WorldWideScience

Sample records for earthenware

  1. Lead poisoning from souvenir earthenware.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellström-Lindberg, Eva; Björklund, Andreas; Karlson-Stiber, Christine; Harper, Pauline; Seldén, Anders I

    2006-02-01

    A case of massive lead poisoning from juice contained in a Greek earthenware jug as well as six satellite cases of high lead exposure of similar origin is reported. The intoxicated patient was successfully treated with dimercaptosuccinic acid. Ceramic producers should adhere to the longstanding European legislation.

  2. Chemical characterization earthenware on the Alta California Frontier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skowronek, Russell K.; Ginn, Sarah; Blackman, M.; Bishop, Ronald L.; Garcia Herans, M.

    2001-01-01

    Throughout what was Alta California archaeological have found in Spanish and Mexican Period missions, presides, pueblos, and ranchos fragments of hand-modeled and wheel-thrown, unglazed, low fired earthenware's. the extraordinary visual similarities between earthenware's found hundreds of miles apart has been explained by some as the most of the ceramics were produced and used locally. The research presented in this paper is based on the use of neutron activation analysis to compositionally characterize the paste of a sample of these earthenware's. Samples from the missions sites of Dolores, Santa Clara, San Jose, Santa Cruz, San Antonio and San Juan Capistrano and the presiders of san Francisco, Monterey, and San Diego have been analyzed

  3. [Environmental lead poisoning from lead-glazed earthenware used for storing drinks].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabouraud, S; Coppéré, B; Rousseau, C; Testud, F; Pulce, C; Tholly, F; Blanc, M; Culoma, F; Facchin, A; Ninet, J; Chambon, P; Medina, B; Descotes, J

    2009-12-01

    Current unusual environmental sources of lead exposure mainly include traditional medicines, either ayurvedic remedies or others, traditional cosmetics (kohl, surma), and the use of traditional earthenware, for storage or cooking. We report two cases of lead poisoning in adults initially identified by paroxysmal abdominal pain or anemia. In both cases, the environmental investigation evidenced one main source of lead exposure, namely a lead-glazed earthenware jug in which a drink was stored, "kefir" in the first case, and "kombucha" tea in the second one. It is recommended to search for lead intoxication in patients with unexplained anemia. Environmental sources of lead can be multiple. Their relative importance has to be ranked during the environmental investigation and among these, lead-glazed earthenware must be considered as a source of high lead exposure when drinks are stored inside and thus can soak.

  4. Radiocarbon-dating of earthenware of the Earliest Jomon period from Obihiro city, in Hokkaido prefecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Kenichi

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigated radiocarbon dating of earthenware of the Earliest Jomon period from Obihiro City, in Hokkaido Prefecture. The authors investigated radiocarbon age differences among charred woods and charred residues on the surface of potteries. Results of radiocarbon dates of URAHORO-type pottery adhesions showed ca. 7560-7987 14 C BP, and that of charcoals were ca. 7180 14 C BP and 7285 14 C BP. The age of charred residues on the inside surface of potteries show 300-800 yrs older than the 14 C age of the charred woods, which corresponded to the actual age of the archaeological site, respectively. It becomes a cause to have cooked the salmon by earthenware and I think that the marine reservoir effect occurred. (author)

  5. Portuguese tin-glazed earthenware from the 16th century: A spectroscopic characterization of pigments, glazes and pastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vieira Ferreira, L.F.; Ferreira Machado, I.; Ferraria, A.M.; Casimiro, T.M.; Colomban, Ph.

    2013-01-01

    Sherds representative of the Portuguese faience production of the early-16th century from the “Mata da Machada” kiln and from an archaeological excavation on a small urban site in the city of Aveiro (from late 15th to early 16th century) were studied with the use of non-invasive spectroscopies, namely: ground state diffuse reflectance absorption (GSDR), micro-Raman, Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) and proton induced X-ray (PIXE). These results were compared with the ones obtained for two Spanish productions, from Valencia and Seville, both from same period (late 15th century and 16th century), since it is well know that Portugal imported significant quantities of those goods from Spain at that time. The obtained results evidence a clear similarity in the micro-Raman spectrum in the glaze and clays of Portuguese pottery produced at “Mata da Machada” and sherds found at the mediaeval house of Homem Cristo Filho (HCF) street at Aveiro. The blue pigment in the sample from the household of Aveiro is a cobalt oxide that exists in the silicate glassy matrix in small amounts, which did not allow the formation of detectable cobalt silicate microcrystals. White glaze from Mata da Machada and Aveiro evidence tin oxide micro-Raman signatures superimposed on the bending and stretching bands of SiO 2 . All these are quite different from the Spanish products under study (Seville and Valencia), pointing to an earlier production of tin glaze earthenware in Portugal than the mid 16th century, as commonly assumed.

  6. Portuguese tin-glazed earthenware from the 16th century: A spectroscopic characterization of pigments, glazes and pastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vieira Ferreira, L.F., E-mail: LuisFilipeVF@ist.utl.pt [CQFM – Centro de Química-Física Molecular and IN-Institute of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade Técnica de Lisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Ferreira Machado, I. [CQFM – Centro de Química-Física Molecular and IN-Institute of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade Técnica de Lisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Department of Technology and Design, School of Technology and Management, Polytechnic Institute of Portalegre, P-7300-110 Portalegre (Portugal); Ferraria, A.M. [CQFM – Centro de Química-Física Molecular and IN-Institute of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade Técnica de Lisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Casimiro, T.M. [Instituto de Arqueologia e Paleociências da Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Departamento de História, Avenida de Berna 26-C, 1069-061 Lisboa (Portugal); Colomban, Ph. [Laboratoire de Dynamique, Interaction et Réactivité, UMR7075 CNRS-Université Pierre et Marie-Curie, Paris 6, 4 Place Jussieu, C49 batF, 75252 Paris Cedex 05 (France)

    2013-11-15

    Sherds representative of the Portuguese faience production of the early-16th century from the “Mata da Machada” kiln and from an archaeological excavation on a small urban site in the city of Aveiro (from late 15th to early 16th century) were studied with the use of non-invasive spectroscopies, namely: ground state diffuse reflectance absorption (GSDR), micro-Raman, Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) and proton induced X-ray (PIXE). These results were compared with the ones obtained for two Spanish productions, from Valencia and Seville, both from same period (late 15th century and 16th century), since it is well know that Portugal imported significant quantities of those goods from Spain at that time. The obtained results evidence a clear similarity in the micro-Raman spectrum in the glaze and clays of Portuguese pottery produced at “Mata da Machada” and sherds found at the mediaeval house of Homem Cristo Filho (HCF) street at Aveiro. The blue pigment in the sample from the household of Aveiro is a cobalt oxide that exists in the silicate glassy matrix in small amounts, which did not allow the formation of detectable cobalt silicate microcrystals. White glaze from Mata da Machada and Aveiro evidence tin oxide micro-Raman signatures superimposed on the bending and stretching bands of SiO{sub 2}. All these are quite different from the Spanish products under study (Seville and Valencia), pointing to an earlier production of tin glaze earthenware in Portugal than the mid 16th century, as commonly assumed.

