WorldWideScience

Sample records for earth scrutinizers neutrinos

  1. Scrutinizing supergravity models through neutrino telescopes

    CERN Document Server

    Gandhi, R; Nanopoulos, Dimitri V; Yuan, K; Zichichi, Antonino; Gandhi, Raj; Lopez, Jorge L.; Yuan, Kajia

    1994-01-01

    Galactic halo neutralinos ($\\chi$) captured by the Sun or Earth produce high-energy neutrinos as end-products of various annihilation modes. These neutrinos can travel from the Sun or Earth cores to the neighborhood of underground detectors (``neutrino telescopes") where they can interact and produce upwardly-moving muons. We compute these muon fluxes in the context of the minimal $SU(5)$ supergravity model, and the no-scale and dilaton $SU(5)\\times U(1)$ supergravity models. At present, with the Kamiokande 90\\% C.L. upper limits on the flux, only a small fraction of the parameter space of the $SU(5)\\times U(1)$ models is accessible for $m_\\chi\\sim m_{\\rm Fe}$, which in turn implies constraints for the lightest chargino mass around 100 GeV for a range of $\\tan\\beta$ values. We also delineate the regions of parameter space that would be accessible with the improvements of experimental sensitivity expected in the near future at Gran Sasso, Super-Kamiokande, and other facilities such as DUMAND and AMANDA, curren...

  2. Applicability of neutrino beams to Earth exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolgoshein, B.A.; Kalinovskij, A.N.

    1985-01-01

    The projects on applicability of neutrino beams from high energy accelerators for geological exploration and study of the Earth structure are discussed. The GENIUS (Geological Exploration by Neutrino Induced Underground Sound) project is among them. It covers detecting and studying space-time characteristics of acoustic signal arising in case of neutrino interaction with Earth depth rocks discussed. The GEMINI (Geological Exploration with Muons Induced by neutrino interactions) project represents one more possibility for using geotron neutrino beam for the purpose of geological exploration. The GEOSCAN project represents the possibility for applying high energy neutrino beams for the purpose of the Earth translusence to determine the changes in the density of internal part of the Earth. The necessity of detailed investigations of the problem of applicability of neutrino beams in the field of the Earth exploration is pointed out

  3. Geo-neutrinos and earth's interior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiorentini, Gianni; Lissia, Marcello; Mantovani, Fabio

    2007-01-01

    The deepest hole that has ever been dug is about 12 km deep. Geochemists analyze samples from the Earth's crust and from the top of the mantle. Seismology can reconstruct the density profile throughout all Earth, but not its composition. In this respect, our planet is mainly unexplored. Geo-neutrinos, the antineutrinos from the progenies of U, Th and 40 K decays in the Earth, bring to the surface information from the whole planet, concerning its content of natural radioactive elements. Their detection can shed light on the sources of the terrestrial heat flow, on the present composition, and on the origins of the Earth. Geo-neutrinos represent a new probe of our planet, which can be exploited as a consequence of two fundamental advances that occurred in the last few years: the development of extremely low background neutrino detectors and the progress on understanding neutrino propagation. We review the status and the prospects of the field

  4. Atmospheric neutrino oscillations for earth tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winter, Walter

    2016-01-01

    Modern proposed atmospheric neutrino oscillation experiments, such as PINGU in the Antarctic ice or ORCA in Mediterranean sea water, aim for precision measurements of the oscillation parameters including the ordering of the neutrino masses. They can, however, go far beyond that: Since neutrino oscillations are affected by the coherent forward scattering with matter, neutrinos can provide a new view on the interior of the earth. We show that the proposed atmospheric oscillation experiments can measure the lower mantle density of the earth with a precision at the level of a few percent, including the uncertainties of the oscillation parameters and correlations among different density layers. While the earth's core is, in principle, accessible by the angular resolution, new technology would be required to extract degeneracy-free information.

  5. Spectrometry of the Earth using Neutrino Oscillations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rott, C.; Taketa, A.; Bose, D.

    2015-01-01

    The unknown constituents of the interior of our home planet have provoked the human imagination and driven scientific exploration. We herein demonstrate that large neutrino detectors could be used in the near future to significantly improve our understanding of the Earth’s inner chemical composition. Neutrinos, which are naturally produced in the atmosphere, traverse the Earth and undergo oscillations that depend on the Earth’s electron density. The Earth’s chemical composition can be determined by combining observations from large neutrino detectors with seismic measurements of the Earth’s matter density. We present a method that will allow us to perform a measurement that can distinguish between composition models of the outer core. We show that the next-generation large-volume neutrino detectors can provide sufficient sensitivity to reject extreme cases of outer core composition. In the future, dedicated instruments could be capable of distinguishing between specific Earth composition models and thereby reshape our understanding of the inner Earth in previously unimagined ways. PMID:26489447

  6. Monochromatic neutrinos from massive fourth generation neutrino annihilation in the Sun and Earth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belotskij, K.M.; Khlopov, M.Yu.; Shibaev, K.I.

    2001-01-01

    Accumulation inside the Earth and Sun of heavy (with the mass of 50 GeV) primordial neutrinos and antineutrinos of the fourth generation and their successive annihilation is considered. The minimal estimations of annihilational fluxes of monochromatic e, μ, τ neutrinos (neutrinos and antineutrinos) with the energy of 50 GeV are 4.1·10 -6 cm -2 ·s -1 from the Earth core and 1.1·10 -7 cm -2 ·s -1 from the Sun core. That makes the analysis of underground neutrino observatory data the additional source of information on the existence of massive stable 4th generation neutrino. It is shown that due to the kinetic equilibrium between the influx of the neutrinos and their annihilation the existence of new U(1)-gauge interaction of the 4th generation neutrino does not virtually influence the estimations of annihilational e-, μ-, τ-neutrino fluxes

  7. Neutrino oscillations in the Earth suggest a terrestrial test of solution to solar neutrino problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dar, A.; Mann, A.; Technicon-Israel Inst. of Tech., Haifa. Space Research Inst.)

    1987-01-01

    The verification of the Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein (MSW) solution of the solar neutrino problem is discussed. One verification experiment concerns the detection of sizeable oscillations of atmospheric neutrinos in the earth, which can be detected with the massive underground proton decay detectors. Diurnal and seasonal modulations of the solar neutrino flux can perhaps be detected by the radiochemical Cl and Ga detectors. Moreover, neutrino oscillations in the Earth may modify the values of the oscillation parameters which can solve the solar neutrino problem and help determine their values. (UK)

  8. Earth Effects and Mass Hierarchy with Supernova Neutrinos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dasgupta, Basudeb

    2009-01-01

    Collective neutrino flavor transformations take place deep inside a supernova if the neutrino mass hierarchy is inverted, even for extremely small values of θ 13 . We show that the presence (or absence) of Earth matter effects in antineutrino signal is directly related to the absence (or presence) of these collective effects, when the mixing angle θ 13 is small. Thus a neutrino signal from a galactic supernova may enable us to distinguish between the hierarchies even for small values of θ 13 .

  9. Nuclear and subnuclear geophysics. Neutrinos from the Earth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiorentini, G.

    2005-01-01

    The deepest hole that has ever been dug is about 12 km deep, a mere dent in planetary terms. Geochemists analyze samples from the Earth's crust and from the top of the mantle. Seismology can reconstruct the density profile throughout all Earth, but not its composition. In this respect, our planet is mainly unexplored. Geo-neutrinos, the antineutrinos from the progenies of U, Th and 40 K decays in the Earth, bring to the surface information from the whole planet, concerning its content of radioactive elements. Their detection can shed light on the sources of the terrestrial heat flow, on the present composition and on the origin of the Earth. They represent a new probe of our planet which is becoming practical as a consequence of two fundamental advances that occurred in the last few years: the development of extremely low background neutrino detectors and the progress in understanding neutrino propagation. (author)

  10. Diagram of CNGS neutrinos travelling through the Earth

    CERN Multimedia

    Jean-Luc Caron

    2001-01-01

    Neutrinos produced by decays of the products of collisions between protons accelerated at the Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) and a graphite fixed target at CERN pass through the Earth to a huge detector at Gran Sasso in Italy. During their 732 km journey they will reach a maximum depth in the Earth of 11.4 km.

  11. Matter oscillations: Neutrino transformation and regeneration in the earth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baltz, A.J.; Weneser, J.

    1987-01-01

    Transformation and regeneration phenomena are calculated to result from transmission through the Earth of neutrinos with E(MeV)/Δm 2 (eV) 2 in the vicinity of 10 6 to 10 7 . As a result, large time-of-night and seasonal variations are predicted for various solar neutrino experiments in this parameter range. Analagous effects are predicted for terrestrial cosmic ray and accelerator experiments

  12. Propagation of GeV neutrinos through Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivas, Yaithd Daniel; Sahu, Sarira

    2018-06-01

    We have studied the Earth matter effect on the oscillation of upward going GeV neutrinos by taking into account the three active neutrino flavors. For neutrino energy in the range 3 to 12 GeV we observed three distinct resonant peaks for the oscillation process νe ↔νμ,τ in three distinct densities. However, according to the most realistic density profile of the Earth, the second peak at neutrino energy 6.18 GeV corresponding to the density 6.6 g/cm3 does not exist. So the resonance at this energy can not be of MSW-type. For the calculation of observed flux of these GeV neutrinos on Earth, we considered two different flux ratios at the source, the standard scenario with the flux ratio 1 : 2 : 0 and the muon damped scenario with 0 : 1 : 0. It is observed that at the detector while the standard scenario gives the observed flux ratio 1 : 1 : 1, the muon damped scenario has a different ratio. For muon damped case with Eν 20 GeV, we get the average Φνe ∼ 0 and Φνμ ≃Φντ ≃ 0.45. The upcoming PINGU will be able to shed more light on the nature of the resonance in these GeV neutrinos and hopefully will also be able to discriminate among different processes of neutrino production at the source in GeV energy range.

  13. Energy spectrum of tau leptons induced by the high energy Earth-skimming neutrinos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tseng, J.-J.; Yeh, T.-W.; Lee, F.-F.; Lin, G.-L.; Athar, H.; Huang, M.A.

    2003-01-01

    We present a semianalytic calculation of the tau-lepton flux emerging from the Earth induced by incident high energy neutrinos interacting inside the Earth for 10 5 ≤E ν /GeV≤10 10 . We obtain results for the energy dependence of the tau-lepton flux coming from the Earth-skimming neutrinos, because of the neutrino-nucleon charged-current scattering as well as the resonant ν(bar sign) e e - scattering. We illustrate our results for several anticipated high energy astrophysical neutrino sources such as the active galactic nuclei, the gamma-ray bursts, and the Greisen-Zatsepin-Kuzmin neutrino fluxes. The tau-lepton fluxes resulting from rock-skimming and ocean-skimming neutrinos are compared. Such comparisons can render useful information about the spectral indices of incident neutrino fluxes

  14. Detection of Supernova Neutrinos on the Earth for Large θ13

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jing; Huang, Ming-Yang; Hu, Li-Jun; Guo, Xin-Heng; Young, Bing-Lin

    2014-02-01

    Supernova (SN) neutrinos detected on the Earth are subject to the shock wave effects, the Mikheyev—Smirnov—Wolfenstein (MSW) effects, the neutrino collective effects and the Earth matter effects. Considering the recent experimental result about the large mixing angle θ13 (≃ 8.8°) provided by the Daya Bay Collaboration and applying the available knowledge for the neutrino conversion probability in the high resonance region of SN, PH, which is in the form of hypergeometric function in the case of large θ13, we deduce the expression of PH taking into account the shock wave effects. It is found that PH is not zero in a certain range of time due to the shock wave effects. After considering all the four physical effects and scanning relevant parameters, we calculate the event numbers of SN neutrinos for the “Garching” distribution of neutrino energy spectrum. From the numerical results, it is found that the behaviors of neutrino event numbers detected on the Earth depend on the neutrino mass hierarchy and neutrino spectrum parameters including the dimensionless pinching parameter βα (where α refers to neutrino flavor), the average energy , and the SN neutrino luminosities Lα. Finally, we give the ranges of SN neutrino event numbers that will be detected at the Daya Bay experiment.

  15. New enhancement mechanism of the transitions in the Earth of the solar and atmospheric neutrinos crossing the Earth core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petcov, S.T.

    1999-01-01

    It is shown that the ν 2 → ν e and ν μ → ν e (ν e → ν μ(τ) ) transitions respectively of the solar and atmospheric neutrinos in the Earth in the case of ν e - ν μ(τ) mixing in vacuum, are strongly enhanced by a new type of resonance when the neutrinos cross the Earth core. The resonance is operative at small mixing angles but differs from the MSW one. It is in many respects similar to the electron paramagnetic resonance taking place in a specific configuration of two magnetic fields. The conditions for existence of the new resonance include, in particular, specific constraints on the neutrino oscillation lengths in the Earth mantle and in the Earth core, thus the resonance is a 'neutrino oscillation length resonance'. It leads also to enhancement of the ν 2 → ν e and ν e → ν s transitions in the case of ν e - ν s mixing and of the ν-bar s (or ν μ → ν s ) transitions at small mixing angles. The presence of the neutrino oscillation length resonance in the transitions of solar and atmospheric neutrinos traversing the Earth core has important implications for current and future solar and atmospheric neutrino experiments, and more specifically, for the interpretation of the results of the Super-Kamiokande experiment

  16. Search for dark matter annihilation in the earth using the ANTARES neutrino telescope

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albert, A.; André, M.; Anghinolfi, M.; Anton, G.; Ardid, M.; Aubert, J.J.; Avgitas, T.; Baret, B.; Barrios-Marti, J.; Basa, S.; Bertin, V.; Biagi, S.; Bormuth, R.; Bourret, S.; Bouwhuis, M.C.; Bruijn, R.; Brunner, J.; Busto, J.; Capone, A.; Caramete, L.; Carr, J.; Celli, S.; Chiarusi, T.; Circella, M.; Coelho, J.A.; Coleiro, A.; Coniglione, R.; Costantini, H.; Coyle, P.; Creusot, A.; Deschamps, A.; De Bonis, G.; Distefano, C.; Di Palma, I.; Donzaud, C.; Dornic, D.; Drouhin, D.; Eberl, T.; El Bojaddaini, I.; Elsasser, D.; Enzenhofer, A.; Felis, I.; Fusco, L.A.; Galata, S.; Gay, P.; Geisselsoder, S.; Geyer, K.; Giordano, V.; Gleixner, A.; Glotin, H.; Grégoire, T.; Gracia-Ruiz, R.; Graf, K.; Hallmann, S.; van Haren, H.; Heijboer, A.J.; Hello, Y.; Hernandez-Rey, J.J.; Hofestadt, J.; Hugon, C.; Hossl, J.; Illuminati, G.; James, C.W.; de Jong, M.; Jongen, M.; Kadler, M.; Kalekin, O.; Katz, U.; Kiessling, D.; Kouchner, A.; Kreter, M.; Kreykenbohm, I.; Kulikovskiy, V.; Lachaud, C.; Lahmann, R.; Lefevre, D.; Leonora, E.; Lotze, M.; Loucatos, S.; Marcelin, M.; Margiotta, A.; Marinelli, A.; Martinez-Mora, J.A.; Mathieu, A.; Mele, R.; Melis, K.; Michael, T.; Migliozzi, P.; Moussa, A.; Mueller, C.; Nezri, E.; Pavalas, G.E.; Pellegrino, C.; Perrina, C.; Piattelli, P.; Popa, V.; Pradier, T.; Quinn, L.; Racca, C.; Riccobene, G.; Roensch, K.; Sanchez-Losa, A.; Saldana, M.; Salvadori, I.; Samtleben, D.F.E.; Sanguineti, M.; Sapienza, P.; Schnabel, J.; Schussler, F.; Seitz, T.; Sieger, C.; Spurio, M.; Stolarczyk, Th.; Taiuti, M.; Tayalati, Y.; Trovato, A.; Tselengidou, M.; Turpin, D.; Tönnis, C.; Vallage, B.; Vallee, C.; Van Elewyck, V.; Vivolo, D.; Vizzoca, A.; Wagner, S.; Wilms, J.; Zornoza, J.D.; Zuniga, J.

    2017-01-01

    A search for a neutrino signal from WIMP pair annihilations in the centre of the Earth has been performed with the data collected with the ANTARES neutrino telescope from 2007 to 2012. The event selection criteria have been developed and tuned to maximise the sensitivity of the experiment to such a

  17. Scrutinizing the epigenetics revolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meloni, Maurizio; Testa, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    Epigenetics is one of the most rapidly expanding fields in the life sciences. Its rise is frequently framed as a revolutionary turn that heralds a new epoch both for gene-based epistemology and for the wider discourse on life that pervades knowledge-intensive societies of the molecular age. The fundamentals of this revolution remain however to be scrutinized, and indeed the very contours of what counts as ‘epigenetic' are often blurred. This is reflected also in the mounting discourse on the societal implications of epigenetics, in which vast expectations coexist with significant uncertainty about what aspects of this science are most relevant for politics or policy alike. This is therefore a suitable time to reflect on the directions that social theory could most productively take in the scrutiny of this revolution. Here we take this opportunity in both its scholarly and normative dimension, that is, proposing a roadmap for social theorizing on epigenetics that does not shy away from, and indeed hopefully guides, the framing of its most socially relevant outputs. To this end, we start with an epistemological reappraisal of epigenetic discourse that valorizes the blurring of meanings as a critical asset for the field and privileged analytical entry point. We then propose three paths of investigation. The first looks at the structuring elements of controversies and visions around epigenetics. The second probes the mutual constitution between the epigenetic reordering of living phenomena and the normative settlements that orient individual and collective responsibilities. The third highlights the material import of epigenetics and the molecularization of culture that it mediates. We suggest that these complementary strands provide both an epistemically and socially self-reflective framework to advance the study of epigenetics as a molecular juncture between nature and nurture and thus as the new critical frontier in the social studies of the life sciences. PMID

  18. Penetration of the Earth by Ultrahigh Energy Neutrinos Predicted by Low x QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwiecinski, J.; Stasto, A.; Martin, A.D.

    1999-01-01

    Full text: We calculate the cross sections for neutrino interactions with (isoscalar) nuclear targets in the energy domain all the way up to 10 12 GeV. Small x QCD effects are included by using a unified BFKL/DGLAP formalism which embodies non-leading ln(1/x) contributions. The few free parameters which specify the input parton distributions are determined by fitting to HERA deep inelastic data. The attenuation of neutrinos transversing the Earth at different nadir angles is calculated for a variety of energy spectra for neutrinos originating from different sources (from Active Galactic Nuclei, Gamma ray bursts, top-down models), as well as for atmospheric neutrinos. For this purpose we solve the transport equation which includes regeneration due to neutral current neutrino interactions besides attenuation. (author)

  19. High energy neutrinos to see inside the Earth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borriello, E.; De Lellis, G.; Mangano, G.

    2010-01-01

    The new chances offered by elementary particles as probes of the internal structure of our planet are briefly reviewed, by paying particular attention to the case of high energy neutrinos. In particular, the new results concerning the shadow of mountains on ν τ flux at Pierre Auger Observatory is briefly discussed, and moreover the possibility to use the tail of atmospheric neutrinos to probe the core/mantle transition region is just sketched. (author)

  20. Neutrinos

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2004-01-01

    The Standard Model predicts that the neutrinos are massless and do not mix. Generic extensions of the Standard Model predict that neutrinos are massive (but, very likely, much lighter than the charged fermions). Therefore, the search for neutrino masses and mixing tests the Standard Model and probes new phasics. Measurements of various features of the fluxes of atmospheric, solar and, more recently, reactor neutrinos have provided evidence for neutrino oscillations and therefore for neutrino masses and mixing. These results have significant theoretical implications: new physics exists, and its scale can be estimated. There are interesting lessons for grand unified theories and for models of extra dimensions. The measured neutrino flavor parameters pose a challenge to flavor models.

  1. Effects of resonant matter oscillation in earth on solar neutrino detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiroi, Shinichi; Sakuma, Hiroko; Yanagida, Tsutomu; Yoshimura, Motohiko.

    1987-01-01

    A systematic study of the Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein (MSW) effect in earth is carried out on the solar neutrino flux from 8 B decay. In Kamiokande type detectors day-night difference of rates, seasonal variation and recoil electron spectrum are found to be good indicators of the earth effect for a range of mixing parameters around δm 2 = 3 x 10 -6 ev 2 and sin 2 2θ = 0.2. (author)

  2. Earth effect in the MSW analysis of the solar neutrino experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hata, N.; Langacker, P.

    1993-01-01

    We consider the Earth effect in the combined Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein analysis of the solar neutrino experiments including theoretical uncertainties. Using the time-averaged data, the allowed large-angle region extends to much smaller angles than when the Earth effect is ignored. However, the additional constraint from the Kamiokande II day-night data excludes the parameter space most sensitive to the Earth effect, leaving only a small large-angle region close to maximal mixing at 90% C.L. The nonadiabatic solution remains unaffected by the Earth effect and is still preferred

  3. Identifying Neutrino Mass Hierarchy at Extremely Small θ13 through Earth Matter Effects in a Supernova Signal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dasgupta, Basudeb; Dighe, Amol; Mirizzi, Alessandro

    2008-01-01

    Collective neutrino flavor transformations deep inside a supernova are sensitive to the neutrino mass hierarchy even at extremely small values of θ 13 . Exploiting this effect, we show that comparison of the antineutrino signals from a galactic supernova in two megaton class water Cherenkov detectors, one of which is shadowed by Earth, will enable us to distinguish between the hierarchies if sin 2 θ 13 -5 , where long baseline neutrino experiments would be ineffectual

  4. Neutrino masses and neutrino oscillations

    CERN Document Server

    Di Lella, L

    2000-01-01

    These lectures review direct measurements of neutrino masses and the status of neutrino oscillation searches using both natural neutrino sources (the Sun and cosmic rays interacting in the Earth atmosphere) and artificial neutrinos (produced by nuclear reactors and accelerators). Finally, future experiments and plans are presented. (68 refs).

  5. arXiv Scanning the Earth with solar neutrinos and DUNE

    CERN Document Server

    Ioannisian, Ara; Wyler, Daniel

    2017-08-08

    We explore oscillations of the solar B8 neutrinos in the Earth in detail. The relative excess of night νe events (the day-night asymmetry) is computed as function of the neutrino energy and the nadir angle η of its trajectory. The finite energy resolution of the detector causes an important attenuation effect, while the layer-like structure of the Earth density leads to an interesting parametric suppression of the oscillations. Different features of the η- dependence encode information about the structure (such as density jumps) of the Earth density profile; thus measuring the η distribution allows the scanning of the interior of the Earth. We estimate the sensitivity of the DUNE experiment to such measurements. About 75 neutrino events are expected per day in 40 kt. For high values of Δm212 and Eν>11  MeV, the corresponding D-N asymmetry is about 4% and can be measured with 15% accuracy after 5 years of data taking. The difference of the D-N asymmetry between high and low values of Δm212 can be ...

  6. Supernova neutrino detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selvi, M.

    2005-01-01

    Neutrinos emitted during a supernova core collapse represent a unique feature to study both stellar and neutrino properties. After discussing the details of the neutrino emission in the star and the effect of neutrino oscillations on the expected neutrino fluxes at Earth, a review of the detection techniques is presented in this paper, with particular attention to the problem of electron neutrino detection

  7. In situ determination of Earth matter density in a neutrino factory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minakata, Hisakazu; Uchinami, Shoichi

    2007-04-01

    We point out that an accurate in situ determination of the earth matter density ρ is possible in neutrino factory by placing a detector at the magic baseline, L=2π/GFNe where Ne denotes electron number density. The accuracy of matter density determination is excellent in a region of relatively large θ13 with fractional uncertainty δρ/ρ of about 0.43%, 1.3%, and ≲3% at 1σ CL at sin⁡22θ13=0.1, 10-2, and 3×10-3, respectively. At smaller θ13 the uncertainty depends upon the CP phase δ, but it remains small, 3% 7% in more than 3/4 of the entire region of δ at sin⁡22θ13=10-4. The results would allow us to solve the problem of obscured CP violation due to the uncertainty of earth matter density in a wide range of θ13 and δ. It may provide a test for the geophysical model of the earth, or it may serve as a method for a stringent test of the Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein theory of neutrino propagation in matter once an accurate geophysical estimation of the matter density is available.

  8. Local Doppler Effect, Index of Refraction through the Earth Crust, PDF and the CNGS Neutrino Anomaly?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Assis A. V. D. B.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In this brief paper, we show the neutrino velocity discrepancy obtained in the OPERA experiment may be due to the local Doppler effect between a local clock attached to a given detector at Gran Sasso, say C G , and the respective instantaneous clock crossing C G , say C C , being this latter at rest in the instantaneous inertial frame having got the velocity of rotation of CERN about Earth’s axis in relation to the fixed stars. With this effect, the index of refraction of the Earth crust may accomplish a refractive effect by which the neutrino velocity through the Earth crust turns out to be small in relation to the speed of light in the empty space, leading to an encrusted discrepancy that may have contamined the data obtained from the block of detectors at Gran Sasso, leading to a time interval excess that did not provide an exact match between the shift of the protons PDF (probability distribution function by TOF c and the detection data at Gran Sasso via the maximum likelihood matching.

  9. What Would It Take for an Atmospheric Neutrino Detector to Constrain the Hydrogen Content of the Earth's Core ?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourret, S.; Coelho, J. A. B.; Kaminski, E. C.; Van Elewyck, V.

    2017-12-01

    The difference between PREM density and seismic profiles in the Earth's core and the values for pure iron and iron-nickel alloys inferred from high pressure/high temperature experiments and ab initio calculations requires the presence of a few wt% of light elements. The nature and amount of these light elements (O, Si, S, H, C...) remains controversial. Recent studies have renewed the interest in H. It is the most abundant element in the nebula and can be easily dissolved in iron in the early stages of Earth's evolution. 1 to 2 wt% of H could explain the difference between PREM and pure iron. However, current geophysical methods alone cannot settle the debate between H and the other candidate elements. Neutrino oscillation tomography using atmospheric neutrinos opens an avenue to collect independent data on Earth's core composition. This method exploits the quantum phenomenon of neutrino flavour oscillations, which depends on the electron density along the path of the neutrino through the Earth. The combination of a neutrino-based measurement of the electron density with the PREM mass density profile constrains the average proton-to-nucleon ratio of the medium (Z/A). Since this parameter varies among chemical elements, e.g. 0.466 for Fe and 1 for H, this technique has the potential to provide unprecedented insights into the chemical composition of the core, and in particular its hydrogen content. Performing such a measurement requires large-size detectors with good efficiency in the relevant energy range and precise determination of the neutrino energy, arrival direction, and flavour. Considering a generic but realistic model of detector response, we quantify the influence of various detector performance indicators on the sensitivity to the average Z/A in the core. We further evaluate the impact of systematic uncertainties, such as those related to the physical model for neutrino oscillations and the incoming flux of atmospheric neutrinos. We consider specific

  10. Acquire information about neutrino parameters by detecting supernova neutrinos

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Ming-Yang; Guo, Xin-Heng; Young, Bing-Lin

    2010-01-01

    We consider the supernova shock effects, the Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein (MSW) effects, the collective effects, and the Earth matter effects in the detection of type II supernova neutrinos on the Earth. It is found that the event number of supernova neutrinos depends on the neutrino mass hierarchy, the neutrino mixing angle $\\theta_{13}$, and neutrino masses. Therefore, we propose possible methods to identify the mass hierarchy and acquire information about $\\theta_{13}$ and neutrino masses ...

  11. Neutrinos and Einstein

    CERN Document Server

    Suzuki, Yoichiro

    2005-01-01

    A tiny neutrino mass is a clue to the physics beyond the standard model of elementary particle physics. The primary cosmic rays, mostly protons, are created and accelerated to the relativistic energy in supernova remnants. They traverse the universe and reach the earth. The incoming primary cosmic rays interact with the earth's atmosphere to produce secondary particles, which subsequently decay into neutrinos, called atmospheric neutrinos. The atmospheric neutrinos have shown the evidence of the finite neutrino masses through the phenomena called neutrino oscillations. Neutrinos are detected by large detectors underground like, for example, Super-Kamiokande, SNO and KamLAND. Those detectors use large photomultiplier tubes, which make use of the photo-electric effect to convert photons created by the interaction of neutrinos to electrons to form electric pulses. Neutrinos are therefore created and detected by "Einstein" and have step forward beyond the current physics. Neutrinos may also carry a hit to the ori...

  12. The effects of Earth's magnetic field on 3-inch diameter photomultipliers used in KM3NeT neutrino telescope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giordano V.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The KM3NeT neutrino telescope will be the largest underwater neutrino telescope and will be located in the abyss of the Mediterranean Sea. In neutrino telescopes the key element of the detector is the optical module and for KM3NeT it consists of 31 PMTs stored inside a transparent pressure-resistant glass sphere of 17-inch that serves as mechanical protection while ensuring good light transmission. Since the PMTs installed into an underwater neutrino telescope can change their orientation because of movements of the detector structure due to sea currents, the influence of Earth's magnetic field has been investigated. Magnetic shielding by means of a mu-metal cage is used to reduce magnetic effects and to make the response of the PMT sufficiently orientation independent. In order to quantify the effect on magnetic field, we compared measurements on variation of gain, transit time spread and detection efficiency for a 3-inch PMT in shielded and unshielded condition at 3 PMT inclinations. Data shows that variations are sufficiently low especially for timing properties.

  13. Eclipsed neutrinos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    Full text: The total solar eclipse visible in Southern Asia on 24 October provided an opportunity for an unusual physics experiment. At face value, the levels of solar neutrinos detected on the Earth's surface are difficult to understand and suggest that perhaps the composition of solar neutrinos oscillates between different neutrino types on their journey. In this way neutrinos originating in the Sun as electrontype could convert into heavy neutrinos, which could subsequently disintegrate into an electron-neutrino and a photon. In certain neutrino scenarios, such a photon would have an energy corresponding to that of visible light, and in principle should be detectable if there are enough of them. The problem is that they would normally be swamped by the copious photons of sunlight. The 24 October solar eclipse provided a chance to check this out. A team led by François Vannucci, spokesman of the Nomad neutrino experiment at CERN, en route to the 'Rencontres du Vietnam' physics meeting in Ho Chi Minh Ville, set up a CCD-equipped telescope. To insure against cloud cover, a second telescope followed the eclipse in the desert of Rajastan, India, where the eclipse was to last only half as long, but the chance of cloud was minimal. No background solar signal was seen, or, expressed in physics terms, if solar radiation has any heavy neutrino component, then less than a millionth of it disintegrates into an electron neutrino and a visible photon before it arrives at the Earth. The negative result also has implications for candidate massive, unstable neutrinos from other sources, notably a component of the missing 'dark matter' of the Universe. The next such eclipse should be visible in North Asia in 1997, when hopefully better measurements will be made

  14. Acquiring information about neutrino parameters by detecting supernova neutrinos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ming-Yang; Guo, Xin-Heng; Young, Bing-Lin

    2010-08-01

    We consider the supernova shock effects, the Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein effects, the collective effects, and the Earth matter effects in the detection of type II supernova neutrinos on the Earth. It is found that the event number of supernova neutrinos depends on the neutrino mass hierarchy, the neutrino mixing angle θ13, and neutrino masses. Therefore, we propose possible methods to identify the mass hierarchy and acquire information about θ13 and neutrino masses by detecting supernova neutrinos. We apply these methods to some current neutrino experiments.

  15. Neutrino sunshine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    Full text: On 10 June 1992, at the Neutrino 92 meeting in Grenada, Spain, Till Kirsten of Heidelberg's Max Planck Institute reported that neutrinos from sunshine had been seen. Most of the energy pumped out by the Sun comes from the fusion of protons into alpha particles, a process which also liberates neutrinos. While it takes about a million years for radiant energy formed in the deep interior of the Sun to fight its way to the surface, the highly penetrating neutrinos emerge almost immediately. It was in 1970 that Ray Davis and his team began taking data with a tank containing 615 tons of perchloroethylene (dry cleaning fluid) 1500 metres underground in the Homestake gold mine, South Dakota. The observed signal is consistently smaller than what is expected. This 'solar neutrino problem' was confirmed by the Kamioka mine experiment in Japan, looking at the Cherenkov light released by neutrino interactions in some 700 tons of water. However these experiments are only sensitive to a tiny high energy tail of the solar neutrino spectrum, and to understand what is going on needs measurements of the primary neutrinos from proton fusion. To get at these neutrinos, two large new detectors, using gallium and sensitive to these lower energy particles, have been built and commissioned in the past few years. The detectors are SAGE ('Soviet' American Gallium Experiment) in the Baksan Neutrino Observatory in the Caucasus, and Gallex, a team from France, Germany, Israel, Italy and the US in the Italian Gran Sasso underground Laboratory. At Grenada, Kirsten reported unmistakable signs of solar neutrinos of proton origin recorded in Gallex. SAGE and Gallex do not yet have enough data to unambiguously fix the level of primary solar neutrinos reaching the Earth, and the interpretation of the interim results tends to be subjective. However after 23 years of conditioning through watching the solar neutrinos' high energy tail, the prospect of a neutrino

  16. Earth matter effects at very long baselines and the neutrino mass hierarchy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gandhi, Raj; Ghoshal, Pomita; Goswami, Srubabati; Mehta, Poonam; Sankar, S. Uma

    2006-01-01

    We study matter effects which arise in the muon neutrino oscillation and survival probabilities relevant to atmospheric neutrino and very long baseline (>4000 Km) beam experiments. The interrelations between the three probabilities P μe , P μτ , and P μμ are examined. It is shown that large and observable sensitivity to the neutrino mass hierarchy can be present in P μμ and P μτ . We emphasize that at baselines >7000 Km, matter effects in P μτ are important under certain conditions and can be large. The muon survival rates in experiments with very long baselines thus depend on matter effects in both P μτ and P μe . We also indicate where these effects provide sensitivity to θ 13 and identify ranges of energies and baselines where this sensitivity is maximum. The effect of parameter degeneracies in the three probabilities at these baselines and energies is studied in detail and large parts of the parameter space are identified which are free from these degeneracies. In the second part of the paper, we focus on using the matter effects studied in the first part as a means of determining the mass hierarchy via atmospheric neutrinos. Realistic event rate calculations are performed for a charge discriminating 100 kT iron calorimeter which demonstrate the possibility of realizing this very important goal in neutrino physics. It is shown that for atmospheric neutrinos, a careful selection of energy and baseline ranges is necessary in order to obtain a statistically significant signal, and that the effects are largest in bins where matter effects in both P μe and P μτ combine constructively. Under these conditions, up to a 4σ signal for matter effects is possible (for Δ 31 >0) within a time scale appreciably shorter than the one anticipated for neutrino factories

  17. Detecting supernova neutrinos in Daya Bay Neutrino Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Mingyang; Guo Xinheng; Yang Binglin

    2011-01-01

    While detecting supernova neutrinos in the Daya Bay neutrino laboratory, several supernova neutrino effects need to be considered, including the supernova shock effects, the neutrino collective effects, the Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein (MSW) effects, and the Earth matter effects. The phenomena of neutrino oscillation is affected by the above effects. Using some ratios of the event numbers of different supernova neutrinos, we propose some possible methods to identify the mass hierarchy and acquire information about the neutrino mixing angle θ13 and neutrino masses. (authors)

  18. Combined analysis of KamLAND and Borexino neutrino signals from Th and U decays in the Earth's interior

    CERN Document Server

    Fogli, G L; Palazzo, A; Rotunno, A M

    2010-01-01

    The KamLAND and Borexino experiments have detected electron antineutrinos produced in the decay chains of natural thorium and uranium (Th and U geoneutrinos). We analyze the energy spectra of current geoneutrino data in combination with solar and long-baseline reactor neutrino data, with marginalized three-neutrino oscillation parameters. We consider the case with unconstrained Th and U event rates in KamLAND and Borexino, as well as cases with fewer degrees of freedom, as obtained by successively assuming for both experiments a common Th/U ratio, a common scaling of Th+U event rates, and a chondritic Th/U value. In combination, KamLAND and Borexino can reject the null hypothesis (no geoneutrino signal) at 5 sigma. Interesting bounds or indications emerge on the Th+U geoneutrino rates and on the Th/U ratio, in broad agreement with typical Earth model expectations. Conversely, the results disfavor the hypothesis of a georeactor in the Earth's core, if its power exceeds a few TW. The interplay of KamLAND and Bo...

  19. Again on neutrino oscillations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilenky, S.M.; Pontecorvo, B.

    1976-01-01

    The general case is treated of a weak interaction theory in which a term violating lepton charges is present. In such a scheme the particles with definite masses are Majorana neutrinos (2N if in the weak interaction participate N four-component neutrinos). Neutrino oscillations are discussed and it is shown that the minimum average intensity at the earth of solar neutrinos is 1/2N of the intensity expected when oscillations are absent

  20. Geo-neutrino Observation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dye, S. T.; Alderman, M.; Batygov, M.; Learned, J. G.; Matsuno, S.; Mahoney, J. M.; Pakvasa, S.; Rosen, M.; Smith, S.; Varner, G.; McDonough, W. F.

    2009-01-01

    Observations of geo-neutrinos measure radiogenic heat production within the earth, providing information on the thermal history and dynamic processes of the mantle. Two detectors currently observe geo-neutrinos from underground locations. Other detection projects in various stages of development include a deep ocean observatory. This paper presents the current status of geo-neutrino observation and describes the scientific capabilities of the deep ocean observatory, with emphasis on geology and neutrino physics.

  1. CrossRef Neutrino factories

    CERN Document Server

    Wildner, Elena

    2016-01-01

    Neutrinos are produced by many processes in our universe. These elusive particles reach the earth having a certain energy permitting them to react with nuclei in detectors that are specifically designed to probe their properties. However, to get higher intensities and higher energy neutrinos for better statistics and better physics reach, the use of accelerators is necessary to advance in the field of neutrino research. To produce neutrinos with an accelerator, one needs to send a high power beam onto a target to get particles or isotopes that produce neutrinos with the required properties, by decay. The parent particles have to be collected and prepared for injection into an accelerating structure. Accelerator-based experiments can tune the energy of the produced neutrinos by boosting and controlling the energy of the parent particle. The produced neutrinos will travel the distance between the source and the detector, generally through earth; the distance the neutrino travels through earth, the energy of the...

  2. Neutrinos (1/3)

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2013-01-01

    The neutrino, the lightest and most weakly interacting particle of the Standard Model has revealed itself as the messenger of very exciting news in particle physics: there is Physics Beyond the Standard Model. All this thanks to the quantum-mechanical phenomenon of flavour oscillations which is intrinsically connected to the question of neutrino mass and which has been observed in neutrinos produced in natural sources, like the Sun and the Earth's atmosphere, as well as with human made neutrino beams at accelerator and reactors. The purpose of these lectures is to overview some aspects of the phenomenology of massive neutrinos. I will present the simplest extensions for adding neutrino masses to the SM, and then I will describe the phenomenology associated with neutrino oscillations in vacuum and in matter and its present signatures.

  3. Neutrino Physics

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva; Dydak, Friedrich

    2001-01-01

    Starting from a review of theoretical concepts and experimental results in the early years of neutrino physics after Pauli's 1930 letter, today's double role of the neutrino as a cornerstone of the Standard Model and as a promising probe of physics beyond the Standard Model will be discussed. Topics comprise: - Conventional neutrino beams - Neutrinos as probes of the nucleon structure - Neutrinos from the universe - Dirac or Majorana neutrinos - Neutrino oscillations - MNS matrix - CP violation in the lepton sector - Neutrino factory.

  4. Neutrino Physics

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva. Audiovisual Unit

    2002-01-01

    Starting from a review of theoretical concepts and experimental results in the early years of neutrino physics after Pauli's 1930 letter, today's double role of the neutrino as a cornerstone of the Standard Model and as a promising probe of physics beyond the Standard Model will be discussed. Topics comprise: - Conventional neutrino beams - Neutrinos as probes of the nucleon structure - Neutrinos from the universe - Dirac or Majorana neutrinos - Neutrino oscillations - MNS matrix - CP violation in the lepton sector - Neutrino factory.

  5. Geo-neutrino review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tolich, N.

    2012-01-01

    The principal source of energy for dynamic processes of the earth, such as plate tectonics is thought to come from the radioactive decays of 238 U, 232 Th, and 40 K within the earth. These decays produce electron-antineutrinos, so-called geo-neutrinos, the measurement of which near the earth's surface allows for a direct measure of the total radiogenic heat production in the earth. The KamLAND and Borexino experiments have both measured a geo-neutrino flux significantly greater than zero. As shown in these proceedings, more precise future measurements will significantly constrain earth composition models.

  6. Study of very low energy neutrinos from the Sun and from the Earth with the Borexino detector.

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2011-01-01

    Borexino is a liquid scintillator unsegmented detector, running at the Gran Sasso underground Laboratories (LNGS). Thanks to its unprecedented low level of radioactive contamination, Borexino currently is the only experiment able to perform a real time measurement of solar neutrino interactions below few MeV. In solar neutrinos Borexino measured the neutrino flux from 7Be (862 keV) with total uncertainty smaller than 5%, the flux from 8B with a lower threshold down to 3 MeV, the day/night asymmetry of the 7Be neutrino flux with a total experimental uncertainty of 1%. These measurements introduce strong constraints also on the solar neutrino flux from the pp and CNO reactions. The impact of these Borexino results are extremely relevant both in solar physics, in connection with the understanding of Sun-like stars, and in neutrino physics. In particular, the precision measurement of the 7Be solar neutrino flux allows a real time investigation of neutrino oscillations below few MeV and provides a unique opportuni...

  7. Neutrino geophysics - a future possibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiss, Dezsoe

    1988-01-01

    The history and basic properties of the neutrinos are reviewed. A new idea: neutrino tomography of the Earth interior is discussed in detail. The main contradiction: the high pervasivity of neutrinos, which makes possible the transillumination of the Earth, and the gigantic technical problems of detection caused by the small cross section is pointed out. The proposed possibilities of detection (radiowaves, sound, muons and Cherenkov light emitted by neutrinos) are described. Proposed futuristic technical ideas (mobile muon detectors aboard trucks, floating proton accelerators of 100 km circumference, moving in the ocean) and supposed geological aims (Earth's core, internal density anomalies, quarries of minerals and crude oil) are discussed. (D.Gy.) 5 figs

  8. Neutrino Interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamyshkov, Yuri; Handler, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    The neutrino group of the University of Tennessee, Knoxville was involved from 05/01/2013 to 04/30/2015 in the neutrino physics research funded by DOE-HEP grant DE-SC0009861. Contributions were made to the Double Chooz nuclear reactor experiment in France where second detector was commissioned during this period and final series of measurements has been started. Although Double Chooz was smaller experimental effort than competitive Daya Bay and RENO experiments, its several advantages make it valuable for understanding of systematic errors in measurements of neutrino oscillations. Double Chooz was the first experiment among competing three that produced initial result for neutrino angle θ_1_3 measurement, giving other experiments the chance to improve measured value statistically. Graduate student Ben Rybolt defended his PhD thesis on the results of Double Chooz experiment in 2015. UT group has fulfilled all the construction and analysis commitments to Double Chooz experiment, and has withdrawn from the collaboration by the end of the mentioned period to start another experiment. Larger effort of UT neutrino group during this period was devoted to the participation in another DOE-HEP project - NOvA experiment. The 14,000-ton 'FAR' neutrino detector was commissioned in northern Minnesota in 2014 together with 300-ton 'NEAR' detector located at Fermilab. Following that, the physics measurement program has started when Fermilab accelerator complex produced the high-intensity neutrino beam propagating through Earth to detector in MInnessota. UT group contributed to NOvA detector construction and developments in several aspects. Our Research Associate Athanasios Hatzikoutelis was managing (Level 3 manager) the construction of the Detector Control System. This work was successfully accomplished in time with the commissioning of the detectors. Group was involved in the development of the on-line software and study of the signatures of the cosmic ray backgrounds

  9. Neutrino Interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamyshkov, Yuri [Univ. of Tennesse, Knoxville, TN (United States); Handler, Thomas [Univ. of Tennesse, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    2016-10-24

    The neutrino group of the University of Tennessee, Knoxville was involved from 05/01/2013 to 04/30/2015 in the neutrino physics research funded by DOE-HEP grant DE-SC0009861. Contributions were made to the Double Chooz nuclear reactor experiment in France where second detector was commissioned during this period and final series of measurements has been started. Although Double Chooz was smaller experimental effort than competitive Daya Bay and RENO experiments, its several advantages make it valuable for understanding of systematic errors in measurements of neutrino oscillations. Double Chooz was the first experiment among competing three that produced initial result for neutrino angle θ13 measurement, giving other experiments the chance to improve measured value statistically. Graduate student Ben Rybolt defended his PhD thesis on the results of Double Chooz experiment in 2015. UT group has fulfilled all the construction and analysis commitments to Double Chooz experiment, and has withdrawn from the collaboration by the end of the mentioned period to start another experiment. Larger effort of UT neutrino group during this period was devoted to the participation in another DOE-HEP project - NOvA experiment. The 14,000-ton "FAR" neutrino detector was commissioned in northern Minnesota in 2014 together with 300-ton "NEAR" detector located at Fermilab. Following that, the physics measurement program has started when Fermilab accelerator complex produced the high-intensity neutrino beam propagating through Earth to detector in MInnessota. UT group contributed to NOvA detector construction and developments in several aspects. Our Research Associate Athanasios Hatzikoutelis was managing (Level 3 manager) the construction of the Detector Control System. This work was successfully accomplished in time with the commissioning of the detectors. Group was involved in the development of the on-line software and study of the signatures of the cosmic ray backgrounds

  10. Parametric resonance in neutrino oscillations in matter

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Neutrino oscillations in matter can exhibit a specific resonance enhancement - parametric resonance, which is different from the MSW resonance. Oscillations of atmospheric and solar neutrinos inside the earth can undergo parametric enhancement when neutrino trajectories cross the core of the earth. In this paper we ...

  11. Neutrino physics with JUNO

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Fengpeng; An, Guangpeng; An, Qi; Antonelli, Vito; Baussan, Eric; Beacom, John; Bezrukov, Leonid; Blyth, Simon; Brugnera, Riccardo; Buizza Avanzini, Margherita; Busto, Jose; Cabrera, Anatael; Cai, Hao; Cai, Xiao; Cammi, Antonio; Cao, Guofu; Cao, Jun; Chang, Yun; Chen, Shaomin; Chen, Shenjian; Chen, Yixue; Chiesa, Davide; Clemenza, Massimiliano; Clerbaux, Barbara; Conrad, Janet; D'Angelo, Davide; De Kerret, Hervé; Deng, Zhi; Deng, Ziyan; Ding, Yayun; Djurcic, Zelimir; Dornic, Damien; Dracos, Marcos; Drapier, Olivier; Dusini, Stefano; Dye, Stephen; Enqvist, Timo; Fan, Donghua; Fang, Jian; Favart, Laurent; Ford, Richard; Göger-Neff, Marianne; Gan, Haonan; Garfagnini, Alberto; Giammarchi, Marco; Gonchar, Maxim; Gong, Guanghua; Gong, Hui; Gonin, Michel; Grassi, Marco; Grewing, Christian; Guan, Mengyun; Guarino, Vic; Guo, Gang; Guo, Wanlei; Guo, Xin-Heng; Hagner, Caren; Han, Ran; He, Miao; Heng, Yuekun; Hsiung, Yee; Hu, Jun; Hu, Shouyang; Hu, Tao; Huang, Hanxiong; Huang, Xingtao; Huo, Lei; Ioannisian, Ara; Jeitler, Manfred; Ji, Xiangdong; Jiang, Xiaoshan; Jollet, Cécile; Kang, Li; Karagounis, Michael; Kazarian, Narine; Krumshteyn, Zinovy; Kruth, Andre; Kuusiniemi, Pasi; Lachenmaier, Tobias; Leitner, Rupert; Li, Chao; Li, Jiaxing; Li, Weidong; Li, Weiguo; Li, Xiaomei; Li, Xiaonan; Li, Yi; Li, Yufeng; Li, Zhi-Bing; Liang, Hao; Lin, Guey-Lin; Lin, Tao; Lin, Yen-Hsun; Ling, Jiajie; Lippi, Ivano; Liu, Dawei; Liu, Hongbang; Liu, Hu; Liu, Jianglai; Liu, Jianli; Liu, Jinchang; Liu, Qian; Liu, Shubin; Liu, Shulin; Lombardi, Paolo; Long, Yongbing; Lu, Haoqi; Lu, Jiashu; Lu, Jingbin; Lu, Junguang; Lubsandorzhiev, Bayarto; Ludhova, Livia; Luo, Shu; Lyashuk, Vladimir; Möllenberg, Randolph; Ma, Xubo; Mantovani, Fabio; Mao, Yajun; Mari, Stefano M.; McDonough, William F.; Meng, Guang; Meregaglia, Anselmo; Meroni, Emanuela; Mezzetto, Mauro; Miramonti, Lino; Mueller, Thomas; Naumov, Dmitry; Oberauer, Lothar; Ochoa-Ricoux, Juan Pedro; Olshevskiy, Alexander; Ortica, Fausto; Paoloni, Alessandro; Peng, Haiping; Peng, Jen-Chieh; Previtali, Ezio; Qi, Ming; Qian, Sen; Qian, Xin; Qian, Yongzhong; Qin, Zhonghua; Raffelt, Georg; Ranucci, Gioacchino; Ricci, Barbara; Robens, Markus; Romani, Aldo; Ruan, Xiangdong; Ruan, Xichao; Salamanna, Giuseppe; Shaevitz, Mike; Sinev, Valery; Sirignano, Chiara; Sisti, Monica; Smirnov, Oleg; Soiron, Michael; Stahl, Achim; Stanco, Luca; Steinmann, Jochen; Sun, Xilei; Sun, Yongjie; Taichenachev, Dmitriy; Tang, Jian; Tkachev, Igor; Trzaska, Wladyslaw; van Waasen, Stefan; Volpe, Cristina; Vorobel, Vit; Votano, Lucia; Wang, Chung-Hsiang; Wang, Guoli; Wang, Hao; Wang, Meng; Wang, Ruiguang; Wang, Siguang; Wang, Wei; Wang, Yi; Wang, Yi; Wang, Yifang; Wang, Zhe; Wang, Zheng; Wang, Zhigang; Wang, Zhimin; Wei, Wei; Wen, Liangjian; Wiebusch, Christopher; Wonsak, Björn; Wu, Qun; Wulz, Claudia-Elisabeth; Wurm, Michael; Xi, Yufei; Xia, Dongmei; Xie, Yuguang; Xing, Zhi-zhong; Xu, Jilei; Yan, Baojun; Yang, Changgen; Yang, Chaowen; Yang, Guang; Yang, Lei; Yang, Yifan; Yao, Yu; Yegin, Ugur; Yermia, Frédéric; You, Zhengyun; Yu, Boxiang; Yu, Chunxu; Yu, Zeyuan; Zavatarelli, Sandra; Zhan, Liang; Zhang, Chao; Zhang, Hong-Hao; Zhang, Jiawen; Zhang, Jingbo; Zhang, Qingmin; Zhang, Yu-Mei; Zhang, Zhenyu; Zhao, Zhenghua; Zheng, Yangheng; Zhong, Weili; Zhou, Guorong; Zhou, Jing; Zhou, Li; Zhou, Rong; Zhou, Shun; Zhou, Wenxiong; Zhou, Xiang; Zhou, Yeling; Zhou, Yufeng; Zou, Jiaheng

    2016-03-01

    . Detection of neutrinos from all past core-collapse supernova explosions in the visible universe with JUNO would further provide valuable information on the cosmic star-formation rate and the average core-collapse neutrino energy spectrum. Antineutrinos originating from the radioactive decay of uranium and thorium in the Earth can be detected in JUNO with a rate of ˜400 events per year, significantly improving the statistics of existing geoneutrino event samples. Atmospheric neutrino events collected in JUNO can provide independent inputs for determining the MH and the octant of the {θ }23 mixing angle. Detection of the 7Be and 8B solar neutrino events at JUNO would shed new light on the solar metallicity problem and examine the transition region between the vacuum and matter dominated neutrino oscillations. Regarding light sterile neutrino topics, sterile neutrinos with {10}-5 {{{eV}}}2\\lt {{Δ }}{m}412\\lt {10}-2 {{{eV}}}2 and a sufficiently large mixing angle {θ }14 could be identified through a precise measurement of the reactor antineutrino energy spectrum. Meanwhile, JUNO can also provide us excellent opportunities to test the eV-scale sterile neutrino hypothesis, using either the radioactive neutrino sources or a cyclotron-produced neutrino beam. The JUNO detector is also sensitive to several other beyondthe-standard-model physics. Examples include the search for proton decay via the p\\to {K}++\\bar{ν } decay channel, search for neutrinos resulting from dark-matter annihilation in the Sun, search for violation of Lorentz invariance via the sidereal modulation of the reactor neutrino event rate, and search for the effects of non-standard interactions. The proposed construction of the JUNO detector will provide a unique facility to address many outstanding crucial questions in particle and astrophysics in a timely and cost-effective fashion. It holds the great potential for further advancing our quest to understanding the fundamental properties of neutrinos, one

  12. MSW effect and solar neutrino experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosen, S.P.

    1986-01-01

    We describe the MSW solutions to the 37 Cl solar neutrino experiment, and their implications for the 71 Ga experiment. Measurement of the spectrum of electron-type neutrinos arriving at earth is emphasized. 8 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  13. Probing neutrino dark energy with extremely high-energy cosmic neutrinos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ringwald, A.; Schrempp, L.

    2006-06-01

    Recently, a new non-Standard Model neutrino interaction mediated by a light scalar field was proposed, which renders the big-bang relic neutrinos of the cosmic neutrino background a natural dark energy candidate, the so-called Neutrino Dark Energy. As a further consequence of this interaction, the neutrino masses become functions of the neutrino energy densities and are thus promoted to dynamical, time/redshift dependent quantities. Such a possible neutrino mass variation introduces a redshift dependence into the resonance energies associated with the annihilation of extremely high-energy cosmic neutrinos on relic anti-neutrinos and vice versa into Z-bosons. In general, this annihilation process is expected to lead to sizeable absorption dips in the spectra to be observed on earth by neutrino observatories operating in the relevant energy region above 10 13 GeV. In our analysis, we contrast the characteristic absorption features produced by constant and varying neutrino masses, including all thermal background effects caused by the relic neutrino motion. We firstly consider neutrinos from astrophysical sources and secondly neutrinos originating from the decomposition of topological defects using the appropriate fragmentation functions. On the one hand, independent of the nature of neutrino masses, our results illustrate the discovery potential for the cosmic neutrino background by means of relic neutrino absorption spectroscopy. On the other hand, they allow to estimate the prospects for testing its possible interpretation as source of Neutrino Dark Energy within the next decade by the neutrino observatories ANITA and LOFAR. (Orig.)

