement, all Ae. aegypti adults subsequently died by week 8 or 9. Although both M. longisetus and M. aspericornis showed maximum reproductive potential at 25 degrees C, breeding occurred from 20 to 35 degrees C. Based on these laboratory evaluations, M. longisetus has been selected for field trials in rural villages in Ceará to control Ae. aegypti.

  15. [Factors associated with the blood levels of lead in residents of Mexico City].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lara-Flores, E; Alagón-Cano, J; Bobadilla, J L; Hernández-Prado, B; Ciscomani-Begoña, A

    1989-01-01

    A study aimed at detecting risk factors for high blood lead levels in Mexico City inhabitants, undertaken at the local National Institute of Public Health, is described. Measurements of blood lead levels for a sample of 300 civil servants were related to several potential risk factors. The statistical analysis was based on analysis of variance and logistic regression. The results of the analysis seem to suggest differences in blood levels by sex, zone of residence, hours of transportation and eating habits, such as the consumption of canned meals and the use of "earthenware dishes" in the preparation of meals. The nature of the study is exploratory, but it seems to suggest directions of research in the complex problem of lead levels in people of polluted cities.

  16. MULTI ACTOR-BASED APPROACH TO PLANNING DECISIONS FOR CULTURAL INDUSTRIES IN NEW ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onur MENGI

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Along with the new economy, the competitive advantage of cities is now derived from management of their cultural productions. However, pottery making as cultural industry including ceramic and other earthenware products, currently suffers from many difficulties as inefficient role of government, environmental problems, and the lack of promotion and marketing strategies and falls behind the recent urban development trends. Menemen-Izmir/Turkey has been selected as case area, where the pottery making inherited for five generations. The aim of this study is to suggest a model to tackle with the current difficulties of and also to develop cultural production. The data have been collected via questionnaire and interviews with the pottery masters and Pottery Makers Association. The research proposes the multi actor-based approach through statistically analyses and maps to manage cultural industries and integrate various actors related to the cultural production into the decision making process of urban planning.

  17. Olleros, alfareros y fabricantes de loza en Ribesalbes, entre 1742 y 1817

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo-Marco, V.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The development of the pottery tradition in Ribesalbes, and the later establishment of the first factories of tin-glazed earthenware, at the end of century XVIII, comes determined by the natural and historical conditioners from the villa; as well as by the decisive influence of the Real Manufacture of the count of Aranda, in the neighboring population of L’Alcora. In this work, from diverse primary documentary sources, between which it is possible to emphasize sacramental books of the Parochial File of Ribesalbes and Contribución General de 1817, the presence of “olleros” in the Barony is stated, at the beginning of the XVIII century. The names of some potters, registered in the dawn of century XIX are also determined. In addition the names of the workers who appeared tied to the earthenware factories, existing are specified in 1817; settling down the professional structure of the population of Ribesalbes, as well as the percentage of neighboring tie contributors to the ceramics.

    El desarrollo de la tradición alfarera en Ribesalbes, y el posterior establecimiento de las primeras fábricas de loza, a finales del siglo XVIII, viene determinado por los condicionantes naturales e históricos de la villa; así como por la influencia decisiva de la Real Manufactura del conde de Aranda, en la vecina población de L’Alcora. zEn este trabajo, a partir de diversas fuentes documentales primarias, entre las que cabe destacar los libros sacramentales del Archivo Parroquial de Ribesalbes, y la Contribución general de 1817, se constata la presencia de olleros en la Baronía, a principios del siglo XVIII. Se determinan también los nombres de algunos alfareros, registrados en los albores del siglo XIX. Además se especifican los nombres de los trabajadores que aparecen vinculados a las fábricas de loza, existentes en 1817; estableciéndose la estructura profesional de la población de Ribesalbes, así como el porcentaje de vecinos

  18. Chemical, mineralogical and ceramic properties of clays from Northern Santa Catarina, Brazil; Caracterizaco fisico-quimica de argilas da regiao norte de Santa Catarina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Correia, S.L.; Bloot, E.L.; Folgueras, M.V., E-mail: sivaldo@joinville.udesc.b [Universidade do Estado de Santa Catarina (UDESC/CCT), Joinville, SC (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Tecnologicas; Hotza, D. [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC/EQA), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Quimica

    2009-07-01

    Clay materials crop out in the northern Santa Catarina mining district were investigated in order to assess their potential in the ceramic industry. Four different clays (A, B, C and D) were selected. Their chemical composition was obtained by Xray fluorescence and their mineralogy by X-ray diffraction, coupled with numerical rational analysis. Their thermal behaviour was studied by differential thermal analysis. Technological testing consisted in a simulation of the industrial processing performed at a laboratory scale. The test pieces were obtained by pressing and fired in the range of 850-1200 deg C. In each case their technological properties were studied. The main mineralogical phases detected were kaolinite, quartz and mica. Hematite and feldspars may be present in the clays. The clays show two groups of particle sizes almost equally frequent in the range of 1 to 60 {mu}m. The northern Santa Catarina clays are suitable for the production of bricks and earthenware in the 900- 1100 deg C range. (author)

  19. Gasolimp: biodegradable protector for gasoline pumps; Gasolimp: protetor biodegradavel para bomba de gasolina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinas Cortez, Juan Carlos [Universidade Federal da Paraiba (UFPB), Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil). Dept. de Psicologia. Setor Organizacional do Trabalho