  7. Electricity generation in low cost microbial fuel cell made up of earthenware of different thickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behera, M; Ghangrekar, M M

    2011-01-01

    Performance of four microbial fuel cells (MFC-1, MFC-2, MFC-3 and MFC-4) made up of earthen pots with wall thicknesses of 3, 5, 7 and 8.5 mm, respectively, was evaluated. The MFCs were operated in fed batch mode with synthetic wastewater having sucrose as the carbon source. The power generation decreased with increase in the thickness of the earthen pot which was used to make the anode chamber. MFC-1 generated highest sustainable power density of 24.32 mW/m(2) and volumetric power of 1.04 W/m(3) (1.91 mA, 0.191 V) at 100 Ω external resistance. The maximum Coulombic efficiencies obtained in MFC-1, MFC-2, MFC-3 and MFC-4 were 7.7, 7.1, 6.8 and 6.1%, respectively. The oxygen mass transfer and oxygen diffusion coefficients measured for earthen plate of 3 mm thickness were 1.79 × 10(-5) and 5.38 × 10(-6) cm(2)/s, respectively, which implies that earthen plate is permeable to oxygen as other polymeric membranes. The internal resistance increased with increase in thickness of the earthen pot MFCs. The thickness of the earthen material affected the overall performance of MFCs.

  8. Portuguese tin-glazed earthenware from the 17th century. Part 1: Pigments and glazes characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira Ferreira, L. F.; Casimiro, T. M.; Colomban, Ph.

    2013-03-01

    Two sherds representative of the Portuguese faience production of the first and second halves of the 17th century were studied carefully with the use of non-invasive spectroscopies, namely: Ground State Diffuse Reflectance Absorption (GSDR), micro-Raman, Fourier-Transform Infrared (FT-IR), Laser Induced Luminescence (LIL) and Proton Induced X-ray (PIXE). These results were compared with the ones obtained for a Chinese Ming porcelain, Wanli period (16th/beginning of the 17th centuries), which served as an influence for the initial Lisbon's faience production. By combining information of the different non-destructive spectroscopic techniques used in this work, it was possible to conclude that: Co3O4 (Co II and Co III) can be found in the silicate matrix and is the blue pigment in the "Especieiro" sample (1st half of the 17th C.). Cobalt olivine silicate (Co2SiO4, Co II only) was clearly identified as the blue pigment in "Aranhões" sample (2nd half of the17th C.) - 824 cm-1 band in the micro-Raman-spectrum. Cobalt aluminate (CoAl2O4, Co II only) is the blue pigment in the Wanli plate - 203 and 512 cm-1 bands in the micro-Raman spectrum. The blue pigment in the 1st half 17th century of Lisbon's production was obtained by addition of a cobalt ore in low concentrations, which gives no specific Raman signature, because of complete dissolution in the glass. However, in most cases of the 2nd half 17th century, the Raman signature was quite evident, from a cobalt silicate. These findings point to the use of higher temperature kilns in the second case.

  9. Archaelogical Excavations of the Gardens and Interior Areas of Houses B and C of the Southeast Row Houses Fort Michilimackinac, Michigan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-08-01

    porcelain fragments recovered were Group I, Chinese Export Porcelain . No evidence of Group II, English Porcelain , was present. There were 40 fragments...earthenware, stoneware and porcelain . Distribution of colonial ceramics by unit and level appears in Appendices 2 31 and 3. Therefore, only classes and...unidentifiable fragments of stoneware. Similar to the earthenware, they were not identified because of being burned or too small. Class C Porcelain All

  10. Tigela, café e xícara: diversidade formal e dinâmicas de consumo na produção das louças brancas da cidade de São Paulo no começo do século XX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael de Abreu e Souza

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to present ideas about the forms and volumes of the refined earthenwares produced, and consumed, in São Paulo city, during 1913 and 1937. For such, we analyze the Petybon archaeological collection, recovered from an urban archaeological site at the neighborhood of Lapa, Água Branca/Vila Romana region. We assume that the diversity of the refined earthenwares forms dialogue with the modernity projects thought to São Paulo, and the consumers demand whose many cultural practices had influenced the ceramic production by the Santa Catharina Pottery Factory and Matarazzo Factories United Industries.

  11. 49 CFR 173.27 - General requirements for transportation by aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... liquids. (d) Closures. Stoppers, corks or other such friction-type closures must be held securely, tightly..., 4, or 8, or Division 5.1, 5.2 or 6.1 that are packaged and offered for transport in glass... of the § 172.101 table Maximum authorized net capacity of each inner packaging Glass, earthenware or...

  12. Comprehensive Study on Ceramic Membranes for Low‐Cost Microbial Fuel Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasternak, Grzegorz; Greenman, John

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) made with different types of ceramic membranes were investigated to find a low‐cost alternative to commercially available proton exchange membranes. The MFCs operated with fresh human urine as the fuel. Pyrophyllite and earthenware produced the best performance to reach power densities of 6.93 and 6.85 W m−3, respectively, whereas mullite and alumina achieved power densities of 4.98 and 2.60 W m−3, respectively. The results indicate the dependence of bio‐film growth and activity on the type of ceramic membrane applied. The most favourable conditions were created in earthenware MFCs. The performance of the ceramic membranes was related to their physical and chemical properties determined by environmental scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X‐ray spectroscopy. The cost of mullite, earthenware, pyrophyllite and alumina was estimated to be 13.61, 4.14, 387.96 and 177.03 GBP m−2, respectively. The results indicate that earthenware and mullite are good substitutes for commercially available proton exchange membranes, which makes the MFC technology accessible in developing countries. PMID:26692569

  13. Archaeological Investigations at 30 Historic Sites, Chief Joseph Dam Project, Washington.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    Great Britain (Kovel and Kovel 1953:202), whose firm produced a quantity of earthenware, especially white graniteware, in Imitation of French china... unicorn emblem with "J & G MEAKIN/HANLEY/ENGLAND" printed below (Figure 7-19;a). Again, the word . "England" indicates a post-1891 date. Both trademarl,s

  14. Identification of the provenience of Majolica from sites in the Caribbean using neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olin, J.S.; Sayre, E.V.

    1975-01-01

    Tin-enamelled earthenware pottery from five early Spanish Colonial sites in the Dominican Republic and Venezuela were sampled and analyzed by neutron activation analysis in an attempt to determine whether these sherds had a common source. The tentative conclusion was that although several sources were indicated for the specimens analyzed the overall similarity in composition indicated that these sources were probably closely related

  15. Download this PDF file

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This mixture is allowed to ferment in a big round-bottomed earthenware called Gan or Ensera for about four days, after which are added small pieces of thin, toasted bread made from barley and wheat. The Asharo (dark roast of whole barley) is added on the fifth day. Further fermentation is allowed to go on for two to three ...

  16. Archaeological Survey at Fort Hood, Texas Fiscal Year 1987: The MCA range Construction, Pidcoke Land Exchange, and Phantom Range Projects. Archeological Resource Management Series Research Report Number 23

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    granted to Coryell County. 1930 Community Natural Gas Company provided service for 500 customers. 1935 Community Public Service provided electricity for...berm-girded ditch feature is noted, and domestic vegetation includes horehound and nopale . Observed artifacts include coarse earthenwares, undecorated

  17. Cultural Resources Survey of the White Castle Revetment Item, Iberville, Parish, Louisiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-03-06

    pennsylvania) , nuttall oak (Quercus nutalli) , water oak (Quercus arkansana), elm (Ulmus) , and pecan (Carya illinoensis) may occur at higher elevations...maintained its prominence throughout the twentieth century. Early in the century, increased quantities of rice, corn, fruit, and pecans were produced...earthenwares from Spain and Italy are known generically as "majolica;" those from France are called "faience;" and, those from England or Holland commonly are

  18. Cultural Resources Survey of Three Iberville Parish Levee Enlargement and Revetment Construction Items

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-09-22

    elm (Ulmus), and pecan (Carya illlnoensis) may occur at higher elevations. Poison ivy (Rhus radicans), Virginia and trumpet creeper (Parthenocissus sp... pecans were produced In the parish. Cotton, grown during the early 1900s, had all but disappeared by 1940. Soybeans, initially planted with corn to...Holland and England are known as de Equivalents in Italy , Iberia, and Mexico are called muioica. Tin glazed earthenware has a soft porous paste

  19. Cultural Resources Survey of Five Mississippi River Revetment Items.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-08-01

    children’s shoes. 551.42 Lot No. Fourteen, Notions: pens, needles, thimbles, suspenders, handkerchiefs, trimmings, lace, gloves, tooth -brushes, fans, match...to produce a green opaque glaze. Usually, tin glazed, or tin enameled , earthenwares received hand painted decoration; this class of decoration is a...creamware gives a yellowish appearance, cobalt has the effect of whitening pearlware. Like creamware, pearlware was popular through the 163 a 7

  20. The Home Network: Identity and Materiality in Early Modern and Modern Ulster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whalen, Kathryn M.

