National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The ESTO 2030 Science Vision envisions the future of Earth Science to be characterized by 'many more distributed observations,' and 'formation-flying [missions that]...
NASA has been actively involved in studying the planet Earth and its changing environment for well over thirty years. Within the last decade, NASA's Earth Science Enterprise has become a major observational and scientific element of the U.S. Global Change Research Program. NASA's Earth Science Enterprise management has developed a comprehensive observation-based research program addressing all the critical science questions that will take us into the next century. Furthermore, the entire program is being mapped to answer five Science Themes (1) land-cover and land-use change research (2) seasonal-to-interannual climate variability and prediction (3) natural hazards research and applications (4) long-term climate-natural variability and change research and (5) atmospheric ozone research. Now the emergence of newer technologies on the horizon and at the same time continuously declining budget environment has lead to an effort to refocus the Earth Science Enterprise activities. The intent is not to compromise the overall scientific goals, but rather strengthen them by enabling challenging detection, computational and space flight technologies those have not been practically feasible to date. NASA is planning faster, cost effective and relatively smaller missions to continue the science observations from space for the next decade. At the same time, there is a growing interest in the world in the remote sensing area which will allow NASA to take advantage of this by building strong coalitions with a number of international partners. The focus of this presentation is to provide a comprehensive look at the NASA's Earth Science Enterprise in terms of its brief history, scientific objectives, organization, activities and future direction.
Davis, Faith; Marquart, Jane; Menke, Greg
To date there has been much discussion about the value of Delay Tolerant Networking (DTN) for space missions. Claims of various benefits, based on paper analysis, are good; however a benefits statement with empirical evidence to support is even better. This paper presents potential and actual advantages of using DTN for Earth science missions based on results from multiple demonstrations, conducted by the Communications, Standards, and Technology Laboratory (CSTL) at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). Demonstrations included two flight demonstrations using the Earth Observing Mission 1 (EO-1) and the Near Earth Network (NEN), a ground based demonstration over satellite links to the Internet Router in Space (IRIS) payload on Intelsat-14, and others using the NASA Tracking Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS). Real and potential findings include increased flexibility and efficiency in science campaigns, reduced latency in a collaborative science scenario, and improved scientist-instrument communication and control.
Dunagan, S.; Fladeland, M.; Ippolito, C.; Knudson, M.
NASA Ames Research Center has led a number of important Earth science remote sensing missions including several directed at the assessment of natural resources. A key asset for accessing high risk airspace has been the 180 kg class SIERRA UAS platform, providing mission durations of up to 8 hrs at altitudes up to 3 km. Recent improvements to this mission capability are embodied in the incipient SIERRA-B variant. Two resource mapping problems having unusual mission characteristics requiring a mission adaptive capability are explored here. One example involves the requirement for careful control over solar angle geometry for passive reflectance measurements. This challenges the management of resources in the coastal ocean where solar angle combines with sea state to produce surface glint that can obscure the ocean color signal. Furthermore, as for all scanning imager applications, the primary flight control priority to fly the UAS directly to the next waypoint should compromise with the requirement to minimize roll and crab effects in the imagery. A second example involves the mapping of natural resources in the Earth's crust using precision magnetometry. In this case the vehicle flight path must be oriented to optimize magnetic flux gradients over a spatial domain having continually emerging features, while optimizing the efficiency of the spatial mapping task. These requirements were highlighted in several recent Earth Science missions including the October 2013 OCEANIA mission directed at improving the capability for hyperspectral reflectance measurements in the coastal ocean, and the Surprise Valley Mission directed at mapping sub-surface mineral composition and faults, using high-sensitivity magentometry. This paper reports the development of specific aircraft control approaches to incorporate the unusual and demanding requirements to manage solar angle, aircraft attitude and flight path orientation, and efficient (directly geo-rectified) surface and sub
This will be presented at the Earth Science Constellation Mission Operations Working Group (MOWG) meeting at KSC (Kennedy Space Center) in December 2017 to discus EOS (Earth Observing System) Aura status. Reviewed and approved by Eric Moyer, ESMO (Earth Sciences Mission Operations) Deputy Project Manager.
A viewgraph presentation describing the Earth System Science Pathfinder Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO) Mission is shown. The contents include: 1) Why CO2?; 2) What Processes Control CO2 Sinks?; 3) OCO Science Team; 4) Space-Based Measurements of CO2; 5) Driving Requirement: Precise, Bias-Free Global Measurements; 6) Making Precise CO2 Measurements from Space; 7) OCO Spatial Sampling Strategy; 8) OCO Observing Modes; 9) Implementation Approach; 10) The OCO Instrument; 11) The OCO Spacecraft; 12) OCO Will Fly in the A-Train; 13) Validation Program Ensures Accuracy and Minimizes Spatially Coherent Biases; 14) Can OCO Provide the Required Precision?; 15) O2 Column Retrievals with Ground-based FTS; 16) X(sub CO2) Retrieval Simulations; 17) Impact of Albedo and Aerosol Uncertainty on X(sub CO2) Retrievals; 18) Carbon Cycle Modeling Studies: Seasonal Cycle; 19) Carbon Cycle Modeling Studies: The North-South Gradient in CO2; 20) Carbon Cycle Modeling Studies: Effect of Diurnal Biases; 21) Project Status and Schedule; and 22) Summary.
This presentation at the Earth Science Constellation Mission Operations Working Group meeting at KSC in December 2017 to discuss EOS (Earth Observing System) Aqua Earth Science Constellation status. Reviewed and approved by Eric Moyer, ESMO (Earth Science Mission Operations) Deputy Project Manager.
The NASA program Mission to Planet Earth (MTPE) is described in this set of visuals presented in Massachusetts on July 29, 1991. The problem presented in this document is that the earth system is changing and that human activity accelerates the rate of change resulting in increased greenhouse gases, decreasing levels of stratospheric ozone, acid rain, deforestation, decreasing biodiversity, and overpopulation. Various national and international organizations are coordinating global change research. The complementary space observations for this activity are sun-synchronous polar orbits, low-inclination, low altitude orbits, geostationary orbits, and ground measurements. The Geostationary Earth Observatory is the major proposed mission of MTPE. Other proposed missions are EOS Synthetic Aperture Radar, ARISTOTELES Magnetic Field Experiment, and the Global Topography Mission. Use of the NASA DC-8 aircraft is outlined as carrying out the Airborne Science and Applications Program. Approved Earth Probes Program include the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS). Other packages for earth observation are described.
Krueger, Arlin J.
The VOLCAM mission is planned for research on volcanic eruptions and as a demonstration of a satellite system for measuring the location and density of volcanic eruption clouds for use in mitigating hazards to aircraft by the operational air traffic control systems. A requirement for 15 minute time resolution is met by flight as payloads of opportunity on geostationary satellites. Volcanic sulfur dioxide and ash are detected using techniques that have been developed from polar orbiting TOMS (UV) and AVHRR (IR) data. Seven band UV and three band IR filter wheel cameras are designed for continuous observation of the full disk of the earth with moderate (10 - 20 km) ground resolution. This resolution can be achieved with small, low cost instruments but is adequate for discrimination of ash and sulfur dioxide in the volcanic clouds from meteorological clouds and ozone. The false alarm rate is small through use of sulfur dioxide as a unique tracer of volcanic clouds. The UV band wavelengths are optimized to detect very small sulfur dioxide amounts that are present in pre-eruptive outgassing of volcanoes. The system is also capable of tracking dust and smoke clouds, and will be used to infer winds at tropopause level from the correlation of total ozone with potential vorticity.
Tilford, Shelby G.; Asrar, Ghassem; Backlund, Peter W.
Mission to Planet Earth (MTPE) is NASA's concept for an international science program to produce the understanding needed to predict changes in the Earth's environment. NASA and its interagency and international partners will place satellites carrying advanced sensors in strategic Earth orbits to gather multidisciplinary data. A sophisticated data system will process and archive an unprecedented amount of information about the Earth and how it works as a system. Increased understanding of the Earth system is a basic human responsibility, a prerequisite to informed management of the planet's resources and to the preservation of the global environment.
Wilson, G.S.; Backlund, P.W.
Mission to Planet Earth (MTPE) is NASA's concept for an international science program to produce the understanding needed to predict changes in the earth's environment. NASA and its interagency and international partners will place satellites carrying advanced sensors in strategic earth orbits to gather multidisciplinary data. A sophisticated data system will process and archive an unprecedented amount of information about the earth and how it works as a system. Increased understanding of the earth system is a basic human responsibility, a prerequisite to informed management of the planet's resources and to the preservation of the global environment. 8 refs
This is an EOS Aqua Mission Status presentation to be given at the MOWG meeting in Albuquerque NM. The topics to discus are: mission summary, spacecraft subsystems summary, recent and planned activities, inclination adjust maneuvers, propellant usage and lifetime estimate, and mission summary.
Teng, William; Albayrak, Arif
Citizen science (or crowdsourcing) has drawn much high-level recent and ongoing interest and support. It is poised to be applied, beyond the by-now fairly familiar use of, e.g., Twitter for natural hazards monitoring, to science research, such as augmenting the validation of NASA earth science mission data. This interest and support is seen in the 2014 National Plan for Civil Earth Observations, the 2015 White House forum on citizen science and crowdsourcing, the ongoing Senate Bill 2013 (Crowdsourcing and Citizen Science Act of 2015), the recent (August 2016) Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) call for public participation in its newly-established Citizen Science Domain Working Group, and NASA's initiation of a new Citizen Science for Earth Systems Program (along with its first citizen science-focused solicitation for proposals). Over the past several years, we have been exploring the feasibility of extracting from the Twitter data stream useful information for application to NASA precipitation research, with both "passive" and "active" participation by the twitterers. The Twitter database, which recently passed its tenth anniversary, is potentially a rich source of real-time and historical global information for science applications. The time-varying set of "precipitation" tweets can be thought of as an organic network of rain gauges, potentially providing a widespread view of precipitation occurrence. The validation of satellite precipitation estimates is challenging, because many regions lack data or access to data, especially outside of the U.S. and in remote and developing areas. Mining the Twitter stream could augment these validation programs and, potentially, help tune existing algorithms. Our ongoing work, though exploratory, has resulted in key components for processing and managing tweets, including the capabilities to filter the Twitter stream in real time, to extract location information, to filter for exact phrases, and to plot tweet distributions. The
Israel, David J.; Heckler, Gregory; Menrad, Robert; Hudiburg, John; Boroson, Don; Robinson, Bryan; Cornwell, Donald
In 2015, the Earth Regimes Network Evolution Study (ERNESt) proposed an architectural concept and technologies that evolve to enable space science and exploration missions out to the 2040 timeframe. The architectural concept evolves the current instantiations of the Near Earth Network and Space Network with new technologies to provide a global communication and navigation network that provides communication and navigation services to a wide range of space users in the near Earth domain. The technologies included High Rate Optical Communications, Optical Multiple Access (OMA), Delay Tolerant Networking (DTN), User Initiated Services (UIS), and advanced Position, Navigation, and Timing technology. This paper describes the key technologies and their current technology readiness levels. Examples of science missions that could be enabled by the technologies and the projected operational benefits of the architecture concept to missions are also described.
Smith, Dan; Horan, Stephen; Royer, Don; Sullivan, Don; Moe, Karen
This paper reports on the results of the study to identify technologies that could have a significant impact on Earth Science mission operations when looking out at the 5-15 year horizon (through 2025). The potential benefits of the new technologies will be discussed, as well as recommendations for early research and development, prototyping, or analysis for these technologies.
Volcanic eruptions, hurricanes, floods, and El Nino are naturally occurring events over which humans have no control. But can human activities cause additional environmental change? Can scientists predict the global impacts of increased levels of pollutants in the atmosphere? Will the planet warm because increased levels of greenhouse gases, produced by the burning of fossil fuels, trap heat and prevent it from being radiated back into space? Will the polar ice cap melt, causing massive coastal flooding? Have humans initiated wholesale climatic change? These are difficult questions, with grave implications. Predicting global change and understanding the relationships among earth's components have increased in priority for the nation. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), along with many other government agencies, has initiated long-term studies of earth's atmosphere, oceans, and land masses using observations from satellite, balloon, and aircraft-borne instruments. NASA calls its research program Mission to Planet Earth. Because NASA can place scientific instruments far above earth's surface, the program allows scientists to explore earth's components and their interactions on a global scale.
Leete, Stephen J.; Romero, Raul A.; Dempsey, James A.; Carey, John P.; Cline, Helmut P.; Lively, Carey F.
Technology assessments of fourteen science instruments were conducted within NASA using the NASA Technology Readiness Level (TRL) Metric. The instruments were part of three NASA Earth Science Decadal Survey missions in pre-formulation. The Earth Systematic Missions Program (ESMP) Systems Engineering Working Group (SEWG), composed of members of three NASA Centers, provided a newly modified electronic workbook to be completed, with instructions. Each instrument development team performed an internal assessment of its technology status, prepared an overview of its instrument, and completed the workbook with the results of its assessment. A team from the ESMP SEWG met with each instrument team and provided feedback. The instrument teams then reported through the Program Scientist for their respective missions to NASA's Earth Science Division (ESD) on technology readiness, taking the SEWG input into account. The instruments were found to have a range of TRL from 4 to 7. Lessons Learned are presented; however, due to the competition-sensitive nature of the assessments, the results for specific missions are not presented. The assessments were generally successful, and produced useful results for the agency. The SEWG team identified a number of potential improvements to the process. Particular focus was on ensuring traceability to guiding NASA documents, including the NASA Systems Engineering Handbook. The TRL Workbook has been substantially modified, and the revised workbook is described.
Shepherd, J. Marshall
The Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission is the first mission dedicated to measuring tropical and subtropical rainfall using a variety of remote sensing instrumentation, including the first spaceborne rain-measuring radar. Since the energy released when tropical rainfall occurs is a primary "fuel" supply for the weather and climate "engine"; improvements in computer models which predict future weather and climate states may depend on better measurements of global tropical rainfall and its energy. In support of the STANYS conference theme of Education and Space, this presentation focuses on one aspect of NASA's Earth Systems Science Program. We seek to present an overview of the TRMM mission. This overview will discuss the scientific motivation for TRMM, the TRMM instrument package, and recent images from tropical rainfall systems and hurricanes. The presentation also targets educational components of the TRMM mission in the areas of weather, mathematics, technology, and geography that can be used by secondary school/high school educators in the classroom.
Brown, Robert A.
We use Nt , the number of exoplanets observed in time t, as a science metric to study direct-search missions like Terrestrial Planet Finder. In our model, N has 27 parameters, divided into three categories: 2 astronomical, 7 instrumental, and 18 science-operational. For various "27-vectors" of those parameters chosen to explore parameter space, we compute design reference missions to estimate Nt . Our treatment includes the recovery of completeness c after a search observation, for revisits, solar and antisolar avoidance, observational overhead, and follow-on spectroscopy. Our baseline 27-vector has aperture D = 16 m, inner working angle IWA = 0.039'', mission time t = 0-5 yr, occurrence probability for Earth-like exoplanets η = 0.2, and typical values for the remaining 23 parameters. For the baseline case, a typical five-year design reference mission has an input catalog of ~4700 stars with nonzero completeness, ~1300 unique stars observed in ~2600 observations, of which ~1300 are revisits, and it produces N 1 ~ 50 exoplanets after one year and N 5 ~ 130 after five years. We explore offsets from the baseline for 10 parameters. We find that N depends strongly on IWA and only weakly on D. It also depends only weakly on zodiacal light for Z end-to-end efficiency for h > 0.2, and scattered starlight for ζ revisits, solar and antisolar avoidance, and follow-on spectroscopy are all important factors in estimating N.
Brown, Robert A.
We use N t , the number of exoplanets observed in time t, as a science metric to study direct-search missions like Terrestrial Planet Finder. In our model, N has 27 parameters, divided into three categories: 2 astronomical, 7 instrumental, and 18 science-operational. For various ''27-vectors'' of those parameters chosen to explore parameter space, we compute design reference missions to estimate N t . Our treatment includes the recovery of completeness c after a search observation, for revisits, solar and antisolar avoidance, observational overhead, and follow-on spectroscopy. Our baseline 27-vector has aperture D = 16 m, inner working angle IWA = 0.039'', mission time t = 0-5 yr, occurrence probability for Earth-like exoplanets η = 0.2, and typical values for the remaining 23 parameters. For the baseline case, a typical five-year design reference mission has an input catalog of ∼4700 stars with nonzero completeness, ∼1300 unique stars observed in ∼2600 observations, of which ∼1300 are revisits, and it produces N 1 ∼ 50 exoplanets after one year and N 5 ∼ 130 after five years. We explore offsets from the baseline for 10 parameters. We find that N depends strongly on IWA and only weakly on D. It also depends only weakly on zodiacal light for Z < 50 zodis, end-to-end efficiency for h > 0.2, and scattered starlight for ζ < 10 –10 . We find that observational overheads, completeness recovery and revisits, solar and antisolar avoidance, and follow-on spectroscopy are all important factors in estimating N
Moskovitz, Nicholas; Thirouin, Audrey; Binzel, Richard; Burt, Brian; Christensen, Eric; DeMeo, Francesca; Endicott, Thomas; Hinkle, Mary; Mommert, Michael; Person, Michael; Polishook, David; Siu, Hosea; Thomas, Cristina; Trilling, David; Willman, Mark
Near-Earth objects (NEOs) are essential to understanding the origin of the Solar System through their compositional links to meteorites. As tracers of other parts of the Solar System they provide insight to more distant populations. Their small sizes and complex dynamical histories make them ideal laboratories for studying ongoing processes of planetary evolution. Knowledge of their physical properties is essential to impact hazard assessment. And the proximity of NEOs to Earth make them favorable targets for a variety of planetary mission scenarios. However, in spite of their importance, only the largest NEOs are well studied and a representative sample of physical properties for sub-km NEOs does not exist.MANOS is a multi-year physical characterization survey, originally awarded survey status by NOAO. MANOS is targeting several hundred mission-accessible, sub-km NEOs across visible and near-infrared wavelengths to provide a comprehensive catalog of physical properties (astrometry, light curves, spectra). Accessing these targets is enabled through classical, queue, and target-of-opportunity observations carried out at 1- to 8-meter class facilities in the northern and southern hemispheres. Our observing strategy is designed to rapidly characterize newly discovered NEOs before they fade beyond observational limits.Early progress from MANOS includes: (1) the de-biased taxonomic distribution of spectral types for NEOs smaller than ~100 meters, (2) the distribution of rotational properties for approximately 100 previously unstudied NEOs, (3) detection of the fastest known rotation period of any minor planet in the Solar System, (4) an investigation of the influence of planetary encounters on the rotational properties of NEOs, (5) dynamical models for the evolution of the overall NEO population over the past 0.5 Myr, and (6) development of a new set of online tools at asteroid.lowell.edu that will enable near realtime public dissemination of our data products while
Abell, P. A.; Sanders, G. B.; Mazanek, D. D.; Barbee, B. W.; Mink, R. G.; Landis, R. R.; Adamo, D. R.; Johnson, L. N.; Yeomans, D. K.; Reeves, D. M.; Drake, B. G.; Friedensen, V. P.
Introduction: In 2009 the Augustine Commission identified near-Earth asteroids (NEAs) as high profile destinations for human exploration missions beyond the Earth-Moon system as part of the Flexible Path. More recently the U.S. presidential administration directed NASA to include NEAs as destinations for future human exploration with the goal of sending astronauts to a NEA in the mid to late 2020s. This directive became part of the official National Space Policy of the United States of America as of June 28, 2010. NEA Space-Based Survey and Robotic Precursor Missions: The most suitable targets for human missions are NEAs in Earth-like orbits with long synodic periods. However, these mission candidates are often not observable from Earth until the timeframe of their most favorable human mission opportunities, which does not provide an appropriate amount of time for mission development. A space-based survey telescope could more efficiently find these targets in a timely, affordable manner. Such a system is not only able to discover new objects, but also track and characterize objects of interest for human space flight consideration. Those objects with characteristic signatures representative of volatile-rich or metallic materials will be considered as top candidates for further investigation due to their potential for resource utilization and scientific discovery. Once suitable candidates have been identified, precursor spacecraft are required to perform basic reconnaissance of a few NEAs under consideration for the human-led mission. Robotic spacecraft will assess targets for potential hazards that may pose a risk to the deep space transportation vehicle, its deployable assets, and the crew. Additionally, the information obtained about the NEA's basic physical characteristics will be crucial for planning operational activities, designing in-depth scientific/engineering investigations, and identifying sites on the NEA for sample collection. Human Exploration
Harris, A. W.; Galvez, A.; Benz, W.; Fitzsimmons, A.; Green, S. F.; Michel, P.; Valsecchi, G.; Paetzold, M.; Haeusler, B.; Carnelli, I.
The Don Quijote concept includes a rendezvous spacecraft and an impactor vehicle The main aim of the mission is to carry out an experiment to demonstrate the modification of a near-Earth asteroid s orbit in a controlled way as a first step in establishing mitigation measures against an eventual hazardous object In particular the spacecraft would study the physical properties of the target asteroid and the effects of a kinetic impact on its dynamical state It is also expected that some spacecraft resources will be available for more general solar-system science investigations The Don Quijote mission is currently at the phase-A stage during which a number of European consortia of industrial and scientific partners will study its technical feasibility and potential scientific return The basic mission concept current scientific issues and the possibilities for international participation in the mission will be discussed
We present a concept for a small mission to the Sun-Earth Lagrangian L5 point for innovative solar, heliospheric and space weather science. The proposed INvestigation of Solar-Terrestrial Activity aNd Transients (INSTANT) mission is designed to identify how solar coronal magnetic fields drive eruptions, mass transport and particle acceleration that impact the Earth and the heliosphere. INSTANT is the first mission designed to (1) obtain measurements of coronal magnetic fields from space and (2) determine coronal mass ejection (CME) kinematics with unparalleled accuracy. Thanks to innovative instrumentation at a vantage point that provides the most suitable perspective view of the Sun-Earth system, INSTANT would uniquely track the whole chain of fundamental processes driving space weather at Earth. We present the science requirements, payload and mission profile that fulfill ambitious science objectives within small mission programmatic boundary conditions.
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposal addresses NASAs Earth Science missions and climate architecture plan and its underlying needs for high performance, modular, and scalable on-board...
Guit, William J.; Fisher, Dominic
Presentation reflects EOS Aura mission status, spacecraft subsystems summary, recent and planned activities, inclination adjust maneuvers, propellant usage, orbit maintenance maneuvers, conjunction assessment events, orbital parameters trends and predictions.
Guit, William J.
This presentation reflects the EOS Aqua mission status, spacecraft subsystem summary, recent and planned activities, inclination adjust maneuvers, propellant usage and lifetime estimate, orbital maintenance maneuvers, conjunction assessment high interest events, ground track error, spacecraft orbital parameters trends and predictions.
Gallagher, Kevin T.
The Core Science Systems Mission Area delivers nationally focused Earth systems and information science that provides fundamental research and data that underpins all Mission Areas of the USGS, the USGS Science Strategy, and Presidential, Secretarial, and societal priorities. —Kevin T. Gallagher, Associate Director, Core Science Systems
Smith, Michael J.
This article briefly describes Earth science. The study of Earth science provides the foundation for an understanding of the Earth, its processes, its resources, and its environment. Earth science is the study of the planet in its entirety, how its lithosphere, atmosphere, hydrosphere, and biosphere work together as systems and how they affect…
Seablom, Michael S.
The role of the Science Mission Directorate (SMD) is to enable NASA to achieve its science goals in the context of the Nation's science agenda. SMD's strategic decisions regarding future missions and scientific pursuits are guided by Agency goals, input from the science community including the recommendations set forth in the National Research Council (NRC) decadal surveys and a commitment to preserve a balanced program across the major science disciplines. Toward this end, each of the four SMD science divisions -- Heliophysics, Earth Science, Planetary Science, and Astrophysics -- develops fundamental science questions upon which to base future research and mission programs. Often the breakthrough science required to answer these questions requires significant technological innovation, e.g., instruments or platforms with capabilities beyond the current state of the art. SMD's targeted technology investments fill technology gaps, enabling NASA to build the challenging and complex missions that accomplish groundbreaking science.
Ramapriyan, H. K.
NASA's Earth Science Data Systems (ESDS) Program has evolved over the last two decades, and currently has several core and community components. Core components provide the basic operational capabilities to process, archive, manage and distribute data from NASA missions. Community components provide a path for peer-reviewed research in Earth Science Informatics to feed into the evolution of the core components. The Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) is a core component consisting of twelve Distributed Active Archive Centers (DAACs) and eight Science Investigator-led Processing Systems spread across the U.S. The presentation covers how the ESDS Program continues to evolve and benefits from as well as contributes to advances in Earth Science Informatics.
Rutherford, Sandra; Coffman, Margaret
For several decades, science teachers have used bottles for classroom projects designed to teach students about biology. Bottle projects do not have to just focus on biology, however. These projects can also be used to engage students in Earth science topics. This article describes the Earth System Science Project, which was adapted and developed…
NASA's Earth Science Enterprise (ESE) is dedicated to understanding the total Earth system and the effects of natural and human-induced changes on the global environment. The goals of ESE are: (1) Expand scientific knowledge of the Earth system using NASA's unique vantage points of space, aircraft, and in situ platforms; (2) Disseminate information about the Earth system; and (3) Enable the productive use of ESE science and technology in the public and private sectors. ESE has embraced the NASA Administrator's better, faster, cheaper paradigm for Earth observing missions. We are committed to launch the next generation of Earth Observing System (EOS) missions at a substantially lower cost than the EOS first series. Strategic investment in advanced instrument, spacecraft, and information system technologies is essential to accomplishing ESE's research goals in the coming decades. Advanced technology will play a major role in shaping the ESE fundamental and applied research program of the future. ESE has established an Earth science technology development program with the following objectives: (1) To accomplish ESE space-based and land-based program elements effectively and efficiently; and (2) To enable ESE's fundamental and applied research programs goals as stated in the NASA Strategic Plan.
Hélière, Arnaud; Armandillo, Errico; Durand, Yannig; Culoma, Alain; Meynart, Roland
The idea of deploying a lidar system on an Earthorbiting satellite stems from the need for continuously providing profiles of our atmospheric structure with high accuracy and resolution and global coverage. Interest in this information for climatology, meteorology and the atmospheric sciences in general is huge. Areas of application range from the determination of global warming and greenhouse effects, to monitoring the transport and accumulation of pollutants in the different atmospheric regions (such as the recent fires in Southeast Asia), to the assessment of the largely unknown microphysical properties and the structural dynamics of the atmosphere itself. Spaceborne lidar systems have been the subject of extensive investigations by the European Space Agency since mid 1970's, resulting in mission and instrument concepts, such as ATLID, the cloud backscatter lidar payload of the EarthCARE mission, ALADIN, the Doppler wind lidar of the Atmospheric Dynamics Mission (ADM) and more recently a water vapour Differential Absorption Lidar considered for the WALES mission. These studies have shown the basic scientific and technical feasibility of spaceborne lidars, but they have also demonstrated their complexity from the instrument viewpoint. As a result, the Agency undertook technology development in order to strengthen the instrument maturity. This is the case for ATLID, which benefited from a decade of technology development and supporting studies and is now studied in the frame of the EarthCARE mission. ALADIN, a Direct Detection Doppler Wind Lidar operating in the Ultra -Violet, will be the 1st European lidar to fly in 2007 as payload of the Earth Explorer Core Mission ADM. WALES currently studied at the level of a phase A, is based upon a lidar operating at 4 wavelengths in near infrared and aims to profile the water vapour in the lower part of the atmosphere with high accuracy and low bias. Lastly, the European Space Agency is extending the lidar instrument field
Two issues regarding primary productivity, as it pertains to the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) Program and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Mission to Planet Earth (MTPE) are presented in this volume. Chapter 1 describes the development of a science plan for deriving primary production for the world ocean using satellite measurements, by the Ocean Primary Productivity Working Group (OPPWG). Chapter 2 presents discussions by the same group, of algorithm classification, algorithm parameterization and data availability, algorithm testing and validation, and the benefits of a consensus primary productivity algorithm.
Klumpar, D. M.; Obland, M.; Hunyadi, G.; Jepsen, S.; Larsen, B.; Kankelborg, C.; Hiscock, W.
Montana State University's interdisciplinary Space Science and Engineering Laboratory (SSEL) under support from the Montana NASA Space Grant Consortium is engaged in an earth orbiting satellite student design and flight project. The Montana EaRth Orbiting Pico Explorer (MEROPE) will carry a modern-day reproduction of the scientific payload carried on Explorer-1. On February 1, 1958 the United States launched its first earth orbiting satellite carrying a 14 kg scientific experiment built by Professor James Van Allen's group at the State University of Iowa (now The University of Iowa). The MEROPE student satellite will carry a reproduction, using current-day technology, of the scientific payload flown on Explorer-1. The CubeSat-class satellite will use currently available, low cost technologies to produce a payload-carrying satellite with a total orbital mass of 1 kg in a volume of 1 cubic liter. The satellite is to be launched in late 2001 into a 600 km, 65° inclination orbit. MEROPE will utilize passive magnetic orientation for 2-axis attitude control. A central microprocessor provides timing, controls on-board operations and switching, and enables data storage. Body mounted GaAs solar arrays are expected to provide in excess of 1.5 W. to maintain battery charge and operate the bus and payload. The Geiger counter will be operated at approximately 50% duty cycle, primarily during transits of the earth's radiation belts. Data will be stored on board and transmitted approximately twice per day to a ground station located on the Bozeman campus of the Montana State University. Owing to the 65° inclination, the instrument will also detect the higher energy portion of the electron spectrum responsible for the production of the Aurora Borealis. This paper describes both the technical implementation and design of the satellite and its payload as well as the not inconsiderable task of large team organization and management. As of March 2001, the student team consists of
Ramapriyan, H. K.
Over the last 10-15 years, significant advances have been made in information management, there are an increasing number of individuals entering the field of information management as it applies to Geoscience and Remote Sensing data, and the field of informatics has come to its own. Informatics is the science and technology of applying computers and computational methods to the systematic analysis, management, interchange, and representation of science data, information, and knowledge. Informatics also includes the use of computers and computational methods to support decision making and applications. Earth Science Informatics (ESI, a.k.a. geoinformatics) is the application of informatics in the Earth science domain. ESI is a rapidly developing discipline integrating computer science, information science, and Earth science. Major national and international research and infrastructure projects in ESI have been carried out or are on-going. Notable among these are: the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS), the European Commissions INSPIRE, the U.S. NSDI and Geospatial One-Stop, the NASA EOSDIS, and the NSF DataONE, EarthCube and Cyberinfrastructure for Geoinformatics. More than 18 departments and agencies in the U.S. federal government have been active in Earth science informatics. All major space agencies in the world, have been involved in ESI research and application activities. In the United States, the Federation of Earth Science Information Partners (ESIP), whose membership includes over 180 organizations (government, academic and commercial) dedicated to managing, delivering and applying Earth science data, has been working on many ESI topics since 1998. The Committee on Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS)s Working Group on Information Systems and Services (WGISS) has been actively coordinating the ESI activities among the space agencies.The talk will present an overview of current efforts in ESI, the role members of IEEE GRSS play, and discuss
A viewgraph presentation reviewing the Earth Science Capability Demonstration Project is shown. The contents include: 1) ESCD Project; 2) Available Flight Assets; 3) Ikhana Procurement; 4) GCS Layout; 5) Baseline Predator B Architecture; 6) Ikhana Architecture; 7) UAV Capability Assessment; 8) The Big Picture; 9) NASA/NOAA UAV Demo (5/05 to 9/05); 10) NASA/USFS Western States Fire Mission (8/06); and 11) Suborbital Telepresence.
Cheng, A. F.; Santo, A. G.; Heeres, K. J.; Landshof, J. A.; Farquhar, R. W.; Gold, R. E.; Lee, S. C.
The Near-Earth Asteroid Rendezvous (NEAR) mission, the first launch of NASA's Discovery Program, will be the first mission to orbit an asteroid. NEAR will make the first comprehensive scientific measurements of an asteroid's surface composition, geology, physical properties, and internal structure. NEAR launched successfully on February 17, 1996, aboard a Delta II-7925. It will orbit the 20-km-diameter near-Earth asteroid 433 Eros for about 1 year, at a minimum orbit radius of about 35 km from the center of the asteroid. The NEAR is a solar-powered, three-axis stabilized spacecraft with a launch mass including propellant of 805 kg. NEAR uses X band telemetry to the NASA Deep Space Network, with the data rates at Eros up to 8.8 kbits/s using a 34-m High Efficiency (HEF) dish, and up to 26.5 kbits/s using a 70-m dish. A solid-state recorder is accommodated with a memory capacity of 1.8 Gbytes. Attitude control is to 1.7 mrad, line-of-sight pointing stability is within 50 μrad over 1 s, and post processing attitude knowledge is within 50 μrad. NEAR accommodates 56 kg of instruments and provides them with 84 W. The instruments are a multispectral imager (MSI), a near-infrared spectrograph (NIS), an X ray/gamma ray spectrometer (XRS/GRS), a magnetometer (MAG), and a laser rangefinder (NLR), while a radio science (RS) investigation uses the coherent X band transponder. NEAR will make a flyby of the C-type asteroid 253 Mathilde in June 1997 and will rendezvous with 433 Eros in February 1999. It will execute an initial slow flyby of Eros, with a flyby speed of 5 m/s and a closest approach distance of 500 km. Subsequently, its orbit will be lowered to 35 km. The NEAR Mission Operations Center and the Science Data Center are at the Johns Hopkins Applied Physics Laboratory. The Science Data Center will maintain the entire NEAR data set on-line, and data from all instruments can be accessed by every member of the NEAR Science Team. Data, including images, are released over
Kelly, Angelita Castro; Chang, Edward S.
The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Earth Observing System (EOS) will provide a comprehensive long term set of observations of the Earth to the Earth science research community. The data will aid in determining global changes caused both naturally and through human interaction. Understanding man's impact on the global environment will allow sound policy decisions to be made to protect our future. EOS is a major component of the Mission to Planet Earth program, which is NASA's contribution to the U.S. Global Change Research Program. EOS consists of numerous instruments on multiple spacecraft and a distributed ground system. The EOS Data and Information System (EOSDIS) is the major ground system developed to support EOS. The EOSDIS will provide EOS spacecraft command and control, data processing, product generation, and data archival and distribution services for EOS spacecraft. Data from EOS instruments on other Earth science missions (e.g., Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM)) will also be processed, distributed, and archived in EOSDIS. The U.S. and various International Partners (IP) (e.g., the European Space Agency (ESA), the Ministry of International Trade and Industry (MITI) of Japan, and the Canadian Space Agency (CSA)) participate in and contribute to the international EOS program. The EOSDIS will also archive processed data from other designated NASA Earth science missions (e.g., UARS) that are under the broad umbrella of Mission to Planet Earth.