    2004-07-01

    It is made from an absorbent material that has natural fibers and cellulose in its composition. The polyurethane bio-foam presented excellent levels of absorption of the toxic residues left by gasoline such as carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons, oxygen, nitrogen and sulfur. All the materials used in the composition of Gasolimp are biodegradable. After a four-year research period we found out that from five to eight drops of gasoline are spilt at the moment that car pump is being filled up and they end up either in the cloth the attendant holds in his hand, on his hand, on his clothes, on the car paint or on the soil. The research shows that the toxic effects the gasoline hydrocarbons cause health problems to the attendants such as headaches, lesions on their hands and eyes, dizziness, gastro-intestine problems, heart palpitation, breathing problems and can even affect the central nerve system. The final use of the product has the utmost importance: after thirty days of use Gasolimp must be replaced and when re-used it may be sent to mills and earthenware factories and there it will function as a product that will co-generate power. (author)

  20. The Brewed Rice Vinegar Kurozu Increases HSPA1A Expression and Ameliorates Cognitive Dysfunction in Aged P8 Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanouchi, Hiroaki; Kakimoto, Toshiaki; Nakano, Hideya; Suzuki, Masahiro; Nakai, Yuji; Shiozaki, Kazuhiro; Akikoka, Kohei; Otomaru, Konosuke; Nagano, Masanobu; Matsumoto, Mitsuharu

    2016-01-01

    Kurozu is a traditional Japanese rice vinegar. During fermentation and aging of the Kurozu liquid in an earthenware jar over 1 year, a solid residue called Kurozu Moromi is produced. In the present study, we evaluated whether concentrated Kurozu or Kurozu Moromi could ameliorate cognitive dysfunction in the senescence-accelerated P8 mouse. Senescence-accelerated P8 mice were fed 0.25% (w/w) concentrated Kurozu or 0.5% (w/w) Kurozu Moromi for 4 or 25 weeks. Kurozu suppressed cognitive dysfunction and amyloid accumulation in the brain, while Kurozu Moromi showed a tendency to ameliorate cognitive dysfunction, but the effect was not significant. We hypothesize that concentrated Kurozu has an antioxidant effect; however, the level of lipid peroxidation in the brain did not differ in senescence-accelerated P8 mice. DNA microarray analysis indicated that concentrated Kurozu increased HSPA1A mRNA expression, a protein that prevents protein misfolding and aggregation. The increase in HSPA1A expression by Kurozu was confirmed using quantitative real-time PCR and immunoblotting methods. The suppression of amyloid accumulation by concentrated Kurozu may be associated with HSPA1A induction. However, concentrated Kurozu could not increase HSPA1A expression in mouse primary neurons, suggesting it may not directly affect neurons.

  1. The Brewed Rice Vinegar Kurozu Increases HSPA1A Expression and Ameliorates Cognitive Dysfunction in Aged P8 Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanouchi, Hiroaki; Kakimoto, Toshiaki; Nakano, Hideya; Suzuki, Masahiro; Nakai, Yuji; Shiozaki, Kazuhiro; Akikoka, Kohei; Otomaru, Konosuke; Nagano, Masanobu; Matsumoto, Mitsuharu

    2016-01-01

    Kurozu is a traditional Japanese rice vinegar. During fermentation and aging of the Kurozu liquid in an earthenware jar over 1 year, a solid residue called Kurozu Moromi is produced. In the present study, we evaluated whether concentrated Kurozu or Kurozu Moromi could ameliorate cognitive dysfunction in the senescence-accelerated P8 mouse. Senescence-accelerated P8 mice were fed 0.25% (w/w) concentrated Kurozu or 0.5% (w/w) Kurozu Moromi for 4 or 25 weeks. Kurozu suppressed cognitive dysfunction and amyloid accumulation in the brain, while Kurozu Moromi showed a tendency to ameliorate cognitive dysfunction, but the effect was not significant. We hypothesize that concentrated Kurozu has an antioxidant effect; however, the level of lipid peroxidation in the brain did not differ in senescence-accelerated P8 mice. DNA microarray analysis indicated that concentrated Kurozu increased HSPA1A mRNA expression, a protein that prevents protein misfolding and aggregation. The increase in HSPA1A expression by Kurozu was confirmed using quantitative real-time PCR and immunoblotting methods. The suppression of amyloid accumulation by concentrated Kurozu may be associated with HSPA1A induction. However, concentrated Kurozu could not increase HSPA1A expression in mouse primary neurons, suggesting it may not directly affect neurons. PMID:26943920

  2. TRADITIONAL FERMENTED FOODS OF LESOTHO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tendekayi H. Gadaga

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the traditional methods of preparing fermented foods and beverages of Lesotho. Information on the preparation methods was obtained through a combination of literature review and face to face interviews with respondents from Roma in Lesotho. An unstructured questionnaire was used to capture information on the processes, raw materials and utensils used. Four products; motoho (a fermented porridge, Sesotho (a sorghum based alcoholic beverage, hopose (sorghum fermented beer with added hops and mafi (spontaneously fermented milk, were found to be the main fermented foods prepared and consumed at household level in Lesotho. Motoho is a thin gruel, popular as refreshing beverage as well as a weaning food. Sesotho is sorghum based alcoholic beverage prepared for household consumption as well as for sale. It is consumed in the actively fermenting state. Mafi is the name given to spontaneously fermented milk with a thick consistency. Little research has been done on the technological aspects, including the microbiological and biochemical characteristics of fermented foods in Lesotho. Some of the traditional aspects of the preparation methods, such as use of earthenware pots, are being replaced, and modern equipment including plastic utensils are being used. There is need for further systematic studies on the microbiological and biochemical characteristics of these these products.