    This dissertation looks at three categories of ceramics and the creation of a hybrid culture during the Early Modern and Modern period in Ireland. During these time periods Ireland was a part of the English global colonial enterprises, and was the site of many legal and cultural changes due to its subordinate position in the hierarchy of socio-political and economic phenomenon that characterize the pinnacle of British global power. This study looks to understand how these powers articulated with England's one European colony, Ireland, and if that articulation has similarities to other colonial cultures across time and space. To study the possibility of hybridity between the Irish and English inhabitants of Ireland during the Post-Medieval Period, three categories of ceramics have been analyzed. Fine earthenwares in the form of tablewares and tea sets were macroscopically analyzed for patterns, age, and place of origin. Coarse earthenwares were subjected to X-ray florescence to look for patterns in the spectral data to see if a point of origin could be ascribed to them. And lastly, white ball clay pipe fragments were both macroscopically analyzed for makers' marks and subjected to X-ray florescence to verify their point of origin. The relationship between where these artifacts come from- if they are local productions or imports- and where they were disposed of- either across the landscaper or only associated with households of particular ethnicities- says something about how people negotiate their ethnic identities in colonial settings. As people in Ireland adopt the English style of tea drinking and start to use English mass-produced fine earthenwares, it disrupts the local cottage industry of coarse earthenware manufacturing. What this study seeks to know is if there is a difference in the adoption of English tea drinking, and if the purchasing of certain types of ceramic vessels contributes to the performance of ethnic identity in a colonial setting.

  1. Ceramic qualities of industrial clay deposits at Vimtim in Mubi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Their average chemical composition includes 70.5% SiO2, 17.04% Al2O3, 2.58% Total Fe oxides, 0.26% Na2O, 0.92% K2O, 0.89% MgO and appreciable kaolinite content. These parameters suggest good clay raw materials for the manufacture of coarse ceramic products like earthenware, kitchenware, ornamental wares ...

  2. Six stirrup handled Moche ceramic vessels from pre-Colombian Peru: a technical study applying PIXE spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swann, C.P. E-mail: swann@bartol.udel.edu; Caspi, Sara; Carlson, Janice

    1999-04-02

    Much has been said recently concerning the Moche culture of Peru (100 B.C. to 700 A.D. ) which preceded the more widely known Inca society. Since there was no written language, what is known about the Moche people has been through the artifacts produced, their design and craftsmanship. This study concerns the PIXE analysis of the matrix and the red and white surface patterns of six stirrup handled earthenware vessels. The results suggest different techniques were applied for producing the coloring and surface designs and that a common source of clays was not used in the construction.

  3. Six stirrup handled Moche ceramic vessels from pre-Colombian Peru: a technical study applying PIXE spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swann, C. P.; Caspi, Sara; Carlson, Janice

    1999-04-01

    Much has been said recently concerning the Moche culture of Peru (100 B.C. to 700 A.D. ) which preceded the more widely known Inca society. Since there was no written language, what is known about the Moche people has been through the artifacts produced, their design and craftsmanship. This study concerns the PIXE analysis of the matrix and the red and white surface patterns of six stirrup handled earthenware vessels. The results suggest different techniques were applied for producing the coloring and surface designs and that a common source of clays was not used in the construction.

  4. Six stirrup handled Moche ceramic vessels from pre-Colombian Peru: a technical study applying PIXE spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swann, C.P.; Caspi, Sara; Carlson, Janice

    1999-01-01

    Much has been said recently concerning the Moche culture of Peru (100 B.C. to 700 A.D. ) which preceded the more widely known Inca society. Since there was no written language, what is known about the Moche people has been through the artifacts produced, their design and craftsmanship. This study concerns the PIXE analysis of the matrix and the red and white surface patterns of six stirrup handled earthenware vessels. The results suggest different techniques were applied for producing the coloring and surface designs and that a common source of clays was not used in the construction

  5. Medicine and art: facial palsy depicted in archaic Greek art on Crete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirsig, W; Helidonis, E; Velegrakis, G

    1995-01-01

    A small earthenware statuette was evacuated from the votive-depot of acropolis of Gortys, an ancient town in South-Crete/Greece. This ex-voto is dated approximately 7th to 6th century BC and very probably represents some symptoms of a stroke, especially the left facial palsy and the contracture of the left arm. Since the Minoan time until today, people of Crete have been offering ex-votos to gods or saints to ask for help in specific diseases.

  6. Observations of anomalous fading in maiolica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowman, S.G.E.

    1988-01-01

    In the course of an authenticity study on Italian maiolica (tin-glazed earthenware of the Renaissance period), storage at elevated temperature was used to accelerate anomalous fading. Substantial levels of fading were observed in about half of the samples, and in these cases the variation of fading with glow curve temperature accounted for the lack of an equivalent dose plateau. Some evidence was found for a difference in the fading between alpha and beta induced thermoluminescence (TL). More importantly, some samples with unstable natural TL were found: the implications of this for dating and the circumvention of fading are discussed. (author)

  7. Exposición a plomo en niños de 6 a 12 años de edad Lead exposure in children from 6 to 12 years old

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Jiménez-Gutiérrez

    1999-11-01

    was filled out and venous blood samples were taken. Lead levels were measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Statistical analysis consisted of comparison of means using Student’s t test and ANOVA. Multiple linear regression was used for multivariate analysis. Logarithmic transformation of lead blood levels were used to account for their non-normal distribution. Results. Geometric means for private and public schools were: GM=8.76 µg/dl, 95% CI=9.1-10.5; GM=11.5 µg/dl, 95% CI=9.4-13.5. Lead levels were higher among children from public schools who are male, between 6 and 8 years of age, in first and second grade, whose mothers have a profession, who use glazed earthenware utensils, and who live near glazed earthenware shops or factories. Conclusions. Exposure predictors of lead blood levels are: being between 6 and 8 years of age, having a professional mother, using glazed earthenware utensils, living near glazed earthenware shops or factories, and studying the second grade of elementary school.

  8. High-Quality 3d Models and Their Use in a Cultural Heritage Conservation Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucci, G.; Bonora, V.; Conti, A.; Fiorini, L.

    2017-08-01

    Cultural heritage digitization and 3D modelling processes are mainly based on laser scanning and digital photogrammetry techniques to produce complete, detailed and photorealistic three-dimensional surveys: geometric as well as chromatic aspects, in turn testimony of materials, work techniques, state of preservation, etc., are documented using digitization processes. The paper explores the topic of 3D documentation for conservation purposes; it analyses how geomatics contributes in different steps of a restoration process and it presents an overview of different uses of 3D models for the conservation and enhancement of the cultural heritage. The paper reports on the project to digitize the earthenware frieze of the Ospedale del Ceppo in Pistoia (Italy) for 3D documentation, restoration work support, and digital and physical reconstruction and integration purposes. The intent to design an exhibition area suggests new ways to take advantage of 3D data originally acquired for documentation and scientific purposes.