Weisgarber, Sherry L.; Van Doren, Lisa; Hackathorn, Merrianne; Hannibal, Joseph T.; Hansgen, Richard
This publication is a collection of 13 hands-on activities that focus on earth science-related activities and involve students in learning about growing crystals, tectonics, fossils, rock and minerals, modeling Ohio geology, geologic time, determining true north, and constructing scale-models of the Earth-moon system. Each activity contains…
Liu, Zhong; Ostrenga, D.; Vollmer, B.; Deshong, B.; Greene, M.; Teng, W.; Kempler, S. J.
On February 27, 2014, the NASA Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission was launched to provide the next-generation global observations of rain and snow (http:pmm.nasa.govGPM). The GPM mission consists of an international network of satellites in which a GPM Core Observatory satellite carries both active and passive microwave instruments to measure precipitation and serve as a reference standard, to unify precipitation measurements from a constellation of other research and operational satellites. The NASA Goddard Earth Sciences (GES) Data and Information Services Center (DISC) hosts and distributes GPM data within the NASA Earth Observation System Data Information System (EOSDIS). The GES DISC is home to the data archive for the GPM predecessor, the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM). Over the past 16 years, the GES DISC has served the scientific as well as other communities with TRMM data and user-friendly services. During the GPM era, the GES DISC will continue to provide user-friendly data services and customer support to users around the world. GPM products currently and to-be available include the following: 1. Level-1 GPM Microwave Imager (GMI) and partner radiometer products. 2. Goddard Profiling Algorithm (GPROF) GMI and partner products. 3. Integrated Multi-satellitE Retrievals for GPM (IMERG) products. (early, late, and final)A dedicated Web portal (including user guides, etc.) has been developed for GPM data (http:disc.sci.gsfc.nasa.govgpm). Data services that are currently and to-be available include Google-like Mirador (http:mirador.gsfc.nasa.gov) for data search and access; data access through various Web services (e.g., OPeNDAP, GDS, WMS, WCS); conversion into various formats (e.g., netCDF, HDF, KML (for Google Earth), ASCII); exploration, visualization, and statistical online analysis through Giovanni (http:giovanni.gsfc.nasa.gov); generation of value-added products; parameter and spatial subsetting; time aggregation; regridding; data
Ostrenga, D.; Liu, Z.; Vollmer, B.; Teng, W. L.; Kempler, S. J.
On February 27, 2014, the NASA Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission was launched to provide the next-generation global observations of rain and snow (http://pmm.nasa.gov/GPM). The GPM mission consists of an international network of satellites in which a GPM "Core Observatory" satellite carries both active and passive microwave instruments to measure precipitation and serve as a reference standard, to unify precipitation measurements from a constellation of other research and operational satellites. The NASA Goddard Earth Sciences (GES) Data and Information Services Center (DISC) hosts and distributes GPM data within the NASA Earth Observation System Data Information System (EOSDIS). The GES DISC is home to the data archive for the GPM predecessor, the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM). Over the past 16 years, the GES DISC has served the scientific as well as other communities with TRMM data and user-friendly services. During the GPM era, the GES DISC will continue to provide user-friendly data services and customer support to users around the world. GPM products currently and to-be available include the following: Level-1 GPM Microwave Imager (GMI) and partner radiometer products Goddard Profiling Algorithm (GPROF) GMI and partner products Integrated Multi-satellitE Retrievals for GPM (IMERG) products (early, late, and final) A dedicated Web portal (including user guides, etc.) has been developed for GPM data (http://disc.sci.gsfc.nasa.gov/gpm). Data services that are currently and to-be available include Google-like Mirador (http://mirador.gsfc.nasa.gov/) for data search and access; data access through various Web services (e.g., OPeNDAP, GDS, WMS, WCS); conversion into various formats (e.g., netCDF, HDF, KML (for Google Earth), ASCII); exploration, visualization, and statistical online analysis through Giovanni (http://giovanni.gsfc.nasa.gov); generation of value-added products; parameter and spatial subsetting; time aggregation; regridding
Friis-Christensen, Eigil; Lühr, H.; Knudsen, D.
The Swarm mission was selected as the 5th mission in ESA's Earth Explorer Programme in 2004. This mission aims at measuring the Earth's magnetic field with unprecedented accuracy. This will be done by a constellation of three satellites, where two will fly at lower altitude, measuring the gradient...... of the magnetic field, and one satellite will fly at higher altitude. The measured magnetic field is the sum of many contributions including both magnetic fields and currents in the Earth's interior and electrical currents in Geospace. In order to separate all these sources electric field and plasma measurements...... will also be made to complement the primary magnetic field measurements. Together these will allow the deduction of information on a series of solid earth processes responsible for the creation of the fields measured. The completeness of the measurements on each satellite and the constellation aspect...
Liu, Z.; Ostrenga, D.; Vollmer, B.; Kempler, S.; Deshong, B.; Greene, M.
The NASA Goddard Earth Sciences (GES) Data and Information Services Center (DISC) hosts and distributes GPM data within the NASA Earth Observation System Data Information System (EOSDIS). The GES DISC is also home to the data archive for the GPM predecessor, the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM). Over the past 17 years, the GES DISC has served the scientific as well as other communities with TRMM data and user-friendly services. During the GPM era, the GES DISC will continue to provide user-friendly data services and customer support to users around the world. GPM products currently and to-be available: -Level-1 GPM Microwave Imager (GMI) and partner radiometer products, DPR products -Level-2 Goddard Profiling Algorithm (GPROF) GMI and partner products, DPR products -Level-3 daily and monthly products, DPR products -Integrated Multi-satellitE Retrievals for GPM (IMERG) products (early, late, and final) A dedicated Web portal (including user guides, etc.) has been developed for GPM data (http://disc.sci.gsfc.nasa.gov/gpm). Data services that are currently and to-be available include Google-like Mirador (http://mirador.gsfc.nasa.gov/) for data search and access; data access through various Web services (e.g., OPeNDAP, GDS, WMS, WCS); conversion into various formats (e.g., netCDF, HDF, KML (for Google Earth), ASCII); exploration, visualization, and statistical online analysis through Giovanni (http://giovanni.gsfc.nasa.gov); generation of value-added products; parameter and spatial subsetting; time aggregation; regridding; data version control and provenance; documentation; science support for proper data usage, FAQ, help desk; monitoring services (e.g. Current Conditions) for applications. The United User Interface (UUI) is the next step in the evolution of the GES DISC web site. It attempts to provide seamless access to data, information and services through a single interface without sending the user to different applications or URLs (e.g., search, access
Project Earth Science: Astronomy, Revised 2nd Edition, involves students in activities that focus on Earth's position in our solar system. How do we measure astronomical distances? How can we look back in time as we gaze across vast distances in space? How would our planet be different without its particular atmosphere and distance to our star? What are the geometries among Earth, the Moon, and the Sun that yield lunar phases and seasons? Students explore these concepts and others in 11 teacher-tested activities.
Hardman, Sean; Riofrio, Andres; Shams, Khawaja; Freeborn, Dana; Springer, Paul; Chafin, Brian
Cloud Computing holds tremendous potential for missions across the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Several flight missions are already benefiting from an investment in cloud computing for mission critical pipelines and services through faster processing time, higher availability, and drastically lower costs available on cloud systems. However, these processes do not currently extend to general scientific algorithms relevant to earth science missions. The members of the Airborne Cloud Computing Environment task at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory have worked closely with the Carbon in Arctic Reservoirs Vulnerability Experiment (CARVE) mission to integrate cloud computing into their science data processing pipeline. This paper details the efforts involved in deploying a science data system for the CARVE mission, evaluating and integrating cloud computing solutions with the system and porting their science algorithms for execution in a cloud environment.
This is a presentation at the MOWG fall meeting that will discuss CCS purpose, future status, security enhancements, arbitrary ephemeris mission features, overview of CCS 7.3, approach for the use of NORAD TLEs, account and data security, CCS System virtualization, control box visualization modification and other enhancements.
Lowe, Dawn R.; Murphy, Kevin J.; Ramapriyan, Hampapuram
NASA has been collecting Earth observation data for over 50 years using instruments on board satellites, aircraft and ground-based systems. With the inception of the Earth Observing System (EOS) Program in 1990, NASA established the Earth Science Data and Information System (ESDIS) Project and initiated development of the Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS). A set of Distributed Active Archive Centers (DAACs) was established at locations based on science discipline expertise. Today, EOSDIS consists of 12 DAACs and 12 Science Investigator-led Processing Systems (SIPS), processing data from the EOS missions, as well as the Suomi National Polar Orbiting Partnership mission, and other satellite and airborne missions. The DAACs archive and distribute the vast majority of data from NASA’s Earth science missions, with data holdings exceeding 12 petabytes The data held by EOSDIS are available to all users consistent with NASA’s free and open data policy, which has been in effect since 1990. The EOSDIS archives consist of raw instrument data counts (level 0 data), as well as higher level standard products (e.g., geophysical parameters, products mapped to standard spatio-temporal grids, results of Earth system models using multi-instrument observations, and long time series of Earth System Data Records resulting from multiple satellite observations of a given type of phenomenon). EOSDIS data stewardship responsibilities include ensuring that the data and information content are reliable, of high quality, easily accessible, and usable for as long as they are considered to be of value.
Philips, William C.
Presented is a list of over 50 commonly held misconceptions based on a literature review found in students and adults. The list covers earth science topics such as space, the lithosphere, the biosphere, the atmosphere, the hydrosphere, and the cryosphere. (KR)
King, M. D. (Editor); Greenstone, R. (Editor)
The content of this handbook includes Earth Science Enterprise; The Earth Observing System; EOS Data and Information System (EOSDIS); Data and Information Policy; Pathfinder Data Sets; Earth Science Information Partners and the Working Prototype-Federation; EOS Data Quality: Calibration and Validation; Education Programs; International Cooperation; Interagency Coordination; Mission Elements; EOS Instruments; EOS Interdisciplinary Science Investigations; and Points-of-Contact.
Alpha, Tau Rho; Diggles, Michael F.
This CD-ROM contains 17 teaching tools: 16 interactive HyperCard 'stacks' and a printable model. They are separated into the following categories: Geologic Processes, Earthquakes and Faulting, and Map Projections and Globes. A 'navigation' stack, Earth Science, is provided as a 'launching' place from which to access all of the other stacks. You can also open the HyperCard Stacks folder and launch any of the 16 stacks yourself. In addition, a 17th tool, Earth and Tectonic Globes, is provided as a printable document. Each of the tools can be copied onto a 1.4-MB floppy disk and distributed freely.
This paper presents NASA's recent direction to invest in the critical science instrument and platform technologies in order to realize more reliable, frequent and versatile missions for future Earth Science measurements. Historically, NASA's Earth Science Enterprise has developed and flown science missions that have been large in size, mass and volume. These missions have taken much longer to implement due to technology development time, and have carried a large suite of instruments on a large spacecraft. NASA is now facing an era where the budget for the future years is more or less flat and the possibility for any major new start does not vividly appear on the horizon. Unfortunately, the scientific measurement needs for remote sensing have not shrunk to commensurate with the budget constraints. In fact, the challenges and scientific appetite in search of answers to a score of outstanding questions have been gradually expanding. With these factors in mind, for the last three years NASA has been changing its focus to concentrate on how to take advantage of smaller missions by relying on industry, and minimizing the overall mission life cycle by developing technologies that are independent of the mission implementation cycle. The major redirection of early investment in the critical technologies should eventually have its rewards and significantly reduce the mission development period. Needless to say, in the long run this approach should save money, minimize risk, promote or encourage partnering, allow for a rapid response to measurement needs, and enable frequent missions making a wider variety of earth science measurements. This paper gives an overview of some of the identified crucial technologies and their intended applications for meeting the future Earth Science challenges.
A survey of the Earth science content of science textbooks found a wide range of misconceptions. These are discussed in this article with reference to the published literature on Earth science misconceptions. Most misconceptions occurred in the "sedimentary rocks and processes" and "Earth's structure and plate tectonics"…
TRMM has acquired more than four years of data since its launch in November 1997. All TRMM standard products are processed by the TRMM Science Data and Information System (TSDIS) and archived and distributed to general users by the GES DAAC. Table 1 shows the total archive and distribution as of February 28, 2002. The Utilization Ratio (UR), defined as the ratio of the number of distributed files to the number of archived files, of the TRMM standard products has been steadily increasing since 1998 and is currently at 6.98.
Neeck, Steven P.; Volz, Stephen M.
NASA's Earth Science Division (ESD) conducts pioneering work in Earth system science, the interdisciplinary view of Earth that explores the interaction among the atmosphere, oceans, ice sheets, land surface interior, and life itself that has enabled scientists to measure global and climate changes and to inform decisions by governments, organizations, and people in the United States and around the world. The ESD makes the data collected and results generated by its missions accessible to other agencies and organizations to improve the products and services they provide, including air quality indices, disaster management, agricultural yield projections, and aviation safety. In addition to four missions now in development and 14 currently operating on-orbit, the ESD is now developing the first tier of missions recommended by the 2007 Earth Science Decadal Survey and is conducting engineering studies and technology development for the second tier. Furthermore, NASA's ESD is planning implementation of a set of climate continuity missions to assure availability of key data sets needed for climate science and applications. These include a replacement for the Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO), OCO-2, planned for launch in 2013; refurbishment of the SAGE III atmospheric chemistry instrument to be hosted by the International Space Station (ISS) as early as 2014; and the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment Follow-On (GRACE FO) mission scheduled for launch in 2016. The new Earth Venture (EV) class of missions is a series of uncoupled, low to moderate cost, small to medium-sized, competitively selected, full orbital missions, instruments for orbital missions of opportunity, and sub-orbital projects.
The National Research Council (NRC) recently highlighted the dual role of NASA to support both science and applications in planning Earth observations. This Editorial reports the efforts of the NASA Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission to integrate applications with science and engineering i...
This paper presents NASA's recent direction to invest in the critical science instrument and platform technologies in order to realize more reliable, frequent and versatile missions for future Earth Science measurements. Traditionally, NASA's Earth Science Enterprise has developed and flown science missions that have been large in size, weight and volume. These missions have taken much longer implementation due to technology development time and have carried a large suite of instruments on a large-size spacecraft. NASA is also facing an era where the budget for the future years is more or less flat and the possibility for any major new start does not vividly appear on the horizon. Unfortunately, the scientific goals have not shrunk to commensurate with the budget constraints. In fact, the challenges and scientific appetite in search of answers to a score of outstanding questions have been gradually expanding. With these factors in mind, for the last three years NASA has been changing its focus to concentrate on how to take advantage of smaller missions by relying on industry, and minimizing the overall life cycle by infusing technologies that are being developed independently of any planned mission's implementation cycle. The major redirection of early investment in the critical technologies should have its rewards and significantly reduce the mission development period. Needless to say, in the long run this approach should save money, minimize risk, promote or encourage partnering, and allow for more frequent missions or earth science measurements to occur. This paper gives an overview of some of the identified crucial technologies and their intended applications for meeting the future Earth Science challenges.
Grotzinger, John P.; Crisp, Joy; Vasavada, Ashwin R.; Anderson, Robert C.; Baker, Charles J.; Barry, Robert; Blake, David F.; Conrad, Pamela; Edgett, Kenneth S.; Ferdowski, Bobak; Gellert, Ralf; Gilbert, John B.; Golombek, Matt; Gómez-Elvira, Javier; Hassler, Donald M.; Jandura, Louise; Litvak, Maxim; Mahaffy, Paul; Maki, Justin; Meyer, Michael; Malin, Michael C.; Mitrofanov, Igor; Simmonds, John J.; Vaniman, David; Welch, Richard V.; Wiens, Roger C.
-bearing strata, separated by an unconformity from overlying likely anhydrous strata; the landing ellipse is characterized by a mixture of alluvial fan and high thermal inertia/high albedo stratified deposits; and a number of stratigraphically/geomorphically distinct fluvial features. Samples of the crater wall and rim rock, and more recent to currently active surface materials also may be studied. Gale has a well-defined regional context and strong evidence for a progression through multiple potentially habitable environments. These environments are represented by a stratigraphic record of extraordinary extent, and insure preservation of a rich record of the environmental history of early Mars. The interior mountain of Gale Crater has been informally designated at Mount Sharp, in honor of the pioneering planetary scientist Robert Sharp. The major subsystems of the MSL Project consist of a single rover (with science payload), a Multi-Mission Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator, an Earth-Mars cruise stage, an entry, descent, and landing system, a launch vehicle, and the mission operations and ground data systems. The primary communication path for downlink is relay through the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter. The primary path for uplink to the rover is Direct-from-Earth. The secondary paths for downlink are Direct-to-Earth and relay through the Mars Odyssey orbiter. Curiosity is a scaled version of the 6-wheel drive, 4-wheel steering, rocker bogie system from the Mars Exploration Rovers (MER) Spirit and Opportunity and the Mars Pathfinder Sojourner. Like Spirit and Opportunity, Curiosity offers three primary modes of navigation: blind-drive, visual odometry, and visual odometry with hazard avoidance. Creation of terrain maps based on HiRISE (High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment) and other remote sensing data were used to conduct simulated driving with Curiosity in these various modes, and allowed selection of the Gale crater landing site which requires climbing the base of a
NASA Missions and Programs create a wealth of science data and information that are essential to understanding our earth, our solar system and the universe. Advancements in information technology will allow many people within and beyond the Agency to more effectively analyze and apply these data and information to create knowledge. The desired end result is to see that NASA data and science information are used to generate the maximum possible impact to the nation: to advance scientific knowledge and technological capabilities, to inspire and motivate the nation's students and teachers, and to engage and educate the public.
Guit, William J.; Machado, Michael J.
This is the Welcome and Introduction presentation for the International Earth Science Constellation (ESC) Mission Operations Working Group (MOWG) meeting held in Albuquerque NM from September 27-29. It contains an org chart, charter, history, significant topics to be discussed, AquaAura 2017 inclination adjust maneuver calendar, a-train long range plans, upcoming events, and action items.
Spacelab Life Science -1 (SLS-1) was the first Spacelab mission dedicated solely to life sciences. The main purpose of the SLS-1 mission was to study the mechanisms, magnitudes, and time courses of certain physiological changes that occur during space flight, to investigate the consequences of the body's adaptation to microgravity and readjustment to Earth's gravity, and bring the benefits back home to Earth. The mission was designed to explore the responses of the heart, lungs, blood vessels, kidneys, and hormone-secreting glands to microgravity and related body fluid shifts; examine the causes of space motion sickness; and study changes in the muscles, bones, and cells. This photograph shows astronaut Rhea Seddon conducting an inflight study of the Cardiovascular Deconditioning experiment by breathing into the cardiovascular rebreathing unit. This experiment focused on the deconditioning of the heart and lungs and changes in cardiopulmonary function that occur upon return to Earth. By using noninvasive techniques of prolonged expiration and rebreathing, investigators can determine the amount of blood pumped out of the heart (cardiac output), the ease with which blood flows through all the vessels (total peripheral resistance), oxygen used and carbon dioxide released by the body, and lung function and volume changes. SLS-1 was launched aboard the Space Shuttle Orbiter Columbia (STS-40) on June 5, 1995.
Kaufman, Yoram J.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)
Langley's remarkable solar and lunar spectra collected from Mt. Whitney inspired Arrhenius to develop the first quantitative climate model in 1896. After the launch in Dec. 16 1999, NASA's Earth Observing AM Satellite (EOS-Terra) will repeat Langley's experiment, but for the entire planet, thus pioneering a wide array of calibrated spectral observations from space of the Earth System. Conceived in response to real environmental problems, EOS-Terra, in conjunction with other international satellite efforts, will fill a major gap in current efforts by providing quantitative global data sets with a resolution better than 1 km on the physical, chemical and biological elements of the earth system. Thus, like Langley's data, EOS-Terra can revolutionize climate research by inspiring a new generation of climate system models and enable us to assess the human impact on the environment. In the talk I shall review the historical perspective of the Terra mission and the key new elements of the mission. We expect to have first images that demonstrate the most innovative capability from EOS Terra 5 instruments: MODIS - 1.37 micron cirrus cloud channel; 250m daily coverage for clouds and vegetation change; 7 solar channels for land and aerosol studies; new fire channels; Chlorophyll fluorescence; MISR - first 9 multi angle views of clouds and vegetation; MOPITT - first global CO maps and C114 maps; ASTER - Thermal channels for geological studies with 15-90 m resolution.
The development of a dynamic autonomous system (DYASS) of resources for the mission support of near-Earth NASA spacecraft is discussed and the current NASA space data system is described from a functional perspective. The future (late 80's and early 90's) NASA space data system is discussed. The DYASS concept, the autonomous process control, and the NASA space data system are introduced. Scheduling and related disciplines are surveyed. DYASS as a scheduling problem is also discussed. Artificial intelligence and knowledge representation is considered as well as the NUDGE system and the I-Space system.
Global Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) data products have been widely used in EarthSciences without an estimation of their accuracy and reliability even though large outliers exist in them.The global 1 arc-sec, 30 m resolution, SRTM C-Band (C-30) data collected in February 2000 has beenrecently released ...
Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science; Volume 114; Issue 6 ... using an X-ray ﬂuorescence spectrometer (LEX),sensitive in the energy range of 1 –10 ... (SIR-2),similar to that used on the Smart-1 mission,in collaboration with ESA.
Earth scientists hope a new priority setting effort will help them make the most of NASA's limited budget for satellite missions that watch over the planet. The so-called decadal survey, issued in January by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine, laid out the community's consensus wish list, ranging from cloud monitoring to multiwavelength imaging—and recommends a strong dose of competition to keep costs down. The report prioritizes five observations for launch, including hyperspectral imaging, clouds, atmospheric particles, and missions to chart gravity variations and tiny crustal movements. It also advocates creating a new line of $350 million missions targeting seven observations, with competitions to choose three for flight in the next 10 years.
Dlhopolsky, R; Hollmann, R; Mueller, J; Stuhlmann, R [GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Atmosphaerenphysik
The goal of this study is to study optimized satellite configurations for observation of the radiation balance of the earth. We present a literature survey of earth radiation budget missions and instruments. We develop a parametric tool to simulate realistic multiple satellite mission scenarios. This tool is a modular computer program which models satellite orbits and scanning operation. We use Meteosat data sampled at three hour intervals as a database to simulate atmospheric scenes. Input variables are satellite equatorial crossing time and instrument characteristics. Regional, zonal and global monthly averages of shortwave and longwave fluxes for an ideal observing system and several realistic satellite scenarios are produced. Comparisons show that the three satellite combinations which have equatorial crossing times at midmorning, noon and midafternoon provide the best shortwave monitoring. Crossing times near sunrise and sunset should be avoided for the shortwave. Longwave diurnal models are necessary over and surfaces and cloudy regions, if there are only two measurements made during daylight hours. We have found in the shortwave inversion comparison that at least 15% of the monthly regional errors can be attributed to the shortwave anisotropic models used. (orig.) 68 refs.
Dlhopolsky, R.; Hollmann, R.; Mueller, J.; Stuhlmann, R. [GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Atmosphaerenphysik
The goal of this study is to study optimized satellite configurations for observation of the radiation balance of the earth. We present a literature survey of earth radiation budget missions and instruments. We develop a parametric tool to simulate realistic multiple satellite mission scenarios. This tool is a modular computer program which models satellite orbits and scanning operation. We use Meteosat data sampled at three hour intervals as a database to simulate atmospheric scenes. Input variables are satellite equatorial crossing time and instrument characteristics. Regional, zonal and global monthly averages of shortwave and longwave fluxes for an ideal observing system and several realistic satellite scenarios are produced. Comparisons show that the three satellite combinations which have equatorial crossing times at midmorning, noon and midafternoon provide the best shortwave monitoring. Crossing times near sunrise and sunset should be avoided for the shortwave. Longwave diurnal models are necessary over and surfaces and cloudy regions, if there are only two measurements made during daylight hours. We have found in the shortwave inversion comparison that at least 15% of the monthly regional errors can be attributed to the shortwave anisotropic models used. (orig.) 68 refs.
For over the last 15 years, NASA's Earth Science Enterprise (ESE) has devoted a tremendous effort to design and build the Earth Observing System (EOS) Data and Information System (EOSDIS) to acquire, process, archive and distribute the data of the EOS series of satellites and other ESE missions and field programs. The development of EOSDIS began with an early prototype to support NASA data from heritage missions and progressed through a formal development process to today's system that supports the data from multiple missions including Landsat 7, Terra, Aqua, SORCE and ICESat. The system is deployed at multiple Distributed Active Archive Centers (DAACs) and its current holdings are approximately 4.5 petabytes. The current set of unique users requesting EOS data and information products exceeds 2 million. While EOSDIS has been the centerpiece of NASA's Earth Science Data Systems, other initiatives have augmented the services of EOSDIS and have impacted its evolution and the future directions of data systems within the ESE. ESDIS had an active prototyping effort and has continued to be involved in the activities of the Earth Science Technology Office (ESTO). In response to concerns from the science community that EOSDIS was too large and monolithic, the ESE initiated the Earth Science Information Partners (ESP) Federation Experiment that funded a series of projects to develop specialized products and services to support Earth science research and applications. Last year, the enterprise made 41 awards to successful proposals to the Research, Education and Applications Solutions Network (REASON) Cooperative Agreement Notice to continue and extend the ESP activity. The ESE has also sponsored a formulation activity called the Strategy for the Evolution of ESE Data Systems (SEEDS) to develop approaches and decision support processes for the management of the collection of data system and service providers of the enterprise. Throughout the development of its earth science
Lavraud, B.; Liu, Y.; Segura, K.; He, J.; Qin, G.; Temmer, M.; Vial, J. C.; Xiong, M.; Davies, J. A.; Rouillard, A. P.; Pinto, R.; Auchere, F.; Harrison, R. A.; Eyles, C.; Gan, W.; Lamy, P.; Xia, L.; Eastwood, J. P.; Kong, L.; Wang, J.; Wimmer-Schweingruber, R. F.; Zhang, S.; Zong, Q.; Souček, Jan; An, J.; Přech, J.; Zhang, A.; Rochus, P.; Bothmer, V.; Janvier, M.; Maksimovic, M.; Escoubet, C. P.; Kilpua, E. K. J.; Tappin, J.; Vainio, R.; Poedts, S.; Dunlop, M. W.; Savani, N.; Gopalswamy, N.; Bale, S. D.; Howard, T.; DeForest, C.; Webb, D.; Lugaz, N.; Fuselier, S. A.; Dalmasse, K.; Tallineau, J.; Vranken, D.; Fernández, J. G.
Roč. 146, August (2016), s. 171-185 ISSN 1364-6826 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-31899S; GA MŠk(CZ) LH15304 Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : space mission * coronal mass ejections * instrumentation * space weather Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 1.326, year: 2016 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1364682616301456
Kim, B. J.; Park, S.; Kim, E.-E.; Park, W.; Chang, H.; Seon, J.
MACSAT mission was initiated by Malaysia to launch a high-resolution remote sensing satellite into Near Equatorial Orbit (NEO). Due to its geographical location, Malaysia can have large benefits from NEO satellite operation. From the baseline circular orbit of 685 km altitude with 7 degrees of inclination, the neighboring regions around Malaysian territory can be frequently monitored. The equatorial environment around the globe can also be regularly observed with unique revisit characteristics. The primary mission objective of MACSAT program is to develop and validate technologies for a near equatorial orbit remote sensing satellite system. MACSAT is optimally designed to accommodate an electro-optic Earth observation payload, Medium-sized Aperture Camera (MAC). Malaysian and Korean joint engineering teams are formed for the effective implementation of the satellite system. An integrated team approach is adopted for the joint development for MACSAT. MAC is a pushbroom type camera with 2.5 m of Ground Sampling Distance (GSD) in panchromatic band and 5 m of GSD in four multi-spectral bands. The satellite platform is a mini-class satellite. Including MAC payload, the satellite weighs under 200 kg. Spacecraft bus is designed optimally to support payload operations during 3 years of mission life. The payload has 20 km of swath width with +/- 30 o of tilting capability. 32 Gbits of solid state recorder is implemented as the mass image storage. The ground element is an integrated ground station for mission control and payload operation. It is equipped with S- band up/down link for commanding and telemetry reception as well as 30 Mbps class X-band down link for image reception and processing. The MACSAT system is capable of generating 1:25,000-scale image maps. It is also anticipated to have capability for cross-track stereo imaging for Digital elevation Model (DEM) generation.
Elvis, M.; Rabe, K.; Daniels, K.
Planetary science is naturally focussed on the issues of the origin and history of solar systems, especially our own. The implications of an early turbulent history of our solar system reach into many areas including the origin of Earth's oceans, of ores in the Earth's crust and possibly the seeding of life. There are however other areas of science that stand to be developed greatly by planetary missions, primarily to small solar system bodies. The physics of granular materials has been well-studied in Earth's gravity, but lacks a general theory. Because of the compacting effects of gravity, some experiments desired for testing these theories remain impossible on Earth. Studying the behavior of a micro-gravity rubble pile -- such as many asteroids are believed to be -- could provide a new route towards exploring general principles of granular physics. These same studies would also prove valuable for planning missions to sample these same bodies, as techniques for anchoring and deep sampling are difficult to plan in the absence of such knowledge. In materials physics, first-principles total-energy calculations for compounds of a given stoichiometry have identified metastable, or even stable, structures distinct from known structures obtained by synthesis under laboratory conditions. The conditions in the proto-planetary nebula, in the slowly cooling cores of planetesimals, and in the high speed collisions of planetesimals and their derivatives, are all conditions that cannot be achieved in the laboratory. Large samples from comets and asteroids offer the chance to find crystals with these as-yet unobserved structures as well as more exotic materials. Some of these could have unusual properties important for materials science. Meteorites give us a glimpse of these exotic materials, several dozen of which are known that are unique to meteorites. But samples retrieved directly from small bodies in space will not have been affected by atmospheric entry, warmth or
Neeck, Steven P.; Volz, Stephen M.
NASA's strategic goal to "advance scientific understanding of the changing Earth system to meet societal needs" continues the agency's legacy of expanding human knowledge of the Earth through space activities, as mandated by the National Aeronautics and Space Act of 1958. Over the past 50 years, NASA has been the world leader in developing space-based Earth observing systems and capabilities that have fundamentally changed our view of our planet and have defined Earth system science. The U.S. National Research Council report "Earth Observations from Space: The First 50 Years of Scientific Achievements" published in 2008 by the National Academy of Sciences articulates those key achievements and the evolution of the space observing capabilities, looking forward to growing potential to address Earth science questions and enable an abundance of practical applications. NASA's Earth science program is an end-to-end one that encompasses the development of observational techniques and the instrument technology needed to implement them. This includes laboratory testing and demonstration from surface, airborne, or space-based platforms; research to increase basic process knowledge; incorporation of results into complex computational models to more fully characterize the present state and future evolution of the Earth system; and development of partnerships with national and international organizations that can use the generated information in environmental forecasting and in policy, business, and management decisions. Currently, NASA's Earth Science Division (ESD) has 14 operating Earth science space missions with 6 in development and 18 under study or in technology risk reduction. Two Tier 2 Decadal Survey climate-focused missions, Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions over Nights, Days and Seasons (ASCENDS) and Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT), have been identified in conjunction with the U.S. Global Change Research Program and initiated for launch in the 2019
A key addition to Springer's Space Technology Library series, this edited volume features the work of dozens of authors and offers a wealth of perspectives on distributed Earth observation missions. In sum, it is an eloquent synthesis of the fullest possible range of current approaches to a fast-developing field characterized by growing membership of the 'space club' to include nations formerly regarded as part of the Third World. The volume's four discrete sections focus on the topic's various aspects, including the key theoretical and technical issues arising from the division of payloads onto different satellites. The first is devoted to analyzing distributed synthetic aperture radars, with bi- and multi-static radars receiving separate treatment. This is followed by a full discussion of relative dynamics, guidance, navigation and control. Here, the separate topics of design; establishment, maintenance and control; and measurements are developed with relative trajectory as a reference point, while the dis...
The mission requirements and conceptual design of manned earth observatory payloads for the 1980 time period are discussed. Projections of 1980 sensor technology and user data requirements were used to formulate typical basic criteria pertaining to experiments, sensor complements, and reference missions. The subjects discussed are: (1) mission selection and prioritization, (2) baseline mission analysis, (3) earth observation data handling and contingency plans, and (4) analysis of low cost mission definition and rationale.
Sahm, P. R.; Keller, M. H.; Schiewe, B.
The Spacelab Mission D-2 successfully lifted off from Kennedy Space Center on April 26, 1993. With 88 experiments on board covering eleven different research disciplines it was a very ambitious mission. Besides materials and life science subjects, the mission also encompassed astronomy, earth observation, radiation physics and biology, telecommunication, automation and robotics. Notable results were obtained in almost all cases. To give some examples of the scientific output, building upon results obtained in previous missions (FSLP, D1) diffusion in melts was broadly represented delivering most precise data on the atomic mobility within various liquids, and crystal growth experiments (the largest gallium arsenide crystal grown by the floating zone technique, so far obtained anywhere, was one of the results), biological cell growth experiments were continued (for example, beer yeast cultures, continuing their growth on earth, delivered a qualitatively superior brewery result), the human physiology miniclinic configuration ANTHRORACK gave novel insights concerning cardiovascular, pulmonary, and renal (fluid volume determining) factors. Astronomical experiments yielded insights into our own galaxy within the ultra violet spectrum, earth observation experiments delivered the most precise resolution data superimposed by thematic mapping of many areas of the Earth, and the robotics experiment brought a remarkable feature in that a flying object was caught by the space robot, which was only achieved through several innovative advances during the time of experiment preparation. The eight years of preparation were also beneficial in another sense. Several discoveries have been made, and various technology transfers into ground-based processes were verified. To name the outstanding ones, in the materials science a novel bearing materials production process was developped, a patent granted for an improved high temperature heating chamber; with life sciences a new hormone
Nierenberg, William Aaron
.... The very diversity of the articles attests to the complexity of earth system science as a unique interdisciplinary venture to place humanity in a position to move wisely to protect the global habitat...