  3. Use of kangri (a traditional firepot) as a weapon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, Arsalaan F; Fazili, Rifat; Aggarwal, Akash D

    2014-08-01

    Kangri an earthenware firepot has been traditionally used by people of Kashmir for protecting themselves for harsh winter weather. This study done on patients admitted in the burns ward and general emergency ward of a tertiary care hospital, is perhaps the first of its kind. It analyses the use of this very traditional and useful art form as a weapon that can cause significant damage during interpersonal conflicts. As is clear from the study its use as weapon can inflict considerable damage and can lead to lifelong disabilities. Out of the 20 cases studied over a period of one year 2 cases received grievous injuries over head and face region in form of permanent disfigurement. Almost half of the injuries i.e. 7 cases were mechanical in nature whereas rest 13 cases belong to thermal category. Most of the injuries were simple and healed with preliminary medical attention but in 2 cases there was permanent disfigurement and both were because of deep burns. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  4. Determination and adjustment of drying parameters of Tunisian ceramic bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoudi, Salah; Bennour, Ali; Srasra, Ezzeddine; Zargouni, Fouad

    2016-12-01

    This work deals with the mineralogical, physico-chemical and geotechnical analyses of representative Aptian clays in the north-east of Tunisia. X-ray diffraction reveals a predominance of illite (50-60 wt%) associated with kaolinite and interstratified illite/smectite. The accessory minerals detected in raw materials are quartz, calcite and Na-feldspar. The average amounts of silica, alumina and alkalis are 52, 20 and 3.5 wt%, respectively. The contents of lime and iron vary between 4 and 8 wt %. The plasticity test shows medium values of plasticity index (16-28 wt%). The linear drying shrinkage is weak (less than 0.99 wt%) which makes these clays suitable for fast drying. The firing shrinkage and expansion are limited. A lower firing and drying temperature allow significant energy savings. Currently, these clays are used in the industry for manufacturing earthenware tiles. For the optimum exploitation of the clay materials and improvement of production conditions, a mathematical formulationis established for the drying parameters. These models predict drying shrinkage (d), bending strength after drying (b) and residual moisture (r) from initial moisture (m) and pressing pressure (p).

  5. Do Glazed Ceramic Pots in a Mexico-US Border City Still Contain Lead?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valles-Medina, Ana M; Osuna-Leal, Angel I; Martinez-Cervantes, Maria Elena; Castillo-Fregoso, Maria Carmen; Vazquez-Erlbeck, Martha; Rodriguez-Lainz, Alfonso

    2014-01-01

    In order to identify the presence of lead in glazed ceramic pots in a Mexico-US border city, 41 clay pots were sampled. The pots were purchased in several establishments located in different geographical areas of the city. The presence of lead was determined using LeadCheck Swabs. Most (58.5%) of the pots were from the State of Jalisco and 24.4% were of unknown origin. Only 4 pots did not contain varnish and were lead-negative. Thirty-seven (81.1%) of the glazed pots were lead positive. Among the lead-negative pots, 4 showed the label "this pot is lead-free." Thus, if we consider the remaining 33 glazed pots without the "Lead-Free" label, 90.9% were lead-positive and only 9.1% were lead-negative. We also found that earthenware glazed utensils without the "Lead-Free" label were 1.6 times more likely to contain lead (OR: 1.6, 95% CI 1.0-2.5), P = 0.003. We concluded that lead was detected in almost all acquired food containers. Government interventions in Mexico have focused on training manufacturers to make lead-free glazed ceramics but it has been difficult to eradicate this practice. Educational interventions to make and acquire lead-free glazed ceramics should be targeted to both sellers and buyers.

  6. Standard test method for graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometric determination of lead and cadmium extracted from ceramic foodware

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2000-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers procedures for using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy (GFAAS) to quantitatively determine lead and cadmium extracted by acetic acid at room temperature from the food-contact surface of foodware. The method is applicable to food-contact surfaces composed of silicate-based materials (earthenware, glazed ceramicware, decorated ceramicware, decorated glass, and lead crystal glass) and is capable of determining lead concentrations greater than 0.005 to 0.020 g/mL and cadmium concentrations greater than 0.0005 to 0.002 g/mL, depending on instrument design. 1.2 This test method also describes quality control procedures to check for contamination and matrix interference during GFAAS analyses and a specific sequence of analytical measurements that demonstrates proper instrument operation during the time period in which sample solutions are analyzed. 1.3 Cleaning and other contamination control procedures are described in this test method. Users may modify contamination cont...

  7. Antioxidant Properties of “Natchez” and “Triple Crown” Blackberries Using Korean Traditional Winemaking Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youri Joh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This research evaluated blackberries grown in Oklahoma and wines produced using a modified traditional Korean technique employing relatively oxygen-permeable earthenware fermentation vessels. The fermentation variables were temperature (21.6°C versus 26.6°C and yeast inoculation versus wild fermentation. Wild fermented wines had higher total phenolic concentration than yeast fermented wines. Overall, wines had a relatively high concentration of anthocyanin (85–320 mg L−1 malvidin-3-monoglucoside and antioxidant capacity (9776–37845 µmol Trolox equivalent g−1. “Natchez” berries had a higher anthocyanin concentration than “Triple Crown” berries. Higher fermentation temperature at the start of the winemaking process followed by the use of lower fermentation/storage temperature for aging wine samples maximized phenolic compound extraction/retention. The Korean winemaking technique used in this study produced blackberry wines that were excellent sources of polyphenolic compounds as well as being high in antioxidant capacity as measured by the Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity (ORAC test.