  9. Building materials. Structure and technology, types and properties, application and handlings. 2. rev. ed. Baustoffkunde. Aufbau und Technologie, Arten und Eigenschaften, Anwendung und Verarbeitung der Baustoffe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaeffler, H

    1980-01-01

    Details are given on the large variety of structural and interior building materials. Reference is made to the relation between the structure and technology of building materials on one hand and the properties and handling of building materials on the other hand. The following subjects are dealt with: Fundamentals (historical development, systematy of building materials, regulations, properties, property warranties); natural stone; lumber and derived lumber products (properties, species of lumber, flaws, supply cuts); ceramic building materials and glass (brick, earthenware, refractory materials); building materials with mineral binders added, concrete and mortar (technology, setting); metals (properties, technology); bituminous building materials (technology, properties); plastics (thermoplasts, elastomers, duroplastics, paints, adhesives, synthetic-resin mortar and synthetic-resin concrete); insulating materials, organic floor coverings, papers and paperboard, paints, adhesives and sealing materials; damage to buildings (types, causes, responsibility, avoidance). (HWJ).

  10. A historical perspective of synthetic ceramic and traditional feldspathic porcelain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Stephen; Ahmad, Irfan

    2005-10-01

    Ceramics were invented by the Chinese during the T'ang Dynasty, where they quickly became a precious commodity. By the early 18th Century, ceramics found its way into dentistry due to its high strength, biocompatibility, and malleability. Today, ceramic materials are a staple in dentistry, available in both naturally based and partially synthetic formulas. Most recently they have become available as quartz-glass synthetic materials manufactured under controlled conditions to eliminate the inconsistencies and impurities inherent in the naturally based counterpart. This article details the discovery of porcelain and its role as a precious substance throughout the world and time, from its initial use as ornamental earthenware to its practical application in modern dentistry. Upon reading this article, the reader should: Understand the historical significance of porcelain. Recognize the fundamental constituents and physical properties of both natural feldspathic porcelains and fully synthetic ceramics used in dentistry.

  11. The Brewed Rice Vinegar Kurozu Increases HSPA1A Expression and Ameliorates Cognitive Dysfunction in Aged P8 Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroaki Kanouchi

    Full Text Available Kurozu is a traditional Japanese rice vinegar. During fermentation and aging of the Kurozu liquid in an earthenware jar over 1 year, a solid residue called Kurozu Moromi is produced. In the present study, we evaluated whether concentrated Kurozu or Kurozu Moromi could ameliorate cognitive dysfunction in the senescence-accelerated P8 mouse. Senescence-accelerated P8 mice were fed 0.25% (w/w concentrated Kurozu or 0.5% (w/w Kurozu Moromi for 4 or 25 weeks. Kurozu suppressed cognitive dysfunction and amyloid accumulation in the brain, while Kurozu Moromi showed a tendency to ameliorate cognitive dysfunction, but the effect was not significant. We hypothesize that concentrated Kurozu has an antioxidant effect; however, the level of lipid peroxidation in the brain did not differ in senescence-accelerated P8 mice. DNA microarray analysis indicated that concentrated Kurozu increased HSPA1A mRNA expression, a protein that prevents protein misfolding and aggregation. The increase in HSPA1A expression by Kurozu was confirmed using quantitative real-time PCR and immunoblotting methods. The suppression of amyloid accumulation by concentrated Kurozu may be associated with HSPA1A induction. However, concentrated Kurozu could not increase HSPA1A expression in mouse primary neurons, suggesting it may not directly affect neurons.

  12. TOF neutron diffraction study of archaeological ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kockelmann, W.; Kirfel, A.

    1999-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. The time-of flight (TOF) neutron diffractometer ROTAX [1] at ISIS has been used for identification and quantitative phase analysis of archaeological pottery. Neutron diffraction yields mineral phase fractions which, in parallel with information obtained from other archaeometric examination techniques, can provide a fingerprint that can be used to identify provenance and reconstruct methods of manufacturing of an archaeological ceramic product. Phase fractions obtained from a 13th century Rhenish stoneware jar compare well with those obtained from a powder sample prepared from the same fragment. This indicates that reliable results can be obtained by illuminating a large piece or even an intact ceramic object making TOF neutron diffraction a truly non-destructive examination technique. In comparison to X-ray diffraction, information from the bulk sample rather than from surface regions is obtained. ROTAX allows for a simple experimental set-up, free of sample movements. Programmes of archaeological study on ROTAX involve Russian samples (Upper-Volga culture, 5000-2000 BC), Greek pottery, (Agora/Athens, 500-300 BC), and medieval German earthenware and stoneware ceramics (Siegburg waster heap, 13-15th century). (author)

  13. Standard test method for graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometric determination of lead and cadmium extracted from ceramic foodware

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2000-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers procedures for using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy (GFAAS) to quantitatively determine lead and cadmium extracted by acetic acid at room temperature from the food-contact surface of foodware. The method is applicable to food-contact surfaces composed of silicate-based materials (earthenware, glazed ceramicware, decorated ceramicware, decorated glass, and lead crystal glass) and is capable of determining lead concentrations greater than 0.005 to 0.020 g/mL and cadmium concentrations greater than 0.0005 to 0.002 g/mL, depending on instrument design. 1.2 This test method also describes quality control procedures to check for contamination and matrix interference during GFAAS analyses and a specific sequence of analytical measurements that demonstrates proper instrument operation during the time period in which sample solutions are analyzed. 1.3 Cleaning and other contamination control procedures are described in this test method. Users may modify contamination cont...

  14. LA PRODUCCIÓN DE TALAVERA DE PUEBLA Y SAN PABLO DEL MONTE, TLAXCALA: UN SISTEMA PRODUCTIVO LOCAL EN TRASFORMACIÓN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Mariela Tolentino Martínez

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo analiza las diversas etapas de desarrollo de la producción de la talavera, prestando particular atención al conjunto de relaciones sociales que han dado lugar a la formación de un sistema productivo local. Entre los elementos que destacan en el sistema productivo local se encuentran la difusión del conocimiento tácito, la conformación de instituciones reguladoras del proceso económico, así como la construcción de redes sociales y económicas entre productores.   ABSTRACT This paper analyzes the different stages of development that the production of Talavera earthenware has been through. Special attention is placed on the array of social relations that have led to the emergence of a local production system. The dissemination of tacit knowledge, the creation of institutions in charge of regulating the economic process, as well as the construction of social and economic networks among producers are among the elements that stand out most in the local production system.

  15. Chemical, mineralogical and ceramic properties of clays from Northern Santa Catarina, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Correia, S.L.; Bloot, E.L.; Folgueras, M.V.; Hotza, D.