The earth sciences are taught in twelve universities in Morocco and in three other institutions. In addition there are three more earth science research institutions. Earth science teaching has been taking place since 1957. The degree system is a four-year degree, split into two two-year blocks and geology is taught within the geology-biology programme for the first part of the degree. 'Classical' geology is taught in most universities, although applied geology degrees are also on offer in some universities. Recently-formed technical universities offer a more innovative approach to Earth Science Education. Teaching is in French, although school education is in Arabic. There is a need for a reform of the curriculum, although a lead is being taken by the technical universities. A new geological mapping programme promises new geological and mining discoveries in the country and prospects of employment for geology graduates.
Guillory, A.; Denkins, T.; Allen, B. Danette; Braun, Scott A.; Crawford, James H.; Jensen, Eric J.; Miller, Charles E.; Moghaddam, Mahta; Maring, Hal
In 2010, NASA announced the first Earth Venture (EV-1) selections in response to a recommendation made by the National Research Council for low-cost investigations fostering innovation in Earth science. The five EV-1 investigations span the Earth science focus areas of atmosphere, weather, climate, water and energy and, carbon and represent earth science researchers from NASA as well as other government agencies, academia and industry from around the world. The EV-1 missions are: 1) Airborne Microwave Observatory of Subcanopy and Subsurface (AirMOSS), 2) Airborne Tropical Tropopause Experiment (ATTREX), 3) Carbon in Arctic Reservoirs Vulnerability Experiment (CARVE), 4) Deriving Information on Surface Conditions from Column and Vertically Resolved Observations Relevant to Air Quality (DISCOVER-AQ), and 5) Hurricane And Severe Storm Sentinel (HS3). The Earth Venture missions are managed out of the Earth System Science Pathfinder (ESSP) Program Office (Allen, et. al. 2010b)
Roberts, Craig; Case, Sara; Reagoso, John; Webster, Cassandra
The Deep Space Climate Observatory mission launched on February 11, 2015, and inserted onto a transfer trajectory toward a Lissajous orbit around the Sun-Earth L1 libration point. This paper presents an overview of the baseline transfer orbit and early mission maneuver operations leading up to the start of nominal science orbit operations. In particular, the analysis and performance of the spacecraft insertion, mid-course correction maneuvers, and the deep-space Lissajous orbit insertion maneuvers are discussed, com-paring the baseline orbit with actual mission results and highlighting mission and operations constraints..
Boehnhardt, Hermann; Bibring, Jean-Pierre; Apathy, Istvan; Auster, Hans Ulrich; Ercoli Finzi, Amalia; Goesmann, Fred; Klingelhöfer, Göstar; Knapmeyer, Martin; Kofman, Wlodek; Krüger, Harald; Mottola, Stefano; Schmidt, Walter; Seidensticker, Klaus; Spohn, Tilman; Wright, Ian
The Philae lander accomplished the first soft landing and the first scientific experiments of a human-made spacecraft on the surface of a comet. Planned, expected and unexpected activities and events happened during the descent, the touch-downs, the hopping across and the stay and operations on the surface. The key results were obtained during 12-14 November 2014, at 3 AU from the Sun, during the 63 h long period of the descent and of the first science sequence on the surface. Thereafter, Philae went into hibernation, waking up again in late April 2015 with subsequent communication periods with Earth (via the orbiter), too short to enable new scientific activities. The science return of the mission comes from eight of the 10 instruments on-board and focuses on morphological, thermal, mechanical and electrical properties of the surface as well as on the surface composition. It allows a first characterization of the local environment of the touch-down and landing sites. Unique conclusions on the organics in the cometary material, the nucleus interior, the comet formation and evolution became available through measurements of the Philae lander in the context of the Rosetta mission.This article is part of the themed issue 'Cometary science after Rosetta'. © 2017 The Author(s).
Wetherill, G.W.; Drake, C.L.
The earth is a dynamic body. The major surface manifestation of this dynamism has been fragmentation of the earth's outer shell and subsequent relative movement of the pieces on a large scale. Evidence for continental movement came from studies of geomagnetism. As the sea floor spreads and new crust is formed, it is magnetized with the polarity of the field at the time of its formation. The plate tectonics model explains the history, nature, and topography of the oceanic crust. When a lithospheric plate surmounted by continental crust collides with an oceanic lithosphere, it is the denser oceanic lithosphere that is subducted. Hence the ancient oceans have vanished and the knowledge of ancient earth will require deciphering the complex continental geological record. Geochemical investigation shows that the source region of continental rocks is not simply the depleted mantle that is characteristic of the source region of basalts produced at the oceanic ridges. The driving force of plate tectonics is convection within the earth, but much remains to be learned about the convection and interior of the earth. A brief discussion of planetary exploration is given
The O/OREOS (Organism/Organic Exposure to Orbital Stresses) nanosatellite is the first science demonstration spacecraft and flight mission of the NASA Astrobiology Small- Payloads Program (ASP). O/OREOS was launched successfully on November 19, 2010, to a high-inclination (72 deg), 650-km Earth orbit aboard a US Air Force Minotaur IV rocket from Kodiak, Alaska. O/OREOS consists of 3 conjoined cubesat (each 1000 cu cm) modules: (i) a control bus; (ii) the Space Environment Survivability of Living Organisms (SESLO) experiment; and (iii) the Space Environment Viability of Organics (SEVO) experiment. Among the innovative aspects of the O/OREOS mission are a real-time analysis of the photostability of organics and biomarkers and the collection of data on the survival and metabolic activity for microorganisms at 3 times during the 6-month mission. We report on the spacecraft characteristics, payload capabilities, and present operational phase and flight data from the O/OREOS mission. The science and technology rationale of O/OREOS supports NASA0s scientific exploration program by investigating the local space environment as well as space biology relevant to Moon and Mars missions. It also serves as a precursor for experiments on small satellites, the International Space Station (ISS), future free-flyers and lunar surface exposure facilities.
Baird, William H.; Padgett, Clifford W.; Secrest, Jeffery A.
Google Earth has made a wealth of aerial imagery available online at no cost to users. We examine some of the potential uses of that data in illustrating basic physics and astronomy, such as finding the local magnetic declination, using landmarks such as the Washington Monument and Luxor Obelisk as gnomons, and showing how airport runways get…
Borucki, William J.
Kepler, a NASA Discovery mission, is a spaceborne telescope designed to search a nearby region of our galaxy for Earth-size planets orbiting in the habitable zone of stars like our sun. The habitable zone is that region around a start where the temperature permits water to be liquid on the surface of a planet. Liquid water is considered essential forth existence of life. Mission Phases: Six mission phases have been defined to describe the different periods of activity during Kepler's mission. These are: launch; commissioning; early science operations, science operations: and decommissioning
Stark, Christopher C.; Roberge, Aki; Mandell, Avi; Robinson, Tyler D.
ExoEarth yield is a critical science metric for future exoplanet imaging missions. Here we estimate exoEarth candidate yield using single visit completeness for a variety of mission design and astrophysical parameters. We review the methods used in previous yield calculations and show that the method choice can significantly impact yield estimates as well as how the yield responds to mission parameters. We introduce a method, called Altruistic Yield Optimization, that optimizes the target list and exposure times to maximize mission yield, adapts maximally to changes in mission parameters, and increases exoEarth candidate yield by up to 100% compared to previous methods. We use Altruistic Yield Optimization to estimate exoEarth candidate yield for a large suite of mission and astrophysical parameters using single visit completeness. We find that exoEarth candidate yield is most sensitive to telescope diameter, followed by coronagraph inner working angle, followed by coronagraph contrast, and finally coronagraph contrast noise floor. We find a surprisingly weak dependence of exoEarth candidate yield on exozodi level. Additionally, we provide a quantitative approach to defining a yield goal for future exoEarth-imaging missions.
Schwerin, T. G.; Callery, S.; Chambers, L. H.; Riebeek Kohl, H.; Taylor, J.; Martin, A. M.; Ferrell, T.
The NASA Earth Science Education Collaborative (NESEC) is led by the Institute for Global Environmental Strategies with partners at three NASA Earth science Centers: Goddard Space Flight Center, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, and Langley Research Center. This cross-organization team enables the project to draw from the diverse skills, strengths, and expertise of each partner to develop fresh and innovative approaches for building pathways between NASA's Earth-related STEM assets to large, diverse audiences in order to enhance STEM teaching, learning and opportunities for learners throughout their lifetimes. These STEM assets include subject matter experts (scientists, engineers, and education specialists), science and engineering content, and authentic participatory and experiential opportunities. Specific project activities include authentic STEM experiences through NASA Earth science themed field campaigns and citizen science as part of international GLOBE program (for elementary and secondary school audiences) and GLOBE Observer (non-school audiences of all ages); direct connections to learners through innovative collaborations with partners like Odyssey of the Mind, an international creative problem-solving and design competition; and organizing thematic core content and strategically working with external partners and collaborators to adapt and disseminate core content to support the needs of education audiences (e.g., libraries and maker spaces, student research projects, etc.). A scaffolded evaluation is being conducted that 1) assesses processes and implementation, 2) answers formative evaluation questions in order to continuously improve the project; 3) monitors progress and 4) measures outcomes.
Buckey, Jay C.
Jay C. Buckey, M.D., Assistant Professor of Medicine at The University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas served as an alternate payload specialist astronaut for the Spacelab Life Sciences 2 Space Shuttle Mission from January 1992 through December 1993. This report summarizes his opinions on the mission and offers suggestions in the areas of selection, training, simulations, baseline data collection and mission operations. The report recognizes the contributions of the commander, payload commander and mission management team to the success of the mission. Dr. Buckey's main accomplishments during the mission are listed.
The explosive growth in Earth observational data in the recent decade demands a better method of interoperability across heterogeneous systems. The Earth science data system community has mastered the art in storing large volume of observational data, but it is still unclear how this traditional method scale over time as we are entering the age of Big Data. Indexed search solutions such as Apache Solr (Smiley and Pugh, 2011) provides fast, scalable search via keyword or phases without any reasoning or inference. The modern search solutions such as Googles Knowledge Graph (Singhal, 2012) and Microsoft Bing, all utilize semantic reasoning to improve its accuracy in searches. The Earth science user community is demanding for an intelligent solution to help them finding the right data for their researches. The Ontological System for Context Artifacts and Resources (OSCAR) (Huang et al., 2012), was created in response to the DARPA Adaptive Vehicle Make (AVM) programs need for an intelligent context models management system to empower its terrain simulation subsystem. The core component of OSCAR is the Environmental Context Ontology (ECO) is built using the Semantic Web for Earth and Environmental Terminology (SWEET) (Raskin and Pan, 2005). This paper presents the current data archival methodology within a NASA Earth science data centers and discuss using semantic web to improve the way we capture and serve data to our users.
Information and Announcements ... Introduction: Geoscience education in India is in the throes of a serious crisis and any paradigm ... considerations: geology needs to be taught as an earth system science, linked with cognate ... viable and employment-generating management of natural resources: the global trend of.
Adaktylou, N. E.; Hedley, M. L.; Darche, S.; Harris-Stefanakis, E.; Silberglitt, M. D.; Struble, J.; Bingham, P.; Czajkowski, K.
Here we present the evaluation findings for the first year of implementation of the `Mission Earth' Program.`Mission Earth' proposes the systematic embedding of GLOBE (Global Learning and Observations to Benefit the Environment) resources and NASA assets into the curricula of schools along the K-12 continuum, leveraging existing partnerships and networks. The main goal of the program is to create developmentally appropriate, vertically-integrated K-12 materials and activities,, supported by high quality professional development and ongoing support, engaging teachers from all grades. Its team consists of 5 geographically distributed universities and research institutions that have developed a curriculum progression following research-based best practices, have conducted the year's trainings for selected cohorts of teachers. The evaluation is a continuous process over the program's five year duration to examine implementation and opportunities for improvement. A broad set of data collection tools include a diagnostic component (needs assessment for teachers, capacity assessment for the school environment) and an assessment of implementation component (surveys for teachers and trainers, pre- and post tests for students, classroom observations, teacher interviews, portfolios). The tools used are validated instruments or ones modified to serve the program needs. The patterns emerging from the data provided information on: i) the quality of the intervention as to its design and content, ii) the alignment with the needs of the participants, iii) the implementation phase, iii) changes in the content knowledge of the students and their attitudes toward science, iv) changes in the facility of teachers to teach science in their classrooms after the professional development and materials provided, v) challenges and facilitators of implementation. Based on findings the program evaluation identifies additions/adjustments to be adopted in the following year.
Readers of the draft new English primary science curriculum (DfE, 2012) might be concerned to see that there is much more detail on the Earth science content than previously in the United Kingdom. In this article, Chris King, a professor of Earth Science Education at Keele University and Director of the Earth Science Education Unit (ESEU),…
... Committee; Earth Science Subcommittee; Applied Sciences Advisory Group Meeting AGENCY: National Aeronautics... the Applied Science Advisory Group. This Subcommittee reports to the Earth Science Subcommittee... following topics: --Applied Sciences Program Update --Earth Science Data Latency Study Preliminary Update...
Pieters, M. C.; Hiesinger, H.; Head, J. W., III
anniversary in 2007 over the launch of Sputnik (from the former Soviet Union). The ensuing Apollo (US) and Luna (USSR) programs initiated serious exploration of the Moon. The samples returned from those (now historic!) early missions changed our understanding of our place in the universe forever. They were the first well documented samples from an extraterrestrial body and attracted some of the top scientists in the world to extract the first remarkable pieces of information about Earth's nearest neighbour. And so they did - filling bookcases with profound new discoveries about this airless, waterless, and beautifully mysterious ancient world. The Moon was found to represent pure geology for a silicate planetary body - without all the complicating factors of plate tectonics, climate, and weather that recycle or transform Earth materials repeatedly. And then nothing happened. After the flush of reconnaissance, there was no further exploration of the Moon. For several decades scientists had nothing except the returned samples and a few telescopes with which to further study Earth's neighbour. Lack of new information breeds ignorance and can be stifling. Even though the space age was expanding its horizons to the furthest reaches of the solar system and the universe, lunar science moved slowly if at all and was kept in the doldrums. The drought ended with two small missions to the Moon in the 1990's, Clementine and Lunar Prospector. As summarized in the SSB/NRC report (and more completely in Jolliff et al. Eds. 2006, New Views of the Moon, Rev. Min. & Geochem.), the limited data returned from these small spacecraft set in motion several fundamental paradigm shifts in our understanding of the Moon and re-invigorated an aging science community. We learned that the largest basin in the solar system and oldest on the Moon dominates the southern half of the lunar farside (only seen by spacecraft). The age of this huge basin, if known, would constrain the period of heavy bombardment
Gopalswamy, Nat; Davila, Joseph M.; Auchère, Frédéric
Observatory (STEREO) missions, but these missions lacked some key measurements: STEREO did not have a magnetograph; SOHO did not have in-situ magnetometer. SOHO and other imagers such as the Solar Mass Ejection Imager (SMEI) located on the Sun-Earth line are also not well-suited to measure Earth-directed CMEs....... The Earth-Affecting Solar Causes Observatory (EASCO) is a proposed mission to be located at the Sun-Earth L5 that overcomes these deficiencies. The mission concept was recently studied at the Mission Design Laboratory (MDL), NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, to see how the mission can be implemented....... The study found that the scientific payload (seven remote-sensing and three in-situ instruments) can be readily accommodated and can be launched using an intermediate size vehicle; a hybrid propulsion system consisting of a Xenon ion thruster and hydrazine has been found to be adequate to place the payload...
Global Learning and Observation to Benefit the Environment (GLOBE) Mission EARTH (GME) program delivers climate change science content, pedagogy, and data resources to K12 educators, future teachers, and professional development providers.
This presentation will include a series of visuals that discuss how hands-on learning activities and field investigations from the the Global Learning and Observation to Benefit the Environment (GLOBE) Mission EARTH (GME) program deliver climate change science content, pedagogy, and data resources to K12 educators, future teachers, and professional development providers. The GME program poster presentation will also show how teachers strengthen student preparation for Science, Technology, Engineering, Art and Mathematics (STEAM)-related careers while promoting diversity in the future STEM workforce. In addition to engaging students in scientific inquiry, the GME program poster will show how career exploration and preparation experiences is accomplished through direct connection to scientists and real science practices. The poster will show which hands-on learning activities that are being implemented in more than 30,000 schools worldwide, with over a million students, teachers, and scientists collecting environmental measurements using the GLOBE scientific protocols. This poster will also include how Next Generation Science Standards connect to GME learning progressions by grade strands. The poster will present the first year of results from the implementation of the GME program. Data is currently being agrigated by the east, midwest and westen regional operations.
Walter, J.; Behnke, J.; Murphy, K. J.; Lowe, D. R.
NASA's Earth Science Data and Information System Project (ESDIS) is charged with managing, maintaining, and evolving NASA's Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) and is responsible for processing, archiving, and distributing NASA Earth science data. The system supports a multitude of missions and serves diverse science research and other user communities. Keeping up with ever-changing information technology and figuring out how to leverage those changes across such a large system in order to continuously improve and meet the needs of a diverse user community is a significant challenge. Maintaining and evolving the system architecture and infrastructure is a continuous and multi-layered effort. It requires a balance between a "top down" management paradigm that provides a coherent system view and maintaining the managerial, technological, and functional independence of the individual system elements. This presentation will describe some of the key elements of the current system architecture, some of the strategies and processes we employ to meet these challenges, current and future challenges, and some ideas for meeting those challenges.
Labandibar, Jean-Yves; Jubineau, Franck; Silvestrin, Pierluigi; Del Bello, Umberto
The European Space Agency (ESA) is defining candidate missions for Earth Observation. In the class of the Earth Explorer missions, dedicated to research and pre-operational demonstration, the Land Surface Processes and Interactions Mission (LSPIM) will acquire the accurate quantitative measurements needed to improve our understanding of the nature and evolution of biosphere-atmosphere interactions and to contribute significantly to a solution of the scaling problems for energy, water and carbon fluxes at the Earth's surface. The mission is intended to provide detailed observations of the surface of the Earth and to collect data related to ecosystem processes and radiation balance. It is also intended to address a range of issues important for environmental monitoring, renewable resources assessment and climate models. The mission involves a dedicated maneuvering satellite which provides multi-directional observations for systematic measurement of Land Surface BRDF (BiDirectional Reflectance Distribution Function) of selected sites on Earth. The satellite carries an optical payload : PRISM (Processes Research by an Imaging Space Mission), a multispectral imager providing reasonably high spatial resolution images (50 m over 50 km swath) in the whole optical spectral domain (from 450 nm to 2.35 μm with a resolution close to 10 nm, and two thermal bands from 8.1 to 9.1 μm). This paper presents the results of the Phase A study awarded by ESA, led by ALCATEL Space Industries and concerning the design of LSPIM.
"A European spacecraft that will hunt down a comet in search of clues to the origin of life on Earth will blast off tomorrow from the Kourou spaceport in French Guiana. The Rosetta probe will take 12 years to catch up with Churyumov-Gerasimenko before becoming the first spacecraft to make a soft, controlled landing on a comet's nucleus" (1 page).
Case, K. E.; Nash, A. E., III
Earth Science missions are increasingly challenged to improve our state of the art through more sophisticated hypotheses and inclusion of advanced technologies. However, science return needs to be constrained to the cost environment. Selectable mission concepts are the result of an overlapping Venn diagram of compelling science, feasible engineering solutions, and programmatic acceptable costs, regardless of whether the science investigation is Earth Venture or Decadal class. Since the last Earth Science and Applications Decadal Survey released in 2007, many new advanced technologies have emerged, in instrument, SmallSat flight systems, and launch service capabilities, enabling new mission architectures. These mission architectures may result in new thinking about how we achieve and collect science measurements, e.g., how to improve time-series measurements. We will describe how the JPL Formulation Office is structured to integrate methods, tools, and subject matter experts to span the mission concept development lifecycle, and assist Principal Investigators in maturing their mission ideas into realizable concepts.
Lagoutte, D.; Brochot, J.; Y.; de Carvalho, D.; Elie, F.; Harivelo, F.; Hobara, Y.; Madrias, L.; Parrot, M.; Pincon, J. L.; Berthelier, J. J.; Peschard, D.; Seran, E.; Gangloff, M.; Sauvaud, J. A.; Lebreton, J. P.; Štverák, Štěpán; Trávníček, Pavel M.; Grygorczuk, J.; Slominski, J.; Wronowski, R.; Barbier, S.; Bernard, P.; Gaboriaud, A.; Wallut, J. M.
Roč. 54, č. 5 (2006), s. 428-440 ISSN 0032-0633 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30420517 Keywords : Mission Centre * Data processing Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 1.509, year: 2006
The population of near-Earth asteroids (NEAs) that may be accessible for human space flight missions is defined by the Near-Earth Object Human Space Flight Accessible Targets Study (NHATS). The NHATS is an automated system designed to monitor the accessibility of, and particular mission opportunities offered by, the NEA population. This is analogous to systems that automatically monitor the impact risk posed to Earth by the NEA population. The NHATS system identifies NEAs that are potentially accessible for future round-trip human space flight missions and provides rapid notification to asteroid observers so that crucial follow-up observations can be obtained following discovery of accessible NEAs. The NHATS was developed in 2010 and was automated by early 2012. NHATS data are provided via an interactive web-site, and daily NHATS notification emails are transmitted to a mailing list; both resources are available to the public.
Meijer, Y. J.; Ingmann, P.; Löscher, A.
The CarbonSat candidate mission is part of ESA's Earth Explorer Programme. In 2010, two candidate opportunity missions had been selected for feasibility and preliminary definition studies. The missions, called FLEX and CarbonSat, are now in competition to become ESA's eighth Earth Explorer, both addressing key climate and environmental change issues. In this presentation we will provide a mission overview of CarbonSat with a focus on science. CarbonSat's primary mission objective is the quantification and monitoring of CO2 and CH4 sources and sinks from the local to the regional scale for i) a better understanding of the processes that control carbon cycle dynamics and ii) an independent estimate of local greenhouse gas emissions (fossil fuel, geological CO2 and CH4, etc.) in the context of international treaties. A second priority objective is the monitoring/derivation of CO2 and CH4 fluxes on regional to global scale. These objectives will be achieved by a unique combination of frequent, high spatial resolution (2 x 2 km2) observations of XCO2 and XCH4 coupled to inverse modelling schemes. The required random error of a single measurement at ground-pixel resolution is of the order of between 1 and 3 ppm for XCO2 and between 9 and 17 ppb for XCH4. High spatial resolution is essential in order to maximize the probability for clear-sky observations and to identify flux hot spots. Ideally, CarbonSat shall have a wide swath allowing a 6-day global repeat cycle. The CarbonSat observations will enable CO2 emissions from coal-fired power plants, localized industrial complexes, cities, and other large emitters to be objectively assessed at a global scale. Similarly, the monitoring of natural gas pipelines and compressor station leakage will become feasible. The detection and quantification of the substantial geological greenhouse gas emission sources such as seeps, volcanoes and mud volcanoes will be achieved for the first time. CarbonSat's Greenhouse Gas instrument will
Goal 1: Enhance Applications Research Advance the use of NASA Earth science in policy making, resource management and planning, and disaster response. Key Actions: Identify priority needs, conduct applied research to generate innovative applications, and support projects that demonstrate uses of NASA Earth science. Goal 2: Increase Collaboration Establish a flexible program structure to meet diverse partner needs and applications objectives. Key Actions: Pursue partnerships to leverage resources and risks and extend the program s reach and impact. Goal 3:Accelerate Applications Ensure that NASA s flight missions plan for and support applications goals in conjunction with their science goals, starting with mission planning and extending through the mission life cycle. Key Actions: Enable identification of applications early in satellite mission lifecycle and facilitate effective ways to integrate end-user needs into satellite mission planning
Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science; Volume 124; Issue 7 ... to good protective capacity rating as can be seen from the high longitudinal conductance ... School of Environment and Earth Sciences, North Maharashtra University, ...
Marshall, James J.; Olding, Steve; Wolfe, Robert E.; Delnore, Victor E.
Scientific missions in the Earth sciences frequently require cost-effective, highly reliable, and easy-to-use software, which can be a challenge for software developers to provide. The NASA Earth Science Enterprise (ESE) spends a significant amount of resources developing software components and other software development artifacts that may also be of value if reused in other projects requiring similar functionality. In general, software reuse is often defined as utilizing existing software artifacts. Software reuse can improve productivity and quality while decreasing the cost of software development, as documented by case studies in the literature. Since large software systems are often the results of the integration of many smaller and sometimes reusable components, ensuring reusability of such software components becomes a necessity. Indeed, designing software components with reusability as a requirement can increase the software reuse potential within a community such as the NASA ESE community. The NASA Earth Science Data Systems (ESDS) Software Reuse Working Group is chartered to oversee the development of a process that will maximize the reuse potential of existing software components while recommending strategies for maximizing the reusability potential of yet-to-be-designed components. As part of this work, two surveys of the Earth science community were conducted. The first was performed in 2004 and distributed among government employees and contractors. A follow-up survey was performed in 2005 and distributed among a wider community, to include members of industry and academia. The surveys were designed to collect information on subjects such as the current software reuse practices of Earth science software developers, why they choose to reuse software, and what perceived barriers prevent them from reusing software. In this paper, we compare the results of these surveys, summarize the observed trends, and discuss the findings. The results are very
Younker, L.W.; Donohue, M.L.; Peterson, S.J.
The Earth Sciences Department at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory conducts work in support of the Laboratory's energy, defense, and research programs. The Department is organized into ten groups. Five of these -- Nuclear Waste Management, Fossil Energy, Containment, Verification, and Research -- represent major programmatic activities within the Department. Five others -- Experimental Geophysics, Geomechanics, Geology/Geological Engineering, Geochemistry, and Seismology/Applied Geophysics -- are major disciplinary areas that support these and other laboratory programs. This report summarizes work carried out in 1987 by each group and contains a bibliography of their 1987 publications
Daou, Doris; Green, James L.
NASA's Planetary Science Division (PSD) and space agencies around the world are collaborating on an extensive array of missions exploring our solar system. Planetary science missions are conducted by some of the most sophisticated robots ever built. International collaboration is an essential part of what we do. NASA has always encouraged international participation on our missions both strategic (ie: Mars 2020) and competitive (ie: Discovery and New Frontiers) and other Space Agencies have reciprocated and invited NASA investigators to participate in their missions. NASA PSD has partnerships with virtually every major space agency. For example, NASA has had a long and very fruitful collaboration with ESA. ESA has been involved in the Cassini mission and, currently, NASA funded scientists are involved in the Rosetta mission (3 full instruments, part of another), BepiColombo mission (1 instrument in the Italian Space Agency's instrument suite), and the Jupiter Icy Moon Explorer mission (1 instrument and parts of two others). In concert with ESA's Mars missions NASA has an instrument on the Mars Express mission, the orbit-ground communications package on the Trace Gas Orbiter (launched in March 2016) and part of the DLR/Mars Organic Molecule Analyzer instruments going onboard the ExoMars Rover (to be launched in 2018). NASA's Planetary Science Division has continuously provided its U.S. planetary science community with opportunities to include international participation on NASA missions too. For example, NASA's Discovery and New Frontiers Programs provide U.S. scientists the opportunity to assemble international teams and design exciting, focused planetary science investigations that would deepen the knowledge of our Solar System. The PSD put out an international call for instruments on the Mars 2020 mission. This procurement led to the selection of Spain and Norway scientist leading two instruments and French scientists providing a significant portion of another
Neeck, Steven P.
Earth's changing environment impacts every aspect of life on our planet and climate change has profound implications on society. Studying Earth as a single complex system is essential to understanding the causes and consequences of climate change and other global environmental concerns. NASA's Earth Science Division (ESD) shapes an interdisciplinary view of Earth, exploring interactions among the atmosphere, oceans, ice sheets, land surface interior, and life itself. This enables scientists to measure global and climate changes and to inform decisions by Government, other organizations, and people in the United States and around the world. The data collected and results generated are accessible to other agencies and organizations to improve the products and services they provide, including air quality indices, disaster prediction and response, agricultural yield projections, and aviation safety. ESD's Flight Program provides the spacebased observing systems and supporting infrastructure for mission operations and scientific data processing and distribution that support NASA's Earth science research and modeling activities. The Flight Program currently has 21 operating Earth observing space missions, including the recently launched Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission, the Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2 (OCO-2), the Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission, and the International Space Station (ISS) RapidSCAT and Cloud-Aerosol Transport System (CATS) instruments. The ESD has 22 more missions and instruments planned for launch over the next decade. These include first and second tier missions from the 2007 Earth Science Decadal Survey, Climate Continuity missions to assure availability of key climate data sets, and small-sized competitively selected orbital missions and instrument missions of opportunity belonging to the Earth Venture (EV) Program. Small satellites (500 kg or less) are critical contributors to these current and future satellite missions
Finley, Fred N.; Nam, Younkeyong; Oughton, John
Earth Systems Science (ESS) is emerging rapidly as a discipline and is being used to replace the older earth science education that has been taught as unrelated disciplines--geology, meteorology, astronomy, and oceanography. ESS is complex and is based on the idea that the earth can be understood as a set of interacting natural and social systems.…
Boithias, Helene; Benchetrit, Thierry
In addition to Airbus legacy activities, where Airbus satellites usually enable challenging science missions such as Venus Express, Mars Express, Rosetta with an historic landing on a comet, Bepi Colombo mission to Mercury and JUICE to orbit around Jupiter moon Ganymede, Swarm studying the Earth magnetic field, Goce to measure the Earth gravitational field and Cryosat to monitor the Earth polar ice, Airbus is now developing a new approach to facilitate next generation missions.After more than 25 years of collaboration with the scientists on space missions, Airbus has demonstrated its capacity to implement highly demanding missions implying a deep understanding of the science mission requirements and their intrinsic constraints such as- a very fierce competition between the scientific communities,- the pursuit of high maturity for the science instrument in order to be selected,- the very strict institutional budget limiting the number of operational missions.As a matter of fact, the combination of these constraints may lead to the cancellation of valuable missions.Based on that and inspired by the New Space trend, Airbus is developing an highly accessible concept called HYPE.The objective of HYPE is to make access to Space much more simple, affordable and efficient.With a standardized approach, the scientist books only the capacities he needs among the resources available on-board, as the HYPE satellites can host a large range of payloads from 1kg up to 60kg.At prices significantly more affordable than those of comparable dedicated satellite, HYPE is by far a very cost-efficient way of bringing science missions to life.After the launch, the scientist enjoys a plug-and-play access to two-way communications with his instrument through a secure high-speed portal available online 24/7.Everything else is taken care of by Airbus: launch services and the associated risk, reliable power supply, setting up and operating the communication channels, respect of space law
The Journal of Earth System Science was earlier a part of the Proceedings of the Indian Academy of Sciences – Section A begun in 1934, and later split in 1978 into theme journals. This journal was published as Proceedings – Earth and Planetary Sciences since 1978, and in 2005 was renamed 'Journal of Earth System ...
Pitts, David E.; Helfert, Michael R.; Lulla, Kamlesh P.; Mckay, Mary F.; Whitehead, Victor S.; Amsbury, David L.; Bremer, Jeffrey; Ackleson, Steven G.; Evans, Cynthia A.; Wilkinson, M. J.
A description is presented of the activities and results of the Space Shuttle mission STS-45, known as the Mission to Planet Earth. Observations of Mount St. Helens, Manila Bay and Mt. Pinatubo, the Great Salt Lake, the Aral Sea, and the Siberian cities of Troitsk and Kuybyshev are examined. The geological features and effects of human activity seen in photographs of these areas are pointed out.
Johannessen, J. A.
, managerial and regulatory activities (i.e. weather forecasting, deforestation, flooding, etc.) essential to the safe exploitation of global resources, conservation of sustainable ecosystems, and the compliance with numerous international treaties and conventions, depend absolutely on continuity of satellite missions to maximise socio-economic and environmental benefits. This presentation will highlight some of the multidisciplinary Earth science achievements and operational applications using ESA satellite missions. It will also address some of the key scientific challenges and need for operational monitoring services in the years to come. It capitalizes on the knowledge and awareness outlined in "The Changing Earth - New scientific challenges for ESÁs Living Planet Programme" issued in 2006 together with updated views and approved plans expressed during ESÁs Earth Sciences Advisory Committee (ESAC) meetings and agreed at the recent User Consultation meeting in January 2009.
Hall, C.; Kaufman, C.; Humphreys, R. R.; Colgan, M. W.
The College of Charleston is developing several new geoscience-based education modules for integration into the Earth System Science Education Alliance (ESSEA). These three new modules provide opportunities for science and pre-service education students to participate in inquiry-based, data-driven experiences. The three new modules will be discussed in this session. Coastal Crisis is a module that analyzes rapidly changing coastlines and uses technology - remotely sensed data and geographic information systems (GIS) to delineate, understand and monitor changes in coastal environments. The beaches near Charleston, SC are undergoing erosion and therefore are used as examples of rapidly changing coastlines. Students will use real data from NASA, NOAA and other federal agencies in the classroom to study coastal change. Through this case study, learners will acquire remotely sensed images and GIS data sets from online sources, utilize those data sets within Google Earth or other visualization programs, and understand what the data is telling them. Analyzing the data will allow learners to contemplate and make predictions on the impact associated with changing environmental conditions, within the context of a coastal setting. To Drill or Not To Drill is a multidisciplinary problem based module to increase students’ knowledge of problems associated with nonrenewable resource extraction. The controversial topic of drilling in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR) examines whether the economic benefit of the oil extracted from ANWR is worth the social cost of the environmental damage that such extraction may inflict. By attempting to answer this question, learners must balance the interests of preservation with the economic need for oil. The learners are exposed to the difficulties associated with a real world problem that requires trade-off between environmental trust and economic well-being. The Citizen Science module challenges students to translate scientific
Durand, Yannig; Caron, Jérôme; Hélière, Arnaud; Bézy, Jean-Loup; Meynart, Roland
Critical lidar technology developments have been ongoing at the European Space Agency (ESA) in support of EarthCARE (Earth Clouds, Aerosols, and Radiation Explorer), the 6th Earth Explorer mission, and A-SCOPE (Advanced Space Carbon and Climate Observation of Planet Earth), one of the candidates for the 7th Earth Explorer mission. EarthCARE is embarking an Atmospheric backscatter Lidar (ATLID) while A-SCOPE is based on a Total Column Differential Absorption Lidar. As EarthCARE phase B has just started, the pre-development activities, aiming at validating the technologies used in the flight design and at verifying the overall instrument performance, are almost completed. On the other hand, A-SCOPE pre-phase A has just finished. Therefore technology developments are in progress, addressing critical subsystems or components with the lowest TRL, selected in the proposed instrument concepts. The activities described in this paper span over a broad range, addressing all critical elements of a lidar from the transmitter to the receiver.