  8. Treatment of Scumming Effects of Pottery Clay by Sodium Carbonate Addition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wasanapiarnpong, T; Thueploy, A; Arayaphong, D [Research Unit of Advanced Ceramic, Department of Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok (Thailand); Nilpairach, S, E-mail: thanakorn.w@chula.ac.t [National Center of Excellence for Petroleum, Petrochemicals, and Advanced Materials, Chulalongkorn University (Thailand)

    2011-10-29

    Earthenware pottery products made by using red plastic clay in Ratchaburi province of Thailand and fired at 850-1000 deg. C, always shows some blemishes, caused by scumming on the surface. This scumming contains calcium sulfate, contaminated in the raw clay as gypsum form. The addition of barium carbonate is a suggested solution to prevent this white stain. However, it is difficult for barium carbonate to spread throughout the clay so that it takes a long time to complete the reaction. This research aims to find the solution by using sodium carbonate as an alternative chemical. Sodium carbonate was mixed in the clay at 1wt% dissolved in distilled water controlled the moisture at 22 % by wet weight. The mixture was kneaded and aged for 24 h, then formed, dried and fired at 850-950 deg. C. The types and quantities of ion in mixed clay and deposited on the surface product were determined after drying. It was found that the white stain areas were diminished, as same as the result from the addition of barium carbonate. Moreover, the sample after firing at 950 deg. C had lower water absorption as 12.22%, higher three point bending strength as 32.53 MPa when compared to the addition of barium carbonate, which had higher water absorption as 15.58 % and lower three point bending strength as 25.25 MPa.

  9. Treatment of Scumming Effects of Pottery Clay by Sodium Carbonate Addition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasanapiarnpong, T.; Thueploy, A.; Nilpairach, S.; Arayaphong, D.

    2011-10-01

    Earthenware pottery products made by using red plastic clay in Ratchaburi province of Thailand and fired at 850-1000 °C, always shows some blemishes, caused by scumming on the surface. This scumming contains calcium sulfate, contaminated in the raw clay as gypsum form. The addition of barium carbonate is a suggested solution to prevent this white stain. However, it is difficult for barium carbonate to spread throughout the clay so that it takes a long time to complete the reaction. This research aims to find the solution by using sodium carbonate as an alternative chemical. Sodium carbonate was mixed in the clay at 1wt% dissolved in distilled water controlled the moisture at 22 % by wet weight. The mixture was kneaded and aged for 24 h, then formed, dried and fired at 850-950 °C. The types and quantities of ion in mixed clay and deposited on the surface product were determined after drying. It was found that the white stain areas were diminished, as same as the result from the addition of barium carbonate. Moreover, the sample after firing at 950 °C had lower water absorption as 12.22 %, higher three point bending strength as 32.53 MPa when compared to the addition of barium carbonate, which had higher water absorption as 15.58 % and lower three point bending strength as 25.25 MPa.

  10. Analysis of pottery samples from Bourewa, the earliest known Lapita site in Fiji

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutherford, Joanne S.; Almond, Matthew J.; Nunn, Patrick D.

    2012-01-01

    We have carried out a thorough mineralogical analysis of 16 pottery samples from the Lapita site of Bourwera in Fiji, using micromorphological techniques with optical and polarising microscopes. While the overall mineralogy of all of the samples is similar the samples clearly divide into two groups, namely those with or without the mineral calcite. Our findings are backed up by chemical analysis using SEM-EDX and FTIR. SEM-EDX shows the clear presence of inclusions of calcite in some of the samples; FTIR shows bands arising from calcite in these samples. The study suggests that it is likely that more than one clay source was used for production of this pottery, but that most of the pottery comes from a single source. This finding is in line with previous studies which suggest some trading of pottery between the Fijian islands but a single source of clay for most of the pottery found at Bouwera. We found no evidence for the destruction of CaCO 3 by heating upon production of the pottery in line with the known technology of the Lapita people who produced earthenware pottery but not high temperature ceramics.

  11. The Brewed Rice Vinegar Kurozu Increases HSPA1A Expression and Ameliorates Cognitive Dysfunction in Aged P8 Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroaki Kanouchi

    Full Text Available Kurozu is a traditional Japanese rice vinegar. During fermentation and aging of the Kurozu liquid in an earthenware jar over 1 year, a solid residue called Kurozu Moromi is produced. In the present study, we evaluated whether concentrated Kurozu or Kurozu Moromi could ameliorate cognitive dysfunction in the senescence-accelerated P8 mouse. Senescence-accelerated P8 mice were fed 0.25% (w/w concentrated Kurozu or 0.5% (w/w Kurozu Moromi for 4 or 25 weeks. Kurozu suppressed cognitive dysfunction and amyloid accumulation in the brain, while Kurozu Moromi showed a tendency to ameliorate cognitive dysfunction, but the effect was not significant. We hypothesize that concentrated Kurozu has an antioxidant effect; however, the level of lipid peroxidation in the brain did not differ in senescence-accelerated P8 mice. DNA microarray analysis indicated that concentrated Kurozu increased HSPA1A mRNA expression, a protein that prevents protein misfolding and aggregation. The increase in HSPA1A expression by Kurozu was confirmed using quantitative real-time PCR and immunoblotting methods. The suppression of amyloid accumulation by concentrated Kurozu may be associated with HSPA1A induction. However, concentrated Kurozu could not increase HSPA1A expression in mouse primary neurons, suggesting it may not directly affect neurons.