  14. Neutrino physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gil-Botella, I.

    2011-01-01

    The fundamental properties of neutrinos are reviewed in these lectures. The first part is focused on the basic characteristics of neutrinos in the Standard Model and how neutrinos are detected. Neutrino masses and oscillations are introduced and a summary of the most important experimental results on neutrino oscillations to date is provided. Then, present and future experimental proposals are discussed, including new precision reactor and accelerator experiments. Finally, different approaches for measuring the neutrino mass and the nature (Majorana or Dirac), of neutrinos are reviewed. The detection of neutrinos from supernovae explosions and the information that this measurement can provide are also summarized at the end. (author)

  15. Sudbury neutrino observatory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ewan, G.T.; Mak, H.B.; Robertson, B.C.

    1985-07-01

    This report discusses the proposal to construct a unique neutrino observatory. The observatory would contain a Cerenkov detector which would be located 2070 m below the earth's surface in an INCO mine at Creighton near Sudbury and would contain 1000 tons of D20 which is an excellent target material. Neutrinos carry detailed information in their spectra on the reactions taking place deep in the interstellar interior and also provide information on supernova explosions. In addition to their role as astrophysical probes a knowledge of the properties of neutrinos is crucial to theories of grand unification. There are three main objectives of the laboratory. The prime objective will be to study B electron neutrinos from the sun by a direct counting method that will measure their energy and direction. The second major objective will be to establish if electron neutrinos change into other neutrino species in transit from the sun to the earth. Finally it is hoped to be able to observe a supernova with the proposed detector. The features of the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory which make it unique are its high sensitivity to electron neutrinos and its ability to detect all other types of neutrinos of energy greater than 2.2 MeV. In section II of this proposal the major physics objectives are discussed in greater detail. A conceptual design for the detector, and measurements and calculations which establish the feasibility of the neutrino experiments are presented in section III. Section IV is comprised of a discussion on the possible location of the laboratory and Section V contains a brief indication of the main areas to be studied in Phase II of the design study

  16. Signatures of the neutrino mass hierarchy in supernova neutrinos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiu, S.H.; Huang, Chu-Ching; Lai, Kwang-Chang

    2015-01-01

    The undetermined neutrino mass hierarchy may leave an observable imprint on the neutrino fluxes from a core-collapse supernova (SN). The interpretation of the observables, however, is subject to the uncertain SN models and the flavor conversion mechanism of neutrinos in a SN. We attempt to propose a qualitative interpretation of the expected neutrino events at terrestrial detectors, focusing on the accretion phase of the neutrino burst. The flavor conversions due to neutrino self-interaction, the MSW effect, and the Earth regeneration effect are incorporated in the calculation. It leads to several distinct scenarios that are identified by the neutrino mass hierarchies and the collective flavor transitions. Consequences resulting from the variation of incident angles and SN models are also discussed

  17. Neutrino cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berstein, J.

    1984-01-01

    These lectures offer a self-contained review of the role of neutrinos in cosmology. The first part deals with the question 'What is a neutrino.' and describes in a historical context the theoretical ideas and experimental discoveries related to the different types of neutrinos and their properties. The basic differences between the Dirac neutrino and the Majorana neutrino are pointed out and the evidence for different neutrino 'flavours', neutrino mass, and neutrino oscillations is discussed. The second part summarizes current views on cosmology, particularly as they are affected by recent theoretical and experimental advances in high-energy particle physics. Finally, the close relationship between neutrino physics and cosmology is brought out in more detail, to show how cosmological constraints can limit the various theoretical possibilities for neutrinos and, more particularly, how increasing knowledge of neutrino properties can contribute to our understanding of the origin, history, and future of the Universe. The level is that of the beginning graduate student. (orig.)

  18. Neutrino mass?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kayser, B.

    1992-01-01

    After arguing that we should be looking for evidence of neutrino mass, we illustrate the possible consequences of neutrino mass and mixing. We then turn to the question of whether neutrinos are their own antiparticles, and to the process which may answer this question: neutrinoless double beta decay. Next, we review the proposed Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein solution to the solar neutrino problem, and discuss models which can generate neutrino electromagnetic moments large enough to play a role in the sun. Finally, we consider how the possible 17 keV neutrino, if real, would fit in with everything we know about neutrinos. (orig.)

  19. ANTARES : The first undersea neutrino telescope

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ageron, M.; Aguilar, J. A.; Al Samarai, I.; Albert, A.; Ameli, F.; Andre, M.; Anghinolfi, M.; Anton, G.; Anvar, S.; Ardid, M.; Arnaud, K.; Aslanides, E.; Jesus, A. C. Assis; Astraatmadja, T.; Aubert, J. -J.; Auer, R.; Barbarito, E.; Baret, B.; Basa, S.; Bazzotti, M.; Becherini, Y.; Beltramelli, J.; Bersani, A.; Bertin, V.; Beurthey, S.; Biagi, S.; Bigongiari, C.; Billault, M.; Blaes, R.; Bogazzi, C.; de Botton, N.; Bou-Cabo, M.; Boudahef, B.; Bouwhuis, M. C.; Brown, A. M.; Brunner, J.; Busto, J.; Caillat, L.; Calzas, A.; Camarena, F.; Capone, A.; Caponetto, L.; Carloganu, C.; Carminati, G.; Carmona, E.; Carr, J.; Carton, P. H.; Cassano, B.; Castorina, E.; Cecchini, S.; Ceres, A.; Chaleil, Th; Charvis, Ph; Chauchot, P.; Chiarusi, T.; Circella, M.; Compere, C.; Coniglione, R.; Coppolani, X.; Cosquer, A.; Costantini, H.; Cottini, N.; Coyle, P.; Cuneo, S.; Curtil, C.; D'Amato, C.; Damy, G.; van Dantzig, R.; De Bonis, G.; Decock, G.; Decowski, M. P.; Dekeyser, I.; Delagnes, E.; Desages-Ardellier, F.; Deschamps, A.; Destelle, J. -J.; Di Maria, F.; Dinkespiler, B.; Distefano, C.; Dominique, J. -L.; Donzaud, C.; Dornic, D.; Dorosti, Q.; Drogou, J. -F.; Drouhin, D.; Druillole, F.; Durand, D.; Durand, R.; Eberl, T.; Emanuele, U.; Engelen, J. J.; Ernenwein, J. -P.; Escoffier, S.; Falchini, E.; Favard, S.; Fehr, F.; Feinstein, F.; Ferri, M.; Ferry, S.; Fiorello, C.; Flaminio, V.; Folger, F.; Fritsch, U.; Fuda, J. -L.; Galata, S.; Galeotti, S.; Gay, P.; Gensolen, F.; Giacomelli, G.; Gojak, C.; Gomez-Gonzalez, J. P.; Goret, Ph.; Graf, K.; Guillard, G.; Halladjian, G.; Hallewell, G.; van Haren, H.; Hartmann, B.; Heijboer, A. J.; Heine, E.; Hello, Y.; Henry, S.; Hernandez-Rey, J. J.; Herold, B.; Hoessl, J.; Hogenbirk, J.; Hsu, C. C.; Hubbard, J. R.; Jaquet, M.; Jaspers, M.; de Jong, M.; Jourde, D.; Kadler, M.; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N.; Kalekin, O.; Kappes, A.; Karg, T.; Karkar, S.; Karolak, M.; Katz, U.; Keller, P.; Kestener, P.; Kok, E.; Kok, H.; Kooijman, P.; Kopper, C.; Kouchner, A.; Kretschmer, W.; Kruijer, A.; Kuch, S.; Kulikovskiy, V.; Lachartre, D.; Lafoux, H.; Lagier, P.; Lahmann, R.; Lahonde-Hamdoun, C.; Lamare, P.; Lambard, G.; Languillat, J-C; Larosa, G.; Lavalle, J.; Le Guen, Y.; Le Provost, H.; LeVanSuu, A.; Lefevre, D.; Legou, T.; Lelaizant, G.; Leveque, C.; Lim, G.; Lo Presti, D.; Loehner, H.; Loucatos, S.; Louis, F.; Lucarelli, F.; Lyashuk, V.; Magnier, P.; Mangano, S.; Marcel, A.; Marcelin, M.; Margiotta, A.; Martinez-Mora, J. A.; Masullo, R.; Mazeas, F.; Mazure, A.; Meli, A.; Melissas, M.; Migneco, E.; Mongelli, M.; Montaruli, T.; Morganti, M.; Moscoso, L.; Motz, H.; Musumeci, M.; Naumann, C.; Naumann-Godo, M.; Neff, M.; Niess, V.; Nooren, G. J. L.; Oberski, J. E. J.; Olivetto, C.; Palanque-Delabrouille, N.; Patioselitis, D.; Papaleo, R.; Pavalas, G. E.; Payet, K.; Payre, P.; Peek, H.; Petrovic, J.; Piattelli, P.; Picot-Clemente, N.; Picq, C.; Piret, Y.; Poinsignon, J.; Popa, V.; Pradier, T.; Presani, E.; Prono, G.; Racca, C.; Raia, G.; van Randwijk, J.; Real, D.; Reed, C.; Rethore, F.; Rewiersma, P.; Riccobene, G.; Richardt, C.; Richter, R.; Ricol, J. S.; Rigaud, V.; Roca, V.; Roensch, K.; Rolin, J. -F.; Rostovtsev, A.; Rottura, A.; Roux, J.; Rujoiu, M.; Ruppi, M.; Russo, G. V.; Salesa, F.; Salomon, K.; Sapienza, P.; Schmitt, F.; Schoeck, F.; Schuller, J. -P.; Schuessler, F.; Sciliberto, D.; Shanidze, R.; Shirokov, E.; Simeone, F.; Sottoriva, A.; Spies, A.; Spona, T.; Spurio, M.; Steijger, J. J. M.; Stolarczyk, Th; Streeb, K.; Sulak, L.; Taiuti, M.; Tamburini, C.; Tao, C.; Tasca, L.; Terreni, G.; Tezier, D.; Toscano, S.; Urbano, F.; Valdy, P.; Vallage, B.; Van Elewyck, V.; Vannoni, G.; Vecchi, M.; Venekamp, G.; Verlaat, B.; Vernin, P.; Virique, E.; de Vries, G.; Wijnker, G.; Wobbe, G.; de Wolf, E.; Yakovenko, Y.; Yepes, H.; Zaborov, D.; Zaccone, H.; Zornoza, J. D.; Zuniga, J.; van Wijk, R.

    2011-01-01

    The ANTARES Neutrino Telescope was completed in May 2008 and is the first operational Neutrino Telescope in the Mediterranean Sea. The main purpose of the detector is to perform neutrino astronomy and the apparatus also offers facilities for marine and Earth sciences. This paper describes the

  20. CERN neutrino project on target

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    Scientists at CERN announced the completion of the target assembly for the CERN neutrinos to Gran Sasso project, CNGS. On schedule for start-up in May 2006, CNGS will send a beam of neutrinos through the Earth to the Gran Sasso laboratory 730 km away in Italy in a bid to unravel the mysteries of nature's most elusive particles (½ page)

  1. Low-energy neutrino measurements

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2012-10-05

    Oct 5, 2012 ... Abstract. Low-energy solar neutrino detection plays a fundamental role in ... the experimental point of view, there are multiple ways to shed light among the different .... compared to the two metallicity expectations [16]. ..... from the Earth; solar neutrinos; indirect dark matter searches) and GeV physics (pro-.

  2. Magnus approximation in neutrino oscillations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acero, Mario A; Aguilar-Arevalo, Alexis A; D'Olivo, J C

    2011-01-01

    Oscillations between active and sterile neutrinos remain as an open possibility to explain some anomalous experimental observations. In a four-neutrino (three active plus one sterile) mixing scheme, we use the Magnus expansion of the evolution operator to study the evolution of neutrino flavor amplitudes within the Earth. We apply this formalism to calculate the transition probabilities from active to sterile neutrinos with energies of the order of a few GeV, taking into account the matter effect for a varying terrestrial density.

  3. Identifying the neutrino mass spectrum from a supernova neutrino burst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dighe, A.S.; Smirnov, A.Yu.

    1999-12-01

    We study the role that the future detection of the neutrino burst from a galactic supernova can play in the reconstruction of the neutrino mass spectrum. We consider all possible 3ν mass and flavor spectra which describe the solar and atmospheric neutrino data. For each of these spectra we find the observable effects of the supernova neutrino conversions both in the matter of the star and the earth. We show that studies of the electron neutrino and antineutrino spectra as well as observations of the neutral current effects from supernova will allow us (i) to identify the solar neutrino solution, (ii) to determine the type of mass hierarchy (normal or inverted) and (iii) to probe the mixing vertical bar U e3 vertical bar 2 to values as low as 10 -4 - 10 -3 . (author)

  4. Neutrino physics

    CERN Document Server

    Hernandez, P.

    2016-01-01

    This is the writeup of the lectures on neutrino physics delivered at various schools: TASI and Trieste in 2013 and the CERN-Latin American School in 2015. The topics discussed in this lecture include: general properties of neutrinos in the SM, the theory of neutrino masses and mixings (Dirac and Majorana), neutrino oscillations both in vacuum and in matter, as well as an overview of the experimental evidence for neutrino masses and of the prospects in neutrino oscillation physics. We also briefly review the relevance of neutri- nos in leptogenesis and in beyond-the-Standard-Model physics.

  5. Neutrino astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roulet, E.

    2001-01-01

    A general overview of neutrino physics and astrophysics is given, starting with a historical account of the development of our understanding of neutrinos and how they helped to unravel the structure of the Standard Model. We discuss why it is so important to establish if neutrinos are massive and introduce the main scenarios to provide them a mass. The present bounds and the positive indications in favor of non-zero neutrino masses are discussed, including the recent results on atmospheric and solar neutrinos. The major role that neutrinos play in astrophysics and cosmology is illustrated. (author)

  6. Anti-neutrino imprint in solar neutrino flare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fargion, D.

    2006-10-01

    A future neutrino detector at megaton mass might enlarge the neutrino telescope thresholds revealing cosmic supernova background and largest solar flares (SFs) neutrinos. Indeed the solar energetic (Ep>100 MeV) flare particles (protons, α), while scattering among themselves on solar corona atmosphere must produce prompt charged pions, whose chain decays are source of a solar (electron muon) neutrino 'flare' (at tens or hundreds MeV energy). These brief (minutes) neutrino 'bursts' at largest flare peak may overcome by three to five orders of magnitude the steady atmospheric neutrino noise on the Earth, possibly leading to their detection above detection thresholds (in a full mixed three flavour state). Moreover the birth of anti-neutrinos at a few tens of MeV very clearly flares above a null thermal 'hep' anti-neutrino solar background and also above a tiny supernova relic and atmospheric noise. The largest prompt solar anti-neutrino 'burst' may be well detected in future Super Kamikande (gadolinium implemented) anti-neutrino \\bar\

  7. Future of Atmospheric Neutrino Measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choubey, Sandhya

    2013-01-01

    Discovery of large θ 13 has opened up the possibility of determining the neutrino mass hierarchy and θ 23 octant through earth matter effects. The atmospheric neutrinos pick up large earth matter effects both in the ν e and ν μ channels, which if observed could lead to the determination of the mass hierarchy and θ 23 octant using this class of experiments in the near future. In this talk I review the status and prospects of future atmospheric neutrino measurements in determining the mass hierarchy and octant of θ 23

  8. Neutrino Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Barenboim, G.

    2014-12-10

    The Standard Model has been incredibly successful in predicting the outcome of almost all the experiments done up so far. In it, neutrinos are mass-less. However, in recent years we have accumulated evidence pointing to tiny masses for the neutrinos (as compared to the charged leptons). These masses allow neutrinos to change their flavour and oscillate. In these lectures I review the properties of neutrinos in and beyond the Standard Model.

  9. Los Neutrinos Los Neutrinos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julián Félix

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available From all the proposals to understand the structure of matter, and the way the natural world is conformed, the one about neutrinos is the most enigmatic, abstract, and foreign to immediate experience; however, this is the one that has delved more deeply over the nearly eighty years since it was formulated by Wolfgang Pauli –in 1930- as a radical proposition to understand nucleon decay, and the decay of other particles, without the violation of the principle of conservation of energy and momentum at subatomic level. This proposition has evolved through the years, and from Pauli’s original idea only the basic elements remain.This article contains the tale of the hypothesis of neutrinos, its early history, its evolution up to present day, and the efforts done nowadays to study them. In summary, this is the physics of neutrinos. De todas las propuestas para entender la estructura de la materia, y la conformación del mundo natural, los neutrinos es la más enigmática, abstracta, y ajena a la experiencia inmediata; sin embargo, es la que más hondo ha ido calando a lo largo de los ya casi ochenta años de haber sido formulada por Wolfgang Pauli –en el año 1930- como una medida radical para entender el decaimiento de los nucleones, y otras partículas, sin que se violara el principio de la conservación de la energía y del momento a nivel subatómico. La propuesta ha evolucionado a lo largo de los años, y de la idea original de Pauli ya sólo lo básico permanece. En este artículo está el relato de la hipótesis de los neutrinos, su historia primera, su evolución hasta el presente, los esfuerzos que en la actualidad se realizan para estudiarlos. En breve, ésta es la física de los neutrinos.

  10. New Conditions for a Total Neutrino Conversion in a Medium

    OpenAIRE

    Chizhov, M. V.; Petcov, S. T.

    1999-01-01

    A new effect of total neutrino conversion is possible when neutrino propagates through multi-layer medium of nonperiodic constant density layers. The effect can take place in the oscillations in the Earth of the Earth-core-crossing solar and atmospheric neutrinos.

  11. Le scrutin départemental : territorialisation versus représentation

    OpenAIRE

    Protière , Guillaume

    2003-01-01

    National audience; Cet article questionne la part de représentation et de territorialisation des différents scrutins locaux. Il montre la spécificité du scrutin départemental par rapport aux scrutins municipal et régional. Les enjeux électoraux sont étendus à la question du millefeuille territorial.

  12. Solar neutrinos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, R.J.N.

    1987-09-01

    The problem with solar neutrinos is that there seem to be too few of them, at least near the top end of the spectrum, since the 37 Cl detector finds only about 35% of the standard predicted flux. Various kinds of explanation have been offered: (a) the standard solar model is wrong, (b) neutrinos decay, (c) neutrinos have magnetic moments, (d) neutrinos oscillate. The paper surveys developments in each of these areas, especially the possible enhancement of neutrino oscillations by matter effects and adiabatic level crossing. The prospects for further independent experiments are also discussed. (author)

  13. Sterile neutrino

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2007-01-01

    Paper deals with the information on the occurrence of the fields of the sterile neutrinos (the righthanded ones) mixed with the normal neutrinos (the lefthanded ones). Both the Max Plank Radioastronomy Institute and the Los Angeles University assumes that the occurrence of the keV mass sterile neutrinos may explain the dark matter nature, the fast rotation of the observed pulsars and the reionization processes. The issues associated with the possibility to record the sterile neutrinos were analyzed in the course of the Sterile Neutrinos in Astrophysics and Cosmology Workshop (Crans Montana, March 2006 [ru

  14. When neutrinos attack - the impact of agressive neutrinos in astrophysics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kneller, James

    2004-11-01

    Of all the constituents within the standard model of particle physics our understanding of the neutrino has benefited the most from the interaction of astrophysics and `terraphysics'. Much has been learned about the properties of the neutrino from each: experiments here on Earth temper our appreciation of the role that neutrinos play in the cosmos while astrophysics can provide the densities and temperatures in which the neutrinos do more than simply flee. But their reluctance to interact means that it is not until we venture into the most extreme environments of astrophysics that we observe neutrinos pushing back' as hard as they are being pushed'. We review two sites where this occurs: the early Universe and the accretion disk, engines' of gamma ray bursts. Neutrinos play an important role in the evolution of the early Universe with a particular focus upon the electron neutrino in determining the primordial elemental composition via its participation in the most important reaction at that time. Within gamma ray burst accretion disks we again see the electron neutrinos at work in the nuclear reactions and through their function as the coolant' for the disk. Removal of the disk energy, and its deposition into the remnants of the massive star surrounding the disk, may lead to the formation of highly relativistic jets that will later be observed as the burst. We show what has been learned so far about the neutrino and its properties from the study of such environments and discuss where future research is heading.

  15. Neutrino factories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dydak, F.

    2002-01-01

    The discovery of neutrino oscillations marks a major milestone in the history of neutrino physics, and opens a window to what lies beyond the Standard Model. Many current and forthcoming experiments will answer open questions; however, a major step forward, up to and possibly including CP violation in the neutrino mixing matrix, will be offered by the neutrino beams from a neutrino factory. The neutrino factory is a new concept for producing neutrino beams of unprecedented quality in terms of intensity, flavour composition, and precision of the beam parameters. These beams enable the exploration of otherwise inaccessible domains in neutrino oscillation physics by exploiting baselines of planetary dimensions. Suitable detectors pose formidable challenges but seem within reach with only moderate extrapolations from existing technologies. Although the main physics attraction of the neutrino factory is in the area of neutrino oscillations, an interesting spectrum of further opportunities ranging from high-precision, high-rate neutrino scattering to physics with high-intensity stopped muons comes with it

  16. Neutrinos today

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pontecorvo, B.; Bilen'kij, S.

    1987-01-01

    After the famous 1983 discovery of intermediate W, Z 0 bosons it may be stated with certainty that W, Z 0 are entirely responsible for the production of neutrinos and for their interactions. Neutrino physics notions are presented from this point of view in the first four introductory, quite elementary, paragraphs of the paper. The following seven paragraphs are more sophisticated. They are devoted to the neutrino mass and neutrino mixing question, which is the most actual problem in today neutrino physics. Vacuum neutrino oscillations, matter neutrino oscillations and netrinoless double-decay are considered. Solar neutrino physics is discussed in some detail from the point of view of vacuum and matter neutrino oscillations. The role played by neutrinos in the Universe is briefly considered. In the last paragraph there discussed the probable observation by different groups of neutrinos connected with the Supernova 1987 A: the first observation of gravitational star collapse (at least the general rehearsal of such observation) opens up a new era in astronomy of today exerimental physics and astrophysics is presented at the end of the paper in the form of a Table

  17. Neutrino Factory

    CERN Document Server

    Bogomilov, M; Tsenov, R; Dracos, M; Bonesini, M; Palladino, V; Tortora, L; Mori, Y; Planche, T; Lagrange, J  B; Kuno, Y; Benedetto, E; Efthymiopoulos, I; Garoby, R; Gilardoini, S; Martini, M; Wildner, E; Prior, G; Blondel, A; Karadzhow, Y; Ellis, M; Kyberd, P; Bayes, R; Laing, A; Soler, F  J  P; Alekou, A; Apollonio, M; Aslaninejad, M; Bontoiu, C; Jenner, L  J; Kurup, A; Long, K; Pasternak, J; Zarrebini, A; Poslimski, J; Blackmore, V; Cobb, J; Tunnell, C; Andreopoulos, C; Bennett, J  R  J; Brooks, S; Caretta, O; Davenne, T; Densham, C; Edgecock, T  R; Fitton, M; Kelliher, D; Loveridge, P; McFarland, A; Machida, S; Prior, C; Rees, G; Rogers, C; Rooney, M; Thomason, J; Wilcox, D; Booth, C; Skoro, G; Back, J  J; Harrison, P; Berg, J  S; Fernow, R; Gallardo, J  C; Gupta, R; Kirk, H; Simos, N; Stratakis, D; Souchlas, N; Witte, H; Bross, A; Geer, S; Johnstone, C; Mokhov, N; Neuffer, D; Popovic, M; Strait, J; Striganov, S; Morfín, J  G; Wands, R; Snopok, P; Bogacz, S  A; Morozov, V; Roblin, Y; Cline, D; Ding, X; Bromberg, C; Hart, T; Abrams, R  J; Ankenbrandt, C  M; Beard, K  B; Cummings, M  A  C; Flanagan, G; Johnson, R  P; Roberts, T  J; Yoshikawa, C  Y; Graves, V  B; McDonald, K  T; Coney, L; Hanson, G

    2014-01-01

    The properties of the neutrino provide a unique window on physics beyond that described by the standard model. The study of subleading effects in neutrino oscillations, and the race to discover CP-invariance violation in the lepton sector, has begun with the recent discovery that $\\theta_{13} > 0$. The measured value of $\\theta_{13}$ is large, emphasizing the need for a facility at which the systematic uncertainties can be reduced to the percent level. The neutrino factory, in which intense neutrino beams are produced from the decay of muons, has been shown to outperform all realistic alternatives and to be capable of making measurements of the requisite precision. Its unique discovery potential arises from the fact that only at the neutrino factory is it practical to produce high-energy electron (anti)neutrino beams of the required intensity. This paper presents the conceptual design of the neutrino factory accelerator facility developed by the European Commission Framework Programme 7 EURO$\

  18. Detection of supernova neutrinos at spallation neutron sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ming-Yang; Guo, Xin-Heng; Young, Bing-Lin

    2016-07-01

    After considering supernova shock effects, Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein effects, neutrino collective effects, and Earth matter effects, the detection of supernova neutrinos at the China Spallation Neutron Source is studied and the expected numbers of different flavor supernova neutrinos observed through various reaction channels are calculated with the neutrino energy spectra described by the Fermi-Dirac distribution and the “beta fit” distribution respectively. Furthermore, the numerical calculation method of supernova neutrino detection on Earth is applied to some other spallation neutron sources, and the total expected numbers of supernova neutrinos observed through different reactions channels are given. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (11205185, 11175020, 11275025, 11575023)

  19. Effects of neutrino oscillation on supernova neutrino. Inverted mass hierarchy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Keitaro; Sato, Katsuhiko

    2003-01-01

    We study the effects of neutrino oscillation on supernova neutrinos in the case of the inverted mass hierarchy (m 3 1 2 ) as well as the normal mass hierarchy (m 1 2 3 ). Numerical analysis using realistic supernova and presupernova models allows us to investigate quantitatively the possibility to probe neutrino oscillation parameters. We show that information about the mass hierarchy can be obtained if θ 13 is rather large (sin 2 2θ 13 > 10 -3 ) and that θ 13 can be probed effectively by SuperKamiokande if the neutrino mass hierarchy is inverted. Errors due to the uncertainty in the original neutrino spectra and the Earth effect are also discussed. (author)

  20. Identifying the neutrino mass hierarchy with supernova neutrinos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomas, Ricard

    2006-01-01

    We review how a high-statistics observation of the neutrino signal from a future galactic core-collapse supernova (SN) may be used to discriminate between different neutrino mixing scenarios. We discuss two complementary methods that allow for the positive identification of the mass hierarchy without knowledge of the emitted neutrino fluxes, provided that the 13-mixing angle is large, sin 2 θ 13 -5 . These two approaches are the observation of modulations in the neutrino spectra by Earth matter effects or by the passage of shock waves through the SN envelope. If the value of the 13-mixing angle is unknown, using additionally the information encoded in the prompt neutronization ν e burst-a robust feature found in all modern SN simulations-can be sufficient to fix both the neutrino hierarchy and to decide whether θ 13 is 'small' or 'large'

  1. NEUTRINO MASS

    OpenAIRE

    Kayser, Boris

    1988-01-01

    This is a review article about the most recent developments on the field of neutrino mass. The first part of the review introduces the idea of neutrino masses and mixing angles, summarizes the most recent experimental data then discusses the experimental prospects and challenges in this area. The second part of the review discusses the implications of these results for particle physics and cosmology, including the origin of neutrino mass, the see-saw mechanism and sequential dominance, and la...

  2. Neutrino masses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1986-01-01

    Postulated in the early days of quantum mechanics by Wolfgang Pauli to make energy-momentum conservation in nuclear beta decay come out right, the neutrino has never strayed far from physicists' attention. The Moriond Workshop on Massive Neutrinos in Particle Physics and Astrophysics held recently in the French Alps showed that more than half a century after Pauli's prediction, the neutrino stubbornly refuses to yield up all its secrets

  3. Neutrino masses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1986-04-15

    Postulated in the early days of quantum mechanics by Wolfgang Pauli to make energy-momentum conservation in nuclear beta decay come out right, the neutrino has never strayed far from physicists' attention. The Moriond Workshop on Massive Neutrinos in Particle Physics and Astrophysics held recently in the French Alps showed that more than half a century after Pauli's prediction, the neutrino stubbornly refuses to yield up all its secrets.

  4. Neutrino mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robertson, R.G.H.

    1992-01-01

    Despite intensive experimental work since the neutrino's existence was proposed by Pauli 60 years ago, and its first observation by Reines and Cowan almost 40 years ago, the neutrino's fundamental properties remain elusive. Among those properties are the masses of the three known flavors, properties under charge conjugation, parity and time-reversal, and static and dynamic electromagnetic moments. Mass is perhaps the most fundamental, as it constrains the other properties. The present status of the search for neutrino mass is briefly reviewed

  5. Neutrino mass spectrum with υμ → υs oscillations of atmospheric neutrinos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Q.Y.; Smirnov, A.Yu.

    1998-02-01

    We consider the ''standard'' spectrum of the active neutrinos (characterized by strong mass hierarchy and small mixing) with additional sterile, υ s . The sterile neutrino mixes strongly with the muon neutrino, so that υ μ ↔ υ s oscillations solve the atmospheric neutrino problem. We show that the parametric enhancement of the υ μ ↔ υ s oscillations occurs for the high energy atmospheric neutrinos which cross the core of the Earth. This can be relevant for the anomaly observed by the MACRO experiment. Solar neutrinos are converted both to υ μ and υ s . The heaviest neutrino (approx. υ τ ) may compose the hot dark matter of the Universe. Phenomenology of this scenario is elaborated and crucial experimental signatures are identified. We also discuss properties of the underlying neutrino mass matrix. (author)

  6. Neutrino Oscillations

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    work of Takaaki Kajita and Arthur B McDonald clearly demon- strated the ... time belief that neutrinos are massless particles. .... SK is a second generation, 50,000 t wa- ..... values of the parameters of the PMNS matrix based on a global .... [13] Y Ashie et al., Evidence for an oscillatory signature in atmospheric neutrino.

  7. ANTARES: The first undersea neutrino telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ageron, M.; Aguilar, J. A.; Al Samarai, I.; Albert, A.; Ameli, F.; André, M.; Anghinolfi, M.; Anton, G.; Anvar, S.; Ardid, M.; Arnaud, K.; Aslanides, E.; Assis Jesus, A. C.; Astraatmadja, T.; Aubert, J.-J.; Auer, R.; Barbarito, E.; Baret, B.; Basa, S.; Bazzotti, M.; Becherini, Y.; Beltramelli, J.; Bersani, A.; Bertin, V.; Beurthey, S.; Biagi, S.; Bigongiari, C.; Billault, M.; Blaes, R.; Bogazzi, C.; de Botton, N.; Bou-Cabo, M.; Boudahef, B.; Bouwhuis, M. C.; Brown, A. M.; Brunner, J.; Busto, J.; Caillat, L.; Calzas, A.; Camarena, F.; Capone, A.; Caponetto, L.; Cârloganu, C.; Carminati, G.; Carmona, E.; Carr, J.; Carton, P. H.; Cassano, B.; Castorina, E.; Cecchini, S.; Ceres, A.; Chaleil, Th.; Charvis, Ph.; Chauchot, P.; Chiarusi, T.; Circella, M.; Compère, C.; Coniglione, R.; Coppolani, X.; Cosquer, A.; Costantini, H.; Cottini, N.; Coyle, P.; Cuneo, S.; Curtil, C.; D'Amato, C.; Damy, G.; van Dantzig, R.; de Bonis, G.; Decock, G.; Decowski, M. P.; Dekeyser, I.; Delagnes, E.; Desages-Ardellier, F.; Deschamps, A.; Destelle, J.-J.; di Maria, F.; Dinkespiler, B.; Distefano, C.; Dominique, J.-L.; Donzaud, C.; Dornic, D.; Dorosti, Q.; Drogou, J.-F.; Drouhin, D.; Druillole, F.; Durand, D.; Durand, R.; Eberl, T.; Emanuele, U.; Engelen, J. J.; Ernenwein, J.-P.; Escoffier, S.; Falchini, E.; Favard, S.; Fehr, F.; Feinstein, F.; Ferri, M.; Ferry, S.; Fiorello, C.; Flaminio, V.; Folger, F.; Fritsch, U.; Fuda, J.-L.; Galatá, S.; Galeotti, S.; Gay, P.; Gensolen, F.; Giacomelli, G.; Gojak, C.; Gómez-González, J. P.; Goret, Ph.; Graf, K.; Guillard, G.; Halladjian, G.; Hallewell, G.; van Haren, H.; Hartmann, B.; Heijboer, A. J.; Heine, E.; Hello, Y.; Henry, S.; Hernández-Rey, J. J.; Herold, B.; Hößl, J.; Hogenbirk, J.; Hsu, C. C.; Hubbard, J. R.; Jaquet, M.; Jaspers, M.; de Jong, M.; Jourde, D.; Kadler, M.; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N.; Kalekin, O.; Kappes, A.; Karg, T.; Karkar, S.; Karolak, M.; Katz, U.; Keller, P.; Kestener, P.; Kok, E.; Kok, H.; Kooijman, P.; Kopper, C.; Kouchner, A.; Kretschmer, W.; Kruijer, A.; Kuch, S.; Kulikovskiy, V.; Lachartre, D.; Lafoux, H.; Lagier, P.; Lahmann, R.; Lahonde-Hamdoun, C.; Lamare, P.; Lambard, G.; Languillat, J.-C.; Larosa, G.; Lavalle, J.; Le Guen, Y.; Le Provost, H.; Levansuu, A.; Lefèvre, D.; Legou, T.; Lelaizant, G.; Lévéque, C.; Lim, G.; Lo Presti, D.; Loehner, H.; Loucatos, S.; Louis, F.; Lucarelli, F.; Lyashuk, V.; Magnier, P.; Mangano, S.; Marcel, A.; Marcelin, M.; Margiotta, A.; Martinez-Mora, J. A.; Masullo, R.; Mazéas, F.; Mazure, A.; Meli, A.; Melissas, M.; Migneco, E.; Mongelli, M.; Montaruli, T.; Morganti, M.; Moscoso, L.; Motz, H.; Musumeci, M.; Naumann, C.; Naumann-Godo, M.; Neff, M.; Niess, V.; Nooren, G. J. L.; Oberski, J. E. J.; Olivetto, C.; Palanque-Delabrouille, N.; Palioselitis, D.; Papaleo, R.; Păvălaş, G. E.; Payet, K.; Payre, P.; Peek, H.; Petrovic, J.; Piattelli, P.; Picot-Clemente, N.; Picq, C.; Piret, Y.; Poinsignon, J.; Popa, V.; Pradier, T.; Presani, E.; Prono, G.; Racca, C.; Raia, G.; van Randwijk, J.; Real, D.; Reed, C.; Réthoré, F.; Rewiersma, P.; Riccobene, G.; Richardt, C.; Richter, R.; Ricol, J. S.; Rigaud, V.; Roca, V.; Roensch, K.; Rolin, J.-F.; Rostovtsev, A.; Rottura, A.; Roux, J.; Rujoiu, M.; Ruppi, M.; Russo, G. V.; Salesa, F.; Salomon, K.; Sapienza, P.; Schmitt, F.; Schöck, F.; Schuller, J.-P.; Schüssler, F.; Sciliberto, D.; Shanidze, R.; Shirokov, E.; Simeone, F.; Sottoriva, A.; Spies, A.; Spona, T.; Spurio, M.; Steijger, J. J. M.; Stolarczyk, Th.; Streeb, K.; Sulak, L.; Taiuti, M.; Tamburini, C.; Tao, C.; Tasca, L.; Terreni, G.; Tezier, D.; Toscano, S.; Urbano, F.; Valdy, P.; Vallage, B.; van Elewyck, V.; Vannoni, G.; Vecchi, M.; Venekamp, G.; Verlaat, B.; Vernin, P.; Virique, E.; de Vries, G.; van Wijk, R.; Wijnker, G.; Wobbe, G.; de Wolf, E.; Yakovenko, Y.; Yepes, H.; Zaborov, D.; Zaccone, H.; Zornoza, J. D.; Zúñiga, J.

    2011-11-01

    The ANTARES Neutrino Telescope was completed in May 2008 and is the first operational Neutrino Telescope in the Mediterranean Sea. The main purpose of the detector is to perform neutrino astronomy and the apparatus also offers facilities for marine and Earth sciences. This paper describes the design, the construction and the installation of the telescope in the deep sea, offshore from Toulon in France. An illustration of the detector performance is given.

  8. ANTARES: The first undersea neutrino telescope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ageron, M.; Aguilar, J.A.; Al Samarai, I.; Albert, A.; Ameli, F.; Andre, M.; Anghinolfi, M.; Anton, G.; Anvar, S.; Ardid, M.; Arnaud, K.; Aslanides, E.; Assis Jesus, A.C.; Astraatmadja, T.; Aubert, J.-J.; Auer, R.; Barbarito, E.; Baret, B.

    2011-01-01

    The ANTARES Neutrino Telescope was completed in May 2008 and is the first operational Neutrino Telescope in the Mediterranean Sea. The main purpose of the detector is to perform neutrino astronomy and the apparatus also offers facilities for marine and Earth sciences. This paper describes the design, the construction and the installation of the telescope in the deep sea, offshore from Toulon in France. An illustration of the detector performance is given.

  9. Neutrino Bursts from Fanaroff-Riley I Radio Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Anchordoqui, Luis A.; Halzen, Francis; Weiler, Thomas J.; Anchordoqui, Luis A.; Goldberg, Haim; Halzen, Francis; Weiler, Thomas J.

    2004-01-01

    On the basis of existing observations (at the 4.5 \\sigma level) of TeV gamma-ray outbursts from the Fanaroff-Riley I (FRI) radio galaxy Centaurus A, we estimate the accompanying neutrino flux in a scenario where both photons and neutrinos emerge from pion decay. We find a neutrino flux on Earth dF_{\

  10. Neutrino radiation hazards: A paper tiger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cossairt, J.D.; Grossman, N.L.; Marshall, E.T.

    1996-09-01

    Neutrinos are present in the natural environment due to terrestrial, solar, and cosmic sources and are also produced at accelerators both incidentally and intentionally as part of physics research programs. Progress in fundamental physics research has led to the creation of beams of neutrinos of ever-increasing intensity and/or energy. The large size and cost associated with these beams attracts, and indeed requires, public interest, support, and some understanding of the 'exotic' particles produced, including the neutrinos. Furthermore, the very word neutrino ('little neutral one', as coined by Enrico Fermi) can lead to public concern due to confusion with 'neutron', a word widely associated with radiological hazards. Adding to such possible concerns is a recent assertion, widely publicized, that neutrinos from astronomical events may have led to the extinction of some biological species. Presented here are methods for conservatively estimating the dose equivalent due to neutrinos as well as an assessment of the possible role of neutrinos in biological extinction processes. It is found that neutrinos produced by the sun and modern particle accelerators produce inconsequential dose equivalent rates. Examining recent calculations concerning neutrinos incident upon the earth due to stellar collapse, it is concluded that it is highly unlikely that these neutrinos caused the mass extinctions of species found in the paleontological record. Neutrino radiation hazards are, then, truly a 'paper tiger'. 14 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  11. Solar neutrinos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schatzman, E.

    1983-01-01

    The solar energy is produced by a series of nuclear reactions taking place in the deep interior of the sun. Some of these reactions produce neutrinos which may be detected, the proper detection system being available. The results of the Davis experiment (with 37 Cl) are given, showing a deficiency in the solar neutrino flux. The relevant explanation is either a property of the neutrino or an important change in the physics of the solar models. The prospect of a new experiment (with 71 Ga) is important as it will decide which of the two explanations is correct [fr

  12. Effects of neutrino oscillation on supernova neutrino: inverted mass hierarchy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Keitaro; Sato, Katsuhiko

    2003-01-01

    We study the effects of neutrino oscillation on supernova neutrino in the case of the inverted mass hierarchy (m 3 1 2 ). This is an extended study of our previous study where all analyses are performed with normal mass hierarchy (m 1 2 3 ). Numerical analysis using a realistic supernova and presupernova model allow us to discuss quantitatively a possibility to probe neutrino oscillation parameters. We show that we can break partly the degeneracy of the solar neutrino problem (LMA or SMA) and probe the magnitude of θ 13 to some extent by the ratios of high-energy events and low-energy events at SuperKamiokande and SNO and the presence of the Earth effects. Further, if the magnitude of θ 13 is known roughly, we can identify the mass hierarchy

  13. No Collective Neutrino Flavor Conversions during the Supernova Accretion Phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Sovan; Fischer, Tobias; Mirizzi, Alessandro; Saviano, Ninetta; Tomàs, Ricard

    2011-10-01

    We perform a dedicated study of the supernova (SN) neutrino flavor evolution during the accretion phase, using results from recent neutrino radiation hydrodynamics simulations. In contrast to what was expected in the presence of only neutrino-neutrino interactions, we find that the multiangle effects associated with the dense ordinary matter suppress collective oscillations. The matter suppression implies that neutrino oscillations will start outside the neutrino decoupling region and therefore will have a negligible impact on the neutrino heating and the explosion dynamics. Furthermore, the possible detection of the next galactic SN neutrino signal from the accretion phase, based on the usual Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein effect in the SN mantle and Earth matter effects, can reveal the neutrino mass hierarchy in the case that the mixing angle θ13 is not very small.

  14. Neutrino sunshine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fraser, Gordon

    1992-09-15

    Most of the Sun's energy comes from the fusion of protons into deuterium. Sunshine is necessary for life, but the first evidence for the neutrinos which accompany and explain this basic process still makes science history.

  15. Supernova neutrinos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    John Beacom

    2003-01-01

    We propose that neutrino-proton elastic scattering, ν + p → ν + p, can be used for the detection of supernova neutrinos. Though the proton recoil kinetic energy spectrum is soft, with T p ≅ 2E ν 2 /M p , and the scintillation light output from slow, heavily ionizing protons is quenched, the yield above a realistic threshold is nearly as large as that from (bar ν) e + p → e + + n. In addition, the measured proton spectrum is related to the incident neutrino spectrum, which solves a long-standing problem of how to separately measure the total energy release and temperature of ν μ , ν τ , (bar ν) μ , and (bar ν) τ . The ability to detect this signal would give detectors like KamLAND and Borexino a crucial and unique role in the quest to detect supernova neutrinos

  16. Neutrino cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Lesgourgues, Julien; Miele, Gennaro; Pastor, Sergio

    2013-01-01

    The role that neutrinos have played in the evolution of the Universe is the focus of one of the most fascinating research areas that has stemmed from the interplay between cosmology, astrophysics and particle physics. In this self-contained book, the authors bring together all aspects of the role of neutrinos in cosmology, spanning from leptogenesis to primordial nucleosynthesis, their role in CMB and structure formation, to the problem of their direct detection. The book starts by guiding the reader through aspects of fundamental neutrino physics, such as the standard cosmological model and the statistical mechanics in the expanding Universe, before discussing the history of neutrinos in chronological order from the very early stages until today. This timely book will interest graduate students and researchers in astrophysics, cosmology and particle physics, who work with either a theoretical or experimental focus.

  17. Neutrino sunshine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fraser, Gordon

    1992-01-01

    Most of the Sun's energy comes from the fusion of protons into deuterium. Sunshine is necessary for life, but the first evidence for the neutrinos which accompany and explain this basic process still makes science history

  18. Neutrino overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haxton, W.C.

    1994-01-01

    I discuss some of the open issues in neutrino physics, emphasizing areas of intersection with astrophysics, that occupied the participants of the Snowmass Workshop on Nuclear and Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology in the Next Millenium

  19. Neutrino masses and oscillations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smirnov, A Yu

    1996-11-01

    New effects related to refraction of neutrinos in different media are reviewed and implication of the effects to neutrino mass and mixing are discussed. Patterns of neutrino masses and mixing implied by existing hints/bounds are described. Recent results on neutrino mass generation are presented. They include neutrino masses in SO(10) GUT`s and models with anomalous U(1), generation of neutrino mass via neutrino-neutralino mixing, models of sterile neutrino. (author). 95 refs, 9 figs.

  20. Neutrino oscillations in dense neutrino gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samuel, S.

    1993-01-01

    We consider oscillations of neutrinos under conditions in which the neutrino density is sufficiently large that neutrino-neutrino interactions cannot be neglected. A formalism is developed to treat this highly nonlinear system. Numerical analysis reveals a rich array of phenomena. In certain gases, a self-induced Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein effect occurs in which electron neutrinos are resonantly converted into muon neutrinos. In another relatively low-density gas, an unexpected parametric resonant conversion takes place. Finally, neutrino-neutrino interactions maintain coherence in one system for which a priori one expected decoherence

  1. Neutrino astronomy with supernova neutrinos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brdar, Vedran; Lindner, Manfred; Xu, Xun-Jie

    2018-04-01

    Modern neutrino facilities will be able to detect a large number of neutrinos from the next Galactic supernova. We investigate the viability of the triangulation method to locate a core-collapse supernova by employing the neutrino arrival time differences at various detectors. We perform detailed numerical fits in order to determine the uncertainties of these time differences for the cases when the core collapses into a neutron star or a black hole. We provide a global picture by combining all the relevant current and future neutrino detectors. Our findings indicate that in the scenario of a neutron star formation, supernova can be located with precision of 1.5 and 3.5 degrees in declination and right ascension, respectively. For the black hole scenario, sub-degree precision can be reached.

  2. Neutrino mass hierarchy and matter effects

    OpenAIRE

    Smirnov, Alexei Yu.

    2013-01-01

    Matter effects modify the mixing and the effective masses of neutrinos in a way which depends on the neutrino mass hierarchy. Consequently, for normal and inverted hierarchies the oscillations and flavor conversion results are different. Sensitivity to the mass hierarchy appears whenever the matter effects on the 1-3 mixing and mass splitting become substantial. This happens in supernovae in wide energy range and in the matter of the Earth. The Earth density profile is a multi-layer medium wh...

  3. Solar neutrino

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugimoto, D [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Coll. of General Education

    1975-01-01

    The measurement of solar neutrino was performed by using the reaction /sup 37/cl+..nu..sub(e)..-->../sup 37/Ar+e/sup -/ by Davis et al. The argon gas produced through the above mentioned reaction in a tank containing 610 ton of C/sub 2/Cl/sub 4/ was collected and measured. The rate of production of /sup 37/Ar was 0.13+-0.20/day, and the net production rate by the solar neutrino was 0.06+-0.20/day, being corrected for background. This value corresponds to 0.5+-1.0 SNU. Theoretical calculation with the model of spherically symmetric solar development gave an expected value of 5.6 SNU, which is in contradiction with the experimental value. Reason of this discrepancy was considered. The possibility of decay of neutrino to the other particles with weak interaction is very slight. Various models of the sun were investigated, but the results were still inconsistent with the experiment. The mixing of matters in the sun may cause the reduction of neutrino. If He gas comes to the center of the sun by mixing, the reaction, /sup 3/He+/sup 3/He, progresses excessively at the center, and it produces the expansion of the core of the sun. Then, the temperature drops and the neutrino is reduced. Various models which can explain the neutrino of less than ISNU have been presented. However, other theory says that the reduction of neutrino is not expected even if the mixing is considered. A problem concerning the mixing is whether the thermal instability which causes the mixing exists. (Kato, T.).

  4. Experimental neutrino physics

    CERN Document Server

    Link, Jonathan M

    2018-01-01

    Neutrinos have a smaller mass than any other known particle and are the subject of intense recent studies, as well as this book. The author provides a coherent introduction to the necessary theoretical background and experimental methods used by modern neutrino physicists. It’s designed as a one-stop reference addressing what is currently known about the neutrino hypothesis, discovery of the neutrino, theory of weak interactions, solar neutrino puzzle, and neutrino oscillation. It then gives a detailed account of practical approaches for study of precision oscillations, neutrino mass and other neutrino properties, sterile neutrinos, and neutrino messengers from space and Earth’s interior.

  5. CERN fires up neutrino beams

    CERN Document Server

    2006-01-01

    "CERN has switched on a new neutrino beam, aimed through the earth to the INFN Gran Sasso Laboratories some 730km away near Rome. This is the latest additin to a global endeavour to understand this most elusive of particles and unlock the secrest it carries about the origins and evolution of our Universe." (2 pages)

  6. Evidence for neutrino oscillations in the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marino, Alysia Diane

    2004-01-01

    The Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO) is a large-volume heavy water Cerenkov detector designed to resolve the solar neutrino problem. SNO observes charged-current interactions with electron neutrinos, neutral-current interactions with all active neutrinos, and elastic-scattering interactions primarily with electron neutrinos with some sensitivity to other flavors. This dissertation presents an analysis of the solar neutrino flux observed in SNO in the second phase of operation, while ∼2 tonnes of salt (NaCl) were dissolved in the heavy water. The dataset here represents 391 live days of data. Only the events above a visible energy threshold of 5.5 MeV and inside a fiducial volume within 550 cm of the center of the detector are studied. The neutrino flux observed via the charged-current interaction is [1.71 ± 0.065(stat.)± 0.068 0.065 (sys.)±0.02(theor.)] x 10 6 cm -2 s -1 , via the elastic-scattering interaction is [2.21±0.22(stat.)± 0.12 0.11 (sys.)±0.01(theor.)] x 10 6 cm -2 s -1 , and via the neutral-current interaction is [5.05±0.23(stat.)± 0.37 0.31 (sys.)±0.06(theor.)] x 10 6 cm -2 s -1 . The electron-only flux seen via the charged-current interaction is more than 7σ below the total active flux seen via the neutral-current interaction, providing strong evidence that neutrinos are undergoing flavor transformation as they travel from the core of the Sun to the Earth. The most likely origin of the flavor transformation is matter-induced flavor oscillation

  7. Evidence for neutrino oscillations in the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marino, Alysia Diane [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2004-01-01

    The Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO) is a large-volume heavy water Cerenkov detector designed to resolve the solar neutrino problem. SNO observes charged-current interactions with electron neutrinos, neutral-current interactions with all active neutrinos, and elastic-scattering interactions primarily with electron neutrinos with some sensitivity to other flavors. This dissertation presents an analysis of the solar neutrino flux observed in SNO in the second phase of operation, while ~2 tonnes of salt (NaCl) were dissolved in the heavy water. The dataset here represents 391 live days of data. Only the events above a visible energy threshold of 5.5 MeV and inside a fiducial volume within 550 cm of the center of the detector are studied. The neutrino flux observed via the charged-current interaction is [1.71 ± 0.065(stat.)±$0.065\\atop{0.068}$(sys.)±0.02(theor.)] x 106cm-2s-1, via the elastic-scattering interaction is [2.21±0.22(stat.)±$0.12\\atop{0.11}$(sys.)±0.01(theor.)] x 106cm-2s-1, and via the neutral-current interaction is [5.05±0.23(stat.)±$0.31\\atop{0.37}$(sys.)±0.06(theor.)] x 106cm-2s-1. The electron-only flux seen via the charged-current interaction is more than 7σ below the total active flux seen via the neutral-current interaction, providing strong evidence that neutrinos are undergoing flavor transformation as they travel from the core of the Sun to the Earth. The most likely origin of the flavor transformation is matter-induced flavor oscillation.

  8. Neutrino mass and the solar neutrino problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolfenstein, L.

    1987-01-01

    Theoretical ideas about neutrino mass based on grand-unified theories are reviewed. These give the see-saw formula in which neutrino mass is inversely proportional to a large mass scale M. For M between 10/sup 11/ and 10/sup 15/ Gev the study of solar neutrinos appears to be the best probe of neutrino masses and mixings

  9. Astrophysical neutrinos flavored with beyond the Standard Model physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasmussen, Rasmus W.; Ackermann, Markus; Winter, Walter [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany); Lechner, Lukas [Vienna Univ. of Technology (Austria). Dept. of Physics; Kowalski, Marek [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany); Humboldt-Universitaet, Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik

    2017-07-15

    We systematically study the allowed parameter space for the flavor composition of astrophysical neutrinos measured at Earth, including beyond the Standard Model theories at production, during propagation, and at detection. One motivation is to illustrate the discrimination power of the next-generation neutrino telescopes such as IceCube-Gen2. We identify several examples that lead to potential deviations from the standard neutrino mixing expectation such as significant sterile neutrino production at the source, effective operators modifying the neutrino propagation at high energies, dark matter interactions in neutrino propagation, or non-standard interactions in Earth matter. IceCube-Gen2 can exclude about 90% of the allowed parameter space in these cases, and hence will allow to efficiently test and discriminate models. More detailed information can be obtained from additional observables such as the energy-dependence of the effect, fraction of electron antineutrinos at the Glashow resonance, or number of tau neutrino events.

  10. Astrophysical neutrinos flavored with beyond the Standard Model physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasmussen, Rasmus W.; Ackermann, Markus; Winter, Walter; Lechner, Lukas; Kowalski, Marek; Humboldt-Universitaet, Berlin

    2017-07-01

    We systematically study the allowed parameter space for the flavor composition of astrophysical neutrinos measured at Earth, including beyond the Standard Model theories at production, during propagation, and at detection. One motivation is to illustrate the discrimination power of the next-generation neutrino telescopes such as IceCube-Gen2. We identify several examples that lead to potential deviations from the standard neutrino mixing expectation such as significant sterile neutrino production at the source, effective operators modifying the neutrino propagation at high energies, dark matter interactions in neutrino propagation, or non-standard interactions in Earth matter. IceCube-Gen2 can exclude about 90% of the allowed parameter space in these cases, and hence will allow to efficiently test and discriminate models. More detailed information can be obtained from additional observables such as the energy-dependence of the effect, fraction of electron antineutrinos at the Glashow resonance, or number of tau neutrino events.

  11. Neutrino clouds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephenson Jr, G.J.; McKellar, B.H.J.

    1997-01-01

    We consider the possibility that neutrinos are coupled very weakly to an extremely light scalar boson. We first analyze the simple problem of one generation of neutrino and show that, for ranges of parameters that are allowed by existing data, such a system can have serious consequences for the evolution of stars and could impact precision laboratory measurements. We discuss the extension to more generations and show that the general conclusion remains viable. Finally, we note that, should such a scalar field be present, experiments give information about effective masses, not the masses that arise in unified field theories. (authors). 23 refs., 9 figs

  12. Neutrino clouds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephenson Jr, G.J. [New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy; Goldman, T. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); McKellar, B.H.J. [Melbourne Univ., Parkville, VIC (Australia). School of Physics

    1997-06-01

    We consider the possibility that neutrinos are coupled very weakly to an extremely light scalar boson. We first analyze the simple problem of one generation of neutrino and show that, for ranges of parameters that are allowed by existing data, such a system can have serious consequences for the evolution of stars and could impact precision laboratory measurements. We discuss the extension to more generations and show that the general conclusion remains viable. Finally, we note that, should such a scalar field be present, experiments give information about effective masses, not the masses that arise in unified field theories. (authors). 23 refs., 9 figs.