    2009-01-01

    Clay materials crop out in the northern Santa Catarina mining district were investigated in order to assess their potential in the ceramic industry. Four different clays (A, B, C and D) were selected. Their chemical composition was obtained by Xray fluorescence and their mineralogy by X-ray diffraction, coupled with numerical rational analysis. Their thermal behaviour was studied by differential thermal analysis. Technological testing consisted in a simulation of the industrial processing performed at a laboratory scale. The test pieces were obtained by pressing and fired in the range of 850-1200 deg C. In each case their technological properties were studied. The main mineralogical phases detected were kaolinite, quartz and mica. Hematite and feldspars may be present in the clays. The clays show two groups of particle sizes almost equally frequent in the range of 1 to 60 μm. The northern Santa Catarina clays are suitable for the production of bricks and earthenware in the 900- 1100 deg C range. (author)

  16. Chemical, mineralogical and ceramic properties of clays from Northern Santa Catarina, Brazil; Caracterizaco fisico-quimica de argilas da regiao norte de Santa Catarina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Correia, S L; Bloot, E L; Folgueras, M.V., E-mail: sivaldo@joinville.udesc.b [Universidade do Estado de Santa Catarina (UDESC/CCT), Joinville, SC (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Tecnologicas; Hotza, D [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC/EQA), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Quimica

    2009-07-01

    Clay materials crop out in the northern Santa Catarina mining district were investigated in order to assess their potential in the ceramic industry. Four different clays (A, B, C and D) were selected. Their chemical composition was obtained by Xray fluorescence and their mineralogy by X-ray diffraction, coupled with numerical rational analysis. Their thermal behaviour was studied by differential thermal analysis. Technological testing consisted in a simulation of the industrial processing performed at a laboratory scale. The test pieces were obtained by pressing and fired in the range of 850-1200 deg C. In each case their technological properties were studied. The main mineralogical phases detected were kaolinite, quartz and mica. Hematite and feldspars may be present in the clays. The clays show two groups of particle sizes almost equally frequent in the range of 1 to 60 {mu}m. The northern Santa Catarina clays are suitable for the production of bricks and earthenware in the 900- 1100 deg C range. (author)

  17. Pre-treatment of Used-Cooking Oil as Feed Stocks of Biodiesel Production by Using Activated Carbon and Clay Minerals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudy Syah Putra

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Many low-cost feedstock i.e. used-cooking oil (UCO for the production of biodiesel fuel (BDF has contained a large amount of water and high proportion of free fatty acids (FFAs. Therefore, a pre-treatment process to reduce the water content (<0.1 wt.% and FFAs (<2.0 wt.% were necessary in order to avoid an undesirable side reactions, such as saponification, which could lead to serious problem of product separation and low fatty acid methyl ester (FAME yield. . In this study, a pre-treatment process of used cooking oil as a feedstock for the production of BDF by using various adsorbents such as Activated Carbon (AC and various clay minerals, for example Smectite (S, Bentonite (B, Kaolinite (K, and Powdered Earthenware (PE were evaluated. The oil obtained from pre-treatment was compared with oil without pre-treatment process. In this study, we reported a basic difference in material ability to the oil, depending on the adsorption condition with respect to the physico-chemical parameters, e.g. refractive index (R, density (ρ, FFAs, and water content (W. The results showed that the water content and FFAs in the oil has decreased when using AC as an adsorbent compared with clay minerals. However, the refractive index of oil has similar with the oil without pre-treatment process as well; meanwhile, the density of oil has increased after the pre-treatment process by using clay minerals.

  18. Childhood lead poisoning from commercially manufactured French ceramic dinnerware--New York City, 2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-07-09

    Lead poisoning adversely affects children worldwide. During 1999-2000, an estimated 434,000 children aged 1-5 years in the United States had elevated blood lead levels (BLLs) >/=10 microg/dL. Glazes found on ceramics, earthenware, bone china, and porcelain often contain lead and are a potential source of lead exposure. Children are especially vulnerable to the neurotoxic effects of lead. Exposures to lead in early childhood can have adverse effects on the developing nervous system, resulting in decreased intelligence and changes in behavior. In addition, certain behaviors (e.g., thumb sucking) place children at greater risk for exposure to lead. In 2003, the New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene's Lead Poisoning Prevention Program (LPPP), and the Mount Sinai Pediatric Environmental Health Specialty Unit (PEHSU) investigated a case of lead poisoning in a boy aged 20 months. This report summarizes that case investigation, which identified ceramic dinnerware imported from France as the source of lead exposure. This case underscores the susceptibility of children to a toxic exposure associated with 1) the high proportion of time spent in the home and 2) dietary habits that promote exposure to lead leached from ceramic ware.

  19. On the mining situation and future for Kibushi and Gairome clay in Tono-district. Tono chiku no kibushi nendo gairome nendo no sanjo to shorai ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Omaru, I [Inagaki Clay Mining Co. Ltd., Gifu (Japan)

    1993-07-10

    The Kibushi clay and the Gairome clay which have been taking the role as the domestic produced bonding materials for refractories are running out. This paper reports their current situation and measures from the standpoint of producers. The Kibushi clay production has been decreasing since it has peaked in 1975 at 855,000 tons down to as low as its half at 400,000 tons in 1989. The Gairome clay production has also been decreased sharply from having been produced at 30 mines to 7 mines in Gifu Prefecture. The current situation is such that not only higher cost is incurred in removing gravel beds covering the clay bed, but also no gravel disposal areas can be procured, and no profitability can be assumed because of degradation in clay quality. On the other hand, demand as raw material for sanitary earthenwares and potteries has been increasing rapidly from 2,265,000 tons to 2,779,000 tons, hence import dependence of the material is rising. Positive activities as measures against the ore depletion include an establishment of a company jointly invested by five companies in 1991, which intends to develop the industry from a mining industry to a manufacturing industry by custom-blending and reforming various kinds of clays produced in different locations, including imports, to achieve stable supply. 1 tab.

  20. [The origination of surgery (Kinso treatment) in Japan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiyama, Shigeru

    2008-01-01

    From the Nara period through to the end of the Heian and early Kamakura periods, the population of Japan grew by 50% thanks to increases in rice cultivation. Such expanded food production resulted in changes in the social structure providing opportunities to those in control of armed forces to become local feudal lords. Many wars fought in the process necessitated the development of treatment methods for Kinso (wounds caused by swords, spears, and similar weapons), to which Jinsoes (Buddhist monks/doctors that accompanied troops) attended, making extensive use of herbal medicine that had been developed by the people of the time. Many war commanders brought Jinsoes to battle fields, which became a custom during the Sengoku (warring) period. As many of the Jinsoes were well educated, they also served as entertainers to the commanders through their knowledge in Go or Renga (a game involving popular poetical verses). Their talents and training eventually resulted in many of the so called traditional arts including Noh, Kabuki, tea ceremony and earthenware production.

  1. Gasolimp: biodegradable protector for gasoline pumps; Gasolimp: protetor biodegradavel para bomba de gasolina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinas Cortez, Juan Carlos [Universidade Federal da Paraiba (UFPB), Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil). Dept. de Psicologia. Setor Organizacional do Trabalho

    2004-07-01

    It is made from an absorbent material that has natural fibers and cellulose in its composition. The polyurethane bio-foam presented excellent levels of absorption of the toxic residues left by gasoline such as carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons, oxygen, nitrogen and sulfur. All the materials used in the composition of Gasolimp are biodegradable. After a four-year research period we found out that from five to eight drops of gasoline are spilt at the moment that car pump is being filled up and they end up either in the cloth the attendant holds in his hand, on his hand, on his clothes, on the car paint or on the soil. The research shows that the toxic effects the gasoline hydrocarbons cause health problems to the attendants such as headaches, lesions on their hands and eyes, dizziness, gastro-intestine problems, heart palpitation, breathing problems and can even affect the central nerve system. The final use of the product has the utmost importance: after thirty days of use Gasolimp must be replaced and when re-used it may be sent to mills and earthenware factories and there it will function as a product that will co-generate power. (author)