  12. Pre-treatment of Used-Cooking Oil as Feed Stocks of Biodiesel Production by Using Activated Carbon and Clay Minerals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudy Syah Putra

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Many low-cost feedstock i.e. used-cooking oil (UCO for the production of biodiesel fuel (BDF has contained a large amount of water and high proportion of free fatty acids (FFAs. Therefore, a pre-treatment process to reduce the water content (<0.1 wt.% and FFAs (<2.0 wt.% were necessary in order to avoid an undesirable side reactions, such as saponification, which could lead to serious problem of product separation and low fatty acid methyl ester (FAME yield. . In this study, a pre-treatment process of used cooking oil as a feedstock for the production of BDF by using various adsorbents such as Activated Carbon (AC and various clay minerals, for example Smectite (S, Bentonite (B, Kaolinite (K, and Powdered Earthenware (PE were evaluated. The oil obtained from pre-treatment was compared with oil without pre-treatment process. In this study, we reported a basic difference in material ability to the oil, depending on the adsorption condition with respect to the physico-chemical parameters, e.g. refractive index (R, density (ρ, FFAs, and water content (W. The results showed that the water content and FFAs in the oil has decreased when using AC as an adsorbent compared with clay minerals. However, the refractive index of oil has similar with the oil without pre-treatment process as well; meanwhile, the density of oil has increased after the pre-treatment process by using clay minerals.

  13. THE GRAINY PLANTS AND FRUITS SUCH WHICH WERE USED AS ABUNDANCE SYMBOLS BY THE TURKS AND USING OF ARCHITECTURE / TÜRKLERDE BEREKET SEMBOLÜ OLARAK KULLANILAN MEYVE MOTIFLERI VE MIMARIDE DEĞERLENDIRILMESI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Assoc. Prof. Dr. R. Eser GÜLTEKİN

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The Turkish word for abundance “Bereket” isactually a word with Arabic roots meaning wealth,happiness and gift of God. The Turks have been using theabundance symbols in order to express their wishes foreternal happiness and wealth. Also the Ancient AnatolianCivilizations believed strongly in the abundance conceptand were actually presenting sacrifices to Gods for thispurpose.The fact that we comment on the fruit symbols isbecause these fruits are actually subsistence with seeds.The seed is a core that would secure the continuousnessof the next generations. The fruits were considered as theeggs of the world due to the seeds they contain. This hascaused different comments on this matter. For examplethese fruits were sometimes used to symbolizeimmortality, happiness and fertility. The grainy plantsand fruits such which were used as abundance symbolsby the Turks are: grapes, pomegranate, fig, melon,watermelon, wheatear etc. These were commonly used indecorations to symbolize fertility, abundance and tree oflife since the ancient times.The fruits which symbolize abundance are richlypresent in the hand woven products of Anatolia, in theneedle works, in stone and metal works and in theceramic and earthenware examples. They were alsocarried to the interior spaces of daily life and architecture. The Turks, by decorating their walls withvarious scenes of life, presented their cultural richnessand helped them to be carried from one generation to thenext. Some of these decorations were also the fruitswhich symbolize the abundance according to their belief.Such abundance symbols are to be found in the Turkisharchitecture sometimes on a place wall, sometimes on thewalls of a religious room and sometimes on the walls ofan Anatolian residence. We come across with theseabundance symbols, which are used as decorations inthe architecture, as hand-drawn on the walls and on theceilings, as plaster decorations, as stone decorations, asceramic decorations, as

  14. Lead poisoning following ingestion of pieces of lead roofing plates: pica-like behavior in an adult.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabouraud, Sabine; Testud, François; Descotes, Jacques; Benevent, Monique; Soglu, Gilbert

    2008-03-01

    A 37-year-old man was admitted to hospital after complaining of abdominal pain for the past two weeks. On admission the abdominal radiograph showed multiple radio-opaque flecks dispersed throughout the gastrointestinal tract. Blood testing showed hemoglobin level 8.7 g/dL and a blood lead level of 112.4 microg/dL. The family interview revealed that the patient had pica-like behavior since childhood. He was a site foreman and had been ingesting pieces of roofing plates for a few weeks. The patient was treated with laxatives and CaNa(2)EDTA therapy was initiated. The blood lead level then dropped to 69.9 microg/dL. The patient received two subsequent courses of oral succimer and the blood lead level decreased to 59 microg/dL 21 days after the first course. The follow-up abdominal X-ray 20 days after the first examination was normal. Four months later, an outpatient follow-up visit showed a blood lead level within normal limits (14.5 microg/dL) and a psychiatric follow-up was initiated. Lead poisoning following the ingestion of lead-containing foreign bodies is particularly rare in adults, while it is sometimes observed in children. Pica behavior is a well-identified risk factor of lead intoxication in children but is quite exceptional in adults, where it is usually considered to be a psychiatric condition. Other unusual sources of lead poisoning include the ingestion of lead bullets, ceramic lead glaze or glazed earthenware, lead-contaminated candies, ethnic or herbal remedies.

  15. Determination of geomagnetic archaeomagnitudes from clay pipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Games, K. P.; Baker, M. E.

    1981-02-01

    Archaeomagnitude determinations of a selection of clay pipes dateable to AD 1645+/-10 as well as studies of pottery samples from the same site and of the same age have been made. Values of the magnitude of the ancient magnetic field (Banc), were obtained from two pottery sherds, two pipe bowls and three pipe stems. The values from the sherds and bowls agree within 2% and compare well with the average value of the magnitude of the magnetic field for the seventeenth century as determined by other archaeomagnetic studies. However, the pipe stems give values of Banc which are significantly less than those from the bowls and pottery. We have not yet been able to explain this and thus we suggest that reliable archaeomagnitude determinations can be made from the bowls of clay pipes but not from the stems. Nevertheless, this result provides a new source of material for investigating variations in the geomagnetic field strength over the past 400 yr. Clay pipes have been manufactured in England since the end of the sixteenth century. In the firing process some pipes were broken and disposed of without ever having been smoked. One such collection, discovered at Rainford, Lancashire, in 1978, consisted of a series of discrete dumps including pipes, kiln debris and a small collection of contemporary used earthenware sherds. The internal consideration of the dumps suggested a very short period of activity and archaeologists (P. Davey, personal communication) ascribe all the material to the period 1645+/-10 yr. With such well-dated material, we set out to check whether or not reliable archaeomagnitudes could be obtained from the pipes.