  13. Neutrino Telescope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coelin Baldo, Milla

    2009-01-01

    The present volume contains the proceedings of the 13. International Workshop on 'Neutrino Telescope', 17. of the series 'Un altro modo di guardare il cielo', held in Venice at the 'Istituto Veneto di Scienze, Lettere ed Arti' from March 10 to March 13, 2009. This series started in Venice 21 years ago, in 1988, motivated by the growing interest in the exciting field of the neutrino physics and astrophysics, with the aim to bring together experimentalists and theorists and encourage discussion on the most recent results and to chart the direction of future researchers.

  14. A measurement of muon neutrino disappearance with the MINOS detectors and NuMI beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ospanov, Rustem [Texas U.

    2008-08-01

    MINOS is a long-baseline two-detector neutrino oscillation experiment that uses a high intensity muon neutrino beam to investigate the phenomena of neutrino oscillations. The neutrino beam is produced by the NuMI facility at Fermilab, Batavia, Illinois, and is observed at near and far detectors placed 734 km apart. The neutrino interactions in the near detector are used to measure the initial muon neutrino fl The vast majority of neutrinos travel through the near detector and Earth matter without interactions. A fraction of muon neutrinos oscillate into other fl vors resulting in the disappearance of muon neutrinos at the far detector. This thesis presents a measurement of the muon neutrino oscillation parameters in the framework of the two-neutrino oscillation hypothesis.

  15. Neutrino burst from SN1987A and the solar-neutrino puzzle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arafune, J.; Fukugita, M.; Yanagida, T.; Yoshimura, M.

    1987-01-01

    The prompt ν/sub e/ signal from the supernova explosion in the Large Magellanic Cloud presumably detected by Kamiokande II does not necessarily mean that the Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein effect on the solar-neutrino flux is not operative. The electron neutrino, once rotated to a different-flavor neutrino in the progenitor star, can come back via the matter-oscillation effect in the Earth, or a residual ν/sub e/ flux from the progenitor can directly hit the detector, saving the Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein explanation of the solar-neutrino problem for a range of mixing parameters

  16. Neutrino mixing and future accelerator neutrino experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilenky, S.M.

    1992-01-01

    No evidence for neutrino mixing has been obtained in experiments searching for oscillations with neutrinos from accelerators and reactors. The possible reason is that neutrino masses are too small to produce any sizable effects in the experiments with terrestrial neutrinos. We put forward here the point of view that the reason for that can be traced to the presence of a hierarchy of neutrino masses as well as strength of couplings between lepton families. (orig.)

  17. Neutrino horn

    CERN Multimedia

    1967-01-01

    View of the new neutrino horn installed in its blockhouse from the target end. Protons pass through the 2mm hole in the centre of the small fluorescent screen, hitting the target immediately behind it. The circular tubes carry pressurized cooling water.

  18. Neutrino Oscillations

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The 2015 Nobel Prize in Physics was awarded to two physicists-Takaaki Kajita and Arthur B McDonald, whose teams discoveredthat neutrinos, which come in three flavours, changefrom one flavour to another. This discovery is a major milestonein particle physics as it gives a clear evidence of physicsbeyond the Standard ...

  19. Solar Neutrinos

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    7,81. The Chlorine experiment, located in the Homestake Gold Mine in Lead, South Dakota, was the first solar neutrino experiment to be set up. A tank of. 105 gallons of perchloroethylene in which the electron neu- trino reacts with chlorine to ...

  20. Matter effects on the flavor conversions of solar neutrinos and high-energy astrophysical neutrinos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Guo-yuan; Liu, Jun-Hao; Zhou, Shun

    2018-06-01

    Can we observe the solar eclipses in the neutrino light? In principle, this is possible by identifying the lunar matter effects on the flavor conversions of solar neutrinos when they traverse the Moon before reaching the detectors at the Earth. Unfortunately, we show that the lunar matter effects on the survival probability of solar 8B neutrinos are suppressed by an additional factor of 1.2%, compared to the day-night asymmetry. However, we point out that the matter effects on the flavor conversions of high-energy astrophysical neutrinos, when they propagate through the Sun, can be significant. Though the flavor composition of high-energy neutrinos can be remarkably modified, it is quite challenging to observe such effects even in the next-generation of neutrino telescopes.

  1. Earth

    CERN Document Server

    Carter, Jason

    2017-01-01

    This curriculum-based, easy-to-follow book teaches young readers about Earth as one of the eight planets in our solar system in astronomical terms. With accessible text, it provides the fundamental information any student needs to begin their studies in astronomy, such as how Earth spins and revolves around the Sun, why it's uniquely suitable for life, its physical features, atmosphere, biosphere, moon, its past, future, and more. To enhance the learning experience, many of the images come directly from NASA. This straightforward title offers the fundamental information any student needs to sp

  2. Future neutrino experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Di Lella, L

    2001-01-01

    Future experiments to search for neutrino oscillations using neutrinos from the Sun, from reactors and accelerators are reviewed. Possible long-term developments based on neutrino factories are also described. (29 refs).

  3. Supernova signatures of neutrino mass ordering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholberg, Kate

    2018-01-01

    A suite of detectors around the world is poised to measure the flavor-energy-time evolution of the ten-second burst of neutrinos from a core-collapse supernova occurring in the Milky Way or nearby. Next-generation detectors to be built in the next decade will have enhanced flavor sensitivity and statistics. Not only will the observation of this burst allow us to peer inside the dense matter of the extreme event and learn about the collapse processes and the birth of the remnant, but the neutrinos will bring information about neutrino properties themselves. This review surveys some of the physical signatures that the currently-unknown neutrino mass pattern will imprint on the observed neutrino events at Earth, emphasizing the most robust and least model-dependent signatures of mass ordering.

  4. Neutrinos: Theory and Phenomenology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parke, Stephen

    2013-10-22

    The theory and phenomenology of neutrinos will be addressed, especially that relating to the observation of neutrino flavor transformations. The current status and implications for future experiments will be discussed with special emphasis on the experiments that will determine the neutrino mass ordering, the dominant flavor content of the neutrino mass eigenstate with the smallest electron neutrino content and the size of CP violation in the neutrino sector. Beyond the neutrino Standard Model, the evidence for and a possible definitive experiment to confirm or refute the existence of light sterile neutrinos will be briefly discussed.

  5. Supernova neutrinos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    In the first part of his in-depth article on the 1987 supernova, David Schramm of the University of Chicago and the NASA/Fermilab Astrophysics Centre reviewed the background to supernovae, the composition of massive stars and the optical history of SN 1987A, and speculated on what the 1987 remnant might be. In such a Type II supernova, gravitational pressure crushes the atoms of the star's interior producing neutron matter, or even a black hole, and releasing an intense burst of neutrinos. 1987 was the first time that physicists were equipped (but not entirely ready!) to intercept these particles, and in the second part of his article, David Schramm covers the remarkable new insights from the science of supernova neutrino astronomy, born on 23 February 1987

  6. Neutrino properties and fundamental symmetries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowles, T.J.

    1996-01-01

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). There are two components to this work. The first is a development of a new detection scheme for neutrinos. The observed deficit of neutrinos from the Sun may be due to either a lack of understanding of physical processes in the Sun or may be due to neutrinos oscillating from one type to another during their transit from the Sun to the Earth. The Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO) is designed to use a water Cerenkov detector employing one thousand tonnes of heavy water to resolve this question. The ability to distinguish muon and tau neutrinos from electron neutrinos is crucial in order to carry out a model-independent test of neutrino oscillations. We describe a developmental exploration of a novel technique to do this using 3 He proportional counters. Such a method offers considerable advantages over the initially proposed method of using Cerenkov light from capture on NaCl in the SNO. The second component of this work is an exploration of optimal detector geometry for a time-reversal invariance experiment. The question of why time moves only in the forward direction is one of the most puzzling problems in modern physics. We know from particle physics measurements of the decay of kaons that there is a charge-parity symmetry that is violated in nature, implying time-reversal invariance violation. Yet, we do not understand the origin of the violation of this symmetry. To promote such an understanding, we are developing concepts and prototype apparatus for a new, highly sensitive technique to search for time-reversal-invariance violation in the beta decay of the free neutron. The optimized detector geometry is seven times more sensitive than that in previous experiments. 15 refs

  7. TeV gravity at neutrino telescopes

    CERN Document Server

    Illana, J I; Meloni, D

    2005-01-01

    Cosmogenic neutrinos reach the Earth with energies around 10^9 GeV, and their interactions with matter will be measured in upcoming experiments (Auger, IceCube). Models with extra dimensions and the fundamental scale at the TeV could imply signals in these experiments. In particular, the production of microscopic black holes by cosmogenic neutrinos has been extensively studied in the literature. Here we make a complete analysis of gravity-mediated interactions at larger distances, where they can be calculated in the eikonal approximation. In these processes a neutrino of energy E_\

  8. Deep Secrets of the Neutrino: Physics Underground

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rowson, P.C.

    2010-03-23

    Among the many beautiful, unexpected and sometimes revolutionary discoveries to emerge from subatomic physics, probably none is more bizarre than an elementary particle known as the 'neutrino'. More than a trillion of these microscopic phantoms pass unnoticed through our bodies every second, and indeed, through the entire Earth - but their properties remain poorly understood. In recent years, exquisitely sensitive experiments, often conducted deep below ground, have brought neutrino physics to the forefront. In this talk, we will explore the neutrino - what we know, what we want to know, and how one experiment in a New Mexico mine is trying to get there.

  9. The Intermediate Neutrino Program

    CERN Document Server

    Adams, C.; Ankowski, A.M.; Asaadi, J.A.; Ashenfelter, J.; Axani, S.N.; Babu, K.; Backhouse, C.; Band, H.R.; Barbeau, P.S.; Barros, N.; Bernstein, A.; Betancourt, M.; Bishai, M.; Blucher, E.; Bouffard, J.; Bowden, N.; Brice, S.; Bryan, C.; Camilleri, L.; Cao, J.; Carlson, J.; Carr, R.E.; Chatterjee, A.; Chen, M.; Chen, S.; Chiu, M.; Church, E.D.; Collar, J.I.; Collin, G.; Conrad, J.M.; Convery, M.R.; Cooper, R.L.; Cowen, D.; Davoudiasl, H.; de Gouvea, A.; Dean, D.J.; Deichert, G.; Descamps, F.; DeYoung, T.; Diwan, M.V.; Djurcic, Z.; Dolinski, M.J.; Dolph, J.; Donnelly, B.; Dwyer, D.A.; Dytman, S.; Efremenko, Y.; Everett, L.L.; Fava, A.; Figueroa-Feliciano, E.; Fleming, B.; Friedland, A.; Fujikawa, B.K.; Gaisser, T.K.; Galeazzi, M.; Galehouse, D.C.; Galindo-Uribarri, A.; Garvey, G.T.; Gautam, S.; Gilje, K.E.; Gonzalez-Garcia, M.; Goodman, M.C.; Gordon, H.; Gramellini, E.; Green, M.P.; Guglielmi, A.; Hackenburg, R.W.; Hackenburg, A.; Halzen, F.; Han, K.; Hans, S.; Harris, D.; Heeger, K.M.; Herman, M.; Hill, R.; Holin, A.; Huber, P.; Jaffe, D.E.; Johnson, R.A.; Joshi, J.; Karagiorgi, G.; Kaufman, L.J.; Kayser, B.; Kettell, S.H.; Kirby, B.J.; Klein, J.R.; Kolomensky, Yu. G.; Kriske, R.M.; Lane, C.E.; Langford, T.J.; Lankford, A.; Lau, K.; Learned, J.G.; Ling, J.; Link, J.M.; Lissauer, D.; Littenberg, L.; Littlejohn, B.R.; Lockwitz, S.; Lokajicek, M.; Louis, W.C.; Luk, K.; Lykken, J.; Marciano, W.J.; Maricic, J.; Markoff, D.M.; Martinez Caicedo, D.A.; Mauger, C.; Mavrokoridis, K.; McCluskey, E.; McKeen, D.; McKeown, R.; Mills, G.; Mocioiu, I.; Monreal, B.; Mooney, M.R.; Morfin, J.G.; Mumm, P.; Napolitano, J.; Neilson, R.; Nelson, J.K.; Nessi, M.; Norcini, D.; Nova, F.; Nygren, D.R.; Orebi Gann, G.D.; Palamara, O.; Parsa, Z.; Patterson, R.; Paul, P.; Pocar, A.; Qian, X.; Raaf, J.L.; Rameika, R.; Ranucci, G.; Ray, H.; Reyna, D.; Rich, G.C.; Rodrigues, P.; Romero, E.Romero; Rosero, R.; Rountree, S.D.; Rybolt, B.; Sanchez, M.C.; Santucci, G.; Schmitz, D.; Scholberg, K.; Seckel, D.; Shaevitz, M.; Shrock, R.; Smy, M.B.; Soderberg, M.; Sonzogni, A.; Sousa, A.B.; Spitz, J.; St. John, J.M.; Stewart, J.; Strait, J.B.; Sullivan, G.; Svoboda, R.; Szelc, A.M.; Tayloe, R.; Thomson, M.A.; Toups, M.; Vacheret, A.; Vagins, M.; Van de Water, R.G.; Vogelaar, R.B.; Weber, M.; Weng, W.; Wetstein, M.; White, C.; White, B.R.; Whitehead, L.; Whittington, D.W.; Wilking, M.J.; Wilson, R.J.; Wilson, P.; Winklehner, D.; Winn, D.R.; Worcester, E.; Yang, L.; Yeh, M.; Yokley, Z.W.; Yoo, J.; Yu, B.; Yu, J.; Zhang, C.

    2015-01-01

    The US neutrino community gathered at the Workshop on the Intermediate Neutrino Program (WINP) at Brookhaven National Laboratory February 4-6, 2015 to explore opportunities in neutrino physics over the next five to ten years. Scientists from particle, astroparticle and nuclear physics participated in the workshop. The workshop examined promising opportunities for neutrino physics in the intermediate term, including possible new small to mid-scale experiments, US contributions to large experiments, upgrades to existing experiments, R&D plans and theory. The workshop was organized into two sets of parallel working group sessions, divided by physics topics and technology. Physics working groups covered topics on Sterile Neutrinos, Neutrino Mixing, Neutrino Interactions, Neutrino Properties and Astrophysical Neutrinos. Technology sessions were organized into Theory, Short-Baseline Accelerator Neutrinos, Reactor Neutrinos, Detector R&D and Source, Cyclotron and Meson Decay at Rest sessions.This report summ...

  10. The Intermediate Neutrino Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, C.; et al.

    2015-03-23

    The US neutrino community gathered at the Workshop on the Intermediate Neutrino Program (WINP) at Brookhaven National Laboratory February 4-6, 2015 to explore opportunities in neutrino physics over the next five to ten years. Scientists from particle, astroparticle and nuclear physics participated in the workshop. The workshop examined promising opportunities for neutrino physics in the intermediate term, including possible new small to mid-scale experiments, US contributions to large experiments, upgrades to existing experiments, R&D plans and theory. The workshop was organized into two sets of parallel working group sessions, divided by physics topics and technology. Physics working groups covered topics on Sterile Neutrinos, Neutrino Mixing, Neutrino Interactions, Neutrino Properties and Astrophysical Neutrinos. Technology sessions were organized into Theory, Short-Baseline Accelerator Neutrinos, Reactor Neutrinos, Detector R&D and Source, Cyclotron and Meson Decay at Rest sessions.This report summarizes discussion and conclusions from the workshop.

  11. The Intermediate Neutrino Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, C. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States); Alonso, J. R. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Ankowski, A. M. [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States); Asaadi, J. A. [Syracuse Univ., NY (United States); Ashenfelter, J. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States); Axani, S. N. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Babu, K [Oklahoma State Univ., Stillwater, OK (United States); Backhouse, C. [California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States); Band, H. R. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States); Barbeau, P. S. [Duke Univ., Durham, NC (United States); Barros, N. [Univ. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Bernstein, A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Betancourt, M. [Illinois Inst. of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); Bishai, M. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Blucher, E. [Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States); Bouffard, J. [State Univ. of New York (SUNY), Albany, NY (United States); Bowden, N. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Brice, S. [Illinois Inst. of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); Bryan, C. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Camilleri, L. [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States); Cao, J. [Inst. of High Energy Physics, Beijing (China); Carlson, J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Carr, R. E. [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States); Chatterjee, A. [Univ. of Texas, Arlington, TX (United States); Chen, M. [Univ. of California, Irvine, CA (United States); Chen, S. [Tsinghua Univ., Beijing (China); Chiu, M. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Church, E. D. [Illinois Inst. of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Collar, J. I. [Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States); Collin, G. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Conrad, J. M. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Convery, M. R. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Cooper, R. L. [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States); Cowen, D. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Davoudiasl, H. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Gouvea, A. D. [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States); Dean, D. J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Deichert, G. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Descamps, F. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); DeYoung, T. [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States); Diwan, M. V. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Djurcic, Z. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Dolinski, M. J. [Drexel Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States); Dolph, J. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Donnelly, B. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Dwyer, D. A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Dytman, S. [Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Efremenko, Y. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Everett, L. L. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Fava, A. [University of Padua, Padova (Italy); Figueroa-Feliciano, E. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Fleming, B. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States); Friedland, A. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Fujikawa, B. K. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Gaisser, T. K. [Univ. of Delaware, Newark, DE (United States); Galeazzi, M. [Univ. of Miami, FL (United States); Galehouse, DC [Univ. of Akron, OH (United States); Galindo-Uribarri, A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Garvey, G. T. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Gautam, S. [Tribhuvan Univ., Kirtipur (Nepal); Gilje, K. E. [Illinois Inst. of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); Gonzalez-Garcia, M. [Stony Brook Univ., NY (United States); Goodman, M. C. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Gordon, H. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Gramellini, E. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States); Green, M. P. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Guglielmi, A. [University of Padua, Padova (Italy); Hackenburg, R. W. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Hackenburg, A. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States); Halzen, F. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Han, K. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States); Hans, S. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Harris, D. [Illinois Inst. of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); Heeger, K. M. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States); Herman, M. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Hill, R. [Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States); Holin, A. [Univ. College London, Bloomsbury (United Kingdom); Huber, P. [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States); Jaffe, D. E. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Johnson, R. A. [Univ. of Cincinnati, OH (United States); Joshi, J. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Karagiorgi, G. [Univ. of Manchester (United Kingdom); Kaufman, L. J. [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States); Kayser, B. [Illinois Inst. of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); Kettell, S. H. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Kirby, B. J. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Klein, J. R. [Univ. of Texas, Arlington, TX (United States); Kolomensky, Y. G. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Kriske, R. M. [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Lane, C. E. [Drexel Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States); Langford, T. J. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States); Lankford, A. [Univ. of California, Irvine, CA (United States); Lau, K. [Univ. of Houston, TX (United States); Learned, J. G. [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States); Ling, J. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States); Link, J. M. [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States); Lissauer, D. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Littenberg, L. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Littlejohn, B. R. [Illinois Inst. of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); Lockwitz, S. [Illinois Inst. of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); Lokajicek, M. [Inst. of Physics of the Academy of Sciences of Czech Republic, Prague (Czech Republic); Louis, W. C. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Luk, K. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Lykken, J. [Illinois Inst. of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); Marciano, W. J. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Maricic, J. [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States); Markoff, D. M. [North Carolina Central Univ., Durham, NC (United States); Caicedo, D. A. M. [Illinois Inst. of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); Mauger, C. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Mavrokoridis, K. [Univ. of Liverpool (United Kingdom); McCluskey, E. [Illinois Inst. of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); McKeen, D. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); McKeown, R. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Mills, G. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Mocioiu, I. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Monreal, B. [Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States); Mooney, M. R. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Morfin, J. G. [Illinois Inst. of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); Mumm, P. [National Inst. of Standards and Technology (NIST), Boulder, CO (United States); Napolitano, J. [Temple Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States); Neilson, R. [Drexel Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States); Nelson, J. K. [College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA (United States); Nessi, M. [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); Norcini, D. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States); Nova, F. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States); Nygren, D. R. [Univ. of Texas, Arlington, TX (United States); Gann, GDO [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Palamara, O. [Illinois Inst. of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); Parsa, Z. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Patterson, R. [California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States); Paul, P. [Stony Brook Univ., NY (United States); Pocar, A. [Univ. of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA (United States); Qian, X. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Raaf, J. L. [Illinois Inst. of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); Rameika, R. [Illinois Inst. of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); Ranucci, G. [National Inst. of Nuclear Physics, Milano (Italy); Ray, H. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Reyna, D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Rich, G. C. [Triangle Universities Nuclear Lab., Durham, NC (United States); Rodrigues, P. [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States); Romero, E. R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Rosero, R. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Rountree, S. D. [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States); Rybolt, B. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Sanchez, M. C. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States); Santucci, G. [Stony Brook Univ., NY (United States); Schmitz, D. [Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States); Scholberg, K. [Duke Univ., Durham, NC (United States); Seckel, D. [Univ. of Delaware, Newark, DE (United States); Shaevitz, M. [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States); Shrock, R. [Stony Brook Univ., NY (United States); Smy, M. B. [Univ. of California, Irvine, CA (United States); Soderberg, M. [Syracuse Univ., NY (United States); Sonzogni, A. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Sousa, A. B. [Univ. of Cincinnati, OH (United States); Spitz, J. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); John, J. M. S. [Univ. of Cincinnati, OH (United States); Stewart, J. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Strait, J. B. [Illinois Inst. of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); Sullivan, G. [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Svoboda, R. [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States); Szelc, A. M. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States); Tayloe, R. [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States); Thomson, M. A. [Univ. of Cambridge (United Kingdom); Toups, M. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Vacheret, A. [Univ. of Oxford (United Kingdom); Vagins, M. [Univ. of California, Irvine, CA (United States); Water, R. G. V. D. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Vogelaar, R. B. [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States); Weber, M. [Bern (Switzerland); Weng, W. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Wetstein, M. [Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States); White, C. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); White, B. R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Whitehead, L. [Univ. of Houston, TX (United States); Whittington, D. W. [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States); Wilking, M. J. [Stony Brook Univ., NY (United States); Wilson, R. J. [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States); Wilson, P. [Illinois Inst. of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); Winklehner, D. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Winn, D. R. [Fairfield Univ., CT (United States); Worcester, E. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Yang, L. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States); Yeh, M [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Yokley, Z. W. [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States); Yoo, J. [Illinois Inst. of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); Yu, B. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Yu, J. [Univ. of Texas, Arlington, TX (United States); Zhang, C. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2017-04-03

    The US neutrino community gathered at the Workshop on the Intermediate Neutrino Program (WINP) at Brookhaven National Laboratory February 4-6, 2015 to explore opportunities in neutrino physics over the next five to ten years. Scientists from particle, astroparticle and nuclear physics participated in the workshop. The workshop examined promising opportunities for neutrino physics in the intermediate term, including possible new small to mid-scale experiments, US contributions to large experiments, upgrades to existing experiments, R&D plans and theory. The workshop was organized into two sets of parallel working group sessions, divided by physics topics and technology. Physics working groups covered topics on Sterile Neutrinos, Neutrino Mixing, Neutrino Interactions, Neutrino Properties and Astrophysical Neutrinos. Technology sessions were organized into Theory, Short-Baseline Accelerator Neutrinos, Reactor Neutrinos, Detector R&D and Source, Cyclotron and Meson Decay at Rest sessions.This report summarizes discussion and conclusions from the workshop.

  12. Spaceship neutrino. History of an elementary particle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutton, C.

    1994-01-01

    The author tells the story of the neutrino that was postulated as early as the 30s by W. Pauli but could only be proved in the 50s. She tells of the expensive experiments by means of the complicated detectors on the earth to record the particles streaming out of the sun in the billions. Discussed also is the cosmological theory which holds that the neutrinos could provide the missing mass in the universe. figs., tabs., refs

  13. Neutrino problems proliferate (Neutrino 94 conference report)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gordon, Fraser

    1994-01-01

    The enigma of the neutrino continues. More than sixty years after its hesitant prediction by Pauli and forty years after its discovery by Reines and Cowan, the neutrino still refuses to give up all its secrets. The longer we travel down the neutrino road and the more we find out about these particles, the more problems we uncover en route. The present state of the neutrino mystery was highlighted at the Neutrino 94 meeting in Eilat, Israel, from 29 May to 3 June. It was a distinguished meeting, with the first morning including one session chaired by neutrino co-discoverer Fred Reines, and an introductory talk by muon-neutrino co-discoverer Leon Lederman. One figurehead neutrino personality conspicuously absent this time was Bruno Pontecorvo, who died last year and had attended the previous conference in the series, in Grenada, Spain, in 1992

  14. Neutrino problems proliferate (Neutrino 94 conference report)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gordon, Fraser

    1994-09-15

    The enigma of the neutrino continues. More than sixty years after its hesitant prediction by Pauli and forty years after its discovery by Reines and Cowan, the neutrino still refuses to give up all its secrets. The longer we travel down the neutrino road and the more we find out about these particles, the more problems we uncover en route. The present state of the neutrino mystery was highlighted at the Neutrino 94 meeting in Eilat, Israel, from 29 May to 3 June. It was a distinguished meeting, with the first morning including one session chaired by neutrino co-discoverer Fred Reines, and an introductory talk by muon-neutrino co-discoverer Leon Lederman. One figurehead neutrino personality conspicuously absent this time was Bruno Pontecorvo, who died last year and had attended the previous conference in the series, in Grenada, Spain, in 1992.

  15. Neutrino 2004: Collection of Presentations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The scientific program covers the latest developments in neutrino physics, astrophysics and related topics through a set of invited talks and 2 poster sessions. The following issues are addressed: - solar neutrinos, - atmospheric neutrinos, - short and long baseline experiments, - neutrino oscillations, - double beta decay, - direct neutrino mass limits, - theory for neutrino masses, neutrino telescopes and ultra-high energy neutrinos, - dark matter searches, - neutrino in astrophysics and cosmology, and - future projects beams and experiments

  16. Neutrino 2004: Collection of Presentations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    The scientific program covers the latest developments in neutrino physics, astrophysics and related topics through a set of invited talks and 2 poster sessions. The following issues are addressed: - solar neutrinos, - atmospheric neutrinos, - short and long baseline experiments, - neutrino oscillations, - double beta decay, - direct neutrino mass limits, - theory for neutrino masses, neutrino telescopes and ultra-high energy neutrinos, - dark matter searches, - neutrino in astrophysics and cosmology, and - future projects beams and experiments.

  17. Two old ways to measure the electron-neutrino mass

    CERN Document Server

    De Rújula, A

    2013-01-01

    Three decades ago, the measurement of the electron neutrino mass in atomic electron capture (EC) experiments was scrutinized in its two variants: single EC and neutrino-less double EC. For certain isotopes an atomic resonance enormously enhances the expected decay rates. The favoured technique, based on calorimeters as opposed to spectrometers, has the advantage of greatly simplifying the theoretical analysis of the data. After an initial surge of measurements, the EC approach did not seem to be competitive. But very recently, there has been great progress on micro-calorimeters and the measurement of atomic mass differences. Meanwhile, the beta-decay neutrino-mass limits have improved by a factor of 15, and the difficulty of the experiments by the cube of that figure. Can the "calorimetric" EC theory cope with this increased challenge? I answer this question affirmatively. In so doing I briefly review the subject and extensively address some persistent misunderstandings of the underlying quantum physics.

  18. ABSOLUTE NEUTRINO MASSES

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schechter, J.; Shahid, M. N.

    2012-01-01

    We discuss the possibility of using experiments timing the propagation of neutrino beams over large distances to help determine the absolute masses of the three neutrinos.......We discuss the possibility of using experiments timing the propagation of neutrino beams over large distances to help determine the absolute masses of the three neutrinos....

  19. Working Group Report: Neutrinos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Gouvea, A.; Pitts, K.; Scholberg, K.; Zeller, G. P. [et al.

    2013-10-16

    This document represents the response of the Intensity Frontier Neutrino Working Group to the Snowmass charge. We summarize the current status of neutrino physics and identify many exciting future opportunities for studying the properties of neutrinos and for addressing important physics and astrophysics questions with neutrinos.

  20. Underground neutrino astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schramm, D.N.

    1983-02-01

    A review is made of possible astronomical neutrino sources detectable with underground facilities. Comments are made about solar neutrinos and gravitational-collapse neutrinos, and particular emphasis is placed on ultra-high-energy astronomical neutrino sources. An appendix mentions the exotic possibility of monopolonium

  1. Introduction to massive neutrinos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kayser, B.

    1984-01-01

    We discuss the theoretical ideas which make it natural to expect that neutrinos do indeed have mass. Then we focus on the physical consequences of neutrino mass, including neutrino oscillation and other phenomena whose observation would be very interesting, and would serve to demonstrate that neutrinos are indeed massive. We comment on the legitimacy of comparing results from different types of experiments. Finally, we consider the question of whether neutrinos are their own antiparticles. We explain what this question means, discuss the nature of a neutrino which is its own antiparticles, and consider how one might determine experimentally whether neutrinos are their own antiparticles or not

  2. Neutrinos in Nuclear Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKeown, Bob [bmck@jlab.org

    2015-06-01

    Since the discovery of nuclear beta decay, nuclear physicists have studied the weak interaction and the nature of neutrinos. Many recent and current experiments have been focused on the elucidation of neutrino oscillations and neutrino mass. The quest for the absolute value of neutrino mass continues with higher precision studies of the tritium beta decay spectrum near the endpoint. Neutrino oscillations are studied through measurements of reactor neutrinos as a function of baseline and energy. And experiments searching for neutrinoless double beta decay seek to discover violation of lepton number and establish the Majorana nature of neutrino masses.

  3. 50 years of neutrinos

    CERN Document Server

    Goldhaber, M

    1980-01-01

    On December 4 1930, Wolfgang Pauli addressed an "open letter" to Lise Meitner and others attending a physics meeting, suggesting the neutrino as a way out of the difficulties confronted in beta rays research, especially by the existence of a continuous beta spectrum. He proposed a new particle later called the neutrino. The prehistory leading up to Pauli's letter will be reviewed, as well as the later discovery of the electron-neutrino followed by the muon-neutrino. There are now believed to be three different types of neutrino and their anti-particles. Neutrinos have a spin 1/2; but only one spin component has been found in nature: neutrinos go forward as "left-handed" screws and anti-neutrinos as "right-handed" ones. A question still not convincingly resolved today is wether neutrinos have a mass different from zero and, if they do, what consequences this would have for the behaviour of neutrinos and for cosmology.

  4. The solar neutrinos epopee

    CERN Document Server

    Lasserre, T

    2003-01-01

    The 2002 year has been fruitful for the neutrino physics. First, the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO) experiment has shown that the electron neutrinos nu sub e emitted by the sun are converted into muon neutrinos (nu submu) and tau neutrinos (nu subtau), thus closing the 30 years old problem of solar neutrinos deficit. This discovery validates the model of nuclear energy production inside the sun but it shakes the theory describing the weak interactions between the fundamental constituents of matter. This theory considers the neutrinos (and the photons) as massless particles, while the taste conversion phenomenon necessarily implies that neutrinos have a mass. In October 2000, the Universe exploration by the cosmic neutrinos is jointly recognized by R. Davis (USA) and M. Koshiba (Japan) who received the Nobel price of physics. Finally, in December 2000, the KamLAND experiment quantitatively demonstrated the neutrinos metamorphosis by detecting a deficit in the flux of electron antineutrinos coming from the ...

  5. Some unsettled questions in the problem of neutrino oscillations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beshtoev, Kh.M.

    2003-01-01

    It is noted that the theory of neutrino oscillations can be constructed only in the framework of the particle physics theory where a mass shell conception is presented and then transitions (oscillations) between neutrinos with equal masses are real and between neutrinos with different masses are virtual. There can be three types of neutrino transitions. In the experiments it is necessary to decide the question: which type of neutrino transitions is realized in nature? At present it is supposed that Dirac and Majorana neutrino oscillations can be realized. It is shown that we cannot put Majorana neutrinos in the standard weak interaction theory without violation of the gauge invariance. If we use the Majorana neutrinos then we come to contradiction with the existing experimental data. Then it is obvious that there can be only realized transitions between Dirac neutrinos with different flavors. It is also shown that the mechanism of resonance enhancement of neutrino oscillations in matter cannot be realized without violation of the law of energy-momentum conservation. Though it is supposed that in experiments we see neutrino oscillations, indeed only transitions between neutrinos are registered.To register neutrino oscillations, it is necessary to see second or even higher neutrino oscillation modes in experiments. For this purpose we can use the elliptic character of the Earth orbit at registrations of sun neutrinos. The analysis shows that the SNO experimental results do not confirm smallness of ν e → ν τ transition angle mixing, which was obtained in the CHOOZ experiment. It is also noted that there is contradiction between the SNO, Super-Kamiokande, Homestake and SAGE, and GNO (GALLEX) data. (author)

  6. Neutrino physics in heaven

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raffelt, G.

    2005-01-01

    After a brief overview of the usual topics that connect astrophysics and cosmology with neutrino physics I will focus on two main themes. First, what can we learn from the neutrino signal of a future galactic supernova, in particular about the neutrino mass ordering. Second, what can we learn about neutrino properties from cosmological observables, notably about the neutrino absolute mass scale from cosmological large-scale structure observables. (author)

  7. Two lectures on neutrinos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramond, P.

    1992-01-01

    These notes are based on two lectures delivered at the School. A general description of neutrinos is presented, first in purely kinematic terms, then in the context of the Standard Model, focusing on the role of the global lepton numbers. Standard Model extensions with massive neutrinos are cataloged. Several popular mass matrices for neutrinos, and their consequences are presented. They proceed to give an extended discussion of neutrino oscillations in matter, and apply the results to the solar neutrinos

  8. Workshop: Neutrino telescopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    Despite being the most elusive of the known particles, neutrinos provide vital new physics insights. Most neutrino knowledge so far has come from studies using beams from reactors and accelerators, but in recent years important new contributions have resulted from investigation of natural neutrinos from cosmic rays, nearby stars (the sun), or distant sources, such as the 1987 supernova. The supernova observations marked the start of a new era in neutrino astronomy, but neutrino telescopes were anyway assured of an important ongoing role

  9. Workshop: Neutrino telescopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1990-05-15

    Despite being the most elusive of the known particles, neutrinos provide vital new physics insights. Most neutrino knowledge so far has come from studies using beams from reactors and accelerators, but in recent years important new contributions have resulted from investigation of natural neutrinos from cosmic rays, nearby stars (the sun), or distant sources, such as the 1987 supernova. The supernova observations marked the start of a new era in neutrino astronomy, but neutrino telescopes were anyway assured of an important ongoing role.

  10. Collective neutrino oscillations and neutrino wave packets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akhmedov, Evgeny; Lindner, Manfred [Max-Planck-Institut für Kernphysik, Saupfercheckweg 1, 69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Kopp, Joachim, E-mail: akhmedov@mpi-hd.mpg.de, E-mail: jkopp@uni-mainz.de, E-mail: lindner@mpi-hd.mpg.de [PRISMA Cluster of Excellence and Mainz Institute for Theoretical Physics, Johannes Gutenberg University, 55099 Mainz (Germany)

    2017-09-01

    Effects of decoherence by wave packet separation on collective neutrino oscillations in dense neutrino gases are considered. We estimate the length of the wave packets of neutrinos produced in core collapse supernovae and the expected neutrino coherence length, and then proceed to consider the decoherence effects within the density matrix formalism of neutrino flavour transitions. First, we demonstrate that for neutrino oscillations in vacuum the decoherence effects are described by a damping term in the equation of motion of the density matrix of a neutrino as a whole (as contrasted to that of the fixed-momentum components of the neutrino density matrix). Next, we consider neutrino oscillations in ordinary matter and dense neutrino backgrounds, both in the adiabatic and non-adiabatic regimes. In the latter case we study two specific models of adiabaticity violation—one with short-term and another with extended non-adiabaticity. It is demonstrated that, while in the adiabatic case a damping term is present in the equation of motion of the neutrino density matrix (just like in the vacuum oscillation case), no such term in general appears in the non-adiabatic regime.

  11. Solar Neutrinos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Antonelli

    2013-01-01

    relevant indications on the fundamental interactions among particles. After reviewing the striking results of the last two decades, which were determinant to solve the long standing solar neutrino puzzle and refine the Standard Solar Model, we focus our attention on the more recent results in this field and on the experiments presently running or planned for the near future. The main focus at the moment is to improve the knowledge of the mass and mixing pattern and especially to study in detail the lowest energy part of the spectrum, which represents most of the solar neutrino spectrum but is still a partially unexplored realm. We discuss this research project and the way in which present and future experiments could contribute to make the theoretical framework more complete and stable, understanding the origin of some “anomalies” that seem to emerge from the data and contributing to answer some present questions, like the exact mechanism of the vacuum to matter transition and the solution of the so-called solar metallicity problem.

  12. Physics possibilities at India-based Neutrino Observatory

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    cosmic ray background environments. The ICAL consists of 140 ... neglecting ∆21 and θ13, the muon neutrino oscillation survival probability is given by. Pµµ = 1 − sin2 2θ23 ... surface of the earth at which atmospheric neutrinos are produced.

  13. Neutrino-oscillation search with cosmic-ray neutrinos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayres, D.S.; Cortez, B.; Gaisser, T.K.; Mann, A.K.; Shrock, R.E.; Sulak, L.R.

    1984-01-01

    A sensitive search for neutrino oscillations involving ν/sub e/, ν/sub μ/, and ν/sub tau/ may be provided by measurements of the ratio of the total interaction rates of upward- and downward-going cosmic-ray neutrinos within a massive (approx.10 kton) detector. Assuming mixing between all pairs of ν/sub e/, ν/sub μ/, and ν/sub tau/, the experiment is capable of observing time-averaged probabilities /sub t/ and /sub t/ of magnitude set by mixing strengths corresponding to, e.g., the d- to s-quark mixing strength, and of reaching the limit Δm/sub i/j 2 equivalentVertical Barm/sub i/ 2 -m/sub j/ 2 Vertical Barroughly-equal10 -4 eV 2 , where m/sub i/, and m/sub j/ are neutrino mass eigenstates, and P/sub e/tau and P/sub mutau/ are the probabilities for ν/sub e/ and ν/sub μ/, respectively, to oscillate into ν/sub tau/ after traversing a distance Lroughly-equal diameter of the Earth. Possible ambiguities may be resolved through comparison of the ratios N/sub e//N/sub μ/ for the upward- and downward-going neutrinos

  14. Solar neutrinos, rendezvous with the moon. An eclipse provides an indication for the huge neutrinos inquiry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vannucci, F.

    1996-01-01

    Solar neutrinos have raised for twenty years a puzzling problem: the neutrinos flux received on the Earth is greatly lower than the flux predicted by the prevailing model of star functioning. The neutrino oscillation hypothesis has been put forward to explain this problem. This paper describes a simple experiment carried out in Viet Nam using a telescope during a sun eclipse to measure the photon emission due to the neutrinos decay between the moon and the Earth. In this experiment, the moon plays the role of a filter which eliminates the sun photons. No significant excess of photons has been detected. This result gives some additional constraints to the existing models. (J.S.). 3 refs., 1 photo

  15. DUMAND: The Ocean as a Neutrino Detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blood, H.; Learned, J.; Reines, F.; Roberts, A.

    1976-06-01

    We consider the possibility of using the ocean as a neutrino detector; neutrino-produced interactions result in charged particles that generate Cerenkov radiation in the water, which can be detected by light-gathering equipment and photomultipliers. The properties of the ocean as seen from this standpoint are critically examined, and the advantages and disadvantages pointed out. Possible uses for such a neutrino detector include 1) the detection of neutrinos emitted in gravitational collapse of stars (supernova production), not only in our own galaxy, but in other galaxies up to perhaps twenty-million light-years away, 2) the extension of high-energy neutrino physics, as currently practiced up to 200 GeV at high-energy accelerators, to energies up to 50 times higher, using neutrinos generated in the atmosphere by cosmic rays, and 3) the possible detection of neutrinos produced by cosmic-ray interactions outside the earth's atmosphere. The technology for such an undertaking seems to be within reach.

  16. The Giant Radio Array for Neutrino Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martineau-Huynh Olivier

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available High-energy neutrino astronomy will probe the working of the most violent phenomena in the Universe. The Giant Radio Array for Neutrino Detection (GRAND project consists of an array of ∼ 105 radio antennas deployed over ∼ 200 000 km2 in a mountainous site. It aims at detecting high-energy neutrinos via the measurement of air showers induced by the decay in the atmosphere of τ leptons produced by the interaction of cosmic neutrinos under the Earth surface. Our objective with GRAND is to reach a neutrino sensitivity of 5 × 10−11E−2 GeV−1 cm−2 s−1 sr−1 above 3 × 1016 eV. This sensitivity ensures the detection of cosmogenic neutrinos in the most pessimistic source models, and up to 100 events per year are expected for the standard models. GRAND would also probe the neutrino signals produced at the potential sources of UHECRs.

  17. The physics of neutrinos

    CERN Document Server

    Barger, Vernon D; Whisnant, Kerry

    2012-01-01

    The physics of neutrinos- uncharged elementary particles that are key to helping us better understand the nature of our universe - is one of the most exciting frontiers of modern science. This book provides a comprehensive overview of neutrino physics today and explores promising new avenues of inquiry that could lead to future breakthroughs. The Physics of Neutrinos begins with a concise history of the field and a tutorial on the fundamental properties of neutrinos, and goes on to discuss how the three neutrino types interchange identities as they propagate from their sources to detectors. The book shows how studies of neutrinos produced by such phenomena as cosmic rays in the atmosphere and nuclear reactions in the solar interior provide striking evidence that neutrinos have mass, and it traces our astounding progress in deciphering the baffling experimental findings involving neutrinos. The discovery of neutrino mass offers the first indication of a new kind of physics that goes beyond the Standard Model ...

  18. Neutrino GDR meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguilar-Saavedra, J.A.; Camilleri, L.; Mention, G.; VanElewyck, V.; Verderi, M.; Blondel, A.; Augier, C.; Bellefon, A. de; Coc, A.; Duchesneau, D.; Favier, J.; Lesgourgues, J.; Payet, J.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of the neutrino GDR (research program coordination) is to federate the activities of French research teams devoted to studying the neutrino. The presentations have been organized on 2 days. A review of the present status of the theoretical and experimental knowledge on neutrinos on a worldwide basis has been made on the first day while the second day has been dedicated to reporting the activities of the 5 following working groups: 1) determination of neutrino parameters, 2) physics beyond the standard model, 3) neutrinos in the universe, 4) neutrino detection, and 5) common tools. During the first day the American neutrino research program has been presented through the description of the 2 neutrino detection systems: Nova and Minor. The following neutrino experiments involving nuclear reactors: Chooz (France), Daya-bay (China), Reno (Korea) and Angra (Brazil) have also been reviewed. This document is made up of the slides of the presentations

  19. Molybdenum solar neutrino experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolfsberg, K.; Cowan, G.A.; Bryant, E.A.

    1984-01-01

    The goal of the molybdenum solar neutrino experiment is to deduce the 8 B solar neutrino flux, averaged over the past several million years, from the concentration of 98 Tc in a deeply buried molybdenum deposit. The experiment is important to an understanding of stellar processes because it will shed light on the reason for the discrepancy between theory and observation of the chlorine solar neutrino experiment. Possible reasons for the discrepancy may lie in the properties of neutrinos (neutrino oscillations or massive neutrinos) or in deficiencies of the standard solar model. The chlorine experiment only measures the 8 B neutrino flux in current times and does not address possible temporal variations in the interior of the sun, which are also not considered in the standard model. In the molybdenum experiment, we plan to measure 98 Tc (4.2 Myr), also produced by 8 B neutrinos, and possibly 97 Tc (2.6 Myr), produced by lower energy neutrinos

  20. Status and Aims of the DUMAND Neutrino Project: the Ocean as a Neutrino Detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, A.; Blood, H.; Learned, J.; Reines, F.

    1976-07-01

    The possibility of using the ocean as a neutrino detector is considered. Neutrino-produced interactions result in charged particles that generate Cherenkov radiation in the water, which can be detected by light-gathering equipment and photomultipliers. The properties of the ocean as seen from this standpoint are critically examined, and the advantages and disadvantages pointed out. Possible uses for such a neutrino detector include (1) the detection of neutrinos emitted in gravitational collapse of stars (supernova production), not only in our own galaxy, but in other galaxies up to perhaps twenty-million light-years away, (2) the extension of high-energy neutrino physics, as currently practiced up to 200 GeV at high-energy accelerators, to energies up to 50 times higher, using neutrinos generated in the atmosphere by cosmic rays, and (3) the possible detection of neutrinos produced by cosmic-ray interactions outside the earth`s atmosphere. The technology for such an undertaking seems to be within reach.

  1. Measurement of the cosmic ray and neutrino-induced muon flux at the Sudbury neutrino observatory

    OpenAIRE

    Aharmim, B; Peeters, S J M; SNO Collaboration,

    2009-01-01

    Results are reported on the measurement of the atmospheric neutrino-induced muon flux at a depth of 2 kilometers below the Earth's surface from 1229 days of operation of the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO). By measuring the flux of through-going muons as a function of zenith angle, the SNO experiment can distinguish between the oscillated and un-oscillated portion of the neutrino flux. A total of 514 muon-like events are measured between $-1 \\le \\cos{\\theta}_{\\rm zenith} \\le 0.4$ in a tota...

  2. Study of Neutrino-Induced Neutrons in Dark Matter Detectors for Supernova Burst Neutrinos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwan, Newton; Scholberg, Kate

    2017-09-01

    When supernova burst neutrinos (1-50 MeV) pass through the Earth, they occasionally interact with the passive shielding surrounding dark matter detectors. When the neutrinos interact, one or two roughly 2 MeV neutrons are scattered isotropically and uniformly, often leaving undetected. Occasionally, these neutrino-induced neutrons (NINs) interact with the detector and leave a background signal similar to a WIMP. The purpose of this study is to understand the effects of NINs on active dark matter detectors during a supernova burst.

  3. Supernova neutrino detection with LVD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selvi, M.

    2007-01-01

    The Large Volume Detector (LVD) in the INFN Gran Sasso National Laboratory, Italy, is a ν observatory mainly designed to study low energy neutrinos from the gravitational collapse of galactic objects.We describe the characteristics of the supernova neutrino signal expected in the LVD detector and, in particular, we investigate the effect of neutrino oscillations. The MSW effect has been studied in detail for neutrinos travelling through the collapsing star and the Earth. We show that the expected number of events and their energy spectrum are sensitive to the oscillation parameters, in particular to the mass hierarchy and the value of θ 13 , presently unknown.The experiment has been monitoring the Galaxy since June 1992, under increasing larger configurations: in January 2001 it has reached its final active mass M = 1 kt. LVD is one of the largest liquid scintillator apparatus for the detection of stellar collapses and, besides SNO, SuperKamiokande and Amanda, it is a charter member of the SNEWS network, that has become fully operational since July 1st, 2005. No gravitational core-collapse has been detected by LVD during 14 years of data acquisition; this allows to put an upper limit of 0.18 events y -1 in our galaxy at the 90% C.L

  4. Golden Jubilee photos: Elusive Neutrinos

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    Catching neutrinos isn't easy. They interact only rarely with matter, so they have a good chance of passing straight through the Earth without stopping. However, when they do interact it is possible to see what effect they have on other particles. CERN had been doing this type of research for more than a decade by the time the detector in the picture was finished in 1977. The picture shows Klaus Winter, who worked on the 100 tonne CHARM experiment. CHARM is seen here in the West Area where it was set up with the 1250 tonne CDHS experiment. Researchers used these machines to help develop the Standard Model of particle physics and further our understanding of the structure of the atomic nucleus. The research also helped expand physics into a new field aimed at understanding the peculiar behaviour of neutrinos. There are three 'flavours' of neutrino - the electron, muon, and the tau neutrino. Over a long enough distance, they oscillate from one flavour to another. In 2006, CERN will try to make more progress on...

  5. Geophysics of neutrinos is born

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savatier, F.

    2005-01-01

    Beta minus decay is the prevailing radioactive decay in rocks inside the earth. One antineutrino and an amount of energy are released in each decay process, antineutrinos are elusive particles: they have no charge, almost no mass and pass through most matter without interacting with it. Detecting them is thus extremely difficult. The Kamland detector has been designed to do such a job. This detector is situated in a mine 1 km below the mount Ikenoyama in Japan. Within 2 years of operation a total of 152 neutrinos have been detected and among them only 25 are considered to be from terrestrial origin it means from uranium or thorium decay chains. The remaining, background neutrinos, come from nuclear power plants or from the interactions of cosmic muons with the earth. An important work of modelling of the earth crust was necessary to deduce from the number of antineutrinos detected, the global thermal power released inside the earth and due to the radioactivity. The mean value of the result bracket is 16.10 12 Watt. This value is to be compared to the thermal power that is necessary to trigger tectonics and volcanism on earth: 44.10 12 Watt. (A.C.)

  6. The neutrino mirror

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vannucci, F.

    2003-09-01

    The neutrino is not an elementary particle like others, it is the most stunning of all: the neutrino is undetectable by itself, we have only indirect evidences of its existence, but the neutrino is essential to explain the weak interaction, to understand why matter triumphed over anti-matter just after the Big-bang, or to solve the riddle of the hidden mass of the universe. This book is a popular work dedicated to the neutrino from its discovery in beta decays to the most recent theories such as neutrino oscillations, and via the worldwide experiments dedicated to the study of the neutrinos. (A.C.)

  7. Neutrino mass, a status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robertson, R.G.H.

    1993-01-01

    Experimental approaches to neutrino mass include kinematic mass measurements, neutrino oscillation searches at rectors and accelerators, solar neutrinos, atmospheric neutrinos, and single and double beta decay. The solar neutrino results yield fairly strong and consistent indications that neutrino oscillations are occurring. Other evidence for new physics is less consistent and convincing

  8. Experimental Neutrino Physics: Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lane, Charles E.; Maricic, Jelena

    2012-09-05

    Experimental studies of neutrino properties, with particular emphasis on neutrino oscillation, mass and mixing parameters. This research was pursued by means of underground detectors for reactor anti-neutrinos, measuring the flux and energy spectra of the neutrinos. More recent investigations have been aimed and developing detector technologies for a long-baseline neutrino experiment (LBNE) using a neutrino beam from Fermilab.

  9. Atmospheric neutrino oscillations, θ13 and neutrino mass hierarchy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernabeu, J.; Palomares-Ruiz, Sergio; Petcov, S.T.

    2003-01-01

    We derive predictions for the Nadir angle (θ n ) dependence of the ratio N μ /N e of the rates of the μ-like and e-like multi-GeV events measured in water-Cerenkov detectors in the case of 3-neutrino oscillations of the atmospheric ν e (ν-bar e ) and ν μ (ν-bar μ ), driven by one neutrino mass squared difference, vertical bar Δm 2 31 vertical bar ∼(2.5-3.0)x10 -3 eV 2 >> Δm 2 21 . This ratio is particularly sensitive to the Earth matter effects in the atmospheric neutrino oscillations, and thus to the values of sin 2 θ 13 and sin 2 θ 23 , θ 13 and θ 23 being the neutrino mixing angle limited by CHOOZ and Palo Verde experiments and that responsible for the dominant atmospheric ν μ →ν τ (ν-bar μ →ν-bar τ ) oscillations. It is also sensitive to the type of neutrino mass spectrum which can be with normal (Δm 2 31 >0) or with inverted (Δm 2 31 2 θ 13 > or approx. 0.01, sin 2 θ 23 > or approx. 0.5 and at cosθ n > or approx. 0.4, the Earth matter effects modify substantially the θ n -dependence of the ratio N μ /N e and in a way which cannot be reproduced with sin 2 θ 13 =0 and a different value of sin 2 θ 23 . For normal hierarchy the effects can be as large as ∼25% for cosθ n ∼(0.5-0.8), can reach ∼35% in the Earth core bin cosθ n ∼(0.84-1.0), and might be observable. They are typically by ∼10% smaller in the inverted hierarchy case. An observation of the Earth matter effects in the Nadir angle distribution of the ratio N μ /N e would clearly indicate that sin 2 θ 13 > or approx. 0.01 and sin 2 θ 23 > or approx. 0.50

  10. Neutrino Physics at Drexel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lane, Charles [Drexel Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States); Dolinski, Michelle [Drexel Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States); Neilson, Russell [Drexel Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2017-07-11

    Our primary goal is to improve the understanding of the properties and interactions of neutrinos. We are pursuing this by means of the DUNE long-baseline and PROSPECT short-baseline neutrino experiments. For DUNE, a neutrino beam from Fermilab will be detected at the SURF facility in South Dakota, with the aim of determining the neutrino mass hierarchy (the mass ordering of neutrino flavors), and a measurement or limit on CP-violation via neutrinos. Our near-term experimental goal is to improve the characterization of the neutrino beam by measurements of muons produced as a byproduct of neutrino beam generation, to quantify the beam composition and flux. The short-range neutrino program has the aim of using the HFIR reactor at Oak Ridge as a neutrino source, with a detector placed nearby to find if there are short-distance oscillations to sterile neutrino flavors, and to resolve the 'reactor neutrino spectral anomaly' which has shown up as an unexplained 'bump' in the neutrino energy spectrum in recent experiments.

  11. Scrutinizing the Sustainability of Business Models : System Dynamics for Robust Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Köpp, Sebastian; Schwaninger, Markus

    2014-01-01

    The success or failure of a business hinges in the first place on the model that forms the basis of its commercial activities. Business models are needed in all kinds of enterprises. Often these models are not scrutinized with the necessary depth. In situations of high planning uncertainty, e.g., when starting a new business, the lack of data tools to assess the sustainability of business models tends to mislead investors and managers to superficial appraisals. The purpose of this contributio...

  12. The Neutrinos Saga

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    La Souchere, Marie-Christine de; Moran, John

    2009-04-01

    The author proposes a history of the discovery and study of neutrinos. This history starts shortly after the discovery of radioactivity in 1896 with the observation of an inhomogeneous deceleration of electrons in the radioactive source which raised an issue of shortage of energy. Pauli then introduced the idea of a ghost particle which could preserve the principle of energy conservation and also the issue of statistics related to the laws of quantum mechanics. Works by the Joliot-Curies and Chadwick resulted in the identification of a neutral particle, first called a neutron, and then neutrino. The author then reports experiments performed to highlight neutrinos, and to identify different forms of neutrinos: muon, tau, lepton. She also addresses questions raised by solar neutrinos, experiments proving the metamorphosis of electron neutrinos into muon neutrinos. She discusses the interest of neutrino as cosmic messengers as they are emitted by various cosmic events, and also as a way to study dark matter

  13. Ghost basis for neutrino

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novello, M.