  2. TRADITIONAL FERMENTED FOODS OF LESOTHO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tendekayi H. Gadaga

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the traditional methods of preparing fermented foods and beverages of Lesotho. Information on the preparation methods was obtained through a combination of literature review and face to face interviews with respondents from Roma in Lesotho. An unstructured questionnaire was used to capture information on the processes, raw materials and utensils used. Four products; motoho (a fermented porridge, Sesotho (a sorghum based alcoholic beverage, hopose (sorghum fermented beer with added hops and mafi (spontaneously fermented milk, were found to be the main fermented foods prepared and consumed at household level in Lesotho. Motoho is a thin gruel, popular as refreshing beverage as well as a weaning food. Sesotho is sorghum based alcoholic beverage prepared for household consumption as well as for sale. It is consumed in the actively fermenting state. Mafi is the name given to spontaneously fermented milk with a thick consistency. Little research has been done on the technological aspects, including the microbiological and biochemical characteristics of fermented foods in Lesotho. Some of the traditional aspects of the preparation methods, such as use of earthenware pots, are being replaced, and modern equipment including plastic utensils are being used. There is need for further systematic studies on the microbiological and biochemical characteristics of these these products.

  3. History of aerosol therapy: liquid nebulization to MDIs to DPIs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Paula J

    2005-09-01

    Inhaled therapies have been used since ancient times and may have had their origins with the smoking of datura preparations in India 4,000 years ago. In the late 18th and in the 19th century, earthenware inhalers were popular for the inhalation of air drawn through infusions of plants and other ingredients. Atomizers and nebulizers were developed in the mid-1800s in France and were thought to be an outgrowth of the perfume industry as well as a response to the fashion of inhaling thermal waters at spas. Around the turn of the 20th century, combustible powders and cigarettes containing stramonium were popular for asthma and other lung complaints. Following the discovery of the utility of epinephrine for treating asthma, hand-bulb nebulizers were developed, as well as early compressor nebulizers. The marketing of the first pressurized metered-dose inhaler for epinephrine and isoproterenol, by Riker Laboratories in 1956, was a milestone in the development of inhaled drugs. There have been remarkable advances in the technology of devices and formulations for inhaled drugs in the past 50 years. These have been influenced greatly by scientific developments in several areas: theoretical modeling and indirect measures of lung deposition, particle sizing techniques and in vitro deposition studies, scintigraphic deposition studies, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics, and the 1987 Montreal Protocol, which banned chlorofluorocarbon propellants. We are now in an era of rapid technologic progress in inhaled drug delivery and applications of aerosol science, with the use of the aerosolized route for drugs for systemic therapy and for gene replacement therapy, use of aerosolized antimicrobials and immunosuppressants, and interest in specific targeting of inhaled drugs.

  4. Compost, fertilizer, and biogas production from human and farm wastes in the People's Republic of China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGarry, M G; Stainforth, J [eds.

    1978-01-01

    This translation is divided into six parts: (1) The Practices and Management of Excreta and Farm Waste Composting, (2) Treatment of Livestock Manure and Human Waste for Reuse, (3) The Two-Partition Three-Tank Hygienic Toilet, (4) Construction of the Fixed Top Fully Enclosed Biogas Plant, (5) Research Results on the Effectiveness of Excreta Treatment in Biogas Plants, and (6) Biogas Production and Reuse from Farm and Human Wastes. A detailed description of the design and construction of fixed top, enclosed, three-stage biogas plants as well as the preparation of the building materials and accessories such as safety valves and gauges, biogas stores and lamps is presented. Safety precautions, examination procedures for water and gas leaks, the procedure of filling the plant, and proper treatment of the sludge and sediment are discussed. The results obtained on the effectiveness of these plants in settling out parasite eggs, in destroying hookworms and ascarid eggs and in totally eliminating schistosome flukes from the fecal liquid are described. It was also determined that the environment in the biogas plant greatly reduced the E. coli index, totally eliminated the Shigella bacillus and spirochetes in 30 hours and the typhoid B bacillus in 44 days. The use of a three-stage septic tank, which includes a biogas plant, in connection with pigpens and toilets is discussed. Particular attention is given to the location, size, structure and construction of the biogas tank. Descriptions of a safety pressure gauge and earthen-ware stoves and lamps operating on biogas are given.

  5. Firing transformations of an argentinean calcareous commercial clay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. F. Serra

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Mineralogical transformations caused by firing are usually studied by XRD methods only semi-quantitatively. In this work the original mineral disappearance and the neo-mineralization were evaluated quantitatively. Furthermore an indirect non crystalline phase quantification was performed under 1100 ºC was also carried out using the quartz content as internal standard. This study specifically discusses the behavior of an Argentinean white calcareous earthenware commercial when subjected to traditional ceramic firing, besides the technological importance of this particular material, it acts as a model for other clay based ceramic materials. Materials were subjected to thermal treatments between 700 ºC and 1100 ºC. A preliminary sintering characterization was carried out by contraction and porosity evolution. Simultaneous thermogravimetric and differential thermal analysis (TG-DTA was carried out to elucidate the actual temperature at which the chemical changes occur. Finally, a quantitative analysis based on the Rietveld refinement of the X-ray diffraction patterns was performed to characterize the crystalline phases present in both the clay and in the materials obtained after different thermal treatments. The actual chemical reactions are proposed. The phases identified after firing at traditional working temperature (1040 ºC are quartz, plagioclase, and the Spinel type alumino-silicate, accompanied by the non-diffracting un-reacted metakaolin and some amount of amorphous glassy phase. At intermediate temperatures (900 ºC the presence of gehlenite was also detected. The carbonates (calcite and dolomite presence and decomposition were also evaluated and demonstrated to determine the sintering characteristics of this material.

  6. Sphenostylis stenocarpa (ex. A. Rich.) Harms., a Fading Genetic Resource in a Changing Climate: Prerequisite for Conservation and Sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nnamani, Catherine Veronica; Ajayi, Sunday Adesola; Oselebe, Happiness Ogba; Atkinson, Christopher John; Igboabuchi, Anastasia Ngozi; Ezigbo, Eucharia Chizoba

    2017-07-12

    The southeastern part of Nigeria is one of the major hotspots of useful plant genetic resources. These endemic species are associated with a rich indigenous knowledge and cultural diversity in relation to their use and conservation. Sphenostylis stenocarpa ( e x. A. Rich.) Harms., (African Yam Bean (AYB)), is one such crop within the family of Fabaceae. Its nutritional and eco-friendly characteristics have value in ameliorating malnutrition, hidden hunger and environmental degradation inherent in resource-poor rural and semi-rural communities throughout Africa. However, lack of information from the custodians of this crop is limiting its sustainable development. Therefore, ethnobotanical surveys on the diversity, uses, and constraints limiting the cultivation and use of the crop in southeastern Nigeria were carried out. Five-hundred respondents were randomly selected and data collected through oral interviews and focused group discussion (FGD). Semi-structured questionnaires (SSQ) were also used to elicit information from a spectrum of AYB users comprising community leaders, farmers, market women and consumers in five States. Results showed that the majority of the respondents lacked formal education and were of the age group of 40-50 years, while the female gender dominated with limited access to land and extension officers. Seed coat colour largely determined utilization. Long cooking time, requirement for staking materials, aging of farmers and low market demand were among the major constraints limiting further cultivation and utilization of AYB. In-situ conservation was by hanging dried fruits by the fireside, beside the house, storing in earthenware, calabash gourds, cans and bottles. It is concluded that there is urgent need to scale up conservation through robust linkages between contemporary scientific domains and indigenous peoples in order to harness and incorporate the rich indigenous knowledge in local communities for enhanced scientific knowledge