  16. Archaeologist Fr Rafael Maglioni and the Stean of Double F Lines in the Spring and Autumn Period Unearthed in Wuhua%考古学家麦兆良与五华出土的春秋夔纹陶罐

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘向明

    2011-01-01

    1940年至1946年间,考古学家麦兆良对粤东地区开展了大范围的考古调查工作,收获丰硕,也有幸成为目前已知的梅州考古与研究的第一人。他在五华发现的春秋夔纹陶罐,已成为确定夔纹陶存在年代,揭示夔纹陶纹样来源,探讨夔纹陶技术产生、发展和传播的典型器物,具有很高的考古学价值。同时,也充分证明梅州古地是岭南区域考古文化传播和交流的交汇点,有着悠久和丰富的古代文明。%Archaeologist Fr Rafael Maglioni made a big scale of archaeological investigation with fruitful results between 1940 and 1946 and became so far the first ever known person who has engaged in the archaeological studies in Meizhou. The stean of double f lines and he discovered in Wuha has become the typical implement which is used to determine the date of existence of the stean of double F lines, to reveal the source of the double f lines in earthe- nware, and to explore how the technique of the double F lines in earthenware came into being, developed and spread, and is of very high archaeological value. It also well proves that ancient Meizhou which was the meeting point of the spread and communication of the archaeological cultures in the area of south of the Five Ridges has a long- standing and rich ancient civilization.

  17. A Study of Ancient Huaiyi Original Decoration and Totem Symbol%考窥古淮夷原始装饰与图腾符号

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    万惠玲

    2012-01-01

    蚌埠双墩遗址出土璜、陶泥塑、陶祖形支架等器物饰件,其中泥塑儿童像纹面形象以及仿动物造型的特殊器皿采用多种装饰纹样及塑造手法,装饰意识十分强烈,装饰造型已经有了一定的艺术性。在双墩器物装饰符号中有花、蚕、猪等动植物图腾,这些装饰符号说明双墩先民对图腾崇拜从真实模拟自然过渡到身体装饰再延伸到器物装饰上,无一例外地象征着某种特殊的神秘含义,以求得图腾对于氏族的庇护。%Jade pendants, pottery clay, pottery, earthenware shaped brackets and other artifacts were unearthed in Shuangdun archaeological sites Bengbu, including clay surface pattern image of children as well as animal modeling imitation of special utensils and decorative patterns using a variety of techniques to shape with very strong sense of decoration. The decorative style has a certain artistic quality Of the decorative symbols found in Shuangdun there are symbols of flowers, silkworm, pig and other animal totems, which illustrate totem worship of ancestors and that Shuangdun simulated natural transition from the reality to the body and then extended to the decoration on the decorative objects, which reflect without exception a symbol of some special mystical meaning in order to achieve the clan totem for asylum.

  18. Comparative study of white porcelain from the common use of nineteenth and twentieth centuries with PXRF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Wislley Dueli da; Appoloni, Carlos Roberto [Universidade Estadual de Londrina (UEL), PR (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Full text: The technique of X-ray fluorescence (XRF) is widely used for qualitative and quantitative researches on the chemical composition of various types of samples, such as archaeological, art and cultural heritage materials or samples. The great advantage of this technique is that it allows a nondestructive and simultaneous multielement analysis. It has a low cost and portable system device that can be used in situ. The study of archaeological artifacts and cultural heritage by means of analytical techniques with hand held devices becomes increasingly routine today. Several types of portable energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) have been used in many different situations involving in situ analysis covering a wide range of geometries, detectors, voltage and current applied in the X-ray tubes. This study aims to identify and compare the main elements that make up samples of ceramic pottery for common use by the late nineteenth and early and late twentieth century, as a way of using the methodology of analysis by EDXRF equipment PXRF - LFNA - 02. Being able to identify that the key element present in the glaze of ceramics from the early twentieth century was the Pb, it was possible to classify the samples as faience cream ware and not pearlware as it was guided by conventional archaeological analysis, where the rating was based only on color enamel porcelain. Elements such as K, Ca, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Zn, Rb, Sr, Zr are also found in different concentrations depending on the clay used in the manufacture of earthenware, maker of the period and that it was produced. From analysis of the type EDXRF is possible to compare different manufacturing techniques, both in enamel and in ceramic slurry and often even the color of his pieces. (author)

  19. History of aerosol therapy: liquid nebulization to MDIs to DPIs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Paula J

    2005-09-01

    Inhaled therapies have been used since ancient times and may have had their origins with the smoking of datura preparations in India 4,000 years ago. In the late 18th and in the 19th century, earthenware inhalers were popular for the inhalation of air drawn through infusions of plants and other ingredients. Atomizers and nebulizers were developed in the mid-1800s in France and were thought to be an outgrowth of the perfume industry as well as a response to the fashion of inhaling thermal waters at spas. Around the turn of the 20th century, combustible powders and cigarettes containing stramonium were popular for asthma and other lung complaints. Following the discovery of the utility of epinephrine for treating asthma, hand-bulb nebulizers were developed, as well as early compressor nebulizers. The marketing of the first pressurized metered-dose inhaler for epinephrine and isoproterenol, by Riker Laboratories in 1956, was a milestone in the development of inhaled drugs. There have been remarkable advances in the technology of devices and formulations for inhaled drugs in the past 50 years. These have been influenced greatly by scientific developments in several areas: theoretical modeling and indirect measures of lung deposition, particle sizing techniques and in vitro deposition studies, scintigraphic deposition studies, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics, and the 1987 Montreal Protocol, which banned chlorofluorocarbon propellants. We are now in an era of rapid technologic progress in inhaled drug delivery and applications of aerosol science, with the use of the aerosolized route for drugs for systemic therapy and for gene replacement therapy, use of aerosolized antimicrobials and immunosuppressants, and interest in specific targeting of inhaled drugs.