    1976-07-01

    A class of solutions of DIRAC'S equation in gravitational fields for ghost neutrinos is given. Comments are restricted to the neutrino cosmological model recently found by M. Novello e I.D. Soares [pt

  14. Coherence and the day-night asymmetry in the solar neutrino flux

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dighe, A.S.; Liu, Q.Y.; Smirnov, A.Yu.

    1999-12-01

    We consider the day-night asymmetries predicted by various MSW solutions of the solar neutrino problem. The integration over the neutrino energy, as well as over the production region or over the time intervals of more than a day leads to the averaging of oscillations on the way to the earth. This is equivalent to considering the neutrino state arriving at the surface of the earth as an incoherent mixture of the neutrino mass eigenstates (even if there is no divergence of wavepackets). As a consequence, the regeneration effect inside the earth is incoherent, in contrast with the results in hep-ph/9902435. (author)

  15. Leptogenesis and neutrino masses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pluemacher, M.

    2004-01-01

    Thermal leptogenesis explains the baryon asymmetry of the universe by the out-of-equilibrium decays of heavy right-handed neutrinos. In the minimal seesaw model this leads to interesting implications for light neutrino properties. In particular, quasi-degenerate light neutrino masses are incompatible with leptogenesis. An upper bound on light neutrino masses of 0.1 eV can be derived, which will be tested by forthcoming laboratory experiments and cosmology. (author)

  16. Neutrino masses and mixings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolfenstein, L.

    1991-01-01

    Theoretical prejudices, cosmology, and neutrino oscillation experiments all suggest neutrino mass are far below present direct experimental limits. Four interesting scenarios and their implications are discussed: (1) a 17 keV ν τ , (2) a 30 ev ν τ making up the dark matter, (3) a 10 -3 ev ν μ to solve the solar neutrino problem, and (4) a three-neutrino MSW solution

  17. Towards neutrino astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lagage, P.O.; Spiro, M.

    1985-01-01

    Neutrino sources are numerous and varied; the sun, a supernova explosion, the cosmic radiation interaction with interstellar medium are neutrino or antineutrino sources. The aim of this article is to overview the international projects of neutrino detection while giving the preference to the experimental side of the detection [fr

  18. Neutrino disintegration of deuterium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ying, S.; Haxton, W.; Henley, E.M.

    1989-01-01

    We calculate the rate of both neutral- and charged-current neutrino and antineutrino disintegration of deuterium. These rates are of interest for solar 8 B and hep ( 3 He + p) spectra and supernovae neutrinos, and are relevant for the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO)

  19. Reconstructing Neutrino Mass Spectrum

    OpenAIRE

    Smirnov, A. Yu.

    1999-01-01

    Reconstruction of the neutrino mass spectrum and lepton mixing is one of the fundamental problems of particle physics. In this connection we consider two central topics: (i) the origin of large lepton mixing, (ii) possible existence of new (sterile) neutrino states. We discuss also possible relation between large mixing and existence of sterile neutrinos.

  20. Particle Astrophysics of Neutrinos

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Amol Dighe

    Energy spectra of neutrino sources. ASPERA. Page 4. Some unique features of neutrinos. The second most abundant particles in the universe. Cosmic microwave background photons: 400 / cm3. Cosmic background neutrinos: 330 / cm3. The lightest massive particles. A million times lighter than the electron. No direct mass ...

  1. Solar neutrinos and gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuo, T.K.

    2001-01-01

    We review the possibility that the solar neutrino problem can be explained by neutrinos violating the equivalence principle. It is found that such a scenario can be ruled out when one takes into account data from high energy accelerator neutrino experiments

  2. CERN: Neutrino facelift

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1991-11-15

    With the termination this summer of the CHARM II neutrino experiment at the SPS proton synchrotron, CERN's 30- year tradition of neutrino physics came to a temporary halt. However with these enigmatic particles playing a vital role in today's Standard Model but continually reluctant to give up all their secrets, neutrino physics will continue to be in the forefront of this research.

  3. Neutrino oscillations and neutrino-electron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kayser, B.; Rosen, S.P.

    1980-10-01

    Neutrino flavor oscillations can significantly alter the cross section for neutrino-electron scattering. As a result, such oscillations can affect the comparison between existing reactor data and theories of neutral-current processes. They may also lead to strikingly large effects in high-energy accelerator experiments

  4. Neutrino observations from the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmad, Q.R.; Allen, R.C.; Andersen, T.C.; Anglin, J.D.; Barton,J.C.; Beier, E.W.; Bercovitch, M.; Bigu, J.; Biller, S.D.; Black, R.A.; Blevis, I.; Boardman, R.J.; Boger, J.; Bonvin, E.; Boulay, M.G.; Bowler,M.G.; Bowles, T.J.; Brice, S.J.; Browne, M.C.; Bullard, T.V.; Buhler, G.; Cameron, J.; Chan, Y.D.; Chen, H.H.; Chen, M.; Chen, X.; Cleveland, B.T.; Clifford, E.T.H.; Cowan, J.H.M.; Cowen, D.F.; Cox, G.A.; Dai, X.; Dalnoki-Veress, F.; Davidson, W.F.; Doe, P.J.; Doucas, G.; Dragowsky,M.R.; Duba, C.A.; Duncan, F.A.; Dunford, M.; Dunmore, J.A.; Earle, E.D.; Elliott, S.R.; Evans, H.C.; Ewan, G.T.; Farine, J.; Fergani, H.; Ferraris, A.P.; Ford, R.J.; Formaggio, J.A.; Fowler, M.M.; Frame, K.; Frank, E.D.; Frati, W.; Gagnon, N.; Germani, J.V.; Gil, S.; Graham, K.; Grant, D.R.; Hahn, R.L.; Hallin, A.L.; Hallman, E.D.; Hamer, A.S.; Hamian, A.A.; Handler, W.B.; Haq, R.U.; Hargrove, C.K.; Harvey, P.J.; Hazama, R.; Heeger, K.M.; Heintzelman, W.J.; Heise, J.; Helmer, R.L.; Hepburn, J.D.; Heron, H.; Hewett, J.; Hime, A.; Hykawy, J.G.; Isaac,M.C.P.; Jagam, P.; Jelley, N.A.; Jillings, C.; Jonkmans, G.; Kazkaz, K.; Keener, P.T.; Klein, J.R.; Knox, A.B.; Komar, R.J.; Kouzes, R.; Kutter,T.; Kyba, C.C.M.; Law, J.; Lawson, I.T.; Lay, M.; Lee, H.W.; Lesko, K.T.; Leslie, J.R.; Levine, I.; Locke, W.; Luoma, S.; Lyon, J.; Majerus, S.; Mak, H.B.; Maneira, J.; Manor, J.; Marino, A.D.; McCauley, N.; McDonald,D.S.; McDonald, A.B.; McFarlane, K.; McGregor, G.; Meijer, R.; Mifflin,C.; Miller, G.G.; Milton, G.; Moffat, B.A.; Moorhead, M.; Nally, C.W.; Neubauer, M.S.; Newcomer, F.M.; Ng, H.S.; Noble, A.J.; Norman, E.B.; Novikov, V.M.; O' Neill, M.; Okada, C.E.; Ollerhead, R.W.; Omori, M.; Orrell, J.L.; Oser, S.M.; Poon, A.W.P.; Radcliffe, T.J.; Roberge, A.; Robertson, B.C.; Robertson, R.G.H.; Rosendahl, S.S.E.; Rowley, J.K.; Rusu, V.L.; Saettler, E.; Schaffer, K.K.; Schwendener,M.H.; Schulke, A.; Seifert, H.; Shatkay, M.; Simpson, J.J.; Sims, C.J.; et al.

    2001-09-24

    The Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO) is a water imaging Cherenkov detector. Its usage of 1000 metric tons of D{sub 2}O as target allows the SNO detector to make a solar-model independent test of the neutrino oscillation hypothesis by simultaneously measuring the solar {nu}{sub e} flux and the total flux of all active neutrino species. Solar neutrinos from the decay of {sup 8}B have been detected at SNO by the charged-current (CC) interaction on the deuteron and by the elastic scattering (ES) of electrons. While the CC reaction is sensitive exclusively to {nu}{sub e}, the ES reaction also has a small sensitivity to {nu}{sub {mu}} and {nu}{sub {tau}}. In this paper, recent solar neutrino results from the SNO experiment are presented. It is demonstrated that the solar flux from {sup 8}B decay as measured from the ES reaction rate under the no-oscillation assumption is consistent with the high precision ES measurement by the Super-Kamiokande experiment. The {nu}{sub e} flux deduced from the CC reaction rate in SNO differs from the Super-Kamiokande ES results by 3.3{sigma}. This is evidence for an active neutrino component, in additional to {nu}{sub e}, in the solar neutrino flux. These results also allow the first experimental determination of the total active {sup 8}B neutrino flux from the Sun, and is found to be in good agreement with solar model predictions.

  5. Neutrino Observations from the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Q. R. Ahmad, R. C. Allen, T. C. Andersen, J. D. Anglin, G. B?hler, J. C. Barton, E. W. Beier, M. Bercovitch, J. Bigu, S. Biller, R. A. Black, I. Blevis, R. J. Boardman, J. Boger, E. Bonvin, M. G. Boulay, M. G. Bowler, T. J. Bowles, S. J. Brice, M. C. Browne, T. V. Bullard, T. H. Burritt, K. Cameron, J. Cameron, Y. D. Chan, M. Chen, H. H. Chen, X. Chen, M. C. Chon, B. T. Cleveland, E. T. H. Clifford, J. H. M. Cowan, D. F. Cowen, G. A. Cox, Y. Dai, X. Dai, F. Dalnoki-Veress, W. F. Davidson, P. J. Doe, G. Doucas, M. R. Dragowsky, C. A. Duba, F. A. Duncan, J. Dunmore, E. D. Earle, S. R. Elliott, H. C. Evans, G. T. Ewan, J. Farine, H. Fergani, A. P. Ferraris, R. J. Ford, M. M. Fowler, K. Frame, E. D. Frank, W. Frati, J. V. Germani, S. Gil, A. Goldschmidt, D. R. Grant, R. L. Hahn, A. L. Hallin, E. D. Hallman, A. Hamer, A. A. Hamian, R. U. Haq, C. K. Hargrove, P. J. Harvey, R. Hazama, R. Heaton, K. M. Heeger, W. J. Heintzelman, J. Heise, R. L. Helmer, J. D. Hepburn, H. Heron, J. Hewett, A. Hime, M. Howe, J. G. Hykawy, M. C. P. Isaac, P. Jagam, N. A. Jelley, C. Jillings, G. Jonkmans, J. Karn, P. T. Keener, K. Kirch, J. R. Klein, A. B. Knox, R. J. Komar, R. Kouzes, T. Kutter, C. C. M. Kyba, J. Law, I. T. Lawson, M. Lay, H. W. Lee, K. T. Lesko, J. R. Leslie, I. Levine, W. Locke, M. M. Lowry, S. Luoma, J. Lyon, S. Majerus, H. B. Mak, A. D. Marino, N. McCauley, A. B. McDonald, D. S. McDonald, K. McFarlane, G. McGregor, W. McLatchie, R. Meijer Drees, H. Mes, C. Mifflin, G. G. Miller, G. Milton, B. A. Moffat, M. Moorhead, C. W. Nally, M. S. Neubauer, F. M. Newcomer, H. S. Ng, A. J. Noble, E. B. Norman, V. M. Novikov, M. O'Neill, C. E. Okada, R. W. Ollerhead, M. Omori, J. L. Orrell, S. M. Oser, A. W. P. Poon, T. J. Radcliffe, A. Roberge, B. C. Robertson, R. G. H. Robertson, J. K. Rowley, V. L. Rusu, E. Saettler, K. K. Schaffer, A. Schuelke, M. H. Schwendener, H. Seifert, M. Shatkay, J. J. Simpson, D. Sinclair, P. Skensved, A. R. Smith, M. W. E. Smith, N. Starinsky, T. D. Steiger, R. G. Stokstad, R. S. Storey, B. Sur, R. Tafirout, N. Tagg, N. W. Tanner, R. K. Taplin, M. Thorman, P. Thornewell, P. T. Trent, Y. I. Tserkovnyak, R. Van Berg, R. G. Van de Water, C. J. Virtue, C. E. Waltham, J.-X. Wang, D. L. Wark, N. West, J. B. Wilhelmy, J. F. Wilkerson, J. Wilson, P. Wittich, J. M. Wouters, and M. Yeh

    2001-09-24

    The Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO) is a water imaging Cherenkov detector. Its usage of 1000 metric tons of D{sub 2}O as target allows the SNO detector to make a solar-model independent test of the neutrino oscillation hypothesis by simultaneously measuring the solar {nu}{sub e} flux and the total flux of all active neutrino species. Solar neutrinos from the decay of {sup 8}B have been detected at SNO by the charged-current (CC) interaction on the deuteron and by the elastic scattering (ES) of electrons. While the CC reaction is sensitive exclusively to {nu}{sub e}, the ES reaction also has a small sensitivity to {nu}{sub {mu}} and {nu}{sub {tau}}. In this paper, recent solar neutrino results from the SNO experiment are presented. It is demonstrated that the solar flux from {sup 8}B decay as measured from the ES reaction rate under the no-oscillation assumption is consistent with the high precision ES measurement by the Super-Kamiokande experiment. The {nu}{sub e} flux deduced from the CC reaction rate in SNO differs from the Super-Kamiokande ES results by 3.3{sigma}. This is evidence for an active neutrino component, in additional to {nu}{sub e}, in the solar neutrino flux. These results also allow the first experimental determination of the total active {sup 8}B neutrino flux from the Sun, and is found to be in good agreement with solar model predictions.

  6. Capturing Neutrinos from a Star's Final Hours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hensley, Kerry

    2018-04-01

    Patton (University of Washington) and collaborators first used a stellar evolution model to explore neutrino production in massive stars. They modeled the evolution of two massive stars 15 and 30 times the mass of our Sun from the onset of nuclear fusion to the moment of collapse.The authors found that in the last few hours before collapse, during which the material in the stars cores is rapidly upcycled into heavier elements, the flux from beta-process neutrinos rivals that of thermal neutrinos and even exceeds it at high energies. So now we know there are many beta-process neutrinos but can we spot them?Neutrino and antineutrino fluxes at Earth from the last 2 hours of a 30-solar-mass stars life compared to the flux from background sources. The rows represent calculations using two different neutrino mass hierarchies. Click to enlarge. [Patton et al. 2017]Observing Elusive NeutrinosFor an imminent supernova at a distance of 1 kiloparsec, the authors find that the presupernova electron neutrino flux rises above the background noise from the Sun, nuclear reactors, and radioactive decay within the Earth in the final two hours before collapse.Based on these calculations, current and future neutrino observatories should be able to detect tens of neutrinos from a supernova within 1 kiloparsec, about 30% of which would be beta-process neutrinos. As the distance to the star increases, the time and energy window within which neutrinos can be observed gradually narrows, until it closes for stars at a distance of about 30 kiloparsecs.Are there any nearby supergiants soon to go supernova so these predictions can be tested? At a distance of only 650 light-years, the red supergiant star Betelgeuse should produce detectable neutrinos when it explodes an exciting opportunity for astronomers in the far future!CitationKelly M. Patton et al 2017ApJ8516. doi:10.3847/1538-4357/aa95c4

  7. Frontiers in neutrino physics - Transparencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhmedov, E.; Balantekin, B.; Conrad, J.; Engel, J.; Fogli, G.; Giunti, C.; Espinoza, C.; Lasserre, T.; Lazauskas, R.; Lhuiller, D.; Lindner, M.; Martinez-Pinedo, G.; Martini, M.; McLaughlin, G.; Mirizzi, A.; Pehlivan, Y.; Petcov, S.; Qian, Y.; Serenelli, A.; Stancu, I.; Surman, R.; Vaananen, D.; Vissani, F.; Vogel, P.

    2012-01-01

    This document gathers the slides of the presentations. The purpose of the conference was to discuss the last advances in neutrino physics. The presentations dealt with: -) the measurement of the neutrino velocity, -) neutrino oscillations, -) anomaly in solar models and neutrinos, -) double beta decay, -) self refraction of neutrinos, -) cosmic neutrinos, -) antineutrino spectra from reactors, and -) some aspects of neutrino physics with radioactive ion beams. (A.C.)

  8. Intensity of Upward Muon Flux Due to Cosmic-Ray Neutrinos Produced in the Atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, T. D.; Robinson, H.; Schwartz, M.; Cool, R.

    1963-06-01

    Calculations were performed to determine the upward going muon flux leaving the earth's surface after production by cosmic-ray neutrinos in the crust. Only neutrinos produced in the earth's atmosphere are considered. Rates of the order of one per 100 sq m/day might be expected if an intermediate boson exists and has a mass less than 2 Bev. (auth)

  9. Towards the resolution of the solar neutrino problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedland, Alexander [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2000-08-01

    A number of experiments have accumulated over the years a large amount of solar neutrino data. The data indicate that the observed solar neutrino flux is significantly smaller than expected and, furthermore, that the electron neutrino survival probability is energy dependent. This ''solar neutrino problem'' is best solved by assuming that the electron neutrino oscillates into another neutrino species. Even though one can classify the solar neutrino deficit as strong evidence for neutrino oscillations, it is not yet considered a definitive proof. Traditional objections are that the evidence for solar neutrino oscillations relies on a combination of hard, different experiments, and that the Standard Solar Model (SSM) might not be accurate enough to precisely predict the fluxes of different solar neutrino components. Even though it seems unlikely that modifications to the SSM alone can explain the current solar neutrino data, one still cannot completely discount the possibility that a combination of unknown systematic errors in some of the experiments and certain modifications to the SSM could conspire to yield the observed data. To conclusively demonstrate that there is indeed new physics in solar neutrinos, new experiments are aiming at detecting ''smoking gun'' signatures of neutrino oscillations, such as an anomalous seasonal variation in the observed neutrino flux or a day-night variation due to the regeneration of electron neutrinos in the Earth. In this dissertation we study the sensitivity reach of two upcoming neutrino experiments, Borexino and KamLAND, to both of these effects. Results of neutrino oscillation experiments for the case of two-flavor oscillations have always been presented on the (sin2 2θ, Δm2) parameter space. We point out, however, that this parameterization misses the half of the parameter space π/4 < θ < π/2, which is physically inequivalent to the region 0 < θ < π/4 in

  10. LSND neutrino oscillation results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Louis, W.C.

    1996-01-01

    In the past several years, a number of experiments have searched for neutrino oscillations, where a neutrino of one type (say bar ν μ ) spontaneously transforms into a neutrino of another type (say bar ν e ). For this phenomenon to occur, neutrinos must be massive and the apparent conservation law of lepton families must be violated. In 1995 the LSND experiment published data showing candidate events that are consistent with bar ν μ oscillations. Additional data are reported here which provide stronger evidence for neutrino oscillations

  11. Status and aims of the DUMAND neutrino project: the ocean as a neutrino detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, A.; Blood, H.; Learned, J.; Reines, F.

    1976-07-01

    The possibility of using the ocean as a neutrino detector is considered. Neutrino-produced interactions result in charged particles that generate Cherenkov radiation in the water, which can be detected by light-gathering equipment and photomultipliers. The properties of the ocean as seen from this standpoint are critically examined, and the advantages and disadvantages pointed out. Possible uses for such a neutrino detector include (1) the detection of neutrinos emitted in gravitational collapse of stars (supernova production), not only in our own galaxy, but in other galaxies up to perhaps twenty-million light-years away, (2) the extension of high-energy neutrino physics, as currently practiced up to 200 GeV at high-energy accelerators, to energies up to 50 times higher, using neutrinos generated in the atmosphere by cosmic rays, and (3) the possible detection of neutrinos produced by cosmic-ray interactions outside the earth's atmosphere. The technology for such an undertaking seems to be within reach

  12. Neutrino book

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spiro, Michel

    1995-01-01

    André Rousset's book (in French - Gargamelle et les Courants Neutres - Ecole des Mines de Paris) tells the story of Gargamelle and the discovery at CERN in 1973 of neutral currents, the cornerstone of the electroweak theory. This vital discovery helped to give credence to the Standard Model of particle physics. Rousset is both an observer and one of the key figures in the story. His book is lively and well documented; in it he uses archive material to ensure the accuracy of his information on dates, choices and decisions. After an introduction to particle physics which puts into perspective the electroweak theory unifying weak and electromagnetic interactions, Rousset comes straight to the point. From the late 1950s onwards he was involved in the construction of the first heavy liquid bubble chambers by the BP1, BP2 and BP3 teams at the Ecole Polytechnique in Paris. For Gargamelle a bigger laboratory was needed, and it was at the CEA (French Atomic Energy Commission) in Saclay that the chamber was designed by teams from the Saturne accelerator and the Ecole Polytechnique. However, the decision to build Gargamelle was taken in 1965 through the impetus of André Lagarrigue, in defiance of the normal CERN procedures. Gargamelle was then in competition with the other big bubble chamber project, BEBC; was it really necessary to build two big chambers? The decision by Francis Perrin and the CEA to contribute ''generously'' to the project was probably what swung the decision. Construction took five years, during which many problems were encountered, right up to the fault in the main part of the chamber which caused delays and, a few years later, was to prove fatal to the detector. As Rousset correctly states, Gargamelle was probably the first big detector designed to be built on industrial lines, in direct cooperation with industry. The reward: the first neutrino interaction was photographed on 28 January 1971

  13. Case for neutrino oscillations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramond, P.

    1982-01-01

    The building of a machine capable of producing an intense, well-calibrated beam of muon neutrinos is regarded by particle physicists with keen interest because of its ability of studying neutrino oscillations. The possibility of neutrino oscillations has long been recognized, but it was not made necessary on theoretical or experimental grounds; one knew that oscillations could be avoided if neutrinos were massless, and this was easily done by the conservation of lepton number. The idea of grand unification has led physicists to question the existence (at higher energies) of global conservation laws. The prime examples are baryon-number conservation, which prevents proton decay, and lepton-number conservation, which keeps neutrinos massless, and therefore free of oscillations. The detection of proton decay and neutrino oscillations would therefore be an indirect indication of the idea of Grand Unification, and therefore of paramount importance. Neutrino oscillations occur when neutrinos acquire mass in such a way that the neutrino mass eigenstates do not match the (neutrino) eigenstates produced by the weak interactions. We shall study the ways in which neutrinos can get mass, first at the level of the standard SU 2 x U 1 model, then at the level of its Grand Unification Generalizations

  14. Sudbury neutrino observatory proposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ewan, G.T.; Evans, H.C.; Lee, H.W.

    1987-10-01

    This report is a proposal by the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO) collaboration to develop a world class laboratory for neutrino astrophysics. This observatory would contain a large volume heavy water detector which would have the potential to measure both the electron-neutrino flux from the sun and the total solar neutrino flux independent of neutrino type. It will therefore be possible to test models of solar energy generation and, independently, to search for neutrino oscillations with a sensitivity many orders of magnitude greater than that of terrestrial experiments. It will also be possible to search for spectral distortion produced by neutrino oscillations in the dense matter of the sun. Finally the proposed detector would be sensitive to neutrinos from a stellar collapse and would detect neutrinos of all types thus providing detailed information on the masses of muon- and tau-neutrinos. The neutrino detector would contain 1000 tons of D20 and would be located more than 2000 m below ground in the Creighton mine near Sudbury. The operation and performance of the proposed detector are described and the laboratory design is presented. Construction schedules and responsibilities and the planned program of technical studies by the SNO collaboration are outlined. Finally, the total capital cost is estimated to be $35M Canadian and the annual operating cost, after construction, would be $1.8 M Canadian, including the insurance costs of the heavy water

  15. Minimalistic Neutrino Mass Model

    CERN Document Server

    De Gouvêa, A; Gouvea, Andre de

    2001-01-01

    We consider the simplest model which solves the solar and atmospheric neutrino puzzles, in the sense that it contains the smallest amount of beyond the Standard Model ingredients. The solar neutrino data is accounted for by Planck-mass effects while the atmospheric neutrino anomaly is due to the existence of a single right-handed neutrino at an intermediate mass scale between 10^9 GeV and 10^14 GeV. Even though the neutrino mixing angles are not exactly predicted, they can be naturally large, which agrees well with the current experimental situation. Furthermore, the amount of lepton asymmetry produced in the early universe by the decay of the right-handed neutrino is very predictive and may be enough to explain the current baryon-to-photon ratio if the right-handed neutrinos are produced out of thermal equilibrium. One definitive test for the model is the search for anomalous seasonal effects at Borexino.

  16. Search for a diffuse flux of extragalactic neutrinos with the IceCube neutrino observatory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schukraft, Anne

    2013-06-07

    Since the discovery of cosmic rays it has been one of the major research goals to identify the sources and acceleration mechanisms behind these high-energy particles observed from space, with energies up to several EeV. The study of high-energy charged particles and photons has advantages and disadvantages: the detection techniques for charged cosmic rays are very advanced though high-energy charged nuclei are not able to reveal their sources due to magnetic deflection. In the last years, there have been discoveries of many gamma-ray sources, where photon fluxes up to energies of 100 TeV have been observed. However, the universe is opaque to photons with energies larger than 100 TeV since gamma rays interact with the cosmic microwave background. Neutrinos suffer from neither of these limitations. They are ideal messenger particles in order to investigate the sources of cosmic rays since they propagate unaffected, but their detection is difficult and no extraterrestrial neutrino sources at high energies have yet been found. The IceCube experiment, located at the geographic South Pole, was built in order to detect high-energy neutrinos from the universe. It was completed in December 2010 and is the largest neutrino observatory on Earth. It detects neutrinos via their interaction with the Antarctic ice inside and around the detection volume. In these interactions, high-energy leptons are produced, which follow the direction of the initial neutrino and produce a cone of Cherenkov light along their path. This light is detected by optical sensors deployed in the instrumented volume. The search for a diffuse neutrino flux is a very promising approach to look for an extragalactic flux of astrophysical neutrinos. Its sensitivity is mainly based on neutrino energies since astrophysical neutrinos are expected to be more energetic than atmospheric neutrinos. It searches for an astrophysical flux from the sum of all sources in the universe. These sources can be individually

  17. Search for a diffuse flux of extragalactic neutrinos with the IceCube neutrino observatory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schukraft, Anne

    2013-01-01

    Since the discovery of cosmic rays it has been one of the major research goals to identify the sources and acceleration mechanisms behind these high-energy particles observed from space, with energies up to several EeV. The study of high-energy charged particles and photons has advantages and disadvantages: the detection techniques for charged cosmic rays are very advanced though high-energy charged nuclei are not able to reveal their sources due to magnetic deflection. In the last years, there have been discoveries of many gamma-ray sources, where photon fluxes up to energies of 100 TeV have been observed. However, the universe is opaque to photons with energies larger than 100 TeV since gamma rays interact with the cosmic microwave background. Neutrinos suffer from neither of these limitations. They are ideal messenger particles in order to investigate the sources of cosmic rays since they propagate unaffected, but their detection is difficult and no extraterrestrial neutrino sources at high energies have yet been found. The IceCube experiment, located at the geographic South Pole, was built in order to detect high-energy neutrinos from the universe. It was completed in December 2010 and is the largest neutrino observatory on Earth. It detects neutrinos via their interaction with the Antarctic ice inside and around the detection volume. In these interactions, high-energy leptons are produced, which follow the direction of the initial neutrino and produce a cone of Cherenkov light along their path. This light is detected by optical sensors deployed in the instrumented volume. The search for a diffuse neutrino flux is a very promising approach to look for an extragalactic flux of astrophysical neutrinos. Its sensitivity is mainly based on neutrino energies since astrophysical neutrinos are expected to be more energetic than atmospheric neutrinos. It searches for an astrophysical flux from the sum of all sources in the universe. These sources can be individually

  18. Discovery Mondays - Neutrinos: journeying with the phantom particles

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    The target of the CNGS facility at CERN, which will enable the production of neutrinos. On 29 May, CNGS (CERN Neutrinos to Gran Sasso) will send the first neutrino beams from CERN to the Gran Sasso Laboratory in Italy. The neutrinos will journey 730 km through the earth's crust. To mark the occasion, Discovery Mondays is organising a special evening devoted to the CNGS project, whose purpose is to provide us with a better understanding of the neutrino, a particle that is still shrouded in mystery. The neutrino is an elusive particle that is very difficult to study. Masters of the art of evading capture, neutrinos can pass through thousands of kilometres of matter with little or no interaction. As you are reading this text, 400000 billion neutrinos from the sun are passing through your body every second. However, only one or two will be stopped by your body during your entire lifetime. Detecting neutrinos is therefore a very arduous task. This is why we still know so little about them. At the next Discovery ...

  19. Pathlength distributions of atmospheric neutrinos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaisser, T.K.; Stanev, Todor

    1999-01-01

    We discuss the distribution of the production heights of atmospheric neutrinos as a function of zenith angle and neutrino energy. The distributions can be used as the input for evaluation of neutrino propagation under various hypotheses for neutrino flavor oscillations. Their use may alter substantially the estimates of the oscillation parameters for almost horizontal atmospheric neutrinos.

  20. Properties of neutrinos: Recent results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robertson, R.G.H.

    1987-01-01

    Recent progress in experimental determinations of the properties of neutrinos is summarized. In particular, the extensive work on direct kinematic measurements of neutrino mass, on neutrino counting and on neutrino oscillations is highlighted. It is concluded that there may already be sufficient information to fix the masses of the neutrinos, but the evidence is still far from convincing. 63 refs., 13 figs

  1. Experimental Neutrino Physics and Astrophysics with the IMB-3 Detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casper, David William

    1990-01-01

    Description of the universe on the smallest (elementary particle physics) and largest (cosmology) scales has become dependent on the properties of the most weakly interacting fundamental particle known, the neutrino. The IMB experiment, designed to study nucleon decay, is also the world's largest detector of neutrinos. The experiment uses 6800 tons (3300 tons fiducial) of water as both target and detecting medium. Relativistic charges particles traversing the water radiate Cerenkov light. The distinctive ring patterns are imaged by 2048 light collectors (each a photo-multiplier tube coupled with a wavelength-shifting plate) distributed over the surfaces of the tank. This dissertation describes the IMB-3 detector, a four-fold increase in sensitivity over the original apparatus. Neutrino interactions of both atmospheric and extragalactic origin were collected during a 3.4 kiloton-year exposure. A consequence of non-zero neutrino mass could be oscillation of neutrino flavor. The energies and long flight distances of atmospheric neutrinos offer a unique opportunity to explore this possibility. To study the composition of the atmospheric neutrinos, single-ring events are classified as showering or non-showering using the geometry of the Cerenkov pattern. A simulation of neutrino interactions and a model of atmospheric neutrino production are used to predict the composition of the sample. The showering/non-showering character of an event is strongly correlated with the flavor of its neutrino parent. In the lepton momentum range p mass or "dark matter" problem result in high-energy neutrino production within the Sun. A model of dark matter capture and annihilation in the Sun predicts the resulting neutrino fluxes at Earth. No evidence of the phenomenon is observed, but for canonical values of dark matter density and velocity in the solar system, greater exposure will be required to verify or exclude the expected signal.

  2. Solar neutrino observations and neutrino oscillations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuo, T.K.; Pantaleone, J.

    1990-01-01

    The results of recent Kamiokande-II and 37 Cl solar-neutrino experiments are quantitatively analyzed assuming the Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein solution to the solar-neutrino problem. It is found that the parameter region known as the ''large mass'' solution to the solar-neutrino problem is disfavored by a little more than 1 σ while the ''small mass'' and ''large angle'' solutions are in good agreement at this level. The implications on this analysis from time variations in the data are discussed

  3. Neutrinos from WIMP annihilations in the Sun including neutrino oscillations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blennow, Mattias; Edsjö, Joakim; Ohlsson, Tommy

    2011-01-01

    The prospects to detect neutrinos from the Sun arising from dark matter annihilations in the core of the Sun are reviewed. Emphasis is placed on new work investigating the effects of neutrino oscillations on the expected neutrino fluxes.

  4. Neutrinos from WIMP annihilations in the Sun including neutrino oscillations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blennow, Mattias; Edsjoe, Joakim; Ohlsson, Tommy

    2006-01-01

    The prospects for detecting neutrinos from the Sun arising from dark matter annihilations in the core of the Sun are reviewed. Emphasis is placed on new work investigating the effects of neutrino oscillations on the expected neutrino fluxes

  5. MINOS Sterile Neutrino Search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koskinen, David Jason [Univ. College London, Bloomsbury (United Kingdom)

    2009-02-01

    The Main Injector Neutrino Oscillation Search (MINOS) is a long-baseline accelerator neutrino experiment designed to measure properties of neutrino oscillation. Using a high intensity muon neutrino beam, produced by the Neutrinos at Main Injector (NuMI) complex at Fermilab, MINOS makes two measurements of neutrino interactions. The first measurement is made using the Near Detector situated at Fermilab and the second is made using the Far Detector located in the Soudan Underground laboratory in northern Minnesota. The primary goal of MINOS is to verify, and measure the properties of, neutrino oscillation between the two detectors using the v μ→ Vτ transition. A complementary measurement can be made to search for the existence of sterile neutrinos; an oft theorized, but experimentally unvalidated particle. The following thesis will show the results of a sterile neutrino search using MINOS RunI and RunII data totaling ~2.5 x 1020 protons on target. Due to the theoretical nature of sterile neutrinos, complete formalism that covers transition probabilities for the three known active states with the addition of a sterile state is also presented.

  6. The ideal neutrino beams

    CERN Document Server

    Lindroos, Mats

    2009-01-01

    The advance in neutrino oscillation physics is driven by the availability of well characterized and high flux neutrino beams. The three present options for the next generation neutrino oscillation facility are super beams, neutrino factories and beta-beams. A super-beam is a very high intensity classical neutrino beam generated by protons impinging on a target where the neutrinos are generated by the secondary particles decaying in a tunnel down streams of the target. In a neutrino factory the neutrinos are generated from muons decaying in a storage ring with long straight sections pointing towards the detectors. In a beta-beam the neutrinos are also originating from decay in a storage ring but the decaying particles are radioactive ions rather than muons. I will in this presentation review the three options and discuss the pros and cons of each. The present joint design effort for a future high intensity neutrino oscillation in Europe within a common EU supported design study, EURONU, will also be presented....

  7. The ideal neutrino beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindroos, Mats

    2009-06-01

    The advance in neutrino oscillation physics is driven by the availability of well characterized and high flux neutrino beams. The three present options for the next generation neutrino oscillation facility are super beams, neutrino factories and beta-beams. A super-beam is a very high intensity classical neutrino beam generated by protons impinging on a target where the neutrinos are generated by the secondary particles decaying in a tunnel down streams of the target. In a neutrino factory the neutrinos are generated from muons decaying in a storage ring with long straight sections pointing towards the detectors. In a beta-beam the neutrinos are also originating from decay in a storage ring but the decaying particles are radioactive ions rather than muons. I will in this presentation review the three options and discuss the pros and cons of each. The present joint design effort for a future high intensity neutrino oscillation in Europe within a common EU supported design study, EURONU, will also be presented. The design study will explore the physics reach, the detectors, the feasibility, the safety issues and the cost for each of the options so that the the community can take a decision on what to build when the facilities presently under exploitation and construction have to be replaced.

  8. Sudbury Neutrino Observatory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beier, E.W.

    1992-03-01

    This document is a technical progress report on work performed at the University of Pennsylvania during the current year on the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory project. The motivation for the experiment is the measurement of neutrinos emitted by the sun. The Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO) is a second generation dedicated solar neutrino experiment which will extend the results of our work with the Kamiokande II detector by measuring three reactions of neutrinos rather than the single reaction measured by the Kamiokande experiment. The collaborative project includes physicists from Canada, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Full funding for the construction of this facility was obtained in January 1990, and its construction is estimated to take five years. The motivation for the SNO experiment is to study the fundamental properties of neutrinos, in particular the mass and mixing parameters, which remain undetermined after decades of experiments in neutrino physics utilizing accelerators and reactors as sources of neutrinos. To continue the study of neutrino properties it is necessary to use the sun as a neutrino source. The long distance to the sun makes the search for neutrino mass sensitive to much smaller mass than can be studied with terrestrial sources. Furthermore, the matter density in the sun is sufficiently large to enhance the effects of small mixing between electron neutrinos and mu or tau neutrinos. This experiment, when combined with the results of the radiochemical 37 Cl and 71 Ga experiments and the Kamiokande II experiment, should extend our knowledge of these fundamental particles, and as a byproduct, improve our understanding of energy generation in the sun

  9. A combined treatment of neutrino decay and neutrino oscillations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindner, Manfred; Ohlsson, Tommy; Winter, Walter

    2001-01-01

    Neutrino decay in vacuum has often been considered as an alternative to neutrino oscillations. Because nonzero neutrino masses imply the possibility of both neutrino decay and neutrino oscillations, we present a model-independent formal treatment of these combined scenarios. For that, we show for the example of Majoron decay that in many cases decay products are observable and may even oscillate. Furthermore, we construct a minimal scenario in which we study the physical implications of neutrino oscillations with intermediate decays

  10. A Nine-Year Hunt for Neutrinos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2018-02-01

    How do we hunt for elusive neutrinos emitted by distant astrophysical sources? Submerge a huge observatory under ice or water and then wait patiently.Sneaky MessengersNeutrinos tiny, nearly massless particles that only weakly interact with other matter are thought to be produced as a constant background originating from throughout our universe. In contrast to known point sources of neutrinos (for instance, nearby supernovae), the diffuse flux of cosmic neutrinos could be emitted from unresolved astrophysical sources too faint to be individually detected, or from the interactions of high-energy cosmic rays propagating across the universe.Observations of this diffuse flux of cosmic neutrinos would be a huge step toward understanding cosmic-ray production, acceleration, and interaction properties. Unfortunately, these observations arent easy to make!Diagram showing the path of a neutrino from a distant astrophysical source (accelerator) through the Earth. It is eventually converted into an upward-traveling muon that registers in the ANTARES detector under the sea. [ANTARES]Looking for What Doesnt Want to Be FoundBecause neutrinos so rarely interact with matter, most pass right through us, eluding detection. The most common means of spotting the rare interacting neutrino is to look for Cherenkov radiation in a medium like ice or water, produced when a neutrino has interacted with matterto produce a charged particle (for instance, a muon) moving faster than the speed of light in the medium.Muons produced in our atmosphere can also register in such detectors, however, so we need a way of filtering out these non-cosmic background events. The solution is a clever trick: search for particles traveling upward, not downward. Atmospheric muons will come only from above, whereas muons produced by neutrinos should travel through the detectors in all directions, since cosmic neutrinos arrive from all directions including from below, after passing through the Earth

  11. Neutrinos and dark energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schrempp, L.

    2008-02-01

    From the observed late-time acceleration of cosmic expansion arises the quest for the nature of Dark Energy. As has been widely discussed, the cosmic neutrino background naturally qualifies for a connection with the Dark Energy sector and as a result could play a key role for the origin of cosmic acceleration. In this thesis we explore various theoretical aspects and phenomenological consequences arising from non-standard neutrino interactions, which dynamically link the cosmic neutrino background and a slowly-evolving scalar field of the dark sector. In the considered scenario, known as Neutrino Dark Energy, the complex interplay between the neutrinos and the scalar field not only allows to explain cosmic acceleration, but intriguingly, as a distinct signature, also gives rise to dynamical, time-dependent neutrino masses. In a first analysis, we thoroughly investigate an astrophysical high energy neutrino process which is sensitive to neutrino masses. We work out, both semi-analytically and numerically, the generic clear-cut signatures arising from a possible time variation of neutrino masses which we compare to the corresponding results for constant neutrino masses. Finally, we demonstrate that even for the lowest possible neutrino mass scale, it is feasible for the radio telescope LOFAR to reveal a variation of neutrino masses and therefore to probe the nature of Dark Energy within the next decade. A second independent analysis deals with the recently challenged stability of Neutrino Dark Energy against the strong growth of hydrodynamic perturbations, driven by the new scalar force felt between neutrinos. Within the framework of linear cosmological perturbation theory, we derive the equation of motion of the neutrino perturbations in a model-independent way. This equation allows to deduce an analytical stability condition which translates into a comfortable upper bound on the scalar-neutrino coupling which is determined by the ratio of the densities in cold dark

  12. Neutrinos and dark energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schrempp, L.

    2008-02-15

    From the observed late-time acceleration of cosmic expansion arises the quest for the nature of Dark Energy. As has been widely discussed, the cosmic neutrino background naturally qualifies for a connection with the Dark Energy sector and as a result could play a key role for the origin of cosmic acceleration. In this thesis we explore various theoretical aspects and phenomenological consequences arising from non-standard neutrino interactions, which dynamically link the cosmic neutrino background and a slowly-evolving scalar field of the dark sector. In the considered scenario, known as Neutrino Dark Energy, the complex interplay between the neutrinos and the scalar field not only allows to explain cosmic acceleration, but intriguingly, as a distinct signature, also gives rise to dynamical, time-dependent neutrino masses. In a first analysis, we thoroughly investigate an astrophysical high energy neutrino process which is sensitive to neutrino masses. We work out, both semi-analytically and numerically, the generic clear-cut signatures arising from a possible time variation of neutrino masses which we compare to the corresponding results for constant neutrino masses. Finally, we demonstrate that even for the lowest possible neutrino mass scale, it is feasible for the radio telescope LOFAR to reveal a variation of neutrino masses and therefore to probe the nature of Dark Energy within the next decade. A second independent analysis deals with the recently challenged stability of Neutrino Dark Energy against the strong growth of hydrodynamic perturbations, driven by the new scalar force felt between neutrinos. Within the framework of linear cosmological perturbation theory, we derive the equation of motion of the neutrino perturbations in a model-independent way. This equation allows to deduce an analytical stability condition which translates into a comfortable upper bound on the scalar-neutrino coupling which is determined by the ratio of the densities in cold dark

  13. Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein effect in electron-neutrino scattering experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahcall, J.N.; Gelb, J.M.; Rosen, S.P.

    1987-01-01

    We calculate the influence of resonant neutrino scattering [the Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein (MSW) effect] in the Sun and in the Earth on measurable quantities in solar-neutrino--electron scattering experiments. The MSW effect reduces the expected rate for 8 B-neutrino--electron scattering by a factor that ranges from --0.8 to --0.2 if resonant scattering is the correct explanation for the discrepancy between observation and calculation in the /sup 37/Cl experiment. The Earth can produce a significant diurnal effect for certain values of the neutrino mixing angle and mass difference

  14. Three Dirac neutrinos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joshipura, A.S.; Rindani, S.D.

    1991-01-01

    The consequences of imposing an exact L e +L τ -L μ symmetry on a 6x6 matrix describing neutrino masses are discussed. The presence of right-handed neutrinos avoids the need of introducing any SU(2) Higgs triplet. Hence the conflict with the CERN LEP data on the Z width found in earlier models with L e +L τ -L μ symmetry is avoided. The L e +L τ -L μ symmetry provides an interesting realization of a recent proposal of Glashow to accommodate the 17-keV Dirac neutrino in the SU(2)xU(1) theory. All the neutrinos in this model are Dirac particles. The solar-neutrino problem can be solved in an extension of the model which generates a large (∼10 -11 μ B ) magnetic moment for the electron neutrino

  15. Neutrino mass matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strobel, E.L.

    1985-01-01

    Given the many conflicting experimental results, examination is made of the neutrino mass matrix in order to determine possible masses and mixings. It is assumed that the Dirac mass matrix for the electron, muon, and tau neutrinos is similar in form to those of the quarks and charged leptons, and that the smallness of the observed neutrino masses results from the Gell-Mann-Ramond-Slansky mechanism. Analysis of masses and mixings for the neutrinos is performed using general structures for the Majorana mass matrix. It is shown that if certain tentative experimental results concerning the neutrino masses and mixing angles are confirmed, significant limitations may be placed on the Majorana mass matrix. The most satisfactory simple assumption concerning the Majorana mass matrix is that it is approximately proportional to the Dirac mass matrix. A very recent experimental neutrino mass result and its implications are discussed. Some general properties of matrices with structure similar to the Dirac mass matrices are discussed

  16. Galactic neutrino communication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Learned, John G. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2505 Correa Road, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States)], E-mail: jgl@phys.hawaii.edu; Pakvasa, Sandip [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2505 Correa Road, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States)], E-mail: pakvasa@phys.hawaii.edu; Zee, A. [Kavli Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States)], E-mail: zee@kitp.ucsb.edu

    2009-01-12

    We examine the possibility to employ neutrinos to communicate within the galaxy. We discuss various issues associated with transmission and reception, and suggest that the resonant neutrino energy near 6.3 PeV may be most appropriate. In one scheme we propose to make Z deg. particles in an overtaking e{sup +}-e{sup -} collider such that the resulting decay neutrinos are near the W{sup -} resonance on electrons in the laboratory. Information is encoded via time structure of the beam. In another scheme we propose to use a 30 PeV pion accelerator to create neutrino or anti-neutrino beams. The latter encodes information via the beam CP state as well as timing. Moreover the latter beam requires far less power, and can be accomplished with presently foreseeable technology. Such signals from an advanced civilization, should they exist, will be eminently detectable in existing neutrino detectors.

  17. Solar neutrino detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miramonti, Lino

    2009-01-01

    More than 40 years ago, neutrinos where conceived as a way to test the validity of the solar models which tell us that stars are powered by nuclear fusion reactions. The first measurement of the neutrino flux, in 1968 in the Homestake mine in South Dakota, detected only one third of the expected value, originating what has been known as the Solar Neutrino Problem. Different experiments were built in order to understand the origin of this discrepancy. Now we know that neutrinos undergo oscillation phenomenon changing their nature traveling from the core of the Sun to our detectors. In the work the 40 year long saga of the neutrino detection is presented; from the first proposals to test the solar models to last real time measurements of the low energy part of the neutrino spectrum.

  18. Visible neutrino decay at DUNE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coloma, Pilar [Fermilab; Peres, Orlando G. [ICTP, Trieste

    2017-05-09

    If the heaviest neutrino mass eigenstate is unstable, its decay modes could include lighter neutrino eigenstates. In this case part of the decay products could be visible, as they would interact at neutrino detectors via mixing. At neutrino oscillation experiments, a characteristic signature of such \\emph{visible neutrino decay} would be an apparent excess of events at low energies. We focus on a simple phenomenological model in which the heaviest neutrino decays as $\

  19. Neutrino Physics at Fermilab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Federspiel, F.; Garvey, G.; Louis, W.C.; Mills, G.B.; Tayloe, R.; Sandberg, V.; Sapp, B.; White, D.H.

    1999-01-01

    The Liquid Scintillator Neutrino Detector (LSND), located at the LANSCE (formerly LAMPF) linear accelerator at Los Alamos National Laboratory, has seen evidence for the oscillation of neutrinos, and hence neutrino mass. That discovery was the impetus for this LDRD project, begun in 1996. The goal of this project was to define the appropriate technologies to use in a follow up experiment and to set in place the requirements for such an experiment

  20. Neutrinos from gravitational collapse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayle, R.; Wilson, J.R.; Schramm, D.N.

    1986-05-01

    Detailed calculations are made of the neutrino spectra emitted during gravitational collapse events (Type II supernovae). Those aspects of the neutrino signal which are relatively independent of the collapse model and those aspects which are sensitive to model details are discussed. The easier-to-detect high energy tail of the emitted neutrinos has been calculated using the Boltzmann equation which is compared with the result of the traditional multi-group flux limited diffusion calculations. 8 figs., 28 refs

  1. Beta rays and neutrinos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, S.F.

    1992-01-01

    It was over 30 years between the first observation of the enigmatic process of beta decay and the first postulation of the neutrino. It took a further 26 years until the first neutrino was detected and yet another 27 until the electroweak theory was confirmed by the discovery of W and Z particles. This article traces some of the puzzles and paradoxes associated with the history of the neutrino. (author)

  2. CERN: Neutrino facelift

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    With the termination this summer of the CHARM II neutrino experiment at the SPS proton synchrotron, CERN's 30- year tradition of neutrino physics came to a temporary halt. However with these enigmatic particles playing a vital role in today's Standard Model but continually reluctant to give up all their secrets, neutrino physics will continue to be in the forefront of this research

  3. Neutrinos in the Electron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koschmieder, E. L.

    2007-01-01

    I will show that one half of the rest mass of the electron consists of electron neutrinos and that the other half of the rest mass of the electron consists of the mass in the energy of electric oscillations. With this composition we can explain the rest mass of the electron, its charge, its spin and its magnetic moment We have also determined the rest masses of the muon neutrino and the electron neutrino

  4. Detecting Solar Neutrino Flare in Megaton and km3 detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fargion, Daniele; Di Giacomo, Paola

    2009-01-01

    To foresee a solar flare neutrino signal we infer its upper and lower bound. The upper bound was derived since a few years by general energy equipartition arguments on observed solar particle flare. The lower bound, the most compelling one for any guarantee neutrino signal, is derived by most recent records of hard Gamma bump due to solar flare on January 2005 (by neutral pion decay). Because neutral and charged pions (made by hadron scattering in the flare) are born on the same foot, their link is compelling: the observed gamma flux [Grechnev V.V. et al., (arXiv:0806.4424), Solar Physics, Vol. 1, October, (2008), 252] reflects into a corresponding one for the neutrinos, almost one to one. Moreover while gamma photons might be absorbed (in deep corona) or at least reduced inside the flaring plasma, the secondaries neutrino are not. So pion neutrinos should be even more abundant than gamma ones. Tens-hundred MeV neutrinos may cross undisturbed the whole Sun, doubling at least their rate respect a unique solar-side for gamma flare. Therefore we obtain minimal bounds opening a windows for neutrino astronomy, already at the edge of present but quite within near future Megaton neutrino detectors. Such detectors are considered mostly to reveal cosmic supernova background or rare Local Group (few Mpc) Supernovas events [Matthew D. Kistler et al. (0810.1959v1)]. However rarest (once a decade), brief (a few minutes) powerful solar neutrino 'flare' may shine and they may overcome by two to three order of magnitude the corresponding steady atmospheric neutrino noise on the Earth, leading in largest Neutrino detector at least to one or to meaning-full few events clustered signals. The voice of such a solar anti-neutrino flare component at a few tens MeVs may induce an inverse beta decay over a vanishing anti-neutrino solar background. Megaton or even inner ten Megaton Ice Cube detector at ten GeV threshold may also reveal traces in hardest energy of solar flares. Icecube

  5. Neutrino Oscillation Physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kayser, Boris

    2014-01-01

    To complement the neutrino-physics lectures given at the 2011 International School on Astro Particle Physics devoted to Neutrino Physics and Astrophysics (ISAPP 2011; Varenna, Italy), at the 2011 European School of High Energy Physics (ESHEP 2011; Cheila Gradistei, Romania), and, in modified form, at other summer schools, we present here a written description of the physics of neutrino oscillation. This description is centered on a new way of deriving the oscillation probability. We also provide a brief guide to references relevant to topics other than neutrino oscillation that were covered in the lectures

  6. Neutrino properties from cosmology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hannestad, S.

    2013-01-01

    In recent years precision cosmology has become an increasingly powerful probe of particle physics. Perhaps the prime example of this is the very stringent cosmological upper bound on the neutrino mass. However, other aspects of neutrino physics, such as their decoupling history and possible non......-standard interactions, can also be probed using observations of cosmic structure. Here, I review the current status of cosmological bounds on neutrino properties and discuss the potential of future observations, for example by the recently approved EUCLID mission, to precisely measure neutrino properties....

  7. Solar neutrino experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hampel, W.

    1996-01-01

    The present status of experimental solar neutrino research is reviewed. Updated results from the Homestake, Kamiokande, GALLEX and SAGE detectors all show a deficit when compared to recent standard solar model calculations. Two of these detectors, GALLEX and SAGE, have recently been checked with artificial 51 Cr neutrino sources. It is shown that astrophysical scenarios to solve the solar neutrino problems are not favoured by the data. There is hope that the results of forthcoming solar neutrino experiments can provide the answers to the open questions. (author) 6 figs., 3 tabs., 36 refs

  8. Neutrino Oscillation Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kayser, Boris [Fermilab (United States)

    2014-07-01

    To complement the neutrino-physics lectures given at the 2011 International School on Astro Particle Physics devoted to Neutrino Physics and Astrophysics (ISAPP 2011; Varenna, Italy), at the 2011 European School of High Energy Physics (ESHEP 2011; Cheila Gradistei, Romania), and, in modified form, at other summer schools, we present here a written description of the physics of neutrino oscillation. This description is centered on a new way of deriving the oscillation probability. We also provide a brief guide to references relevant to topics other than neutrino oscillation that were covered in the lectures.

  9. Neutrinos in supernovae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooperstein, J.

    1986-10-01

    The role of neutrinos in Type II supernovae is discussed. An overall view of the neutrino luminosity as expected theoretically is presented. The different weak interactions involved are assessed from the standpoint of how they exchange energy, momentum, and lepton number. Particular attention is paid to entropy generation and the path to thermal and chemical equilibration, and to the phenomenon of trapping. Various methods used to calculate the neutrino flows are considered. These include trapping and leakage schemes, distribution-averaged transfer, and multi-energy group methods. The information obtained from the neutrinos caught from Supernova 1987a is briefly evaluated. 55 refs., 7 figs

  10. Neutrinos in astrophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Rees, Martin J

    1980-01-01

    The amount of 4He synthesised in the "big bang" is sensitive to the early particle content and to the expansion rate. If there was indeed a "big bang", surprisingly strong conclusions can be drawn about the number of species of neutrinos, and about the possibility that such particles have non-zero rest mass. The dynamics of supernovae are sensitive to the det~ils of neutrino physics; such explosions would yield IO L-1053 ergs of -v IO Mev neutrinos, in a burst lasting a few milliseconds. Galactic nuclei, cosmic ray sources and other high energy cosmic phenomena could yield a low background of~ 10 Gev neutrinos.