Edwards, H. C.; Balmanno, W. F.; Cruz, Manuel I.; Ilgen, Marc R.
The details of tha assessment of autonomous Mars ascent and orbit rendezvous for earth return missions are presented. Analyses addressing navigation system assessments, trajectory planning, targeting approaches, flight control guidance strategies, and performance sensitivities are included. Tradeoffs in the analysis and design process are discussed.
Wells, James E.; Scherrer, John; Law, Richard; Bonniksen, Chris
A key element of the National Research Council's Earth Science and Applications Decadal Survey called for the creation of the Venture Class line of low-cost research and application missions within NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration). One key component of the architecture chosen by NASA within the Earth Venture line is a series of self-contained stand-alone spaceflight science missions called "EV-Mission". The first mission chosen for this competitively selected, cost and schedule capped, Principal Investigator-led opportunity is the CYclone Global Navigation Satellite System (CYGNSS). As specified in the defining Announcement of Opportunity, the Principal Investigator is held responsible for successfully achieving the science objectives of the selected mission and the management approach that he/she chooses to obtain those results has a significant amount of freedom as long as it meets the intent of key NASA guidance like NPR 7120.5 and 7123. CYGNSS is classified under NPR 7120.5E guidance as a Category 3 (low priority, low cost) mission and carries a Class D risk classification (low priority, high risk) per NPR 8705.4. As defined in the NPR guidance, Class D risk classification allows for a relatively broad range of implementation strategies. The management approach that will be utilized on CYGNSS is a streamlined implementation that starts with a higher risk tolerance posture at NASA and that philosophy flows all the way down to the individual part level.
Wells, James E.; Scherrer, John; Law, Richard; Bonniksen, Chris
A key element of the National Research Council's Earth Science and Applications Decadal Survey called for the creation of the Venture Class line of low-cost research and application missions within NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration). One key component of the architecture chosen by NASA within the Earth Venture line is a series of self-contained stand-alone spaceflight science missions called "EV-Mission". The first mission chosen for this competitively selected, cost and schedule capped, Principal Investigator-led opportunity is the CYclone Global Navigation Satellite System (CYGNSS). As specified in the defining Announcement of Opportunity, the Principal Investigator is held responsible for successfully achieving the science objectives of the selected mission and the management approach that he/she chooses to obtain those results has a significant amount of freedom as long as it meets the intent of key NASA guidance like NPR 7120.5 and 7123. CYGNSS is classified under NPR 7120.5E guidance as a Category 3 (low priority, low cost) mission and carries a Class D risk classification (low priority, high risk) per NPR 8705.4. As defined in the NPR guidance, Class D risk classification allows for a relatively broad range of implementation strategies. The management approach that will be utilized on CYGNSS is a streamlined implementation that starts with a higher risk tolerance posture at NASA and that philosophy flows all the way down to the individual part level.
Lillie, Charles F.; Thompson, Bruce E.
Cost estimation for space science missions is critically important in budgeting for successful missions. The process requires consideration of a number of parameters, where many of the values are only known to a limited accuracy. The results of cost estimation are not perfect, but must be calculated and compared with the estimates that the government uses for budgeting purposes. Uncertainties in the input parameters result from evolving requirements for missions that are typically the "first of a kind" with "state-of-the-art" instruments and new spacecraft and payload technologies that make it difficult to base estimates on the cost histories of previous missions. Even the cost of heritage avionics is uncertain due to parts obsolescence and the resulting redesign work. Through experience and use of industry best practices developed in participation with the Aerospace Industries Association (AIA), Northrop Grumman has developed a parametric modeling approach that can provide a reasonably accurate cost range and most probable cost for future space missions. During the initial mission phases, the approach uses mass- and powerbased cost estimating relationships (CER)'s developed with historical data from previous missions. In later mission phases, when the mission requirements are better defined, these estimates are updated with vendor's bids and "bottoms- up", "grass-roots" material and labor cost estimates based on detailed schedules and assigned tasks. In this paper we describe how we develop our CER's for parametric cost estimation and how they can be applied to estimate the costs for future space science missions like those presented to the Astronomy & Astrophysics Decadal Survey Study Committees.
Brown, Molly Elizabeth; Escobar, Vanessa Marie; Aschbacher, Josef; Milagro-Pérez, Maria Pilar; Doorn, Bradley; Macauley, Molly K.; Friedl, Lawrence
Satellite remote sensing technology has contributed to the transformation of multiple earth science domains, putting space observations at the forefront of innovation in earth science. With new satellite missions being launched every year, new types of earth science data are being incorporated into science models and decision-making systems in a broad array of organizations. Policy guidance can influence the degree to which user needs influence mission design and when, and ensure that satellite missions serve both the scientific and user communities without becoming unfocused and overly expensive. By considering the needs of the user community early on in the mission-design process, agencies can ensure that satellites meet the needs of multiple constituencies. This paper describes the mission development process in NASA and ESA and compares and contrasts the successes and challenges faced by these agencies as they try to balance science and applications within their missions.
Mason, T.; Costanza, B.
NASA's Global-scale Observations of the Limb and Disk, or GOLD, mission will explore a little understood area close to home, but historically hard to observe: the interface between Earth and space, a dynamic area of near-Earth space that responds both to space weather above, and the lower atmosphere below. GOLD, scheduled to launch into geostationary orbit in early 2018, will collect observations with a 30-minute cadence, much higher than any mission that has come before it. This will enable GOLD to be the first mission to study the day-to-day weather of a region of space—the thermosphere and ionosphere—rather than its long-term climate. GOLD will explore the near-Earth space environment, which is home to astronauts, radio signals used to guide airplanes and ships, and satellites that provide our communications and GPS systems. GOLD's unprecedented images and data will enable research that can improve situational awareness to help protect astronauts, spacecraft, and humans on the ground. As part of the GOLD communications and outreach program, the Office of Communications & Outreach at the Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics (LASP) is developing a suite of products and programs to introduce the science of the GOLD mission to a broad range of public audiences, including students, teachers, journalists, social media practitioners, and the wider planetary and Earth science communities. We plan to showcase with this poster some of the tools we are developing to achieve this goal.
Creech, Stephen D.
NASA s Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is directing efforts to build the Space Launch System (SLS), a heavy-lift rocket that will carry the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) and other important payloads far beyond Earth orbit (BEO). Its evolvable architecture will allow NASA to begin with Moon fly-bys and then go on to transport humans or robots to distant places such as asteroids and Mars. Designed to simplify spacecraft complexity, the SLS rocket will provide improved mass margins and radiation mitigation, and reduced mission durations. These capabilities offer attractive advantages for ambitious missions such as a Mars sample return, by reducing infrastructure requirements, cost, and schedule. For example, if an evolved expendable launch vehicle (EELV) were used for a proposed mission to investigate the Saturn system, a complicated trajectory would be required - with several gravity-assist planetary fly-bys - to achieve the necessary outbound velocity. The SLS rocket, using significantly higher C3 energies, can more quickly and effectively take the mission directly to its destination, reducing trip time and cost. As this paper will report, the SLS rocket will launch payloads of unprecedented mass and volume, such as "monolithic" telescopes and in-space infrastructure. Thanks to its ability to co-manifest large payloads, it also can accomplish complex missions in fewer launches. Future analyses will include reviews of alternate mission concepts and detailed evaluations of SLS figures of merit, helping the new rocket revolutionize science mission planning and design for years to come.
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This slide presentation reviews the Global Hawk, a unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) that NASA plans to use for Earth Sciences research. The Global Hawk is the world's first fully autonomous high-altitude, long-endurance aircraft, and is capable of conducting long duration missions. Plans are being made for the use of the aircraft on missions in the Arctic, Pacific and Western Atlantic Oceans. There are slides showing the Global Hawk Operations Center (GHOC), Flight Control and Air Traffic Control Communications Architecture, and Payload Integration and Accommodations on the Global Hawk. The first science campaign, planned for a study of the Pacific Ocean, is reviewed.
Petitdidier, Monique; Schwichtenberg, Horst
The civil society at large has addressed to the Earth Science community many strong requirements related in particular to natural and industrial risks, climate changes, new energies. The main critical point is that on one hand the civil society and all public ask for certainties i.e. precise values with small error range as it concerns prediction at short, medium and long term in all domains; on the other hand Science can mainly answer only in terms of probability of occurrence. To improve the answer or/and decrease the uncertainties, (1) new observational networks have been deployed in order to have a better geographical coverage and more accurate measurements have been carried out in key locations and aboard satellites. Following the OECD recommendations on the openness of research and public sector data, more and more data are available for Academic organisation and SMEs; (2) New algorithms and methodologies have been developed to face the huge data processing and assimilation into simulations using new technologies and compute resources. Finally, our total knowledge about the complex Earth system is contained in models and measurements, how we put them together has to be managed cleverly. The technical challenge is to put together databases and computing resources to answer the ES challenges. However all the applications are very intensive computing. Different compute solutions are available and depend on the characteristics of the applications. One of them is Grid especially efficient for independent or embarrassingly parallel jobs related to statistical and parametric studies. Numerous applications in atmospheric chemistry, meteorology, seismology, hydrology, pollution, climate and biodiversity have been deployed successfully on Grid. In order to fulfill requirements of risk management, several prototype applications have been deployed using OGC (Open geospatial Consortium) components with Grid middleware. The Grid has permitted via a huge number of runs to
Zygielbaum, A. (ed.) (Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91109 (United States))
These proceedings represent papers presented at the Earth and Space Science Information Systems (ESSIS) Conference. The attendees included scientists and engineers across many disciplines. New trends in information organizations were reviewed. One hundred and twenty eight papers are included in this volume, out of these two have been abstracted for the Energy Science and Technology database. The topics covered in the papers range from Earth science and technology to astronomy and space, planetary science and education. (AIP)
Ianson, Eric E.
NASA's Earth science flight program is a dynamic undertaking that consists of a large fleet of operating satellites, an array of satellite and instrument projects in various stages of development, a robust airborne science program, and a massive data archiving and distribution system. Each element of the flight program is complex and present unique challenges. NASA builds upon its successes and learns from its setbacks to manage this evolving portfolio to meet NASA's Earth science objectives. NASA fleet of 16 operating missions provide a wide range of scientific measurements made from dedicated Earth science satellites and from instruments mounted to the International Space Station. For operational missions, the program must address issues such as an aging satellites operating well beyond their prime mission, constellation flying, and collision avoidance with other spacecraft and orbital debris. Projects in development are divided into two broad categories: systematic missions and pathfinders. The Earth Systematic Missions (ESM) include a broad range of multi-disciplinary Earth-observing research satellite missions aimed at understanding the Earth system and its response to natural and human-induced forces and changes. Understanding these forces will help determine how to predict future changes, and how to mitigate or adapt to these changes. The Earth System Science Pathfinder (ESSP) program provides frequent, regular, competitively selected Earth science research opportunities that accommodate new and emerging scientific priorities and measurement capabilities. This results in a series of relatively low-cost, small-sized investigations and missions. Principal investigators whose scientific objectives support a variety of studies lead these missions, including studies of the atmosphere, oceans, land surface, polar ice regions, or solid Earth. This portfolio of missions and investigations provides opportunity for investment in innovative Earth science that enhances
Heaton, Andrew; Diedrich, Benjamin L.; Orphee, Juan; Stiltner, Brandon; Becker, Christopher
The Momentum Management (MM) system is described for the NASA Near Earth Asteroid Scout (NEA Scout) cubesat solar sail mission. Unlike many solar sail mission proposals that used solar torque as the primary or only attitude control system, NEA Scout uses small reaction wheels (RW) and a reaction control system (RCS) with cold gas thrusters, as described in the abstract "Solar Sail Attitude Control System for Near Earth Asteroid Scout Cubesat Mission." The reaction wheels allow fine pointing and higher rates with low mass actuators to meet the science, communication, and trajectory guidance requirements. The MM system keeps the speed of the wheels within their operating margins using a combination of solar torque and the RCS.
Abakians, H.; Donnellan, A.; Chapman, B. D.; Williford, K. H.; Francis, R.; Ehlmann, B. L.; Smith, A. T.
Small Unmanned Aerial Systems (sUAS) are increasingly being used across JPL and NASA for science data collection, mission simulation, and mission validation. They can also be used as proof of concept for development of autonomous capabilities for Earth and planetary exploration. sUAS are useful for reconstruction of topography and imagery for a variety of applications ranging from fault zone morphology, Mars analog studies, geologic mapping, photometry, and estimation of vegetation structure. Imagery, particularly multispectral imagery can be used for identifying materials such as fault lithology or vegetation type. Reflectance maps can be produced for wetland or other studies. Topography and imagery observations are useful in radar studies such as from UAVSAR or the future NISAR mission to validate 3D motions and to provide imagery in areas of disruption where the radar measurements decorrelate. Small UAS are inexpensive to operate, reconfigurable, and agile, making them a powerful platform for validating mission science measurements, and also for providing surrogate data for existing or future missions.
Crichton, D. J.; Hardman, S.; Law, E.; Freeborn, D.; Kay-Im, E.; Lau, G.; Oswald, J.
NASA earth science instruments are increasingly relying on airborne missions. However, traditionally, there has been limited common infrastructure support available to principal investigators in the area of science data systems. As a result, each investigator has been required to develop their own computing infrastructures for the science data system. Typically there is little software reuse and many projects lack sufficient resources to provide a robust infrastructure to capture, process, distribute and archive the observations acquired from airborne flights. At NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), we have been developing a multi-mission data system infrastructure for airborne instruments called the Airborne Cloud Computing Environment (ACCE). ACCE encompasses the end-to-end lifecycle covering planning, provisioning of data system capabilities, and support for scientific analysis in order to improve the quality, cost effectiveness, and capabilities to enable new scientific discovery and research in earth observation. This includes improving data system interoperability across each instrument. A principal characteristic is being able to provide an agile infrastructure that is architected to allow for a variety of configurations of the infrastructure from locally installed compute and storage services to provisioning those services via the "cloud" from cloud computer vendors such as Amazon.com. Investigators often have different needs that require a flexible configuration. The data system infrastructure is built on the Apache's Object Oriented Data Technology (OODT) suite of components which has been used for a number of spaceborne missions and provides a rich set of open source software components and services for constructing science processing and data management systems. In 2010, a partnership was formed between the ACCE team and the Carbon in Arctic Reservoirs Vulnerability Experiment (CARVE) mission to support the data processing and data management needs
Endreny, Anna; Siegel, Donald I.
The Urban Schoolyards project is a two year partnership with a university Earth Science Department and the surrounding urban elementary schools. The goal of the project was to develop the capacity of elementary teachers to teach earth science lessons using their schoolyards and local parks as field sites. The university personnel developed lessons…
Libarkin, Julie C.; Schneps, Matthew H.
We report on interviews conducted with twenty-one elementary school children (grades 1-5) about a number of Earth science concepts. These interviews were undertaken as part of a teacher training video series designed specifically to assist elementary teachers in learning essential ideas in Earth science. As such, children were interviewed about a…
Quitiquit, W.A.; Ledbetter, G.P.; Henry, A.L.
This report is a compilation of abstracts of papers, internal reports, and talks presented during 1977 at national and international meetings by members of the Earth Sciences Division, Lawrence Livermore Laboratory. It is arranged alphabetically by author and includes a cross-reference by subject indicating the areas of research interest of the Earth Sciences Division
Nag, Sreeja; LeMoigne-Stewart, Jacqueline; Cervantes, Ben; DeWeck, Oliver
Distributed Space Missions (DSMs) are gaining momentum in their application to earth observation missions owing to their unique ability to increase observation sampling in multiple dimensions. DSM design is a complex problem with many design variables, multiple objectives determining performance and cost and emergent, often unexpected, behaviors. There are very few open-access tools available to explore the tradespace of variables, minimize cost and maximize performance for pre-defined science goals, and therefore select the most optimal design. This paper presents a software tool that can multiple DSM architectures based on pre-defined design variable ranges and size those architectures in terms of predefined science and cost metrics. The tool will help a user select Pareto optimal DSM designs based on design of experiments techniques. The tool will be applied to some earth observation examples to demonstrate its applicability in making some key decisions between different performance metrics and cost metrics early in the design lifecycle.
Hackenberg, Mary; And Others
This guide was developed for earth sciences and marine sciences instruction in the senior high schools of Duval County, Jacksonville, Florida. The subjects covered are: (1) Earth Science for 10th, 11th, and 12th graders; (2) Marine Biology I for 10th, 11th, and 12th graders; (3) Marine Biology II, Advanced, for 11th and 12th graders; (4) Marine…
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Earth observing missions like NASA's LANDSAT Data Continuity Mission - Thermal Infrared Sensor (LDCM-TIRS) require greater spatial resolution of the earth than the ~...
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Earth observing missions like NASA's LANDSAT Data Continuity Mission - Thermal Infrared Sensor (LDCM-TIRS) require greater spatial resolution of the earth than the ~...
Guillory, Anthony R.; Denkins, Todd C.; Allen, B. Danette
The Earth System Science Pathfinder (ESSP) Program Office (PO) is responsible for programmatic management of National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Science Mission Directorate's (SMD) Earth Venture (EV) missions. EV is composed of both orbital and suborbital Earth science missions. The first of the Earth Venture missions is EV-1, which are Principal Investigator-led, temporally-sustained, suborbital (airborne) science investigations costcapped at $30M each over five years. Traditional orbital procedures, processes and standards used to manage previous ESSP missions, while effective, are disproportionally comprehensive for suborbital missions. Conversely, existing airborne practices are primarily intended for smaller, temporally shorter investigations, and traditionally managed directly by a program scientist as opposed to a program office such as ESSP. In 2010, ESSP crafted a management approach for the successful implementation of the EV-1 missions within the constructs of current governance models. NASA Research and Technology Program and Project Management Requirements form the foundation of the approach for EV-1. Additionally, requirements from other existing NASA Procedural Requirements (NPRs), systems engineering guidance and management handbooks were adapted to manage programmatic, technical, schedule, cost elements and risk. As the EV-1 missions are nearly at the end of their successful execution and project lifecycle and the submission deadline of the next mission proposals near, the ESSP PO is taking the lessons learned and updated the programmatic management approach for all future Earth Venture Suborbital (EVS) missions for an even more flexible and streamlined management approach.
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Advances in computer-aided mission planning can enhance mission operations and science return for surface missions to Mars, the Moon, and beyond. While the...
Pham, Long; Lynnes, Christopher; Hegde, Mahabaleshwa; Graves, Sara; Ramachandran, Rahul; Maskey, Manil; Keiser, Ken
To allow scientists further capabilities in the area of data mining and web services, the Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC) and researchers at the University of Alabama in Huntsville (UAH) have developed a system to mine data at the source without the need of network transfers. The system has been constructed by linking together several pre-existing technologies: the Simple Scalable Script-based Science Processor for Measurements (S4PM), a processing engine at he GES DISC; the Algorithm Development and Mining (ADaM) system, a data mining toolkit from UAH that can be configured in a variety of ways to create customized mining processes; ActiveBPEL, a workflow execution engine based on BPEL (Business Process Execution Language); XBaya, a graphical workflow composer; and the EOS Clearinghouse (ECHO). XBaya is used to construct an analysis workflow at UAH using ADam components, which are also installed remotely at the GES DISC, wrapped as Web Services. The S4PM processing engine searches ECHO for data using space-time criteria, staging them to cache, allowing the ActiveBPEL engine to remotely orchestras the processing workflow within S4PM. As mining is completed, the output is placed in an FTP holding area for the end user. The goals are to give users control over the data they want to process, while mining data at the data source using the server's resources rather than transferring the full volume over the internet. These diverse technologies have been infused into a functioning, distributed system with only minor changes to the underlying technologies. The key to the infusion is the loosely coupled, Web-Services based architecture: All of the participating components are accessible (one way or another) through (Simple Object Access Protocol) SOAP-based Web Services.
The advanced chemical propulsion technology area of NASA's In-Space Technology Project is investing in systems and components for increased performance and reduced cost of chemical propulsion technologies applicable to near-term science missions. Presently the primary investment in the advanced chemical propulsion technology area is in the AMBR high temperature storable bipropellant rocket engine. Scheduled to be available for flight development starting in year 2008, AMBR engine shows a 60 kg payload gain in an analysis for the Titan-Enceladus orbiter mission and a 33 percent manufacturing cost reduction over its baseline, state-of-the-art counterpart. Other technologies invested include the reliable lightweight tanks for propellant and the precision propellant management and mixture ratio control. Both technologies show significant mission benefit, can be applied to any liquid propulsion system, and upon completion of the efforts described in this paper, are at least in parts ready for flight infusion. Details of the technologies are discussed.
Proceedings of the International Conference on Exploration and Utilization of the ... on various strategies,initiatives and missions leading to a permanent human .... Advances in lunar science from the Clementine mission: A decadal perspective ... Launch strategy for Indian lunar mission and precision injection to the Moon ...
Vicente, G. A.
The NASA Goddard Earth Sciences Data (GES) and Information Services Center (DISC) is one of the major Science Mission Directorate (SMD) for archiving and distribution of Earth Science remote sensing data, products and services. This virtual portal provides convenient access to Atmospheric Composition and Dynamics, Hydrology, Precipitation, Ozone, and model derived datasets (generated by GSFC's Global Modeling and Assimilation Office), the North American Land Data Assimilation System (NLDAS) and the Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS) data products (both generated by GSFC's Hydrological Sciences Branch). This presentation demonstrates various tools and computational technologies developed in the GES DISC to manage the huge volume of data and products acquired from various missions and programs over the years. It explores approaches to archive, document, distribute, access and analyze Earth Science data and information as well as addresses the technical and scientific issues, governance and user support problem faced by scientists in need of multi-disciplinary datasets. It also discusses data and product metrics, user distribution profiles and lessons learned through interactions with the science communities around the world. Finally it demonstrates some of the most used data and product visualization and analyses tools developed and maintained by the GES DISC.
Sediment dynamics like deposition, erosion and dispersion are explained with the simulated tidal currents and OCM derived sediment concentrations. ... Geosciences Division, Marine, Geo and Planetary Sciences Group, Earth, Ocean, Atmosphere, Planetary Sciences and Applications Area, Space Applications Centre ...
Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science; Volume 109; Issue 1 ... Crustal evolution; granites; Phanerozoic; Sr-Nd isotopes; east-central Asia. ... Department of Geology, Changchun University of Science and Technology, Changchun ...
Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science; Volume 116; Issue 3 ... proposed to reconstruct the ionospheric images with high resolution and high efficiency. ... Graduate School of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100 039, China.
Ramapriyan, H. K.
One of the three strategic goals of NASA is to Advance understanding of Earth and develop technologies to improve the quality of life on our home planet (NASA strategic plan 2014). NASA's Earth Science Data System (ESDS) Program directly supports this goal. NASA has been launching satellites for civilian Earth observations for over 40 years, and collecting data from various types of instruments. Especially since 1990, with the start of the Earth Observing System (EOS) Program, which was a part of the Mission to Planet Earth, the observations have been significantly more extensive in their volumes, variety and velocity. Frequent, global observations are made in support of Earth system science. An open data policy has been in effect since 1990, with no period of exclusive access and non-discriminatory access to data, free of charge. NASA currently holds nearly 10 petabytes of Earth science data including satellite, air-borne, and ground-based measurements and derived geophysical parameter products in digital form. Millions of users around the world are using NASA data for Earth science research and applications. In 2014, over a billion data files were downloaded by users from NASAs EOS Data and Information System (EOSDIS), a system with 12 Distributed Active Archive Centers (DAACs) across the U. S. As a core component of the ESDS Program, EOSDIS has been operating since 1994, and has been evolving continuously with advances in information technology. The ESDS Program influences as well as benefits from advances in Earth Science Informatics. The presentation will provide an overview of the role and evolution of NASAs ESDS Program.
Peri, Frank; Volz, Stephen
NASA's Earth Venture class (EV) of mission are competitively selected, Principal Investigator (PI) led, relatively low cost and narrowly focused in scientific scope. Investigations address a full spectrum of earth science objectives, including studies of the atmosphere, oceans, land surface, polar ice regions, and solid Earth. EV has three program elements: EV-Suborbital (EVS) are suborbital/airborne investigations; EV-Mission (EVM) element comprises small complete spaceborne missions; and EV-Instrument (EVI) element develops spaceborne instruments for flight as missions-of-opportunity (MoO). To ensure the success of EV, the management approach of each element is tailored according to the specific needs of the element.
... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Biotech Life Sciences Trade Mission to... Commercial Service (CS) is organizing a Biotech Life Sciences trade mission to Australia, October 29-November.... biotechnology and life science firms. The goals of the trade mission to Australia are to (1) increase U.S...
... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Biotech Life Science Trade Mission to... Commercial Service (CS) is organizing a Biotechnology Life Sciences trade mission to China on October 17-20... representatives from a variety of U.S. biotechnology and life science firms and trade organizations. The mission...
Lulla, Kamlesh P.; Helfert, Michael; Amsbury, David; Pitts, David; Jaklitch, Pat; Wilkinson, Justin; Evans, Cynthia; Ackleson, Steve; Helms, David; Chambers, Mark
The noteworthy imagery acquired during Space Shuttle Mission STS-42 is documented. Attention is given to frozen Tibetan lakes, Merapi Volcano in Java, Mt. Pinatubo in the Philippines, the coastline east of Tokyo Japan, land use in southern India, and the Indus River Delta. Observations of Kamchatka Peninsula, Lake Baikal, Moscow, Katmai National Park and Mt. Augustine, Alaska, the Alaskan coast by the Bering Sea, snow-covered New York, the Rhone River valley, the Strait of Gibraltar, and Mt. Ararat, Turkey, are also reported.
Church, M. A.; Dudill, A. R.; Frey, P.; Venditti, J. G.
Reproducibility represents how closely the results of independent tests agree when undertaken using the same materials but different conditions of measurement, such as operator, equipment or laboratory. The concept of reproducibility is fundamental to the scientific method as it prevents the persistence of incorrect or biased results. Yet currently the production of scientific knowledge emphasizes rapid publication of previously unreported findings, a culture that has emerged from pressures related to hiring, publication criteria and funding requirements. Awareness and critique of the disconnect between how scientific research should be undertaken, and how it actually is conducted, has been prominent in biomedicine for over a decade, with the fields of economics and psychology more recently joining the conversation. The purpose of this presentation is to stimulate the conversation in earth sciences where, despite implicit evidence in widely accepted classifications, formal testing of reproducibility is rare.As a formal test of reproducibility, two sets of experiments were undertaken with the same experimental procedure, at the same scale, but in different laboratories. Using narrow, steep flumes and spherical glass beads, grain size sorting was examined by introducing fine sediment of varying size and quantity into a mobile coarse bed. The general setup was identical, including flume width and slope; however, there were some variations in the materials, construction and lab environment. Comparison of the results includes examination of the infiltration profiles, sediment mobility and transport characteristics. The physical phenomena were qualitatively reproduced but not quantitatively replicated. Reproduction of results encourages more robust research and reporting, and facilitates exploration of possible variations in data in various specific contexts. Following the lead of other fields, testing of reproducibility can be incentivized through changes to journal
Henry, A.L.; Schwartz, L.L.
This report is a compilation of abstracts of papers, internal reports, and talks presented during 1979 at national and international meetings by members of the Earth Sciences Division, Lawrence Livermore Laboratory. The arrangement is alphabetical (by author). For a given report, a bibliographic reference appears under the name of each coauthor, but the abstract iself is given only under the name of the first author or the first Earth Sciences Division author. A topical index at the end of the report provides useful cross references, while indicating major areas of research interest in the Earth Sciences Division
Hurlburt, N. E.; Feigelson, E.; Mentzel, C.
Most of NASA's commitment to computational space science involves the organization and processing of Big Data from space-based satellites, and the calculations of advanced physical models based on these datasets. But considerable thought is also needed on what computations are needed. The science questions addressed by space data are so diverse and complex that traditional analysis procedures are often inadequate. The knowledge and skills of the statistician, applied mathematician, and algorithmic computer scientist must be incorporated into programs that currently emphasize engineering and physical science. NASA's culture and administrative mechanisms take full cognizance that major advances in space science are driven by improvements in instrumentation. But it is less well recognized that new instruments and science questions give rise to new challenges in the treatment of satellite data after it is telemetered to the ground. These issues might be divided into two stages: data reduction through software pipelines developed within NASA mission centers; and science analysis that is performed by hundreds of space scientists dispersed through NASA, U.S. universities, and abroad. Both stages benefit from the latest statistical and computational methods; in some cases, the science result is completely inaccessible using traditional procedures. This paper will review the current state of NASA and present example applications using modern methodologies.
Folta, David; Young, Corissa; Ross, Adam
The purpose of this investigation is to determine the feasibility of attaining and maintaining unique non-Keplerian orbit vantage locations in the Earth/Moon environment in order to obtain continuous scientific measurements. The principal difficulty associated with obtaining continuous measurements is the temporal nature of astrodynamics, i.e., classical orbits. This investigation demonstrates advanced trajectory designs to meet demanding science requirements which cannot be met following traditional orbital mechanic logic. Examples of continuous observer missions addressed include Earth pole-sitters and unique vertical libration orbits that address Sun-Earth Connection and Earth Science Vision roadmaps.
Martin, Th.; Pérot, E.; Desjean, M.-Ch.; Bitetti, L.
Active Debris Removal (ADR) aims at removing large sized intact objects ― defunct satellites, rocket upper-stages ― from space crowded regions. Why? Because they constitute the main source of the long-term debris environment deterioration caused by possible future collisions with fragments and worse still with other intact but uncontrolled objects. In order to limit the growth of the orbital debris population in the future (referred to as the Kessler syndrome), it is now highly recommended to carry out such ADR missions, together with the mitigation measures already adopted by national agencies (such as postmission disposal). At the French Space Agency, CNES, and in the frame of advanced studies, the design of such an ADR mission in Low Earth Orbit (LEO) is under evaluation. A two-step preliminary approach has been envisaged. First, a reconnaissance mission based on a small demonstrator (˜500 kg) rendezvousing with several targets (observation and in-flight qualification testing). Secondly, an ADR mission based on a larger vehicle (inherited from the Orbital Transfer Vehicle (OTV) concept) being able to capture and deorbit several preselected targets by attaching a propulsive kit to these targets. This paper presents a flight dynamics level tradeoff analysis between different vehicle and mission concepts as well as target disposal options. The delta-velocity, times, and masses required to transfer, rendezvous with targets and deorbit are assessed for some propelled systems and propellant less options. Total mass budgets are then derived for two end-to-end study cases corresponding to the reconnaissance and ADR missions mentioned above.
Orphee, Juan; Diedrich, Ben; Stiltner, Brandon; Becker, Chris; Heaton, Andrew
An Attitude Control System (ACS) has been developed for the NASA Near Earth Asteroid (NEA) Scout mission. The NEA Scout spacecraft is a 6U cubesat with an eighty-six square meter solar sail for primary propulsion that will launch as a secondary payload on the Space Launch System (SLS) Exploration Mission 1 (EM-1) and rendezvous with a target asteroid after a two year journey, and will conduct science imagery. The spacecraft ACS consists of three major actuating subsystems: a Reaction Wheel (RW) control system, a Reaction Control System (RCS), and an Active Mass Translator (AMT) system. The reaction wheels allow fine pointing and higher rates with low mass actuators to meet the science, communication, and trajectory guidance requirements. The Momentum Management System (MMS) keeps the speed of the wheels within their operating margins using a combination of solar torque and the RCS. The AMT is used to adjust the sign and magnitude of the solar torque to manage pitch and yaw momentum. The RCS is used for initial de-tumble, performing a Trajectory Correction Maneuver (TCM), and performing momentum management about the roll axis. The NEA Scout ACS is able to meet all mission requirements including attitude hold, slews, pointing for optical navigation and pointing for science with margin and including flexible body effects. Here we discuss the challenges and solutions of meeting NEA Scout mission requirements for the ACS design, and present a novel implementation of managing the spacecraft Center of Mass (CM) to trim the solar sail disturbance torque. The ACS we have developed has an applicability to a range of potential missions and does so in a much smaller volume than is traditional for deep space missions beyond Earth.
Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science. Raghavendra Ashrit. Articles written in Journal of Earth System Science. Volume 115 Issue 3 June 2006 pp 299-313. Simulation of a Himalayan cloudburst event · Someshwar Das Raghavendra Ashrit M W Moncrieff · More Details Abstract Fulltext PDF. Intense rainfall often ...
Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science. Denizhan Vardar. Articles written in Journal of Earth System Science. Volume 127 Issue 1 February 2018 pp 13. Seismic stratigraphy and depositional history of the BüyükÇekmece Bay since Latest Pleistocene, Marmara Sea, Turkey · Denizhan Vardar Hakan Alp Bedri ...
Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science. M Alper Şengül. Articles written in Journal of Earth System Science. Volume 124 Issue 7 October 2015 pp 1429-1443. Determining the site effects of 23 October 2011 earthquake (Van province, Turkey) on the rural areas using HVSR microtremor method · İsmail Akkaya Ali ...
Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science. Barin Kumar De. Articles written in Journal of Earth System Science. Volume 122 Issue 4 August 2013 pp 1013-1021. Characteristics of severe thunderstorms studied with the aid of VLF atmospherics over North–East India · A Guha Trisanu Banik Barin Kumar De Rakesh ...
Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science. V K Gaur. Articles written in Journal of Earth System Science. Volume 109 Issue 1 March 2000 pp 1-3. Editorial · V K Gaur · More Details Fulltext PDF. Volume 109 Issue 4 December 2000 pp 393-394. Editorial · V K Gaur · More Details Fulltext PDF. Volume 112 Issue 3 ...
Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science. V D Mishra. Articles written in Journal of Earth System Science. Volume 118 Issue 1 February 2009 pp 11-26. Assessment of different topographic corrections in AWiFS satellite imagery of Himalaya terrain · V D Mishra J K Sharma K K Singh N K Thakur M Kumar.
Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science. Naveen Kumar. Articles written in Journal of Earth System Science. Volume 118 Issue 5 October 2009 pp 539-549. Analytical solutions of one-dimensional advection–diffusion equation with variable coefficients in a finite domain · Atul Kumar Dilip Kumar Jaiswal Naveen ...
Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science. S Sajani. Articles written in Journal of Earth System Science. Volume 116 Issue 2 April 2007 pp 149-157. The role of low-frequency intraseasonal oscillations in the anomalous Indian summer monsoon rainfall of 2002 · S Sajani S Naseema Beegum K Krishna Moorthy.
Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science. P K Sikdar. Articles written in Journal of Earth System Science. Volume 126 Issue 2 March 2017 pp 29. Numerical modelling of groundwater flow to understand the impacts of pumping on arsenic migration in the aquifer of North Bengal Plain · P K Sikdar Surajit Chakraborty.
Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science. Suman Sinha. Articles written in Journal of Earth System Science. Volume 125 Issue 4 June 2016 pp 725-735. Developing synergy regression models with space-borne ALOS PALSAR and Landsat TM sensors for retrieving tropical forest biomass · Suman Sinha C ...
Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science. S Banerjee. Articles written in Journal of Earth System Science. Volume 114 Issue 1 February 2005 pp 87-96. Facies, dissolution seams and stable isotope compositions of the Rohtas Limestone (Vindhyan Supergroup) in the Son valley area, central India · S Banerjee S K ...
Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science. Abhijit Chakraborty. Articles written in Journal of Earth System Science. Volume 114 Issue 3 June 2005 pp 275-286. Significance of transition between Talchir Formation and Karharbari Formation in Lower Gondwana basin evolution — A study in West Bokaro Coal basin, ...
Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science. A Shalini. Articles written in Journal of Earth System Science. Volume 115 Issue 4 August 2006 pp 451-460 Special Section on: Material exchanges at marine boundaries and surface ocean processes: Forcings and feedbacks. Spatial and temporal distribution of methane in ...
Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science. P Pant. Articles written in Journal of Earth System Science. Volume 117 Issue S1 July 2008 pp 303-313. Characteristics of spectral aerosol optical depths over India during ICARB · S Naseema Beegum K Krishna Moorthy Vijayakumar S Nair S Suresh Babu S K Satheesh V ...
Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science. Gh Jeelani. Articles written in Journal of Earth System Science. Volume 120 Issue 3 June 2011 pp 399-411. Assessing variability of water quality in a groundwater-fed perennial lake of Kashmir Himalayas using linear geostatics · S Sarah Gh Jeelani Shakeel Ahmed.
Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science. A Sarkar. Articles written in Journal of Earth System Science. Volume 109 Issue 1 March 2000 pp 157-169. Palaeomonsoon and palaeoproductivity records of O, C and CaCO3 variations in the northern Indian Ocean sediments · A Sarkar R Ramesh S K Bhattacharya ...
Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science. V V S S Sarma. Articles written in Journal of Earth System Science. Volume 109 Issue 2 June 2000 pp 279-283. Controls of dimethyl sulphide in the Bay of Bengal during BOBMEX-Pilot cruise 1998 · D M Shenoy M Dileep Kumar V V S S Sarma · More Details Abstract ...
Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science. K Dharanirajan. Articles written in Journal of Earth System Science. Volume 123 Issue 8 December 2014 pp 1819-1830. Geomorphic settings of mangrove ecosystem in South Andaman Island: A geospatial approach · E Yuvaraj K Dharanirajan S Jayakumar Saravanan.
Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science. C Gnanaseelan. Articles written in Journal of Earth System Science. Volume 114 Issue 5 October 2005 pp 475-491. Hydrography and water masses in the southeastern Arabian Sea during March-June 2003 · S S C Shenoi D Shankar G S Michael J Kurian K K Varma M R ...
Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science. P K Gupta. Articles written in Journal of Earth System Science. Volume 114 Issue 5 October 2005 pp 523-531. Normalized impedance function and the straightforward inversion scheme for magnetotelluric data · Sri Niwas P K Gupta V K Gaur · More Details Abstract Fulltext ...
Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science. C B S Dutt. Articles written in Journal of Earth System Science. Volume 117 Issue S1 July 2008 pp 243-262. Integrated Campaign for Aerosols, gases and Radiation Budget (ICARB): An overview · K Krishna Moorthy S K Satheesh S Suresh Babu C B S Dutt · More Details ...
Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science. G Sasibhushana Rao. Articles written in Journal of Earth System Science. Volume 116 Issue 5 October 2007 pp 407-411. GPS satellite and receiver instrumental biases estimation using least squares method for accurate ionosphere modelling · G Sasibhushana Rao.
Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science. M Venkat Ratnam. Articles written in Journal of Earth System Science. Volume 120 Issue 5 October 2011 pp 807-823. Long-term variations in outgoing long-wave radiation (OLR), convective available potential energy (CAPE) and temperature in the tropopause region over ...
Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science. M Madhupratap. Articles written in Journal of Earth System Science. Volume 109 Issue 4 December 2000 pp 433-441. Physical control of primary productivity on a seasonal scale in the central and eastern Arabian Sea · S Prasanna kumar M Madhupratap M Dileep kumar M ...
Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science. Bhushan R Lamsoge. Articles written in Journal of Earth System Science. Volume 123 Issue 7 October 2014 pp 1541-1566. Impact of over-exploitation on groundwater quality: A case study from WR-2Watershed, India · Anil M Pophare Bhushan R Lamsoge Yashwant B ...
Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science. Dhruba Mukhopadhyay. Articles written in Journal of Earth System Science. Volume 109 Issue 1 March 2000 pp 22-38. Anasagar gneiss: A folded granitoid pluton in the Phanerozoic South Delhi Fold Belt, central Rajasthan · Dhruba Mukhopadhyay Tapas Bhattacharyya ...
Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science. M Israil. Articles written in Journal of Earth System Science. Volume 117 Issue 3 June 2008 pp 189-200. Magnetotelluric investigations for imaging electrical structure of Garhwal Himalayan corridor, Uttarakhand, India · M Israil D K Tyagi P K Gupta Sri Niwas · More Details ...
Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science. Keqing Zong. Articles written in Journal of Earth System Science. Volume 127 Issue 3 April 2018 pp 43. Early Neoarchaean A-type granitic magmatism by crustal reworking in Singhbhum craton: Evidence from Pala Lahara area, Orissa · Abhishek Topno Sukanta Dey ...
Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science. Arka Rudra. Articles written in Journal of Earth System Science. Volume 123 Issue 5 July 2014 pp 935-941. Molecular composition and paleobotanical origin of Eocene resin from northeast India · Arka Rudra Suryendu Dutta Srinivasan V Raju · More Details Abstract Fulltext ...
Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science. Vijaya. Articles written in Journal of Earth System Science. Volume 120 Issue 3 June 2011 pp 545-556. Fine-scale responses of phytoplankton to freshwater influx in a tropical monsoonal estuary following the onset of southwest monsoon · Suraksha M Pednekar S G Prabhu ...
Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science. Anup Saha. Articles written in Journal of Earth System Science. Volume 125 Issue 4 June 2016 pp 885-895. Effect of irregularity on torsional surface waves in an initially stressed anisotropic porous layer sandwiched between homogeneous and non-homogeneous half- ...
Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science. Santimoy Kundu. Articles written in Journal of Earth System Science. Volume 124 Issue 1 February 2015 pp 161-170. Influence of rigid boundary on the propagation of torsional surface wave in an inhomogeneous layer · Shishir Gupta Rehena Sultana Santimoy Kundu.
Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science. Rehena Sultana. Articles written in Journal of Earth System Science. Volume 124 Issue 1 February 2015 pp 161-170. Influence of rigid boundary on the propagation of torsional surface wave in an inhomogeneous layer · Shishir Gupta Rehena Sultana Santimoy Kundu.
Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science. N K Thakur. Articles written in Journal of Earth System Science. Volume 118 Issue 1 February 2009 pp 11-26. Assessment of different topographic corrections in AWiFS satellite imagery of Himalaya terrain · V D Mishra J K Sharma K K Singh N K Thakur M Kumar.
Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science. Sharmistha De Sarkar. Articles written in Journal of Earth System Science. Volume 122 Issue 3 June 2013 pp 715-727. Arc parallel extension in Higher and Lesser Himalayas, evidence from western Arunachal Himalaya, India · Sharmistha De Sarkar George Mathew ...
Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science. A Ganju. Articles written in Journal of Earth System Science. Volume 117 Issue 5 October 2008 pp 575-587. Mountain range specific analog weather forecast model for northwest Himalaya in India · D Singh A Ganju · More Details Abstract Fulltext PDF. Mountain range ...
Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science. J C Joshi. Articles written in Journal of Earth System Science. Volume 126 Issue 1 February 2017 pp 3. Optimisation of Hidden Markov Model using Baum–Welch algorithm for prediction of maximum and minimum temperature over Indian Himalaya · J C Joshi Tankeshwar ...
Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science. P K Sikdar. Articles written in Journal of Earth System Science. Volume 120 Issue 3 June 2011 pp 435-446. Threat of land subsidence in and around Kolkata City and East Kolkata Wetlands, West Bengal, India · P Sahu P K Sikdar · More Details Abstract Fulltext PDF.
Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science. Saji Mohandas. Articles written in Journal of Earth System Science. Volume 117 Issue 5 October 2008 pp 603-620. Skills of different mesoscale models over Indian region during monsoon season: Forecast errors · Someshwar Das Raghavendra Ashrit Gopal Raman ...
Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science. B P Rawat. Articles written in Journal of Earth System Science. Volume 110 Issue 1 March 2001 pp 63-76. Are Majhgawan-Hinota pipe rocks truly group-I kimberlite? Ravi Shanker S Nag A Ganguly A Absar B P Rawat G S Singh · More Details Abstract Fulltext PDF.
Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science. Rajdeep Roy. Articles written in Journal of Earth System Science. Volume 120 Issue 6 December 2011 pp 1145-1154. Identification of non-indigenous phytoplankton species dominated bloom off Goa using inverted microscopy and pigment (HPLC) analysis · P V Bhaskar ...
Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science. Evangelin Ramani Sujatha. Articles written in Journal of Earth System Science. Volume 121 Issue 5 October 2012 pp 1337-1350. Landslide susceptibility analysis using Probabilistic Certainty Factor Approach: A case study on Tevankarai stream watershed, India.
Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science. Parmanand Sharma. Articles written in Journal of Earth System Science. Volume 121 Issue 3 June 2012 pp 625-636. Chemical characterisation of meltwater draining from Gangotri Glacier, Garhwal Himalaya, India · Virendra Bahadur Singh A L Ramanathan Jose George ...
Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science. Umesh S Balpande. Articles written in Journal of Earth System Science. Volume 123 Issue 7 October 2014 pp 1501-1515. Morphometric analysis of Suketi river basin, Himachal Himalaya, India · Anil M Pophare Umesh S Balpande · More Details Abstract Fulltext PDF.
Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science. Tarun Solanki. Articles written in Journal of Earth System Science. Volume 127 Issue 1 February 2018 pp 9. Geomorphic investigation of the Late-Quaternary landforms in the southern Zanskar Valley, NW Himalaya · Shubhra Sharma Aadil Hussain Amit K Mishra Aasif Lone ...
Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science. V S Dubey. Articles written in Journal of Earth System Science. Volume 114 Issue 5 October 2005 pp 515-522. Identification of groundwater prospective zones by using remote sensing and geoelectrical methods in Jharia and Raniganj coalfields, Dhanbad district, ...
Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science. R Srinivasan. Articles written in Journal of Earth System Science. Volume 109 Issue 1 March 2000 pp 57-65. Sm-Nd Ages of Two Meta-Anorthosite Complexes Around Holenarsipur: Constraints on the Antiquity of Archean Supracrustal Rocks of the Dharwar Craton.
Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science. A Geetha Selvarani. Articles written in Journal of Earth System Science. Volume 125 Issue 2 March 2016 pp 311-328. Groundwater resource exploration in Salem district, Tamil Nadu using GIS and remote sensing · G Maheswaran A Geetha Selvarani K Elangovan.
Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science. Ashwini Kulkarni. Articles written in Journal of Earth System Science. Volume 121 Issue 1 February 2012 pp 203-210. Impact of global warming on cyclonic disturbances over south Asian region · Savita Patwardhan Ashwini Kulkarni K Krishna Kumar · More Details Abstract ...
Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science. P K Kunhikrishnan. Articles written in Journal of Earth System Science. Volume 113 Issue 3 September 2004 pp 353-363. Observations of the atmospheric surface layer parameters over a semi arid region during the solar eclipse of August 11th, 1999 · Praveena Krishnan ...
Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science. David R Bridgland. Articles written in Journal of Earth System Science. Volume 120 Issue 3 June 2011 pp 503-530. Methods for determination of the age of Pleistocene tephra, derived from eruption of Toba, in central India · Rob Westaway Sheila Mishra Sushama Deo ...
Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science. S D Kotal. Articles written in Journal of Earth System Science. Volume 117 Issue 2 April 2008 pp 157-168. A Statistical Cyclone Intensity Prediction (SCIP) model for the Bay of Bengal · S D Kotal S K Roy Bhowmik P K Kundu Ananda Kumar Das · More Details Abstract ...
Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science. Ali Asgari. Articles written in Journal of Earth System Science. Volume 123 Issue 2 March 2014 pp 365-379. Numerical evaluation of seismic response of shallow foundation on loose silt and silty sand · Ali Asgari Aliakbar Golshani Mohsen Bagheri · More Details Abstract ...
Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science. J D Patil. Articles written in Journal of Earth System Science. Volume 125 Issue 2 March 2016 pp 301-310. Structural mapping of Chikotra River basin in the Deccan Volcanic Province of Maharashtra, India from ground magnetic data · S P Anand Vinit C Erram J D Patil N J ...
Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science. A S Laxmi Prasad. Articles written in Journal of Earth System Science. Volume 114 Issue 6 December 2005 pp 725-731. Lunar ranging instrument for Chandrayaan-1 · J A Kamalakar K V S Bhaskar A S Laxmi Prasad R Ranjith K A Lohar R Venketeswaran T K Alex.
Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science. Ananda K Das. Articles written in Journal of Earth System Science. Volume 112 Issue 2 June 2003 pp 165-184. Circulation characteristics of a monsoon depression during BOBMEX-99 using high-resolution analysis · Ananda K Das U C Mohanty Someshwar Das M Mandal ...
Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science. Archana Tripathi. Articles written in Journal of Earth System Science. Volume 121 Issue 2 April 2012 pp 537-557. Stratigraphic status of coal horizon in Tatapani–Ramkola Coalfield, Chhattisgarh, India · Archana Tripathi Vijaya Srikanta Murthy B Chakarborty D K Das.
Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science. V B Sumithranand. Articles written in Journal of Earth System Science. Volume 119 Issue 4 August 2010 pp 507-517. Variability of soil moisture and its relationship with surface albedo and soil thermal diffusivity at Astronomical Observatory, Thiruvananthapuram, south ...
Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science. S P Anand. Articles written in Journal of Earth System Science. Volume 124 Issue 3 April 2015 pp 613-630. A relook into the crustal architecture of Laxmi Ridge, northeastern Arabian Sea from geopotential data · Nisha Nair S P Anand Mita Rajaram P Rama Rao.
Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science. Shantamoy Guha. Articles written in Journal of Earth System Science. Volume 126 Issue 2 March 2017 pp 21. Identification of drought in Dhalai river watershed using MCDM and ANN models · Sainath Aher Sambhaji Shinde Shantamoy Guha Mrinmoy Majumder.
Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science. C K Unnikrishnan. Articles written in Journal of Earth System Science. Volume 125 Issue 4 June 2016 pp 677-689. Impact of high resolution land surface initialization in Indian summer monsoon simulation using a regional climate model · C K Unnikrishnan M Rajeevan S ...
Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science. S Naseema Beegum. Articles written in Journal of Earth System Science. Volume 116 Issue 2 April 2007 pp 149-157. The role of low-frequency intraseasonal oscillations in the anomalous Indian summer monsoon rainfall of 2002 · S Sajani S Naseema Beegum K Krishna ...
Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science. Abdul Matin. Articles written in Journal of Earth System Science. Volume 118 Issue 4 August 2009 pp 379-390. Deformation mechanisms in the frontal Lesser Himalayan Duplex in Sikkim Himalaya, India · Abdul Matin Sweety Mazumdar · More Details Abstract Fulltext PDF.
Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science. Vishwas S Kale. Articles written in Journal of Earth System Science. Volume 117 Issue 6 December 2008 pp 959-971. Uplift along the western margin of the Deccan Basalt Province: Is there any geomorphometric evidence? Vishwas S Kale Nikhil Shejwalkar · More Details ...
Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science. S Panigrahy. Articles written in Journal of Earth System Science. Volume 120 Issue 1 February 2011 pp 19-25. Simulation of at-sensor radiance over land for proposed thermal channels of Imager payload onboard INSAT-3D satellite using MODTRAN model · M R Pandya ...
Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science. Ratheesh Ramakrishnan. Articles written in Journal of Earth System Science. Volume 121 Issue 5 October 2012 pp 1201-1213. Simulation of suspended sediment transport initialized with satellite derived suspended sediment concentrations · Ratheesh Ramakrishnan A S ...
Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science. J Barnes. Articles written in Journal of Earth System Science. Volume 115 Issue 4 August 2006 pp 451-460 Special Section on: Material exchanges at marine boundaries and surface ocean processes: Forcings and feedbacks. Spatial and temporal distribution of methane in ...
Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science. G S Meena. Articles written in Journal of Earth System Science. Volume 115 Issue 3 June 2006 pp 333-347. Retrieval of stratospheric O3 and NO2 vertical profiles using zenith scattered light observations · G S Meena C S Bhosale D B Jadhav · More Details Abstract Fulltext ...
Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science. C J Johny. Articles written in Journal of Earth System Science. Volume 125 Issue 3 April 2016 pp 521-538. Impact of hybrid GSI analysis using ETR ensembles · V S Prasad C J Johny · More Details Abstract Fulltext PDF. Performance of a hybrid assimilation system ...
Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science. T N Krishnamurti. Articles written in Journal of Earth System Science. Volume 115 Issue 2 April 2006 pp 185-201. Transitions in the surface energy balance during the life cycle of a monsoon season · T N Krishnamurti Mrinal K Biswas · More Details Abstract Fulltext PDF.
Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science. Sukanta Dey. Articles written in Journal of Earth System Science. Volume 127 Issue 2 March 2018 pp 20. An approach of understanding acid volcanics and tuffaceous volcaniclastics from field studies: A case from Tadpatri Formation, Proterozoic Cuddapah basin, Andhra ...
Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science. K Krishnamoorthy. Articles written in Journal of Earth System Science. Volume 111 Issue 4 December 2002 pp 425-435. Detection of marine aerosols with IRS P4-Ocean Colour Monitor · Indrani Das M Mohan K Krishnamoorthy · More Details Abstract Fulltext PDF.
Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science. P C S Devara. Articles written in Journal of Earth System Science. Volume 112 Issue 2 June 2003 pp 205-221. Study of total column atmospheric aerosol optical depth, ozone and precipitable water content over Bay of Bengal during BOBMEX-99 · K K Dani R S ...
Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science. Sudhir Jain. Articles written in Journal of Earth System Science. Volume 121 Issue 2 April 2012 pp 345-353. Ionospheric irregularities at Antarctic using GPS measurements · Sunita Tiwari Amit Jain Shivalika Sarkar Sudhir Jain A K Gwal · More Details Abstract Fulltext PDF.
Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science. D Twinkle. Articles written in Journal of Earth System Science. Volume 125 Issue 2 March 2016 pp 329-342. Crustal structure and rift tectonics across the Cauvery–Palar basin, Eastern Continental Margin of India based on seismic and potential field modelling · D Twinkle G ...
Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science. R A Scrutton. Articles written in Journal of Earth System Science. Volume 123 Issue 1 February 2014 pp 33-47. Growth of the Afanasy Nikitin seamount and its relationship with the 85°E Ridge, northeastern Indian Ocean · K S Krishna J M Bull O Ishizuka R A Scrutton S ...
Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science. Rajeev Ranjan Kumar. Articles written in Journal of Earth System Science. Volume 121 Issue 5 October 2012 pp 1177-1184. Modelling near subsurface temperature with mixed type boundary condition for transient air temperature and vertical groundwater flow.
Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science. Younes Jedoui. Articles written in Journal of Earth System Science. Volume 122 Issue 1 February 2013 pp 15-28. Investigation of sulphate origins in the Jeffara aquifer, southeastern Tunisia: A geochemical approach · Samir Kamel Mohamed Ben Chelbi Younes Jedoui.
Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science. Rambhatla G Sastry. Articles written in Journal of Earth System Science. Volume 112 Issue 1 March 2003 pp 37-49. 2D Stabilised analytic signal method in DC pole-pole potential data interpretation · Paras R Pujari Rambhatla G Sastry · More Details Abstract Fulltext PDF.
Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science. Aavudai Anandhi. Articles written in Journal of Earth System Science. Volume 119 Issue 4 August 2010 pp 447-460. Assessing impact of climate change on season length in Karnataka for IPCC SRES scenarios · Aavudai Anandhi · More Details Abstract Fulltext PDF.
Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science. Y Sadhuram. Articles written in Journal of Earth System Science. Volume 114 Issue 1 February 2005 pp 37-49. Seasonal variability of physico-chemical characteristics of the Haldia channel of Hooghly estuary, India · Y Sadhuram V V Sarma T V Ramana Murty B ...
Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science. K Verma. Articles written in Journal of Earth System Science. Volume 127 Issue 2 March 2018 pp 21. Late Glacial–Holocene record of benthic foraminiferal morphogroups from the eastern Arabian Sea OMZ: Paleoenvironmental implications · K Verma S K Bharti A D Singh.
Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science. T K Gundu Rao. Articles written in Journal of Earth System Science. Volume 111 Issue 2 June 2002 pp 103-113. Electron spin resonance dating of fault gouge from Desamangalam, Kerala: Evidence for Quaternary movement in Palghat gap shear zone · T K Gundu Rao C P ...
Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science. K D Singh. Articles written in Journal of Earth System Science. Volume 122 Issue 1 February 2013 pp 93-106. A field technique for rapid lithological discrimination and ore mineral identification: Results from Mamandur Polymetal Deposit, India · D Ramakrishnan M Nithya ...
Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science. A K Verma. Articles written in Journal of Earth System Science. Volume 114 Issue 1 February 2005 pp 75-86. A comparative study of ANN and Neuro-fuzzy for the prediction of dynamic constant of rockmass · T N Singh R Kanchan A K Verma K Saigal · More Details Abstract ...
Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science. Bhawanisingh G Desai. Articles written in Journal of Earth System Science. Volume 120 Issue 4 August 2011 pp 723-734. Discontinuity surfaces and event stratigraphy of Okha Shell Limestone Member: Implications for Holocene sea level changes, western India.
Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science. Monica Sharma. Articles written in Journal of Earth System Science. Volume 124 Issue 4 June 2015 pp 861-874. Evaluation of official tropical cyclone landfall forecast issued by India Meteorological Department · M Mohapatra D P Nayak Monica Sharma R P Sharma B K ...
Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science. R S Rana. Articles written in Journal of Earth System Science. Volume 122 Issue 2 April 2013 pp 289-307. Palynostratigraphy and depositional environment of Vastan Lignite Mine (Early Eocene), Gujarat, western India · M R Rao Ashok Sahni R S Rana Poonam Verma.
Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science. Suresh Chandra Kandpal. Articles written in Journal of Earth System Science. Volume 120 Issue 5 October 2011 pp 873-883. Subsurface signatures and timing of extreme wave events along the southeast Indian coast · Rajesh R Nair Madhav K Murari C S Vijaya Lakshmi ...
Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science. Abbas Goli Jirandeh. Articles written in Journal of Earth System Science. Volume 122 Issue 2 April 2013 pp 349-369. Landslide susceptibility mapping using support vector machine and GIS at the Golestan Province, Iran · Hamid Reza Pourghasemi Abbas Goli Jirandeh ...
Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science. Rahul Choudhury. Articles written in Journal of Earth System Science. Volume 125 Issue 7 October 2016 pp 1365-1377. Thermogravimetric and model-free kinetic studies on CO2 gasification of low-quality, high-sulphur Indian coals · Tonkeswar Das Ananya Saikia ...
Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science. Sahadev Kumar. Articles written in Journal of Earth System Science. Volume 125 Issue 1 February 2016 pp 165-178. Coal fire mapping of East Basuria Colliery, Jharia coalfield using vertical derivative technique of magnetic data · S K Pal Jitendra Vaish Sahadev Kumar ...
Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science. P Senthil Kumar. Articles written in Journal of Earth System Science. Volume 119 Issue 5 October 2010 pp 745-751. Soil-gas helium and surface-waves detection of fault zones in granitic bedrock · G K Reddy T Seshunarayana Rajeev Menon P Senthil Kumar · More Details ...
Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science. George Mathew. Articles written in Journal of Earth System Science. Volume 111 Issue 2 June 2002 pp 103-113. Electron spin resonance dating of fault gouge from Desamangalam, Kerala: Evidence for Quaternary movement in Palghat gap shear zone · T K Gundu Rao ...
Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science. Pravin K Gupta. Articles written in Journal of Earth System Science. Volume 115 Issue 3 June 2006 pp 267-276. Fast computation of Hankel Transform using orthonormal exponential approximation of complex kernel function · Pravin K Gupta Sri Niwas Neeta Chaudhary.
Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science. Partha Pratim Chakraborty. Articles written in Journal of Earth System Science. Volume 115 Issue 1 February 2006 pp 23-36. Outcrop signatures of relative sea level fall on a siliciclastic shelf: Examples from Rewa Group of Proterozoic Vindhyan basin · Partha Pratim ...
Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science. Manideepa Roy Choudhury. Articles written in Journal of Earth System Science. Volume 125 Issue 5 July 2016 pp 1033-1040. Deformation of footwall rock of Phulad Shear Zone, Rajasthan: Evidence of transpressional shear zone · Manideepa Roy Choudhury Subhrajyoti ...
Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science. Christian Koeberl. Articles written in Journal of Earth System Science. Volume 121 Issue 1 February 2012 pp 91-108. Mineral chemistry of lava flows from Linga area of the Eastern Deccan Volcanic Province, India · Sohini Ganguly Jyotisankar Ray Christian Koeberl ...
Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science. A P Dimri. Articles written in Journal of Earth System Science. Volume 121 Issue 2 April 2012 pp 329-344. Wintertime land surface characteristics in climatic simulations over the western Himalayas · A P Dimri · More Details Abstract Fulltext PDF. Wintertime regional climate ...
Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science. C S Jha. Articles written in Journal of Earth System Science. Volume 122 Issue 2 April 2013 pp 271-281. Landscape level assessment of critically endangered vegetation of Lakshadweep islands using geo-spatial techniques · C Sudhakar Reddy Bijan Debnath P Hari ...
Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science. Sankar Kumar Nath. Articles written in Journal of Earth System Science. Volume 117 Issue S2 November 2008 pp 649-670. Seismic hazard scenario and attenuation model of the Garhwal Himalaya using near-field synthesis from weak motion seismometry · Sankar Kumar ...
Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science. Ranjit Das. Articles written in Journal of Earth System Science. Volume 121 Issue 1 February 2012 pp 19-28. Temporal and spatial variations in the magnitude of completeness for homogenized moment magnitude catalogue for northeast India · Ranjit Das H R Wason M L ...
Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science. Anurag Tripathi. Articles written in Journal of Earth System Science. Volume 127 Issue 2 March 2018 pp 17. Lithologic boundaries from gravity and magnetic anomalies over Proterozoic Dalma volcanics · Pramod Kumar Yadav P K Adhikari Shalivahan Srivastava Ved P ...
Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science. Bibhuti Gogoi. Articles written in Journal of Earth System Science. Volume 123 Issue 5 July 2014 pp 959-987. Geochemical constraints on the evolution of mafic and felsic rocks in the Bathani volcanic and volcano-sedimentary sequence of Chotanagpur Granite Gneiss ...
Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science. C Selvaraj. Articles written in Journal of Earth System Science. Volume 116 Issue 3 June 2007 pp 179-186. Fairweather atmospheric electricity at Antarctica during local summer as observed from Indian station, Maitri · C Panneerselvam C Selvaraj K Jeeva K U Nair C P ...
Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science. Aditi Singh. Articles written in Journal of Earth System Science. Volume 127 Issue 2 March 2018 pp 26. Prediction of fog/visibility over India using NWP Model · Aditi Singh John P George Gopal Raman Iyengar · More Details Abstract Fulltext PDF. Frequent occurrence of fog ...
Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science. J Dajkumar Sahayam. Articles written in Journal of Earth System Science. Volume 119 Issue 1 February 2010 pp 129-135. Distribution of arsenic and mercury in subtropical coastal beachrock, Gulf of Mannar, India · J Dajkumar Sahayam N Chandrasekar S Krishna Kumar ...
Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science. J Senthilnath. Articles written in Journal of Earth System Science. Volume 122 Issue 3 June 2013 pp 559-572. Integration of speckle de-noising and image segmentation using Synthetic Aperture Radar image for flood extent extraction · J Senthilnath H Vikram Shenoy Ritwik ...
Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science. K Mohankumar. Articles written in Journal of Earth System Science. Volume 127 Issue 2 March 2018 pp 30. On the dynamics of an extreme rainfall event in northern India in 2013 · Anu Xavier M G Manoj K Mohankumar · More Details Abstract Fulltext PDF. India experienced ...
Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science. Soumen Sarkar. Articles written in Journal of Earth System Science. Volume 114 Issue 3 June 2005 pp 303-323. Evidence of lacustrine sedimentation in the Upper Permian Bijori Formation, Satpura Gondwana basin: Palaeogeographic and tectonic implications.
Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science. K K Osuri. Articles written in Journal of Earth System Science. Volume 125 Issue 3 April 2016 pp 475-498. Role of land state in a high resolution mesoscale model for simulating the Uttarakhand heavy rainfall event over India · P V Rajesh S Pattnaik D Rai K K Osuri U C ...
Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science. P V Rajesh. Articles written in Journal of Earth System Science. Volume 125 Issue 4 June 2016 pp 691-708. Sensitivity of tropical cyclone characteristics to the radial distribution of sea surface temperature · Deepika Rai S Pattnaik P V Rajesh · More Details Abstract Fulltext ...
Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science. Manish M John. Articles written in Journal of Earth System Science. Volume 114 Issue 2 April 2005 pp 143-158. Contrasting metamorphism across Cauvery Shear Zone, south India · Manish M John S Balakrishnan B K Bhadra · More Details Abstract Fulltext PDF.
Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science. K Jeeva. Articles written in Journal of Earth System Science. Volume 111 Issue 1 March 2002 pp 51-62. Velocity of small-scale auroral ionospheric current systems over Indian Antarctic station Maitri · Girija Rajaram A N Hanchinal R Kalra K Unnikrishnan K Jeeva M ...
Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science. Marian Marschalko. Articles written in Journal of Earth System Science. Volume 122 Issue 2 April 2013 pp 371-388. An assessment on the use of bivariate, multivariate and soft computing techniques for collapse susceptibility in GIS environ · Işık Yilmaz Marian Marschalko ...
Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science. P N Preenu. Articles written in Journal of Earth System Science. Volume 126 Issue 5 July 2017 pp 76. Variability of the date of monsoon onset over Kerala (India) of the period 1870–2014 and its relation to sea surface temperature · P N Preenu P V Joseph P K Dineshkumar.
Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science. Samir M Zaid. Articles written in Journal of Earth System Science. Volume 126 Issue 4 June 2017 pp 50. Provenance of coastal dune sands along Red Sea, Egypt · Samir M Zaid · More Details Abstract Fulltext PDF. Texture, mineralogy, and major and trace element ...
Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science. Sulochana Gadgil. Articles written in Journal of Earth System Science. Volume 112 Issue 4 December 2003 pp 529-558. On breaks of the Indian monsoon · Sulochana Gadgil P V Joseph · More Details Abstract Fulltext PDF. For over a century, the term break has been used ...
Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science. Harinder K Thakur. Articles written in Journal of Earth System Science. Volume 118 Issue 1 February 2009 pp 41-48. Aerosol optical depths at Mohal-Kullu in the northwestern Indian Himalayan high altitude station during ICARB · Jagdish C Kuniyal Alpana Thakur Harinder ...
Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science. S Gurubaran. Articles written in Journal of Earth System Science. Volume 116 Issue 3 June 2007 pp 179-186. Fairweather atmospheric electricity at Antarctica during local summer as observed from Indian station, Maitri · C Panneerselvam C Selvaraj K Jeeva K U Nair C P ...
Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science. K S Krishna. Articles written in Journal of Earth System Science. Volume 111 Issue 1 March 2002 pp 17-28. Formation of diapiric structure in the deformation zone, central Indian Ocean: A model from gravity and seismic reflection data · K S Krishna D Gopala Rao Yu P ...
Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science. M Radhakrishna. Articles written in Journal of Earth System Science. Volume 120 Issue 4 August 2011 pp 605-615. Development of the negative gravity anomaly of the 85°E Ridge, northeastern Indian Ocean – A process oriented modelling approach · K M Sreejith M ...
Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science. Y Jaya Rao. Articles written in Journal of Earth System Science. Volume 113 Issue 1 March 2004 pp 103-116. Remote sensing of spectral signatures of tropospheric aerosols · M B Potdar S A Sharma V Y Parikh P C S Devara P E Raj Y K Tiwari R S Maheskumar K K Dani ...
Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science. Samadrita Mukherjee. Articles written in Journal of Earth System Science. Volume 122 Issue 3 June 2013 pp 869-886. Evaluation of topographic index in relation to terrain roughness and DEM grid spacing · Samadrita Mukherjee Sandip Mukherjee R D Garg A Bhardwaj ...
Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science. Shamsuddin Shahid. Articles written in Journal of Earth System Science. Volume 124 Issue 6 August 2015 pp 1325-1341. Multilayer perceptron neural network for downscaling rainfall in arid region: A case study of Baluchistan, Pakistan · Kamal Ahmed Shamsuddin Shahid ...
Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science. Journal of Earth System Science. Volumes & Issues. Volume 127. Issue 1. Feb 2018; Issue 2. Mar 2018; Issue 3. Apr 2018. Volume 126. Issue 1. Feb 2017; Issue 2. Mar 2017; Issue 3. Apr 2017; Issue 4. Jun 2017; Issue 5. Jul 2017; Issue 6. Aug 2017; Issue 7. Oct 2017 ...
Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science. P Seetaramayya. Articles written in Journal of Earth System Science. Volume 112 Issue 2 June 2003 pp 283-293. Ocean-atmosphere interaction and synoptic weather conditions in association with the two contrasting phases of monsoon during BOBMEX-1999.
Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science. B O Adebesin. Articles written in Journal of Earth System Science. Volume 123 Issue 4 June 2014 pp 751-765. Ionospheric foF2 morphology and response of F2 layer height over Jicamarca during different solar epochs and comparison with IRI-2012 model · B O Adebesin ...
Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science. M Shyam Prasad. Articles written in Journal of Earth System Science. Volume 119 Issue 4 August 2010 pp 531-539. Correlation of the oldest Toba Tuff to sediments in the central Indian Ocean Basin · J N Pattan M Shyam Prasad E V S S K Babu · More Details Abstract ...
Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science. B Spandana. Articles written in Journal of Earth System Science. Volume 117 Issue S1 July 2008 pp 421-427. Temporal characteristics of aerosol physical properties at Visakhapatnam on the east coast of India during ICARB – Signatures of transport onto Bay of Bengal.
Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science. B S Marh. Articles written in Journal of Earth System Science. Volume 125 Issue 3 April 2016 pp 539-558. Post-glacial landform evolution in the middle Satluj River valley, India: Implications towards understanding the climate tectonic interactions · Shubhra Sharma S K ...
Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science. Santosh Kumar. Articles written in Journal of Earth System Science. Volume 117 Issue S1 July 2008 pp 303-313. Characteristics of spectral aerosol optical depths over India during ICARB · S Naseema Beegum K Krishna Moorthy Vijayakumar S Nair S Suresh Babu S K ...
Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science. D B Shah. Articles written in Journal of Earth System Science. Volume 120 Issue 1 February 2011 pp 19-25. Simulation of at-sensor radiance over land for proposed thermal channels of Imager payload onboard INSAT-3D satellite using MODTRAN model · M R Pandya D B ...
Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science. Nitesh Patidar. Articles written in Journal of Earth System Science. Volume 127 Issue 2 March 2018 pp 19. Impact of LULC change on the runoff, base flow and evapotranspiration dynamics in eastern Indian river basins during 1985–2005 using variable infiltration capacity ...
Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science. Kanishk Gohil. Articles written in Journal of Earth System Science. Volume 126 Issue 7 October 2017 pp 94. The role of mid-level vortex in the intensification and weakening of tropical cyclones · Govindan Kutty Kanishk Gohil · More Details Abstract Fulltext PDF. The present ...
Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science. M Mandal. Articles written in Journal of Earth System Science. Volume 112 Issue 1 March 2003 pp 79-93. Impact of horizontal resolution on prediction of tropical cyclones over Bay of Bengal using a regional weather prediction model · M Mandal U C Mohanty K V J Potty A ...
Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science. S Sarkar. Articles written in Journal of Earth System Science. Volume 114 Issue 1 February 2005 pp 87-96. Facies, dissolution seams and stable isotope compositions of the Rohtas Limestone (Vindhyan Supergroup) in the Son valley area, central India · S Banerjee S K ...
Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science. Mahabir Singh. Articles written in Journal of Earth System Science. Volume 113 Issue 2 June 2004 pp 235-246. Deformation of a layered half-space due to a very long tensile fault · Sarva Jit Singh Mahabir Singh · More Details Abstract Fulltext PDF. The problem of the ...
Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science. Soumyajit Mukherjee. Articles written in Journal of Earth System Science. Volume 126 Issue 1 February 2017 pp 2. Shear heating by translational brittle reverse faulting along a single, sharp and straight fault plane · Soumyajit Mukherjee · More Details Abstract Fulltext PDF.
Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science. Prabir Dasgupta. Articles written in Journal of Earth System Science. Volume 114 Issue 3 June 2005 pp 287-302. Facies pattern of the middle Permian Barren Measures Formation, Jharia basin, India: The sedimentary response to basin tectonics · Prabir Dasgupta.
Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science. Ferid Dhahri. Articles written in Journal of Earth System Science. Volume 126 Issue 7 October 2017 pp 104. The role of E–W basement faults in the Mesozoic geodynamic evolution of the Gafsa and Chotts basins, south-central Tunisia · Dorra Tanfous Amri Ferid Dhahri ...
Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science. G Pandithurai. Articles written in Journal of Earth System Science. Volume 113 Issue 1 March 2004 pp 103-116. Remote sensing of spectral signatures of tropospheric aerosols · M B Potdar S A Sharma V Y Parikh P C S Devara P E Raj Y K Tiwari R S Maheskumar K K Dani ...
Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science. K Bigyapati Devi. Articles written in Journal of Earth System Science. Volume 121 Issue 2 April 2012 pp 405-438. Lower Oligocene bivalves of Ramanian Stage from Kachchh, Gujarat, India · R P Kachhara R L Jodhawat K Bigyapati Devi · More Details Abstract Fulltext PDF.
Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science. Charuta V Prabhu. Articles written in Journal of Earth System Science. Volume 109 Issue 2 June 2000 pp 267-277. Diurnal variability of upper ocean temperature and heat budget in the southern Bay of Bengal during October — November, 1998 (BOBMEX-Pilot).
Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science. V Fernando. Articles written in Journal of Earth System Science. Volume 123 Issue 5 July 2014 pp 1045-1074. Observed intraseasonal and seasonal variability of the West India Coastal Current on the continental slope · P Amol D Shankar V Fernando A Mukherjee S G ...
Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science. S W A Naqvi. Articles written in Journal of Earth System Science. Volume 121 Issue 3 June 2012 pp 769-779. Lime muds and their genesis off-Northwestern India during the late Quaternary · V Purnachandra Rao A Anil Kumar S W A Naqvi Allan R Chivas B Sekar Pratima M ...
Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science. J U Chukudebelu. Articles written in Journal of Earth System Science. Volume 123 Issue 3 April 2014 pp 491-502. Evaluation of soil corrosivity and aquifer protective capacity using geoelectrical investigation in Bwari basement complex area, Abuja · A E Adeniji O V ...
Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science. S Prasanna kumar. Articles written in Journal of Earth System Science. Volume 109 Issue 4 December 2000 pp 433-441. Physical control of primary productivity on a seasonal scale in the central and eastern Arabian Sea · S Prasanna kumar M Madhupratap M Dileep ...
Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science. G Rajagopalan. Articles written in Journal of Earth System Science. Volume 109 Issue 1 March 2000 pp 153-156. Glacial-interglacial changes in the surface water characteristics of the Andaman Sea: Evidence from stable ratios of planktonic foraminifera · S M Ahmad D J ...
Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science. B N Nath. Articles written in Journal of Earth System Science. Volume 109 Issue 1 March 2000 pp 153-156. Glacial-interglacial changes in the surface water characteristics of the Andaman Sea: Evidence from stable ratios of planktonic foraminifera · S M Ahmad D J Patil P S ...
Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science. S C Arunchandra. Articles written in Journal of Earth System Science. Volume 117 Issue 6 December 2008 pp 911-923. On the measurement of the surface energy budget over a land surface during the summer monsoon · G S Bhat S C Arunchandra · More Details Abstract ...
Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science. Chandra Shekhar Jha. Articles written in Journal of Earth System Science. Volume 122 Issue 5 October 2013 pp 1259-1268. Analysis of carbon dioxide, water vapour and energy fluxes over an Indian teak mixed deciduous forest for winter and summer months using eddy ...
Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science. G V Ravi Prasad. Articles written in Journal of Earth System Science. Volume 119 Issue 3 June 2010 pp 285-295. Shift in detrital sedimentation in the eastern Bay of Bengal during the late Quaternary · C Prakash Babu J N Pattan K Dutta N Basavaiah G V Ravi Prasad D K ...
Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science. Sohini Ganguly. Articles written in Journal of Earth System Science. Volume 119 Issue 5 October 2010 pp 675-699. Evaluation of phase chemistry and petrochemical aspects of Samchampi–Samteran differentiated alkaline complex of Mikir Hills, northeastern India.
Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science. Ju Wei. Articles written in Journal of Earth System Science. Volume 125 Issue 5 July 2016 pp 1021-1031. Tectonic stress accumulation in Bohai–Zhangjiakou Seismotectonic Zone based on 3D visco-elastic modelling · Ju Wei Sun Weifeng Ma Xiaojing Jiang Hui.
Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science. V S N Murty. Articles written in Journal of Earth System Science. Volume 109 Issue 2 June 2000 pp 255-265. Thermohaline structure and circulation in the upper layers of the southern Bay of Bengal during BOBMEX-Pilot (October — November 1998) · V Ramesh Babu ...
Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science. A K Singh. Articles written in Journal of Earth System Science. Volume 125 Issue 5 July 2016 pp 899-908. A study on precursors leading to geomagnetic storms using artificial neural network · Gaurav Singh A K Singh · More Details Abstract Fulltext PDF. Space weather ...
Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science. Rajneesh Kumar. Articles written in Journal of Earth System Science. Volume 109 Issue 3 September 2000 pp 371-380. Plain strain problem of poroelasticity using eigenvalue approach · Rajneesh Kumar Aseem Miglani N R Garg · More Details Abstract Fulltext PDF.
Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science. Devesh Kumar Maurya. Articles written in Journal of Earth System Science. Volume 125 Issue 5 July 2016 pp 935-944. Validation of two gridded soil moisture products over India with in-situ observations · C K Unnikrishnan John P George Abhishek Lodh Devesh Kumar ...
Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science. Tapas Acharya. Articles written in Journal of Earth System Science. Volume 121 Issue 2 April 2012 pp 453-462. Analysis of lineament swarms in a Precambrian metamorphic rocks in India · Tapas Acharya Sukumar Basu Mallik · More Details Abstract Fulltext PDF.
Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science. D K Das. Articles written in Journal of Earth System Science. Volume 121 Issue 2 April 2012 pp 537-557. Stratigraphic status of coal horizon in Tatapani–Ramkola Coalfield, Chhattisgarh, India · Archana Tripathi Vijaya Srikanta Murthy B Chakarborty D K Das · More Details ...
Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science. Izrar Ahmed. Articles written in Journal of Earth System Science. Volume 117 Issue 1 February 2008 pp 69-78. Implications of Kali–Hindon inter-stream aquifer water balance for groundwater management in western Uttar Pradesh · Rashid Umar M Muqtada A Khan Izrar ...
Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science. V V S Gurunadha Rao. Articles written in Journal of Earth System Science. Volume 122 Issue 3 June 2013 pp 855-867. Hydrogeochemistry and groundwater quality assessment of Ranipet industrial area, Tamil Nadu, India · G Tamma Rao V V S Gurunadha Rao K ...
State Key Laboratory of Remote Sensing Science, Faculty of Geographical Science, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, China. Earth Sciences Department, Faculty of Science, University of Kufa, Najaf 34003, Iraq. College of Resource Environment and Tourism, Capital Normal University, Beijing 100048, China.
Cruz, Manuel I.; Ilgen, Marc R.
In the 21st century, the early missions to Mars will entail unmanned Rover and Sample Return reconnaissance missions to be followed by manned exploration missions. High performance leverage technologies will be required to reach Mars and return to earth. This paper describes the mission concepts currently identified for these early Mars missions. These concepts include requirements and capabilities for Mars and earth aerocapture, Mars surface operations and ascent, and Mars and earth rendezvous. Although the focus is on the unmanned missions, synergism with the manned missions is also discussed.
Kelly, Angelita C.; Taylor, Thomas D.; Hawkins, Frederick J.
Mission operation concepts are described which are being used to evaluate and influence space and ground system designs and architectures with the goal of achieving successful, efficient, and cost-effective Earth Observing System (EOS) operations. Emphasis is given to the general characteristics and concepts developed for the EOS Space Measurement System, which uses a new series of polar-orbiting observatories. Data rates are given for various instruments. Some of the operations concepts which require a total system view are also examined, including command operations, data processing, data accountability, data archival, prelaunch testing and readiness, launch, performance monitoring and assessment, contingency operations, flight software maintenance, and security.
Peri, Frank; Law, Richard C.; Wells, James E.
NASA's Earth Venture class (EV) of missions are competitively selected, Principal Investigator (PI) led, relatively low cost and narrowly focused in scientific scope. Investigations address a full spectrum of earth science objectives, including studies of the atmosphere, oceans, land surface, polar ice regions, and solid Earth. EV has three program elements: EV-Suborbital (EVS) are suborbital/airborne investigations; EV-Mission (EVM) element comprises small complete spaceborne missions; and EV-Instrument (EVI) element develops spaceborne instruments for flight as Missions-of-Opportunity (MoO). To ensure the success of EV, frequent opportunities for selecting missions has been established in NASA's Earth Science budget. This paper will describe those opportunities and how the management approach of each element is tailored according to the specific needs of the element.
Preprint servers afford a platform for sharing research before peer review. We are pleased that two dedicated preprint servers have opened for the Earth sciences and welcome submissions that have been posted there first.
Separate abstracts were prepared for the 59 papers of the 1981 annual report of the Earth Sciences Division at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. The general topics covered included nuclear waste isolation, geophysics and reservoir engineering, and geosciences
Full Text Available This document describes the past, current and planned future South African earth science research programme in the Antarctic, Southern Ocean and subantarctic regions. The scientific programme comprises five components into which present and future...
Calle, Carlos I.
The Mars 2020 rover mission is the next step in NASAs robotic exploration of the red planet. The rover, based on the Mars Science Laboratory Curiosity rover now on Mars, will address key questions about the potential for life on Mars. The mission would also provide opportunities to gather knowledge and demonstrate technologies that address the challenges of future human expeditions to Mars.Like the Mars Science Laboratory rover, which has been exploring Mars since 2012, the Mars 2020 spacecraft will use a guided entry, descent, and landing system which includes a parachute, descent vehicle, and, during the provides the ability to land a very large, heavy rover on the surface of Mars in a more precise landing area. The Mars 2020 mission is designed to accomplish several high-priority planetary science goals and will be an important step toward meeting NASAs challenge to send humans to Mars in the 2030s. The mission will conduct geological assessments of the rover's landing site, determine the habitability of the environment, search for signs of ancient Martian life, and assess natural resources and hazards for future human explorers. The science instruments aboard the rover also will enable scientists to identify and select a collection of rock and soil samples that will be stored for potential return to Earth in the future. The rover also may help designers of a human expedition understand the hazards posed by Martian dust and demonstrate how to collect carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, which could be a valuable resource for producing oxygen and rocket fuel.
Wardell, L. J.; Douglas, J.
Development of small unmanned aerial systems (UAS) has progressed dramatically in recent years along with miniaturization of sensor technology. This confluence of development paths has resulted in greater capability in smaller, less expensive platforms allowing research to be performed where manned airborne platforms are impractical or dangerous. Recent applications include small UAS for studies involving hurricanes, volcanic activity, sea ice changes, glacier melt, biological monitoring of land and sea species, wildfire monitoring, and others. However, the majority of UAS employed in these investigations were originally developed for non-civilian applications and many of the required interfaces are locked behind proprietary specifications, requiring expensive customization by the manufacturer to transform a military UAS into one suitable for civilian work. A small UAS for scientific research should be standards-based, low-cost, user friendly, field serviceable, and be designed to accept a range of payloads. The AV8R UAS is one example of an unmanned system that has been developed for specific application to earth observation missions. This system is designed to be operated by the user with difficult environmental conditions and field logistics in mind. Numerous features and innovations that advance this technology as a research tool as well as its planned science missions will be presented. Most importantly, all interfaces to the system required for successful design and integration of various payloads will be openly available. The environment of open, standards based development allow the small technologies companies that serve as the backbone for much of the technology development to participate in the rapid development of industry capabilities. This is particularly true with UAS technologies. Programs within the USA such as the STTR foster collaborations with small businesses and university researchers. Other innovations related to autonomous unmanned systems
Kastens, Kim A.; Rivet, Ann
To help teachers enrich their students' understanding of inquiry in Earth science, this article describes six modes of inquiry used by practicing geoscientists (Earth scientists). Each mode of inquiry is illustrated by using examples of seminal or pioneering research and provides pointers to investigations that enable students to experience these…
Taasevigen, D.K.; Henry, A.L.; Madsen, S.K.
Abstracts of papers, internal reports, and talks presented during 1978 at national and international meetings by members of the Earth Sciences Division of the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory are compiled. The arrangement is alphabetical (by author). For any given report, a bibliographic reference appears under the name of each coauthor. A topical index at the end provides useful cross references, while indicating major areas of research interest in the Earth Sciences Division
Henry, A.L.; Hornady, B.F. (eds.)
This report is a compilation of abstracts of papers, reports, and talks presented during 1980 at national and international meetings by members of the Earth Sciences Division, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The arrangement is alphabetical (by author). For a given report, a bibliographic reference appears under the name of each coauthor, but the abstract itself is given only under the name of the first author (indicated in capital letters) or the first Earth Sciences Division author.
This Annual Report presents summaries of selected representative research activities from Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory grouped according to the principal disciplines of the Earth Sciences Division: Reservoir Engineering and Hydrology, Geology and Geochemistry, and Geophysics and Geomechanics. We are proud to be able to bring you this report, which we hope will convey not only a description of the Division's scientific activities but also a sense of the enthusiasm and excitement present today in the Earth Sciences.
Henry, A.L.; Hornady, B.F.
This report is a compilation of abstracts of papers, reports, and talks presented during 1980 at national and international meetings by members of the Earth Sciences Division, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The arrangement is alphabetical (by author). For a given report, a bibliographic reference appears under the name of each coauthor, but the abstract itself is given only under the name of the first author (indicated in capital letters) or the first Earth Sciences Division author
Pringle, M. S.; Kamerer, B.; Vugrin, M.; Miller, M.
Earth Science II: The Solid Earth -- Earth History and Planetary Science -- is the second of two Earth Science courses, and one of eleven graduate level science Contextualized Content Courses (CCC), that have been developed by the Boston Science Partnership as part of an NSF-funded Math Science Partnership program. A core goal of these courses is to provide high level science content to middle and high school teachers while modeling good instructional practices directly tied to the Boston Public Schools and Massachusetts science curriculum frameworks. All of these courses emphasize hands-on, lab-based, inquiry-driven, student-centered lessons. The Earth Science II team aimed to strictly adhere to ABC (Activity Before Concept) and 5E/7E models of instruction, and limited lecture or teacher-centered instruction to the later “Explanation” stages of all lessons. We also introduced McNeill and Krajick’s Claim-Evidence-Reasoning (CER) model of scientific explanation for middle school classroom discourse, both as a powerful scaffold leading to higher levels of accountable talk in the classroom, and to model science as a social construct. Daily evaluations, dutifully filled out by the course participants and diligently read by the course instructors, were quite useful in adapting instruction to the needs of the class on a real-time basis. We find the structure of the CCC teaching teams - university-based faculty providing expert content knowledge, K-12-based faculty providing age appropriate pedagogies and specific links to the K-12 curriculum - quite a fruitful, two-way collaboration. From the students’ perspective, one of the most useful takeaways from the university-based faculty was “listening to experts model out loud how they reason,” whereas some of the more practical takeaways (i.e., lesson components directly portable to the classroom?) came from the K-12-based faculty. The main takeaways from the course as a whole were the promise to bring more hands
Hasan, Hashima; Smith, Denise A.
Communicating science from NASA's Astrophysics missions has multiple objectives, which leads to a multi-faceted approach. While a timely dissemination of knowledge to the scientific community follows the time-honored process of publication in peer reviewed journals, NASA delivers newsworthy research result to the public through news releases, its websites and social media. Knowledge in greater depth is infused into the educational system by the creation of educational material and teacher workshops that engage students and educators in cutting-edge NASA Astrophysics discoveries. Yet another avenue for the general public to learn about the science and technology through NASA missions is through exhibits at museums, science centers, libraries and other public venues. Examples of the variety of ways NASA conveys the excitement of its scientific discoveries to students, educators and the general public will be discussed in this talk. A brief overview of NASA's participation in the International Year of Light will also be given, as well as of the celebration of the twenty-fifth year of the launch of the Hubble Space Telescope.
Schoessow, F. S.; Christian, L.
Students at Utah State University's College of Natural Resources have engineered the first mobile Earth Science outreach platform capable of delivering high-tech and interactive solar-powered educational resources to the traditionally-underserved, remote communities of rural Utah. By retrofitting and modifying an industrial box-truck, this project effectively created a highly mobile and energy independent "school in a box" which seeks to help change the way that Earth science is communicated, eliminate traditional barriers, and increase science accessibility - both physically and conceptually. The project's education platform is focused on developing a more effective, sustainable, and engaging platform for presenting Earth science outreach curricula to community members of all ages in an engaging fashion. Furthermore, this project affords university students the opportunity to demonstrate innovative science communication techniques, translating vital university research into educational outreach operations aimed at doing real, measurable good for local communities.
Younker, L.W.; Peterson, S.J.; Price, M.E.
The Earth Sciences Department at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) conducts work in support of the Laboratory's energy, defense, environmental, and basic research programs. The Department comprises more than 100 professional scientific personnel spanning a variety of subdisciplines: geology, seismology, physics, geophysics, geochemistry, geohydrology, chemical engineering, and mechanical engineering. Resident technical support groups add significant additional technical expertise, including Containment Engineering, Computations, Electronic Engineering, Mechanical Engineering, Chemistry and Materials Science, and Technical Information. In total, approximately 180 professional scientists and engineers are housed in the Earth Sciences Department, making it one of the largest geo-science research groups in the nation. Previous Earth Sciences reports have presented an outline of the technical capabilities and accomplishments of the groups within the Department. In this FY 89/90 Report, we have chosen instead to present twelve of our projects in full-length technical articles. This Overview introduces those articles and highlights other significant research performed during this period
Younker, L.W.; Peterson, S.J.; Price, M.E. (eds.)
The Earth Sciences Department at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) conducts work in support of the Laboratory's energy, defense, environmental, and basic research programs. The Department comprises more than 100 professional scientific personnel spanning a variety of subdisciplines: geology, seismology, physics, geophysics, geochemistry, geohydrology, chemical engineering, and mechanical engineering. Resident technical support groups add significant additional technical expertise, including Containment Engineering, Computations, Electronic Engineering, Mechanical Engineering, Chemistry and Materials Science, and Technical Information. In total, approximately 180 professional scientists and engineers are housed in the Earth Sciences Department, making it one of the largest geo-science research groups in the nation. Previous Earth Sciences reports have presented an outline of the technical capabilities and accomplishments of the groups within the Department. In this FY 89/90 Report, we have chosen instead to present twelve of our projects in full-length technical articles. This Overview introduces those articles and highlights other significant research performed during this period.
Chien, Steve A.; Tran, Daniel; Rabideau, Gregg; Schaffer, Steve; Mandl, Daniel; Frye, Stuart
We describe the modeling and reasoning about operations constraints in an automated mission planning system for an earth observing satellite - EO-1. We first discuss the large number of elements that can be naturally represented in an expressive planning and scheduling framework. We then describe a number of constraints that challenge the current state of the art in automated planning systems and discuss how we modeled these constraints as well as discuss tradeoffs in representation versus efficiency. Finally we describe the challenges in efficiently generating operations plans for this mission. These discussions involve lessons learned from an operations model that has been in use since Fall 2004 (called R4) as well as a newer more accurate operations model operational since June 2009 (called R5). We present analysis of the R5 software documenting a significant (greater than 50%) increase in the number of weekly observations scheduled by the EO-1 mission. We also show that the R5 mission planning system produces schedules within 15% of an upper bound on optimal schedules. This operational enhancement has created value of millions of dollars US over the projected remaining lifetime of the EO-1 mission.
... Committee; Earth Science Subcommittee; Meeting AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration. ACTION... amended, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) announces a meeting of the Earth Science... following topics: --Earth Science Division Update --Committee on Earth Observations Satellites and Other...
Tilton, James C. (Editor)
The workshop explored opportunities for data compression to enhance the collection and analysis of space and Earth science data. The focus was on scientists' data requirements, as well as constraints imposed by the data collection, transmission, distribution, and archival systems. The workshop consisted of several invited papers; two described information systems for space and Earth science data, four depicted analysis scenarios for extracting information of scientific interest from data collected by Earth orbiting and deep space platforms, and a final one was a general tutorial on image data compression.
Schröter, Karin; Engel, Wolfgang; Berndt, Klaus
In recent years, a number of commercial Earth observation missions have been initiated with the aim to gather data in the visible and near-infrared wavelength range. Some of these missions aim at medium resolution (5 to 10 m) multi-spectral imaging with the special background of daily revisiting. Typical applications aim at monitoring of farming area for growth control and harvest prediction, irrigation control, or disaster monitoring such as hail damage in farming, or flood survey. In order to arrive at profitable business plans for such missions, it is mandatory to establish the space segment, i.e. the spacecraft with their opto -electronic payloads, at minimum cost while guaranteeing maximum reliability for mission success. As multiple spacecraft are required for daily revisiting, the solutions are typically based on micro-satellites. This paper presents designs for multi-spectral opto-electric scanners for this type of missions. These designs are drive n by minimum mass and power budgets of microsatellites, and the need for minimum cost. As a consequence, it is mandatory to arrive at thermally robust, compact telescope designs. The paper gives a comparison between refractive, catadioptric, and TMA optics. For mirror designs, aluminium and Zerodur mirror technologies are briefly discussed. State-of-the art focal plane designs are presented. The paper also addresses the choice of detector technologies such as CCDs and CMOS Active Pixel Sensors. The electronics of the multi-spectral scanners represent the main design driver regarding power consumption, reliability, and (most often) cost. It can be subdivided into the detector drive electronics, analog and digital data processing chains, the data mass memory unit, formatting and down - linking units, payload control electronics, and local power supply. The paper gives overviews and trade-offs between data compression strategies and electronics solutions, mass memory unit designs, and data formatting approaches
Craft, J.; Al Hammadi, O.; DeWolfe, A. W.; Staley, B.; Schafer, C.; Pankratz, C. K.
The Emirates Mars Mission (EMM), led by the Mohammed Bin Rashid Space Center (MBRSC) in Dubai, United Arab Emirates, is expected to arrive at Mars in January 2021. The EMM Science Data Center (SDC) is to be developed as a joint effort between MBRSC and the University of Colorado's Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics (LASP). The EMM SDC is responsible for the production, management, distribution, and archiving of science data collected from the three instruments on board the Hope spacecraft.With the respective SDC teams on opposite sides of the world evolutionary techniques and cloud-based technologies are being utilized in the development of the EMM SDC. This presentation will provide a top down view of the EMM SDC, summarizing the cloud-based technologies being implemented in the design, as well as the tools, best practices, and lessons learned for software development and management in a geographically distributed team.
Kucera, Paul A.; Ebert, Elizabeth E.; Turk, F. Joseph; Levizzani, Vicenzo; Kirschbaum, Dalia; Tapiador, Francisco J.; Loew, Alexander; Borsche, M.
Of the three primary sources of spatially contiguous precipitation observations (surface networks, ground-based radar, and satellite-based radar/radiometers), only the last is a viable source over ocean and much of the Earth's land. As recently as 15 years ago, users needing quantitative detail of precipitation on anything under a monthly time scale relied upon products derived from geostationary satellite thermal infrared (IR) indices. The Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSMI) passive microwave (PMW) imagers originated in 1987 and continue today with the SSMI sounder (SSMIS) sensor. The fortunate longevity of the joint National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) is providing the environmental science community a nearly unbroken data record (as of April 2012, over 14 years) of tropical and sub-tropical precipitation processes. TRMM was originally conceived in the mid-1980s as a climate mission with relatively modest goals, including monthly averaged precipitation. TRMM data were quickly exploited for model data assimilation and, beginning in 1999 with the availability of near real time data, for tropical cyclone warnings. To overcome the intermittently spaced revisit from these and other low Earth-orbiting satellites, many methods to merge PMW-based precipitation data and geostationary satellite observations have been developed, such as the TRMM Multisatellite Precipitation Product and the Climate Prediction Center (CPC) morphing method (CMORPH. The purpose of this article is not to provide a survey or assessment of these and other satellite-based precipitation datasets, which are well summarized in several recent articles. Rather, the intent is to demonstrate how the availability and continuity of satellite-based precipitation data records is transforming the ways that scientific and societal issues related to precipitation are addressed, in ways that would not be
Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 12; Issue 12. First International Earth Science Olympiad - South Korea. Information and Announcements Volume 12 Issue 12 December 2007 pp 76-76. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:
Wysession, M.; Ladue, N.; Budd, D.; Campbell, K.; Conklin, M.; Lewis, G.; Raynolds, R.; Ridky, R.; Ross, R.; Taber, J.; Tewksbury, B.; Tuddenham, P.
During 2008, the Earth Sciences Literacy Initiative (ESLI) constructed a framework of earth science "Big Ideas" and "Supporting Concepts". Following the examples of recent literacy efforts in the ocean, atmosphere and climate research communities, ESLI has distilled the fundamental understandings of the earth science community into a document that all members of the community will be able to refer to when working with educators, policy-makers, the press and members of the general public. This document is currently in draft form for review and will be published for public distribution in 2009. ESLI began with the construction of an organizing committee of a dozen people who represent a wide array of earth science backgrounds. This group then organized and ran two workshops in 2008: a 2-week online content workshop and a 3-day intensive writing workshop. For both workshops, participants were chosen so as to cover the full breadth of earth science related to the solid earth, surficial processes, and fresh-water hydrology. The asynchronous online workshop included 350 scientists and educators participating from around the world and was a powerful way to gather ideas and information while retaining a written record of all interactions. The writing workshop included 35 scientists, educators and agency representatives to codify the extensive input of the online workshop. Since September, 2008, drafts of the ESLI literacy framework have been circulated through many different channels to make sure that the document accurately reflects the current understandings of earth scientists and to ensure that it is widely accepted and adopted by the earth science communities.
I ﬁnd that nearly 100 scientiﬁc papers are being presented in this conference and that the Moon missions being planned and conducted by all the space faring nations of the world are being presented,reviewed and discussed.I note with excitement that many key issues related to space science and Moon missions are being ...
Scipal, K.; Arcioni, M.; Chave, J.
The European Space Agency (ESA) released a Call for Proposals for the next Earth Explorer Core Mission in March 2005, with the aim to select the 7th Earth Explorer (EE-7) mission for launch in the next decade. Twenty-four proposals were received and subject to scientific and technical assessment...... of any current space systems capable of addressing this need....
Hasnain, S.; Stephan, R.; Narock, T.
Using D3.js we visualize collaboration amongst several geophysical science organizations, such as the American Geophysical Union (AGU) and the Federation of Earth Science Information Partners (ESIP). We look at historical trends in Earth Science research topics, cross-domain collaboration, and topics of interest to the general population. The visualization techniques used provide an effective way for non-experts to easily explore distributed and heterogeneous Big Data. Analysis of these visualizations provides stakeholders with insights into optimizing meetings, performing impact evaluation, structuring outreach efforts, and identifying new opportunities for collaboration.
Mitchell, A.; Cechini, M. F.; Walter, J.
NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS) is a coordinated series of satellites for long term global observations. NASA's Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) is a petabyte-scale archive of environmental data that supports global climate change research by providing end-to-end services from EOS instrument data collection to science data processing to full access to EOS and other earth science data. On a daily basis, the EOSDIS ingests, processes, archives and distributes over 3 terabytes of data from NASA's Earth Science missions representing over 3500 data products ranging from various types of science disciplines. EOSDIS is currently comprised of 12 discipline specific data centers that are collocated with centers of science discipline expertise. Metadata is used in all aspects of NASA's Earth Science data lifecycle from the initial measurement gathering to the accessing of data products. Missions use metadata in their science data products when describing information such as the instrument/sensor, operational plan, and geographically region. Acting as the curator of the data products, data centers employ metadata for preservation, access and manipulation of data. EOSDIS provides a centralized metadata repository called the Earth Observing System (EOS) ClearingHouse (ECHO) for data discovery and access via a service-oriented-architecture (SOA) between data centers and science data users. ECHO receives inventory metadata from data centers who generate metadata files that complies with the ECHO Metadata Model. NASA's Earth Science Data and Information System (ESDIS) Project established a Tiger Team to study and make recommendations regarding the adoption of the international metadata standard ISO 19115 in EOSDIS. The result was a technical report recommending an evolution of NASA data systems towards a consistent application of ISO 19115 and related standards including the creation of a NASA-specific convention for core ISO 19115 elements. Part of
Moskovitz, N.; Manos Team
Near-Earth objects (NEOs) are essential to understanding the origin of the Solar System through their compositional links to meteorites. As tracers of various regions within the Solar System they can provide insight to more distant, less accessible populations. Their relatively small sizes and complex dynamical histories make them excellent laboratories for studying ongoing Solar System processes such as space weathering, planetary encounters, and non-gravitational dynamics. Knowledge of their physical properties is essential to impact hazard assessment. Finally, the proximity of NEOs to Earth make them favorable targets for robotic and human exploration. However, in spite of their scientific importance, only the largest (km-scale) NEOs have been well studied and a representative sample of physical characteristics for sub-km NEOs does not exist. To address these issues we are conducting the Mission Accessible Near-Earth Object Survey (MANOS), a fully allocated multi-year survey of sub-km NEOs that will provide a large, uniform catalog of physical properties including light curves, spectra, and astrometry. From this comprehensive catalog, we will derive global properties of the NEO population, as well as identify individual targets that are of potential interest for exploration. We will accomplish these goals for approximately 500 mission-accessible NEOs across the visible and near-infrared ranges using telescope assets in both the northern and southern hemispheres. MANOS has been awarded large survey status by NOAO to employ Gemini-N, Gemini-S, SOAR, the Kitt Peak 4 m, and the CTIO 1.3 m. Access to additional facilities at Lowell Observatory (DCT 4.3 m, Perkins 72'', Hall 42'', LONEOS), the University of Hawaii, and the Catalina Sky Survey provide essential complements to this suite of telescopes. Targets for MANOS are selected based on three primary criteria: mission accessibility (i.e. Δ v 20), and observability. Our telescope assets allow us to obtain
NASA is commonly known for its pioneering work in space exploration and the technological advancements that made access to space possible. NASA is now increasingly known for the agency's research and technologies that support the Earth sciences. This is a presentation focusing on NASA's Earth science efforts told mostly through the technological innovations NASA uses to achieve a greater understanding of the Earth, making it possible to explore the Earth as a system. Enabling this science is NASA's fleet of over two dozen Earth science spacecraft, supported by aircraft, ships and ground observations. NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS) is a coordinated series of polar-orbiting and low inclination satellites for long-term global observations of the land surface, biosphere, solid Earth, atmosphere, and oceans. With the launching of the three flagship satellite missions, Terra, Aqua and Aura, beginning in 1999, NASA's initial Mission to Planet Earth made it possible to measure aspects of the environment that touch the lives of every person around the world. NASA harnessing the unique space-based platform means, fortunately, no planet is better studied than the one we actually live on.