  7. Sphenostylis stenocarpa (ex. A. Rich. Harms., a Fading Genetic Resource in a Changing Climate: Prerequisite for Conservation and Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Veronica Nnamani

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The southeastern part of Nigeria is one of the major hotspots of useful plant genetic resources. These endemic species are associated with a rich indigenous knowledge and cultural diversity in relation to their use and conservation. Sphenostylis stenocarpa (ex. A. Rich. Harms., (African Yam Bean (AYB, is one such crop within the family of Fabaceae. Its nutritional and eco-friendly characteristics have value in ameliorating malnutrition, hidden hunger and environmental degradation inherent in resource-poor rural and semi-rural communities throughout Africa. However, lack of information from the custodians of this crop is limiting its sustainable development. Therefore, ethnobotanical surveys on the diversity, uses, and constraints limiting the cultivation and use of the crop in southeastern Nigeria were carried out. Five-hundred respondents were randomly selected and data collected through oral interviews and focused group discussion (FGD. Semi-structured questionnaires (SSQ were also used to elicit information from a spectrum of AYB users comprising community leaders, farmers, market women and consumers in five States. Results showed that the majority of the respondents lacked formal education and were of the age group of 40–50 years, while the female gender dominated with limited access to land and extension officers. Seed coat colour largely determined utilization. Long cooking time, requirement for staking materials, aging of farmers and low market demand were among the major constraints limiting further cultivation and utilization of AYB. In-situ conservation was by hanging dried fruits by the fireside, beside the house, storing in earthenware, calabash gourds, cans and bottles. It is concluded that there is urgent need to scale up conservation through robust linkages between contemporary scientific domains and indigenous peoples in order to harness and incorporate the rich indigenous knowledge in local communities for enhanced scientific

  8. THE GRAINY PLANTS AND FRUITS SUCH WHICH WERE USED AS ABUNDANCE SYMBOLS BY THE TURKS AND USING OF ARCHITECTURE / TÜRKLERDE BEREKET SEMBOLÜ OLARAK KULLANILAN MEYVE MOTIFLERI VE MIMARIDE DEĞERLENDIRILMESI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Assoc. Prof. Dr. R. Eser GÜLTEKİN

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The Turkish word for abundance “Bereket” isactually a word with Arabic roots meaning wealth,happiness and gift of God. The Turks have been using theabundance symbols in order to express their wishes foreternal happiness and wealth. Also the Ancient AnatolianCivilizations believed strongly in the abundance conceptand were actually presenting sacrifices to Gods for thispurpose.The fact that we comment on the fruit symbols isbecause these fruits are actually subsistence with seeds.The seed is a core that would secure the continuousnessof the next generations. The fruits were considered as theeggs of the world due to the seeds they contain. This hascaused different comments on this matter. For examplethese fruits were sometimes used to symbolizeimmortality, happiness and fertility. The grainy plantsand fruits such which were used as abundance symbolsby the Turks are: grapes, pomegranate, fig, melon,watermelon, wheatear etc. These were commonly used indecorations to symbolize fertility, abundance and tree oflife since the ancient times.The fruits which symbolize abundance are richlypresent in the hand woven products of Anatolia, in theneedle works, in stone and metal works and in theceramic and earthenware examples. They were alsocarried to the interior spaces of daily life and architecture. The Turks, by decorating their walls withvarious scenes of life, presented their cultural richnessand helped them to be carried from one generation to thenext. Some of these decorations were also the fruitswhich symbolize the abundance according to their belief.Such abundance symbols are to be found in the Turkisharchitecture sometimes on a place wall, sometimes on thewalls of a religious room and sometimes on the walls ofan Anatolian residence. We come across with theseabundance symbols, which are used as decorations inthe architecture, as hand-drawn on the walls and on theceilings, as plaster decorations, as stone decorations, asceramic decorations, as

  9. Lead poisoning following ingestion of pieces of lead roofing plates: pica-like behavior in an adult.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabouraud, Sabine; Testud, François; Descotes, Jacques; Benevent, Monique; Soglu, Gilbert

    2008-03-01

    A 37-year-old man was admitted to hospital after complaining of abdominal pain for the past two weeks. On admission the abdominal radiograph showed multiple radio-opaque flecks dispersed throughout the gastrointestinal tract. Blood testing showed hemoglobin level 8.7 g/dL and a blood lead level of 112.4 microg/dL. The family interview revealed that the patient had pica-like behavior since childhood. He was a site foreman and had been ingesting pieces of roofing plates for a few weeks. The patient was treated with laxatives and CaNa(2)EDTA therapy was initiated. The blood lead level then dropped to 69.9 microg/dL. The patient received two subsequent courses of oral succimer and the blood lead level decreased to 59 microg/dL 21 days after the first course. The follow-up abdominal X-ray 20 days after the first examination was normal. Four months later, an outpatient follow-up visit showed a blood lead level within normal limits (14.5 microg/dL) and a psychiatric follow-up was initiated. Lead poisoning following the ingestion of lead-containing foreign bodies is particularly rare in adults, while it is sometimes observed in children. Pica behavior is a well-identified risk factor of lead intoxication in children but is quite exceptional in adults, where it is usually considered to be a psychiatric condition. Other unusual sources of lead poisoning include the ingestion of lead bullets, ceramic lead glaze or glazed earthenware, lead-contaminated candies, ethnic or herbal remedies.

  10. La porcelana de sepiolita de Bartolomé Sureda (1802-1808. Investigación arqueométrica sobre la Real Fábrica de Buen Retiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascual, C.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This work deals with an original class of porcelain produced under the direction of Bartolomé Sureda in the last years (1803- 1808 of the Royal Porcelain Factory of Buen Retiro. The results of the chemical and mineralogical analysis of a selection of tableware, tiles and sculpture shards, found in the archaeological excavation (1996 of the site where the factory was built, confirm the production of a new hard-paste porcelain where the kaolin was substituted by a magnesium clay, the sepiolite. The characteristics of pastes and glazes and the investigation of the historic and scientific contexts of porcelain and white earthenware in Europe have allowed establishing the reasons and the technical parameters of this production. Replicas of the paste were done in the laboratory to assert the raw materials and the firing conditions of this porcelain.

    Este trabajo considera el estudio arqueométrico de un tipo de porcelana muy poco frecuente que se elaboró en los últimos años de la Real Fábrica de Porcelanas del Buen Retiro (1803-1808 bajo la dirección de Bartolomé Sureda. El análisis químico y mineralógico de una selección de fragmentos de vajillas, azulejos y esculturas, que se encontraron en la excavación arqueológica (1996 del solar de la fábrica, ratifica la producción de un nuevo tipo de porcelana dura, en la que se empleaba una arcilla de magnesio, la sepiolita, en lugar del caolín. Las características de las pastas y los vidriados y la investigación del contexto histórico y científico de la porcelana y la cerámica blanca en Europa han permitido establecer los motivos y los parámetros de su producción. La reproducción de la pasta a escala de laboratorio confirma las materias primas utilizadas y el tratamiento térmico empleado

  11. Utilization of technology relevant to radiation and isotope in the archaeological research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuoka, Nobuaki; Kawamura, Hidehisa