  11. Question of neutrino mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Branco, G.C.; Senjanovic, G.

    1978-01-01

    We investigate the question of neutrino mass in theories in which neutrinos are four-component Dirac particles. Our analysis is done in the framework of left-right--symmetric theories. The requirement of calculability and natural smallness of neutrino mass leads to the following constraints: (i) left and right charged weak currents must be ''orthogonal'' to each other, and (ii) there should be no W/sub L/-W/sub R/ mixing at the three level. Finally, we exhibit a model in which, due to the existence of an unbroken symmetry of the total Lagrangian, the electron and muon neutrinos remain massless to all orders in perturbation theory

  12. The Baikal Neutrino Telescope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aynutdinov, V. M.; Balkanov, V. A.; Belolaptikov, I. A.; Bezrukov, L. B.; Borschev, D. A.; Budnev, N. M.; Burmistrov, K. V.; Danilchenko, I. A.; Davidov, Ya. I.; Domogatsky, G. V.; Doroshenko, A. A.; Dyachok, A. N.; Dzhilkibaev, Zh.-A. M.; Fialkovsky, S. V.; Gaponenko, O. N.; Golubkov, K. V.; Gress, O. A.; Gress, T. I.; Grishin, O. V.; Klabukov, A. M.

    2006-01-01

    We review the present status of the Baikal Neutrino Experiment and present results of a search for upward-going atmospheric neutrinos and magnetic monopoles obtained with the detector NT200. The results of a search for very high energy neutrinos are presented and an upper limit on the extraterrestrial diffuse neutrino flux is obtained. We describe the strategy of upgrading the NT200 to NT200+ and creating a detector on the Gigaton scale at Lake Baikal. The first results obtained with the new NT200+ detector as a basic cell of a future Gigaton detector are presented

  13. Solar neutrino experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hampel, W [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany)

    1996-11-01

    The present status of experimental solar neutrino research is reviewed. Updated results from the Homestake, Kamiokande, GALLEX and SAGE detectors all show a deficit when compared to recent standard solar model calculations. Two of these detectors, GALLEX and SAGE, have recently been checked with artificial {sup 51}Cr neutrino sources. It is shown that astrophysical scenarios to solve the solar neutrino problems are not favoured by the data. There is hope that the results of forthcoming solar neutrino experiments can provide the answers to the open questions. (author) 6 figs., 3 tabs., 36 refs.

  14. Decays of supernova neutrinos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindner, Manfred; Ohlsson, Tommy; Winter, Walter

    2002-01-01

    Supernova neutrinos could be well-suited for probing neutrino decay, since decay may be observed even for very small decay rates or coupling constants. We will introduce an effective operator framework for the combined description of neutrino decay and neutrino oscillations for supernova neutrinos, which can especially take into account two properties: one is the radially symmetric neutrino flux, allowing a decay product to be re-directed towards the observer even if the parent neutrino had a different original direction of propagation. The other is decoherence because of the long baselines for coherently produced neutrinos. We will demonstrate how to use this effective theory to calculate the time-dependent fluxes at the detector. In addition, we will show the implications of a Majoron-like decay model. As a result, we will demonstrate that for certain parameter values one may observe some effects which could also mimic signals similar to the ones expected from supernova models, making it in general harder to separate neutrino and supernova properties

  15. Neutrino astronomy and search for WIMPs with MACRO

    CERN Document Server

    Bernardini, P

    2000-01-01

    Upward-going muons, induced primarily by atmospheric neutrinos, are used to search for neutrinos of astrophysical origin. No evidence has been found looking at the event direction and flux limits are obtained on candidate sources. A space-time correlation between gamma ray bursts and upward-going muons has been also investigated. Furthermore the search for a neutrino signal from the Earth and the Sun induced by weakly interacting massive particles (WIMP) has been updated. The number of events from the Sun and from the Earth is compatible with the background from atmospheric neutrinos. Therefore flux limits for different search cones have been estimated. Here we concentrate on neutralinos as WIMP candidates and limits depending on the neutralino mass are given and compared with the prediction of supersymmetric models. (11 refs).

  16. Measurement of the Cosmic Ray and Neutrino-Induced Muon Flux at the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    SNO collaboration; Aharmim, B.; Ahmed, S. N.; Andersen, T. C.; Anthony, A. E.; Barros, N.; Beier, E. W.; Bellerive, A.; Beltran, B.; Bergevin, M.; Biller, S. D.; Boudjemline, K.; Boulay, M. G.; Burritt, T. H.; Cai, B.; Chan, Y. D.; Chen, M.; Chon, M. C.; Cleveland, B. T.; Cox-Mobrand, G. A.; Currat, C. A.; Dai, X.; Dalnoki-Veress, F.; Deng, H.; Detwiler, J.; Doe, P. J.; Dosanjh, R. S.; Doucas, G.; Drouin, P.-L.; Duncan, F. A.; Dunford, M.; Elliott, S. R.; Evans, H. C.; Ewan, G. T.; Farine, J.; Fergani, H.; Fleurot, F.; Ford, R. J.; Formaggio, J. A.; Gagnon, N.; Goon, J. TM.; Grant, D. R.; Guillian, E.; Habib, S.; Hahn, R. L.; Hallin, A. L.; Hallman, E. D.; Hargrove, C. K.; Harvey, P. J.; Harvey, P. J.; Heeger, K. M.; Heintzelman, W. J.; Heise, J.; Helmer, R. L.; Hemingway, R. J.; Henning, R.; Hime, A.; Howard, C.; Howe, M. A.; Huang, M.; Jamieson, B.; Jelley, N. A.; Klein, J. R.; Kos, M.; Kruger, A.; Kraus, C.; Krauss, C. B.; Kutter, T.; Kyba, C. C. M.; Lange, R.; Law, J.; Lawson, I. T.; Lesko, K. T.; Leslie, J. R.; Levine, I.; Loach, J. C.; Luoma, S.; MacLellan, R.; Majerus, S.; Mak, H. B.; Maneira, J.; Marino, A. D.; Martin, R.; McCauley, N.; McDonald, A. B.; McGee, S.; Mifflin, C.; Miller, M. L.; Monreal, B.; Monroe, J.; Noble, A. J.; Oblath, N. S.; Okada, C. E.; O'Keeffe, H. M.; Opachich, Y.; Orebi Gann, G. D.; Oser, S. M.; Ott, R. A.; Peeters, S. J. M.; Poon, A. W. P.; Prior, G.; Rielage, K.; Robertson, B. C.; Robertson, R. G. H.; Rollin, E.; Schwendener, M. H.; Secrest, J. A.; Seibert, S. R.; Simard, O.; Simpson, J. J.; Sinclair, D.; Skensved, P.; Smith, M. W. E.; Sonley, T. J.; Steiger, T. D.; Stonehill, L. C.; Tagg, N.; Tesic, G.; Tolich, N.; Tsui, T.; Van de Water, R. G.; VanDevender, B. A.; Virtue, C. J.; Waller, D.; Waltham, C. E.; Wan Chan Tseung, H.; Wark, D. L.; Watson, P.; Wendland, J.; West, N.; Wilkerson, J. F.; Wilson, J. R.; Wouters, J. M.; Wright, A.; Yeh, M.; Zhang, F.; Zuber, K.

    2009-07-10

    Results are reported on the measurement of the atmospheric neutrino-induced muon flux at a depth of 2 kilometers below the Earth's surface from 1229 days of operation of the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO). By measuring the flux of through-going muons as a function of zenith angle, the SNO experiment can distinguish between the oscillated and un-oscillated portion of the neutrino flux. A total of 514 muon-like events are measured between -1 {le} cos {theta}{sub zenith} 0.4 in a total exposure of 2.30 x 10{sup 14} cm{sup 2} s. The measured flux normalization is 1.22 {+-} 0.09 times the Bartol three-dimensional flux prediction. This is the first measurement of the neutrino-induced flux where neutrino oscillations are minimized. The zenith distribution is consistent with previously measured atmospheric neutrino oscillation parameters. The cosmic ray muon flux at SNO with zenith angle cos {theta}{sub zenith} > 0.4 is measured to be (3.31 {+-} 0.01 (stat.) {+-} 0.09 (sys.)) x 10{sup -10} {micro}/s/cm{sup 2}.

  17. The Giant Radio Array for Neutrino Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martineau-Huynh Olivier

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Giant Radio Array for Neutrino Detection (GRAND is a planned array of ~ 2·105 radio antennas deployed over ~ 200 000 km2 in a mountainous site. It aims primarly at detecting high-energy neutrinos via the observation of extensive air showers induced by the decay in the atmosphere of taus produced by the interaction of cosmic neutrinos under the Earth surface. GRAND aims at reaching a neutrino sensitivity of 5 · 10−11 E−2 GeV−1 cm−2 s−1 sr−1 above 3 · 1016 eV. This ensures the detection of cosmogenic neutrinos in the most pessimistic source models, and ~50 events per year are expected for the standard models. The instrument will also detect UHECRs and possibly FRBs. Here we show how our preliminary design should enable us to reach our sensitivity goals, and discuss the steps to be taken to achieve GRAND, while the compelling science case for GRAND is discussed in more details in [1].

  18. Results from the ANTARES neutrino telescope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spurio M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ANTARES is the largest neutrino telescope in the Northern hemisphere, running in its final configuration since 2008. After the discovery of a cosmic neutrino diffuse flux by the IceCube detector, the search for its origin has become a key mission in high-energy astrophysics. The ANTARES sensitivity is large enough to constrain the origin of the IceCube excess from regions extended up to 0.2 sr in the Southern sky. The Southern sky has been studied searching for point-like objects, for extended regions of emission (as the Galactic plane and for signal from transient objects selected through multimessenger observations. Upper limits are presented assuming different spectral indexes for the energy spectrum of neutrino sources. In addition, ANTARES provides results on studies of the sky in combination with different multimessenger experiments, on atmospheric neutrinos, on the searches for rare particles in the cosmic radiation (such as magnetic monopoles and nuclearites, and on Earth and Sea science. Particularly relevant are the searches for Dark Matter: the limits obtained for the spin-dependent WIMP-nucleon cross section overcome that of existing direct-detection experiments. The recent results, widely discussed in dedicated presentations during the 7th edition of the Very Large Volume Neutrino Telescope Workshop (VLVνT-2015, are highlighted in this paper.

  19. TeV gravity at neutrino telescopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Illana, J.I.; Masip, M.; Meloni, D.

    2005-01-01

    Cosmogenic neutrinos reach the Earth with energies around 10 9 GeV, and their interactions with matter will be measured in upcoming experiments (Auger, IceCube). Models with extra dimensions and the fundamental scale at the TeV could imply signals in these experiments. In particular, the production of microscopic black holes by cosmogenic neutrinos has been extensively studied in the literature. Here we make a complete analysis of gravity-mediated interactions at larger distances, where they can be calculated in the eikonal approximation. In these processes a neutrino of energy E ν interacts elastically with a parton inside a nucleon, loses a small fraction y of its energy, and starts a hadronic shower of energy yE ν ν . We analyze the ultraviolet dependence and the relevance of graviton emission in these processes, and show that they are negligible. We also study the energy distribution of cosmogenic events in AMANDA and IceCube and the possibility of multiple-bang events. For any neutrino flux, the observation of an enhanced rate of neutral current events above 100 TeV in neutrino telescopes could be explained by TeV-gravity interactions. The values of the fundamental scale of gravity that IceCube could reach are comparable to those to be explored at the LHC

  20. Oscillating neutrinos from the Galactic center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crocker, R.M.; Volkas, R.R.; Melia, F.

    1999-11-01

    It has recently been demonstrated that the γ-ray emission spectrum of the EGRET-identified, central Galactic source 2EG J1746-2852 can be well fitted by positing that these photons are generated by the decay of π 0, s produced in p-p scattering at or near an energizing shock. Such scattering also produces charged pions which decay leptonically. The ratio of γ-rays to neutrinos generated by the central Galactic source may be accurately determined and a well-defined and potentially-measurable high energy neutrino flux at Earth is unavoidable. An opportunity, therefore, to detect neutrino oscillations over an unprecedented scale is offered by this source. In this paper we assess the prospects for such an observation with the generation of neutrino Cerenkov telescopes now in the planning stage. We determine that the next generation of detectors may find an oscillation signature in the Galactic Center (GC) signal, but that such an observation will probably not further constrain the oscillation parameter space mapped out by current atmospheric, solar, reactor and accelerator neutrino oscillation experiments

  1. The MSW Effect and Matter Effects in Neutrino Oscillations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnov, A. Yu.

    2006-03-01

    The MSW (Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein) effect is the adiabatic or partially adiabatic neutrino flavor conversion in media with varying density. The main notions related to the effect, its dynamics and physical picture are reviewed. The large mixing MSW effect is realized inside the Sun providing a solution of the solar neutrino problem. The small mixing MSW effect driven by the 1-3 mixing can be realized for the supernova (SN) neutrinos. Inside collapsing stars new elements of the MSW dynamics may show up: non-oscillatory transition, non-adiabatic conversion, time dependent adiabaticity violation induced by shock waves. Effects of the resonance enhancement and the parametric enhancement of oscillations can be realized for atmospheric and accelerator neutrinos in the Earth. Precise results for neutrino oscillations in low density media with arbitrary density profile are presented and the attenuation effect is described. The area of applications is the solar and SN neutrinos inside the Earth, and the results are crucial for the neutrino oscillation tomography.

  2. Accelerator studies of neutrino oscillations

    CERN Document Server

    Ereditato, A

    2000-01-01

    The question of whether the neutrino has a non-vanishing mass plays acrucial role in particle physics. A massive neutrino would unambiguously reveal the existence of new physics beyond the Standard Model. In addition, it could have profound implications on astrophysics and cosmology, with effects on the evolution of the Universe. Experiments aiming at direct neutrino-mass measurements based on kinematics have not been able, so far, to measure the very small neutrino mass. Indirect measurements can be performed by exploiting reactions which may only occur for massive neutrinos. Neutrino oscillation is one of those processes. The mass difference between neutrino mass-eigenstates can be inferred from a phase measurement. This feature allows for high sensitivity experiments. Neutrinos from different sources can be used to search for oscillations: solar neutrinos, neutrinos produced in the interaction of cosmic rays with the atmosphere and artificially produced neutrinos from nuclear reactors and particle accelera...

  3. A review of matter oscillations and solar neutrinos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosen, S.P.

    1986-01-01

    We review the theory of the Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein effect, and examine its consequences for the solar neutrino problem. Using a two-flavor model, we discuss the solutions in the Δ 2 -sin 2 2Θ parameter space for the 37 Cl experiment, and describe their predictions for the 71 Ga experiment and for the spectrum of electron-neutrinos arriving at earth. 18 refs

  4. Corrections to the Predicitions for Atmospheric Neutrino Observations

    OpenAIRE

    Poirier, J.

    2000-01-01

    The theoretical Monte Carlo calculations of the production of neutrinos via cosmic rays incident upon the earth's atmosphere are examined. The calculations are sensitive to the assumed ratio of pi+ / pi- production cross sections; this ratio appears to be underestimated in the theory relative to the experimentally measured ratio. Since the neutrino detection cross section is three times larger than that for the antineutrino, the theoretical predicted detection ratio (nu_mu / nu_e) is correspo...

  5. The acceptance of surface detector arrays for high energy cosmological muon neutrinos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vo Van Thuan; Hoang Van Khanh

    2011-01-01

    In order to search for ultra-high energy cosmological earth-skimming muon neutrinos by the surface detector array (SD) similar to one of the Pierre Auger Observatory (PAO), we propose to use the transition electromagnetic radiation at the medium interface induced by earth-skimming muons for triggering a few of aligned neighboring Cherenkov SD stations. Simulations of the acceptance of a modeling SD array have been done to estimate the detection probability of earth-skimming muon neutrinos.

  6. Measurements of neutrino mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robertson, R.G.H.

    1985-01-01

    Direct experimental information of neutrino mass as derived from the study of nuclear and elementary-particle weak decays is reviewed. Topics include tritium beta decay; the 3 He-T mass difference; electron capture decay of 163 Ho and 158 Tb; and limits on massive neutrinos from cosmology. 38 references

  7. Wroclaw neutrino event generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowak, J A

    2006-01-01

    A neutrino event generator developed by the Wroclaw Neutrino Group is described. The physical models included in the generator are discussed and illustrated with the results of simulations. The considered processes are quasi-elastic scattering and pion production modelled by combining the Δ resonance excitation and deep inelastic scattering

  8. Neutrino bounds from leptogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hambye, T.

    2005-01-01

    Through leptogenesis, baryogenesis could have the same origin as neutrino masses. Emphasis is put on the conditions which, in order that this mechanism works, need to be fulfilled by the neutrino masses as well as by the heavy state masses. The model dependence of these conditions is discussed

  9. Neutrino flavor entanglement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blasone, Massimo [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università degli Studi di Salerno, Via Ponte don Melillo, I-84084 Fisciano (Italy); INFN Sezione di Napoli, Gruppo collegato di Salerno (Italy); Dell' Anno, Fabio; De Siena, Silvio; Illuminati, Fabrizio [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Industriale, Università degli Studi di Salerno, Via Ponte don Melillo, I-84084 Fisciano (Italy)

    2013-04-15

    Neutrino oscillations can be equivalently described in terms of (dynamical) entanglement of neutrino flavor modes. We review previous results derived in the context of quantum mechanics and extend them to the quantum field theory framework, were a rich structure of quantum correlations appears.

  10. Neutrino flavor entanglement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blasone, Massimo; Dell'Anno, Fabio; De Siena, Silvio; Illuminati, Fabrizio

    2013-01-01

    Neutrino oscillations can be equivalently described in terms of (dynamical) entanglement of neutrino flavor modes. We review previous results derived in the context of quantum mechanics and extend them to the quantum field theory framework, were a rich structure of quantum correlations appears

  11. Neutrinos (3/3)

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2012-01-01

    In this course, the basic features of neutrino physics are reviewed, pointing to the very special characteristics of this elusive particle and to the related open questions. Emphasis is given to the neutrino oscillation mechanism and to the state of the art of the experimental studies, mostly in relation to the many interesting results obtained in the last years.

  12. Neutrinos (2/3)

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2012-01-01

    In this course, the basic features of neutrino physics are reviewed, pointing to the very special characteristics of this elusive particle and to the related open questions. Emphasis is given to the neutrino oscillation mechanism and to the state of the art of the experimental studies, mostly in relation to the many interesting results obtained in the last years.

  13. Neutrinos (1/3)

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2012-01-01

    In this course, the basic features of neutrino physics are reviewed, pointing to the very special characteristics of this elusive particle and to the related open questions. Emphasis is given to the neutrino oscillation mechanism and to the state of the art of the experimental studies, mostly in relation to the many interesting results obtained in the last years.

  14. Experimental Neutrino Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilkes, Richard Jeffrey [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)

    2017-11-15

    The University of Washington (UW) HEP neutrino group performed experimental research on the physics of neutrinos, using the capabilities offered by the T2K Experiment and the Super-Kamiokande Neutrino Observatory. The UW group included senior investigator R. J. Wilkes, two PhD students, four MS degree students, and a research engineer, all of whom are members of the international scientific collaborations for T2K and Super-Kamiokande. During the period of support, within T2K we pursued new precision studies sensitive to new physics, going beyond the limits of current measurements of the fundamental neutrino oscillation parameters (mass differences and mixing angles). We began efforts to measure (or significantly determine the absence of) 1 the CP-violating phase parameter δCP and determine the neutrino mass hierarchy. Using the Super-Kamiokande (SK) detector we pursued newly increased precision in measurement of neutrino oscillation parameters with atmospheric neutrinos, and extended the current reach in searches for proton decay, in addition to running the most sensitive supernova watch instrument [Scholberg 2012], performing other astrophysical neutrino studies, and analyzing beam-induced events from T2K. Overall, the research addressed central questions in the field of particle physics. It included the training of graduate students (both PhD and professional MS degree students), and postdoctoral researchers. Undergraduate students also participated as laboratory assistants.

  15. The solar neutrino problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roxburgh, I.W.

    1981-01-01

    The problems posed by the low flux of neutrinos from the sun detected by Davis and coworkers are reviewed. Several proposals have been advanced to resolve these problems and the more reasonable (in the author's opinion) are presented. Recent claims that the neutrino may have finite mass are also considered. (orig.)

  16. Atmospheric neutrino fluxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perkins, D.H.

    1984-01-01

    The atmospheric neutrino fluxes, which are responsible for the main background in proton decay experiments, have been calculated by two independent methods. There are discrepancies between the two sets of results regarding latitude effects and up-down asymmetries, especially for neutrino energies Esub(ν) < 1 GeV. (author)

  17. Perturbed S3 neutrinos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    jora, Renata; Schechter, Joseph; Naeem Shahid, M.

    2009-01-01

    We study the effects of the perturbation which violates the permutation symmetry of three Majorana neutrinos but preserves the well known (23) interchange symmetry. This is done in the presenceof an arbitrary Majorana phase which serves to insure the degeneracy of the three neutrinos at the unper...... at the unperturbed level....

  18. GENIUS Project, Neutrino Oscillations and Cosmology: Neutrinos Reveal Their Nature ?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czakon, M.; Studnik, J.; Zralek, M.; Gluza, J.

    2000-01-01

    The neutrinoless double beta decay as well as any other laboratory experiment has not been able to answer the question of the neutrino's nature. Hints on the answer are available when neutrino oscillations and (ββ) 0ν are considered simultaneously. In this case phenomenologically interesting neutrino mass schemes can lead to non-vanishing and large values of (m ν ). As a consequence, some schemes with Majorana neutrinos can be ruled out even now. If we assume that in addition neutrinos contribute to Hot Dark Matter then the window for Majorana neutrinos is even more restricted, e.g. GENIUS experiment will be sensitive to scenarios with three Majorana neutrinos. (author)

  19. Neutrinos from WIMP annihilations obtained using a full three-flavor Monte Carlo approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blennow, Mattias; Ohlsson, Tommy; Edsjö, Joakim

    2008-01-01

    Weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs) are one of the main candidates for making up the dark matter in the Universe. If these particles make up the dark matter, then they can be captured by the Sun or the Earth, sink to the respective cores, annihilate, and produce neutrinos. Thus, these neutrinos can be a striking dark matter signature at neutrino telescopes looking towards the Sun and/or the Earth. Here, we improve previous analyses on computing the neutrino yields from WIMP annihilations in several respects. We include neutrino oscillations in a full three-flavor framework as well as all effects from neutrino interactions on the way through the Sun (absorption, energy loss, and regeneration from tau decays). In addition, we study the effects of non-zero values of the mixing angle θ 13 as well as the normal and inverted neutrino mass hierarchies. Our study is performed in an event-based setting which makes these results very useful both for theoretical analyses and for building a neutrino telescope Monte Carlo code. All our results for the neutrino yields, as well as our Monte Carlo code, are publicly available. We find that the yield of muon-type neutrinos from WIMP annihilations in the Sun is enhanced or suppressed, depending on the dominant WIMP annihilation channel. This effect is due to an effective flavor mixing caused by neutrino oscillations. For WIMP annihilations inside the Earth, the distance from source to detector is too small to allow for any significant amount of oscillations at the neutrino energies relevant for neutrino telescopes

  20. Physics of neutrino flavor transformation through matter-neutrino resonances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Meng-Ru; Duan, Huaiyu; Qian, Yong-Zhong

    2016-01-01

    In astrophysical environments such as core-collapse supernovae and neutron star-neutron star or neutron star-black hole mergers where dense neutrino media are present, matter-neutrino resonances (MNRs) can occur when the neutrino propagation potentials due to neutrino-electron and neutrino-neutrino forward scattering nearly cancel each other. We show that neutrino flavor transformation through MNRs can be explained by multiple adiabatic solutions similar to the Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein mechanism. We find that for the normal neutrino mass hierarchy, neutrino flavor evolution through MNRs can be sensitive to the shape of neutrino spectra and the adiabaticity of the system, but such sensitivity is absent for the inverted hierarchy.

  1. Neutrino mass from Cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Lesgourgues, Julien

    2012-01-01

    Neutrinos can play an important role in the evolution of the Universe, modifying some of the cosmological observables. In this contribution we summarize the main aspects of cosmological relic neutrinos and we describe how the precision of present cosmological data can be used to learn about neutrino properties, in particular their mass, providing complementary information to beta decay and neutrinoless double-beta decay experiments. We show how the analysis of current cosmological observations, such as the anisotropies of the cosmic microwave background or the distribution of large-scale structure, provides an upper bound on the sum of neutrino masses of order 1 eV or less, with very good perspectives from future cosmological measurements which are expected to be sensitive to neutrino masses well into the sub-eV range.

  2. The solar neutrino problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zatsepin, G.

    1982-01-01

    The problem of missing solar neutrinos is reviewed and discussed. The experiments of the 70s show a solar neutrino flux to be 4 times lower than the flux predicted by the standard model of the Sun. The three possible origins of this contradiction are analysed: the cross sections of nuclear reactions going on in the internal region of the Sun must be remeasured; the unknown properties of neutrino, like neutrino oscillation or decay, must be investigated theoretically and experimentally; or the standard model of the Sun must be changed, e.g. by a periodically pulsating star model or by a model describing periodic admixtures of He-3 to the central region of the Sun. Some new models and newly proposed experiments are described. The importance of new electronic detection methods of neutrinos is underlined. (D.Gy.)

  3. Neutrino masses and mixing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fogli, G.

    1998-01-01

    The paper presents an analysis of the solar neutrino problem in terms of both Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein (MSW) and vacuum neutrino oscillations, with the inclusion of the data collected by the SuperKamiokande experiment during 306.3 days of operation. In particular, the observed energy spectrum of the recoil electrons from 8 B neutrino scattering is discussed in detail and used to constrain the mass-mixing parameter space. Going to the atmospheric neutrino anomaly, the paper performs both a two- and three-flavor analysis of the most recent SuperKamiokande atmospheric neutrino data. The variations of the zenith distributions of ν events in the presence of flavor oscillations are investigated. It is seen that fits to the SK data, with and without the addition of the CHOOZ constrains, strongly limit the parameter space. Detailed bounds in triangle graphs are reported

  4. High-energy neutrino background: Limitations on models of deuterium production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eichler, D.

    1979-01-01

    It is pointed out that Epstein's model for deuterium production via high-energy spallation reactions produces high-energy neutrinos in sufficient quantity to stand out above those that are produced by cosmic-ray interactions in the Earth's atmosphere. That the Reines experiment detected neutrinos of atmospheric origin without detecting any cosmic component restricts deuterium production by spallation reactions to very high redshifts (z> or approx. =300). Improved neutrino experiments may be able to push these limits back to recombination

  5. Geomagnetic-cutoff distribution functions for use in estimating detector response to neutrinos of atmospheric origin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooke, D.J.

    1983-01-01

    A procedure has been developed for deriving functions which characterize the effect of geomagnetic cutoffs on the charged primary cosmic rays that give rise to neutrinos arriving in any given direction at specified points on or in the earth. These cutoff distribution functions, for use in atmospheric-neutrino flux calculations, have been determined for eight nucleon-decay--experiment sites, by use of a technique which employs the Stormer cutoff expression, and which assumes collinear motion of neutrino and parent primary

  6. The target of the CNGS facility at CERN, which will enable the production of neutrino

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2006-01-01

    The final target system (base table, alignment table with target magazine and BPKG) was installed in the target chamber on 8 March 2006. The pictures show the material in the test set-up in the laboratory, before transportation. On 29 May, CNGS (CERN Neutrinos to Gran Sasso) will send the first neutrino beams from CERN to the Gran Sasso Laboratory in Italy. The neutrinos will journey 730 km through the earth's crust.

  7. Hardron production and neutrino beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guglielmi, A.

    2006-11-01

    The precise measurements of the neutrino mixing parameters in the oscillation experiments at accelerators require new high-intensity and high-purity neutrino beams. Ancillary hadron-production measurements are then needed as inputs to precise calculation of neutrino beams and of atmospheric neutrino fluxes.

  8. The Sudbury neutrino observatory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLatchie, W.; Earle, E.D.

    1987-08-01

    This report initially discusses the Homestake Mine Experiment, South Dakota, U.S.A. which has been detecting neutrinos in 38 x 10 litre vats of cleaning fluid containing chlorine since the 1960's. The interation between neutrinos and chlorine produces argon so the number of neutrinos over time can be calculated. However, the number of neutrinos which have been detected represent only one third to one quarter of the expected number i.e. 11 per month rather than 48. It is postulated that the electron-neutrinos originating in the solar core could change into muon- or tau-neutrinos during passage through the high electron densities of the sun. The 'low' results at Homestake could thus be explained by the fact that the experiment is only sensitive to electron-neutrinos. The construction of a heavy water detector is therefore proposed as it would be able to determine the energy of the neutrinos, their time of arrival at the detector and their direction. It is proposed to build the detector at Creighton mine near Sudbury at a depth of 6800 feet below ground level thus shielding the detector from cosmic rays which would completely obscure the neutrino signals from the detector. The report then discusses the facility itself, the budget estimate and the social and economic impact on the surrounding area. At the time of publication the proposal for the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory was due to be submitted for peer review by Oct. 1, 1987 and then to various granting bodies charged with the funding of scientific research in Canada, the U.S.A. and Britain

  9. Neutrino statistics: elementary problems and some applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuchowicz, B

    1973-01-01

    The treatment of neutrinos includes neutrinos in statistical equilibrium, mathematical refinements, application to stars, the relic neutrinos in cosmology, and some unsolved problems and prospects. (JFP)

  10. Solar neutrinos, helioseismology and the solar internal dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turck-Chieze, Sylvaine [Service d' Astrophysique/IRFU/DSM/CEA, 91191 Gif sur Yvette Cedex (France); Couvidat, Sebastien, E-mail: sylvaine.turck-chieze@cea.fr, E-mail: couvidat@stanford.edu [HEPL, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States)

    2011-08-15

    Neutrinos are fundamental particles ubiquitous in the Universe and whose properties remain elusive despite more than 50 years of intense research activity. This review illustrates the importance of solar neutrinos in astrophysics, nuclear physics and particle physics. After a description of the historical context, we remind the reader of the noticeable properties of these particles and of the stakes of the solar neutrino puzzle. The standard solar model triggered persistent efforts in fundamental physics to predict the solar neutrino fluxes, and its constantly evolving predictions have been regularly compared with the detected neutrino signals. Anticipating that this standard model could not reproduce the internal solar dynamics, a seismic solar model was developed which enriched theoretical neutrino flux predictions with in situ observation of acoustic and gravity waves propagating in the Sun. This seismic model contributed to the stabilization of the neutrino flux predictions. This review recalls the main historical steps, from the pioneering Homestake mine experiment and the GALLEX-SAGE experiments capturing the first proton-proton neutrinos. It emphasizes the importance of the SuperKamiokande and SNO detectors. Both experiments demonstrated that the solar-emitted electron neutrinos are partially transformed into other neutrino flavors before reaching the Earth. This sustained experimental effort opens the door to neutrino astronomy, with long-base lines and underground detectors. The success of BOREXINO in detecting the {sup 7}Be neutrino signal alone instills confidence in physicists' ability to detect each neutrino source separately. It justifies the building of a new generation of detectors to measure the entire solar neutrino spectrum in greater detail, as well as supernova neutrinos. A coherent picture has emerged from neutrino physics and helioseismology. Today, new paradigms take shape in these two fields: neutrinos are massive particles, but their

  11. Solar neutrinos: proposal for a new test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freedman, M.S.; Stevens, C.M.; Horivitz, E.P.; Fuchs, L.H.; Lerner, J.L.; Goodman, L.S.; Childs, W.J.; Hessler, J.

    1976-01-01

    The predicted flux on the earth of solar neutrinos has eluded detection, confounding current ideas of solar energy production by nuclear fusion. The dominant low-energy component of that flux can be detected by mass-spectrometric assay of the induced tiny concentration of 1.6 x 10 7 year lead-205 in old thallium minerals. Comments are solicited from those in all relevant disciplines

  12. The physics of massive neutrinos

    CERN Document Server

    Kayser, Boris; Perrier, Frederic

    1989-01-01

    This book explains the physics and phenomenology of massive neutrinos. The authors argue that neutrino mass is not unlikely and consider briefly the search for evidence of this mass in decay processes before they examine the physics and phenomenology of neutrino oscillation. The physics of Majorana neutrinos (neutrinos which are their own antiparticles) is then discussed. This volume requires of the reader only a knowledge of quantum mechanics and of very elementary quantum field theory.

  13. Status of Heavy Neutrino Experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Wynne, Benjamin; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The observation of neutrino oscillations raises the possibility that there exist additional, undiscovered high-mass neutrinos, giving mass to Standard Model neutrinos via the seesaw mechanism. By pushing the collider energy frontier at the LHC, the possibility arises that these heavy neutrinos may be produced and identified. We summarise the latest LHC results of searches for heavy neutrinos in a variety of final states.

  14. Neutrinos at CERN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    CERN's long and distinguished neutrino tradition began in 1958 at the then new 500 MeV synchrocyclotron (SC) with the first observation of the decay of a charged pion into an electron and a neutrino. At that time, the first ideas on the special (vector/axial vector) structure of the weak interactions had been put forward by Feynman and Gell-Mann and by Marshak and Sudarshan, but the continual non-observation of that charged pion decay was holding up progress. This decay is only one part in ten thousand, and is masked by the dominant muon-neutrino channel. A special telescope was built to pick up the high energy electrons from the pion decay. In 1962 came another SC neutrino success, with the first measurement of the decay of a charged pion into a neutral one, with emission of an electron and a neutrino. Meanwhile the main thrust of CERN's neutrino effort was taking shape at the PS. By the close of 1960, CERN had decided to attack neutrino physics using several detectors - a 1m heavy liquid bubble chamber from Andre Lagarrigue's team in Paris, a CERN 1 m heavy liquid bubble chamber, and a hybrid chamber/counter from a group led by Helmut Faissner

  15. Neutrino Oscillations Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogli, Gianluigi

    2005-06-01

    We review the status of the neutrino oscillations physics, with a particular emphasis on the present knowledge of the neutrino mass-mixing parameters. We consider first the νμ → ντ flavor transitions of atmospheric neutrinos. It is found that standard oscillations provide the best description of the SK+K2K data, and that the associated mass-mixing parameters are determined at ±1σ (and NDF = 1) as: Δm2 = (2.6 ± 0.4) × 10-3 eV2 and sin 2 2θ = 1.00{ - 0.05}{ + 0.00} . Such indications, presently dominated by SK, could be strengthened by further K2K data. Then we point out that the recent data from the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory, together with other relevant measurements from solar and reactor neutrino experiments, in particular the KamLAND data, convincingly show that the flavor transitions of solar neutrinos are affected by Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein (MSW) effects. Finally, we perform an updated analysis of two-family active oscillations of solar and reactor neutrinos in the standard MSW case.

  16. Monochromatic neutrino beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernabeu, Jose; Burguet-Castell, Jordi; Espinoza, Catalina; Lindroos, Mats

    2005-01-01

    In the last few years spectacular results have been achieved with the demonstration of non vanishing neutrino masses and flavour mixing. The ultimate goal is the understanding of the origin of these properties from new physics. In this road, the last unknown mixing [U e3 ] must be determined. If it is proved to be non-zero, the possibility is open for Charge Conjugation-Parity (CP) violation in the lepton sector. This will require precision experiments with a very intense neutrino source. Here a novel method to create a monochromatic neutrino beam, an old dream for neutrino physics, is proposed based on the recent discovery of nuclei that decay fast through electron capture. Such nuclei will generate a monochromatic directional neutrino beam when decaying at high energy in a storage ring with long straight sections. We also show that the capacity of such a facility to discover new physics is impressive, so that fine tuning of the boosted neutrino energy allows precision measurements of the oscillation parameters even for a [U e3 ] mixing as small as 1 degree. We can thus open a window to the discovery of CP violation in neutrino oscillations

  17. Sudbury neutrino observatory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ewan, G.T.; Evans, H.C.; Lee, H.W.

    1986-10-01

    This report is a supplement to a report (SNO-85-3 (Sudbury Neutrino Observatory)) which contained the results of a feasibility study on the construction of a deep underground neutrino observatory based on a 1000 ton heavy water Cerenkov detector. Neutrinos carry detailed information in their spectra on the reactions taking place deep in the interstellar interior and also provide information on supernova explosions. In addition to their role as astrophysical probes, a knowledge of the properties of neutrinos is crucial to theories of grand unification. The Sudbury Neutrino Observatory is unique in its high sensitivity to electron neutrinos and its ability to detect all other types of neutrinos of energy greater than 2.2 MeV. The results of the July 1985 study indicated that the project is technically feasible in that the proposed detector can measure the direction and energy of electron neutrinos above 7 MeV and the scientific programs will make significant contributions to physics and astrophysics. This present report contains new information obtained since the 1985 feasibility study. The enhanced conversion of neutrinos in the sun and the new physics that could be learned using the heavy water detector are discussed in the physics section. The other sections will discuss progress in the areas of practical importance in achieving the physics objectives such as new techniques to measure, monitor and remove low levels of radioactivity in detector components, ideas on calibration of the detector and so forth. The section entitled Administration contains a membership list of the working groups within the SNO collaboration

  18. CONFERENCE: Neutrino mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1988-01-01

    The successes in capturing neutrinos from last year's supernova underlined the usefulness of large underground detectors for this sort of physics, and ambitious new projects are now in the pipeline. Meanwhile another approach to cosmic neutrino detection, carefully prepared during the past decade, has now taken its first experimental steps. DUMAND - Deep Underwater Muon and Neutrino Detector - aims to use the ocean as the active medium, tracking particles with arrays of photomultipliers picking up the tiny nanosecond flashes of blue Cherenkov light emitted by cosmic particles as they pass through seawater

  19. CONFERENCE: Neutrino mass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1988-06-15

    The successes in capturing neutrinos from last year's supernova underlined the usefulness of large underground detectors for this sort of physics, and ambitious new projects are now in the pipeline. Meanwhile another approach to cosmic neutrino detection, carefully prepared during the past decade, has now taken its first experimental steps. DUMAND - Deep Underwater Muon and Neutrino Detector - aims to use the ocean as the active medium, tracking particles with arrays of photomultipliers picking up the tiny nanosecond flashes of blue Cherenkov light emitted by cosmic particles as they pass through seawater.

  20. Results from neutrino experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smirnov, A.Yu.

    1993-11-01

    Recent (first or/and the best) results from the neutrino experiments are reviewed and their implications for the theory are discussed. The sense of the experiments is the searching for neutrino masses, mixing and interactions beyond the standard model. Present laboratory experiments give upper bounds on the masses and the mixing which are at the level of predictions of the ''electroweak see-saw''. Positive indications of nonzero lepton mixing follow from studies of the solar and atmospheric neutrinos. (author). 95 refs, 11 figs

  1. Neutrino mass experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robertson, R.G.H.

    1989-01-01

    The current status of the experimental search for neutrino mass is reviewed, with emphasis on direct kinematic methods. Simpson and Hime report finding new evidence for a 17-keV neutrino in the β decay of 3 H and 35 S. The situation concerning the electron neutrino mass as measured in tritium beta decay has not changed significantly in the last two years. We discuss the ''model independent'' lower limit of 17 eV obtained by the ITEP group in light of existing data on the 3 H-- 3 He mass difference. 42 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  2. GRAN SASSO/GRENOBLE: Artificial neutrino source confirms solar neutrino result

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    In 1992, the Gallex experiment announced the first observation of the neutrinos produced in the primary proton-proton fusion reaction in the core of the Sun, reaction at the origin of the energy production by our star (September 1992, page 1). The Gallex team stressed that the observed neutrino flux was only about two-thirds of the predicted level, confirming the deficit observed by the two pioneering experiments, Ray Davis' chlorine-based detector in the USA and the Kamiokande study in Japan (which are only sensitive to neutrinos from subsidiary solar fusion processes). This deficit demands explanation, and could considerably modify our understanding of how stars shine and/or of neutrino physics. But before drawing conclusions, the Gallex result had to be checked. Gallex, installed in the Italian Gran Sasso underground Laboratory, is a radiochemical experiment using neutrino interactions to transform gallium-71 into germanium-71. The latter is radioactive and decays with a half-life of 11.4 days. Counting the germanium-71 atoms extracted from the target tank measures the neutrino flux to which the detector is exposed. Neutrinos are famous for their reluctance to interact. 65 billion per square centimetre per second on the surface of the Earth produce only one germanium-71 atom in the Gallex target containing 30 tons of gallium. This is at the limit of homeopathy (extracting few atoms of germanium-71 from a solution containing 10 30 atoms) and needs careful checking. Since it is not possible to switch off the Sun, the only recourse was to build an artificial neutrino source more powerful than the Sun as a benchmark. This was done last summer. Last May, 36 kilograms of chromium grains were placed in the Siloe reactor of the French Commissariat à l'énergie atomique, Grenoble. The chromium had been previously enriched to 40% chromium-50 by the Kurchatov Institute in Moscow (natural chromium contains only 4.5% chromium-50). A dedicated core was built for

  3. Sign of the day-night asymmetry for solar neutrinos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiang, Cheng-Wei; Wolfenstein, Lincoln

    2001-01-01

    A qualitative understanding of the day-night asymmetry for solar neutrinos is provided. The greater night flux in ν e is seen to be a consequence of the fact that the matter effect in the Sun and that in the Earth have the same sign. It is shown in the adiabatic approximation for the Sun and constant density for the Earth that, for all values of the mixing angle θ V between 0 and π/2, the night flux of neutrinos is greater than the day flux. Only for small values of θ V where the adiabatic approximation badly fails does the sign of the day-night asymmetry reverse

  4. Calculation of the local density of relic neutrinos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Salas, P.F.; Gariazzo, S.; Pastor, S. [Instituto de Física Corpuscular (CSIC-Universitat de València), Parc Científic UV, C/ Catedrático José Beltrán, 2, E-46980 Paterna (Valencia) (Spain); Lesgourgues, J., E-mail: pabferde@ific.uv.es, E-mail: gariazzo@ific.uv.es, E-mail: Julien.Lesgourgues@physik.rwth-aachen.de, E-mail: pastor@ific.uv.es [Institute for Theoretical Particle Physics and Cosmology (TTK), RWTH Aachen University, D-52056 Aachen (Germany)

    2017-09-01

    Nonzero neutrino masses are required by the existence of flavour oscillations, with values of the order of at least 50 meV . We consider the gravitational clustering of relic neutrinos within the Milky Way, and used the N -one-body simulation technique to compute their density enhancement factor in the neighbourhood of the Earth with respect to the average cosmic density. Compared to previous similar studies, we pushed the simulation down to smaller neutrino masses, and included an improved treatment of the baryonic and dark matter distributions in the Milky Way. Our results are important for future experiments aiming at detecting the cosmic neutrino background, such as the Princeton Tritium Observatory for Light, Early-universe, Massive-neutrino Yield (PTOLEMY) proposal. We calculate the impact of neutrino clustering in the Milky Way on the expected event rate for a PTOLEMY-like experiment. We find that the effect of clustering remains negligible for the minimal normal hierarchy scenario, while it enhances the event rate by 10 to 20% (resp. a factor 1.7 to 2.5) for the minimal inverted hierarchy scenario (resp. a degenerate scenario with 150 meV masses). Finally we compute the impact on the event rate of a possible fourth sterile neutrino with a mass of 1.3 eV.

  5. Heavy neutrino decay at SHALON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinitsyna V.Y.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The SHALON Cherenkov telescope has recorded over 2 × 106 extensive air showers during the past 17 years. The analysis of the signal at different zenith angles has included observations from the sub-horizontal direction Θ = 97° This inclination defines an Earth skimming trajectory with 7 km of air and around 1000 km of rock in front of the telescope. During a period of 324 hours of observation, after a cut of shower-like events that may be caused by chaotic sky flashes or reflections on the snow of vertical showers, we have detected 5 air showers of TeV energies. We argue that these events may be caused by the decay of a long-lived penetrating particle entering the atmosphere from the ground and decaying in front of the telescope. We show that this particle can it not be a muon or a tau lepton. As a possible explanation, we discuss two scenarios with an unstable neutrino of mass m ≈ 0.5 GeV and cτ ≈ 30 m. Remarkably, one of these models has been recently proposed to explain an excess of electron-like neutrino events at MiniBooNE.

  6. Neutrino physics present and future

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2006-01-01

    Our understanding of neutrinos has been revolutionized by the discovery that they have nonzero masses and very large mixing. We will explain the phenomenology of massive neutrinos, including neutrino oscillation in vacuum and in matter, and the physics of neutrinos that are their own antiparticles. We will review the evidence for neutrino masses and mixing, and summarize what has been learned about the neutrinos so far. Identifying the very interesting open questions raised by the discovery of neutrino mass, we will discuss how these questions may be answered through future experiments. Finally, we will consider the possibility that CP violation by neutrinos is the key to understanding the matter-antimatter asymmetry of the universe, and discuss the see-saw theory of why neutrino masses are so tiny.

  7. Mirror model for sterile neutrinos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berezinsky, Veniamin; Narayan, Mohan; Vissani, Francesco

    2003-01-01

    Sterile neutrinos are studied as subdominant contribution to solar neutrino physics. The mirror-matter neutrinos are considered as sterile neutrinos. We use the symmetric mirror model with gravitational communication between mirror and visible sectors. This communication term provides mixing between visible and mirror neutrinos with the basic scale μ=v EW 2 /M Pl =2.5x10 -6 eV, where v EW =174 GeV is the vacuum expectation value of the standard electroweak group and M Pl is the Planckian mass. It is demonstrated that each mass eigenstate of active neutrinos splits into two states separated by small Δm 2 . Unsuppressed oscillations between active and sterile neutrinos (ν a ↔ν s ) occur only in transitions between each of these close pairs ('windows'). These oscillations are characterized by very small Δm 2 and can suppress the flux and distort spectrum of pp-neutrinos in detectable way. The other observable effect is anomalous seasonal variation of neutrino flux, which appears in LMA solution. The considered subdominant neutrino oscillations ν a ↔ν s can reveal itself as big effects in observations of supernova neutrinos and high-energy (HE) neutrinos. In the case of HE neutrinos they can provide a very large diffuse flux of active neutrinos unconstrained by the e-m cascade upper limit

  8. Geo-Neutrinos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dye, S.T.

    2009-01-01

    This paper briefly reviews recent developments in the field of geo-neutrinos. It describes current and future detection projects, discusses modeling projects, suggests an observational program, and visits geo-reactor hypotheses.

  9. Geo-Neutrinos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dye, S.T. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Hawaii at Manoa, 2505 Correa Road, Honolulu, Hawaii, 96822 (United States); College of Natural Sciences, Hawaii Pacific University, 45-045 Kamehameha Highway, Kaneohe, Hawaii, 96744 (United States)

    2009-03-15

    This paper briefly reviews recent developments in the field of geo-neutrinos. It describes current and future detection projects, discusses modeling projects, suggests an observational program, and visits geo-reactor hypotheses.

  10. The World of Neutrinos

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    4. Their detection ... He + light. +2νe. Neutrinos needed to conserve energy, momentum, angular momentum .... almost massless. (at least a million times lighter than electrons) only weak .... Signals of physics beyond the Standard Model.

  11. Results from atmospheric neutrinos

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Africa and South India first detected the natural neutrinos and observed .... lucky coincidences, such as the angular diameter of the moon and sun being ... (where there is some peaking due to longer flight paths for pions in the atmosphere).

  12. Neutrinos: ghosts of matter

    CERN Multimedia

    Wark, Dave

    2005-01-01

    The discovery that neutrinos have masse and can oscillate between different flavours was one of the major breakthroughts in particle physics in the past decade, but there is much about these mysterious particles that we still do not understand

  13. Neutrino mass: Recent results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robertson, R.G.H.

    1989-01-01

    Some recent developments in the experimental search for neutrino mass are discussed. Simpson and Hime report finding new evidence for a 17-keV neutrino in the β decay of 3 H and 35 S. New data from Los Alamos on the electron neutrino mass as measured in tritium beta decay give an upper limit of 13.5 eV at the 95% confidence level. This result is not consistent with the long-standing ITEP result of 26(5) eV within a ''model-independent'' range of 17 to 40 eV. It now appears that the electron neutrino is not sufficiently massive to close the universe by itself. 38 refs., 1 figs., 2 tabs

  14. Neutrino beam plasma instability

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    positron or electron–proton plasma in the context of early universe, stars and supernova ... proper. Of course, in their later work on kinetic theory (KT) [5] of neutrino plasma inter- .... for electron also with additional electric potential term.

  15. Gravitational Waves and Neutrinos

    OpenAIRE

    Sturani, Riccardo

    2018-01-01

    We give an overview about the recent detection of gravitational waves by the Advanced LIGO first and second observing runs and by Advanced Virgo, with emphasis on the prospects for multi-messenger astronomy involving neutrinos detections.

  16. Perspectives in Neutrino Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Altarelli, Guido

    2011-01-01

    This is a Concluding Talk, not a Summary of the Conference. I will discuss some of the highlights that particularly impressed me (a subjective choice) and make some comments on the status and the prospects of neutrino mass and mixing.

  17. Neutrinos, on your marks...!

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    As the Bulletin was about to be released, the CNGS team was ready to produce its first neutrinos. The gradual commissioning of the installation should result in the production of a nominal beam during the month of August.

  18. Introduction to neutrino physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naumov, D.V.

    2011-01-01

    This is a manuscript of lectures presented by the author at the Baikal Summer School on Physics of Elementary Particles and Astrophysics 2010. The lectures are intended mainly for students and young researchers as an introductory course of neutrino physics

  19. An accurate analytic description of neutrino oscillations in matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhmedov, E. Kh.; Niro, Viviana

    2008-12-01

    A simple closed-form analytic expression for the probability of two-flavour neutrino oscillations in a matter with an arbitrary density profile is derived. Our formula is based on a perturbative expansion and allows an easy calculation of higher order corrections. The expansion parameter is small when the density changes relatively slowly along the neutrino path and/or neutrino energy is not very close to the Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein (MSW) resonance energy. Our approximation is not equivalent to the adiabatic approximation and actually goes beyond it. We demonstrate the validity of our results using a few model density profiles, including the PREM density profile of the Earth. It is shown that by combining the results obtained from the expansions valid below and above the MSW resonance one can obtain a very good description of neutrino oscillations in matter in the entire energy range, including the resonance region.

  20. Measurement of atmospheric neutrino oscillations and matter effects with PINGU

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coenders, Stefan; Euler, Sebastian; Krings, Kai; Vehring, Markus; Wallraff, Marius; Wiebusch, Christopher [RWTH Aachen Univ. (Germany). III. Physikalisches Inst.; Collaboration: IceCube-Collaboration

    2013-07-01

    With IceCube's low-energy extension DeepCore the first significant effects of atmospheric neutrino oscillations have been observed. The planned ''Precision Icecube Next Generation Upgrade'' (PINGU) inside DeepCore will lower the energy threshold to a few GeV, where matter effects of neutrino oscillations have to be taken into account. The Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein (MSW) effect modifies the mixing between flavor and mass eigenstates of the neutrinos, resulting in stronger oscillations. Furthermore, neutrinos when passing through the Earth core experience parametric enhancement due to multiple discontinuities in the electron density. In this talk the effects of matter oscillations and the capabilities to measure these effects with PINGU are investigated.

  1. Constellation Stick Figures Convey Information about Gravity and Neutrinos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mc Leod, David Matthew; Mc Leod, Roger David

    2008-10-01

    12/21/98, at America's Stonehenge, DMM detected, and drew, the full stick-figure equivalent of Canis Major, CM, as depicted by our Wolf Clan leaders, and many others. Profound, foundational physics is implied, since this occurred in the Watch House there, hours before the ``model rose.'' Similar configurations like Orion, Osiris of ancient Egypt, show that such figures are projected through solid parts of the Earth, as two-dimensional equivalents of the three-dimensional star constellations. Such ``sticks'' indicate that ``line equivalents'' connect the stars, and the physical mechanism projects outlines detectable by traditional cultures. We had discussed this ``flashlight'' effect, and recognized some of its implications. RDM states that the flashlight is a strong, distant neutrino source; the lines represent neutrinos longitudinally aligned in gravitational excitation, opaque, to earthbound, transient, transversely excited neutrinos. ``Sticks'' represent ``graviton'' detection. Neutrinos' longitudinal alignment accounts for the weakness of gravitational force.

  2. Neutrino signal from pair-instability supernovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Warren P.; Gilmer, Matthew S.; Fröhlich, Carla; Kneller, James P.

    2017-11-01

    A very massive star with a carbon-oxygen core in the range of 64M ⊙Earth from two, one-dimensional pair-instability supernova simulations which bracket the mass range of stars which explode by this mechanism taking into account the full time and energy dependence of the neutrino emission and the flavor evolution through the outer layers of the star. We calculate the neutrino signals in five different detectors chosen to represent present or near future designs. We find the more massive progenitors explode as pair-instability supernova which can easily be detected in multiple different neutrino detectors at the "standard" supernova distance of 10 kpc producing several events in DUNE, JUNO, and Super-Kamiokande, while the lightest progenitors produce only a handful of events (if any) in the same detectors. The proposed Hyper-Kamiokande detector would detect neutrinos from a large pair-instability supernova as far as ˜50 kpc allowing it to reach the Megallanic Clouds and the several very high mass stars known to exist there.

  3. Effective Majorana neutrino decay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duarte, Lucia [Instituto de Fisica, Facultad de Ingenieria,Universidad de la Republica, Montevideo (Uruguay); Romero, Ismael; Peressutti, Javier; Sampayo, Oscar A. [Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata, Departamento de Fisica, Instituto de Investigaciones Fisicas de Mar del Plata (IFIMAR) CONICET, UNMDP, Mar del Plata (Argentina)

    2016-08-15

    We study the decay of heavy sterile Majorana neutrinos according to the interactions obtained from an effective general theory. We describe the two- and three-body decays for a wide range of neutrino masses. The results obtained and presented in this work could be useful for the study of the production and detection of these particles in a variety of high energy physics experiments and astrophysical observations. We show in different figures the dominant branching ratios and the total decay width. (orig.)

  4. Neutrino physics and accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaftanov, V.

    1978-01-01

    The history is described of experiments aimed at the study of direct neutrino-matter interactions conducted in the past twenty years. Experiments are outlined carried out with the objective of proving the existence of the intermediate W meson which had been predicted by the weak interaction theory. The methods of obtaining neutrino beams using accelerators and the detectors used are briefly shown. Also described are experiments to be conducted in the near future in different laboratories. (Z.J.)

  5. Massive neutrinos in astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qadir, A.

    1982-08-01

    Massive neutrinos are among the big hopes of cosmologists. If they happen to have the right mass they can close the Universe, explain the motion of galaxies in clusters, provide galactic halos and even, possibly, explain galaxy formation. Tremaine and Gunn have argued that massive neutrinos cannot do all these things. I will explain, here, what some of us believe is wrong with their arguments. (author)

  6. Cosmological and supernova neutrinos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajino, T.; Aoki, W.; Balantekin, A. B.; Cheoun, M.-K.; Hayakawa, T.; Hidaka, J.; Hirai, Y.; Kusakabe, M.; Mathews, G. J.; Nakamura, K.; Pehlivan, Y.; Shibagaki, S.; Suzuki, T.