Nag, Sreeja; LeMoigne-Stewart, Jacqueline; Miller, David W.; de Weck, Olivier
Distributed Space Missions (DSMs) are gaining momentum in their application to earth science missions owing to their unique ability to increase observation sampling in spatial, spectral and temporal dimensions simultaneously. DSM architectures have a large number of design variables and since they are expected to increase mission flexibility, scalability, evolvability and robustness, their design is a complex problem with many variables and objectives affecting performance. There are very few open-access tools available to explore the tradespace of variables which allow performance assessment and are easy to plug into science goals, and therefore select the most optimal design. This paper presents a software tool developed on the MATLAB engine interfacing with STK, for DSM orbit design and selection. It is capable of generating thousands of homogeneous constellation or formation flight architectures based on pre-defined design variable ranges and sizing those architectures in terms of predefined performance metrics. The metrics can be input into observing system simulation experiments, as available from the science teams, allowing dynamic coupling of science and engineering designs. Design variables include but are not restricted to constellation type, formation flight type, FOV of instrument, altitude and inclination of chief orbits, differential orbital elements, leader satellites, latitudes or regions of interest, planes and satellite numbers. Intermediate performance metrics include angular coverage, number of accesses, revisit coverage, access deterioration over time at every point of the Earth's grid. The orbit design process can be streamlined and variables more bounded along the way, owing to the availability of low fidelity and low complexity models such as corrected HCW equations up to high precision STK models with J2 and drag. The tool can thus help any scientist or program manager select pre-Phase A, Pareto optimal DSM designs for a variety of science
Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science; Volume 125; Issue 5 ... affects the shallow groundwaterproductivity in terms of quantity and quality. ... a sustainable groundwater management strategy toreduce long-terms drought risks.
Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science; Volume 124; Issue 5 ... was conducted through seasonal water quality monitoring in the year 2011. ... National Centre for Sustainable Coastal Management, MOEF, Chennai 600 025, India.
Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science; Volume 118; Issue 3 ... demand and also to formulate future development and management strategies. ... gives an early signal of deterioration in groundwater quality in the peripheral parts of ...
Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science; Volume 126; Issue 3 ... Withregard to the lack of quality information and data in watersheds, it is of high ... Department of Watershed Management Engineering, Faculty of Agriculture, Lorestan ...
Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science; Volume 115; Issue 6 ... Is the outcrop topology of dolerite dikes of the Precambrian Singhbhum Craton fractal? ... Plane strain deformation of a multi-layered poroelastic half-space by surface ...
Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science; Volume 120; Issue 4 ... DEM; cell size; sink; fractal dimension; entropy; semivariogram. ... These methods were applied to determine the level artifacts (interpolation error) in DEM surface as ...
Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science; Volume 124; Issue 7. Volume 124 ... 1377-1387. Regional biomass burning trends in India: Analysis of satellite fire data .... Spatio-temporal variations of b-value in and around north Pakistan.
Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science; Volume 117; Issue 6 ... oxidation of methane in coastal sediment from Guishan Island (Pearl River Estuary), South China Sea ... National Institute of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA.
Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science; Volume 126; Issue 8 ... Isotope fingerprinting of precipitation associated with western disturbances and .... of desert margin in western India using improved luminescence dating protocols.
Enrichment characteristics of radioelements in various types of rock from Sambalpur district, Orissa, ... Radiometric analysis; uranium; ternary diagram; rock type; quartzofeldspathic breccia; granite. ... Journal of Earth System Science | News.
Monitoring of fire incidences in vegetation types and Protected Areas of India: Implications on carbon emissions ... Forest fire; forest type; Protected Area; conservation; remote sensing; AWiFS; India. ... Journal of Earth System Science | News.
Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science; Volume 120; Issue 1 ... formed by various processes, in the present area the association of these structures, ... scale) are thought to have been responsible for the soft-sediment deformations.
Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science; Volume 121; Issue 3 ... The failure of atmospheric general circulation models (AGCMs) forced by ... Centre for Mathematical Modelling and Computer Simulation, Bangalore 560 037, India.
Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science; Volume 126; Issue 4 ... no matter how the upper channel adjusts, the main stream shows little change, providing ... drastic bank collapse and sandbar shrinking should be urgently controlled to ...
Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science; Volume 122; Issue 2 ... (SVM); geographical information systems (GIS); remote sensing; Golestan province; Iran. ... Department of Watershed Management Engineering, College of Natural ...
Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science; Volume 124; Issue 7 ... mining; sediment dynamic; suspended sediment; watershed management. ... from a hillslope or channel, mirrors the watershed health, which needs to be quantified.
Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science; Volume 119; Issue 5 ... Miocene; western India; sesquiterpenoids; geochemistry; geology; biogeosciences. ... These sesquiterpenoids which are commonly detected in many SE Asian crude ...
Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science; Volume 113; Issue 3. The vorticity and angular momentum budgets of Asian summer monsoon ... School of Geography and Geology, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada L8S 4K1.
Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science; Volume 127; Issue 2 ... GMPEs; PGA; uniform hazard spectra; spectrum-compatible natural accelerograms. ... from National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA 2010), in terms of PGA and ...
The performance of different cumulus parameterization schemes in simulating the 2006/2007 southern peninsular Malaysia heavy rainfall episodes. Wan Ahmad Ardie Khai ... Malaysia. Earth Observation Centre, Faculty of Social Sciences and Humanities, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia.
Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science; Volume 122; Issue 4 ... in urban rivers using multivariate analysis: Implications for river management ... in the post-monsoon and pre-monsoon seasons during the time period 2008–2010.
Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science; Volume 120; Issue 1 ... Results from time course experiments with both 15N and 13C tracers suggest ... Faculty of Natural Resources Management, Lakehead University, Thunder Bay, ON, ...
Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science; Volume 118; Issue 1 ... are essential for qualitative and quantitative analysis of snow cover applications. ... This study also suggests that the suitability of topographic models can not be ...
Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science; Volume 113; Issue 3 ... in an area presently devoid of drainage bespeaks of occasional high-energy fluvial regime, ... The present studies indicate that aeolian dust or rainwater are minor ...
Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science; Volume 123; Issue 8 ... (SF) receivers has the advantages of stand-alone, absolute positioning and cost efficiency. ... College of Informatics, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou, ...
Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science; Volume 120; Issue 4 ... a human adjustment scenario, which assumes future improvements in water conservation ... Similarly, a severe drought would lead to a total streamflow loss of < 80%.
... belt typically occurs in elastico-frictional (EF) or quasi-plastic (QP) regimes at ... In contrast, the hanging wall schists and quartzites of the Ramgarh thrust exhibit quasi-plastic deformation structures. ... Journal of Earth System Science | News.
The main crystal plastic deformation and ﬂuid enhanced reaction softening was concentrated along the margin ... Low-T crystal plastic deformation of quartz was effected at a late stage of cooling and ... Journal of Earth System Science | News.
. Articles written in Journal of Earth System Science. Volume 126 Issue 8 December 2017 pp 109. GIS-based bivariate statistical techniques for groundwater potential analysis (an example of Iran) · Ali Haghizadeh Davoud Davoudi ...
Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science; Volume 111; Issue 3 ... support the well-known fact that oceanic eddies are distributed worldwide in the ocean. ... The classification of typical vortical features in the ocean detected in remote ...
Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science; Volume 125; Issue 5 ... ozone concentrations in the east of Croatia using nonparametric Neural Network Models ... to develop, for the first time, accurate ozone prediction models, onefor urban ...
Implication of surface modified NZVI particle retention in the porous media: Assessment with the help ... to evaluate the effect of particle retention on the porous media properties and its implication on ... Journal of Earth System Science | News.
... have a great influence on the accuracy of the migrated image in anisotropic media, and ignoring any one ... can obtain more accurate seismic images of subsurface structures in anisotropic media. ... Journal of Earth System Science | News.
Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science; Volume 126; Issue 5 ... pairs of benthic foraminifera from the Krishna–Godavari basin and Peru offshore to ... Department of Applied Geology, Indian Institute of Technology (Indian School of ...
Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science; Volume 121; Issue 5 ... owing to rugged terrain at high altitude, high frequency of intense rainfall and rapidly ... School of Civil Engineering, SASTRA University, Thanjavur, Tamilnadu, India.
Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science; Volume 125; Issue 5 ... In the upper layer, themaximum shear stress is high in the Zhangjiakou area, whereas in the ... School of Resources and Geoscience, China University of Mining and ...
Author Affiliations. Pravin K Gupta1 Sri Niwas1 Neeta Chaudhary2. Department of Earth Sciences, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, Roorkee 247 667, India. Oil and Natural Gas Corporation, Priyadarshini Building, Sion, Mumbai, India.
Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science; Volume 114; Issue 5 ... a Geographical Information System (GIS)based hydrogeomorphic approach in the ... The integrated study helps design a suitable groundwater management plan for a ...
Casal, Tânia; Davidson, Malcolm; Plank, Gernot; Floberghagen, Rune; Parrinello, Tommaso; Mecklenburg, Susanne; Drusch, Matthias; Fernandez, Diego
In the framework of its Earth Observation Programmes the European Space Agency (ESA) carries out ground based and airborne campaigns to support geophysical algorithm development, calibration/validation, simulation of future spaceborne Earth observation missions, and applications development related to land, oceans, atmosphere and solid Earth. ESA has conducted over 110 airborne and ground measurements campaigns since 1981 and this presentation will describe three campaigns in Antarctica and the Arctic. They were undertaken during the calibration/validation phase of Earth Explorer (EE) missions, such as SMOS (Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity), GOCE (Gravity field and steady-state Ocean Circulation Explorer) and CryoSat-2. In support of SMOS and GOCE, the DOMECair airborne campaign took place in Antarctica, in the Dome C region in the middle of January 2013. The two main objectives were a) to quantify and document the spatial variability in the DOME C area (SMOS) and b) to fill a gap in the high-quality gravity anomaly maps in Antarctica where airborne gravity measurements are sparse (GOCE). Results from the campaign for the SMOS component, showed that the DOME C area is not as spatially homogenous as previously assumed, therefore comparisons of different missions (e.g. SMOS and NASA's Aquarius) with different footprints must be done with care, highlighting once again the importance of field work to test given assumptions. One extremely surprising outcome of this campaign was the pattern similarity between the gravity measurements and brightness temperature fields. To date, there has never been an indication that L-Band brightness temperatures could be correlated to gravity, but preliminary analysis showed coincident high brightness temperature with high gravity values, suggesting that topography may influence microwave emissions. Also in support of SMOS, the SMOSice airborne campaign has been planned in the Arctic. It was motived by a previous ESA SMOSice study that
Casasanto, V.; Rock, J.; Hallowell, R.; Williams, K.; Angell, D.; Beautiful Earth
The Beautiful Earth program, awarded by NASA's Competitive Opportunities in Education and Public Outreach for Earth and Space Science (EPOESS), is a live multi-media performance at partner science centers linked with hands-on workshops featuring Earth scientists and Native American experts. It aims to inspire, engage and educate diverse students in Earth science through an experience of viewing the Earth from space as one interconnected whole, as seen through the eyes of astronauts. The informal education program is an outgrowth of Kenji Williams' BELLA GAIA Living Atlas Experience (www.bellagaia.com) performed across the globe since 2008 and following the successful Earth Day education events in 2009 and 2010 with NASA's DLN (Digital Learning Network) http://tinyurl.com/2ckg2rh. Beautiful Earth takes a new approach to teaching, by combining live music and data visualizations, Earth Science with indigenous perspectives of the Earth, and hands-on interactive workshops. The program will utilize the emotionally inspiring multi-media show as a springboard to inspire participants to learn more about Earth systems and science. Native Earth Ways (NEW) will be the first module in a series of three "Beautiful Earth" experiences, that will launch the national tour at a presentation in October 2011 at the MOST science museum in collaboration with the Onandaga Nation School in Syracuse, New York. The NEW Module will include Native American experts to explain how they study and conserve the Earth in their own unique ways along with hands-on activities to convey the science which was seen in the show. In this first pilot run of the module, 110 K-12 students with faculty and family members of the Onandaga Nations School will take part. The goal of the program is to introduce Native American students to Earth Sciences and STEM careers, and encourage them to study these sciences and become responsible stewards of the Earth. The second workshop presented to participants will be the
Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science; Volume 122; Issue 5 .... Atmospheric correction of Earth-observation remote sensing images by Monte Carlo method ... Decision tree approach for classification of remotely sensed satellite data ... Analysis of carbon dioxide, water vapour and energy fluxes over an Indian ...
Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science; Volume 122; Issue 6. Volume 122, Issue 6. December 2013, pages 1435-1637. pp 1435-1453. The South India Precambrian crust and shallow lithospheric mantle: Initial results from the India Deep Earth Imaging Experiment (INDEX) · S S Rai Kajaljyoti Borah Ritima Das ...
Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science; Volume 110; Issue 4. Volume 110, Issue 4. December 2001, pages 267-463. Recent Researchers in Petrology and Geochemistry. pp 267-267. Preface · S Bhattacharya J Ganguly · More Details Fulltext PDF. pp 269-285. Earth support systems: Threatened? Why? What can ...
Binzel, R. P.; Earle, A. M.; Vanatta, M.; Miller, D. W.
Nature is providing a once-per-thousand year opportunity to study the geophysical outcome induced on an unprecedentedly large (350 meter) asteroid making an extremely close passage by the Earth (inside the distance of geosynchronous satellites) on Friday April 13, 2029. The aircraft carrier-sized (estimated 20 million metric ton) asteroid is named Apophis. While many previous spacecraft missions have studied asteroids, none has ever had the opportunity to study "live" the outcome of planetary tidal forces on their shapes, spin states, surface geology, and internal structure. Beyond the science interest directly observing this planetary process, the Apophis encounter provides an invaluable opportunity to gain knowledge for any eventuality of a known asteroid found to be on a certain impact trajectory. MIT's Project Apophis  is our response to nature's generous opportunity by developing a detailed mission concept for sending a spacecraft to orbit Apophis with the objectives of surveying its surface and interior structure before, during, and after its 2029 near-Earth encounter. The Surface Evaluation & Tomography (SET) mission concept we present is designed toward accomplishing three key science objectives: (1) bulk physical characterization, (2) internal structure, and (3) long-term orbit tracking. For its first mission objective, SET will study Apophis' bulk properties, including: shape, size, mass, volume, bulk density, surface geology, and composition, rotation rate, and spin state. The second mission objective is to characterize Apophis' internal structure before and after the encounter to determine its strength and cohesion - including tidally induced changes. Finally, the third objective studies the process of thermal re-radiation and consequential Yarkovsky drift, whose results will improve orbit predictions for Apophis as well as other potentially hazardous asteroids.  https://eapsweb.mit.edu/mit-project-apophis
Johnson, Les; Lockett, Tiffany
NASA is developing a solar sail propulsion system for use on the Near Earth Asteroid (NEA) Scout reconnaissance mission and laying the groundwork for their use in future deep space science and exploration missions. Solar sails use sunlight to propel vehicles through space by reflecting solar photons from a large, mirror-like sail made of a lightweight, highly reflective material. This continuous photon pressure provides propellantless thrust, allowing for very high Delta V maneuvers on long-duration, deep space exploration. Since reflected light produces thrust, solar sails require no onboard propellant. The Near Earth Asteroid (NEA) Scout mission, funded by NASA's Advanced Exploration Systems Program and managed by NASA MSFC, will use the sail as primary propulsion allowing it to survey and image Asteroid 1991VG and, potentially, other NEA's of interest for possible future human exploration. NEA Scout uses a 6U cubesat (to be provided by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory), an 86 m(exp. 2) solar sail and will weigh less than 12 kilograms. NEA Scout will be launched on the first flight of the Space Launch System in 2018. The solar sail for NEA Scout will be based on the technology developed and flown by the NASA NanoSail-D and The Planetary Society's Lightsail-A. Four approximately 7 m stainless steel booms wrapped on two spools (two overlapping booms per spool) will be motor deployed and pull the sail from its stowed volume. The sail material is an aluminized polyimide approximately 2.5 microns thick. As the technology matures, solar sails will increasingly be used to enable science and exploration missions that are currently impossible or prohibitively expensive using traditional chemical and electric propulsion systems. This paper will summarize the status of the NEA Scout mission and solar sail technology in general.
Manning, C. L. B.; Holzer, M.; Colson, M.; Courtier, A. M. B.; Jacobs, B. E.
As states begin to review their standards, some adopt or adapt the NGSS and others write their own, many basing these on the Framework for K-12 Science Education. Both the NGSS and the Frameworks have an increased emphasis on Earth Science but many high school teachers are being asked to teach these standards in traditional Biology, Chemistry and Physics courses. At the Earth Educators Rendezvous, teachers, scientists, and science education researchers worked together to find the interconnections between the sciences using the NGSS and identified ways to reference the role of Earth Sciences in the other sciences during lectures, activities and laboratory assignments. Weaving Earth and Space sciences into the other curricular areas, the teams developed relevant problems for students to solve by focusing on using current issues, media stories, and community issues. These and other lessons and units of study will be presented along with other resources used by teachers to ensure students are gaining exposure and a deeper understanding of Earth and Space Science concepts.
Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science. D S V V D Prasad. Articles written in Journal of Earth System Science. Volume 114 Issue 4 August 2005 pp 437-441. Geomagnetic activity control on VHF scintillations over an Indian low latitude station, Waltair (17.7°N, 83.3°E, 20°N dip) · D S V V D Prasad P V S Rama Rao ...
Deutsch, L. J.; Townes, S. A.; Lazio, J.; Bell, D. J.; Chahat, N. E.; Kovalik, J. M.; Kuperman, I.; Sauder, J.; Liebrecht, P. E.
The data rate from deep space spacecraft has increased by more than 10 orders of magnitude since the first lunar missions in the 1960s. The demand for increased data rates has stemmed from the increasing sophistication of the science questions being addressed and the concomitant increase in the complexity of the missions themselves (from fly-by to orbit to land and rove). Projections for the next few decades suggest the demand for data rates for deep space missions will continue to increase by approximately one order of magnitude every decade, driven by these same factors. Achieving higher data rates requires a partnership between the spacecraft and the ground system. We describe a series of technology developments for flight telecommunications systems, both at radio frequency (RF) and optical, to enable spacecraft to transmit and receive larger data volumes. These technology developments include deployable high gain antennas for small spacecraft, re-programmable software-defined radios, and optical communication packages designed for CubeSat form factors. The intent is that these developments would provide enhancements in capability for both spacecraft-Earth and spacecraft-spacecraft telecommunications. We also describe the future planning for NASA's Deep Space Network (DSN), which remains the prime conduit for data from all planetary science missions. Through a combination of new antennas and backends being installed over the next five years and incorporation of optical communications, the DSN aims to ensure that the historical improvements in data rates and volumes will continue for many decades. Part of this research was carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under a contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.
to all aspects of earth sci- ences education for the benefit of students and educators. The author of the article is Nittala S. Sarma, Andhra University, Visak- hapatnam. In the article, Sarma has col- lected Greek, Latin, German and Celtic affixes... terms can be built solidly. My realization of the importance of etymology and the impressive effort put up by Sarma has prompted me to bring his recent publication to the attention of earth sciences students and teachers in the country...
Heine, F.; Zech, H.; Motzigemba, M.
Space based laser communication is supporting earth observation and science missions with Gbps data download capabilities. Currently the Sentinel 1 and Sentinel 2 spacecrafts from the Copernicus earth observation program of the European Commission are using the Gbps laser communication links developed by Tesat Spacecom to download low latency data products via a commercial geostationary laser relay station- the European Data Relay Service- (EDRS) as a standard data path, in parallel to the conventional radio frequency links. The paper reports on the status of high bandwidth space laser communication as an enabler for small and large space science missions ranging from cube sat applications in low earth orbit to deep space missions. Space based laser communication has left the experimental phase and will support space science missions with unprecedented data rates.
Leath, Audrey T.
The United Nations Conference on Environment and Development, the “Earth Summit,” convenes in Rio de Janeiro on June 3. President Bush has pledged to attend part of the 2-week conference. The highlight of the summit will be the signing of an international framework convention to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases. The final elements of the agreement were negotiated in New York last week by representative of 143 countries. In anticipation of the Rio conference, the Senate Committee on Energy and Natural Resources held two standing-roomonly hearings, reviewing the scientific basis for global warming due to greenhouse gases and discussing the details of the proposed convention.
The Russian Luna-Glob project has been conceived with a view to understand the origin of the Earth –Moon system.The objectives and main features of the Luna-Glob mission,which will mainly study the internal structure of the Moon by seismic instruments,are described in the context of the past and current program of ...
Kempler, Steven J.
Data Analytics applications have made successful strides in the business world where co-analyzing extremely large sets of independent variables have proven profitable. Today, most data analytics tools and techniques, sometimes applicable to Earth science, have targeted the business industry. In fact, the literature is nearly absent of discussion about Earth science data analytics. Earth science data analytics (ESDA) is the process of examining large amounts of data from a variety of sources to uncover hidden patterns, unknown correlations, and other useful information. ESDA is most often applied to data preparation, data reduction, and data analysis. Co-analysis of increasing number and volume of Earth science data has become more prevalent ushered by the plethora of Earth science data sources generated by US programs, international programs, field experiments, ground stations, and citizen scientists.Through work associated with the Earth Science Information Partners (ESIP) Federation, ESDA types have been defined in terms of data analytics end goals. Goals of which are very different than those in business, requiring different tools and techniques. A sampling of use cases have been collected and analyzed in terms of data analytics end goal types, volume, specialized processing, and other attributes. The goal of collecting these use cases is to be able to better understand and specify requirements for data analytics tools and techniques yet to be implemented. This presentation will describe the attributes and preliminary findings of ESDA use cases, as well as provide early analysis of data analytics toolstechniques requirements that would support specific ESDA type goals. Representative existing data analytics toolstechniques relevant to ESDA will also be addressed.
This book examines significant aspects of isotope applications in geology and geochemistry commencing with basic matters, such as atomic structure, stable nuclides and their fractionation, as well as the various decay modes of unstable nuclides. Modern mass spectrometry techniques including electrostatic tandem accelerators are followed by a review of radioisotope dating technology. The relatively new method using the rare earth elements samarium and neodymium are covered. Other geochronometers, applicable to both rocks and minerals not dateable otherwise, are included. A review is given of isotopes in the atmosphere, hydrosphere and lithosphere of the Earth. Those of oxygen and hydrogen together with the cosmogenic radionuclides tritium and radiocarbon are discussed in relation to the biosphere. The role of isotopes of carbon, nitrogen and sulphur is described and extended to fossil fuels and rocks as well as meteorites. Related themes such as Phanerozoic oceans, oceanic palaeothermometry, snow and ice stratigraphy and geothermal waters are covered. The field of isotopic palaeoecology is discussed. Radioactive wastes, their accumulation, dangers and disposal are investigated with especial reference to their environmental impacts.
YouTube; Twitter; Facebook; Blog. Academy News. IAS Logo. Theory Of Evolution. Posted on 23 January 2018. Joint Statement by the Three Science Academies of India on the teaching of the theory of evolution more... ACADEMY PUBLIC LECTURE: Animal Sex Determination by Genes, Chromosomes and Environment.
Raiszadeh, Behzad; Way, David
The Program to Optimize Simulated Trajectories II (POST 2) has been successful in simulating the flight of launch vehicles and entry bodies on earth and other planets. POST 2 has been the primary simulation tool for the Entry Descent, and Landing (EDL) phase of numerous Mars lander missions such as Mars Pathfinder in 1997, the twin Mars Exploration Rovers (MER-A and MER-B) in 2004, Mars Phoenix lander in 2007, and it is now the main trajectory simulation tool for Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) in 2012. In all previous missions, the POST 2 simulation ended before ground impact, and a tool other than POST 2 simulated landing dynamics. It would be ideal for one tool to simulate the entire EDL sequence, thus avoiding errors that could be introduced by handing off position, velocity, or other fight parameters from one simulation to the other. The desire to have one continuous end-to-end simulation was the motivation for developing the ground interaction model in POST 2. Rover landing, including the detection of the postlanding state, is a very critical part of the MSL mission, as the EDL landing sequence continues for a few seconds after landing. The method explained in this paper illustrates how a simple ground force interaction model has been added to POST 2, which allows simulation of the entire EDL from atmospheric entry through touchdown.
Borucki, W. J.
The Kepler Mission is a Discovery-class mission designed to continuously monitor the brightness of 100,000 solar-like stars to detect the transits of Earth-size and larger planets. It is a wide field of view photometer Schmidt-type telescope with an array of 42 CCDs. It has a 0.95 m aperture and 1.4 m primary and is designed to attain a photometric precision of 2 parts in 10(exp 5) for 12th magnitude solar-like stars for a 6 hr transit duration. It will continuously observe 100,000 main-sequence stars from 9th to 14th magnitude in the Cygnus constellation for a period of four years with a cadence of 4/hour. An additional 250 stars can be monitored at a cadence of l/minute to do astro-seismology of stars brighter than 11.5 mv. The photometer is scheduled to be launched into heliocentric orbit in 2007. When combined with ground-based spectrometric observations of these stars, the positions of the planets relative to the habitable zone can be found. The spectra of the stars are also used to determine the relationships between the characteristics of terrestrial planets and the characteristics of the stars they orbit. In particular, the association of planet size and occurrence frequency with stellar mass and metallicity will be investigated. Based on the results of the current Doppler-velocity discoveries, over a thousand giant planets will also be found. Information on the albedos and densities of those giants showing transits will be obtained. At the end of the four year mission, hundreds of Earth-size planets should be discovered in and near the HZ of their stars if such planets are common. A null result would imply that terrestrial planets in the HZ are very rare and that life might also be quite rare.
Butler, L.; Turney, D.; Matiella Novak, A.; Smith, D.; Simon, M.
How's the weather in space? Why on Earth did NASA send two satellites above Earth to study radiation belts and space weather? To learn the answer to questions about NASA's Van Allen Probes mission, 450 students and their teachers from Maryland middle schools attended Space Academy events highlighting the Van Allen Probes mission. Sponsored by the Applied Physics Laboratory (APL) and Discovery Education, the events are held at the APL campus in Laurel, MD. Space Academies take students and teachers on behind-the-scenes exploration of how spacecraft are built, what they are designed to study, and introduces them to the many professionals that work together to create some of NASA's most exciting projects. Moderated by a public relations representative in the format of an official NASA press conference, the daylong event includes a student press conference with students as reporters and mission experts as panelists. Lunch with mission team members gives students a chance to ask more questions. After lunch, students don souvenir clean room suits, enjoy interactive science demonstrations, and tour APL facilities where the Van Allen Probes were built and tested before launch. Students may even have an opportunity to peek inside a clean room to view spacecraft being assembled. Prior to the event, teachers are provided with classroom activities, lesson plans, and videos developed by APL and Discovery Education to help prepare students for the featured mission. The activities are aligned to National Science Education Standards and appropriate for use in the classroom. Following their visit, student journalists are encouraged to write a short article about their field trip; selections are posted on the Space Academy web site. Designed to engage, inspire, and influence attitudes about space science and STEM careers, Space Academies provide an opportunity to attract underserved populations and emphasize that space science is for everyone. Exposing students to a diverse group of
The European Space Agency (ESA) has launched a new initiative called the Changing Earth Science Network, to support young scientists undertaking leading-edge research activities aimed at advancing the understanding of the Earth system. The initiative will enable up to 10 young postdoctoral researchers from the agency's member states to address major scientific challenges by using Earth observation (EO) satellite data from ESA and its third-party missions. The initiative aims to foster the development of a network of young scientists in Europe with a good knowledge of the agency and its EO programs. Selected candidates will have the option to carry out part of their research in an ESA center as a visiting scientist. The deadline to submit proposals is 16 January 2009. Selections will be announced in early 2009. The Changing Earth Science Network was developed as one of the main programmatic components of ESA's Support to Science Element, launched in 2008. For more information, visit http://www.esa.int/stse.
In this study we observe wave heights by an array of four wave gauges at the Hiratsuka Tower of (Independent Administrative Institution) National Research Institute for Earth Science and ... Center for Atmospheric and Oceanic Studies, Graduate School of Science, Tohoku University, Aoba, Sendai 980-8578, Japan.
... Meshesha1 3 Ryuichi Shinjo1. Department of Physics and Earth Sciences, University of the Ryukyus, Senbaru 1, Nishihara, Okinawa 903-0213, Japan. Department of Petroleum and Mining Engineering, Shahjalal University of Science and Technology, Sylhet 3114, Bangladesh. EL MINING PLC, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science; Volume 121; Issue 5. Glacier fluctuation using Satellite Data in Beas basin, 1972–2006, Himachal Pradesh, India. Shruti Dutta A L Ramanathan ... Anurag Linda1. Glacier Research Group, School of Environmental Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi, India.
Summaries of the highlights of programs in the Earth Sciences Division are presented under four headings; Geosciences, Geothermal Energy Development, Nuclear Waste Isolation, and Marine Sciences. Utilizing both basic and applied research in a wide spectrum of topics, these programs are providing results that will be of value in helping to secure the nation's energy future. Separate abstracts have been prepared for each project for inclusion in the Energy Data Base. (DMC)
Meier, Markus; Rutgersson, Anna; Lehmann, Andreas; Reckermann, Marcus
The Baltic Sea region, defined as its river catchment basin, spans different climate and population zones, from a temperate, highly populated, industrialized south with intensive agriculture to a boreal, rural north. It encompasses most of the Scandinavian Peninsula in the west; most of Finland and parts of Russia, Belarus, and the Baltic states in the east; and Poland and small parts of Germany and Denmark in the south. The region represents an old cultural landscape, and the Baltic Sea itself is among the most studied sea areas of the world. Baltic Earth is the new Earth system research network for the Baltic Sea region. It is the successor to BALTEX, which was terminated in June 2013 after 20 years and two successful phases. Baltic Earth stands for the vision to achieve an improved Earth system understanding of the Baltic Sea region. This means that the research disciplines of BALTEX continue to be relevant, i.e. atmospheric and climate sciences, hydrology, oceanography and biogeochemistry, but a more holistic view of the Earth system encompassing processes in the atmosphere, on land and in the sea as well as in the anthroposphere shall gain in importance in Baltic Earth. Specific grand research challenges have been formulated, representing interdisciplinary research questions to be tackled in the coming years. A major means will be scientific assessments of particular research topics by expert groups, similar to the BACC approach, which shall help to identify knowledge gaps and develop research strategies. Preliminary grand challenges and topics for which Working Groups have been installed include: • Salinity dynamics in the Baltic Sea • Land-Sea biogeochemical feedbacks in the Baltic Sea region • Natural hazards and extreme events in the Baltic Sea region • Understanding sea level dynamics in the Baltic Sea • Understanding regional variability of water and energy exchange • Utility of Regional Climate Models • Assessment of Scenario Simulations
Shirshov, USSR Academy of Sciences, Moscow] lflllrtll-Inf0rTtJ;0n ^ fr" °n the morPhol°gy> ecology and propagation of aggregations of algae...42nd cruise of the research vessel "Akademik Kurchatov» between Ampere and Josephine Seamounts some 670 km to the west of the Strait of Gibraltar in...railroad roadbeds. Lithomonitoring must be carried out in many regions for ensuring the ecological purity of economic activity and protection of
The development of consistent, high quality time series of biogeochemical products from a single ocean color sensor is a difficult task that involves many aspects related to pre- and post-launch instrument calibration and characterization, stability monitoring and the removal of the contribution of the atmosphere which represents most of the signal measured at the sensor. It is even more challenging to build Climate Data Records (CDRs) or Earth Science Data Records (ESDRs) from multiple sensors as design, technology and methodologies (bands, spectral/spatial resolution, Cal/Val, algorithms) differ from sensor to sensor. NASA MEaSUREs, ESA Climate Change Initiative (CCI) and IOCCG Virtual Constellation are some of the underway efforts that investigate or produce ocean color CDRs or ESDRs from the recent and current global missions (SeaWiFS, MODIS, MERIS). These studies look at key aspects of the development of unified data records from multiple sensors, e.g. the concatenation of the "best" individual records vs. the merging of multiple records or band homogenization vs. spectral diversity. The pros and cons of the different approaches are closely dependent upon the overall science purpose of the data record and its temporal resolution. While monthly data are generally adequate for biogeochemical modeling or to assess decadal trends, higher temporal resolution data records are required to look into changes in phenology or the dynamics of phytoplankton blooms. Similarly, short temporal resolution (daily to weekly) time series may benefit more from being built through the merging of data from multiple sensors while a simple concatenation of data from individual sensors might be better suited for longer temporal resolution (e.g. monthly time series). Several Ocean Color ESDRs were developed as part of the NASA MEaSUREs project. Some of these time series are built by merging the reflectance data from SeaWiFS, MODIS-Aqua and Envisat-MERIS in a semi-analytical ocean color
Bilbrough, Larry (Technical Monitor); French, George
The Wisconsin Earth and Space Science Education project successfilly met its objectives of creating a comprehensive online portfolio of science education curricular resources and providing a professional development program to increase educator competency with Earth and Space science content and teaching pedagogy. Overall, 97% of participants stated that their experience was either good or excellent. The favorable response of participant reactions to the professional development opportunities highlights the high quality of the professional development opportunity. The enthusiasm generated for using the curricular material in classroom settings was overwhelmingly positive at 92%. This enthusiasm carried over into actual classroom implementation of resources from the curricular portfolio, with 90% using the resources between 1-6 times during the school year. The project has had a positive impact on student learning in Wisconsin. Although direct measurement of student performance is not possible in a project of this kind, nearly 75% of participating teachers stated that they saw an increase in student performance in math and science as a result of using project resources. Additionally, nearly 75% of participants saw an increase in the enthusiasm of students towards math and science. Finally, some evidence exists that the professional development academies and curricular portfolio have been effective in changing educator behavior. More than half of all participants indicated that they have used more hands-on activities as a result of the Wisconsin Earth and Space Science Education project.
Beauregard, J. L.