    2005-01-01

    Many kinds of scientific technology have been used in the archaeological research. Especially the methodologies relevant to radiation and isotope have contributed to archaeology, giving a lot of scientific information. Among these methodologies, the radiocarbon dating, proposed by Willard Libby, has the greatest contribution since 1950. In Japan some scientists introduced this dating method immediately after Libby's proposal. As the result, the start of the Jomon period, in which the rope pattern was applied for decoration of earthenware, was reconsidered to be about 10,000 years ago. Yoshimasa Takashima mastered this technique and did the dendrochronological study at University of Washington, Seattle, from 1960 to 1961. After that he started the radiocarbon dating in Kyushu University, Fukuoka. First he employed the proportional gas counter to measure 14 C, requiring the complicated and time-consuming preparation of sample. When he restarted the radio-carbon dating with the authors in 1994 at Kyushu Environmental Evaluation Association (KEEA), he adopted the liquid scintillation counting method combined with the benzene synthesis from sample. Because this method is so convenient, many laboratories have adopted it as the conventional method in Japan. Since 1994, almost 100 samples have been treated every year in KEEA by this method. However this requires considerably much amount of sample, for example 20g in the case of wood. So that, in case of only small amount of sample can be obtained or a valuable sample is subjected to measurement, this method cannot be applicable. To resolve this problem, the accelerator mass spectrometer (AMS) has been used widely. In this method the atoms of 14 C are counted directly, getting the high sensitivity and requiring very small amount of sample (order of mg). Recently, in KEEA, the radiocarbon dating using AMS was started under the cooperation with Center for Applied Isotope Studies (CAIS), University of Georgia. Another work of

  12. Use of OVH residue in the ceramics industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grellier, S.

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Hydrothermal oxidation (OVH: “Oxydation par Voie Humide” is an innovative technology used for waste water treatment, which is presented as an alternative to sewage sludge spreading and incineration. This process generates a fine-grain (D50 = 2 μm mineral by-product, which is very useful for the ceramics industry due to its high content in argillaceous elements, quartz, phosphate and calcium carbonate. Therefore, this work describes the recycling of this OVH residue in the ceramics industry, and more particularly in the manufacture of calcareous earthenware wall tiles. The residue can be combined with a white calcareous earthenware body up to a level of 7% without significant colorimetric deterioration, and if this is raised to 15%, it is possible to completely replace the crushed chalk, some of the quartz and reduce costly imported tight-burning clays by 6%. The developed body exceeds standardised requirements (modulus of rupture: + 40%; moisture swelling and glaze quality, which means that a 20°C reduction in firing temperature might be envisaged. An industrial pilot test of 1500 kg conducted by the DESVRES site managers with 100 m2 of tiles (format: 15 x 20 cm confirmed these laboratory results, in particular validating the absence of rheological disturbance of the slip and the harmlessness of the addition on the maturing glaze quality. Furthermore, the nature of the fumes emitted in the test complied with current regulations, and the finished product did not exceed the thresholds defined by European regulations for inert waste classification.

    La oxidación hidrotérmica (OVH: “Oxydation par Voie Humide” u oxidación por vía húmeda es una tecnología innovadora usada en la depuración de las aguas residuales, que se presenta como alternativa al esparcimiento y a la incineración de los lodos de aguas negras. Este proceso genera un producto derivado de mineral de grano fino (D50 = 2 μm que es muy útil para la

  13. Μαρτυρίες ιστορικών πηγών και αρχαιολογικών ευρημάτων για μια μορφή "βιολογικού" πολέμου με τη χρήση των μελισσών στο Βυζάντιο

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Σοφία ΓΕΡΜΑΝΙΔΟΥ

    2013-12-01

    earthenware vessels were the most common type of early Byzantine beehives, identified by the shallow incisions in the inner surface of the walls. Four intact  samples of this type of pottery were found inside a tower of the Hexamilion Fortress at Isthmia (6th century, one of the most important military complexes of Justinian period. The unexpected location and the specific artifact types suggest alternative interpretations for their use, among them their possible military use. This paradox aspect of biological war did not die out, instead it inspired much more elaborated, devious methods of warfere in the aftermath of the Middle Ages.    

  14. Use and trade of bitumen in antiquity and prehistory: molecular archaeology reveals secrets of past civilizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connan, J.

    1999-01-01

    Natural asphalt (or bitumen) deposits, oil seepage and liquid oil shows are widespread in the Middle East, especially in the Zagros mountains of Iran. Ancient people from northern Iraq, south-west Iran and the Dead Sea area extensively used this ubiquitous natural resource until the Neolithic period (7000 to 6000 BC). Evidence of earlier use has been recently documented in the Syrian desert near El Kown, where bitumen-coated flint implements, dated to 40,000 BC (Mousterian period), have been unearthed. This discovery at least proves that bitumen was used by Neanderthal populations as hafting material to fix handles to their flint tools. Numerous testimonies, proving the importance of this petroleum-based material in Ancient civilizations, were brought to light by the excavations conducted in the Near East as of the beginning of the century. Bitumen remains show a wide range of uses that can be classified under several headings. First of all, bitumen was largely used in Mesopotamia and Elam as mortar in the construction of palaces (e.g. the Darius Palace in Susa), temples, ziggurats (e.g. the so-called 'Tower of Babel' in Babylon), terraces (e.g. the famous 'Hanging Gardens of Babylon') and exceptionally for roadway coating (e.g. the processional way of Babylon). Since the Neolithic, bitumen served to waterproof containers (baskets, earthenware jars, storage pits), wooden posts, palace grounds (e.g. in Mari and Haradum), reserves of lustral waters, bathrooms, palm roofs, etc. Mats, sarcophagi, coffins and jars, used for funeral practices, were often covered and sealed with bitumen. Reed and wood boats were also caulked with bitumen. Abundant lumps of bituminous mixtures used for that particular purpose have been found in storage rooms of houses at Ra's al-Junayz in Oman. Bitumen was also a widespread adhesive in antiquity and served to repair broken ceramics, fix eyes and horns on statues (e.g. at Tell al-Ubaid around 2500 BC). Beautiful decorations with stones

  15. Smelting crucibles to reduce copper minerals in the Iberian Peninsula and in southern France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rovira, Salvador

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available As was shown in Spain by the end of the 1980s, the use of common earthenware vessels as containers for prehistoric copper metallurgy has also been discovered in France. The authors propose in this article a synthesis of the knowledge concerning the use of this technology in Spain, its chronological and geographical frameworks and the more relevant mineralogical and metallurgical features. All this allows us to show the effectiveness and simplicity of the resources used to practice this early metallurgy. The finds in France are more modest and rarely have been analysed properly in the laboratory. However, the review of the archaeological record suggests that specific research informed by the results presented in the article would provide evidence of the impact of this technology through the Copper and Bronze Ages.

    [es] Puesta en evidencia en España a finales de la década de los ochenta, la utilización de vasijas de cerámica común como recipiente de la metalurgia del cobre prehistórico ha sido identificada también en Francia. Los autores proponen una síntesis del estado de los conocimientos sobre el uso de esta técnica en España, su encuadre geográfico y cronológico y sus principales características mineralógicas y metalúrgicas. Estas últimas permiten mostrar la eficacia y la simplicidad de los medios puestos en juego para la realización de esta metalurgia inicial. En contrapartida, en Francia los hallazgos son todavía modestos y sólo unos pocos han sido objeto de los apropiados análisis de laboratorio. No obstante, la revisión de la documentación arqueológica sugiere que investigaciones específicas orientadas por los resultados expuestos en este artículo deberían permitir en Francia, como ha sucedido en España en el curso de los últimos años, poner de manifiesto el impacto de esta técnica durante las Edades del Cobre y del Bronce. [fr] Les céramiques à réduire le minerai de cuivre dans la Péninsule Ib