    2014-06-01

    The Big Bang nucleosynthesis (BBN) and the cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropies are the pillars of modern cosmology. It has recently been suggested that axion which is a dark matter candidate in the framework of the standard model could condensate in the early universe and induce photon cooling before the epoch of the photon last scattering. Although this may render a solution to the overproduction problem of primordial 7Li abundance, there arises another serious difficulty of overproducing D abundance. We propose a hybrid dark matter model with both axions and relic supersymmetric (SUSY) particles to solve both overproduction problems of the primordial D and 7Li abundances simultaneously. The BBN also serves to constrain the nature of neutrinos. Considering non-thermal photons produced in the decay of the heavy sterile neutrinos due to the magnetic moment, we explore the cosmological constraint on the strength of neutrino magnetic moment consistent with the observed light element abundances. Core-collapse supernovae eject huge flux of energetic neutrinos which affect explosive nucleosynthesis of rare isotopes like 7Li, 11B, 92Nb, 138La and 180Ta and r-process elements. Several isotopes depend strongly on the neutrino flavor oscillation due to the Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein (MSW) effect. Combining the recent experimental constraints on θ13 with predicted and observed supernova-produced abundance ratio 11B/7Li encapsulated in the presolar grains from the Murchison meteorite, we show a marginal preference for an inverted neutrino mass hierarchy. We also discuss supernova relic neutrinos (SRN) that may indicate the softness of the equation of state (EoS) of nuclear matter and adiabatic conditions of the neutrino oscillation.

  7. Mass relation for neutrinos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babu; Barr

    2000-08-07

    A generalization of the well-known Georgi-Jarlskog relation (m(&mgr;)/m(tau)) = 3(m(s)/m(b)) to neutrinos is found in the context of SO(10). This new relation is (m(nu(&mgr;))/m(nu(tau))) = 16(m(c)/m(t)), which is consistent with present data, assuming the Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein solution to the solar neutrino problem.

  8. Radiative Majorana Neutrino Masses

    OpenAIRE

    Hou, Wei-Shu; Wong, Gwo-Guang

    1994-01-01

    We present new radiative mechanisms for generating Majorana neutrino masses, within an extension of the standard model that successfully generates radiative charged lepton masses, order by order, from heavy sequential leptons. Only the new sequential neutral lepton has a right-handed partner, and its Majorana mass provides the seed for Majorana neutrino mass generation. Saturating the cosmological bound of $50$ eV with $m_{\

  9. Mass Relation for Neutrinos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babu, K. S.; Barr, S. M.

    2000-01-01

    A generalization of the well-known Georgi-Jarlskog relation (m μ /m τ ) =3(m s /m b ) to neutrinos is found in the context of SO(10) . This new relation is (m ν μ /m ν τ )=16(m c /m t ) , which is consistent with present data, assuming the Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein solution to the solar neutrino problem. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society

  10. Cosmological and supernova neutrinos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kajino, T. [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588, Japan Department of Astronomy, University of Tokyo, Hongo 7-3-1, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Aoki, W. [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Balantekin, A. B. [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin - Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States); Cheoun, M.-K. [Department of Physics, Soongsil University, Seoul 156-743 (Korea, Republic of); Hayakawa, T. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Shirakara-Shirane 2-4, Tokai-mura, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Hidaka, J. [National Astronomical Observatory, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Hirai, Y.; Shibagaki, S. [National Astronomical Observatory, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588, Japan and Department of Astronomy, University of Tokyo, Hongo 7-3-1, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Kusakabe, M. [School of Liberal Arts and Science, Korea Aerospace University, Goyang 412-791 (Korea, Republic of); Mathews, G. J. [Department of Physics, University of Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Nakamura, K. [Waseda University, Ohkubo 3-4-1, Shinjuku, Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan); Pehlivan, Y. [Mimar Sinan GSÜ, Department of Physics, Şişli, İstanbul 34380 (Turkey); Suzuki, T. [Nihon University, Sakurajosui 3-25-40, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo 156-8550 (Japan)

    2014-06-24

    The Big Bang nucleosynthesis (BBN) and the cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropies are the pillars of modern cosmology. It has recently been suggested that axion which is a dark matter candidate in the framework of the standard model could condensate in the early universe and induce photon cooling before the epoch of the photon last scattering. Although this may render a solution to the overproduction problem of primordial {sup 7}Li abundance, there arises another serious difficulty of overproducing D abundance. We propose a hybrid dark matter model with both axions and relic supersymmetric (SUSY) particles to solve both overproduction problems of the primordial D and {sup 7}Li abundances simultaneously. The BBN also serves to constrain the nature of neutrinos. Considering non-thermal photons produced in the decay of the heavy sterile neutrinos due to the magnetic moment, we explore the cosmological constraint on the strength of neutrino magnetic moment consistent with the observed light element abundances. Core-collapse supernovae eject huge flux of energetic neutrinos which affect explosive nucleosynthesis of rare isotopes like {sup 7}Li, {sup 11}B, {sup 92}Nb, {sup 138}La and {sup 180}Ta and r-process elements. Several isotopes depend strongly on the neutrino flavor oscillation due to the Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein (MSW) effect. Combining the recent experimental constraints on θ{sub 13} with predicted and observed supernova-produced abundance ratio {sup 11}B/{sup 7}Li encapsulated in the presolar grains from the Murchison meteorite, we show a marginal preference for an inverted neutrino mass hierarchy. We also discuss supernova relic neutrinos (SRN) that may indicate the softness of the equation of state (EoS) of nuclear matter and adiabatic conditions of the neutrino oscillation.

  11. Neutrinos: Heavy water detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    The proponents of the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO) received a welcome Christmas present when William Winegard, Canadian Minister for Science and Technology announced the final details of the funding for this project, totalling 48 million Canadian dollars and including contributions from the US and the UK. The SNO experiment will extend significantly the study of solar neutrinos, using some 1,000 tonnes of heavy water to be installed more than two kilometres below ground in a nickel mine at Sudbury, Ontario

  12. Features of neutrino mixing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, S. H.; Kuo, T. K.

    2018-03-01

    The elements (squared) of the neutrino mixing matrix are found to satisfy, as functions of the induced mass, a set of differential equations. They show clearly the dominance of pole terms when the neutrino masses "cross." Using the known vacuum mixing parameters as initial conditions, it is found that these equations have very good approximate solutions, for all values of the induced mass. The results are applicable to long baseline experiments.

  13. The solar neutrino problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahcall, J.N.

    1986-01-01

    The observed capture rate for solar neutrinos in the /sup 37/Cl detector is lower than the predicted capture rate. This discrepancy between theory and observation is known as the 'solar neutrino problem.' The author reviews the basic elements in this problem: the detector efficiency, the theory of stellar (solar) evolution, the nuclear physics of energy generation, and the uncertainties in the predictions. He also answers the questions of: So What? and What Next?

  14. A search for matter enhanced neutrino oscillations through measurements of day and night solar neutrino fluxes at the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miknaitis, Kathryn Kelly Schaffer

    The Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO) is a heavy-water Cherenkov detector designed to study 8B neutrinos from the sun. Through the charged-current (CC) and neutral-current (NC) reactions of neutrinos on deuterium, SNO separately determines the flux of electron neutrinos and the flux of all active flavors of solar 8B neutrinos. SNO is also sensitive to the elastic scattering (ES) of neutrinos on electrons in the heavy water. Measurements of the CC and NC rates in SNO have conclusively demonstrated solar neutrino flavor change. This flavor change is believed to be caused by matter-enhanced oscillations in the sun, through the Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein (MSW) effect. Matter effects could also change the flavor composition of neutrinos that traverse the earth. A comparison of the day and night measured CC flux at SNO directly tests for the MSW effect and contributes to constraints on neutrino oscillation parameters in the MSW model. We perform measurements of the day and night neutrino fluxes using data from the second phase of SNO, in which salt (NaCl) was added to the heavy water to enhance sensitivity to the NC reaction. Better discrimination between CC and NC events in the salt phase allows the fluxes to be determined without constraining the neutrino energy spectrum. The day-night asymmetry in the CC flux measured in this model-independent analysis is ACC = [-5.6 +/- 7.4(stat.) +/- 5.3(syst.)]%, where the asymmetry is defined as the difference between the night and day values divided by their average. The asymmetries in the NC and ES fluxes are ANC = [4.2 +/- 8.6(stat.) +/- 7.2(syst.)]%, and AES = (14.6 +/- 19.8(stat.) +/- 3.3(syst.)]%. The neutral current asymmetry is expected to be zero assuming standard neutrino oscillations. When we constrain it to be zero, we obtain ACC = [-3.7 +/- 6.3(stat.) +/- 3.2(syst.)]% and AES = [15.3 +/- 19.8(stat.) +/- 3.0(syst.)]%. The day and night energy spectra from the CC reaction have been measured and show no evidence for

  15. Neutrino physics with DARWIN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benabderrahmane, M. L.

    2017-09-01

    DARWIN (DARk matter WImp search with liquid xenoN) will be a multi-ton dark matter detector with the primary goal of exploring the entire experimentally accessible parameter space for weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs) over a wide mass-range. With its 40 tonne active liquid xenon target, low-energy threshold and ultra-low background level, DARWIN can also search for other rare interactions. Here we present its sensitivity to low-energy solar neutrinos and to neutrinoless double beta decay. In a low-energy window of 2-30 keV a rate of 105/year, from pp and 7Be neutrinos can be reached. Such a measurement, with 1% precision will allow testing neutrinos models. DARWIN could also reach a competitive half-life sensitivity of 8.5 · 1027 y to the neutrinoless double beta decay (0νββ) of 136Xe after an exposure of 140 t×y of natural xenon. Nuclear recoils from coherent scattering of solar neutrinos will limit the sensitivity to WIMP masses below 5 GeV/c2, and the event rate from 8B neutrinos would range from a few to a few tens of events per tonne and year, depending on the energy threshold of the detector. Deviations from the predicted but yet unmeasured neutrino flux would be an indication for physics beyond the Standard Model

  16. The Sudbury Neutrino Observatory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norman, E.B.; Chan, Y.D.; Garcia, A.; Lesko, K.T.; Smith, A.R.; Stokstad, R.G.; Zlimen, I.; Evans, H.C.; Ewan, G.T.; Hallin, A.; Lee, H.W.; Leslie, J.R.; MacArthur, J.D.; Mak, H.B.; McDonald, A.B.; McLatchie, W.; Robertson, B.C.; Skensved, P.; Sur, B.; Jagam, P.; Law, J.; Ollerhead, R.W.; Simpson, J.J.; Wang, J.X.; Tanner, N.W.; Jelley, N.A.; Barton, J.C.; Doucas, G.; Hooper, E.W.; Knox, A.B.; Moorhead, M.E.; Omori, M.; Trent, P.T.; Wark, D.L.

    1992-11-01

    Two experiments now in progress have reported measurements of the flux of high energy neutrinos from the Sun. Since about 1970, Davis and his co-workers have been using a 37 Cl-based detector to measure the 7 Be and 8 B solar neutrino flux and have found it to be at least a factor of three lower than that predicted by the Standard Solar Model (SSM). The Kamiokande collaborations has been taking data since 1986 using a large light-water Cerenkov detector and have confirmed that the flux is about two times lower than predicted. Recent results from the SAGE and GALLEX gallium-based detectors show that there is also a deficit of the low energy pp solar neutrinos. These discrepancies between experiment and theory could arise because of inadequacies in the theoretical models of solar energy generation or because of previously unobserved properties of neutrinos. The Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO) will provide the information necessary to decide which of these solutions to the ''solar neutrino problem'' is correct

  17. Neutrino confinement in collapsing stellar cores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, K.C.

    1987-01-01

    Neutrino confinement is expected to occur in the core of highly evolved stars, leading to the formation of a degenerate neutrino gas. The main neutrino sources are briefly reviewed and the neutrino processes relevant to the neutrino opacity in the stellar matter are discussed. Implications for the equation of state of neutrino-trapped matter are examined. (author) [pt

  18. Discovery Monday - 'The hunt for the phantom particles: sending neutrinos through the Alps'

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    Work on the decay tube for the CERN Neutrinos to Gran Sasso (CNGS) Project. Each second, billions of neutrinos bombard every square centimetre of the Earth's surface and therefore pass through our bodies, without us realising it. These phantom particles only rarely interact with matter. They provide physicists with much food for thought, as they are difficult to 'catch' in detectors. Neutrinos are all the more elusive as they are capable of metamorphosis. There are in fact three types of neutrino, the electron neutrino, the muon neutrino and the tau neutrino, and each can mutate into the other. In 2006 CERN will send a beam of muon neutrinos through the Earth's crust to the Gran Sasso National Laboratory (Italy) some 730 kilometres away, in order to better understand the metamorphoses which the neutrino undergoes. At the next Discovery Monday, light will be shed on the path that these intriguing particles will take to Gran Sasso. You will also learn about the methods physicists use to try and catch them in or...

  19. Ultrahigh Energy Neutrinos at the Pierre Auger Observatory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Abreu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The observation of ultrahigh energy neutrinos (UHEνs has become a priority in experimental astroparticle physics. UHEνs can be detected with a variety of techniques. In particular, neutrinos can interact in the atmosphere (downward-going ν or in the Earth crust (Earth-skimming ν, producing air showers that can be observed with arrays of detectors at the ground. With the surface detector array of the Pierre Auger Observatory we can detect these types of cascades. The distinguishing signature for neutrino events is the presence of very inclined showers produced close to the ground (i.e., after having traversed a large amount of atmosphere. In this work we review the procedure and criteria established to search for UHEνs in the data collected with the ground array of the Pierre Auger Observatory. This includes Earth-skimming as well as downward-going neutrinos. No neutrino candidates have been found, which allows us to place competitive limits to the diffuse flux of UHEνs in the EeV range and above.

  20. Physics of neutrino flavor transformation through matter–neutrino resonances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng-Ru Wu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In astrophysical environments such as core-collapse supernovae and neutron star–neutron star or neutron star–black hole mergers where dense neutrino media are present, matter–neutrino resonances (MNRs can occur when the neutrino propagation potentials due to neutrino–electron and neutrino–neutrino forward scattering nearly cancel each other. We show that neutrino flavor transformation through MNRs can be explained by multiple adiabatic solutions similar to the Mikheyev–Smirnov–Wolfenstein mechanism. We find that for the normal neutrino mass hierarchy, neutrino flavor evolution through MNRs can be sensitive to the shape of neutrino spectra and the adiabaticity of the system, but such sensitivity is absent for the inverted hierarchy.

  1. Physics of neutrino flavor transformation through matter–neutrino resonances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Meng-Ru, E-mail: mwu@theorie.ikp.physik.tu-darmstadt.de [Institut für Kernphysik (Theoriezentrum), Technische Universität Darmstadt, Schlossgartenstraße 2, 64289 Darmstadt (Germany); Duan, Huaiyu, E-mail: duan@unm.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87131 (United States); Qian, Yong-Zhong, E-mail: qian@physics.umn.edu [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States)

    2016-01-10

    In astrophysical environments such as core-collapse supernovae and neutron star–neutron star or neutron star–black hole mergers where dense neutrino media are present, matter–neutrino resonances (MNRs) can occur when the neutrino propagation potentials due to neutrino–electron and neutrino–neutrino forward scattering nearly cancel each other. We show that neutrino flavor transformation through MNRs can be explained by multiple adiabatic solutions similar to the Mikheyev–Smirnov–Wolfenstein mechanism. We find that for the normal neutrino mass hierarchy, neutrino flavor evolution through MNRs can be sensitive to the shape of neutrino spectra and the adiabaticity of the system, but such sensitivity is absent for the inverted hierarchy.

  2. Neutrino magnetic moment contribution to the neutrino-deuteron reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuji, K.; Nakamura, S.; Sato, T.; Kubodera, K.; Myhrer, F.

    2004-01-01

    We study the effect of the neutrino magnetic moment on the neutrino-deuteron breakup reaction, using a method called the standard nuclear physics approach, which has already been well tested for several electroweak processes involving the deuteron

  3. Detection of solar neutrinos with a torsion balance with sapphire crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruceru, M.; Nicolescu, G.

    2018-01-01

    The solar neutrinos (antineutrinos) are detected with a dedicated torsion balance in the case when they interact coherently on stiff crystals (sapphire with high Debye temperature ∼1000K and lead with ∼100K Debye temperature). The balance consists in two equal masses of lead and sapphire, of 25g. An autocollimator coupled to this balance measures small rotation angles of the balance. The force with which neutrino flux interacts with these crystals is between 10-5 dyn and 10-8 dyn, comparable with that reported in Weber’s experiments [1]. A diurnal effect is observed for solar neutrinos due to the rotation of the Earth around its own axes. The solar neutrino flux obtained at the site of our experiment is ∼3.8*1010neutrinos/cm2*s [2]. Experimental data for neutrinos signals from this high sensitivity torsion balance are presented and commented [3].

  4. Constraining neutrino magnetic moment with solar and reactor neutrino data

    OpenAIRE

    Tortola, M. A.

    2004-01-01

    We use solar neutrino data to derive stringent bounds on Majorana neutrino transition moments (TMs). Such moments, if present, would contribute to the neutrino-electron scattering cross section and hence alter the signal observed in Super-Kamiokande. Using the latest solar neutrino data, combined with the results of the reactor experiment KamLAND, we perform a simultaneous fit of the oscillation parameters and TMs. Furthermore, we include data from the reactor experiments Rovno, TEXONO and MU...

  5. Determination of the Atmospheric Neutrino Fluxes from Atmospheric Neutrino Data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gonzalez-Garcia, M. C.; Maltoni, M.; Rojo, J.

    2006-01-01

    The precise knowledge of the atmospheric neutrino fluxes is a key ingredient in the interpretation of the results from any atmospheric neutrino experiment. In the standard atmospheric neutrino data analysis, these fluxes are theoretical inputs obtained from sophisticated numerical calculations based

  6. Symplectic symmetry of the neutrino mass for many neutrino flavors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oeztuerk, N.; Ankara Univ.

    2001-01-01

    The algebraic structure of the neutrino mass Hamiltonian is presented for two neutrino flavors considering both Dirac and Majorana mass terms. It is shown that the algebra is Sp(8) and also discussed how the algebraic structure generalizes for the case of more than two neutrino flavors. (orig.)

  7. First measurement of pp neutrinos in real time in the Borexino detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosteiro, Pablo

    2014-09-01

    The Sun is fueled by a series of nuclear reactions that produce the energy that makes it shine. Neutrinos (nu) produced by these nuclear reactions exit the Sun and reach Earth within minutes, providing us with key information about what goes on at the core of our star. For over twenty years since the first detection of solar neutrinos in the late 1960's, an apparent deficit in their detection rate was known as the Solar Neutrino Problem. Today, the Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein (MSW) effect is the accepted mechanism by which neutrinos oscillate inside the Sun, arriving at Earth as a mixture of nue, numu and nutau, the latter two of which were invisible to early detectors. Several experiments have now confirmed the observation of neutrino oscillations. These experiments, when their results are combined together, have demonstrated that neutrino oscillations are well described by the Large Mixing Angle (LMA) solution of the MSW effect. This thesis presents the first measurement of pp neutrinos in the Borexino detector, which is another validation of the LMA-MSW model of neutrino oscillations. In addition, it is one more step towards the completion of the spectroscopy of pp chain neutrinos in Borexino, leaving only the extremely faint hep neutrinos undetected. This advance validates the experiment itself and its previous results. This is, furthermore, the first direct real-time measurement of pp neutrinos. We find a pp neutrino detection rate of 143+/-16 (stat)+/-10 (syst) cpd/100 t in the Borexino experiment, which translates, according to the LMA-MSW model, to (6.42+/-0.85)x1010 cm -2 s-1. We also report on a measurement of neutrons in a dedicated system within the Borexino detector, which resulted in an improved understanding of neutron rates in liquid scintillator detectors at Gran Sasso depths. This result is crucial to the development of novel direct dark matter detection experiments.

  8. Neutrino Factory: status and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long, K.

    2011-01-01

    The properties of the neutrino provide a unique window on physics beyond that described by the Standard Model. The study of sub-leading effects in neutrino oscillations has begun with the race to measure θ 13 consensus is emerging within the international community that a novel neutrino source is required to allow sensitive searches for leptonic CP violation to be carried out and the neutrino mass-hierarchy to be determined. The Neutrino Factory, in which intense neutrino beams are produced from the decay of muons, has been shown to out-perform the other proposed facilities. The physics case for the Neutrino Factory will be reviewed and the baseline design of the facility being developed by the International Design Study for the Neutrino Factory (the IDS-NF) collaboration will be described.

  9. Steps towards the Neutrino Factory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long, K.

    2012-01-01

    The properties of the neutrino provide a unique window on physics beyond that described by the Standard Model. The study of sub-leading effects in neutrino oscillations has begun with the race to measure θ 13 . A consensus is emerging within the international community that a novel neutrino source is required to allow sensitive searches for leptonic CP violation to be carried out and the neutrino mass-hierarchy to be determined. The Neutrino Factory, in which intense neutrino beams are produced from the decay of muons, has been shown to out-perform the other proposed facilities. The physics case for the Neutrino Factory will be reviewed and the baseline design of the facility being developed by the International Design Study for the Neutrino Factory (the IDS-NF) collaboration will be described.

  10. Experimental studies of neutrino oscillations

    CERN Document Server

    Kajita, Takaaki

    2016-01-01

    The 2015 Nobel Prize in physics has been awarded to Takaaki Kajita and Arthur McDonald "for the discovery of neutrino oscillations, which shows that neutrinos have mass". Takaaki Kajita of Tokyo University is a Japanese physicist, known for neutrino experiments at the Kamiokande and its successor, Super-Kamiokande. This volume of collected works of Kajita on neutrino oscillations provides a good glimpse into as well as a record of the rise and the role of Asian research in the frontiers of neutrino physics. Japan is now a major force in the study of the 3 families of neutrinos. Much remains to be done to clarify the Dirac vs. Majorana nature of the neutrino, and the cosmological implications of the neutrino. The collected works of Kajita and his Super-Kamiokande group will leave an indelible foot-print in the history of big and better science.

  11. Simulating nonlinear neutrino flavor evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, H.; Fuller, G. M.; Carlson, J.

    2008-10-01

    We discuss a new kind of astrophysical transport problem: the coherent evolution of neutrino flavor in core collapse supernovae. Solution of this problem requires a numerical approach which can simulate accurately the quantum mechanical coupling of intersecting neutrino trajectories and the associated nonlinearity which characterizes neutrino flavor conversion. We describe here the two codes developed to attack this problem. We also describe the surprising phenomena revealed by these numerical calculations. Chief among these is that the nonlinearities in the problem can engineer neutrino flavor transformation which is dramatically different to that in standard Mikheyev Smirnov Wolfenstein treatments. This happens even though the neutrino mass-squared differences are measured to be small, and even when neutrino self-coupling is sub-dominant. Our numerical work has revealed potential signatures which, if detected in the neutrino burst from a Galactic core collapse event, could reveal heretofore unmeasurable properties of the neutrinos, such as the mass hierarchy and vacuum mixing angle θ13.

  12. Catching the Highest Energy Neutrinos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanev, Todor [Bartol Research Institute and Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716 (United States)

    2011-08-15

    We briefly discuss the possible sources of ultrahigh energy neutrinos and the methods for their detection. Then we present the results obtained by different experiments for detection of the highest energy neutrinos.

  13. Search for high energy skimming neutrinos at a surface detector array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vo Van Thuan; Hoang Van Khanh; Pham Ngoc Diep

    2010-01-01

    In the present study we propose a new method for detection of high energy cosmological muon neutrinos by transition radiations at a medium interface. The emerging electro-magnetic radiations induced by earth-skimming heavy charged leptons are able to trigger a few of aligned neighboring local water Cherenkov stations at a surface detector array similar to the Pierre Auger Observatory. The estimation applied to the model of Gamma Ray Burst induced neutrino fluxes and the spherical earth surface shows a competitive rate of muon neutrino events in the energy range below the GZK cut-off. (author)

  14. Physics of the neutrino mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohapatra, R N

    2004-01-01

    Recent neutrino oscillation experiments have yielded valuable information on the nature of neutrino masses and mixings and qualify as the first evidence for physics beyond the standard model. Even though we are far from a complete understanding of the new physics implied by them, there are many useful hints. As the next precision era in neutrino physics is about to be launched, we review the physics of neutrino mass: what we have learned and what we are going to learn

  15. The sun and the neutrinos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forgacsne Dajka, E.

    2000-01-01

    A review of the solar neutrino puzzle is given. The main processes in the sun, the pp-chain and the CNO cycle are described. The solar neutrino puzzle, i.e. the fact that the detected amount of neutrinos coming from the sun is less than the amount predicted by the solar model is discussed. The first generation solar neutrino experiments are presented. (K.A.)

  16. Eighty years of neutrino physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, D.P.

    2009-01-01

    This is a pedagogical overview of neutrino physics from the invention of neutrino by Pauli in 1930 to the precise measurement of neutrino mass and mixing parameters via neutrino oscillation experiments in recent years. I have tried to pitch it at the level of undergraduate students, occasionally cutting corners to avoid the use of advanced mathematical tools. I hope it will be useful in introducing this exciting field to a broad group of young physicists. (author)

  17. Observation of Muon Neutrino Charged Current Events in an Off-Axis Horn-Focused Neutrino Beam Using the NOvA Prototype Detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz, Enrique Arrieta [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States)

    2014-01-01

    The NOνA is a long base-line neutrino oscillation experiment. It will study the oscillations between muon and electron neutrinos through the Earth. NOνA consists of two detectors separated by 810 km. Each detector will measure the electron neutrino content of the neutrino (NuMI) beam. Differences between the measurements will reveal details about the oscillation channel. The NOνA collaboration built a prototype detector on the surface at Fermilab in order to develop calibration, simulation, and reconstruction tools, using real data. This 220 ton detector is 110 mrad off the NuMI beam axis. This off-axis location allows the observation of neutrino interactions with energies around 2 GeV, where neutrinos come predominantly from charged kaon decays. During the period between October 2011 and April 2012, the prototype detector collected neutrino data from 1.67 × 1020 protons on target delivered by the NuMI beam. This analysis selected a number of candidate charged current muon neutrino events from the prototype data, which is 30% lower than predicted by the NOνA Monte Carlo simulation. The analysis suggests that the discrepancy comes from an over estimation of the neutrino flux in the Monte Carlo simulation, and in particular, from neutrinos generated in charged kaon decays. The ratio of measured divided by the simulated flux of muon neutrinos coming from charged kaon decays is: 0.70+0.108 -0.094. The NOνA collaboration may use the findings of this analysis to introduce a more accurate prediction of the neutrino flux produced by the NuMI beam in future Monte Carlo simulations.

  18. Searching for dark matter with neutrino telescopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hooper, Dan; Silk, Joseph

    2004-01-01

    One of the most interesting mysteries of astrophysics is the puzzle of dark matter. Although numerous techniques have been explored and developed to detect this elusive substance, its nature remains unknown. One such method uses large high-energy neutrino telescopes to look for the annihilation products of dark matter annihilations. In this paper, we briefly review this technique. We describe the calculations used to find the rate of capture of WIMPs in the Sun or Earth and the spectrum of neutrinos produced in the resulting dark matter annihilations. We will discuss these calculations within the context of supersymmetry and models with universal extra dimensions, the lightest supersymmetric particle and lightest Kaluza-Klein particle providing the WIMP candidate in these cases, respectively. We will also discuss the status of some of the experiments relevant to these searches: AMANDA, IceCube and ANTARES

  19. Gravitationally confined relativistic neutrinos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vayenas, C. G.; Fokas, A. S.; Grigoriou, D.

    2017-09-01

    Combining special relativity, the equivalence principle, and Newton’s universal gravitational law with gravitational rather than rest masses, one finds that gravitational interactions between relativistic neutrinos with kinetic energies above 50 MeV are very strong and can lead to the formation of gravitationally confined composite structures with the mass and other properties of hadrons. One may model such structures by considering three neutrinos moving symmetrically on a circular orbit under the influence of their gravitational attraction, and by assuming quantization of their angular momentum, as in the Bohr model of the H atom. The model contains no adjustable parameters and its solution, using a neutrino rest mass of 0.05 eV/c2, leads to composite state radii close to 1 fm and composite state masses close to 1 GeV/c2. Similar models of relativistic rotating electron - neutrino pairs give a mass of 81 GeV/c2, close to that of W bosons. This novel mechanism of generating mass suggests that the Higgs mass generation mechanism can be modeled as a latent gravitational field which gets activated by relativistic neutrinos.

  20. The CERN Neutrino Platform

    CERN Document Server

    Bordoni, Stefania

    2018-01-01

    The long-baseline neutrino programme has been classified as one of the four highest-priority sci- entific objectives in 2013 by the European Strategy for Particle Physics. The Neutrino Platform is the CERN venture to foster and support the next generation of accelerator-based neutrino os- cillation experiments. Part of the present CERN Medium-Term Plan, the Neutrino Platform provide facilities to develop and prototype the next generation of neutrino detectors and contribute to unify the European neu- trino community towards the US and Japanese projects. A significative effort is made on R&D; for LAr TPC technologies: two big LAr TPC prototypes for the DUNE far detector are under con- struction at CERN. Those detectors will be exposed in 2018 to an entirely new and NP-dedicated beam-line from the SPS which will provide electron, muon and hadron beams with energies in the range of sub-GeV to a few GeV. Other projects are also presently under development: one can cite the refurbishing and shipping to the US ...

  1. Bruno Pontecorvo and solar neutrinos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MCDONALD, A. B.

    2014-01-01

    Bruno Pontecorvo had a very substantial impact on measurements of solar neutrinos, proposing a technique in 1948 that led to measurements by Davis and proposing that neutrinos could oscillate, a process that has been found to influence observed fluxes substantially. The past history and future prospects of solar neutrino measurements are reviewed, including a discussion of the contributions by Pontecorvo.

  2. Neutrinos from the Milky Way

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, Erwin Lourens

    2015-01-01

    A guaranteed source of neutrinos is the production in cosmic ray interactions with the interstellar matter in our Galaxy. The signal has never been detected however and only an upper limit on this flux of neutrinos has been published by the AMANDA-II detector. The ANTARES neutrino telescope, located

  3. Neutrino mass sum-rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damanik, Asan

    2018-03-01

    Neutrino mass sum-rele is a very important research subject from theoretical side because neutrino oscillation experiment only gave us two squared-mass differences and three mixing angles. We review neutrino mass sum-rule in literature that have been reported by many authors and discuss its phenomenological implications.

  4. Matter effects in neutrino oscillations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dass, G.V.

    1989-01-01

    After a review of the relevant aspects of neutrino oscillations for propagation in vacuum and in material media, this paper discuss the Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein mechanism and its application to a solution of the solar neutrino puzzle. The elementary level of the talk is suitable to people not working in neutrino physics

  5. Systems of neutrinos with mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groot, S.R. de

    1984-01-01

    From the formalism of relativistic kinetic theory and the weak interaction Lagrangian the volume viscosity of a massive neutrino system is derived. Its value is calculated as a function of the neutrino mass and the temperature. Its role in the way of expanding or contraction of neutrino clouds in the universe is discussed. (Author) [pt

  6. Majorana mass term, Dirac neutrinos and selective neutrino oscillations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leung, C.N.

    1987-01-01

    In a theory of neutrino mixing via a Majorana mass term involving only the left-handed neutrinos there exist selection rules for neutrino oscillations if true Dirac and/or exactly zero mass eigenstates are present. In the case of three neutrino flavours no oscillation is allowed if the mass spectrum contains one Dirac and one nondegenerate Majorana massive neutrino. The origin of these selection rules and their implications are discussed and the number of possible CP-violating phases in the lepton mixing matrix when Dirac and Majorana mass eigenstates coexist is given. (orig.)

  7. Determination of the atmospheric neutrino fluxes from atmospheric neutrino data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez-Garcia, C.; Maltoni, M.; Rojo, J.

    2006-06-01

    The precise knowledge of the atmospheric neutrino fluxes is a key ingredient in the interpretation of the results from any atmospheric neutrino experiment. In the standard data analysis, these fluxes are theoretical inputs obtained from sophisticated numerical calculations based on the convolution of the primary cosmic ray spectrum with the expected yield of neutrinos per incident cosmic ray. In this work we present an alternative approach to the determination of the atmospheric neutrino fluxes based on the direct extraction from the experimental data on neutrino event rates. The extraction is achieved by means of a combination of artificial neural networks as interpolants and Monte Carlo methods for faithful error estimation. (author)

  8. Determination of the atmospheric neutrino fluxes from atmospheric neutrino data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez-Garcia, Concepcion; Maltoni, Michele; Rojo, Joan

    2006-01-01

    The precise knowledge of the atmospheric neutrino fluxes is a key ingredient in the interpretation of the results from any atmospheric neutrino experiment. In the standard data analysis, these fluxes are theoretical inputs obtained from sophisticated numerical calculations based on the convolution of the primary cosmic ray spectrum with the expected yield of neutrinos per incident cosmic ray. In this work we present an alternative approach to the determination of the atmospheric neutrino fluxes based on the direct extraction from the experimental data on neutrino event rates. The extraction is achieved by means of a combination of artificial neural networks as interpolants and Monte Carlo methods for faithful error estimation

  9. Supernova Neutrino-Process and Implication in Neutrino Oscillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajino, T.; Aoki, W.; Fujiya, W.; Mathews, G. J.; Yoshida, T.; Shaku, K.; Nakamura, K.; Hayakawa, T.

    2012-08-01

    We studied the supernova nucleosynthesis induced by neutrino interactions and found that several isotopes of rare elements like 7Li, 11B, 138La, 180Ta and many others are predominantly produced by the neutrino-process in core-collapse supernovae. These isotopes are strongly affected by the neutrino flavor oscillation due to the MSW (Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein) effect. We here propose a new novel method to determine the unknown neutrino oscillation parameters, θ13 and mass hierarchy simultaneously from the supernova neutrino-process, combined with the r-process for heavy-element synthsis and the Galactic chemical evolution on light nuclei.

  10. Geometric phase of neutrinos: Differences between Dirac and Majorana neutrinos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capolupo, A.; Giampaolo, S. M.; Hiesmayr, B. C.; Vitiello, G.

    2018-05-01

    We analyze the non-cyclic geometric phase for neutrinos. We find that the geometric phase and the total phase associated to the mixing phenomenon provide a theoretical tool to distinguish between Dirac and Majorana neutrinos. Our results hold for neutrinos propagating in vacuum and through the matter. We feed the values of the experimental parameters in our formulas in order to make contact with experiments. Although it remains an open question how the geometric phase of neutrinos could be detected, our theoretical results may open new scenarios in the investigation of the neutrino nature.

  11. Neutrinos and our Sun - Part 1 -8--------------------------------~------------R ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    five years to det.ec', neutrino interactions in the labora- tory (1956). ... and heat from the sun, which is essential for the sus- tenance of life on earth. ... This process leads to a huge flux of ... cence - why some metals and minerals glow in the dark. When he ..... finally captured by a cadmium nucleus, resulting in the emission of ...

  12. Ground Breaking for the CERN Neutrinos to Gran Sasso Project

    CERN Document Server

    2000-01-01

    At 11:45 on 12 October, the Director General dug the first earth for the CERN Neutrinos to Gran Sasso Project. Left to right: Professor A. Bettini, Director of the Gran Sasso laboratory, Mme M.-G. Philippe, sous-prefet of Gex, and L. Maiani, Director General of CERN.

  13. Perspectives for geo-neutrinos after KamLAND

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiorentini, Giovanni; Lissia, Marcello; Mantovani, Fabio; Ricci, Barbara

    2006-01-01

    We discuss the implications of KamLAND result on geo-neutrinos for the radiogenic contribution of Uranium to terrestrial heat. We also discuss the potential of future experiments for assessing the amount of Uranium and Thorium in different reservoirs (crust, mantle and core) of the Earth

  14. Sites that Can Produce Left-handed Amino Acids in the Supernova Neutrino Amino Acid Processing Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Richard N.; Famiano, Michael A.; Onaka, Takashi; Kajino, Toshitaka

    2018-03-01

    The Supernova Neutrino Amino Acid Processing model, which uses electron anti-neutrinos and the magnetic field from a source object such as a supernova to selectively destroy one amino acid chirality, is studied for possible sites that would produce meteoroids with partially left-handed amino acids. Several sites appear to provide the requisite magnetic field intensities and electron anti-neutrino fluxes. These results have obvious implications for the origin of life on Earth.

  15. Neutrino mixing and big bang nucleosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Nicole

    2003-04-01

    We analyse active-active neutrino mixing in the early universe and show that transformation of neutrino-antineutrino asymmetries between flavours is unavoidable when neutrino mixing angles are large. This process is a standard Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein flavour transformation, modified by the synchronisation of momentum states which results from neutrino-neutrino forward scattering. The new constraints placed on neutrino asymmetries eliminate the possibility of degenerate big bang nucleosynthesis.Implications of active-sterile neutrino mixing will also be reviewed.

  16. Workshop on low energy neutrino physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The main topics of the workshop are: the determination of the neutrino mixing angle theta-13, the experiments concerning the monitoring of reactors based on the measurement of neutrino spectra, solar neutrinos, supernovae neutrinos, geo-neutrinos, neutrino properties, neutrinoless double beta decay and future low energy neutrino detectors. This document gathers together the program of the workshop, the slides of the presentations, some abstracts and some posters

  17. Neutrino magnetic moments and the solar neutrino problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akhmedov, E.Kh. [Washington Univ., Seattle, WA (United States). Inst. for Nuclear Theory]|[Valencia Univ. (Spain). Dept. de Fisica Teorica

    1994-08-01

    Present status of the neutrino magnetic moment solutions of the solar neutrino problem is reviewed. In particular, we discuss a possibility of reconciling different degrees of suppression and time variation of the signal (or lack of such a variation) observed in different solar neutrino experiments. It is shown that the resonant spin-flavor precession of neutrinos due to the interaction of their transitions magnetic moments with solar magnetic field can account for all the available solar neutrino data. For not too small neutrino mixing angles (sin 2{theta}{sub o} {approx_gt} 0.2 the combined effect of the resonant spin-flavor precession and neutrino oscillations can result in an observable flux of solar {bar {nu}}{sub e}`s.

  18. Neutrino magnetic moments and the solar neutrino problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhmedov, E.Kh.; Valencia Univ.

    1994-01-01

    Present status of the neutrino magnetic moment solutions of the solar neutrino problem is reviewed. In particular, we discuss a possibility of reconciling different degrees of suppression and time variation of the signal (or lack of such a variation) observed in different solar neutrino experiments. It is shown that the resonant spin-flavor precession of neutrinos due to the interaction of their transitions magnetic moments with solar magnetic field can account for all the available solar neutrino data. For not too small neutrino mixing angles (sin 2θ o approx-gt 0.2 the combined effect of the resonant spin-flavor precession and neutrino oscillations can result in an observable flux of solar bar ν e 's

  19. Entanglement in neutrino oscillations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blasone, M.; Dell' Anno, F.; De Siena, S.; Illuminati, F. [Universita degli Studi di Salerno Via Ponte don Melillon, Dipt. di Matematica e Informatica, Fisciano SA (Italy); INFN Sezione di Napoli, Gruppo collegato di Salerno - Baronissi SA (Italy); Dell' Anno, F.; De Siena, S.; Illuminati, F. [CNR-INFM Coherentia - Napoli (Italy); Blasone, M. [ISI Foundation for Scientific Interchange, Torino (Italy)

    2009-03-15

    Flavor oscillations in elementary particle physics are related to multimode entanglement of single-particle states. We show that mode entanglement can be expressed in terms of flavor transition probabilities, and therefore that single-particle entangled states acquire a precise operational characterization in the context of particle mixing. We treat in detail the physically relevant cases of two- and three-flavor neutrino oscillations, including the effective measure of CP violation. We discuss experimental schemes for the transfer of the quantum information encoded in single-neutrino states to spatially delocalized two-flavor charged-lepton states, thus showing, at least in principle, that single-particle entangled states of neutrino mixing are legitimate physical resources for quantum information tasks. (authors)

  20. Neutrino physics: Summary talk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marciano, W.J.

    1989-04-01

    This paper is organized as follows: First, I describe the state of neutrino phenomenology. Emphasis is placed on sin 2 θ W , its present status and future prospects. In addition, some signatures of ''new physics'' are described. Then, kaon physics at Fermilab is briefly discussed. I concentrate on the interesting rare decay K L → π 0 e + e - which may be a clean probe direct CP violation. Neutrino mass, mixing, and electromagnetic moments are surveyed. There, I describe the present state and future direction of accelerator based experiments. Finally, I conclude with an outlook on the future. Throughout this summary, I have drawn from and incorporated ideas discussed by other speakers at this workshop. However, I have tried to combine their ideas with my own perspective on neutrino physics and where it is headed. 49 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs

  1. Neutrino physics after boomerang

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hannestad, Steen

    2001-01-01

    A new generation of Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation (CMBR) experiments are currently providing the first precision measurements of fluctuations in the CMBR. These fluctuations hold information about all the fundamental cosmological parameters, and the experiments have already confirmed beyond reasonable doubt that the geometry of the universe is very close to being flat. The new CMBR experiments can also be used to probe particle physics beyond the standard model. For instance, data from the new Boomerang experiment yield an upper limit on the effective number of neutrinos present at recombination, N ν ≤ 13 (95% C.L.). This already puts significant constraints on many non-standard neutrino scenarios, such as the possible bulk neutrino modes expected in theories with large extra dimensions. The upcoming satellite experiments will improve the sensitivity of the CMBR by almost an order of magnitude and make the CMBR an excellent laboratory for precision particle physics

  2. Phenomenology of atmospheric neutrinos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fedynitch Anatoli

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The detection of astrophysical neutrinos, certainly a break-through result, introduced new experimental challenges and fundamental questions about acceleration mechanisms of cosmic rays. On one hand IceCube succeeded in finding an unambiguous proof for the existence of a diffuse astrophysical neutrino flux, on the other hand the precise determination of its spectral index and normalization requires a better knowledge about the atmospheric background at hundreds of TeV and PeV energies. Atmospheric neutrinos in this energy range originate mostly from decays of heavy-flavor mesons, which production in the phase space relevant for prompt leptons is uncertain. Current accelerator-based experiments are limited by detector acceptance and not so much by the collision energy. This paper recaps phenomenological aspects of atmospheric leptons and calculation methods, linking recent progress in flux predictions with particle physics at colliders, in particular the Large Hadron Collider.

  3. Astrophysics and neutrinos

    CERN Document Server

    Harigel, G G

    1997-01-01

    This seminar is primarily intended for CERN guides. The formation of sun-like stars, their life cycle, and their final destiny will be explained in simple terms, appropriate for the majority of our visitors. An overview of the nuclear reaction chains in our sun will presented (Standard Solar Model), with special emphasis on the production of neutrinos and their measurement in underground detectors. These detectors are also able to record high-energy cosmic neutrinos. Since many properties of neutrinos are still unknown, a brief description of table-top and nuclear reactor experiments is included, as well as those using beams from particle accelerators. Measurements with a variety of space telescopes complement the knowledge of our universe, previously limited to the visible range of the electromagnetic spectrum.

  4. Entanglement in neutrino oscillations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blasone, M.; Dell'Anno, F.; De Siena, S.; Illuminati, F.; Dell'Anno, F.; De Siena, S.; Illuminati, F.; Blasone, M.

    2009-01-01

    Flavor oscillations in elementary particle physics are related to multimode entanglement of single-particle states. We show that mode entanglement can be expressed in terms of flavor transition probabilities, and therefore that single-particle entangled states acquire a precise operational characterization in the context of particle mixing. We treat in detail the physically relevant cases of two- and three-flavor neutrino oscillations, including the effective measure of CP violation. We discuss experimental schemes for the transfer of the quantum information encoded in single-neutrino states to spatially delocalized two-flavor charged-lepton states, thus showing, at least in principle, that single-particle entangled states of neutrino mixing are legitimate physical resources for quantum information tasks. (authors)

  5. Toward observational neutrino astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koshiba, M.

    1988-01-01

    It is true that: (1) The first observation of the neutrino burst from the supernova SN1987a by Kamiokande-II which was immediately confirmed by IBM; and (2) the first real-time, directional, and spectral observation of solar 8 B neutrinos also by Kamiokande-II could perhaps be considered as signalling the birth of observational astrophysics. The field, however, is still in its infancy and is crying out for tender loving care. Namely, while the construction of astronomy requires the time and the direction of the signal and that of astrophysics requires, in addition to the spectral information, the observations of (1) could not give the directional information and the results of both (1) and (2) are still suffering from the meager statistics. How do we remedy this situation to let this new born science of observational neutrino astrophysics grow healthy. This is what the author addresses in this talk. 15 refs., 8 figs

  6. Massive neutrinos and cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shandarin, S.F.

    1991-01-01

    This paper discussed the importance of the consequences of a nonzero neutrino rest mass on cosmology, perhaps, first recognized by Gershtein and Zeldovich, after the discover of the 3-K microwave background radiation MBR. Since the first works on the primordial synthesis of 4 He, it has been known that additional neutrino species increase the rate of expansion of the universe during the epoch of the primordial nucleosynthesis, which increases the yield of 4 He. Combining the results of the theory with astronomical measurements of the 4 He abundance and the estimate of the mass density of MBR, Shvartsman suggested the upper limit on the mass density of all relativistic matter at that epoch: ρ rel ≤ 5ρ MBR which eventually became the upper limit for the number of neutrino species: N ν ≤ 7. At that time, the constraints based on cosmological arguments were much stronger than one based on laboratory experiments

  7. The Final Results from the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2010-01-01

    The Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO) was a water Cherenkov detector dedicated to investigate elementary particles called neutrinos. It successfully took data between 1999 and 2006. The detector was unique in its use of heavy water as a detection medium, permitting it to make a solar model-independent test of solar neutrino mixing. In fact, SNO conclusively showed that solar neutrinos oscillate on their way from the core of the Sun to the Earth. This groundbreaking observation was made during three independent phases of the experiment. Even if data taking ended, SNO is still in a mode of precise determination of the solar neutrino oscillation parameters because all along SNO had developed several methods to tell charged-current events apart from neutral-current events. This ability is crucial for the final and ultimate data analysis of all the phases. The physics reach of a combined three-phase solar analysis will be reviewed together with results and subtleties about solar neutrino physics.

  8. Density profiles of supernova matter and determination of neutrino parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Shao-Hsuan

    2007-08-01

    The flavor conversion of supernova neutrinos can lead to observable signatures related to the unknown neutrino parameters. As one of the determinants in dictating the efficiency of resonant flavor conversion, the local density profile near the Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein (MSW) resonance in a supernova environment is, however, not so well understood. In this analysis, variable power-law functions are adopted to represent the independent local density profiles near the locations of resonance. It is shown that the uncertain matter density profile in a supernova, the possible neutrino mass hierarchies, and the undetermined 1-3 mixing angle would result in six distinct scenarios in terms of the survival probabilities of νe and ν¯e. The feasibility of probing the undetermined neutrino mass hierarchy and the 1-3 mixing angle with the supernova neutrinos is then examined using several proposed experimental observables. Given the incomplete knowledge of the supernova matter profile, the analysis is further expanded to incorporate the Earth matter effect. The possible impact due to the choice of models, which differ in the average energy and in the luminosity of neutrinos, is also addressed in the analysis.

  9. Neutrinos and supernova collapse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colgate, S.A.; Petschek, A.G.

    1980-01-01

    The neutrino emission resulting from stellar collapse and supernova formation is reviewed. The electron capture and consequent neutronization of the collapsing stellar matter at the end of evolution determines both the initial adiabat of core collapse as well as the trapped lepton fraction. The initial lepton fraction, Y/sub l/ = .48 supplies the pressure for neutral support of the star at the Chandrasekhar limit. High trapping values, Y/sub l/ = .4, lead to soft core collapses; low values to harder collapses. The value of Y/sub l/ is presently in dispute. The neutrino emission from initial electron capture is relatively small. A strong core-bounce shock releases both electron neutrino as well as thermal muon and tau neutrinos. Subsequent neutrino emission and cooling can sometimes lead to an unstable buoyancy gradient in the core in which case unstable core overturn is expected. Calculations have already shown the importance of the largest possible eddy or equivalently the lowest mode of overturn. Present models of low lepton trapping ratio lead to high entropy creation by the reflected shock and the stabilization of the core matter against overturn. In such cases the exterior matter must cool below an entropy of approximately s/k approx. = 2 to become unstable. This may require too long a time approximately one second for neutrino cooling from a neutrinosphere at rho approx. = 2 x 10 12 g cm -3 . On the other hand, high values of Y/sub l/ such as .4 lead to softer bounces at lower density and values of the critical stabilizing entropy of 3 or higher. Under such circumstances, core overturn can still occur

  10. Neutrino oscillation: status and outlooks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nedelec, P.

    1994-01-01

    Whether the neutrinos are massive or not is one of the most puzzling question of physics today. If they are massive, they can contribute significantly to the Dark Matter of the Universe. An other consequence of a non-zero mass of neutrinos is that they might oscillate from one flavor to another. This oscillation process is by now the only way to detect a neutrino with a mass in the few eV range. Several neutrino experiments are currently looking for such an oscillation, in different modes, using different techniques. An overview of the experimental situation for neutrino experiments at accelerators is given. (author). 9 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs

  11. Detection of the neutrino

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reines, F.

    1989-01-01

    Using the nuclear bomb developed at Los Alamos as an intense source of neutrinos, the author aimed to build a detector suitable to observe this newly predicted particle for the first time during his work there in the early 1950s. He chose to work on the reaction of beta decay inversion. The discovery of organic liquid scintillation counters brought the possibility of neutrino detection one place closer. Delayed coincidence between positron and neutron capture pulses were planned as a way to eliminate background signals. Experiments finally went ahead using nuclear reactors rather than bombs and was successful although many problems with shielding, and the sheer scale of the apparatus were encountered. (UK)

  12. Baryogenesis and neutrino masses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peccei, R.D.

    1992-01-01

    The erasure of any preexisting B+L asymmetry in the universe in its late stages suggests that the B asymmetry observed today either originated at the electroweak scale or it arose from an original L asymmetry. For the latter case to be viable either neutrino masses are much below the eV scale or the L asymmetry itself is generated at an intermediate scale. Several features of the generation of a B asymmetry via an L asymmetry are discussed, including the interesting possibility that the present baryon asymmetry in the universe originates as a result of CP violating phases in the neutrino mass matrix

  13. Atmospheric neutrino fluxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honda, M.; Kasahara, K.; Hidaka, K.; Midorikawa, S.

    1990-02-01

    A detailed Monte Carlo simulation of neutrino fluxes of atmospheric origin is made taking into account the muon polarization effect on neutrinos from muon decay. We calculate the fluxes with energies above 3 MeV for future experiments. There still remains a significant discrepancy between the calculated (ν e +antiν e )/(ν μ +antiν μ ) ratio and that observed by the Kamiokande group. However, the ratio evaluated at the Frejus site shows a good agreement with the data. (author)

  14. Neutrino oscillations at LAMPF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlini, R.; Choi, C.; Donohue, J.

    1985-01-01

    Work at Argonne continues on the construction of the neutrino oscillation experiment (E645). Construction of detector supports and active shield components were completed at the Provo plant of the principal contractor for the project (the Pittsburgh-Des Moines Corporation). Erection of the major experimental components was completed at the LAMPF experimental site in mid-March 1985. Work continues on the tunnel which will house the detector. Construction of detector components (scintillators and proportional drift tubes) is proceeding at Ohio State University and Louisiana State University. Consolidation of these components into the 20-ton neutrino detector is beginning at LAMPF

  15. Towards absolute neutrino masses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogel, Petr [Kellogg Radiation Laboratory 106-38, Caltech, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2007-06-15

    Various ways of determining the absolute neutrino masses are briefly reviewed and their sensitivities compared. The apparent tension between the announced but unconfirmed observation of the 0{nu}{beta}{beta} decay and the neutrino mass upper limit based on observational cosmology is used as an example of what could happen eventually. The possibility of a 'nonstandard' mechanism of the 0{nu}{beta}{beta} decay is stressed and the ways of deciding which of the possible mechanisms is actually operational are described. The importance of the 0{nu}{beta}{beta} nuclear matrix elements is discussed and their uncertainty estimated.

  16. Neutrino interactions with nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Martini, M; Ericson, M; Marteau, J

    2009-01-01

    We present a model for neutrino-nucleus scattering in the energy region relevant for present and forthcoming neutrino-oscillation experiments. The model is based on the RPA treatment of the nuclear responses in the quasi-elastic and Delta-resonance region. It includes also in a phenomenological way nucleon knock-out. It aims at the description, within a single framework, of several final state channels i.e. quasi-elastic, incoherent and coherent one-pion production and two- or several-nucleon knock-out.

  17. Neutrino properties from cosmology

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2013-01-01

    Future, massive large-scale structure survey have been presented and approved.On the theory side, a significant effort has bene devoted to achieve better modeling of small scale clustering that is of cosmological non-linearities. As a result it has become clear that forthcoming cosmological data have enough statitsical power to detect the effect of non-zero neutrino mass (even at the lower mass scale limit imposed by oscillations) and to constrain the absolute neutrino mass scale.Cosmological data can also constrain the numb...

  18. Sterile Neutrino Search with MINOS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devan, Alena V.

    2015-01-01

    MINOS, Main Injector Neutrino Oscillation Search, is a long-baseline neutrino oscillation experiment in the NuMI muon neutrino beam at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory in Batavia, IL. It consists of two detectors, a near detector positioned 1 km from the source of the beam and a far detector 734 km away in Minnesota. MINOS is primarily designed to observe muon neutrino disappearance resulting from three flavor oscillations. The Standard Model of Particle Physics predicts that neutrinos oscillate between three active flavors as they propagate through space. This means that a muon-type neutrino has a certain probability to later interact as a different type of neutrino. In the standard picture, the neutrino oscillation probabilities depend only on three neutrino flavors and two mass splittings, Δm 2 . An anomaly was observed by the LSND and MiniBooNE experiments that suggests the existence of a fourth, sterile neutrino flavor that does not interact through any of the known Standard Model interactions. Oscillations into a theoretical sterile flavor may be observed by a deficit in neutral current interactions in the MINOS detectors. A distortion in the charged current energy spectrum might also be visible if oscillations into the sterile flavor are driven by a large mass-squared difference, Δm s 2 ~ 1 eV 2 . The results of the 2013 sterile neutrino search are presented here.