  20. Ecology of mosquitoes of Midwestern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Godwin R.A. Okogun, Jude C. Anosike, Anthony N. Okere & Bethran E.B. Nwoke

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: The ecology and distribution of various mosquito species is important inthe determination of mosquito vector abundance and associated diseases prevalence. The distributionof various mosquito genera in natural and artificial habitats and their relative species abundancewas studied between August 2002 and July 2003 in three foci (Uromi, Ekpoma and Auchi comprisingthe Esan and Etsako regions of Midwestern Nigeria.Methods: Sampling was carried out by the method of Hopkins (1952 by dipping using a pipette orladle depending on container types. Pooled contents of smaller containers were sampled with a pondnet. All breeding sources of mosquito larvae were grouped into five (5 depending on their nature,constitution and the physiochemical properties. Artificial mosquito cultures were also carried out infour different container types; plastics, metal cans, earthenware pots and bamboo strips, in parts oftwo different macro habitats subdivided into area of high human activities (AHHA and areas ofderived/secondary vegetation (ADSV. Environmental temperatures, rainfall and relative humiditywere monitored during the study.Results: The present study revealed 17 mosquito species belonging to three genera (Anopheles,Culex and Aedes which are potential vectors of four human diseases in the areas surveyed. A total of736 mosquito larvae were encountered in artificial sources and 568 larvae were harvested from naturalsources. Pools, plastics and metal cans were the predominant artificial sources of mosquito larvae.Conclusion: The contribution of human activities and increasing environmental modification to thebreeding of human disease vector mosquitoes is of importance and selective vector control measuresincluding larviciding are recommended particularly before onset of rainy season

  1. On Laozi' s Thought of Technological Values%老子技术价值思想探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    巨乃岐

    2012-01-01

    Laozi is one of the greatest thinkers and philosophers in ancient China, whose thoughts of technological values are plenty and profound. Based on his value basis of birth from Dao and keeping by nature virtue and value orientation of doing things by natural laws, he put forward following thoughts such as machines made by separating materials, the hollow of earthenware is usable when making crockery from earth, great achievement without artificial division, good action without artificial trail, and the Four-Cause Theory of Wu, Xiang, Jing and Xin, pointing out that the technological developing course is in fact a value realized one from doing nothing to doing especial things to doing any tings as a course from non-technology to technology-for-use to technology-for-no-use; technology is born from Dao, moved by Dao, acts through Dao and goes for Duo.%老子是中国古代最有影响的思想家、哲学家之一,其技术价值思想丰富而深刻。基于“道生”、“德畜”、“自然无为”的价值根据和取向,老子提出了“朴散则为器”、“埏埴以为器”、“大制不割”、“善行无辙迹”和“物象精信”等深邃的技术思想。在老子看来,技术的发展过程作为“无技术—,有技术而用之—,有技术而不用”的过程,其实是一个“无为一有为一无不为”的价值实现过程;技术因道而生,得道而动,借道而行,为道而去。

  2. Use of OVH residue in the ceramics industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grellier, S.

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Hydrothermal oxidation (OVH: “Oxydation par Voie Humide” is an innovative technology used for waste water treatment, which is presented as an alternative to sewage sludge spreading and incineration. This process generates a fine-grain (D50 = 2 μm mineral by-product, which is very useful for the ceramics industry due to its high content in argillaceous elements, quartz, phosphate and calcium carbonate. Therefore, this work describes the recycling of this OVH residue in the ceramics industry, and more particularly in the manufacture of calcareous earthenware wall tiles. The residue can be combined with a white calcareous earthenware body up to a level of 7% without significant colorimetric deterioration, and if this is raised to 15%, it is possible to completely replace the crushed chalk, some of the quartz and reduce costly imported tight-burning clays by 6%. The developed body exceeds standardised requirements (modulus of rupture: + 40%; moisture swelling and glaze quality, which means that a 20°C reduction in firing temperature might be envisaged. An industrial pilot test of 1500 kg conducted by the DESVRES site managers with 100 m2 of tiles (format: 15 x 20 cm confirmed these laboratory results, in particular validating the absence of rheological disturbance of the slip and the harmlessness of the addition on the maturing glaze quality. Furthermore, the nature of the fumes emitted in the test complied with current regulations, and the finished product did not exceed the thresholds defined by European regulations for inert waste classification.

    La oxidación hidrotérmica (OVH: “Oxydation par Voie Humide” u oxidación por vía húmeda es una tecnología innovadora usada en la depuración de las aguas residuales, que se presenta como alternativa al esparcimiento y a la incineración de los lodos de aguas negras. Este proceso genera un producto derivado de mineral de grano fino (D50 = 2 μm que es muy útil para la

  3. Μαρτυρίες ιστορικών πηγών και αρχαιολογικών ευρημάτων για μια μορφή "βιολογικού" πολέμου με τη χρήση των μελισσών στο Βυζάντιο

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Σοφία ΓΕΡΜΑΝΙΔΟΥ

    2013-12-01

    earthenware vessels were the most common type of early Byzantine beehives, identified by the shallow incisions in the inner surface of the walls. Four intact  samples of this type of pottery were found inside a tower of the Hexamilion Fortress at Isthmia (6th century, one of the most important military complexes of Justinian period. The unexpected location and the specific artifact types suggest alternative interpretations for their use, among them their possible military use. This paradox aspect of biological war did not die out, instead it inspired much more elaborated, devious methods of warfere in the aftermath of the Middle Ages.    