Capturing the interest of non-science majors in science classes can be very difficult, no matter what type of science course it is. At Berklee College of Music, this challenge is especially daunting, as all students are majoring in some type of music program. To engage the Berklee students, I am trying to link the material in Earth science courses to music. The connection between Earth science and music is made in several different ways within the curriculum of each class, with the main connection via a final project. For their projects, students can use any creative outlet (or a standard presentation) to illustrate a point related to the course. Many students have chosen to compose original music and perform it for the class. Some examples of their work will be presented. These original compositions allow students to relate course material to their own lives. Additionally, since many of these students will enter professional careers in the performance and recording industries, the potential exists for them to expose large audiences to the issues of Earth sciences through music.
... Committee; Earth Science Subcommittee; Meeting AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration. ACTION... amended, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) announces a meeting of the Earth Science... following topics: --Earth Science Division Update. --Deformation, Ecosystem Structure and Dynamics of Ice...
Lee, G.; Sen, B.; Ross, F.; Sokol, D.
Northrop Grumman has been developing the Titan Lifting Entry & Atmospheric Flight (T-LEAF) sky rover to roam the lower atmosphere and observe at close quarters the lakes and plains of Saturn's ocean moon, Titan. T-LEAF also supports surface exploration and science by providing precision delivery of in-situ instruments to the surface of Titan. T-LEAF is a highly maneuverable sky rover and its aerodynamic shape (i.e., a flying wing) does not restrict it to following prevailing wind patterns on Titan, but allows mission operators to chart its course. This freedom of mobility allows T-LEAF to follow the shorelines of Titan's methane lakes, for example, or to target very specific surface locations. We will present a straw man concept of T-LEAF, including size, mass, power, on-board science payloads and measurement, and surface science dropsonde deployment CONOPS. We will discuss the various science instruments and their vehicle level impacts, such as meteorological and electric field sensors, acoustic sensors for measuring shallow depths, multi-spectral imagers, high definition cameras and surface science dropsondes. The stability of T-LEAF and its long residence time on Titan will provide for time to perform a large aerial survey of select prime surface targets deployment of dropsondes at selected locations surface measurements that are coordinated with on-board remote measurements communication relay capabilities to orbiter (or Earth). In this context, we will specifically focus upon key factors impacting the design and performance of T-LEAF science: science payload accommodation, constraints and opportunities characteristics of flight, payload deployment and measurement CONOPS in the Titan atmosphere. This presentation will show how these factors provide constraints as well as enable opportunities for novel long duration scientific studies of Titan's surface.
Tracewell, D.; Glickman, J.; Hashmall, J.; Natanson, G.; Sedlak, J.
The Earth Observing System (EOS) Aqua satellite was successfully launched on May 4,2002. Aqua is the second in the series of EOS satellites. EOS is part of NASA s Earth Science Enterprise Program, whose goals are to advance the scientific understanding of the Earth system. Aqua is a three-axis stabilized, Earth-pointing spacecraft in a nearly circular, sun-synchronous orbit at an altitude of 705 km. The Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) Flight Dynamics attitude team supported all phases of the launch and early mission. This paper presents the main results and lessons learned during this period, including: real-time attitude mode transition support, sensor calibration, onboard computer attitude validation, response to spacecraft emergencies, postlaunch attitude analyses, and anomaly resolution. In particular, Flight Dynamics support proved to be invaluable for successful Earth acquisition, fine-point mode transition, and recognition and correction of several anomalies, including support for the resolution of problems observed with the MODIS instrument.
Ramachandran, Rahul; Maskey, Manil; Gatlin, Patrick; Zhang, Jia; Duan, Xiaoyi; Miller, J. J.; Bugbee, Kaylin; Christopher, Sundar; Freitag, Brian
Knowledge Graphs link key entities in a specific domain with other entities via relationships. From these relationships, researchers can query knowledge graphs for probabilistic recommendations to infer new knowledge. Scientific papers are an untapped resource which knowledge graphs could leverage to accelerate research discovery. Goal: Develop an end-to-end (semi) automated methodology for constructing Knowledge Graphs for Earth Science.
Hornady, B.; Duba, A.
This compilation lists abstracts of papers, internal reports, and talks presented during 1976 at national and international meetings by members of the Earth Sciences Division, Lawrence Livermore Laboratory. Subjects include: coal gasification, gas stimulation, geothermal fields, oil shale retorting, radioactive waste management, geochemistry, geophysics, seismology, explosive phenomenology, and miscellaneous studies
Slavin, J. A.; Akhavan-Tafti, M.; Poh, G.; Le, G.; Russell, C. T.; Nakamura, R.; Baumjohann, W.; Torbert, R. B.; Gershman, D. J.; Pollock, C. J.; Giles, B. L.; Moore, T. E.; Burch, J. L.
A major discovery by the Cluster mission and the previous generation of science missions is the presence of earthward and tailward moving magnetic flux ropes in the Earth's plasma sheet. However, the lack of high-time resolution plasma measurements severely limited progress concerning the formation and evolution of these reconnection generated structures. We use high-time resolution magnetic and electric field and plasma measurements from the Magnetospheric Multiscale mission's first tail season to investigate: 1) the distribution of flux rope diameters relative to the local ion and electron inertial lengths; 2) the internal force balance sustaining these structures; and 3) the magnetic connectivity of the flux ropes to the Earth and/or the interplanetary medium; 4) the specific entropy of earthward moving flux ropes and the possible effect of "buoyancy" on how deep they penetrate into the inner magnetosphere; and 5) evidence for coalescence of adjacent flux ropes and/or the division of existing flux ropes through the formation of secondary X-lines. The results of these initial analyses will be discussed in terms of their implications for reconnection-driven magnetospheric dynamics and substorms.
Ruzek, M.; Johnson, D. R.
Earth system science in the classroom is the fertile crucible linking science with societal needs for local, national and global sustainability. The interdisciplinary dimension requires fruitful cooperation among departments, schools and colleges within universities and among the universities and the nation's laboratories and agencies. Teaching and learning requires content which brings together the basic and applied sciences with mathematics and technology in addressing societal challenges of the coming decades. Over the past decade remarkable advances have emerged in information technology, from high bandwidth Internet connectivity to raw computing and visualization power. These advances which have wrought revolutionary capabilities and resources are transforming teaching and learning in the classroom. With the launching of NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS) the amount and type of geophysical data to monitor the Earth and its climate are increasing dramatically. The challenge remains, however, for skilled scientists and educators to interpret this information based upon sound scientific perspectives and utilize it in the classroom. With an increasing emphasis on the application of data gathered, and the use of the new technologies for practical benefit in the lives of ordinary citizens, there comes the even more basic need for understanding the fundamental state, dynamics, and complex interdependencies of the Earth system in mapping valid and relevant paths to sustainability. Technology and data in combination with the need to understand Earth system processes and phenomena offer opportunities for new and productive partnerships between researchers and educators to advance the fundamental science of the Earth system and in turn through discovery excite students at all levels in the classroom. This presentation will discuss interdisciplinary partnership opportunities for educators and researchers at the undergraduate and graduate levels.
Fennell, J. F.
This document summarizes the results of mission definition studies for solar electric propulsion missions that have been carried out over the last approximately three years. The major output from the studies has been two proposals which were submitted to NASA in response to Announcements of Opportunity for missions and an ongoing Global Magnetospheric Dynamics mission study. The bulk of this report consists of copies of the proposals and preliminary materials from the GMD study that will be completed in the coming months.
Fowler, D. K.; Moses, J. F.; Zwally, J.; Schutz, B. E.; Hancock, D.; McAllister, M.; Webster, D.; Bond, C.
Data Stewardship, preservation, and reproducibility are fast becoming principal parts of a data manager's work. In an era of distributed data and information systems, it is of vital importance that organizations make a commitment to both current and long-term goals of data management and the preservation of scientific data. Satellite missions and instruments go through a lifecycle that involves pre-launch calibration, on-orbit data acquisition and product generation, and final reprocessing. Data products and descriptions flow to the archives for distribution on a regular basis during the active part of the mission. However there is additional information from the product generation and science teams needed to ensure the observations will be useful for long term climate studies. Examples include ancillary input datasets, product generation software, and production history as developed by the team during the course of product generation. These data and information will need to be archived after product data processing is completed. NASA has developed a set of Earth science data and information content requirements for long term preservation that is being used for all the EOS missions as they come to completion. Since the ICESat/GLAS mission was one of the first to end, NASA and NSIDC, in collaboration with the science team, are collecting data, software, and documentation, preparing for long-term support of the ICESat mission. For a long-term archive, it is imperative to preserve sufficient information about how products were prepared in order to ensure future researchers that the scientific results are accurate, understandable, and useable. Our experience suggests data centers know what to preserve in most cases. That is, the processing algorithms along with the Level 0 or Level 1a input and ancillary products used to create the higher-level products will be archived and made available to users. In other cases, such as pre-launch, calibration/validation, and test
Behnke, J.; James, N.
Many steps have been taken over the past 20 years to make NASA's Earth Science data more accessible to the public. The data collected by NASA represent a significant public investment in research. NASA holds these data in a public trust to promote comprehensive, long-term Earth science research. Consequently, NASA developed a free, open and non-discriminatory policy consistent with existing international policies to maximize access to data and to keep user costs as low as possible. These policies apply to all data archived, maintained, distributed or produced by NASA data systems. The Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) is a major core capability within NASA Earth Science Data System Program. EOSDIS is designed to ingest, process, archive, and distribute data from approximately 90 instruments. Today over 6800 data products are available to the public through the EOSDIS. Last year, EOSDIS distributed over 636 million science data products to the user community, serving over 1.5 million distinct users. The system supports a variety of science disciplines including polar processes, land cover change, radiation budget, and most especially global climate change. A core philosophy of EOSDIS is that the general user is best served by providing discipline specific support for the data. To this end, EOSDIS has collocated NASA Earth science data with centers of science discipline expertise, called Distributed Active Archive Centers (DAACs). DAACs are responsible for data management, archive and distribution of data products. There are currently twelve DAACs in the EOSDIS system. The centralized entrance point to the NASA Earth Science data collection can be found at http://earthdata.nasa.gov. Over the years, we have developed several methods for determining needs of the user community including use of the American Customer Satisfaction Index survey and a broad metrics program. Annually, we work with an independent organization (CFI Group) to send this
Improving life on Earth and understanding and protecting our home planet are foremost in the Vision and Mission of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). NASA's Earth Science Enterprise end eavors to use the unique vantage point of space to study the Earth sy stem and improve the prediction of Earth system change. NASA and its international partners study Earth's land, atmosphere, ice, oceans, a nd biota and seek to provide objective scientific knowledge to decisi onmakers and scientists worldwide. This book describes NASA's extensi ve cooperation with its international partners.
Ramachandran, R.; Fox, P. A.; Kempler, S.; Maskey, M.
One of the continuing challenges in any Earth science investigation is the amount of time and effort required for data preparation before analysis can begin. Current Earth science data and information systems have their own shortcomings. For example, the current data search systems are designed with the assumption that researchers find data primarily by metadata searches on instrument or geophysical keywords, assuming that users have sufficient knowledge of the domain vocabulary to be able to effectively utilize the search catalogs. These systems lack support for new or interdisciplinary researchers who may be unfamiliar with the domain vocabulary or the breadth of relevant data available. There is clearly a need to innovate and evolve current data and information systems in order to improve data discovery and exploration capabilities to substantially reduce the data preparation time and effort. We assert that Earth science metadata assets are dark resources, information resources that organizations collect, process, and store for regular business or operational activities but fail to utilize for other purposes. The challenge for any organization is to recognize, identify and effectively utilize the dark data stores in their institutional repositories to better serve their stakeholders. NASA Earth science metadata catalogs contain dark resources consisting of structured information, free form descriptions of data and pre-generated images. With the addition of emerging semantic technologies, such catalogs can be fully utilized beyond their original design intent of supporting current search functionality. In this presentation, we will describe our approach of exploiting these information resources to provide novel data discovery and exploration pathways to science and education communities
Musacchio, Gemma; Lanza, Tiziana; D'Addezio, Giuliana
The present paper describes an experience of science theatre addressed to children of primary and secondary school, with the main purpose of explaining the Earth interior while raising awareness about natural hazard. We conducted the experience with the help of a theatrical company specialized in shows for children. Several performances have been reiterated in different context, giving us the opportunity of conducting a preliminary survey with public of different ages, even if the show was conceived for children. Results suggest that science theatre while relying on creativity and emotional learning in transmitting knowledge about the Earth and its hazard has the potential to induce in children a positive attitude towards the risks
Hardison, David; Medina, Johnny; Dell, Greg
The Earth Observer System (EOS) was officially established in 1990 and went operational in December 1999 with the launch of its flagship spacecraft Terra. Aqua followed in 2002 and Aura in 2004. All three spacecraft are still operational and producing valuable scientific data. While all are beyond their original design lifetime, they are expected to remain viable well into the 2020s. The EOS Ground System is a multi-mission system based at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center that supports science and spacecraft operations for these three missions. Over its operational lifetime to date, the EOS Ground System has evolved as needed to accommodate mission requirements. With an eye towards the future, several updates are currently being deployed. Subsystem interconnects are being upgraded to reduce data latency and improve system performance. End-of-life hardware and operating systems are being replaced to mitigate security concerns and eliminate vendor support gaps. Subsystem hardware is being consolidated through the migration to Virtual Machine based platforms. While mission operations autonomy was not a design goal of the original system concept, there is an active effort to apply state-of-the-art products from the Goddard Mission Services Evolution Center (GMSEC) to facilitate automation where possible within the existing heritage architecture. This presentation will provide background information on the EOS ground system architecture and evolution, discuss latest improvements, and conclude with the results of a recent effort that investigated how the current system could accommodate a proposed new earth science mission.
The Chandrayaan-1 mission to the Moon scheduled for launch in late 2007 will include a high energy X-ray spectrometer (HEX) for detection of naturally occurring emissions from the lunar surface due to radioactive decay of the 238U and 232Th series nuclides in the energy region 20 –250 keV.The primary science ...
SELENE (Selenological and Engineering Explorer) project started as a joint mission of the former ISAS (Institute of Space and Astronautical Science) and the former NASDA (National Space Development Agency: the two organizations were merged into JAXA in 2002) of Japan in 1998. The launch target is rescheduled for ...
Modern science is increasingly dependent on computational analysis of very large data sets. Organizing, referencing, publishing those data has become a complex problem. Published research that depends on such data often fails to cite the data in sufficient detail to allow an independent scientist to reproduce the original experiments and analyses. This paper explores some of the challenges related to data identification, equivalence and reproducibility in the domain of data intensive scientific processing. It will use the example of Earth Science satellite data, but the challenges also apply to other domains.
Henry, A.L.; Donohue, M.L. (eds.)
The Earth Sciences Department at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory comprises nine different disciplinary and programmatic groups that provide research in the geosciences, including nuclear waste management, containment of nuclear weapons tests, seismic treaty verification, stimulation of natural gas production by unconventional means, and oil shale retorting. Each group's accomplishments in 1984 are discussed, followed by a listing of the group's publications for the year.
Meech, Karen Jean; Kelley, M. S.; A'Hearn, M. F.; DIXI Observing Team
The Deep Impact Extended mission (DIXI) is part of the EPOXI mission and will rendezvous with the comet 103P/Hartley 2 on 4 Nov. 2010 at 13:50 UT. Many of the anticipated key science results will come from the combined interpretation of the in-situ spacecraft data and the Earth- and space-based observing campaigns. DIXI in-situ objectives include characterizing the nucleus properties, understanding the activity (outbursts, and sources), mapping the surface and correlating surface albedo, color and temperature with topography to understand the thermal properties of the surface. The Earth-based observations provide a longer-term context for the in-situ observations, and will characterize the activity levels leading up to the encounter, including assessing the dust environment and volatile species production rates. Earth-based observations will search for outbursts and jets that might be linked to activity. The international observing campaign scheduled at more than 20 observatories, began in March 2010, and will continue beyond January 2011, although selected observations began in 2008 with the recovery of the nucleus (Snodgrass et al., (2010), A&A, 516L) and Spitzer IR observations (Lisse et al., (2009) PASP 121, 968), and in 2009 with the measurement of the rotational light curve. We will report on Earth-based observing highlights and their synergies with the in-situ observations. With these combined data we can not only better understand comet Hartley 2, but through the legacy of telescopic observations we may also better understand comets as a whole.
Ramachandran, R.; Maskey, M.; Gatlin, P. N.; Zhang, J.; Duan, X.; Bugbee, K.; Christopher, S. A.; Miller, J. J.
Estimates indicate that the world's information will grow by 800% in the next five years. In any given field, a single researcher or a team of researchers cannot keep up with this rate of knowledge expansion without the help of cognitive systems. Cognitive computing, defined as the use of information technology to augment human cognition, can help tackle large systemic problems. Knowledge graphs, one of the foundational components of cognitive systems, link key entities in a specific domain with other entities via relationships. Researchers could mine these graphs to make probabilistic recommendations and to infer new knowledge. At this point, however, there is a dearth of tools to generate scalable Knowledge graphs using existing corpus of scientific literature for Earth science research. Our project is currently developing an end-to-end automated methodology for incrementally constructing Knowledge graphs for Earth Science. Semantic Entity Recognition (SER) is one of the key steps in this methodology. SER for Earth Science uses external resources (including metadata catalogs and controlled vocabulary) as references to guide entity extraction and recognition (i.e., labeling) from unstructured text, in order to build a large training set to seed the subsequent auto-learning component in our algorithm. Results from several SER experiments will be presented as well as lessons learned.
This Annual Report presents summaries of selected representative research activities grouped according to the principal disciplines of the Earth Sciences Division: Reservoir Engineering and Hydrogeology, Geology and Geochemistry, and Geophysics and Geomechanics. Much of the Division`s research deals with the physical and chemical properties and processes in the earth`s crust, from the partially saturated, low-temperature near-surface environment to the high-temperature environments characteristic of regions where magmatic-hydrothermal processes are active. Strengths in laboratory and field instrumentation, numerical modeling, and in situ measurement allow study of the transport of mass and heat through geologic media -- studies that now include the appropriate chemical reactions and the hydraulic-mechanical complexities of fractured rock systems. Of particular note are three major Division efforts addressing problems in the discovery and recovery of petroleum, the application of isotope geochemistry to the study of geodynamic processes and earth history, and the development of borehole methods for high-resolution imaging of the subsurface using seismic and electromagnetic waves. In 1989 a major DOE-wide effort was launched in the areas of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management. Many of the methods previously developed for and applied to deeper regions of the earth will in the coming years be turned toward process definition and characterization of the very shallow subsurface, where man-induced contaminants now intrude and where remedial action is required.
Bell, Mary S.
The purpose of NASA Extreme Environment Mission Operations (NEEMO) mission 16 in 2012 was to evaluate and compare the performance of a defined series of representative near-Earth asteroid (NEA) extravehicular activity (EVA) tasks under different conditions and combinations of work systems, constraints, and assumptions considered for future human NEA exploration missions. NEEMO 16 followed NASA's 2011 Desert Research and Technology Studies (D-RATS), the primary focus of which was understanding the implications of communication latency, crew size, and work system combinations with respect to scientific data quality, data management, crew workload, and crew/mission control interactions. The 1-g environment precluded meaningful evaluation of NEA EVA translation, worksite stabilization, sampling, or instrument deployment techniques. Thus, NEEMO missions were designed to provide an opportunity to perform a preliminary evaluation of these important factors for each of the conditions being considered. NEEMO 15 also took place in 2011 and provided a first look at many of the factors, but the mission was cut short due to a hurricane threat before all objectives were completed. ARES Directorate (KX) personnel consulted with JSC engineers to ensure that high-fidelity planetary science protocols were incorporated into NEEMO mission architectures. ARES has been collaborating with NEEMO mission planners since NEEMO 9 in 2006, successively building upon previous developments to refine science operations concepts within engineering constraints; it is expected to continue the collaboration as NASA's human exploration mission plans evolve.
Earth science has a part to play in broadening students' learning experience in physics. The Earth Science Education Unit presents a range of (free) workshops to teachers and trainee teachers, suggesting how Earth-based science activities, which show how we understand and use the planet we live on, can easily be slotted into normal science…
Cohen, Ronald H.; Boncyk, Wayne; Brutocao, James; Beveridge, Iain
We developed a capability for model-based trade space exploration to be used in the conceptual design of Earth-orbiting space missions. We have created a set of reusable software components to model various subsystems and aspects of space missions. Several example mission models were created to test the tools and process. This technique and toolset has demonstrated itself to be valuable for space mission architectural design.
Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science; Volume 125; Issue 1. Favourable uranium–phosphate exploration trends guided by the application of statistical factor analysis technique on the aerial gamma spectrometric data in Syrian desert (Area-1), Syria. J Asfahani R Al-Hent M Aissa. Volume 125 Issue 1 February ...
Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science; Volume 115; Issue 5. Volume 115, Issue 5. October 2006, pages 485-613. pp 485-528. Discriminating four tectonic settings: Five new geochemical diagrams for basic and ultrabasic volcanic rocks based on log–ratio transformation of major-element data · Surendra P Verma ...
Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science; Volume 123; Issue 7 ... Net short wave and long wave radiative fluxes substantially varied with cloud dynamics, season, .... Impact of over-exploitation on groundwater quality: A case study from .... using large scale climate variables and downscaling models – A case study.
Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science; Volume 123; Issue 1 .... Liquefaction-induced settlement, site effects and damage in the vicinity of Yalova ... Climatic control on extreme sediment transfer from Dokriani Glacier during monsoon, ... India that has been noticed in several global and regional climate models.
Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science; Volume 126; Issue 2 ... Variable influence on the equatorial troposphere associated with SSW using ERA- ... Identification of drought in Dhalai river watershed using MCDM and ANN models ..... Study of the global and regional climatic impacts of ENSO magnitude using ...
Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science; Volume 118; Issue 5 ... Impact of vegetation on the simulation of seasonal monsoon rainfall over the Indian .... On the diurnal ranges of Sea Surface Temperature (SST) in the north Indian Ocean ... Groundwater flow modelling of Yamuna–Krishni interstream, a part of central ...
Articles written in Journal of Earth System Science ... Cloud Motion Wind (CMW) data of METEOSAT satellite and SSM/I surface wind data ... Skills of different mesoscale models over Indian region during monsoon season: Forecast errors ... Impact of vegetation on the simulation of seasonal monsoon rainfall over the Indian ...
Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science; Volume 119; Issue 5 ... Use of objective analysis to estimate winter temperature and precipitation at ... Numerical study for production of space charge within the stratiform cloud .... Estimates of source parameters of 4.9 Kharsali earthquake using waveform modelling.
Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science; Volume 124; Issue 5 ... water cycles and predict the effect of climate change on terrestrial ecosystems, it is ... Application of ANN and fuzzy logic algorithms for streamflow modelling of Savitri .... Influence of nutrient input on the trophic state of a tropical brackish water lagoon.
Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science; Volume 115; Issue 3 ... Modeling of groundwater flow for Mujib aquifer, Jordan ... a cloudburst event with attention to horizontal resolution and the cloud microphysics parameterization. ... Global surface temperature in relation to northeast monsoon rainfall over Tamil Nadu.
Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science; Volume 123; Issue 5 .... Current products based on Ocean General Circulation Models like ECCO2 ... An assessment of wind forcing impact on a spectral wave model for the Indian Ocean .... variability over India and its subregions using a regional climate model (RegCM3).
Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science; Volume 120; Issue 1 ... with a parametric study of the effect of four hydrometeors (cloud liquid water, cloud ice, ... Impact of additional surface observation network on short range weather forecast ... Doppler SODAR observations of the temperature structure parameter during ...
Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science; Volume 121; Issue 4 ... Monsoon sensitivity to aerosol direct radiative forcing in the community atmosphere model .... Influences of the boundary layer evolution on surface ozone variations at a .... and its comparison with global geopotential models and GPS-levelling data.
Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science; Volume 121; Issue 2 ... Impact of continental meteorology and atmospheric circulation in the ... Rainfall and temperature scenarios for Bangladesh for the middle of 21st century using RegCM ..... Statistical models of interoccurrence times of Iranian earthquakes on the basis ...
Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science; Volume 125; Issue 8. Formation and evolution of yardangs activated by Late Pleistocene tectonic movement in Dunhuang, Gansu Province of China. Yanjie Wang Fadong Wu Xujiao Zhang Peng Zeng Pengfei Ma Yuping Song Hao Chu. Volume 125 Issue 8 December ...
Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science; Volume 117; Issue 5. Variational method for objective analysis of scalar variable and its derivative. S G Narkhedkar S K Sinha ... It is found that the new scheme (variational)is able to extract the better parts of both triangle and standard methods.The results of this study will ...
Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science; Volume 109; Issue 4. Volume 109, Issue 4. December 2000, pages 393-551. pp 393-394. Editorial · V K Gaur · More Details Fulltext PDF. pp 395-405. Analysis of pathfinder SST algorithm for global and regional conditions · Ajoy Kumar P Minnett G Podesta R Evans K ...
Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science; Volume 109; Issue 3. Volume 109, Issue 3. September 2000, pages 315-391. pp 315-328. Ocean circulation in the tropical Indo-Pacific during early Pliocene (5.6 - 4.2 Ma): Paleobiogeographic and isotopic evidence · M S Srinivasan D K Sinha · More Details Abstract ...
Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science; Volume 118; Issue 2. Volume 118, Issue 2. April 2009, pages 115-180. pp 115-121. Energetics of lower tropospheric ultra-long waves: A key to intra-seasonal variability of Indian monsoon · S M Bawiskar M D Chipade P V Puranik · More Details Abstract Fulltext PDF.
Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science; Volume 119; Issue 3. Volume 119, Issue 3. June 2010, pages 229-396. pp 229-247. Active and break spells of the Indian summer monsoon · M Rajeevan Sulochana Gadgil Jyoti Bhate · More Details Abstract Fulltext PDF. In this paper, we suggest criteria for the ...
Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science; Volume 114; Issue 3. Significance of transition between Talchir Formation and Karharbari Formation in Lower Gondwana basin evolution — A study in West Bokaro Coal basin, Jharkhand, India. H N Bhattacharya Abhijit Chakraborty Biplab Bhattacharya. Volume 114 Issue ...
Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science; Volume 123; Issue 7 ... less than 5000 mg/l is recommended in this area, at flow rate less than 10m3/hr/well. In other words, one can expect that the brackish water is probably found where the ...
Journal of Earth System Science. Current Issue : Vol. 127, Issue 2. Current Issue Volume 127 | Issue 2. March 2018. Home · Volumes & Issues · Special Issues · Forthcoming Articles · Search · Editorial Board · Information for Authors · Subscription ...
Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science; Volume 124; Issue 8. Gravitational attraction of a vertical pyramid model of flat top-and-bottom with depth-wise parabolic density variation. Anand P Gokula Rambhatla G Sastry. Volume 124 Issue 8 December 2015 pp 1735-1744 ...
Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science; Volume 126; Issue 5. Issue front cover thumbnail. Volume 126, Issue 5. July 2017. Article ID 62. Meteorological features associated with unprecedented precipitation over India during 1st week of March 2015 · Naresh Kumar M Mohapatra A K Jaswal · More Details Abstract ...
Articles written in Journal of Earth System Science. Volume 116 Issue 1 February 2007 pp 73-79. Long range prediction of Indian summer monsoon ... Volume 121 Issue 1 February 2012 pp 203-210. Impact of global warming on cyclonic disturbances over south Asian region · Savita Patwardhan Ashwini Kulkarni K Krishna ...
. Articles written in Journal of Earth System Science. Volume 124 Issue 1 February 2015 pp 269-281. Climate change and its role in forecasting energy demand in buildings: A case study of Douala City, Cameroon · Modeste Kameni ...
Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science; Volume 126; Issue 4. Deep learning for predicting the monsoon over the homogeneous regions of India. Moumita Saha Pabitra Mitra ... Keywords. Feature learning; stacked autoencoder; monsoon predictor; ensemble of regression trees; regional Indian summer monsoon.
Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science; Volume 124; Issue 3 .... Assessment of the regional water balance of the limestone subaquifers of Cyprus ... characterized by its small watersheds and the lack of ephemeral surface water resources. .... Optimization method for quantitative calculation of clay minerals in soil.
Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science; Volume 111; Issue 4. Volume 111, Issue 4. December 2002, pages 379-510. pp 379-390. Isotopic and sedimentological clues to productivity change in Late Riphean Sea: A case study from two intracratonic basins of India · P P Chakraborty A Sarkar S K Bhattacharya P ...
Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science; Volume 110; Issue 3. Scattering of a spherical pulse from a small inhomogeneity: Dilation and rotation. M D Sharma. Volume 110 Issue 3 September 2001 pp 205-213 ... Keywords. Scattering; inhomogeneity; spherical pulse; perturbations; dilatation; rotation ...
Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science; Volume 121; Issue 3. Chemical characterisation of meltwater draining from Gangotri Glacier, Garhwal Himalaya, India. Virendra Bahadur Singh A L Ramanathan Jose George Pottakkal Parmanand Sharma Anurag Linda Mohd Farooq Azam C Chatterjee. Volume 121 Issue ...
Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science; Volume 109; Issue 2 ... Bay of Bengal Monsoon Experiment (BOBMEX) — A component of the Indian .... Diurnal variability of upper ocean temperature and heat budget in the ... While the former facilitates the trapping of radiation (greenhouse effect) the latter works in the ...
Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science; Volume 121; Issue 1 .... Middle Siwalik sediments in Tista valley, Darjiling District, Eastern Himalaya, India ... Hydrochemistry of surface water and groundwater from a fractured carbonate aquifer .... Impact of global warming on cyclonic disturbances over south Asian region.
Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science; Information for Authors ... A manuscript must present results of original, unpublished work. ... At this stage, JESS does not accept separate BibTeX files and does not provi de a bst file for ...
Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science; Volume 116; Issue 6. Volume 116, Issue 6. December 2007, pages 465-597. pp 465-467. Editorial · T N Narasimhan · More Details Fulltext PDF. pp 469-495. Late Devonian and Triassic basalts from the southern continental margin of the East European Platform, tracers of ...
Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science; Volume 115; Issue 1. Issue front cover thumbnail. Volume 115, Issue 1. February 2006, pages 1-183. Vindhyan Geology: Status and Perspectives. pp 1-2. Preface · J S Ray C Chakraborty · More Details Fulltext PDF. pp 3-22. Proterozoic intracontinental basin: The Vindhyan ...
Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science; Volume 121; Issue 2. Impact of continental meteorology and atmospheric circulation in the modulation of Aerosol Optical Depth over the Arabian Sea. Sandhya K Nair S Sijikumar S S Prijith. Volume 121 Issue 2 April 2012 pp 263-272 ...
Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science; Volume 116; Issue 5. Volume 116, Issue 5. October 2007, pages 369-463. pp 369-384. Current status of multimodel superensemble and operational NWP forecast of the Indian summer monsoon · Akhilesh Kumar Mishra T N Krishnamurti · More Details Abstract Fulltext PDF.
Journal of Earth System Science. Current Issue : Vol. 127, Issue 3 · Current Issue Volume 127 | Issue 3. April 2018. Home · Volumes & Issues · Special Issues · Forthcoming Articles · Search · Editorial Board · Information for Authors · Subscription ...
Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science; Volume 117; Issue 4. Spatial distribution of atmospheric carbon monoxide over Bay of Bengal and Arabian Sea: Measurements during pre-monsoon period of 2006. V R Aneesh G Mohankumar S Sampath. Volume 117 Issue 4 August 2008 pp 449-455 ...
Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science; Volume 122; Issue 1. Contribution of some ozone depleting substances (ODS) and greenhouse gases (GHGs) on total column zone growth at Srinagar (34°N, 74.8°), India. P K Jana D K Saha D Sarkar. Volume 122 Issue 1 February 2013 pp 239-252 ...
... Lecture Workshops · Refresher Courses · Symposia · Live Streaming. Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science; Volume 115; Issue 4. Section Title Page. Special Section on: Material exchanges at marine boundaries and surface ocean processes: Forcings and feedbacks Volume 115 Issue 4 August 2006 pp 429- ...
Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science; Volume 124; Issue 6 ... and ongoing seismicity of northeastern Kumaun Himalaya, Uttarakhand, India ... areas of hazard prone and also planning and designing of the socio-economic projects. ... from Darjeeling, eastern Himalaya: Textural relationship and P–T conditions.
Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science; Volume 116; Issue 1. Issue front cover thumbnail. Volume 116, Issue 1. February 2007, pages 1-79. pp 1-1. Editorial · More Details Fulltext PDF. pp 3-13. Platinum group elements and gold in ferromanganese crusts from Afanasiy–Nikitin seamount, equatorial Indian Ocean: ...
Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science; Volume 113; Issue 1. Identification of a surface layer structure and analysis of humidity data in two weather situations at Jodhpur (26° 18′N, 73° 04′E), India, during MONTBLEX 1990. N Das M Bose U K De. Volume 113 Issue 1 March 2004 pp 73-87 ...
Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science; Volume 120; Issue 5. Impact of Ganges–Brahmaputra interannual discharge variations on Bay of Bengal salinity and temperature during 1992–1999 period. Fabien Durand Fabrice Papa Atiqur Rahman Sujit Kumar Bala. Volume 120 Issue 5 October 2011 pp 859-872 ...
Snow & Avalanche Study Establishment, Research & Development Centre, Him Parisar, Sector 37A, Chandigarh 160 036, India. School of Earth, Ocean and Climate Sciences, Indian Institute of Technology, Bhubaneswar, Toshali Bhavan, Satya Nagar, Bhubaneswar 751 007, India. Meteorological Office, Sector-39, ...
Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science; Volume 123; Issue 3. Evaluation of regional fracture properties for groundwater development using hydrolithostructural domain approach in variably fractured hard rocks of Purulia district, West Bengal, India. Tapas Acharya Rajesh Prasad S Chakrabarti. Volume 123 Issue ...
Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science; Volume 124; Issue 6. Multilayer perceptron neural network for downscaling rainfall in arid region: A case study of Baluchistan, Pakistan. Kamal Ahmed Shamsuddin Shahid Sobri Bin Haroon Wang Xiao-Jun. Volume 124 Issue 6 August 2015 pp 1325-1341 ...
Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science; Volume 119; Issue 2. Volume 119, Issue 2. April 2010, pages 137-228. pp 137-145. Effect of co-operative fuzzy c-means clustering on estimates of three parameters AVA inversion · Rajesh R Nair Suresh Ch Kandpal · More Details Abstract Fulltext PDF. We determine the ...
This laboratory at the Department of Earth Sciences, IIT-Bombay is currently developing pure end mineral library of mineral particulates (> 65 m), and adding new end members to the existing ASU spectral library. The paper argues the need for considering Lunar Orbiter Thermal Emission Spectrometer (LOTES) for future ...