  19. Sterile Neutrino Search with MINOS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devan, Alena V. [College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA (United States)

    2015-08-01

    MINOS, Main Injector Neutrino Oscillation Search, is a long-baseline neutrino oscillation experiment in the NuMI muon neutrino beam at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory in Batavia, IL. It consists of two detectors, a near detector positioned 1 km from the source of the beam and a far detector 734 km away in Minnesota. MINOS is primarily designed to observe muon neutrino disappearance resulting from three flavor oscillations. The Standard Model of Particle Physics predicts that neutrinos oscillate between three active flavors as they propagate through space. This means that a muon-type neutrino has a certain probability to later interact as a different type of neutrino. In the standard picture, the neutrino oscillation probabilities depend only on three neutrino flavors and two mass splittings, Δm2. An anomaly was observed by the LSND and MiniBooNE experiments that suggests the existence of a fourth, sterile neutrino flavor that does not interact through any of the known Standard Model interactions. Oscillations into a theoretical sterile flavor may be observed by a deficit in neutral current interactions in the MINOS detectors. A distortion in the charged current energy spectrum might also be visible if oscillations into the sterile flavor are driven by a large mass-squared difference, ms2 ~ 1 eV2. The results of the 2013 sterile neutrino search are presented here.

  20. Experimental data on solar neutrinos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ludhova, Livia [INFN, Milano (Italy)

    2016-04-15

    Neutrino physics continues to be a very active research field, full of opened fundamental questions reaching even beyond the Standard Model of elementary particles and towards a possible new physics. Solar neutrinos have played a fundamental historical role in the discovery of the phenomenon of neutrino oscillations and thus non-zero neutrino mass. Even today, the study of solar neutrinos provides an important insight both into the neutrino as well as into the stellar and solar physics. In this section we give an overview of the most important solar-neutrino measurements from the historical ones up to the most recent ones. We cover the results from the experiments using radio-chemic (Homestake, SAGE, GNO, GALLEX), water Cherenkov (Kamiokande, Super-Kamiokande, SNO), and the liquid-scintillator (Borexino, KamLAND) detection techniques. (orig.)

  1. Beam and experiments summary [neutrino studies

    CERN Document Server

    Blondel, A; Campanelli, M; Cervera-Villanueva, Anselmo; Cline, David B; Collot, J; De Jong, M; Donini, Andrea; Dydak, Friedrich; Edgecock, R; Gavela-Legazpi, Maria Belen; Gómez-Cadenas, J J; González-Garciá, M Concepción; Gruber, P; Harris, D A; Hernández, Pilar; Kuno, Y; Litchfield, P J; McFarland, K; Mena, O; Migliozzi, P; Palladino, Vittorio; Panman, J; Papadopoulos, I M; Para, A; Peña-Garay, C; Pérez, P; Rigolin, Stefano; Romanino, Andrea; Rubbia, André; Strolin, P; Wojcicki, S G

    2000-01-01

    The discovery of neutrino oscillations marks a major milestone in the history of neutrino physics, and opens a new window to the still mysterious origin of masses and flavour mixing. Many current and forthcoming experiments will. Answer open questions; however, a major step forward, up to and possibly including CP violation in the neutrino-mixing matrix, requires the neutrino beams from a neutrino factory. The neutrino factory is a new concept for producing neutrino beams of unprecedented quality in terms of intensity, flavour composition, and precision of the beam parameters. Most importantly, the neutrino factory is the only known way to generate a high- intensity beam of electron neutrinos of high energy. The neutrino beam from a neutrino factory, in particular the electron-neutrino beam, enables the exploration of otherwise inaccessible domains in neutrino oscillation physics by exploiting baselines of planetary dimensions. Suitable detectors pose formidable challenges but seem within reach with only mode...

  2. An Experimentalist's Overview of Solar Neutrinos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oser, Scott M.

    2012-02-01

    Four decades of solar neutrino research have demonstrated that solar models do a remarkable job of predicting the neutrino fluxes from the Sun, to the extent that solar neutrinos can now serve as a calibrated neutrino source for experiments to understand neutrino oscillations and mixing. In this review article I will highlight the most significant experimental results, with emphasis on the latest model-independent measurements from the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory. The solar neutrino fluxes are seen to be generally well-determined experimentally, with no indications of time variability, while future experiments will elucidate the lower energy part of the neutrino spectrum, especially pep and CNO neutrinos.

  3. An Experimentalist's Overview of Solar Neutrinos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oser, Scott M

    2012-01-01

    Four decades of solar neutrino research have demonstrated that solar models do a remarkable job of predicting the neutrino fluxes from the Sun, to the extent that solar neutrinos can now serve as a calibrated neutrino source for experiments to understand neutrino oscillations and mixing. In this review article I will highlight the most significant experimental results, with emphasis on the latest model-independent measurements from the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory. The solar neutrino fluxes are seen to be generally well-determined experimentally, with no indications of time variability, while future experiments will elucidate the lower energy part of the neutrino spectrum, especially pep and CNO neutrinos.

  4. Neutrino oscillations in the early universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enqvist, K.

    1990-01-01

    The oscillations of electron neutrinos into inert neutrinos may have resonant behaviour in the heat bath of the early Universe. It is shown that any initial neutrino asymmetry will be washed away by the oscillations. Neutrino oscillations would affect also primordial helium production, which implies stringent limits on the neutrino mixing parameters. (orig.)

  5. Three flavour oscillation interpretation of neutrino data

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    To explain the atmospheric neutrino problem in terms of neutrino oscillations, ЖС¾ of about 10-¿. eV. ¾. [8] is needed whereas the neutrino oscil- lation solution to the solar neutrino problem requires ЖС¾ ~10- eV. ¾ . Hence both solar and atmospheric neutrino problems cannot be explained in terms of e ° μ oscillations.

  6. Le CERN enverra un faisceau de neutrinos sous les Alpes vers un détecteur distant de 730 km

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Press Office. Geneva

    1999-01-01

    CERN is collaborating with the National Institute of Nuclear Physics (INFN) in Italy to send a beam of neutrinos through the earth, under the mountains from Geneva in Switzerland to the Gran Sasso laboratory in central Italy, 730 km away. The experiments will shed light on the possibility that neutrinos have mass and exhibit the exotic property of transforming from one kind into another.

  7. Neutrino oscillation experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camilleri, L.

    1996-01-01

    Neutrino oscillation experiments (ν μ →ν e and ν μ →ν τ ) currently being performed at accelerators are reviewed. Future plans for short and long base-line experiments are summarized. (author) 10 figs., 2 tabs., 29 refs

  8. Supernovae and neutrinos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    John F. Beacom

    2002-01-01

    A long-standing problem in supernova physics is how to measure the total energy and temperature of ν μ , ν τ , (bar ν) μ , and (bar ν) τ . While of the highest importance, this is very difficult because these flavors only have neutral-current detector interactions. We propose that neutrino-proton elastic scattering, ν + p → ν + p, can be used for the detection of supernova neutrinos in scintillator detectors. It should be emphasized immediately that the dominant signal is on free protons. Though the proton recoil kinetic energy spectrum is soft, with T p ≅ 2E ν 2 /M p , and the scintillation light output from slow, heavily ionizing protons is quenched, the yield above a realistic threshold is nearly as large as that from (bar ν) e + p → e + + n. In addition, the measured proton spectrum is related to the incident neutrino spectrum. The ability to detect this signal would give detectors like KamLAND and Borexino a crucial and unique role in the quest to detect supernova neutrinos

  9. Long baseline neutrino experiments

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Atmospheric neutrino experiments (IMB, Kamiokande, Super-Kamiokande (SK)) show that νµ created in cosmic ray interactions with atmospheric nuclei are being converted into ντ but νe created in such interactions are unaffected. SK measure- ment of νµ and νe event rates as functions of zenith angle is the key ...

  10. Baikal - neutrino trap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domogatskij, G.

    1984-01-01

    For recording cosmic neutrinos the installation is considered of a detector in the depths of the Baikal lake with a capacity of up to 10 6 m 3 in the shape of a crystalline lattice with photoelectron multipliers placed in its nodes. (J.B.)

  11. Telecommunication with neutrino beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saenz, A.W.; Ueberall, H.; Kelly, F.J.; Padgett, D.W.; Seeman, N.

    1977-01-01

    Collimated neutrino beams in the energy range 1 to 100 gigaelectron volts, now available from high-energy proton accelerators, are proposed as a potential means for telecommunication over global distances. Quantitative estimates of the feasibility of this proposal based on a particular detector configuration are presented

  12. Chlorine solar neutrino experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rowley, J.K.; Cleveland, B.T.; Davis, R. Jr.

    1984-01-01

    The chlorine solar neutrino experiment in the Homestake Gold Mine is described and the results obtained with the chlorine detector over the last fourteen years are summarized and discussed. Background processes producing 37 Ar and the question of the constancy of the production rate of 37 Ar are given special emphasis

  13. NEUTRINOS: Moriond spotlight

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petcov, S. T.

    1991-05-15

    The regular 'Rencontres de Moriond' meetings in the French Alps, which celebrate their 25th anniversary this year, have a strong tradition of reflecting new trends in physics thinking and January's session on 'Tests of Fundamental Laws in Physics' was no exception. The spotlight this time fell on the neutrino sector, a branch of physics frequently in evolution, if not controversial.

  14. Atmospheric neutrino challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanev, Todor [Bartol Research Institute, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716 (United States)

    2005-08-15

    We briefly review the improvements in the predictions of atmospheric neutrino fluxes since the NOW2000 workshop. In spite of the great progress of the calculational technique the predictions are still not exact because of the uncertainties in the two major sets of input - cosmic ray flux and hadronic interactions on light nuclei.

  15. CERN Neutrino Platform Hardware

    CERN Document Server

    Nelson, Kevin

    2017-01-01

    My summer research was broadly in CERN's neutrino platform hardware efforts. This project had two main components: detector assembly and data analysis work for ICARUS. Specifically, I worked on assembly for the ProtoDUNE project and monitored the safety of ICARUS as it was transported to Fermilab by analyzing the accelerometer data from its move.

  16. Neutrino oscillation experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camilleri, L [European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva (Switzerland)

    1996-11-01

    Neutrino oscillation experiments ({nu}{sub {mu}}{yields}{nu}{sub e} and {nu}{sub {mu}}{yields}{nu}{sub {tau}}) currently being performed at accelerators are reviewed. Future plans for short and long base-line experiments are summarized. (author) 10 figs., 2 tabs., 29 refs.

  17. Aspects of neutrino astrophysics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Graaf, Tjeerd

    1969-01-01

    Neutrino-astrofysica lS een onderdeel van de hoge-energieastrofysica, het interdis onderzoekgebied waar de resultaten van de van elementaire deeltjes in verband worden gebracht met 1n de astrofysica. Aan de ene kant kunnen astrofysische bronnen worden voor onderzoekingen naar het van elementaire

  18. Direct neutrino mass measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weinheimer, Christian, E-mail: weinheimer@uni-muenster.de [Westfaelische Wilhelms-Universitaet, Institut fuer Kernphysik (Germany)

    2013-03-15

    Direct neutrino mass experiments are complementary to searches for neutrinoless double {beta}-decay and to analyses of cosmological data. The previous tritium beta decay experiments at Mainz and at Troitsk have achieved upper limits on the neutrino mass of about 2 eV/c{sup 2} . The KATRIN experiment under construction will improve the neutrino mass sensitivity down to 200 meV/c{sup 2} by increasing strongly the statistics and-at the same time-reducing the systematic uncertainties. Huge improvements have been made to operate the system extremely stably and at very low background rate. The latter comprises new methods to reject secondary electrons from the walls as well as to avoid and to eject electrons stored in traps. As an alternative to tritium {beta}-decay experiments cryo-bolometers investigating the endpoint region of {sup 187}Re {beta}-decay or the electron capture of {sup 163}Ho are being developed. This article briefly reviews the current status of the direct neutrino mass measurements.

  19. COLA with massive neutrinos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, Bill S.; Winther, Hans A.; Koyama, Kazuya, E-mail: bill.wright@port.ac.uk, E-mail: hans.winther@port.ac.uk, E-mail: kazuya.koyama@port.ac.uk [Institute of Cosmology and Gravitation, University of Portsmouth, Dennis Sciama Building, Burnaby Road, Portsmouth, Hampshire, PO1 3FX (United Kingdom)

    2017-10-01

    The effect of massive neutrinos on the growth of cold dark matter perturbations acts as a scale-dependent Newton's constant and leads to scale-dependent growth factors just as we often find in models of gravity beyond General Relativity. We show how to compute growth factors for ΛCDM and general modified gravity cosmologies combined with massive neutrinos in Lagrangian perturbation theory for use in COLA and extensions thereof. We implement this together with the grid-based massive neutrino method of Brandbyge and Hannestad in MG-PICOLA and compare COLA simulations to full N -body simulations of ΛCDM and f ( R ) gravity with massive neutrinos. Our implementation is computationally cheap if the underlying cosmology already has scale-dependent growth factors and it is shown to be able to produce results that match N -body to percent level accuracy for both the total and CDM matter power-spectra up to k ∼< 1 h /Mpc.

  20. Neutrino Emission from Supernovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janka, Hans-Thomas

    Supernovae are the most powerful cosmic sources of MeV neutrinos. These elementary particles play a crucial role when the evolution of a massive star is terminated by the collapse of its core to a neutron star or a black hole and the star explodes as supernova. The release of electron neutrinos, which are abundantly produced by electron captures, accelerates the catastrophic infall and causes a gradual neutronization of the stellar plasma by converting protons to neutrons as dominant constituents of neutron star matter. The emission of neutrinos and antineutrinos of all flavors carries away the gravitational binding energy of the compact remnant and drives its evolution from the hot initial to the cold final state. The absorption of electron neutrinos and antineutrinos in the surroundings of the newly formed neutron star can power the supernova explosion and determines the conditions in the innermost supernova ejecta, making them an interesting site for the nucleosynthesis of iron-group elements and trans-iron nuclei.

  1. Neutrino oscillation study in the muon neutrino → electron neutrino channel at the Brookhaven accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Astier, P.

    1987-09-01

    The E816 experiment described in this thesis is devoted to a neutrino oscillation search at the Brookhaven AGS. The method used here is to look with a fine grained calorimeter for the appearence of electron neutrino in a muon neutrino beam. After recalling the theoretical treatment of the neutrino mass problem, the experimental phenomenology of massive neutrinos and more specifically neutrino oscillations is reviewed. The experiment itself is then extensively described, both on the technical side (detector, beam, simulation) and on the analysis side. In particular the statistical separation of the electromagnetic showers from electrons - our signal - and from photons - our background - treated in detail. The present analysis is based on 2/3 of the final statistics and it leads to the - preliminary - observation of an electron excess in the neutrino interactions yielding 19 ± 15.6 (stat) ± 7 (syst) [fr

  2. Does the Sun appear brighter at night in neutrinos?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahcall, J.N.; Krastev, P.I.

    1997-01-01

    We calculate accurately the number of solar neutrino events expected as a function of solar zenith angle, with and without neutrino oscillations, for detectors at the locations of Super-Kamiokande, SNO, and the Gran Sasso National Laboratory. Using different Earth models to estimate geophysical uncertainties, and different solar models to estimate solar uncertainties, we evaluate distortions predicted by the Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein (MSW) effect in the zenith angle distributions of solar neutrino events. The distortions are caused by oscillations and by ν-e interactions in the Earth that regenerate ν e from ν μ or ν τ . We show that the first two moments of the zenith-angle distribution are more sensitive to the small mixing angle MSW solution than the conventionally studied day-night asymmetry. We present iso-σ contours that illustrate the potential of Super-Kamiokande, SNO, BOREXINO, ICARUS, and HERON/HELLAZ for detecting the Earth regeneration effect at their actual locations (and at the equator). MSW solutions favored by the four pioneering solar neutrino experiments predict characteristic distortions for Super-Kamiokande, SNO, BOREXINO, and ICARUS that range from being unmeasurably small to >5σ (stat) after only a few years of observations. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  3. Neutrino Oscillation Experiment at JHF

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    T2K is a long baseline neutrino experiment designed to investigate how neutrinos change from one flavor to another as they travel (neutrino oscillations). An intense beam of muon neutrinos is generated at the J-PARC nuclear physics site on the East coast of Japan and directed across the country to the Super-Kamiokande neutrino detector in the mountains of western Japan. The beam is measured once before it leaves the J-PARC site, using the near detector ND280, and again at Super-K, 295 km away: the change in the measured intensity and composition of the beam is used to provide information on the properties of neutrinos. The high intensity neutrino beam is produced in an off-axis configuration. The peak neutrino energy is tuned to the oscillation maximum of ∼ 0.6 GeV to maximize the sensitivity to neutrino oscillations. The science goals of T2K can be summarized as follows: •\tsearch for CP violation in the neutrino sector •\tdiscovery of νμ → νe ( i.e. the confirmation that θ13 > 0 ) •\tprecision ...

  4. New phenomena in neutrino physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kopp, Joachim

    2009-04-15

    In this thesis, we discuss two new concepts in neutrino physics: The neutrino Moessbauer effect and non-standard neutrino interactions. We show that neutrinos emitted and absorbed in recoil-free processes (Moessbauer neutrinos) can oscillate in spite of their near monochromaticity. We support this statement by quantum mechanical wave packet arguments and by a quantum field theoretical (QFT) calculation of the combined rate of Moessbauer neutrino emission, propagation and absorption. The QFT approach does not require any a priori assumptions on the neutrino wave function, and it allows us to include a realistic treatment of the different mechanisms leading to broadening of the emission and absorption lines. In the second part of this work, we study the phenomenology of non-standard neutrino interactions (NSI). We classifying the allowed NSI operators according to their impact on future oscillation experiments and present numerical results for the NSI sensitivities of reactor, superbeam and neutrino factory experiments. We point out that NSI could mimic standard oscillation effects, and might therefore lead to incorrect fit values for the oscillation parameters. For the case of the neutrino factory, we perform a detailed optimisation study to determine the optimum muon energy and detector configuration. (orig.)

  5. New phenomena in neutrino physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopp, Joachim

    2009-01-01

    In this thesis, we discuss two new concepts in neutrino physics: The neutrino Moessbauer effect and non-standard neutrino interactions. We show that neutrinos emitted and absorbed in recoil-free processes (Moessbauer neutrinos) can oscillate in spite of their near monochromaticity. We support this statement by quantum mechanical wave packet arguments and by a quantum field theoretical (QFT) calculation of the combined rate of Moessbauer neutrino emission, propagation and absorption. The QFT approach does not require any a priori assumptions on the neutrino wave function, and it allows us to include a realistic treatment of the different mechanisms leading to broadening of the emission and absorption lines. In the second part of this work, we study the phenomenology of non-standard neutrino interactions (NSI). We classifying the allowed NSI operators according to their impact on future oscillation experiments and present numerical results for the NSI sensitivities of reactor, superbeam and neutrino factory experiments. We point out that NSI could mimic standard oscillation effects, and might therefore lead to incorrect fit values for the oscillation parameters. For the case of the neutrino factory, we perform a detailed optimisation study to determine the optimum muon energy and detector configuration. (orig.)

  6. Sterile Neutrinos in Cold Climates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, Benjamin J.P.

    2015-01-01

    Measurements of neutrino oscillations at short baselines contain an intriguing set of experimental anomalies that may be suggestive of new physics such as the existence of sterile neutrinos. This three-part thesis presents research directed towards understanding these anomalies and searching for sterile neutrino oscillations. Part I contains a theoretical discussion of neutrino coherence properties. The open-quantum-system picture of neutrino beams, which allows a rigorous prediction of coherence distances for accelerator neutrinos, is presented. Validity of the standard treatment of active and sterile neutrino oscillations at short baselines is verified, and non-standard coherence loss effects at longer baselines are predicted. Part II concerns liquid argon detector development for the MicroBooNE experiment, which will search for short-baseline oscillations in the Booster Neutrino Beam at Fermilab. Topics include characterization and installation of the MicroBooNE optical system; test-stand measurements of liquid argon optical properties with dissolved impurities; optimization of wavelength-shifting coatings for liquid argon scintillation light detection; testing and deployment of high-voltage surge arrestors to protect TPC field cages; and software development for optical and TPC simulation and reconstruction. Part III presents a search for sterile neutrinos using the IceCube neutrino telescope, which has collected a large sample of atmospheric-neutrino-induced events in the 1-10 TeV energy range. Sterile neutrinos would modify the detected neutrino flux shape via MSW-resonant oscillations. Following a careful treatment of systematic uncertainties in the sample, no evidence for MSW-resonant oscillations is observed, and exclusion limits on 3+1 model parameter space are derived. Under the mixing assumptions made, the 90% confidence level exclusion limit extends to sin 2 2θ 24 ≤ 0.02 at m 2 ~ 0.3 eV 2 , and the LSND and MiniBooNE allowed regions are excluded at

  7. Probing Neutrino Properties with Long-Baseline Neutrino Beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marino, Alysia

    2015-01-01

    This final report on an Early Career Award grant began in April 15, 2010 and concluded on April 14, 2015. Alysia Marino's research is focussed on making precise measurements of neutrino properties using intense accelerator-generated neutrino beams. As a part of this grant, she is collaborating on the Tokai-to-Kamioka (T2K) long-baseline neutrino experiment, currently taking data in Japan, and on the Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE) design effort for a future Long-Baseline Neutrino Facility (LBNF) in the US. She is also a member of the NA61/SHINE particle production experiment at CERN, but as that effort is supported by other funds, it will not be discussed further here. T2K was designed to search for the disappearance of muon neutrinos (?_?) and the appearance of electron neutrinos (?_e), using a beam of muon neutrino beam that travels 295 km across Japan towards the Super-Kamiokande detector. In 2011 T2K first reported indications of ?_e appearance, a previously unobserved mode of neutrino oscillations. In the past year, T2K has published a combined analysis of ?_? disappearance and ?_e appearance, and began collecting taking data with a beam of anti-neutrinos, instead of neutrinos, to search for hints of violation of the CP symmetry of the universe. The proposed DUNE experiment has similar physics goals to T2K, but will be much more sensitive due to its more massive detectors and new higher-intensity neutrino beam. This effort will be very high-priority particle physics project in the US over the next decade.

  8. High energy neutrinos: sources and fluxes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanev, Todor [Bartol Research Institute, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Delaware, Newark DE 19716 (United States)

    2006-05-15

    We discuss briefly the potential sources of high energy astrophysical neutrinos and show estimates of the neutrino fluxes that they can produce. A special attention is paid to the connection between the highest energy cosmic rays and astrophysical neutrinos.

  9. Mixing of fourth-generation neutrinos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nussinov, S.

    1987-01-01

    This paper reviews some of the constraints on the mixing of massive decaying neutrinos. Some of the possible implications for neutrino physics of the recent supernova, and in particular the apparent overabundance of neutrino energy, are discussed

  10. Non-unitary neutrino propagation from neutrino decay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berryman, Jeffrey M., E-mail: jeffreyberryman2012@u.northwestern.edu [Northwestern University, Department of Physics & Astronomy, 2145 Sheridan Road, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States); Gouvêa, André de; Hernández, Daniel [Northwestern University, Department of Physics & Astronomy, 2145 Sheridan Road, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States); Oliveira, Roberto L.N. [Northwestern University, Department of Physics & Astronomy, 2145 Sheridan Road, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States); Instituto de Física Gleb Wataghin Universidade Estadual de Campinas, UNICAMP 13083-970, Campinas, São Paulo (Brazil)

    2015-03-06

    Neutrino propagation in space-time is not constrained to be unitary if very light states – lighter than the active neutrinos – exist into which neutrinos may decay. If this is the case, neutrino flavor-change is governed by a handful of extra mixing and “oscillation” parameters, including new sources of CP-invariance violation. We compute the transition probabilities in the two- and three-flavor scenarios and discuss the different phenomenological consequences of the new physics. These are qualitatively different from other sources of unitarity violation discussed in the literature.

  11. Non-unitary neutrino propagation from neutrino decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berryman, Jeffrey M.; Gouvêa, André de; Hernández, Daniel; Oliveira, Roberto L.N.

    2015-01-01

    Neutrino propagation in space-time is not constrained to be unitary if very light states – lighter than the active neutrinos – exist into which neutrinos may decay. If this is the case, neutrino flavor-change is governed by a handful of extra mixing and “oscillation” parameters, including new sources of CP-invariance violation. We compute the transition probabilities in the two- and three-flavor scenarios and discuss the different phenomenological consequences of the new physics. These are qualitatively different from other sources of unitarity violation discussed in the literature

  12. Neutrino oscillations and the seesaw origin of neutrino mass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miranda, O.G., E-mail: omr@fis.cinvestav.mx [Departamento de Física, Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados del IPN, Apdo. Postal 14-740, 07000 Mexico, Distrito Federal (Mexico); Valle, J.W.F. [AHEP Group, Institut de Física Corpuscular – C.S.I.C./Universitat de València, Parc Cientific de Paterna, C/Catedratico José Beltrán, 2, E-46980 Paterna (València) (Spain)

    2016-07-15

    The historical discovery of neutrino oscillations using solar and atmospheric neutrinos, and subsequent accelerator and reactor studies, has brought neutrino physics to the precision era. We note that CP effects in oscillation phenomena could be difficult to extract in the presence of unitarity violation. As a result upcoming dedicated leptonic CP violation studies should take into account the non-unitarity of the lepton mixing matrix. Restricting non-unitarity will shed light on the seesaw scale, and thereby guide us towards the new physics responsible for neutrino mass generation.

  13. Matter-neutrino resonance in a multiangle neutrino bulb model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlasenko, Alexey; McLaughlin, G. C.

    2018-04-01

    Simulations of neutrino flavor evolution in compact merger environments have shown that neutrino flavor, and hence nucleosynthesis, can be strongly affected by the presence of matter-neutrino resonances (MNRs), where there is a cancelation between the matter and the neutrino potential. Simulations performed thus far follow flavor evolution along a single neutrino trajectory, but self-consistency requires all trajectories to be treated simultaneously, and it has not been known whether MNR phenomena would still occur in multiangle models. In this paper, we present the first fully multi-angle calculations of MNR. We find that familiar MNR phenomena, where neutrinos transform to a greater extent than anti-neutrinos and a feedback mechanism maintains the cancellation between the matter and neutrino potential, still occurs for a subset of angular bins, although the flavor transformation is not as efficient as in the single-angle case. In addition, we find other types of flavor transformation that are not seen in single-angle simulations. These flavor transformation phenomena appear to be robust and are present for a wide range of model parameters, as long as an MNR is present. Although computational constraints currently limit us to models with spherical symmetry, our results suggest that the presence of an MNR generally leads to large-scale neutrino flavor evolution in multiangle systems.

  14. Cosmic neutrinos as a probe of TeV-scale physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahlers, M.

    2007-02-15

    Ultra-high energy cosmic neutrinos are versatile probes of astrophysics, astronomy, and particle physics. They represent the messengers of hadronic processes in cosmic accelerators and survive the propagation through the interstellar medium practically unscathed. We investigate the neutrino fluxes associated with optically thin proton sources which provide a diagnostic of the transition between galactic and extragalactic cosmic rays. The center of mass energies in collisions of these cosmic neutrinos with atomic nuclei in the atmosphere or the Earth's interior easily exceed those so far reached in man-made accelerators. We discuss the prospects of observing supersymmetric neutrino interactions with Cherenkov telescopes and speculate about a neutrino component in extremely high energy cosmic rays from exotic interactions in the atmosphere. (orig.)

  15. 1020 eV cosmic-ray and particle physics with kilometer-scale neutrino telescopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez-Muniz, J.; Halzen, F.

    2001-01-01

    We show that a kilometer-scale neutrino observatory, though optimized for TeV to PeV energy, is sensitive to the neutrinos associated with super-EeV sources. These include super-heavy relics, neutrinos associated with the Greisen cutoff, and topological defects which are remnant cosmic structures associated with phase transitions in grand unified gauge theories. It is a misconception that new instruments optimized to EeV energy are required to do this important science, although this is not their primary goal. Because kilometer-scale neutrino telescopes can reject atmospheric backgrounds by establishing the very high energy of the signal events, they have sensitivity over the full solid angle, including the horizon where most of the signal is concentrated. This is important because up-going neutrino-induced muons, routinely considered in previous calculations, are absorbed by the Earth

  16. Sun, Earth and Sky

    CERN Document Server

    Lang, Kenneth R

    2006-01-01

    This Second Edition of Sun, Earth and Sky updates the popular text by providing comprehensive accounts of the most recent discoveries made by five modern solar spacecraft during the past decade. Their instruments have used sound waves to peer deep into the Sun’s inner regions and measure the temperature of its central nuclear reactor, and extended our gaze far from the visible Sun to record energetic outbursts that threaten Earth. Breakthrough observations with the underground Sudbury Neutrino Observatory are also included, which explain the new physics of ghostly neutrinos and solve the problematic mismatch between the predicted and observed amounts of solar neutrinos. This new edition of Sun, Earth and Sky also describes our recent understanding of how the Sun’s outer atmosphere is heated to a million degrees, and just where the Sun’s continuous winds come from. As humans we are more intimately linked with our life-sustaining Sun than with any other astronomical object, and the new edition therefore p...

  17. Gauge Trimming of Neutrino Masses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Mu-Chun; de Gouvea, Andre; Dobrescu, Bogdan A.

    2006-01-01

    We show that under a new U(1) gauge symmetry, which is non-anomalous in the presence of one ''right-handed neutrino'' per generation and consistent with the standard model Yukawa couplings, the most general fermion charges are determined in terms of four rational parameters. This generalization of the B-L symmetry with generation-dependent lepton charges leads to neutrino masses induced by operators of high dimensionality. Neutrino masses are thus naturally small without invoking physics at energies above the TeV scale, whether neutrinos are Majorana or Dirac fermions. This ''Leptocratic'' Model predicts the existence of light quasi-sterile neutrinos with consequences for cosmology, and implies that collider experiments may reveal the origin of neutrino masses

  18. Solar neutrino experiments: An update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahn, R.L.

    1993-01-01

    The situation in solar neutrino physics has changed drastically in the past few years, so that now there are four neutrino experiments in operation, using different methods to look at different regions of the solar neutrino energy spectrum. These experiments are the radiochemical 37 Cl Homestake detector, the realtime Kamiokande detector, and the different forms of radiochemical 71 Ga detectors used in the GALLEX and SAGE projects. It is noteworthy that all of these experiments report a deficit of observed neutrinos relative to the predictions of standard solar models (although in the case of the gallium detectors, the statistical errors are still relatively large). This paper reviews the basic principles of operation of these neutrino detectors, reports their latest results and discusses some theoretical interpretations. The progress of three realtime neutrino detectors that are currently under construction, SuperKamiok, SNO and Borexino, is also discussed

  19. Low Energy Neutrino Cross Sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeller, G.P.

    2004-01-01

    Present atmospheric and accelerator based neutrino oscillation experiments operate at low neutrino energies (Ev ∼ 1 GeV) to access the relevant regions of oscillation parameter space. As such, they require precise knowledge of the cross sections for neutrino-nucleon interactions in the sub-to-few GeV range. At these energies, neutrinos predominantly interact via quasi-elastic (QE) or single pion production processes, which historically have not been as well studied as the deep inelastic scattering reactions that dominate at higher energies.Data on low energy neutrino cross sections come mainly from bubble chamber, spark chamber, and emulsion experiments that collected their data decades ago. Despite relatively poor statistics and large neutrino flux uncertainties, these measurements provide an important and necessary constraint on Monte Carlo models in present use. The following sections discuss the current status of QE, resonant single pion, coherent pion, and single kaon production cross section measurements at low energy

  20. Solar neutrino experiments: An update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hahn, R.L.

    1993-12-31

    The situation in solar neutrino physics has changed drastically in the past few years, so that now there are four neutrino experiments in operation, using different methods to look at different regions of the solar neutrino energy spectrum. These experiments are the radiochemical {sup 37}Cl Homestake detector, the realtime Kamiokande detector, and the different forms of radiochemical {sup 71}Ga detectors used in the GALLEX and SAGE projects. It is noteworthy that all of these experiments report a deficit of observed neutrinos relative to the predictions of standard solar models (although in the case of the gallium detectors, the statistical errors are still relatively large). This paper reviews the basic principles of operation of these neutrino detectors, reports their latest results and discusses some theoretical interpretations. The progress of three realtime neutrino detectors that are currently under construction, SuperKamiok, SNO and Borexino, is also discussed.

  1. Neutrino-4 experiment on search for sterile neutrino with multi-section model of detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serebrov, A.; Ivochkin, V.; Samoilov, R.; Fomin, A.; Polyushkin, A.; Zinoviev, V.; Neustroev, P.; Golovtsov, V.; Chernyj, A.; Zherebtsov, O.; Martemyanov, V.; Tarasenkov, V.; Aleshin, V.; Petelin, A.; Izhutov, A.; Tuzov, A.; Sazontov, S.; Ryazanov, D.; Gromov, M.; Afanasiev, V.; Zaytsev, M.; Chaikovskii, M.

    2017-09-01

    In order to carry out research in the field of possible existence of a sterile neutrino the laboratory based on SM-3 reactor (Dimitrovgrad, Russia) was created to search for oscillations of reactor antineutrino. The prototype of a multi-section neutrino detector with liquid scintillator volume of 350 l was installed in the middle of 2015. It is a moveable inside the passive shielding detector, which can be set at distance range from 6 to 11 meters from the reactor core. Measurements of antineutrino flux at such small distances from the reactor core are carried out with moveable detector for the first time. The measurements carried out with detector prototype demonstrated a possibility of measuring a reactor antineutrino flux in difficult conditions of cosmic background at Earth surface.

  2. Results from the AMANDA high-energy neutrino detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biron, A.

    2001-01-01

    This paper briefly summarizes the search for astronomical sources of high-energy neutrinos using the AMANDA-B10 detector. The complete data set from 1997 was analyzed. For E μ > 10 TeV, the detector exceeds 10,000 m 2 in effective area between declinations of 25 and 90 degrees. Neutrinos generated in the atmosphere by cosmic ray interactions were used to verify the overall sensitivity of the coincident events between the SPASE air shower array and the AMANDA detector. Preliminary flux limits from point source candidates are presented. For declinations larger than +45 degrees, our results compare favourably to existing limits for sources in the Southern sky. We also present the current status of the searches for high-energy neutrino emission from diffusely distributed sources, GRBs, and WIMPs from the center of the Earth

  3. PINGU and the neutrino mass hierarchy: Statistical and systematical aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capozzi, F.; Marrone, A.; Lisi, E.

    2016-01-01

    The proposed PINGU project (Precision IceCube Next Generation Upgrade) is supposed to determine neutrino mass hierarchy through matter effects of atmospheric neutrinos crossing the Earth core and mantle, which leads to variations in the events spectrum in energy and zenith angle. The presence of non-negligible (and partly unknown) systematics on the spectral shape can make the statistical analysis particularly challenging in the limit of high statistics. Assuming plausible spectral shape uncertainties at the percent level (due to effective volume, cross section, resolution functions, oscillation parameters, etc.), we obtain a significant reduction in the sensitivity to the hierarchy. The obtained results show the importance of a dedicated research program aimed at a better characterization and reduction of the uncertainties in future high-statistics experiments with atmospheric neutrinos.

  4. Supernovae, Neutrinos and the Chirality of Amino Acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshitaka Kajino

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available A mechanism for creating an enantioenrichment in the amino acids, the building blocks of the proteins, that involves global selection of one handedness by interactions between the amino acids and neutrinos from core-collapse supernovae is defined. The chiral selection involves the dependence of the interaction cross sections on the orientations of the spins of the neutrinos and the 14N nuclei in the amino acids, or in precursor molecules, which in turn couple to the molecular chirality. It also requires an asymmetric distribution of neutrinos emitted from the supernova. The subsequent chemical evolution and galactic mixing would ultimately populate the Galaxy with the selected species. The resulting amino acids could either be the source thereof on Earth, or could have triggered the chirality that was ultimately achieved for Earth’s proteinaceous amino acids.

  5. Big Bang Day: 5 Particles - 4. The Neutrino

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    Simon Singh looks at the stories behind the discovery of 5 of the universe's most significant subatomic particles: the Electron, the Quark, the Anti-particle, the Neutrino and the "next particle". It's the most populous particle in the universe. Millions of these subatomic particles are passing through each one of us. With no charge and virtually no mass they can penetrate vast thicknesses of matter without any interaction - indeed the sun emits huge numbers that pass through earth at the speed of light. Neutrinos are similar to the more familiar electron, with one crucial difference: neutrinos do not carry electric charge. As a result they're extremely difficult to detect . But like HG Wells' invisible man they can give themselves away by bumping into things at high energy and detectors hidden in mines are exploiting this to observe these rare interactions.

  6. Leptonic CP Violation measurement at the neutrino factory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burguet Castell, J.; Mena, O.

    2003-01-01

    In this talk, based on the work [J. Burguet Castell, et al., Nucl. Phys. B 608 (2001) 301], we refine our previous analysis [A. Cervera, et al., Nucl. Phys. B 579 (2000) 17] of the sensitivity to leptonic CP violation and θ 13 at a neutrino factory in the LMA-MSW scenario, by exploring the full range of these two parameters. We have discovered that there exist, at fixed neutrino energy, E ν , and baseline, L, degenerate solutions. Although the spectral analysis helps in disentangling fake from true solutions, a leftover product of this degeneracy remains for a realistic detector, which we analyse. Furthermore, we take into account the expected uncertainties on the solar and atmospheric oscillation parameters and in the average Earth matter density along the neutrino path. An intermediate baseline of O(3000) km is still the best option to tackle CP violation, although a combination of two baselines turns out to be very important in resolving degeneracies

  7. Neutrino oscillations. Theory and experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beshtoev, Kh.M.

    2001-01-01

    Theoretical schemes on neutrino oscillations are considered. The experimental data on neutrino oscillations obtained in the Super-Kamiokande (Japan) and SNO (Canada) experiments are given. Comparison of these data with the predictions obtained in the theoretical schemes is done. Conclusion is made that the experimental data confirm only the scheme with transitions (oscillations) between aromatic ν e -, ν μ -, ν τ - neutrinos with maximal angle mixings. (author)

  8. Muon colliders and neutrino factories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geer, S.; /Fermilab

    2010-09-01

    Over the last decade there has been significant progress in developing the concepts and technologies needed to produce, capture and accelerate {Omicron}(10{sup 21}) muons/year. This development prepares the way for a new type of neutrino source (Neutrino Factory) and a new type of very high energy lepton-antilepton collider (Muon Collider). This article reviews the motivation, design and R&D for Neutrino Factories and Muon Colliders.

  9. Sterile neutrinos in the milky way

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riemer-Sørensen, Signe; Hansen, Steen Harle; Pedersen, K.

    2006-01-01

    Cosmology: Dark Matter, Elementary Particles, Neutrinos, X-Rays: Diffuse Background Udgivelsesdato: May 30......Cosmology: Dark Matter, Elementary Particles, Neutrinos, X-Rays: Diffuse Background Udgivelsesdato: May 30...

  10. Neutrino clouds and dark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldman, T.; McKellar, B.H.J.; Stephenson, G.J. Jr.

    1996-01-01

    We have examined the consequences of assuming the existence of a light scalar boson, weakly coupled to neutrinos, and not coupled to any other light fermions. For a range of parameters, we find that this hypothesis leads to the development of neutrino clusters which form in the early Universe and which provide gravitational fluctuations on scales small compared to a parsec (i.e., the scale of solar systems). Under some conditions, this can produce anomalous gravitational acceleration within solar systems and lead to a vanishing of neutrino mass-squared differences, giving rise to strong neutrino oscillation effects

  11. Sterile neutrinos as dark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dodelson, S.; Widrow, L.M.

    1994-01-01

    The simplest model that can accommodate a viable nonbaryonic dark matter candidate is the standard electroweak theory with the addition of right-handed (sterile) neutrinos. We consider a single generation of neutrinos with a Dirac mass μ and a Majorana mass M for the right-handed component. If M much-gt μ (standard hot dark matter corresponds to M=0), then sterile neutrinos are produced via oscillations in the early Universe with energy density independent of M. However, M is crucial in determining the large scale structure of the Universe; for M∼100 eV, sterile neutrinos make an excellent warm dark matter candidate

  12. Double success for neutrino lab

    CERN Multimedia

    2010-01-01

    "The Gran Sasso National Laboratory in Italy is celebrating two key developments in the field of neutrino physics. Number one is the first ever detection, by the OPERA experiement, of possible tau neutrino that has switched its identity from a muon neutrino as it travelled form its origins at CERN in Switzerland to the Italian lab. Number two is the successful start-up of the ICARUS detector, which, like OPERA, is designed to study neutrinos that "oscillate" between types" (0.5 pages)

  13. Neutrino oscillation measurements with reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKeown, R.D. [W. K. Kellogg Radiation Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2010-11-01

    Since the first direct observations of antineutrino events by Reines and Cowan in the 1950's, nuclear reactors have been an important tool in the study of neutrino properties. More recently, the study of neutrino oscillations has been a very active area of research. The pioneering observation of oscillations by the KamLAND experiment has provided important information on the neutrino masses and the neutrino mixing matrix. New experiments to study the remaining unknown mixing angle are currently under development. These recent studies and potential future developments will be discussed.

  14. Nonstandard neutrino interactions in supernovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stapleford, Charles J.; Väänänen, Daavid J.; Kneller, James P.; McLaughlin, Gail C.; Shapiro, Brandon T.

    2016-11-01

    Nonstandard interactions (NSI) of neutrinos with matter can significantly alter neutrino flavor evolution in supernovae with the potential to impact explosion dynamics, nucleosynthesis, and the neutrinos signal. In this paper, we explore, both numerically and analytically, the landscape of neutrino flavor transformation effects in supernovae due to NSI and find a new, heretofore unseen transformation processes can occur. These new transformations can take place with NSI strengths well below current experimental limits. Within a broad swath of NSI parameter space, we observe symmetric and standard matter-neutrino resonances for supernovae neutrinos, a transformation effect previously only seen in compact object merger scenarios; in another region of the parameter space we find the NSI can induce neutrino collective effects in scenarios where none would appear with only the standard case of neutrino oscillation physics; and in a third region the NSI can lead to the disappearance of the high density Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein resonance. Using a variety of analytical tools, we are able to describe quantitatively the numerical results allowing us to partition the NSI parameter according to the transformation processes observed. Our results indicate nonstandard interactions of supernova neutrinos provide a sensitive probe of beyond the Standard Model physics complementary to present and future terrestrial experiments.

  15. Supernova neutrinos and explosive nucleosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajino, T.; Aoki, W.; Cheoun, M.-K.; Hayakawa, T.; Hidaka, J.; Hirai, Y.; Mathews, G. J.; Nakamura, K.; Shibagaki, S.; Suzuki, T.

    2014-05-01

    Core-collapse supernovae eject huge amount of flux of energetic neutrinos. We studied the explosive nucleosyn-thesis in supernovae and found that several isotopes 7Li, 11B, 92Nb, 138La and 180Ta as well as r-process nuclei are affected by the neutrino interactions. The abundance of these isotopes therefore depends strongly on the neutrino flavor oscillation due to the Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein (MSW) effect. We discuss first how to determine the neutrino temperatures in order to explain the observed solar system abundances of these isotopes, combined with Galactic chemical evolution of the light nuclei and the heavy r-process elements. We then study the effects of neutrino oscillation on their abundances, and propose a novel method to determine the still unknown neutrino oscillation parameters, mass hierarchy and θ13, simultaneously. There is recent evidence that SiC X grains from the Murchison meteorite may contain supernova-produced light elements 11B and 7Li encapsulated in the presolar grains. Combining the recent experimental constraints on θ13, we show that our method sug-gests at a marginal preference for an inverted neutrino mass hierarchy. Finally, we discuss supernova relic neutrinos that may indicate the softness of the equation of state (EoS) of nuclear matter as well as adiabatic conditions of the neutrino oscillation.

  16. Supernova neutrinos and explosive nucleosynthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kajino, T. [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588, Japan and Department of Astronomy, Graduate School of Science, The University of Tokyo, Hongo 7-3-1, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Aoki, W. [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Cheoun, M.-K. [Department of Physics, Soongsil University, Seoul 156-743 (Korea, Republic of); Hayakawa, T. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Shirakara-Shirane 2-4, Tokai-mura, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Hidaka, J.; Hirai, Y.; Shibagaki, S. [National Astronomical Observatory, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Mathews, G. J. [Center for Astrophysics, Department of Physics, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Nakamura, K. [Faculty of Science and Engineering, Waseda University, Ohkubo 3-4-1, Shinjuku, Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan); Suzuki, T. [Department of Physics, College of Humanities and Sciences, Nihon University, Sakurajosui 3-25-40, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo 156-8550 (Japan)

    2014-05-09

    Core-collapse supernovae eject huge amount of flux of energetic neutrinos. We studied the explosive nucleosyn-thesis in supernovae and found that several isotopes {sup 7}Li, {sup 11}B, {sup 92}Nb, {sup 138}La and {sup 180}Ta as well as r-process nuclei are affected by the neutrino interactions. The abundance of these isotopes therefore depends strongly on the neutrino flavor oscillation due to the Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein (MSW) effect. We discuss first how to determine the neutrino temperatures in order to explain the observed solar system abundances of these isotopes, combined with Galactic chemical evolution of the light nuclei and the heavy r-process elements. We then study the effects of neutrino oscillation on their abundances, and propose a novel method to determine the still unknown neutrino oscillation parameters, mass hierarchy and θ{sub 13}, simultaneously. There is recent evidence that SiC X grains from the Murchison meteorite may contain supernova-produced light elements {sup 11}B and {sup 7}Li encapsulated in the presolar grains. Combining the recent experimental constraints on θ{sub 13}, we show that our method sug-gests at a marginal preference for an inverted neutrino mass hierarchy. Finally, we discuss supernova relic neutrinos that may indicate the softness of the equation of state (EoS) of nuclear matter as well as adiabatic conditions of the neutrino oscillation.

  17. Supernova neutrino detection in LZ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaitan, D.

    2018-02-01

    In the first 10 seconds of a core-collapse supernova, almost all of its progenitor's gravitational potential, O(1053 ergs), is carried away in the form of neutrinos. These neutrinos, with O(10 MeV) kinetic energy, can interact via coherent elastic neutrino-nucleus scattering (CEνNS) depositing O(1 keV) in detectors. In this work we describe the performances of low-background dark matter detectors, such as LUX-ZEPLIN (LZ), optimized for detecting low-energy depositions, in detecting these neutrino interactions. For instance, a 27 Msolar supernova at 10 kpc is expected to produce ~350 neutrino interactions in the 7-tonne liquid xenon active volume of LZ. Based on the LS220 EoS neutrino flux model for a SN, the Noble Element Simulation Technique (NEST), and predicted CEνNS cross-sections for xenon, to study energy deposition and detection of SN neutrinos in LZ. We simulate the response of the LZ data acquisition system (DAQ) and demonstrate its capability and limitations in handling this interaction rate. We present an overview of the LZ detector, focusing on the benefits of liquid xenon for supernova neutrino detection. We discuss energy deposition and detector response simulations and their results. We present an analysis technique to reconstruct the total number of neutrinos and the time of the supernova core bounce.

  18. 50 Years of Neutrino Physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zralek, M.

    2010-01-01

    Some important topics from history of neutrino physics over the last fifty years are discussed. History of neutrinos is older, at 4 th December 2010 it will be eightieth anniversary of the neutrino birth. In that day W. Pauli wrote the famous letter to participants of the physics conference at Tubingen with the suggestion that '' there could exist in the nuclei electrically neutral particle ''. We will concentrate mostly on the 50 years of neutrino history just to show the long tradition of the Zakopane Theoretical School. (author)

  19. Hunting for a massive neutrino

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2108802

    1997-01-01

    A great effort is devoted by many groups of physicists all over the world to give an answer to the following question: Is the neutrino massive ? This question has profound implications with particle physics, astrophysics and cosmology, in relation to the so-called Dark Matter puzzle. The neutrino oscillation process, in particular, can only occur if the neutrino is massive. An overview of the neutrino mass measurements, of the oscillation formalism and experiments will be given, also in connection with the present experimental programme at CERN with the two experiments CHORUS and NOMAD.

  20. Radiochemical solar neutrino experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rich, R.; Spiro, M.

    1993-01-01

    This review covers the three presently running radiochemical solar neutrino experiments, namely the Chlorine, SAGE, and GALLEX experiments. The focus of the review is on a discussion of statistical consistency checks of the available data. The chlorine radiochemical experiment is conceptually simple and shows no strong indication of any statistical anomalies. It still forms the basis of the solar neutrino problem. Each of the two gallium experiments show internal statistical consistency. SAGE's recent preliminary results are consistent with the published GALLEX results. If this convergence is confirmed by a more definitive analysis, this would suggest that the combined result of the two gallium experiments, SAGE and GALLEX, be used for comparisons with theoretical expectations. 5 refs., 15 figs

  1. Caverns for neutrino physicists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duffaut, P.

    2005-01-01

    Since more than 20 years, particle physicists are using underground facilities to catch cosmic neutrinos and to get rid of other parasitic cosmic radiations. The observation of significant numbers of neutrinos requires the use of large volume caverns at important depths. This article presents such existing facilities in the US, France, Italy, UK, Spain, Japan (Kamioka), Russia and India and the different projects in competition for the setting up of a mega-ton detector with a volume of 1 million m 3 of water (DUSEL project in the US, MEMPHYS project in France, Hyperkamiokande in Japan). Several suitable underground spaces are available in these countries (abandoned mines, tunnels) but each has its advantages and drawbacks in terms of rock mechanics, access and seismicity. (J.S.)

  2. Neutrinos in cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tayler, R.J.

    1983-01-01

    The standard model of the hot big bang cosmological theory, which appears to be in agreement, at least qualitatively, with the observed properties of the Universe, assumes that the early Universe was homogeneous and isotropic and that it has been continuously expanding from a state characterized by very high temperature and density, where matter and radiation were to a good approximation in a state of thermodynamic equilibrium. In this standard model, it is assumed that baryon number, charge number and the various lepton numbers are all conserved. Only the baryon number is non-zero and this, expressed as the ratio of the net number of baryons (baryons minus antibaryons) to the number of photons per unit volume is the undefined parameter in the model. The author discusses the importance of knowing how many types of neutrinos there are with regard to the He 4 abundance, and the implication of a small, non-zero neutrino mass. (Auth.)

  3. Electromagnetic properties of neutrinos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ould-Saada, F.

    1996-01-01

    Electromagnetic properties of neutrinos and their implications are discussed, and the experimental situation summarised. Spin precession in solar magnetic fields presents a solution of the solar neutrino problem. A magnetic moment, μ ν , of the order of 10 -11 μ B would be needed. In the simplest extension of the standard model, with no-vanishing neutrino masses, dipole moment interactions are allowed through higher order processes. A neutrino mass of ≅10 eV would give μ ν ≅10 -18 μ B , much smaller than the present experimental upper limit of 2x10 -10 μ B . Although model-dependent, upper bounds on dipole moments from astrophysics and cosmology are 10 to 100 times more stringent. Any values of μ ν , larger than the SM predictions, would then signal the onset of new physics. Among the processes sensitive to the magnetic moment, νe - scattering presents two advantages: it is a pure weak, theoretically well understood process, and the recoil electron can be easily measured. A hypothetical electromagnetic contribution to the cross-section would dominate at low energies. A low background detector, MUNU, being built at the Bugey nuclear reactor is presented.It is based on a gas TPC, surrounded by a scintillator. The threshold on the electron recoil energy can be set very low, around 500 keV, giving the experiment a good sensitivity to the magnetic moment of the ν e , extending down to 2x10 -11 μ B . (author) 15 figs., 5 tabs., 96 refs

  4. The challenge of neutrinos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutton, Christine

    1995-09-15

    Neutrinos'', Maurice Goldhaber once remarked, ''are remarkable particles: they induce courage in theoreticians and perseverance in experimenters''. They are also no strangers to controversy, for they were in a sense born amidst it, and as recent work on neutrino oscillations demonstrates they continue to fuel debate. This is of course largely to do with the fact that neutrinos have no electric charge and experience only the weak nuclear force, making them supremely difficult to detect. The debates surrounding neutrinos began in the first decades of the 20th century, before the particle had even been thought of. Studies pioneered by Lise Meitner and Otto Hahn suggested that the electrons emitted in beta-decay emerged with discrete energies. In these experiments a spectrometer bent the electrons according to their energy, and a photographic plate detected the electrons emerging through a movable slit, so yielding ''lines'' at various energies. But when James Chadwick used a point counter instead of a photographic plate, he could not find ''the ghost of a line''. Instead, he convinced himself that the energy of the beta-decay electrons varies continuously up to a maximum, with peaks (''lines'') at only a few energies. And he was able to explain how the photographic technique could ''fake'' lines through its great sensitivity to small changes in intensity. The First World War interrupted these investigations, but afterwards arguments between a continuous energy spectrum and discrete lines continued until 1927, when Charles Drummond Ellis and William Wooster at Cambridge published results from a definitive experiment in which they measured the total electron energy in a single decay process. If the electrons always started out with the same energy but lost varying amounts in subsidiary processes to give many lines, as Meitner believed, then the result would equal the maximum at the end of the spectrum.

  5. NEUTRINOS: Moriond spotlight

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petcov, S.T.

    1991-01-01

    The regular 'Rencontres de Moriond' meetings in the French Alps, which celebrate their 25th anniversary this year, have a strong tradition of reflecting new trends in physics thinking and January's session on 'Tests of Fundamental Laws in Physics' was no exception. The spotlight this time fell on the neutrino sector, a branch of physics frequently in evolution, if not controversial

  6. Electromagnetic properties of neutrinos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ould-Saada, F [Zurich Univ. (Switzerland). Inst. fuer Physik

    1996-11-01

    Electromagnetic properties of neutrinos and their implications are discussed, and the experimental situation summarised. Spin precession in solar magnetic fields presents a solution of the solar neutrino problem. A magnetic moment, {mu}{sub {nu}}, of the order of 10{sup -11} {mu}{sub B} would be needed. In the simplest extension of the standard model, with no-vanishing neutrino masses, dipole moment interactions are allowed through higher order processes. A neutrino mass of {approx_equal}10 eV would give {mu}{sub {nu}}{approx_equal}10{sup -18} {mu}{sub B}, much smaller than the present experimental upper limit of 2x10{sup -10} {mu}{sub B}. Although model-dependent, upper bounds on dipole moments from astrophysics and cosmology are 10 to 100 times more stringent. Any values of {mu}{sub {nu}}, larger than the SM predictions, would then signal the onset of new physics. Among the processes sensitive to the magnetic moment, {nu}e{sup -} scattering presents two advantages: it is a pure weak, theoretically well understood process, and the recoil electron can be easily measured. A hypothetical electromagnetic contribution to the cross-section would dominate at low energies. A low background detector, MUNU, being built at the Bugey nuclear reactor is presented.It is based on a gas TPC, surrounded by a scintillator. The threshold on the electron recoil energy can be set very low, around 500 keV, giving the experiment a good sensitivity to the magnetic moment of the {nu}{sub e}, extending down to 2x10{sup -11} {mu}{sub B}. (author) 15 figs., 5 tabs., 96 refs.