  4. On the integration of Airborne full-waveform laser scanning and optical imagery for Site Detection and Mapping: Monteserico study case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coluzzi, R.; Guariglia, A.; Lacovara, B.; Lasaponara, R.; Masini, N.

    2009-04-01

    This paper analyses the capability of airborne LiDAR derived data in the recognition of archaeological marks. It also evaluates the benefits to integrate them with aerial photos and very high resolution satellite imagery. The selected test site is Monteserico, a medieval village located on a pastureland hill in the North East of Basilicata (Southern Italy). The site, attested by documentary sources beginning from the 12th century, was discovered by aerial survey in 1996 [1] and investigated in 2005 by using QuickBird imagery [2]. The only architectural evidence is a castle, built on the western top of the hill; whereas on the southern side, earthenware, pottery and crumbling building materials, related to the medieval settlement, could be observed. From a geological point of view, the stratigraphic sequence is composed of Subappennine Clays, Monte Marano sands and Irsina conglomerates. Sporadic herbaceous plants grow over the investigated area. For the purpose of this study, a full-waveform laser scanning with a 240.000 Hz frequency was used. The average point density value of dataset is about 30 points/m2. The final product is a 0.30 m Digital Surface Models (DSMs) accurately modelled. To derive the DSM the point cloud of the ALS was filtered and then classified by applying appropriate algorithms. In this way surface relief and archaeological features were surveyed with great detail. The DSM was compared with other remote sensing data source such as oblique and nadiral aerial photos and QuickBird imagery, acquired in different time. In this way it was possible to evaluate, compare each other and overlay the archaeological features recorded from each data source (aerial, satellite and lidar). Lidar data showed some interesting results. In particular, they allowed for identifying and recording differences in height on the ground produced by surface and shallow archaeological remains (the so-called shadow marks). Most of these features are visible also by the optical

  5. Use and trade of bitumen in antiquity and prehistory: molecular archaeology reveals secrets of past civilizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connan, J.

    1999-01-01

    Natural asphalt (or bitumen) deposits, oil seepage and liquid oil shows are widespread in the Middle East, especially in the Zagros mountains of Iran. Ancient people from northern Iraq, south-west Iran and the Dead Sea area extensively used this ubiquitous natural resource until the Neolithic period (7000 to 6000 BC). Evidence of earlier use has been recently documented in the Syrian desert near El Kown, where bitumen-coated flint implements, dated to 40,000 BC (Mousterian period), have been unearthed. This discovery at least proves that bitumen was used by Neanderthal populations as hafting material to fix handles to their flint tools. Numerous testimonies, proving the importance of this petroleum-based material in Ancient civilizations, were brought to light by the excavations conducted in the Near East as of the beginning of the century. Bitumen remains show a wide range of uses that can be classified under several headings. First of all, bitumen was largely used in Mesopotamia and Elam as mortar in the construction of palaces (e.g. the Darius Palace in Susa), temples, ziggurats (e.g. the so-called 'Tower of Babel' in Babylon), terraces (e.g. the famous 'Hanging Gardens of Babylon') and exceptionally for roadway coating (e.g. the processional way of Babylon). Since the Neolithic, bitumen served to waterproof containers (baskets, earthenware jars, storage pits), wooden posts, palace grounds (e.g. in Mari and Haradum), reserves of lustral waters, bathrooms, palm roofs, etc. Mats, sarcophagi, coffins and jars, used for funeral practices, were often covered and sealed with bitumen. Reed and wood boats were also caulked with bitumen. Abundant lumps of bituminous mixtures used for that particular purpose have been found in storage rooms of houses at Ra's al-Junayz in Oman. Bitumen was also a widespread adhesive in antiquity and served to repair broken ceramics, fix eyes and horns on statues (e.g. at Tell al-Ubaid around 2500 BC). Beautiful decorations with stones

  6. Smelting crucibles to reduce copper minerals in the Iberian Peninsula and in southern France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rovira, Salvador

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available As was shown in Spain by the end of the 1980s, the use of common earthenware vessels as containers for prehistoric copper metallurgy has also been discovered in France. The authors propose in this article a synthesis of the knowledge concerning the use of this technology in Spain, its chronological and geographical frameworks and the more relevant mineralogical and metallurgical features. All this allows us to show the effectiveness and simplicity of the resources used to practice this early metallurgy. The finds in France are more modest and rarely have been analysed properly in the laboratory. However, the review of the archaeological record suggests that specific research informed by the results presented in the article would provide evidence of the impact of this technology through the Copper and Bronze Ages.

    [es] Puesta en evidencia en España a finales de la década de los ochenta, la utilización de vasijas de cerámica común como recipiente de la metalurgia del cobre prehistórico ha sido identificada también en Francia. Los autores proponen una síntesis del estado de los conocimientos sobre el uso de esta técnica en España, su encuadre geográfico y cronológico y sus principales características mineralógicas y metalúrgicas. Estas últimas permiten mostrar la eficacia y la simplicidad de los medios puestos en juego para la realización de esta metalurgia inicial. En contrapartida, en Francia los hallazgos son todavía modestos y sólo unos pocos han sido objeto de los apropiados análisis de laboratorio. No obstante, la revisión de la documentación arqueológica sugiere que investigaciones específicas orientadas por los resultados expuestos en este artículo deberían permitir en Francia, como ha sucedido en España en el curso de los últimos años, poner de manifiesto el impacto de esta técnica durante las Edades del Cobre y del Bronce. [fr] Les céramiques à réduire le minerai de cuivre dans la Péninsule Ib