  7. Upper limit on the diffuse flux of ultrahigh energy tau neutrinos from the Pierre Auger Observatory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abraham, J.; Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Aguirre, C.; Allard, D.; Allekotte, I.; Allen, J.; Allison, P.; Alvarez-Muniz, J.; Ambrosio, M.; Anchordoqui, L.; Andringa, S.; Anzalone, A.; Aramo, C.; Argiro, S.; Arisaka, K.; Armengaud, E.; Arneodo, F.; Arqueros, F.; Asch, T.; Asorey, H.; Assis, P.; Atulugama, B. S.; Aublin, J.; Ave, M.; Avila, G.; Baecker, T.; Badagnani, D.; Barbosa, A. F.; Barnhill, D.; Barroso, S. L. C.; Bauleo, P.; Beatty, J. J.; Beau, T.; Becker, B. R.; Becker, K. H.; Bellido, J. A.; BenZvi, S.; Berat, C.; Bergmann, T.; Bernardini, P.; Bertou, X.; Biermann, P. L.; Billoir, P.; Blanch-Bigas, O.; Blanco, F.; Blasi, P.; Bleve, C.; Bluemer, H.; Bohacova, M.; Bonifazi, C.; Bonino, R.; Boratav, M.; Brack, J.; Brogueira, P.; Brown, W. C.; Buchholz, P.; Bueno, A.; Burton, R. E.; Busca, N. G.; Caballero-Mora, K. S.; Cai, B.; Camin, D. V.; Caramete, L.; Caruso, R.; Carvalho, W.; Castellina, A.; Catalano, O.; Cataldi, G.; Cazon, L.; Cester, R.; Chauvin, J.; Chiavassa, A.; Chinellato, J. A.; Chou, A.; Chye, J.; Clark, P. D. J.; Clay, R. W.; Colombo, E.; Conceicao, R.; Connolly, B.; Contreras, F.; Coppens, J.; Cordier, A.; Cotti, U.; Coutu, S.; Covault, C. E.; Creusot, A.; Criss, A.; Cronin, J.; Curutiu, A.; Dagoret-Campagne, S.; Daumiller, K.; Dawson, B. R.; de Almeida, R. M.; De Donato, C.; de Jong, S. J.; De La Vega, G.; de Mello, W. J. M.; de Mello Neto, J. R. T.; DeMitri, I.; de Souza, V.; del Peral, L.; Deligny, O.; Della Selva, A.; Delle Fratte, C.; Dembinski, H.; Di Giulio, C.; Diaz, J. C.; Dobrigkeit, C.; D'Olivo, J. C.; Dornic, D.; Dorofeev, A.; dos Anjos, J. C.; Dova, M. T.; D'Urso, D.; Dutan, I.; DuVernois, M. A.; Engel, R.; Epele, L.; Escobar, C. O.; Etchegoyen, A.; San Luis, P. Facal; Falcke, H.; Farrar, G.; Fauth, A. C.; Fazzini, N.; Ferrer, F.; Ferry, S.; Fick, B.; Filevich, A.; Filipcic, A.; Fleck, I.; Fonte, R.; Fracchiolla, C. E.; Fulgione, W.; Garcia, B.; Gamez, D. Garcia; Garcia-Pinto, D.; Garrido, X.; Geenen, H.; Gelmini, G.; Gemmeke, H.; Ghia, P. L.; Giller, M.; Glass, H.; Gold, M. S.; Golup, G.; Albarracin, F. Gomez; Berisso, M. Gomez; Herrero, R. Gomez; Goncalves, P.; do Amaral, M. Goncalves; Gonzalez, D.; Gonzalez, J. G.; Gonzalez, M.; Gora, D.; Gorgi, A.; Gouffon, P.; Grassi, V.; Grillo, A. F.; Grunfeld, C.; Guardincerri, Y.; Guarino, F.; Guedes, G. P.; Gutierrez, J.; Hague, J. D.; Hamilton, J. C.; Hansen, P.; Harari, D.; Harmsma, S.; Harton, J. L.; Haungs, A.; Hauschildt, T.; Healy, M. D.; Hebbeker, T.; Hebrero, G.; Heck, D.; Hojvat, C.; Holmes, V. C.; Homola, P.; Hoerandel, J.; Horneffer, A.; Horvat, M.; Hrabovsky, M.; Huege, T.; Hussain, M.; Iarlori, M.; Insolia, A.; Ionita, F.; Italiano, A.; Kaducak, M.; Kampert, K. H.; Karova, T.; Kegl, B.; Keilhauer, B.; Kemp, E.; Kieckhafer, R. M.; Klages, H. O.; Kleifges, M.; Kleinfeller, J.; Knapik, R.; Knapp, J.; Koang, D. -H.; Krieger, A.; Kroemer, O.; Kuempel, D.; Kunka, N.; Kusenko, A.; La Rosa, G.; Lachaud, C.; Lago, B. L.; Lebrun, D.; LeBrun, P.; Lee, J.; de Oliveira, M. A. Leigui; Letessier-Selvon, A.; Leuthold, M.; Lhenry-Yvon, I.; Lopez, R.; Agueera, A. Lopez; Bahilo, J. Lozano; Garcia, R. Luna; Maccarone, M. C.; Macolino, C.; Maldera, S.; Mancarella, G.; Mancenido, M. E.; Mandat, D.; Mantsch, P.; Mariazzi, A. G.; Maris, I. C.; Falcon, H. R. Marquez; Martello, D.; Martinez, J.; Bravo, O. Martinez; Mathes, H. J.; Matthews, J.; Matthews, J. A. J.; Matthiae, G.; Maurizio, D.; Mazur, P. O.; McCauley, T.; McEwen, M.; McNeil, R. R.; Medina, M. C.; Medina-Tanco, G.; Meli, A.; Melo, D.; Menichetti, E.; Menschikov, A.; Meurer, Chr.; Meyhandan, R.; Micheletti, M. I.; Miele, G.; Miller, W.; Mollerach, S.; Monasor, M.; Ragaigne, D. Monnier; Montanet, F.; Morales, B.; Morello, C.; Moreno, J. C.; Morris, C.; Mostafa, M.; Muller, M. A.; Mussa, R.; Navarra, G.; Navarro, J. L.; Navas, S.; Necesal, P.; Nellen, L.; Newman-Holmes, C.; Newton, D.; Thi, T. Nguyen; Nierstenhoefer, N.; Nitz, D.; Nosek, D.; Nozka, L.; Oehlschlaeger, J.; Ohnuki, T.; Olinto, A.; Olmos-Gilbaja, V. M.; Ortiz, M.; Ortolani, F.; Ostapchenko, S.; Otero, L.; Pacheco, N.; Selmi-Dei, D. Pakk; Palatka, M.; Pallotta, J.; Parente, G.; Parizot, E.; Parlati, S.; Pastor, S.; Patel, M.; Paul, T.; Pavlidou, V.; Payet, K.; Pech, M.; Pekala, J.; Pelayo, R.; Pepe, I. M.; Perrone, L.; Petrera, S.; Petrinca, P.; Petrov, Y.; Ngoc, Diep Pham; Ngoc, Dong Pham; Thi, T. N. Pham; Pichel, A.; Piegaia, R.; Pierog, T.; Pimenta, M.; Pinto, T.; Pirronello, V.; Pisanti, O.; Platino, M.; Pochon, J.; Privitera, P.; Prouza, M.; Quel, E. J.; Rautenberg, J.; Redondo, A.; Reucroft, S.; Revenu, B.; Rezende, F. A. S.; Ridky, J.; Riggi, S.; Risse, M.; Riviere, C.; Rizi, V.; Roberts, M.; Robledo, C.; Rodriguez, G.; Frias, D. Rodriguez; Martino, J. Rodriguez; Rojo, J. Rodriguez; Rodriguez-Cabo, I.; Ros, G.; Rosado, J.; Roth, M.; Rouille-d'Orfeuil, B.; Roulet, E.; Rovero, A. C.; Salamida, F.; Salazar, H.; Salina, G.; Sanchez, F.; Santander, M.; Santo, C. E.; Santos, E. M.; Sarazin, F.; Sarkar, S.; Sato, R.; Scherini, V.; Schieler, H.; Schmidt, A.; Schmidt, F.; Schmidt, T.; Scholten, O.; Schovanek, P.; Schuessler, F.; Sciutto, S. J.; Scuderi, M.; Segreto, A.; Semikoz, D.; Settimo, M.; Shellard, R. C.; Sidelnik, I.; Siffert, B. B.; Sigl, G.; De Grande, N. Smetniansky; Smialkowski, A.; Smida, R.; Smith, A. G. K.; Smith, B. E.; Snow, G. R.; Sokolsky, P.; Sommers, P.; Sorokin, J.; Spinka, H.; Squartini, R.; Strazzeri, E.; Stutz, A.; Suarez, F.; Suomijaervi, T.; Supanitsky, A. D.; Sutherland, M. S.; Swain, J.; Szadkowski, Z.; Takahashi, J.; Tamashiro, A.; Tamburro, A.; Tascau, O.; Tcaciuc, R.; Thomas, D.; Ticona, R.; Tiffenberg, J.; Timmermans, C.; Tkaczyk, W.; Peixoto, C. J. Todero; Tome, B.; Tonachini, A.; Torres, I.; Torresi, D.; Travnicek, P.; Tripathi, A.; Tristram, G.; Tscherniakhovski, D.; Tueros, M.; Tunnicliffe, V.; Ulrich, R.; Unger, M.; Urban, M.; Galicia, J. F. Valdes; Valino, I.; Valore, L.; van den Berg, A. M.; van Elewyck, V.; Vazquez, R. A.; Veberic, D.; Veiga, A.; Velarde, A.; Venters, T.; Verzi, V.; Videla, M.; Villasenor, L.; Vorobiov, S.; Voyvodic, L.; Wahlberg, H.; Wainberg, O.; Walker, P.; Warner, D.; Watson, A. A.; Westerhoff, S.; Wieczorek, G.; Wiencke, L.; Wilczynska, B.; Wilczynski, H.; Wileman, C.; Winnick, M. G.; Wu, H.; Wundheiler, B.; Yamamoto, T.; Younk, P.; Zas, E.; Zavrtanik, D.; Zavrtanik, M.; Zech, A.; Zepeda, A.; Ziolkowski, M.

    2008-01-01

    The surface detector array of the Pierre Auger Observatory is sensitive to Earth-skimming tau neutrinos that interact in Earth's crust. Tau leptons from nu(tau) charged-current interactions can emerge and decay in the atmosphere to produce a nearly horizontal shower with a significant

  8. Anarchy and neutrino physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fortin, Jean-François; Giasson, Nicolas; Marleau, Luc [Département de Physique, de Génie Physique et d’Optique,Université Laval, Québec, QC G1V 0A6 (Canada)

    2017-04-21

    The neutrino sector of a seesaw-extended Standard Model is investigated under the anarchy hypothesis. The previously derived probability density functions for neutrino masses and mixings, which characterize the type I-III seesaw ensemble of N×N complex random matrices, are used to extract information on the relevant physical parameters. For N=2 and N=3, the distributions of the light neutrino masses, as well as the mixing angles and phases, are obtained using numerical integration methods. A systematic comparison with the much simpler type II seesaw ensemble is also performed to point out the fundamental differences between the two ensembles. It is found that the type I-III seesaw ensemble is better suited to accommodate experimental data. Moreover, the results indicate a strong preference for the mass splitting associated to normal hierarchy. However, since all permutations of the singular values are found to be equally probable for a particular mass splitting, predictions regarding the hierarchy of the mass spectrum remains out of reach in the framework of anarchy.

  9. Neutrino physics with SHIP

    CERN Document Server

    van Herwijnen, Eric

    2016-01-01

    SHIP is a new general purpose fixed target facility, whose Technical Proposal has been recently reviewed by the CERN SPS Committee. It recommended that the experiment proceed further to a Comprehensive Design phase. In its initial phase, the 400 GeV proton beam extracted from the SPS will be dumped on a heavy target with the aim of integrating 2×1020 POT (Protons On Target) in 5 years. A dedicated detector, based on a long vacuum tank followed by a spectrometer and particle identification detectors, will allow probing a variety of models with light long-lived exotic particles and masses below O(10) GeV/c 2 . The main focus will be the physics of the so-called Hidden Portals. The sensitivity to Heavy Neutrinos will allow to probe for the first time the mass range between the kaon and the charm meson mass, and a range of couplings for which Baryogenesis and active neutrino masses could also be explained. Another dedicated detector will allow the study of neutrino cross-sections and angular distributions. ντ ...

  10. Neutrino physics at LAMPF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garvey, G.T.

    1989-01-01

    There are three neutrino experiments at LAMPF in various stages of completion or development. E225, the study of electron-neutrino electron scattering, which completed data taking in December 1986 and has just about completed all its analysis. E645, a search for /bar /nu///sub μ/ → /bar /nu///sub e/ oscillation, is in its third and final year of data taking. The Large Cerenkov Detector (LCD), associated with E1015, has undergone extensive scientific and technical review and we are presently trying to obtain the necessary funds to build the detector, beam line, and target. In the following, each of these experiments will be briefly discussed. Before doing so, it is useful to show the characteristics of the neutrino spectrum resulting from the decay of π + at rest. It is also useful to realize that, on average, an 800-MeV proton from LAMPF produces about 0.1 π + decaying at rest. 16 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs

  11. Super-Kamiokande Solar Neutrino Results and NSI Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weatherly, Pierce; Super-Kamiokande Collaboration

    2017-09-01

    Super-Kamiokande (SK) detects the Cerenkov light from elastic scattering of solar 8B neutrinos with electrons in its ultra-pure water. The directionality, energy, and timing of the recoil electrons determines the interaction rate, the flight path, as well as the energy dependence of the 8B neutrinos’ electron-flavor survival probability P ee . While the P ee below 1 MeV is equivalent to averaged vacuum neutrino flavor oscillations, the P ee above 7 MeV is suppressed by the Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein (MSW) resonance resulting from the interaction of the solar neutrinos with solar matter. In the same way, Earth matter effects influence Pee, leading to an apparent Day/Night effect. Non-standard interactions (NSI) extend the MSW model to include interactions between the quarks in matter and neutrinos, thereby modifying P ee . We present the signatures of matter effects on solar neutrinos in Super-Kamiokande and present limits on NSI parameters, in particular couplings to the down quark.

  12. On the question of the magnitude of day-night asymmetry for solar neutrinos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aleshin, S. S.; Lobanov, A. E.; Kharlanov, O. G.

    2013-01-01

    The effect of flavor day-night asymmetry is considered for solar neutrinos of energy about 1 MeV under the assumption that the electron-density distribution within the Earth is approximately piecewise continuous on the scale of the neutrino-oscillation length. In this approximation, the resulting asymmetry factor for beryllium neutrinos does not depend on the structure of the inner Earth’s layers or on the properties of the detector used. Its numerical estimate is on the order of −4 × 10 −4 , which is far beyond the reach of present-day experiments

  13. Matter oscillations and solar neutrinos: A review of the MSW (Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein) effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosen, S.P.; Gelb, J.M.

    1986-07-16

    We review the theory of the Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein effect, in which matter oscillations can greatly enhance ''in vacuo'' neutrino oscillations, and we examine its consequences for the solar neutrino problem. Using a two-flavor model, we discuss the solutions in the ..delta..m/sup 2/-sin/sup 2/2THETA parameter space for the /sup 37/Cl experiment, and describe their predictions for the /sup 71/Ga experiment and for the spectrum of electron-neutrinos arriving at earth. We also comment on the three-flavor case.

  14. Matter oscillations and solar neutrinos: A review of the MSW [Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein] effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosen, S.P.; Gelb, J.M.

    1986-01-01

    We review the theory of the Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein effect, in which matter oscillations can greatly enhance ''in vacuo'' neutrino oscillations, and we examine its consequences for the solar neutrino problem. Using a two-flavor model, we discuss the solutions in the Δm 2 -sin 2 2Θ parameter space for the 37 Cl experiment, and describe their predictions for the 71 Ga experiment and for the spectrum of electron-neutrinos arriving at earth. We also comment on the three-flavor case

  15. Measurement of Long Baseline Neutrino Oscillations and Improvements from Deep Learning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Psihas, Fernanda [Indiana U.

    2018-01-01

    NOvA is a long-baseline neutrino oscillation experiment which measures the oscillation of muon neutrinos from the NuMI beam at Fermilab after they travel through the Earth for 810 km. In this dissertation I describe the operations and monitoring of the detectors which make it possible to record over 98% of the delivered neutrino beam. I also present reconstruction and identification techniques using deep convolutional neural networks (CNNs), which are applicable to multiple analyses. Lastly, I detail the oscillation analyses in the $\

  16. Neutrinos from supernova explosion and the Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minakata, H.; Nunokawa, H.; Shiraishi, K.; Suzuki, H.

    1987-01-01

    It is shown that by taking the effect of the Earth into account the possible observation of electron neutrinos from the supernova SN1987A at the Kamiokande II is compatible with the solution of the solar neutrino puzzle by the Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein mechanism. The authors' scenario requires relatively large mixing angles sin/sup 2/ 2θ>≥0.3 and, most probably, Δm/sup 2/ of the order of 10/sup -6/ -- 10/sup -5/(eV)/sup 2/. The implications of possible observation in other neutrino detectors are briefly discussed

  17. New neutrino oscillation results from NOVA

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2018-01-01

    Neutrinos oscillate among flavors as they travel because a neutrino of a particular flavor is also a superposition of multiple neutrinos with slightly different masses.  The interferometric nature of oscillations allows these tiny mass differences to be measured, along with the parameters of the PMNS matrix which governs the mixing. However, since neutrinos only interact weakly, a powerful neutrino source and massive detectors are required to measure them. In this talk I will show recently updated results from NOvA, a long-baseline neutrino oscillation experiment at Fermilab with two functionally identical scintillator detectors. I will present measurements of muon neutrino disappearance and electron neutrino appearance, and what constraints those measurements put on the remaining open questions in neutrino oscillations: Is the neutrino mass hierarchy "normal" or "inverted?" Do neutrino oscillations violate CP symmetry? Is the mixing in the atmospheric sector maximal? The recent update includes 50%...

  18. Flipped Heavy Neutrinos from the Solar Neutrino Problem to Baryogenesis

    CERN Document Server

    Ellis, Jonathan Richard; Olive, Keith A

    1993-01-01

    We discuss baryogenesis using the flipped $SU(5)$ model for lepton mass matrices. We show that the generalized see-saw mechanism in this model can not only provide MSW neutrino mixing suitable for solving the solar neutrino problem, and supply a hot dark matter candidate ($\

  19. JUNO. Determination of the neutrino mass hierarchy using reactor neutrinos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wonsak, Bjoern [Hamburg University, Inst. Exp. Phys., Hamburg (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    The Jiangmen Underground Neutrino Observatory (JUNO) is a medium-baseline reactor neutrino experiment located in China. Its aim is to determine the neutrino mass hierarchy at more than 3 sigma significance after six years of data taking by using a 20kt liquid scintillator detector. To achieve this goal, an energy resolution of less than 3%/√(E) is necessary, creating strict requirements on the detector design and the liquid scintillator. Moreover, JUNO will be the only experiment in the near future able to measure the solar mixing parameters with a precision of better than 1%. This is at the same level as our current knowledge on flavour mixing in the quark sector, marking an important milestone of neutrino physics. In addition, supernova neutrinos, geo-neutrinos, sterile neutrinos as well as solar and atmospheric neutrinos can be studied. JUNO was approved in 2013 and the construction of the underground facility started early this year. In this talk the status of the experiment and its prospects is discussed.

  20. Homestake result, sterile neutrinos, and low energy solar neutrino experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Holanda, P. C.; Smirnov, A. Yu.

    2004-06-01

    The Homestake result is about ˜2σ lower than the Ar-production rate, QAr, predicted by the large mixing angle (LMA) Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein solution of the solar neutrino problem. Also there is no apparent upturn of the energy spectrum (R≡Nobs/NSSM) at low energies in SNO and Super-Kamiokande. Both these facts can be explained if a light, Δm201˜(0.2 2)×10-5 eV2, sterile neutrino exists which mixes very weakly with active neutrinos: sin2 2α˜(10-5 10-3). We perform both the analytical and numerical study of the conversion effects in the system of two active neutrinos with the LMA parameters and one weakly mixed sterile neutrino. The presence of sterile neutrino leads to a dip in the survival probability in the intermediate energy range E=(0.5 5) MeV thus suppressing the Be, or/and pep, CNO, as well as B electron neutrino fluxes. Apart from diminishing QAr it leads to decrease of the Ge-production rate and may lead to the decrease of the BOREXINO signal as well as the CC/NC ratio at SNO. Future studies of the solar neutrinos by SNO, SK, BOREXINO, and KamLAND as well as by the new low energy experiments will allow us to check this possibility.

  1. Low Energy Neutrino Astronomy in the future large-volume liquid-scintillator detector LENA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wurm, Michael; Feilitzsch, F V; Goeger-Neff, M; Lewke, T; Undagoitia, T Marrodan; Oberauer, L; Potzel, W; Todor, S; Winter, J

    2008-01-01

    The recent successes in neutrino physics prove that liquid-scintillator detectors allow to combine high energy resolution, efficient means of background reduction, and a large detection volume. In the planned LENA (Low Energy Neutrino Astronomy) experiment, a target mass of 50 kt will enable the investigation of a variety of terrestrial and astrophysical neutrino sources. The high-statistics spectroscopy of geoneutrinos, solar neutrinos and supernova neutrinos will provide new insights in the heat production processes of Earth and Sun, and the workings of a gravitational collapse. The same measurements will as well investigate neutrino properties as oscillation parameters and mass hierarchy. A first spectroscopic measurement of the low flux of diffuse supernova neutrino background is within the sensitivity of the LENA detector. Finally, a life-time limit of several 1034 years can be set to the proton decay into proton and anti-neutrino, testing the predictions of SUSY theory. The present contribution includes a review of the scientific studies that were performed in the last years as well as a report on currently on-going R and D activities.

  2. Convoluted ν-Signals on 114Cd Isotope from Astrophysical and Laboratory Neutrino Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaitsa Tsakstara

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available At first, we evaluate scattering cross sections of low, and intermediate-energy neutrinos scattered off the 114 Cd isotope, the most abundant Cd isotope present also in the COBRA detector (CdTe and CdZnTe materials which aims to search for double beta decay events and neutrino observations at Gran Sasso laboratory (LNGS. The coherent ν-nucleus channel addressed here is the dominant reaction channel of the neutral current ν-nucleus scattering. Our ν-nucleus cross sections (calculated with a refinement of the quasiparticle random-phase approximation, QRPA refer to the gs→gs transitions for ν-energies εν≤100 MeV. Subsequently, simulated ν-signals on 114 Cd isotope are derived. Towards this purpose, the required folded cross section comes out of simulation techniques by employing several low, and intermediate-energy neutrino distributions of the astrophysical ν-sources, like the solar, supernova, and Earth neutrinos, as well as the laboratory neutrinos, the reactor neutrinos, the pion-muon stopped neutrinos, and the β-beam neutrinos.

  3. Low Energy Neutrino Astronomy in the future large-volume liquid-scintillator detector LENA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wurm, Michael; Feilitzsch, F V; Goeger-Neff, M; Lewke, T; Undagoitia, T Marrodan; Oberauer, L; Potzel, W; Todor, S; Winter, J [E15 Chair for Astroparticle Physics, Technische Universitat Miinchen, Physik Department, James-Franck-Str., D-85748 Garching (Germany)

    2008-11-01

    The recent successes in neutrino physics prove that liquid-scintillator detectors allow to combine high energy resolution, efficient means of background reduction, and a large detection volume. In the planned LENA (Low Energy Neutrino Astronomy) experiment, a target mass of 50 kt will enable the investigation of a variety of terrestrial and astrophysical neutrino sources. The high-statistics spectroscopy of geoneutrinos, solar neutrinos and supernova neutrinos will provide new insights in the heat production processes of Earth and Sun, and the workings of a gravitational collapse. The same measurements will as well investigate neutrino properties as oscillation parameters and mass hierarchy. A first spectroscopic measurement of the low flux of diffuse supernova neutrino background is within the sensitivity of the LENA detector. Finally, a life-time limit of several 1034 years can be set to the proton decay into proton and anti-neutrino, testing the predictions of SUSY theory. The present contribution includes a review of the scientific studies that were performed in the last years as well as a report on currently on-going R and D activities.

  4. Neutrino astrophysics with the MACRO detector in the Gran Sasso underground laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ronga, F.

    1998-01-01

    We present the results of a search for neutrino emission from celestial objects and of a search for coincidences with gamma ray bursts. We have computed flux limits for WIMPS coming from the center of the Earth and of the Sun. For this search we used 605 upward-going muons produced by neutrino interactions in the rock below the MACRO detector in the underground Gran Sasso Laboratory. (orig.)

  5. Looking for Cosmic Neutrino Background

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiaki eYanagisawa

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Since the discovery of neutrino oscillation in atmospheric neutrinos by the Super-Kamiokande experiment in 1998, study of neutrinos has been one of exciting fields in high-energy physics. All the mixing angles were measured. Quests for 1 measurements of the remaining parameters, the lightest neutrino mass, the CP violating phase(s, and the sign of mass splitting between the mass eigenstates m3 and m1, and 2 better measurements to determine whether the mixing angle theta23 is less than pi/4, are in progress in a well-controlled manner. Determining the nature of neutrinos, whether they are Dirac or Majorana particles is also in progress with continuous improvement. On the other hand, although the ideas of detecting cosmic neutrino background have been discussed since 1960s, there has not been a serious concerted effort to achieve this goal. One of the reasons is that it is extremely difficult to detect such low energy neutrinos from the Big Bang. While there has been tremendous accumulation of information on Cosmic Microwave Background since its discovery in 1965, there is no direct evidence for Cosmic Neutrino Background. The importance of detecting Cosmic Neutrino Background is that, although detailed studies of Big Bang Nucleosynthesis and Cosmic Microwave Background give information of the early Universe at ~a few minutes old and ~300 k years old, respectively, observation of Cosmic Neutrino Background allows us to study the early Universe at $sim$ 1 sec old. This article reviews progress made in the past 50 years on detection methods of Cosmic Neutrino Background.

  6. Measurement of neutrino flux from neutrino-electron elastic scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, J.; Aliaga, L.; Altinok, O.; Bellantoni, L.; Bercellie, A.; Betancourt, M.; Bodek, A.; Bravar, A.; Budd, H.; Cai, T.; Carneiro, M. F.; Christy, M. E.; Chvojka, J.; da Motta, H.; Dytman, S. A.; Díaz, G. A.; Eberly, B.; Felix, J.; Fields, L.; Fine, R.; Gago, A. M.; Galindo, R.; Ghosh, A.; Golan, T.; Gran, R.; Harris, D. A.; Higuera, A.; Kleykamp, J.; Kordosky, M.; Le, T.; Maher, E.; Manly, S.; Mann, W. A.; Marshall, C. M.; Martinez Caicedo, D. A.; McFarland, K. S.; McGivern, C. L.; McGowan, A. M.; Messerly, B.; Miller, J.; Mislivec, A.; Morfín, J. G.; Mousseau, J.; Naples, D.; Nelson, J. K.; Norrick, A.; Nuruzzaman; Osta, J.; Paolone, V.; Patrick, C. E.; Perdue, G. N.; Rakotondravohitra, L.; Ramirez, M. A.; Ray, H.; Ren, L.; Rimal, D.; Rodrigues, P. A.; Ruterbories, D.; Schellman, H.; Solano Salinas, C. J.; Tagg, N.; Tice, B. G.; Valencia, E.; Walton, T.; Wolcott, J.; Wospakrik, M.; Zavala, G.; Zhang, D.; Miner ν A Collaboration

    2016-06-01

    Muon-neutrino elastic scattering on electrons is an observable neutrino process whose cross section is precisely known. Consequently a measurement of this process in an accelerator-based νμ beam can improve the knowledge of the absolute neutrino flux impinging upon the detector; typically this knowledge is limited to ˜10 % due to uncertainties in hadron production and focusing. We have isolated a sample of 135 ±17 neutrino-electron elastic scattering candidates in the segmented scintillator detector of MINERvA, after subtracting backgrounds and correcting for efficiency. We show how this sample can be used to reduce the total uncertainty on the NuMI νμ flux from 9% to 6%. Our measurement provides a flux constraint that is useful to other experiments using the NuMI beam, and this technique is applicable to future neutrino beams operating at multi-GeV energies.

  7. Radiative neutrino mass model with degenerate right-handed neutrinos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kashiwase, Shoichi; Suematsu, Daijiro

    2016-01-01

    The radiative neutrino mass model can relate neutrino masses and dark matter at a TeV scale. If we apply this model to thermal leptogenesis, we need to consider resonant leptogenesis at that scale. It requires both finely degenerate masses for the right-handed neutrinos and a tiny neutrino Yukawa coupling. We propose an extension of the model with a U(1) gauge symmetry, in which these conditions are shown to be simultaneously realized through a TeV scale symmetry breaking. Moreover, this extension can bring about a small quartic scalar coupling between the Higgs doublet scalar and an inert doublet scalar which characterizes the radiative neutrino mass generation. It also is the origin of the Z 2 symmetry which guarantees the stability of dark matter. Several assumptions which are independently supposed in the original model are closely connected through this extension. (orig.)

  8. Sterile neutrino constraints from cosmology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamann, Jan; Hannestad, Steen; Raffelt, Georg G.

    2012-01-01

    The presence of light particles beyond the standard model's three neutrino species can profoundly impact the physics of decoupling and primordial nucleosynthesis. I review the observational signatures of extra light species, present constraints from recent data, and discuss the implications of po...... of possible sterile neutrinos with O(eV)-masses for cosmology....

  9. Neutrino factory plans at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Riche, J A

    2001-01-01

    The considerable interest raised by the discovery of neutrino oscillations and recent progress in studies of muon colliders has triggered interest in considering a neutrino factory at CERN. This paper explains the reference scenario, indicates the other possible choices and mentions the R&D that are foreseen.

  10. Neutrino 2012: Outlook – theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smirnov, A.Yu. [International Center for Theoretical Physics, Trieste (Italy)

    2013-02-15

    Ongoing developments in theory and phenomenology are related to the measured large value of 1–3 mixing and indications of significant deviation of the 2–3 mixing from maximal one. “Race” for the mass hierarchy has started and there is good chance that multi-megaton scale atmospheric neutrino detectors with low threshold (e.g. PINGU) will establish the type of hierarchy. Two IceCube candidates of the PeV cosmic neutrinos if confirmed, is the beginning of new era of high energy neutrino astronomy. Accumulation of data on solar neutrinos (energy spectrum, D-N asymmetry, value of Δm{sub 21}{sup 2}) may uncover some new physics. The Tri-bimaximal mixing is disfavored and the existing discrete symmetry paradigm may change. The confirmed QLC prediction, θ{sub 13}≈θ{sub C}/√(2), testifies for GUT, seesaw and some symmetry at very high scales. However, the same value of 1–3 mixing can be obtained in various ways which have different implications. The situation in lepton sector changes from special (with specific neutrino symmetries, etc.) to normal, closer to that in the quark sector. Sterile neutrinos are challenge for neutrino physics but also opportunity with many interesting phenomenological consequences. Further studies of possible connections between neutrinos and the dark sector of the Universe may lead to breakthrough both in particle physics and cosmology.

  11. The indium solar neutrino project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Booth, N.E.; Salmon, G.L.; Hukin, D.A.

    1984-01-01

    The only way to resolve the solar neutrino puzzle is to perform a new experiment. It is shown that 115 In has unique possibilities as a target for solar neutrino detection. Progress in developing a detector based on 115 In is reviewed and future plans are outlined. (author)

  12. Neutrino physics and precision cosmology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hannestad, Steen

    2016-01-01

    I review the current status of structure formation bounds on neutrino properties such as mass and energy density. I also discuss future cosmological bounds as well as a variety of different scenarios for reconciling cosmology with the presence of light sterile neutrinos....

  13. Neutrino oscillations at proton accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michael, Douglas

    2002-01-01

    Data from many different experiments have started to build a first glimpse of the phenomenology associated with neutrino oscillations. Results on atmospheric and solar neutrinos are particularly clear while a third result from LSND suggests a possibly very complex oscillation phenomenology. As impressive as the results from current experiments are, it is clear that we are just getting started on a long-term experimental program to understand neutrino masses, mixings and the physics which produce them. A number of exciting fundamental physics possibilities exist, including that neutrino oscillations could demonstrate CP or CPT violation and could be tied to exotic high-energy phenomena including strings and extra dimensions. A complete exploration of oscillation phenomena demands many experiments, including those possible using neutrino beams produced at high energy proton accelerators. Most existing neutrino experiments are statistics limited even though they use gigantic detectors. High intensity proton beams are essential for producing the intense neutrino beams which we need for next generation neutrino oscillation experiments

  14. Neutrino Oscillations at Proton Accelerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, Douglas

    2002-12-01

    Data from many different experiments have started to build a first glimpse of the phenomenology associated with neutrino oscillations. Results on atmospheric and solar neutrinos are particularly clear while a third result from LSND suggests a possibly very complex oscillation phenomenology. As impressive as the results from current experiments are, it is clear that we are just getting started on a long-term experimental program to understand neutrino masses, mixings and the physics which produce them. A number of exciting fundamental physics possibilities exist, including that neutrino oscillations could demonstrate CP or CPT violation and could be tied to exotic high-energy phenomena including strings and extra dimensions. A complete exploration of oscillation phenomena demands many experiments, including those possible using neutrino beams produced at high energy proton accelerators. Most existing neutrino experiments are statistics limited even though they use gigantic detectors. High intensity proton beams are essential for producing the intense neutrino beams which we need for next generation neutrino oscillation experiments.

  15. Simulating nonlinear neutrino flavor evolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duan, H [Institute for Nuclear Theory, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Fuller, G M [Department of Physics, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States); Carlson, J [Theoretical Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)], E-mail: hduan@phys.washington.edu, E-mail: gfuller@ucsd.edu, E-mail: carlson@lanl.gov

    2008-10-01

    We discuss a new kind of astrophysical transport problem: the coherent evolution of neutrino flavor in core collapse supernovae. Solution of this problem requires a numerical approach which can simulate accurately the quantum mechanical coupling of intersecting neutrino trajectories and the associated nonlinearity which characterizes neutrino flavor conversion. We describe here the two codes developed to attack this problem. We also describe the surprising phenomena revealed by these numerical calculations. Chief among these is that the nonlinearities in the problem can engineer neutrino flavor transformation which is dramatically different to that in standard Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein treatments. This happens even though the neutrino mass-squared differences are measured to be small, and even when neutrino self-coupling is sub-dominant. Our numerical work has revealed potential signatures which, if detected in the neutrino burst from a Galactic core collapse event, could reveal heretofore unmeasurable properties of the neutrinos, such as the mass hierarchy and vacuum mixing angle {theta}{sub 13}.

  16. GZK cutoff and associated neutrinos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanev, Todor [Bartol Research Institute, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716 (United States)

    2004-11-15

    We discuss the cosmogenic neutrinos that are produced in interactions of ultrahigh energy cosmic rays with radiation fields. The obvious and most important target is the microwave background. It is possible that the infrared/optical background contributes to the flux of cosmogenic neutrinos, especially in the case of steep cosmic ray injection spectra and fast cosmological evolution of the cosmic ray sources.

  17. Understanding neutrino masses and mixings

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    various possible oscillation solutions to the solar neutrino puzzle. It seems .... A first hint of this new ingredient came from the observation of Weinberg that if ..... Using the discussion of the above paragraph, the Dirac mass of the neutrino as .... that contributes to charged fermion masses, one can write the quark and lepton.

  18. Search for Muon neutrino → Tau neutrino oscillations motivation and feasibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zacek, V.

    1988-01-01

    Theoretical prejudices derived from solar-neutrino matter oscillations and assumptions of neutrino mass hierarchies suggest, that neutrino-oscillations are observable in laboratory with mass parameters of Δm 2 = 10 -3 -10 4 eV 2 . In particular Muon neutrino → Tau neutrino appearance searches at accelerators seem strongly motivated

  19. Effects of Majorana physics on the UHE ν{sub τ} flux traversing the Earth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duarte, Lucia [Universidad de la Republica, Instituto de Fisica, Facultad de Ingenieria, Montevideo (Uruguay); Romero, Ismael; Zapata, Gabriel; Sampayo, Oscar A. [Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata, Instituto de Investigaciones Fisicas de Mar del Plata (IFIMAR), CONICET, UNMDP, Departamento de Fisica, Mar del Plata (Argentina)

    2017-02-15

    We study the effects produced by sterile Majorana neutrinos on the ν{sub τ} flux traversing the Earth, considering the interaction between the Majorana neutrinos and the standard matter as modeled by an effective theory. The surviving tau-neutrino flux is calculated using transport equations including Majorana neutrino production and decay. We compare our results with the pure Standard Model interactions, computing the surviving flux for different values of the effective lagrangian couplings, considering the detected flux by IceCube for an operation time of 10 years, and Majorana neutrinos with mass m{sub N} ∝ m{sub τ}. (orig.)

  20. Thermalizing Sterile Neutrino Dark Matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Rasmus S L; Vogl, Stefan

    2017-12-22

    Sterile neutrinos produced through oscillations are a well motivated dark matter candidate, but recent constraints from observations have ruled out most of the parameter space. We analyze the impact of new interactions on the evolution of keV sterile neutrino dark matter in the early Universe. Based on general considerations we find a mechanism which thermalizes the sterile neutrinos after an initial production by oscillations. The thermalization of sterile neutrinos is accompanied by dark entropy production which increases the yield of dark matter and leads to a lower characteristic momentum. This resolves the growing tensions with structure formation and x-ray observations and even revives simple nonresonant production as a viable way to produce sterile neutrino dark matter. We investigate the parameters required for the realization of the thermalization mechanism in a representative model and find that a simple estimate based on energy and entropy conservation describes the mechanism well.

  1. Global Analysis of Neutrino Data

    CERN Document Server

    González-Garciá, M C

    2005-01-01

    In this talk I review the present status of neutrino masses and mixing and some of their implications for particle physics phenomenology. I first discuss the minimum extension of the Standard Model of particle physics required to accommodate neutrino masses and introduce the new parameters present in the model and in particular the possibility of leptonic mixing. I then describe the phenomenology of neutrino masses and mixing leading to flavour oscillations and present the existing evidence from solar, reactor, atmospheric and long-baseline neutrinos as well as the results from laboratory searches at short distances. I derive the allowed ranges for the mass and mixing parameters when the bulk of data is consistently analyzed in the framework of mixing between the three active neutrinos and obtain as a result the most up-to-date determination of the leptonic mixing matrix. Then I briefly summarize the status of some proposed phenomenological explanations to accommodate the LSND results: the role of sterile neu...

  2. The OPERA neutrino velocity measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wonsak, Bjoern [Universitaet Hamburg (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    OPERA is a long-baseline neutrino oscillation experiment designed to find tau neutrinos appearing in a pure muon neutrino beam. Recently, a measurement of the flight time of the neutrinos between the CNGS at CERN and the OPERA detector at the LNGS has been performed. It was found that the neutrinos arrive at the detector significantly earlier in time than expected if travelling at the speed of light. In this talk, the main aspects of this measurement are presented, including timing and geodesy issues and the analysis procedure. An update concerning results with a fine structured time distribution of the beam is given, as well as latest information on some additional cross checks.

  3. The physics of relic neutrinos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dighe, A.; Pastor, S.; Smirnov, A.

    1998-12-01

    We report on the main results presented at the workshop on the Physics of Relic Neutrinos. The study of relic neutrinos involves a broad spectrum of problems in particle physics, astrophysics and cosmology. Features of baryogenesis and leptogenesis could be imprinted in the properties of the relic neutrino sea. Relic neutrinos played a crucial role in the big bang nucleosynthesis. Being the hot component of the dark matter, they have participated in the structure formation in the universe. Although the direct detection of the sea seems impossible at this stage, there could be various indirect manifestations of these neutrinos which would allow us to study the properties of the sea both in the past and at the present epoch. (author)

  4. Neutrino masses and family replication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hung, P.Q.

    1999-01-01

    The issue of whether or not there is any link between the smallness of the neutrino mass (if present) and the odd or even nature of the number of families is investigated. It is found that, by assuming the existence of right-handed neutrinos (which would imply that neutrinos will have a mass) and a new chiral SU(2) gauge theory, a constraint on the nature of the number of families can be obtained. In addition, a model, based on that extra SU(2), is constructed where it is plausible to have one 'very heavy' fourth neutrino and three almost degenerate light neutrinos whose masses are all of the Dirac type. copyright 1999 The American Physical Society

  5. Thermalizing Sterile Neutrino Dark Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Rasmus S. L.; Vogl, Stefan

    2017-12-01

    Sterile neutrinos produced through oscillations are a well motivated dark matter candidate, but recent constraints from observations have ruled out most of the parameter space. We analyze the impact of new interactions on the evolution of keV sterile neutrino dark matter in the early Universe. Based on general considerations we find a mechanism which thermalizes the sterile neutrinos after an initial production by oscillations. The thermalization of sterile neutrinos is accompanied by dark entropy production which increases the yield of dark matter and leads to a lower characteristic momentum. This resolves the growing tensions with structure formation and x-ray observations and even revives simple nonresonant production as a viable way to produce sterile neutrino dark matter. We investigate the parameters required for the realization of the thermalization mechanism in a representative model and find that a simple estimate based on energy and entropy conservation describes the mechanism well.

  6. KARMEN: neutrino spectroscopy at ISIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drexlin, G [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH Technik und Umwelt (Germany). Inst. fuer Kernphysik

    1996-11-01

    The Karlsruhe-Rutherford Neutrino Experiment KARMEN at the spallation neutron facility ISIS investigates fundamental properties of neutrinos as well as their interactions with matter. Low energy neutrinos with energies up to 50 MeV emitted by the pulsed {nu}-source ISIS are detected by a 56 tonne high resolution liquid scintillation calorimeter. Clear {nu}-signatures allow a reliable search for neutrino oscillations of the type {nu}{sub {mu}}{yields}{nu}{sub e} and {nu}{sub {mu}}{yields}{nu}{sub e} as well as a detailed investigation of neutrino-nucleus interactions in an energy range important for astrophysics. We present the results of the KARMEN experiment from data taking in the period from June 1990 - December 1995. (author) 9 figs., 10 refs.

  7. Testing CPT invariance with neutrinos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohlsson, Tommy

    2003-01-01

    We investigate possible tests of CPT invariance on the level of event rates at neutrino factories. We do not assume any specific model, but phenomenological differences in the neutrino-antineutrino masses and mixing angles in a Lorentz invariance preserving context, which could be induced by physics beyond the Standard Model. We especially focus on the muon neutrino and antineutrino disappearance channels in order to obtain constraints on the neutrino-antineutrino mass and mixing angle differences. In a typical neutrino factory setup simulation, we find, for example, that vertical bar m 3 - m-bar 3 vertical bar $1.9 · 10 -4 eV and vertical bar ≡ 23 - ≡-bar 23 vertical bar < or approx. 2 deg

  8. Gif 2011 school: neutrinos. Slides of the presentations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smirnov, A.; Pascoli, S.; Piquemal, F.; Lasserre, T.; Kouchner, A.; Patzak, T.; Lavignac, S.; Volpe, C.; Katsanevas, S.; Rubbia, A.

    2012-01-01

    This document gathers the slides of the lectures given at the GIF 2011 school. These lectures were pedagogical reviews of both theoretical and experimental physics around neutrino issues. There were 9 lectures: 1) the origin of the neutrino mass, 2) theory of neutrino oscillations, 3) measuring the neutrino mass, 4) measuring the neutrino oscillation parameters, 5) astronomy with neutrinos, 6) the story of the neutrino, 7) neutrinos beyond the standard model, 8) neutrinos in cosmology, and 9) future experiments. (A.C.)

  9. Neutrino mass models and CP violation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joshipura, Anjan S.

    2011-01-01

    Theoretical ideas on the origin of (a) neutrino masses (b) neutrino mass hierarchies and (c) leptonic mixing angles are reviewed. Topics discussed include (1) symmetries of neutrino mass matrix and their origin (2) ways to understand the observed patterns of leptonic mixing angles and (3)unified description of neutrino masses and mixing angles in grand unified theories.

  10. Neutrino oscillations: present status and outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwetz, T.

    2005-01-01

    In this talk the present status of neutrino oscillations is reviewed, based on a global analysis of world neutrino oscillation data from solar, atmospheric, reactor, and accelerator neutrino experiments. Furthermore, I discuss the expected improvements in the determination of neutrino parameters by future oscillation experiments within a timescale of 10 years. (author)

  11. Hans Bethe, the Sun and the Neutrinos

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    and the stars remained a major puzzle in science, which led to many ..... per sec at Davis's huge tank of the detecting fluid, only about one neutrino per three days interacted. That is the meaning of. 'weak interaction'. See S N Ganguli, Neutrinos and our .... To understand neutrino oscillation, one must think of neutrino as a ...

  12. Light Sterile Neutrinos: A White Paper

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abazajian, K. N.; Acero, M. A.; Agarwalla, S. K.

    2012-01-01

    This white paper addresses the hypothesis of light sterile neutrinos based on recent anomalies observed in neutrino experiments and the latest astrophysical data.......This white paper addresses the hypothesis of light sterile neutrinos based on recent anomalies observed in neutrino experiments and the latest astrophysical data....

  13. Mass and oscillations of Dirac neutrinos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collot, J.

    1989-01-01

    In the most economical extension of the standard model, we have presented the theory of massive Dirac neutrinos. We have particularly emphasized that, in this model, a complete analogy between quarks and leptons can be erected and predicts neutrino flavor oscillations. We have reviewed the last experimental results concerning kinetic neutrino mass experiments and neutrino oscillation investigations

  14. The neutrino factory beam and experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Blondel, A; Campanelli, M; Cervera-Villanueva, Anselmo; Cline, David B; Collot, J; De Jong, M; Donini, Andrea; Dydak, Friedrich; Edgecock, R; Gavela-Legazpi, Maria Belen; Gómez-Cadenas, J J; González-Garciá, M Concepción; Gruber, P M; Harris, D A; Hernández, Pilar; Kuno, Y; Litchfield, P J; McFarland, K; Mena, O; Migliozzi, P; Palladino, Vittorio; Panman, J; Papadopoulos, I M; Para, A; Peña-Garay, C; Pérez, P; Rigolin, Stefano; Romanino, Andrea; Rubbia, André; Strolin, P; Wojcicki, S G

    2000-01-01

    The discovery of neutrino oscillations marks a major milestone in the history of neutrino physics, and opens a new window to the still mysterious origin of masses and flavour-mixing. Many current and forthcoming experiments will answer open questions; however, a major step forward, up to and possibly including CP violation in the neutrino-mixing matrix, requires the neutrino beams from a \

  15. Massive neutrinos flavor mixing of leptons and neutrino oscillations

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    Since the discovery of neutrino oscillations neutrino physics has become an interesting field of research in physics. They imply that neutrino must have a small mass and that the neutrinos, coupled to the charged leptons, are mixtures of the mass eigenstates, analogous to the flavor mixing of the quarks. The mixing angles for the quarks are small, but for the leptons two of the mixing angles are large. The masses of the three neutrinos must be very small, less than 1 eV, but from the oscillation experiments we only know the mass differences — the absolute masses are still unknown. Also we do not know, if the masses of the neutrinos are Dirac masses, as the masses of the charged leptons and of the quarks, or whether they are Majorana masses. In this volume, an overview of the present state of research in neutrino physics is given by well-known experimentalists and theorists. The contents — originated from talks and discussions at a recent conference addressing some of the most pressing open questions in n...

  16. The challenge of neutrinos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutton, Christine

    1995-01-01

    Neutrinos'', Maurice Goldhaber once remarked, ''are remarkable particles: they induce courage in theoreticians and perseverance in experimenters''. They are also no strangers to controversy, for they were in a sense born amidst it, and as recent work on neutrino oscillations demonstrates they continue to fuel debate. This is of course largely to do with the fact that neutrinos have no electric charge and experience only the weak nuclear force, making them supremely difficult to detect. The debates surrounding neutrinos began in the first decades of the 20th century, before the particle had even been thought of. Studies pioneered by Lise Meitner and Otto Hahn suggested that the electrons emitted in beta-decay emerged with discrete energies. In these experiments a spectrometer bent the electrons according to their energy, and a photographic plate detected the electrons emerging through a movable slit, so yielding ''lines'' at various energies. But when James Chadwick used a point counter instead of a photographic plate, he could not find ''the ghost of a line''. Instead, he convinced himself that the energy of the beta-decay electrons varies continuously up to a maximum, with peaks (''lines'') at only a few energies. And he was able to explain how the photographic technique could ''fake'' lines through its great sensitivity to small changes in intensity. The First World War interrupted these investigations, but afterwards arguments between a continuous energy spectrum and discrete lines continued until 1927, when Charles Drummond Ellis and William Wooster at Cambridge published results from a definitive experiment in which they measured the total electron energy in a single decay process. If the electrons always started out with the same energy but lost varying amounts in subsidiary processes to give many lines, as Meitner believed, then the result would

  17. The Sudbury neutrino observatory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLatchie, W.; Earle, E.D.

    1987-04-01

    A group of Canadian scientists, in collaboration with colleagues from the United States and England, proposes to establish a world class laboratory in INCO's Creighton Mine. The laboratory would be dedicated to the study of neutrinos from the sun and other astrophysical objects to advance our understanding of the physical processes which govern the properties of stars, as well as our understanding of the fundamental properties of matter. The laboratory would capitalize on two unique Canadian resources, i.e. access to one of the deepest mines in the western hemisphere and Canada's temporary surplus of heavy water

  18. Search for the sterile neutrino mixing with the ICAL detector at INO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behera, S.P. [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Nuclear Physics Division, Mumbai (India); Homi Bhabha National Institute, Mumbai (India); Ghosh, Anushree [Universidad Tecnica Federico Santa Maria, Departamento de Fisica, Valparaiso (Chile); Choubey, Sandhya [Harish-Chandra Research Institute, Allahabad (India); Datar, V.M. [INO Cell, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Mumbai (India); Mishra, D.K. [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Nuclear Physics Division, Mumbai (India); Mohanty, A.K. [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Nuclear Physics Division, Mumbai (India); Homi Bhabha National Institute, Mumbai (India); Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, Kolkata (India)

    2017-05-15

    The study has been carried out on the prospects of probing the sterile neutrino mixing with the magnetized iron calorimeter (ICAL) at the India-based Neutrino Observatory (INO), using atmospheric neutrinos as a source. The so-called 3 + 1 scenario is considered for active-sterile neutrino mixing and lead to projected exclusion curves in the sterile neutrino mass and mixing angle plane. The analysis is performed using the neutrino event generator NUANCE, modified for ICAL, and folded with the detector resolutions obtained by the INO collaboration from a full GEANT4-based detector simulation. A comparison has been made between the results obtained from the analysis considering only the energy and zenith angle of the muon and combined with the hadron energy due to the neutrino induced event. A small improvement has been observed with the addition of the hadron information to the muon. In the analysis we consider neutrinos coming from all zenith angles and the Earth matter effects are also included. The inclusion of events from all zenith angles improves the sensitivity to sterile neutrino mixing by about 35% over the result obtained using only down-going events. The improvement mainly stems from the impact of Earth matter effects on active-sterile mixing. The expected precision of ICAL on the active-sterile mixing is explored and the allowed confidence level (C.L.) contours presented. At the assumed true value of 10 {sup circle} for the sterile mixing angles and marginalization over Δm{sup 2}{sub 41} and the sterile mixing angles, the upper bound at 90% C.L. (from two-parameter plots) is around 20 {sup circle} for θ{sub 14} and θ{sub 34}, and about 12 {sup circle} for θ{sub 24}. (orig.)

  19. Sterile Neutrinos in Cold Climates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Benjamin J.P. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Measurements of neutrino oscillations at short baselines contain an intriguing set of experimental anomalies that may be suggestive of new physics such as the existence of sterile neutrinos. This three-part thesis presents research directed towards understanding these anomalies and searching for sterile neutrino oscillations. Part I contains a theoretical discussion of neutrino coherence properties. The open-quantum-system picture of neutrino beams, which allows a rigorous prediction of coherence distances for accelerator neutrinos, is presented. Validity of the standard treatment of active and sterile neutrino oscillations at short baselines is verified, and non-standard coherence loss effects at longer baselines are predicted. Part II concerns liquid argon detector development for the MicroBooNE experiment, which will search for short-baseline oscillations in the Booster Neutrino Beam at Fermilab. Topics include characterization and installation of the MicroBooNE optical system; test-stand measurements of liquid argon optical properties with dissolved impurities; optimization of wavelength-shifting coatings for liquid argon scintillation light detection; testing and deployment of high-voltage surge arrestors to protect TPC field cages; and software development for optical and TPC simulation and reconstruction. Part III presents a search for sterile neutrinos using the IceCube neutrino telescope, which has collected a large sample of atmospheric-neutrino-induced events in the 1-10 TeV energy range. Sterile neutrinos would modify the detected neutrino flux shape via MSW-resonant oscillations. Following a careful treatment of systematic uncertainties in the sample, no evidence for MSW-resonant oscillations is observed, and exclusion limits on 3+1 model parameter space are derived. Under the mixing assumptions made, the 90% confidence level exclusion limit extends to sin224 ≤ 0.02 at m2 ~ 0.3 eV2, and the LSND and Mini

  20. MSW regeneration of solar and supernova V in the earth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cribier, M.; Lagage, P.O.; Rich, J.; Spiro, M.; Vignaud, D.

    1987-01-01

    We discuss the MSW (Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein) effect for different radiochemical and real-time neutrino experiments taking into account the effects of the passage through the earth for solar and supernova neutrinos. We emphasize that V e regeneration in the earth can lead to measurable increases in counting rates and to a time dependent V e energy spectrum. Such observations would verify the presence of the MSW effect and lead to a restriction on the allowed values of neutrino mass differences and mixing angles